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Sample records for sexual orientation drug

  1. Structural stigma and sexual orientation disparities in adolescent drug use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzenbuehler, Mark L; Jun, Hee-Jin; Corliss, Heather L; Bryn Austin, S

    2015-07-01

    Although epidemiologic studies have established the existence of large sexual orientation disparities in illicit drug use among adolescents and young adults, the determinants of these disparities remain understudied. This study sought to determine whether sexual orientation disparities in illicit drug use are potentiated in states that are characterized by high levels of stigma surrounding sexual minorities. State-level structural stigma was coded using a previously established measure based on a 4-item composite index: (1) density of same-sex couples; (2) proportion of Gay-Straight Alliances per public high school; (3) 5 policies related to sexual orientation discrimination (e.g., same-sex marriage, employment non-discrimination); and (4) public opinion toward homosexuality (aggregated responses from 41 national polls). The index was linked to individual-level data from the Growing Up Today Study, a prospective community-based study of adolescents (2001-2010). Sexual minorities report greater illicit drug use than their heterosexual peers. However, for both men and women, there were statistically significant interactions between sexual orientation status and structural stigma, such that sexual orientation disparities in marijuana and illicit drug use were more pronounced in high-structural stigma states than in low-structural stigma states, controlling for individual- and state-level confounders. For instance, among men, the risk ratio indicating the association between sexual orientation and marijuana use was 24% greater in high- versus low-structural stigma states, and for women it was 28% greater in high- versus low-structural stigma states. Stigma in the form of social policies and attitudes may contribute to sexual orientation disparities in illicit drug use. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Nonmedical Use of Prescription Drugs by College Students with Minority Sexual Orientations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duryea, Daniel G.; Calleja, Nancy G.; MacDonald, Douglas A.

    2015-01-01

    Results from the 2009 "National College Health Assessment" were analyzed by gender and sexual orientation for college students' nonmedical use of prescription drugs. Male and female students identified as having a minority sexual orientation (gay or bisexual) were significantly more likely to use nonmedical prescription drugs than…

  3. Sexual Orientation and College Students' Reasons for Nonmedical Use of Prescription Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagirmanjian, Faedra R; McDaniel, Anne E; Shadick, Richard

    2017-07-03

    Nonmedical use of prescription pain medications, sedatives, and stimulants is a well-documented problem among college students. Research has indicated that students who identify as lesbian, gay, or bisexual are at elevated risk. However, little is known about students' reasons for use. (1) To replicate findings that sexual minority students report higher nonmedical use than heterosexual students, moving from a campus-specific to a multicampus sample and (2) to test for an association between sexual orientation and reasons for use. The 2015 College Prescription Drug Study surveyed 3389 students from nine 4-year public and private colleges and universities across the United States using an anonymous online survey. Measures assessed demographic information, prevalence of nonmedical use, frequency of use, where the drugs were obtained, reasons for use, and consequences of use. Stepwise logistic regression models were used to determine if sexual orientation predicted use. Chi-square tests of independence were also used to analyze prevalence of use by demographics as well as to assess differences in reasons for use by sexual orientation. Sexual minority students were significantly more likely than heterosexual students to nonmedically use any prescription drug, pain medications, and sedatives. Sexual minority students were also more likely to select that they used pain medications to relieve anxiety, enhance social interactions, and to feel better. Conclusions/Importance: Although sexual minority students are more likely to report nonmedical use, students overall use prescription medications for similar reasons, with the exception of painkillers. Implications and areas for future research are discussed.

  4. Is pedophilia a sexual orientation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seto, Michael C

    2012-02-01

    In this article, I address the question of whether pedophilia in men can be construed as a male sexual orientation, and the implications for thinking of it in this way for scientific research, clinical practice, and public policy. I begin by defining pedophilia and sexual orientation, and then compare pedophilia (as a potential sexual orientation with regard to age) to sexual orientations with regard to gender (heterosexuality, bisexuality, and homosexuality), on the bases of age of onset, correlations with sexual and romantic behavior, and stability over time. I conclude with comments about the potential social and legal implications of conceptualizing pedophilia as a type of sexual orientation in males.

  5. Can we change sexual orientation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckstead, A Lee

    2012-02-01

    The self-reports of individuals who claim that they have changed their sexual orientation are either dismissed as false or relied upon to promote sexual orientation change efforts. However, these reactions do not capture the complexity of the sexual reorientation phenomenon. This article provides an overview regarding the promise and effort of sexual reorientation and how this knowledge may inform our current understanding of human sexuality. Specifically, a brief history is given of the interventions used to change attractions to same-sex adults and the assumptions underlying these efforts. Information will be given regarding which conclusions can be derived from sexual reorientation studies. The limitations of these studies will be explained to strengthen future research. Hypotheses will be presented regarding the motivations and needs of those distressed by a same-sex erotic orientation and the impact that the hope of sexual reorientation may have for family members, religious leaders, and policy makers. A multivariate model of sexuality and sexual orientation, including scales of attraction and aversion, will be proposed based upon current understanding of sexuality and the distinctions found in sexual reorientation research. In the end, a therapeutic framework will be highlighted that may be used (and researched) to help those distressed by their sexual orientation.

  6. Sexual Orientation and First-Year College Students' Nonmedical Use of Prescription Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadick, Richard; Dagirmanjian, Faedra Backus; Trub, Leora; Dawson, Heather

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To examine differences between heterosexual and lesbian, gay, bisexual, and questioning students' nonmedical use of prescription drugs (NMUPD). Participants: First-year university students between October 2009 and October 2013 who self-identified as heterosexual, lesbian, gay, bisexual, or questioning. Methods: Students completed…

  7. Sexual orientation, prejudice and segregation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plug, E.; Webbink, D.; Martin, N.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines whether gay and lesbian workers sort into tolerant occupations. With information on sexual orientation, prejudice, and occupational choice taken from Australian Twin Registers, we find that gays and lesbians shy away from prejudiced occupations. We show that our segregation

  8. Young people and sexual orientation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lisette Kuyper

    2015-01-01

    Original title: Young people and sexual orientation The Netherlands Institute for Social Research ¦ SCP carries out regular research on lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) individuals. In this report, the focus is on young people in the Netherlands. The report addresses two issues:

  9. Sexual Orientation as Interpretation? Sexual Desires, Concepts, and Choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Díaz-León E.

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Are sexual orientations freely chosen? The idea that someone’s sexual orientation is not a choice is very influential in the mainstream LGBT political movement. But do we have good reasons to believe it is not a choice? Going against the orthodoxy, William Wilkerson has recently argued that sexual orientation is partly constituted by our interpretations of our own sexual desires, and we choose these interpretations, so sexual orientation is partly constituted by choice. In this paper I aim to examine the question of whether our interpretations of our own sexual desires are constitutive of our sexual orientations. I will argue that whereas Wilkerson’s argument for the claim that sexual orientations are in part constituted by our chosen interpretations of our sexual desires is not sound, there are good reasons for endorsing a weaker claim, namely, that there are different but equally apt descriptions of the same sexual desires, depending on which concepts we have.

  10. Sexual Orientation, Drug Use Preference during Sex, and HIV Risk Practices and Preferences among Men Who Specifically Seek Unprotected Sex Partners via the Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugh Klein

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study entailed conducting a content analysis of 1,434 ads/profiles posted on one of the most popular “Men who have Sex with Men” (MSM websites that specifically fosters unprotected sex. Ads/profiles were selected randomly based on the American ZIP code of residence (n = 1,316, with a randomly-drawn oversampling of profiles of men who self-identified as heterosexual or ���curious” rather than gay or bisexual (n = 118. Data were collected between September 2006 and September 2007. The purpose of the present paper is to examine the conjoint effects of self-identified sexual orientation and preference for having/not having sex while high, on men’s sought-after sexual risk. Analytical comparisons of the four groups showed that, on most measures, the combination of sexual orientation and drug use preference during sex differentiated the men. Generally speaking, gay/bisexual men who advertised online for partners with whom they could have sex while high expressed the greatest interest in risky sexual behaviors (e.g., felching, unprotected oral sex, unprotected anal sex and various risk-related preferences (e.g., multiple partner sex, anonymous sex, eroticizing ejaculatory fluids. This is especially true when they are compared to their heterosexual/“curious” counterparts whose online profiles were not as likely to indicate a desire for having sex while high.

  11. Sexual Orientation, Controversy, and Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, J Michael; Vasey, Paul L; Diamond, Lisa M; Breedlove, S Marc; Vilain, Eric; Epprecht, Marc

    2016-09-01

    SummaryOngoing political controversies around the world exemplify a long-standing and widespread preoccupation with the acceptability of homosexuality. Nonheterosexual people have seen dramatic surges both in their rights and in positive public opinion in many Western countries. In contrast, in much of Africa, the Middle East, the Caribbean, Oceania, and parts of Asia, homosexual behavior remains illegal and severely punishable, with some countries retaining the death penalty for it. Political controversies about sexual orientation have often overlapped with scientific controversies. That is, participants on both sides of the sociopolitical debates have tended to believe that scientific findings-and scientific truths-about sexual orientation matter a great deal in making political decisions. The most contentious scientific issues have concerned the causes of sexual orientation-that is, why are some people heterosexual, others bisexual, and others homosexual? The actual relevance of these issues to social, political, and ethical decisions is often poorly justified, however. © The Author(s) 2016.

  12. Sexual compulsion--relationship with sex, attachment and sexual orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Aviv; Katz, Lichen; Eberhardt, Hila; Cohen, Koby; Lejoyeux, Michel

    2015-03-01

    Sexual addiction, also known as hypersexual disorder, is associated with serious psychosocial problems for many people. This study used questionnaires to investigate the effects of gender, sexual orientation and attachment (avoidance and anxiety) on sexual compulsion among 100 heterosexual and homosexual men and women. A positive correlation was found between anxious attachment and sexual compulsivity (r =0.46; p sexual compulsivity (r = 0.39; p £ 0.01) in all participants. Secondly, an analysis of covariance showed a gender by sexual orientation interaction effect [F(1,103) = 6.39, p sexual compulsivity. A follow-up comparison showed that lesbian women had higher rates of sexual compulsivity than heterosexual women [t(2, 50) = 5.08, p sexual compulsivity between homosexual and heterosexual men [t(2, 50) = 1.30,p = N.S.]. The results provide preliminary evidence for an association between attachment and sexual compulsivity and the effects of gender and sexual orientation on sexual compulsivity.

  13. Minireview: Hormones and Human Sexual Orientation

    OpenAIRE

    Balthazart, Jacques

    2011-01-01

    Many people believe that sexual orientation (homosexuality vs. heterosexuality) is determined by education and social constraints. There are, however, a large number of studies indicating that prenatal factors have an important influence on this critical feature of human sexuality. Sexual orientation is a sexually differentiated trait (over 90% of men are attracted to women and vice versa). In animals and men, many sexually differentiated characteristics are organized during early life by sex...

  14. Religious Orientation and Sexual Attitudes and Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillen, Eileen K.; Helm, Herbert W., Jr.; McBride, Duane C.

    2011-01-01

    Religion is one of the major forces of control over sexuality, and many studies have observed an inverse relationship between religiosity and sexual permissiveness. The Religious Orientation Scale has been used to study the relationship between religious orientation and sexuality. It has been found that those with intrinsic views are more…

  15. Perceptions of Sexual Orientation From Minimal Cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rule, Nicholas O

    2017-01-01

    People derive considerable amounts of information about each other from minimal nonverbal cues. Apart from characteristics typically regarded as obvious when encountering another person (e.g., age, race, and sex), perceivers can identify many other qualities about a person that are typically rather subtle. One such feature is sexual orientation. Here, I review the literature documenting the accurate perception of sexual orientation from nonverbal cues related to one's adornment, acoustics, actions, and appearance. In addition to chronicling studies that have demonstrated how people express and extract sexual orientation in each of these domains, I discuss some of the basic cognitive and perceptual processes that support these judgments, including how cues to sexual orientation manifest in behavioral (e.g., clothing choices) and structural (e.g., facial morphology) signals. Finally, I attend to boundary conditions in the accurate perception of sexual orientation, such as the states, traits, and group memberships that moderate individuals' ability to reliably decipher others' sexual orientation.

  16. Neurobiology of Gender Identity and Sexual Orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roselli, Charles E

    2017-12-06

    Sexual identity and sexual orientation are independent components of a person's sexual identity. These dimensions are most often in harmony with each other and with an individual's genital sex, but not always. This review discusses the relationship of sexual identity and sexual orientation to prenatal factors that act to shape the development of the brain and the expression of sexual behaviors in animals and humans. One major influence discussed relates to organizational effects that the early hormone environment exerts on both gender identity and sexual orientation. Evidence that gender identity and sexual orientation are masculinized by prenatal exposure to testosterone and feminized in it absence is drawn from basic research in animals, correlations of biometric indices of androgen exposure and studies of clinical conditions associated with disorders in sexual development. There are, however, important exceptions to this theory that have yet to be resolved. Family and twin studies indicate that genes play a role, but no specific candidate genes have been identified. Evidence that relates to the number of older brothers implicates maternal immune responses as a contributing factor for male sexual orientation. It remains speculative how these influences might relate to each other and interact with postnatal socialization. Nonetheless, despite the many challenges to research in this area, existing empirical evidence makes it clear that there is a significant biological contribution to the development of an individual's sexual identity and sexual orientation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  17. Distinctive Characteristics of Sexual Orientation Bias Crimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacey, Michele

    2011-01-01

    Despite increased attention in the area of hate crime research in the past 20 years, sexual orientation bias crimes have rarely been singled out for study. When these types of crimes are looked at, the studies are typically descriptive in nature. This article seeks to increase our knowledge of sexual orientation bias by answering the question:…

  18. Personality Traits, Sexual Problems, and Sexual Orientation: An Empirical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peixoto, Maria Manuela; Nobre, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    Personality traits, namely neuroticism, have been suggested as vulnerability factors for the development and maintenance of sexual dysfunction in heterosexual samples. However, no evidence was found regarding homosexual samples. This study aimed to analyze the differences on personality traits between heterosexual and homosexual men and women with and without sexual problems. Participants were 285 individuals (142 men, 143 women) who completed a web-based survey. Participants answered the NEO Five-Factor Inventory, the Brief Symptomatology Inventory, and questions regarding sexual problems. The groups of men and women with and without sexual problems were matched for sociodemographic variables. A 2 (Group) × 2 (Sexual Orientation) multivariate analysis of covariance was conducted separately for each gender. Results indicated a significant main effect for group and for sexual orientation in male and female samples. Men with sexual problems scored higher on neuroticism, whereas women with sexual problems scored higher on neuroticism and lower on extraversion when compared with healthy controls, regardless of sexual orientation. In addition, gay men scored higher on neuroticism and lesbian women scored higher on conscientiousness compared with the heterosexual groups. The present findings emphasize the central role of neuroticism on sexual problems in both men and women regardless of sexual orientation.

  19. Minireview: Hormones and Human Sexual Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Many people believe that sexual orientation (homosexuality vs. heterosexuality) is determined by education and social constraints. There are, however, a large number of studies indicating that prenatal factors have an important influence on this critical feature of human sexuality. Sexual orientation is a sexually differentiated trait (over 90% of men are attracted to women and vice versa). In animals and men, many sexually differentiated characteristics are organized during early life by sex steroids, and one can wonder whether the same mechanism also affects human sexual orientation. Two types of evidence support this notion. First, multiple sexually differentiated behavioral, physiological, or even morphological traits are significantly different in homosexual and heterosexual populations. Because some of these traits are known to be organized by prenatal steroids, including testosterone, these differences suggest that homosexual subjects were, on average, exposed to atypical endocrine conditions during development. Second, clinical conditions associated with significant endocrine changes during embryonic life often result in an increased incidence of homosexuality. It seems therefore that the prenatal endocrine environment has a significant influence on human sexual orientation but a large fraction of the variance in this behavioral characteristic remains unexplained to date. Genetic differences affecting behavior either in a direct manner or by changing embryonic hormone secretion or action may also be involved. How these biological prenatal factors interact with postnatal social factors to determine life-long sexual orientation remains to be determined. PMID:21693676

  20. Minireview: Hormones and human sexual orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balthazart, Jacques

    2011-08-01

    Many people believe that sexual orientation (homosexuality vs. heterosexuality) is determined by education and social constraints. There are, however, a large number of studies indicating that prenatal factors have an important influence on this critical feature of human sexuality. Sexual orientation is a sexually differentiated trait (over 90% of men are attracted to women and vice versa). In animals and men, many sexually differentiated characteristics are organized during early life by sex steroids, and one can wonder whether the same mechanism also affects human sexual orientation. Two types of evidence support this notion. First, multiple sexually differentiated behavioral, physiological, or even morphological traits are significantly different in homosexual and heterosexual populations. Because some of these traits are known to be organized by prenatal steroids, including testosterone, these differences suggest that homosexual subjects were, on average, exposed to atypical endocrine conditions during development. Second, clinical conditions associated with significant endocrine changes during embryonic life often result in an increased incidence of homosexuality. It seems therefore that the prenatal endocrine environment has a significant influence on human sexual orientation but a large fraction of the variance in this behavioral characteristic remains unexplained to date. Genetic differences affecting behavior either in a direct manner or by changing embryonic hormone secretion or action may also be involved. How these biological prenatal factors interact with postnatal social factors to determine life-long sexual orientation remains to be determined.

  1. Gender role, sexual orientation and suicide risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Kathleen Kara; Euton, Stephanie J; Jones, Jamie N; Schmidt, Norman B

    2005-07-01

    There has been interest in the relationship between homosexuality, gender role and suicide risk. Though homosexuals are more likely to identify as cross-gender, research has not simultaneously examined sexual orientation and gender role in assessing suicide risk. In the current study, the unique and interactive effects of sexual orientation and gender role were assessed in regard to suicidal ideation, related psychopathology and measures of coping. 77 participants were recruited from an undergraduate psychology subject pool (n=47) or from gay, lesbian and transgender student organizations (n=30) and assessed on measures of gender role, homosexuality, and psychopathology. Consistent with expectations, cross-gender role (i.e., personality traits associated with the opposite sex) is a unique predictor of suicidal symptoms. Moreover, gender role accounted for more of the overall variance in suicidal symptoms, positive problem orientation, peer acceptance and support, than sexual orientation. After accounting for gender role, sexual orientation contributed little to the variance in suicidal symptoms, associated pathology and problem-solving deficits. There was no support for gender role by sexual orientation interaction effects. The cross-sectional nature of the data limits statements regarding causality. Cross-gendered individuals, regardless of sexual orientation, appear to have higher risk for suicidal symptoms. Researchers and clinicians should assess gender role in evaluations of youth samples.

  2. Sexual orientation microaggressions and the experience of sexual minorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, Lisa F; Lenzen, Alexandra L

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative study sought to confirm and expand on previous research on sexual orientation microaggressions--subtle discrimination in the form of verbal, behavioral, and environmental slights and indignities as defined by Sue (2010). The study had two primary research questions: Does the data from the sample validate Sue's (2010) typology of sexual orientation microaggressions? Beyond Sue's (2010) typology, are other themes/types of sexual orientation microaggressions present in the data? Using a focus group methodology, data was collected from a sample of self-identified non-heterosexual college students (N=12). Data analysis confirmed five previously identified themes from Sue's (2010) typology (Endorsement of Heteronormative Culture, Sinfulness, Homophobia, Heterosexist Language/Terminology, and Oversexualization) and demonstrated two new themes (Undersexualization and Microaggressions as Humor). The implications of sexual orientation microaggressions, along with limitations and future research directions, are discussed.

  3. Sexual orientation disparities in sexually transmitted infections: examining the intersection between sexual identity and sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, Bethany G

    2013-02-01

    The terms MSM (men who have sex with men) and WSW (women who have sex with women) have been used with increasing frequency in the public health literature to examine sexual orientation disparities in sexual health. These categories, however, do not allow researchers to examine potential differences in sexually transmitted infection (STI) risk by sexual orientation identity. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent Health, this study investigated the relationship between self-reported STIs and both sexual orientation identity and sexual behaviors. Additionally, this study examined the mediating role of victimization and STI risk behaviors on the relationship between sexual orientation and self-reported STIs. STI risk was found to be elevated among heterosexual-WSW and bisexual women, whether they reported same-sex partners or not, whereas gay-identified WSW were less likely to report an STI compared to heterosexual women with opposite sex relationships only. Among males, heterosexual-identified MSM did not have a greater likelihood of reporting an STI diagnosis; rather, STI risk was concentrated among gay and bisexual identified men who reported both male and female sexual partners. STI risk behaviors mediated the STI disparities among both males and females, and victimization partially mediated STI disparities among female participants. These results suggest that relying solely on behavior-based categories, such as MSM and WSW, may mischaracterize STI disparities by sexual orientation.

  4. Sexual Orientation in Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, R; Stokes, M A

    2018-01-01

    Clinical impressions suggest a different sexual profile between individuals with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Little is presently known about the demographics of sexual orientation in ASD. Sexual Orientation was surveyed using the Sell Scale of Sexual Orientation in an international online sample of individuals with ASD (N = 309, M = 90, F= 219), aged (M = 32.30 years, SD = 11.93) and this was compared to sexual orientation of typically-developing individuals (N = 310, M = 84, F= 226), aged (M = 29.82 years, SD = 11.85). Findings suggested that sexual orientation was contingent on diagnosis (N = 570, χ 2 (9) =104.05, P Autism Res 2018, 11: 133-141. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Research suggests that individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) report increased homosexuality, bisexuality, and asexuality, but decreased heterosexuality. It is important to increase awareness about increased non-heterosexuality in ASD among autistic populations, medical professionals and care-takers, so as to provide specialized care, if needed and increase support and inclusion for non-heterosexual autistic individuals. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Sexual orientation and depression in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Roger L; Lasiuk, Gerri; Norris, Colleen M

    2017-03-01

    Depression is a global concern and it is well known that certain segments of the population are at greater risk. Sexual minorities are recognized as being more likely to suffer from depression due to social stigma and prejudice. The aim of this study was to describe the relationship between sexual orientation and depression in the Canadian population. The study used the 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey - Mental Health data. The sample comprised 24,788 Canadians living in the ten provinces. Logistic regression analyses were used to examine the relationship of depression and sexual orientation. After adjusting for known risk factors for depression, there was no difference in prevalence of past 12-month or lifetime major depressive episode between sexual minorities and heterosexuals. Bisexuals did have a near significant trend towards higher prevalence of both past 12-month and lifetime depression as a combined group, but there were not clear differences when stratified by sex. This study supports important emerging trends in the relationship between sexual orientation and depression. Research on the mental health of sexual minority people must take into account differences between sexual minority groups and avoid aggregating mental health disorders into broad categories. These findings have implications for public health planning and clinical recommendations.

  6. Sexual orientation discrimination in hiring

    OpenAIRE

    Doris Weichselbaumer

    2000-01-01

    Little research has been done to examine discrimination against gays and lesbians in the labor market. Badgett (1995) conducted the only previous study investigating labor market outcomes of gays and lesbians using a random data set. However, due to the structure of the data, the wage differential between heterosexuals and gays and lesbians that is found can not be directly assigned to employer discrimination. Some gays and lesbians might deploy passing strategies to hide their sexual orienta...

  7. Social Dominance and Sexual Orientation

    OpenAIRE

    Dickins, Thomas E.; Sergeant, Mark J.T.

    2008-01-01

    Heterosexual males are reported to display higher levels of physical aggression and lower levels of empathy than homosexual males. A characteristic linked to both aggression and empathy is social dominance orientation (SDO). A significant sex difference has been reported for SDO, with heterosexual males scoring higher than heterosexual females. The precise relationship between dominance and aggression is currently contested. Given the association between SDO, aggression and empathy, and the d...

  8. Does Androgen Hormone Influences Sexual Orientation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taufiqurrahman Nasihun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Now days lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender are abbreviated as LGBT is the most popular word and being sensible in the world, especially in Indonesia. Based on human right principles, any person in the world including in Indonesia is free to express their gender identity and sexual orientation, even the same sex marriage, freely from unlawful discrimination and violations (Office of Personnel Management, 2015; Yogyakarta Principles, 2006. However, because of the culture and religion differences backgrounds, Indonesians have given this issue various responses. In general, Indonesian public opinion on LGBT are split into two different groups, one minority group is proponent to present of LGBT and any things related to it, and another majority groups are opponent. Objective of this editorial is to discuss how sexual orientation develop from prenatal until emerging of clinical manifestation in adulthood, by no mean to support either group. Otherwise, to give more insight about how male and female get their appropriate sexual orientations and why some of them get inappropriate sexual orientations.

  9. Extending Multicultural Counselor Competence to Sexual Orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidell, Markus Paul

    The purpose of this study was to develop and establish psychometric properties of the Sexual Orientation Counselor Scale (SOCS), an instrument assessing the awareness, skills, and knowledge of counselors working with lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) populations. The sample consisted of 287 undergraduates, master-level students, doctoral-level…

  10. Benefits of Cross-Sexual Orientation Friendships among Adolescent Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galupo, M. Paz; St John, Sarah

    2001-01-01

    Investigates benefits of cross-sexual orientation friendships on adolescent girls (N=20). Results indicate that cross-sexual orientation friendships function similarly in comparison to other friendship development in positive ways. Discusses overall benefits of cross-sexual orientation friendships and benefits that are unique to both heterosexual…

  11. Faith and Sexual Orientation Identity Development in Gay College Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Merrily; Glassmann, Danny; Garrett, J. Matthew; Badaszewski, Philip; Jones, Ginny; Pierre, Darren; Fresk, Kara; Young, Dallin; Correll-Hughes, Larry

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the experiences of gay-identified college men related to their faith and sexual orientation identity development. The findings suggest that for gay-identified college men, faith and sexual orientation identity development includes examination of one's faith and sexual orientation identity, important relationships, and a desire…

  12. Etiology of Sexual Orientation and its Implications to the Kinesis Science/ Etiology of Sexual Orientation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Luiz Cardoso

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses some theoretical contributions in the field of sexual orientation, as well as, important concepts and their articulation with on of sexual orientation extremes – the homosexuality. I avoided taking the comfortable posture politically correct when trying to discuss these categories of the sexuality based only on data and evidences, and not only on concepts and unnoticeable fallacious. The purpose of this discussion is to reorganize in Portuguese some theories in order to clarify this subject to guide future researches inside of kinesis science with more explanatory stamp that is going to influence the political perception of bodyness.

  13. Childhood and adolescent sexual behaviors predict adult sexual orientations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith W. Beard

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Anonymous retrospective data were provided by 3,443 adult participants via computer-assisted self-interview. This was the first study focused on determinants of adult sexual orientation to adjust for the effects of same-sex sibling incest. Five measures of adult sexual orientations (ASOs provided evidence consistent with the theory that ASOs result from early sex-specific romantic attachment, conditioning caused by early sexual experiences with partners, and other experiences, such as early masturbation using human images, acting synergistically with critical period learning, and sexual imprinting. Early same-sex crushes were the most powerful predictor of ASOs, and they also increased the likelihood of engaging in early same-sex partnered and masturbation behaviors. Incestuous experiences with same-sex siblings affected the ASOs of the incest participants. And, lesbian, gay, and bisexual participants tended to have an earlier onset of puberty than heterosexual controls within sexes. However, statistical analyses showed that the incest and puberty effects were mathematically explained by the participant’s early sexual experiences with partners and other experiences such as masturbation using human images. Early same-sex crushes were predicted by nuclear family variables implying that same-sex crushes were more likely when the opposite-sex parent modeled an unsatisfactory heterosexual romantic partner.

  14. Sexual Orientation Discrimination in the Labour Market

    OpenAIRE

    Nick Drydakis

    2007-01-01

    This research examines the possible discrimination faced by gay men compared to heterosexuals when applying for jobs in the Greek private sector. This issue was addressed through the observation of employer hiring decisions. Mailing pairs of curriculum vitae, distinguished only by the sexual orientation of the applicants, led to the observation that gay men faced a significantly lower chance of receiving an invitation for an interview. However, in cases where employers called applicants back,...

  15. Transgender transitioning and change of self-reported sexual orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auer, Matthias K; Fuss, Johannes; Höhne, Nina; Stalla, Günter K; Sievers, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Sexual orientation is usually considered to be determined in early life and stable in the course of adulthood. In contrast, some transgender individuals report a change in sexual orientation. A common reason for this phenomenon is not known. We included 115 transsexual persons (70 male-to-female "MtF" and 45 female-to-male "FtM") patients from our endocrine outpatient clinic, who completed a questionnaire, retrospectively evaluating the history of their gender transition phase. The questionnaire focused on sexual orientation and recalled time points of changes in sexual orientation in the context of transition. Participants were further asked to provide a personal concept for a potential change in sexual orientation. In total, 32.9% (n = 23) MtF reported a change in sexual orientation in contrast to 22.2% (n = 10) FtM transsexual persons (p = 0.132). Out of these patients, 39.1% (MtF) and 60% (FtM) reported a change in sexual orientation before having undergone any sex reassignment surgery. FtM that had initially been sexually oriented towards males ( = androphilic), were significantly more likely to report on a change in sexual orientation than gynephilic, analloerotic or bisexual FtM (p = 0.012). Similarly, gynephilic MtF reported a change in sexual orientation more frequently than androphilic, analloerotic or bisexual MtF transsexual persons (p =0.05). In line with earlier reports, we reveal that a change in self-reported sexual orientation is frequent and does not solely occur in the context of particular transition events. Transsexual persons that are attracted by individuals of the opposite biological sex are more likely to change sexual orientation. Qualitative reports suggest that the individual's biography, autogynephilic and autoandrophilic sexual arousal, confusion before and after transitioning, social and self-acceptance, as well as concept of sexual orientation itself may explain this phenomenon.

  16. National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey: Overview on Victimization by Sexual Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... An Overview of 2010 Findings on Victimization by Sexual Orientation About NISVS NISVS is an ongoing, nationally representative ... Violence Survey (NISVS): 2010 Findings on Victimization by Sexual Orientation is the first of its kind to present ...

  17. Sexual Orientation Modulates Endocrine Stress Reactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juster, Robert-Paul; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.; Mendrek, Adrianna; Pfaus, James G.; Smith, Nathan Grant; Johnson, Philip Jai; Lefebvre-Louis, Jean-Philippe; Raymond, Catherine; Marin, Marie-France; Sindi, Shireen; Lupien, Sonia J.; Pruessner, Jens C.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Biological sex differences and sociocultural gender diversity influence endocrine stress reactivity. Although numerous studies have shown that men typically activate stronger stress responses than women when exposed to laboratory-based psychosocial stressors, it is unclear whether sexual orientation further modulates stress reactivity. Given that lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals frequently report heightened distress secondary to stigma-related stressors, we investigated whether cortisol stress reactivity differs between LGB individuals and heterosexual individuals in response to a well-validated psychosocial stressor. METHODS The study population comprised 87 healthy adults (mean age, 25 years) who were grouped according to their biological sex and their gendered sexual orientation: lesbian/bisexual women (n = 20), heterosexual women (n = 21), gay/bisexual men (n = 26), and heterosexual men (n = 20). Investigators collected 10 salivary cortisol samples throughout a 2-hour afternoon visit involving exposure to the Trier Social Stress Test modified to maximize between-sex differences. RESULTS Relative to heterosexual women, lesbian/bisexual women showed higher cortisol stress reactivity 40 min after exposure to the stressor. In contrast, gay/bisexual men displayed lower overall cortisol concentrations throughout testing compared with heterosexual men. Main findings were significant while adjusting for sex hormones (estradiol-to-progesterone ratio in women and testosterone in men), age, self-esteem, and disclosure status (whether LGB participants had completed their “coming out”). CONCLUSIONS Our results provide novel evidence for gender-based modulation of cortisol stress reactivity based on sexual orientation that goes beyond well-established between-sex differences. This study raises several important avenues for future research related to the physiologic functioning of LGB populations and gender diversity more broadly. PMID:25444167

  18. Cerebral sex dimorphism and sexual orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzouri, Amirhossein; Savic, Ivanka

    2018-03-01

    The neurobiology of sexual orientation is frequently discussed in terms of cerebral sex dimorphism (defining both functional and structural sex differences). Yet, the information about possible cerebral differences between sex-matched homo and heterosexual persons is limited, particularly among women. In this multimodal MRI study, we addressed these issues by investigating possible cerebral differences between homo and heterosexual persons, and by asking whether there is any sex difference in this aspect. Measurements of cortical thickness (Cth), subcortical volumes, and functional and structural resting-state connections among 40 heterosexual males (HeM) and 40 heterosexual females (HeF) were compared with those of 30 homosexual males (HoM) and 30 homosexual females (HoF). Congruent with previous reports, sex differences were detected in heterosexual controls with regard to fractional anisotropy (FA), Cth, and several subcortical volumes. Homosexual groups did not display any sex differences in FA values. Furthermore, their functional connectivity was significantly less pronounced in the mesial prefrontal and precuneus regions. In these two particular regions, HoM also displayed thicker cerebral cortex than other groups, whereas HoF did not differ from HeF. In addition, in HoM the parietal Cth showed "sex-reversed" values, not observed in HoF. Homosexual orientation seems associated with a less pronounced sexual differentiation of white matter tracts and a less pronounced functional connectivity of the self-referential networks compared to heterosexual orientation. Analyses of Cth suggest that male and female homosexuality are not simple analogues of each other and that differences from heterosexual controls are more pronounced in HoM. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Sexual side effects induced by psychotropic drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Ellids

    2002-01-01

    The majority of psychotropic drugs entail sexual side effects. The sexual side effects may reduce quality of life and may give rise to non-compliance. For example, 30-60 per cent of patients treated with antidepressants are known to develop a sexual dysfunction. However, some psychotropic drugs...... with no or very few sexual side effects have begun to emerge. The treatment of sexual side effects induced by psychotropic drugs may consist of: modified sexual habits, reduction in dosage, switching to another medication, possibly in combination with different psychotropic agents, other varieties...

  20. Sexual sensation seeking in spanish Young men and women with diferent sexual orientation

    OpenAIRE

    Gil Llario, María Dolores; Morell Mengual, Vicente; Ballester Arnal, Rafael; Giménez García, Cristina; Castro Calvo, Jesús

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzes the relation of sexual orientation and gender to sexual sensation seeking. Participants were 382 individuals (200 men, 182 women) between 17 and 29 years old who completed the Sexual Sensation Seeking Scale. Of the 382 participants, 52.46% self-reported heterosexual orientation, and 47.64% self-reported homosexual orientation. The results showed differences with Sexual Sensation Seeking being more frequent among heterosexuals and men. There were no differences between hete...

  1. Perceived Sexual Orientation Based on Vocal and Facial Stimuli Is Linked to Self-Rated Sexual Orientation in Czech Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentova, Jaroslava Varella; Havlíček, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has shown that lay people can accurately assess male sexual orientation based on limited information, such as face, voice, or behavioral display. Gender-atypical traits are thought to serve as cues to sexual orientation. We investigated the presumed mechanisms of sexual orientation attribution using a standardized set of facial and vocal stimuli of Czech men. Both types of stimuli were rated for sexual orientation and masculinity-femininity by non-student heterosexual women and homosexual men. Our data showed that by evaluating vocal stimuli both women and homosexual men can judge sexual orientation of the target men in agreement with their self-reported sexual orientation. Nevertheless, only homosexual men accurately attributed sexual orientation of the two groups from facial images. Interestingly, facial images of homosexual targets were rated as more masculine than heterosexual targets. This indicates that attributions of sexual orientation are affected by stereotyped association between femininity and male homosexuality; however, reliance on such cues can lead to frequent misjudgments as was the case with the female raters. Although our study is based on a community sample recruited in a non-English speaking country, the results are generally consistent with the previous research and thus corroborate the validity of sexual orientation attributions. PMID:24358180

  2. Perceived sexual orientation based on vocal and facial stimuli is linked to self-rated sexual orientation in Czech men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslava Varella Valentova

    Full Text Available Previous research has shown that lay people can accurately assess male sexual orientation based on limited information, such as face, voice, or behavioral display. Gender-atypical traits are thought to serve as cues to sexual orientation. We investigated the presumed mechanisms of sexual orientation attribution using a standardized set of facial and vocal stimuli of Czech men. Both types of stimuli were rated for sexual orientation and masculinity-femininity by non-student heterosexual women and homosexual men. Our data showed that by evaluating vocal stimuli both women and homosexual men can judge sexual orientation of the target men in agreement with their self-reported sexual orientation. Nevertheless, only homosexual men accurately attributed sexual orientation of the two groups from facial images. Interestingly, facial images of homosexual targets were rated as more masculine than heterosexual targets. This indicates that attributions of sexual orientation are affected by stereotyped association between femininity and male homosexuality; however, reliance on such cues can lead to frequent misjudgments as was the case with the female raters. Although our study is based on a community sample recruited in a non-English speaking country, the results are generally consistent with the previous research and thus corroborate the validity of sexual orientation attributions.

  3. Sexual Arousal and Sexually Explicit Media (SEM: Comparing Patterns of Sexual Arousal to SEM and Sexual Self-Evaluations and Satisfaction Across Gender and Sexual Orientation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gert Martin Hald, PhD

    2018-03-01

    Hald GM, Stulhofer A, Lange T, et al. Sexual Arousal and Sexually Explicit Media (SEM: Comparing Patterns of Sexual Arousal to SEM and Sexual Self-Evaluations and Satisfaction Across Gender and Sexual Orientation. Sex Med 2018;6:30–38.

  4. Differences in Risky Sexual Behavior According to Sexual Orientation in Korean Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji-Su; Kim, Kyunghee; Kwak, Yeunhee

    2017-10-13

    Adolescents in sexual minority groups are known to be at risk of contracting sexually transmitted diseases through risky sexual behavior. However, few studies have examined associations between sexual orientation and risky sexual behavior and sexually transmitted diseases in Korean adolescents. Therefore, this cross-sectional study used raw data from the Tenth Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-Based Survey to explore these relationships. Logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the associations between risky sexual behavior and sexual orientation in adolescents. The participants were 6,884 adolescents who provided data regarding demographic characteristics, sexual orientation, and risky sexual behavior. The proportions of homosexual and bisexual subjects who used condoms, engaged in sexual intercourse after drinking alcohol, and experienced sexually transmitted diseases were higher relative to those of heterosexual subjects. Associations between homosexuality and bisexuality and sexually transmitted diseases and engagement in sexual intercourse after drinking remained after multivariate adjustment. Interventions to prevent risky sexual behavior should target sexual orientation, to improve sexual health and prevent sexually transmitted disease in homosexual and bisexual adolescents.

  5. Sexual Orientation Topics in Educational Leadership Programmes across the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Todd

    2012-01-01

    This investigation examines the inclusion of sexual orientation topics within the formal curriculum of 55 public college and university educational administration/leadership programmes across the USA. The findings indicate that programmes place a low priority upon sexual orientation compared to other diversity topics and that 59.5% of programmes…

  6. Strategies to include sexual orientation and gender identity in health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Sexual orientation and gender identity are not taught in African health professions curricula. In order to improve the quality of care for lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex (LGBTI) patients, health professionals need to shift their attitudes towards sexual orientation and gender identity, and learn ...

  7. Sexual Orientation: A Cultural Diversity Issue for Nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misener, Terry R.; Sowell, Richard L.; Phillips, Kenneth D.; Harris, Charlotte

    1997-01-01

    Traditional approaches to the development of a culturally aware work force have consistently ignored the importance of gender role and sexual orientation as sources of potential conflict in the workplace. Nursing must end personal and professional discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation. (JOW)

  8. Sexual Orientation and Music Education: Continuing a Tradition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergonzi, Louis

    2014-01-01

    This article offers an overview of sexual orientation and music education, in particular how sexual orientation--specifically, heterosexuality--has been dominant in the teaching of music in the United States. Scenarios of heterosexual privilege related to music students, music teachers, and instructional content are presented. After acknowledging…

  9. Within-Group Differences in Sexual Orientation and Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthington, Roger L.; Reynolds, Amy L.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine within-group differences among self-identified sexual orientation and identity groups. To understand these within-group differences, 2 types of analysis were conducted. First, a sample of 2,732 participants completed the Sexual Orientation and Identity Scale. Cluster analyses were used to identify 3…

  10. Sexual health behaviors and sexual orientation in a U.S. national sample of college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswalt, Sara B; Wyatt, Tammy J

    2013-11-01

    Many studies have examined differences in sexual behavior based on sexual orientation with results often indicating that those with same-sex partners engage in higher risk sexual behavior than people with opposite sex partners. However, few of these studies were large, national sample studies that also include those identifying as unsure. To address that gap, this study examined the relationship of sexual orientation and sexual health outcomes in a national sample of U.S. college students. The Fall 2009 American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment was used to examine sexual health related responses from heterosexual, gay, lesbian, bisexual, and unsure students (N = 25,553). Responses related to sexual behavior, safer sex behaviors, prevention and screening behaviors, and diagnosis of sexual health related conditions were examined. The findings indicated that sexual orientation was significantly associated with engaging in sexual behavior in the last 30 days. Sexual orientation was also significantly associated with the number of sexual partners in the previous 12 months, with unsure men having significantly more partners than gay, bisexual and heterosexual men and heterosexual men having significantly less partners than gay, bisexual and unsure men. Bisexual women had significantly more partners than females reporting other sexual orientations. Results examining the associations between sexual orientation and safer sex, prevention behaviors, and screening behaviors were mixed. Implications for practice, including specific programmatic ideas, were discussed.

  11. Transgender Transitioning and Change of Self-Reported Sexual Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höhne, Nina; Stalla, Günter K.; Sievers, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Objective Sexual orientation is usually considered to be determined in early life and stable in the course of adulthood. In contrast, some transgender individuals report a change in sexual orientation. A common reason for this phenomenon is not known. Methods We included 115 transsexual persons (70 male-to-female “MtF” and 45 female-to-male “FtM”) patients from our endocrine outpatient clinic, who completed a questionnaire, retrospectively evaluating the history of their gender transition phase. The questionnaire focused on sexual orientation and recalled time points of changes in sexual orientation in the context of transition. Participants were further asked to provide a personal concept for a potential change in sexual orientation. Results In total, 32.9% (n =  23) MtF reported a change in sexual orientation in contrast to 22.2% (n =  10) FtM transsexual persons (p =  0.132). Out of these patients, 39.1% (MtF) and 60% (FtM) reported a change in sexual orientation before having undergone any sex reassignment surgery. FtM that had initially been sexually oriented towards males ( = androphilic), were significantly more likely to report on a change in sexual orientation than gynephilic, analloerotic or bisexual FtM (p  =  0.012). Similarly, gynephilic MtF reported a change in sexual orientation more frequently than androphilic, analloerotic or bisexual MtF transsexual persons (p  =  0.05). Conclusion In line with earlier reports, we reveal that a change in self-reported sexual orientation is frequent and does not solely occur in the context of particular transition events. Transsexual persons that are attracted by individuals of the opposite biological sex are more likely to change sexual orientation. Qualitative reports suggest that the individual's biography, autogynephilic and autoandrophilic sexual arousal, confusion before and after transitioning, social and self-acceptance, as well as concept of sexual orientation itself may

  12. Transgender transitioning and change of self-reported sexual orientation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias K Auer

    Full Text Available Sexual orientation is usually considered to be determined in early life and stable in the course of adulthood. In contrast, some transgender individuals report a change in sexual orientation. A common reason for this phenomenon is not known.We included 115 transsexual persons (70 male-to-female "MtF" and 45 female-to-male "FtM" patients from our endocrine outpatient clinic, who completed a questionnaire, retrospectively evaluating the history of their gender transition phase. The questionnaire focused on sexual orientation and recalled time points of changes in sexual orientation in the context of transition. Participants were further asked to provide a personal concept for a potential change in sexual orientation.In total, 32.9% (n = 23 MtF reported a change in sexual orientation in contrast to 22.2% (n = 10 FtM transsexual persons (p = 0.132. Out of these patients, 39.1% (MtF and 60% (FtM reported a change in sexual orientation before having undergone any sex reassignment surgery. FtM that had initially been sexually oriented towards males ( = androphilic, were significantly more likely to report on a change in sexual orientation than gynephilic, analloerotic or bisexual FtM (p = 0.012. Similarly, gynephilic MtF reported a change in sexual orientation more frequently than androphilic, analloerotic or bisexual MtF transsexual persons (p =0.05.In line with earlier reports, we reveal that a change in self-reported sexual orientation is frequent and does not solely occur in the context of particular transition events. Transsexual persons that are attracted by individuals of the opposite biological sex are more likely to change sexual orientation. Qualitative reports suggest that the individual's biography, autogynephilic and autoandrophilic sexual arousal, confusion before and after transitioning, social and self-acceptance, as well as concept of sexual orientation itself may explain this phenomenon.

  13. Sexual Orientation Discordance and Young Adult Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourie, Michael A; Needham, Belinda L

    2017-05-01

    During the course of sexual development, many people experience dissonance between dimensions of sexual orientation, including attraction, behavior, and identity. This study assesses the relationship between sexual orientation discordance and mental health. Data were obtained from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (n = 8,915; female = 54.62 %; non-Hispanic black = 18.83 %, Hispanic = 14.91 %, other race (non-white) = 10.79 %). Multivariable linear regression evaluated the correlation between sexual orientation discordance and perceived stress and depressive symptomatology. Models were stratified by sex and sexual identity. Among self-identified heterosexual females and mostly heterosexual males, sexual orientation discordance predicted significantly increased depressive symptomatology. No other subpopulation demonstrated a significant correlation between sexual orientation discordance and depressive symptomatology or perceived stress. The association between sexual orientation discordance and depressive symptomatology suggests a link between sexuality, self-concept, and mental health.

  14. Sexual side effects induced by psychotropic drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Ellids

    2002-01-01

    The majority of psychotropic drugs entail sexual side effects. The sexual side effects may reduce quality of life and may give rise to non-compliance. For example, 30-60 per cent of patients treated with antidepressants are known to develop a sexual dysfunction. However, some psychotropic drugs...... of pharmacologically active substances or specific products for the treatment of sexual dysfunction such as sildenafil. Above all, it should be acknowledged that relatively few data are available in this field and in particular that there is a lack of controlled studies....... with no or very few sexual side effects have begun to emerge. The treatment of sexual side effects induced by psychotropic drugs may consist of: modified sexual habits, reduction in dosage, switching to another medication, possibly in combination with different psychotropic agents, other varieties...

  15. Description of Sexual Orientation and Sexual Behaviors among High School Girls in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coble, Chanelle A; Silver, Ellen J; Chhabra, Rosy

    2017-08-01

    Examination of the association of sexual orientation to the sexual practices and health behaviors of high school girls in New York City (NYC). Data were drawn from the 2013 Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System survey of public high school students in grades 9-12 in NYC. None. Independent variables included sexual orientation and gender of sexual partners. Dependent variables include sexual/health risk behaviors. We used t tests to compare mean ages and χ 2 tests to compare distributions according to sexual orientation, gender of sexual partners, and differences in risk behaviors. The survey was completed by 4643 girls; mean age, 15.5 years; (1103 + 1842)/4254 (69%) black or Latina; 1101/4000 (27.5%) sexually active; 3574/4412 (81%) heterosexual; and (92 + 526)/4412 (14%) sexual minorities; 24.1% were heterosexual, 52.1% lesbian, and 49.4% were bisexual girls and were sexually active; 247 were classified as women who have sex with women (WSW) or WSW and men (WSWM). Of the sexually active girls, (65 + 182)/1081 (23%) were WSW/WSWM. The WSW/WSWM reported earlier sexual debut, more sexual partners, higher pregnancy rate, use of alcohol at last sex, history of intimate partner violence, and less likelihood of having an HIV test. Almost one in four of sexually active high school girls in NYC can be classified as WSW, who are vulnerable to increased sexual and health risk-taking behaviors leading to adverse health outcomes. The discordance between sexual behavior and sexual orientation emphasizes the importance of the provider sharing protective strategies in the sexual health counseling session for their patients who engage in sex with female partners regardless of sexual orientation. Copyright © 2017 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The benefits of sexual orientation diversity in sport organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, George B; Melton, E Nicole

    2011-01-01

    While sexual orientation diversity can potentially serve as a source of competitive advantage, researchers have largely failed to fully articulate the theoretical linkage between this diversity form and organizational effectiveness. As such, we propose a theoretical framework to understand these dynamics. Sexual orientation diversity is posited to positively contribute to organizational effectiveness through three mechanisms: enhanced decision making capabilities, improved marketplace understanding, and goodwill associated with engaging in socially responsible practices. We also propose two approaches to leveraging the benefits of sexual orientation diversity: targeting the categorization process and creating a proactive and inclusive diversity culture. Contributions and implications are discussed.

  17. Prenatal Exposure to Progesterone Affects Sexual Orientation in Humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinisch, June M.; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Sanders, Stephanie A.

    2017-01-01

    and 17 females) were compared to matched controls (M age = 23.2 years). A case–control double-blind design was used drawing on existing data from the US/Denmark Prenatal Development Project. Index cases were exposed to lutocyclin (bioidentical progesterone = C21H30O2; MW: 314.46) and no other hormonal......Prenatal sex hormone levels affect physical and behavioral sexual differentiation in animals and humans. Although prenatal hormones are theorized to influence sexual orientation in humans, evidence is sparse. Sexual orientation variables for 34 prenatally progesterone-exposed subjects (17 males...... preparation. Controls were matched on 14 physical, medical, and socioeconomic variables. A structured interview conducted by a psychologist and self-administered questionnaires were used to collect data on sexual orientation, self-identification, attraction to the same and other sex, and history of sexual...

  18. Sexual orientation and gender identity: developments in EU law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelia (Lilian Tsourdi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The amended version of the EU Qualification Directive, adopted in2011, marks further progress in ensuring LGBTI applicants’ rightsby explicitly adding gender identity alongside sexual orientation as acause of persecution.

  19. Transgender Transitioning and Change of Self-Reported Sexual Orientation

    OpenAIRE

    Auer, M.; Fuss, J.; Höhne, N.; Stalla, G.; Sievers, C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Sexual orientation is usually considered to be determined in early life and stable in the course of adulthood. In contrast, some transgender individuals report a change in sexual orientation. A common reason for this phenomenon is not known. Methods We included 115 transsexual persons (70 male-to-female “MtF” and 45 female-to-male “FtM”) patients from our endocrine outpatient clinic, who completed a questionnaire, retrospectively evaluating the history of their gender transition pha...

  20. Screening for Sexual Orientation in Psychiatric Emergency Departments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Currier, Glenn W.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Our goal was to explore whether emergency department (ED patients would disclose their sexual orientation in a research evaluation and to examine demographic and clinical characteristics of patients by self-identified sexual orientation. Methods: Participants (n=177 presented for psychiatric treatment at three urban EDs in New York City, Rochester, NY, and Philadelphia, PA. Participants were interviewed in the context of a larger study of a standardized suicide risk assessment. We assessed participants’ willingness to answer questions regarding sexual orientation along three dimensions: a self-description of sexual orientation, a self-description of sexual attraction, and the gender of any prior sexual partners. Results: No participants (0/177 refused to respond to the categorical question about sexual orientation, 168/177 (94.9% agreed to provide information about prior sexual partners, and 100/109 (91.7% provided information about current sexual attraction toward either gender. Of all 177 participants, 154 (87.0% self-identified as heterosexual, 11 (6.2% as bisexual, 10 (5.6% as gay or lesbian, and 2 (1.1% indicated they were not sure. As compared with heterosexual patients, lesbian, gay and bisexual (LGB patients were significantly younger and more likely to be non-white, but did not differ significantly in terms of education, income, employment, or religious affiliation or participation. Further, LGB participants did not differ from self-identified heterosexual participants for lifetime suicide attempt rate or lifetime history of any mood, substance-related, psychotic spectrum, or other Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV Axis I disorder. Of self-identified heterosexual participants 5.6% (5/89 reported sexual attraction as other than ‘only opposite sex,’ and 10.3% (15/142 of sexually active ‘heterosexual’ participants reported previous same-gender sexual partners. Conclusion

  1. Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity/Expression (Sexual Minority Students): School Nurse Practice. Position Statement. Revised

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Beverly

    2012-01-01

    It is the position of the National Association of School Nurses that all students, regardless of their sexual orientation or the sexual orientation of their parents and family members, are entitled to a safe school environment and equal opportunities for a high level of academic achievement and school participation/involvement. Establishment of…

  2. Biodemographic and physical correlates of sexual orientation in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Gene; Kim, Rachael M; Kolundzija, Alana B; Rieger, Gerulf; Sanders, Alan R

    2010-02-01

    To better understand sexual orientation from an evolutionary perspective, we investigated whether, compared to heterosexual men, the fewer direct descendants of homosexual men could be counterbalanced by a larger number of other close biological relatives. We also investigated the extent to which three patterns generally studied separately--handedness, number of biological older brothers, and hair-whorl rotation pattern--correlated with each other, and for evidence of replication of previous findings on how each pattern related to sexual orientation. We surveyed at Gay Pride and general community festivals, analyzing data for 894 heterosexual men and 694 homosexual men, both groups predominantly (~80%) white/non-Hispanic. The Kinsey distribution of sexual orientation for men recruited from the general community festivals approximated previous population-based surveys. Compared to heterosexual men, homosexual men had both more relatives, especially paternal relatives, and more homosexual male relatives. We found that the familiality for male sexual orientation decreased with relatedness, i.e., when moving from first-degree to second-degree relatives. We also replicated the fraternal birth order effect. However, we found no significant correlations among handedness, hair whorl rotation pattern, and sexual orientation, and, contrary to some previous research, no evidence that male sexual orientation is transmitted predominantly through the maternal line.

  3. Sexual orientation related differences in cortical thickness in male individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Abé

    Full Text Available Previous neuroimaging studies demonstrated sex and also sexual orientation related structural and functional differences in the human brain. Genetic information and effects of sex hormones are assumed to contribute to the male/female differentiation of the brain, and similar effects could play a role in processes influencing human's sexual orientation. However, questions about the origin and development of a person's sexual orientation remain unanswered, and research on sexual orientation related neurobiological characteristics is still very limited. To contribute to a better understanding of the neurobiology of sexual orientation, we used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI in order to compare regional cortical thickness (Cth and subcortical volumes of homosexual men (hoM, heterosexual men (heM and heterosexual women (heW. hoM (and heW had thinner cortices primarily in visual areas and smaller thalamus volumes than heM, in which hoM and heW did not differ. Our results support previous studies, which suggest cerebral differences between hoM and heM in regions, where sex differences have been reported, which are frequently proposed to underlie biological mechanisms. Thus, our results contribute to a better understanding of the neurobiology of sexual orientation.

  4. Sexual orientation and bias in self-reported BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Tracy K; Walls, Courtney E; Austin, S Bryn

    2012-08-01

    Our objective was to determine if sexual orientation groups differ in accuracy of BMI (kg/m(2)) calculated from self-reported height and weight and if weight status modifies possible differences. Using gender-stratified multiple linear regression to analyze Wave III of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (n = 12,197), we examined the association of sexual orientation with BMI calculated from self-reported height and weight (self-reported BMI), controlling for BMI calculated from objectively measured height and weight (objectively measured BMI) as well as demographic, health, and behavioral variables. We tested for effect modification of the relationship between sexual orientation and self-reported BMI by objectively measured BMI. The population underestimated their BMI (females: β = 0.87, P Sexual orientation groups differed little in their accuracy of reporting; only gay males had significant underreporting (β = -0.37, P = 0.038) relative to their heterosexual peers. We found no evidence of effect modification of the relationship of sexual orientation and self-reported BMI by objectively measured BMI. With the exception of gay males, sexual orientation groups are consistent in their underreporting of BMI thus providing confidence in most comparisons of weight status based on self-report. Self-reporting of weight and height by gay males may exaggerate the differences in BMI between gay and heterosexual males.

  5. Eating Concerns in College Women across Sexual Orientation Identities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloch, Janelle K.; Bieschke, Kathleen J.; McAleavey, Andrew A.; Locke, Benjamin D.

    2013-01-01

    This study found that treatment-seeking sexual minority college women evidenced serious eating concerns. Regardless of sexual orientation and compared with those with low levels of eating concerns, women with high levels of eating concerns evidenced increased depression, increased generalized anxiety, and a greater likelihood of experiencing…

  6. Childhood Sexual Abuse and Adult Loneliness and Network Orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Rebecca L.; Hartshorne, Timothy S.

    1996-01-01

    Data regarding history of sexual abuse, loneliness, and network orientation were gathered from 231 female university students, 24 of whom indicated a history of abuse, and from 26 female clients at 2 treatment centers. Victims of sexual abuse, especially those in treatment, were more lonely and less likely to utilize their social support system…

  7. International differences in alcohol use according to sexual orientation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloomfield, Kim; Wicki, Matthias; Wilsnack, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    Most research on sexual orientation and alcohol use in the United States has found higher rates of alcohol use and abuse among gay men and lesbians. Studies from other countries have found smaller or no differences between sexual minority and heterosexual women and men. The present study used gen...

  8. Sexual hormones and the brain: an essential alliance for sexual identity and sexual orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Falgueras, Alicia; Swaab, Dick F

    2010-01-01

    The fetal brain develops during the intrauterine period in the male direction through a direct action of testosterone on the developing nerve cells, or in the female direction through the absence of this hormone surge. In this way, our gender identity (the conviction of belonging to the male or female gender) and sexual orientation are programmed or organized into our brain structures when we are still in the womb. However, since sexual differentiation of the genitals takes place in the first two months of pregnancy and sexual differentiation of the brain starts in the second half of pregnancy, these two processes can be influenced independently, which may result in extreme cases in trans-sexuality. This also means that in the event of ambiguous sex at birth, the degree of masculinization of the genitals may not reflect the degree of masculinization of the brain. There is no indication that social environment after birth has an effect on gender identity or sexual orientation. Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Assessment of sexual orientation using the hemodynamic brain response to visual sexual stimuli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ponseti, Jorge; Granert, Oliver; Jansen, Olav

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The assessment of sexual orientation is of importance to the diagnosis and treatment of sex offenders and paraphilic disorders. Phallometry is considered gold standard in objectifying sexual orientation, yet this measurement has been criticized because of its intrusiveness and limited...... response patterns of the brain to sexual stimuli contained sufficient information to predict individual sexual orientation with high accuracy. These results suggest that fMRI-based classification methods hold promise for the diagnosis of paraphilic disorders (e.g., pedophilia)....... reliability. AIM: To evaluate whether the spatial response pattern to sexual stimuli as revealed by a change in blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal can be used for individual classification of sexual orientation. METHODS: We used a preexisting functional MRI (fMRI) data set that had been acquired...

  10. Sexual Orientation-Based Discrimination, Excessive Alcohol Use, and Substance Use Disorders Among Sexual Minority Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Slater, Megan E.; Godette, Dionne; Huang, Boji; Ruan, W. June; Kerridge, Bradley T.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine relationships between sexual orientation-based discrimination and excessive alcohol use and substance use disorders and to identify how these relationships differ by sexual identity, sex, race, Hispanic origin, and education among sexual minorities.

  11. Inhabiting the sexual landscape: toward an interpretive theory of the development of sexual orientation and identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Liahna E; Silva, Tony J

    2015-01-01

    Building on Paula Rust's (1996) concept of a sexual landscape, we propose an interpretive theory of the development of both sexual orientation and sexual identity. We seek to reconcile human agency with active and shifting influences in social context and to recognize the inherent complexity of environmental factors while acknowledging the role that biological potential plays. We ground our model in the insights of three compatible and related theoretical perspectives: social constructionism, symbolic interactionism, and scripting theory. Within this framework, we explain how sexual orientation and sexual identities develop and potentially change.

  12. Sexual orientation and fear at night: gender differences among sexual minorities and heterosexuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Doug; Grollman, Eric Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Using data from the 2000-2010 General Social Survey, a nationally representative sample of 5,086 adults in the United States, the authors examine sexual orientation and gender differences in reports of being afraid to walk alone at night. Results indicate that sexual minorities are significantly more likely to report fear at night than heterosexuals, and women are significantly more likely to report such fear than men. Further, our findings suggest that these sexual orientation and gender differences are due to sexual minority men being more likely than heterosexual men to report fear at night. Thus, the results of this study reveal that three groups--heterosexual women, sexual minority women, and sexual minority men--do not differ from one another in reporting fear, yet these groups are all more likely than heterosexual men to report fear at night. These findings give weight to the importance of investigating the intersection of sexual orientation and gender in individuals' reports of fear.

  13. Scrutinizing Immutability: Research on Sexual Orientation and U.S. Legal Advocacy for Sexual Minorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, Lisa M; Rosky, Clifford J

    2016-01-01

    We review scientific research and legal authorities to argue that the immutability of sexual orientation should no longer be invoked as a foundation for the rights of individuals with same-sex attractions and relationships (i.e., sexual minorities). On the basis of scientific research as well as U.S. legal rulings regarding lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) rights, we make three claims: First, arguments based on the immutability of sexual orientation are unscientific, given what we now know from longitudinal, population-based studies of naturally occurring changes in the same-sex attractions of some individuals over time. Second, arguments based on the immutability of sexual orientation are unnecessary, in light of U.S. legal decisions in which courts have used grounds other than immutability to protect the rights of sexual minorities. Third, arguments about the immutability of sexual orientation are unjust, because they imply that same-sex attractions are inferior to other-sex attractions, and because they privilege sexual minorities who experience their sexuality as fixed over those who experience their sexuality as fluid. We conclude that the legal rights of individuals with same-sex attractions and relationships should not be framed as if they depend on a certain pattern of scientific findings regarding sexual orientation.

  14. Sexual Arousal and Sexually Explicit Media (SEM): Comparing Patterns of Sexual Arousal to SEM and Sexual Self-Evaluations and Satisfaction Across Gender and Sexual Orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hald, Gert Martin; Stulhofer, Aleksandar; Lange, Theis

    2018-03-01

    Investigations of patterns of sexual arousal to certain groups of sexually explicit media (SEM) in the general population in non-laboratory settings are rare. Such knowledge could be important to understand more about the relative specificity of sexual arousal in different SEM users. (i) To investigate whether sexual arousal to non-mainstream vs mainstream SEM contents could be categorized across gender and sexual orientation, (ii) to compare levels of SEM-induced sexual arousal, sexual satisfaction, and self-evaluated sexual interests and fantasies between non-mainstream and mainstream SEM groups, and (iii) to explore the validity and predictive accuracy of the Non-Mainstream Pornography Arousal Scale (NPAS). Online cross-sectional survey of 2,035 regular SEM users in Croatia. Patterns of sexual arousal to 27 different SEM themes, sexual satisfaction, and self-evaluations of sexual interests and sexual fantasies. Groups characterized by sexual arousal to non-mainstream SEM could be identified across gender and sexual orientation. These non-mainstream SEM groups reported more SEM use and higher average levels of sexual arousal across the 27 SEM themes assessed compared with mainstream SEM groups. Only few differences were found between non-mainstream and mainstream SEM groups in self-evaluative judgements of sexual interests, sexual fantasies, and sexual satisfaction. The internal validity and predictive accuracy of the NPAS was good across most user groups investigated. The findings suggest that in classified non-mainstream SEM groups, patterns of sexual arousal might be less fixated and category specific than previously assumed. Further, these groups are not more judgmental of their SEM-related sexual arousal patterns than groups characterized by patterns of sexual arousal to more mainstream SEM content. Moreover, accurate identification of non-mainstream SEM group membership is generally possible across gender and sexual orientation using the NPAS. Hald GM

  15. Drug facilitated sexual assault with lethal outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehling, Lena-Maria; Johansen, Sys Stybe; Wang, Xin

    2016-01-01

    A very serious case of DFSA (drug facilitated sexual assault) is presented, in which a six-year-old girl died following sedation with γ-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB). She had been sexually abused by a relative. Samples of cardiac blood, bile, vitreous humour, liver, kidney, brain tissues and hair were...

  16. Sexual Orientation at the National Curriculum Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Altmann

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, sexuality is considered a matter of public health, and the school is a privileged place for the implementation of public policies that promote children’s and adolescents’ health. Thus, it has been established, in agreement with the National Curriculum Parameters (PCNs, as a transversal theme in order to disseminate itself throughout the whole pedagogical field and to broaden its effects in a wide range of different areas, including Physical Education. This research analyzes the requirements of sexuality in the PCNs with the aim of identifying the use of the sexuality concept, the historical uniqueness of this proposal and its possible effects at schools, more specifically through Physical Education.

  17. Sexual Attraction and Orientation (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Feelings Expert Answers Q&A Movies & More for Teens Teens site Sitio para adolescentes Body Mind Sexual ... for LGBT teens. What's It Like for LGBT Teens? For many LGBT people, it can feel like ...

  18. Differences in Sexual Orientation Diversity and Sexual Fluidity in Attractions Among Gender Minority Adults in Massachusetts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz-Wise, Sabra L; Reisner, Sari L; Hughto, Jaclyn White; Keo-Meier, Colton L

    2016-01-01

    This study characterized sexual orientation identities and sexual fluidity in attractions in a community-based sample of self-identified transgender and gender-nonconforming adults in Massachusetts. Participants were recruited in 2013 using bimodel methods (online and in person) to complete a one-time, Web-based quantitative survey that included questions about sexual orientation identity and sexual fluidity. Multivariable logistic regression models estimated adjusted risk ratios (aRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) to examine the correlates of self-reported changes in attractions ever in lifetime among the whole sample (n = 452) and after transition among those who reported social gender transition (n = 205). The sample endorsed diverse sexual orientation identities: 42.7% queer, 19.0% other nonbinary, 15.7% bisexual, 12.2% straight, and 10.4% gay/lesbian. Overall, 58.2% reported having experienced changes in sexual attractions in their lifetime. In adjusted models, trans masculine individuals were more likely than trans feminine individuals to report sexual fluidity in their lifetime (aRR = 1.69; 95% CI = 1.34, 2.12). Among those who transitioned, 64.6% reported a change in attractions posttransition, and trans masculine individuals were less likely than trans feminine individuals to report sexual fluidity (aRR = 0.44; 95% CI = 0.28, 0.69). Heterogeneity of sexual orientation identities and sexual fluidity in attractions are the norm rather than the exception among gender minority people.

  19. Gender expression, sexual orientation and pain sensitivity in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigil, Jacob M; Rowell, Lauren N; Lutz, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Despite a growing body of literature investigating sex differences with regard to pain, surprisingly little research has been conducted on the influence of various aspects of self-identity, including gender expression and sexual orientation, on pain sensitivity within each sex, particularly among women. In men, dispositional femininity is linked to greater clinical pain and trait masculinity is associated with higher pain thresholds. To examine whether gender expression and sexual orientation are associated with within-sex differences in ischemic pain sensitivity in healthy young women. A convenience sample of 172 females (mean age 21.4 years; range 18 to 30 years of age; 56.0% white, 89% heterosexual) performed an ischemic pain task in counterbalanced order. Desired levels of dispositional femininity for a preferred romantic partner and self-described levels of personal dispositional femininity were measured. Compared with heterosexual women, lesbian and bisexual women reported lower pain intensity ratings early in the discomfort task. Irrespective of sexual orientation, attraction to more feminine romantic partners and dispositional masculinity were correlated with lower pain intensity, and with higher pain thresholds and tolerance levels. These preliminary findings suggest that within-sex differences in sexual orientation and other aspects of identity, irrespective of biological sex, may be important to consider when examining experimental pain performance and clinical pain experiences. Larger investigations of the psychophysiological relationships among sexual orientation, gender expression and pain sensitivity are warranted. These findings may have implications for differences in clinical pain sensitivity of lesbian and bisexual women compared with heterosexual women.

  20. Prenatal Influences on Human Sexual Orientation: Expectations versus Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breedlove, S Marc

    2017-08-01

    In non-human vertebrate species, sexual differentiation of the brain is primarily driven by androgens such as testosterone organizing the brains of males in a masculine fashion early in life, while the lower levels of androgen in developing females organize their brains in a feminine fashion. These principles may be relevant to the development of sexual orientation in humans, because retrospective markers of prenatal androgen exposure, namely digit ratios and otoacoustic emissions, indicate that lesbians, on average, were exposed to greater prenatal androgen than were straight women. Thus, the even greater levels of prenatal androgen exposure experienced by fetal males may explain why the vast majority of them grow up to be attracted to women. However, the same markers indicate no significant differences between gay and straight men in terms of average prenatal androgen exposure, so the variance in orientation in men cannot be accounted for by variance in prenatal androgen exposure, but may be due to variance in response to prenatal androgens. These data contradict several popular notions about human sexual orientation. Sexual orientation in women is said to be fluid, sometimes implying that only social influences in adulthood are at work, yet the data indicate prenatal influences matter as well. Gay men are widely perceived as under-masculinized, yet the data indicate they are exposed to as much prenatal androgen as straight men. There is growing sentiment to reject "binary" conceptions of human sexual orientations, to emphasize instead a spectrum of orientations. Yet the data indicate that human sexual orientation is sufficiently polarized that groups of lesbians, on average, show evidence of greater prenatal androgen exposure than groups of straight women, while groups of gay men have, on average, a greater proportion of brothers among their older siblings than do straight men.

  1. Assessment of sexual orientation using the hemodynamic brain response to visual sexual stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponseti, Jorge; Granert, Oliver; Jansen, Olav; Wolff, Stephan; Mehdorn, Hubertus; Bosinski, Hartmut; Siebner, Hartwig

    2009-06-01

    The assessment of sexual orientation is of importance to the diagnosis and treatment of sex offenders and paraphilic disorders. Phallometry is considered gold standard in objectifying sexual orientation, yet this measurement has been criticized because of its intrusiveness and limited reliability. To evaluate whether the spatial response pattern to sexual stimuli as revealed by a change in blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal can be used for individual classification of sexual orientation. We used a preexisting functional MRI (fMRI) data set that had been acquired in a nonclinical sample of 12 heterosexual men and 14 homosexual men. During fMRI, participants were briefly exposed to pictures of same-sex and opposite-sex genitals. Data analysis involved four steps: (i) differences in the BOLD response to female and male sexual stimuli were calculated for each subject; (ii) these contrast images were entered into a group analysis to calculate whole-brain difference maps between homosexual and heterosexual participants; (iii) a single expression value was computed for each subject expressing its correspondence to the group result; and (iv) based on these expression values, Fisher's linear discriminant analysis and the kappa-nearest neighbor classification method were used to predict the sexual orientation of each subject. Sensitivity and specificity of the two classification methods in predicting individual sexual orientation. Both classification methods performed well in predicting individual sexual orientation with a mean accuracy of >85% (Fisher's linear discriminant analysis: 92% sensitivity, 85% specificity; kappa-nearest neighbor classification: 88% sensitivity, 92% specificity). Despite the small sample size, the functional response patterns of the brain to sexual stimuli contained sufficient information to predict individual sexual orientation with high accuracy. These results suggest that fMRI-based classification methods hold promise for the diagnosis

  2. Sexual orientation, minority stress, social norms, and substance use among racially diverse adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mereish, Ethan H; Goldbach, Jeremy T; Burgess, Claire; DiBello, Angelo M

    2017-09-01

    Sexual minority adolescents are more likely than their heterosexual peers to use substances. This study tested factors that contribute to sexual orientation disparities in substance use among racially and ethnically diverse adolescents. Specifically, we examined how both minority stress (i.e., homophobic bullying) and social norms (i.e., descriptive and injunctive norms) may account for sexual orientation disparities in recent and lifetime use of four substances: tobacco, alcohol, marijuana, and prescription drugs. A probability sample of middle and high school students (N=3012; aged 11-18 years old; 71.2% racial and ethnic minorities) using random cluster methods was obtained in a mid-size school district in the Southeastern United States. Sexual minority adolescents were more likely than heterosexual adolescents to use substances, experience homophobic bullying, and report higher descriptive norms for close friends and more permissive injunctive norms for friends and parents. While accounting for sociodemographic characteristics, multiple mediation models concurrently testing all mediators indicated that higher descriptive and more permissive injunctive norms were significant mediators of the associations between sexual orientation and recent and lifetime use of the four substances, whereas homophobic bullying was not a significant mediator of the associations between sexual orientation and recent and lifetime use of any of the substances. Descriptive and injunctive norms, in conjunction with minority stress, are important to consider in explaining sexual orientation disparities in substance use among racially diverse adolescents. These results have implications for substance use interventions among sexual minority adolescents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Sexual orientation identity change and depressive symptoms: a longitudinal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, Bethany

    2015-03-01

    Several new studies have documented high rates of sexual identity mobility among young adults, but little work has investigated the links between identity change and mental health. This study uses the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (N = 11,727) and employs multivariate regression and propensity score matching to investigate the impact of identity change on depressive symptoms. The results reveal that only changes in sexual identity toward more same-sex-oriented identities are associated with increases in depressive symptoms. Moreover, the negative impacts of identity change are concentrated among individuals who at baseline identified as heterosexual or had not reported same-sex romantic attraction or relationships. No differences in depressive symptoms by sexual orientation identity were found among respondents who reported stable identities. Future research should continue to investigate the factors that contribute to the relationship between identity change and depression, such as stigma surrounding sexual fluidity. © American Sociological Association 2015.

  4. Prenatal Exposure to Progesterone Affects Sexual Orientation in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinisch, June M; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Sanders, Stephanie A

    2017-07-01

    Prenatal sex hormone levels affect physical and behavioral sexual differentiation in animals and humans. Although prenatal hormones are theorized to influence sexual orientation in humans, evidence is sparse. Sexual orientation variables for 34 prenatally progesterone-exposed subjects (17 males and 17 females) were compared to matched controls (M age = 23.2 years). A case-control double-blind design was used drawing on existing data from the US/Denmark Prenatal Development Project. Index cases were exposed to lutocyclin (bioidentical progesterone = C 21 H 30 O 2 ; M W : 314.46) and no other hormonal preparation. Controls were matched on 14 physical, medical, and socioeconomic variables. A structured interview conducted by a psychologist and self-administered questionnaires were used to collect data on sexual orientation, self-identification, attraction to the same and other sex, and history of sexual behavior with each sex. Compared to the unexposed, fewer exposed males and females identified as heterosexual and more of them reported histories of same-sex sexual behavior, attraction to the same or both sexes, and scored higher on attraction to males. Measures of heterosexual behavior and scores on attraction to females did not differ significantly by exposure. We conclude that, regardless of sex, exposure appeared to be associated with higher rates of bisexuality. Prenatal progesterone may be an underappreciated epigenetic factor in human sexual and psychosexual development and, in light of the current prevalence of progesterone treatment during pregnancy for a variety of pregnancy complications, warrants further investigation. These data on the effects of prenatal exposure to exogenous progesterone also suggest a potential role for natural early perturbations in progesterone levels in the development of sexual orientation.

  5. Assessment of Difference in Dimensions of Sexual Orientation: Implications for Substance Use Research in a College-Age Population*

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCABE, SEAN ESTEBAN; HUGHES, TONDA L.; BOSTWICK, WENDY; BOYD, CAROL J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective The present research examines the associations between three distinct dimensions of sexual orientation and substance use in a random sample of undergraduate students. Method A Web-based survey was administered to students attending a large, midwestern research university in the spring of 2003. The sample consisted of 9,161 undergraduate students: 56% female, 68% white, 13% Asian, 6% black, 4% Hispanic and 9% other racial categories. Using multivariate logistic regression analyses, several measures of alcohol and other drug use were compared across three dimensions of sexual orientation: sexual identity, sexual attraction and sexual behavior. Results All three dimensions of sexual orientation were associated with substance use, including heavy episodic drinking, cigarette smoking and illicit drug use. Consistent with results of several other recent studies, “nonheterosexual” identity, attraction or behavior was associated with a more pronounced and consistent risk of substance use in women than in men. Conclusions Study findings suggest substantial variability in substance use across the three dimensions of sexual orientation and reinforce the importance of stratifying by gender and using multiple measures to assess sexual orientation. Study results have implications for future research and for interventions aimed at reducing substance use among college students. PMID:16331847

  6. Effects of antidepressant drugs on sexual function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, D S; Thomas, S C; Birtwistle, J

    1997-01-01

    Adequate sexual expression is an essential part of human relationships, enhancing quality of life and providing a sense of physical, psychological and social well-being. Unfortunately, depression is associated with impairments of sexual function and satisfaction. These problems can worsen a quality of life that is already reduced by the effects of depressive illness. The existing antidepressant drugs are far from ideal, most having adverse effects on sexual function. Unfortunately, the exact incidence of sexual dysfunction during treatment with many antidepressants is not known. Disturbances of sexual interest and performance will only be detected in a reliable fashion when systematic enquiries are made during the course of the standard clinical interview. Growing awareness of the adverse effects of many antidepressants on sexual function has led to some re-evaluation of the earlier claims for the good tolerability of many of the newer drugs. There is a clear need for further well-designed controlled studies of the effects of antidepressants on sexual function, so that this aspect of the tolerability of differing drugs can be assessed more reliably. (IntJ Psych Clin Pract 1997; 1: 47-58).

  7. Assessing Politicized Sexual Orientation Identity: Validating the Queer Consciousness Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Lauren E; Mincer, Elizabeth; Dunn, Sarah R

    2017-01-01

    Building on psychological theories of motivation for collective action, we introduce a new individual difference measure of queer consciousness, defined as a politicized collective identity around sexual orientation. The Queer Consciousness Scale (QCS) consists of 12 items measuring five aspects of a politicized queer identity: sense of common fate, power discontent, system blame, collective orientation, and cognitive centrality. In four samples of adult women and men of varied sexual orientations, the QCS showed good test-retest and Cronbach's reliability and excellent known-groups and predictive validity. Specifically, the QCS was positively correlated with identification as a member of the LGBTQ community, political liberalism, personal political salience, and LGBTQ activism and negatively correlated with right-wing authoritarianism and social dominance orientation. QCS mediated relationships between several individual difference variables and gay rights activism and can be used with both LGBTQ people and allies.

  8. International Differences in Alcohol Use According to Sexual Orientation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloomfield, K.; Wicki, M.; Wilsnack, S.

    2011-01-01

    Most research on sexual orientation and alcohol use in the United States has found higher rates of alcohol use and abuse among gay men and lesbians. Studies from other countries have found smaller or no differences between sexual minority and heterosexual women and men. The present study used...... no greater risk of heavy drinking or engaging in heavy drinking than heterosexual controls. Only lesbians in North America showed higher risk for both indicators. Future general population health research should include larger samples of gays and lesbians and use more comprehensive measures of sexual...

  9. A population-based study of sexual orientation identity and gender differences in adult health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conron, Kerith J; Mimiaga, Matthew J; Landers, Stewart J

    2010-10-01

    We provide estimates of several leading US adult health indicators by sexual orientation identity and gender to fill gaps in the current literature. We aggregated data from the 2001-2008 Massachusetts Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance surveys (N = 67,359) to examine patterns in self-reported health by sexual orientation identity and gender, using multivariable logistic regression. Compared with heterosexuals, sexual minorities (i.e., gays/lesbians, 2% of sample; bisexuals, 1%) were more likely to report activity limitation, tension or worry, smoking, drug use, asthma, lifetime sexual victimization, and HIV testing, but did not differ on 3-year Papanicolaou tests, lifetime mammography, diabetes, or heart disease. Compared with heterosexuals, bisexuals reported more barriers to health care, current sadness, past-year suicidal ideation, and cardiovascular disease risk. Gay men were less likely to be overweight or obese and to obtain prostate-specific antigen tests, and lesbians were more likely to be obese and to report multiple risks for cardiovascular disease. Binge drinking and lifetime physical intimate partner victimization were more common among bisexual women. Sexual orientation disparities in chronic disease risk, victimization, health care access, mental health, and smoking merit increased attention. More research on heterogeneity in health and health determinants among sexual minorities is needed.

  10. [Female sexual dysfunction: Drug treatment options].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcántara Montero, A; Sánchez Carnerero, C I

    2016-01-01

    Many women will likely experience a sexual problem in their lifetime. Female sexual dysfunction is a broad term used to describe 3 categories of disorders of a multifactorial nature. Effective, but limited pharmacotherapeutic options exist to address female sexual dysfunction. The FDA recently approved the first agent for treatment of hypoactive sexual desire disorder in pre-menopausal women. Off-label use of hormonal therapies, particularly oestrogen and testosterone, are the most widely employed for female sexual dysfunction, particularly in post-menopausal women. Other drugs currently under investigation include phosphodiesterase inhibitors and agents that modulate dopamine or melanocortin receptors. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Sexual Orientation Discrimination: Teachers as Positive Role Models for Tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenmenger, Michelle

    2002-01-01

    Discusses Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the proposed Employment Non-Discrimination Act in terms of their potential legal remedies for victims of sexual-orientation discrimination. Examines several relevant federal appellate and Supreme Court decisions and the role of homosexual teachers. (PKP)

  12. Sexual Orientation Differences in HIV Testing Motivation among College Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kort, Daniel N.; Samsa, Gregory P.; McKellar, Mehri S.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To investigate sexual orientation differences in college men's motivations for HIV testing. Participants: 665 male college students in the Southeastern United States from 2006 to 2014. Methods: Students completed a survey on HIV risk factors and testing motivations. Logistic regressions were conducted to determine the differences…

  13. Legal and Ethical Concerns about Sexual Orientation Change Efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Tia; Stein, Edward

    2014-09-01

    The United States has recently made significant and positive civil rights gains for LGB people, including expanded recognition of marriages between people of the same sex. Among the central tropes that have emerged in the struggle for the rights of LGB people are that they are "born that way," that sexual orientations cannot change, and that one's sexual orientation is not affected by choice. Writer Andrew Sullivan put it this way: "[H]omosexuality is an essentially involuntary condition that can neither be denied nor permanently repressed.… [S]o long as homosexual adults as citizens insist on the involuntary nature of their condition, it becomes politically impossible to deny or ignore the fact of homosexuality.… [The strategy for obtaining LGB rights is to] seek full public equality for those who, through no fault of their own, happen to be homosexual." This idea of linking LGB rights to empirical claims about sexual orientations has become so central that casting doubt on these claims is, in many circles, tantamount to opposing LGB rights. Nonetheless, claims about innateness, immutability, and lack of choice about sexual orientation should not be the primary basis for LGB rights. © 2014 by The Hastings Center.

  14. [Sexual orientation in the school environment: fact or eagerness?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Sandra Aparecida; Nogueira, Jordana de Almeida; Silva, Antonia Oliveira; Torres, Gilson Vasconcelos

    2011-03-01

    This qualitative research aims to analyze how sexual orientation has been incorporated into pedagogic practices through the point of view of educators from public schools of fundamental teaching. Twenty three educators from Cajazeiras, Paralba, Brazil participated in the study. The focus group was elected as technique of investigation, and the empirical data obtained were organized according to the technique of analysis of content. It was realized that there is an effort of the actors to privilege contents related to sexual orientation in the school environment though they demand that a level of informative and subjective character about the "sexuality" be encouraged providing the educators with a space for re-significations of its internality of values. The information directed to self-care must transcend the limits of prevention and hygienisation, incorporating extensive, inclusive and reflective methodologies, which recognize human and social rights and promote the ethical construction of citizenship.

  15. Sexual harassment among adolescents of different sexual orientations and gender identities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Kimberly J; Ybarra, Michele L; Korchmaros, Josephine D

    2014-02-01

    This article examines (a) variation in rates of sexual harassment across mode (e.g., in-person, online) and type of harassment, (b) the impact of sexual harassment (i.e., distressing vs. non-distressing), and (c) how sexual harassment is similarly and differently experienced across sexual orientation and gender identity groups. Data were collected as part of the Teen Health and Technology online survey of 5,907 13 to 18 year-old Internet users in the United States. Past year sexual harassment was reported by 23-72% of youth, depending upon sexual orientation, with the highest rates reported by lesbian/queer girls (72%), bisexual girls (66%), and gay/queer boys (66%). When examined by gender identity, transgender youth reported the highest rates of sexual harassment - 81%. Overall, the most common modes for sexual harassment were in-person followed by online. Distress in the form of interference with school, family, and/or friends; creating a hostile environment; or being very/extremely upset was reported by about half of the sexually harassed bisexual girls and lesbian/queer girls, 65% of the gender non-conforming/other gender youth, and 63% of the transgender youth. Youth with high social support and self-esteem were less likely to report sexual harassment. Findings point to the great importance of sexual harassment prevention for all adolescents, with particular emphasis on the unique needs and experiences of youth of different sexual orientations and gender identities. Socio-emotional programs that emphasize self-esteem building could be particularly beneficial for reducing the likelihood of victimization and lessen the impact when it occurs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Endorsement and Timing of Sexual Orientation Developmental Milestones Among Sexual Minority Young Adults in the Growing Up Today Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz-Wise, Sabra L; Rosario, Margaret; Calzo, Jerel P; Scherer, Emily A; Sarda, Vishnudas; Austin, S Bryn

    2017-02-01

    This research examined endorsement and timing of sexual orientation developmental milestones. Participants were 1,235 females and 398 males from the Growing Up Today Study, ages 22 to 29 years, who endorsed a sexual minority orientation (lesbian/gay, bisexual, mostly heterosexual) or reported same-gender sexual behavior (heterosexual with same-gender sexual experience). An online survey measured current sexual orientation and endorsement and timing (age first experienced) of five sexual orientation developmental milestones: same-gender attractions, other-gender attractions, same-gender sexual experience, other-gender sexual experience, and sexual minority identification. Descriptive analyses and analyses to test for gender and sexual orientation group differences were conducted. Results indicated that women were more likely than men to endorse same-gender attraction, other-gender attraction, and other-gender sexual experience, with the most gender differences in endorsement among mostly heterosexuals and heterosexuals with same-gender sexual experience. In general, men reached milestones earlier than women, with the most gender differences in timing among lesbian and gay individuals and heterosexuals with same-gender sexual experience. Results suggest that the three sexual minority developmental milestones may best characterize the experiences of lesbians, gay males, and female and male bisexuals. More research is needed to understand sexual orientation development among mostly heterosexuals and heterosexuals with same-gender sexual experience.

  17. Sexual differentiation of the human brain: relation to gender identity, sexual orientation and neuropsychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Ai-Min; Swaab, Dick F

    2011-04-01

    During the intrauterine period a testosterone surge masculinizes the fetal brain, whereas the absence of such a surge results in a feminine brain. As sexual differentiation of the brain takes place at a much later stage in development than sexual differentiation of the genitals, these two processes can be influenced independently of each other. Sex differences in cognition, gender identity (an individual's perception of their own sexual identity), sexual orientation (heterosexuality, homosexuality or bisexuality), and the risks of developing neuropsychiatric disorders are programmed into our brain during early development. There is no evidence that one's postnatal social environment plays a crucial role in gender identity or sexual orientation. We discuss the relationships between structural and functional sex differences of various brain areas and the way they change along with any changes in the supply of sex hormones on the one hand and sex differences in behavior in health and disease on the other. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Asexuality: Sexual Orientation, Paraphilia, Sexual Dysfunction, or None of the Above?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brotto, Lori A; Yule, Morag

    2017-04-01

    Although lack of sexual attraction was first quantified by Kinsey, large-scale and systematic research on the prevalence and correlates of asexuality has only emerged over the past decade. Several theories have been posited to account for the nature of asexuality. The goal of this review was to consider the evidence for whether asexuality is best classified as a psychiatric syndrome (or a symptom of one), a sexual dysfunction, or a paraphilia. Based on the available science, we believe there is not sufficient evidence to support the categorization of asexuality as a psychiatric condition (or symptom of one) or as a disorder of sexual desire. There is some evidence that a subset of self-identified asexuals have a paraphilia. We also considered evidence supporting the classification of asexuality as a unique sexual orientation. We conclude that asexuality is a heterogeneous entity that likely meets conditions for a sexual orientation, and that researchers should further explore evidence for such a categorization.

  19. Examining links between sexual risk behaviors and dating violence involvement as a function of sexual orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipwell, A E; Stepp, S D; Keenan, K; Allen, A; Hoffmann, A; Rottingen, L; McAloon, R

    2013-08-01

    To examine the association between dating violence perpetration and victimization and sexually risky behaviors among sexual minority and heterosexual adolescent girls. Adolescent girls reported on sexual orientation, sexual behaviors, and risk-taking, and their use of, and experience with, dating violence in the past year. Data were analyzed using multinomial regression adjusted for race, poverty, living in a single parent household, and gender of current partner to examine (1) whether sexual minority status was associated with sexual risk behaviors after sociodemographic correlates of sexual risk were controlled; and (2) whether dating violence context accounted for elevated risk. Urban, population-based sample of girls interviewed in the home. 1,647 adolescent girls (38% European American, 57% African American, and 5% other) aged 17 years. Over one-third of the sample lived in poverty. None. Sexual risk-taking. Sexual minority status differentiated girls engaging in high sexual risk-taking from those reporting none, after controlling for sociodemographic and relationship characteristics. Dating violence perpetration and victimization made unique additional contributions to this model and did not account for the elevated risk conferred by sexual minority status. Sexual minority girls (SMGs) were more likely than heterosexual girls to report high sexual risk-taking and teen dating violence victimization. As with heterosexual girls, sexual risk-taking among SMGs was compounded by dating violence, which was not explained by partner gender. Adolescent girls' risky sexual behavior may be reduced by interventions for teen dating violence regardless of sexual minority status. Copyright © 2013 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Sexual Orientation Differences in Adolescent Health Care Access and Health-Promoting Physician Advice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luk, Jeremy W; Gilman, Stephen E; Haynie, Denise L; Simons-Morton, Bruce G

    2017-11-01

    Physician screening and advice on health-related behaviors are an integral part of adolescent health care. Sexual minority adolescents encounter more barriers to health services; yet, no prior research has examined whether they also experience disparity in physician screening and advice. We examined possible sexual orientation disparities in health care access, physician screening, and advice on six health-related behaviors. Data were from a national sample of U.S. adolescents who participated in wave 2 of the NEXT Generation Health Study (n = 2023). Poisson regressions were conducted separately for males and females to estimate sexual orientation differences in health care access and health-related screening and advice. Compared with heterosexual males, sexual minority males were more likely to report unmet medical needs in the past year (adjusted relative risk [ARR] = 2.23) but did not differ with respect to receiving physician advice concerning health-related behaviors. Compared with heterosexual females, sexual minority females were more likely to report no routine physical checkup in the past year (ARR = 1.67) but were more likely to receive physician advice to reduce or stop drinking, smoking, drug use, increase physical activity, and improve diet (ARRs = 1.56-1.99), even after controlling for corresponding health-related behaviors. Sexual minority females were also more likely to receive advice about risk associated with sexual behavior (ARR = 1.35) and advice to avoid sexually transmitted diseases (ARR = 1.49). Both sexual minority males and females experienced disparities in some aspects of health care access. Improved health-promoting advice would better serve sexual minority males. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Sexual orientation and sexual health services utilization among women in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agénor, Madina; Muzny, Christina A; Schick, Vanessa; Austin, Erika L; Potter, Jennifer

    2017-02-01

    Although sexual minority women are at risk of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and cervical cancer, few nationally representative studies have assessed sexual orientation disparities in sexual health care among women. Using data from the 2011-2013 and 2013-2015 waves of the National Survey of Family Growth, which provide a national probability sample of U.S. women aged 15-44years (N=11,300), we used multivariable logistic regression to examine the associations between sexual behavior and sexual identity (modeled separately) and STI testing in the past year, Pap test use in the last 3years, lifetime HIV testing, and lifetime human papillomavirus (HPV) testing. Women with male and female lifetime sexual partners had higher adjusted odds of being tested for STIs ([odds ratio:] 1.61; [95% confidence interval:] 1.37-1.89), HIV (1.66; 1.29-2.14), and HPV (1.79; 1.41-2.25) and similar adjusted odds of obtaining a Pap test (0.98; 0.76-1.27) than women with only male lifetime sexual partners. Self-identified bisexual women had higher adjusted odds of obtaining an STI (1.43; 1.10-1.86) and HIV (1.69; 1.24-2.30) test but lower adjusted odds of obtaining a Pap test in the last 3years (0.66; 0.47-0.93) than heterosexual-identified women. Women with only female lifetime sexual partners had lower adjusted odds of receiving an STI (0.14; 0.07-0.28) and Pap (0.10; 0.03-0.27) test than women with only male lifetime sexual partners. Results comparing self-identified lesbian and heterosexual women were similar. Health care facilities should monitor and address sexual orientation disparities in women's sexual health care and ensure the provision of high-quality sexual health services to all women. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The Impact of Sexual Orientation on Women's Midlife Experience: A Transition Model Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Carol Anderson

    2007-01-01

    Sexual orientation is an integral part of identity affecting every stage of an individual's development. This literature review examines women's cultural experiences based on sexual orientation and their effect on midlife experience. A developmental model is offered that incorporates sexual orientation as a contextual factor in this developmental…

  3. Broad Autism Phenotypic Traits and the Relationship to Sexual Orientation and Sexual Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qualls, Lydia R; Hartmann, Kathrin; Paulson, James F

    2018-04-03

    Individuals with higher levels of the broad autism phenotype (BAP) have some symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Like individuals with ASD, people with higher-BAP may have fewer sexual experiences and may experience more same-sex attraction. This study measured BAP traits, sexual experiences, and sexual orientation in typically developing (TD) individuals to see if patterns of sexual behavior and sexual orientation in higher-BAP resemble those in ASD. Although BAP characteristics did not predict sexual experiences, one BAP measure significantly predicted sexual orientation, β = 0.22, t = 2.72, p = .007, controlling for demographic variables (R 2 change = .04, F = 7.41, p = .007), showing individuals with higher-BAP also reported increased same-sex attraction. This finding supports the hypothesis that individuals with higher-BAP resemble ASD individuals in being more likely than TD individuals to experience same-sex attraction.

  4. Toward Global Comparability of Sexual Orientation Data in Official Statistics: A Conceptual Framework of Sexual Orientation for Health Data Collection in New Zealand's Official Statistics System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Alistair; Veale, Jaimie F.; Binson, Diane; Sell, Randell L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. Effectively addressing health disparities experienced by sexual minority populations requires high-quality official data on sexual orientation. We developed a conceptual framework of sexual orientation to improve the quality of sexual orientation data in New Zealand's Official Statistics System. Methods. We reviewed conceptual and methodological literature, culminating in a draft framework. To improve the framework, we held focus groups and key-informant interviews with sexual minority stakeholders and producers and consumers of official statistics. An advisory board of experts provided additional guidance. Results. The framework proposes working definitions of the sexual orientation topic and measurement concepts, describes dimensions of the measurement concepts, discusses variables framing the measurement concepts, and outlines conceptual grey areas. Conclusion. The framework proposes standard definitions and concepts for the collection of official sexual orientation data in New Zealand. It presents a model for producers of official statistics in other countries, who wish to improve the quality of health data on their citizens. PMID:23840231

  5. The importance of feeling sexually attractive: Can it predict an individual's experience of their sexuality and sexual relationships across gender and sexual orientation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amos, Natalie; McCabe, Marita

    2017-10-01

    Limited research exists on the implications of feeling sexually attractive for various aspects of sexuality and sexual relationships. This article examined associations between self-perceived sexual attractiveness and sexual esteem, sexual satisfaction and amount of sexual experience, among both men and women who identified as heterosexual (n = 1017), gay or lesbian (n = 1225) or bisexual (n = 651). Results of the study demonstrated that positive self-perceptions of sexual attractiveness predicted greater sexual esteem, greater sexual satisfaction, a higher frequency of sexual activity with others and a larger number of sexual partners among both men and women who identified as heterosexual, gay, lesbian or bisexual. The findings suggest that feeling sexually attractive may have implications for how an individual experiences their sexuality and sexual relationships regardless of their gender or sexual orientation. The importance of considering an individual's self-perceptions of sexual attractiveness when they present with concerns related to their sexual experiences or relationships, and the potential benefits of educational and therapeutic interventions designed to enhance self-perceptions of sexual attractiveness are discussed. © 2015 International Union of Psychological Science.

  6. Social Stress and Substance Use Disparities by Sexual Orientation Among High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, Richard; Johns, Michelle M; Robin, Leah E; Kann, Laura K

    2017-10-01

    Sexual minority youth often experience increased social stress due to prejudice, discrimination, harassment, and victimization. Increased stress may help explain the disproportionate use of substances like tobacco, alcohol, marijuana, and other illicit drug use by sexual minority youth. This study examined the effect of social stress on substance use disparities by sexual orientation among U.S. high school students. In 2016, data from the national 2015 Youth Risk Behavior Survey, conducted among a nationally representative sample of 15,624 U.S. high school students, were analyzed to examine the effect of school-related (threatened/injured at school, bullied at school, bullied electronically, felt unsafe at school) and non-school-related (forced sexual intercourse, early sexual debut) social stress on substance use disparities by sexual orientation, by comparing unadjusted prevalence ratios (PRs) and adjusted (for social stressors, age, sex, and race/ethnicity) prevalence ratios (APRs). Unadjusted PRs reflected significantly (preduce social stress, including policies and practices designed to provide a safe school environment and improved access to social and mental health services. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Sexual Orientation Self-Concept Ambiguity: Scale Adaptation and Validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talley, Amelia E; Stevens, Jordan E

    2017-07-01

    The current article describes the adaptation of a measure of sexual orientation self-concept ambiguity (SSA) from an existing measure of general self-concept clarity. Latent "trait" scores of SSA reflect the extent to which a person's beliefs about their own sexual orientation are perceived as inconsistent, unreliable, or incongruent. Sexual minority and heterosexual women ( n = 348), ages 18 to 30, completed a cross-sectional survey. Categorical confirmatory factor analysis guided the selection of items to form a 10-item, self-report measure of SSA. In the current report, we also examine (a) reliability of the 10-item scale score, (b) measurement invariance based on respondents' sexual identity status and age group, and (c) correlations with preexisting surveys that purport to measure similar constructs and theoretical correlates. Evidence for internal reliability, measurement invariance (based on respondent sex), and convergent validity was also investigated in an independent, validation sample. The lowest SSA scores were reported by women who self-ascribed an exclusively heterosexual or exclusively lesbian/gay sexual identity, whereas those who reported a bisexual, mostly lesbian/gay, or mostly heterosexual identity, reported relatively higher SSA scores.

  8. Marriage, Law and Polyamory. Rebutting Mononormativity with Sexual Orientation Discourse?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Klesse

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper traces the genealogy of sexual orientation discourse in US legal scholarship and explores potential drawbacks of the articulation of a sexual orientation argument in the field of relationship recognition. After a long period of refraining from campaigning for legal recognition of multi-partner relationships, polyamory activists have recently shown a stronger interest in litigation. This paper identifies reasons for this shift in recent successes of the campaign for same-sex marriage rights and critically discusses proposals to frame polyamory as a sexual orientation to achieve multi-partner marriage rights through litigation. I argue that advocating a sexual orientation model of polyamory is likely to reduce the complexity and transformative potential of poly intimacies, limit the scope and reach of potential litigation, obstruct the capacity of poly activism to form alliances and increase the likelihood of poly activism to settle for legal solutions (i.e. marriage that are exclusive and reproductive of a culture of privilege.Este artículo traza la genealogía del discurso sobre orientación sexual en las investigaciones jurídicas de Estados Unidos y explora los posibles inconvenientes de la articulación de un argumento de orientación sexual en el campo del reconocimiento de parentesco. Tras un largo período sin hacer campaña para el reconocimiento legal de las relaciones de múltiples miembros, los activistas del poliamor han mostrado recientemente un mayor interés en litigar. Este artículo identifica las razones de este cambio en los éxitos recientes de la campaña a favor del derecho al matrimonio entre personas del mismo sexo y debate de forma crítica las propuestas para enmarcar el poliamor como una orientación sexual, para alcanzar el derecho al matrimonio entre múltiples miembros a través del litigio. Se argumenta que defender un modelo de orientación sexual de poliamor es probable que reduzca la complejidad y el

  9. Influence of gender, sexual orientation, and need on treatment utilization for substance use and mental disorders: Findings from the California Quality of Life Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Mays Vickie M; Greenwell Lisa; Grella Christine E; Cochran Susan D

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Prior research has shown a higher prevalence of substance use and mental disorders among sexual minorities, however, the influence of sexual orientation on treatment seeking has not been widely studied. We use a model of help-seeking for vulnerable populations to investigate factors related to treatment for alcohol or drug use disorders and mental health disorders, focusing on the contributions of gender, sexual orientation, and need. Methods Survey data were obtained from...

  10. The Role of Sexual Assault and Sexual Dysfunction in Alcohol and Other Drug Use Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Sanjuan, Pilar M.; Langenbucher, James W.; Labouvie, Erich

    2006-01-01

    Many women with sexual assault histories receive care in alcohol and other drug treatment programs. Affected women frequently suffer from sexual dysfunction, leading investigators to suggest self-medication may be one path to alcohol and other drug use disorders and relapse. This preliminary study examined sexual dysfunction and sexual assault in 71 women receiving treatment for addiction. Women with prior sexual assault scored higher than non-assaulted women on sexual dysfunction overall, a ...

  11. The ethics of genetic research on sexual orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüklenk, U; Stein, E; Kerin, J; Byne, W

    1997-01-01

    Research into the genetic component of some complex behaviors often causes controversy, depending on the social meaning and significance of the behavior under study. Research into sexual orientation-simplistically referred to as "gay gene" research-is an example of research that provokes intense controversy. This research is worrisome for many reasons, including the fact that it has been used to harm lesbians and gay men. Many homosexual people have been forced to undergo "treatments" to change their sexual orientation. Other chose to undergo them to escape discrimination and social disapprobation. But there are other reasons to worry about such research. The very motivation for seeking an "origin" of homosexuality reveals homophobia. Moreover, such research may lead to prenatal tests that claim to predict for homosexuality. For homosexual people who live in countries with no legal protections these dangers are particularly serious.

  12. Sexual differentiation of the human brain: relevance for gender identity, transsexualism and sexual orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaab, D F

    2004-12-01

    Male sexual differentiation of the brain and behavior are thought, on the basis of experiments in rodents, to be caused by androgens, following conversion to estrogens. However, observations in human subjects with genetic and other disorders show that direct effects of testosterone on the developing fetal brain are of major importance for the development of male gender identity and male heterosexual orientation. Solid evidence for the importance of postnatal social factors is lacking. In the human brain, structural diferences have been described that seem to be related to gender identity and sexual orientation.

  13. Features of Copying Behavior of Women with Different Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borisova I.V.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews the results of an empirical study of the coping behavior of women with different sexual orientations and gender identity. It is established that most women have an androgynous gender identity. Significant differences in the coping behavior of women with different sexual orientations and gender identity were revealed. The coping behavior of women of different sexual orientations with masculine and feminine gender identity differs more strongly than the coping behavior of women of different sexual orientation with androgynous gender identity. The data obtained can be used to form constructive strategies for coping behavior in women with different sexual orientations and gender identity.

  14. Somewhere over the rainbow: Sexual orientation discrimination in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Humpert, Stephan

    2012-01-01

    This paper observes sexual orientation based differences in German incomes. Gay men and lesbian women sort themselves into different occupations and sectors than their heterosexual counterparts. I find evidence that cohabitating gay men have an income penalty of 9 to 10 percent compared with married men, while lesbian women have a premium of about 10 to 12 percent compared with married women. Lesbians in a registered same-sex union have an income gain of about 16 to 21 percent, while the effe...

  15. Sexual Orientation Disparities in Preventable Disease: A Fundamental Cause Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bränström, Richard; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L; Pachankis, John E; Link, Bruce G

    2016-06-01

    To determine whether fundamental cause theory (which posits that, in societal conditions of unequal power and resources, members of higher-status groups experience better health than members of lower-status groups because of their disproportionate access to health-protective factors) might be relevant in explaining health disparities related to sexual orientation. We used 2001 to 2011 morbidity data from the Stockholm Public Health Cohort, a representative general population-based study in Sweden. A total of 66 604 (92.0%) individuals identified as heterosexual, 848 (1.2%) as homosexual, and 806 (1.1%) as bisexual. To test fundamental cause theory, we classified diseases in terms of preventability potential (low vs high). There were no sexual orientation differences in morbidity from low-preventable diseases. By contrast, gay or bisexual men (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 1.48; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.13, 1.93) and lesbian or bisexual women (adjusted OR = 1.64; 95% CI = 1.28, 2.10) had a greater risk of high-preventable morbidity than heterosexual men and women, respectively. These differences were sustained in analyses adjusted for covariates. Our findings support fundamental cause theory and suggest that unequal distribution of health-protective resources, including knowledge, prestige, power, and supportive social connections, might explain sexual orientation health disparities.

  16. The molecular mechanisms of sexual orientation and gender identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Alessandra D; Ristori, Jiska; Morelli, Girolamo; Maggi, Mario

    2018-05-15

    Differences between males and females are widely represented in nature. There are gender differences in phenotypes, personality traits, behaviors and interests, cognitive performance, and proneness to specific diseases. The most marked difference in humans is represented by sexual orientation and core gender identity, the origins of which are still controversial and far from being understood. Debates continue on whether sexual behavior and gender identity are a result of biological (nature) or cultural (nurture) factors, with biology possibly playing a major role. The main goal of this review is to summarize the studies available to date on the biological factors involved in the development of both sexual orientation and gender identity. A systematic search of published evidence was performed using Medline (from January 1948 to June 2017). Review of the relevant literature was based on authors' expertise. Indeed, different studies have documented the possible role and interaction of neuroanatomic, hormonal and genetic factors. The sexual dimorphic brain is considered the anatomical substrate of psychosexual development, on which genes and gonadal hormones may have a shaping effect. In particular, growing evidence shows that prenatal and pubertal sex hormones permanently affect human behavior. In addition, heritability studies have demonstrated a role of genetic components. However, a convincing candidate gene has not been identified. Future studies (e.i. genome wide studies) are needed to better clarify the complex interaction between genes, anatomy and hormonal influences on psychosexual development. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Sexual behaviors, sexual orientation and gender identity in adult intersexuals: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schober, J M

    2001-06-01

    Sexual preference and adjustment of intersexuals have rarely been investigated. Interview techniques were used to explore these issues. Ten adult intersexuals (average age 34.2 years) were randomly selected from Intersex Society of North America members. Of the 10 subjects 8 had initially been gender assigned as female and 2 as male. A structured telephone interview was used to assess sexual orientation, sexual activity and satisfaction with gender assignment. Sexual debut occurred at age 18.1 years (range 15 to 22). At debut, 4 females and 2 males engaged in heterosexual intercourse, and 4 females engaged in gynephilic (female) sexual contact. Despite female gender assignment of 8 and initial heterosexual activity by 4 subjects, the final choice of a sexual partner was female in all 8. Both males had initial heterosexual contact but only 1 continued to prefer female partners. Current number of sexual partners averaged 0.9 (range 0 to 2) and total number of sexual partners ranged from 1 to 300. Currently, 9 subjects are in a committed sexual relationship and 8 are able to achieve orgasm. Of the subjects 8 preferred being identified as intersexual, 1 male as male and 1 female as female. Two intersexuals with initial female gender assignment were undergoing male reassignment. Most intersexuals preferred being identified as intersexual and had female partners. Most reported being satisfied with overall physical appearance but satisfaction with genitalia was highly variable. Based on these results, further study of a larger population is warranted.

  18. Sexual orientation discrimination and tobacco use disparities in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Sean Esteban; Hughes, Tonda L; Matthews, Alicia K; Lee, Joseph G L; West, Brady T; Boyd, Carol J; Arslanian-Engoren, Cynthia

    2017-12-30

    Differences in tobacco/nicotine use by sexual orientation are well documented. Development of interventions requires attention to the etiology of these differences. This study examined associations among sexual orientation discrimination, cigarette smoking, any tobacco/nicotine use, and DSM-5 tobacco use disorder (TUD) in the U.S. We used data from the 2012-2013 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions based on in-person interviews with a nationally representative sample of non-institutionalized U.S. adults. Approximately 8.3% of the population reported same-sex sexual attraction, 3.1% reported at least one same-sex sexual partner in the past-year, and 2.8% self-identified as lesbian, gay or bisexual. Sexual attraction, sexual behavior, and sexual identity were significantly associated with cigarette smoking, any tobacco/nicotine use, and DSM-5 TUD. Risk of all tobacco/nicotine outcomes was most pronounced for bisexual adults across all three sexual orientation dimensions. Approximately half of sexual minorities who identified as lesbian or gay and one-fourth of those who identified as bisexual reported past-year sexual orientation discrimination. Sexual minorities who experienced high levels of past-year sexual orientation discrimination had significantly greater probability of past-year cigarette smoking, any tobacco/nicotine use, and TUD relative to sexual minorities who experienced lower levels of sexual orientation discrimination or no discrimination. Sexual minorities, especially bisexual adults, are at heightened risk of cigarette smoking, any tobacco/nicotine use, and DSM-5 TUD across all three major sexual orientation dimensions. Tobacco prevention and cessation efforts should target bisexual adults and consider the role sexual orientation discrimination plays in cigarette smoking and treatment of TUD. Differences in tobacco/nicotine use by sexual orientation are well documented, but little is known about differences across all three

  19. Gender identity rather than sexual orientation impacts on facial preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciocca, Giacomo; Limoncin, Erika; Cellerino, Alessandro; Fisher, Alessandra D; Gravina, Giovanni Luca; Carosa, Eleonora; Mollaioli, Daniele; Valenzano, Dario R; Mennucci, Andrea; Bandini, Elisa; Di Stasi, Savino M; Maggi, Mario; Lenzi, Andrea; Jannini, Emmanuele A

    2014-10-01

    Differences in facial preferences between heterosexual men and women are well documented. It is still a matter of debate, however, how variations in sexual identity/sexual orientation may modify the facial preferences. This study aims to investigate the facial preferences of male-to-female (MtF) individuals with gender dysphoria (GD) and the influence of short-term/long-term relationships on facial preference, in comparison with healthy subjects. Eighteen untreated MtF subjects, 30 heterosexual males, 64 heterosexual females, and 42 homosexual males from university students/staff, at gay events, and in Gender Clinics were shown a composite male or female face. The sexual dimorphism of these pictures was stressed or reduced in a continuous fashion through an open-source morphing program with a sequence of 21 pictures of the same face warped from a feminized to a masculinized shape. An open-source morphing program (gtkmorph) based on the X-Morph algorithm. MtF GD subjects and heterosexual females showed the same pattern of preferences: a clear preference for less dimorphic (more feminized) faces for both short- and long-term relationships. Conversely, both heterosexual and homosexual men selected significantly much more dimorphic faces, showing a preference for hyperfeminized and hypermasculinized faces, respectively. These data show that the facial preferences of MtF GD individuals mirror those of the sex congruent with their gender identity. Conversely, heterosexual males trace the facial preferences of homosexual men, indicating that changes in sexual orientation do not substantially affect preference for the most attractive faces. © 2014 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  20. Health Behaviors and Self-Reported Health Among Cancer Survivors by Sexual Orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabson, Jennifer M; Farmer, Grant W; Bowen, Deborah J

    2015-03-01

    Health behaviors and self-reported health are important for understanding cancer survivor health. However, there is a paucity of published research about how cancer survivors' health behaviors and self-rated health vary by sexual orientation. This study examined cancer survivors' health behaviors and self-reported health by sexual orientation. This study used data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 2001-2010. Self-reported health and cancer-related health behaviors were compared by sexual orientation. Propensity score adjustment was used to account for differences in age, race, education, gender and health insurance status. Of the 602 survivors eligible for the study, 4.3% identified as sexual minorities. Sexual minorities were 2.6 times more likely to report a history of illicit drug use (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]=2.4, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.04, 5.35), and 60% less likely to report their current health status as good (aOR=0.40, 95% CI: 0.18, 0.89), compared to heterosexual cancer survivors. These disparities persisted even after adjustment for socio-demographic characteristics. Our findings suggest that sexual minority cancer survivors may be at greater risk for poorer outcomes after cancer than other survivors. A possible explanation for the observed differences involves minority stress. Future research should test stress as an explanation for these differences. However, using population-methods to achieve this goal requires larger samples of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) cancer survivors.

  1. Sexual differentiation of the human brain in relation to gender identity and sexual orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savic, Ivanka; Garcia-Falgueras, Alicia; Swaab, Dick F

    2010-01-01

    It is believed that during the intrauterine period the fetal brain develops in the male direction through a direct action of testosterone on the developing nerve cells, or in the female direction through the absence of this hormone surge. According to this concept, our gender identity (the conviction of belonging to the male or female gender) and sexual orientation should be programmed into our brain structures when we are still in the womb. However, since sexual differentiation of the genitals takes place in the first two months of pregnancy and sexual differentiation of the brain starts in the second half of pregnancy, these two processes can be influenced independently, which may result in transsexuality. This also means that in the event of ambiguous sex at birth, the degree of masculinization of the genitals may not reflect the degree of masculinization of the brain. There is no proof that social environment after birth has an effect on gender identity or sexual orientation. Data on genetic and hormone independent influence on gender identity are presently divergent and do not provide convincing information about the underlying etiology. To what extent fetal programming may determine sexual orientation is also a matter of discussion. A number of studies show patterns of sex atypical cerebral dimorphism in homosexual subjects. Although the crucial question, namely how such complex functions as sexual orientation and identity are processed in the brain remains unanswered, emerging data point at a key role of specific neuronal circuits involving the hypothalamus. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Sexual Orientation and Borderline Personality Disorder Features in a Community Sample of Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, Tyson R; Sharp, Carla; Kalpakci, Allison H; Choi, Hye J; Temple, Jeff R

    2016-10-01

    Empirical literature demonstrates that sexual minorities are at an increased risk of developing psychopathology, including borderline personality disorder (BPD). The specific link between sexual orientation and BPD has received significantly less attention in youth, and it remains unclear what drives this relation. Given that there are higher rates of psychopathology in both sexual minorities and individuals with BPD, the present study aimed to determine if sexual orientation uniquely contributes to borderline personality pathology, controlling for other psychopathology. An ethnically diverse sample of 835 adolescents completed self-report measures of borderline features, depression, anxiety, and sexual orientation. Sexual minorities scored higher on borderline features compared to heterosexual adolescents. When controlling for depression and anxiety, sexual orientation remained significantly associated with borderline features. The relation between sexual orientation and BPD cannot fully be explained by other psychopathology. Future research is necessary to understand potential mechanisms underlying this relation.

  3. Internalized Homophobia Influences Perceptions of Men's Sexual Orientation from Photos of Their Faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tskhay, Konstantin O; Rule, Nicholas O

    2017-04-01

    Although researchers have explored the perceiver characteristics that make people accurate at identifying others' sexual orientations, characteristics of the targets remain largely unexplored. In the current study, we examined how individual differences in internalized homophobia among gay men can affect perceptions of their sexual orientation by asking 49 individuals to judge the sexual orientations of 78 gay men from photos of their faces. We found that gay men reporting higher levels of internalized homophobia were less likely to have come out of the closet and were, in turn, less likely to be perceived as gay. Thus, internalized homophobia and the concealment of one's sexual minority status can impact perceptions of sexual orientation.

  4. Sexual orientation and sexual health services utilization among women in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agénor, Madina; Muzny, Christina A.; Schick, Vanessa; Austin, Erika L.; Potter, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    Although sexual minority women are at risk of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and cervical cancer, few nationally representative studies have assessed sexual orientation disparities in sexual health care among women. Using data from the 2011–2013 and 2013–2015 waves of the National Survey of Family Growth, which provide a national probability sample of U.S. women aged 15–44 years (N=11,300), we used multivariable logistic regression to examine the associations between sexual behavior and sexual identity (modeled separately) and STI testing in the past year, Pap test use in the last 3 years, lifetime HIV testing, and lifetime human papillomavirus (HPV) testing. Women with male and female lifetime sexual partners had higher adjusted odds of being tested for STIs ([odds ratio:] 1.61; [95% confidence interval:] 1.37–1.89), HIV (1.66; 1.29–2.14), and HPV (1.79; 1.41–2.25) and similar adjusted odds of obtaining a Pap test (0.98; 0.76–1.27) than women with only male lifetime sexual partners. Self-identified bisexual women had higher adjusted odds of obtaining an STI (1.43; 1.10–1.86) and HIV (1.69; 1.24–2.30) test but lower adjusted odds of obtaining a Pap test in the last 3 years (0.66; 0.47–0.93) than heterosexual-identified women. Women with only female lifetime sexual partners had lower adjusted odds of receiving an STI (0.14; 0.07–0.28) and Pap (0.10; 0.03–0.27) test than women with only male lifetime sexual partners. Results comparing self-identified lesbian and heterosexual women were similar. Health care facilities should monitor and address sexual orientation disparities in women’s sexual health care and ensure the provision of high-quality sexual health services to all women. PMID:27932056

  5. Gender identity and sexual orientation in autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Rita; Stokes, Mark A

    2017-09-01

    Clinical impressions indicate that there is an overrepresentation of gender-dysphoria within the autism spectrum disorder. However, little is presently known about the demographics of gender-identity issues in autism spectrum disorder. Based upon what little is known, we hypothesized that there would be an increased prevalence of gender-dysphoria among those with autism spectrum disorder compared to a typically developing population. We surveyed gender-dysphoria with the Gender-Identity/Gender-Dysphoria Questionnaire among 90 males and 219 females with autism spectrum disorder and compared these rates to those of 103 males and 158 females without autism spectrum disorder. When compared to typically developing individuals, autistic individuals reported a higher number of gender-dysphoric traits. Rates of gender-dysphoria in the group with autism spectrum disorder were significantly higher than reported in the wider population. Mediation analysis found that the relationship between autistic traits and sexual orientation was mediated by gender-dysphoric traits. Results suggest that autism spectrum disorder presents a unique experience to the formation and consolidation of gender identity, and for some autistic individuals, their sexual orientation relates to their gender experience. It is important that clinicians working with autism spectrum disorder are aware of the gender-diversity in this population so that the necessary support for healthy socio-sexual functioning and mental well-being is provided.

  6. Single-Sex Schooling: Friendships, Dating, and Sexual Orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gu; Wong, Wang Ivy

    2018-05-01

    Single-sex schooling has been controversial for decades. The current study investigated the differences in friendships, dating, and past, present, and ideal sexual orientation, between 207 college students who attended single-sex secondary schools and 249 college students who attended coeducational secondary schools in Hong Kong, controlling for personal characteristics such as socioeconomic status. We found that, compared to graduates of coeducational schools, graduates of single-sex schools reported a different gender composition in intimate friendships favoring the same sex, less romantic involvement with other-sex close friends, older age at first date, fewer boyfriends or girlfriends, and more past same-sex sexuality. In contrast, we found no significant differences in the interactions with same-sex versus other-sex friends, most aspects of past or present dating engagement, or self-reported present or ideal sexual orientation. These findings give insight into the interpersonal outcomes of single-sex schooling and fill a gap in previous research which has focused on academic achievement and gender role stereotypes.

  7. Sexual orientation- and race-based discrimination and sexual HIV risk behavior among urban MSM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frye, Victoria; Nandi, Vijay; Egan, James; Cerda, Magdalena; Greene, Emily; Van Tieu, Hong; Ompad, Danielle C; Hoover, Donald R; Lucy, Debbie; Baez, Eduardo; Koblin, Beryl A

    2015-02-01

    Understanding what social factors are associated with risk of HIV acquisition and transmission among gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (MSM) is a critical public health goal. Experiencing discrimination may increase risk of HIV infection among MSM. This analysis assessed relations between experiences of sexual orientation- and race-based discrimination and sexual HIV risk behavior among MSM in New York City. 1,369 MSM completed a self-administered computerized assessment of past 3-month sexual behavior, experience of social discrimination and other covariates. Regression models assessed relations between recent experience of discrimination and sexual HIV risk behavior. Mean age was 32 years; 32 % were white; 32 % Latino/Hispanic; 25 % African American/Black. Of MSM who self-reported HIV-positive or unknown status (377), 7 % (N = 27) reported having unprotected insertive anal intercourse with an HIV-negative or unknown status partner ("HIV transmission risk"). Of MSM who self-reported HIV-negative status (992), 11 % (110) reported unprotected receptive anal intercourse with an HIV-positive or unknown status partner ("HIV acquisition risk"). HIV acquisition risk was positively associated with sexual orientation-based discrimination in home or social neighborhoods, but not race-based discrimination. We observed that sexual orientation-based discrimination was associated with sexual HIV risk behavior among urban-dwelling MSM. Addressing environmental sources of this form of discrimination, as well as the psychological distress that may result, should be prioritized in HIV prevention efforts.

  8. Mental Health Issues Related to Sexual Orientation in a High School Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Susan G.

    2017-01-01

    High school students are maturing physically, psychosocially, and sexually. Some may be unsure of their sexual orientation. The purpose of the study was to determine whether students who self-identified as homosexual-lesbian/gay, bisexual (LGB), and unsure of sexual orientation had more stressful life events (SLEs), perceived stress, bullying…

  9. Self-Identified Sexual Orientation and Sexual Risk Behavior Among HIV-Infected Latino Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champion, Jane Dimmitt; Szlachta, Alaina

    2016-01-01

    The HIV testing, disclosure, and sexual practices of ethnic minority men suggest that addressing sexual risk behavior and the underlying reasons for not receiving HIV testing or disclosing HIV-infection status-unique to differing populations-would improve public health interventions. Descriptive behaviors and underlying perspectives reported in our study suggest that public health interventions for HIV-infected Latino men who self-identify as heterosexual should explicitly identify substance use, needle sharing, and unprotected sex to current partners as behaviors placing both oneself and one's partners at high risk for contracting HIV. However, diversity of sexual behavior among gay, straight, and bisexual HIV-infected Latino men in our study ultimately suggested that clinicians should not rely on simplistic conceptions of sexuality in assessment of self-care needs. Care in presentation and discussion of self-identified sexual preference and sexual behavior is indicated, as these do not determine actual sexual orientation or behavior and vice versa. Copyright © 2016 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Operational Definitions of Sexual Orientation and Estimates of Adolescent Health Risk Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Derrick D; Blosnich, John R; Farmer, Grant W; Adams, Brian J

    2014-03-01

    Increasing attention to the health of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) populations comes with requisite circumspection about measuring sexual orientation in surveys. However, operationalizing these variables also requires considerable thought. This research sought to document the consequences of different operational definitions of sexual orientation by examining variation in health risk behaviors. Using Massachusetts Youth Risk Behavior Survey data, we examined how operational definitions of sexual behavior and sexual identity influenced differences among three health behaviors known to disparately affect LGB populations: smoking, suicide risk, and methamphetamine use. Sexual behavior and sexual identity were also examined together to explore if they captured unique sources of variability in behavior. Estimates of health disparities changed as a result of using either sexual behavior or sexual identity. Youth who reported their sexual identity as "not sure" also had increased odds of health risk behavior. Disaggregating bisexual identity and behavior from same-sex identity and behavior frequently resulted in the attenuation or elimination of health disparities that would have otherwise been attributable to exclusively same-sex sexual minorities. Finally, sexual behavior and sexual identity explained unique and significant sources of variability in all three health behaviors. Researchers using different operational definitions of sexual orientation could draw different conclusions, even when analyzing the same data, depending upon how they chose to represent sexual orientation in analyses. We discuss implications that these manipulations have on data interpretation and provide specific recommendations for best-practices when analyzing sexual orientation data collected from adolescent populations.

  11. Will Veterans Answer Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity Questions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruben, Mollie A; Blosnich, John R; Dichter, Melissa E; Luscri, Lorry; Shipherd, Jillian C

    2017-09-01

    The Veterans Health Administration does not routinely collect and document sexual orientation and gender identity (SOGI) data, despite existing health disparities among sexual and gender minority Veterans. Because of the legacy of previous Department of Defense (DoD) policies that prohibited disclosure of sexual or gender minority identities among active duty personnel, Veterans may be reluctant to respond to SOGI questions. This population-based study assesses item nonresponse to SOGI questions by Veteran status. This is a secondary analysis of data from a population-based sample of adults in 20 US states that elected to administer a SOGI module in the 2014 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey. Prevalence of SOGI refusals and responses of "don't know" were compared for Veterans and non-Veterans. Veterans (n=22,587) and non-Veterans (n=146,475) were surveyed. Nearly all Veteran respondents (≥98%) completed the SOGI questions, with 95.4% identifying as heterosexual, 1.2% as gay or lesbian, 1.2% as bisexual, and 0.59% as transgender. A significantly lower proportion of Veterans than non-Veterans refuse to answer sexual orientation (1.5% vs. 1.9%). There was no difference between Veterans and non-Veterans in responses for gender identity. Veterans are just as likely as non-Veterans to complete SOGI items in survey research. Asking Veterans about SOGI is unlikely to yield significant nonresponse. These data suggest that future research should investigate Veterans' perspectives on being asked about SOGI in research settings and as part of routine clinical care.

  12. The politics of sexual orientation issues in American schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rienzo, Barbara A; Button, James W; Sheu, Jiunn-jye; Li, Ying

    2006-03-01

    Schools are increasingly expected to address the needs of gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender students. However, the controversial nature of sexual orientation programs and policies makes this a politically sensitive undertaking. This empirical study analyzes the extent to which public school districts across the United States have implemented policy recommendations and describes, according to 4 theoretical policy models, factors that influence their ability to do so. The survey found that most districts have not institutionalized recommended policies or programs. Recommendations for school health professionals based on factors found to be significantly associated with the implementation of programs are discussed.

  13. Sexual Orientation Self-Presentation Among Bisexual-Identified Women and Men: Patterns and Predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Jonathan J; Jackson, Skyler D; Sheets, Raymond L

    2017-07-01

    Writing on the experiences of bisexual-identified people has highlighted the potential complexity of the ongoing process of deciding when and how to present one's sexual orientation identity to others (Rust, 2002). The two studies presented here were designed to contribute basic knowledge regarding self-presentation of sexual orientation among bisexual people. In Study 1, bisexual participants (N = 147) were less likely than their lesbian and gay (LG) peers (N = 191) to present their actual orientation to others, and more likely to present themselves as having a sexual orientation different from their actual orientation. These sexual orientation differences were explained by gender of romantic partner and uncertainty about one's sexual orientation. Sexual orientation differences also emerged in links between self-presentation and outness level. For example, bisexual participants who presented themselves as LG had relatively high everyday outness levels; in contrast, LG participants who presented themselves as bisexual had relatively low everyday outness levels. In Study 2, 240 bisexual women and men indicated their levels of outness as a sexual minority person (potentially including identification as gay, lesbian, queer) and specifically as bisexual. Outness was higher with respect to status as a sexual minority compared to status as bisexual; the magnitude of this difference was predicted by gender of romantic partner and uncertainty about one's sexual orientation. Moreover, even controlling for outness as a sexual minority person, well-being was predicted by outness as bisexual to family members.

  14. Sexual Orientation and Harassment: The Role of Sexism in Predicting Reactions to Harassment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-07

    Charlie L. Law, PhD Department of Psychology , Florida Southern College Summer Faculty Research Fellow, DEOMI Summer 2016 Kaitlyn McCarthy Penn...and Lean (2009), initial research on sexual harassment focused on two basic definitions of sexual harassment: legal harassment and psychological ...determining the effects of sexual harassment on organizational outcomes (e.g., Barling et al., Sexual Orientation and Harassment

  15. Teen Pregnancy Risk Factors Among Young Women of Diverse Sexual Orientations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, Brittany M; Roberts, Andrea L; Rosario, Margaret; Katz-Wise, Sabra L; Calzo, Jerel P; Spiegelman, Donna; Austin, S Bryn

    2018-04-01

    Young women who are sexual minorities (eg, bisexual and lesbian) are approximately twice as likely as those who are heterosexual to have a teen pregnancy. Therefore, we hypothesized that risk factors for teen pregnancy would vary across sexual orientation groups and that other potential risk factors exist that are unique to sexual minorities. We used multivariable log-binomial models gathered from 7120 young women in the longitudinal cohort known as the Growing Up Today Study to examine the following potential teen pregnancy risk factors: childhood maltreatment, bullying victimization and perpetration, and gender nonconformity. Among sexual minorities, we also examined the following: sexual minority developmental milestones, sexual orientation-related stress, sexual minority outness, and lesbian, gay, and bisexual social activity involvement. Childhood maltreatment and bullying were significant teen pregnancy risk factors among all participants. After adjusting for childhood maltreatment and bullying, the sexual orientation-related teen pregnancy disparities were attenuated; these risk factors explained 45% of the disparity. Among sexual minorities, reaching sexual minority developmental milestones earlier was also associated with an increased teen pregnancy risk. The higher teen pregnancy prevalence among sexual minorities compared with heterosexuals in this cohort was partially explained by childhood maltreatment and bullying, which may, in part, stem from sexual orientation-related discrimination. Teen pregnancy prevention efforts that are focused on risk factors more common among young women who are sexual minorities (eg, childhood maltreatment, bullying) can help to reduce the existing sexual orientation-related teen pregnancy disparity. Copyright © 2018 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  16. Features of Copying Behavior of Women with Different Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity

    OpenAIRE

    Borisova I.V.; Khulina K.

    2018-01-01

    The article reviews the results of an empirical study of the coping behavior of women with different sexual orientations and gender identity. It is established that most women have an androgynous gender identity. Significant differences in the coping behavior of women with different sexual orientations and gender identity were revealed. The coping behavior of women of different sexual orientations with masculine and feminine gender identity differs more strongly than the coping behavior of wo...

  17. Dimensions of sexual orientation and sleep disturbance among young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Fricke

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We examined associations among 3 dimensions of sexual orientation (identity, attraction, and behavior and sleep disturbance among young adults in the United States. Using Wave IV of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (respondents aged 24–32, N=14,334, we ran multivariate logistic regressions to estimate the probability of reporting trouble falling asleep, trouble staying asleep, and short sleep duration, based on specific sexual orientation categories.Results after controlling for mental health indicate that these categories are more likely to have trouble falling asleep: women who identify as “bisexual” (OR=1.85, CI: 1.21,2.82, women attracted to “both sexes” (OR=1.31, CI: 1.00,1.72, women who have had “mostly opposite sex” partners (OR=1.40, CI: 1.10,1.77, and men who have had “mostly same sex” partners (OR=2.28, CI: 1.21,4.31. For trouble staying asleep: women who identify as “bisexual” (OR=1.48, CI: 1.01,2.18, men and women attracted to “both sexes” (OR=1.81, CI: 1.12,2.91; OR=1.27, CI: 1.00,1.60, and women who have had “mostly opposite sex partners” (OR=1.38, CI: 1.13,1.69. For short sleep duration: women who identify as “mostly straight” or “mostly gay” (OR=1.27, CI: 1.01,1.60; OR=2.64, CI: 1.36,5.14, men who identify as “bisexual” (OR=2.56, CI: 1.26,5.18, women attracted only to “same sex” (OR=2.42, CI: 1.48,3.96, men attracted to “both sexes” (OR=1.88, CI: 1.21,2.93, and women who have had “mostly same sex” partners (OR=4.90, CI: 2.10,11.46. Given the variation in findings, it is necessary to analyze each sexual orientation dimension and the categories within each dimension to adequately understand sleep disturbances among sexual minority populations.

  18. Drugs, sex and AIDS: Sexual relationships among injecting drug users and their sexual partners in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, L.T.

    2008-01-01

    HIV transmission in Vietnam is strongly linked to drug injection, but there is the potential for an epidemic driven by sexual behaviour. HIV‐education programmes to date focus largely on personal responsibility and fail to address adequately other aspects of HIV‐related risks in social contexts.

  19. Sexual Orientation Change Efforts, Conservative Christianity and Resistance to Sexual Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob Clucas

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article, I situate the practice of sexual orientation conversion efforts (SOCE, sometimes known as conversion or reparative therapy, within historical, cultural, religious and political attitudes to non-heterosexuality. Using documentary analysis, I investigate the contemporary resistance of two socially conservative organizations: National Association for Research and Therapy of Homosexuality (NARTH (US and Core Issues Trust (UK, to legal and professional regulation of the sexual orientation change efforts (SOCE which they advocate. A number of themes emerged from the various documentation. The most convincing of these themes is a claim that to provide SOCE is to respect client’s autonomy rights to diminish unwanted sexual attraction, and to live in accordance with the moral principles that they value. I demonstrate that neither NARTH nor Core Issues Trust are consistent in their regard for client autonomy. I suggest that the most plausible reason for these organizations’ emphasis on autonomy and other secular tropes, such as scientific proof and progressive language, is that they provide a smokescreen for conservative Christian values. If we value a world of LGBT (Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Trans rights and recognition, we must counter this backlash against sexual and social justice.

  20. Exploring First Sexual Intercourse, Sexual Orientation, and Sexual Health in Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewaele, Alexis; Van Houtte, Mieke; Symons, Katrien; Buysse, Ann

    2017-01-01

    In this study the characteristics of the sexual debut of men who have sex with men (MSM) and men who have sex with women (MSW) age 35 or younger (N = 1,201) were compared with one another. We investigated whether these characteristics were associated with sexual health and behavior, and to what extent. Compared to MSW, MSM tended to be older when they had their first sexual intercourse; their first sex partner was older, they felt less ready, and they experienced more pain. We also found that they reported a higher number of lifetime sexual partners and less condom use compared to MSW. Similarities were also ascertained, such as the fact that individuals from both groups do not differ significantly regarding how they experienced their first sexual intercourse emotionally. Many differences between these groups should not always be seen as problematic, whereas others still indicate a need for targeted interventions.

  1. Understanding sexual orientation and health in Canada: Who are we capturing and who are we missing using the Statistics Canada sexual orientation question?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharma, Christoffer; Bauer, Greta R

    2017-04-20

    Public health research on inequalities in Canada depends heavily on population data sets such as the Canadian Community Health Survey. While sexual orientation has three dimensions - identity, behaviour and attraction - Statistics Canada and public health agencies assess sexual orientation with a single questionnaire item on identity, defined behaviourally. This study aims to evaluate this item, to allow for clearer interpretation of sexual orientation frequencies and inequalities. Through an online convenience sampling of Canadians ≥14 years of age, participants (n = 311) completed the Statistics Canada question and a second set of sexual orientation questions. The single-item question had an 85.8% sensitivity in capturing sexual minorities, broadly defined by their sexual identity, lifetime behaviour and attraction. Kappa statistic for agreement between the single item and sexual identity was 0.89; with past year, lifetime behaviour and attraction were 0.39, 0.48 and 0.57 respectively. The item captured 99.3% of those with a sexual minority identity, 84.2% of those with any lifetime same-sex partners, 98.4% with a past-year same-sex partner, and 97.8% who indicated at least equal attraction to same-sex persons. Findings from Statistics Canada surveys can be best interpreted as applying to those who identify as sexual minorities. Analyses using this measure will underidentify those with same-sex partners or attractions who do not identify as a sexual minority, and should be interpreted accordingly. To understand patterns of sexual minority health in Canada, there is a need to incorporate other dimensions of sexual orientation.

  2. Sexual orientation and gender identity in youth suicide victims: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renaud, Johanne; Berlim, Marcelo T; Begolli, Melissa; McGirr, Alexander; Turecki, Gustavo

    2010-01-01

    Our study was designed to explore additional outcome variables of a suicide case-control study to determine the association between sexual orientation and gender identity in suicide completion in children and adolescents. Fifty-five child and adolescent suicide victims and 55 community control subjects were assessed using semi-structured, proxy-based interviews and questionnaires regarding sexual orientation and gender issues, psychopathological diagnoses, and service use. In our sample, no significant differences between suicide victims and control subjects were found regarding same-sex sexual orientation nor intimidation related to same-sex sexual orientation. Suicide victims with same-sex sexual orientation were more likely than suicide victims without same-sex sexual orientation, to meet criteria for anxiety disorders. Within the month preceding their deaths, these youth were more likely to have consulted a health professional, a psychiatrist, as well as having been hospitalized, and were more likely to have consulted a psychiatrist in the last year. In our sample, same-sex sexual orientation and gender identity issues do not appear to be more prevalent among youth who die by suicide, compared with youth recruited from the general population, nor for same-sex sexual-related intimidation. While exhibiting comparable levels of general psychopathological diagnoses associated with suicide, suicide victims with same-sex sexual orientation were more likely to meet criteria for anxiety disorders and to have consulted mental health professionals before their deaths.

  3. Sexual Orientation Discordance and Nonfatal Suicidal Behaviors in U.S. High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annor, Francis B; Clayton, Heather B; Gilbert, Leah K; Ivey-Stephenson, Asha Z; Irving, Shalon M; David-Ferdon, Corinne; Kann, Laura K

    2018-04-01

    Studies among adults have documented association between sexual orientation discordance and some suicide risk factors. However, studies examining sexual orientation discordance and nonfatal suicidal behaviors in youth are rare. This study examines the association between sexual orientation discordance and suicidal ideation/suicide attempts among a nationally representative sample of U.S. high school students. Using sexual identity and sex of sexual contact measures from the 2015 national Youth Risk Behavior Survey (n=6,790), a sexual orientation discordance variable was constructed describing concordance and discordance (agreement and disagreement, respectively, between sexual identity and sex of sexual contacts). Three suicide-related questions (seriously considered attempting suicide, making a plan about how they would attempt suicide, and attempting suicide) were combined to create a two-level nonfatal suicide risk variable. Analyses were restricted to students who identified as heterosexual or gay/lesbian, who had sexual contact, and who had no missing data for sex or suicide variables. The association between sexual orientation discordance and nonfatal suicide risk was assessed using logistic regression. Analyses were performed in 2017. Approximately 4.0% of students experienced sexual orientation discordance. High suicide risk was significantly more common among discordant students compared with concordant students (46.3% vs 22.4%, porientation discordance was associated with increased likelihood of nonfatal suicidal behaviors. Discordant adolescents may experience unique stressors that should be considered when developing and implementing suicide prevention programs. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. [Study on the causes of sexual orientation of gay].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan-hui; Bao, Yu-gang; Chen, Hao; Tan, Hong-zhuan

    2013-11-01

    To explore the relevant factors of the causes of sexual orientations of gay. From March to June 2013, 350 gays were recruited from one music bar and three bath centers where gays frequently visited in Changsha city, by proportional stratified sampling method. Meanwhile, another 332 males who identify themselves as non-homosexuality were also recruited considering the composition of ages, gender and educational background. Questionnaire survey was conducted to all the subjects, with 300 effective ones reclaimed. The questionnaire included the general demographic information, traits of character, the condition of foster in childhood and information of family members. The differences between the gays and non-homosexuality groups were analyzed to explore the causes of the sexual orientations of gays. There were statistical significant differences between gays and non- homosexuality group on following indexes (χ(2) was 59.63, 5.90, 16.01, 84.99, 161.57, 77.77, 112.32, 190.84, 30.10 respectively, all of P books or films about homosexual and experienced sexual pleasure from that before the age of 18. The rate of gays on these indexes was separately 62.3% (187/300), 57.7% (173/300) , 62.3% (187/300) , 63.0% (189/300), 67.3% (202/300) , 62.7% (189/300), 68.0% (204/300), 65.0% (195/300) and the rate on these indexes of non-homosexuality group was separately 21.3% (64/300), 28.0% (84/300) , 25.0% (75/300) , 12.7% (38/300), 31.3% (94/300), 17.7% (53/300) , 12.7% (38/300), 42.7% (128/300) . The rate of gays on these factors:the youngest boy in family, had the father or twin brothers who were homosexual or self identified as gay was 62.7% (188/300), 56.0% (168/300) and 62.0% (18/29) respectively; and the rate was 40.7% (122/300), 4.0% (12/300) and 20.0% (2/10), respectively among non-homosexuality group. The difference showed statistical significance (χ(2) was 34.52, 193.14, 5.27 respectively, all of P gays maybe was family relationship, tend and education since childhood

  5. Sexual orientation and sexual behavior among Latino and Asian Americans: implications for unfair treatment and psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, David H; Ayala, George

    2010-09-01

    Research on the sexuality of Asians and Latinos in the United States has been sparse, and the studies that have been done suffer from a number of limitations. Using data from the National Latino and Asian American Study (2002-2003), this study examined self-identified sexual orientation and self-reported sexual behavior among Latinos (n = 2,554; age: M = 38.1, SE = 0.5) and Asians (n = 2,095; age: M = 41.5, SE = 0.8). This study also investigated implications for unfair treatment and psychological distress among sexual minorities identified in the sample. Results indicated heterogeneity in responses to items assessing sexual orientation and sexual behavior including differences in the adoption of lesbian, gay, or bisexual (LGB) identity by gender, ethnicity, nativity, and socioeconomic status. LGB sexual minorities reported higher levels of unfair treatment and psychological distress compared to their non-LGB-identified sexual minority counterparts, and unfair treatment was positively associated with psychological distress. Results highlight the need to consider multiple demographic factors in assessing sexuality, and also suggest that measures of both self-identified sexual orientation and sexual behavior should be collected. In addition, findings provide support for the deleterious influence of unfair treatment among Asians and Latinos in the United States.

  6. Sexual orientation biases attentional control: a possible gaydar mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenza S Colzato

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Homosexuals are believed to have a “sixth sense” for recognizing each other, an ability referred to as gaydar. We considered that being a homosexual might rely on systematic practice of processing relatively specific, local perceptual features, which might lead to a corresponding chronic bias of attentional control. This was tested by comparing male and female homosexuals and heterosexuals--brought up in the same country and culture and matched in terms of race, intelligence, sex, mood, age, personality, religious background, educational style, and socio-economic situation--in their efficiency to process global and local features of hierarchically-constructed visual stimuli. Both homosexuals and heterosexuals showed better performance on global features—the standard global precedence effect. However, this effect was significantly reduced in homosexuals, suggesting a relative preference for detail. Findings are taken to demonstrate chronic, generalized biases in attentional control parameters that reflect the selective reward provided by the respective sexual orientation.

  7. The influence of sexual orientation on vowel production (L)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierrehumbert, Janet B.; Bent, Tessa; Munson, Benjamin; Bradlow, Ann R.; Bailey, J. Michael

    2004-10-01

    Vowel production in gay, lesbian, bisexual (GLB), and heterosexual speakers was examined. Differences in the acoustic characteristics of vowels were found as a function of sexual orientation. Lesbian and bisexual women produced less fronted /u/ and /opena/ than heterosexual women. Gay men produced a more expanded vowel space than heterosexual men. However, the vowels of GLB speakers were not generally shifted toward vowel patterns typical of the opposite sex. These results are inconsistent with the conjecture that innate biological factors have a broadly feminizing influence on the speech of gay men and a broadly masculinizing influence on the speech of lesbian/bisexual women. They are consistent with the idea that innate biological factors influence GLB speech patterns indirectly by causing selective adoption of certain speech patterns characteristic of the opposite sex. .

  8. Toward Global Comparability of Sexual Orientation Data in Official Statistics: A Conceptual Framework of Sexual Orientation for Health Data Collection in New Zealand’s Official Statistics System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Pega

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Effectively addressing health disparities experienced by sexual minority populations requires high-quality official data on sexual orientation. We developed a conceptual framework of sexual orientation to improve the quality of sexual orientation data in New Zealand’s Official Statistics System. Methods. We reviewed conceptual and methodological literature, culminating in a draft framework. To improve the framework, we held focus groups and key-informant interviews with sexual minority stakeholders and producers and consumers of official statistics. An advisory board of experts provided additional guidance. Results. The framework proposes working definitions of the sexual orientation topic and measurement concepts, describes dimensions of the measurement concepts, discusses variables framing the measurement concepts, and outlines conceptual grey areas. Conclusion. The framework proposes standard definitions and concepts for the collection of official sexual orientation data in New Zealand. It presents a model for producers of official statistics in other countries, who wish to improve the quality of health data on their citizens.

  9. Count me in: response to sexual orientation measures among older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredriksen-Goldsen, Karen I; Kim, Hyun-Jun

    2015-07-01

    Health disparities exist among sexual minority older adults. Yet, health and aging surveys rarely include sexual orientation measures and when they do, they often exclude older adults from being asked about sexual orientation. This is the first population-based study to assess item nonresponse to sexual orientation measures by age and change over time. We compare response rates and examine time trends in response patterns using adjusted logistic regressions. Among adults aged 65 and older, the nonresponse rate on sexual orientation is lower than income. While older adults show higher nonresponse rates on sexual orientation than younger adults, the nonresponse rates have significantly decreased over time. By 2010, only 1.23% of older adults responded don't know/not sure, with 1.55% refusing to answer sexual orientation questions. Decisions to not ask sexual orientation among older adults must be reconsidered, given documented health disparities and rapidly changing social trends in the understanding of diverse sexualities. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. Variation in orgasm occurrence by sexual orientation in a sample of U.S. singles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Justin R; Lloyd, Elisabeth A; Wallen, Kim; Fisher, Helen E

    2014-11-01

    Despite recent advances in understanding orgasm variation, little is known about ways in which sexual orientation is associated with men's and women's orgasm occurrence. To assess orgasm occurrence during sexual activity across sexual orientation categories. Data were collected by Internet questionnaire from 6,151 men and women (ages 21-65+ years) as part of a nationally representative sample of single individuals in the United States. Analyses were restricted to a subsample of 2,850 singles (1,497 men, 1,353 women) who had experienced sexual activity in the past 12 months. Participants reported their sex/gender, self-identified sexual orientation (heterosexual, gay/lesbian, bisexual), and what percentage of the time they experience orgasm when having sex with a familiar partner. Mean occurrence rate for experiencing orgasm during sexual activity with a familiar partner was 62.9% among single women and 85.1% among single men, which was significantly different (F1,2848  = 370.6, P sexual orientation: heterosexual men 85.5%, gay men 84.7%, bisexual men 77.6% (F2,1494  = 2.67, P = 0.07, η(2)  = 0.004). For women, however, mean occurrence rate of orgasm varied significantly by sexual orientation: heterosexual women 61.6%, lesbian women 74.7%, bisexual women 58.0% (F2,1350  = 10.95, P sexual orientation, have less predictable, more varied orgasm experiences than do men and that for women, but not men, the likelihood of orgasm varies with sexual orientation. These findings demonstrate the need for further investigations into the comparative sexual experiences and sexual health outcomes of sexual minorities. © 2014 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  11. Bias in the Workplace: Consistent Evidence of Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity Discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Badgett, M.V. Lee; Lau, Holning; Sears, Brad; Ho, Deborah

    2007-01-01

    This report reviews more than 50 studies over the last decade and demonstrates a disturbing and consistent pattern: sexual orientation-based and gender identity discrimination is a common occurrence in many workplaces across the country. Surveys of GLBT individuals, studies of the sexual orientation earnings gap, and controlled experiments all provide evidence of discriminatory treatment.

  12. South Dakota – Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity Law and Documentation of Discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Sears, Brad

    2009-01-01

    At the state level, South Dakota has no formal laws banning discrimination based on sexual orientation. However, South Dakota State University, one city, and two counties in South Dakota have ordinances prohibiting discrimination in employment based on sexual orientation and/or gender identity.

  13. Sex, Sexual Orientation, and Identification of Positive and Negative Facial Affect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Qazi; Wilson, Glenn D.; Abrahams, Sharon

    2004-01-01

    Sex and sexual orientation related differences in processing of happy and sad facial emotions were examined using an experimental facial emotion recognition paradigm with a large sample (N=240). Analysis of covariance (controlling for age and IQ) revealed that women (irrespective of sexual orientation) had faster reaction times than men for…

  14. The Impact of Sexual of Orientation and Gender Expression Bias on African American Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majied, Kamilah F.

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses sexual orientation and gender expression bias as they impact the educational experience of African American students. Sexual orientation and gender expression bias have a unique presentation in Black educational settings. The climate in such settings can be metagrobolized by the combination of distorted notions of Black…

  15. Expanding the Concept of Diversity: Discussing Sexual Orientation in the Management Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuarrie, Fiona A. E.

    1998-01-01

    Versions of a case study with a homosexual and a heterosexual protagonist in an organizational behavior course resulted in different student reactions to issues of sexual orientation in the workplace. Misconceptions about AIDS/HIV and discomfort in talking about sexual orientation and homophobia were evident. (SK)

  16. The Acoustic Correlates of Perceived Masculinity, Perceived Femininity, and Perceived Sexual Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munson, Benjamin

    2007-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that a subset of gay, lesbian, and bisexual (GLB) and heterosexual adults produce distinctive patterns of phonetic variation that allow listeners to detect their sexual orientation from audio-only samples of read speech. The current investigation examined the extent to which judgments of sexual orientation from speech…

  17. Multilevel Analysis of the Effects of Antidiscrimination Policies on Earnings by Sexual Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klawitter, Marieka

    2011-01-01

    This study uses the 2000 U.S. Census data to assess the impact of antidiscrimination policies for sexual orientation on earnings for gays and lesbians. Using a multilevel model allows estimation of the effects of state and local policies on earnings and of variation in the effects of sexual orientation across local labor markets. The results…

  18. Sexual orientation and treatment-seeking for depression in a multilingual worldwide sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutter, Tara M; Flentje, Annesa; Dilley, James W; Barakat, Suzanne; Liu, Nancy H; Gross, Margaret S; Muñoz, Ricardo F; Leykin, Yan

    2016-12-01

    Prior research has found higher rates of mental health problems among sexual minority individuals. We examine treatment-seeking for depression, as well as its relationship with sexual orientation, in a large, multilingual, international sample. Participants in an automated, quintilingual internet-based depression screening tool were screened for depression, and completed several background measures, including sexual orientation (with an option to decline to state) and past and current depression treatment seeking. 3695 participants screened positive for current or past depression and responded to the sexual orientation question. Those who declined to state their sexual orientation were far less likely to seek any treatment than individuals endorsing any orientation; they were especially unlikely to seek psychotherapy. Individuals identifying as bisexual sought both psychotherapy and alternative treatments at a higher rate than other groups. An interaction was observed between sexual orientation and gender, such that lesbian women were especially likely to have used psychotherapy. Other variables that emerged as significant predictors of treatment-seeking for depression included age and participant's language. Limitations include possible misinterpretation of translated terms due to regional differences, and possible limits to generalizability due to this study being conducted on the internet. Our results suggest that individuals who decline to state their sexual orientation may be more likely to forgo effective treatments for depression. Further studies of depression service utilization should focus on developing treatment modalities that could better engage sexual minority individuals, especially those who are reluctant to disclose their orientation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Teachers, Sexual Orientation, and the Law in Canada: A Human Rights Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Elizabeth J.

    2010-01-01

    Teacher expression on the subject of sexual orientation is a hotly contested topic that has led to many recent legal challenges in the United States and Canada. The purpose of this article is to offer readers an introduction to Canadian cases regarding teacher expression and sexual orientation and demonstrate how the application of a human rights…

  20. Feared, Forgotten, or Forbidden: Sexual Orientation Topics in Secondary Teacher Preparation Programs in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwin, Gary; Jennings, Todd

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the coverage of sexual orientation topics within 77 public university secondary teacher preparation programs across seven US states, and represented programs preparing 8,300-11,500 teachers annually. Findings indicated that 40% of programs did not address sexual orientation as a diversity topic. Further, even programs that did…

  1. Science Meets Practice in Determining Effectiveness of Sexual Orientation Change Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Kristin A.; Gock, Terry S.; Haldeman, Douglas C.

    2012-01-01

    Comments on the original article, "Guidelines for psychological practice with lesbian, gay, and bisexual clients," by the American Psychological Association. Guideline 3 of the acknowledges the diversity of human sexual orientation and that "efforts to change sexual orientation have not been shown to be effective or safe" (p. 14). As noted in the…

  2. Interpersonal Violence among College Students: Does Sexual Orientation Impact Risk of Victimization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Jamie A.; Scherer, Heidi L.; Fisher, Bonnie S.

    2018-01-01

    Researchers have shown that college students are at an increased risk of experiencing interpersonal violence (IV). One factor that appears to play a role in shaping their likelihood of IV is sexual orientation. However, little is known about this relationship and how IV risk varies across categories of sexual orientation. Utilizing a sample of…

  3. Sexual orientation, handedness, sex ratio and fetomaternal tolerance-rejection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Y Valenzuela

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Fraternal birth order (FBO appears as a prenatal cause of 15% of homosexual males (gays through mnemonic maternal anti-male factors. Non-right-handed men seem to be protected from homosexuality. Four hypotheses are proposed: (1 androgenic factors of non-right-handedness neutralize anti-male factors; (2 non-right-handedness and homosexuality are lethal or produce mental impairment; (3 non-right-handed male embryos are insensitive to anti-male factors; (4 mothers of non-right-handed fetuses do not produce anti-male factors. Studies of the sex ratio (SR of older and younger siblings show: (1 a significant heterogeneity in the SR of siblings of right or non-right handed heterosexual men and women; (2 lesbians are born among siblings with high SR; (3 siblings of right-handed gays show a higher SR than non-right-handed gays that present a low SR. Based on our discovery of maternal tolerance-rejection processes, associated with genetic systems (ABO, Rh, where zygotes or embryos different from their mother induce better pregnancy and maternal tolerance than do those that share antigens with their mothers, I propose a new explanation for sexual relationships, sexual orientation, handedness and sibling SR. Lesbian embryos could induce tolerance from mothers with anti-female factors. Non-right-handedness could induce maternal tolerance, or change the maternal compatibility of "gay" embryos. Alternatively, gay embryos could be poor inducers of maternal tolerance towards male traits.

  4. Sexual orientation, handedness, sex ratio and fetomaternal tolerance-rejection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, Carlos Y

    2010-01-01

    Fraternal birth order (FBO) appears as a prenatal cause of 15% of homosexual males (gays) through mnemonic maternal anti-male factors. Non-right-handed men seem to be protected from homosexuality. Four hypotheses are proposed: (1) androgenic factors of non-right-handedness neutralize anti-male factors; (2) non-right-handedness and homosexuality are lethal or produce mental impairment; (3) non-right-handed male embryos are insensitive to anti-male factors; (4) mothers of non-right-handed fetuses do not produce anti-male factors. Studies of the sex ratio (SR) of older and younger siblings show: (1) a significant heterogeneity in the SR of siblings of right or non-right handed heterosexual men and women; (2) lesbians are born among siblings with high SR; (3) siblings of right-handed gays show a higher SR than non-right-handed gays that present a low SR. Based on our discovery of maternal tolerance-rejection processes, associated with genetic systems (ABO, Rh), where zygotes or embryos different from their mother induce better pregnancy and maternal tolerance than do those that share antigens with their mothers, I propose a new explanation for sexual relationships, sexual orientation, handedness and sibling SR. Lesbian embryos could induce tolerance from mothers with anti-female factors. Non-right-handedness could induce maternal tolerance, or change the maternal compatibility of "gay" embryos. Alternatively, gay embryos could be poor inducers of maternal tolerance towards male traits.

  5. SEXUAL ABUSE IN CHILDHOOD AND ADULT DRUG ADDICTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Perez del Río

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews several studies on the relationship between having been sexually abused in childhood (CSA and adult drug addiction. In this approach to the subject, seventeen studies and three books that relate the two variables are discussed. It is concluded that there is proof of higher incidence of sexual abuse during childhood among women with addiction problems, and the importance of approaching sexuality and affectiveness in the evaluation of treatment of drug addiction patients is stressed.

  6. The Relationship Between Digit Ratio (2D:4D) and Sexual Orientation in Men from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yin; Zheng, Yong

    2016-04-01

    We examined the relationship between 2D:4D digit ratio and sexual orientation in men from China and analyzed the influences of the components used to assess sexual orientation and the criteria used to classify individuals as homosexual on this relationship. A total of 309 male and 110 female participants took part in a web-based survey. Our results showed that heterosexual men had a significantly lower 2D:4D than heterosexual women and exclusively homosexual men had a significantly higher left 2D:4D than heterosexual men whereas only exclusively homosexual men had a significantly higher right 2D:4D than heterosexual men when sexual orientation was assessed via sexual attraction. The left 2D:4D showed a significant positive correlation with sexual identity, sexual attraction, and sexual behavior, and the right 2D:4D showed a significant positive correlation with sexual attraction. The effect sizes for differences in 2D:4D between homosexual and heterosexual men varied according to criteria used to classify individuals as homosexual and sexual orientation components; the more stringent the criteria (scores closer to the homosexual category), the larger the effect sizes; further, sexual attraction yielded the largest effect size. There were no significant effects of age and latitude on Chinese 2D:4D. This study contributes to the current understanding of the relationship between 2D:4D and male sexual orientation.

  7. Intergroup dialogue courses on sexual orientation: lesbian, gay and bisexual student experiences and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessel, Adrienne B; Woodford, Michael R; Warren, Naomi

    2011-01-01

    Intergroup dialogue is a method of social justice education. Most intergroup dialogue research explores race and gender identities. Sexual orientation dialogues are uncommon and not yet examined empirically. This qualitative study explores sexual orientation dialogue courses from the perspective of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) student participants. Understanding target, or marginalized, group perspective of planned intergroup experiences is important given concerns raised in the literature. We document student motivations for participating in dialogues, core outcomes, and main challenges that arose in dialogue. Core outcomes include learning about and accepting one's sexual identity and empowerment. Challenges include those stemming from invisibility of sexual orientation identity. Recommendations are made for intergroup dialogue practice and research.

  8. Victimisation and psychosocial difficulties associated with sexual orientation concerns: a school-based study of adolescents.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cotter, P

    2014-11-01

    This study examined victimisation, substance misuse, relationships, sexual activity, mental health difficulties and suicidal behaviour among adolescents with sexual orientation concerns in comparison to those without such concerns. 1112 Irish students (mean age 14 yrs) in 17 mixed-gender secondary schools completed a self-report questionnaire with standardised scales and measures of psychosocial difficulties. 58 students (5%) reported having concerns regarding their sexual orientation. Compared with their peers, they had higher levels of mental health difficulties and a markedly-increased prevalence of attempted suicide (29% vs. 2%), physical assault (40% vs. 8%), sexual assault (16%vs. 1%) and substance misuse. Almost all those (90%) with sexual orientation concerns reported having had sex compared to just 4% of their peers. These results highlight the significant difficulties associated with sexual orientation concerns in adolescents in Ireland. Early and targeted interventions are essential to address their needs.

  9. Sexual Socialisation in Life Orientation Manuals versus Popular Music: Responsibilisation versus Pleasure, Tension and Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macleod, Catriona; Moodley, Dale; Young, Lisa Saville

    2015-01-01

    This paper compares two forms of sexual socialisation to which learners are exposed: the sexuality education components of the Life Orientation (LO) manuals and the lyrical content and videos of popular songs. We performed a textual analysis of the sexual subject positions made available in, first, the LO manuals used in Grade 10 classes and,…

  10. Anxiety and Depression in Breast Cancer Survivors of Different Sexual Orientations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehmer, Ulrike; Glickman, Mark; Winter, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Objective: We conducted a study comparing anxiety and depression by sexual orientation in long-term breast cancer survivors, testing the hypothesis that sexual minority women (e.g., lesbian and bisexual women) have greater levels of anxiety and depression. Method: From a state cancer registry, we recruited 257 heterosexual and 69 sexual minority…

  11. Mostly Heterosexual as a Distinct Sexual Orientation Group: A Systematic Review of the Empirical Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savin-Williams, Ritch C.; Vrangalova, Zhana

    2013-01-01

    We reviewed empirical evidence regarding whether mostly heterosexual exists as a sexual orientation distinct from two adjacent groups on a sexual continuum--exclusively heterosexual and substantially bisexual. We addressed the question: Do mostly heterosexuals show a unique profile of sexual and romantic characteristics that distinguishes them as…

  12. Adolescents of the U.S. National Longitudinal Lesbian Family Study: sexual orientation, sexual behavior, and sexual risk exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartrell, Nanette K; Bos, Henny M W; Goldberg, Naomi G

    2011-12-01

    This study assessed Kinsey self-ratings and lifetime sexual experiences of 17-year-olds whose lesbian mothers enrolled before these offspring were born in the longest-running, prospective study of same-sex parented families, with a 93% retention rate to date. Data for the current report were gathered through online questionnaires completed by 78 adolescent offspring (39 girls and 39 boys). The adolescents were asked if they had ever been abused and, if so, to specify by whom and the type of abuse (verbal, emotional, physical, or sexual). They were also asked to specify their sexual identity on the Kinsey scale, between exclusively heterosexual and exclusively homosexual. Lifetime sexual behavior was assessed through questions about heterosexual and same-sex contact, age of first sexual experience, contraception use, and pregnancy. The results revealed that there were no reports of physical or sexual victimization by a parent or other caregiver. Regarding sexual orientation, 18.9% of the adolescent girls and 2.7% of the adolescent boys self-rated in the bisexual spectrum, and 0% of girls and 5.4% of boys self-rated as predominantly-to-exclusively homosexual. When compared with age- and gender-matched adolescents of the National Survey of Family Growth, the study offspring were significantly older at the time of their first heterosexual contact, and the daughters of lesbian mothers were significantly more likely to have had same-sex contact. These findings suggest that adolescents reared in lesbian families are less likely than their peers to be victimized by a parent or other caregiver, and that daughters of lesbian mothers are more likely to engage in same-sex behavior and to identify as bisexual.

  13. Sexual orientation and sexual behavior: results from the Massachusetts Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2002-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes, Susan M; Rothman, Emily F; Zhang, Zi

    2007-01-01

    Few population-based surveys in the United States include sexual orientation as a demographic variable. As a result, estimating the proportion of the U.S. population that is gay, lesbian, or bisexual (GLB) is a substantial challenge. Prior estimates vary widely, from 1-21%. In 2001, questions on sexual orientation and sexual behavior were added to the Massachusetts Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (MA BRFSS) and have been asked continually since that time. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of adults in Massachusetts identifying as GLB and providing a demographic description of this group. The study also examined the correlation of reported sexual behavior and sexual identity within this group. Overall, 1.9% of Massachusetts adults identified as gay or lesbian and 1.0% of Massachusetts adults identified as bisexual. Of those identifying as gay or lesbian, 95.4% reported sexual behavior concordant with this identification, and 99.4% of respondents identifying as heterosexual reported behavior concordant with heterosexual sexual orientation. Among those reporting a GLB sexual orientation, men were more likely than women to identify as gay, and women were more likely than men to identify as bisexual. Younger adults (18-25 years old) were more likely than people in other age groups to identify as bisexual. Respondents with 4 or more years of education were more likely to identify as gay or lesbian than those in all other education categories. The addition of sexual orientation to population-based surveys will allow for research on the health of GLB adults and provide critical information for those charged with the creation of public policy regarding sexual orientation.

  14. Sexual-Orientation Disparities in Substance Use in Emerging Adults: A Function of Stress and Attachment Paradigms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosario, Margaret; Reisner, Sari L.; Corliss, Heather L.; Wypij, David; Calzo, Jerel; Austin, S. Bryn

    2014-01-01

    More lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) youths than heterosexuals report substance use. We examined a theoretical model to understand these disparities in lifetime and past-year substance use by means of stress and attachment paradigms, using the longitudinal Growing Up Today Study (GUTS) and Nurses’ Health Study II (NHSII). GUTS participants are the children of participants in NHSII; thus, child and maternal data are available. In addition, GUTS contains siblings, allowing for comparisons of LGB and heterosexual siblings. Of 5,647 GUTS youths (M = 20.6 years old in 2005), 1.6% were lesbian/gay (LG), 1.6% bisexual (BI), 9.9% mostly heterosexual (MH), and 86.9% completely heterosexual (CH). After adjusting for sibling clustering in GUTS and covariates, significantly more sexual minorities (LGs, BIs, and MHs) than CHs reported lifetime and past-year smoking, non-marijuana illicit drug use, and prescription drug misuse. More sexual minorities also reported marijuana use in the past year. The relations between sexual orientation and substance use were moderated by the stress markers: As mother's discomfort with homosexuality increased, more BIs and MHs than CHs used substances. As childhood gender nonconforming behaviors increased, more LGs than CHs used substances. The relations between sexual orientation and substance use were mediated by attachment and maternal affection (percent of effect mediated ranged from 5.6%–16.8%% for lifetime substance use and 4.9%–24.5% for past-year use). In addition, sibling comparisons found that sexual minorities reported more substance use, more childhood gender nonconforming behaviors, and less secure attachment than CH siblings; mothers reported less affection for their sexual-minority than CH offspring. The findings indicate the importance of stress and attachment paradigms for understanding sexual-orientation disparities in substance use. PMID:25134050

  15. Sociosexual orientation and multitasking influence the effect of sexual media content on involvement with a sexual character

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, I.; Peter, J.; van Oosten, J.M.F.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether responses to sexual media depend on personal and situational factors. Specifically, we studied the role of sociosexual orientation (i.e., personal factor) and multitasking (i.e., situational factor) in the effects of sexual media content on

  16. Impersonal sex orientation and multitasking influence the effect of sexual media content on involvement with a sexual character

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, I.; Peter, J.; van Oosten, J.M.F.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether responses to sexual media content depend on personal and situational factors. Specifically, we studied the role of the personal factor impersonal sex orientation (IS) and the situational factor multitasking in the effect of sexual media content

  17. Disclosure of sexual orientation to health professionals in China: results from an online cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Weiming; Mao, Jessica; Tang, Songyuan; Liu, Chuncheng; Mollan, Katie; Cao, Bolin; Wong, Terrence; Zhang, Ye; Hudgens, Michael; Qin, Yilu; Han, Larry; Ma, Baoli; Yang, Bin; Ma, Wei; Wei, Chongyi; Tucker, Joseph D

    2017-02-06

    Many men who have sex with men (MSM) in China are "in the closet." The low rate of disclosure may impact sexual behaviours, testing for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and diseases transmission. This study examines factors associated with overall sexual orientation disclosure and disclosure to healthcare professionals. A nationwide cross-sectional online survey was conducted from September 2014 to October 2014 in China. Participants completed questions covering socio-demographic information, sexual behaviours, HIV/STI testing history, and self-reported HIV status. We defined healthcare professional disclosure as disclosing to a doctor or other medical provider. A total of 1819 men started the survey and 1424 (78.3%) completed it. Among the 1424 participants, 62.2% (886/1424) reported overall disclosure, and 16.3% (232/1424) disclosed to healthcare professionals. In multivariate analyses, the odds of sexual orientation disclosure were 56% higher among MSM who used smartphone-based, sex-seeking applications [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.56, 95% CI: 1.25-2.95], but were lower among MSM reporting sex while drunk or recreational drug use. The odds of disclosure to a healthcare professional were greater among MSM who had ever tested for HIV or STIs (aOR = 3.36, 95% CI: 2.50-4.51 for HIV, and aOR = 4.92, 95% CI: 3.47-6.96 for STIs, respectively) or self-reported as living with HIV (aOR = 1.59, 95% CI: 0.93-2.72). Over 80% of MSM had not disclosed their sexual orientation to health professionals. This low level of disclosure likely represents a major obstacle to serving the unique needs of MSM in clinical settings. Further research and interventions to facilitate MSM sexual orientation disclosure, especially to health professionals, are urgently needed.

  18. Sexual orientation measurement and chronic disease disparities: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2009-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Joanne G; Jabson, Jennifer M

    2018-02-01

    To examine chronic disease disparities by sexual orientation measurement among sexual minorities. We pooled data from the 2009-2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey to examine differences in chronic disease prevalence between heterosexual and sexual minority people as defined by sexual identity, lifetime sexual behavior, 12-month sexual behavior, and concordance of lifetime sexual behavior and sexual identity. Self-identified lesbian women reported greater odds of asthma (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 3.19; 95% confidence intervals [CI], 1.37-7.47) and chronic bronchitis (aOR, 2.64; 95% CI, 1.21-5.72) than self-identified heterosexual women. Self-identified sexual minority women with a history of same-sex sexual behavior reported greater odds of arthritis (aOR, 1.67; 95% CI, 1.02-2.74). Compared with heterosexual men, gay men reported greater odds of chronic bronchitis when sexual orientation was defined by sexual identity (aOR, 4.68; 95% CI, 1.90-11.56) or 12-month sexual behavior (aOR, 3.22; 95% CI, 1.27-8.20), as did bisexual men defined by lifetime sexual behavior (aOR, 2.36; 95% CI, 1.14-4.89). Bisexual men reported greater odds of asthma when measured by lifetime sexual behavior (aOR, 1.90; 95% CI, 1.12-3.19), as did self-identified heterosexual men with a history of same-sex sexual behavior (aOR, 2.21; 95% CI, 1.10-4.46). How we define sexual orientation influences our understanding of chronic disease prevalence. Capturing subgroups of sexual minority people in health surveillance is essential for identifying groups most at risk and developing targeted interventions to reduce chronic disease disparities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of sex, sexual orientation, infidelity expectations, and love on distress related to emotional and sexual infidelity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeker, Olivia; Carlozzi, Al

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of participant sex, sexual orientation, infidelity expectations, and love on emotional responses to emotional and sexual infidelity. Participants (72 lesbian women, 114 heterosexual women, 53 gay men, and 57 heterosexual men) completed a demographic form, continuous emotion ratings in response to hypothetical infidelity scenarios, the Infidelity Expectations Questionnaire (IEQ), and the Triangular Love Scale. Sex, sexual orientation, and commitment and intimacy among partners were significant predictors of various emotional responses to sexual and emotional infidelity. Alternatively, passion among partners and expectations about a partner's likelihood of committing infidelity were not significant predictors of emotional reactions to infidelity. Across participants, sexual infidelity elicited more distressing feelings than emotional infidelity. Group differences were also found, with women responding with stronger emotions to emotional and sexual infidelity than men, and heterosexuals rating emotional and sexual infidelity as more emotionally distressing than lesbian and gay individuals. Sex and sexual orientation differences emerged regarding the degree to which specific emotions were reported in response to sexual and emotional infidelity. Clinical implications are offered, including how mental health professionals might use these findings to help clients cope with the negative effects of infidelity on romantic relationships. © 2012 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.

  20. "All of My Lovers Fit Into This Scale": Sexual Minority Individuals' Responses to Two Novel Measures of Sexual Orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galupo, M Paz; Lomash, Edward; Mitchell, Renae C

    2017-01-01

    Previous qualitative research on traditional measures of sexual orientation raise concerns regarding how well these scales capture sexual minority individuals' experience of sexuality. The present research focused on the critique of two novel scales developed to better capture the way sexual and gender minority individuals conceptualize sexuality. Participants were 179 sexual minority (i.e., gay, lesbian, bisexual, pansexual, queer, asexual) individuals who identified as cisgender (n = 122) and transgender (n = 57). Participants first completed the new scales, then provided qualitative responses regarding how well each scale captured their sexuality. The Sexual-Romantic Scale enabled the measurement of sexual and romantic attraction to each sex independently (same-sex and other-sex). Participants resonated with the way the Sexual-Romantic scale disaggregated sexual and romantic attraction. Although cisgender monosexual (lesbian/gay) individuals positively responded to the separation of same- and other-sex attraction, individuals with either plurisexual (bisexual, pansexual, or fluid) or transgender identities found the binary conceptualization of sex/gender problematic. The Gender-Inclusive Scale incorporated same- and other-sex attraction as well as dimensions of attraction beyond those based on sex (attraction to masculine, feminine, androgynous, and gender non-conforming individuals). The incorporation of dimensions of sexual attraction outside of sex in the Gender-Inclusive Scale was positively regarded by participants of all identities. Findings indicate that the Sexual-Romantic and Gender-Inclusive scales appear to address some of the concerns raised in previous research regarding the measurement of sexual orientation among sexual minority individuals.

  1. Coping and Survival Skills: The Role School Personnel Play Regarding Support for Bullied Sexual Minority-Oriented Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Alexandra; Yarber, William L.; Sherwood-Laughlin, Catherine M.; Gray, Mary L.; Estell, David B.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Research has shown that bullying has serious health consequences, and sexual minority-oriented youth are disproportionately affected. Sexual minority-oriented youth include lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, or questioning (LGBTQ) individuals. This study examined the bullying experiences of sexual minority-oriented youth in a…

  2. Measuring Sexual Orientation: A Review and Critique of U.S. Data Collection Efforts and Implications for Health Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Margaret; Wells, Brooke; Ventura-DiPersia, Christina; Renson, Audrey; Grov, Christian

    The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services' (HHS) Healthy People 2020 goals sought to improve health outcomes among sexual minorities; HHS acknowledged that a dearth of sexual orientation items in federal and state health surveys obscured a broad understanding of sexual minority-related health disparities. The HHS 2011 data progression plan aimed to advance sexual orientation data collection efforts at the national level. Sexual orientation is a complex, multidimensional construct often composed of sexual identity, sexual attraction, and sexual behavior, thus posing challenges to its quantitative and practical measurement and analysis. In this review, we (a) present existing sexual orientation constructs; (b) evaluate current HHS sexual orientation data collection efforts; (c) review post-2011 data progression plan research on sexual minority health disparities, drawing on HHS survey data; (d) highlight the importance of and (e) identify obstacles to multidimensional sexual orientation measurement and analysis; and (f) discuss methods for multidimensional sexual orientation analysis and propose a matrix for addressing discordance/branchedness within these analyses. Multidimensional sexual orientation data collection and analysis would elucidate sexual minority-related health disparities, guide related health policies, and enhance population-based estimates of sexual minority individuals to steer health care practices.

  3. Social Network and Nutritional Value of Congregate Meal Programs: Differences by Sexual Orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Kristen; Keary, Sara; VanWagenen, Aimee; Bradford, Judith

    2016-09-01

    This study explored the associations between sexual orientation and the perceived social network and nutritional value of congregate meal programs (CMPs) in Massachusetts (N = 289). Descriptives, t tests, and chi-square tests analyzed sexual orientation differences. Linear regression tested the effects of sexual orientation on the value of CMPs. Sexual minorities (SMs) were more likely to have non-kin-based social networks and reported higher levels of loneliness compared with heterosexuals. Heterosexuals, fewer of whom have non-kin-based networks, place a stronger value on access to a social network via CMPs. Nutritional value is important for people of all sexual orientations. SMs traveled seven times the distance to attend CMPs, highlighting the need for greater access to such sites. Results of this study support the specification of SMs as a population of "greatest social need" under the Older Americans Act and the expansion of services that are tailored for their social support needs. © The Author(s) 2014.

  4. Age-Related Physical Changes Interfere With Judgments of Male Sexual Orientation From Faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tskhay, Konstantin O; Krendl, Anne C; Rule, Nicholas O

    2016-09-01

    Although studies have shown that sexual orientation can be judged from faces, this research has not considered how age-related differences in perceivers or targets affect such judgments. In the current work, we evaluated whether accuracy differed among young adults (YA) and older adults (OA) for young and old men's faces by recruiting a sample of YA and OA in the lab, a community sample of sexual minority men, and a sample of online participants. We found that OA and YA judged sexual orientation with similar accuracy. Perceptions of gender atypicality mediated the difference in judging older and younger targets' sexual orientation. Although participants used positive affect to correctly discern sexual orientation regardless of target age, perceptions of masculinity were valid only for judgments of YA. © 2016 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  5. The Eyes Have It: Sex and Sexual Orientation Differences in Pupil Dilation Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieger, Gerulf; Savin-Williams, Ritch C.

    2012-01-01

    Recent research suggests profound sex and sexual orientation differences in sexual response. These results, however, are based on measures of genital arousal, which have potential limitations such as volunteer bias and differential measures for the sexes. The present study introduces a measure less affected by these limitations. We assessed the pupil dilation of 325 men and women of various sexual orientations to male and female erotic stimuli. Results supported hypotheses. In general, self-reported sexual orientation corresponded with pupil dilation to men and women. Among men, substantial dilation to both sexes was most common in bisexual-identified men. In contrast, among women, substantial dilation to both sexes was most common in heterosexual-identified women. Possible reasons for these differences are discussed. Because the measure of pupil dilation is less invasive than previous measures of sexual response, it allows for studying diverse age and cultural populations, usually not included in sexuality research. PMID:22870196

  6. The eyes have it: sex and sexual orientation differences in pupil dilation patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerulf Rieger

    Full Text Available Recent research suggests profound sex and sexual orientation differences in sexual response. These results, however, are based on measures of genital arousal, which have potential limitations such as volunteer bias and differential measures for the sexes. The present study introduces a measure less affected by these limitations. We assessed the pupil dilation of 325 men and women of various sexual orientations to male and female erotic stimuli. Results supported hypotheses. In general, self-reported sexual orientation corresponded with pupil dilation to men and women. Among men, substantial dilation to both sexes was most common in bisexual-identified men. In contrast, among women, substantial dilation to both sexes was most common in heterosexual-identified women. Possible reasons for these differences are discussed. Because the measure of pupil dilation is less invasive than previous measures of sexual response, it allows for studying diverse age and cultural populations, usually not included in sexuality research.

  7. Sexual Orientation and Sleep in the U.S.: A National Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jen-Hao; Shiu, Cheng-Shi

    2017-04-01

    Sexual minorities often experience poorer health than non-sexual minorities. However, extant knowledge remains limited regarding the sleep characteristics, a risk factor for chronic diseases and excess mortality, of sexual minorities compared with non-sexual minorities at the population level. This study analyzed the 2013-2014 National Health Interview Survey, Adult Sample (n=68,960) to examine the reported sleep duration and sleep disturbances (i.e., not feeling rested, difficulty falling asleep, and waking up at night) by sexual orientation (i.e., homosexual [n=1,149], bisexual [n=515], and other sexual minorities [n=144]). Statistical analysis, conducted in 2015, used multinomial logistic and logistic regressions to estimate the associations between sexual orientation and sleep variables. Adult sexual minorities had higher risks of sleep disturbances than heterosexual adults. Differences in SES and physical and mental health conditions partly explained the gaps. Sexual minority women had greater odds of waking up at night than sexual minority men did, but sexual minority adults who were also racial minorities showed no differences in odds of sleep disturbances compared to white sexual minority adults. Results found that sexual orientation was not associated with an increased risk of short or long sleep duration. This study documented substantial disparities in sleep disturbances between sexual minorities and non-sexual minorities. These gaps cannot simply be explained by social and demographic factors. Interventions that target sexual minorities should pay attention to disparities in sleep and investigate methods to promote sleep health of sexual minorities. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Sexual Health Risk Behavior Disparities Among Male and Female Adolescents Using Identity and Behavior Indicators of Sexual Orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul Poteat, V; Russell, Stephen T; Dewaele, Alexis

    2017-12-04

    Sexual minority adolescent sexual risk behavior studies often overlook young women, do not consider behavior- and identity-based sexual orientation indicators in combination, and focus mainly on condomless sex. We examined multiple risk behaviors in a large sample of adolescent young men and women using combined behavior- and identity-based indices. The 2015 Dane County Youth Assessment data included 4734 students in 22 high schools who had ever voluntarily engaged in sexual contact (51.7% male; 76.0% White, non-Hispanic). Items assessed having sex with unfamiliar partners, sex while using substances, using protection, and STI testing. Logistic regressions tested for disparities based on combined identity- and behavior-based sexual orientation indicators. For both young men and women, youth who reported heterosexual or questioning identities-but who had sex with same-sex partners-were at consistently greater risk than heterosexual youth with only different-sex partners. Also, for both young men and women, bisexuals with partners of both sexes more consistently reported higher risk than heterosexual youth than did bisexuals with only different-sex partners. Risk behavior for gay young men who had sex only with men mirrored those in extant literature. Risk levels differed for specific groups of sexual minority young women, thus deserving further attention. Findings underscore the need for sexual health research to consider sexual orientation in a more multidimensional manner.

  9. Hair whorl direction and sexual orientation in human males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Qazi; Clarke, Kenneth; Morera, Tirma

    2009-04-01

    Hair whorl direction is a somatic feature that is organized early during neurodevelopment and unlikely to be influenced by social factors. This study aimed to replicate a widely reported association by A. J. S. Klar (2003) between counterclockwise hair whorl direction and homosexuality in men, using more objective methodology. The authors took digital photographs of parietal surface hair whorls from 100 heterosexual men and 100 homosexual men who were predominantly right-handed. These images were rated for clockwise and counterclockwise direction (for which no more than 1 hair whorl was present) by 2 raters unaware of sexual orientation. The authors found no significant difference between heterosexual and homosexual men in hair whorl direction, but the authors did replicate the fraternal birth order effect (more older brothers for homosexual men). Number of older sisters was positively correlated with counterclockwise hair whorls in heterosexual men. These data were discussed in relation to prenatal factors assumed to play a role in the neurodevelopment of male homosexuality. (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. Reducing substance use and risky sexual behaviour among drug ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-10-02

    Oct 2, 2017 ... use and risky sexual behaviour among drug users in Durban, South Africa: Assessing the impact ... decreases in drug use practices such as use of cannabis, heroin, cocaine and Ecstasy after the intervention with drug users; however, there .... institutions such as further education training colleges and spiri-.

  11. The relationship between sexual orientation and depression in a national population sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Roger L; Lasiuk, Gerri; Norris, Colleen

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between sexual orientation and depression in a nationally representative population to determine if sexual minorities report higher levels of depression than the remainder of the population. Depression is a highly prevalent and disabling chronic disorder worldwide. Prior research utilizing national population samples have reported that members of sexual minorities are at higher risk for depression when compared to heterosexual people. More recent studies have revealed differences in depression risk based on sexual orientation, sexual activity and sex. There have been significant shifts in societal attitudes towards sexual minorities in recent decades. Continuing research into predictors for reporting depression amongst sexual minorities is needed. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey cycles 2005-2012 were used to identify sexual minority status based on declared sexual orientation and presence of same-sex sexual activity. Complex samples logistic and multivariate regression models were used to predict depression adjusted for sexual orientation, sexual activity, age, sex, marital status, education, income, race/ethnicity, employment and health status. Sexual orientation was not a significant independent predictor of depressive symptoms overall. Gay men reported lower levels of depressive symptoms than heterosexual men. In the sex stratified analyses, men who reported having sex with men were five times more likely to report depressive symptomatology compared to men who reported opposite sex partners (2005-2008 adjusted odds ratios: 5·00; 95% confidence interval: 1·44-17·38; 2009-2012 adjusted odds ratios: 5·10; 95% confidence interval: 1·33-19·54) after controlling for sexual orientation. Results of our analyses indicate that homosexually experienced heterosexual men appear to be at highest risk for depression. Furthermore, reported physical health status was a significant independent predictor

  12. Gender variance in childhood and sexual orientation in adulthood: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steensma, Thomas D; van der Ende, Jan; Verhulst, Frank C; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T

    2013-11-01

    Several retrospective and prospective studies have reported on the association between childhood gender variance and sexual orientation and gender discomfort in adulthood. In most of the retrospective studies, samples were drawn from the general population. The samples in the prospective studies consisted of clinically referred children. In understanding the extent to which the association applies for the general population, prospective studies using random samples are needed. This prospective study examined the association between childhood gender variance, and sexual orientation and gender discomfort in adulthood in the general population. In 1983, we measured childhood gender variance, in 406 boys and 473 girls. In 2007, sexual orientation and gender discomfort were assessed. Childhood gender variance was measured with two items from the Child Behavior Checklist/4-18. Sexual orientation was measured for four parameters of sexual orientation (attraction, fantasy, behavior, and identity). Gender discomfort was assessed by four questions (unhappiness and/or uncertainty about one's gender, wish or desire to be of the other gender, and consideration of living in the role of the other gender). For both men and women, the presence of childhood gender variance was associated with homosexuality for all four parameters of sexual orientation, but not with bisexuality. The report of adulthood homosexuality was 8 to 15 times higher for participants with a history of gender variance (10.2% to 12.2%), compared to participants without a history of gender variance (1.2% to 1.7%). The presence of childhood gender variance was not significantly associated with gender discomfort in adulthood. This study clearly showed a significant association between childhood gender variance and a homosexual sexual orientation in adulthood in the general population. In contrast to the findings in clinically referred gender-variant children, the presence of a homosexual sexual orientation in

  13. Depressive symptoms and the sexual orientation among adolescent students: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adalberto Campo-Arias

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Researches in otherpopulations report a strong association between sexual orientationand depressive symptoms, that is, bisexual, gay, lesbian and unsureabout sexual orientation adolescents refer more depressive symptomsthan heterosexual students. Objective: To determine the associationbetween the sexual orientation and depressive symptomsin adolescent students of a public school at the city of Cartagena, Colombia.Method: A cross-sectional study was designed. This surveyincluded students aged 13-17 year-olds. These students completedin the classroom a questionnaire about health behaviors and theZung´s self-rating depression. Logistic regression was computed forcontrolling confounding variables. Results: A total of 432 students,219 boys and 213 girls, completed successfully the survey. The meanage was 14,6 (SD=1,3, and the mean scholarship was 8,4 (1,5. Atotal of 21,1% of girls and 19,2% of boys considered themselvesbisexuals, gays, lesbians or insure about sexual orientation. Depressivesymptoms were related to sexual orientation exclusivally amonggirls (OR=1,10, 95%CI 1,01-1,18, after controlling confounding factors.Conclusions: Among these adolescent students, depressivesymptoms were associated with the sexual orientation only amonggirls. It is likely that this association could be explained better by the gender than the sexual orientation. Futher investigations are needed in Colombian adolescents students.

  14. The Sound of Voice: Voice-Based Categorization of Speakers' Sexual Orientation within and across Languages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Sulpizio

    Full Text Available Empirical research had initially shown that English listeners are able to identify the speakers' sexual orientation based on voice cues alone. However, the accuracy of this voice-based categorization, as well as its generalizability to other languages (language-dependency and to non-native speakers (language-specificity, has been questioned recently. Consequently, we address these open issues in 5 experiments: First, we tested whether Italian and German listeners are able to correctly identify sexual orientation of same-language male speakers. Then, participants of both nationalities listened to voice samples and rated the sexual orientation of both Italian and German male speakers. We found that listeners were unable to identify the speakers' sexual orientation correctly. However, speakers were consistently categorized as either heterosexual or gay on the basis of how they sounded. Moreover, a similar pattern of results emerged when listeners judged the sexual orientation of speakers of their own and of the foreign language. Overall, this research suggests that voice-based categorization of sexual orientation reflects the listeners' expectations of how gay voices sound rather than being an accurate detector of the speakers' actual sexual identity. Results are discussed with regard to accuracy, acoustic features of voices, language dependency and language specificity.

  15. Sexual Orientation as a Peripheral Cue in Advertising: Effects of Models' Sexual Orientation, Argument Strength, and Involvement on Responses to Magazine Ads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivory, Adrienne Holz

    2017-10-12

    This study examines how sexual orientation of couples featured in magazine advertisements affects heterosexual viewers' responses using the elaboration likelihood model as a framework. A 3 × 2 × 2 × 3 experiment tested effects of sexual orientation, argument strength, involvement, and attitudes toward homosexuality on heterosexuals' attitudes toward the couple, advertisement, brand, and product, purchase intentions, and recall. Results indicate that consumers were accepting of ads with lesbian portrayals. Participants showed more negative attitudes toward gay male portrayals, but attitudes toward heterosexual and lesbian ads were similar. This effect was moderated by participants' attitudes toward homosexuals. Low-involvement consumers showed more negative attitudes toward homosexual portrayals than toward heterosexual portrayals, indicating that sexual orientation may have served as a peripheral cue negatively impacting attitudes toward the couple and ad under low elaboration. These effects were not observed for attitudes toward the brand and product, purchase intentions, or recall.

  16. Associations of Timing of Sexual Orientation Developmental Milestones and Other Sexual Minority Stressors with Internalizing Mental Health Symptoms Among Sexual Minority Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz-Wise, Sabra L; Rosario, Margaret; Calzo, Jerel P; Scherer, Emily A; Sarda, Vishnudas; Austin, S Bryn

    2017-07-01

    Sexual minorities (mostly heterosexual, bisexual, lesbian/gay) are more likely than heterosexuals to have adverse mental health, which may be related to minority stress. We used longitudinal data from 1461 sexual minority women and men, aged 22-30 years, from Wave 2010 of the Growing Up Today Study, to examine associations between sexual minority stressors and mental health. We hypothesized that sexual minority stressors (earlier timing of sexual orientation developmental milestones categorized into early adolescence, middle adolescence, late adolescence/young adulthood; greater sexual orientation mobility; more bullying victimization) would be positively associated with mental health outcomes (depressive and anxious symptoms). Linear regression models stratified by gender and sexual orientation were fit via generalized estimating equations and controlled for age and race/ethnicity. Models were fit for each stressor predicting each mental health outcome. Reaching sexual minority milestones in early versus middle adolescence was associated with greater depressive and anxious symptoms among lesbians and gay men. Reaching sexual minority milestones in late adolescence/young adulthood versus middle adolescence was associated with greater depressive symptoms among lesbians, but fewer depressive and anxious symptoms among gay men. Greater sexual orientation mobility was associated with greater depressive symptoms among mostly heterosexual women. More bullying victimization was associated with greater depressive symptoms among bisexual women and with greater anxious symptoms among mostly heterosexual women. Sexual minority stressors are associated with adverse mental health among some sexual minority young adults. More research is needed to understand what may be protecting some subgroups from the mental health effects of sexual minority stressors.

  17. Finger length ratio (2D:4D) and dimensions of sexual orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, Bernd; Noll, Thomas; Delsignore, Aba; Milos, Gabriella; Schnyder, Ulrich; Hepp, Urs

    2006-01-01

    It has been suggested that both adult sexual orientation and the 2nd to 4th finger length ratio (2D:4D) are influenced by prenatal testosterone levels. Bearing this in mind, 2D:4D has been tested as a proxy measure of the putative prenatal testosterone impact on adult human homosexuality, but the results are inconsistent. To date, most studies in this field of research comprise categorical group comparison of heterosexuals and homosexuals with respect to their 2D:4D. The purpose of our study was to evaluate 2D:4D and the dimensional perspective of sexual orientation in addition to categorical results. We examined a community-based sample of 409 subjects and calculated correlations of 2D:4D and sexual orientation as a continuum ranging from homosexual to heterosexual. We found a significant negative correlation of 2D:4D with homosexual orientation (fantasy, attraction, activity and general score) in women, but not in men. Our results indicate that with higher prenatal testosterone levels in women, the likelihood of homosexual orientation might increase. We hypothesize a continuous neurohormonal sexual differentiation of the brain, most notably for women, that overrides categories and results in varying dimensions of sexual orientation. This hypothesis contrasts with the predominant suggestion of fixed organizational effects of androgens in the brain and a categorical sexual orientation.

  18. Self-Perceptions of Sexual Attractiveness: Satisfaction With Physical Appearance is Not of Primary Importance Across Gender and Sexual Orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amos, Natalie; McCabe, Marita P

    2016-01-01

    Research on self-perceived sexual attractiveness has predominantly focused on the importance of physical appearance, overlooking nonphysical traits that may contribute to these self-perceptions. The present study examined and compared the importance of a variety of traits for self-perceived sexual attractiveness. Self-identified heterosexual, gay, and bisexual men (N = 1,801) and heterosexual, lesbian, and bisexual women (N = 1,092) completed an online questionnaire examining self-perceived sexual attractiveness, body esteem, sexual esteem, adherence to gender norms, and sexual experience. Body esteem and sexual esteem were significant predictors of self-perceived sexual attractiveness, regardless of gender and sexual orientation. Adhering to a masculine gender norm was a significant predictor among all groups (to varying extents) but heterosexual women. Adhering to a feminine gender norm was a significant predictor among heterosexual men and bisexual women. Finally, sexual experience was a significant predictor for all men and bisexual women. Furthermore, while body esteem was a predictor across all groups, for most individuals it did not appear to be of primary importance, with either sexual esteem or masculinity proving to be of greater importance. These findings suggest the need to consider traits related to both physical and nonphysical factors for improving an individual's self-perceived sexual attractiveness.

  19. The Trouble with Inversion: an Examination of Science Sexual Orientation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnston, Rebekah

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Although some are excited about the possibility of using current scientific research into the biological causes of sexual orientation to ground rights claims, I argue that basing rights claims on this research is unwise because this research, specifically the hormonal, genetic, and structural research, is organized around the inversion assumption, a conceptual scheme within which some aspect of the biology of gay men and lesbians is thought to be inverted along sex lines.While there are many reasons to worry about the use of the inversion assumption, I focus on problems that arise from a further set of claims that must be assumed in order to make the use of the inversion assumption coherent. This further set of assumptions includes the claims (1 that heterosexuality is the standard state and that (2 this standard state is sexually-dimorphic and (3 deterministic. I argue that this set of assumptions is problematic because it results in ideological consequences that are both sexist and heterosexist. Plusieurs militants et militantes croient que la découverte d’un siège biologique de l’homosexualité permettra aux personnes homosexuelles de revendiquer leurs droits. Cependant, nous estimons qu’il est problématique de fonder ces revendications sur des recherches reposant sur certaines hypothèses qui sont implicites. En particulier, la notion d’inversion (inversion assumption joue un rôle clef dans ces recherches. Ce qui veut dire que le schème conceptuel qui cadre cette recherche scientifique suppose que certains traits des hommes et des femmes homosexuelles sont inversés. Donc, les mâles homosexuels jouent le rôle de la femelle et les lesbiennes prennent celui du mâle dans la relation de couple. Pour que ce schème soit cohérent, plusieurs autres suppositions doivent être prises pour acquises et nous discutons trois d’entre-elles. En premier lieu, on suppose que l’hétérosexualité est la norme de base; deuxièmement que

  20. Performativity Double Standards and the Sexual Orientation Climate at a Southern Liberal Arts University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byron, Reginald A; Lowe, Maria R; Billingsley, Brianna; Tuttle, Nathan

    2017-01-01

    This study employs quantitative and qualitative methods to examine how heterosexual, bisexual, and gay students rate and describe a Southern, religiously affiliated university's sexual orientation climate. Using qualitative data, queer theory, and the concept tyranny of sexualized spaces, we explain why non-heterosexual students have more negative perceptions of the university climate than heterosexual male students, in both bivariate and multivariate analyses. Although heterosexual students see few problems with the campus sexual orientation climate, bisexual men and women describe being challenged on the authenticity of their orientation, and lesbian and, to a greater extent, gay male students report harassment and exclusion in a number of settings. These distinct processes are influenced by broader heteronormative standards. We also shed much-needed light on how gendered sexual performativity double standards within an important campus microclimate (fraternity parties) contribute to creating a tyrannical sexualized space and negatively affect overall campus climate perceptions.

  1. Creative work environments in sport organizations: the influence of sexual orientation diversity and commitment to diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, George B

    2011-01-01

    Drawing from creative capital theory, the purpose of this study was to examine the degree to which sexual orientation diversity and commitment to diversity were predictive of workplaces that fostered creativity. Data were collected from 653 senior level athletic administrators and aggregated to the athletic department level of analysis (n = 199). Moderated regression indicated that sexual orientation diversity did not influence the presence of a creative work environment. There was however, a significant sexual orientation diversity × commitment to diversity interaction. When commitment to diversity was high, there was a positive association between sexual orientation diversity and a creative work environment; on the other hand, when commitment to diversity was low, the aforementioned relationship was negative. Results provide support for the notion that all diversity forms can be a source of enrichment and understanding, thereby benefiting the workplace.

  2. Relations among media influence, body image, eating concerns, and sexual orientation in men: A preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carper, Teresa L Marino; Negy, Charles; Tantleff-Dunn, Stacey

    2010-09-01

    The current study explored the relation between sexual orientation, media persuasion, and eating and body image concerns among 78 college men (39 gay; 39 straight). Participants completed measures of sexual orientation, eating disorder symptoms, appearance-related anxiety, perceived importance of physical attractiveness, perceptions of media influence, and media exposure. Gay men scored significantly higher on drive for thinness, body dissatisfaction, and body image-related anxiety than their straight counterparts. Additionally, perceptions of media influence were higher for gay men, and significantly mediated the relation between sexual orientation and eating and body image concerns. Sexual orientation also moderated the relation between perceived media influence and beliefs regarding the importance of physical attractiveness, as this relation was significant for gay men, but not straight men. The current findings suggest that gay men's increased vulnerability to media influence partially accounts for the relatively high rate of eating pathology observed in this population. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Sexual orientations of women with polycystic ovary syndrome: Clinical observation in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Hui Chen

    2014-12-01

    Conclusion: Our preliminary data showed that sexual orientation influenced the BMI of women with PCOS, but did not affect hyperandrogenism-related clinical or biochemical characteristics. This observation requires further confirmation.

  4. DASH - Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS): High School – Including Sexual Orientation

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — High School Dataset – Including Sexual Orientation. The Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) monitors six categories of priority health behaviors among...

  5. Association analysis between the tag SNP for sonic hedgehog rs9333613 polymorphism and male sexual orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Binbin; Zhou, Sirui; Hong, Fuchang; Wang, Jing; Liu, Xiaoli; Cai, Yumao; Wang, Feng; Feng, Tiejian; Ma, Xu

    2012-01-01

    Male sexual orientation has been proposed to have genetic components, but previously suggested candidate genes have all received negative results. The human sonic hedgehog (SHH) gene is located in the 7q36 region, which was linked to male sexual orientation in a previous genome-wide association study. SHH is known to play an important role in embryo patterning, and there is evidence connecting it to sexual orientation. In this study, we performed an association analysis of the SHH tag single nucleotide polymorphism rs9333613 in 361 subjects and 319 Chinese male controls. We find a significant difference in genotype and allele distribution between identified homosexuals and heterosexual control subjects, suggesting that the SHH gene could potentially be associated with male sexual orientation.

  6. New Hampshire – Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity Law and Documentation of Discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Sears, Brad

    2009-01-01

    Since 1998, New Hampshire law has prohibited discrimination in employment, housing, and public accommodations on the basis of sexual orientation. Employment discrimination on the basis of gender identity is not prohibited in the state.

  7. Gender Variance in Childhood and Sexual Orientation in Adulthood: A Prospective Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steensma, T.D.; van den Ende, J..; Verhulst, F.C.; Cohen-Kettenis, P.T.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Several retrospective and prospective studies have reported on the association between childhood gender variance and sexual orientation and gender discomfort in adulthood. In most of the retrospective studies, samples were drawn from the general population. The samples in the

  8. Americans' Gender Attitudes at the Intersection of Sexual Orientation and Gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grollman, Eric Anthony

    2017-10-26

    Extensive research on differences in women's and men's gender attitudes and more recent work on sexual orientation differences in these and other social attitudes have overlooked the potential intersection between gender and sexual orientation in predicting Americans' gender attitudes. I use data from the 2012 American National Election Survey 2012 to investigate differences in views on gender roles, gender discrimination and inequality, and abortion among lesbian and bisexual women, gay and bisexual men, heterosexual women, and heterosexual men. The results suggest that heterosexual men hold the most conservative views on gender, while lesbian and bisexual women are most conscious of gender discrimination and inequality. These differences are partially explained by LGB Americans' liberal political ideology and heightened awareness of homophobic discrimination-two mechanisms that are also gendered. I conclude by arguing that the intersection between sexual orientation and gender produces unique lived experiences that, in turn, produce gendered sexual orientation gaps in worldviews.

  9. Essays on Labor Market Discrimination on the Basis of Sexual Orientation

    OpenAIRE

    Levine, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The following chapters present an examination of the causes and effects of labor market discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation.The first chapter examines customer-based discrimination, which occurs when prejudice leads individuals to prefer commercial interactions with certain groups of workers to others. Under customer-based discrimination, otherwise identical employees across different classes of workers are not perfect substitutes, as race, gender or sexual orientation becomes a...

  10. Vermont – Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity Law and Documentation of Discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Sears, Brad

    2009-01-01

    In 1992, the State of Vermont passed a comprehensive statewide law prohibiting discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation, which is defined as “female or male homosexuality, heterosexuality, or bisexuality.” Protection with respect to gender identity was added in May 2007. Vermont’s Human Rights Law prohibits discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation in areas such as employment, housing, and education.

  11. Indiana – Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity Law and Documentation of Discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Sears, Brad

    2009-01-01

    Indiana’s state anti-discrimination law does not prohibit employment discrimination based on gender identity or sexual orientation although a Governor’s Executive Order does protect state employees from those two forms of discrimination. There is also no state law that prohibits sexual orientation or gender identity discrimination in education, and one county school board adopted a resolution denouncing activities such as … gay and lesbian behavior.

  12. The curvilinear effects of sexual orientation on young adult substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnes, Jamie E; Rahm-Knigge, Ryan L; Conner, Bradley T

    2017-03-01

    Alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana are commonly used by adolescents and linked with harmful health-related outcomes (e.g. injury, dependence). Moreover, heavy episodic (binge) drinking predicts more severe consequences. When examined by sexual orientation, highest rates of substance use have been found among bisexual individuals, with lower use at either end of the spectrum. When examined also by sex, this curvilinear trend is maintained among women but not men. These substance use patterns were identified using group differences (i.e. heterosexual vs. bisexual vs. homosexual). However, evidence suggests that sexual orientation is a continuous, not categorical, variable. This study examined the hypotheses that sexual orientation and commonly used substances (heavy episodic drinking, tobacco, marijuana) would have a quadratic relation among women, but not among men. Six negative binomial regressions tested study hypotheses using data from 7372 participants. Results indicated that sexual orientation had a quadratic relation with heavy episodic drinking, tobacco use, and marijuana use among women, as hypothesized. Additionally, a quadratic relation was found between marijuana use and sexual orientation among men. These findings indicate that women identifying as having mixed sexual orientation are at higher risk than women at either end of the sexual orientation continuum for substance use and related negative outcomes. For men, this is only true for marijuana use and resultant negative consequences. This observed increased use may relate to coping with increased stressors, which has been linked to more problematic use. By better understanding LBG identities and behaviors, clinicians and researchers will be more adept at identifying risk factors and better understanding the nuances across the sexual orientation spectrum. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Tennessee – Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity Law and Documentation of Discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Sears, Brad

    2009-01-01

    Tennessee‟s anti-discrimination law, known as the Tennessee Human Rights Act, does not explicitly address either sexual orientation or gender identity discrimination. Further, the state does not provide protection to state or private employees against discrimination based on sexual orientation or gender identity. In addition, no executive orders, local laws or state government personnel policies exist that prohibit job discrimination on either basis. The formal state employee grievance policy...

  14. New Jersey– Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity Law and Documentation of Discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Sears, Brad

    2009-01-01

    New Jersey’s Law Against Discrimination (“LAD”) protects against discrimination based on marital status, domestic partnership status, affectional or sexual orientation, gender identity or expression, and mental or physical disability, including AIDS and HIV related illnesses.1 In addition to the LAD, New Jersey’s Administrative Code includes an anti-discrimination policy for state government employees.2 This policy also prohibits discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation and gender id...

  15. Associations of outside- and within-school adult support on suicidality: Moderating effects of sexual orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulter, Robert W S; Kessel Schneider, Shari; Beadnell, Blair; O'Donnell, Lydia

    2017-01-01

    This study examined sexual-orientation differences in reports of outside- and within-school adult support, and whether sexual orientation moderates the associations between adult support and suicidality (i.e., thoughts, plans, and attempts). At 26 high schools across MetroWest Boston, 22,834 students completed surveys assessing: sexual orientation (heterosexual, gay/lesbian, bisexual, or questioning); presence of outside- and within-school adult support; and past-year suicidality. Multivariable regression analyses with General Estimating Equations (adjusting for gender, grade, and race/ethnicity) examined sexual-orientation subgroup differences in adult support, and how sexual orientation and adult support were associated with suicidality. Interaction terms tested whether relationships between adult support and suicidality were moderated by sexual orientation. Gay/lesbian, bisexual, and questioning youth were each less likely than heterosexuals to report having outside-school adult support (risk ratios range: 0.85-0.89). Each group also had greater odds than heterosexuals for suicidal thoughts (odds ratios [ORs] range: 1.86-5.33), plans (ORs range: 2.15-5.22), and attempts (ORs range: 1.98-7.90). Averaged across sexual-orientation subgroups, outside-school support was more protective against suicidality (ORs range: 0.34-0.35) than within-school support (ORs range: 0.78-0.82). However, sexual orientation moderated the protective effects of outside-school adult support, with support being less protective for bisexual and questioning youth than for heterosexuals. Adult support, and particularly outside-school adult support, is associated with lower suicidality. However, fewer gay/lesbian, bisexual, and questioning youth can rely on outside-school support and, even if present, it may be less protective against suicidality. Interventions are needed to help adults support gay/lesbian, bisexual, and questioning youth and reduce suicidality disparities. (PsycINFO Database

  16. Relationship of race-, sexual orientation-, and HIV-related discrimination with adherence to HIV treatment: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boarts, Jessica M; Bogart, Laura M; Tabak, Melanie A; Armelie, Aaron P; Delahanty, Douglas L

    2008-10-01

    Adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) must be close to perfect in order to maintain suppression of HIV viral load, and to prevent the development of drug resistant strains of HIV. People living with HIV (PLWH) often report low levels of adherence. One variable that has been linked to poor adherence is perceived discrimination; however, research has generally not considered the possible unique effects of different types of discrimination on adherence. The present pilot study aimed to examine the association of three types of discrimination (due to HIV+ status, race, or sexual orientation) with adherence among 57 PLWH. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to demonstrate the relationships between each type of discrimination and self-reported adherence. Racial discrimination significantly predicted lower adherence levels, whereas sexual orientation- and HIV-related discrimination did not. Results underscore the importance of addressing discrimination issues, specifically racial, when designing interventions to improve adherence to HAART.

  17. [Drug-therapy with sexual offenders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stompe, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Sexual offenders are a heterogeneous group of offenders with different personality structures and different patterns of crime. As a consequence, difficulties arise with the definition of sexually deviant or offending behaviour, which depends on period of time and culture. After presenting the actual definition of sexual offences, their frequency is shown by means of German epidemiological data. The problem of the assumed relationship between paraphilia and sexual offending behaviour is called into question. After the description of the central neurobiological and endocrinological mechanisms, the established pharmacological treatment strategies (Selective Serotonine Reuptake Inhibitors, Antiadrogenes, LHRH (Luteotropic Hormone Releasing Hormone)-Agonists) are presented. Finally, the step-wise algorithm for the therapy of sexual according to Bradford is presented.

  18. Cohort difference in sexual orientation: results from a large age-stratified population sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorm, A F; Dear, K B G; Rodgers, B; Christensen, H

    2003-01-01

    There is some community survey evidence for a cohort difference in female sexual orientation. To determine whether there is a cohort difference in sexual orientation in Australia. A community survey was carried out with a sample of 7,447 adults from the age groups 20-24, 40-44 and 60-64 years. As part of this survey respondents were asked a question on sexual orientation which was answered privately. A strong age cohort difference was found for women, with younger women more frequently reporting a homosexual or bisexual orientation. By contrast, no age cohort difference was found for men. These findings suggest that a heterosexual orientation may have become less common in younger cohorts of Australian women. This finding is consistent with data from other recent studies. Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

  19. Sex and sexual orientation disparities in adverse childhood experiences and early age at sexual debut in the United States: Results from a nationally representative sample☆

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Monique J.; Masho, Saba W.; Perera, Robert A.; Mezuk, Briana; Cohen, Steven A.

    2015-01-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) have been linked to early sexual debut, which has been found to be associated with multiple adverse health outcomes. Sexual minorities and men tend to have earlier sexual debut compared to heterosexual populations and women, respectively. However, studies examining the association between ACEs and early sexual debut among men and sexual minorities are lacking. The aim of this study was to examine the sex and sexual orientation disparities in the associatio...

  20. Sexual orientation disparities in weight status in adolescence: findings from a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, S Bryn; Ziyadeh, Najat J; Corliss, Heather L; Haines, Jess; Rockett, Helaine R; Wypij, David; Field, Alison E

    2009-09-01

    A growing number of studies among adult women have documented disparities in overweight adversely affecting lesbian and bisexual women, but few studies have examined sexual orientation-related patterns in weight status among men or adolescents. We examined sexual orientation group trends in BMI (kg/m(2)), BMI Z-scores, and overweight using 56,990 observations from 13,785 adolescent females and males in the Growing Up Today Study (GUTS), a large prospective cohort of US youth. Participants provided self-reported information from six waves of questionnaire data collection from 1998 to 2005. Gender-stratified linear regression models were used to estimate BMI and BMI Z-scores and modified Poisson regression models to estimate risk ratios for overweight, controlling for age and race/ethnicity, with heterosexuals as the referent group. Among females, we observed fairly consistently elevated BMI in all sexual orientation minority groups relative to heterosexual peers. In contrast, among males we documented a sexual-orientation-by-age interaction indicating steeper increases in BMI with age from early-to-late adolescence in heterosexuals relative to sexual orientation minorities. Additional prospective research is needed to understand the determinants of observed sexual orientation disparities and to inform appropriate preventive and treatment interventions. The long-term health consequences of overweight are well-documented and over time are likely to exact a high toll on populations with elevated rates.

  1. Sexual Orientation Disparities in Weight Status in Adolescence: Findings From a Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, S. Bryn; Ziyadeh, Najat J.; Corliss, Heather L.; Haines, Jess; Rockett, Helaine; Wypij, David; Field, Alison E.

    2009-01-01

    A growing number of studies among adult women have documented disparities in overweight adversely affecting lesbian and bisexual women, but few studies have examined sexual orientation-related patterns in weight status among men or adolescents. We examined sexual orientation group trends in body mass index (BMI; kg/m2), BMI Z-scores, and overweight using 56,990 observations from 13,785 adolescent females and males in the Growing Up Today Study, a large prospective cohort of U.S. youth. Participants provided self-reported information from six waves of questionnaire data collection from 1998 to 2005. Gender-stratified linear regression models were used to estimate BMI and BMI Z-score and modified Poisson regression models to estimate risk ratios (RR) for overweight, controlling for age and race/ethnicity, with heterosexuals as the referent group. Among females, we observed fairly consistently elevated BMI in all sexual orientation minority groups relative to heterosexual peers. In contrast, among males we documented a sexual-orientation-by-age interaction indicating steeper increases in BMI with age from early to late adolescence in heterosexuals relative to sexual orientation minorities. Additional prospective research is needed to understand the determinants of observed sexual orientation disparities and to inform appropriate preventive and treatment interventions. The long-term health consequences of overweight are well-documented and over time are likely to exact a high toll on populations with elevated rates. PMID:19300430

  2. Changes in Reported Sexual Orientation Following US States Recognition of Same-Sex Couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, Brittany M; Corliss, Heather L; Spiegelman, Donna; Williams, Kerry; Austin, S Bryn

    2016-12-01

    To compare changes in self-reported sexual orientation of women living in states with any recognition of same-sex relationships (e.g., hospital visitation, domestic partnerships) with those of women living in states without such recognition. We calculated the likelihood of women in the Nurses' Health Study II (n = 69 790) changing their reported sexual orientation between 1995 and 2009. We used data from the Nurses' Health Study II and found that living in a state with same-sex relationship recognition was associated with changing one's reported sexual orientation, particularly from heterosexual to sexual minority. Individuals who reported being heterosexual in 1995 were 30% more likely to report a minority orientation (i.e., bisexual or lesbian) in 2009 (risk ratio = 1.30; 95% confidence interval = 1.05, 1.61) if they lived in a state with any recognition of same-sex relationships compared with those who lived in a state without such recognition. Policies recognizing same-sex relationships may encourage women to report a sexual minority orientation. Future research is needed to clarify how other social and legal policies may affect sexual orientation self-reports.

  3. A Four-Component Model of Sexual Orientation & Its Application to Psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowins, Brad

    Distress related to sexual orientation is a common focus in psychotherapy. In some instances the distress is external in nature as with persecution, and in others it is internal as with self-acceptance issues. Complicating matters, sexual orientation is a very complex topic producing a great deal of confusion for both clients and therapists. The current paper provides a four component model-sexual orientation dimensions, activation of these dimensions, the role of erotic fantasy, and social construction of sexual orientation-that in combination provide a comprehensive perspective. Activation of dimensions is a novel contribution not proposed in any other model. With improved understanding of sexual orientation issues, and utilization of this knowledge to guide interventions, psychotherapists can improve outcomes with their clients. Also described is how dimensions of sexual orientation relate to transgender. In addition to improving psychotherapy outcomes, the fourcomponent model presented can help reduce discrimination and persecution, by demonstrating that the capacity for both homoerotic and heteroerotic behavior is universal.

  4. Relationship between weight-related behavioral profiles and health outcomes by sexual orientation and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanKim, Nicole A; Erickson, Darin J; Eisenberg, Marla E; Lust, Katherine; Rosser, B R Simon; Laska, Melissa N

    2016-07-01

    Examine relationships between weight-related factors and weight status, body dissatisfaction, chronic health conditions, and quality of life across sexual orientation and gender. Two- and four-year college students participated in the College Student Health Survey (n = 28,703; 2009-2013). Risk differences were calculated to estimate relationships between behavioral profiles and weight status, body satisfaction, diagnosis of a chronic condition, and quality of life, stratified by gender and sexual orientation. Four behavioral profiles, characterized as "healthier eating habits, more physically active," "healthier eating habits," "moderate eating habits," and "unhealthy weight control," were utilized based on latent class analyses, estimated from nine weight-related behavioral survey items. Sexual orientation differences in weight and quality of life were identified. For example, sexual minority groups reported significantly poorer quality of life than their heterosexual counterparts (females: 22.5%-38.6% (sexual minority) vs. 19.8% (heterosexual); males: 14.3%-26.7% (sexual minority) vs. 11.8% (heterosexual)). Compared with the "healthier eating habits, more physically active" profile, the "unhealthy weight control" profile was associated with obesity, poor body satisfaction, and poor quality of life in multiple gender/sexual orientation subgroups. Interventions are needed to address obesity, body dissatisfaction, and poor quality of life among sexual minority college students. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  5. Sexual Orientation Topics in Elementary Teacher Preparation Programs in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Todd; Sherwin, Gary

    2008-01-01

    This investigation is a descriptive study documenting the inclusion of sexual orientation (gay and lesbian) topics in a sample of 65 public university elementary teacher preparation programs across the USA (representing the preparation of 14,000-19,000 new teachers annually). Findings indicate that only 55.6% of programs address sexual orientation…

  6. Sexual orientation and quality of life among students of Obafemi Awolowo University (OAU), Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boladale, Mapayi; Olakunle, Oginni; Olutayo, Aloba; Adesanmi, Akinsulore

    2015-12-01

    Sexual orientation is an individual's pattern of physical and emotional arousal toward members of the same and/or opposite gender. To determine the pattern of sexual orientation and the relationship between sexual orientation and quality of life among a sample of OAU students. A descriptive cross sectional study among 481 students of OAU using a multistage sampling technique. They completed a Socio-demographic data schedule, questions on sexual orientation and the World Health Organization Quality of Life Scale - Brief version (WHO QOL-BREF). 4.9% of the sample self-identified as bisexual while 0.1% self-identified as gay/lesbian. 11.8% of the respondents reported varying degrees of attraction to the opposite gender. The mean age of sexual debut was 17.62 (±4.05). Those who self-identified as gay/lesbian/bisexual had a lower average score on all domains of the WHO QOL-BREF. Same sex sexual attraction and practice occur among young people in Nigeria and this has sexual and reproductive health implications. GLB youth report a lower QOL compared to heterosexual counterparts and this may suggest some distress among this vulnerable group. More studies should be undertaken to explore issues raised in planning interventions and health services that would improve safe sexual practices within this group.

  7. Retrospective Recall of Sexual Orientation Identity Development among Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzo, Jerel P.; Antonucci, Toni C.; Mays, Vickie M.; Cochran, Susan D.

    2011-01-01

    Although recent attention has focused on the likelihood that contemporary sexual minority youth (i.e., gay, lesbian, bisexual [GLB]) are "coming out" at younger ages, few studies have examined whether early sexual orientation identity development is also present in older GLB cohorts. We analyzed retrospective data on the timing of sexual…

  8. Sexual orientation disparities in eating disorder symptoms among adolescent boys and girls in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzo, Jerel P; Austin, S Bryn; Micali, Nadia

    2018-03-17

    Much of the research on sexual orientation disparities in eating disorder behaviors has been conducted in the USA, Canada, and Australia. Data on the associations of sexual orientation and eating disorder symptoms among adolescents in the UK are lacking. Participants were children from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a youth cohort born 1991-1992 (n = 5048; 53% female; 12% sexual minority). Sexual orientation was assessed at 16 years. Eating disorder symptoms were assessed at 14 and 16 years. Multivariable regression models (adjusting for BMI, ethnicity, socioeconomic status) examined associations between sexual orientation and (1) odds of past-year purging and binge eating, and (2) mean differences in body dissatisfaction, pressure to increase muscularity (boys only), and Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire subscales. At age 14, gay and bisexual boys and mostly heterosexual girls reported greater body dissatisfaction than their same-gender heterosexual peers. All sexual minority boys and mostly heterosexual girls reported greater mean dysfunctional eating behaviors than their same-gender heterosexual peers. At age 16, gay and bisexual boys had 12.5 times the odds of heterosexual boys of binge eating; mostly heterosexual boys had over three times the odds of reporting binge eating. Sexual minority girls had over twice the odds of heterosexual girls of purging and binge eating. By mid-adolescence, sexual minority youth in the UK had elevated risk for eating disorder symptoms, suggesting the need for early prevention efforts.

  9. Putative Androgen Exposure and Sexual Orientation: Cross-Cultural Evidence Suggesting a Modified Neurohormonal Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Lee; Lykins, Amy; Hoskin, Anthony; Ratnasingam, Malini

    2015-12-01

    According to neurohormonal theory, prenatal androgens are key determinants of sexual orientation. As a reputed marker for prenatal androgens, the 2D:4D finger length ratio has been used in more than a dozen studies to test the hypothesis that prenatal androgens influence sexual orientation. Findings have been very inconsistent. The present study sought to retest the hypothesis that 2D:4D and sexual orientation are related is a manner consistent with neurohormonal theory. A 2D:4D measure (of the right hand) along with four additional somatic markers of androgen exposure (height, physical strength, muscularity, and athletic ability) with samples of college students in Malaysia (N = 2,058) and the United States (N = 2,511). The five androgen measures were factor analyzed, resulting in a two-factor solution: Factor 1 consisted of strength, muscularity, and athletic ability (the muscular coordination factor), and Factor 2 was comprised of the r2D:4D and adult height (the bone growth factor). Sexual orientation was measured by asking each respondent the extent to which they were sexually attracted to males and the extent to which they were sexually attracted to females, both on 11-point scales. When the countries and sexes were analyzed separately, neither the r2D:4D measure nor Factor 2 correlated with sexual orientation to significant degrees. Instead, it was the muscular coordination factor that correlated the best. Support was found for the hypothesis that prenatal androgens influence sexual orientation, but the nature of these influences was more complex than neurohormonal theory predicted. A modified theory is needed and presented to accommodate the results from this study. © 2015 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  10. We’re Here and We’re Queer: Sexual Orientation and Sexual Fluidity Differences Between Bisexual and Queer Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mereish, Ethan H.; Katz-Wise, Sabra L.; Woulfe, Julie

    2017-01-01

    Theorists and researchers have noted an overlap between bisexually-identified and queer-identified individuals. Whereas early definitions of bisexuality may have been predominantly binary (i.e., attracted to women and men), in recent years there has been a move toward a more “queer” understanding of bisexuality (e.g., attraction to more than one gender beyond female and male). The purpose of this study was to examine similarities and differences between bisexually-identified and queer-identified adult women, ages 18–66 years, on sociodemographic characteristic, two dimensions of sexual orientation (sexual behaviors and attractions), fluidity in attractions and sexual orientation identity, and identity centrality and affirmation in an online sample (N = 489), which was mostly from the United States (73.5%). Our results indicated that bisexual and queer women were similar in terms of sociodemographic characteristics, with the exception of education; queer women were more educated than bisexual women. Queer women were also more likely than bisexual women to report variability in their sexual behaviors and attractions and more fluidity in their sexual orientation identity. Additionally, queer women reported higher levels of identity centrality and affirmation than bisexual women. Considerations for sexual minority women’s health research are discussed. PMID:29249909

  11. Suicidal Ideation and Sexual Orientation in College Students: The Roles of Perceived Burdensomeness, Thwarted Belongingness, and Perceived Rejection due to Sexual Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Ryan M.; Pettit, Jeremy W.

    2012-01-01

    A theoretical model in which perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness were hypothesized to account for the association between sexual orientation and suicidal ideation among college students was tested. Among 198 college students (mean age 21.28 years), gay, lesbian, and bisexual students (n = 50) reported significantly higher levels of…

  12. Sexual orientation and quality of life among students of Obafemi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Those who self-identified as gay/lesbian/bisexual had a lower average score on all domains of the WHO QOL-BREF. Conclusion: Same sex sexual attraction and practice occur among young people in Nigeria and this has sexual and reproductive health implications. GLB youth report a lower QOL compared to heterosexual ...

  13. Sexual orientation and risk factors for Human Immunodeficiency ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The issue of homosexuality attracts global debate, given that this constitutes risk factor for sexually transmitted diseases. An exploration of socio-cultural, religious and sexual activities of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex sector would inform future Human Immunodeficiency Virus programming.

  14. Longitudinal Associations among Discordant Sexual Orientation Dimensions and Hazardous Drinking in a Cohort of Sexual Minority Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talley, Amelia E.; Aranda, Frances; Hughes, Tonda L.; Everett, Bethany; Johnson, Timothy P.

    2015-01-01

    We examined differences between sexual minority women’s (SMW’s) sexual identity and sexual behavior or sexual attraction as potential contributors to hazardous drinking across a 10-year period. Data are from a longitudinal study examining drinking and drinking-related problems in a diverse, community-based sample of self-identified SMW (Wave 1: n = 447; Wave 2: n = 384; Wave 3: n = 354). Longitudinal cross-lagged models showed that SMW who report higher levels of identity-behavior or identity-attraction discordance may be at greater risk of concurrent and subsequent hazardous drinking. Results of multigroup models suggest that sexual orientation discordance is a more potent risk factor for risky drinking outcomes among SMW in older adulthood than in younger adulthood. Findings support that discordance between sexual orientation dimensions may contribute to hazardous drinking among SMW and provide evidence that cognitive-behavioral consistency is important for individuals expressing diverse and fluid sexual identities, attraction, and behavior. PMID:25911224

  15. Depression and Sexual Orientation During Young Adulthood: Diversity Among Sexual Minority Subgroups and the Role of Gender Nonconformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gu; Pollitt, Amanda M; Russell, Stephen T

    2016-04-01

    Sexual minority individuals are at an elevated risk for depression compared to their heterosexual counterparts, yet less is known about how depression status varies across sexual minority subgroups (i.e., mostly heterosexuals, bisexuals, and lesbians and gay men). Moreover, studies on the role of young adult gender nonconformity in the relation between sexual orientation and depression are scarce and have yielded mixed findings. The current study examined the disparities between sexual minorities and heterosexuals during young adulthood in concurrent depression near the beginning of young adulthood and prospective depression 6 years later, paying attention to the diversity within sexual minority subgroups and the role of gender nonconformity. Drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 9421), we found that after accounting for demographics, sampling weight, and sampling design, self-identified mostly heterosexual and bisexual young adults, but not lesbians and gay men, reported significantly higher concurrent depression compared to heterosexuals; moreover, only mostly heterosexual young adults were more depressed than heterosexuals 6 years later. Furthermore, while young adult gender nonconforming behavior was associated with more concurrent depression regardless of sexual orientation, its negative impact on mental health decreased over time. Surprisingly, previous gender nonconformity predicted decreased prospective depression among lesbians and gay men whereas, among heterosexual individuals, increased gender nonconformity was not associated with prospective depression. Together, the results suggested the importance of investigating diversity and the influence of young adult gender nonconformity in future research on the mental health of sexual minorities.

  16. Neighborhood-level LGBT hate crimes and current illicit drug use among sexual minority youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Dustin T.; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.; Johnson, Renee M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether past-30 day illicit drug use among sexual minority youth was more common in neighborhoods with a greater prevalence of hate crimes targeting lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT, or sexual minority) individuals. Methods We used a population-based survey of public school youth in Boston, Massachusetts, consisting of 1292 9th–12th grade students from the 2008 Boston Youth Survey Geospatial Dataset (sexual minority n = 108). Data on LGBT hate crimes involving assaults or assaults and battery between 2005 and 2008 were obtained from the Boston Police Department and linked to youths’ residential address. Youth reported past-30 day use of marijuana and other illicit drugs. Wilcoxon–Mann–Whitney tests and corresponding p-values were computed to assess differences in substance use by neighborhood-level LGBT assault hate crime rate among sexual minority youth (n = 103). Results The LGBT assault hate crime rate in the neighborhoods of sexual minority youth who reported current marijuana use was 23.7 per 100,000, compared to 12.9 per 100,000 for sexual minority youth who reported no marijuana use (p = 0.04). No associations between LGBT assault hate crimes and marijuana use among heterosexual youth (p > 0.05) or between sexual minority marijuana use and overall neighborhood-level violent and property crimes (p > 0.05) were detected, providing evidence for result specificity. Conclusions We found a significantly greater prevalence of marijuana use among sexual minority youth in neighborhoods with a higher prevalence of LGBT assault hate crimes. These results suggest that neighborhood context (i.e., LGBT hate crimes) may contribute to sexual orientation disparities in marijuana use. PMID:24326203

  17. Neighborhood-level LGBT hate crimes and current illicit drug use among sexual minority youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Dustin T; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L; Johnson, Renee M

    2014-02-01

    To investigate whether past-30 day illicit drug use among sexual minority youth was more common in neighborhoods with a greater prevalence of hate crimes targeting lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT, or sexual minority) individuals. We used a population-based survey of public school youth in Boston, Massachusetts, consisting of 1292 9th-12th grade students from the 2008 Boston Youth Survey Geospatial Dataset (sexual minority n=108). Data on LGBT hate crimes involving assaults or assaults and battery between 2005 and 2008 were obtained from the Boston Police Department and linked to youths' residential address. Youth reported past-30 day use of marijuana and other illicit drugs. Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney tests and corresponding p-values were computed to assess differences in substance use by neighborhood-level LGBT assault hate crime rate among sexual minority youth (n=103). The LGBT assault hate crime rate in the neighborhoods of sexual minority youth who reported current marijuana use was 23.7 per 100,000, compared to 12.9 per 100,000 for sexual minority youth who reported no marijuana use (p=0.04). No associations between LGBT assault hate crimes and marijuana use among heterosexual youth (p>0.05) or between sexual minority marijuana use and overall neighborhood-level violent and property crimes (p>0.05) were detected, providing evidence for result specificity. We found a significantly greater prevalence of marijuana use among sexual minority youth in neighborhoods with a higher prevalence of LGBT assault hate crimes. These results suggest that neighborhood context (i.e., LGBT hate crimes) may contribute to sexual orientation disparities in marijuana use. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Sexual orientation and gender identity after prenatal exposure to the Dutch famine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Rooij, Susanne R; Painter, Rebecca C; Swaab, Dick F; Roseboom, Tessa J

    2009-06-01

    Sexual differentiation of the human brain has been suggested to take place through exposure to sex steroids during intrauterine development. Animal experiments have shown that interference in this process by underfeeding of the mother can result in feminization of the male offspring. We explored the possible effects of prenatal exposure to famine on sexual orientation and gender identity in humans. We used the Klein Sexual Orientation Grid to assess sexual orientation and also assessed gender identity in a group of 380 men and 472 women who were born as term singletons around the time of the 1944-1945 Dutch famine. Prenatal exposure to famine did not affect sexual orientation in men or in women. Three people indicated having some gender identity problems: one woman born before the famine and one man and woman exposed to famine in late gestation. In men, a later birth order was associated with a non-exclusively heterosexual identification. In conclusion, we found no evidence for a significant association between exposure to famine in utero and altered sexual orientation and gender identity. The small sample size of participants with non-exclusively heterosexual identification (possibly due to underreporting of homosexuality) may have reduced our power to detect any differences.

  19. The Diversity and Prevalence of Sexual Orientation Self-Labels in a New Zealand National Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greaves, Lara M; Barlow, Fiona Kate; Lee, Carol H J; Matika, Correna M; Wang, Weiyu; Lindsay, Cinnamon-Jo; Case, Claudia J B; Sengupta, Nikhil K; Huang, Yanshu; Cowie, Lucy J; Stronge, Samantha; Storey, Mary; De Souza, Lucy; Manuela, Sam; Hammond, Matthew D; Milojev, Petar; Townrow, Carly S; Muriwai, Emerald; Satherley, Nicole; Fraser, Gloria; West-Newman, Tim; Houkamau, Carla; Bulbulia, Joseph; Osborne, Danny; Wilson, Marc S; Sibley, Chris G

    2017-07-01

    In this study, we asked participants to "describe their sexual orientation" in an open-ended measure of self-generated sexual orientation. The question was included as part of the New Zealand Attitudes and Values Study (N = 18,261) 2013/2014 wave, a national probability survey conducted shortly after the first legal same-sex marriages in New Zealand. We present a two-level classification scheme to address questions about the prevalence of, and demographic differences between, sexual orientations. At the most detailed level of the coding scheme, 49 unique categories were generated by participant responses. Of those who responded with the following, significantly more were women: bisexual (2.1 % of women, compared to 1.5 % of men), bicurious (0.7 % of women, 0.4 % of men), and asexual (0.4 % of women and less than 0.1 % of men). However, significantly fewer women than men reported being lesbian or gay (1.8 % of women, compared to 3.5 % of men). Those openly identifying as bicurious, bisexual, or lesbian/gay were significantly younger than those with a heterosexual orientation. This study shows diversity in the terms used in self-generated sexual orientations, and provides up-to-date gender, age, and prevalence estimates for the New Zealand population. Finally, results reveal that a substantial minority of participants may not have understood the question about sexual orientation.

  20. Dimensions of Sexual Orientation and the Prevalence of Mood and Anxiety Disorders in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Carol J.; Hughes, Tonda L.; McCabe, Sean Esteban

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. We used data from a nationally representative sample to examine the associations among 3 dimensions of sexual orientation (identity, attraction, and behavior), lifetime and past-year mood and anxiety disorders, and sex. Methods. We analyzed data from wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Results. Mental health outcomes differed by sex, dimension of sexual orientation, and sexual minority group. Whereas a lesbian, gay, or bisexual identity was associated with higher odds of any mood or anxiety disorder for both men and women, women reporting only same-sex sexual partners in their lifetime had the lowest rates of most disorders. Higher odds of any lifetime mood or anxiety disorder were more consistent and pronounced among sexual minority men than among sexual minority women. Finally, bisexual behavior conferred the highest odds of any mood or anxiety disorder for both males and females. Conclusions. Findings point to mental health disparities among some, but not all, sexual minority groups and emphasize the importance of including multiple measures of sexual orientation in population-based health studies. PMID:19696380

  1. Sexual dysfunction related to psychotropic drugs: a critical review. Part III: mood stabilizers and anxiolytic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Torre, A; Giupponi, G; Duffy, D M; Pompili, M; Grözinger, M; Kapfhammer, H P; Conca, A

    2014-01-01

    Sexual dysfunction is a potential side effect of mood stabilizers and anxiolytic drugs: this article presents a critical review of the current literature. Although many studies have been published on sexual side effects of psychopharmacological treatment, only a minority relate to mood stabilizers and anxiolytic drugs. Most of these studies are not methodologically robust, few are RCTs and most did not use a validated rating scale to evaluate sexual functioning. In addition, many of the studies on sexual dysfunction associated with mood stabilizers and anxiolytic drugs are limited by other methodological flaws. While there is evidence to suggest that mood stabilizers, with some exceptions, negatively affect sexual functioning, there is still insufficient evidence to draw any clear conclusions about the effects of anxiolytic drugs on sexual function. There is some weak evidence to indicate that switching from enzyme-inducing to non-enzyme-inducing anticonvulsant drugs, could be clinically useful. Some researchers recommend that sexual dysfunction in patients taking antiepileptic drugs should in general be treated according to standard guidelines for the management of sexual dysfunction, since reliable data on special populations is not available. However, specific approaches may be useful, but cannot yet be recommended until further validating research has been conducted. We did not find evidence supporting the use of any specific treatment strategy for sexual dysfunction associated with anxiolytic treatment. This study was conducted in 2013 using the paper and electronic resources of the library of the Azienda Provinciale per i Servizi Sanitari (APSS) in Trento, Italy (http://atoz.ebsco.com/Titles/2793). The library has access to a wide range of databases including DYNAMED, MEDLINE Full Text, CINAHL Plus Full Text, The Cochrane Library, Micromedex healthcare series, BMJ Clinical Evidence. The full list of available journals can be viewed at http

  2. Patient perspectives on answering questions about sexual orientation and gender identity: an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjarnadottir, Ragnhildur I; Bockting, Walter; Dowding, Dawn W

    2017-07-01

    To examine patients' perceptions of being asked about their sexual orientation and gender identity in the healthcare setting. Health disparities exist in the lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender population, but further research is needed to better understand these disparities. To address this issue, experts recommend the routine collection of sexual orientation and gender identity data in health care. Nurses on the front line of patient care play a key role in the collection of these data. However, to enable nurses to conduct such assessments it is important to understand the perspective of the patients on being asked about their sexual orientation and gender identity in a healthcare setting. An integrative review was conducted using the methodology proposed by Whittemore and Knafl (Journal of Advanced Nursing, 2005, 52, 546). Six electronic databases were searched, and two reviewers independently reviewed papers for inclusion. Papers were included if they were empirical studies, peer-reviewed papers or reports, assessing patient perspectives on discussing sexual orientation and gender identity in the healthcare setting. Twenty-one relevant studies that met the inclusion criteria were identified. A majority of the studies indicated patients' willingness to respond to, and a perceived importance of, questions about sexual orientation and gender identity. However, fears of homophobia and negative consequences hindered willingness to disclose this information. This review indicates that in most cases patients are willing to answer routine questions about their sexual orientation in the healthcare setting and perceive them as important questions to ask. The findings of this review have implications for nurses looking to incorporate questions about sexual orientation into their routine patient assessment. The findings indicate that care providers need to be mindful of heteronormative assumptions and take steps to ensure they are knowledgeable about lesbian, gay

  3. Alcohol and drug usage; and adolescents' sexual behaviour in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwagu, Evelyn N

    2016-06-01

    This study determined students' perception of the influence of alcohol and drug usage on adolescents' sexual behaviours in Nigeria. The instrument for data collection was a researcher-made questionnaire. The population for the study comprised all students in government secondary schools in Enugu state, Nigeria. The sample was made up of 600 students randomly selected from the population. Means, t-test and ANOVA were used for data analysis. The result of the study revealed that there were significant differences at 0.05 level of significance in the mean perception of the students of the influence of alcohol and drug usage on adolescents' sexual behaviours when they were classified by gender and class. All the students irrespective of age agreed that alcohol and drug usage negatively influence sexual behaviour. The students perceived that students who do not take alcohol usually control their sexual desires while rape is common with students who are drug users. It was recommended among others that preventive health programmes meant to address adolescents' sexuality should be combined with appropriate drug education for maximum benefit. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Family relationships and sexual orientation disclosure to family by gay and bisexual men in Jamaica

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Yohann; Sandfort, Theo; Morgan, Kai; Carpenter, Karen; Pierre, Russell

    2016-01-01

    Gay and bisexual men in Jamaica encounter stigma and discrimination due to criminalization of and negative attitudes towards same-sex sexuality. Disclosure of sexual orientation may be self-affirming, but could increase exposure to negative responses and stressors. Outcomes of an online survey among 110 gay and bisexual Jamaican men ages 18 to 56 years suggest that disclosure to family is affected by level of economic independence. Furthermore, negative familial responses to sexual identity significantly predicted depression. Social and structural interventions, and efforts to strengthen positive family relationships, are needed to foster an environment that enables well-being among sexual minorities in Jamaica. PMID:28243342

  5. Mathematical toy model inspired by the problem of the adaptive origins of the sexual orientation continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Brian

    2016-09-01

    Same-sex sexual behaviour is ubiquitous in the animal kingdom, but its adaptive origins remain a prominent puzzle. Here, I suggest the possibility that same-sex sexual behaviour arises as a consequence of the competition between an evolutionary drive for a wide diversity in traits, which improves the adaptability of a population, and a drive for sexual dichotomization of traits, which promotes opposite-sex attraction and increases the rate of reproduction. This trade-off is explored via a simple mathematical `toy model'. The model exhibits a number of interesting features and suggests a simple mathematical form for describing the sexual orientation continuum.

  6. Having multiple sexual partners among Iranian Injection Drug Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervin eAssari

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Transmission of HIV from intra-venous drug users (IDUs to the community occurs predominantly through high-risk sexual behaviors. Limited information exists regarding the high-risk sexual behaviors of IDUs in Iran. Aim. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and factors associated with having multiple sexual partners among Iranian IDUs. Methods. This is a national survey on drug-dependent adults. Participants were sampled from medical centers, prisons, and streets of capitals of 29 provinces in Iran, between May 2007 and February 2008. We analyzed data of 1,416 current IDUs. Socio-demographics and drug use characteristics were entered into a binary logistic regression model to determine predictors of having multiple sexual partners. Results. Having multiple sexual partners in the past or at the time of survey was reported by 56.4% of Iranian IDUs. Multivariate analysis showed that the likelihood of having multiple sexual partners in IDUs decreased by being married (odds ratio [OR], 0.38; P < .001 and increased by female gender (OR, 13.44; P = .02, having illegal income (OR, 1.72; P = .003, higher monthly family income (OR, 1.01; P = .003, pleasure, curiosity, and recreation as cause of first drug use (OR, 1.37; P = .04, ruins as usual place for injection (OR, 1.89; P = .001, and history of syringe sharing (OR, 1.50; P = .02. Conclusions. Having multiple sexual partners was reported by majority of Iranian IDUs, and this was linked to socio-demographics, initiation data, and other risk behaviors. This information should be considered in prevention efforts to reduce sexual transmission of HIV infection in Iran.

  7. Violence motivated by perception of sexual orientation and gender identity: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vasconcelos, Sofia; García-Moreno, Claudia; Stephenson, Rob; Temmerman, Marleen; Toskin, Igor

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Objective To assess the prevalence of physical and sexual violence motivated by perception of sexual orientation and gender identity in sexual and gender minorities. Methods We searched nine databases without language restrictions for peer-reviewed and grey literature published from 2000 to April 2016. We included studies with more than 50 participants that measured the prevalence of physical and sexual violence perceived as being motivated by sexual orientation and gender identity or gender expression. We excluded intimate partner violence and self-harm. Due to heterogeneity and the absence of confidence intervals in most studies, we made no meta-analysis. Findings We included 76 articles from 50 countries. These covered 74 studies conducted between 1995 and 2014, including a total of 202 607 sexual and gender minority participants. The quality of data was relatively poor due to a lack of standardized measures and sometimes small and non-randomized samples. In studies where all sexual and gender minorities were analysed as one population, the prevalence of physical and sexual violence ranged from 6% (in a study including 240 people) to 25% (49/196 people) and 5.6% (28/504) to 11.4% (55/484), respectively. For transgender people the prevalence ranged from 11.8% (of a subsample of 34 people) to 68.2% (75/110) and 7.0% (in a study including 255 people) to 49.1% (54/110). Conclusion More data are needed on the prevalence, risk factors and consequences of physical and sexual violence motivated by sexual orientation and gender identity in different geographical and cultural settings. National violence prevention policies and interventions should include sexual and gender minorities. PMID:29403098

  8. Violence motivated by perception of sexual orientation and gender identity: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blondeel, Karel; de Vasconcelos, Sofia; García-Moreno, Claudia; Stephenson, Rob; Temmerman, Marleen; Toskin, Igor

    2018-01-01

    To assess the prevalence of physical and sexual violence motivated by perception of sexual orientation and gender identity in sexual and gender minorities. We searched nine databases without language restrictions for peer-reviewed and grey literature published from 2000 to April 2016. We included studies with more than 50 participants that measured the prevalence of physical and sexual violence perceived as being motivated by sexual orientation and gender identity or gender expression. We excluded intimate partner violence and self-harm. Due to heterogeneity and the absence of confidence intervals in most studies, we made no meta-analysis. We included 76 articles from 50 countries. These covered 74 studies conducted between 1995 and 2014, including a total of 202 607 sexual and gender minority participants. The quality of data was relatively poor due to a lack of standardized measures and sometimes small and non-randomized samples. In studies where all sexual and gender minorities were analysed as one population, the prevalence of physical and sexual violence ranged from 6% (in a study including 240 people) to 25% (49/196 people) and 5.6% (28/504) to 11.4% (55/484), respectively. For transgender people the prevalence ranged from 11.8% (of a subsample of 34 people) to 68.2% (75/110) and 7.0% (in a study including 255 people) to 49.1% (54/110). More data are needed on the prevalence, risk factors and consequences of physical and sexual violence motivated by sexual orientation and gender identity in different geographical and cultural settings. National violence prevention policies and interventions should include sexual and gender minorities.

  9. Identifying sexual orientation health disparities in adolescents: analysis of pooled data from the Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 2005 and 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustanski, Brian; Van Wagenen, Aimee; Birkett, Michelle; Eyster, Sandra; Corliss, Heather L

    2014-02-01

    We studied sexual orientation disparities in health outcomes among US adolescents by pooling multiple Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) data sets from 2005 and 2007 for 14 jurisdictions. Here we describe the methodology for pooling and analyzing these data sets. Sexual orientation-related items assessed sexual orientation identity, gender of sexual contacts, sexual attractions, and harassment regarding sexual orientation. Wording of items varied across jurisdictions, so we created parallel variables and composite sexual minority variables. We used a variety of statistical approaches to address issues with the analysis of pooled data and to meet the aims of individual articles, which focused on a range of health outcomes and behaviors related to cancer, substance use, sexual health, mental health, violence, and injury.

  10. Stability and change in sexual orientation identity over a 10-year period in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mock, Steven E; Eibach, Richard P

    2012-06-01

    We examined reports of sexual orientation identity stability and change over a 10-year period drawing on data from the National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States (MIDUS I and II) and tested for three patterns: (1) heterosexual stability, (2) female sexual fluidity, and (3) bisexual fluidity. Fifty-four percent of the 2,560 participants were female and the average age was approximately 47 years. At Wave 1, 2,494 (97.42%) reported a heterosexual identity, 32 (1.25%) a homosexual identity, and 34 (1.33%) a bisexual identity and somewhat more than 2% reported a different sexual orientation identity at Wave 2. Although some support for each hypothesis was found, initial sexual orientation identity interacted with gender to predict a more complex pattern. For the sample as a whole, heterosexuality was the most stable identity. For women, bisexuality and homosexuality were equally unstable and significantly less stable than heterosexuality, suggesting that sexual orientation identity fluidity is a pattern that applies more to sexual minority women than heterosexual women. For men, heterosexuality and homosexuality were both relatively stable compared to bisexuality, which stood out as a particularly unstable identity. This pattern of results was consistent with previous findings and helps to address methodological limitations of earlier research by showing the characteristics of a population-based sample of heterosexual, homosexual, and bisexual identified men and women over time.

  11. Drugs Used in Sexual Assaults: Features and Toxicological Investigations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinar Efeoglu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Drugs used in sexual assault, which are also called as date rape drugs, are common phenomenon of crime in many countries. In a typical scenario, a perpetrator adds a date-rape drug which has sedative effect into alcoholic or non-alcoholic beverage of an unsuspecting person. After drug administration, mostly amnesia and symptoms such as confussion, loss of memory, lack of muscle control, dizziness occur. The main drugs in sexual assaults are benzodiazepines such as γ-hydroxy butyrate and its analogs, clonazepam, alprazolam, flunitrazepam, oxazepam, ketamine, barbiturates, antidepressants, cocaine and stimulants. Most of these drugs are colorless, odorless and highly soluble in alcohol or other beverages quickly. They are rapidly absorbed and eliminated after oral administration. A victim may complain to police or other legal forces after several days due to emotional trauma as shame, fear, doubt and disbelief. For this reason, It is important to know what time the sample is taken from the victim to confirm the presence of the drug. In this study, we will present a general approach to date-rape drugs used in sexual assault. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2013; 22(3.000: 418-425

  12. Sexual orientation change efforts among current or former LDS church members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehlin, John P; Galliher, Renee V; Bradshaw, William S; Hyde, Daniel C; Crowell, Katherine A

    2015-04-01

    This study examined sexual orientation change efforts (SOCE) by 1,612 individuals who are current or former members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS). Data were obtained through a comprehensive online survey from both quantitative items and open-ended written responses. A minimum of 73% of men and 43% of women in this sample attempted sexual orientation change, usually through multiple methods and across many years (on average). Developmental factors associated with attempts at sexual orientation change included higher levels of early religious orthodoxy (for all) and less supportive families and communities (for men only). Among women, those who identified as lesbian and who reported higher Kinsey attraction scores were more likely to have sought change. Of the 9 different methods surveyed, private and religious change methods (compared with therapist-led or group-based efforts) were the most common, started earlier, exercised for longer periods, and reported to be the most damaging and least effective. When sexual orientation change was identified as a goal, reported effectiveness was lower for almost all of the methods. While some beneficial SOCE outcomes (such as acceptance of same-sex attractions and reduction in depression and anxiety) were reported, the overall results support the conclusion that sexual orientation is highly resistant to explicit attempts at change and that SOCE are overwhelmingly reported to be either ineffective or damaging by participants. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Perceived Parental Monitoring and Sexual Orientation Moderate Lifetime Acts of Non-Suicidal Self-Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benau, Erik M; Jenkins, Abigail L; Conner, Bradley T

    2017-01-01

    Being non-heterosexual, particularly bisexual, is associated with high rates of engagement in NSSI amongst young adults. The goal of the present study was to determine if parenting practices, specifically parental monitoring, and sexual orientation moderate engagement with NSSI. Undergraduates (N = 1,353) completed a survey on sexual orientation, non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) acts, and multiple aspects of perceived parental monitoring during high school. Moderation analyses revealed that most facets of parental monitoring were similarly negatively correlated with NSSI for both individuals whose sexual orientation where nearly, or entirely, gay and heterosexual youth. Youth who were neither exclusively heterosexual nor exclusively gay (mixed sexual orientation) reported the most NSSI acts, and no facet of parental monitoring predicted reduced NSSI acts for this group. While previous literature shows that many aspects of parental monitoring may be protective against engagement in health risk behaviors, the present study adds to these findings that similar aspects are negatively associated with self-injurious behavior for some, but not all, individuals. More research is needed to better understand the causes of increased NSSI for individuals with a mixed sexual orientation.

  14. Sexual orientation: its relevance to occupational science and the practice of occupational therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, J

    1995-01-01

    This article examines how sexual orientation may be relevant to the study of occupations and the practice of occupational therapy. It is suggested that a lesbian, gay, or bisexual orientation may influence the occupations in which a person engages, the symbolic interpretation of those occupations, and the environmental contingencies of those occupations, and thus is an appropriate topic for occupational scientists to address. With the use of clinical reasoning studies and literature on authentic occupational therapy, it is argued that a person's lesbian, gay, or bisexual orientation may be relevant to the therapeutic process if therapists are to truly achieve an intersubjective understanding of the patient's world and create an environment in which the patient is able to live a meaningful life. Given this argument as a foundation, the article explores why sexual orientation may be overlooked in some of the theoretical perspectives that guide practice. The narrative perspective on identity is introduced as one potentially valuable way that occupational therapy researchers and practitioners may understand sexual orientation and its relationship to occupation. Specifically it is suggested that sexual orientation may be understood, in part, as a symbolic theme of meaning that informs values and convictions that may then be expressed in one's choice of occupations.

  15. Sexual Orientation Differences in Health and Wellbeing Among Women Living with HIV in Canada: Findings from a National Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logie, Carmen H; Lacombe-Duncan, Ashley; Wang, Ying; Kaida, Angela; de Pokomandy, Alexandra; Webster, Kath; Conway, Tracey; Loutfy, Mona

    2017-04-25

    Sexual orientation differences in health and wellbeing among women living with HIV (WLH) are underexplored. Limited research available, however, suggests that sexual minority WLH may experience barriers to HIV care. Cross-sectional baseline data was analyzed from a Canadian cohort study with WLH (sexual minority women [SMW]: n = 180; heterosexual women: n = 1240). SMW (median age 38 years, IQR 13) included bisexual (58.9%), lesbian (17.8%) and other sexualities (23.3%). In multivariable analyses adjusting for age, poverty, education, and ethnicity, SMW identity was associated with increased odds of: clinical (80% vs. 100% antiretroviral adherence), intrapersonal (previous/current injection drug use [IDU] vs. no IDU history, depression, lower resilience), interpersonal (childhood abuse, sex work, adulthood abuse), and structural (HIV support services barriers, unstable housing, racial discrimination, gender discrimination) factors in comparison with heterosexual identity. Sexual minority WLH experience social and health disparities relative to heterosexual WLH, highlighting the need for interventions to promote health equity.

  16. Sexual Orientation, Race, and Trauma as Predictors of Sexual Assault Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurvinsdottir, Rannveig; Ullman, Sarah E.

    2015-01-01

    Sexual minorities and racial minorities experience greater negative impact following sexual assault. We examined recovery from sexual assault among women who identified as heterosexual and bisexual across racial groups. A community sample of women (N = 905) completed three yearly surveys about sexual victimization, recovery outcomes, race group, and sexual minority status. Bisexual women and Black women reported greater recovery problems. However, Black women improved more quickly on depression symptoms than non-Black women. Finally, repeated adult victimization uniquely undermined survivors’ recovery, even when controlling for child sexual abuse. Sexual minority and race status variables and their intersections with revictimization play roles in recovery and should be considered in treatment protocols for sexual assault survivors. PMID:27713597

  17. Relation between gender and sexual orientation from the evolutionary approach

    OpenAIRE

    Menezes, Aline Beckmann; Brito, Regina Célia Souza; Henriques, Alda Loureiro

    2010-01-01

    Este estudo trata da relação entre gênero e orientação sexual a partir da perspectiva interacionista da Psicologia Evolucionista e da análise de diferentes elementos da sexualidade humana. Procurou-se discutir a literatura existente sobre os conceitos de gênero e de orientação sexual, com base nos quatro porquês da Etologia. Propõe-se a existência de múltiplas origens para a orientação sexual, sendo uma delas relacionada aos padrões típicos de gênero e à identidade de gênero. Isso levaria à i...

  18. Disparities in Social Health by Sexual Orientation and the Etiologic Role of Self-Reported Discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, David Matthew; Molix, Lisa

    2016-08-01

    Some past work indicates that sexual minorities may experience impairments in social health, or the perceived and actual availability and quality of one's social relationships, relative to heterosexuals; however, research has been limited in many ways. Furthermore, it is important to investigate etiological factors that may be associated with these disparities, such as self-reported discrimination. The current work tested whether sexual minority adults in the United States reported less positive social health (i.e., loneliness, friendship strain, familial strain, and social capital) relative to heterosexuals and whether self-reported discrimination accounted for these disparities. Participants for the current study (N = 579) were recruited via Amazon's Mechanical Turk, including 365 self-identified heterosexuals (105 women) and 214 sexual minorities (103 women). Consistent with hypotheses, sexual minorities reported impaired social health relative to heterosexuals, with divergent patterns emerging by sexual orientation subgroup (which were generally consistent across sexes). Additionally, self-reported discrimination accounted for disparities across three of four indicators of social health. These findings suggest that sexual minorities may face obstacles related to prejudice and discrimination that impair the functioning of their relationships and overall social health. Moreover, because social health is closely related to psychological and physical health, remediating disparities in social relationships may be necessary to address other health disparities based upon sexual orientation. Expanding upon these results, implications for efforts to build resilience among sexual minorities are discussed.

  19. Gender and role-based perceptions of domestic abuse: does sexual orientation matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seelau, Eric P; Seelau, Sheila M; Poorman, Paula B

    2003-01-01

    Although it is estimated that domestic abuse is as common in gay male and lesbian intimate relationships as in heterosexual relationships, the legal system often fails to recognize or respond to same-gender cases. Empirical research examining the impact of sexual orientation on perceptions of abuse is virtually nonexistent. Undergraduates (N = 252) read a summary of a domestic abuse incident in which victims and perpetrators varied by gender and, by implication, sexual orientation. Victim and respondent gender, rather than the couple's sexual orientation, primarily affected responses to domestic abuse. Domestic abuse perpetrated against women was perceived to be more serious and in need of intervention than abuse against men. Women were more likely than men to believe the victim and to recommend criminal justice system interventions. Because they are inconsistent with gender role stereotypes, domestic abuse cases involving male victims or female perpetrators may not receive equitable treatment within the criminal justice system. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Family and sexual orientation: the family-demographic correlates of homosexuality in men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Andrew M

    2008-01-01

    Using a nationally representative sample of young adults, I identify the family-demographic correlates of sexual orientation in men and women. Hence, I test the maternal immune hypothesis, which posits that the only biodemographic correlate of male homosexuality is the number of older brothers, and there are no biodemographic correlates of female homosexuality. For men, I find that having one older brother does not raise the likelihood of homosexuality. Although having multiple older brothers has a positive coefficient, it is not significant. Moreover, having any older sisters lowers the likelihood of homosexual or bisexual identity. For women, I find that having an older brother or having any sisters decreases the likelihood of homosexuality. Family structure, ethnicity, and education are also significantly correlated with male and female sexual orientation. Therefore, the maternal immune hypothesis cannot explain the entire pattern of family-demographic correlates. The findings are consistent with either biological or social theories of sexual orientation.

  1. Missing data in substance abuse research? Researchers' reporting practices of sexual orientation and gender identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flentje, Annesa; Bacca, Cristina L; Cochran, Bryan N

    2015-02-01

    Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender individuals are at higher risk for substance use and substance use disorders than heterosexual individuals and are more likely to seek substance use treatment, yet sexual orientation and gender identity are frequently not reported in the research literature. The purpose of this study was to identify if sexual orientation and gender identity are being reported in the recent substance use literature, and if this has changed over time. The PsycINFO and PubMed databases were searched for articles released in 2007 and 2012 using the term "substance abuse" and 200 articles were randomly selected from each time period and database. Articles were coded for the presence or absence of sexual orientation and gender identity information. Participants' sexual orientation was reported in 3.0% and 4.9% of the 2007 and 2.3% and 6.5% of the 2012 sample, in PsycINFO and PubMed sample articles, respectively, while non-binary gender identity was reported in 0% and 1.0% of the 2007 sample and 2.3% and 1.9% of the 2012 PsycINFO and PubMed sample articles. There were no differences in rates of reporting over time. Sexual orientation and gender identity are rarely reported in the substance abuse literature, and there has not been a change in reporting practices between 2007 and 2012. Recommendations for future investigators in reporting sexual orientation and gender identity are included. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Exploring judgement and internal bias of Life Orientation teachers in sexuality teaching

    OpenAIRE

    Eben H. Swanepoel; Christa Beyers; Lizette De Wet

    2017-01-01

    There are various challenges in the teaching of sexuality within a South African multicultural context, as there is no uniform knowledge across learner backgrounds. As such, teachings often revert to the teacher’s beliefs, in order to create meaning within the uncertainty, at the expense of the individual learners’ personal identity formation. This paper explores the teachers’ internal bias and its subsequent influence on the teaching of alternative sexualities in Life Orientation classes. Th...

  3. Sexual orientation, substance use behaviors and substance dependence in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Sean Esteban; Hughes, Tonda L.; Bostwick, Wendy B.; West, Brady T.; Boyd, Carol J.

    2009-01-01

    Aims To assess past-year prevalence rates of substance use behaviors and substance dependence across three major dimensions of sexual orientation (identity, attraction, and behavior) in a large national sample of adult women and men in the United States. Design Data were collected from structured diagnostic face-to-face interviews using the Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule DSM-IV Version (AUDADIS-IV). Setting Prevalence estimates were based on data collected from the 2004–2005 (Wave 2) National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). Participants A large national sample of 34,653 adults aged 20 years and older: 52% female, 71% White, 12% Hispanic, 11% African American, 4% Asian, and 2% Native American or other racial/ethnic categories. Findings Approximately 2% of the sample self-identified as lesbian, gay or bisexual; 4% reported at least one lifetime same-sex sexual partner, and 6% reported same-sex sexual attraction. Although non-heterosexual orientation was generally associated with a higher risk of substance use and substance dependence, the majority of sexual minority respondents did not report substance use or meet criteria for DSM-IV substance dependence. There was considerable variation in substance use outcomes across sexual orientation dimensions; these variations were more pronounced among women than among men. Conclusions Results support previous research findings of heightened risk of substance use and substance dependence among some sexual minority groups and point to the need for research that examines reasons for such differences. Results also highlight important gender differences and question previous findings indicating uniformly higher risk for substance dependence among sexual minorities. Risks appear to vary based on gender and how sexual orientation is defined. Findings have implications for prevention and intervention efforts that more effectively target subgroups at greatest

  4. The Pedagogy of Marking: Addressing Sexual Orientation in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yescavage, Karen; Alexander, Jonathan

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the benefits of marking sexual identities (as heterosexual, homosexual, or bisexual) in the classroom, exposing students' hetero-normativity, and alerting them to ways in which seemingly "personal" lives are shaped by the political. Relates the authors' classroom experiences in trying to illustrate the socially-constructed aspects of…

  5. Suicidal ideation among young French adults: association with occupation, family, sexual activity, personal background and drug use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legleye, S; Beck, F; Peretti-Watel, P; Chau, N; Firdion, J M

    2010-06-01

    To assess associations among young adults between suicidal ideation in the previous year and adverse childhood events, occupation, education, tobacco use, alcohol abuse, cannabis use in the previous month, illicit drug use, sexual orientation and activity, depression, physical violence in the previous year, and lifetime forced sexual intercourse. A subsample of 4075 French adults aged 18-30 years was drawn from a random national telephone survey in 2005. Major depressive episode and alcohol abuse were assessed using CIDI-SF and AUDIT-C (score above 4). Data were analysed with logistic regressions. Suicidal ideation affected 5.7% of men and 4.9% of women. Among men depression had the highest adjusted odds ratio (ORa=8.06, 5.07-12.79), followed by homosexual intercourse (3.37, 1.62-7.04), absence of sexual activity (2.83, 1.80-4.44); ORa between 1.6 and 2.0 were observed for living alone, daily tobacco smoking, being unemployed, serious health event concerning the father, age 26-30 and bad relationships between parents. Among women, depression had the highest ORa (7.60, 4.70-12.29), followed by lifetime experience of forced sexual intercourse (5.37, 2.89-9.96), having consumed illicit drugs other than cannabis (4.01, 1.48-10.89); ORa between 1.7 and 2.5 were observed for living alone, being unemployed, bad relationship between parents and age 26-30. Cross-sectional survey, sexual orientation inferred from sexual activity. Suicide prevention should integrate the fact that besides depression, unemployment, family history, age, and sexual activity and orientation are specific risk factors among men, whereas illicit drug use, violence and forced sexual intercourse are more important among women. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Sexual orientation disparities in cancer-related risk behaviors of tobacco, alcohol, sexual behaviors, and diet and physical activity: pooled Youth Risk Behavior Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosario, Margaret; Corliss, Heather L; Everett, Bethany G; Reisner, Sari L; Austin, S Bryn; Buchting, Francisco O; Birkett, Michelle

    2014-02-01

    We examined sexual orientation disparities in cancer-related risk behaviors among adolescents. We pooled data from the 2005 and 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Surveys. We classified youths with any same-sex orientation as sexual minority and the remainder as heterosexual. We compared the groups on risk behaviors and stratified by gender, age ( 14 years), and race/ethnicity. Sexual minorities (7.6% of the sample) reported more risk behaviors than heterosexuals for all 12 behaviors (mean = 5.3 vs 3.8; P sexual orientation disparities in analyses by gender, followed by age, and then race/ethnicity; they persisted in analyses by gender, age, and race/ethnicity, although findings were nuanced. Data on cancer risk, morbidity, and mortality by sexual orientation are needed to track the potential but unknown burden of cancer among sexual minorities.

  7. Biological origins of sexual orientation and gender identity: Impact on health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hanlan, Katherine A; Gordon, Jennifer C; Sullivan, Mackenzie W

    2018-04-01

    Gynecologic Oncologists are sometimes consulted to care for patients who present with diverse gender identities or sexual orientations. Clinicians can create more helpful relationships with their patients if they understand the etiologies of these diverse expressions of sexual humanity. Multidisciplinary evidence reveals that a sexually dimorphic spectrum of somatic and neurologic anatomy, traits and abilities, including sexual orientation and gender identity, are conferred together during the first half of pregnancy due to genetics, epigenetics and the diversity of timing and function of sex chromosomes, sex-determining protein secretion, gonadal hormone secretion, receptor levels, adrenal function, maternally ingested dietary hormones, fetal health, and many other factors. Multiple layers of evidence confirm that sexual orientation and gender identity are as biological, innate and immutable as the other traits conferred during that critical time in gestation. Negative social responses to diverse orientations or gender identities have caused marginalization of these individuals with resultant alienation from medical care, reduced self-care and reduced access to medical care. The increased risks for many diseases, including gynecologic cancers are reviewed. Gynecologic Oncologists can potentially create more effective healthcare relationships with their patients if they have this information. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Men's sexual orientation and suicide: evidence for U.S. adolescent-specific risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Stephen T; Toomey, Russell B

    2012-02-01

    There is strong consensus in the research literature that adolescent and adult men who report same-sex sexual orientations, identities, and behaviors are at higher risk for suicide. Recent studies of general adolescent suicide risk have identified developmental trajectories that peak during the teenage years. Because the adolescent years are characterized by the development and heightened awareness of gender roles and sexual scripts closely tied to dominant cultural ideals of masculinity and heterosexuality, an adolescent-focused developmental trajectory for suicide risk might be particularly relevant for males with adolescent same-sex sexual orientations. We provide the first prospective examination of adolescent-specific risk for suicidality based on adolescent same-sex sexual orientation using data from the United States, the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Tracing suicide ideation and attempts across four assessments from adolescence (Wave 1 average age 15.3 years) to young adulthood (Wave 4 average age 28.2), we documented that the risk for suicidal thoughts and attempts for adolescent same-sex attracted males is developmental in nature. Specifically, the risk for suicidal thoughts and attempts for males with same-sex attractions is largely limited to the adolescent years. These results offer new insights for suicide prevention and intervention for male adolescents and adults with same-sex sexual orientations. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Violence as Mediating Variable in Mental Health Disparities Associated to Sexual Orientation Among Mexican Youths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Pérez, Juan Carlos; Ortiz-Hernández, Luis

    2018-01-05

    In this study, we explored the role of sex as an effect-modifying variable in the association between sexual orientation and mental health in Mexican youth. In addition, we tested if violent experiences in the family and the school and attitudes toward homosexuality could act as mediating variables in such association. Data from three representative surveys performed in 2007, 2009, and 2013 among Mexican high school students were analyzed. Two dimensions of sexual orientation were evaluated: romantic partnership and sexual behavior. The outcomes were negative and positive mood, suicidal ideation and intent, self-concept, and self-esteem. There were differences by gender because in males, there were more disparities in mental health associated with sexual orientation (suicidal ideation and attempt, negative and positive mood, negative self-concept, and family-related self-esteem) than in females (suicidal ideation and negative mood). Experiences of school violence were mediators in the relationship between sexual orientation and most health outcomes in males.

  10. Sexual-orientation differences in drinking patterns and use of drinking contexts among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulter, Robert W S; Marzell, Miesha; Saltz, Robert; Stall, Ron; Mair, Christina

    2016-03-01

    Evidence suggests there are important sexual-orientation differences in alcohol consumption, particularly among women. Little is known about where gay/lesbian and bisexual college students drink or differences in drinking patterns derived from graduated frequency measures between heterosexual, gay/lesbian, and bisexual students. The goal of this analysis was to examine patterns of alcohol consumption-including drinking prevalence, quantity, frequency, and contexts of use-by sexual orientation. Data on sexual identity, gender, drinking behaviors, and drinking contexts were examined from repeated cross-sectional samples of undergraduate students attending 14 public California universities from 2003-2011 (n=58,903). Multivariable statistical techniques were employed to examine sexual-orientation differences stratified by gender. Gay males, lesbians, and bisexual females were significantly more likely to report drinking alcohol in the current semester than their same-gender heterosexual peers (relative risks ranged from 1.07 to 1.10, p-values sexual-orientation differences in drinking patterns and use of drinking contexts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Sexual orientation and diurnal cortisol patterns in a cohort of U.S. young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, S Bryn; Rosario, Margaret; McLaughlin, Katie A; Roberts, Andrea L; Gordon, Allegra R; Sarda, Vishnudas; Missmer, Stacey; Anatale-Tardiff, Laura; Scherer, Emily A

    2016-07-01

    Sexual minorities in the United States are at elevated risk of bullying, discrimination, and violence victimization, all stressors that have been linked to psychological and behavioral stress responses including depressive and anxious symptoms and substance use. Acute and chronic stressors may also elicit physiologic stress responses, including changes in the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis. Few studies, however, have examined the relationship between minority sexual orientation and diurnal cortisol patterns. The present study included 1670 young adults ages 18-32 years (69% female, 31% male) from the Growing Up Today Study, a prospective cohort of U.S. youth. Participants provided five saliva samples over one day to estimate diurnal cortisol patterns. Sexual orientation groups included: completely heterosexual with no same-sex partners (referent), completely heterosexual with same-sex partners/mostly heterosexual, and gay/lesbian/bisexual. Covariates included perceived stress and stressful life events in the past month. Sex-stratified multilevel models of log-transformed cortisol values were used to model diurnal cortisol patterns, and generalized estimating equations were used to model area under the curve (AUC), both with respect to ground (AUCg) and increase (AUCi). Among females, sexual minorities reported significantly more stressful life events in the past month than their heterosexual counterparts. In adjusted multilevel models, sexual orientation was not significantly associated with diurnal cortisol patterns or with AUCg or AUCi in either females or males. There were no significant interactions between sexual orientation and stressful life events. Time-varying negative mood was significantly associated with higher cortisol levels across the day for both female and male participants, after adjusting for all covariates. This study from a large cohort of U.S. young adults did not detect a relationship between sexual

  12. Retrospective Recall of Sexual Orientation Identity Development Among Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzo, Jerel P.; Antonucci, Toni C.; Mays, Vickie M.; Cochran, Susan D.

    2011-01-01

    Although recent attention has focused on the likelihood that contemporary sexual minority youth (i.e., gay, lesbian, bisexual [GLB]) are “coming out” at younger ages, few studies have examined if early sexual orientation identity development is also present in older GLB cohorts. We analyze retrospective data on the timing of sexual orientation milestones in a sample of sexual minorities drawn from the California Quality of Life Surveys. Latent profile analysis of 1,260 GLB adults, ages 18-84 years identified three trajectories of development: Early (n = 951, milestones spanning ages 12 to 20), Middle (n = 239, milestones spanning ages 18 to 31), and Late (n = 70, milestones spanning ages 32 to 43). Motivated by previous research on variability in adolescent developmental trajectories, post-hoc analyses of the Early Profile group identified two sub-groups: Child-Onset (n = 284, milestones spanning ages 8 to 18), and Teen-Onset (n = 667, milestones spanning ages 14 to 22). Nearly all patterns of development were identity-centered, with average age of self-identification as GLB preceding average age of first same-sex sexual activity. Overall, younger participants and the majority of older participants were classified to the Early Profile, suggesting that early development is common regardless of age cohort. The additional gender differences observed in the onset and pace of sexual orientation identity development warrant future research. PMID:21942662

  13. Concurrent polysubstance use in a longitudinal study of US youth: associations with sexual orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kecojevic, Aleksandar; Jun, Hee-Jin; Reisner, Sari L; Corliss, Heather L

    2017-04-01

    To estimate longitudinal associations between self-reported sexual orientation and past-year polysubstance use among youth, and test how gender, age and early onset of tobacco and alcohol use contributed to variation in polysubstance use. Longitudinal community-based cohort of US adolescents from the Growing Up Today Study (GUTS 1) (n = 16 873) followed from ages 12-29 years. United States of America. A total of 13 519 individuals (7839 females; 5680 males) who responded to at least one of five self-administered questionnaires from 1999 to 2010. Ninety-three per cent reported their race/ethnicity as non-Hispanic white. Multivariable repeated measures generalized estimating equations estimated relative risks (RRs) of concurrent polysubstance use (i.e. past 12-month use of three or more substances) comparing sexual orientation minority youth [i.e. mostly heterosexual (MH), bisexual (BI), gay/lesbian (GL)] to their same-gender, completely heterosexual (CH) counterparts. Mediation analyses tested whether early onset of tobacco and/or alcohol use explained relationships between sexual orientation and concurrent polysubstance use. Compared with their same-gender CH peers, sexual minorities evidenced higher risk for concurrent polysubstance use over all repeated measures [risk ratios (RRs) for sexual minority subgroups: from 1.63-2.91, P-values: sexual minorities and CHs were larger among females than males (P-values for sexual orientation × gender interactions were sexual orientation × age interactions were Sexual minorities' younger age of smoking and/or drinking initiation contributed to their elevated polysubstance use (% of effect explained was between 9.4-24.3, P-values: 0.04-Sexual minority youth in the United States, and in particular younger females, appear to be at disproportionate risk for concurrent past-year polysubstance use. Early onset of smoking and drinking may contribute to elevated risk of polysubstance use among sexual minorities. © 2016

  14. The impact of non-urologic drugs on sexual function in men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdinando Fusco

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Sexual dysfunctions have commonly been reported as the resulting side effects of many drugs. To understand the impact of a single drug, the mechanism of action of the most commonly prescribed drugs and the physiological mechanisms of sexual function have to be taken into dual consideration. Psychotropic drugs (Antidepressants, Antipsychotics and Antiepileptic in particular result in both short and long-term effects on sexual function. Antihypertensive drugs have also produced evidence certifying their role in determining sexual dysfunction. Patients affected with sexual dysfunction are often aged and assume several drugs and, while Iatrogenic sexual dysfunction is prevalent in men, urological drugs are not the only drugs to be held accountable. Many different drugs acting on different sites and with several mechanisms of action can induce sexual dysfunction. The drug classes involved are widely diffused and frequently assumed in combination therapies.

  15. Pregnancy and Sexual Health among Homeless Young Injection Drug Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathazi, Dodi; Lankenau, Stephen E.; Sanders, Bill; Bloom, Jennifer Jackson

    2009-01-01

    Research on pregnancy and sexual health among homeless youth is limited. In this study, qualitative interviews were conducted with 41 homeless young injection drug users (IDUs) in Los Angeles with a history of pregnancy. The relationship between recent pregnancy outcomes, contraception practices, housing status, substance use, utilization of…

  16. Sexual orientation and substance abuse treatment utilization in the United States: results from a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Sean Esteban; West, Brady T; Hughes, Tonda L; Boyd, Carol J

    2013-01-01

    This study examined substance abuse treatment utilization across three dimensions of sexual orientation (identity, attraction, and behavior) in a large national sample of adults in the United States. Prevalence estimates were based on data collected from the 2004-2005 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. The sample consisted of 34,653 adults 20 years and older, and represented a population that was 52% women, 71% White, 12% Hispanic, 11% African American, 4% Asian, and 2% other race/ethnicities. An estimated 2% of the target population self-identified as lesbian, gay or bisexual; 4% reported same-sex sexual behavior, and 6% reported same-sex sexual attraction. Sexual minorities, especially women, had a greater likelihood of lifetime substance use disorders and earlier age of drinking onset. The majority of respondents with substance use disorders were untreated and lifetime substance abuse treatment utilization differed based on sexual orientation. Sexual minorities were found to have more extensive family histories of substance abuse problems. The findings indicate the underutilization of substance abuse treatment among all adults, and highlight some important factors to consider when working with sexual minorities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Sexual Orientation and Substance Abuse Treatment Utilization in the United States: Results from a National Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Sean Esteban; West, Brady T.; Hughes, Tonda L.; Boyd, Carol J.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined substance abuse treatment utilization across three dimensions of sexual orientation (identity, attraction, behavior) in a large national sample of adults in the United States. Prevalence estimates were based on data collected from the 2004–2005 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. The sample consisted of 34,653 adults aged 20 years and older: 52% women, 71% White, 12% Hispanic, 11% African American, 4% Asian, and 2% other race/ethnicities. Approximately 2% of the sample self-identified as lesbian, gay or bisexual; 4% reported same-sex sexual behavior, and 6% reported same-sex sexual attraction. Sexual minorities, especially women, had a greater likelihood of lifetime substance use disorders and earlier age of drinking onset. The majority of respondents with substance use disorders were untreated and lifetime substance abuse treatment utilization differed based on sexual orientation. Sexual minorities were found to have more extensive family history of substance abuse problems. The findings indicate the underutilization of substance abuse treatment among all adults, and highlight some important factors to consider when working with sexual minorities. PMID:22444421

  18. Sexual Behavior, Sexual Attraction, and Sexual Orientation Among Adults Aged 18-44 in the United States: Data From the 2011-2013 National Survey of Family Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copen, Casey E; Chandra, Anjani; Febo-Vazquez, Isaedmarie

    2016-01-07

    This report provides national estimates of sexual behavior, sexual attraction, and sexual orientation among women and men aged 18-44 in the United States, based on the 2011-2013 National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG). Data for the 2011-2013 NSFG were collected through in-person interviews with 10,416 women and men aged 15-44 in the household population in the United States. In this report, data are shown only for 9,175 adults aged 18-44. The data presented in this report were primarily collected using audio computer-assisted self-interviewing, in which the respondent enters his or her answers into the computer without telling them to an interviewer. The overall response rate for the 2011-2013 NSFG was 72.8%. Regarding opposite-sex sexual behavior, 94.2% of women and 92.0% of men aged 18-44 had ever had vaginal intercourse; 86.2% of women and 87.4% of men had ever had oral sex; and 35.9% of women and 42.3% of men had ever had anal sex. Almost three times as many women (17.4%) reported any same-sex contact in their lifetime compared with men (6.2%) aged 18-44. Feelings of attraction "only to the opposite sex" were more common for men (92.1%) compared with women (81.0%) aged 18-44. Among those aged 18-44, 92.3% of women and 95.1% of men said they were "heterosexual or straight"; 1.3% of women and 1.9% of men said they were "homosexual, gay, or lesbian"; 5.5% of women and 2.0% of men said they were bisexual; and 0.9% of women and 1.0% of men said "don't know" or "refused" (i.e., "did not report") on sexual orientation. Sexual attraction and sexual orientation correlate closely but not completely with reports of sexual behavior. Sexual behavior, sexual attraction, and sexual orientation vary by age, marital or cohabiting status, education, and race and Hispanic origin. All material appearing in this report is in the public domain and may be reproduced or copied without permission; citation as to source, however, is appreciated.

  19. Suicide Acceptability and Sexual Orientation: Results from the General Social Survey 2008-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blosnich, John R; Lytle, Megan C; Coulter, Robert W S; Whitfield, Darren L

    2017-11-07

    Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals have higher prevalence of lifetime suicide ideation and attempt than their heterosexual peers, but less is known about differences in suicide acceptability (i.e., believing suicide is a viable answer to a problem). The purpose of this study was to examine if LGB adults had greater suicide acceptability than heterosexual adults. A total of 4 items in the General Social Surveys from 2008 to 2014 assessed whether a nationally representative sample of U.S. adult respondents (n = 5,037) thought it acceptable for individuals to kill themselves if one: goes bankrupt, dishonors their family, is tired of living, or has an incurable disease. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to assess the association of sexual orientation with suicide acceptability items after adjusting for confounding factors. Compared with heterosexuals, lesbians/gays had higher odds of reporting suicide acceptability if one goes bankrupt (OR = 1.92; 95% CI: 1.06, 3.46), dishonors family (OR = 1.83; 95% CI: 1.01, 3.28), or is tired of living (OR = 2.25; 95% CI: 1.30, 3.90). Bisexual and heterosexual groups were largely similar across the 4 suicide acceptability items. No sexual orientation differences were observed for reporting acceptability of suicide in the instance of an incurable disease. Post hoc analyses revealed significant interactions between sex and sexual orientation, such that differences in suicide acceptability seemed to be driven by sexual minority women rather than by sexual minority men. Suicide acceptability differs by sexual orientation, and community-level interventions around changing norms about suicide may be a prevention strategy for sexual minority individuals.

  20. Genetic Influences on Adolescent Sexual Behavior: Why Genes Matter for Environmentally-Oriented Researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, K. Paige

    2013-01-01

    There are dramatic individual differences among adolescents in how and when they become sexually active adults, and “early” sexual activity is frequently cited as a cause of concern for scientists, policymakers, and the general public. Understanding the causes and developmental impact of adolescent sexual activity can be furthered by considering genes as a source of individual differences. Quantitative behavioral genetics (i.e., twin and family studies) and candidate gene association studies now provide clear evidence for the genetic underpinnings of individual differences in adolescent sexual behavior and related phenotypes. Genetic influences on sexual behavior may operate through a variety of direct and indirect mechanisms, including pubertal development, testosterone levels, and dopaminergic systems. Genetic differences may be systematically associated with exposure to environments that are commonly treated as causes of sexual behavior (gene-environment correlation). Possible gene-environment correlations pose a serious challenge for interpreting the results of much behavioral research. Multivariate, genetically-informed research on adolescent sexual behavior compares twins and family members as a form of “quasi-experiment”: How do twins who differ in their sexual experiences differ in their later development? The small but growing body of genetically-informed research has already challenged dominant assumptions regarding the etiology and sequelae of adolescent sexual behavior, with some studies indicating possible positive effects of teenage sexuality. Studies of gene × environment interaction may further elucidate the mechanisms by which genes and environments combine to shape the development of sexual behavior and its psychosocial consequences. Overall, the existence of heritable variation in adolescent sexual behavior has profound implications for environmentally-oriented theory and research. PMID:23855958

  1. Social Networks and Sexual Orientation Disparities in Tobacco and Alcohol Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzenbuehler, Mark L; McLaughlin, Katie A; Xuan, Ziming

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine whether the composition of social networks contributes to sexual orientation disparities in substance use and misuse. Method: Data were obtained from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), a nationally representative cohort study of adolescents (N = 20,745). Wave 1 collected extensive information about the social networks of participants through peer nomination inventories. Results: Same- and both-sex–attracted youths had higher frequency/quantity of tobacco use in their peer networks than did opposite-sex–attracted youths, and both-sex–attracted youths had higher frequency/quantity of alcohol use and misuse in their peer networks than opposite-sex–attracted youths. Among same- and both-sex–attracted youths, greater frequency/quantity of tobacco use in one’s social network predicted greater use of cigarettes. In addition, greater frequency/quantity of peers’ drinking and drinking to intoxication predicted more alcohol use and alcohol misuse in the both-sex–attracted group. These social network factors mediated sexual orientation–related disparities in tobacco use for both- and same-sex–attracted youths. Moreover, sexual orientation disparities in alcohol misuse were mediated by social network characteristics for the same-sex and both-sex–attracted youths. Importantly, sexual minority adolescents were no more likely to have other sexual minorities in their social networks than were sexual majority youths, ruling out an alternative explanation for our results. Conclusions: These findings highlight the importance of social networks as correlates of substance use behaviors among sexual minority youths and as potential pathways explaining sexual orientation disparities in substance use outcomes. PMID:25486400

  2. 16 CFR 316.4 - Requirement to place warning labels on commercial electronic mail that contains sexually oriented...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... commercial electronic mail that contains sexually oriented material. 316.4 Section 316.4 Commercial Practices... place warning labels on commercial electronic mail that contains sexually oriented material. (a) Any person who initiates, to a protected computer, the transmission of a commercial electronic mail message...

  3. South African life orientation teachers: (not) teaching about sexuality diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePalma, Renée; Francis, Dennis

    2014-01-01

    Although South Africa is one of the most progressive countries in the world in terms of constitutional and legislative rights for LGBT individuals, education is one of many social arenas where these ideals are not carried out. Interviews with 25 practicing teachers revealed very little description of practice, but widely divergent understandings around sexual diversity that drew on various authoritative discourses, including religious teachings, educational policy, science, and the powerful human rights framework of the South African constitution. Implications for teacher education include directly engaging with these discourses and providing training, teaching materials, and practical guidelines based on existing policy.

  4. Sexual differentiation of the human brain: Relation to gender identity, sexual orientation and neuropsychiatric disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bao, Ai-Min; Swaab, Dick F.

    2011-01-01

    During the intrauterine period a testosterone surge masculinizes the fetal brain, whereas the absence of such a surge results in a feminine brain. As sexual differentiation of the brain takes place at a much later stage in development than sexual differentiation of the genitals, these two processes

  5. Sexual Orientation, Gender Identity, and Romantic Relationships in Adolescents and Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewinter, J.; De Graaf, H.; Begeer, S.

    2017-01-01

    This study compared sexual orientation and romantic relationship experience in a large sample of adolescents and adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (n = 675) and general population peers (n = 8064). Gender identity was explored in the ASD group in relation to assigned gender at birth. Compared to general population peers, more people with…

  6. Sexual orientation, gender identity, and romantic relationships in adolescents and adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dewinter, J.; De Graaf, H.; Begeer, S.

    2017-01-01

    This study compared sexual orientation and romantic relationship experience in a large sample of adolescents and adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (n = 675) and general population peers (n = 8064). Gender identity was explored in the ASD group in relation to assigned gender at birth.

  7. Gay Acres: Sexual Orientation Differences in Health Indicators Among Rural and Non-rural Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Grant W.; Blosnich, John R.; Jabson, Jennifer M.; Matthews, Derrick D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Geographic location is a significant factor that influences health status and health disparities. Yet, little is known about the relationship between geographic location and health and health disparities among lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) persons. This study used a US population-based sample to evaluate the associations of sexual orientation with health indicators by rural/non-rural residence. Methods Data were pooled from the 10 states that collected sexual orientation in the 2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) surveys. Rural status was defined using metropolitan statistical area (MSA), and group differences by sexual orientation were stratified by gender and rural/non-rural status. Chi-square tests for categorical variables were used to assess bivariate relationships. Multivariable logistic regression models stratified by gender and rural/non-rural status were used to assess the association of sexual orientation to health indicators, while adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, education, and partnership status. All analyses were weighted to adjust for the complex sampling design. Findings Significant differences between LGB and heterosexual participants emerged for several health indicators, with bisexuals having a greater number of differences than gay men/lesbians. There were fewer differences in health indicators for rural LGB participants compared to heterosexuals than non-rural participants. Conclusions Rural residence appears to influence the pattern of LGB health disparities. Future work is needed to confirm and identify the exact etiology or rural/non-rural differences in LGB health. PMID:26625172

  8. Virginia – Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity Law and Documentation of Discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Sears, Brad

    2009-01-01

    No Virginia statute prohibits employment discrimination based on sexual orientation or gender identity. State employees cannot enroll their partners in their workplace insurance plans. In fact, Virginia is the only state to forbid even private companies, unless self-insured, from extending health insurance benefits to unmarried couples.

  9. Minority stress and mental health among Dutch LGBs: examination of differences between sex and sexual orientation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuyper, L.; Fokkema, C.M.

    2011-01-01

    Minority stress is often cited as an explanation for greater mental health problems among lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals than heterosexual individuals. However, studies focusing on sex or sexual orientation differences in level of minority stress and its impact on mental health are

  10. Minority Stress and Mental Health among Dutch LGBs: Examination of Differences between Sex and Sexual Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuyper, Lisette; Fokkema, Tineke

    2011-01-01

    Minority stress is often cited as an explanation for greater mental health problems among lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals than heterosexual individuals. However, studies focusing on sex or sexual orientation differences in level of minority stress and its impact on mental health are scarce, even more so outside the United States.…

  11. The Influence of Sexual Orientation and Masculinity on Young Men's Tobacco Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachankis, John E.; Westmaas, J. Lee; Dougherty, Lea R.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The prevalence of smoking among gay men is considerably higher than in the general population. To investigate possible causes of this health risk disparity, this study used multilevel modeling of daily diary data to examine the temporal relationship between smoking and both sexual orientation concealment and masculine gender role…

  12. Sexual Orientation Discrimination in the European Union : National Laws and the Employment Equality Directive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waaldijk, C.; Bonini-Baraldi, M.T.

    2006-01-01

    Since 2003 the Employment Equality Directive (2000/78/EC) requires Member States of the European Union to prohibit sexual orientation discrimination in the field of employment. This book assesses to what degree the Directive’s requirements have been met by the twenty-seven Member States. The authors

  13. Gender Nonconformity of Identical Twins with Discordant Sexual Orientations: Evidence from Childhood Photographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Tuesday M.; Holmes, Luke; Raines, Jamie; Orbell, Sheina; Rieger, Gerulf

    2018-01-01

    Childhood gender nonconformity (femininity in males, masculinity in females) predicts a nonstraight (gay, lesbian, or bisexual) sexual orientation in adulthood. In previous work, nonstraight twins reported more childhood gender nonconformity than their genetically identical, but straight, cotwins. However, self-reports could be biased. We…

  14. Sissies, Faggots, Lezzies, and Dykes: Gender, Sexual Orientation, and a New Politics of Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugg, Catherine A.

    2003-01-01

    Seeks to chart a course through the contested area of gender and sexual orientation in hopes of establishing a theoretical framework and an agenda for much needed future research. Draws from two research traditions, particularly in the areas of history and law: neo-Marxist theory generally and Queer Legal Theory specifically. (Contains 161…

  15. Sexual Orientation Microaggressions: "Death by a Thousand Cuts" for Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadal, Kevin L.; Issa, Marie-Anne; Leon, Jayleen; Meterko, Vanessa; Wideman, Michelle; Wong, Yinglee

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a growth of literature examining the mental health impacts of microaggressions, which are defined as subtle forms of discrimination toward oppressed groups. The current study utilized a qualitative focus group method and directed content analysis to categorize several types of sexual orientation microaggressions…

  16. Life Orientation Sexuality Education in South Africa: Gendered Norms, Justice and Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shefer, Tamara; Macleod, Catriona

    2015-01-01

    Research on sexual practices among young South Africans has proliferated in light of the national imperatives to challenge the spread of HIV/AIDS, gender-based violence and unwanted early pregnancies. In this special issue of "Perspectives in Education" the authors builds on this research by examining how Life Orientation (LO) or Life…

  17. Negotiating Race and Sexual Orientation in the College Choice Process of Black Gay Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squire, Dian D.; Mobley, Steve D., Jr.

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the college choice process for Black gay males and what factors played significant roles in why they chose to attend either HBCUs or PWIs. Findings revealed that these students considered race and sexual orientation in different ways when deciding to attend either an HBCU or PWI. Implications for high school counselors and…

  18. A Model for Sexual Orientation Education at a Religiously Affiliated Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkley, Evelyn A.; Getz, Cheryl

    2007-01-01

    This study develops a model for sexual orientation education at a religiously affiliated university that both respects the university's mission and promotes respect for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgendered individuals. This model fosters the ethical school as described by Robert Starratt, embracing diversity, promoting justice and caring, and…

  19. Evidence against a relationship between dermatoglyphic asymmetry and male sexual orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forastieri, Válter; Andrade, Cristiane Pinto; Souza, Adriana Lima V; Silva, Monica Santana; El-Hani, Charbel Niño; Moreira, Lília Maria de Azevedo; Mott, Luiz Roberto de Barros; Flores, Renato Zamora

    2002-12-01

    Hall and Kimura (1994) studied the relation between dermatoglyphic asymmetry and male sexual orientation in a sample of 66 homosexual and 182 heterosexual men. They found that more homosexual men possessed a leftward dermatoglyphic asymmetry than did heterosexual men. In this paper, we report a comparative study about the relationship between sexual orientation and dermatoglyphic characteristics, including 60 homosexual men, 76 heterosexual men, and 60 heterosexual women, recruited from the general population, and also from a gay-rights nongovernmental organization, in Salvador, Brazil. Ulnar loops were the most frequent dermatoglyphic pattern in all groups, followed by whorls, arches, and radial loops. A chi-square analysis comparing the frequencies of the patterns in the three groups only showed an excess of ulnar loops in women (p differences between homosexuals and the other groups studied. There was no significant difference between gay and straight men on total ridge count. We found a preponderance of rightward asymmetry in homosexual and heterosexual men, as well as in heterosexual women. Our results do not agree with Hall and Kimura's data indicating that more gay men possessed the minority leftward asymmetry than did straight men. There was no significant difference in leftward asymmetry in the sample studied. The results reported in this paper do not support any relation between dermatoglyphic asymmetry and male sexual orientation, and, thus, any hypothesis concerning a biological intrauterine contribution to adult sexual orientation somehow associated with dermatoglyphic development.

  20. Extreme right-handedness, older brothers, and sexual orientation in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogaert, Anthony F

    2007-01-01

    Two of the most consistent correlates of sexual orientation in men are handedness and fraternal birth order (i.e., number of older brothers). In the present study, the relationship among handedness, older brothers, and sexual orientation was studied in 4 samples of heterosexual and gay or bisexual men (N = 944). Unlike previous studies, which have only observed an increased rate of non-right-handedness in gay or bisexual men relative to heterosexual men, an elevated rate of extreme right-handedness was found in gay or bisexual men relative to heterosexual men. The results also demonstrated that older brothers moderate the relationship between handedness and sexual orientation. Specifically, older brothers increase the odds of being gay or bisexual in moderate right-handers only; in both non-right-handers and extreme right-handers, older brothers do not affect (or decrease) the odds of being gay or bisexual. The results have implications for an early neurodevelopmental origin to sexual orientation in men. (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved.

  1. Research on Adolescent Sexual Orientation: Development, Health Disparities, Stigma, and Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saewyc, Elizabeth M.

    2011-01-01

    The decade between 1998 and 2008 saw rapid increases in research on adolescent sexual orientation development and related health issues, both in the quantity and in the quality of studies. While much of the research originated in North America, studies from other countries also contributed to emerging understanding of developmental trajectories…

  2. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for Self-Stigma around Sexual Orientation: A Multiple Baseline Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadavaia, James E.; Hayes, Steven C.

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of 6 to 10 sessions of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) for self-stigma around sexual orientation linked to same-sex attraction (what has generally been referred to as internalized homophobia; IH) in a concurrent multiple-baseline across-participants design. Three men and 2 women showed sizeable…

  3. An Exploratory Factor Analysis of the Sexual Orientation Counselor Competency Scale: Examining the Variable of Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Shainna; Lambie, Glenn; Bloom, Zachary D.

    2017-01-01

    The Sexual Orientation Counselor Competency Scale (SOCCS), developed by Bidell in 2005, measures counselors' levels of skills, awareness, and knowledge in assisting lesbian, gay, or bisexual (LGB) clients. In an effort to gain an increased understanding of the construct validity of the SOCCS, researchers performed an exploratory factor analysis on…

  4. Substance Use and Sexual Orientation among East and Southeast Asian Adolescents in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homma, Yuko; Chen, Weihong; Poon, Colleen S.; Saewyc, Elizabeth M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between substance use and sexual orientation among Asian adolescents in Canada. We analyzed an East- and Southeast-Asian subsample of a province-wide, school-based survey (weighted N = 51,349). Compared to heterosexual adolescents of the same gender, gay, lesbian, bisexual, and mostly…

  5. How Victimization, Climate, and Safety around Sexual Orientation and Gender Expression Relate to Truancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poteat, V. Paul; Berger, Christian; Dantas, Julio

    2017-01-01

    Victimization based on actual or perceived sexual orientation or gender expression (SOGE) carries significant consequences. In this study, we examined how SOGE-based victimization and contextual factors predicted truancy among 886 Chilean students (M[subscript age] = 16.00, SD = 1.30) in four high schools. Victimization predicted truancy…

  6. Responding to Issues of Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity in School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudy, Stewart

    2017-01-01

    It's hard not to notice how attitudes around sexual orientation and gender identity (SOGI) have changed over the past two decades. In this article, Stewart Rudy compares his time as a public school student to his time as a public school educator. Rudy questions whether improvement in the school system has translated into improved experiences for…

  7. Sexual Orientation Microaggressions: The Experience of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Queer Clients in Psychotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Kimber; Delgado-Romero, Edward A.

    2011-01-01

    Psychological research has shown the detrimental effects that overt heterosexism have on lesbian, gay, bisexual, and queer (LGBQ) clients and on the psychotherapeutic relationship. However, the effects of subtle forms of discrimination, specifically sexual orientation microaggressions, have on LGBQ clients and the therapeutic relationship have not…

  8. Perception of Sexual Orientation from Facial Structure: A Study with Artificial Face Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Álvarez, Julio

    2017-07-01

    Research has shown that lay people can perceive sexual orientation better than chance from face stimuli. However, the relation between facial structure and sexual orientation has been scarcely examined. Recently, an extensive morphometric study on a large sample of Canadian people (Skorska, Geniole, Vrysen, McCormick, & Bogaert, 2015) identified three (in men) and four (in women) facial features as unique multivariate predictors of sexual orientation in each sex group. The present study tested the perceptual validity of these facial traits with two experiments based on realistic artificial 3D face models created by manipulating the key parameters and presented to Spanish participants. Experiment 1 included 200 White and Black face models of both sexes. The results showed an overall accuracy (0.74) clearly above chance in a binary hetero/homosexual judgment task and significant differences depending on the race and sex of the face models. Experiment 2 produced five versions of 24 artificial faces of both sexes varying the key parameters in equal steps, and participants had to rate on a 1-7 scale how likely they thought that the depicted person had a homosexual sexual orientation. Rating scores displayed an almost perfect linear regression as a function of the parameter steps. In summary, both experiments demonstrated the perceptual validity of the seven multivariate predictors identified by Skorska et al. and open up new avenues for further research on this issue with artificial face models.

  9. "That's so Gay": Heterosexual Male Undergraduates and the Perpetuation of Sexual Orientation Microagressions on Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodford, Michael R.; Howell, Michael L.; Kulick, Alex; Silverschanz, Perry

    2013-01-01

    "That's so gay," a popular expression on campuses, is a sexual orientation microaggression that can contribute to a hostile environment for lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) students. Using data from a campus climate survey conducted at a large urban university, we investigated use of the phrase among heterosexual male undergraduates who…

  10. "Managing by Not Managing": How Gay Engineering Students Manage Sexual Orientation Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Bryce E.

    2017-01-01

    From a social constructivist paradigm I explored the experiences of 7 openly gay engineering students to understand how, if at all, they made sense of the intersections between their engineering and sexual orientation identities. By eliciting stories through individual and focus group interviews, a narrative approach allowed me to capture the…

  11. The Sexual Orientation of a Parent as a Factor when Considering Care

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The article will also address the question of whether or not the role of a parent's sexual orientation in determining the best interests of the child has changed since the common law concept of custody was replaced by the concept of care in the Children's Act. In this article, care and the best interests of the child will be ...

  12. Examining School Counseling Students' Multicultural and Sexual Orientation Competencies through a Cross-Specialization Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidell, Markus P.

    2012-01-01

    Professional school counselors have an opportunity to directly address the educational, emotional, and social problems facing lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and questioning youth. The purpose of this study was to examine the multicultural and sexual orientation counselor competencies of school counseling students through a…

  13. The Role of School Counselors in Addressing Sexual Orientation in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePaul, Jillian; Walsh, Mary E.; Dam, Uma C.

    2009-01-01

    Issues of sexual orientation are relevant to multiple levels of the school community, including students, school professionals, and schools as institutions. School counselors, with their developmental training, systems perspective, and commitment to diversity, are uniquely positioned to be leaders in efforts not only to provide support for…

  14. Coping styles as mediator of sexual orientation-related health differences.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sandfort, T.G.M.; Bakker, F.; Schellevis, F.; Vanwesenbeeck, I.

    2009-01-01

    The higher prevalence of health problems in homosexual compared to heterosexual populations is usually understood as a consequence of minority stress. We hypothesized that differential rates of health problems also could result from sexual orientation-related differences in coping styles. We

  15. Counselor Self-Disclosure: Does Sexual Orientation Matter to Straight Clients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Lynne; Gauler, Andy A.; Relph, Jason; Hutchinson, Kimberly S.

    2011-01-01

    The present investigation explores the impact of counselor self-disclosure of sexual orientation on self-identified heterosexuals. Two hundred and thirty-eight psychology undergraduate students read a short description of a counselor and one of eight versions of a counseling transcript. Transcripts were identical with the exception of the gender…

  16. "Keeping Things Straight": The Representation of Sexualities in Life Orientation Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilmot, Mark; Naidoo, Devika

    2014-01-01

    Heterosexism and heteronormativity are pervasive in the South African society, but to what degree are they present in Life Orientation (LO) textbooks? This question, explored through a content analysis of widely used Grade 10 LO textbooks, was framed by queer theory. The paper quantitatively examines the coverage of sexualities, and qualitatively…

  17. Sexual dysfunction related to drugs: a critical review. Part IV: cardiovascular drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Torre, A; Giupponi, G; Duffy, D; Conca, A; Catanzariti, D

    2015-01-01

    Sexual dysfunction is a potential side effect of cardiovascular drugs: this article is a critical review of the current literature. Many studies have been published on this topic. Most of these studies are not methodologically robust, few are RCTs and most did not use a validated rating scale to evaluate sexual functioning. In addition, other methodological flaws limit greatly the conclusions of these studies. Most studies relate to male populations and only a few have been conducted on women. Also, the majority of studies on sexual dysfunction induced by cardiovascular drugs relate to antihypertensive drugs. While there is evidence to suggest that older antihypertensive drugs (diuretics, beta-blockers, centrally acting agents) have a negative impact on erectile function, newer agents seem to have either neutral (ACE inhibitors, calcium antagonists) or beneficial effects (i. e., angiotensin receptor blockers, nebivolol). Other cardiovascular drugs analyzed in this review also appear to have an inhibitory action on sexual function. For men, there is some weak evidence supporting the use of specific treatment strategies for sexual dysfunction associated with these drugs. This study was conducted in 2014 using the paper and electronic resources of the library of the "Azienda Provinciale per i Servizi Sanitari (APSS)" in Trento, Italy (http://atoz.ebsco.com/Titles/2793). The library has access to a wide range of databases including DYNAMED, MEDLINE Full Text, CINAHL Plus Full Text, The Cochrane Library, Micromedex healthcare series, BMJ Clinical Evidence. The full list of available journals can be viewed at http://atoz.ebsco.com/Titles/2793 or at the APSS web site (http://www.apss.tn.it). In completing this review, a literature search was conducted using the key words "cardiovascular", "adrenergic beta antagonist", "α1-adrenoceptor antagonist", "angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor", "angiotensin receptor antagonist", "angiotensin receptor blocker", "beta blocker

  18. Sex and sexual orientation disparities in adverse childhood experiences and early age at sexual debut in the United States: Results from a nationally representative sample☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Monique J.; Masho, Saba W.; Perera, Robert A.; Mezuk, Briana; Cohen, Steven A.

    2015-01-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) have been linked to early sexual debut, which has been found to be associated with multiple adverse health outcomes. Sexual minorities and men tend to have earlier sexual debut compared to heterosexual populations and women, respectively. However, studies examining the association between ACEs and early sexual debut among men and sexual minorities are lacking. The aim of this study was to examine the sex and sexual orientation disparities in the association between ACEs and age at sexual debut. Data were obtained from Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Logistic and linear regression model were used to obtain crude and adjusted estimates and 95% confidence intervals adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, income, education, insurance and marital status for the association between ACEs (neglect, physical/psychological abuse, sexual abuse, parental violence, and parental incarceration and psychopathology) and early sexual debut. Analyses were stratified by sex and sexual orientation. Larger effect estimates depicting the association between ACEs and sexual debut were seen for women compared to men, and among sexual minorities, particularly among men who have sex with men (MSM) and women who have sex with women (WSW), compared to heterosexuals. Sexual health education programs with a focus on delaying sexual debut among children and adolescents should also consider addressing ACEs, such as neglect, physical, psychological and sexual abuse, witnessing parental violence, and parental incarceration and psychopathology. Public health practitioners, researchers and sexual health education curriculum coordinators should consider these differences by sex and sexual orientation when designing these programs. PMID:25804435

  19. Sex and sexual orientation disparities in adverse childhood experiences and early age at sexual debut in the United States: results from a nationally representative sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Monique J; Masho, Saba W; Perera, Robert A; Mezuk, Briana; Cohen, Steven A

    2015-08-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) have been linked to early sexual debut, which has been found to be associated with multiple adverse health outcomes. Sexual minorities and men tend to have earlier sexual debut compared to heterosexual populations and women, respectively. However, studies examining the association between ACEs and early sexual debut among men and sexual minorities are lacking. The aim of this study was to examine the sex and sexual orientation disparities in the association between ACEs and age at sexual debut. Data were obtained from Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Logistic and linear regression models were used to obtain crude and adjusted estimates and 95% confidence intervals adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, income, education, insurance and marital status for the association between ACEs (neglect, physical/psychological abuse, sexual abuse, parental violence, and parental incarceration and psychopathology) and early sexual debut. Analyses were stratified by sex and sexual orientation. Larger effect estimates depicting the association between ACEs and sexual debut were seen for women compared to men, and among sexual minorities, particularly among men who have sex with men (MSM) and women who have sex with women (WSW), compared to heterosexuals. Sexual health education programs with a focus on delaying sexual debut among children and adolescents should also consider addressing ACEs, such as neglect, physical, psychological and sexual abuse, witnessing parental violence, and parental incarceration and psychopathology. Public health practitioners, researchers and sexual health education curriculum coordinators should consider these differences by sex and sexual orientation when designing these programs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Minority stress and mental health among Dutch LGBs: examination of differences between sex and sexual orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuyper, Lisette; Fokkema, Tineke

    2011-04-01

    Minority stress is often cited as an explanation for greater mental health problems among lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals than heterosexual individuals. However, studies focusing on sex or sexual orientation differences in level of minority stress and its impact on mental health are scarce, even more so outside the United States. Performing secondary analyses on the data of a Dutch population study on sexual health, the present study examines the robustness of the minority stress model by explaining mental health problems among men and women with mostly or only same-sex sexual attraction, and men and women who are equally attracted to same-sex and opposite-sex partners in the "gay-friendly" Netherlands (N = 389; 118 gay men, 40 bisexual men, 184 lesbian women, and 54 bisexual women). Results showed that minority stress is also related to mental health of Dutch LGBs. Participants with a higher level of internalized homonegativity and those who more often encountered negative reactions from other people on their same-sex sexual attraction reported more mental health problems. Such negative reactions from others, however, had a stronger link with mental health among lesbian/gay than among bisexual participants. Openness about one's sexual orientation was related to better mental health among sexual minority women, but not among their male counterparts. Suggestions for future research, implications for counseling, and other societal interventions are discussed. 2011 APA, all rights reserved

  1. Insights into Sexual Precocity of Female Oriental River Prawn Macrobrachium nipponense through Transcriptome Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hongxia; Li, Xilian; Sun, Yuhang; Hou, Fujun; Zhang, Yufei; Li, Fei; Gu, Zhimin; Liu, Xiaolin

    2016-01-01

    Background The oriental river prawn (Macrobrachium nipponense) is the most prevalent aquaculture species in China. The sexual precocity in this species has received considerable attention in recent years because more and more individuals matured at a small size, which devalues the commercial production. In this study, we developed deep-coverage transcriptomic sequencing data for the ovaries of sexually precocious and normal sexually mature M. nipponense using next-generation RNA sequencing technology and attempted to provide the first insight into the molecular regulatory mechanism of sexual precocity in this species. Results A total of 63,336 unigenes were produced from the ovarian cDNA libraries of sexually precocious and normal sexually mature M. nipponense using Illumina HiSeq 2500 platform. Through BLASTX searches against the NR, STRING, Pfam, Swissprot and KEGG databases, 15,134 unigenes were annotated, accounting for 23.89% of the total unigenes. 5,195 and 3,227 matched unigenes were categorized by GO and COG analysis respectively. 15,908 unigenes were consequently mapped into 332 KEGG pathways, and many reproduction-related pathways and genes were identified. Moreover, 26,008 SSRs were identified from 18,133 unigenes. 80,529 and 80,516 SNPs were yielded from ovarian libraries of sexually precocious and normal sexually mature prawn, respectively, and 29,851 potential SNPs between these two groups were also predicted. After comparing the ovarian libraries of sexually precocious and normal sexually mature prawn, 549 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and 9 key DEGs that may be related to sexual precocity of M. nipponense were identified. 20 DEGs were selected for validation by quantitative real-time PCR (QPCR) and 19 DEGs show consistent expression between QPCR and RNAseq-based differential expression analysis datasets. Conclusion This is the first report on the large-scale RNA sequencing of ovaries of sexually precocious and normal sexually mature M

  2. Associations of discrimination and violence with smoking among emerging adults: differences by gender and sexual orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blosnich, John R; Horn, Kimberly

    2011-12-01

    Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (i.e., sexual minority) populations have higher smoking prevalence than their heterosexual peers, but there is a lack of empirical study into why such disparities exist. This secondary analysis of data sought to examine associations of discrimination and violence victimization with cigarette smoking within sexual orientation groups. Data from the Fall 2008 and Spring 2009 National College Health Assessments were truncated to respondents of 18-24 years of age (n = 92,470). Since heterosexuals comprised over 90% of respondents, a random 5% subsample of heterosexuals was drawn, creating a total analytic sample of 11,046. Smoking status (i.e., never-, ever-, and current smoker) was regressed on general (e.g., not sexual orientation-specific) measures of past-year victimization and discrimination. To examine within-group differences, two sets of multivariate ordered logistic regression analyses were conducted: one set of models stratified by sexual orientation and another set stratified by gender-by-sexual-orientation groups. Sexual minorities indicated more experiences of violence victimization and discrimination when compared with their heterosexual counterparts and had nearly twice the current smoking prevalence of heterosexuals. After adjusting for age and race, lesbians/gays who were in physical fights or were physically assaulted had higher proportional odds of being current smokers when compared with their lesbian/gay counterparts who did not experience those stressors. When possible, lesbian/gay and bisexual groups should be analyzed separately, as analyses revealed that bisexuals had a higher risk profile than lesbians/gays. Further research is needed with more nuanced measures of smoking (e.g., intensity), as well as examining if victimization may interact with smoking cessation.

  3. It is complicated: gender and sexual orientation identity in LGBTQ youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosse, Jordon D; Chiodo, Lisa

    2016-12-01

    To explore the variations of sexual orientation and gender identity as well as the intersections of those identities in a sample of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, and questioning youth. Identity development is a key task of adolescence. Among the multiple identities that young people navigate are sexual orientation and gender identity. Challenges with solidifying and integrating aspects of one's identity can contribute to poor physical and mental health outcomes. Cross-sectional descriptive survey. A convenience sample was recruited via collaborations with community organisations and Internet groups who provide information and services for LGBTQ youth under the age of 25. Of the 175 respondents, one-third of the sample reported a gender identity that was not congruent with their sex assigned at birth. Those assigned female sex at birth reported noncongruent gender identities as well as fluid and nonbinary identities such as genderqueer and agender more frequently that respondents assigned male at birth. Individuals with noncongruent gender identities were more likely to identify with a sexual orientation other than lesbian, gay or bisexual than individuals with gender identities congruent with their sex assigned at birth. Adolescent sexual orientation and gender identity are complex and nuanced. Nurse scientists and clinical nurses can contribute to understanding of these identities, their meaning to the young person and the unique health implications by regularly inquiring about sexual orientation and gender identity in their practice. Nurses in clinical practice need to be aware of the sometimes complicated nature of adolescent identity and its related terminology so that they can ask relevant questions and provide culturally safe care. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Emergency Department Query for Patient-Centered Approaches to Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity : The EQUALITY Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, Adil H; Schneider, Eric B; Kodadek, Lisa M; Adler, Rachel R; Ranjit, Anju; Torain, Maya; Shields, Ryan Y; Snyder, Claire; Schuur, Jeremiah D; Vail, Laura; German, Danielle; Peterson, Susan; Lau, Brandyn D

    2017-06-01

    The Institute of Medicine and The Joint Commission recommend routine documentation of patients' sexual orientation in health care settings. Currently, very few health care systems collect these data since patient preferences and health care professionals' support regarding collection of data about patient sexual orientation are unknown. To identify the optimal patient-centered approach to collect sexual orientation data in the emergency department (ED) in the Emergency Department Query for Patient-Centered Approaches to Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity study. An exploratory, sequential, mixed-methods design was used first to evaluate qualitative interviews conducted in the Baltimore, Maryland, and Washington, DC, areas. Fifty-three patients and 26 health care professionals participated in the qualitative interviews. Interviews were followed by a national online survey, in which 1516 (potential) patients (244 lesbian, 289 gay, 179 bisexual, and 804 straight) and 429 ED health care professionals (209 physicians and 220 nurses) participated. Survey participants were recruited using random digit dialing and address-based sampling techniques. Qualitative interviews were used to obtain the perspectives of patients and health care professionals on sexual orientation data collection, and a quantitative survey was used to gauge patients' and health care professionals' willingness to provide or obtain sexual orientation information. Mean (SD) age of patient and clinician participants was 49 (16.4) and 51 (9.4) years, respectively. Qualitative interviews suggested that patients were less likely to refuse to provide sexual orientation than providers expected. Nationally, 154 patients (10.3%) reported that they would refuse to provide sexual orientation; however, 333 (77.8%) of all clinicians thought patients would refuse to provide sexual orientation. After adjustment for demographic characteristics, only bisexual patients had increased odds of refusing to provide sexual

  5. OCCUPATION AND MORTALITY RELATED TO ALCOHOL DRUGS AND SEXUAL HABITS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coggon, David; Harris, E. Clare; Brown, Terry; Rice, Simon; Palmer, Keith T

    2011-01-01

    AIms To identify opportunities for targeted prevention, we explored differences in occupational mortality from diseases and injuries related to alcohol consumption, sexual habits and drug abuse. Methods Using data on all deaths among men and women aged 16-74 years in England and Wales during 1991-2000, we derived age- and social class-standardised proportional mortality ratios (PMRs) by occupation for cause of death categories defined a priori as potentially related to alcohol consumption, sexual habits or drug abuse. Results The highest mortality from alcohol-related diseases and injuries was observed in publicans and bar staff (both sexes), and in male caterers, cooks and kitchen porters, and seafarers. Male seafarers had significantly elevated PMRs for cirrhosis (179), “other alcohol-related diseases” (275), cancers of the liver (155), oral cavity (275) and pharynx (267), and injury by fall on the stairs (187). PMRs for HIV/AIDS were particularly high in tailors and dressmakers (918, 95%CI 369-1890, in men; 804, 95%CI 219-2060, in women) and male hairdressers (918, 95%CI 717-1160). Most jobs with high mortality from HIV/AIDS also had more deaths than expected from viral hepatitis. Of seven jobs with significantly high PMRs for both drug dependence and accidental poisoning by drugs, four were in the construction industry (male painters and decorators, bricklayers and masons, plasterers, and roofers and glaziers). Conclusions Our findings highlight major differences between occupations in mortality from diseases and injuries caused by alcohol, sexual habits and drug abuse. Priorities for preventive action include alcohol-related disorders in male seafarers and drug abuse in construction workers. PMID:20407041

  6. Occupation and mortality related to alcohol, drugs and sexual habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coggon, D; Harris, E C; Brown, T; Rice, S; Palmer, K T

    2010-08-01

    To identify opportunities for targeted prevention, we explored differences in occupational mortality from diseases and injuries related to alcohol consumption, sexual habits and drug abuse. Using data on all deaths among men and women aged 16-74 years in England and Wales during 1991-2000, we derived age- and social class-standardized proportional mortality ratios (PMRs) by occupation for cause of death categories defined a priori as potentially related to alcohol consumption, sexual habits or drug abuse. The highest mortality from alcohol-related diseases and injuries was observed in publicans and bar staff (both sexes) and in male caterers, cooks and kitchen porters and seafarers. Male seafarers had significantly elevated PMRs for cirrhosis (179), 'other alcohol-related diseases' (275), cancers of the liver (155), oral cavity (275) and pharynx (267) and injury by fall on the stairs (187). PMRs for human immunodeficiency virus infection (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) were particularly high in tailors and dressmakers (918, 95% CI: 369-1890, in men; 804, 95% CI: 219-2060, in women) and male hairdressers (918, 95% CI: 717-1160). Most jobs with high mortality from HIV/AIDS also had more deaths than expected from viral hepatitis. Of seven jobs with significantly high PMRs for both drug dependence and accidental poisoning by drugs, four were in the construction industry (male painters and decorators, bricklayers and masons, plasterers, and roofers and glaziers). Our findings highlight major differences between occupations in mortality from diseases and injuries caused by alcohol, sexual habits and drug abuse. Priorities for preventive action include alcohol-related disorders in male seafarers and drug abuse in construction workers.

  7. Brain activation-based sexual orientation in female-to-male transsexuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, T-H; Kim, G-W; Kim, S-K; Jeong, G-W

    2016-01-01

    This study was performed to identify the sexual orientation in association with brain activation pattern in response to visual erotic stimuli in female-to-male (FtM) transsexuals by using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Eleven FtM transsexuals who have had sex-reassignment surgery to alter their natal bodies with the gender-identity disorder were participated. Brain activation for sexual orientation was induced by visual stimuli with female and male erotic nude pictures compared with emotionally-neutral pictures. During viewing the erotic female pictures, the brain areas dominantly activated consist of the superior frontal gyrus, supplementary motor area, anterior/median cingulate gyri and hypothalamus, whereas during viewing male pictures, the brain areas with predominant activities were the middle frontal gyrus, precentral gyrus, middle temporal gyrus, fusiform gyrus, angular gyrus, precuneus, superior/middle occipital gyri, cerebellar cortex and vermis. These findings demonstrate that the brain activation patterns induced by viewing male or female erotic pictures show some correlation to the sexual orientation opposite to the genetic sex in FtM transsexuals. This study would be helpful to understand the neural mechanism associated with visual sexual arousal in patients with gender disorder.

  8. An examination of health inequities among college students by sexual orientation identity and sex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle R. Brittain

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB college students may have an increased number of health inequities compared to their heterosexual counterparts. However, to date, no research has provided a comprehensive examination of health-related factors by sexual orientation identity and sex among a national sample of college students. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine physical, sexual, interpersonal relations/safety, and mental health inequities by sexual orientation identity and sex among a national sample of college students. Design and methods. Participants (n=39,767 completed the National College Health Assessment II during the fall 2008/spring 2009 academic year. Hierarchical binary logistic regression analyses were used to examine health inequities by sexual orientation identity and sex. Results. LGB students compared to heterosexual students, experienced multiple health inequities including higher rates of being verbally threatened and lower rates of physical activity and condom use. Conclusions. An understanding of health inequities experienced by LGB college students is critical as during these years of transition, students engage in protective (e.g., physical activity and risky (e.g., lack of condom use health behaviours, establishing habits that could last a lifetime. Future research should be used to design and implement targeted public health strategies and policies to reduce health inequities and improve health-related quality of life among LGB college students.

  9. Drugs, alcohol and sexual health: opportunities to influence risk behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keaney Francis

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol and drug consumption can affect judgment and may contribute towards an increased likelihood of engaging in risky sexual behaviour. In this cross sectional survey of clients attending STI services levels of drug and alcohol use were assessed using two standardised drug and alcohol screening instruments (the PAT and the SDS. Findings The rates of hazardous alcohol consumption were similar to those found among patients attending A&E departments. Approximately 15% of clients indicated possible dependence on alcohol or other drugs, and these clients were likely to cite their substance use as related to their attendance, and to accept the offer of help or advice. Conclusion The use of brief screening instruments as part of routine clinical practice is recommended. The STI clinic is well placed to identify substance use and to offer advice and/or onward referral to specialist services.

  10. Sexual orientation disparities in mental health: the moderating role of educational attainment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, David M; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L; Hamilton, Ava D; Keyes, Katherine M

    2014-09-01

    Mental health disparities between sexual minorities and heterosexuals remain inadequately understood, especially across levels of educational attainment. The purpose of the present study was to test whether education modifies the association between sexual orientation and mental disorder. We compared the odds of past 12-month and lifetime psychiatric disorder prevalence (any Axis-I, any mood, any anxiety, any substance use, and comorbidity) between lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) and heterosexual individuals by educational attainment (those with and without a bachelor's degree), adjusting for covariates, and tested for interaction between sexual orientation and educational attainment. Data are drawn from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, a nationally representative survey of non-institutionalized US adults (N = 34,653; 577 LGB). Sexual orientation disparities in mental health are smaller among those with a college education. Specifically, the disparity in those with versus those without a bachelor's degree was attenuated by 100 % for any current mood disorder, 82 % for any current Axis-I disorder, 76 % for any current anxiety disorder, and 67 % for both any current substance use disorder and any current comorbidity. Further, the interaction between sexual orientation and education was statistically significant for any current Axis-I disorder, any current mood disorder, and any current anxiety disorder. Our findings for lifetime outcomes were similar. The attenuated mental health disparity at higher education levels underscores the particular risk for disorder among LGBs with less education. Future studies should consider selection versus causal factors to explain the attenuated disparity we found at higher education levels.

  11. Alcohol Outcomes by Sexual Orientation and Race/Ethnicity: Few Findings of Higher Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Paul A; Drabble, Laurie; Daniel-Ulloa, Jason; Trocki, Karen F

    2017-05-01

    This study sought to confirm a previously identified race by sexual orientation interaction and to clarify men's alcohol-related risk by using an expanded classification of sexual orientation. We collapsed three waves of National Alcohol Survey data, restricting the analytic sample to White (n = 5,689), Black (n = 1,237), and Latino (n = 1,549) men with complete information on sexual orientation and alcohol use. Using self-reported sexual identity and behavior, respondents were categorized as exclusively heterosexual (referent), behaviorally discordant heterosexuals (i.e., heterosexual identity and same-sex partners), or gay/bisexually identified men. We used multivariable logistic regression to model lifetime alcohol dependence symptoms, lifetime drinking-related consequences, and past-year hazardous drinking, controlling for age, education, employment, and relationship status and accounting for the complex survey design. There was no difference in risk of past-year hazardous drinking and lifetime drinking-related consequences between heterosexual, behaviorally discordant heterosexual, and gay/bisexual men, independent of race/ ethnicity. Among Black men, behaviorally discordant heterosexuals had three-fold higher odds of lifetime alcohol dependence symptoms than exclusively heterosexual peers (aOR = 3.30, 95% CI [1.19, 9.18], p = .02). Gay/bisexual Latino men had marginally significantly lower odds of lifetime alcohol dependence symptoms (aOR = 0.36, 95% CI [0.12, 1.03], p = .06). There is little support for broad statements of greater alcohol risk among gay/bisexual men; however, for some subgroups and outcomes the direction and degree of risk depend on race/ ethnicity. Thus, this study underscores the importance of considering the potential interaction of sexual orientation and race/ethnicity, which may exacerbate or attenuate.

  12. Sexual orientation and anabolic-androgenic steroids in U.S. adolescent boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blashill, Aaron J; Safren, Steven A

    2014-03-01

    We compared the lifetime prevalence of anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) misuse among sexual minority versus heterosexual U.S. adolescent boys, and secondarily, sought to explore possible intermediate variables that may explain prevalence differences. Participants were 17,250 adolescent boys taken from a pooled data set of the 14 jurisdictions from the 2005 and 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Surveys that assessed sexual orientation. Data were analyzed for overall prevalence of AAS misuse and possible intermediary risk factors. Sexual minority adolescent boys were at an increased odds of 5.8 (95% confidence interval 4.1-8.2) to report a lifetime prevalence of AAS (21% vs. 4%) compared with their heterosexual counterparts, P < .001. Exploratory analyses suggested that increased depressive symptoms/suicidality, victimization, and substance use contributed to this disparity. This is the first known study to test and find substantial health disparities in the prevalence of AAS misuse as a function of sexual orientation. Prevention and intervention efforts are needed for sexual minority adolescent boys.

  13. Measures of clinical health among female-to-male transgender persons as a function of sexual orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, S Colton; Pardo, Seth T; Labuski, Christine; Babcock, Julia

    2013-04-01

    The present study examined the sexual orientation classification system that was used in the DSM-IV-TR for categorizing those who met the Gender Identity Disorder diagnostic criteria in order to determine the extent to which female-to-male transgender persons (FTMs) differ on psychological variables as a function of sexual orientation. Participants were 605 self-identified FTMs from 19 different countries (83 % U.S.) who completed an internet survey assessing their sexual orientation, sexual identity, symptoms of depression and anxiety, stress (Depression Anxiety Stress Scales), social support (Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support), and health related quality of life (SF-36v2 Health Survey). Over half the sample (52 %) reported sexual attractions to both men and women. The most common sexual identity label reported was "queer." Forty percent of FTMs who had begun to transition reported a shift in sexual orientation; this shift was associated with testosterone use. Overall, FTMs ranged from normal to above average on all psychological measures. FTMs did not significantly differ by sexual attraction on any mental health variables, except for anxiety. FTMs attracted to both men and women reported more symptoms of anxiety than those attracted to men only. Results from the present study did not support a sexual orientation classification system in FTMs with regard to psychological well-being.

  14. The Internet's Multiple Roles in Facilitating the Sexual Orientation Identity Development of Gay and Bisexual Male Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Gary W; Serrano, Pedro A; Bruce, Douglas; Bauermeister, Jose A

    2016-09-01

    One emerging avenue for the exploration of adolescents' sexual orientation identity development is the Internet, since it allows for varying degrees of anonymity and exploration. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to examine the role of the Internet in facilitating the sexual orientation identity development process of gay and bisexual male adolescents. Qualitative interviews were conducted with an ethnically diverse sample of 63 gay/bisexual male adolescents (ages 15-23). Participants reported using a range of Internet applications as they explored and came to accept their sexual orientation identity, with the intended purpose and degree of anonymity desired determining which applications were used. Youth reported that the Internet provided a range of functions with regard to the exploration and acceptance of their sexual orientation identity, including (1) increasing self-awareness of sexual orientation identity, (2) learning about gay/bisexual community life, (3) communicating with other gay/bisexual people, (4) meeting other gay/bisexual people, (5) finding comfort and acceptance with sexual orientation, and (6) facilitating the coming out process. Future research and practice may explore the Internet as a platform for promoting the healthy development of gay and bisexual male adolescents by providing a developmentally and culturally appropriate venue for the exploration and subsequent commitment to an integrated sexual orientation identity. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Sexual Orientation Trends and Disparities in School Bullying and Violence-Related Experiences, 1999–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Ryan J.; Adjei, Jones; Homma, Yuko; Saewyc, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    Numerous recent studies have demonstrated that schools are often unsafe for lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) adolescents, who are more likely than heterosexual peers to be bullied, harassed, or victimized in school contexts. Virtually all of these studies call for change, yet none investigate whether or not it has occurred. Using repeated waves of a population-based high school survey, we examine (1) the extent to which sexual orientation differences in school bullying and violence-related experiences are reported by lesbian/gay, bisexual, and heterosexual male and female adolescents; (2) trends in school bullying and violence-related experiences for each gender/orientation group, and (3) whether disparities have changed over time. Data were drawn from eight Massachusetts biennial Youth Risk Behavior Surveys from 1999 to 2013, grouped into 4 waves totaling 24,845 self-identified heterosexual, 270 lesbian/gay, and 857 bisexual youth. Disparities between LGB and heterosexual peers were found in all indicators. Heterosexual youth and gay males saw significant reductions in every outcome between the first and last waves. Among bisexual males, skipping school due to feeling unsafe, carrying weapons in school, and being bullied all decreased, but among lesbians and bisexual females only fighting in school declined significantly. Improvement trends in school safety were more consistent for heterosexual youth and gay males than for bisexual or lesbian females. Notably, despite these improvements, almost no reduction was seen in sexual orientation disparities. Future research should identify influences leading to reduced school victimization, especially focusing on ways of eliminating persistent sexual orientation disparities. Future research should identify influences leading to reduced school victimization, especially focusing on ways of eliminating persistent sexual orientation disparities. PMID:29322064

  16. Sexual Orientation Trends and Disparities in School Bullying and Violence-Related Experiences, 1999-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodenow, Carol; Watson, Ryan J; Adjei, Jones; Homma, Yuko; Saewyc, Elizabeth

    2016-12-01

    Numerous recent studies have demonstrated that schools are often unsafe for lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) adolescents, who are more likely than heterosexual peers to be bullied, harassed, or victimized in school contexts. Virtually all of these studies call for change, yet none investigate whether or not it has occurred. Using repeated waves of a population-based high school survey, we examine (1) the extent to which sexual orientation differences in school bullying and violence-related experiences are reported by lesbian/gay, bisexual, and heterosexual male and female adolescents; (2) trends in school bullying and violence-related experiences for each gender/orientation group, and (3) whether disparities have changed over time. Data were drawn from eight Massachusetts biennial Youth Risk Behavior Surveys from 1999 to 2013, grouped into 4 waves totaling 24,845 self-identified heterosexual, 270 lesbian/gay, and 857 bisexual youth. Disparities between LGB and heterosexual peers were found in all indicators. Heterosexual youth and gay males saw significant reductions in every outcome between the first and last waves. Among bisexual males, skipping school due to feeling unsafe, carrying weapons in school, and being bullied all decreased, but among lesbians and bisexual females only fighting in school declined significantly. Improvement trends in school safety were more consistent for heterosexual youth and gay males than for bisexual or lesbian females. Notably, despite these improvements, almost no reduction was seen in sexual orientation disparities. Future research should identify influences leading to reduced school victimization, especially focusing on ways of eliminating persistent sexual orientation disparities. Future research should identify influences leading to reduced school victimization, especially focusing on ways of eliminating persistent sexual orientation disparities.

  17. Shifting Sexual Assault Forensic Examiners Orientation From Prosecutorial to Patient-Centered: The Role of Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Debra; Pennefather, Megan; Donoghue, Kathleen

    2017-06-01

    Sexual assault forensic examiners (SAFEs) have a complex role that entails providing health care and medical forensic evidence collection. The literature indicates that there are two orientations that guide SAFEs in this role. A patient-centered orientation emphasizes attending to emotional needs, offering options, and respecting survivors' decisions, which has been linked to positive emotional outcomes. A prosecutorial orientation places emphasis on evidence collection and has been associated with providing fewer comprehensive services. SAFE training may play a pivotal role in guiding new SAFEs to adopt a patient-centered orientation. However, there is a paucity of research examining how training can bolster the adoption of this orientation. Thus, the current qualitative study explored if and how a national blended SAFE training influenced participants' adoption of a patient-centered orientation. Semistructured qualitative interviews were conducted with 64 health care professionals who participated in a national SAFE training. Utilizing analytic induction, the results suggest that the majority of participants entered the training with a prosecutorial orientation but shifted to a patient-centered orientation. Multiple elements of the training influenced this shift including (a) content that dispelled misconceptions of survivors; (b) providing explanations of how attending to survivors' well-being can lead to positive outcomes; (c) earlier placement of patient-centered content to allow instructors to explain how patient-centered care can be applied to each component of the SAFE role including the medical forensic exam; and (d) continual emphasis on patient-centered care.

  18. Disordered eating behaviors among Italian men: objectifying media and sexual orientation differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dakanalis, Antonios; Di Mattei, Valentina E; Bagliacca, Elena Pagani; Prunas, Antonio; Sarno, Lucio; Riva, Giuseppe; Zanetti, M Assunta

    2012-01-01

    Objectification theory was tested as a suitable framework for explaining sexual orientation differences in disordered eating behaviors in college-aged Italian men. The theory's applicability to 125 homosexual and 130 heterosexual men was investigated using self-report questionnaires. Gay men scored significantly higher on exposure to sexually objectifying media, body surveillance, body shame, disordered eating behaviors, and depression than heterosexual men. Although path analyses support the theory's applicability to both groups, for gay men the path model demonstrated a better fit to the objectification theory for disordered eating and depression. Practical implications are discussed.

  19. Mediation by peer violence victimization of sexual orientation disparities in cancer-related tobacco, alcohol, and sexual risk behaviors: pooled youth risk behavior surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosario, Margaret; Corliss, Heather L; Everett, Bethany G; Russell, Stephen T; Buchting, Francisco O; Birkett, Michelle A

    2014-06-01

    We examined the role of adolescent peer violence victimization (PVV) in sexual orientation disparities in cancer-related tobacco, alcohol, and sexual risk behaviors. We pooled data from the 2005 and 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Surveys. We classified youths with any same-sex sexual attraction, partners, or identity as sexual minority and the remainder as heterosexual. We had 4 indicators of tobacco and alcohol use and 4 of sexual risk and 2 PVV factors: victimization at school and carrying weapons. We stratified associations by gender and race/ethnicity. PVV was related to disparities in cancer-related risk behaviors of substance use and sexual risk, with odds ratios (ORs) of 1.3 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.03, 1.6) to 11.3 (95% CI = 6.2, 20.8), and to being a sexual minority, with ORs of 1.4 (95% CI = 1.1, 1.9) to 5.6 (95% CI = 3.5, 8.9). PVV mediated sexual orientation disparities in substance use and sexual risk behaviors. Findings were pronounced for adolescent girls and Asian/Pacific Islanders. Interventions are needed to reduce PVV in schools as a way to reduce sexual orientation disparities in cancer risk across the life span.

  20. Stability and change in self-reported sexual orientation identity in young people: application of mobility metrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Miles Q; Corliss, Heather L; Wypij, David; Rosario, Margaret; Austin, S Bryn

    2011-06-01

    This study investigated stability and change in self-reported sexual orientation identity over time in youth. We describe gender- and age-related changes in sexual orientation identity from early adolescence through emerging adulthood in 13,840 youth ages 12-25 employing mobility measure M, a measure we modified from its original application for econometrics. Using prospective data from a large, ongoing cohort of U.S. adolescents, we examined mobility in sexual orientation identity in youth with up to four waves of data. Ten percent of males and 20% of females at some point described themselves as a sexual minority, while 2% of both males and females reported ever being "unsure" of their orientation. Two novel findings emerged regarding gender and mobility: (1) Although mobility scores were quite low for the full cohort, females reported significantly higher mobility than did males. (2) As expected, for sexual minorities, mobility scores were appreciably higher than for the full cohort; however, the gender difference appeared to be eliminated, indicating that changing reported sexual orientation identity throughout adolescence occurred at a similar rate in female and male sexual minorities. In addition, we found that, of those who described themselves as "unsure" of their orientation identity at any point, 66% identified as completely heterosexual at other reports and never went on to describe themselves as a sexual minority. Age was positively associated with endorsing a sexual-minority orientation identity. We discuss substantive and methodological implications of our findings for understanding development of sexual orientation identity in young people.

  1. Sexual addiction in drug addicts: The impact of drug of choice and poly-addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonio, Nelson; Diehl, Alessandra; Niel, Marcelo; Pillon, Sandra; Ratto, Lilian; Pinheiro, Maria Carolina; Silveira, Dartiu; Otani, Thais Zelia; Otani, Victor; Cordeiro, Quirino; Ushida, Ricardo

    2017-05-01

    To compare the risk of comorbid sexual addiction in a sample of individuals with a diagnosis of substance dependence, stratifying the sample by drug of choice as well as by mono versus polysubstance addiction. All data were collected at Santa Casa de São Paulo, Brazil. The study sample comprised all alcohol or drug dependents admitted to the Addiction Treatment Unit between November 2013 and August 2014. A generalized linear model with a binomial distribution was performed to compare the odds of having a Sexual Addiction Screening Test (SAST) score greater than 6 points in the subgroups analyzed. A total of 133 participants were included in our analysis, all reporting cocaine/crack and/or alcohol as drug of choice. Polysubstance addicts had a significant higher risk of a positive screening for sexual addiction compared to monosubstance addicts, age-sex adjusted odds ratios of sexual addiction being respectively 2.72 (95CI 1.1-6.71) and 0.37 (95CI 0.15-0.91). The odds of a SAST score greater than 6 was not statistically different between the cocaine/crack and alcohol groups, respectively 0.38 (95CI 0.14-1.02) and 2.67 (95CI 0.98-7.25). We found a significant relation between stronger drug addiction and greater levels of sexual addiction in the cocaine/crack group (p=0.0012), but not in the alcohol group. Our study reinforces the importance of assessing sexual behavior of drug addicts in clinical practice, especially considering users of multiple substances or with severe dependence.

  2. Sexual addiction in drug addicts: The impact of drug of choice and poly-addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Antonio

    Full Text Available Summary Objective: To compare the risk of comorbid sexual addiction in a sample of individuals with a diagnosis of substance dependence, stratifying the sample by drug of choice as well as by mono versus polysubstance addiction. Method: All data were collected at Santa Casa de São Paulo, Brazil. The study sample comprised all alcohol or drug dependents admitted to the Addiction Treatment Unit between November 2013 and August 2014. A generalized linear model with a binomial distribution was performed to compare the odds of having a Sexual Addiction Screening Test (SAST score greater than 6 points in the subgroups analyzed. Results: A total of 133 participants were included in our analysis, all reporting cocaine/crack and/or alcohol as drug of choice. Polysubstance addicts had a significant higher risk of a positive screening for sexual addiction compared to monosubstance addicts, age-sex adjusted odds ratios of sexual addiction being respectively 2.72 (95CI 1.1-6.71 and 0.37 (95CI 0.15-0.91. The odds of a SAST score greater than 6 was not statistically different between the cocaine/crack and alcohol groups, respectively 0.38 (95CI 0.14-1.02 and 2.67 (95CI 0.98-7.25. We found a significant relation between stronger drug addiction and greater levels of sexual addiction in the cocaine/crack group (p=0.0012, but not in the alcohol group. Conclusion: Our study reinforces the importance of assessing sexual behavior of drug addicts in clinical practice, especially considering users of multiple substances or with severe dependence.

  3. Sexual Orientation and Behavior of Adult Jews in Israel and the Association With Risk Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mor, Zohar; Davidovich, Udi

    2016-08-01

    Estimating the size of key risk groups susceptible to HIV/sexually transmitted diseases (STI) is necessary for establishment of interventions and budget allocation. This study aimed to identify various dimensions of sexual orientation and practices in Israel, and correlate the findings with sexual risk behavior (SRB). It used a random representative sample of the Jewish population aged 18-44 years who completed online questionnaires regarding their self-identified sexual orientation, attraction and practices, and SRB. Concordant heterosexuals were those who self-reported heterosexual identity, were attracted and had sex only with the opposite gender. National estimates regarding prevalence of gay, lesbian, and bisexual men and women were based on the civil census. The sample included 997 men and 1005 women, of whom 11.3 and 15.2 % were attracted to the same-gender, 10.2 and 8.7 % reported lifetime same-gender encounters, while 8.2 and 4.8 % self-identified as gay or bisexual men and lesbian or bisexual women, respectively. The estimated population of self-identified Jewish gay or bisexual men and lesbian or bisexual women aged 18-44 in Israel was 94,176, and 57,671, respectively. SRB was more common among self-identified gays or bisexual men and among discordant heterosexual men and women. Those who reported same-gender sexual practices reported greater SRB than those who only had opposite-gender encounters. Interestingly, SRB among discordant heterosexuals was associated with same-sex behavior rather than attraction. Health practitioners should increase their awareness of sexual diversity among their clientele, and should recognize that risk for HIV/STI may exist among self-identified heterosexuals, who may not disclose their actual sexual attraction or practices.

  4. Gender, Sexual Orientation, and Workplace Incivility: Who Is Most Targeted and Who Is Most Harmed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurbrügg, Lauren; Miner, Kathi N

    2016-01-01

    Scholars have proposed that interpersonal workplace discrimination toward members of oppressed social groups has become covert and subtle rather than overt and explicit and that such experiences lead to negative outcomes for targets. The present study examined this proposition by examining experiences and consequences of workplace incivility-a seemingly harmless form of interpersonal maltreatment-based on gender, sexual orientation, and their intersection. A sample of 1,300 academic faculty (52% male, 86% White) participated in an online survey study assessing their experiences of workplace incivility, job stress, job satisfaction, job identity centrality, and demographics. Results showed that sexual minority women reported the highest levels of workplace incivility. Findings also revealed that women reported lower job satisfaction than men and that heterosexuals reported higher job stress and lower job identity centrality than sexual minorities with higher levels of incivility. Thus, sexual minority status buffered the negative effects of incivility for sexual minorities. These findings point to the resiliency of sexual minorities in the face of interpersonal stressors at work.

  5. Attachment orientation and sexual risk behaviour among young Black gay and bisexual men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Stephanie H.; Watkins, Daphne C.; Calebs, Benjamin; Wilson, Patrick A.

    2016-01-01

    This mixed methods study used an explanatory sequential design to examine the relationship between attachment and sexual behavior among young Black gay and bisexual men (YBGBM). Cross sectional online surveys and sex diaries were completed by a sample of YBGBM in New York City (n = 153) to assess the association between adult attachment insecurity and sexual risk behavior. The Experiences in Close Relationships Scale-Revised (ECR-R) was used to assess three types of adult attachment (i.e., secure, anxious, and avoidant). Participants reported condomless sex encounters, as well as serodiscordant condomless anal sex encounters, as measures of sexual risk. Quantitative findings suggested that there were few associations between attachment type and sexual risk behavior; only men with attachment avoidance were likely to engage in condomless sex. However, qualitative findings illuminated some of the social complexities of the association between attachment in childhood, attachment in young adulthood and intimate partnerships, which could be linked to young adult sexual risk behavior. The study findings highlight the need for researchers to further examine the process by which individual differences in attachment orientation are related to YBGBM’s sexual behavior. PMID:27570578

  6. Sexual differentiation of the human brain: relevance for gender identity, transsexualism and sexual orientation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swaab, D. F.

    2004-01-01

    Male sexual differentiation of the brain and behavior are thought, on the basis of experiments in rodents, to be caused by androgens, following conversion to estrogens. However, observations in human subjects with genetic and other disorders show that direct effects of testosterone on the developing

  7. Sexual differentiation of the human brain: relevance for gender identity, transsexualism and sexual orientation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swaab, D.F.

    2004-01-01

    Male sexual differentiation of the brain and behavior are thought, on the basis of experiments in rodents, to be caused by androgens, following conversion to estrogens. However, observations in human subjects with genetic and other disorders show that direct effects of testosterone on the developing

  8. Stereotypes of Intimate Partner Violence: Do Sex and Sexual Orientation Matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Elena Meza-de-Luna

    Full Text Available Abstract This study analyzed stereotypes on intimate partner violence (IPV of heterosexual and same-sex couples. The participants, 232 Mexican college students, evaluated physical and psychological IPV exerted by men and women with different sexual orientations. The data were analyzed using the Wilcoxon test. The results indicate that men evaluated women and gay men as having a similar IPV, while men´s perceptions of IPV for these groups were higher than those of women. Women viewed heterosexual men as the most violent and evaluated the other groups with different degrees of IPV. Physical violence is regarded as natural in men, both gay and heterosexual. To conclude, the results suggest that IPV stereotypes are affected by the sex of the evaluators and by their sexual orientation. It is relevant to expand the scope of prevention programs.

  9. Sexual orientation and gender identity: review of concepts, controversies and their relation to psychopathology classification systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moleiro, Carla; Pinto, Nuno

    2015-01-01

    Numerous controversies and debates have taken place throughout the history of psychopathology (and its main classification systems) with regards to sexual orientation and gender identity. These are still reflected on present reformulations of gender dysphoria in both the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual and the International Classification of Diseases, and in more or less subtle micro-aggressions experienced by lesbian, gay, bisexual and trans patients in mental health care. The present paper critically reviews this history and current controversies. It reveals that this deeply complex field contributes (i) to the reflection on the very concept of mental illness; (ii) to the focus on subjective distress and person-centered experience of psychopathology; and (iii) to the recognition of stigma and discrimination as significant intervening variables. Finally, it argues that sexual orientation and gender identity have been viewed, in the history of the field of psychopathology, between two poles: gender transgression and gender variance/fluidity.

  10. Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity: Review of concepts, controversies and their relation to psychopathology classification systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla eMoleiro

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Numerous controversies and debates have taken place throughout the history of psychopathology (and its main classification systems with regards to sexual orientation and gender identity. These are still reflected on present reformulations of gender dysphoria in both DSM and ICD, and in more or less subtle micro-aggressions experienced by lesbian, gay, bisexual and trans patients in mental health care. The present paper critically reviews this history and current controversies. It reveals that this deeply complex field contributes (i to the reflection on the very concept of mental illness; (ii to the focus on subjective distress and person-centered experience of psychopathology; and (iii to the recognition of stigma and discrimination as significant intervening variables. Finally, it argues that sexual orientation and gender identity have been viewed, in the history of the field of psychopathology, between two poles: gender transgression and gender variance/fluidity.

  11. Suicidal ideation among Italian and Spanish young adults: the role of sexual orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baiocco, Roberto; Ioverno, Salvatore; Lonigro, Antonia; Baumgartner, Emma; Laghi, Fiorenzo

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to identify demographic, social, and psychological variables associated with suicidal ideation in an Italian sample and a Spanish sample, taking into account the relevance of sexual orientation as a risk factor for suicide. Three hundred twenty gay and bisexual men, 396 heterosexual men, 281 lesbians and bisexual women, and 835 heterosexual women were recruited. In chi-square and multivariable logistic regression analyses we identified several consistent cross-national risk factors for suicidal ideation: having lower education, not being religious, being homosexual or bisexual, not being engaged in a stable relationship, having lower level of peer and parental attachment, and having depressive symptoms. Interestingly, the strongest risk factor in both samples, after depression symptoms, was sexual orientation.

  12. Accuracy and awareness in the perception and categorization of male sexual orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rule, Nicholas O; Ambady, Nalini; Adams, Reginald B; Macrae, C Neil

    2008-11-01

    For clear and unambiguous social categories, person perception occurs quite accurately from minimal cues. This article addresses the perception of an ambiguous social category (male sexual orientation) from minimal cues. Across 5 studies, the authors examined individuals' actual and self-assessed accuracy when judging male sexual orientation from faces and facial features. Although participants were able to make accurate judgments from multiple facial features (i.e., hair, the eyes, and the mouth area), their perceived accuracy was calibrated with their actual accuracy only when making judgments based on hairstyle, a controllable feature. These findings provide evidence that suggests different processes for extracting social category information during perception: explicit judgments based on obvious cues (hairstyle) and intuitive judgments based on nonobvious cues (information from the eyes and mouth area). Differences in the accuracy of judgments based on targets' controllability and perceivers' awareness of cues provides insight into the processes underlying intuitive predictions and intuitive judgments. (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved.

  13. Concurrent exposure to methamphetamine and sexual behavior enhances subsequent drug reward and causes compulsive sexual behavior in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frohmader, Karla S; Lehman, Michael N; Laviolette, Steven R; Coolen, Lique M

    2011-11-09

    Methamphetamine (Meth) users report having heightened sexual pleasure, numerous sexual partners, and engaging in unprotected sex due to loss of inhibitory control. This compulsive sexual behavior contributes to increased prevalence of sexually transmitted infections, but the neural basis for this is unknown. We previously established a paradigm for compulsive sexual behavior in male rats in which visceral illness induced by lithium chloride was paired with sexual behavior (Davis et al., 2010; Frohmader et al., 2010a). The current study examined the effects of repeated Meth administration on sexual performance, compulsive sexual behavior, and sex or Meth reward. First, results demonstrated that seven daily administrations of 2 mg/kg, but not 1 mg/kg, Meth increased latencies to initiate mating. This impairment was evident 30 min after last Meth administration, but dissipated after 1 or 7 d of subsequent drug abstinence. Repeated 1 mg/kg Meth exposure resulted in compulsive sex-seeking behavior 2 weeks following last Meth administration. This effect was dependent on Meth administration being concurrent with sexual experience and was not observed in sexually experienced animals that received Meth alone. Moreover, concurrent Meth and sexual experience enhanced conditioned place preference (CPP) for Meth, and for concurrent Meth and mating compared with Meth or mating alone. In contrast, CPP for mating alone was decreased. Together, these data indicate that the association between drug use and mating may be required for expression of compulsive sexual behavior and is correlated with increased reward seeking for concurrent Meth exposure and mating.

  14. Sexual orientation of trans adults is not linked to outcome of transition-related health care, but worth asking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieder, Timo O; Elaut, Els; Richards, Christina; Dekker, Arne

    2016-01-01

    Since the beginning of contemporary transition-related care at the outset of the 20th century, sexual orientation has ben considered to be closely connected with gender identity and the developmental trajectories of trans people. Specifically, health professionals have regarded the anticipated post-transitional heterosexual behaviour of trans adults as predictive of a good outcome of cross-sex hormones and gender-confirming surgeries. This article reviews the current literature according to the question of whether the sexual orientation of trans people is linked to outcome measures following transition-related interventions. A comprehensive review was undertaken using the Medline database, searching for empirical studies published between 2010 and 2015. Out of a total of 474 studies, only 10 studies reported a follow-up of trans adults and assessed sexual orientation in the study protocol at all. Sexual orientation was predominantly assessed as homosexual versus non-homosexual related to sex assigned at birth. Only one 1 of 10 follow-up studies found a significant association according to the outcome between groups differentiated by sexual orientation. Empirically there is no link between sexual orientation and outcome of transition-related health care for trans adults. In order to provide comprehensive health care, we recommend asking for sexual behaviours, attractions and identities, as well as for gender experiences and expressions; however, this knowledge should not drive, but simply inform, such comprehensive care.

  15. Childhood gender-typed behavior and adolescent sexual orientation: A longitudinal population-based study.

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Gu; Kung, Karson TF; Hines, Melissa Marie

    2017-01-01

    Lesbian and gay individuals have been reported to show more interest in other-sex, and/or less interest in same-sex, toys, playmates, and activities in childhood than heterosexual counterparts. Yet, most of the relevant evidence comes from retrospective studies or from prospective studies of clinically-referred, extremely gender nonconforming children. In addition, findings are mixed regarding the relationship between childhood gender-typed behavior and the later sexual orientation spectrum f...

  16. Gender relations and sexual orientation in Religious Education curriculum in state and municipal schools in Recife

    OpenAIRE

    Aurenéa Maria de Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    This research conducted in state and municipal public schools of Recife in Pernambuco through research project that had the support of UFPE and CNPq aimed to analyze the Religious Education curriculum (ER), the place that women, especially with marginalized sexual orientation as lesbian, bisexual and transgender occupy. To this end, we work with the methodology of Discourse Analysis and the Theory of Speech, looking first identify the main ideologies surrounding and involving the theme, then ...

  17. Gender, Sexual Orientation, and Workplace Incivility: Who Is Most Targeted and Who Is Most Harmed?

    OpenAIRE

    Zurbrügg, Lauren; Miner, Kathi N.

    2016-01-01

    Scholars have proposed that interpersonal workplace discrimination toward members of oppressed social groups has become covert and subtle rather than overt and explicit and that such experiences lead to negative outcomes for targets. The present study examined this proposition by examining experiences and consequences of workplace incivility—a seemingly harmless form of interpersonal maltreatment—based on gender, sexual orientation, and their intersection. A sample of 1,300 academic faculty (...

  18. Relationship between weight-related behavioral profiles and health outcomes by sexual orientation and gender

    OpenAIRE

    VanKim, Nicole A.; Erickson, Darin J.; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Lust, Katherine; Rosser, B. R. Simon; Laska, Melissa N.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Examine relationships between weight-related factors and weight status, body dissatisfaction, chronic health conditions, and quality of life across sexual orientation and gender. Methods Two- and four-year college students participated in the College Student Health Survey (n=28,703; 2009-2013). Risk differences were calculated to estimate relationships between behavioral profiles and weight status, body satisfaction, diagnosis of a chronic condition, and quality of life, stratified ...

  19. Employment, Housing, and Public Accommodations Discrimination Based on Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity in Missouri

    OpenAIRE

    Mallory, Christy; Hasenbush, Amira; Liebowitz, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    The 160,000 LGBT adults in Missouri would benefit from an expanded state non-discrimination law that includes sexual orientation and gender identity. There is currently no Missouri law protecting LGBT people from discrimination in housing, employment, and public accommodations. A uniform state-wide law would maximize protection for Missouri’s LGBT population, and provide them the same recourse available to their non-LGBT counterparts. Media reports and lawsuits document that a number...

  20. Employment Discrimination Based on Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity in Wyoming

    OpenAIRE

    Mallory, Christy; Sears, Brad

    2015-01-01

    About 8,900 LGBT workers in Wyoming are not explicitly protected from discrimination under state or federal laws. Discrimination against LGBT employees in Wyoming has recently been documented in surveys, court cases, and other sources. Many corporate employers and public opinion in the state support protections for LGBT people in the workplace. If sexual orientation and gender identity were added to existing statewide non-discrimination laws, four more complaints would be filed in Wyoming eac...

  1. Connecticut – Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity Law and Documentation of Discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Sears, Brad

    2009-01-01

    A Connecticut statute bans employment discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation. No Connecticut statutes prohibit discrimination on the basis of gender identity or expression. In November 2000, the Connecticut Commission on Human Rights and Opportunities – the agency responsible for administering the anti-discrimination statutes and for processing discrimination complaints – ruled that statutes prohibiting sex discrimination also banned discrimination on the basis of gender identity. ...

  2. Employment Discrimination Based on Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity in North Dakota

    OpenAIRE

    Mallory, Christy; Sears, Brad

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 6,800 LGBT workers in North Dakota are not explicitly protected from discrimination under state or federal laws. Discrimination against LGBT employees has been documented in surveys, legislative testimony, the media, and in reports to community-based organizations. Many corporate employers and public opinion in North Dakota support protections for LGBT people in the workplace. If sexual orientation and gender identity were added to existing statewide non-discrimination laws, thr...

  3. Stereotypes of Intimate Partner Violence: Do Sex and Sexual Orientation Matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Meza-de-Luna, Maria Elena; Cantera, Leonor María; Blanch, Josep María; Beiras, Adriano

    2017-01-01

    This study analyzed stereotypes on intimate partner violence (IPV) of heterosexual and same-sex couples. The participants, 232 Mexican college students, evaluated physical and psychological IPV exerted by men and women with different sexual orientations. The data were analyzed using the Wilcoxon test. The results indicate that men evaluated women and gay men as having a similar IPV, while men´s perceptions of IPV for these groups were higher than those of women. Women viewed heterosexual men ...

  4. Sexual orientation and cognitive ability: A multivariate meta-analytic follow-up

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Yin; Norton, Sam; Rahman, Qazi

    2017-01-01

    A cross-sex shift model of human sexual orientation differences predicts that homosexual men should perform or score in the direction of heterosexual women, and homosexual women in the direction of heterosexual men, in behavioral domains such as cognition and personality. In order to test whether homosexual men and women’s cognitive performance was closer to that of heterosexual men or that of heterosexual women (i.e., sex atypical for their sex), we conducted a multivariate meta-analysis bas...

  5. Alabama – Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity Law and Documentation of Discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Sears, Brad

    2009-01-01

    There is no state law in Alabama prohibiting any form of employment discrimination. Rather, Alabama defers to federal law for providing its citizens with protections against discrimination based upon age, race, religion, sex, national origin, and disabilities. Only a few unsuccessful attempts have been made to enact legislation to prohibit sexual orientation discrimination, and none to prohibit discrimination on the basis of gender identity or expression. Neither the state nor any locality in...

  6. Coping Styles as Mediator of Sexual Orientation-Related Health Differences

    OpenAIRE

    Sandfort, T.G.M.; Bakker, F.C.; Schellevis, F.G.; Vanwesenbeeck, I.

    2009-01-01

    The higher prevalence of health problems in homosexual compared to heterosexual populations is usually understood as a consequence of minority stress. We hypothesized that differential rates of health problems also could result from sexual orientation-related differences in coping styles. We explored this using data collected in a general population-based study (N = 9684) via face-to-face interviews. A higher prevalence of both mental and physical health problems, as assessed with individual ...

  7. Sexual orientation and the size of the anterior commissure in the human brain.

    OpenAIRE

    Allen, L S; Gorski, R A

    1992-01-01

    The anterior commissure, a fiber tract that is larger in its midsagittal area in women than in men, was examined in 90 postmortem brains from homosexual men, heterosexual men, and heterosexual women. The midsagittal plane of the anterior commissure in homosexual men was 18% larger than in heterosexual women and 34% larger than in heterosexual men. This anatomical difference, which correlates with gender and sexual orientation, may, in part, underlie differences in cognitive function and cereb...

  8. Sexual Orientation, Gender Identity, and Romantic Relationships in Adolescents and Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewinter, J; De Graaf, H; Begeer, S

    2017-09-01

    This study compared sexual orientation and romantic relationship experience in a large sample of adolescents and adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (n = 675) and general population peers (n = 8064). Gender identity was explored in the ASD group in relation to assigned gender at birth. Compared to general population peers, more people with ASD, especially women, reported sexual attraction to both same- and opposite-sex partners. About half of the participants with ASD was in a relationship (heterosexual in most cases) and most of them lived with their partner. A notable number of autistic participants, again more women than men, reported gender non-conforming feelings. Attention to gender identity and sexual diversity in education and clinical work with people with ASD is advised.

  9. Prenatal exposure to drugs of abuse: methodological considerations and effects on sexual differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGivern, R F; Handa, R J

    1996-01-01

    believe that the results of these studies provide minimal useful information with respect the prenatal influence of these drugs on homosexual behavior in humans. Animal models of homosexuality are inherently inadequate for several reasons. No adequate model exists for homosexual behavior in the rodent in the absence of pharmacological administration of steroids. Normal male rats that show low levels of masculine sex behavior in the presence of estrous females do not exhibit increased tendencies to mount other males nor to lordosis when mounted by another male. In fact, male preference behavior for an estrous female rat does not appear to be influenced by perinatal androgen exposure (Merkx 1984). A second issue that cannot be addressed in an animal model is the fact that sexual orientation in human is determined by an interaction between hormonal, environmental, and cultural factors (Money 1987). This problem, and others, with a developmental animal model of human homosexuality have been considered by Sachs and Meisel (1988), to which the reader is referred for a more extensive discussion. Finally, in humans there is also the issue of gender identity, which refers to traits or conditions of maleness or femaleness. The degree to which gender identity in humans is causally linked to cultural or biological influences is an area of current debate (Gentile 1993; Unger and Crawford 1993), but such identity is clearly beyond the scope of animal modeling. Therefore, issues related to sexual orientation of humans and prenatal drug exposure likely await data from future human studies for further resolution.

  10. Maintaining the privacy of a minor's sexual orientation and gender identity in the medical environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyatt, Josh

    2015-01-01

    Dealing with self-identity, sexual orientation, and gender identity is often a struggle for minors. The potential negative outcomes minors face when their sexual orientation or gender identity is disclosed to others before they have an opportunity to address it in their own time has become more evident in the media. Because of the intimate nature of the provider-patient relationship, the healthcare provider may be the first person in whom they confide. If a minor receives a positive, nonjudgmental experience from his or her provider, it will often lead to a more positive self-image, whereas a negative, judgmental experience will often result in the opposite. Critical components of their experience are a sense of trust that the provider will keep the information confidential and the healthcare setting being organized in a manner that promotes privacy. Healthcare providers play a key role in developing and projecting a safe, comfortable environment where the minor can discretely discuss issues of sexual orientation and gender identity. Establishing this environment will usually facilitate a positive therapeutic relationship between the minor and the provider. Steps healthcare providers can take to achieve trust from minor patients and ensure confidentiality of sensitive information are understanding privacy laws, making privacy a priority, getting consent, training staff, and demonstrating privacy in the environment. © 2015 American Society for Healthcare Risk Management of the American Hospital Association.

  11. Sexual orientation and neurocognitive ability: A meta-analysis in men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yin; Norton, Sam; Rahman, Qazi

    2017-12-01

    The cross-sex-shift hypothesis predicts that homosexual men and women will be similar in certain neurobehavioral traits to their opposite-sex counterparts. Accordingly, it predicts that homosexual men should perform in the direction of heterosexual women, and homosexual women in the direction of heterosexual men, on neurocognitive tests that show normative sex differences. We conducted a meta-analysis on the relationship between sexual orientation and cognitive performance, and tested the effects of potential moderating variables separately by sex. A total of 106 samples and 254,231 participants were included. The meta-analysis revealed that homosexual men performed like heterosexual women in both male-favouring (e.g., spatial cognition) and female-favouring (e.g., verbal fluency) cognitive tests, while homosexual women performed like heterosexual men only in male-favouring tests. The magnitude of the sexual orientation difference varied across cognitive domains (larger for spatial abilities). It was also larger in studies comparing exclusive heterosexuals with exclusive homosexuals compared to studies comparing exclusive heterosexuals with non-exclusive homosexuals for both sexes. The results may narrow down potential sites for sexual orientation-related neural differences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. How many gay men owe their sexual orientation to fraternal birth order?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantor, James M; Blanchard, Ray; Paterson, Andrew D; Bogaert, Anthony F

    2002-02-01

    In men, sexual orientation correlates with the number of older brothers, each additional older brother increasing the odds of homosexuality by approximately 33%. However, this phenomenon, the fraternal birth order effect, accounts for the sexual orientation of only a proportion of gay men. To estimate the size of this proportion, we derived generalized forms of two epidemiological statistics, the attributable fraction and the population attributable fraction, which quantify the relationship between a condition and prior exposure to an agent that can cause it. In their common forms, these statistics are calculable only for 2 levels of exposure: exposed versus not-exposed. We developed a method applicable to agents with multiple levels of exposure--in this case, number of older brothers. This noniterative method, which requires the odds ratio from a prior logistic regression analysis, was then applied to a large contemporary sample of gay men. The results showed that roughly 1 gay man in 7 owes his sexual orientation to the fraternal birth order effect. They also showed that the effect of fraternal birth order would exceed all other causes of homosexuality in groups of gay men with 3 or more older brothers and would precisely equal all other causes in a theoretical group with 2.5 older brothers. Implications are suggested for the gay sib-pair linkage method of identifying genetic loci for homosexuality.

  13. Prenatal Influences on Sexual Orientation: Digit Ratio (2D:4D and Number of Older Siblings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katariina Kangassalo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal androgen levels are suggested to influence sexual orientation in both sexes. The 2D:4D digit ratio has been found to associate with sexual orientation, but published findings have often been contradictory, which may partly be due to the large ethnic diversity between and within studied populations. In men, number of older brothers has been found to correlate positively with homosexuality. This phenomenon has been explained with a maternal immune reaction, which is provoked only by male fetuses and which gets stronger after each pregnancy. Here we assessed the relationship of sexual orientation to 2D:4D ratios and number of older siblings in Finland, where the population is found to be genetically relatively homogeneous. As in many previous studies, heterosexual men had lower 2D:4D than non-heterosexual men, which supports the notion that non-heterosexual men experience higher androgen levels in utero than population norms. Contrary to previous reports, non-heterosexual women had higher 2D:4D than heterosexual women. Non-heterosexual men had more older brothers and older sisters than heterosexual men. The greater number of older sisters in non-heterosexual men indicates that there are other factors that contribute to the higher birth order of homosexual men than the maternal immunization.

  14. THE SEXUAL ORIENTATION OF A PARENT AS A FACTOR WHEN CONSIDERING CARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantelle Feldhaus

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Section 28(2 of the Constitution states that a child's best interest is of paramount importance in every matter concerning the child. Section 9 further provides that every person is considered equal before the law and has the right to equal protection and benefit of the law. Several grounds are listed relating to the unfair discrimination of persons, including their sexual orientation. The concept of care is incorporated in the Children's Act, and it entails a comprehensive description of parents' daily life regarding children and the powers and duties expected to ensure the general protection, well-being and best interests of the child.The aim of this contribution is to discuss the sexual orientation of a parent as a factor when considering care and the extent to which courts may give consideration to such a factor. The article will also address the question of whether or not the role of a parent's sexual orientation in determining the best interests of the child has changed since the common law concept of custody was replaced by the concept of care in the Children's Act. In this article, care and the best interests of the child will be discussed first. International law will be considered thereafter, followed by a discussion on the approach of our courts, pre- and post-1994, in order to come to a conclusion and make recommendations.

  15. Participant sexual orientation matters: new evidence on the gender bias in face recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffens, Melanie C; Landmann, Sören; Mecklenbräuker, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    Research participants' sexual orientation is not consistently taken into account in experimental psychological research. We argue that it should be in any research related to participant or target gender. Corroborating this argument, an example study is presented on the gender bias in face recognition, the finding that women correctly recognize more female than male faces. In contrast, findings with male participants have been inconclusive. An online experiment (N = 1,147) was carried out, on purpose over-sampling lesbian and gay participants. Findings demonstrate that the pro-female gender bias in face recognition is modified by male participants' sexual orientation. Heterosexual women and lesbians as well as heterosexual men showed a pro-female gender bias in face recognition, whereas gay men showed a pro-male gender bias, consistent with the explanation that differences in face expertise develop congruent with interests. These results contribute to the growing evidence that participant sexual orientation can be used to distinguish between alternative theoretical explanations of given gender-correlated patterns of findings.

  16. Disturbing Hegemonic Discourse: Nonbinary Gender and Sexual Orientation Labeling on Tumblr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abigail Oakley

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this article, I examine lesbian, gay, bisexual, trans, queer/questioning, intersex, and asexual (LGBTQIA Tumblr bloggers’ bio boxes and “About Me” pages to show the ways gender and sexual orientation identities are constructed through community-regulated and community-generated labeling practices. Tumblr encourages counter-cultures (and labeling practices to not only form but also to thrive due to its distinctive affordances including tagging and blog formatting. This article examines not only how these affordances shape usage and, subsequently, identity construction on Tumblr but also the ways in which Tumblr bloggers have embraced affordances to create community-accepted conventions of identity construction. Additionally, building upon online identity scholarship by Bargh, McKenna, and Fitzsimons and Tiidenberg, this article discusses true self and nonbinary gender and sexual orientation labeling as forms of identity construction that allows LGBTQIA identifying individuals a method for nuanced descriptions of feelings and desires. However, far from perfect, these labeling practices are also grounded in hegemonic female/male, feminine/masculine binary discourse. In a Foucauldian sense, bloggers construct discourse within existing power structures that ignore or erase LGBTQIA as sexual “abnormalities.” Although it is nearly impossible to fully break away from the dominant discourse, these labeling practices can be a useful starting point for conversations about genders and sexualities that lie outside of the hegemonic binary.

  17. Genetic and environmental influences on female sexual orientation, childhood gender typicality and adult gender identity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Burri

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human sexual orientation is influenced by genetic and non-shared environmental factors as are two important psychological correlates--childhood gender typicality (CGT and adult gender identity (AGI. However, researchers have been unable to resolve the genetic and non-genetic components that contribute to the covariation between these traits, particularly in women. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we performed a multivariate genetic analysis in a large sample of British female twins (N = 4,426 who completed a questionnaire assessing sexual attraction, CGT and AGI. Univariate genetic models indicated modest genetic influences on sexual attraction (25%, AGI (11% and CGT (31%. For the multivariate analyses, a common pathway model best fitted the data. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This indicated that a single latent variable influenced by a genetic component and common non-shared environmental component explained the association between the three traits but there was substantial measurement error. These findings highlight common developmental factors affecting differences in sexual orientation.

  18. Sexual orientation health inequality: Evidence from Understanding Society, the UK Longitudinal Household Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booker, Cara L; Rieger, Gerulf; Unger, Jennifer B

    2017-08-01

    Few studies from the United Kingdom have fully investigated inequalities between members of different sexual minority groups and heterosexuals over range of health outcomes. Using data from over 40,000 individuals, this study explores the health inequalities of sexual minority UK adults. We include respondents who identify as other and those who prefer not to say (PNS). Data come from wave three (2011-2012) of the nationally-representative Understanding Society, the UK Household Longitudinal Study. Sexual orientation was asked in the self-completion portion of the study. Markers of health include physical and mental functioning, minor psychological distress, self-rated health, substance use and disability. Multiple linear and logistic regression analyses tested for differences in markers of health between sexual orientation groups. Overall, heterosexual respondents had the best health while bisexual respondents had the worst. Gay and lesbian respondents reported poorer health than heterosexuals, specifically with regards to mental functioning, distress and illness status. The other and PNS respondents were most similar to each other and generally experienced fewer health inequalities than gay and lesbian respondents; they were less likely to use tobacco or alcohol. In sum, sexual minorities experience health inequality. The inclusion of other and PNS respondents has not been done in other studies and shows that while they may be healthier than gay/lesbian and bisexual respondents they still experiences poorer health than heterosexuals. Health promotion interventions are needed for these other and PNS individuals, who might not participate in interventions targeted toward known sexual minority groups. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Emotional and sexual jealousy as a function of sex and sexual orientation in a Brazilian sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Altay Alves Lino; Verderane, Michele Pereira; Taira, Juliana Tieme; Otta, Emma

    2006-04-01

    The goal of the present study was to compare the relative distress of homosexual and heterosexual Brazilian men and women on scenarios in which they imagined their partners sexually or emotionally involved with another person, using a forced-choice paradigm and continuous measures. Participants were 68 heterosexual men, 72 heterosexual women, 42 homosexual men, and 35 homosexual women. On the forced-choice questions heterosexual men (39 on one question and 37 on the other) were more upset than their female counterparts (21 on one question and 15 on the other) by scenarios of sexual infidelity than those of emotional infidelity. On questions using continuous measures no significant difference was found between pleasurable sex and attachment scenarios for heterosexual women or heterosexual men. On the highly upsetting scenarios heterosexual men discriminated between flirting and both pleasurable sex and attachment scenarios, being less disturbed by the former. In contrast, heterosexual women were equally distressed by the three scenarios. Scores for the homosexual men and homosexual women fell in between those of the heterosexual men and heterosexual women and did not show a clear cut preference for the sexual infidelity or the emotional alternative on the forced-choice paradigm. However, on the continuous measures of jealousy homosexuals resembled heterosexuals of the opposite sex. There was no evidence that jealousy would be less intense among homosexuals although reproductive outcomes were not at risk.

  20. General practitioner awareness of sexual orientation among a community and internet sample of gay and bisexual men in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludlam, Adrian H; Saxton, Peter J; Dickson, Nigel P; Hughes, Anthony J

    2015-09-01

    General practitioners (GPs) can improve HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI) screening, vaccination and wellbeing among gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (GBM) if they are aware of a patient's sexual orientation. To estimate GP awareness of their GBM patients' sexual orientation and examine whether HIV and STI screening was associated with this. We analysed anonymous, self-completed data from 3168 GBM who participated in the community-based Gay Auckland Periodic Sex Survey (GAPSS) and Internet-based Gay men's Online Sex Survey (GOSS) in 2014. Participants were asked if their usual GP was aware of their sexual orientation or that they had sex with men. Half (50.5%) believed their usual GP was aware of their sexual orientation/behaviour, 17.0% were unsure, and 32.6% believed he/she was unaware. In multivariate analysis, GP awareness was significantly lower if the respondent was younger, Asian or an 'Other' ethnicity, bisexual-identified, had never had anal intercourse or had first done so very recently or later in life, and had fewer recent male sexual partners. GBM whose GP was aware of their sexual orientation were more likely to have ever had an HIV test (91.5% vs 57.9%; p<0.001), specific STI tests (91.7% vs 68.9%; p<0.001), and were twice as likely to have had an STI diagnosed. Lack of sexual orientation disclosure is resulting in missed opportunities to reduce health inequalities for GBM. More proactive, inclusive and safe environments surrounding the care of sexual orientation minorities are needed in general practice to encourage disclosure.

  1. A linkage between DNA markers on the X chromosome and male sexual orientation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamer, D.H.; Hu, S.; Magnuson, V.L.; Hu, N.; Pattatucci, A.M.L.

    1993-07-16

    The role of genetics in male sexual orientation was investigated by pedigree and linkage analyses on 114 families of homosexual men. Increased rates of same-sex orientation were found in the maternal uncles and male cousins of these subjects, but not in their fathers or paternal relatives, suggesting the possibility of sex-linked transmission in a portion of the population. DNA linkage analysis of a selected group of 40 families in which there were two gay brothers and no indication of nonmaternal transmission revealed a correlation between homosexual orientation and the inheritance of polymorphic markers on the X chromosome in approximately 64 percent of the sib-pairs tested. The linkage to markers on Xq28, the subtelomeric region of the long arm of the sex chromosome, had a multipoint lod score of 4.0(P = 10[sup [minus]5]), indicating a statistical confidence level of more than 99 percent that at least one subtype of male sexual orientation is genetically influenced.

  2. An Examination of Health Inequities among College Students by Sexual Orientation Identity and Sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brittain, Danielle R.; Dinger, Mary K.

    2015-01-01

    Background Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) college students may have an increased number of health inequities compared to their heterosexual counterparts. However, to date, no research has provided a comprehensive examination of health-related factors by sexual orientation identity and sex among a national sample of college students. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine physical, sexual, interpersonal relations/safety, and mental health inequities by sexual orientation identity and sex among a national sample of college students. Design and methods Participants (n=39,767) completed the National College Health Assessment II during the fall 2008/spring 2009 academic year. Hierarchical binary logistic regression analyses were used to examine health inequities by sexual orientation identity and sex. Results LGB students compared to heterosexual students, experienced multiple health inequities including higher rates of being verbally threatened and lower rates of physical activity and condom use. Conclusions An understanding of health inequities experienced by LGB college students is critical as during these years of transition, students engage in protective (e.g., physical activity) and risky (e.g., lack of condom use) health behaviours, establishing habits that could last a lifetime. Future research should be used to design and implement targeted public health strategies and policies to reduce health inequities and improve health-related quality of life among LGB college students. Significance for public health Health inequities based on sexual orientation identity and sex among college students is a critical public health concern. Based on the results of the current study, lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) college students experienced multiple physical, sexual, interpersonal relations and safety, and mental health inequities. This understanding of health inequities experienced by LGB college students is critical as during these years of transition, students

  3. An Examination of Health Inequities among College Students by Sexual Orientation Identity and Sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brittain, Danielle R; Dinger, Mary K

    2015-02-20

    Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) college students may have an increased number of health inequities compared to their heterosexual counterparts. However, to date, no research has provided a comprehensive examination of health-related factors by sexual orientation identity and sex among a national sample of college students. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine physical, sexual, interpersonal relations/safety, and mental health inequities by sexual orientation identity and sex among a national sample of college students. Participants (n=39,767) completed the National College Health Assessment II during the fall 2008/spring 2009 academic year. Hierarchical binary logistic regression analyses were used to examine health inequities by sexual orientation identity and sex. LGB students compared to heterosexual students, experienced multiple health inequities including higher rates of being verbally threatened and lower rates of physical activity and condom use. An understanding of health inequities experienced by LGB college students is critical as during these years of transition, students engage in protective (e.g., physical activity) and risky (e.g., lack of condom use) health behaviours, establishing habits that could last a lifetime. Future research should be used to design and implement targeted public health strategies and policies to reduce health inequities and improve health-related quality of life among LGB college students. Significance for public healthHealth inequities based on sexual orientation identity and sex among college students is a critical public health concern. Based on the results of the current study, lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) college students experienced multiple physical, sexual, interpersonal relations and safety, and mental health inequities. This understanding of health inequities experienced by LGB college students is critical as during these years of transition, students engage in protective (e.g., physical activity) and

  4. Responsibility/Threat Overestimation Moderates the Relationship Between Contamination-Based Disgust and Obsessive-Compulsive Concerns About Sexual Orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ching, Terence H W; Williams, Monnica T; Siev, Jedidiah; Olatunji, Bunmi O

    2018-05-01

    Disgust has been shown to perform a "disease-avoidance" function in contamination fears. However, no studies have examined the relevance of disgust to obsessive-compulsive (OC) concerns about sexual orientation (e.g., fear of one's sexual orientation transforming against one's will, and compulsive avoidance of same-sex and/or gay or lesbian individuals to prevent that from happening). Therefore, we investigated whether the specific domain of contamination-based disgust (i.e., evoked by the perceived threat of transmission of essences between individuals) predicted OC concerns about sexual orientation, and whether this effect was moderated/amplified by obsessive beliefs, in evaluation of a "sexual orientation transformation-avoidance" function. We recruited 283 self-identified heterosexual college students (152 females, 131 males; mean age = 20.88 years, SD = 3.19) who completed three measures assessing disgust, obsessive beliefs, and OC concerns about sexual orientation. Results showed that contamination-based disgust (β = .17), responsibility/threat overestimation beliefs (β = .15), and their interaction (β = .17) each uniquely predicted OC concerns about sexual orientation, ts = 2.22, 2.50, and 2.90, ps contamination-based disgust accompanied by strong responsibility/threat overestimation beliefs predicted more severe OC concerns about sexual orientation, β = .48, t = 3.24, p contamination-based disgust, and exacerbated by responsibility/threat overestimation beliefs. Treatment for OC concerns about sexual orientation should target such beliefs.

  5. Sexual orientation differences in teen pregnancy and hormonal contraceptive use: An examination across two generations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, Brittany M.; Corliss, Heather L.; Missmer, Stacey A.; Rosario, Margaret; Spiegelman, Donna; Austin, S. Bryn

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To examine whether sexual orientation is associated with disparities in teen pregnancy and hormonal contraception use among adolescent females in two intergenerational cohorts. Study Design Data were collected from 91,003 women in the Nurses’ Health Study II (NHSII),born between 1947–1964, and 6,463 of their children, born between 1982–1987, enrolled in the Growing Up Today Study (GUTS). Log-binomial models were used to estimate risk ratios (RR) for teen pregnancy and hormonal contraception use in sexual minorities compared to heterosexuals and meta-analysis techniques were used to compare the two cohorts. Results Overall, teen hormonal contraception use was lower and teen pregnancy was higher in NHSII than GUTS. In both cohorts, lesbians were less likely, whereas the other sexual minorities were more likely, to use hormonal contraception as teenagers compared to their heterosexual peers. All sexual minority groups in both cohorts, except NHSII lesbians, were at significantly increased risk for teen pregnancy, with RRs ranging from 1.61 (95%CI 0.40, 6.55) to 5.82 (95%CI 2.89, 11.73). Having a NHSII mother who was pregnant as a teen was not associated with teen pregnancy in GUTS participants. Finally, significant heterogeneity was found between the two cohorts. Conclusions Adolescent sexual minorities have been, and continue to be, at increased risk for pregnancy. Public health and clinical efforts are needed to address teen pregnancy in this population. PMID:23796650

  6. Sexual orientation differences in teen pregnancy and hormonal contraceptive use: an examination across 2 generations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, Brittany M; Corliss, Heather L; Missmer, Stacey A; Rosario, Margaret; Spiegelman, Donna; Austin, S Bryn

    2013-09-01

    To examine whether sexual orientation is associated with disparities in teen pregnancy and hormonal contraception use among adolescent females in 2 intergenerational cohorts. Data were collected from 91,003 women in the Nurses' Health Study II (NHSII), born between 1947-1964, and 6463 of their children, born between 1982-1987, enrolled in the Growing Up Today Study (GUTS). Log-binomial models were used to estimate risk ratios for teen pregnancy and hormonal contraception use in sexual minorities compared with heterosexuals and metaanalysis techniques were used to compare the 2 cohorts. Overall, teen hormonal contraception use was lower and teen pregnancy was higher in NHSII than GUTS. In both cohorts, lesbians were less likely, whereas the other sexual minorities were more likely, to use hormonal contraception as teenagers compared with their heterosexual peers. All sexual minority groups in both cohorts, except NHSII lesbians, were at significantly increased risk for teen pregnancy, with risk ratios ranging from 1.61 (95% confidence interval, 0.40-6.55) to 5.82 (95% confidence interval, 2.89-11.73). Having an NHSII mother who was pregnant as a teen was not associated with teen pregnancy in GUTS participants. Finally, significant heterogeneity was found between the 2 cohorts. Adolescent sexual minorities have been, and continue to be, at increased risk for pregnancy. Public health and clinical efforts are needed to address teen pregnancy in this population. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Sexual orientation, internal migration, and mental health during the transition to adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Koji; Vaghela, Preeti; Ritter, Lacey J

    2014-12-01

    Previous research has suggested that sexual minorities may have higher rates of migration than heterosexuals, indicating their effort to escape stigma in the currently residing areas. However, direct evidence for the migration pattern has been lacking, and mental health implications of such coping effort have been unclear. This study seeks to fill these gaps in the literature by analyzing the Add Health data, which include longitudinal measures of residential locations, sexual orientation, and mental health. The analysis focuses on the transition to adulthood, when the rate of internal migration peaks. Among women, sexual minorities have a higher rate of migration than heterosexuals, but men do not show such a difference. Sexual minorities show better mental health when they migrate to counties with higher proportions of people living in urban areas whereas heterosexuals do not show such an association. Among sexual minority men, migration to counties with higher population density and higher proportions of college-educated residents is also linked to better mental health. © American Sociological Association 2014.

  8. Exploring judgement and internal bias of Life Orientation teachers in sexuality teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eben H. Swanepoel

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available There are various challenges in the teaching of sexuality within a South African multicultural context, as there is no uniform knowledge across learner backgrounds. As such, teachings often revert to the teacher’s beliefs, in order to create meaning within the uncertainty, at the expense of the individual learners’ personal identity formation. This paper explores the teachers’ internal bias and its subsequent influence on the teaching of alternative sexualities in Life Orientation classes. Through purposive sampling, four teachers in the Mangaung area of the Free State province participated in semi-structured interviews and electroencephalogram (EEG measurements. Data were analysed by means of thematic analysis and descriptive statistics collected through EEG readings in order to explore how teachers construct knowledge about alternative sexualities while mediating internal conflict, specifically through measuring frustration responses to stimuli. Findings suggest that the challenge of personal background influences teaching practice as well as limitations at curriculum level, leading to personal interpretations of content. Furthermore, sensitisation to content significantly affects levels of frustration, while the active versus reactive nature of teaching sexuality becomes apparent in how teachers ultimately accommodate personal bias. Recommendations include the need for sensitisation, during teacher induction, to sensitive topics such as sexuality, and to provide less biased messages during teaching.

  9. Adolescents of the U.S. National Longitudinal Lesbian Family Study: sexual orientation, sexual behavior, and sexual risk exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gartrell, N.K.; Bos, H.M.W.; Goldberg, N.G.

    2011-01-01

    This study assessed Kinsey self-ratings and lifetime sexual experiences of 17-year-olds whose lesbian mothers enrolled before these offspring were born in the longest-running, prospective study of same-sex parented families, with a 93% retention rate to date. Data for the current report were

  10. Predicting Homophobic Behavior among Heterosexual Youth: Domain General and Sexual Orientation-Specific Factors at the Individual and Contextual Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poteat, V. Paul; DiGiovanni, Craig D.; Scheer, Jillian R.

    2013-01-01

    As a form of bias-based harassment, homophobic behavior remains prominent in schools. Yet, little attention has been given to factors that underlie it, aside from bullying and sexual prejudice. Thus, we examined multiple domain general (empathy, perspective-taking, classroom respect norms) and sexual orientation-specific factors (sexual…

  11. Sexual Orientation-Based Disparities in School and Juvenile Justice Discipline: A Multiple Group Comparison of Contributing Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poteat, V. Paul; Scheer, Jillian R.; Chong, Eddie S. K.

    2016-01-01

    There is little data on whether school discipline or juvenile justice sanctions are directed disproportionately toward sexual minority youth (e.g., lesbian, gay, bisexual, or questioning; LGBQ) compared with heterosexual youth and even less on factors that may relate to such disparities. We tested for sexual orientation-based disparities in school…

  12. Sexual orientation and eating disorders: exploring the possible link

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Kuna

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper is aimed at investigating the potential connection between the prevalence of eating disorders and sexual orientation, as well as to exploring the nature of the possible relationship. For that purpose, results of studies found in digital databases were searched and analysed. Such a link has been found to exist, yet its character is difficult to determine due to limited data, problems in classifying patients’ sexual orientation, or collecting honest answers to sensitive but crucial questions. Most studies on the subject have been conducted in the USA and, rather predictably, mainly among women. Higher incidence rates were found in non-heterosexual men and bisexual women. It is not clear if homosexual women are more susceptible as well. It may be a result of being exposed to unique risk factors, such as common body image dissatisfaction, fear of coming out, or falling a victim to bullying. The lack of family support among sexual minorities also seems to be a significant factor – not only regarding the development of eating disorders but their effective treatment as well. This knowledge may be helpful in the prevention of eating disorders, making clinical examination more accurate and facilitating adjustments of therapy for people with eating disorders. Further research is needed, including more eating disorders and sexual orientation groups.

  13. Gender identity and sexual orientation in women with borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Devita; McMain, Shelley; Zucker, Kenneth J

    2011-02-01

    In the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, text revision (DSM-IV-TR) (and earlier editions), a disturbance in "identity" is one of the defining features of borderline personality disorder (BPD). Gender identity, a person's sense of self as a male or a female, constitutes an important aspect of identity formation, but this construct has rarely been examined in patients with BPD. In the present study, the presence of gender identity disorder or confusion was examined in women diagnosed with BPD. We used a validated dimensional measure of gender dysphoria. Recalled gender identity and gender role behavior from childhood was also assessed with a validated dimensional measure, and current sexual orientation was assessed by two self-report measures. A consecutive series of 100 clinic-referred women (mean age, 34 years) with BPD participated in the study. The women were diagnosed with BPD using the International Personality Disorder Exam-BPD Section. None of the women with BPD met the criterion for caseness on the dimensional measure of gender dysphoria. Women who self-reported either a bisexual or a homosexual sexual orientation had a significantly higher score on the dimensional measure of gender dysphoria than the women who self-reported a heterosexual sexual orientation, and they also recalled significantly more cross-gender behavior during childhood. Results were compared with a previous study on a diagnostically heterogeneous group of women with other clinical problems. The importance of psychosexual assessment in the clinical evaluation of patients with BPD is discussed. © 2010 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  14. Gender and sexual orientation differences in cognition across adulthood: age is kinder to women than to men regardless of sexual orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maylor, Elizabeth A; Reimers, Stian; Choi, Jean; Collaer, Marcia L; Peters, Michael; Silverman, Irwin

    2007-04-01

    Despite some evidence of greater age-related deterioration of the brain in males than in females, gender differences in rates of cognitive aging have proved inconsistent. The present study employed web-based methodology to collect data from people aged 20-65 years (109,612 men; 88,509 women). As expected, men outperformed women on tests of mental rotation and line angle judgment, whereas women outperformed men on tests of category fluency and object location memory. Performance on all tests declined with age but significantly more so for men than for women. Heterosexuals of each gender generally outperformed bisexuals and homosexuals on tests where that gender was superior; however, there were no clear interactions between age and sexual orientation for either gender. At least for these particular tests from young adulthood to retirement, age is kinder to women than to men, but treats heterosexuals, bisexuals, and homosexuals just the same.

  15. Gender relations and sexual orientation in Religious Education curriculum in state and municipal schools in Recife

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurenéa Maria de Oliveira

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This research conducted in state and municipal public schools of Recife in Pernambuco through research project that had the support of UFPE and CNPq aimed to analyze the Religious Education curriculum (ER, the place that women, especially with marginalized sexual orientation as lesbian, bisexual and transgender occupy. To this end, we work with the methodology of Discourse Analysis and the Theory of Speech, looking first identify the main ideologies surrounding and involving the theme, then locate the hegemonic discourse or hegemonic discourses that claimed around him . Thus, it reached the conclusion that approaches religion, gender and sexual diversity, which are expressed in the daily life of the classrooms are not, however, raised the disciplinary component examined in the absence of a curriculum that can assist teachers by through proposals and pragmatic content activities that encourage the emergence of points to be considered, negotiated and correlated to the themes in question. Thus, the difficulties in dialogue about sexual orientation and homosexuality in general, and specifically in the female case, are great in ER discipline in the schools surveyed. 

  16. Implementing Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity Data Collection in Emergency Departments: Patient and Staff Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, Danielle; Kodadek, Lisa; Shields, Ryan; Peterson, Susan; Snyder, Claire; Schneider, Eric; Vail, Laura; Ranjit, Anju; Torain, Maya; Schuur, Jeremiah; Lau, Brandyn; Haider, Adil

    2016-12-01

    To identify patient and provider perspectives concerning collection of sexual orientation and gender identity (SO&GI) information in emergency departments (EDs). Semistructured interviews were conducted during the period of 2014-2015 with a diverse purposive sample of patients across the spectrum of sexual orientation and gender identities (n = 53) and ED nurses, physician assistants, physicians, and registrars (n = 38) in a major metropolitan area. Interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed by multiple coders using constant comparative methods. Patients were willing to provide SO&GI information if collected safely and appropriately, and staff described willingness to collect SO&GI information to inform understanding of health disparities. Key themes across respondents were as follows: What will be done with the data? How will it be collected? Who will collect it? Is the environment conducive to safe disclosure? Confidentiality and potential sensitivity; standardized collection emphasizing population health; nurse intake and/or nonverbal data collection; and environmental cues and cultural competency promoting comfort for sexual and gender minorities emerged as critical considerations for effective implementation. Staff and patients are amenable to SO&GI data collection in EDs, but data quality and patient and provider comfort may be compromised without attention to specific implementation considerations.

  17. Disparities in tobacco use by sexual orientation among high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azagba, Sunday; Asbridge, Mark; Langille, Donald; Baskerville, Bruce

    2014-12-01

    This study examined whether cigarette use is associated with sexual orientation among high school students. Data were from a 2012 cross-sectional survey of 5994 students in grades 9, 10 and 12 attending public schools in Atlantic Canada. Multilevel logistic regression analysis was used to examine differences in cigarette use by sexual orientation. Lesbian, gay and bisexual adolescents (LGB) reported higher prevalence (22%) of daily cigarette use compared with heterosexuals (11%). Multilevel logistic regression analysis, controlling for standard covariates, found that LGB adolescents were more likely to be daily smokers than non-LGB adolescents (odds ratio 2.00, 95% confidence interval 1.50-2.68). Bisexual adolescents were at least twice more likely to be a smoker compared with heterosexual adolescents. Prevalence of cigarette use was significantly higher among LGB adolescent students. Our results join a growing body of evidence indicating that sexual minorities are at heightened risk of tobacco use. Smoking cessation measures that specifically target this group may be beneficial given that there is no one size fits all approach. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The future of drugs: recreational drug use and sexual health among gay and other men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Race, Kane; Lea, Toby; Murphy, Dean; Pienaar, Kiran

    2017-02-01

    There are complex historical connections between sexual minoritisation and desires to chemically alter bodily experience. For gay men, drug and alcohol use can be a creative or experimental response to social marginalisation - and not necessarily a problematic one in every instance. Numerous studies have found that infection with HIV and other sexually transmissible infections (STIs) is more likely among gay and men who have sex with men (MSM) who use recreational drugs than those who do not, but the causal nature of these relations is uncertain. Sexualised drug use is associated with a range of other problems, including dependence, mental health issues, accident and overdose. A growing body of work in the Alcohol and Other Drugs (AOD) field demonstrates the action of drugs and their purported effects to be a product of their relations with various other actors, contexts and practices. Given these contingencies, it is impossible to predict the future of drugs or their effect on the sexual health of gay and MSM with any degree of certainty. This article outlines some of the conditions most likely to mediate such futures in the medium term. Public funding for lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and queer drug issues should not remain restricted to questions of HIV prevention and sexual health. It should be expanded to equip sexual health and AOD service providers with the cultural and sexual literacy to mitigate stigma and allow them to respond constructively to drug problems among sexual and gender minorities as a matter of priority.

  19. The Impact of Parental Reaction to Sexual Orientation on Depressive Symptoms and Sexual Risk Behavior Among Hispanic Men Who Have Sex with Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrani, Victoria B; De Santis, Joseph P; McCabe, Brian E; Deleon, Diego A; Gattamorta, Karina A; Leblanc, Natalie M

    2017-08-01

    This study examined the relationship of parent reaction to sexual orientation with depressive symptoms and safer sex among Hispanic adult men who have sex with men (MSM). We also examined men's acculturation to the U.S. (Americanism) in relation with these variables. Cross-sectional data collected from July 2011 to December 2012, from 125 MSM with a mean age of 43.02years. Instruments included the Perceived Parent Reaction Scale, the Centers for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale, the Safer Sex Behavior Questionnaire and the Bidimensional Acculturation Scale. Data was analyzed using Hierarchical generalized linear models (GZLM). Among men whose parents knew of their sexual orientation, rejection of son's sexual orientation from mother (p=0.032) and from father (p=0.004) was related to higher number of depressive symptoms. Parent reactions were not directly related to safer sex behaviors. Americanism was associated with lower depressive symptoms (p=0.001) but was not related to safer sex behaviors. Current parent attitudes about their sons' sexual orientation had an effect on the sons' emotional wellbeing and acculturation may play a protective role. Mental health and primary care clinicians working with Hispanic MSM should assess for level of family support and provide resources to assist with disclosure and family acceptance of sexual orientation as indicated, particularly among recently immigrated men who may be at higher risk. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. On the Relationship Between Domain-Specific Creative Achievement and Sexual Orientation in Swedish Twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosing, Miriam A; Verweij, Karin J H; Abé, Christoph; de Manzano, Örjan; Ullén, Fredrik

    2016-10-01

    Despite the commonly held belief that homosexual males and females are more creative compared to heterosexuals, empirical studies on homosexuality and its relationship to creativity have been sparse, often with questionable methodology and very small sample sizes, reporting mixed findings. No study till date has explored the associations described above in a large population-based and genetically informative sample. Here, we examined such potential associations between sexual orientation and creative achievement in several different domains (music, writing, dance, visual arts, science, invention, and theater) using a large cohort of 4494 Swedish twins (of which 7.5 % were not exclusively heterosexual). Data were analyzed for the sexes separately as well as pooled. Results showed significant associations between sexual orientation and two of the creative domains-theater and writing-with non-heterosexuals being more creative in these domains. In all other domains, no significant differences were found between the non-heterosexual and heterosexual groups. Findings from co-twin control analyses suggested that the significant associations may not be causal in nature (i.e., homosexual orientation leads to higher creativity) but due to shared liability. However, we lacked power to differentiate between shared genetic and shared environmental influences. Results and potential implications are discussed critically.

  1. Examining weight and eating behavior by sexual orientation in a sample of male veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bankoff, Sarah M; Richards, Lauren K; Bartlett, Brooke; Wolf, Erika J; Mitchell, Karen S

    2016-07-01

    Eating disorders are understudied in men and in sexual minority populations; however, extant evidence suggests that gay men have higher rates of disordered eating than heterosexual men. The present study examined the associations between sexual orientation, body mass index (BMI), disordered eating behaviors, and food addiction in a sample of male veterans. Participants included 642 male veterans from the Knowledge Networks-GfK Research Panel. They were randomly selected from a larger study based on previously reported trauma exposure; 96% identified as heterosexual. Measures included the Eating Disorder Diagnostic Scale, the Yale Food Addiction Scale, and self-reported height and weight. Heterosexual and sexual minority men did not differ significantly in terms of BMI. However, gay and bisexual men (n=24) endorsed significantly greater eating disorder symptoms and food addiction compared to heterosexual men. Our findings that sexual minority male veterans may be more likely to experience eating disorder and food addiction symptoms compared to heterosexual male veterans highlight the importance of prevention, assessment, and treatment efforts targeted to this population. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Association splitting of the sexual orientation-OCD-relevant semantic network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ching, Terence H W; Williams, Monnica T

    2018-05-01

    There is little research on treating symptoms of sexual orientation-obsessive-compulsive disorder (SO-OCD). Semantic networks represent a new cognitive approach for understanding cognitive mechanisms of SO-OCD. Specifically, we tested whether the self-help cognitive technique of association splitting (AS) developed from this approach would be efficacious in reducing SO-OCD symptoms and thought suppression. One hundred and twenty heterosexual undergraduates (82 females, 38 males) were randomly assigned to either the AS or waitlist control group. At baseline and four weeks later, participants completed items assessing SO-OCD symptoms, measures of sexual obsessions and thought suppression, and an association task in which they generated associations to different cue words. Generated associations were coded based on SO-OCD relevance and emotional valence. Results indicated reductions in SO-OCD-relevant associations across levels of emotional valence and SO-OCD-irrelevant negative associations, and increases in SO-OCD-irrelevant positive and neutral associations, only in the AS group. Furthermore, there were reductions in SO-OCD symptoms, sexual obsessions, and thought suppression only in the AS group. Importantly, these findings were obtained with overall large effect sizes. AS appears to be an efficacious self-help technique in reducing SO-OCD symptoms, sexual obsessions, and thought suppression. Clinical implications, limitations, and suggestions for future research are discussed.

  3. Childhood Sexual Abuse and Age at Initiation of Injection Drug Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ompad, Danielle C.; Ikeda, Robin M.; Shah, Nina; Fuller, Crystal M.; Bailey, Susan; Morse, Edward; Kerndt, Peter; Maslow, Carey; Wu, Yingfeng; Vlahov, David; Garfein, Richard; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

    2005-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the relation between childhood sexual abuse and injection drug use initiation among young adult injection drug users. Methods. We used mixed effect linear models to compare age at first injection among 2143 young injection drug users by first sexual abuse age categories. Results. The participants were predominantly male (63.3%) and White (52.8%). Mean age and age at first injection were 23.7 and 19.6 years, respectively; 307 participants (14.3%) reported childhood sexual abuse. After adjustment for gender, race/ethnicity, noninjection drug use before first injection drug use, and recruitment site, childhood sexual abuse was independently associated with younger age at first injection. Conclusions. Childhood sexual abuse was associated with earlier initiation of injection drug use. These data emphasize the need to integrate substance abuse prevention with postvictimization services for children and adolescents. PMID:15798133

  4. The Geography of Sexual Orientation: Structural Stigma and Sexual Attraction, Behavior, and Identity Among Men Who Have Sex with Men Across 38 European Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachankis, John E; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L; Mirandola, Massimo; Weatherburn, Peter; Berg, Rigmor C; Marcus, Ulrich; Schmidt, Axel J

    2017-07-01

    While the prevalence of sexual identities and behaviors of men who have sex with men (MSM) varies across countries, no study has examined country-level structural stigma toward sexual minorities as a correlate of this variation. Drawing on emerging support for the context-dependent nature of MSM's open sexual self-identification cross-nationally, we examined country-level structural stigma as a key correlate of the geographic variation in MSM's sexual attraction, behavior, and identity, and concordance across these factors. Data come from the European MSM Internet Survey, a multi-national dataset containing a multi-component assessment of sexual orientation administered across 38 European countries (N = 174,209). Country-level stigma was assessed using a combination of national laws and policies affecting sexual minorities and a measure of attitudes toward sexual minorities held by the citizens of each country. Results demonstrate that in more stigmatizing countries, MSM were significantly more likely to report bisexual/heterosexual attractions, behaviors, and identities, and significantly less likely to report concordance across these factors, than in less stigmatizing countries. Settlement size moderated associations between country-level structural stigma and odds of bisexual/heterosexual attraction and behavior, such that MSM living in sparsely populated locales within high-structural stigma countries were the most likely to report bisexual or heterosexual behaviors and attractions. While previous research has demonstrated associations between structural stigma and adverse physical and mental health outcomes among sexual minorities, this study was the first to show that structural stigma was also a key correlate not only of sexual orientation identification, but also of MSM's sexual behavior and even attraction. Findings have implications for understanding the ontology of MSM's sexuality and suggest that a comprehensive picture of MSM's sexuality will come

  5. [Sexual orientation and partner-choice of transsexual women and men before gender-confirming interventions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerwenka, Susanne; Nieder, Timo Ole; Richter-Appelt, Hertha

    2012-06-01

    Diverse partner relationship constellations of gender dysphoric women and men with different sexual orientations are explored in a sample of 93 persons before gender-confirming interventions in persons with female gender identity and male body characteristics (MF) and persons with male gender identity and female body characteristics (FM). While in both gender groups the majority is single, relationship patterns show differences. Apart from working life, FM already live predominantly in the new, male gender role and have partners by whom they are desired as males. In contrast, only a small proportion of MF already conduct their private lives in the new, female gender role, and they often have relationships with partners sexually attracted to males and not to their female gender identity. The findings indicate a need for differing resources for gender dysphoric women and men in the process of a transsexual course of development. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. Beyond "homophobia": Thinking more clearly about stigma, prejudice, and sexual orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herek, Gregory M

    2015-09-01

    This article addresses the topic of homophobia. Recent events might make it seem as though it is dying out. Hate crimes based on a person's sexual orientation or gender presentation can now be prosecuted by the federal government, even when they occur in states lacking their own hate crime laws. Numerous states have changed their laws to permit same-sex couples to marry, some through the passage of legislation and others through ballot measures. Since the U.S. Supreme Court's 2013 decision overturning part of the Defense of Marriage Act, those marriages have been recognized by the federal government. With the dramatic and relatively rapid turnaround in public opinion, this article focuses on the changes in stigma and issues of sexual prejudice as well. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Sexual Orientation Differences as Deficits: Science and Stigma in the History of American Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herek, Gregory M

    2010-11-01

    This article briefly describes how psychology, psychiatry, and the mental health professions (here collectively referred to as Psychology) treated sexual orientation differences as deficits for much of the 20th century, as well as some of the negative consequences that practice had for sexual minorities. The 1970s witnessed a remarkable turnaround when the American Psychiatric Association removed homosexuality from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders and the American Psychological Association called for psychologists to work to remove the stigma historically associated with homosexuality. This history illustrates not only how cultural institutions play a central role in legitimating stigma, but also how they can recognize their own complicity in this process and work effectively to undo its harmful effects. It is argued that Psychology still has an important role to play in challenging the differences-as-deficits model in contemporary policy debates. © The Author(s) 2010.

  8. Predicting homophobic behavior among heterosexual youth: domain general and sexual orientation-specific factors at the individual and contextual level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poteat, V Paul; DiGiovanni, Craig D; Scheer, Jillian R

    2013-03-01

    As a form of bias-based harassment, homophobic behavior remains prominent in schools. Yet, little attention has been given to factors that underlie it, aside from bullying and sexual prejudice. Thus, we examined multiple domain general (empathy, perspective-taking, classroom respect norms) and sexual orientation-specific factors (sexual orientation identity importance, number of sexual minority friends, parents' sexual minority attitudes, media messages). We documented support for a model in which these sets of factors converged to predict homophobic behavior, mediated through bullying and prejudice, among 581 students in grades 9-12 (55 % female). The structural equation model indicated that, with the exception of media messages, these additional factors predicted levels of prejudice and bullying, which in turn predicted the likelihood of students to engage in homophobic behavior. These findings highlight the importance of addressing multiple interrelated factors in efforts to reduce bullying, prejudice, and discrimination among youth.

  9. Gender Differences in Drug Use, Sexually Transmitted Diseases, and Risky Sexual Behavior among Arrested Youths*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembo, Richard; Belenko, Steven; Childs, Kristina; Greenbaum, Paul E.; Wareham, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Data were collected on arrested youths processed at a centralized intake facility, including youths released back to the community and those placed in secure detention. This paper reports the results of a test of a structural model involving newly arrested male and female youths’ sexually transmitted diseases (STD) test results, urine analysis results for recent cocaine and marijuana use, and self-reported engaging in risky sexual behavior. The across gender, multiple group model involved: (1) a confirmatory factor analysis of these variables, reflecting a latent variable labeled Risk, (2) a regression of Risk on the youths’ age, and (3) an examination of the covariance between Risk and the youths’ race and seriousness of arrest charge. Results indicate the youths’ STD status, drug use, and reported risky sexual behavior are interrelated phenomena, similarly experienced across gender. Age was the only correlate of Risk status that demonstrated a significant gender group difference. The youths’ race and seriousness of arrest charges did not significantly affect Risk, regardless of gender. Research and policy implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:21221415

  10. Bullying, Physical Aggression, Gender-Atypicality, and Sexual Orientation in Samoan Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenyna, Scott W; Vasey, Paul L

    2017-07-01

    Bullying is characterized by the repeated attempts of a group or individual to gain social advantage by the use of relational, verbal, or physical aggression against a target, especially when there is a perceived or actual power imbalance (Espelage & Swearer, 2003). One consistent finding is that gay (i.e., androphilic) males report higher rates of victimization due to bullying in adolescence than their heterosexual (i.e., gynephilic) counterparts. Western data indicate that gender-atypical behavior, regardless of sexual orientation, is a key predictor of victimization due to bullying. Androphilic males generally display childhood gender-atypicality, including reduced levels of physical aggression, which may cause bullies to perceive them as "easy" targets. In order to test the associations between sexual orientation, childhood gender-atypicality, and recalled victimization due to bullying, a sample of Samoan gynephilic men (n = 100) were compared to a group of Samoan transgender androphilic males (n = 103), known as fa'afafine. Although the fa'afafine reported far more childhood gender-atypicality, the two groups did not differ significantly on measures of physical aggression or their reported rates of victimization due to bullying. Additionally, greater physical aggression, not gender-atypicality, was the only significant predictor of being bullied in both men and fa'afafine. These results suggest that there is nothing inherent in sexual orientation or childhood gender-atypicality that would potentiate victimization from bullying. Instead, the cultural context in which a bully functions influences the extent to which these are "acceptable" reasons to target certain individuals.

  11. Straight until proven gay: A systematic bias toward straight categorizations in sexual orientation judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lick, David J; Johnson, Kerri L

    2016-06-01

    Perceivers achieve above chance accuracy judging others' sexual orientations, but they also exhibit a notable response bias by categorizing most targets as straight rather than gay. Although a straight categorization bias is evident in many published reports, it has never been the focus of systematic inquiry. The current studies therefore document this bias and test the mechanisms that produce it. Studies 1-3 revealed the straight categorization bias cannot be explained entirely by perceivers' attempts to match categorizations to the number of gay targets in a stimulus set. Although perceivers were somewhat sensitive to base rate information, their tendency to categorize targets as straight persisted when they believed each target had a 50% chance of being gay (Study 1), received explicit information about the base rate of gay targets in a stimulus set (Study 2), and encountered stimulus sets with varying base rates of gay targets (Study 3). The remaining studies tested an alternate mechanism for the bias based upon perceivers' use of gender heuristics when judging sexual orientation. Specifically, Study 4 revealed the range of gendered cues compelling gay judgments is smaller than the range of gendered cues compelling straight judgments despite participants' acknowledgment of equal base rates for gay and straight targets. Study 5 highlighted perceptual experience as a cause of this imbalance: Exposing perceivers to hyper-gendered faces (e.g., masculine men) expanded the range of gendered cues compelling gay categorizations. Study 6 linked this observation to our initial studies by demonstrating that visual exposure to hyper-gendered faces reduced the magnitude of the straight categorization bias. Collectively, these studies provide systematic evidence of a response bias in sexual orientation categorization and offer new insights into the mechanisms that produce it. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Sexual orientation and adolescent substance use: a meta-analysis and methodological review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshal, Michael P; Friedman, Mark S; Stall, Ron; King, Kevin M; Miles, Jonathan; Gold, Melanie A; Bukstein, Oscar G; Morse, Jennifer Q

    2008-04-01

    Several decades of research have shown that lesbian, gay and bisexual (LGB) adults are at high risk for substance use and substance use disorders (SUDs). These problems may often start prior to young adulthood; however, relatively little is known about risk for substance use in LGB adolescents. The primary aims of this paper were to conduct a meta-analysis of the relationship between sexual orientation and adolescent substance use and a systematic review and critique of the methodological characteristics of this literature. Medical and social science journals were searched using Medline and PsychInfo. Studies were included if they tested the relationship between sexual orientation and adolescent substance use. Eighteen published studies were identified. Data analysis procedures followed expert guidelines, and used National Institutes of Health (NIH)-sponsored meta-analysis software. LGB adolescents reported higher rates of substance use compared to heterosexual youth (overall odds ratio = 2.89, Cohen's d = 0.59). Effect sizes varied by gender, bisexuality status, sexual orientation definition and recruitment source. None of the studies tested mediation and only one tested moderation. One employed a matched comparison group design, one used a longitudinal design, and very few controlled for possible confounding variables. The odds of substance use for LGB youth were, on average, 190% higher than for heterosexual youth and substantially higher within some subpopulations of LGB youth (340% higher for bisexual youth, 400% higher for females). Causal mechanisms, protective factors and alternative explanations for this effect, as well as long-term substance use outcomes in LGB youth, remain largely unknown.

  13. Sexual Orientation-Related Differences in Virtual Spatial Navigation and Spatial Search Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Qazi; Sharp, Jonathan; McVeigh, Meadhbh; Ho, Man-Ling

    2017-07-01

    Spatial abilities are generally hypothesized to differ between men and women, and people with different sexual orientations. According to the cross-sex shift hypothesis, gay men are hypothesized to perform in the direction of heterosexual women and lesbian women in the direction of heterosexual men on cognitive tests. This study investigated sexual orientation differences in spatial navigation and strategy during a virtual Morris water maze task (VMWM). Forty-four heterosexual men, 43 heterosexual women, 39 gay men, and 34 lesbian/bisexual women (aged 18-54 years) navigated a desktop VMWM and completed measures of intelligence, handedness, and childhood gender nonconformity (CGN). We quantified spatial learning (hidden platform trials), probe trial performance, and cued navigation (visible platform trials). Spatial strategies during hidden and probe trials were classified into visual scanning, landmark use, thigmotaxis/circling, and enfilading. In general, heterosexual men scored better than women and gay men on some spatial learning and probe trial measures and used more visual scan strategies. However, some differences disappeared after controlling for age and estimated IQ (e.g., in visual scanning heterosexual men differed from women but not gay men). Heterosexual women did not differ from lesbian/bisexual women. For both sexes, visual scanning predicted probe trial performance. More feminine CGN scores were associated with lower performance among men and greater performance among women on specific spatial learning or probe trial measures. These results provide mixed evidence for the cross-sex shift hypothesis of sexual orientation-related differences in spatial cognition.

  14. Exploring relationships between sexual orientation and satisfaction with faculty and staff interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvey, Jason C; Inkelas, Karen Kurotsuchi

    2012-01-01

    Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) students are a unique population within colleges and universities, yet, few studies have sought to uncover the distinctive environmental influences and background characteristics that foster their satisfaction. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between sexual orientation and a sense of satisfaction with faculty and staff interactions among undergraduate students. Analysis of variance results indicated that LGB students, on average, reported significantly higher satisfaction with faculty and staff interactions than heterosexual students. Using Astin's (1993 ) input-environments-outcome model as a conceptual framework, the hierarchical regression analysis yielded numerous significant variables as predictors for student satisfaction with faculty and staff interactions.

  15. Sexual orientation, bullying for being labeled gay or bisexual, and steroid use among US adolescent boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent, Mike C; Bradstreet, Tyler C

    2018-03-01

    Use of anabolic-androgenic steroids is a public health concern for adolescent boys. This study examined bullying based on being labeled gay/bisexual and steroid use among US adolescent boys, including sexual orientation disparities. Data from 2660 boys from the 2015 Youth Behavior Risk Survey were used. Among heterosexual boys, steroid use was higher among those who reported being bullied due to being labeled gay or bisexual. No such relationship existed among non-heterosexual boys. The results speak to the need to address issues of masculinity in clinical work with boys and young men.

  16. Code switching and sexual orientation: a test of Bernstein's sociolinguistic theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumby, M E

    1976-01-01

    Bernstein's theory was tested in the homosexual's "closed" community to determine code-switching ability and its relationship to jargon. Subjects told a story based on homoerotic photographs where knowledge of sexual orientation was varied. Rather than finding the restricted code associated with in-group communication, an analysis of data trends (since all hypotheses were rejected) suggests that homosexual hemophyly encouraged elaboration, and status differentiation resulted in a more restricted code. Story length was the most significant variable across groups. Some of Bernstein's theoretical explanations require modification to account for subjects' behavior in stigmatized social groups.

  17. Employment Discrimination Based on Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity in South Dakota

    OpenAIRE

    Mallory, Christy; Sears, Brad

    2015-01-01

    About 19,900 LGBT workers in South Dakota are not explicitly protected from discrimination under state or federal laws. Many corporate employers and public opinion in the state support protections for LGBT people in the workplace. If sexual orientation and gender identity were added to existing statewide non-discrimination laws, nine more complaints would be filed in South Dakota each year. The cost of enforcing those complaints would be negligible, and would not require additional court or a...

  18. Toward Personalized Sexual Medicine (Part 1) : Integrating the “Dual Control Model” into Differential Drug Treatments for Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder and Female Sexual Arousal Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloemers, J.; van Rooij, K.; Poels, S.; Goldstein, I.; Everaerd, W.; Koppeschaar, H.; Chivers, M.; Gerritsen, J.; van Ham, D.; Olivier, B.; Tuiten, A.

    In three related manuscripts we describe our drug development program for the treatment of Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder (HSDD). In this first theoretical article we will defend the hypothesis that different causal mechanisms are responsible for the emergence of HSDD: low sexual desire in women

  19. Drug treatment of paraphilic and nonparaphilic sexual disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guay, David R P

    2009-01-01

    initiated in all offenders. In those at the highest risk of reoffending, psychotherapy should be initiated at the same time as drug therapy because their combination is associated with better results compared with either as monotherapy (especially in pedophiles). In offenders committing non-"hands-on" or violent paraphilias and those at low risk of reoffending, serotoninergic monotherapies (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors [SSRIs] or tricyclic antidepressants) are reasonable choices (SSRIs are preferred). In other offenders, initial dual combination therapy (serotoninergic plus antiandrogenic) is recommended. Progestogens should be used before LHRH agonists or estrogens. Cyproterone acetate and MPA are preferred as oral and IM progestogens, respectively. Failure of dual combination serotoninergic/ progestogen therapy should prompt a change in one or both of the components (eg, SSRI to tricyclic antidepressants or vice versa, or cyproterone acetate to MPA or vice versa) or the addition or substitution of an LHRH agonist (leuprolide or triptorelin) for the progestogen. Estrogens are second- or third-line agents. Rarely, triple combination therapy is necessary (serotoninergic plus LHRH agonist or progestogen plus estrogen). It appears that recidivism rates are reduced by the use of psychotherapy alone, drug therapy alone, and more so by their combination. Although some progress has been made in the therapy of paraphilic and nonparaphilic sexual disorders, much work remains to be done. The development of more specific, more effective, and better-tolerated medications for these disorders should be recognized as a program worthy of greater support from government and pharmaceutical industry sources. Clinical studies performed to date have largely been of poor design, making the recommendations provided in this review tentative at best.

  20. The Relationship between Drug Use and Sexual Aggression in Men across Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartout, Kevin M.; White, Jacquelyn W.

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between drug use and sexual aggression in a sample of men was examined at five time points from adolescence through the 4th year of college. Hierarchical linear modeling explored the relationship between proximal drug use and severity of sexual aggression after controlling for proximal alcohol use at each time period. Results…

  1. Flirting with disaster: short-term mating orientation and hostile sexism predict different types of sexual harassment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Charlotte; Rees, Jonas; Bohner, Gerd

    2012-01-01

    We combine evolutionary and sociocultural accounts of sexual harassment, proposing that sexuality-related and hostility-related motives lead to different types of harassment. Specifically, men's short-term mating orientation (STMO) was hypothesized to predict only unwanted sexual attention but not gender harassment, whereas men's hostile sexism (HS) was hypothesized to predict both unwanted sexual attention and gender harassment. As part of an alleged computer-chat task, 100 male students could send sexualized personal remarks (representing unwanted sexual attention), sexist jokes (representing gender harassment), or nonharassing material to an attractive female target. Independently, participants' STMO, HS, and sexual harassment myth acceptance (SHMA) were assessed. Correlational and path analyses revealed that STMO specifically predicted unwanted sexual attention, whereas HS predicted both unwanted sexual attention and gender harassment. Furthermore, SHMA fully mediated the effect of HS on gender harassment, but did not mediate effects of STMO or HS on unwanted sexual attention. Results are discussed in relation to motivational explanations for sexual harassment and antiharassment interventions. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Pubertal Stress and Nutrition and their Association with Sexual Orientation and Height in the Add Health Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skorska, Malvina N; Bogaert, Anthony F

    2017-01-01

    A number of studies have indicated that gay men tend to be shorter, on average, than heterosexual men. Less evidence exists that lesbian women are taller, on average, than heterosexual women. The most popular explanation of the association between sexual orientation and height involves prenatal factors, such that, for example, gay men may have been exposed to lower than typical androgens during fetal development, which impacts their height and sexual orientation as adults. An alternative explanation involves stress, given that stress has been associated with sexual minority identification and with lower height. Another alternative explanation involves nutrition, although its relationship is less clear with sexual minority identification. Using the Add Health data, which is a large, nationally representative and longitudinal sample of American adolescents (n = 14,786), we tested a mediation model, such that sexual orientation → pubertal stress/nutrition → height. Within men, we found that gay men (n = 126) were shorter, on average, than heterosexual men (n = 6412). None of the 24 pubertal stress-related and 15 pubertal nutrition-related variables assessed in the Add Health data mediated the relationship between sexual orientation and height in men. Within women, lesbians (n = 75) did not differ significantly in stature compared to heterosexual women (n = 6267). Thus, prenatal mechanisms (e.g., hormones, maternal immune response) are likely better candidates for explaining the height difference between gay men and heterosexual men.

  3. The association of sexual orientation with self-rated health, and cigarette and alcohol use in Mexican adolescents and youths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Hernández, Luis; Tello, Blanca Lilia Gómez; Valdés, Jesús

    2009-07-01

    Evidence of health inequities associated with sexual orientation has been gathered for industrialized countries. The situation for lesbians, gay males, and bisexuals (LGB) from middle- or low-income countries may be worse than those in industrialized nations. Here, we analyze the relationship of sexual orientation with self-rated health and cigarette and alcohol use among a representative sample of Mexican adolescents and youths between the ages of 12 and 29 years, in order to explore whether this association is mediated by discrimination and violence. Three dimensions of sexual orientation (affective attraction, sexual behavior, and identity) were assessed. The outcomes were self-rated health and cigarette and alcohol use. Compared to heterosexuals, LGB youths more frequently smoked >or=6 cigarettes per day, reported having experienced family violence, having crimes perpetrated against them, and having experienced violations of their rights. Among males, gays and bisexuals exhibited a higher risk of poor health than heterosexuals. Compared to heterosexual women, lesbians and bisexual women were more likely to consume alcohol. Many differences in self-rated health and substance use according to sexual orientation were explained by having experienced discrimination and violence. We concluded that lesbian and bisexual females have a higher prevalence of cigarette and alcohol use. It is necessary to develop policies and programs aimed at the reduction of substance abuse among LGB youths (focusing on females who engage in sexual contact with persons of the same gender) and to work against discrimination and violence experienced by LGB people, particularly against non-heterosexual males.

  4. Sexual orientation and medical history among Iranian people with Complete Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome and Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorashad, Behzad S; Roshan, Ghasem M; Reid, Alistair G; Aghili, Zahra; Hiradfar, Mehran; Afkhamizadeh, Mozhgan; Talaei, Ali; Aarabi, Azadeh; Ghaemi, Nosrat; Taghehchian, Negin; Saberi, Hedieh; Farahi, Nazanin; Abbaszadegan, Mohammad Reza

    2017-01-01

    To report sexual orientation, relationship status and medical history of Iranian people with Differences of Sex Development (DSD) who were raised female. Our participants consisted of nineteen 46,XY individuals with Complete Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome (CAIS) and eighteen 46,XX individuals with Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH) who were raised as females and older than 13years. As well as their relationship status and detailed medical history, an expert psychiatrist assessed their sexual orientation by a semi-structured psychiatric interview with them and, where applicable, their parents. Five percent of CAH participants and 42% of CAIS participants were in a relationship, which was significantly different. All CAH individuals had been diagnosed at birth; 89% of CAIS had been diagnosed after puberty and due to primary amenorrhea and 11% were diagnosed in childhood due to inguinal hernia. Genital reconstructive surgery had been performed in 100% of CAH participants and 37% of CAIS. Regarding sexual contact experiences and sexual fantasies (androphilic, gynephilic or both), no significant differences were found. However, CAH females had significantly more gynephilic dreams (P=0.045). This study, notable as one of the rare from a non-western culture, described sexual, medical and socioeconomic status of 46,XX CAH and 46,XY CAIS individuals living in Iran. Although broadly in line with previous findings from Western cultures, Iranian CAH individuals had fewer romantic relationships, but in contrast to previous studies their sexual orientation was only different from CAIS in the contents of sexual dreams. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Sexual orientation and self-rated health: the role of social capital, offence, threat of violence, and violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelsson, Jakob; Modén, Birgit; Rosvall, Maria; Lindström, Martin

    2013-07-01

    To study the association between sexual orientation and self-rated health, including trust, offence, threat of violence, and violence. DESIGN/SETTING/PARTICIPANTS/MEASUREMENT: The 2008 Public Health Survey in Skåne is a cross-sectional postal questionnaire study. A total of 28,198 persons aged 18-80 years responded (55%). Logistic regressions analysed the association between sexual orientation and self-rated health. 27.4% of all men and 30.0% of all women rated their health as poor. Poor self-rated health was significantly more prevalent in higher age, among immigrants, people with lower education, low social support, low trust, experience of being offended, experience of threat of violence and violence, and bisexual and other orientation. Homosexual and bisexual men and women had higher age-adjusted odds ratios of having felt offended compared to heterosexual respondents. The odds ratios of low trust, threat of violence (men), and experience of violence (women) were significant for respondents with bisexual orientation but not for respondents with homosexual orientation. In the age-adjusted model, no significant association was observed between homosexual orientation and poor self-rated health among women. All other associations between sexual orientation and health were significant in the age-adjusted model but non-significant in the multiple models. Associations between sexual orientation and health disappear after multiple adjustments including trust and experience of offence, threat of violence, and violence. The study suggests that the group with bisexual orientation seems to be more exposed to low social capital (trust), threat of violence, and violence than the group with homosexual orientation.

  6. Freedom of peaceful assembly and prohibition of discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jančić Melanija

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the author deals with the question of realization of guaranteed freedom of peaceful assembly and the prohibition of discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation. The prohibition of discrimination and freedom of peaceful assembly are prescribed by international documents and domestic law. The main emphasis will be on the prohibition of the Pride Parade that was to be held in Belgrade in October 2011 and on the rights and freedoms of the LGBT population that were consequently violated. However, on 22 December 2011 the Constitutional Court of Serbia upheld a constitutional complaint lodged by the organizers of the Pride Parade in 2009. The Constitutional Court ruled that the competent authorities in Serbia banned the 2009 Pride Parade in violation of the Serbian Constitution. This decision is of great importance for human rights protection in Serbia and the cornerstone judgment regarding the prohibition of discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation and realization and protection of human rights and fundamental freedoms in our country.

  7. State and local policies related to sexual orientation in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Ryan; Hexem, Sarah; LaPollo, Archana; Cuffe, Kendra M; Chesson, Harrell W; Leichliter, Jami S

    2017-02-01

    Poorer health suffered by lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) populations may be associated with public policies. We collected the laws that in 2013 prohibited discrimination based on sexual orientation from 50 United States (US) states, the District of Columbia (Washington, DC or DC), and the 30 most populous US metropolitan areas. To facilitate future research, we coded certain aspects of these laws to create a dataset. We generated descriptive statistics by jurisdiction type and tested for regional differences in state law using Chi-square tests. Sixteen (31.4 per cent) states prohibited discrimination by all employers based on sexual orientation, 25 states (49.0 per cent) in public employment, 18 states (35.3 per cent) in government contracting, and 21 states (41.2 per cent) in private employment. Twenty-one states prohibited discrimination (41.2 per cent) in housing practices (selling and renting), and 17 (33.3 per cent) in public accommodations. Local (county/city) laws prohibiting discrimination were less common. State laws differed significantly by US census region - West, Midwest, Northeast, and South. Future analyses of these data could examine the impact of these laws on various outcomes, including health among LGB populations.

  8. Masculinity and Feminity in Mexican Young Men: A Matter of Sexual Orientation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge García-Villanueva

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between masculinity and femininity in terms of sexual orientation is scarcely analyzed in Mexico City. This study compared the results obtained from the application of the Masculinity and Femininity Inventory (IMAFE to two samples of men: one homosexual, and one heterosexual; both groups aged between 17 and 25 years. The first sample consisted of 56 subjects, and the second one was of 57, for a total of 113 people. Most of them had a degree, and a minimum percentage of the participants had an associate’s degree. After grading the tests, the data were analyzed by using the Student’s t-test. The results showed that there were no statistically significant differences in the IMAFE scales. It is concluded that there are no differences in the masculinity and femininity of the subjects according to their sexual orientation, although a tendency to androgyny is observed. The findings of this exploration can be used as aspects contributing to an education that favors the tolerance to the diversity and, therefore, the dismantling of obscenities toward the homosexual people.

  9. Breast cancer survivorship: the role of perceived discrimination and sexual orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabson, Jennifer M; Donatelle, Rebecca J; Bowen, Deborah

    2011-03-01

    Breast cancer disproportionately affects sexual minority women (SMW) compared to heterosexual women and a small but growing literature indicates that SMW may have diminished survivorship outcomes; outcomes that are measurably and importantly different from heterosexual breast cancer survivors. However, it remains unknown how sexual orientation influences breast cancer survivorship outcomes such as quality of life. One possible route of influence is SMW's perceived discrimination in the health care setting. This cross-sectional study examines SMW perceptions of discrimination as one of the multiple facets of the breast cancer survivorship process. This study assessed SMW breast cancer survivor's perceptions of discrimination during their breast cancer treatment experience and secondarily, examined the role of this perceived discrimination on SMW's quality of life. Sixty-eight purposefully sampled sexual minority breast cancer survivors completed assessments of quality of life, perceived discrimination, perceived social support and perceived stress via an online survey. Statistical analyses point to perceived discrimination and perceived social support as important indicators for predicting SMW's quality of life. Future research on SMW's breast cancer survivorship should include measures of perceived discrimination.

  10. Structural connections in the brain in relation to gender identity and sexual orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Sarah M; Manzouri, Amir H; Savic, Ivanka

    2017-12-20

    Both transgenderism and homosexuality are facets of human biology, believed to derive from different sexual differentiation of the brain. The two phenomena are, however, fundamentally unalike, despite an increased prevalence of homosexuality among transgender populations. Transgenderism is associated with strong feelings of incongruence between one's physical sex and experienced gender, not reported in homosexual persons. The present study searches to find neural correlates for the respective conditions, using fractional anisotropy (FA) as a measure of white matter connections that has consistently shown sex differences. We compared FA in 40 transgender men (female birth-assigned sex) and 27 transgender women (male birth-assigned sex), with both homosexual (29 male, 30 female) and heterosexual (40 male, 40 female) cisgender controls. Previously reported sex differences in FA were reproduced in cis-heterosexual groups, but were not found among the cis-homosexual groups. After controlling for sexual orientation, the transgender groups showed sex-typical FA-values. The only exception was the right inferior fronto-occipital tract, connecting parietal and frontal brain areas that mediate own body perception. Our findings suggest that the neuroanatomical signature of transgenderism is related to brain areas processing the perception of self and body ownership, whereas homosexuality seems to be associated with less cerebral sexual differentiation.

  11. Self-perceived vs. actual physical attractiveness: Associations with depression as a function of sexual orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlinger, Peter P; Blashill, Aaron J

    2016-01-01

    A commonly held belief about physical attractiveness is that attractive individuals are psychologically healthier than less attractive individuals (i.e., the "beauty is good" stereotype). To date, the data on this stereotype and its relationship with depression is limited, with a paucity of literature comparing subjective and objective appearance evaluations and depressive symptoms. Additionally, there is no known research on this relationship among sexual minorities (i.e., gay and bisexual individuals), a highly vulnerable population. The primary aims of the study were to assess the prediction of depression symptoms by subjective and objective appearance evaluation, and secondary aims were to assess the interaction of subjective and objective appearance with sexual orientation. Participants were 4882 American emerging adults (M age=22 years; 2253 males, 2629 females) taken from a U.S. nationally representative dataset (Add Health) Increased negative subjective appearance evaluation was associated with elevated rates of depressive symptoms (B=-.27, pstereotype may not be valid in regard to depressive symptoms, and that subjective appearance evaluation is a robust predictor of depression, particularly for sexual minority individuals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Psychiatric disorders, suicidality, and personality among young men by sexual orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J; Dey, M; Soldati, L; Weiss, M G; Gmel, G; Mohler-Kuo, M

    2014-10-01

    Personality and its potential role in mediating risk of psychiatric disorders and suicidality are assessed by sexual orientation, using data collected among young Swiss men (n=5875) recruited while presenting for mandatory military conscription. Mental health outcomes were analyzed by sexual attraction using logistic regression, controlling for five-factor model personality traits and socio-demographics. Homo/bisexual men demonstrated the highest scores for neuroticism-anxiety but the lowest for sociability and sensation seeking, with no differences for aggression-hostility. Among homo/bisexual men, 10.2% fulfilled diagnostic criteria for major depression in the past 2weeks, 10.8% for ADHD in the past 12months, 13.8% for lifetime anti-social personality disorder (ASPD), and 6.0% attempted suicide in the past 12months. Upon adjusting (AOR) for personality traits, their odds ratios (OR) for major depression (OR=4.78, 95% CI 2.81-8.14; AOR=1.46, 95% CI 0.80-2.65) and ADHD (OR=2.17, 95% CI=1.31-3.58; AOR=1.00, 95% CI 0.58-1.75) lost statistical significance, and the odds ratio for suicide attempt was halved (OR=5.10, 95% CI 2.57-10.1; AOR=2.42, 95% CI 1.16-5.02). There are noteworthy differences in personality traits by sexual orientation, and much of the increased mental morbidity appears to be accounted for by such underlying differences, with important implications for etiology and treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. A multidimensional measure of sexual orientation, use of psychoactive substances, and depression: results of a national survey on sexual behavior in france.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lhomond, Brigitte; Saurel-Cubizolles, Marie-Josèphe; Michaels, Stuart

    2014-04-01

    Using data from a large national representative survey on sexual behavior in France (Contexte de la Sexualité en France), this study analyzed the relationship between a multidimensional measure of sexual orientation and psychoactive substance use and depression. The survey was conducted in 2006 by telephone with a random sample of the continental French speaking population between the ages of 18 and 69 years. The sample used for this analysis consisted of the 4,400 men and 5,472 women who were sexually active. A sexual orientation measure was constructed by combining information on three dimensions of sexual orientation: attraction, sexual behavior, and self-definition. Five mutually exclusive groups were defined for men and women: those with only heterosexual behavior were divided in two groups whether or not they declared any same-sex attraction; those with any same-sex partners were divided into three categories derived from their self-definition (heterosexual, bisexual or homosexual). The consumption of alcohol and cannabis, which was higher in the non-exclusively heterosexual groups, was more closely associated with homosexual self-identification for women than for men. Self-defined bisexuals (both male and female) followed by gay men and lesbians had the highest risk of chronic or recent depression. Self-defined heterosexuals who had same-sex partners or attraction had levels of risk between exclusive heterosexuals and self-identified homosexuals and bisexuals. The use of a multidimensional measure of sexual orientation demonstrated variation in substance use and mental health between non-heterosexual subgroups defined in terms of behavior, attraction, and identity.

  14. Gay, Mostly Gay, or Bisexual Leaning Gay? An Exploratory Study Distinguishing Gay Sexual Orientations Among Young Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savin-Williams, Ritch C; Cash, Brian M; McCormack, Mark; Rieger, Gerulf

    2017-01-01

    This exploratory study assessed physiological, behavioral, and self-report measures of sexual and romantic indicators of sexual orientation identities among young men (mean age = 21.9 years) with predominant same-sex sexual and romantic interests: those who described themselves as bisexual leaning gay (n = 11), mostly gay (n = 17), and gay (n = 47). Although they were not significantly distinguishable based on physiological (pupil dilation) responses to nude stimuli, on behavioral and self-report measures a descending linear trend toward the less preferred sex (female) was significant regarding sexual attraction, fantasy, genital contact, infatuation, romantic relationship, sex appeal, and gazing time to the porn stimuli. Results supported a continuum of sexuality with distinct subgroups only for the self-report measure of sexual attraction. The other behavioral and self-report measures followed the same trend but did not significantly differ between the bisexual leaning gay and mostly gay groups, likely the result of small sample size. Results suggest that romantic indicators are as good as sexual measures in assessing sexual orientation and that a succession of logically following groups from bisexual leaning gay, mostly gay, to gay. Whether these three groups are discrete or overlapping needs further research.

  15. Homeless in Dhaka: Violence, Sexual Harassment, and Drug-abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, Md. Jasim; Ashraf, Ali; Rashid, Mashida

    2009-01-01

    Bangladesh has experienced one of the highest urban population growth rates (around 7% per year) over the past three decades. Dhaka, the capital city, attracts approximately 320,000 migrants from rural areas every year. The city is unable to provide shelter, food, education, healthcare, and employment for its rapidly-expanding population. An estimated 3.4 million people live in the overcrowded slums of Dhaka, and many more live in public spaces lacking the most basic shelter. While a small but growing body of research describes the lives of people who live in urban informal settlements or slums, very little research describes the population with no housing at all. Anecdotally, the homeless population in Dhaka is known to face extortion, erratic unemployment, exposure to violence, and sexual harassment and to engage in high-risk behaviours. However, this has not been systematically documented. This cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted to better understand the challenges in the lives of the homeless population in 11 areas of Dhaka during a 13-month period from June 2007 to June 2008. A modified cluster-sampling method was used for selecting 32 clusters of 14 female and male respondents, for a sample of 896. In addition to sociodemographic details, this paper focuses specifically on violence, drug-abuse, and sexual harassment. The findings showed that physical assaults among the homeless, particularly among women, were a regular phenomenon. Eighty-three percent of female respondents (n=372) were assaulted by their husbands, station masters, and male police officers. They were subjected to lewd gestures, unwelcome advances, and rape. Male respondents reported being physically assaulted while trying to collect food, fighting over space, or while stealing, by police officers, miscreants, or other homeless people. Sixty-nine percent of the male respondents (n=309) used locally-available drugs, such as marijuana and heroin, and two-thirds of injecting drug

  16. Homeless in Dhaka: violence, sexual harassment, and drug-abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehlmoos, Tracey Pérez; Uddin, Md Jasim; Ashraf, Ali; Rashid, Mashida

    2009-08-01

    Bangladesh has experienced one of the highest urban population growth rates (around 7% per year) over the past three decades. Dhaka, the capital city, attracts approximately 320,000 migrants from rural areas every year. The city is unable to provide shelter, food, education, healthcare, and employment for its rapidly-expanding population. An estimated 3.4 million people live in the overcrowded slums of Dhaka, and many more live in public spaces lacking the most basic shelter. While a small but growing body of research describes the lives of people who live in urban informal settlements or slums, very little research describes the population with no housing at all. Anecdotally, the homeless population in Dhaka is known to face extortion, erratic unemployment, exposure to violence, and sexual harassment and to engage in high-risk behaviours. However, this has not been systematically documented. This cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted to better understand the challenges in the lives of the homeless population in 11 areas of Dhaka during a 13-month period from June 2007 to June 2008. A modified cluster-sampling method was used for selecting 32 clusters of 14 female and male respondents, for a sample of 896. In addition to sociodemographic details, this paper focuses specifically on violence, drug-abuse, and sexual harassment. The findings showed that physical assaults among the homeless, particularly among women, were a regular phenomenon. Eighty-three percent of female respondents (n=372) were assaulted by their husbands, station masters, and male police officers. They were subjected to lewd gestures, unwelcome advances, and rape. Male respondents reported being physically assaulted while trying to collect food, fighting over space, or while stealing, by police officers, miscreants, or other homeless people. Sixty-nine percent of the male respondents (n=309) used locally-available drugs, such as marijuana and heroin, and two-thirds of injecting drug

  17. Characteristics of Stress and Suicidal Ideation in the Disclosure of Sexual Orientation among Young French LGB Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charbonnier, Elodie; Dumas, Florence; Chesterman, Adam; Graziani, Pierluigi

    2018-02-07

    Lesbians, gays, and bisexual people (LGB) present high levels of suicidal ideation. The disclosure of sexual orientation is a stressful experience which presents a high suicide risk. Research has not paid sufficient attention to stress during this disclosure in order to understand suicide among LGB people. The aims of this study were to investigate: (1) the characteristics of stress during this revelation, more precisely cognitive appraisal, emotions, and coping; and (2) associations between these characteristics and suicidal ideation. A total of 200 LGB young adults answered the "Stressful situation assessment questionnaire", focusing on the most stressful disclosure of sexual orientation they have ever experienced. Avoidance coping is a good predictor of suicidal ideation, and mediates the association between primary appraisal (risk "Harm myself and others") and suicidal ideation. Our study illustrates the need to better understand stress during the disclosure of sexual orientation to prevent and care for suicide risk among LGB young adults.

  18. Sexual orientation and boyhood gender conformity: development of the Boyhood Gender Conformity Scale (BGCS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockenberry, S L; Billingham, R E

    1987-12-01

    Two hundred twenty-five [corrected] respondents (109 [corrected] heterosexuals and 116 [corrected] homosexuals) completed a survey containing a 20-item Boyhood Gender Conformity Scale (BGCS). This scale was largely composed of edited and abridged gender items from Part A of Freund et al.'s Feminine Gender Identity Scale (FGIS-A) and Whitam's "childhood indicators." The combined scale was developed in an attempt to obtain a reliable, valid, and potent discriminating instrument for accurately classifying adult male respondents for sexual orientation on the basis of their reported boyhood gender conformity or nonconforming behavior and identity. In addition, 33% of these respondents were administered the original FGIS-A and Whitam inventory during a 2-week test-retest analysis conducted to determine the validity and reliability of the new instrument. All the original items significantly discriminated between heterosexual and homosexual respondents. From these a 13-item function and a 5-item function proved to be the most powerful discriminators between the two groups. Significant correlations between each of the three scales and a very high test-retest correlation coefficient supported the reliability and validity assumption for the BGCS. The conclusion was made that the five-item function (playing with boys, preferring [corrected] boys' games, imagining self as sports figure, reading adventure and sports stories, considered a "sissy") was the most potent and parsimonious discriminator among adult males for sexual orientation. It was similarly noted that the absence of masculine behaviors and traits appeared to be a more powerful predictor of later homosexual orientation than the traditionally feminine or cross-sexed traits and behaviors.

  19. Health-related quality of life inequalities by sexual orientation: Results from the Barcelona Health Interview Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marti-Pastor, Marc; Perez, Gloria; German, Danielle; Pont, Angels; Garin, Olatz; Alonso, Jordi; Gotsens, Mercè; Ferrer, Montse

    2018-01-01

    Studies on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) inequalities according to sexual orientation are scarce. The aim of this study was to assess HRQoL inequalities between lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) people and heterosexuals in the 2011 Barcelona population, to describe the extent to which sociodemographic characteristics, health-related behaviors, and chronic conditions could explain such inequalities, and to understand if they are sexual orientation inequities. In the 2011 Barcelona Health Interview Survey 3277 adults answered the EQ-5D, which measures five dimensions of HRQoL summarized into a single utility index (1 = perfect health, 0 = death). To assess HRQoL differences by sexual orientation we constructed Tobit models for the EQ-5D index, and Poisson regression models for the EQ-5D dimensions. In both cases, nested models were constructed to assess the mediator role of selected variables. After adjusting by socio-demographic variables, the LGB group presented a significantly lower EQ-5D index than heterosexuals, and higher prevalence ratios of problems in physical EQ-5D dimensions among both genders: adjusted prevalence ratio (aPR) = 1.70 for mobility (p = 0.046) and 2.11 for usual activities (p = 0.019). Differences in mental dimensions were only observed among men: aPR = 3.15 for pain/discomfort (p = 0.003) and 2.49 for anxiety/depression (p = 0.030). All these differences by sexual orientation disappeared after adding chronic conditions and health-related behaviors in the models. The LGB population presented worse HRQoL than heterosexuals in the EQ-5D index and most dimensions. Chronic conditions, health-related behaviors and gender play a major role in explaining HRQoL differences by sexual orientation. These findings support the need of including sexual orientation into the global agenda of health inequities.

  20. Health-related quality of life inequalities by sexual orientation: Results from the Barcelona Health Interview Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Marti-Pastor

    Full Text Available Studies on health-related quality of life (HRQoL inequalities according to sexual orientation are scarce. The aim of this study was to assess HRQoL inequalities between lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB people and heterosexuals in the 2011 Barcelona population, to describe the extent to which sociodemographic characteristics, health-related behaviors, and chronic conditions could explain such inequalities, and to understand if they are sexual orientation inequities.In the 2011 Barcelona Health Interview Survey 3277 adults answered the EQ-5D, which measures five dimensions of HRQoL summarized into a single utility index (1 = perfect health, 0 = death. To assess HRQoL differences by sexual orientation we constructed Tobit models for the EQ-5D index, and Poisson regression models for the EQ-5D dimensions. In both cases, nested models were constructed to assess the mediator role of selected variables.After adjusting by socio-demographic variables, the LGB group presented a significantly lower EQ-5D index than heterosexuals, and higher prevalence ratios of problems in physical EQ-5D dimensions among both genders: adjusted prevalence ratio (aPR = 1.70 for mobility (p = 0.046 and 2.11 for usual activities (p = 0.019. Differences in mental dimensions were only observed among men: aPR = 3.15 for pain/discomfort (p = 0.003 and 2.49 for anxiety/depression (p = 0.030. All these differences by sexual orientation disappeared after adding chronic conditions and health-related behaviors in the models.The LGB population presented worse HRQoL than heterosexuals in the EQ-5D index and most dimensions. Chronic conditions, health-related behaviors and gender play a major role in explaining HRQoL differences by sexual orientation. These findings support the need of including sexual orientation into the global agenda of health inequities.

  1. Coping and survival skills: the role school personnel play regarding support for bullied sexual minority-oriented youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Alexandra; Yarber, William L; Sherwood-Laughlin, Catherine M; Gray, Mary L; Estell, David B

    2015-05-01

    Research has shown that bullying has serious health consequences, and sexual minority-oriented youth are disproportionately affected. Sexual minority-oriented youth include lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, or questioning (LGBTQ) individuals. This study examined the bullying experiences of sexual minority-oriented youth in a predominantly rural area of a Midwestern state. The purpose of this study was to have bullied youth describe their experiences and to present their perspectives. Using critical qualitative inquiry, 16 in-depth interviews were conducted in-person or online with youth, ages 15-20, who self-identified as having been bullied based on their perceived minority sexual orientation status. The role of supportive school personnel was found to be meaningful, and supportive school personnel were mentioned as assisting with the coping and survival among this group of bullied sexual minority youth. Supportive school personnel are crucial to the coping and survival of these youth. All school personnel need to be aware of the anti-bullying policies in their school corporations. They may then work to strengthen and enforce their policies for the protection of bullied youth. © 2015, American School Health Association.

  2. Self-injury, suicide ideation, and sexual orientation: differences in causes and correlates among high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCamp, Whitney; Bakken, Nicholas W

    2016-01-01

    Research has suggested that sexual minority youth are more likely to experience a number of behavioral and health-related risk factors due to their exposure to negative attitudes and beliefs about sexual minorities. Few studies, however, have examined the prevalence of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) among sexual minority youth. With self-cutting and suicidal ideation common in middle and high schools, understanding the antecedents and correlates of such behavior may help identify troubled students and initiate preventative measures. Bivariate probit regression analyses are performed using data from 7,326 high school students collected via the Delaware Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Results indicate that bullying victimization, fighting, substance use, sexual behavior, depression, and unhealthy dieting behaviors were generally associated with NSSI and suicidal ideation. Some effects--including those from sexual activity, substance use, and unhealthy dieting behaviors--significantly differed based on gender and orientation. Risk factors for suicide and NSSI vary by gender and orientation. Both prevention/intervention specialists and researchers should consider the intersection of these risk factors with sexual orientation in their efforts. © 2016 KUMS, All rights reserved.

  3. Sexual risk behaviors for HIV infection in Spanish male sex workers: differences according to educational level, country of origin and sexual orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballester, R; Salmerón, P; Gil, M D; Gómez, S

    2012-05-01

    The stigma associated with male sex workers (MSW) hinders the prevention, treatment, and care of HIV infection in this population. These factors make social and public health resources less accessible to MSW. To improve the effectiveness of prevention strategies, this study examines social factors such as educational level, country of origin, and sexual orientation. Semi-structured interviews of 100 MSW in Castellón and Valencia (Spanish cities) indicate that knowledge of HIV transmission is good; nevertheless, MSW significantly overestimate or underestimate some sexual practices. Levels of condom use are high; notably, they are higher during anal sex. Levels of condom use are lower with intimate partners than with clients. MSW do not present differences in terms of the socio-demographic variables analyzed and sexual orientation. Furthermore, regression analyses are not significant. These results offer more accurate profiles of MSW than were previously available, which will ultimately help improve the effectiveness of prevention programs.

  4. [High prevalence of drug consumption and sexual risk behaviors in men who have sex with men].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folch, Cinta; Fernández-Dávila, Percy; Ferrer, Laia; Soriano, Raúl; Díez, Mercedes; Casabona, Jordi

    2015-08-07

    To describe the pattern of drug use among men who have sex with men (MSM) living in Spain and its association with sexual risk practices. The European MSM Internet Survey was implemented in 2010 in 38 European countries on websites for MSM and collected data on sociodemographics, sexual behavior, and other sexual health variables. The association between unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) with casual partners and drug consumption was evaluated using multivariate logistic regression models. Among the 13,111 participants, most consumed drugs were cannabis (30.1%), popper (28.4%) and cocaine (18.7%). The risk of UAI with casual partners was 1.5 among those who had used drugs in relation to the other participants. The proportion of MSM who had injected drugs at least once in life was 2.5%, and 1.4% in the last 12 months. The prevalence of UAI with casual partners (53.4%), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) (23%), hepatitis C (8.2%) and sexually transmitted infections (STI) (15.8%) was higher in MSM injectors related to those who had not used injected drugs (P<.05). The results of this study confirm a high prevalence of drug use in MSM and their relationship to sexual risk behavior. Although the use of injected drugs in MSM is a minority, this group reported a higher level of sexual risk behaviors, self-reported HIV, hepatitis C and other STI. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Alcohol and drug use among sexual minority college students and their heterosexual counterparts: the effects of experiencing and witnessing incivility and hostility on campus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodford, Michael R; Krentzman, Amy R; Gattis, Maurice N

    2012-01-01

    Research suggests that discrimination contributes to increased substance use among sexual minorities. Subtle discrimination and witnessing mistreatment, however, have received little attention. Using minority stress theory as a conceptual framework the authors examined the intersection of sexual orientation, experiencing and witnessing incivility and hostility, and students' alcohol and drug use. The authors hypothesized that experiencing/witnessing incivility/hostility would mediate the relationship between sexual minority status and drinking and drug use, as well as problematic use of these substances. Data were taken from a campus climate survey (n = 2497; age mean [M] = 23.19 years; 61% female; 17% sexual minorities). Controlling for demographics, logistic regressions depicted specifications for each path of the mediation analysis and bootstrapping was used to assess the significance of each sexual minority-mistreatment-drinking/drug use path. Experiencing incivility mediated the relationship between sexual minority status and problematic drinking. Sexual minority college students were more likely to personally experience incivility (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.87; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.51-2.33), which was associated with greater odds of problematic drinking (AOR = 1.64; 95% CI = 1.35-2.00). The mediation path was significant at P sexual minority status and problematic drinking. Sexual minority college students were more likely to witness hostility (AOR = 1.87, 95% CI = 1.48-2.36), which was associated with greater odds of problematic drinking (AOR = 1.53; 95% CI = 1.24-1.90). The mediation path was significant at P sexual minorities need to assess personal incivilities and witnessing interpersonal mistreatment, especially hostility. Campus climate interventions that address subtle discrimination as well as harassment and violence may help reduce problematic drinking.

  6. Relationship between Drugs Use and Sexual Risk Behaviors among Senior High School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yola Yuniaarti Herijanto

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Drugs use and risky sexual behavior among teenager are some of crucial problems arising in Indonesia. Statistic showed that there is an increasing prevalence in drugs use and risky sexual behavior among teenagers. This study was conducted to analyze the relationship between drugs use and risky sexual behaviors among high school students. Methods: An analytic study involving 432 students in 5 state high schools located in Kerees region Bandung, West Java, Indonesia, was carried out in 2013. The region was chosen due the high prevalence of substance abuse. The inclusion criteria were every high school students in the Karees region. The exclusion criteria were the students who refused to participate in the study, did not come when the sample was taken, and did not fill the questionnaire completely. The instruments used for the study were questionnaires with cross-sectional technique. Furthermore, the questionnaire used for analyzing drugs use was Addiction Severity Index-Lite Version (ASI-lite questionnaire; with additional questionnaire to analyze risky sexual behaviors. Results: Out of 432 students, 23.8% students already engaged to one or more risky sexual behavior. Among all respondents, the prevalence of students who had already done kissing was 22.7%, necking 9.3%, petting 7.2% and sexual intercourse 1.2%. Illegal drugs had been used at least once by 21.8% students. According to Chi-square test, drugs use and risky sexual behavior were related. Conclusions:The prevalence of both drugs use and risky sexual behaviors are high and students who use drugs are more prone to do risky sexual behavior.

  7. Seeking solace in West Hollywood: sexual orientation-based hate crimes in Los Angeles County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stotzer, Rebecca L

    2010-01-01

    Many thriving "gay communities" across the United States report high levels of sexual orientation-based hate crimes every year, raising questions about the level of safety in these gay communities and neighborhoods. This study examines hate crime data from 2002-2006 in Los Angeles County and the relationship those hate crimes have to West Hollywood, the best known gay community of Los Angeles County. Results suggest that although West Hollywood does consistently report high numbers of hate crimes, this does not reflect a greatly increased risk to any one lesbian, gay, or bisexual person. Results suggest that we need to consider other variables as predictors (such as poverty, business density, and population density) in determining safe versus unsafe space, rather than just the percentage of lesbians, gay, and bisexuals in a population.

  8. Sexual orientation and education politics: gay and lesbian representation in American schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wald, Kenneth D; Rienzo, Barbara A; Button, James W

    2002-01-01

    In what has sometimes provoked a "culture war" over America's schools, gays and lesbians have sought an expanded voice in the making of education policy. This paper explores the factors that promote gay representation on school boards, how this variable in turn influences gay representation in both administrative and teaching positions, and how all three forms of gay representation relate to school board policies regarding sexual orientation education. Three of the four models drawn from the social movement literature help to explain gay school board representation. In a manner similar to other minority groups, gay representation on school boards directly or indirectly promotes the appointment of gays to administrative and teaching positions and the adoption of policies that address the problems faced by gay and lesbian students in the public schools.

  9. A gender- and sexual orientation-dependent spatial attentional effect of invisible images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yi; Costello, Patricia; Fang, Fang; Huang, Miner; He, Sheng

    2006-11-07

    Human observers are constantly bombarded with a vast amount of information. Selective attention helps us to quickly process what is important while ignoring the irrelevant. In this study, we demonstrate that information that has not entered observers' consciousness, such as interocularly suppressed (invisible) erotic pictures, can direct the distribution of spatial attention. Furthermore, invisible erotic information can either attract or repel observers' spatial attention depending on their gender and sexual orientation. While unaware of the suppressed pictures, heterosexual males' attention was attracted to invisible female nudes, heterosexual females' attention was attracted to invisible male nudes, gay males behaved similarly to heterosexual females, and gay/bisexual females performed in-between heterosexual males and females.

  10. How queer!--the development of gender identity and sexual orientation in LGBTQ-headed families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Istar Lev, Arlene

    2010-09-01

    This paper focuses on the impact of heteronormativity on research and clinical theory, utilizing the case of a lesbian couple with a young gender dysphoric child as a backdrop to discuss the contextual unfolding of gender development within a lesbian parented family. The extant research on LGBTQ-headed families has minimized the complexity of children's developing gender identity and sexual orientation living in queer families, and has been guided by heteronormative assumptions that presume a less optimal outcome if the children of LGBTQ parents are gay or transgender themselves. This article challenges family therapists to recognize the enormous societal pressure on LGBTQ parents to produce heterosexual, gender-normative children, and the expectations on their children, especially those questioning their own sex or gender identities. 2010 © FPI, Inc.

  11. Complementary and alternative drug therapy versus science-oriented medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anlauf, Manfred; Hein, Lutz; Hense, Hans-Werner; Köbberling, Johannes; Lasek, Rainer; Leidl, Reiner; Schöne-Seifert, Bettina

    2015-01-01

    This opinion deals critically with the so-called complementary and alternative medical (CAM) therapy on the basis of current data. From the authors' perspective, CAM prescriptions and most notably the extensive current endeavours to the "integration" of CAM into conventional patient care is problematic in several respects. Thus, several CAM measures are used, although no specific effects of medicines can be proved in clinical studies. It is extensively explained that the methods used in this regard are those of evidence-based medicine, which is one of the indispensable pillars of science-oriented medicine. This standard of proof of efficacy is fundamentally independent of the requirement of being able to explain efficacy of a therapy in a manner compatible with the insights of the natural sciences, which is also essential for medical progress. Numerous CAM treatments can however never conceivably satisfy this requirement; rather they are justified with pre-scientific or unscientific paradigms. The high attractiveness of CAM measures evidenced in patients and many doctors is based on a combination of positive expectations and experiences, among other things, which are at times unjustified, at times thoroughly justified, from a science-oriented view, but which are non-specific (context effects). With a view to the latter phenomenon, the authors consider the conscious use of CAM as unrevealed therapeutic placebos to be problematic. In addition, they advocate that academic medicine should again systematically endeavour to pay more attention to medical empathy and use context effects in the service of patients to the utmost. The subsequent opinion discusses the following after an introduction to medical history: the definition of CAM; the efficacy of most common CAM procedures; CAM utilisation and costs in Germany; characteristics of science-oriented medicine; awareness of placebo research; pro and contra arguments about the use of CAM, not least of all in terms of

  12. Complementary and alternative drug therapy versus science-oriented medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anlauf, Manfred; Hein, Lutz; Hense, Hans-Werner; Köbberling, Johannes; Lasek, Rainer; Leidl, Reiner; Schöne-Seifert, Bettina

    2015-01-01

    This opinion deals critically with the so-called complementary and alternative medical (CAM) therapy on the basis of current data. From the authors’ perspective, CAM prescriptions and most notably the extensive current endeavours to the “integration” of CAM into conventional patient care is problematic in several respects. Thus, several CAM measures are used, although no specific effects of medicines can be proved in clinical studies. It is extensively explained that the methods used in this regard are those of evidence-based medicine, which is one of the indispensable pillars of science-oriented medicine. This standard of proof of efficacy is fundamentally independent of the requirement of being able to explain efficacy of a therapy in a manner compatible with the insights of the natural sciences, which is also essential for medical progress. Numerous CAM treatments can however never conceivably satisfy this requirement; rather they are justified with pre-scientific or unscientific paradigms. The high attractiveness of CAM measures evidenced in patients and many doctors is based on a combination of positive expectations and experiences, among other things, which are at times unjustified, at times thoroughly justified, from a science-oriented view, but which are non-specific (context effects). With a view to the latter phenomenon, the authors consider the conscious use of CAM as unrevealed therapeutic placebos to be problematic. In addition, they advocate that academic medicine should again systematically endeavour to pay more attention to medical empathy and use context effects in the service of patients to the utmost. The subsequent opinion discusses the following after an introduction to medical history: the definition of CAM; the efficacy of most common CAM procedures; CAM utilisation and costs in Germany; characteristics of science-oriented medicine; awareness of placebo research; pro and contra arguments about the use of CAM, not least of all in terms

  13. Forcible, Drug-Facilitated, and Incapacitated Rape and Sexual Assault among Undergraduate Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawyer, Steven; Resnick, Heidi; Bakanic, Von; Burkett, Tracy; Kilpatrick, Dean

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To examine the prevalence of drug-related sexual assaults, identify the frequency of assaults that occur following voluntary versus involuntary drug or alcohol consumption, and identify contextual correlates of drug-related assaults. Participants: College-student females (n = 314). Methods: Volunteers reported experiences with forcible…

  14. Sex, Sexual Orientation, Gender Atypicality, and Indicators of Depression and Anxiety in Childhood and Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petterson, Lanna J; VanderLaan, Doug P; Vasey, Paul L

    2017-07-01

    The current study evaluated the possibility that greater negative mental health outcomes reported among gay, lesbian, and gender-atypical individuals, compared to gender-typical individuals, are present in childhood and persist into adulthood. Sex and sexual orientation differences in self-reported adulthood and recalled childhood indicators of depression and anxiety and their association with current and retrospectively reported gender (a)typicality were examined in a non-clinically recruited community sample of Canadian heterosexual men (n = 98), heterosexual women (n = 142), gay men (n = 289), and lesbian women (n = 69). Indicators of depression and anxiety were constructed based on diagnostic criteria for generalized anxiety disorder, major depression, agoraphobia, social anxiety disorder, panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and specific phobias. Factor reduction analyses yielded three factors: (1) indicators of childhood separation anxiety, (2) indicators of childhood depression and anxiety, and (3) indicators of adulthood depression and anxiety. Lesbian women scored higher on childhood separation anxiety than all other groups. Heterosexual men scored lower on indicators of childhood separation anxiety than gay men and lower on indicators of childhood and adulthood depression and anxiety than all other groups. No other significant group differences were observed. Correlational analysis suggested that for men, but not for women, gender-atypical behavior was associated with negative mental health. The current study indicated that childhood should be considered a critical time period during which the noted sexual orientation-related mental health discrepancies manifest and that childhood gender atypicality is a key factor for understanding the emergence of such discrepancies.

  15. Brief Report: Sexual Orientation in Individuals with Autistic Traits--Population Based Study of 47,000 Adults in Stockholm County

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, Christiane E. S.; Lundin, Andreas; Åhs, Jill W.; Dalman, Christina; Kosidou, Kyriaki

    2018-01-01

    We examined the association between autistic traits and sexual orientation in a general adult population (N = 47,356). Autistic traits were measured with the ten items Autistic Quotient questionnaire using a cut-off score of = 6. Sexual orientation was assessed by self-report. Multinomial logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs)…

  16. What's in Your Box? Promoting Self-Reflection and Analysis of External Influences on Gender Expression and Sexual Orientation Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priest, Hannah M.

    2014-01-01

    This lesson plan is designed to stimulate awareness and reflection on personal attitudes toward gender expression and sexual orientation. Participants are guided to identify and analyze how external influences from various socialization agents shape gender and sexual orientation norms and, consequently, personal attitudes about gender expression…

  17. Sexual behavior and drug consumption among young adults in a shantytown in Lima, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilman Robert H

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Risky sexual behaviors of young adults have received increasing attention during the last decades. However, few studies have focused on the sexual behavior of young adults in shantytowns of Latin America. Specifically, studies on the association between sexual behaviors and other risk factors for sexually transmitted infections (STI and HIV/AIDS transmission, such as the consumption of illicit drugs or alcohol are scarce in this specific context. Methods The study participants were 393 men and 400 women between 18 and 30 years of age, from a shantytown in Lima, Peru. Data were obtained via survey: one section applied by a trained research assistant, and a self-reporting section. Logistic regression was used to estimate associations between use of any illicit drug, high-risk sexual behaviors and reported STI symptoms, adjusting for alcohol consumption level and various socio-demographic characteristics. Results Among men, age of sexual debut was lower, number of lifetime sexual partners was higher, and there were higher risk types of sexual partners, compared to women. Though consistent condom use with casual partners was low in both groups, reported condom use at last intercourse was higher among men than women. Also, a lifetime history of illicit drug consumption decreased the probability of condom use at last sexual intercourse by half. Among men, the use of illicit drugs doubled the probability of intercourse with a casual partner during the last year and tripled the probability of reported STI symptoms. Conclusion Drug consumption is associated with high-risk sexual behaviors and reported STI symptoms in a Lima shantytown after controlling for alcohol consumption level. Development of prevention programs for risky sexual behaviors, considering gender differences, is discussed.

  18. Sexual orientation and spatial position effects on selective forms of object location memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Qazi; Newland, Cherie; Smyth, Beatrice Mary

    2011-04-01

    Prior research has demonstrated robust sex and sexual orientation-related differences in object location memory in humans. Here we show that this sexual variation may depend on the spatial position of target objects and the task-specific nature of the spatial array. We tested the recovery of object locations in three object arrays (object exchanges, object shifts, and novel objects) relative to veridical center (left compared to right side of the arrays) in a sample of 35 heterosexual men, 35 heterosexual women, and 35 homosexual men. Relative to heterosexual men, heterosexual women showed better location recovery in the right side of the array during object exchanges and homosexual men performed better in the right side during novel objects. However, the difference between heterosexual and homosexual men disappeared after controlling for IQ. Heterosexual women and homosexual men did not differ significantly from each other in location change detection with respect to task or side of array. These data suggest that visual space biases in processing categorical spatial positions may enhance aspects of object location memory in heterosexual women. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Predictors of race, adoption, and sexual orientation related socialization of adoptive parents of young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Abbie E; Smith, JuliAnna Z

    2016-04-01

    Using a sample of 125 lesbian, gay, and heterosexual adoptive parent couples with young children (M = 6.32 years), this study examined predictors of direct socialization (preparation for adoptism, racism, and heterosexism) and indirect socialization (modeling interactions by responding to outsiders' inquiries about their child's adoptive status, racial background, or family structure). In terms of direct socialization, parents of older children tended to engage in more socialization around adoptism and heterosexism, and parents of daughters tended to engage in more socialization around racism and heterosexism. Greater perceived child interest in adoption was related to more direct socialization around adoptism. Parents of color reported more direct socialization around racism. Having a child of color was related to more direct socialization around heterosexism. Regarding indirect socialization, sexual minority parents reported more socialization around adoption and race. Greater perceived child interest in adoption was related to more indirect adoption socialization. Being more "out" was related to more indirect socialization around parent sexual orientation. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Orientação sexual para jovens adultos com deficiência auditiva Sexual orientation for young adults with hearing impairments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Milene Cursino

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available o estudo investigou o tema da sexualidade junto a 14 jovens adultos com deficiência auditiva de 18 a 35 anos de idade, no Centro de Distúrbios da Audição Linguagem e Visão (CEDALVI que faz parte do HRAC-USP/Bauru. Os objetivos foram: identificar quais as necessidades de informação no que diz respeito à sexualidade; intervir, através de um programa de orientação sexual, informando e discutindo sobre temas referentes à sexualidade e verificar a aquisição de informação obtida com o programa de orientação sexual. Para tal, foi realizado um programa de orientação sexual, com três encontros abordando os seguintes temas: Órgãos sexuais e relações de gênero, Relacionamento afetivo e Gravidez, doenças sexualmente transmissíveis e auto-estima. Utilizou-se para a coleta dos dados um questionário inicial, questionários com questões fechadas, falso e verdadeiro, tipo pré e pós-teste no início e ao final de cada encontro e uma entrevista de avaliação processual, ao final do programa. Observou-se que o termo sexualidade continua sendo reduzido ao ato sexual ou as formas de prevenção de doenças ou métodos contraceptivos por grande parte dos jovens e a fonte de informação mais citada foi a mídia. O tema de maior número de acertos no pós-teste foi Órgãos sexuais e relações de gênero e todos, em geral, avaliaram positivamente a participação no programa. Concluiu-se que é necessário que a sexualidade seja cada vez mais incluída em programas de reabilitação, garantindo o acesso a informação e a discussão do tema, tão importante na vida desses jovens.the study investigated the theme of sexuality among 14 hearing impaired young adults, aged 18 to 35 years, at the Center for Hearing, Language and Visual Disturbances (CEDALVI, a service of the HRAC-USP/Bauru. The aims were: to identify what kinds of information on sexuality were needed; to intervene through a sexual orientation program, so as to inform and

  1. The impact of sexual orientation on body image, self-esteem, urinary and sexual functions in the experience of prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, C; Wootten, A C; Robinson, P; Law, P C F; McKenzie, D P

    2018-03-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) poses a large health burden globally. Research indicates that men experience a range of psychological challenges associated with PCa including changes to identity, self-esteem and body image. The ways in which sexual orientation plays a role in the experience of PCa, and the subsequent impact on quality of life (QoL), body image and self-esteem have only recently been addressed. By addressing treatment modality, where participant numbers were sufficient, we also sought to explore whether gay (homosexual) men diagnosed with PCa (PCaDx) and with a primary treatment modality of surgery would report differences in body image and self-esteem compared with straight (heterosexual) men with PCaDx with a primary treatment modality of surgery, compared with gay and straight men without PCaDx. The results of our study identified overall differences with respect to PCaDx (related to urinary function, sexual function and health evaluation), and sexual orientation (related to self-esteem), rather than interactions between sexual orientation and PCaDx. Gay men with PCaDx exhibited higher levels of urinary functioning than straight men with PCaDx, the difference being reversed for gay and straight men without PCaDx; but this result narrowly failed to achieve statistical significance, suggesting a need for further research, with larger samples. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Service Providers' Reactions to Intimate Partner Violence as a Function of Victim Sexual Orientation and Type of Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basow, Susan A.; Thompson, Janelle

    2012-01-01

    In this online vignette study, a national sample of domestic violence shelter service providers (N = 282) completed a 10-item questionnaire about a woman experiencing intimate partner violence (IPV). Scenarios varied in terms of couple sexual orientation (heterosexual or lesbian) and type of abuse (physical or nonphysical). Results indicate that…

  3. Attributions for sexual orientation vs. stereotypes : How beliefs about value violations account for attribution effects on anti-gay discrimination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reyna, Christine; Wetherell, Geoffrey; Yantis, Caitlyn; Brandt, Mark J.

    Attributions for sexual orientation strongly predict opposition to gay rights policies; however, we propose that beliefs that gays and lesbians violate important values drive gay rights opposition and account for the relationship between attributions and anti-gay discrimination. In two studies, we

  4. Mapping the Infoscape of LIS Courses for Intersections of Health-Gender and Health-Sexual Orientation Topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehra, Bharat; Tidwell, William Travis

    2014-01-01

    The article explores the information landscape (i.e., infoscape) of library and information science (LIS) courses for intersections of health-gender and health-sexual orientation topics, concerns, and issues. This research was considered important because health information support services essential in today's society must include marginalized…

  5. "Out" Gay and Lesbian Faculty and the Inclusion of Sexual Orientation Topics in Teacher Preparation Programmes in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Todd

    2010-01-01

    Do "out" lesbian and gay faculty influence the inclusion of sexual orientation as a form of diversity in their teacher preparation programmes? Data gathered from 142 teacher preparation programmes across the USA (representing the preparation of 23,000-30,000 new teachers annually) suggest they do not. Likewise, the priority placed upon…

  6. Cognitive Readiness of Students at Teacher Colleges to Support Individuals with Stigmatized Gender Identity and Sexual Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuprienko, T. P.

    2015-01-01

    The article reviews the evidence of the professional readiness of future educational psychologists to perform professional functions, and consider the levels of general cognitive and psychological aptitude of students at teacher colleges to support people with stigmatized gender identity and sexual orientation. [This article was translated by…

  7. Predicting College Students' Intergroup Friendships across Race/Ethnicity, Religion, Sexual Orientation, and Social Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Susan B.

    2013-01-01

    This study seeks to expand the literature on predicting friendship diversity beyond race/ethnicity to include religion, social class, and sexual orientation. Survey packets elicited information regarding up to four close friendships developed during college. Additional measures assessed pre-college friendship diversity, participation in college…

  8. An exploratory study of differences in views of factors affecting sexual orientation for a sample of lesbians and gay men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otis, Melanie D; Skinner, William F

    2004-06-01

    An exploratory study of lesbians (70) and gay men (118) from a rural state in the mid-South was conducted using a self-administered, mail-out survey. The nonrandom sample was drawn from organizational mailing lists, snowball sampling, and a convenience sample at a community event. Respondents were asked to indicate the extent to which each of the following affected sexual orientation: genetics, relationship between parents, relationship with parents, birth order, peers, growing up in a dysfunctional family, growing up in a single-parent family, negative experiences with the opposite sex, and positive experiences with the same sex. Similar to studies of heterosexual men and women, these gay men were more likely to view sexual orientation as a result of genetics than the lesbian respondents. Further, the lesbian group were more likely to view positive relationships with the same sex to have a great influence on sexual orientation. These data indicate there are sex differences in views on factors that affect sexual orientation.

  9. "I Would Not Consider Myself a Homophobe": Learning and Teaching about Sexual Orientation in a Principal Preparation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Joanne M.; Hernandez, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to analyze the written reflections of aspiring principals in two principal-preparation courses where social justice is at the core of the content and which address sexual orientation as part of the responsibility of a social justice leader. Data Collection: Two instructors in a leadership-preparation program…

  10. Student Sexual Orientation, Promiscuity and Urban Acculturation as Factors That Influence Teacher Judgments about HIV[Positive] Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruce, Michael K.; Stinnett, Terry A.; Choate, Kurt T.

    2003-01-01

    Attributions toward HIV[positive] adolescents made by teacher education students who graduated from rural or urban high schools were examined. Participants read vignettes in which level of promiscuity and sexual orientation were varied, then completed a rating scale that reflected various attitudes toward HIV[positive] students. The vignette…

  11. Eating disorder symptoms and obesity at the intersections of gender, ethnicity, and sexual orientation in US high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, S Bryn; Nelson, Lauren A; Birkett, Michelle A; Calzo, Jerel P; Everett, Bethany

    2013-02-01

    We examined purging for weight control, diet pill use, and obesity across sexual orientation identity and ethnicity groups. Anonymous survey data were analyzed from 24 591 high school students of diverse ethnicities in the federal Youth Risk Behavioral Surveillance System Survey in 2005 and 2007. Self-reported data were gathered on gender, ethnicity, sexual orientation identity, height, weight, and purging and diet pill use in the past 30 days. We used multivariable logistic regression to estimate odds of purging, diet pill use, and obesity associated with sexual orientation identity in gender-stratified models and examined for the presence of interactions between ethnicity and sexual orientation. Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) identity was associated with substantially elevated odds of purging and diet pill use in both girls and boys (odds ratios [OR] range = 1.9-6.8). Bisexual girls and boys were also at elevated odds of obesity compared to same-gender heterosexuals (OR = 2.3 and 2.1, respectively). Interventions to reduce eating disorders and obesity that are appropriate for LGB youths of diverse ethnicities are urgently needed.

  12. Disclosure and Concealment of Sexual Orientation and the Mental Health of Non-Gay-Identified, Behaviorally Bisexual Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrimshaw, Eric W.; Siegel, Karolynn; Downing, Martin J., Jr.; Parsons, Jeffrey T.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Although bisexual men report lower levels of mental health relative to gay men, few studies have examined the factors that contribute to bisexual men's mental health. Bisexual men are less likely to disclose, and more likely to conceal (i.e., a desire to hide), their sexual orientation than gay men. Theory suggests that this may…

  13. Post-Mating Sexual Behaviors of Oriental Storks (Ciconia boyciana) in Captivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jongmin; Ha, Hae-Sook; Jung, Jung-Shim; Park, Shi-Ryong

    2015-08-01

    Parental behaviors that vary by sex and breeding stage facilitate the survival of offspring in birds. Females invest in reproducing according to the level of direct and/or indirect benefits provided by males. Males face trade-offs from defending territories or nests, providing for the young, and seeking additional mating opportunities. We examined whether post-mating sexual behaviors such as courtship display and nest-building were associated with reproductive investments made by males and females in the current study. The oriental stork (Ciconia boyciana) is known as a solitary breeder that nests in tall trees and provides biparental care with long post-hatching development. We filmed parental behaviors in seven stork pairs in captivity for 655 hours (245 hours during nest-building, 218 hours during incubation, 328 hours during nestling, and 192 hours during the fledgling period). We found that paired mating behaviors such as synchronous allopreening and bill-clattering were highly skewed to the pre-incubation period. Males participated in nest-building more than females although both sexes shared similar parental care during the incubation and nestling period. Male nest-building was negatively correlated with male nest attentiveness only during the nestling period. Our results suggest that male oriental storks with higher nest-building effort might spend more time taking precautions against conspecific intruders or nest predators near the nests with chicks while the females were attending the nests in the form of biparental care.

  14. Sexual Pain Disorders in Spanish Women Drug Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Río, Francisco Javier; Cabello-Santamaría, Francisco; Cabello-García, Marina A; Aragón-Vela, Jerónimo

    2017-01-28

    The impact of pain in sexuality, couple relationships and the quality of life is very well known. The relationship between substance abuse and the presence of sexual pain disorder is assessed, together with anxiety and sexual attitudes . Two samples were selected. One sample for women with a history of substance abuse (n = 129), and another one of women nonconsumers (n = 129). The Golombok Rust Inventory of Sexual Satisfaction (GRISS), the Sexual Opinion Survey (SOS) and the State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) questionnaires were used. The results indicate that women consumers obtained a higher mean scores in sexual pain disorder (4.88 > 2.89, that is 65.12%), plus higher mean scores on state anxiety (23.82 > 14.56) and trait anxiety (30.93 > 16.95), and lower average figure in erotophilia (84.93 < 95.81). It was also verified that the period of abstinence does not improve sexual response. Substance consumption affects sexual response in women negatively. Sexual response does not improve with abstinence period.

  15. Sexual orientation and quality of life of people living with HIV/Aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Francisco Braz Milanez; Queiroz, Artur Acelino Francisco Luz Nunes; Sousa, Álvaro Francisco Lopes de; Moura, Maria Eliete Batista; Reis, Renata Karina

    2017-01-01

    To analyze whether sexual orientation affects the quality of life of people living with HIV/Aids (PLWHA). A cross-sectional analytical study was carried out with 146 PLWHA in Teresina, capital city of the state of Piauí, in 2013, by means of the WHOQOL-HIV-bref. Descriptive analysis and multiple linear regression were used for data analysis. There was a prevalence of men (63.7%), non-heterosexual (57.0%), aged between 19 and 39 years (89%). Of the total, 75.5% mentioned presence of negative feelings, such as fear and anxiety, and 38% reported have suffered stigma. With regard to the dimensions investigated, the most affected were "environment" and "level of independence". Non-heterosexual orientation was negatively associated with quality of life in almost all dimensions. Living with HIV/Aids and having a non-heterosexual orientation have a negative impact on quality of life. Analisar se a orientação sexual afeta a qualidade de vida de pessoas vivendo com HIV/aids (PVHAs). Estudo analítico, transversal, realizado com 146 PVHAs em Teresina, PI, no ano de 2013, por aplicação da escala WHOQOL HIV-bref. Para análise dos dados, utilizou-se análise descritiva e regressão linear múltipla. Houve predominância de homens (63,7%), não-heterossexuais (57,0%), com idade entre 19 e 39 anos (89%). Do total, 75,5% mencionaram presença de sentimentos negativos como medo e ansiedade e 38% informaram terem sofrido estigma. Com relação aos domínios investigados, os mais comprometidos foram "meio ambiente" e "nível de independência". A orientação não-heterossexual associou-se negativamente à qualidade de vida em, praticamente, todos os domínios. Viver com HIV/aids e ter uma orientação não-heterossexual tem impacto negativo na qualidade de vida.

  16. Sexual orientation and functional pain in U.S. young adults: the mediating role of childhood abuse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea L Roberts

    Full Text Available Pain without known pathology, termed "functional pain," causes much school absenteeism, medication usage, and medical visits. Yet which adolescents are at risk is not well understood. Functional pain has been linked to childhood abuse, and sexual orientation minority youth (gay, lesbian, bisexual, "mostly heterosexual," and heterosexual with same-sex sexual contact are more likely to be victims of childhood abuse than heterosexuals, thus may be at greater risk of functional pain.We examined sexual orientation differences in past-year prevalence of functional headache, pelvic, and abdominal pain and multiple sites of pain in 9,864 young adults (mean age = 23 years from a large U.S. cohort. We examined whether childhood abuse accounted for possible increased risk of functional pain in sexual minority youth.Sexual minority youth, except for gays and lesbians, were at higher risk of functional pelvic and abdominal pain and multiple sites of pain than heterosexuals. Gay and lesbian youth had elevated prevalence only of abdominal pain. Childhood abuse accounted for 14% to 33% of increased experience of multiple sites of pain in minority youth.Youth who identify as "mostly heterosexual" or bisexual or who identify as heterosexual and have had same-sex partners comprised 18% of our sample. Clinicians should be aware that patients with these orientations are at elevated risk of functional pain and may be in need of treatment for sequelae of childhood abuse. Conventional categorization of sexual orientation as heterosexual or homosexual may fail to distinguish a large number of youth who do not wholly identify with either group and may be at elevated risk of health problems.

  17. Sexual orientation and gender identity in schools: A call for more research in school psychology-No more excuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espelage, Dorothy L

    2016-02-01

    Research focused on sexual orientation and gender identity among youth is scarce in school psychology journals. Graybill and Proctor (2016; this issue) found that across a sample of eight school support personnel journals only .3 to 3.0% of the articles since 2000 included lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender (LGBT)-related research. It appears that special issues are a mechanism for publishing LGBT-related scholarship. This commentary includes a call for more research in school psychology and other related disciplines that intentionally addresses experiences of LGBT youth and their families. Two articles in this special section are summarized and critiqued with clear directions for future scholarship. Researchers and practitioners are ethically responsible for engaging in social justice oriented research and that includes assessing gender identity and sexual orientation in their studies and prevention program evaluations. Copyright © 2015 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Are Outness and Community Involvement Risk or Protective Factors for Alcohol and Drug Abuse Among Sexual Minority Women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinstein, Brian A; Dyar, Christina; London, Bonita

    2017-07-01

    Sexual minority women (SMW) are at increased risk for substance abuse compared to heterosexual women. Two psychosocial factors that have been implicated in SMW's substance abuse are outness and LGBT community involvement, but findings have been mixed as to whether these are risk or protective factors. One possible explanation is that they may have different consequences for subgroups of SMW (lesbians, bisexual women, and queer women). While being open about one's sexual orientation and involved in the community may be protective for lesbians, discrimination against bisexual women may lead these same factors to contribute to substance abuse for bisexual women. It is unclear how these associations will operate for queer women, given limited research on this subpopulation. The current study examined whether sexual identity moderated the associations between outness and community involvement with alcohol and drug abuse. We also examined whether perceived discrimination would help explain why these associations may be different for subgroups of SMW. A sample of 288 self-identified SMW (113 lesbians, 106 bisexual women, and 69 queer women) completed an online survey. Higher outness was associated with higher alcohol and drug abuse for bisexual women, but not for lesbians or queer women. Similarly, higher community involvement was associated with higher drug abuse for bisexual women, but not for lesbians or queer women. Among bisexual women, the association between community involvement and drug abuse was mediated by perceived discrimination. Further, the association between outness and drug abuse was mediated by both community involvement and perceived discrimination. Findings demonstrate that outness and community involvement function as risk factors for substance abuse for bisexual women, in part due to their associations with discrimination.

  19. Enjoyment, Exploration and Education: Understanding the Consumption of Pornography among Young Men with Non-Exclusive Sexual Orientations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, Mark; Wignall, Liam

    2017-10-01

    This qualitative research examines the influence of pornography consumption on young men with non-exclusive sexual orientations. Drawing on 35 in-depth interviews with young men from an elite university in the north-eastern United States, we examine how pornography was experienced as a leisure activity to be consumed in free time. Rather than focusing on the potential harms of pornography, we use an inductive analytic approach to explore the broader range of experiences that participants had, since the time they first consumed pornography. We demonstrate that pornography had educational benefits for these young men, related to their sexual desires, emerging sexual identities and for developing new sexual techniques. This study is part of a growing body of research that seeks to develop a holistic understanding of pornography in society, addressing the absence of the lived experience of the consumer in most pornography research.

  20. Enjoyment, Exploration and Education: Understanding the Consumption of Pornography among Young Men with Non-Exclusive Sexual Orientations

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, Mark; Wignall, Liam

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative research examines the influence of pornography consumption on young men with non-exclusive sexual orientations. Drawing on 35 in-depth interviews with young men from an elite university in the north-eastern United States, we examine how pornography was experienced as a leisure activity to be consumed in free time. Rather than focusing on the potential harms of pornography, we use an inductive analytic approach to explore the broader range of experiences that participants had, since the time they first consumed pornography. We demonstrate that pornography had educational benefits for these young men, related to their sexual desires, emerging sexual identities and for developing new sexual techniques. This study is part of a growing body of research that seeks to develop a holistic understanding of pornography in society, addressing the absence of the lived experience of the consumer in most pornography research. PMID:28989197

  1. Sex, drugs and sports: prostaglandins, epitestosterone and sexual development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Bryan K

    2007-01-01

    Amateau and McCarthy's findings published in Nature Neuroscience (June 2004) are noteworthy for suggesting a role for prostaglandins in sexual development. However, evidence suggests that in manipulating PGE2, they unknowingly implicated 3alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase [E.C. 1.1.1.50], 3(or 17)alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase [E.C. 1.1.1.209] and their respective products, androsterone (ADT) and epitestosterone (EpiT), in the developmental masculinization of sex behavior. EpiT is generally regarded as a hormonally inactive 17alpha-epimer of testosterone (T). In rats, the kidney is the primary site of EpiT formation, whereas in humans it originates from the gonads, with only a small contribution secreted by the adrenals. Because the ratio of T to EpiT is nearly constant, it is presently used for assessing steroid abuse in competitive sports, where the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) considers a T/EpiT ratio >4 evidence of T doping. Despite its central role in the detection of illict anabolic steroid use, our knowledge of factors effecting EpiT production is poor. Clues in the literature, however, reveal that prostaglandin-mediated processes, such as LHRH release, may influence its production. Antimycotics, NSAIDs, and opioid analgesics used in sports medicine are all known to effect prostaglandin E2 synthesis. Primary PGs are potent inhibitors of ADT oxidation, while indomethacin, a prostaglandin blocker, powerfully inhibits 3alpha-HSD reduction and ADT oxidation. This is significant because ADT inhibits the oxidation of EpiT, and may modulate its antiandrogenic and neuroprotective effects. It is hypothesized that the T/EpiT ratio is increased by COX-2 inhibitors and opiod analgesics, and decreased by antimycotics that do not impair testosterone biosynthesis. Given the devastating personal and career consequences that may result from false positive drug tests, substantive research on the effects of PGE2 manipulations on EpiT is warranted.

  2. Sexual orientation identity and tobacco and hazardous alcohol use: findings from a cross-sectional English population survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahab, Lion; Brown, Jamie; Hagger-Johnson, Gareth; Michie, Susan; Semlyen, Joanna; West, Robert; Meads, Catherine

    2017-10-25

    To assess the association between tobacco and hazardous alcohol use and sexual orientation and whether such an association could be explained by other sociodemographic characteristics. Cross-sectional household survey conducted in 2014-2016. England, UK. Representative English population sample (pooled n=43 866). Sexual orientation identity (lesbian/gay, bisexual, heterosexual, prefer-not-to-say); current tobacco and hazardous alcohol use (defined as Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test Score ≥8). All outcomes were self-reported. Due to interactions between sexual orientation and gender for substance use, analyses were stratified by gender. Tobacco use prevalence was significantly higher among lesbian/gay (women: 24.9%, 95% CI 19.2% to 32.6%; men: 25.9%, 95% CI 21.3% to 31.0%) and bisexual participants (women: 32.4%, 95% CI 25.9% to 39.6%; men: 30.7%, 95% CI 23.7% to 30.7%) and significantly lower for prefer-not-to-say participants in women (15.5%, 95% CI 13.5% to 17.8%) but not men (22.7%, 95% CI 20.3% to 25.3%) compared with heterosexual participants (women: 17.5%, 95% CI 17.0% to 18.0%; men: 20.4%, 95% CI 19.9% to 21.0%; pprefer-not-to-say participants (women: 4.1%, 95% CI 3.0% to 5.4%; men: 13.7%; 95% CI 11.8% to 16.0%) compared with heterosexuals (women: 8.3%, 95% CI 7.9% to 8.7%; men: 18.4%, 95% CI 17.9% to 18.9%; p<0.001 for omnibus test). However, after adjusting for sociodemographic confounders, tobacco use was similar across all sexual orientation groups among both women and men. By contrast, sexual orientation differences in hazardous alcohol use remained even after adjustment among women but not for bisexual and gay men. In England, higher rates of tobacco use among sexual minority men and women appear to be attributable to other sociodemographic factors. Higher rates of hazardous alcohol use among sexual minority men may also be attributable to these factors, whereas this is not the case for sexual minority women.

  3. Assessment of Sexual Dysfunction Symptoms in Female Drug Users: Standardized vs. Unstandardized Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Alessandra; Rassool, G Hussein; dos Santos, Manoel Antônio; Pillon, Sandra Cristina; Laranjeira, Ronaldo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate whether there is a difference in the identified prevalence between the assessment of symptoms of sexual dysfunction in female drug users using a standardized scale and by means of a nonstandardized set of questions about sexual dysfunctions. A cross-sectional study was conducted with two groups of substance-dependent women using the Drug Abuse Screening Test, the Short Alcohol Dependence Data questionnaire, the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence for the evaluation of the severity of dependence, and the Arizona Sexual Experience Scale. In both groups, the severity of dependence and the prevalence of symptoms of sexual dysfunctions in women were similar. The use of standardized and nonstandardized instruments to assess sexual dysfunction symptoms is an essential resource for the provision of good-quality care to this clientele.

  4. Sexual Dysfunction Related to Drugs: a Critical Review. Part V: α-Blocker and 5-ARI Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Torre, A; Giupponi, G; Duffy, D; Conca, A; Cai, T; Scardigli, A

    2016-01-01

    Sexual dysfunction is a potential side effect of BPH (benign prostatic hyperplasia) and LUTS (lower urinary tract symptoms) drugs: this article is a critical review of the current literature. Many studies have been published on this topic. Methodological flaws limit the conclusions of these studies, mainly because of the lack of diagnostic criteria for ejaculatory and sexual desire dysfunction. Few of these studies are RCTs. The α-blocker (also called α1-adrenergic antagonist, alpha-adrenoceptor antagonist, alpha-blocker or AB) and 5-ARI (also called 5α-reductase inhibitor or testosterone-5-alpha reductase inhibitor) drugs can in particular cause erectile dysfunction, ejaculatory disorders and reduction of sexual desire. The sexual side effect profile of these drugs is different. Among the α-blockers, silodosin appears have the highest incidence of ejaculatory disorders. Persistent sexual side effects after discontinuation of finasteride has recently been reported, however further studies are needed to clarify the true incidence and the significance of this finding. It is desirable that future studies include validated tools to assess and diagnose sexual dysfunction induced by these medications, especially for ejaculation and sexual desire disorders. Only a small amount of research has intentionally set out to investigate sexual dysfunction caused by α-blocker and 5-ARI drugs: studies to specifically assess sexual dysfunction induced by these drugs are needed. Further studies are also needed to assess in the long term the role of combined therapy of phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors and α-blockers or 5-ARIs in treating LUTS/BPH. This study was conducted in 2014 using the paper and electronic resources of the library of the "Azienda Provinciale per i Servizi Sanitari (APSS)" in Trento, Italy (http://atoz.ebsco.com/Titles/2793). The library has access to a wide range of databases including DYNAMED, MEDLINE Full Text, CINAHL Plus Full Text, The Cochrane

  5. Sexual orientation and relationship choice in borderline personality disorder over ten years of prospective follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, D Bradford; Zanarini, Mary C

    2008-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of homosexuality/ bisexuality and same-sex relationships in a sample of 362 hospitalized subjects, 290 with borderline personality disorder (BPD) and 72 comparison subjects with other personality disorders. At baseline and at five contiguous 2-year follow-up intervals, subjects meeting DIB-R and DSM-III-R criteria for BPD or at least one other personality disorder were interviewed using a semi-structured interview about their sexual orientation and the gender of intimate partners. Subjects with BPD were significantly more likely than comparison subjects to report homosexual or bisexual orientation and intimate same-sex relationships. There were no significant differences between male and female borderline subjects in prevalence of reported homosexual or bisexual orientation or in prevalence of reported same-sex relationships. Subjects with BPD were significantly more likely than comparison subjects to report changing the gender of intimate partners, but not sexual orientation, at some point during the follow-up period. A reported family history of homosexual or bisexual orientation was a significant predictor of an aggregate outcome variable assessing homosexual/bisexual orientation and/or same sex relationship in borderline subjects. Results of this study suggest that same-gender attraction and/or intimate relationship choice may be an important interpersonal issue for approximately one-third of both men and women with BPD.

  6. Sexual Orientation and Relationship Choice in Borderline Personality Disorder over Ten Years of Prospective Follow-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, D. Bradford; Zanarini, Mary C.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of homosexuality/bisexuality and same-sex relationships in a sample of 362 hospitalized subjects, 290 with borderline personality disorder (BPD) and 72 comparison subjects with other personality disorders. At baseline and at five contiguous 2-year follow-up intervals, subjects meeting DIB-R and DSM-III-R criteria for BPD or at least one other personality disorder were interviewed using a semi-structured interview about their sexual orientation and the gender of intimate partners. Subjects with BPD were significantly more likely than comparison subjects to report homosexual or bisexual orientation and intimate same-sex relationships. There were no significant differences between male and female borderline subjects in prevalence of reported homosexual or bisexual orientation or in prevalence of reported same-sex relationships. Subjects with BPD were significantly more likely than comparison subjects to report changing the gender of intimate partners, but not sexual orientation, at some point during the follow-up period. A reported family history of homosexual or bisexual orientation was a significant predictor of an aggregate outcome variable assessing homosexual/bisexual orientation and/or same sex relationship in borderline subjects. Results of this study suggest that same-gender attraction and/or intimate relationship choice may be an important interpersonal issue for approximately one-third of both men and women with BPD. PMID:19072677

  7. Stigma, sexual risks, and the war on drugs: Examining drug policy and HIV/AIDS inequities among African Americans using the Drug War HIV/AIDS Inequities Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Jelani; Jackson, Trinidad

    2016-11-01

    The relationship between drug policy and HIV vulnerability is well documented. However, little research examines the links between racial/ethnic HIV disparities via the Drug War, sexual risk, and stigma. The Drug War HIV/AIDS Inequities Model has been developed to address this dearth. This model contends that inequitable policing and sentencing promotes sexual risks, resource deprivation, and ultimately greater HIV risk for African-Americans. The Drug War also socially marginalizes African Americans and compounds stigma for incarcerated and formerly incarcerated persons living with HIV/AIDS. This marginalization has implications for sexual risk-taking, access to health-promoting resources, and continuum of care participation. The Drug War HIV/AIDS Inequities Model may help illuminate mechanisms that promote increased HIV vulnerability as well as inform structural intervention development and targeting to address racial/ethnic disparities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Sexual Orientation, Gender, and Environmental Injustice: Unequal Carcinogenic Air Pollution Risks in Greater Houston.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Timothy W; Grineski, Sara E; Morales, Danielle X

    2017-01-01

    Disparate residential hazard exposures based on disadvantaged gender status (e.g., among female-headed households) have been documented in the distributive environmental justice literature, yet no published studies have examined whether disproportionate environmental risks exist based on minority sexual orientation. To address this gap, we use data from the US Census, American Community Survey and the Environmental Protection Agency at the 2010 census tract level to examine the spatial relationships between same-sex partner households and cumulative cancer risk from exposure to hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) emitted by all ambient emission sources in Greater Houston (Texas). Findings from generalized estimating equation analyses demonstrate that increased cancer risks from HAPs are significantly associated with neighborhoods having relatively high concentrations of resident same-sex partner households, adjusting for geographic clustering and variables known to influence risk (i.e., race, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, renter status, income inequality, and population density). However, HAP exposures are distributed differently for same-sex male versus same-sex female partner households. Neighborhoods with relatively high proportions of same-sex male partner households are associated with significantly greater exposure to cancer-causing HAPs while those with high proportions of same-sex female partner households are associated with less exposure. This study provides initial empirical documentation of a previously unstudied pattern, and infuses current theoretical understanding of environmental inequality formation with knowledge emanating from the sexualities and space literature. Practically, results suggest that other documented health risks experienced in gay neighborhoods may be compounded by disparate health risks associated with harmful exposures to air toxics.

  9. Sexual orientation, fraternal birth order, and the maternal immune hypothesis: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogaert, Anthony F; Skorska, Malvina

    2011-04-01

    In 1996, psychologists Ray Blanchard and Anthony Bogaert found evidence that gay men have a greater number of older brothers than do heterosexual men. This "fraternal birth order" (FBO) effect has been replicated numerous times, including in non-Western samples. More recently, strong evidence has been found that the FBO effect is of prenatal origin. Although there is no direct support for the exact prenatal mechanism, the most plausible explanation may be immunological in origin, i.e., a mother develops an immune reaction against a substance important in male fetal development during pregnancy, and that this immune effect becomes increasingly likely with each male gestation. This immune effect is hypothesized to cause an alteration in (some) later born males' prenatal brain development. The target of the immune response may be molecules (i.e., Y-linked proteins) on the surface of male fetal brain cells, including in sites of the anterior hypothalamus, which has been linked to sexual orientation in other research. Antibodies might bind to these molecules and thus alter their role in typical sexual differentiation, leading some later born males to be attracted to men as opposed to women. Here we review evidence in favor of this hypothesis, including recent research showing that mothers of boys develop an immune response to one Y-linked protein (i.e., H-Y antigen; SMCY) important in male fetal development, and that this immune effect becomes increasingly likely with each additional boy to which a mother gives birth. We also discuss other Y-linked proteins that may be relevant if this hypothesis is correct. Finally, we discuss issues in testing the maternal immune hypothesis of FBO. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. STD and HIV risk factors among U.S. young adults: variations by gender, race, ethnicity and sexual orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojola, Sanyu A; Everett, Bethany

    2012-06-01

    STDs, including HIV, disproportionately affect individuals who have multiple minority identities. Understanding differences in STD risk factors across racial, ethnic and sexual minority groups, as well as genders, is important for tailoring public health interventions. Data from Waves 3 (2001-2002) and 4 (2007-2008) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health were used to develop population-based estimates of STD and HIV risk factors among 11,045 young adults (mean age, 29 at Wave 4), by gender, race and ethnicity, and sexual orientation (heterosexual, mixed-oriented, gay). Regression analyses were conducted to examine associations between risk factors and young adults' characteristics. Overall, sexual-minority women in each racial or ethnic group had a higher prevalence of sexual risk behaviors-including a history of multiple partners, forced sex and incarceration-than their heterosexual counterparts. Mixed-oriented women in each racial or ethnic group were more likely than heterosexual white women to have received an STD diagnosis (odds ratios, 1.8-6.4). Black men and sexual-minority men also appeared to be at heightened risk. Gay men in all racial and ethnic groups were significantly more likely than heterosexual white men to report having received an STD diagnosis (2.3-8.3); compared with heterosexual white men, mixed-oriented black men had the highest odds of having received such a diagnosis (15.2). Taking account of multiple minority identities should be an important part of future research and intervention efforts for STD and HIV prevention. Copyright © 2012 by the Guttmacher Institute.

  11. Sexual Orientation Disparities in Human Papillomavirus Vaccination in a Longitudinal Cohort of U.S. Males and Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, Brittany M; Reisner, Sari L; Agénor, Madina; Gordon, Allegra R; Sarda, Vishnudas; Austin, S Bryn

    2017-06-01

    This study sought to examine how human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination may differ across sexual orientation groups (e.g., bisexuals compared to heterosexuals)-particularly in boys and men, about whom little is known. Data were from a prospective cohort of 10,663 U.S. females and males enrolled in the Growing Up Today Study followed from 1996 to 2014. Participants were aged 11-24 years when the vaccine was approved for females in 2006 and 14-27 years when approved for males in 2009. In addition to reporting sexual orientation identity/attractions, participants reported sex of lifetime sexual partners. Log-binominal models were used to examine HPV vaccination across sexual orientation groups. Among females, 56% received ≥1 dose. In contrast, 8% of males obtained ≥1 dose; HPV vaccination initiation was especially low among completely heterosexual males. After adjusting for potential confounders, completely heterosexual (risk ratio [RR]; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.45 [0.30-0.68]) and mostly heterosexual (RR; 95% CI: 0.44 [0.25-0.78]) males were half as likely to have received even a single dose compared to gay males. Compared to lesbians, no differences were observed for completely heterosexual or bisexual females, but mostly heterosexual females were 20% more likely to have received at least one dose. HPV vaccination rates in the U.S. are strikingly low and special attention is needed for boys and men, especially those who do not identify as gay. Vaccinating everyone, regardless of sex/gender and/or sexual orientation, will not only lower that individual's susceptibility but also decrease transmission to partners, females and/or males, to help eradicate HPV through herd immunity.

  12. Disparities in Depressive Distress by Sexual Orientation in Emerging Adults: The Roles of Attachment and Stress Paradigms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosario, Margaret; Reisner, Sari L.; Corliss, Heather L.; Wypij, David; Frazier, A. Lindsay; Austin, S. Bryn

    2013-01-01

    Lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth have elevated rates of depression compared to heterosexuals. We proposed and examined a theoretical model to understand whether attachment and stress paradigms explain disparities in depressive distress by sexual orientation, using the longitudinal Growing Up Today Study (GUTS) and Nurses’ Health Study II (NHSII). GUTS participants eligible for this analysis reported sexual orientation, childhood gender nonconforming behaviors (GNBs), attachment to mother (all in 2005), and depressive symptoms (in 2007). Mothers of the GUTS participants who are the NHSII participants reported attitudes toward homosexuality (in 2004) and maternal affection (in 2006). The sample had 6,122 participants. Of GUTS youth (M = 20.6 years old in 2005; 64.4% female), 1.7% were lesbian/gay (LG), 1.7% bisexual (BI), 10.0% mostly heterosexual (MH), and 86.7% completely heterosexual (CH). After adjusting for demographic characteristics and sibling clustering, LGs, BIs, and MHs reported more depressive distress than CHs. This relation was partially mediated (i.e., explained) for LGs, BIs, and MHs relative to CHs by less secure attachment. A conditional relation (i.e., interaction) indicated that BIs reported more distress than CHs as GNBs increased for BIs; no comparable relation was found for LGs vs. CHs. Sibling comparisons found that sexual minorities (LGs, BIs, and MHs) reported more depressive distress, less secure attachment, and more childhood GNBs than CH siblings; the mothers reported less affection for their sexual-minority than CH offspring. The findings suggest that attachment and childhood gender nonconformity differentially pattern depressive distress by sexual orientation. Attachment and related experiences are more problematic for sexual minorities than for their CH siblings. PMID:23780518

  13. Cluster Analysis of the Klein Sexual Orientation Grid in Clinical and Nonclinical Samples: When Bisexuality Is Not Bisexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinrich, James D; Klein, Fritz; McCutchan, J Allen; Grant, Igor

    2014-01-01

    We used a cluster analysis to empirically address whether sexual orientation is a continuum or can usefully be divided into categories such as heterosexual, homosexual, and bisexual using scores on the Klein Sexual Orientation Grid (KSOG) in three samples: groups of men and women recruited through bisexual groups and the Internet (Main Study men; Main Study women), and men recruited for a clinical study of HIV and the nervous system (HIV Study men). A five-cluster classification was chosen for the Main Study men (n = 212), a four-cluster classification for the Main Study women (n = 120), and a five-cluster classification for the HIV Study men (n = 620). We calculated means and standard deviations of these 14 clusters on the 21 variables composing the KSOG. Generally, the KSOG's overtly erotic items (Sexual Fantasies, Sexual Behavior, and Sexual Attraction), as well as the Self Identification items, tended to be more uniform within groups than the more social items were (Emotional Preference, Socialize with, and Lifestyle). The result is a set of objectively identified subgroups of bisexual men and women along with characterizations of the extent to which their KSOG scores describe and differentiate them. The Bisexual group identified by the cluster analysis of the HIV sample was distinctly different from any of the bisexual groups identified by the clustering process in the Main Sample. Simply put, the HIV sample's bisexuality is not like bisexuality in general, and attempts to generalize (even cautiously) from this clinical Bisexual group to a larger population would be doomed to failure. This underscores the importance of recruiting non-clinical samples if one wants insight into the nature of bisexuality in the population at large. Although the importance of non-clinical sampling in studies of sexual orientation has been widely and justly asserted, it has rarely been demonstrated by direct comparisons of the type conducted in the present study.

  14. Recreational Drug Use During Sex and Sexually Transmitted Infections Among Clients of a City Sexually Transmitted Infections Clinic in Amsterdam, The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heiligenberg, Marlies; Wermeling, Paulien R.; van Rooijen, Martijn S.; Urbanus, Anouk T.; Speksnijder, Arjen G. C. L.; Heijman, Titia; Prins, Maria; Coutinho, Roel A.; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten F.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Recreational drug use is associated with high-risk sexual behavior and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). We assessed the prevalence of drug use during sex and the associations between such use and STI (chlamydia, gonorrhea, or syphilis). Methods: During 3 periods in 2008 and 2009,

  15. Alcohol and drug use among sexual minority college students and their heterosexual counterparts: the effects of experiencing and witnessing incivility and hostility on campus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woodford MR

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Michael R Woodford1, Amy R Krentzman2, Maurice N Gattis31School of Social Work, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA; 2Department of Psychiatry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA; 3School of Social Work, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, USAPurpose: Research suggests that discrimination contributes to increased substance use among sexual minorities. Subtle discrimination and witnessing mistreatment, however, have received little attention. Using minority stress theory as a conceptual framework the authors examined the intersection of sexual orientation, experiencing and witnessing incivility and hostility, and students' alcohol and drug use. The authors hypothesized that experiencing/witnessing incivility/hostility would mediate the relationship between sexual minority status and drinking and drug use, as well as problematic use of these substances.Methods: Data were taken from a campus climate survey (n = 2497; age mean [M] = 23.19 years; 61% female; 17% sexual minorities. Controlling for demographics, logistic regressions depicted specifications for each path of the mediation analysis and bootstrapping was used to assess the significance of each sexual minority-mistreatment-drinking/drug use path.Results: Experiencing incivility mediated the relationship between sexual minority status and problematic drinking. Sexual minority college students were more likely to personally experience incivility (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.87; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.51–2.33, which was associated with greater odds of problematic drinking (AOR = 1.64; 95% CI = 1.35–2.0