WorldWideScience

Sample records for sexual health policy

  1. Health policy considerations for our sexual minority patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hanlan, Katherine A

    2006-03-01

    Homosexuality and transsexuality are still widely viewed by lay individuals as morally negative and deserving of legal proscription. Peer-reviewed data confirm that experiences of legal discrimination are associated with stress-related health problems, reduced utilization of health care, and financial and legal challenges for individuals and families, especially those with children. In the last 3 years, the American Psychiatric Association, American Psychological Association, and American Psychoanalytic Association have each reviewed the research on sexual orientation and identity, and each has confirmed that sexual orientation and gender identity do not correlate with mental illness or immorality. They have each endorsed laws that confer equality to sexual minorities, including nondiscrimination in employment, medical insurance coverage, adoption, and access to civil marriage. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG), by virtue of its history of advocacy for women's health, is in a position to promote policy and make similar recommendations, recognizing that sexual minority women's health and their family issues are an integral component of taking care of all women. The College should review the policies of America's premier mental health associations and consider including sexual orientation and gender identity in its own nondiscrimination policy, and ACOG should issue a policy statement in support of laws to provide safety from violence and discrimination, equal employment opportunities, equal health insurance coverage, and equal access to civil marriage.

  2. The Association between State Policy Environments and Self-Rated Health Disparities for Sexual Minorities in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilbert Gonzales

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available A large body of research has documented disparities in health and access to care for lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB people in the United States. Less research has examined how the level of legal protection afforded to LGB people (the state policy environment affects health disparities for sexual minorities. This study used data on 14,687 sexual minority adults and 490,071 heterosexual adults from the 2014–2016 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System to document differences in health. Unadjusted state-specific prevalence estimates and multivariable logistic regression models were used to compare poor/fair self-rated health by gender, sexual minority status, and state policy environments (comprehensive versus limited protections for LGB people. We found disparities in self-rated health between sexual minority adults and heterosexual adults in most states. On average, sexual minority men in states with limited protections and sexual minority women in states with either comprehensive or limited protections were more likely to report poor/fair self-rated health compared to their heterosexual counterparts. This study adds new findings on the association between state policy environments and self-rated health for sexual minorities and suggests differences in this relationship by gender. The associations and impacts of state-specific policies affecting LGB populations may vary by gender, as well as other intersectional identities.

  3. Sexual and reproductive health and rights of older men and women: addressing a policy blind spot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboderin, Isabella

    2014-11-01

    Global debate on required policy responses to issues of older persons has intensified over the past 15 years, fuelled by a growing awareness of the rapid ageing of populations. Health has been a central focus, but scrutiny of global policies, human rights instruments and reports reveals that just as older people are excluded from sexual and reproductive health and rights agendas, so are issues of sexual and reproductive health and rights wholly marginal to current agendas focused on older people. A critical question is whether the policy lacuna reflects a dearth of research evidence or a faulty translation of existing knowledge. A reading of the current research landscape and literature, summarised in this paper, strongly suggests it is the former. To be sure, sexuality in old age is a burgeoning field of scientific inquiry. What the existing knowledge and discourse fail to provide is an engagement with, and elucidation of, the broader sexual and reproductive health and rights agenda as it relates to older persons. A concerted research effort is needed to provide a basis for developing policy guidance and for pinpointing essential indicators and establishing necessary data systems to enable a routine tracking of progress. Copyright © 2014 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The Kenyan national response to internationally agreed sexual and reproductive health and rights goals: a case study of three policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oronje, Rose N

    2013-11-01

    While priorities for, and decision-making processes on, sexual and reproductive health and rights have been determined and led mainly at the international level, conflicting power dynamics and responses at the national level in some countries have continued to pose challenges for operationalising international agreements. This paper demonstrates how these conflicts have played out in Kenya through an analysis of three policy-making processes, which led to the Adolescent Reproductive Health and Development Policy (2003), the Sexual Offences Act (2006), and the National Reproductive Health Policy (2007). The paper is based on data from a broader study on the drivers and inhibitors of sexual and reproductive health policy reform in Kenya, using a qualitative, case study design. Information was gathered through 54 semi-structured, in-depth interviews with governmental and civil society policy actors and an extensive review of policy documents and media reports. The paper shows that the transformative human rights framing of access to sexual and reproductive health, supported by both a strong global women's rights movement and progressive governmental and inter-governmental actors to defeat opposition to sexual and reproductive health and rights at the international level, has not been as influential or successful at the national level in Kenya, and has made comprehensive national reforms difficult to achieve. Copyright © 2013 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Conservative litigation against sexual and reproductive health policies in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñas Defago, María Angélica; Morán Faúndes, José Manuel

    2014-11-01

    In Argentina, campaigns for the recognition of sexual and reproductive rights have sparked opposition through litigation in which the dynamics of legal action have come from self-proclaimed "pro-life" NGOs, particularly since 1998, when the conservative NGO Portal de Belén successfully achieved the banning of emergency contraception through the courts. The activities of these groups, acting as a "civil arm" of religion, are focused primarily on obstructing access to legally permissible abortions and bringing about the withdrawal of a number of recognized public policies on sexual and reproductive health, particularly the 2002 National Programme for Sexual Health and Responsible Procreation. This paper analyzes the litigation strategies of these conservative NGOs and how their use of the courts in Argentina has changed over the years. It gives examples of efforts in local courts to block individual young women from accessing legal abortion following rape, despite a ruling by the National Supreme Court of Justice in 2012 that no judicial permission is required. In spite of major advances, the renewed influence of the Catholic hierarchy in the Argentine political scene with the accession of the new Pope poses challenges to the work by feminists and women's movements to extend and consolidate sexual and reproductive rights. Copyright © 2014 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Exploring Alcohol Policy Approaches to Prevent Sexual Violence Perpetration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippy, Caroline; DeGue, Sarah

    2018-01-01

    Sexual violence continues to be a significant public health problem worldwide with serious consequences for individuals and communities. The implementation of prevention strategies that address risk and protective factors for sexual violence at the community level are important components of a comprehensive approach, but few such strategies have been identified or evaluated. The current review explores one potential opportunity for preventing sexual violence perpetration at the community level: alcohol policy. Alcohol policy has the potential to impact sexual violence perpetration through the direct effects of excessive alcohol consumption on behavior or through the impact of alcohol and alcohol outlets on social organization within communities. Policies affecting alcohol pricing, sale time, outlet density, drinking environment, marketing, and college environment are reviewed to identify existing evidence of impact on rates of sexual violence or related outcomes, including risk factors and related health behaviors. Several policy areas with initial evidence of an association with sexual violence outcomes were identified, including policies affecting alcohol pricing, alcohol outlet density, barroom management, sexist content in alcohol marketing, and policies banning alcohol on campus and in substance-free dorms. We identify other policy areas with evidence of an impact on related outcomes and risk factors that may also hold potential as a preventative approach for sexual violence perpetration. Evidence from the current review suggests that alcohol policy may represent one promising avenue for the prevention of sexual violence perpetration at the community level, but additional research is needed to directly examine effects on sexual violence outcomes. PMID:25403447

  7. Measuring Sexual Orientation: A Review and Critique of U.S. Data Collection Efforts and Implications for Health Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Margaret; Wells, Brooke; Ventura-DiPersia, Christina; Renson, Audrey; Grov, Christian

    The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services' (HHS) Healthy People 2020 goals sought to improve health outcomes among sexual minorities; HHS acknowledged that a dearth of sexual orientation items in federal and state health surveys obscured a broad understanding of sexual minority-related health disparities. The HHS 2011 data progression plan aimed to advance sexual orientation data collection efforts at the national level. Sexual orientation is a complex, multidimensional construct often composed of sexual identity, sexual attraction, and sexual behavior, thus posing challenges to its quantitative and practical measurement and analysis. In this review, we (a) present existing sexual orientation constructs; (b) evaluate current HHS sexual orientation data collection efforts; (c) review post-2011 data progression plan research on sexual minority health disparities, drawing on HHS survey data; (d) highlight the importance of and (e) identify obstacles to multidimensional sexual orientation measurement and analysis; and (f) discuss methods for multidimensional sexual orientation analysis and propose a matrix for addressing discordance/branchedness within these analyses. Multidimensional sexual orientation data collection and analysis would elucidate sexual minority-related health disparities, guide related health policies, and enhance population-based estimates of sexual minority individuals to steer health care practices.

  8. A Review and Critique of Advances in Nursing Science Articles That Focus on Sexual Health and Sexual Rights: A Call to Leadership and Policy Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rew, Lynn; Thurman, Whitney; McDonald, Kari

    Sexual health and sexual rights are integral to nursing science but ignored in nursing publications. We searched Advances in Nursing Science for prevalence of these topics. Fifteen articles (1.3%) met our criteria. No nursing theories were used as frameworks, and few concrete suggestions were made for further theory development. Discussion of sociopolitical influences on sexual health and/or sexual rights was limited, mostly unrelated to health care. Information to influence nursing practice, theory development, further research, or policy across the life span, for both males and females, and for variant-gender individuals, was limited. We urge authors to contribute further to this field of discourse in nursing.

  9. Jamaica is Without a National Sexual Harassment Policy: Challenges, Consequences, Health Problems and the Need for a National Policy Framework

    OpenAIRE

    R. Peters; P.A. Bourne

    2012-01-01

    Humans are sexual as they are physical beings. Simply put, sexual relations are embedded in their composition and so legislations are needed to protect vulnerable groups such as children, poor, women, orphans, elderly, mentally and physically disabled people and adolescents from sexual exploitations. The current study will explore why Jamaica needs a national sexual harassment policy, the challenges without a policy and the difficulties in formulating a policy in such a highly sexed culture. ...

  10. Are Sexual and Reproductive Health Policies Designed for All? Vulnerable Groups in Policy Documents of Four European Countries and Their Involvement in Policy Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Olena; Dræbel, Tania; Tellier, Siri

    2015-08-12

    Health policies are important instruments for improving population health. However, experience suggests that policies designed for the whole population do not always benefit the most vulnerable. Participation of vulnerable groups in the policy-making process provides an opportunity for them to influence decisions related to their health, and also to exercise their rights. This paper presents the findings from a study that explored how vulnerable groups and principles of human rights are incorporated into national sexual and reproductive health (SRH) policies of 4 selected countries (Spain, Scotland, Republic of Moldova, and Ukraine). It also aimed at discussing the involvement of vulnerable groups in SRH policy development from the perspective of policy-makers. Literature review, health policy analysis and 5 semi-structured interviews with policy-makers were carried out in this study. Content analysis of SRH policies was performed using the EquiFrame analytical framework. The study revealed that vulnerable groups and core principles of human rights are differently addressed in SRH policies within 4 studied countries. The opinions of policy-makers on the importance of mentioning vulnerable groups in policy documents and the way they ought to be mentioned varied, but they agreed that a clear definition of vulnerability, practical examples, and evidences on health status of these groups have to be included. In addition, different approaches to vulnerable group's involvement in policy development were identified during the interviews and the range of obstacles to this process was discussed by respondents. Incorporation of vulnerable groups in the SRH policies and their involvement in policy development were found to be important in addressing SRH of these groups and providing an opportunity for them to advocate for equal access to healthcare and exercise their rights. Future research on this topic should include representatives of vulnerable communities which could

  11. Are Sexual and Reproductive Health Policies Designed for All? Vulnerable Groups in Policy Documents of Four European Countries and Their Involvement in Policy Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Ivanova

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Health policies are important instruments for improving population health. However, experience suggests that policies designed for the whole population do not always benefit the most vulnerable. Participation of vulnerable groups in the policy-making process provides an opportunity for them to influence decisions related to their health, and also to exercise their rights. This paper presents the findings from a study that explored how vulnerable groups and principles of human rights are incorporated into national sexual and reproductive health (SRH policies of 4 selected countries (Spain, Scotland, Republic of Moldova, and Ukraine. It also aimed at discussing the involvement of vulnerable groups in SRH policy development from the perspective of policymakers. Methods Literature review, health policy analysis and 5 semi-structured interviews with policy-makers were carried out in this study. Content analysis of SRH policies was performed using the EquiFrame analytical framework. Results The study revealed that vulnerable groups and core principles of human rights are differently addressed in SRH policies within 4 studied countries. The opinions of policy-makers on the importance of mentioning vulnerable groups in policy documents and the way they ought to be mentioned varied, but they agreed that a clear definition of vulnerability, practical examples, and evidences on health status of these groups have to be included. In addition, different approaches to vulnerable group’s involvement in policy development were identified during the interviews and the range of obstacles to this process was discussed by respondents. Conclusion Incorporation of vulnerable groups in the SRH policies and their involvement in policy development were found to be important in addressing SRH of these groups and providing an opportunity for them to advocate for equal access to healthcare and exercise their rights. Future research on this topic should include

  12. Sexual rights as human rights: a guide to authoritative sources and principles for applying human rights to sexuality and sexual health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Alice M; Kismödi, Eszter; Cottingham, Jane; Gruskin, Sofia

    2015-11-01

    This Guide seeks to provide insight and resources to actors interested in the development of rights claims around sexuality and sexual health. After engaging with the vexed question of the scope of sexual rights, it explores the rules and principles governing the way in which human rights claims are developed and applied to sexuality and sexual health, and how that development is linked to law and made a matter of state obligation. This understanding is critical to policy and programming in sexual health and rights, as it supports calling on the relevant range of human rights, such as privacy, non-discrimination, health or other universally accepted human rights, as well as demanding the action of states under their international and national law obligations to support sexual health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Sexually Transmitted Disease Prevention Policies in the United States: Evidence and Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leichliter, Jami S; Seiler, Naomi; Wohlfeiler, Dan

    2016-02-01

    Policies are an important part of public health interventions, including in the area of sexually transmitted disease (STD) prevention. Similar to other tools used in public health, policies are often evaluated to determine their usefulness. Therefore, we conducted a nonsystematic review of policy evidence for STD prevention. Our review considers assessments or evaluations of STD prevention-specific policies, health care system policies, and other, broader policies that have the potential to impact STD prevention through social determinants of health. We also describe potential policy opportunity in these areas. It should be noted that we found gaps in policy evidence for some areas; thus, additional research would be useful for public health policy interventions for STD prevention.

  14. Critical Discourse Analysis from Public Policy of Sexual Diversity in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Echeverría, Genoveva; Universidad Academia de Humanismo Cristiano; Maturana, José Martín; Universidad Academia de Humanismo Cristiano

    2016-01-01

    This research analyzes recent public policy measures related to sexual diversity generated in Chile in the last five years. Power positions, versions of sexuality, normativity and gender stereotypes that remain present in this policies are reviewed. From a qualitative perspective, the Critical Discourse Analysis is used to analyze four initiatives generated in the health sector, in the education sector, and in the citizen rights sector. The results show the clear presence of the heteronormati...

  15. Sexual Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McMahon Sharon

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Health Issue Much attention is devoted to women's reproductive health, but the formative and mature stages of women's sexual lives are often overlooked. We have analyzed cross-sectional data from the Sexual Behaviour module of the 2000/2001 Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS, and reviewed the literature and available indicators of the sexual health of Canadian women. Key Findings Contemporary Canadian adolescents are becoming sexually active at younger ages than in previous generations. The gender gap between young males and females in age at first intercourse has virtually disappeared. The mean age at first intercourse for CCHS respondents aged 15–24 years was between 16 and 17. Canadian-born respondents are significantly younger at first intercourse than those who were born outside of Canada. Few adolescents recognize important risks to their sexual health. Older Canadians are sexually active, and continue to find emotional and physical satisfaction in their sexual relationships. Data Gaps and Recommendations Both health surveys and targeted research must employ a broader understanding of sexuality to measure changes in and determinants of the sexual health of Canadians. There is reluctance to direct questions about sexual issues to younger Canadians, even though increased knowledge of sexual health topics is associated with delayed onset of sexual intercourse. Among adults, sex-positive resources are needed to address aspects of aging, rather than medicalizing age-related sexual dysfunction. Age and gender-appropriate sexual health care, education, and knowledge are important not only for women of reproductive age, but for Canadians at all stages of life.

  16. Migrant workers in Sabah, East Malaysia: The importance of legislation and policy to uphold equity on sexual and reproductive health and rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasimbang, Helen Benedict; Tong, Wen Ting; Low, Wah Yun

    2016-04-01

    Sabah, located in Southeast Asia, hosts the highest number of non-Malaysian citizens (27.7%), predominantly the Indonesian and Filipino migrants in comparison to other states in Malaysia. Sabah has inadequate data on migrants' sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHRs). Various migrant-related policies and laws are present, but they do not offer full protection and rights to legal migrants in terms of their SRHRs. The aim of the laws and policies appears to be controlling the migrants from having any negative impact on the locals, rather than protecting migrants' health and rights. This affected their rights to marriage, having children, increase their vulnerabilities to labour trafficking and sexual abuse and access to health-care services. Female migrant workers and undocumented migrants form the most vulnerable subgroups of migrants. This narrative review highlights the status of SRHRs of migrants in Sabah and the migrant-related Malaysian laws and policies affecting their SRHRs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Promoting LGBT health and wellbeing through inclusive policy development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulé, Nick J; Ross, Lori E; Deeprose, Barry; Jackson, Beth E; Daley, Andrea; Travers, Anna; Moore, Dick

    2009-05-15

    In this paper we argue the importance of including gender and sexually diverse populations in policy development towards a more inclusive form of health promotion. We emphasize the need to address the broad health and wellbeing issues and needs of LGBT people, rather than exclusively using an illness-based focus such as HIV/AIDS. We critically examine the limitations of population health, the social determinants of health (SDOH), and public health goals, in light of the lack of recognition of gender and sexually diverse individuals and communities. By first acknowledging the unique health and social care needs of LGBT people, then employing anti-oppressive, critical and intersectional analyses we offer recommendations for how to make population health perspectives, public health goals, and the design of public health promotion policy more inclusive of gender and sexual diversity. In health promotion research and practice, representation matters. It matters which populations are being targeted for health promotion interventions and for what purposes, and it matters which populations are being overlooked. In Canada, current health promotion policy is informed by population health and social determinants of health (SDOH) perspectives, as demonstrated by Public Health Goals for Canada. With Canada's multicultural makeup comes the challenge of ensuring that diverse populations are equitably and effectively recognized in public health and health promotion policy.

  18. Are Sexual and Reproductive Health Policies Designed for All?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ivanova, Olena; Dræbel, Tania; Tellier, Siri

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Health policies are important instruments for improving population health. However, experience suggests that policies designed for the whole population do not always benefit the most vulnerable. Participation of vulnerable groups in the policy-making process provides an opportunity fo...

  19. Sexual Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Christine Boyce

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This month two general practitioners (GPs describe their approach to sexual health consultations.The issue of a sexually active adolescent demonstrates some differences in legislation pertaining tothe requirement to involve the authorities, although in essence the young person can expect thesame response from these practitioners in two different health care systems. On the other hand apatient at risk of sexually transmitted infections is more likely to be referred to a specialistGenitourinary clinic in the UK although the protocols for screening and education are largely similar.Equally patients who are HIV positive can expect to receive the bulk of their care from specialistclinics in both countries.Midwives are the main stay of antenatal services in Australia and the UK with general practitionersminimally involved in routine cases. Also home births are a negigible proportion of all deliveries ineither country. When patients opt for a home birth our authors expressed the view that GPsgenerally do not have the skills or experience to be the main health professional in attendance.Therefore such births are primarily managed by midwives as the key health care professional. Thefocus of General practitioners is primarily to ensure that the patient is making an informed decisionabout delivering her baby at home. The GP is therefore still in an influential position to assist thewoman in making a decision about where to give birth. As a point of difference in Australia a homebirth would result in out of pocket expences for the mother.The views expressed below are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect health policy orpractice elsewhere in their countries. However we believe they offer an interesting perspective ontheir health care systems and commend the article to our readers.Please

  20. Migration status, reproductive health knowledge and sexual ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reproductive health is an essential aspect of the wellbeing of adolescents. Therefore reproductive health knowledge and sexual behaviour deservedly attract the attention of researchers, programme planners and policy implementers working with young people. Yet in Nigeria, little is known about the effect of migration ...

  1. Sexual Harassment Policies in Florida School Districts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rienzo, Barbara A.; Moore, Michele Johnson

    1998-01-01

    Investigated the extent to which Florida's school districts complied with the Florida Department of Education's (FDOE) recommendations for addressing sexual harassment in schools. Surveys of district equity coordinators and analysis of policies indicated that most districts approved sexual harassment policies incorporating many FDOE…

  2. [Health and wellbeing of sexual minorities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrientos, Jaime; Gómez, Fabiola; Cárdenas, Manuel; Gúzman, Mónica; Bahamondes, Joaquín

    2017-09-01

    Most of the information in Chile about health and wellbeing of sexual minorities refers to risk behaviors. To assess health and wellbeing in a sample of Chilean homosexual men and women. Spanish versions of the Satisfaction With Life Scale and Outcome Questionnaire-45 (OQ-45) were answered by 191 homosexual women and 256 homosexual men aged 18 to 67 years, from four Chilean cities. Lesbian women have better levels of satisfaction with life and adjustment in personal relationships than homosexual men. Eight percent of respondents had suicidal thoughts in some moment of their life. The information gathered in this work could help in the development of mental health policies for sexual minorities.

  3. The HIV epidemic and sexual and reproductive health policy integration: views of South African policymakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Diane; Mantell, Joanne E; Moodley, Jennifer; Mall, Sumaya

    2015-03-04

    Integration of sexual and reproductive health (SRH) and HIV policies and services delivered by the same provider is prioritised worldwide, especially in sub-Saharan Africa where HIV prevalence is highest. South Africa has the largest antiretroviral treatment (ART) programme in the world, with an estimated 2.7 million people on ART, elevating South Africa's prominence as a global leader in HIV treatment. In 2011, the Southern African HIV Clinicians Society published safer conception guidelines for people living with HIV (PLWH) and in 2013, the South African government published contraceptive guidelines highlighting the importance of SRH and fertility planning services for people living with HIV. Addressing unintended pregnancies, safer conception and maternal health issues is crucial for improving PLWH's SRH and combatting the global HIV epidemic. This paper explores South African policymakers' perspectives on public sector SRH-HIV policy integration, with a special focus on the need for national and regional policies on safer conception for PLWH and contraceptive guidelines implementation. It draws on 42 in-depth interviews with national, provincial and civil society policymakers conducted between 2008-2009 and 2011-2012, as the number of people on ART escalated. Interviews focused on three key domains: opinions on PLWH's childbearing; the status of SRH-HIV integration policies and services; and thoughts and suggestions on SRH-HIV integration within the restructuring of South African primary care services. Data were coded and analysed according to themes. Participants supported SRH-HIV integrated policy and services. However, integration challenges identified included a lack of policy and guidelines, inadequately trained providers, vertical programming, provider work overload, and a weak health system. Participants acknowledged that SRH-HIV integration policies, particularly for safer conception, contraception and cervical cancer, had been neglected. Policymakers

  4. Raunch or Romance? Framing and Interpreting the Relationship between Sexualized Culture and Young People's Sexual Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bale, Clare

    2011-01-01

    The increase in exposure to sexually explicit material has been cited as a significant factor influencing adolescent sexuality and health. Concern about the negative impact of this material is increasingly prominent within policy, professional groups, and the media. Little research, however, has been conducted within this area. This article…

  5. Let's talk about sex: gender norms and sexual health in English schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamal, Farah; Bonell, Chris; Wooder, Kai; Blake, Simon

    2015-03-01

    The sexual health of young people in England is an urgent public health concern. While interventions to address young people's sexual health have focussed on knowledge, skills and contraception access, amazingly none in the UK has explicitly addressed the effects of the social hierarchies of gender and gendered behavioural ideals that shape young people's sexual expectations, attitudes and behaviour. The lack of attention to gender is a persistent gap in health research, practice and policy. A rigorous evaluation of such an intervention package would go some way to building an evidence base for challenging gender norms, which appear to be strongly associated with adverse sexual health outcomes.

  6. Implementation of digital interventions for sexual health for young people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sue Mann

    2015-10-01

    intervention usually requires some adaptation for local contexts, but care is needed to identify and preserve the core components so that effectiveness is maintained. Technical support, moderation/monitoring and updating are further challenges for implementing sustainable digital interventions. Facilitated engagement (e.g. with teachers or clinicians could encourage young people to access interventions and may be more likely to facilitate engagement. There is great enthusiasm for digital health interventions for health at national policy level in the UK, and many local initiatives, but few national policy levers to drive implementation of sexual health promotion IDIs in practice. Responsibility for sexual health is now increasingly devolved to local healthcare and local authority commissioning groups, meaning that national initiatives are difficult. Collaboration is needed between users, developers, researchers and local and national stakeholders.

  7. Sustainable development, demography and sexual and reproductive health: inseparable linkages and their policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Michael

    2014-05-01

    The greatest challenge today is to meet the needs of current and future generations, of a large and growing world population, without imposing catastrophic pressures on the natural environment. Meeting this challenge depends on decisive policy changes in three areas: more inclusive economic growth, greener economic growth, and population policies. This article focuses on efforts to address and harness demographic changes for sustainable development, which are largely outside the purview of the current debate. Efforts to this end must be based on the recognition that demographic changes are the cumulative result of individual choices and opportunities, and that demographic changes are best addressed through policies that enlarge these choices and opportunities, with a focus on ensuring unrestricted and universal access to sexual and reproductive health information and services, empowering women to fully participate in social, economic and political life, and investing in the education of the younger generation beyond the primary level. The article provides a strong argument for why the Programme of Action that was agreed at the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) 20 years ago continues to hold important implications and lessons for the formulation of the post-2015 development agenda, which is expected to supersede the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Copyright © 2014 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. What the eye does not see: a critical interpretive synthesis of European Union policies addressing sexual violence in vulnerable migrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keygnaert, Ines; Guieu, Aurore

    2015-11-01

    In Europe, refugees, asylum seekers and undocumented migrants are more vulnerable to sexual victimisation than European citizens. They face more challenges when seeking care. This literature review examines how legal and policy frameworks at national, European and international levels condition the prevention of and response to sexual violence affecting these vulnerable migrant communities living in the European Union (EU). Applying the Critical Interpretive Synthesis method, we reviewed 187 legal and policy documents and 80 peer-reviewed articles on migrant sexual health for elements on sexual violence and further analysed the 37 legal and 12 peer-reviewed articles among them that specifically focused on sexual violence in vulnerable migrants in the EU-27 States. Legal and policy documents dealing with sexual violence, particularly but not exclusively in vulnerable migrants, apply 'tunnel vision'. They ignore: a) frequently occurring types of sexual violence, b) victimisation rates across genders and c) specific risk factors within the EU such as migrants' legal status, gender orientation and living conditions. The current EU policy-making paradigm relegates sexual violence in vulnerable migrants as an 'outsider' and 'female only' issue while EU migration and asylum policies reinforce its invisibility. Effective response must be guided by participatory rights- and evidence-based policies and a public health approach, acknowledging the occurrence and multiplicity of sexual victimisation of vulnerable migrants of all genders within EU borders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Chinese attitudes towards sexual minorities in Hong Kong: Implications for mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Diana K; Wu, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Intolerant attitudes and sexual prejudice against sexual minorities (lesbian, gay, bisexual, and questioning/queer-LGBQ) has been a long-standing global concern. In this article, Chinese attitudes towards sexual minorities are examined with reference to the cultural context in Hong Kong, a place where the East has intermingled with the West for over a century. Chinese sexuality manifested in Hong Kong is a mix of Confucian ideology and Christian thought. Traditional Confucian values of xiao (filial piety) and conventional religious thoughts of Christianity together influence Chinese attitudes towards sexual minorities. Though many governmental policies have been put in place and numerous laws have been enacted to protect the human rights of underprivileged and disadvantaged groups over the past few decades, sexual minorities are frequently being excluded from most of these protections. In Hong Kong, sexual prejudice exists not only among the general public, but also among educators and mental health professionals. Thus, Chinese sexual minorities experience sexual prejudice and minority stress in Hong Kong under unique cultural circumstances. This calls for inclusive policies and an embracing attitude towards sexual minorities so their mental health will not suffer.

  10. Ten years of democracy in South Africa: documenting transformation in reproductive health policy and status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Diane; Morroni, Chelsea; Orner, Phyllis; Moodley, Jennifer; Harries, Jane; Cullingworth, Lee; Hoffman, Margaret

    2004-11-01

    The advent of democracy in South Africa in 1994 created a unique opportunity for new lows and policies to be passed. Today, a decade later, South African reproductive health policies and the laws that underwrite them are among the most progressive and comprehensive in the world in terms of the recognition that they give to human rights, including sexual and reproductive rights. This paper documents the changes in health policy and services that have occurred, focusing particularly on key areas of sexual and reproductive health: contraception, maternal health, termination of pregnancy, cervical and breast cancer, gender-based and sexual violence, HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted infections and infertility. Despite important advances, significant changes in women's reproductive health status are difficult to discern, given the relatively short period of time and the multitude of complex factors that influence health, especially inequalities in socio-economic and gender status. Gaps remain in the implementation of reproductive health policies and in service delivery that need to be addressed in order for meaningful improvements in women's reproductive health status to be achieved. Civil society has played a major role in securing these legislative and policy changes, and health activist groups continue to pressure the government to introduce further changes in policy and service delivery, especially in the area of HIV/AIDS.

  11. Navigating conflicting laws in sexual and reproductive health service provision for teenagers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelley Moult

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The South African legal and policy framework for sexual and reproductive healthcare provision for teenagers is complex. Objective: The article outlines the dilemmas emanating from the legal and policy framework, summarises issues with implementation of the legal and policy framework in practice, and summarises recent changes to the law. Methods: In-depth analysis of the legal and policy framework. Training workshops with a purposive sample of nurses and other healthcare providers in the Western Cape. Findings: Tensions between consent and confidentiality imposed by the Termination of Pregnancy Act, the Children’s Act, the National Health Act and the Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters Amendment Act render conflicting obligations on healthcare providers. Healthcare providers’ experiences with service provision in this context show that the conflicting roles they inhabit render their service provision to teenagers more challenging. Conclusion: Healthcare providers need to learn about their legal obligations surrounding adolescent sexual and reproductive health services.

  12. A 'mystery client' evaluation of adolescent sexual and reproductive health services in health facilities from two regions in Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaina Mchome

    Full Text Available Unwelcoming behaviours and judgemental attitudes have long been recognised as a barrier to young people's access to reproductive health services. Over the last decade youth friendly reproductive health services have been promoted and implemented world-wide. However, long term evidence of the impact of these programmes is lacking. We report the results of a large mystery client evaluation of adolescent sexual and reproductive health services in Tanzania, a country that has had a long established youth friendly policy. Forty-eight visits made to thirty-three health facilities were conducted by twelve young people (six in each region trained to perform three different scripted scenarios (i.e., condom request, information on sexually transmitted infections and family planning. The study revealed barriers in relation to poor signage and reception for services. In addition health workers demonstrated paternalistic attitudes as well as lack of knowledge about adolescent sexual and reproductive health services. In some cases, health workers discouraged young people from using services such as condoms and family planning methods. Lack of confidentiality and privacy were also noted to be common challenges for the young people involved. Intervention strategies that focus on changing health workers' mind-set in relation to adolescent sexual and reproductive health are crucial for ensuring quality provision of sexual and reproductive health services to young people. The study identified the importance of reception or signs at the health units, as this can facilitate young people's efforts in seeking sexual and reproductive health services. Likewise, improvement of health workers knowledge of existing policy and practice on sexual and reproductive health services and youth friendly services is much needed.

  13. Sexual Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and changes in sexual function are common. These physiological changes can include: A need for more stimulation ... page: Sexuality in later life. National Institute on Aging. https://www.nia.nih.gov/health/publication/sexuality- ...

  14. Policies and Processes for Social Inclusion: Using EquiFrame and EquIPP for Policy Dialogue Comment on "Are Sexual and Reproductive Health Policies Designed for All? Vulnerable Groups in Policy Documents of Four European Countries and Their Involvement in Policy Development".

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLachlan, Malcolm; Mannan, Hasheem; Huss, Tessy; Munthali, Alister; Amin, Mutamad

    2015-11-16

    The application of EquiFrame in the analysis of sexual and reproductive health policies by Ivanova et al to a new thematic area, their selection of only some of the Core Concepts of human rights in health service provision and the addition of new vulnerable groups relevant to the purpose of their analysis, are all very welcome developments. We also applaud their application of EquiFrame to policies in countries where it has not previously been used, along with their use of interviews with policy-makers to produce a deeper understanding of policy processes. We argue that clear justification for the inclusion of additional, or replacement of some exiting vulnerable groups within EquiFrame should be accompanied by clear definitions of such groups, along with the evidence-base that justifies their classification as a vulnerable or marginalised group. To illustrate the versatility of EquiFrame, we summarise a range of ways in which it has been used across a number of regions; including a brief Case Study of its use to develop the National Health Policy of Malawi. While EquiFrame focuses on policy content, we preview a new policy analysis tool - Equity and Inclusion in Policy Processes (EquIPP) - which assesses the extent of equity and inclusion in broader policy processes. Together, EquiFrame and EquIPP can be used to help governments and civil society ensure that policies are addressing the much stronger emphasis on social inclusion, now apparent in the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). © 2016 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.

  15. Best Practices in Sexual Harassment Policy and Assessment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alexander, Pamela C; Alexander, Elmore R; Warner, Stephanie

    2005-01-01

    .... Based on the study findings, organizations with the best programs for prevention of sexual harassment had effective human relations strategies in which policies and training on sexual harassment...

  16. Addressing the Sexual and Reproductive Health Needs of Young ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    Faculty of Public Health & Policy, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK3 ... having pleasurable and safe sexual experiences, free ..... don't know how to do it and where to .... Where young women have low status.

  17. Situation of Linkage between Sexual and Reproductive Health and HIV-Related Policies in Islamic Republic of Iran – A Rapid Assessment in 2011–2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghobad Moradi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The number of sexual transmission of HIV is increasing globally. Sexual and Reproductive Health (SRH issues and HIV/AIDS related problems are rooted in common grounds such as poverty, gender inequality, and social exclusion. As a result, international health organizations have suggested the integration of SRH services with HIV/AIDS services as a strategy to control HIV and to improve people’s access to SRH services. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between reproductive health and HIV/AIDS services at policy-making level in Islamic Republic of Iran (IRI. This study was conducted in 2011–2 and was a rapid assessment based on guidelines provided by the World Health Organization (WHO, United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS, Family Health International Association, and some other international organizations. In this rapid assessment we used different methods such as a review of literature and documents, visiting and interviewing professionals and experts in family health and HIV/AIDS programs, and experts working in some NonGovernmental Organizations (NGOs. Overall, based on the results obtained in this study, in most cases there was not much linkage between HIV/AIDS policies and SRH policies in Iran. Since integration of HIV/AIDS services and SRH services is recommended as a model and an appropriate response to HIV epidemics worldwide, likewise to control the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Iran it is required to integrate HIV/AIDS and SRH services at all levels, particularly at the policy-making level.

  18. Sexual minority-related victimization as a mediator of mental health disparities in sexual minority youth: a longitudinal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Chad M; Marshal, Michael P; Chisolm, Deena J; Sucato, Gina S; Friedman, Mark S

    2013-03-01

    Sexual minority youth (youth who are attracted to the same sex or endorse a gay/lesbian/bisexual identity) report significantly higher rates of depression and suicidality than heterosexual youth. The minority stress hypothesis contends that the stigma and discrimination experienced by sexual minority youth create a hostile social environment that can lead to chronic stress and mental health problems. The present study used longitudinal mediation models to directly test sexual minority-specific victimization as a potential explanatory mechanism of the mental health disparities of sexual minority youth. One hundred ninety-seven adolescents (14-19 years old; 70 % female; 29 % sexual minority) completed measures of sexual minority-specific victimization, depressive symptoms, and suicidality at two time points 6 months apart. Compared to heterosexual youth, sexual minority youth reported higher levels of sexual minority-specific victimization, depressive symptoms, and suicidality. Sexual minority-specific victimization significantly mediated the effect of sexual minority status on depressive symptoms and suicidality. The results support the minority stress hypothesis that targeted harassment and victimization are partly responsible for the higher levels of depressive symptoms and suicidality found in sexual minority youth. This research lends support to public policy initiatives that reduce bullying and hate crimes because reducing victimization can have a significant impact on the health and well-being of sexual minority youth.

  19. Future Educators’ Gender Norms, Sexuality, and Reproductive Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leodoro J. Labrague

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This investigation explored gender-related norms, sexuality, and reproductive health among education students in a government university in Samar, Philippines. A descriptive-analytical design of study was adopted for this investigation and data were collected over a period of five months. Five hundred fifty (550 education students who were enrolled in the different year level completed the modified John Clelands’ Illustrative Questionnaire for Young People. Results indicated that 14.73% of the students reported having had early sexual experience where in 69.14 % had it unplanned. Among sexually active students, only 17.28% used contraception, with condoms and withdrawal as the most popular choices. Respondents were also found to have some misconceptions regarding HIV/AIDS and STI’s. Result also showed that dating was still acceptable, however, the idea of abortion and sexual coercion were considered wrong. No significant differences in the knowledge about HIV/AIDS and STI’s and gender norms were found across year level. Findings suggest a greater need for education, support and advocacy relative to sexuality so as to create a more positive school environment conducive for holistic growth and development of all students. Thus, school administrators should improve/enhance existing policies and programs relative to reproductive health among college students of the University such as health promotion activities, sexuality education, counseling and alike.

  20. Sexual dysfunction among youth: an overlooked sexual health concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, Caroline; Kågesten, Anna E; Blum, Robert Wm

    2016-11-18

    There is growing recognition that youth sexual health entails a broad range of physical, emotional and psychosocial responses to sexual interactions, yet little is known about sexual dysfunctions and well being in youth populations. This study explored sexual dysfunctions among youth and its associations with other domains of sexual health. Sexual dysfunctions were defined as: problems related to orgasm, pain during intercourse, lack of sexual desire or sexual pleasure. Data were drawn from the 2010 French national sexual and reproductive health survey comprising a random sample of 2309 respondents aged 15-24 years. The current analysis included 842 females and 642 males who had sexual intercourse in the last 12 months. Chi square tests were used to test for differences in sexual dysfunctions by sex and explore associations with other domains of sexual health. Half of females (48%) reported at least one sexual dysfunction versus 23% of males. However, over half (57%) of youth reporting at least one dysfunction did not consider this to hinder their sexuality. Altogether, 31% of females cited at least one sexual dysfunction hindering their sexuality-more than three times the 9% of males. Sexual dysfunction was strongly and inversely related to sexual satisfaction for both males and females and additionally to a recent diagnosis of STI or unintended pregnancy for females. Sexual dysfunctions hindering sexuality were also correlated with a history of unintended pregnancy among males. While most youth in France enjoy a satisfying sexual life, sexual dysfunction is common, especially among females. Public health programs and clinicians should screen for and address sexual dysfunction, which substantially reduce youth sexual wellbeing.

  1. Sexual dysfunction among youth: an overlooked sexual health concern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Moreau

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is growing recognition that youth sexual health entails a broad range of physical, emotional and psychosocial responses to sexual interactions, yet little is known about sexual dysfunctions and well being in youth populations. This study explored sexual dysfunctions among youth and its associations with other domains of sexual health. Sexual dysfunctions were defined as: problems related to orgasm, pain during intercourse, lack of sexual desire or sexual pleasure. Methods Data were drawn from the 2010 French national sexual and reproductive health survey comprising a random sample of 2309 respondents aged 15-24 years. The current analysis included 842 females and 642 males who had sexual intercourse in the last 12 months. Chi square tests were used to test for differences in sexual dysfunctions by sex and explore associations with other domains of sexual health. Results Half of females (48% reported at least one sexual dysfunction versus 23% of males. However, over half (57% of youth reporting at least one dysfunction did not consider this to hinder their sexuality. Altogether, 31% of females cited at least one sexual dysfunction hindering their sexuality—more than three times the 9% of males. Sexual dysfunction was strongly and inversely related to sexual satisfaction for both males and females and additionally to a recent diagnosis of STI or unintended pregnancy for females. Sexual dysfunctions hindering sexuality were also correlated with a history of unintended pregnancy among males. Conclusion While most youth in France enjoy a satisfying sexual life, sexual dysfunction is common, especially among females. Public health programs and clinicians should screen for and address sexual dysfunction, which substantially reduce youth sexual wellbeing.

  2. Developing a Sexual Harassment Policy for Sheldon Jackson College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craddick, Jan

    A practicum to determine the need for a sexual harassment policy and to develop an appropriate policy for Sheldon Jackson College, Alaska, is described. The objective of the practicum was to determine the impact of equal opportunity legislation, specifically as it relates to sexual harassment of students, on the private college campus. The…

  3. Sexual Harassment and Sexual Harassment Policy in Jamaica: The Absence of a National Sexual Harassment Policy, and the Way Forward

    OpenAIRE

    R. Peters; P.A. Bourne

    2012-01-01

    Within the Caribbean only countries such as Belize, Bahamas and Guyana have legitimized legislation against sexual harassment. Countries such as Jamaica, Barbados and St. Kitts and Nevis have draft bills before parliament. In the Jamaican context, the country in September 1981 signed the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) which came into effect in 1984 which deals with the issue of sexual harassment under Articles 2 (Policy Measures and Legislat...

  4. Women's Sexual Health: Talking about Your Sexual Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... talking to your partner. By Mayo Clinic Staff Women's sexual health, like men's, is important to overall ... well worth addressing. Follow this guide to discussing women's sexual health concerns and promoting sexual enjoyment. Many ...

  5. Social change, migration and sexual health: Chilean women in Chile and Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Maria Teresa; Gifford, Sandra Margaret

    2003-01-01

    Cultural beliefs, norms and values regarding sexuality and gender roles forge people's sexual behaviour and understanding of sexual health risk. Acknowledging a person's cultural background is a key challenge for the promotion of sexual health programs and strategies for the prevention of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and HIV/AIDS. This challenge acquires larger dimensions when health promotion programs are directed towards migrant communities. This article examines narratives about past and present life experiences of Chilean women living in Australia and Chilean women in Chile. We inquire about social changes and exposure to education women experienced in their own country and in Australia and the ways in which migrant women define and articulate their experiences in relation to sexual health prevention. In comparing these experiences, we raise a number of questions about sexual health promotion and programs, including the prevention of STDs and HIV/AIDS targeted to specific migrant communities in Australia. Very few sexual health policies and strategies in Australia take into account the impact that the social and cultural background of migrants, social changes and the 'settlement process' has on the cultural construction of gender identity of migrants in the new country. We propose that these cultural constructs are key in the formulation of migrants' beliefs and attitudes towards sexuality and sexual health. We suggest that there is a need to build effective and culturally appropriate sexual health promotion and prevention strategies that build upon the social and cultural background and the present and past life experiences of migrant women and men.

  6. University Policies and Procedures on Sexual Harassment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Jerilyn S.

    Sexual harassment complaints are challenges to the abuse of power in certain kinds of communicative relationships, and sexual harassment policies and procedures are ways of defining the responsible exercise of power and providing the means to address grievances that result from irresponsible and potentially harmful uses of power in those…

  7. Beyond Foucault: Toward a User-Centered Approach to Sexual Harassment Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranney, Frances J.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses how United States national policy regarding sexual harassment exemplifies the Foucauldian paradigm in its attempt to regulate sexuality through seemingly authorless texts. Proposes a user-centered approach to policy drafting that values the knowledge of workers as users and makers of workplace policy. Argues that regulation through such…

  8. Enhancing the role of health professionals in the advancement of adolescent sexual health and rights in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kangaude, Godfrey

    2016-01-01

    To realize adolescents' right to sexual health, state parties' implementation of the obligations stipulated under Article 14 of the Protocol to the African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights on the Rights of Women in Africa should reflect the key principles of the rights of the child, articulated under the Convention on the Rights of the Child and the African Charter on the Welfare and Rights of the Child. However, societal norms that stigmatize adolescent sexual conduct constitute barriers to adolescents' sexual health care, including their access to contraceptives to avoid unwanted pregnancies and protect themselves from STIs and HIV. States should sensitize and train health professionals to provide sexual health services and care in accordance with the principles of the rights of the child, and create enabling laws and policies to facilitate their work with adolescents. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  9. Silencing women’s sexuality: global AIDS policies and the case of the female condom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Anny JTP; van Driel, Francien TM; Jansen, Willy HM

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The female condom is the only evidence-based AIDS prevention technology that has been designed for the female body; yet, most women do not have access to it. This is remarkable since women constitute the majority of all HIV-positive people living in sub-Saharan Africa, and gender inequality is seen as a driving force of the AIDS epidemic. In this study, we analyze how major actors in the AIDS prevention field frame the AIDS problem, in particular the female condom in comparison to other prevention technologies, in their discourse and policy formulations. Our aim is to gain insight into the discursive power mechanisms that underlie the thinking about AIDS prevention and women’s sexual agency. Methods We analyze the AIDS policies of 16 agencies that constitute the most influential actors in the global response to AIDS. Our study unravels the discursive power of these global AIDS policy actors, when promoting and making choices between AIDS prevention technologies. We conducted both a quantitative and qualitative analysis of how the global AIDS epidemic is being addressed by them, in framing the AIDS problem, labelling of different categories of people for targeting AIDS prevention programmes and in gender marking of AIDS prevention technologies. Results We found that global AIDS policy actors frame the AIDS problem predominantly in the context of gender and reproductive health, rather than that of sexuality and sexual rights. Men’s sexual agency is treated differently from women’s sexual agency. An example of such differentiation and of gender marking is shown by contrasting the framing and labelling of male circumcision as an intervention aimed at the prevention of HIV with that of the female condom. Conclusions The gender-stereotyped global AIDS policy discourse negates women’s agency in sexuality and their sexual rights. This could be an important factor in limiting the scale-up of female condom programmes and hampering universal access to

  10. USE AND PERCEPTIONS OF SEXUAL AND REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH SERVICES AMONG YOUNG NORTHERN THAI PEOPLE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangmunkongvorakul, Arunrat; Banwell, Cathy; Carmichael, Gordon; Utomo, Iwu Dwisetyani; Seubsman, Sam-Ang; Kelly, Matthew; Sleigh, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    This study sheds light on obstacles to safe sexual health for young Thais and their need for appropriate sexual and reproductive health services. The study population was 1,745 unmarried adolescents aged 17-20 who resided or worked in Chiang Mai, the major city in northern Thailand. The study used quantitative and qualitative methods to explore the vulnerability of sexually active adolescents as well as the lack of support and care for them from parents and health providers. We found that young Thais still prefer pharmacies for self-medication and use government health care facilities as a last resort. Current health services are not suitable for young people in northern Thailand because they lack privacy and impose judgemental attitudes, especially towards sexually active adolescent females. Current programs for adolescent sexual and reproductive health focus on education and counselling and do not provide appropriate privacy or clinical care. There is a pressing need for advocacy, policy support for the development of youth-friendly sexual and reproductive health services in Thailand. PMID:23082599

  11. Parenting, family life, and well-being among sexual minorities: nursing policy and practice implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Scott

    2008-06-01

    Parenting and family life are fundamental social constructs in human society and in law and public policy. Family structures and support systems provide important economic and psychological advantages for parents as well as for their children. Stigma toward lesbian and gay parents often marginalize individuals in these families and restrict family members' full expression of social citizenship, humanity, and personhood. Stigma directly contributes to increased risk for substance abuse, anxiety, and depressive illness among both parents and children. This article reviews the relevant policy literature to deconstruct the impacts of stigma on the psychological health and well-being of sexual minority parents so that psychiatric/mental health nurses and other health care providers can identify and counter these effects in their practices and advocate for policy improvements.

  12. When holistic care is not holistic enough: The role of sexual health in mental health settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendry, Avril; Snowden, Austyn; Brown, Michael

    2018-03-01

    To explore the preparation that mental health nurses receive to address sexual health in practice. People who use the mental health services often have complex sexual health needs. Mental health nurses are well placed to offer support. However, this rarely happens in practice, and therefore, people's sexual health needs are not being routinely addressed. It is not known why this is the case. Systematic review and meta-ethnography. EBSCO, PsycINFO, MEDLINE and ASSIA databases were searched using Booleans with Mesh and key terms including "mental health nurse" and "sexual health". Date range was June 2006 to June 2016. Discursive papers were excluded. Included papers (n = 7) were synthesised using a meta-ethnographic approach. The search yielded seven studies. Five key themes were identified: the (not so) therapeutic relationship; personal values dictating professional ones; institutionalised fear; being human; and education: the answer but where is it? The findings illustrate the complexity of supporting people with mental health and sexual health needs. They show the discomfort many nurses have about broaching sexual health. Arguably more than with most issues, personal values impacted strongly on professional practice. Understanding the depth and multifaceted nature of these themes is important, because strategies can then be developed to mitigate the barriers to best practice. For example, the findings presented here offer a framework from which structured education and support can be built. There is a need for Mental health nurses to be more responsive to concerns around sexual health and it should be routinely included in their practice. This study illuminates why this is not currently the case. By understanding this, remedial action can be taken by nurse educators. Implications are also discussed in relation to policy, research and practice. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. The masculine side of sexual health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepard, B

    1998-01-01

    It is common to imagine only losses for men if women achieve sexual equality, but achieving this goal would actually entail improvements for both sexes. A new perspective can be gained by considering male participation in reproductive health and child care a right instead of a responsibility, and such a perspective may make supportive policies more likely to succeed. A rights emphasis could lead to improved wage/labor and child care policies and would be acceptable to men who consider that they already act in a responsible manner. A rights perspective would also promote equity and mutual respect in sexual relationships and give people "permission" to transgress cultural limits that infringe upon their rights. Traditional cultural models of male behavior are transmitted by parents and peers to make males eschew outward signs of weakness; drink alcoholic beverages together; seek sexual experience; and engage in instinctive, uncontrollable, and aggressive sex behavior. Peruvian studies on sexuality and gender carried out in 1995 indicate that adolescents more rigidly define the male than the female role and that homophobia is used in the social control of males. Thus, any man who openly challenges traditional male roles risks the social marginalization that follows being suspected of homosexuality. This form of socialization causes men to view women and homosexuals as despised beings. Men must be educated to recognize the key roles of homophobia and misogyny in their socialization so that they can have the strength to abandon traditional ideas of masculinity and become empowered.

  14. Sexual Minority Health and Health Risk Factors: Intersection Effects of Gender, Race, and Sexual Identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Ning; Ruther, Matt

    2016-06-01

    Although population studies have documented the poorer health outcomes of sexual minorities, few have taken an intersectionality approach to examine how sexual orientation, gender, and race jointly affect these outcomes. Moreover, little is known about how behavioral risks and healthcare access contribute to health disparities by sexual, gender, and racial identities. Using ordered and binary logistic regression models in 2015, data from the 2013 and 2014 National Health Interview Surveys (n=62,302) were analyzed to study disparities in self-rated health and functional limitation. This study examined how gender and race interact with sexual identity to create health disparities, and how these disparities are attributable to differential exposure to behavioral risks and access to care. Conditional on sociodemographic factors, all sexual, gender, and racial minority groups, except straight white women, gay white men, and bisexual non-white men, reported worse self-rated health than straight white men (pnon-white men, were more likely to report a functional limitation than straight white men (pgender, and racial minority groups. Sexual, gender, and racial identities interact with one another in a complex way to affect health experiences. Efforts to improve sexual minority health should consider heterogeneity in health risks and health outcomes among sexual minorities. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Sexual Media and Childhood Well-being and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Rebecca L; Strasburger, Victor C; Brown, Jane D; Donnerstein, Edward; Lenhart, Amanda; Ward, L Monique

    2017-11-01

    Sexual content is highly prevalent in traditional media, and portrayals rarely depict the responsibilities and risks (eg, condom use, pregnancy) associated with sexual activity. Exposure to such content is linked with shifts in attitudes about sex and gender, earlier progression to sexual activity, pregnancy, and sexually transmitted infection among adolescents. However, little information is available about moderators and mediators of these effects. We also know little about digital media, their sex-related content, and their potential influence on youth. Data from a few studies of older youth indicate that sexual displays on social media sites are related to problematic beliefs and behaviors among those who post this content and among viewers. Online pornography appears to be more problematic for youth than off-line sources. Given the vast and increasing amount of time youth spend online and their developmental openness to influence, more research attention to digital sexual media is needed. Those who undertake this work should identify potential negative consequences of use and opportunities to improve adolescent sexual health through digital media. Studies of on- and off-line media in which researchers examine younger media audiences, identify processes explaining sexual media effects on behavior, and moderators of effects are needed. Such studies could be used to inform interventions to reduce negative outcomes and increase positive media effects. Policy makers should stimulate the development of such interventions, including tools to help parents identify and manage negative media influences on their children's sexual well-being and development and dissemination of innovative media literacy programs related to sexual health. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  16. Adolescent pregnancies and girls' sexual and reproductive rights in the amazon basin of Ecuador: an analysis of providers' and policy makers' discourses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Miguel

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adolescent pregnancies are a common phenomenon that can have both positive and negative consequences. The rights framework allows us to explore adolescent pregnancies not just as isolated events, but in relation to girls' sexual and reproductive freedom and their entitlement to a system of health protection that includes both health services and the so called social determinants of health. The aim of this study was to explore policy makers' and service providers' discourses concerning adolescent pregnancies, and discuss the consequences that those discourses have for the exercise of girls' sexual and reproductive rights' in the province of Orellana, located in the amazon basin of Ecuador. Methods We held six focus-group discussions and eleven in-depth interviews with 41 Orellana's service providers and policy makers. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed using discourse analysis, specifically looking for interpretative repertoires. Results Four interpretative repertoires emerged from the interviews. The first repertoire identified was "sex is not for fun" and reflected a moralistic construction of girls' sexual and reproductive health that emphasized abstinence, and sent contradictory messages regarding contraceptive use. The second repertoire -"gendered sexuality and parenthood"-constructed women as sexually uninterested and responsible mothers, while men were constructed as sexually driven and unreliable. The third repertoire was "professionalizing adolescent pregnancies" and lead to patronizing attitudes towards adolescents and disregard of the importance of non-medical expertise. The final repertoire -"idealization of traditional family"-constructed family as the proper space for the raising of adolescents while at the same time acknowledging that sexual abuse and violence within families was common. Conclusions Providers' and policy makers' repertoires determined the areas that the array of sexual and reproductive

  17. Gender norms as health harms: reclaiming a life course perspective on sexual and reproductive health and rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crockett, Cailin; Cooper, Bergen

    2016-11-01

    Despite their demographic significance and the lifetime impact of gender disparities on their health and rights, women considered older than reproductive age are excluded from most investments in global public health. While development policies linking human rights with access to sexual and reproductive healthcare have yielded progress towards improving the status of women and girls, older women have not benefited from these initiatives. Yet as women grow older, they experience a range of health conditions rooted in their reproductive biology - from ageing with fistula, to cervical and breast cancers. Current approaches to global women's health ignore these serious conditions, harming older women through the perpetuation of gender norms that construe women's health through a narrow reproductive lens. Meanwhile, older women are generally absent from global ageing discourse, which lacks a gender perspective, creating a dual invisibility as the field of global women's health presumes ageing women are accounted for. Reclaiming the sexual rights framework suggested by the International Conference on Population and Development and the Beijing Platform for Action, we call for the revision of global health policies to incorporate a life course approach to women's health as a matter of human rights. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. 'He supported me 100%': Mexican-immigrant fathers, daughters, and adolescent sexual health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman-Minahan, Kate; Samari, Goleen

    2018-02-19

    First and second generation Mexican-origin adolescents in the U.S. face social and economic disadvantage and sexual health disparities. Although fathers can support child and adolescent development, the literature has portrayed Mexican-origin immigrant fathers as emotionally distant and sexist. This study aims to treat migration as a social determinant of health to examine father-daughter relationships and adolescent sexual health in Mexican-origin immigrant families. Integrating qualitative data from life history interviews with 21 Mexican-origin young women in immigrant families with quantitative data on first and second generation Mexican-origin young women in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health, this study describes father-daughter relationships, examines the association between father-daughter relationships and daughters' early sexual initiation, and considers the impact of migration on the father-daughter relationship and sexual health among Mexican-origin young women. Qualitative data identify four types of father-daughter relationships: 'good,' hostile, distant, and conflicted. Supporting the qualitative patterns, quantitative data find that positive or 'good' father-daughter relationship quality is significantly associated with reduced risk of early sexual initiation. Importantly, father-daughter separation across borders and economic inequality facing immigrant families is associated with hostile or distant father-daughter relationship quality and increased risk of early sexual initiation. Reports of good father-daughter relationships are common and may protect against early sexual initiation in Mexican-origin immigrant families. Policies that keep families together and reduce economic inequality among immigrants may also reduce sexual health disparities among immigrant adolescents.

  19. "Selling It as a Holistic Health Provision and Not Just about Condoms..." Sexual Health Services in School Settings: Current Models and Their Relationship with Sex and Relationships Education Policy and Provision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formby, Eleanor; Hirst, Julia; Owen, Jenny; Hayter, Mark; Stapleton, Helen

    2010-01-01

    In this article we discuss the findings from a recent study of UK policy and practice in relation to sexual health services for young people, based in--or closely linked with--schools. This study formed part of a larger project, completed in 2009, which also included a systematic review of international research. The findings discussed in this…

  20. Sexual health and religion: a primer for the sexual health clinician (CME).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellogg Spadt, Susan; Rosenbaum, Talli Y; Dweck, Alyssa; Millheiser, Leah; Pillai-Friedman, Sabitha; Krychman, Michael

    2014-07-01

    Sexual health is an integral part of the multifaceted human experience that is driven both by biological factors and psychological facets. Religion may provide a moral code of conduct or a sexual compass as to sexual norms and behaviors. The aim of this study was to summarize the integration of sexuality and religion. A review of published literature and religious texts was conducted. The integration of religion with country or state politics and laws is a complicated dilemma and will not be discussed in the scope of this article. The extent to which an individual incorporates their religious doctrine into their sexual life is a personal and individualized choice. The sexual medicine health professional will likely encounter a diverse patient population of distinct religious backgrounds, and a primer on religion and sexuality is a much needed adjunctive tool for the clinician. Because religion can influence sexuality and dictate, in part, the behavioral and medical treatments for sexual complaints, the clinician should be familiar with religious guidelines regarding sexuality, and treatment should be customized and individualized. Failure to do so can impact compliance with the therapeutic interventions. Religious awareness also solidifies the therapeutic alliance between clinician and patient as it demonstrates respect and acknowledgment for patient's beliefs and autonomy. © 2014 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  1. Sexual satisfaction and sexual health among university students in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Jenny A; Mullinax, Margo; Trussell, James; Davidson, J Kenneth; Moore, Nelwyn B

    2011-09-01

    Despite the World Health Organization's definition of sexual health as a state of well-being, virtually no public health research has examined sexual well-being outcomes, including sexual satisfaction. Emerging evidence suggests that sexual well-being indicators are associated with more classic measures of healthy sexual behaviors. We surveyed 2168 university students in the United States and asked them to rate their physiological and psychological satisfaction with their current sexual lives. Many respondents reported that they were either satisfied (approximately half) or very satisfied (approximately one third). In multivariate analyses, significant (P self-comfort, self-esteem (especially among men), relationship status, and sexual frequency. To enhance sexual well-being, public health practitioners should work to improve sexual self-comfort, alleviate sexual guilt, and promote longer term relationships.

  2. Friendship, sexual intimacy and young people's negotiations of sexual health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byron, Paul

    2017-04-01

    This paper examines how young people's friendships influence safer sexual practices. Through a thematic discourse analysis, interviews with Sydney-based young people (aged 18-25 years) and Australian-based sexual health websites for young people are considered. Interview data illustrate how friendships can support young people's sexual experiences, concerns and safeties beyond the practice of 'safe sex' (condom use). This is evident in friends' practices of sex and relationship advice, open dialogue, trust and sharing experiential knowledge, as well as friend-based sex. Meanwhile, friendship discourse from selected Australian sexual health websites fails to engage with the support offered by friendship, or its value to a sexual health agenda. Foucault's account of friendship as a space of self-invention is considered in light of these data, along with his argument that friendship poses a threat to formal systems of knowing and regulating sex. Whether sexual or not, many close friendships are sexually intimate given the knowledge, support and influence these offer to one's sexual practices and relations. This paper argues that greater attention to friendship among sexual health promoters and researchers would improve professional engagements with young people's contemporary sexual cultures, and better inform their attempts to engage young people through social media.

  3. Health discourse, sexual slang and ideological contradictions among Mozambican youth: implications for method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groes-Green, Christian

    2009-08-01

    Despite the urgency of improving an understanding of sexual cultures in the face of a globally devastating HIV epidemic, methodological reflection and innovation has been conspicuously absent from qualitative research in recent years. Findings from fieldwork on condom use among young people in Mozambique confirm the need to remain alert to the ideological and linguistic bias of applied methods. Interviewing young people about their sexuality using a conventional health discourse resulted in incorrect or socially acceptable answers rather than accurate information about their sexual behaviour. Young people's resistance to enquiry, the paper argues, is due to ideological contradictions between their sexual culture and slang, on the one hand, and Western health discourses associated with colonial and post-colonial opposition to traditional culture and languages, on the other. Mixing colloquial Portuguese and changana sexual slang is constructed around ideas of safedeza and pleasure, while dominant health discourses address sexuality as both 'risky' and 'dangerous'. In order to gain a deeper understanding of sexual cultures and to make HIV prevention efforts relevant to young people, it is suggested that researchers and policy makers approach respondents with a language that is sensitive to the local ideological and linguistic context.

  4. Going Upstream: Policy as Sexual Violence Prevention and Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverson, Susan V.; Issadore, Michelle N.

    2018-01-01

    Policy can and should be used as a tool of sexual violence prevention and response. In this chapter, we explore the historical, social justice, compliance, and best practice rationales for approaching policy development and revision differently.

  5. The proliferation of sexual health: Diverse social problems and the legitimation of sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Steven; Mamo, Laura

    2017-09-01

    Especially since the 1990s, the term sexual health has flourished in professional, commercial, and lay domains. Yet the more the phrase has become visible, the greater the mutability in its meanings. These developments matter for an understanding of healthism-the idea that modern individuals are enjoined to recognize a moral obligation to maximize their health. Theorists of healthism have paid relatively little attention to sexuality and its frequent rendering as controversial, illegitimate, or stigmatizing. We argue that because pairing "sexual" with "health" serves to legitimize and sanitize sexuality, the framing of sexual issues as matters of sexual health is widely appealing across multiple social arenas, and this appeal helps to explain both the proliferation of the term and the diversification of its uses. Secondly, we argue that while the polysemy of sexual health might suggest that the phrase lacks a clear meaning, in another sense the term is quite meaningful: content analysis of journal articles, newspaper articles, and websites shows that the semantics of sexual health can be categorized into six social problem niches, within which sexuality and health are construed in distinctive ways. For each social problem framing, we identify the implied meanings of both sexuality and health, the "opposite" of sexual health, the institutional action plans, the individual injunctions, and the presumed ontologies of bodies and selves. By focusing on how the conjoining of "sexual" and "health" changes the meanings of both terms, our analysis adds nuance to discussions of healthism: it challenges a singular conception of healthism and points to the need for clearer consideration of its different forms. At the same time, we call attention to the significance of "sexual healthism" as a particular example of the "will to health" while also highlighting implications of characterizing sexual issues as matters of health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Tobacco Denormalization as a Public Health Strategy: Implications for Sexual and Gender Minorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antin, Tamar M J; Lipperman-Kreda, Sharon; Hunt, Geoffrey

    2015-12-01

    Although the population-level success of tobacco denormalization is widely accepted, it remains unclear whether these strategies alleviate health inequities for sexual and gender minorities. The high risk of smoking among sexual and gender minorities together with research that documents a relationship between stigma-related processes and smoking prevalence for these groups raises questions about whether tobacco-related stigma intensifies the disadvantages associated with the stigmas of other social identities. We have not adequately considered how tobacco-related stigma overlaps with other social identity stigmas. Given concerns about the intensification of inequality, this type of inquiry has important implications for understanding both the effectiveness and limitations of tobacco denormalization strategies for sexual and gender minorities and identifying those tobacco prevention, treatment, and public health policies that work to ameliorate health inequities.

  7. [Internet use and adolescents' sexual health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Ying-Hua; Wang, Ruey-Hsia; Wang, Hsiu-Hung; Chou, Fan-Hao

    2012-12-01

    Internet use is an important part of the daily life of adolescents. The ease of searching the internet for information makes finding information on sex, a topic of particular interest to adolescents, easy. Although the internet is replete with sexual information, the influence of internet use on adolescents' sexual health is analogous to a double-edged sword. This article identifies the four main sexual dilemmas facing Taiwan adolescents and analyzes the pros and cons of internet use with regard to adolescents' sexual health. Cons include the predominance of internet pornography and the potential risks of making friends online. Pros include the internet's role as an optimal communications platform and tool for sex-related research. We suggest that nurses have a unique role and functions to play in promoting adolescent sexual health. We also offer recommendations for school health nursing and clinical nursing. Further internet-based quantitative and qualitative research is necessary to clarify relevant sexual health issues. Finally, we offer design suggestions for sexual education homepages.

  8. Analysis of Public Policies for Sexuality Education in Germany and The Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronowitz, Teri; Fawcett, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present an analysis of the philosophical, historical, sociological, political, and economic perspectives reflected in the public policies about lifespan sexuality education of Germany and The Netherlands. A new conceptual framework for analysis and evaluation of sexuality education policies that integrates the…

  9. Health seeking and sexual behaviour among patients with sexually ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Health seeking and sexual behaviour among patients with sexually transmitted ... condom use among patients presenting with sexually transmitted infections (STI) ... having less than 8 years of school education; and being resident in villages.

  10. Assessing Iranian adolescent girls' needs for sexual and reproductive health information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosavi, Seyed Abbas; Babazadeh, Raheleh; Najmabadi, Khadijeh Mirzaii; Shariati, Mohammad

    2014-07-01

    To explore the views and experiences of adolescent girls and key adults regarding the necessity of providing sexual and reproductive health (SRH) information and services for adolescent girls in Iran. This was a qualitative study; the data were coded and categorized in content analysis by MAXQDA10 and were gathered through focus groups with adolescent girls and their mothers and semi-structured interviews with school counselors, sociologists, health providers, state and nongovernmental directors of health programs, clergy, and health policy makers in the Iranian cities of Mashhad, Tehran, Shahroud, and Qom. There were six main reasons for the need to provide SRH services for adolescent girls: a lack of adequate knowledge about SRH, easy access to inaccurate information sources, cultural and social changes, increasing risky sexual behaviors among adolescents, religion's emphasis on sex training of children and adolescents, and the existence of cultural taboos. Most participants confirmed the necessity of providing SRH services for adolescent girls, so instead of talking about provision or non-provision of these services, it is important for policy makers to plan and provide SRH services that can be consistent with cultural and religious values for adolescent girls. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The comparison of spiritual health and self-esteem in women with and without sexual violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riazi, Hedyeh; Alaei, Shima; Emamhadi, Mohammadali; Nazparvar, Bashir; Salmani, Fatemeh

    2017-11-01

    Sexual violence is a serious public health problem which is common around the world. The aim of this study was to evaluate spiritual health and self-esteem in sexual violence victims. This cross-sectional study was performed on 66 subjects in the group of sexual violence women and 147 subjects in the group of women with no experience of sexual violence who referred to Tehran Forensic Medical Center and the health centers of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences respectively, in 2015, in Tehran, Iran. Sexual violence was considered as vaginal or anal penetration. Paloutzian & Ellison spiritual health questionnaire and Rosenberg self-esteem scale were used for data collecting. Data were analyzed using IBM-SPSS version 21. The Kolmogorov Simonov test was used for normality distribution of variables. Descriptive and the Mann-Whitney tests were used to analyze the data. Statistical significance was set to pself-esteem in the two groups (M1: 21.89, M2: 21.02; p=0.76) while a significant difference was seen between the mean scores of spiritual health, which indicates a lower level of spiritual health in women with sexual violence (M1: 74.59 (2.03), M2: 86.39 (3.12); pimportance of spirituality in sexual violence so policies to promote spiritual health are recommended to protect women.

  12. The effectiveness of sexual harassment policies and procedures at higher education institutions in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Joubert

    2011-02-01

    Research purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the awareness levels of academic staff members at higher education institutions in South Africa of sexual harassment policies and procedures in their institutions. Motivation for the study: A number of high profile court cases emphasised the need for effective policies to reduce the incidence of sexual harassment complaints. Research design, approach and method: A cross-sectional survey design was conducted amongst 161 academic staff members, representing 10 higher education institutions in South Africa. The measuring instrument that was used is the Sexual Harassment Questionnaire (SHQ that was developed specifically for this study. Main findings: The results showed that despite indications that sexual harassment policies do exist and that they are regarded as effective tools in addressing sexual harassment, the implementation of such policies is not effective and few academic staff members received training and/or guidance on the utilisation of the policy. Significant correlation coefficients were found between the elements of an effective policy and between population group and some of the elements. Practical/managerial implications: Employers across the board should regularly conduct an audit to determine the level of awareness of sexual harassment policies and procedures and plan interventions. Contribution: No other study in South Africa attempted to measure the awareness levels of academics and its impact on the management of sexual harassment.

  13. Sexual identity, partner gender, and sexual health among adolescent girls in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riskind, Rachel G; Tornello, Samantha L; Younger, Brendan C; Patterson, Charlotte J

    2014-10-01

    We examined associations between adolescent girls' sexual identity and the gender of their sexual partners, on one hand, and their reports of sexual health behaviors and reproductive health outcomes, on the other. We analyzed weighted data from pooled Youth Risk Behavior Surveys (2005 and 2007) representative of 13 US jurisdictions, focusing on sexually experienced girls in 8th through 12th grade (weighted n=6879.56). We used logistic regression with hierarchical linear modeling to examine the strength of associations between reports about sexual orientation and sexual and reproductive health. Sexual minority girls consistently reported riskier behaviors than did other girls. Lesbian girls' reports of risky sexual behaviors (e.g., sex under the influence of drugs or alcohol) and negative reproductive health outcomes (e.g., pregnancy) were similar to those of bisexual girls. Partner gender and sexual identity were similarly strong predictors of all of the sexual behaviors and reproductive health outcomes we examined. Many sexual minority girls, whether categorized according to sexual identity or partner gender, are vulnerable to sexual and reproductive health risks. Attention to these risks is needed to help sexual minority girls receive necessary services.

  14. Sexual Identity, Partner Gender, and Sexual Health Among Adolescent Girls in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornello, Samantha L.; Younger, Brendan C.; Patterson, Charlotte J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined associations between adolescent girls’ sexual identity and the gender of their sexual partners, on one hand, and their reports of sexual health behaviors and reproductive health outcomes, on the other. Methods. We analyzed weighted data from pooled Youth Risk Behavior Surveys (2005 and 2007) representative of 13 US jurisdictions, focusing on sexually experienced girls in 8th through 12th grade (weighted n = 6879.56). We used logistic regression with hierarchical linear modeling to examine the strength of associations between reports about sexual orientation and sexual and reproductive health. Results. Sexual minority girls consistently reported riskier behaviors than did other girls. Lesbian girls’ reports of risky sexual behaviors (e.g., sex under the influence of drugs or alcohol) and negative reproductive health outcomes (e.g., pregnancy) were similar to those of bisexual girls. Partner gender and sexual identity were similarly strong predictors of all of the sexual behaviors and reproductive health outcomes we examined. Conclusions. Many sexual minority girls, whether categorized according to sexual identity or partner gender, are vulnerable to sexual and reproductive health risks. Attention to these risks is needed to help sexual minority girls receive necessary services. PMID:25121821

  15. Measurement of sexual health in the U.S.: an inventory of nationally representative surveys and surveillance systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivankovich, Megan B; Leichliter, Jami S; Douglas, John M

    2013-01-01

    To identify opportunities within nationally representative surveys and surveillance systems to measure indicators of sexual health, we reviewed and inventoried existing data systems that include variables relevant to sexual health. We searched for U.S. nationally representative surveys and surveillance systems that provided individual-level sexual health data. We assessed the methods of each data system and catalogued them by their measurement of the following domains of sexual health: knowledge, communication, attitudes, service access and utilization, sexual behaviors, relationships, and adverse health outcomes. We identified 18 U.S.-focused, nationally representative data systems: six assessing the general population, seven focused on special populations, and five addressing health outcomes. While these data systems provide a rich repository of information from which to assess national measures of sexual health, they present several limitations. Most importantly, apart from data on service utilization, routinely gathered, national data are currently focused primarily on negative aspects of sexual health (e.g., risk behaviors and adverse health outcomes) rather than more positive attributes (e.g., healthy communication and attitudes, and relationship quality). Nationally representative data systems provide opportunities to measure a broad array of domains of sexual health. However, current measurement gaps indicate the need to modify existing surveys, where feasible and appropriate, and develop new tools to include additional indicators that address positive domains of sexual health of the U.S. population across the life span. Such data can inform the development of effective policy actions, services, prevention programs, and resource allocation to advance sexual health.

  16. Evaluating implementation of the World Health Organization's Strategic Approach to strengthening sexual and reproductive health policies and programs to address unintended pregnancy and unsafe abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Shusmita; Moore, Julia E; Timmings, Caitlyn; Vogel, Joshua P; Ganatra, Bela; Khan, Dina N; Sayal, Radha; Metin Gülmezoglu, A; Straus, Sharon E

    2017-11-21

    We conducted a process evaluation to assess how the World Health Organization's (WHO) Strategic Approach to strengthening sexual and reproductive health policies and programs ("the SA") was used in 15 countries that requested WHO's technical support in addressing unintended pregnancy and unsafe abortion. The SA is a three-stage planning, policy, and program implementation process. We used the social ecological model (SEM) to analyze the contextual factors that influenced SA implementation. We used a two-phased sequential approach to data collection and analysis. In Phase A, we conducted a document and literature review and synthesized data thematically. In Phase B, we conducted interviews with stakeholders who used the SA in the countries of interest. We used a qualitative method triangulation technique to analyze and combine data from both phases to understand how the SA was implemented in each country. Data from 145 documents and 19 interviews described the SA process and activities in each country. All 15 countries completed Stage 1 activities. The activities of Stage 1 determined activities in subsequent stages and varied across countries. Following Stage 1, some countries focused on reforming policies to improve access to sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services whereas others focused on improving provider-level capacity to enhance SRH service quality and improving community-level SRH education. We identified factors across SEM levels that affected SA implementation, including individual- and community-level perceptions of using the SA and the recommendations that emerged from its use, organizational capacity to conduct SA activities, and how well these activities aligned with the existing political climate. Stakeholders perceived SA implementation to be country-driven and systematic in bringing attention to important SRH issues in their countries. We identified key success factors for influencing the individual, organization, and system change required

  17. Sexual and Reproductive Health Knowledge, Behaviour and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    reproductive health knowledge, sexual activities and sexuality education needs. ... Sexuality education should be provided for in-school adolescents through .... Both parents live together .... share their reproductive health ... Religious leader ..... Health of Young People: A Challenge and a. Promise. 1993. 3. World health ...

  18. Sexual harassment of college students: implications for campus health promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, J S; Schmieler, C R; Parascenzo, L C; Ambrosio, N

    1994-07-01

    The authors examined students' perceptions, attitudes, and experiences of sexual harassment by faculty members at a state university, using a sample of 1,139 graduate and undergraduate students. Twenty-six percent (292) of those in the sample responded. The instrument used in the study, adapted from a survey previously used at the University of Iowa, operationally defined eight categories of behavior: sexist comments, undue attention, verbal sexual advances, body language, invitations, physical advances, explicit sexual propositions, and sexual bribery. As many as 8% of the respondents indicated they had experienced the three most extreme forms of harassment--physical advances, explicit sexual propositions, and sexual bribery. Although most students thought they would report sexual harassment, only three incidents of the most extreme forms of sexual harassment were actually reported. Those who experienced harassment indicated that it generally came from one rather than from several faculty members and that it came from both male and female faculty. Twenty-three percent of the men reported experiencing sexist comments, and 5 male students reported they had experienced at least one of the three most extreme forms of sexual harassment. Recommendations for policy revisions and campus health promotion programming that were made following the survey are discussed.

  19. How does health-promoting lifestyle relate to sexual function among women of reproductive age in Iran?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abedi, Parvin; Jorfi, Maryam; Afshari, Poorandokht; Fakhri, Ahmad

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the relation between health-promoting lifestyle and sexual function among women of reproductive age. In this cross-sectional study, 1200 women were recruited randomly from 10 public health centers in Ahvaz, Iran. A demographic questionnaire, Health Promoting Lifestyle Profile 2 (HPLP2), and Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) were used for data collection. The inclusion criteria were as follows: women aged 15-45 years, married, monogamous, and having basic literacy. Data were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis test, chi-square test, Spearman correlation coefficient, and logistic regression. All aspects of sexual function showed a significant relationship with different dimensions of HPLP2, except for pain and physical activity ( p function than other women (OR = 1.10, 95% CI: 1.06-1.14, p relations and stress management also showed a significant correlation with sexual function. Results of this study showed that health-promoting lifestyle dimensions are significantly related to all aspects of sexual function in women of reproductive age. Health policy makers should take lifestyle-related factors of reproductive-aged women into account when seeking to improve the sexual wellbeing of this population. Further attention should also be given to assessing the direction of causality.

  20. Sexual Health and Menopause

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pass through menopause and discover its effects on sexuality. And that’s something we can all be grateful for, since our understanding of how menopause and aging affect sexual health has grown a lot in ...

  1. The Interaction of Same-Sex Marriage Access With Sexual Minority Identity on Mental Health and Subjective Wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatum, Alexander K

    2017-01-01

    Previous psychological and public health research has highlighted the impact of legal recognition of same-sex relationships on individual identity and mental health. Using a sample of U.S. sexual minority (N = 313) and heterosexual (N = 214) adults, participants completed a battery of mental health inventories prior to the nationwide legalization of same-sex marriage. Analyses of covariance (ANCOVAs) examining identity revealed sexual minority participants living in states where same-sex marriage was banned experienced significantly higher levels of internalized homonegativity than sexual minority participants living in states where same-sex marriage was legal, even after controlling for state-level political climate. Mental health ANCOVAs revealed sexual minority participants residing in states without same-sex marriage experienced greater anxiety and lower subjective wellbeing compared to sexual minority participants residing in states with same-sex marriage and heterosexual participants residing in states with or without same-sex marriage. Implications for public policy and future research directions are discussed.

  2. Let's talk about sex: older people's views on the recognition of sexuality and sexual health in the health-care setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Michael; Haesler, Emily; Fetherstonhaugh, Deirdre

    2016-12-01

    To report on the findings of a systematic review which examined the experiences and views of older people aged 65 years and over on health professionals' recognition of sexuality and sexual health and whether these aspects of the person are incorporated into care. The review followed the methods laid out by the Joanna Briggs Institute. Eleven electronic databases were searched using the terms sexual*, aged, ageing/aging, attitudes and care in any health-care setting. Only quantitative and qualitative research and opinion papers written in English and offering unique commentary published between January 2004 and January 2015 were eligible. A total of 999 papers were initially identified and of these, 148 were assessed by two reviewers. Eighteen studies - seven quantitative, eight qualitative and three opinion papers - met the inclusion criteria and were appraised. The importance of sexuality to well-being, language used, expressing sexuality, discomfort discussing sexuality, inadequate sexuality health education and treatment and deficient communication with health-care professionals were all identified as significant issues in a range of settings. Fourteen categories and five syntheses summarize the 43 findings. Sexuality remains important for many older people; however, embarrassment, dissatisfaction with treatment, negative attitudes and seeming disinterest by health professionals can all inhibit discussions. Professionals and health-care services need to adopt strategies and demonstrate characteristics which create environments that are more supportive of sexuality. Issues related to sexuality and sexual health should be able to be discussed without anxiety or discomfort so that older people receive optimal care and treatment. © 2015 The Authors. Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. BrdsNBz: Sexually Experienced Teens More Likely to Use Sexual Health Text Message Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willoughby, Jessica Fitts

    2015-12-01

    Text messaging services are becoming an increasingly popular way to provide sexual health information to teens, but little is known about who uses such services. This study assessed whether teens at a greater risk for negative sexual health outcomes use a sexual health text message service. A text message service that connects teens with sexual health educators was promoted in six public schools in one state in the Southeast. Students (n = 2,125) in four schools completed an online questionnaire assessing personal risk factors associated with negative sexual health outcomes and use of the text message service. Text message service users (n = 144) were more likely to have had sex, to have been in a relationship, and to come from a lower socioeconomic status background. Users also felt less connected to their schools and were slightly older than nonservice users. When all variables were entered into a logistic regression, only sexual experience was associated with service use. Sexual health text message services are designed to provide information to teens in an effort to prevent negative sexual outcomes. Such services seem to be reaching youth with increased risk of teen pregnancy and sexually transmitted disease acquisition. This study provides evidence that teens most likely to benefit are also those most likely to use a sexual health text message service. © 2015 Society for Public Health Education.

  4. Sexuality education and adolescents with developmental disabilities: assessment, policy, and advocacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tice, Carolyn J; Hall, Diane M Harnek

    2008-01-01

    People with disabilities are sexual beings who, like all of us, benefit from sexuality education that examines relationship skills and knowledge, attitudes, behaviors, and values that promote healthy sexuality within those relationships. This article provides an overview of landmark policies relevant to persons with disabilities, defines the strengths perspective in the context of curriculum development, and describes a survey built on this perspective that evaluates sexuality education curricula on the strengths rather than the deficits of people.

  5. Satisfaction with Previous Sexual Health Education as a Predictor of Intentions to Pursue Further Sexual Health Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rye, B. J.; Mashinter, Carling; Meaney, Glenn J.; Wood, Eileen; Gentile, Savannah

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the nature of the relationship between satisfaction with high school sexual health education and the pursuit of a post-secondary human sexuality course. In an initial study, first-year university students who received high school sexual health education in Ontario completed a questionnaire which assessed their satisfaction…

  6. Delivering culturally sensitive, sexual health education in western Kenya: a phenomenological case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, Gary

    2017-09-01

    While generic programmes have been created to raise sexual health awareness, these cannot always be applied to communities whose cultures and circumstances make them especially vulnerable to infection. Taking a phenomenological approach, this paper examines the circumstances of the Gusii people of Kisii, Kenya, and examines the specific challenges of providing sexual health education to the community as experienced by an ethnic Gusii woman, Joyce Ombasa. Joyce's story reveals that the Gusii living in and around rural villages have several cultural characteristics that make them susceptible to HIV/AIDS and that render community health education problematic, especially if offered by a female educator of the same ethnicity. Women cannot teach men. Discussions of sex and condom use, and viewing the naked bodies of the opposite sex are taboo. Promiscuity is commonplace and there is a reluctance to use condoms and to undergo HIV testing. Female circumcision persists and there is a high rate of sexual violence, incest and intergenerational sexual intercourse. In addition, government policies and legislation threaten to exacerbate some of the sexually risky behaviours. Bringing HIV education and female empowerment to the rural Gusii requires a culturally sensitive approach, discarding sexual abstinence messages in favour of harm minimisation, including the promotion of condom use, regular HIV testing and the rejection of female circumcision and intergenerational sex. Trust needs to be built through tactics such as adopting a complex and fluid outsider identity and replacing formal sex education with training in income generating skills and casual discussions regarding condoms and sexual health.

  7. Multilevel Analysis of the Effects of Antidiscrimination Policies on Earnings by Sexual Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klawitter, Marieka

    2011-01-01

    This study uses the 2000 U.S. Census data to assess the impact of antidiscrimination policies for sexual orientation on earnings for gays and lesbians. Using a multilevel model allows estimation of the effects of state and local policies on earnings and of variation in the effects of sexual orientation across local labor markets. The results…

  8. Health Indicators for Older Sexual Minorities: National Health Interview Survey, 2013-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragon, Christina N; Laffan, Alison M; Erdem, Erkan; Cahill, Sean R; Kenefick, Daniel; Ye, Jiahui; Haffer, Samuel C

    2017-12-01

    Advances in lesbian, gay, and bisexual (sexual minority [SM]) acceptance and equality have been made in the past decade. However, certain SM subgroups continue to be disadvantaged due to lack of data and, thus, lack of knowledge about these populations. Data for older sexual minorities are especially lacking and will be increasingly important as more sexual minorities enter older age. This research explores results from a nationally representative health survey to elucidate some health indicators for older sexual minorities. Data from the 2013 and 2014 National Health Interview Surveys (NHIS) were pooled for increased sample size, and established research methods were followed as recommended by prior NHIS sexual orientation studies. We conducted descriptive analyses on the differences between SM and heterosexual groups, aged 65 years and older, for 12 health indicators. Four out of the 12 health indicators were significantly different for sexual minorities, and three out of those four indicated positive health outcomes or behaviors when compared with heterosexuals. Sexual minorities were more than three times as likely to receive HIV testing as heterosexual peers. Sexual minorities were more likely to receive an influenza vaccination, and much more likely to report excellent or very good health, than their heterosexual peers. Sexual minorities were more than twice as likely to report binge drinking, which is consistent with prior research for adult sexual minorities. This analysis is the first to examine national data on health indicators for sexual minorities, aged 65 years and older, using NHIS data. As more surveys begin to collect SMdata and more years of data are collected by NHIS, a clearer picture of the health of older adult sexual minorities should emerge.

  9. Sexual Minority Stress, Coping, and Physical Health Indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flenar, Delphia J; Tucker, Carolyn M; Williams, Jaime L

    2017-12-01

    Sexual minorities experience higher rates of several physical health problems compared to their heterosexual counterparts. The present study uses Meyer's Minority Stress Model (Psychological Bulletin, 129(5): 674-697, 2003) to examine physical health indicators among 250 adults who identified as sexual minorities. Study hypotheses include that sexual minority stress is predictive of two physical health indicators (i.e., engagement in a health-promoting lifestyle and number of physical health problems) and that planning (i.e., problem-focused) and social support coping will partially mediate the relationship between sexual minority stress and each physical health indicator. Results showed that as level of sexual minority stress increased, engagement in a health-promoting lifestyle decreased and the number of physical health problems increased. Planning and social support coping did not mediate these relationships; however, as levels of coping increased, engagement in a health-promoting lifestyle increased. These findings have implications for researchers and healthcare professionals in their efforts to promote the physical health of sexual minorities.

  10. Sexual Harassment in Public Schools: Policy Design, Policy Implementation, and the Perceptions of Employees Participating in Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratge, Katrina

    2009-01-01

    This study of two cases of sexual harassment investigates employee perceptions and organizational characteristics associated with policy and implementation procedures in two public school districts in New York State which experienced different outcomes to litigation in response to formal complaints of sexual harassment. Using documentary evidence…

  11. Policy, Power, and Predicaments: Negotiating Boundaries of Sexual Health and Curricular Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolder-Holland, Tiffany; Whiteman, Rodney S.; Fetter-Harrott, Alli

    2012-01-01

    Joe McGinnis, principal of Jackson High School, is caught in the conflict between community values, parents' rights, teacher speech, public health policy, and his own positioning within the community and faculty. He must decide whether and how to discipline a teacher and former mentor who, in the absence of a clear school district policy, supplied…

  12. Coherence between health policy and human resource strategy: lessons from maternal health in Vietnam, India and China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martineau, Tim; Mirzoev, Tolib; Pearson, Stephen; Ha, Bui Thi Thu; Xu, Qian; Ramani, K V; Liu, Xiaoyun

    2015-02-01

    The failure to meet health goals such as the Millennium Development Goals (MDG) is partly due to the lack of appropriate resources for the effective implementation of health policies. The lack of coherence between the health policies and human resource (HR) strategy is one of the major causes. This article explores the relationship and the degree of coherence between health policy--in this case maternal health policy--processes and HR strategy in Vietnam, China and India in the period 2005-09. Four maternal health policy case studies were explored [skilled birth attendance (SBA), adolescent and sexual reproductive health, domestic violence and medical termination of pregnancy] across three countries through interviews with key respondents, document analysis and stakeholder meetings. Analysis for coherence between health policy and HR strategy was informed by a typology covering 'separation', 'fit' and 'dialogue'. Regarding coherence we found examples of complete separation between health policy and HR strategy, a good fit with the SBA policy though modified through 'dialogue' in Vietnam, and in one case a good fit between policy and strategy was developed through successive evaluations. Three key influences on coherence between health policy and HR strategy emerge from our findings: (1) health as the lead sector, (2) the nature of the policy instrument and (3) the presence of 'HR champions'. Finally, we present a simple algorithm to ensure that appropriate HR related actors are involved; HR is considered at the policy development stage with the option of modifying the policy if it cannot be adequately supported by the available health workforce; and ensuring that HR strategies are monitored to ensure continued coherence with the health policy. This approach will ensure that the health workforce contributes more effectively to meeting the MDGs and future health goals. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical

  13. Support for Offering Sexual Health Services through School-Based Health Clinics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Michele Johnson; Barr, Elissa; Wilson, Kristina; Griner, Stacey

    2016-01-01

    Background: Numerous studies document support for sexuality education in the schools. However, there is a dearth of research assessing support for sexual health services offered through school-based health clinics (SBHCs). The purpose of this study was to assess voter support for offering 3 sexual health services (STI/HIV testing, STI/HIV…

  14. Differences by Sexual Orientation in Perceptions of Neighborhood Cohesion: Implications for Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning-Smith, Carrie; Gonzales, Gilbert

    2018-06-01

    A large body of research documents the relationship between health and place, including the positive association between neighborhood cohesion and health. However, very little research has examined neighborhood cohesion by sexual orientation. This paper addresses that gap by examining differences in perceived neighborhood cohesion by sexual orientation. We use data from the 2016 National Health Interview Survey (n = 28,164 respondents aged 18 years and older) to examine bivariate differences by sexual orientation in four measures of neighborhood cohesion. We then use ordered logistic regression models to assess the relationship between sexual orientation and a scaled measure of neighborhood cohesion, adjusting for socio-demographic characteristics, living arrangements, health status, region, and neighborhood tenure. We find that lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) adults are less likely to say that they live in a close-knit neighborhood (54.6 vs. 65.6%, p < 0.001), they can count on their neighbors (74.7 vs. 83.1%, p < 0.001), they trust their neighbors (75.5 vs. 83.7%, p < 0.001), or people in their neighborhood help each other out (72.9 vs. 83.1%, p < 0.001), compared to heterosexual adults. Even after controlling for socio-demographic factors, neighborhood cohesion scores are lower for LGB adults compared to heterosexual adults (odds ratio of better perceived neighborhood cohesion for sexual minorities: 0.70, p < 0.001). Overall, LGB adults report worse neighborhood cohesion across multiple measures, even after adjusting for individual characteristics and neighborhood tenure. Because living in a cohesive neighborhood is associated with better health outcomes, future research, community-level initiatives, and public policy efforts should focus on creating welcoming neighborhood environments for sexual minorities.

  15. The Sexual Health of Women in Lebanon: Are There Differences by Sexual Orientation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gereige, Jessica D; Zhang, Li; Boehmer, Ulrike

    2018-01-01

    From studies conducted in Western countries (United States, United Kingdom, and Australia), we know that the sexual health of sexual minority women (SMW) differs in key ways from that of heterosexual women (HSW). To date, the sexual health of SMW living in the Middle East and North Africa region has not been studied. The purpose of this study was to compare the sexual health of SMW and HSW living in Lebanon. SMW and HSW living in Lebanon (N = 95) completed an anonymous, self-administered survey. SMW's risk perceptions and health promoting and sexual behaviors were compared to those of HSW. We examined differences by sexual orientation by using t tests and Fisher's exact tests. The 45 SMW and 50 HSW had similar demographic characteristics. Significantly more SMW had heard of human papillomavirus, but only 22% of women from both groups knew of its association with abnormal Papanicolaou tests. Cervical cancer screening rates were similar in SMW and HSW, although remarkably low (42%) compared with rates in Western countries. Significantly more SMW (18%) reported difficulty with access to care than HSW (0%). Forty-four percent of SMW reported discomfort in disclosing their sexual orientation to their healthcare provider and 61% reported that healthcare providers lacked sensitivity toward lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender needs. Unwanted sexual contact occurred more frequently in SMW (53%) than HSW (23%). The sexual health of women is affected by sociocultural factors. SMW living in Lebanon have unique health needs that should be addressed within their sociocultural context.

  16. The effect of comprehensive sexual education program on sexual health knowledge and sexual attitude among college students in Southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Xinli; Hawk, Skyler T; Winter, Sam; Meeus, Wim

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether a comprehensive sexual education program for college students in Southwest China (a) improved sexual health knowledge in reproduction, contraception, condom use, sexually transmitted diseases, and HIV; (b) increased accepting attitudes toward lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transsexual individuals; and (c) altered participants' attitudes toward premarital sex and monogamy. The program used diverse teaching methods, providing 6 sessions over a period of 9 weeks about sexual health knowledge and sexual attitudes to college students (age 18-26 years) in Southwest China. Sexual health knowledge and sexual attitudes of 80 comprehensive sexual education class students (education group) and 92 general mental health education class students (control group) were measured at baseline, the end of course (posttest), and 3 weeks after the end of course (follow-up). There were significant effects of the program on (a) sexual health knowledge, including reproductive health, contraception, condom use, and HIV/AIDS and (b) positive attitudes toward sexual minorities, although these changes may require further reinforcement. In contrast, the program did not alter students' attitudes about premarital sex or monogamy. The results are discussed in terms of recommendations of sex education in China and future directions for research. © 2013 APJPH.

  17. Sexual health behaviors and sexual orientation in a U.S. national sample of college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswalt, Sara B; Wyatt, Tammy J

    2013-11-01

    Many studies have examined differences in sexual behavior based on sexual orientation with results often indicating that those with same-sex partners engage in higher risk sexual behavior than people with opposite sex partners. However, few of these studies were large, national sample studies that also include those identifying as unsure. To address that gap, this study examined the relationship of sexual orientation and sexual health outcomes in a national sample of U.S. college students. The Fall 2009 American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment was used to examine sexual health related responses from heterosexual, gay, lesbian, bisexual, and unsure students (N = 25,553). Responses related to sexual behavior, safer sex behaviors, prevention and screening behaviors, and diagnosis of sexual health related conditions were examined. The findings indicated that sexual orientation was significantly associated with engaging in sexual behavior in the last 30 days. Sexual orientation was also significantly associated with the number of sexual partners in the previous 12 months, with unsure men having significantly more partners than gay, bisexual and heterosexual men and heterosexual men having significantly less partners than gay, bisexual and unsure men. Bisexual women had significantly more partners than females reporting other sexual orientations. Results examining the associations between sexual orientation and safer sex, prevention behaviors, and screening behaviors were mixed. Implications for practice, including specific programmatic ideas, were discussed.

  18. Sexual health education in U.S. physician assistant programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaborne, Lori A; Prince, Ronald J; Kushner, David M

    2015-05-01

    Since the 1950s, sexual health education in medical schools has been evaluated and reported upon, but there has never been an assessment published about sexual health curricula in U.S. physician assistant (PA) programs. The aim of this study was to gain better understanding of how PA programs cover sexual health topics. Between January and March 2014, 181 accredited PA programs received a mailed survey inquiring about their sexual health curriculum. The survey assessed general sexual health topics; lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender (LGBT) topics; teaching methods; and the amount of time spent on sexual health education. A total of 106 programs responded (59%). Ten programs offered a required, discrete course on human sexuality. The majority incorporated training into other coursework, which is consistent with most medical schools. LGBT topics were covered less thoroughly than the general sexual health topics. Total amount of time spent on sexual health topics varied widely among programs, from a minimum of 2-4 hours to a maximum of 60 hours, with a median of 12 hours. PA programs in the United States appear to compare favorably with the training offered to medical students in regard to time spent on sexual health education. Transgender issues were least well-covered of all the topics queried. © 2015 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  19. "The Pleasure Is Better as I've Gotten Older": Sexual Health, Sexuality, and Sexual Risk Behaviors Among Older Women Living With HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Tonya N; Munoz-Plaza, Corrine E; Goparaju, Lakshmi; Martinez, Omar; Holman, Susan; Minkoff, Howard L; Karpiak, Stephen E; Gandhi, Monica; Cohen, Mardge H; Golub, Elizabeth T; Levine, Alexandra M; Adedimeji, Adebola A; Gonsalves, Rebecca; Bryan, Tiffany; Connors, Nina; Schechter, Gabrielle; Wilson, Tracey E

    2017-05-01

    There is limited research examining the sexual health and well-being of older women living with HIV (OWLH). Most studies focus on sexual dysfunction, leaving aside the richer context of sexuality and sexual health, including the effect of age-related psychosocial and interpersonal changes on sexual health behaviors. Guided by the integrative biopsychosocial model and the sexual health model, this study explored the importance of sex and sexuality among OWLH to identify their sexual health and HIV prevention needs for program planning. A purposive sample (n = 50) of OWLH was selected from a parent study (n = 2052). We conducted 8 focus groups and 41 in-depth interviews with 50 African American and Latina OWLH aged 50-69 years old in three U.S. cities. The triangulation approach was used to synthesize the data. Six salient themes emerged: sexual pleasure changes due to age, sexual freedom as women age, the role of relationships in sexual pleasure, changes in sexual ability and sexual health needs, sexual risk behaviors, and ageist assumptions about older women's sexuality. We found that sexual pleasure and the need for intimacy continue to be important for OWLH, but that changing sexual abilities and sexual health needs, such as the reduction of sexual desire, as well as increased painful intercourse due to menopause-associated vaginal drying, were persistent barriers to sexual fulfillment and satisfaction. Particular interpersonal dynamics, including low perceptions of the risk of HIV transmission as related to gender, viral suppression, and habitual condomless sex with long-term partners without HIV transmission have resulted in abandoning safer sex practices with serodiscordant partners. These findings suggest that HIV prevention for OWLH should focus on how sexual function and satisfaction intersect with sexual risk. HIV prevention for OWLH should promote ways to maintain satisfying and safe sex lives among aging women.

  20. The relative health benefits of different sexual activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Stuart

    2010-04-01

    Although many studies examine purported risks associated with sexual activities, few examine potential physical and mental health benefits, and even fewer incorporate the scientifically essential differentiation of specific sexual behaviors. This review provides an overview of studies examining potential health benefits of various sexual activities, with a focus on the effects of different sexual activities. Review of peer-reviewed literature. Findings on the associations between distinct sexual activities and various indices of psychological and physical function. A wide range of better psychological and physiological health indices are associated specifically with penile-vaginal intercourse. Other sexual activities have weaker, no, or (in the cases of masturbation and anal intercourse) inverse associations with health indices. Condom use appears to impair some benefits of penile-vaginal intercourse. Only a few of the research designs allow for causal inferences. The health benefits associated with specifically penile-vaginal intercourse should inform a new evidence-based approach to sexual medicine, sex education, and a broad range of medical and psychological consultations.

  1. Examining negative effects of early life experiences on reproductive and sexual health among female sex workers in Tijuana, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oza, Karishma K; Silverman, Jay G; Bojorquez, Ietza; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Goldenberg, Shira M

    2015-02-01

    To explore experiences during childhood and adolescence that influenced reproductive and sexual health among women who had entered the sex industry in adolescence. A qualitative study was conducted using information provided by 25 female sex workers (FSWs) from Tijuana, Mexico, who reported entering the sex industry when younger than 18 years. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with all participants between January 31, 2011, and July 8, 2011. Four interrelated themes that shaped health experiences-early sexual abuse, early illicit drug use, ongoing violence, and limited access to reproductive and sexual health care-were identified. Participants reporting these experiences were at risk of unintended teenaged pregnancy, spontaneous abortion or stillbirth, and untreated sexually transmitted infections. Programs and policies that address social, structural, and individual vulnerabilities during adolescence and adulthood are required to promote reproductive and sexual health among FSWs in Tijuana, Mexico. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Associations between non-discrimination and training policies and physicians' attitudes and knowledge about sexual and gender minority patients: a comparison of physicians from two hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabson, Jennifer M; Mitchell, Jason W; Doty, S Benjamin

    2016-03-12

    Some physicians lack knowledge and awareness about health issues specific to sexual and gender minority (SGM) individuals. To help improve this, hospitals have implemented policies that mandate non-discrimination and training to promote sexual and gender minority health. There is limited evidence about how such policies relate to physicians' knowledge, attitudes, and gender and sexual minority affirmative practices. A random sample of 1000 physicians was recruited from a complete list of physicians affiliated with one of two university Hospitals located in Tennessee and 180 physicians completed the survey concerning attitudes and knowledge about SGM individuals. Physicians were affiliated with either Hospital A that had not implemented policies for non-discrimination and training, or Hospital B that did. Physicians held different attitudes about SGM patients than non-patients. Physicians affiliated with Hospital A held more negative attitudes about SGM individuals who were non-patients than physicians affiliated with Hospital B. There were no differences between the two hospitals in physicians' attitudes and knowledge about SGM patients. Policies that mandate non-discrimination and training as they currently exist may not improve physicians' attitudes and knowledge about SGM individuals. Additional research is needed to understand how these policies and trainings relate to physicians' SGM affirmative practices.

  3. Associations between non-discrimination and training policies and physicians’ attitudes and knowledge about sexual and gender minority patients: a comparison of physicians from two hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer M. Jabson

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some physicians lack knowledge and awareness about health issues specific to sexual and gender minority (SGM individuals. To help improve this, hospitals have implemented policies that mandate non-discrimination and training to promote sexual and gender minority health. There is limited evidence about how such policies relate to physicians’ knowledge, attitudes, and gender and sexual minority affirmative practices. Method A random sample of 1000 physicians was recruited from a complete list of physicians affiliated with one of two university Hospitals located in Tennessee and 180 physicians completed the survey concerning attitudes and knowledge about SGM individuals. Physicians were affiliated with either Hospital A that had not implemented policies for non-discrimination and training, or Hospital B that did. Results Physicians held different attitudes about SGM patients than non-patients. Physicians affiliated with Hospital A held more negative attitudes about SGM individuals who were non-patients than physicians affiliated with Hospital B. There were no differences between the two hospitals in physicians’ attitudes and knowledge about SGM patients. Conclusion Policies that mandate non-discrimination and training as they currently exist may not improve physicians’ attitudes and knowledge about SGM individuals. Additional research is needed to understand how these policies and trainings relate to physicians’ SGM affirmative practices.

  4. Revealing a Hidden Curriculum of Black Women's Erasure in Sexual Violence Prevention Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooten, Sara Carrigan

    2017-01-01

    This article aims to challenge the framework by which rape and sexual assault prevention in higher education are being constituted by centring Black women's experiences of sexual violence within a prevention and response policy framework. Numerous research studies exist in the literature regarding the specific experience of sexual violence for…

  5. The Irish Study of Sexual Health and Relationships Main Report

    OpenAIRE

    Layte, Richard; McGee, Hannah; Quail, Amanda; Rundle, Kay; Cousins, Grainne; Donnelly, Claire; Mulcahy, Fiona; Conroy, Ronán

    2006-01-01

    SEX and sexuality are core dimensions of the human experience and an important determinant of well-being. An individual’s sexual behaviour and sexual health cannot be separated from their social and cultural context. This is brought out in the World Health Organisation’s (WHO) definition of sexual health. It is concerned not just with the absence of disease or dysfunction but with a broad definition of health: “Sexual health requires a positive and respectful approach to sexuality and sexual ...

  6. Sexual behavior of single adult American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duberstein Lindberg, Laura; Singh, Susheela

    2008-03-01

    Public policies promoting abstinence until marriage attempt to influence the sexual behavior of the more than 18 million American women who are currently single. An analysis of these women's behavior is needed to inform policies that are responsive to their sexual and reproductive health needs. Sexual behaviors, risk factors and reproductive health needs were examined among a nationally representative sample of 6,493 women aged 20-44 from the 2002 National Survey of Family Growth. Paired t tests were used to assess differences among single, married and cohabiting women by selected demographic, behavioral and risk measures. Thirty-six percent of women aged 20-44 are single, and nine in 10 single women are sexually experienced. Seventy percent of the latter women are currently sexually active; on average, they had intercourse in seven of the last 12 months. A higher proportion of single women (22%) than of cohabiting (9%) or married women (2%) have had two or more partners in the past year, and half of single women are at risk of unintended pregnancy. Furthermore, single women and cohabiting women are more likely to lack health insurance than are married women (21-25% vs. 12%). Because of the high level of sexual activity among single adult women, providers must address their reproductive health care needs and offer appropriate counseling and services. Government policies aimed at encouraging adult women to have sex only within marriage appear out of touch with the reality of the sexual behavior of single women.

  7. Perceptions of female sexual health and sexual dysfunction in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Questions asked ranged from sexual activity in the preceding 6 months, menopausal status, if they thought they had sexual dysfunction to their willingness to discuss an FSD with a sexual health physician if they had access to one. Results: Over 50% (n=28) of the respondents had an idea about what FSD was before the ...

  8. BrdsNBz: Sexually Experienced Teens More Likely to Use Sexual Health Text Message Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willoughby, Jessica Fitts

    2015-01-01

    Text messaging services are becoming an increasingly popular way to provide sexual health information to teens, but little is known about who uses such services. This study assessed whether teens at a greater risk for negative sexual health outcomes use a sexual health text message service. A text message service that connects teens with sexual…

  9. On the implications of desexualizing vaccines against sexually transmitted diseases: health policy challenges in a multicultural society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velan, Baruch; Yadgar, Yaacov

    2017-07-01

    Two vaccines against sexually transmitted infections are included in many national vaccination programs: Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) vaccine and Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) vaccine. The trajectories of the implementation of these two programs were marked by differences in the way the sexual context of risk was communicated to the public. These trajectories fluctuated between full accounts of the sexual nature of the infection and attempts to desexualize the vaccines. Vaccine desexualization can be achieved by withholding information of sexual context, blurring information, and distancing the age of vaccination from the age of sexual debut. Desexualization may be advantageous in promoting public health and personal health of people who believe that HPV vaccination leads to increased promiscuity, people who believe that protection against STD is not relevant to their children, and people who are not comfortable discussing the sexuality of their children. On the other hand, desexualizing may be disadvantageous for children to parents who tend to express passiveness towards vaccination, parents who attribute importance to sex education, and teenagers with homosexual orientations. The ethical analysis of vaccine desexualization reveals a complex interplay of considerations related to utility, causation of harm, duty of transparency, right to know, and right not to know. This analysis suggests that the moral merits of applying desexualization are questionable. Lastly, a sociopolitical consideration of the matter, suggests that decisions on vaccine desexualization can have implications on the interrelationships between various social groups and subgroups composing a certain population, and may highlight intercultural schisms. All this indicates that shaping the sexual framework of vaccination programs bears implications far beyond the practical considerations of vaccine promotion.

  10. Multiple violence victimisation associated with sexual ill health and sexual risk behaviours in Swedish youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blom, Helena; Högberg, Ulf; Olofsson, Niclas; Danielsson, Ingela

    2016-01-01

    To address the associations between emotional, physical and sexual violence, specifically multiple violence victimisation, and sexual ill health and sexual risk behaviours in youth, as well as possible gender differences. A cross-sectional population-based survey among sexually experienced youth using a questionnaire with validated questions on emotional, physical, and sexual violence victimisation, sociodemographics, health risk behaviours, and sexual ill health and sexual risk behaviours. Proportions, unadjusted/adjusted odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. The participants comprised 1192 female and 1021 male students aged 15 to 22 years. The females had experienced multiple violence (victimisation with two or three types of violence) more often than the males (21% vs. 16%). The associations between multiple violence victimisation and sexual ill health and sexual risk behaviours were consistent for both genders. Experience of/involvement in pregnancy yielded adjusted ORs of 2.4 (95% CI 1.5-3.7) for females and 2.1 (95% CI 1.3-3.4) for males, and early age at first intercourse 2.2 (95% CI 1.6-3.1) for females and 1.9 (95% CI 1.2-3.0) for males. No significantly raised adjusted ORs were found for non-use of contraceptives in young men or young women, or for chlamydia infection in young men. Several types of sexual ill health and sexual risk behaviours are strongly associated with multiple violence victimisation in both genders. This should be taken into consideration when counselling young people and addressing their sexual and reproductive health.

  11. Sexual orientation and sexual health services utilization among women in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agénor, Madina; Muzny, Christina A; Schick, Vanessa; Austin, Erika L; Potter, Jennifer

    2017-02-01

    Although sexual minority women are at risk of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and cervical cancer, few nationally representative studies have assessed sexual orientation disparities in sexual health care among women. Using data from the 2011-2013 and 2013-2015 waves of the National Survey of Family Growth, which provide a national probability sample of U.S. women aged 15-44years (N=11,300), we used multivariable logistic regression to examine the associations between sexual behavior and sexual identity (modeled separately) and STI testing in the past year, Pap test use in the last 3years, lifetime HIV testing, and lifetime human papillomavirus (HPV) testing. Women with male and female lifetime sexual partners had higher adjusted odds of being tested for STIs ([odds ratio:] 1.61; [95% confidence interval:] 1.37-1.89), HIV (1.66; 1.29-2.14), and HPV (1.79; 1.41-2.25) and similar adjusted odds of obtaining a Pap test (0.98; 0.76-1.27) than women with only male lifetime sexual partners. Self-identified bisexual women had higher adjusted odds of obtaining an STI (1.43; 1.10-1.86) and HIV (1.69; 1.24-2.30) test but lower adjusted odds of obtaining a Pap test in the last 3years (0.66; 0.47-0.93) than heterosexual-identified women. Women with only female lifetime sexual partners had lower adjusted odds of receiving an STI (0.14; 0.07-0.28) and Pap (0.10; 0.03-0.27) test than women with only male lifetime sexual partners. Results comparing self-identified lesbian and heterosexual women were similar. Health care facilities should monitor and address sexual orientation disparities in women's sexual health care and ensure the provision of high-quality sexual health services to all women. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The influence of sexual harassment on mental health among female military personnel of the Republic of Korea Armed Forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Kyung; Lee, H-C; Lee, S G; Han, K-T; Park, E-C

    2017-04-01

    Reports of sexual harassment are becoming more frequent in Republic of Korea (ROK) Armed Forces. This study aimed to analyse the impact of sexual harassment on mental health among female military personnel of the ROK Armed Forces. Data from the 2014 Military Health Survey were used. Instances of sexual harassment were recorded as 'yes' or 'no'. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was carried out to compare Kessler Psychological Distress Scale 10 (K-10) scores. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to identify associations between sexual harassment and K-10 scores. Among 228 female military personnel, 13 (5.7%) individuals experienced sexual harassment. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that sexual harassment had a significantly negative impact on K-10 scores (3.486, psexual harassment were identified in the unmarried (including never-married) group (6.761, pSexual harassment has a negative impact on mental health. Factors associated with worse mental health scores included service classification and length of service. The results provide helpful information with which to develop measures for minimising the negative psychological effects from sexual harassment and promoting sexual harassment prevention policy. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  13. “The pleasure is better as I’ve gotten older”: Sexual Health, Sexuality, and Sexual Risk Behaviors among Older Women Living with HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Tonya N.; Munoz-Plaza, Corrine E.; Goparaju, Lakshmi; Martinez, Omar; Holman, Susan; Minkoff, Howard L.; Karpiak, Stephen E.; Gandhi, Monica; Cohen, Mardge H.; Golub, Elizabeth T.; Levine, Alexandra M.; Adedimeji, Adebola A.; Gonsalves, Rebecca; Bryan, Tiffany; Connors, Nina; Schechter, Gabrielle; Wilson, Tracey E.

    2016-01-01

    There is limited research examining the sexual health and wellbeing of older women living with HIV (OWLH). Most studies focus on sexual dysfunction, leaving aside the richer context of sexuality and sexual health, including the effect of age-related psychosocial and interpersonal changes on sexual health behaviors. Guided by the integrative biopsychosocial model and the sexual health model, this study explored the importance of sex and sexuality among OWLH to identify their sexual health and HIV prevention needs for program planning. A purposive sample (n=50) of OWLH was selected from a parent study (n=2,052). We conducted 8 focus groups and 41 in-depth interviews with 50 African American and Latina OWLH aged 50–69 years old in three U.S. cities. The triangulation approach was used to synthesize the data. Six salient themes emerged: sexual pleasure changes due to age, sexual freedom as women age, the role of relationships in sexual pleasure, changes in sexual ability and sexual health needs, sexual risk behaviors, and ageist assumptions about older women’s sexuality. We found that sexual pleasure and the need for intimacy continue to be important for OWLH, but that changing sexual abilities and sexual health needs, such as the reduction of sexual desire, as well as increased painful intercourse due to menopause-associated vaginal drying, were persistent barriers to sexual fulfillment and satisfaction. Particular interpersonal dynamics, including low perceptions of the risk of HIV transmission as related to gender, viral suppression and habitual condomless sex with long term partners without HIV transmission have resulted in abandoning safer sex practices with serodiscordant partners. These findings suggest that HIV prevention for OWLH should focus on how sexual function and satisfaction intersect with sexual risk. HIV prevention for OWLH should promote ways to maintain satisfying and safe sex lives among aging women. PMID:27220311

  14. Cross-National Investigation of Health Indicators among Sexual Minorities in Norway and the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan J. Watson

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A cross-national study of young adult sexual minorities was conducted in order to explore the associations between sexual orientation and measures of depression, suicidality, and substance use. Two nationally representative data sets were explored from the United States (N = 14,335 and Norway (N = 2423. Results indicated that sexual minorities experienced multiple health disparities (depression, suicidality, and substance use compared to their heterosexual counterparts. We found similar patterns of depression, suicidality, and substance use for sexual minorities in both the United States and Norway. The highest odds of substance use were among heterosexual-identified Norwegian youth who reported same-sex sexual activity, and the highest odds of suicidality were found for bisexual young adults in Norway. These findings have implications for how we consider culture and social policy as barriers and/or opportunities for sexual minorities.

  15. Use of Expedited Partner Therapy for Sexually Transmitted Diseases in College and University Health Centers in the United States, 2011-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Ryan; Martinez, Nina; Roberts, Craig; Habel, Melissa A; Leino, E Victor; Leichliter, Jami S

    2015-10-01

    We examined expedited partner therapy for chlamydia and gonorrhea in college and university health centers by institutional and policy characteristics. Expedited partner therapy awareness and use was low (44.1% used), did not differ by institutional characteristics, and differed by policy environment. Our findings suggest missed opportunities for sexually transmitted disease prevention in college and university health centers.

  16. Health Care Students’ Attitudes Towards Addressing Sexual Health in Their Future Professional Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerbild, H.; Larsen, C. M.; Rolander, B.

    2017-01-01

    Students’ attitudes and educational needs regarding sexual health are important, since their ability to promote sexual health in their future profession can be challenged by their attitudes and knowledge of sexuality and sexual health. There are no existing Danish instruments able to measure...... students’ attitudes towards working with and communicating about sexual health; thus, to be able to use the Students’ Attitudes Towards Addressing Sexual Health (SA-SH) questionnaire in a Danish context, it is necessary to translate and test the translated questionnaire psychometrically. The aim...... of the SA-SH (SA-SH-D) had a Cronbach’s alpha of 0.67. The content validity index showed high relevance (item context validity index 0.82–1.0), and item scale correlation was satisfactory. The SA-SH-D is a valid and reliable questionnaire, which can be used to measure health care professional students...

  17. Sexual Orientation Discordance and Young Adult Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourie, Michael A; Needham, Belinda L

    2017-05-01

    During the course of sexual development, many people experience dissonance between dimensions of sexual orientation, including attraction, behavior, and identity. This study assesses the relationship between sexual orientation discordance and mental health. Data were obtained from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (n = 8,915; female = 54.62 %; non-Hispanic black = 18.83 %, Hispanic = 14.91 %, other race (non-white) = 10.79 %). Multivariable linear regression evaluated the correlation between sexual orientation discordance and perceived stress and depressive symptomatology. Models were stratified by sex and sexual identity. Among self-identified heterosexual females and mostly heterosexual males, sexual orientation discordance predicted significantly increased depressive symptomatology. No other subpopulation demonstrated a significant correlation between sexual orientation discordance and depressive symptomatology or perceived stress. The association between sexual orientation discordance and depressive symptomatology suggests a link between sexuality, self-concept, and mental health.

  18. The Association Between Sexual Health and Physical, Mental, and Social Health in Adolescent Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensel, Devon J; Nance, Jennifer; Fortenberry, J Dennis

    2016-10-01

    Developmental models link sexual well-being to physical, mental/emotional, and social well-being, yet little empirical literature evaluates these relationships in adolescents. Better understanding of how and when sexuality complements other aspects of health may yield important points to enhance existing health education and prevention efforts. Data were drawn from a 10-year longitudinal cohort study of sexual relationships and sexual behavior among adolescent women (N = 387; 14-17 years at enrollment). Sexual health data were drawn from quarterly partner-specific interviews and were linked to physical, mental/emotional, and social health information in annual questionnaires. Random intercept, mixed effects linear, ordinal logistic, or binary logistic regression were used to estimate the influence of sexual health on health and well-being outcomes (Stata, v.23, StataCorp, College Station, TX). All models controlled for participant age and race/ethnicity. Higher sexual health was significantly associated with less frequent nicotine and substance use, lower self-reported depression, lower thrill seeking, higher self-esteem, having fewer friends who use substances, higher religiosity, better social integration, lower frequency of delinquent behavior and crime, and more frequent community group membership. Sexual health was not associated with the number of friends who used cigarettes. Positive sexually related experiences in romantic relationships during adolescence may complement physical, mental/emotional, and social health. Addressing specific aspects of healthy sexual development during clinical encounters could dually help primary prevention and health education address other common adolescent health issues. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Sexual Debut and Mental Health Among South Korean Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Sik

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated the negative influence of sexual debut during adolescence on mental health outcomes. This article contributes to this literature by investigating whether sexual debut has negative effects on mental health among South Korean adolescents and whether the timing of adolescent sexual debut matters. Drawing on longitudinal data from a nationally representative survey, we first predicted mental health outcomes at one year after high school graduation using first sexual intercourse that had occurred before the outcomes were measured. In a second statistical model, adolescent sexual debut was defined as first coitus that had occurred before high school graduation. Sexual debut was associated with an increase in problematic aggressive behaviors for both genders. In contrast, only girls experienced a rise in depressive symptoms after becoming sexually active. For girls, having sex before high school graduation was correlated with worse mental health outcomes to the extent that sexual debut even enhanced the risk of suicidal ideation. We concluded that the negative effects of sexual activity among South Korean adolescents are attributable mainly to the sexually conservative atmosphere and gendered sexuality in that country.

  20. Sexual Health Research With Young Black Men Who Have Sex With Men: Experiences of Benefits and Harms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrington-Sanders, Renata; Morgan, Anthony; Oidtman, Jessica; Dao, Ann; Moon, Margaret; Fortenberry, J Dennis; Ott, Mary A

    2017-05-01

    Young Black men who have sex with men (YBMSM) are often underrepresented in sexual health research because of concerns about safety, privacy, and the potential for research harms. Empirical data are needed to understand YBMSM experience of participating in research, benefits and harms (discomfort), to inform policy and regulatory decisions. Using qualitative methods, this article examines 50 YBMSM, aged 15-19 years, experiences of benefits/harms, challenges of participating in sexual health research, and contextual factors impacting research experiences. Participants were asked about benefits and harms experienced in answering questions about sexual orientation, first same-sex attraction, and same-sex sexual experiences after completing an in-depth interview. Interviews were transcribed and coded. Inductive open coding was used to identify themes within and between interviews. Participants were able to describe perceived direct benefits resulting from research interview participation, including awareness of risky sexual behaviors, a safe space to share early coming out stories and same-sex sexual experiences, and a sense of empowerment and comfort with one's sexual orientation. Indirect benefits described by participants included perceptions of helping others and the larger gay community. Few participants described harms (discomfort recalling experiences). Our data suggest that participating in qualitative sexual health research focused on sexual orientation, sexual attraction, and early same-sex sexual experiences may result in minimal harms for YBMSM and multiple benefits, including feeling more comfortable than in a general medical visit.

  1. Health Behaviors and Self-Reported Health Among Cancer Survivors by Sexual Orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabson, Jennifer M; Farmer, Grant W; Bowen, Deborah J

    2015-03-01

    Health behaviors and self-reported health are important for understanding cancer survivor health. However, there is a paucity of published research about how cancer survivors' health behaviors and self-rated health vary by sexual orientation. This study examined cancer survivors' health behaviors and self-reported health by sexual orientation. This study used data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 2001-2010. Self-reported health and cancer-related health behaviors were compared by sexual orientation. Propensity score adjustment was used to account for differences in age, race, education, gender and health insurance status. Of the 602 survivors eligible for the study, 4.3% identified as sexual minorities. Sexual minorities were 2.6 times more likely to report a history of illicit drug use (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]=2.4, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.04, 5.35), and 60% less likely to report their current health status as good (aOR=0.40, 95% CI: 0.18, 0.89), compared to heterosexual cancer survivors. These disparities persisted even after adjustment for socio-demographic characteristics. Our findings suggest that sexual minority cancer survivors may be at greater risk for poorer outcomes after cancer than other survivors. A possible explanation for the observed differences involves minority stress. Future research should test stress as an explanation for these differences. However, using population-methods to achieve this goal requires larger samples of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) cancer survivors.

  2. Peer Sexual Health Education: Interventions for Effective Programme Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriranganathan, Gobika; Jaworsky, Denise; Larkin, June; Flicker, Sarah; Campbell, Lisa; Flynn, Susan; Janssen, Jesse; Erlich, Leah

    2012-01-01

    Peer education is used as a health promotion strategy in a number of areas, including sexual health. Although peer education programmes have been around for some time, published systematic evaluations of youth sexual health peer education programmes are rare. This article discusses the advantages and disadvantages of youth sexual health peer…

  3. Assessing for domestic violence in sexual health environments: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwood, Jeremy; Morden, Andrew; Bailey, Jayne E; Pathak, Neha; Feder, Gene

    2018-03-01

    Domestic violence and abuse (DVA) is a major clinical challenge and public health issue. Sexual health services are an important potential site of DVA intervention. The Assessing for Domestic Violence in Sexual Health Environments (ADViSE) intervention aimed to improve identification and management of DVA in sexual healthcare settings and is a modified version of the Identification and Referral to Improve Safety (IRIS) general practice programme. Our qualitative evaluation aimed to explore the experiences of staff participating in an IRIS ADViSE pilot. Interviews were conducted with 17 sexual health clinic staff and DVA advocate workers. Interviews were audio recorded, transcribed, anonymised and analysed thematically. Staff prioritised enquiring about DVA and tailored their style of enquiry to the perceived characteristics of patients, current workload and individual clinical judgements. Responding to disclosures of abuse was divided between perceived low-risk cases (with quick onwards referral) and high-risk cases (requiring deployment of institution safeguarding procedures), which were viewed as time consuming and could create tensions with patients. Ongoing training and feedback, commissioner recognition, adequate service-level agreements and reimbursements are required to ensure sustainability and wider implementation of IRIS ADViSE. Challenges of delivering and sustaining IRIS ADViSE included the varied styles of enquiry, as well as tensions and additional time pressure arising from disclosure of abuse. These can be overcome by modifying initial training, providing regular updates and stronger recognition (and resources) at policy and commissioning levels. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  4. Delivering Education about Sexual Violence: Reflections on the Experience of Teaching a Sensitive Topic in the Social and Health Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scriver, Stacey; Kennedy, Kieran M.

    2016-01-01

    Sexual violence is a serious and prevalent violation that is experienced by as many as one in three people worldwide. Professionals working in areas of health, social work, law, policy-development and other fields engage with survivors of sexual violence. Their knowledge of this issue is an important determinant in how they react towards survivors…

  5. A Call to Action: Developing and Strengthening New Strategies to Promote Adolescent Sexual Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha J. Decker

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Through considerable efforts and investments of resources, adolescent pregnancy and birth rates in the United States have decreased significantly over the past two decades. Nonetheless, large disparities persist for many populations of youth. Reducing unintended adolescent pregnancies is considered a “winnable public health battle,” but one that will require innovative thinking and continued persistence. This paper reviews the recent research literature and innovative programmatic efforts to identify six promising strategies that address the challenge of adolescent pregnancy in new ways. These strategies aim to: (1 understand and address the complexity of adolescent lives; (2 expand the provision of quality sexual health education; (3 engage youth through technology and media; (4 increase access to contraceptives and other sexual health services; (5 create tailored interventions for populations with special needs; and (6 create a supportive policy environment. By building upon lessons learned from past efforts, we can move the field toward the development, strengthening, and promotion of future strategies that enhance the sexual well-being of all adolescents.

  6. Sexual Health Competencies for Undergraduate Medical Education in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Carey Roth; Eckstrand, Kristen L; Knudson, Gail; Koehler, Jean; Leibowitz, Scott; Tsai, Perry; Feldman, Jamie L

    2017-04-01

    The number of hours spent teaching sexual health content and skills in medical education continues to decrease despite the increase in sexual health issues faced by patients across the lifespan. In 2012 and 2014, experts across sexuality disciplines convened for the Summits on Medical School Education and Sexual Health to strategize and recommend approaches to improve sexual health education in medical education systems and practice settings. One of the summit recommendations was to develop sexual health competencies that could be implemented in undergraduate medical education curricula. To discuss the process of developing sexual health competencies for undergraduate medical education in North America and present the resulting competencies. From 2014 to 2016, a summit multidisciplinary subcommittee met through face-to-face, phone conference, and email meetings to review prior competency-based guidelines and then draft and vet general sexual health competencies for integration into undergraduate medical school curricula. The process built off the Association of American Medical Colleges' competency development process for training medical students to care for lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and gender non-conforming patients and individuals born with differences of sex development. This report presents the final 20 sexual health competencies and 34 qualifiers aligned with the 8 overall domains of competence. Development of a comprehensive set of sexual health competencies is a necessary first step in standardizing learning expectations for medical students upon completion of undergraduate training. It is hoped that these competencies will guide the development of sexual health curricula and assessment tools that can be shared across medical schools to ensure that all medical school graduates will be adequately trained and comfortable addressing the different sexual health concerns presented by patients across the lifespan. Bayer CR, Eckstrand KL, Knudson G, et

  7. Poverty, food security and universal access to sexual and reproductive health services: a call for cross-movement advocacy against neoliberal globalisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundari Ravindran, T K

    2014-05-01

    Universal access to sexual and reproductive health services is one of the goals of the International Conference on Population and Development of 1994. The Millennium Development Goals were intended above all to end poverty. Universal access to health and health services are among the goals being considered for the post-2015 agenda, replacing or augmenting the MDGs. Yet we are not only far from reaching any of these goals but also appear to have lost our way somewhere along the line. Poverty and lack of food security have, through their multiple linkages to health and access to health care, deterred progress towards universal access to health services, including for sexual and reproductive health needs. A more insidious influence is neoliberal globalisation. This paper describes neoliberal globalisation and the economic policies it has engendered, the ways in which it influences poverty and food security, and the often unequal impact it has had on women as compared to men. It explores the effects of neoliberal economic policies on health, health systems, and universal access to health care services, and the implications for access to sexual and reproductive health. To be an advocate for universal access to health and health care is to become an advocate against neoliberal globalisation. Copyright © 2014 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Progress on scaling up integrated services for sexual and reproductive health and HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Clare; Attawell, Kathy; Druce, Nel

    2009-11-01

    This paper considers new developments to strengthen sexual and reproductive health and HIV linkages and discusses factors that continue to impede progress. It is based on a previous review undertaken for the United Kingdom Department for International Development in 2006 that examined the constraints and opportunities to scaling up these linkages. We argue that, despite growing evidence that linking sexual and reproductive health and HIV is feasible and beneficial, few countries have achieved significant scale-up of integrated service provision. A lack of common understanding of terminology and clear technical operational guidance, and separate policy, institutional and financing processes continue to represent significant constraints. We draw on experience with tuberculosis and HIV integration to highlight some lessons. The paper concludes that there is little evidence to determine whether funding for health systems is strengthening linkages and we make several recommendations to maximize opportunities represented by recent developments.

  9. Validation of a questionnaire to measure sexual health knowledge and understanding (Sexual Health Questionnaire) in Nepalese secondary school: A psychometric process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Dev Raj; Thomas, Malcolm; Cann, Rosemary

    2016-01-01

    School-based sex education has the potential to prevent unwanted pregnancy and to promote positive sexual health at the individual, family and community level. To develop and validate a sexual health questionnaire to measure young peoples' sexual health knowledge and understanding (SHQ) in Nepalese secondary school. Secondary school students (n = 259, male = 43.63%, female = 56.37%) and local experts (n = 9, male = 90%, female = 10%) were participated in this study. Evaluation processes were; content validity (>0.89), plausibility check (>95), item-total correlation (>0.3), factor loading (>0.4), principal component analysis (4 factors Kaiser's criterion), Chronbach's alpha (>0.65), face validity and internal consistency using test-retest reliability (P > 0.05). The principal component analysis revealed four factors to be extracted; sexual health norms and beliefs, source of sexual health information, sexual health knowledge and understanding, and level of sexual awareness. Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) measure of sampling adequacy demonstrated that the patterns of correlations are relatively compact (>0.80). Chronbach's alpha for each factors were above the cut-off point (0.65). Face validity indicated that the questions were clear to the majority of the respondent. Moreover, there were no significant differences (P > 0.05) in the responses to the items at two time points at seven weeks later. The finding suggests that SHQ is a valid and reliable instrument to be used in schools to measure sexual health knowledge and understanding. Further analysis such as structured equation modelling (SEM) and confirmatory factor analysis could make the questionnaire more robust and applicable to the wider school population.

  10. Advancing sexual health through human rights: the role of the law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kismödi, Eszter; Cottingham, Jane; Gruskin, Sofia; Miller, Alice M

    2015-01-01

    Since the International Conference on Population and Development, definitions of sexuality and sexual health have been greatly elaborated alongside widely accepted recognition that sexual health requires respect, protection and fulfilment of human rights. Considerable progress has also been made in enacting or changing laws that affect sexuality and sexual health, in line with human rights standards. These measures include legal guarantees against non-discrimination and violence, decriminalisation of consensual sexual conduct and guaranteeing availability, accessibility, acceptability and quality of sexual health information and services to all. Such legal actions have had positive effects on health and specifically on sexual health, particularly for marginalised populations. Yet in all regions of the world, laws still exist which jeopardise health, including sexual health, and violate human rights. In order to ensure accountability for the rights and health of their populations, states have an obligation to bring their laws into line with international, regional and national human rights standards. These rights-based legal guarantees, while insufficient alone, are essential for effective systems of accountability, achieving positive sexual health outcomes and the respect and protection of human rights.

  11. Human resources for health policies: a critical component in health policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dussault Gilles

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the last few years, increasing attention has been paid to the development of health policies. But side by side with the presumed benefits of policy, many analysts share the opinion that a major drawback of health policies is their failure to make room for issues of human resources. Current approaches in human resources suggest a number of weaknesses: a reactive, ad hoc attitude towards problems of human resources; dispersal of accountability within human resources management (HRM; a limited notion of personnel administration that fails to encompass all aspects of HRM; and finally the short-term perspective of HRM. There are three broad arguments for modernizing the ways in which human resources for health are managed: • the central role of the workforce in the health sector; • the various challenges thrown up by health system reforms; • the need to anticipate the effect on the health workforce (and consequently on service provision arising from various macroscopic social trends impinging on health systems. The absence of appropriate human resources policies is responsible, in many countries, for a chronic imbalance with multifaceted effects on the health workforce: quantitative mismatch, qualitative disparity, unequal distribution and a lack of coordination between HRM actions and health policy needs. Four proposals have been put forward to modernize how the policy process is conducted in the development of human resources for health (HRH: • to move beyond the traditional approach of personnel administration to a more global concept of HRM; • to give more weight to the integrated, interdependent and systemic nature of the different components of HRM when preparing and implementing policy; • to foster a more proactive attitude among human resources (HR policy-makers and managers; • to promote the full commitment of all professionals and sectors in all phases of the process. The development of explicit human resources

  12. Behavioural risk factors for sexually transmitted infections and health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Behavioural risk factors for sexually transmitted infections and health ... sharing of personal effects, malnourishment and sexual harassment. ... Development of risk reduction and appropriate sexual health interventions targeted at prevention ...

  13. Child trafficking and commercial sexual exploitation: a review of promising prevention policies and programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafferty, Yvonne

    2013-10-01

    Child trafficking, including commercial sexual exploitation (CSE), is one of the fastest growing and most lucrative criminal activities in the world. The global enslavement of children affects countless numbers of victims who are trafficked within their home countries or transported away from their homes and treated as commodities to be bought, sold, and resold for labor or sexual exploitation. All over the world, girls are particularly likely to be trafficked into the sex trade: Girls and women constitute 98% of those who are trafficked for CSE. Health and safety standards in exploitative settings are generally extremely low, and the degree of experienced violence has been linked with adverse physical, psychological, and social-emotional development. The human-rights-based approach to child trafficking provides a comprehensive conceptual framework whereby victim-focused and law enforcement responses can be developed, implemented, and evaluated. This article highlights promising policies and programs designed to prevent child trafficking and CSE by combating demand for sex with children, reducing supply, and strengthening communities. The literature reviewed includes academic publications as well as international and governmental and nongovernmental reports. Implications for social policy and future research are presented. © 2013 American Orthopsychiatric Association.

  14. Sexual health is dead in my body: participatory assessment of sexual health determinants by refugees, asylum seekers and undocumented migrants in Belgium and The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keygnaert, Ines; Vettenburg, Nicole; Roelens, Kristien; Temmerman, Marleen

    2014-05-01

    Although migrants constitute an important proportion of the European population, little is known about migrant sexual health. Existing research mainly focuses on migrants' sexual health risks and accessibility issues while recommendations on adequate sexual health promotion are rarely provided. Hence, this paper explores how refugees, asylum seekers and undocumented migrants in Belgium and The Netherlands define sexual health, search for sexual health information and perceive sexual health determinants. Applying Community-based Participatory Research as the overarching research approach, we conducted 223 in-depth interviews with refugees, asylum seekers and undocumented migrants in Belgium and The Netherlands. The Framework Analysis Technique was used to analyse qualitative data. We checked the extensiveness of the qualitative data and analysed the quantitative socio-demographic data with SPSS. Our results indicate that gender and age do not appear to be decisive determinants. However, incorporated cultural norms and education attainment are important to consider in desirable sexual health promotion in refugees, asylum seekers and undocumented migrants in Belgium and The Netherlands. Furthermore, our results demonstrate that these migrants have a predominant internal health locus of control. Yet, most of them feel that this personal attitude is hugely challenged by the Belgian and Dutch asylum system and migration laws which force them into a structural dependent situation inducing sexual ill-health. Refugees, asylum seekers and undocumented migrants in Belgium and The Netherlands are at risk of sexual ill-health. Incorporated cultural norms and attained education are important determinants to address in desirable sexual health promotion. Yet, as their legal status demonstrates to be the key determinant, the prime concern is to alter organizational and societal factors linked to the Belgian and Dutch asylum system. Refugees, asylum seekers and undocumented migrants

  15. Youth Sexual Health: Sexual Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behavior Among Students at a University in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraçoğlu, Gamze Varol; Erdem, İlknur; Doğan, Sultan; Tokuç, Burcu

    2014-09-01

    To determine sexual attitudes, behavior, and knowledge of Namik Kemal University (NKU) students about sexual health and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). A sample representing 10% of the undergraduate population of NKU in 2009-2010, was studied. Of 1,500 questionnaires distributed, 1,314 (87.6%) were filled out. The mean age of the respondents (52.9% male) was 20.07±1.75 years. The rate of students who had received sexual health education was 32.0%, and 15.3% had previously used a sexual health service. Eleven percent of the female students and 50.3% of the male students had had sexual intercourse. The average age of initial sexual intercourse was 16.83±2.07 years. Of the students who had had sexual intercourse, 46.6% reported that they did not use any contraception method. The most preferred method was condoms (37.6%). The rate of contraceptive use was 58.7% in sexually educated students and 43.9% in those not educated (p=.004). The most well-known STI was AIDS (96.5%), with sexually educated students giving higher rates of correct answers about STIs (psexual health education were more knowledgeable about vital consequences of STI's, even though it is not sufficient, than sexually active students. Awareness of safe sexual practices and changes in behavior, in particular, promoting condom use should be established in higher risk youths. Deficiencies in knowledge could be addressed by adding a sexual healthtraining component to the university curriculum, and unmet requirements could be met by reorganizing medico-social centers in universities.

  16. Foundations of Life-Long Sexual Health Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Allyson Stella; Patrick, Julie Hicks

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Sexual education in adolescence may represent the only formal sexual information individuals ever receive. It is unclear whether this early educational experience is sufficient to promote lifelong sexual health literacy. The purpose of this paper is to examine the influence of the timing and source of sexual knowledge on current safe sex…

  17. Young Women, Sexual Behaviour and Sexual Decision-Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesley Hoggart

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers young people's sexual decision-making in the context of New Labour's policies on teenage pregnancy. In 1999, the newly formed Social Exclusion Unit sought to understand why the UK had the highest number of teenage conceptions in Europe (SEU 1999. One of the conclusions was that young people in the UK are engaging in "risky" rather than "safe" sex. Although New Labour has since developed policies designed to help young people avoid what is seen as risky sexual activity, there is a tension in sexual health policy between the overall aim of providing young people with the knowledge and confidence to practice "safe sex", and an underlying belief amongst many in the undesirability of "underage sex". This is partly a legacy of disagreements evident in the 1980s and 1990s when some organisations argued against sex education and contraceptive provision for young people on the grounds that it encouraged promiscuous and risky behaviour. The paper shows how alternative meanings of risk and responsibility are present in young mothers' own representations of their sexual decision-making. It does this through an analysis of two research projects on Young Women, Sex and Choices. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0601283

  18. Facilitating communication about sexual health between aging women and their health care providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Anne K; Lewinson, Terri D W

    2015-04-01

    Many women experience changes in sexual health as they age, and discussing these changes with health care providers is an essential component of optimal health management. The purpose of this study was to understand aging women's perspectives about communicating with providers about sexual health. We used the integrative model of behavioral prediction as a theoretical lens to explore women's attitudes, perceived norms, and perceived self-efficacy that promote or inhibit the likelihood of communicating about sexual health. In this theory-based qualitative study, we interviewed 28 community-dwelling older women in the Midwestern United States. Through thematic analysis, we identified both positive and negative attitudes about communicating with providers. Women seemed most inclined to discuss sexual health if they perceived that important patient-provider conditions, such as trust and rapport, were in place. Despite situational obstacles and perceived norms, these women held strong beliefs about their abilities to discuss sexual health topics with providers. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. Health as foreign policy: harnessing globalization for health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidler, David P

    2006-12-01

    This paper explores the importance for health promotion of the rise of public health as a foreign policy issue. Although health promotion encompassed foreign policy as part of 'healthy public policy', mainstream foreign policy neglected public health and health promotion's role in it. Globalization forces health promotion, however, to address directly the relationship between public health and foreign policy. The need for 'health as foreign policy' is apparent from the prominence public health now has in all the basic governance functions served by foreign policy. The Secretary-General's United Nations (UN) reform proposals demonstrate the importance of foreign policy to health promotion as a core component of public health because the proposals embed public health in each element of the Secretary-General's vision for the UN in the 21st century. The emergence of health as foreign policy presents opportunities and risks for health promotion that can be managed by emphasizing that public health constitutes an integrated public good that benefits all governance tasks served by foreign policy. Any effort to harness globalization for public health will have to make health as foreign policy a centerpiece of its ambitions, and this task is now health promotion's burden and opportunity.

  20. The Sexual Health of Transgender Men: A Scoping Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Rob; Riley, Erin; Rogers, Erin; Suarez, Nicolas; Metheny, Nick; Senda, Jonathan; Saylor, Kate M; Bauermeister, José A

    There is a general paucity of research concerning the sexual health of transgender individuals, and most existing research focuses on transgender women. A scoping review concerning the sexual health of transgender men was conducted to identify gaps in the literature and to highlight opportunities for future research and intervention. A comprehensive search of seven databases was conducted. The Joanna Briggs Institute Reviewers' Manual was used as a framework. Some 7,485 articles were initially identified using a search strategy applied to seven online databases: 54 articles were identified as relevant to the research questions and reviewed in detail; of those, 33 were included in the final analysis. Studies were conceptualized into four broad themes: sexual behaviors, sexual identity, sexual pleasure and sexual function, and transactional sex. Besides an overall lack of research, existing studies were often characterized by small convenience samples that do not allow for generalization to the larger population of transgender men. Significant gaps in the literature regarding sexual coercion, sexual and intimate partner violence, and relationship quality and functioning among transgender men exist. There is a need to improve the scope and depth of research examining the sexual health of this population, especially concerning sexual risk behaviors and structural barriers to sexual health care access.

  1. Sexual and reproductive health of Portuguese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Neuza; Palma, Fátima; Serrano, Fátima

    2014-01-01

    As adolescent pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are major sources of morbidity, preventing them is an important health goal for Portuguese society. To review data on the knowledge, attitudes and statistics on sexual and reproductive health. A systematic review was conducted including peer-reviewed articles addressing issues influencing the sexuality of Portuguese adolescents (aged 13 to 19), published up to 2011 and conducted in any type of setting. After crossing-cleaning the reference list, 33 articles were included. The rate of sexual activity by Portuguese adolescents is high (44%-95%), but there has been an increase in the age of intercourse debut (currently 15.6 years). Early commencement of sexual intercourse is associated with smoking and regular alcohol consumption. Condoms are the most frequently chosen contraceptive method for first (76%-96%) and subsequent (52%-69%) sexual encounters. The perception of a double standard in sex still exists in teenage culture for both genders and influence behavior. There are significant differences between migrant and native adolescents: African adolescents initiate sexual intercourse at earlier ages and are more likely to have unprotected sex. Only one-third of Portuguese teenagers have ever visited a health facility to seek counseling concerning contraception or STIs, and less than half have ever attended classes on reproductive health. Very few (12%) have knowledge about Chlamydia trachomatis infection. The prevalence of STIs in Portuguese youth is unknown. The adolescent fertility rate is still high (14.7 births per 1000 females aged 15-19 years), but it, as well as the rate of abortion, is steadily decreasing. There is still a long way to go towards promoting a resourceful young population. Citizens and institutions must focus on increasing both the competence of youths and external supports. Information must be provided systematically and health services must have greater accessibility. Studies

  2. Sexual Satisfaction and the Importance of Sexual Health to Quality of Life Throughout the Life Course of US Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Kathryn E.; Lin, Li; Bruner, Deborah Watkins; Cyranowski, Jill M.; Hahn, Elizabeth A.; Jeffery, Diana D.; Reese, Jennifer Barsky; Reeve, Bryce B.; Shelby, Rebecca A.; Weinfurt, Kevin P.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Discussions about sexual health are uncommon in clinical encounters, despite the sexual dysfunction associated with many common health conditions. Understanding of the importance of sexual health and sexual satisfaction among US adults is limited. Aim To provide epidemiologic data on the importance of sexual health for quality of life and people’s satisfaction with their sex lives and to examine how each is associated with demographic and health factors. Methods Data are from a cross-sectional, self-report questionnaire from a sample of 3515 English-speaking US adults recruited from an online panel that uses address-based probability sampling. Main Outcome Measures We report ratings of importance of sexual health to quality of life (single item with 5-point response) and the PROMIS® Satisfaction with Sex Life score (5 items, each with 5-point responses, scores centered on the US mean). Results High importance of sexual health to quality of life was reported by 62.2% of men (95% CI, 59.4%–65.0%) and 42.8% of women (95% CI, 39.6%–46.1%; P < .001). Importance of sexual health varied by sex, age, sexual activity status, and general self-rated health. For the 55% of men and 45% of women who reported sexual activity in the previous 30 days, satisfaction with sex life differed by sex, age, race/ethnicity (among men only), and health. Men and women in excellent health had significantly higher satisfaction than participants in fair or poor health. Women with hypertension reported significantly lower satisfaction (especially younger women), as did men with depression or anxiety (especially younger men). Conclusion In this large study of US adults’ ratings of the importance of sexual health and satisfaction with sex life, sexual health was a highly important aspect of quality of life for many participants, including participants in poor health. Moreover, participants in poorer health reported lower sexual satisfaction. Accordingly, sexual health should

  3. Sexual harassment policies and programs in the militaries of TTCP countries

    OpenAIRE

    Bennett, Darlene R

    1997-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This thesis examines the policies, programs, and scope of sexual harassment in the United States Navy and the military forces in The Technical Cooperation Program (TTCP) countries, (United States, New Zealand, Australia, Canada, and United Kingdom). It highlights the most effective approaches to eliminate sexual harassment and makes recommendations for improvement. Research was conducted on the information provided from all participati...

  4. Systematic review of reviews of observational studies of school-level effects on sexual health, violence and substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shackleton, Nichola; Jamal, Farah; Viner, Russell; Dickson, Kelly; Hinds, Kate; Patton, George; Bonell, Chris

    2016-05-01

    For three decades there have been reports that the quality of schools affects student health. The literature is diverse and reviews have addressed different aspects of how the school environment may affect health. This paper is the first to synthesise this evidence using a review of reviews focusing on substance-use, violence and sexual-health. Twelve databases were searched. Eleven included reviews were quality-assessed and synthesised narratively. There is strong evidence that schools' success in engaging students is associated with reduced substance use. There is little evidence that tobacco-control policies and school sexual-health clinics on their own are associated with better outcomes. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Sexual Health of Adolescent Patients Admitted to a Psychiatric Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Megan E; van Zanten, Stephanie Veldhuijzen; Noel, Ariana; Gresham, Louise; Norris, Mark L; Robinson, Amy; Chan, Jason; Boafo, Addo

    2018-04-01

    To review sexual health screening practices during admission to an adolescent psychiatry unit. Retrospective chart review of randomly selected youth admitted over a one-year period (2013). Data extracted included demographics, reasons for admission, sexual health history, as well as any comorbid behaviours noted. The main outcome measure was whether sexual health details were documented at any time during admission; if so, this information was extracted for analysis. Statistical analysis was done using univariate associations and logistic association. Mean age of subjects (n=99, 79 females and 20 males) was 15.24 years (SD = 1.30). Most common reasons for admission were suicidal gestures/self harm (n=57, 58%) and mood disorders (n=53, 54%). Thirty-seven patients (37%) had sexual health information documented in their charts. No demographic variables were significantly associated with being asked sexual health questions. Patients who had mood disorder diagnoses had 6 times the odds (95%CI: 1.18 to 29.96, P=0.03) of sexual health questions being documented compared to those not diagnosed with mood disorders. Screening for sexual health concerns is not being documented in the majority of adolescent psychiatry inpatients. Omitting sexual health screening during hospitalizations represents a missed opportunity for investigation and management of sexual health issues in this high-risk group. As many adolescents, particular those struggling with mental illness, do not attend preventative health visits, screening for pregnancy risk and other reproductive health needs is recommended at every adolescent encounter and in all settings.

  6. State and local policies related to sexual orientation in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Ryan; Hexem, Sarah; LaPollo, Archana; Cuffe, Kendra M; Chesson, Harrell W; Leichliter, Jami S

    2017-02-01

    Poorer health suffered by lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) populations may be associated with public policies. We collected the laws that in 2013 prohibited discrimination based on sexual orientation from 50 United States (US) states, the District of Columbia (Washington, DC or DC), and the 30 most populous US metropolitan areas. To facilitate future research, we coded certain aspects of these laws to create a dataset. We generated descriptive statistics by jurisdiction type and tested for regional differences in state law using Chi-square tests. Sixteen (31.4 per cent) states prohibited discrimination by all employers based on sexual orientation, 25 states (49.0 per cent) in public employment, 18 states (35.3 per cent) in government contracting, and 21 states (41.2 per cent) in private employment. Twenty-one states prohibited discrimination (41.2 per cent) in housing practices (selling and renting), and 17 (33.3 per cent) in public accommodations. Local (county/city) laws prohibiting discrimination were less common. State laws differed significantly by US census region - West, Midwest, Northeast, and South. Future analyses of these data could examine the impact of these laws on various outcomes, including health among LGB populations.

  7. Associations of Timing of Sexual Orientation Developmental Milestones and Other Sexual Minority Stressors with Internalizing Mental Health Symptoms Among Sexual Minority Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz-Wise, Sabra L; Rosario, Margaret; Calzo, Jerel P; Scherer, Emily A; Sarda, Vishnudas; Austin, S Bryn

    2017-07-01

    Sexual minorities (mostly heterosexual, bisexual, lesbian/gay) are more likely than heterosexuals to have adverse mental health, which may be related to minority stress. We used longitudinal data from 1461 sexual minority women and men, aged 22-30 years, from Wave 2010 of the Growing Up Today Study, to examine associations between sexual minority stressors and mental health. We hypothesized that sexual minority stressors (earlier timing of sexual orientation developmental milestones categorized into early adolescence, middle adolescence, late adolescence/young adulthood; greater sexual orientation mobility; more bullying victimization) would be positively associated with mental health outcomes (depressive and anxious symptoms). Linear regression models stratified by gender and sexual orientation were fit via generalized estimating equations and controlled for age and race/ethnicity. Models were fit for each stressor predicting each mental health outcome. Reaching sexual minority milestones in early versus middle adolescence was associated with greater depressive and anxious symptoms among lesbians and gay men. Reaching sexual minority milestones in late adolescence/young adulthood versus middle adolescence was associated with greater depressive symptoms among lesbians, but fewer depressive and anxious symptoms among gay men. Greater sexual orientation mobility was associated with greater depressive symptoms among mostly heterosexual women. More bullying victimization was associated with greater depressive symptoms among bisexual women and with greater anxious symptoms among mostly heterosexual women. Sexual minority stressors are associated with adverse mental health among some sexual minority young adults. More research is needed to understand what may be protecting some subgroups from the mental health effects of sexual minority stressors.

  8. Determinants of unmet needs for healthcare and sexual health counselling among Ugandan university students with same-sex sexuality experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Markus; Ross, Michael W; Tumwine, Gilbert; Agardh, Anette

    2016-01-01

    Research from sub-Saharan Africa has shown that persons with same-sex sexuality experience are at elevated risk for ill health due to sexual risk taking, stigma, and discrimination. However, studies of healthcare seeking among young people in this region with same-sex sexuality experience are limited. To identify determinants of unmet healthcare and sexual health counselling needs, respectively, among Ugandan university students with experience of same-sex sexuality. In 2010, 1,954 Ugandan university students completed a questionnaire assessing socio-demographic factors, mental health, alcohol usage, sexual behaviours, and healthcare seeking. The study population consisted of those 570 who reported ever being in love with, sexually attracted to, sexually fantasised about, or sexually engaged with someone of the same sex. Findings showed that 56% and 30% reported unmet healthcare and sexual health counselling needs, respectively. Unmet healthcare needs were associated with poor mental health and exposure to sexual coercion (OR 3.9, 95% confidence intervals [CI]: 2.7-5.7; OR 2.0, 95% CI: 1.3-3.0, respectively). Unmet sexual health counselling needs were significantly associated with poor mental health (OR 3.2, 95% CI: 2.1-4.8), exposure to sexual coercion (OR 2.6, 95% CI: 1.7-3.9), frequent heavy episodic drinking (OR 3.3, 95% CI: 1.9-5.8), and number of sexual partners (OR 1.9, 95% CI: 1.04-3.3). The associations between poor mental health, sexual coercion, and unmet healthcare needs (AOR 4.2, 95% CI: 2.1-8.5; AOR 2.8, 95% CI: 1.3-5.8) and unmet needs for sexual health counselling (AOR 3.3, 95% CI: 1.6-7.1; AOR 2.7, 95% CI: 1.4-5.4) persisted after adjustment for socio-demographic factors, number of sexual partners, and frequent heavy episodic drinking. These findings indicate that exposure to sexual coercion and poor mental health may influence healthcare seeking behaviours of same-sex sexuality experienced students. Targeted interventions that integrate mental

  9. Determinants of unmet needs for healthcare and sexual health counselling among Ugandan university students with same-sex sexuality experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Larsson

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Research from sub-Saharan Africa has shown that persons with same-sex sexuality experience are at elevated risk for ill health due to sexual risk taking, stigma, and discrimination. However, studies of healthcare seeking among young people in this region with same-sex sexuality experience are limited. Objective: To identify determinants of unmet healthcare and sexual health counselling needs, respectively, among Ugandan university students with experience of same-sex sexuality. Design: In 2010, 1,954 Ugandan university students completed a questionnaire assessing socio-demographic factors, mental health, alcohol usage, sexual behaviours, and healthcare seeking. The study population consisted of those 570 who reported ever being in love with, sexually attracted to, sexually fantasised about, or sexually engaged with someone of the same sex. Results: Findings showed that 56% and 30% reported unmet healthcare and sexual health counselling needs, respectively. Unmet healthcare needs were associated with poor mental health and exposure to sexual coercion (OR 3.9, 95% confidence intervals [CI]: 2.7–5.7; OR 2.0, 95% CI: 1.3–3.0, respectively. Unmet sexual health counselling needs were significantly associated with poor mental health (OR 3.2, 95% CI: 2.1–4.8, exposure to sexual coercion (OR 2.6, 95% CI: 1.7–3.9, frequent heavy episodic drinking (OR 3.3, 95% CI: 1.9–5.8, and number of sexual partners (OR 1.9, 95% CI: 1.04–3.3. The associations between poor mental health, sexual coercion, and unmet healthcare needs (AOR 4.2, 95% CI: 2.1–8.5; AOR 2.8, 95% CI: 1.3–5.8 and unmet needs for sexual health counselling (AOR 3.3, 95% CI: 1.6–7.1; AOR 2.7, 95% CI: 1.4–5.4 persisted after adjustment for socio-demographic factors, number of sexual partners, and frequent heavy episodic drinking. Conclusions: These findings indicate that exposure to sexual coercion and poor mental health may influence healthcare seeking behaviours of

  10. A Systematic Review of Sexual Health Interventions for Adults: Narrative Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogben, Matthew; Ford, Jessie; Becasen, Jeffrey S; Brown, Kathryn F

    2015-01-01

    Recent work has explored the intersection between sexual health (as construed by the World Health Organization and others) and public health domains of action in the United States of America. This paper reports the narrative results of a systematic review of sexual health intervention effects on public health-relevant outcomes. To qualify, interventions had to be based on the principles: (1) that sexual health is intrinsic to individuals and their overall health and (2) that relationships reflecting sexual health must be positive for all parties concerned. Outcomes were classed in domains: knowledge, attitudes, communication, healthcare use, sexual behavior and adverse events. We summarized data from 58 studies (English language, adult populations, 1996–2011) by population (adults, parents, sexual minorities, vulnerable populations) across domains. Interventions were predominantly individual and small-group designs that addressed sexual behaviors (72%) and attitudes/norms (55%). They yielded positive effects in that 98% reported a positive finding in at least one domain: 50% also reported null effects. The most consistently positive effects on behaviors and adverse events were found for sexual minorities, vulnerable populations, and parental communication. Whether via direct action or through partnerships, incorporating principles from existing sexual health definitions in public health efforts may help improve sexual health. PMID:25406027

  11. Sexuality and sexual reproductive health of disabled young people in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassa, Tigist Alemu; Luck, Tobias; Birru, Samuel Kinde; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G

    2014-10-01

    In Ethiopia, young people with disabilities (YPWD) are often marginalized and not recognized as being sexual, and only little is known about their sexual reproductive health (SRH) status. We therefore aimed to assess the SRH status and associated factors among 426 YPWD in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2012. Data were collected by trained interviewers using a structured questionnaire. Fifty-two percent of YPWD ever had sexual intercourse. Seventy-five percent started sex between 15 and 19 years. Only 35% had used contraceptive during their first sexual encounter. Fifty-nine percent of the sexually experienced YPWD had multiple lifetime sexual partners; 19%, a casual sexual partner; and 21%, a commercial sexual partner. Only 48% consistently used condoms with their casual or commercial sexual partners. Twenty-four percent of the sexually experienced YPWD had a history of sexually transmitted infections. Our findings indicate that YPWD in Ethiopia are sexually active, but also highly involved in risky sexual practices. There is a need for in-depth research to better understand the determinants of risky sexual behavior and to propose preventive approaches.

  12. Associations between physical and mental health problems and sexual dysfunctions in sexually active Danes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Birgitte Schütt; Grønbaek, Morten; Osler, Merete

    2011-01-01

    Studies have shown a high prevalence of sexual dysfunctions among individuals with a variety of health problems.......Studies have shown a high prevalence of sexual dysfunctions among individuals with a variety of health problems....

  13. Parent opinion of sexuality education in a state with mandated abstinence education: does policy match parental preference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Kristin E; Gizlice, Ziya; Owen-O'Dowd, Judy; Foust, Evelyn; Leone, Peter A; Miller, William C

    2006-11-01

    Despite public debate about the content of sexuality education in schools, state and federal policy has increasingly financed and legislated abstinence-only education over the past decade. Although public schools strive to meet the needs of parents who, as taxpayers, fund the educational system, little is known about parental desires regarding sexuality education in states with mandated abstinence education. The objective of this study was to assess parental opinion about sexuality education in public schools in North Carolina, a state with mandated abstinence education. Computer-assisted, anonymous, cross-sectional telephone surveys were conducted among 1306 parents of North Carolina public school students in grades K-12. Parental support for sexuality education in public schools and 20 sexuality education topics was measured. We defined comprehensive sexuality education as education that includes a discussion of how to use and talk about contraception with partners. Parents in North Carolina overwhelmingly support sexuality education in public schools (91%). Of these respondents, the majority (89%) support comprehensive sexuality education. Less than a quarter of parents oppose teaching any specific topic, including those typically viewed as more controversial, such as discussions about sexual orientation, oral sex, and anal sex. Parents' level of education was inversely related to support for specific sexuality education topics and comprehensive education, although these differences were small in magnitude. More than 90% of respondents felt that parents and public health professionals should determine sexuality education content and opposed the involvement of politicians. Current state-mandated abstinence sexuality education does not match parental preference for comprehensive sexuality education in North Carolina public schools.

  14. Medical Students' Perceptions and Preferences for Sexual Health Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamboni, Brian; Bezek, Katelyn

    2017-01-01

    Sexual health topics are not well-covered in US medical schools. Research has not typically asked medical students what sexual health topics they would like addressed and their preferred methods of sexual health education. This study attempted to address this deficit via an online survey of medical students at an institution where little sexual…

  15. Computer-assisted self interviewing in sexual health clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairley, Christopher K; Sze, Jun Kit; Vodstrcil, Lenka A; Chen, Marcus Y

    2010-11-01

    This review describes the published information on what constitutes the elements of a core sexual history and the use of computer-assisted self interviewing (CASI) within sexually transmitted disease clinics. We searched OVID Medline from 1990 to February 2010 using the terms "computer assisted interviewing" and "sex," and to identify published articles on a core sexual history, we used the term "core sexual history." Since 1990, 3 published articles used a combination of expert consensus, formal clinician surveys, and the Delphi technique to decide on what questions form a core sexual health history. Sexual health histories from 4 countries mostly ask about the sex of the partners, the number of partners (although the time period varies), the types of sex (oral, anal, and vaginal) and condom use, pregnancy intent, and contraceptive methods. Five published studies in the United States, Australia, and the United Kingdom compared CASI with in person interviews in sexually transmitted disease clinics. In general, CASI identified higher risk behavior more commonly than clinician interviews, although there were substantial differences between studies. CASI was found to be highly acceptable and individuals felt it allowed more honest reporting. Currently, there are insufficient data to determine whether CASI results in differences in sexually transmitted infection testing, diagnosis, or treatment or if CASI improves the quality of sexual health care or its efficiency. The potential public health advantages of the widespread use of CASI are discussed.

  16. The social context of sexual health and sexual risk for urban adolescent girls in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teitelman, Anne M; Bohinski, Julia M; Boente, Alyssa

    2009-07-01

    Sexually transmitted infections including HIV and teenage pregnancy have resulted in considerable morbidity and mortality among girls in the United States. There is a need to further strengthen prevention efforts against these persistent epidemics. In order to promote girls' sexual health and most effectively reduce sexual risk, it is important to understand the social factors that influence the development of a girl's sexuality. The purpose of this study was to begin to fill a void in the literature by exploring girls' perspectives about the social context in which they learn about sex, sexuality, and relationships. Coding and content analysis was used to identify patterns and themes in 33 individual interviews with African American and Euro-American girls. Participants identified family, friends/peers, partners, school, and the media as the most common sources for learning about sexual health. Girls sought out different types of information from each source. Many girls experienced conflicting messages about their sexual health and struggled to integrate the disparate cultural references to sex, sexuality, and relationships that emerged from these different spheres of social life. Girls often had to navigate the journey of their sexual development with little room for reflection about their own thoughts, feelings, desires, and decisions. Health care providers, especially those in mental health, are in an optimal position to promote girls' physical, developmental, and emotional sexual health.

  17. Health Systems Integration of Sexual and Reproductive Health and HIV Services in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Scoping Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Tamil; Langer, Ana; Bärnighausen, Till

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Both sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services and HIV programs in sub-Saharan Africa are typically delivered vertically, operating parallel to national health systems. The objective of this study was to map the evidence on national and international strategies for integration of SRH and HIV services in sub-Saharan Africa and to develop a research agenda for future health systems integration. Methods: We examined the literature on national and international strategies to integrate SRH and HIV services using a scoping study methodology. Current policy frameworks, national HIV strategies and research, and gray literature on integration were mapped. Five countries in sub-Saharan Africa with experience of integrating SRH and HIV services were purposively sampled for detailed thematic analysis, according to the health systems functions of governance, policy and planning, financing, health workforce organization, service organization, and monitoring and evaluation. Results: The major international health policies and donor guidance now support integration. Most integration research has focused on linkages of SRH and HIV front-line services. Yet, the common problems with implementation are related to delayed or incomplete integration of higher level health systems functions: lack of coordinated leadership and unified national integration policies; separate financing streams for SRH and HIV services and inadequate health worker training, supervision and retention. Conclusions: Rigorous health systems research on the integration of SRH and HIV services is urgently needed. Priority research areas include integration impact, performance, and economic evaluation to inform the planning, financing, and coordination of integrated service delivery. PMID:25436826

  18. Sexual Satisfaction and the Importance of Sexual Health to Quality of Life Throughout the Life Course of U.S. Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Kathryn E; Lin, Li; Bruner, Deborah Watkins; Cyranowski, Jill M; Hahn, Elizabeth A; Jeffery, Diana D; Reese, Jennifer Barsky; Reeve, Bryce B; Shelby, Rebecca A; Weinfurt, Kevin P

    2016-11-01

    Discussions about sexual health are uncommon in clinical encounters, despite the sexual dysfunction associated with many common health conditions. Understanding of the importance of sexual health and sexual satisfaction in U.S. adults is limited. To provide epidemiologic data on the importance of sexual health for quality of life and people's satisfaction with their sex lives and to examine how each is associated with demographic and health factors. Data are from a cross-sectional self-report questionnaire from a sample of 3,515 English-speaking U.S. adults recruited from an online panel that uses address-based probability sampling. We report ratings of importance of sexual health to quality of life (single item with five-point response) and the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System Satisfaction With Sex Life score (five items, each with five-point responses, scores centered on the U.S. mean). High importance of sexual health to quality of life was reported by 62.2% of men (95% CI = 59.4-65.0) and 42.8% of women (95% CI = 39.6-46.1, P < .001). Importance of sexual health varied by sex, age, sexual activity status, and general self-rated health. For the 55% of men and 45% of women who reported sexual activity in the previous 30 days, satisfaction with sex life differed by sex, age, race-ethnicity (among men only), and health. Men and women in excellent health had significantly higher satisfaction than participants in fair or poor health. Women with hypertension reported significantly lower satisfaction (especially younger women), as did men with depression or anxiety (especially younger men). In this large study of U.S. adults' ratings of the importance of sexual health and satisfaction with sex life, sexual health was a highly important aspect of quality of life for many participants, including participants in poor health. Moreover, participants in poorer health reported lower sexual satisfaction. Accordingly, sexual health should be a routine

  19. Sexual Behaviour and Interest in Using a Sexual Health Mobile App to Help Improve and Manage College Students' Sexual Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, Alice R.; Webb, Monica C.; Brinkley, Jason; Martin, Ryan J.

    2014-01-01

    Many US college students are reported to engage in risky sexual behaviour. Smartphone applications are a popular way to provide users with information in real time. We explored the potential for mobile technology to be used in promoting the sexual health of college students. Using findings from an online survey among a random sample of 5000…

  20. "Yes Means Yes"? Sexual Consent Policy and College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jozkowski, Kristen N.

    2015-01-01

    Over the last few years, there have been some egregious examples of rape culture on college campuses that call into question the effectiveness of current sexual-assault policies. This article contains brief recaps of four recent events that took place at prominent American universities, drawn from a laundry list of contemporary examples. They…

  1. The Impact of a University Policy on the Sexual Harassment of Female Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Elizabeth A.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Comparison of undergraduate student survey results of 1983, 1986, and 1989 at the University of Massachusetts (Amherst) indicate that reports of faculty/staff sexual harassment of female undergraduates have declined over the past six years. Analysis suggests that the sexual harassment policy and grievance procedure established in 1982 have been…

  2. Sexual behaviors among older adults in Spain: results from a population-based national sexual health survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios-Ceña, Domingo; Carrasco-Garrido, Pilar; Hernández-Barrera, Valentín; Alonso-Blanco, Cristina; Jiménez-García, Rodrigo; Fernández-de-las-Peñas, César

    2012-01-01

    The Spanish National Sexual Health Survey (SNSHS) is designed to examine sexual activity, sexual behaviors, and sexual health among the Spanish population. To describe sexual activity and behaviors of Spaniards aged ≥ 65 years old focusing on gender differences. A population-based descriptive study was conducted using individual data from the SNSHS. The number of subjects aged ≥ 65 years included was 1,939 (1,118 women, 821 men). Sexual activity, frequency, sexual behaviors, sexual practices, and reasons for lack of sexual activity were assessed from questions included in the survey. Subjects who reported having any sexual practice including giving or receiving kissing and hugging, vaginal intercourse, oral sex, or masturbation, with at least one partner in the previous 12 months were considered as sexually active. We analyzed sociodemographic characteristics, self-rated physical and sexual health, comorbid conditions, and medications using multivariate logistic regression models. Overall, 62.3% of men and 37.4% of elderly women were sexually active (P practices were kissing, hugging, and vaginal intercourse. The most common reasons for sexual inactivity were: partner was physically ill (23%), lack of interest (21%), and the man was a widower (23%). This study provided data on sexual activity in older Spanish adults and has identified potential factors that appear to influence sexuality in the elderly with some gender differences. Current results can have implications for healthcare providers for addressing these concerns in an effective manner. © 2011 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  3. Analyzing Sexual Health-Related Beliefs Among Couples in Marriage Based on the Health Belief Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Barati

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sexual health is the integrity between mind, emotions, and body, and any disorder leading to discoordination, can be associated with sexual dysfunction. The aim of this study was to investigate the beliefs of couples attending marriage counseling centers toward sexual health based on the health belief model. Materials and Methods: This cross sectional descriptive study was performed on 400 couples referring to marriage counseling centers of Hamadan recruited with a random sampling method. The participants completed a self-administered questionnaire including demographic characteristics, knowledge and health belief model constructs. Data analysis was performed using SPSS-16 software, by Pearson’s coefficient correlation, independent T-test, and one-way ANOVA. Results: Couples had a moderate knowledge of sexual health. In addition, perceived susceptibility and severity of the consequences of unsafe sexual behavior among couples were not satisfactory however, perceived benefits and barriers were reported in a relatively good level. Internet and friends were the most important sources for sexual health information. Conclusion: Promoting knowledge and beliefs toward sexual health by preparing training packages based on the needs of couples and removing obstacles to have normal sexual behavior are necessary.

  4. Can rights stop the wrongs? Exploring the connections between framings of sex workers’ rights and sexual and reproductive health

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background There is growing interest in the ways in which legal and human rights issues related to sex work affect sex workers’ vulnerability to HIV and abuses including human trafficking and sexual exploitation. International agencies, such as UNAIDS, have called for decriminalisation of sex work because the delivery of sexual and reproductive health services is affected by criminalisation and social exclusion as experienced by sex workers. The paper reflects on the connections in various actors’ framings between sex workers sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) and the ways that international law is interpreted in policing and regulatory practices. Methods The literature review that informs this paper was carried out by the authors in the course of their work within the Paulo Longo Research Initiative. The review covered academic and grey literature such as resources generated by sex worker rights activists, UN policy positions and print and online media. The argument in this paper has been developed reflectively through long term involvement with key actors in the field of sex workers’ rights. Results International legislation characterises sex work in various ways which do not always accord with moves toward decriminalisation. Law, policy and regulation at national level and law enforcement vary between settings. The demands of sex worker rights activists do relate to sexual and reproductive health but they place greater emphasis on efforts to remove the structural barriers that limit sex workers’ ability to participate in society on an equal footing with other citizens. Discussion and conclusion There is a tension between those who wish to uphold the rights of sex workers in order to reduce vulnerability to ill-health and those who insist that sex work is itself a violation of rights. This is reflected in contemporary narratives about sex workers’ rights and the ways in which different actors interpret human rights law. The creation of

  5. Can rights stop the wrongs? Exploring the connections between framings of sex workers' rights and sexual and reproductive health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overs, Cheryl; Hawkins, Kate

    2011-12-16

    There is growing interest in the ways in which legal and human rights issues related to sex work affect sex workers' vulnerability to HIV and abuses including human trafficking and sexual exploitation. International agencies, such as UNAIDS, have called for decriminalisation of sex work because the delivery of sexual and reproductive health services is affected by criminalisation and social exclusion as experienced by sex workers. The paper reflects on the connections in various actors' framings between sex workers sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) and the ways that international law is interpreted in policing and regulatory practices. The literature review that informs this paper was carried out by the authors in the course of their work within the Paulo Longo Research Initiative. The review covered academic and grey literature such as resources generated by sex worker rights activists, UN policy positions and print and online media. The argument in this paper has been developed reflectively through long term involvement with key actors in the field of sex workers' rights. International legislation characterises sex work in various ways which do not always accord with moves toward decriminalisation. Law, policy and regulation at national level and law enforcement vary between settings. The demands of sex worker rights activists do relate to sexual and reproductive health but they place greater emphasis on efforts to remove the structural barriers that limit sex workers' ability to participate in society on an equal footing with other citizens. There is a tension between those who wish to uphold the rights of sex workers in order to reduce vulnerability to ill-health and those who insist that sex work is itself a violation of rights. This is reflected in contemporary narratives about sex workers' rights and the ways in which different actors interpret human rights law. The creation of regulatory frameworks around sex work that support health, safety

  6. Can rights stop the wrongs? Exploring the connections between framings of sex workers’ rights and sexual and reproductive health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Overs Cheryl

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is growing interest in the ways in which legal and human rights issues related to sex work affect sex workers’ vulnerability to HIV and abuses including human trafficking and sexual exploitation. International agencies, such as UNAIDS, have called for decriminalisation of sex work because the delivery of sexual and reproductive health services is affected by criminalisation and social exclusion as experienced by sex workers. The paper reflects on the connections in various actors’ framings between sex workers sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR and the ways that international law is interpreted in policing and regulatory practices. Methods The literature review that informs this paper was carried out by the authors in the course of their work within the Paulo Longo Research Initiative. The review covered academic and grey literature such as resources generated by sex worker rights activists, UN policy positions and print and online media. The argument in this paper has been developed reflectively through long term involvement with key actors in the field of sex workers’ rights. Results International legislation characterises sex work in various ways which do not always accord with moves toward decriminalisation. Law, policy and regulation at national level and law enforcement vary between settings. The demands of sex worker rights activists do relate to sexual and reproductive health but they place greater emphasis on efforts to remove the structural barriers that limit sex workers’ ability to participate in society on an equal footing with other citizens. Discussion and conclusion There is a tension between those who wish to uphold the rights of sex workers in order to reduce vulnerability to ill-health and those who insist that sex work is itself a violation of rights. This is reflected in contemporary narratives about sex workers’ rights and the ways in which different actors interpret human

  7. Politics, Policies and Practice: Assessing the Impact of Sexual Harassment Policies in UK Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Alison M.

    2004-01-01

    Since sexual harassment was first named and identified as an obstacle to women's equality in the mid 1970s, concern about both its prevalence and its damaging effects has resulted in the widespread introduction of anti-harassment policies in UK universities, as in other work and educational settings. The study reported here sought to assess the…

  8. Factors associated with sexual health and well being in older adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinstäuber, Maria

    2017-09-01

    To provide an update of recent studies on factors associated with sexual well being in older people with a special focus on sexual activity, satisfaction and function. Most recent studies confirmed the relationship between mental health status, especially negative affect and depressive symptoms, and sexual health in older adulthood. However, when this relationship is investigated more deeply, it seems that in fact positive psychological well being (positive affect and quality of life) accounts for sexual activity rather than the lack of depressive symptoms. Moreover, recent studies provided more insight into the relationship between marital characteristics, religion, cognitive functioning and sleeping difficulties and different dimensions of sexual health in older adulthood. In summary, there is substantial previous research revealing associations between various psychosocial, health-related and demographic variables and sexual health in older adulthood. Most considered variables are, for example, age, sex, general physical and mental health. For future research, it is important to consider that relationships between specific variables and sexual health in higher age are usually more complex than they are expected to be and factors differ between different dimensions of sexual health. Communication about sexuality between health-care providers and older patients still implies a lot of barriers and lack of knowledge. Therefore, the provision of communication training for health-care providers to older people in which knowledge is gained about correlates of sexual health in older adulthood should be implemented.

  9. Web-Based Activity Within a Sexual Health Economy: Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Katy Me; Zienkiewicz, Adam K; Syred, Jonathan; Looker, Katharine J; de Sa, Joia; Brady, Michael; Free, Caroline; Holdsworth, Gillian; Baraitser, Paula

    2018-03-07

    Regular testing for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) is important to maintain sexual health. Self-sampling kits ordered online and delivered in the post may increase access, convenience, and cost-effectiveness. Sexual health economies may target limited resources more effectively by signposting users toward Web-based or face-to-face services according to clinical need. The aim of this paper was to investigate the impact of two interventions on testing activity across a whole sexual health economy: (1) the introduction of open access Web-based STI testing services and (2) a clinic policy of triage and signpost online where users without symptoms who attended clinics for STI testing were supported to access the Web-based service instead. Data on attendances at all specialist public sexual health providers in an inner-London area were collated into a single database. Each record included information on user demographics, service type accessed, and clinical activity provided, including test results. Clinical activity was categorized as a simple STI test (could be done in a clinic or online), a complex visit (requiring face-to-face consultation), or other. Introduction of Web-based services increased total testing activity across the whole sexual health economy by 18.47% (from 36,373 to 43,091 in the same 6-month period-2014-2015 and 2015-2016), suggesting unmet need for testing in the area. Triage and signposting shifted activity out of the clinic onto the Web-based service, with simple STI testing in the clinic decreasing from 16.90% (920/5443) to 12.25% (511/4172) of total activity, P<.001, and complex activity in the clinic increasing from 69.15% (3764/5443) to 74.86% (3123/4172) of total activity, P<.001. This intervention created a new population of online users with different demographic and clinical profiles from those who use Web-based services spontaneously. Some triage and signposted users (29.62%, 375/1266) did not complete the Web-based testing

  10. The readability and suitability of sexual health promotion leaflets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, Nova; Ahmad, Fatuma

    2016-02-01

    To investigate the readability and suitability of sexual health promotion leaflets. Application of SMOG, FRY and SAM tests to assess the readability and suitability of a selection of sexual health leaflets. SMOG and FRY scores illustrate an average reading level of grade 9. SAM scores indicate that 59% of leaflets are superior in design and 41% are average in design. Leaflets generally perform well in the categories of content, literacy demand, typography and layout. They perform poorly in use of graphics, learning stimulation/motivation and cultural appropriateness. Sexual health leaflets have a reading level that is too high. Leaflets perform well on the suitability scores indicating they are reasonably suitable. There are a number of areas where sexual health leaflets could improve their design. Numerous practical techniques are suggested for improving the readability and suitability of sexual health leaflets. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Violence, sexual abuse and health in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Curtis, Tine; Larsen, Finn B; Helweg-Larsen, Karin

    2002-01-01

    The purposes of the study were to analyse the lifetime prevalence of violence and sexual abuse among the Inuit in Greenland and to study the associations between health and having been the victim of violence or sexual abuse. Associations were studied with specific attention to possible differences...... between women and men. Further, response rates were analysed specifically in order to understand consequences of including questions on violence and sexual abuse in the questionnaire survey. The analyses were based on material from a cross-sectional health interview survey conducted during 1993......-94 with participation from a random sample of the Inuit population in Greenland (N = 1393). The prevalence of ever having been a victim of violence was 47% among women and 48% among men. Women had more often than men been sexually abused (25% and 6%) (p sexually abused in childhood (8...

  12. Sexual harassment in public medical schools in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, I D; Aikins, M; Binka, F N

    2013-09-01

    This study investigated the prevalence and incidence of Traditional (where a person in a position of power harasses a subordinate) and contra power sexual harassment, (where a subordinate is the harasser of authority figure) in medical schools in Ghana. among. Cross-sectional study. Four hundred and nine medical students from four medical schools in Ghana were interviewed. We also considered if academic and financial dependence would predict either traditional or contra power sexual harassment. We further investigated, whether women were more bothered by sexual harassment than men and the correlation between sexual harassment and health. Women were 61% more likely to be sexually harassed than men 39%. Sexual harassment negatively affects the victims' health outcome. We found that the traditional form of sexual harassment was prevalent in medical schools in Ghana and that academic dependence predicted attacks. In the first and second years, women at these institutions are more likely to be sexually harassed than men. Sexual harassment policies of medical school need to be widely circulated. The various medical schools should provide reporting procedures and counseling for victims. This paper would inform policy and research.

  13. Sexual health needs and the LGBT community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Sue

    Lesbian, gay, bisexual and trans (LGBT) individuals have particular vulnerabilities to sexually transmitted infections and HIV infection. Globally, reasons for this include physiological factors, discrimination and poor understanding of their sexual health needs. In many countries LGBT individuals are not able to exercise fully their rights to health care. This raises public health concerns for the LGBT community and the wider population. This article explores these issues, and makes recommendations for the healthcare profession to address health inequalities and promote improved health outcomes for LGBT populations. This article aims to promote an evidence-based approach that focuses on rights and public health issues.

  14. College Students’ Preferences for Health Care Providers when Accessing Sexual Health Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Carolyn M.; Lechner, Kate E.; Frerich, Ellen A.; Lust, Katherine A.; Eisenberg, Marla E.

    2017-01-01

    Objective Many emerging adults (18–25 year olds) report unmet health needs and disproportionately experience problems such as sexually transmitted infections. This study was conducted to examine college students’ perceptions of health care providers, specifically in the context of accessing sexual health resources. Design and Sample Students (N=52) were recruited from five diverse colleges in one state to participate in a one-to-one interview that involved walking and virtually exploring resources on and near campus. Interviews were conducted from May to November 2010. Results Inductive qualitative analysis yielded six themes summarizing students’ perceptions of provider characteristics, health care resources, the role of their peers, and students’ suggestions for strengthening health care services. Importantly, students consider a variety of staff—and their student peers—to be resources for sexual health information and services. Conclusions Findings emphasize the importance of collaboration between health service staff and broader campus staff because students often turn to campus staff initially. Post-secondary students welcome opportunities to know a provider through interactive websites that include details about providers on campus; their decisions to seek sexual health care services are influenced by their perceptions of providers’ characteristics and interpersonal skills. PMID:25159532

  15. Bisexual Invisibility and the Sexual Health Needs of Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Celia B.; Macapagal, Kathryn; Mustanski, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: The purpose of this study was to analyze bisexual female youth perspectives on their experiences accessing sexual health information and services provided by a doctor, nurse, or counselor. Specifically, we sought to: (1) understand how youth perceptions of providers' attitudes and behaviors affect their seeking and obtaining sexual health information and services; (2) examine how social stigmas within the family context might be associated with barriers to sexual health information and services; and (3) assess school-based sources of sexual health information. Method: We utilized a mixed-method study design. Data from bisexual female youth were collected through an online questionnaire and asynchronous online focus groups addressing lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender health and HIV prevention. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics and thematic analysis. Results: Barriers to sexual healthcare included judgmental attitudes and assumptions of patient heterosexuality among healthcare providers, and missed opportunities for HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STI) testing. Bisexual stigma within families was associated with restricted youth openness with providers, suggesting fear of disclosure to parent or guardian. School-based sexual health education was limited by a restrictive focus on abstinence and condoms and the exclusion of STI risk information relevant to sex between women. Conclusion: We recommend that practitioners integrate nonjudgmental questions regarding bisexuality into standard contraceptive and sexual health practices involving female youth, including discussion of HIV and STI risk reduction methods. Further support for bisexual health among adolescent girls can come through addressing stigmas of female bisexuality, increasing sensitivity to privacy while engaging parents, and expanding the reach of school-based sexual health education. PMID:27604053

  16. Patterns of Mental Health Care Utilization Among Sexual Orientation Minority Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, Lisa F; Wolf, Julia Kay; Scheitle, Christopher P

    2018-01-01

    Prior studies of the utilization of mental health professionals by sexual minority populations have relied on data that are now dated or not nationally representative. These studies have also provided mixed findings regarding gender differences in the utilization of mental health professionals among sexual minority individuals. Using data from the 2013-2015 National Health Interview Surveys, this study investigates (1) how sexual minority individuals compare to heterosexual participants in their utilization of mental health professionals; and (2) gender differences in that utilization. The results indicate sexual minority individuals utilize mental health care professionals at higher rates than heterosexual individuals even after controlling for measures of mental health and other demographic characteristics; this is true for both men and women. However, gender moderates the sexual minority effect on utilization rates. Sexual minority men utilize mental health professionals at a high rate, such that their utilization rates are similar to sexual minority women, contrary to the gender gap seen among heterosexuals.

  17. Communication between Asian American Adolescents and Health Care Providers about Sexual Activity, Sexually Transmitted Infections, and Pregnancy Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jessie; Lau, May; Vermette, David; Liang, David; Flores, Glenn

    2017-01-01

    Asian American adolescents have been reported to have the lowest amount of communication with health care providers regarding sexual health topics (sexual activity, contraception, sexually transmitted infections, and pregnancy prevention). This study identified Asian American adolescents' attitudes/beliefs regarding how health care providers can…

  18. Making the invisible visible: a systematic review of sexual minority women's health in Southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Alexandra; Hughes, Tonda L

    2016-04-11

    Over the past two decades research on sexual and gender minority (lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender; LGBT) health has highlighted substantial health disparities based on sexual orientation and gender identity in many parts of the world. We systematically reviewed the literature on sexual minority women's (SMW) health in Southern Africa, with the objective of identifying existing evidence and pointing out knowledge gaps around the health of this vulnerable group in this region. A systematic review of publications in English, French, Portuguese or German, indexed in PubMed or MEDLINE between the years 2000 and 2015, following PRISMA guidelines. Additional studies were identified by searching bibliographies of identified studies. Search terms included (Lesbian OR bisexual OR "women who have sex with women"), (HIV OR depression OR "substance use" OR "substance abuse" OR "mental health" OR suicide OR anxiety OR cancer), and geographical specification. All empirical studies that used quantitative or qualitative methods, which contributed to evidence for SMW's health in one, a few or all of the countries, were included. Theoretical and review articles were excluded. Data were extracted independently by 2 researchers using predefined data fields, which included a risk of bias/quality assessment. Of 315 hits, 9 articles were selected for review and a further 6 were identified through bibliography searches. Most studies were conducted with small sample sizes in South Africa and focused on sexual health. SMW included in the studies were racially and socio-economically heterogeneous. Studies focused predominately on young populations, and highlighted substance use and violence as key health issues for SMW in Southern Africa. Although there are large gaps in the literature, the review highlighted substantial sexual-orientation-related health disparities among women in Southern Africa. The findings have important implications for public health policy and research

  19. The State of Sexual Health Education in U.S. Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criniti, S.; Andelloux, M.; Woodland, M. B.; Montgomery, O. C.; Hartmann, S. Urdaneta

    2014-01-01

    Although studies have shown that patients want to receive sexual health services from their physicians, doctors often lack the knowledge and skills to discuss sexual health with their patients. There is little consistency among medical schools and residency programs in the United States regarding comprehensiveness of education on sexual health.…

  20. Impact of sexual health course on Malaysian university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, W Y

    2004-10-01

    A sexual health course was offered and taught by academic staff from the Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya during semester II of every year as a university elective course to other university students apart from medical students. The course covered a wide range of topics: adolescent sexuality, family planning and pregnancy, violence against women, alternative sexual behavior, physiology of sex, sex and the disabled, gender bias in sexuality, relationship and marriage, sexual dysfunctions, clarification of sexual attitudes and STDs and AIDS. The Sexual Knowledge and Attitude Test (SKAT-II) was used to measure students' pre- and post-course scores on sexual knowledge and attitudes. Fifty-four students who completed both the pre- and post-course tests showed a significant change in sexual knowledge and their attitudes towards sexual myths and autoeroticism. Sexual knowledge was also positively correlated with age, heterosexual relations, autoeroticism and sexual myths scores. However, sexual knowledge is negatively related to religiosity and the influence of religious beliefs on one's attitudes towards sexual matters. This study showed that the sexual health course offered does have a positive impact in increasing one's knowledge and changing one's attitudes towards sexual issues.

  1. Schools: A Missed Opportunity to Inform African American Sexual and Gender Minority Youth about Sexual Health Education and Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, India D.; Friedman, Daniela B.

    2017-01-01

    Sexual and gender minority (SGM) youth are at disproportionate risk for HIV. Schools play an integral role in educating young people about sexual health in addition to providing sexual health services. This qualitative study examined SGM youths' perception of school sexual health education and services. A total of 42 self-identified African…

  2. Adolescent Perspectives on Patient-Provider Sexual Health Communication: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoopes, Andrea J; Benson, Samantha K; Howard, Heather B; Morrison, Diane M; Ko, Linda K; Shafii, Taraneh

    2017-10-01

    Adolescents in the United States are disproportionately affected by sexually transmitted infections and unintended pregnancy. Adolescent-centered health services may reduce barriers to health care; yet, limited research has focused on adolescents' own perspectives on patient-provider communication during a sexual health visit. Twenty-four adolescents (14-19 years old) seeking care in a public health clinic in Washington State participated in one-on-one qualitative interviews. Interviews explored participants' past experiences with medical providers and their preferences regarding provider characteristics and communication strategies. Interviews revealed that (1) individual patient dynamics and (2) patient-provider interaction dynamics shape the experience during a sexual health visit. Individual patient dynamics included evolving level of maturity, autonomy, and sexual experience. Patient-provider interaction dynamics were shaped by adolescents' perceptions of providers as sources of health information who distribute valued sexual health supplies like contraception and condoms. Participant concerns about provider judgment, power differential, and lack of confidentiality also emerged as important themes. Adolescents demonstrate diverse and evolving needs for sexual health care and interactions with clinicians as they navigate sexual and emotional development.

  3. Sexual Health Attitudes, Knowledge, and Clinical Behaviors: Implications for Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Elizabeth B.

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the impact of practitioners' attitudes and knowledge of sexual health on clinical behaviors. Sexual health topics are often areas of concern for clients of any age in counseling. Thus, counselors must be trained and equipped to address sexual health across the life span. This study explored whether child and adolescent…

  4. Global health and foreign policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldbaum, Harley; Lee, Kelley; Michaud, Joshua

    2010-01-01

    Health has long been intertwined with the foreign policies of states. In recent years, however, global health issues have risen to the highest levels of international politics and have become accepted as legitimate issues in foreign policy. This elevated political priority is in many ways a welcome development for proponents of global health, and it has resulted in increased funding for and attention to select global health issues. However, there has been less examination of the tensions that characterize the relationship between global health and foreign policy and of the potential effects of linking global health efforts with the foreign-policy interests of states. In this paper, the authors review the relationship between global health and foreign policy by examining the roles of health across 4 major components of foreign policy: aid, trade, diplomacy, and national security. For each of these aspects of foreign policy, the authors review current and historical issues and discuss how foreign-policy interests have aided or impeded global health efforts. The increasing relevance of global health to foreign policy holds both opportunities and dangers for global efforts to improve health.

  5. Global Health and Foreign Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldbaum, Harley; Lee, Kelley; Michaud, Joshua

    2010-01-01

    Health has long been intertwined with the foreign policies of states. In recent years, however, global health issues have risen to the highest levels of international politics and have become accepted as legitimate issues in foreign policy. This elevated political priority is in many ways a welcome development for proponents of global health, and it has resulted in increased funding for and attention to select global health issues. However, there has been less examination of the tensions that characterize the relationship between global health and foreign policy and of the potential effects of linking global health efforts with the foreign-policy interests of states. In this paper, the authors review the relationship between global health and foreign policy by examining the roles of health across 4 major components of foreign policy: aid, trade, diplomacy, and national security. For each of these aspects of foreign policy, the authors review current and historical issues and discuss how foreign-policy interests have aided or impeded global health efforts. The increasing relevance of global health to foreign policy holds both opportunities and dangers for global efforts to improve health. PMID:20423936

  6. The Effect of "Franklin v. Gwinnett County" on Sexual Harassment Policy in Secondary Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wishnietsky, Dan H.; Felder, Dennis

    1994-01-01

    In 1992 the Supreme Court ruled that school victims of sexual harassment may collect damages. In response to a brief survey, many state superintendents indicated they had strengthened school sexual harassment policies; however, many others indicated they had neither made nor planned any changes. Includes recommendations for developing or…

  7. Revisualising 'porn': how young adults' consumption of sexually explicit Internet movies can inform approaches to Canadian sexual health promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hare, Kathleen A; Gahagan, Jacqueline; Jackson, Lois; Steenbeek, Audrey

    2015-01-01

    The Internet offers an invaluable opportunity to re-imagine ideas, constructs and disciplines to create innovative sexual health promotion interventions. To gain insight into what young adults (aged 19-28) may be seeking in online sexual resources and approaches, this study explored how young people perceived their sexual health to be influenced by their consumption of the highly utilised sexual medium of Sexually Explicit Internet Movies [SEIM]. Employing an exploratory, qualitative methodology, data were collected through semi-structured interviews with 12 urban, heterosexual young adults, who self-identified as having consumed SEIM for a period of at least one year. All interviews were audiotaped with permission, transcribed verbatim and the data were analysed to identify emergent thematic concepts. Participants described utilising SEIM as an all-inclusive sexual forum to learn more about the positive aspects of sexual health, in a context that they viewed as being devoid of alternatives. Young adults' perceptions of the utility of SEIM suggest that it would be beneficial to create novel, sex-positive online sexual health interventions. Further exploration is clearly warranted on how Internet resources that are related to sexual health, such as SEIM, can be utilised to facilitate innovative approaches to online sexual health promotion.

  8. Operationalising sexual and reproductive health and rights in sub-Saharan Africa: constraints, dilemmas and strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oronje Rose

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The continued poor sexual and reproductive health (SRH outcomes in sub-Saharan Africa highlight the difficulties in reforming policies and laws, and implementing effective programmes. This paper uses one international and two national case studies to reflect on the challenges, dilemmas and strategies used in operationalising sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR in different African contexts. Methods The international case study focuses on the progress made by African countries in implementing the African Union’s Maputo Plan of Action (for the Operationalisation of the Continental Policy Framework for Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights and the experiences of state and non-state stakeholders in this process. The case was developed from an evaluation report of the progress made by nine African countries in implementing the Plan of Action, qualitative interviews exploring stakeholders’ experiences and perceptions of the operationalisation of the plan (carried out as part of the evaluation in Botswana and Nigeria, and authors’ reflections. The first national case study explores the processes involved in influencing Ghana’s Domestic Violence Act passed in 2007; developed from a review of scientific papers and organisational publications on the processes involved in influencing the Act, qualitative interview data and authors’ reflections. The second national case study examines the experiences with introducing the 2006 Sexual Offences Act in Kenya, and it is developed from organisational publications on the processes of enacting the Act and a review of media reports on the debates and passing of the Act. Results Based on the three cases, we argue that prohibitive laws and governments’ reluctance to institute and implement comprehensive rights approaches to SRH, lack of political leadership and commitment to funding SRHR policies and programmes, and dominant negative cultural framing of women’s issues

  9. One stop shop versus collaborative integration: what is the best way of delivering sexual health services?

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, R S; Coope, C M; Graham, A; Gerressu, M; Salisbury, C; Stephenson, J M

    2006-06-01

    To examine various models of integrated and/or one stop shop (OSS) sexual health services (including general practice, mainstream specialist services, and designated young people's services) and explore their relative strengths and weaknesses. Literature review and interviews with key informants involved in developing the National Strategy for Sexual Health and HIV (n = 11). The paper focuses on five broad perspectives (logistics, public health, users, staff, and cost). Contraceptive and genitourinary medicine issues are closely related. However, there is no agreement about what is meant by having "integrated" services, about which services should be integrated, or where integration should happen. There are concerns that OSSs will result in over-centralisation, to the disadvantage of stand alone and satellite services. OSS models are potentially more user focused, but the stigma that surrounds sexual health services may create an access barrier. From staff perspectives, the advantages are greater career opportunities and increased responsibility, while the disadvantages are concern that OSSs will result in loss of expertise and professional status. Cost effectiveness data are contradictory. Although there is a policy commitment to look at how integrated services can be better developed, more evidence is required on the impact and appropriateness of this approach.

  10. 27 Sexual Health and Sexual Rights within Marriage

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    has been found between gender inequality and the sexual health conditions in .... of India who would ritually marry men of a superior caste, have numerous lovers, and ... consent of the intending spouses” and that “States Parties to the present.

  11. Introduction to the Culture, Health & Sexuality Virtual Special Issue on sex, sexuality and sex work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allman, Dan; Ditmore, Melissa Hope

    2016-05-18

    This article provides an editorial introduction to a virtual special issue on sex work and prostitution. It offers a brief history of sex work studies as published in the journal Culture, Health & Sexuality; reflects on the breadth and scope of papers the journal has published; considers the contribution of the journal's papers to the wellbeing and sexuality of people who sell sex; and envisions future areas of inquiry for sex work studies. As authors, we identify major themes within the journal's archive, including activism, agency, context, discourse, hazard, health, legalisation, love, place, power, race, relationships, stigma and vulnerabilities. In particular, we reflect on how HIV has created an environment in which issues of culture, health and sexuality have come to be disentangled from the moral agendas of earlier years. As a venue for the dissemination of a reinvigorated scholarship, Culture, Health & Sexuality provides a platform for a community of often like-minded, rigorous thinkers, to provide new and established perspectives, methods and voices and to present important developments in studies of sex, sexuality and sex work.

  12. Sexual health for people with intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastgate, Gillian

    2008-01-01

    People with intellectual disability experience the same range of sexual needs and desires as other people. However, they experience many difficulties meeting their needs. They may be discouraged from relieving sexual tension by masturbating. They face a high risk of sexual abuse. They are likely not to be offered the full range of choices for contraception and sexual health screening. Poor education and social isolation may increase their risk of committing sexual offences. However, with appropriate education and good social support, people with intellectual disability are capable of safe, constructive sexual expression and healthy relationships. Providing such support is an essential part of supporting people with intellectual disability.

  13. Are School Policies Focused on Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity Associated with Less Bullying? Teachers’ Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Stephen T.; Day, Jack K.; Ioverno, Salvatore; Toomey, Russell B.

    2016-01-01

    Bullying is common in U.S. schools and is linked to emotional, behavioral, and academic risk for school-aged students. School policies and practices focused on sexual orientation and gender identity (SOGI) have been designed to reduce bullying and show promising results. Most studies have drawn from students’ reports: We examined teachers’ reports of bullying problems in their schools along with their assessments of school safety, combined with principals’ reports of SOGI-focused policies and practices. Merging two independent sources of data from over 3,000 teachers (California School Climate Survey) and nearly 100 school principals (School Health Profiles) at the school level, we used multi-level models to understand bullying problems in schools. Our results show that SOGI-focused policies reported by principals do not have a strong independent association with teachers’ reports of bullying problems in their schools. However, in schools with more SOGI-focused policies, the association between teachers’ assessments of school safety and bullying problems is stronger. Recent developments in education law and policy in the United States and their relevance for student well-being are discussed. PMID:26790701

  14. Sexual Health Care, Sexual Behaviors and Functioning, and Female Genital Cutting: Perspectives From Somali Women Living in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Jennifer Jo; Hunt, Shanda; Finsaas, Megan; Ciesinski, Amanda; Ahmed, Amira; Robinson, Beatrice Bean E

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the sexual values, attitudes, and behaviors of 30 Somali female refugees living in a large metropolitan area of Minnesota by collecting exploratory sexual health information based on the components of the sexual health model-components posited to be essential aspects of healthy human sexuality. A Somali-born bilingual interviewer conducted the semistructured interviews in English or Somali; 22 participants chose to be interviewed in Somali. Interviews were translated, transcribed, and analyzed using descriptive statistics and thematic analyses. Our study findings highlighted a sexually conservative culture that values sexual intimacy, female and male sexual pleasure, and privacy in marriage; vaginal sexual intercourse as the only sanctioned sexual behavior; and the importance of Islamic religion in guiding sexual practices. Findings related to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) revealed HIV testing at immigration, mixed attitudes toward condom use, and moderate knowledge about HIV transmission modes. Female genital cutting (FGC) was a pervasive factor affecting sexual functioning in Somali women, with attitudes about the controversial practice in transition. We recommend that health professionals take the initiative to discuss sexual health care and safer sex, sexual behaviors/functioning, and likely challenges to sexual health with Somali women--as they may be unlikely to broach these subjects without permission and considerable encouragement.

  15. College students' preferences for health care providers when accessing sexual health resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Carolyn M; Lechner, Kate E; Frerich, Ellen A; Lust, Katherine A; Eisenberg, Marla E

    2014-01-01

    Many emerging adults (18-25 year olds) report unmet health needs and disproportionately experience problems such as sexually transmitted infections. This study was conducted to examine college students' perceptions of health care providers, specifically in the context of accessing sexual health resources. Students (N = 52) were recruited from five diverse colleges in one state to participate in a one-to-one interview that involved walking and virtually exploring resources on and near campus. Interviews were conducted from May to November 2010. Open-ended one-to-one interview questions. Inductive qualitative analysis yielded six themes summarizing students' perceptions of provider characteristics, health care resources, the role of their peers, and students' suggestions for strengthening health care services. Importantly, students consider a variety of staff-and their student peers-to be resources for sexual health information and services. Findings emphasize the importance of collaboration between health service staff and broader campus staff because students often turn to campus staff initially. Postsecondary students welcome opportunities to know a provider through interactive websites that include details about providers on campus; their decisions to seek sexual health care services are influenced by their perceptions of providers' characteristics and interpersonal skills. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. A candid conversation about men, sexual health, and diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack, Leonard

    2005-01-01

    While the profound relationship between human sexuality and diabetes can affect quality of life for both men and women, male sexual health issues in the published literature have primarily focused on physical aspects of erectile dysfunction. The purpose of this article is to move this important discussion regarding aspects of human sexuality and diabetes further to consider the absence of and need for more male-focused research. Attention is given to define and discuss how male perceptions of control and masculinity shape male views on male sex roles. The author offers 4 published explanations to explain factors that influence whether men, regardless of age, nationality, or ethnic group, initiate help-seeking behaviors for sexual health concerns. These explanations can help health care professionals have candid, consistent, and nonjudgmental conversations with their patients and each other. This article concludes with strong recommendations that health care providers engage patients in timely conversations, jointly select and implement tailored treatment options, and, when necessary, link patients with social support systems to maximize improvements in both physical and psychological aspects of sexual health.

  17. Latino community health workers and the promotion of sexual and reproductive health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechuga, Julia; Garcia, Dina; Owczarzak, Jill; Barker, Maria; Benson, Meghan

    2015-05-01

    Community health worker (CHW) programs have existed for over 50 years across the world. However, only recently has research evidence documented their effectiveness. Research is still needed to identify issues related to implementation and sustainability of CHW programs. This article explores the role and challenges of U.S. Latino CHWs trained to deliver a comprehensive sexual and reproductive health educational intervention to Latino families. We conducted a semistructured interview with a purposive convenience sample of 19 CHWs. Findings suggest that CHWs occupy roles that go beyond those they were trained for. CHWs serve not only as educators but also as providers of social support, facilitators of access to resources, patient navigators, and civil rights advocates. Lack of clarity of the role of a CHW influenced perceptions of adequacy of compensation, training, and integration into the agency that trained them. Policy facilitating the standardization of the CHW occupational category and role expectations is imperative to ensure successful implementation and sustainability of U.S. CHW programs. © 2015 Society for Public Health Education.

  18. Use of social media for sexual health promotion: a scoping review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabarron, Elia; Wynn, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    Background In order to prevent sexually transmitted infections (STIs), the World Health Organization recommends educating people on sexual health. With more than 2 billion active users worldwide, online social media potentially represent powerful channels for health promotion, including sexual health. Objective To review the scientific literature on the use of online social media for sexual health promotion. Design A search was conducted of scientific and medical databases, and grey literature was also included. The selected publications were classified according to their study designs, sexual health promotion main subject, target audience age, and social media use. Results Fifty-one publications were included; 4 publications presenting randomized intervention studies, 39 non-randomized intervention studies, and 8 observational studies. In 29 publications (56.9%), the main subject of the sexual health promotion was ‘general’ or to increase STI testing. Thirty publications (58.8%) specifically focused on youth or young people (aged 11–29 years). Fourteen publications that used social media either as unique channels for sexual health promotion interventions or as a tool supporting the sexual health promotion reported an effect on behavior (27%), and two of those studies found a reduction in the number of positive chlamydia and gonorrhea cases linked to social media intervention. Forty-four publications (86.3%) involved Facebook in some way. Conclusions Although billions of people worldwide actively use social media, we identified only 51 publications on the use of social media for promoting sexual health. About a quarter of the publications have identified promising results, and the evidence for positive effects of social media interventions for promoting sexual health is increasing. There is a need for more studies that explicitly discuss their theoretical framework, and that have strong research designs, in order to further increase the evidence base of the

  19. Use of social media for sexual health promotion: a scoping review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elia Gabarron

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: In order to prevent sexually transmitted infections (STIs, the World Health Organization recommends educating people on sexual health. With more than 2 billion active users worldwide, online social media potentially represent powerful channels for health promotion, including sexual health. Objective: To review the scientific literature on the use of online social media for sexual health promotion. Design: A search was conducted of scientific and medical databases, and grey literature was also included. The selected publications were classified according to their study designs, sexual health promotion main subject, target audience age, and social media use. Results: Fifty-one publications were included; 4 publications presenting randomized intervention studies, 39 non-randomized intervention studies, and 8 observational studies. In 29 publications (56.9%, the main subject of the sexual health promotion was ‘general’ or to increase STI testing. Thirty publications (58.8% specifically focused on youth or young people (aged 11–29 years. Fourteen publications that used social media either as unique channels for sexual health promotion interventions or as a tool supporting the sexual health promotion reported an effect on behavior (27%, and two of those studies found a reduction in the number of positive chlamydia and gonorrhea cases linked to social media intervention. Forty-four publications (86.3% involved Facebook in some way. Conclusions: Although billions of people worldwide actively use social media, we identified only 51 publications on the use of social media for promoting sexual health. About a quarter of the publications have identified promising results, and the evidence for positive effects of social media interventions for promoting sexual health is increasing. There is a need for more studies that explicitly discuss their theoretical framework, and that have strong research designs, in order to further increase the

  20. Use of social media for sexual health promotion: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabarron, Elia; Wynn, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    In order to prevent sexually transmitted infections (STIs), the World Health Organization recommends educating people on sexual health. With more than 2 billion active users worldwide, online social media potentially represent powerful channels for health promotion, including sexual health. To review the scientific literature on the use of online social media for sexual health promotion. A search was conducted of scientific and medical databases, and grey literature was also included. The selected publications were classified according to their study designs, sexual health promotion main subject, target audience age, and social media use. Fifty-one publications were included; 4 publications presenting randomized intervention studies, 39 non-randomized intervention studies, and 8 observational studies. In 29 publications (56.9%), the main subject of the sexual health promotion was 'general' or to increase STI testing. Thirty publications (58.8%) specifically focused on youth or young people (aged 11-29 years). Fourteen publications that used social media either as unique channels for sexual health promotion interventions or as a tool supporting the sexual health promotion reported an effect on behavior (27%), and two of those studies found a reduction in the number of positive chlamydia and gonorrhea cases linked to social media intervention. Forty-four publications (86.3%) involved Facebook in some way. Although billions of people worldwide actively use social media, we identified only 51 publications on the use of social media for promoting sexual health. About a quarter of the publications have identified promising results, and the evidence for positive effects of social media interventions for promoting sexual health is increasing. There is a need for more studies that explicitly discuss their theoretical framework, and that have strong research designs, in order to further increase the evidence base of the field.

  1. Inuit family understandings of sexual health and relationships in Nunavut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healey, Gwen K

    2014-04-16

    To explore Inuit family understandings of sexual health and relationships in order to inform responsive public health interventions that are designed to meet the needs of Nunavummiut. A qualitative indigenous knowledge approach was used for this study with a focus on Inuit epistemology and methodology, as described in the Piliriqatigiinniq Community Health Research Partnership Model. Interviews were conducted with 20 parents in three Nunavut communities in 2011. An immersion and crystallization analytical approach was used to analyze the data and to identify groupings or themes in the data. The stories shared by parents are honoured, keeping their words intact as often as possible in the presentation of results. Parents in this study largely discussed sexual health in the context of historical community events related to settlement and/or residential schools. Residential schools and forced settlement into communities were linked to trauma, family separation, hardship and grief. These experiences were prominent in participants' understandings of sexual health and perceptions of sexual health behaviours among youth in the community. This study highlights the complexity of the landscape of sexual health in Nunavut and the need for public health approaches that are inclusive of Inuit family perspectives on sexual health. Greater understanding of historical and community context can contribute to the development of pertinent, evidence-based public health interventions that will meet the needs of the population.

  2. Ethical considerations in sexual health research: A narrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Shirmohammadi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is an assumption that sexual health research has great influence on the quality of human life through elevating sexual health standards, and their results will eliminate the burden of sexual health challenges on family relationships. The aim of this study was to review ethical considerations in sexual health research. Materials and Methods: This narrative review was conducted between January 1990 and December 2017 based on the five-step approach of York University. The keywords used to search for the studies included ethical issues, research, sexual health, reproductive health, and sensitive topics. The language of the literatures was English and the search process was performed on PubMed, Elsevier, Ovid, Springer, Google Scholar, ResearchGate, SAGE Publishing, ProQuest, WHO website, Kinsey Confidential, and Worldsexology. Results: After assessing the quality and eligibility of 94 articles, 13 were selected. The results of the present study showed that the most important ethical considerations were protecting the confidentiality and privacy of participants, obtaining informed consent, and paying attention to vulnerable people. Conclusions: The review of literature exhibited several considerations that sexual health researchers are faced with. In order to manage these considerations, the researcher should have sufficient understanding of them. The important matter is that strategies to manage these challenges should be completely rational and practical according to each context. These strategies can also be applied in other societies with great similarities in their context.

  3. Operational Definitions of Sexual Orientation and Estimates of Adolescent Health Risk Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Derrick D.; Blosnich, John R.; Farmer, Grant W.; Adams, Brian J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Increasing attention to the health of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) populations comes with requisite circumspection about measuring sexual orientation in surveys. However, operationalizing these variables also requires considerable thought. This research sought to document the consequences of different operational definitions of sexual orientation by examining variation in health risk behaviors. Methods Using Massachusetts Youth Risk Behavior Survey data, we examined how operational definitions of sexual behavior and sexual identity influenced differences among three health behaviors known to disparately affect LGB populations: smoking, suicide risk, and methamphetamine use. Sexual behavior and sexual identity were also examined together to explore if they captured unique sources of variability in behavior. Results Estimates of health disparities changed as a result of using either sexual behavior or sexual identity. Youth who reported their sexual identity as “not sure” also had increased odds of health risk behavior. Disaggregating bisexual identity and behavior from same-sex identity and behavior frequently resulted in the attenuation or elimination of health disparities that would have otherwise been attributable to exclusively same-sex sexual minorities. Finally, sexual behavior and sexual identity explained unique and significant sources of variability in all three health behaviors. Conclusion Researchers using different operational definitions of sexual orientation could draw different conclusions, even when analyzing the same data, depending upon how they chose to represent sexual orientation in analyses. We discuss implications that these manipulations have on data interpretation and provide specific recommendations for best-practices when analyzing sexual orientation data collected from adolescent populations. PMID:25110718

  4. Sexual health and relationships after age 60.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minkin, Mary Jane

    2016-01-01

    A commonly used phrase describing aging is "60 is the new 40". Although in many aspects of life this may be correct, in discussing sexual health, challenges to maintaining excellent sexual health become more common around age 60. Biological aging challenges physical sexual activity and responsiveness. We commence by briefly surveying the extensive coverage of 'normal' physiological aging. We primarily focus on issues that arise in distinct disease and or pathophysiological states, including gynecological and breast cancer, as well as those associated with partners of men who are either prostate cancer survivors or who have taken therapy for erectile dysfunction (ED). Regrettably, there is a very modest literature on sexual health and associated possible interventions in older patients in these cohorts. We discuss a variety of interventions and approaches, including those that we have developed and applied in a clinic at our host university, which have generally produced successful outcomes. The extended focus to sexual relationship dynamics in partners of men with either prostate cancer or ED in particular is virtually unexplored, yet is especially timely given the large numbers of women who encounter this situation. Finally, we briefly discuss cross-cultural distinctions in older couples' expectations, which exhibit remarkable variation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of Sexual Education on Sexual Health in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnam, Farnaz; Pakgohar, Minoo; Mirmohamadali, Mandana; Mahmoodi, Mahmood

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of a special sex education program in sexual health on Iranian newly-wed couples. A sample of 64 couples referred to three health centers of Tehran Medicine University, a few months prior to their marriage, were divided into case and control groups. The case group received three lecture sessions…

  6. The effect of comprehensive sexual education program on sexual health knowledge and sexual attitude among college students in southwest China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chi, X.; Hawk, S.T.; Winter, S.; Meeus, W.H.J.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether a comprehensive sexual education program for college students in Southwest China (a) improved sexual health knowledge in reproduction, contraception, condom use, sexually transmitted diseases, and HIV; (b) increased accepting attitudes toward

  7. The effect of comprehensive sexual education program on sexual health knowledge and sexual attitude among college students in Southwest China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chi, Xinli; Hawk, Skyler T; Winter, Sam; Meeus, Wim

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether a comprehensive sexual education program for college students in Southwest China (a) improved sexual health knowledge in reproduction, contraception, condom use, sexually transmitted diseases, and HIV; (b) increased accepting attitudes toward

  8. Childhood Sexual Abuse in Adolescents Adjudicated for Sexual Offenses: Mental Health Consequences and Sexual Offending Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais, Hugo B; Alexander, Apryl A; Fix, Rebecca L; Burkhart, Barry R

    2018-02-01

    Most studies on the mental health consequences of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) focus predominantly on CSA survivors who do not commit sexual offenses. The current study examined the effects of CSA on 498 male adolescents adjudicated for sexual offenses who represent the small portion of CSA survivors who engage in sexual offenses. The prevalence of internalizing symptoms, parental attachment difficulties, specific sexual offending behaviors, and risk for sexually offending were compared among participants with and without a history of CSA. Results indicated that participants with a history of CSA were more likely to be diagnosed with major depression and posttraumatic stress disorder than those who did not report a history of CSA. A history of CSA was also positively correlated with risk for sexually offending and with specific offense patterns and consensual sexual behaviors. No significant differences emerged on parental attachment difficulties. These results highlight that adolescents adjudicated for sexual offenses with a history of CSA present with differences in sexual and psychological functioning as well as markedly different offending patterns when compared with those without a CSA history. Clinical implications and future directions are discussed.

  9. Young adult sexual health: current and prior sexual behaviours among non-Hispanic white US college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Jenny A; Trussell, James; Moore, Nelwyn B; Davidson, J Kenneth

    2010-03-01

    Less is known about the sexual health of young adults than about adolescents, despite 20 to 24-year-olds' greater risk of unintended pregnancy and sexually transmissible infections. This paper provides information on college students' prior and current sexual practices including oral sex, vaginal intercourse, anal intercourse and masturbation. We analysed data from a cross-sectional sexuality survey of students from two university campuses in the USA, one Mid-western and one South-western (n = 1504). The sample consisted of non-Hispanic white, never-married students who identified as heterosexual. Of 16 possible combinations of four sexual activities (solitary masturbation, oral sex, vaginal intercourse and anal intercourse), only four contained more than 5% of respondents: masturbation, oral sex and vaginal intercourse (37%); oral sex and vaginal intercourse only (20%); all four (14%); and none (8%). Twenty percent had ever engaged in anal intercourse. Women were significantly less likely than men to have ever masturbated (48 v. 92%). Analyses exhibited several sexual health challenges, including lack of verbal sexual consent, alcohol use proximal to sex and lack of contraceptive use. Although few young adults are substituting it for vaginal intercourse, anal intercourse is increasingly common and safer sex efforts should encourage condom use during both sexual activities. Masturbation should be encouraged as an alternative to higher risk sexual practices and an essential aspect of sexual well being. Finally, practitioners should continue to address specific threats to college students' sexual health, including alcohol use and non-verbal consent.

  10. How do sexual harassment policies shape gender beliefs? An exploration of the moderating effects of norm adherence and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinkler, Justine E

    2013-09-01

    Sexual harassment laws have led to important organizational changes in the workplace yet research continues to document resistance to their implementation and backlash against the people who mobilize such laws. Employing experimental research methods, this study proposes and tests a theory specifying the mechanisms through which sexual harassment policies affect gender beliefs. The findings show evidence that sexual harassment policies strengthen unequal gender beliefs among men and women most committed to traditional gender interaction norms. I also find that men and women's different structural locations in the status hierarchy lead to different, but related sets of concerns about the status threats posed by sexual harassment policies. By specifying the social psychological processes through which sexual harassment law affects beliefs about men and women, this study sets the stage for investigating ways to make laws designed to reduce inequality between social groups more effective. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. [Ethic evaluation of sexual health programs on adolescence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jara Rascón, José; Alonso Sandoica, Esmeralda

    2011-01-01

    In public health services, the interest in sexuality seems to turning from traditional topics such as potential treatments for male erectile dysfunction, psychosomatic disorders, the control of premature ejaculation and contraception. Instead, an increasingly prominent role is being given to prevention strategies carried out by means of campaigns or through sexual health programme sin schools. The different teaching strategies that underlie these programmes, which in many cases lack social consensus but are often promoted by international organizations such as WHO or UNESCO, reveal not only divergent ethical conceptions and worldviews on the meaning of sexuality, but also conflicting starting points, means and goals, focusing either on barrier-contraceptive methods or on sexual abstinence and personal responsibility. There is therefore a pressing need to understand the scientific evidence underlying each educational approach and the ethical postulates of each pedagogical proposal. This paper presents an outline of a six-point adolescent sexuality education program, which is respectful of individuals' ethical convictions. Given that few works on preventive medicine issues include an ethical evaluation of the steps followed in their development, this article also proposes a systematic evaluation of strategies for sexual health in the community that is developed through four steps verifying the following aspects: 1) the accuracy of information, 2) the level of evidence, 3) efficiency and 4) non-maleficence about the target population of each health program. The methodology used in these sexual health programs is another aspect that will verify their ethical consistence or, conversely, their absence of ethical values. We emphasize the duty of designers of programme for children not to carry then out against the will of their parents or tutors, and not conceal sensitive and relevant information.

  12. Nursing, sexual health and youth with disabilities: a critical ethnography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Janet; Holmes, Dave

    2014-01-01

    To explore the experiences of nurses providing sexual health care to adolescents with physical and/or developmental disabilities, with attention to the institutional and social discourses that shape these interactions. Previous research has shown that nurses demonstrate a lack of attention to the impact of illness or disability on sexual health. However, in their therapeutic relationship with patients and families, nurses are in an ideal position to promote sexual health. A critical ethnography study was conducted in an urban paediatric rehabilitative facility. Field work occurred over 4 months (2008-2009) and data collection included interviews (n = 9), key informant discussions, collection of documentary evidence and observation of the institutional setting. Four themes were identified (institutional space, professional interactions, engaging with sexuality, nursing experience), which revealed that nurse-patient interactions about sexual health were affected by a complex network of discourses. These encounters were shaped by practical discourses, such as time and space and by more complex discourses, such as professional relationships, normalization and asexuality. Nurses occupy and strive to maintain, the role of a caring agent. However, aspects of the clinical, institutional and broader social environments may undermine their ability to promote sexual health. In nurses' efforts to maintain therapeutic relationships with clients, sexual health is often medicalised to legitimize it as an appropriate topic of discussion with patients and families. Facilities serving youth with disabilities should take steps to address barriers to the delivery of sexual health promotion and several solutions are proposed. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Violence, sexual abuse and health in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Curtis, Tine; Larsen, Finn B; Helweg-Larsen, Karin

    2002-01-01

    The purposes of the study were to analyse the lifetime prevalence of violence and sexual abuse among the Inuit in Greenland and to study the associations between health and having been the victim of violence or sexual abuse. Associations were studied with specific attention to possible differences...... between women and men. Further, response rates were analysed specifically in order to understand consequences of including questions on violence and sexual abuse in the questionnaire survey. The analyses were based on material from a cross-sectional health interview survey conducted during 1993......-94 with participation from a random sample of the Inuit population in Greenland (N = 1393). The prevalence of ever having been a victim of violence was 47% among women and 48% among men. Women had more often than men been sexually abused (25% and 6%) (p abused in childhood (8...

  14. Sexual behaviours and preconception health in Italian university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Poscia

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Risky sexual behaviours have been recognized as a threat for sexual and reproductive health. AIM: This article shows the results of the "Sportello Salute Giovani" project ("Youth Health Information Desk" in relation to determining how a large sample of university students in Italy cope with preconception health, especially in the domains of sexual transmitted infections (STIs, fertility and vaccination preventable disease. METHODS: Twentythree questions of the "Sportello Salute Giovani" survey about sexual behaviour and reproductive health were analysed. Besides, results were stratified for sex, age class and socio-economic status. RESULTS: 19.7% of students have had first sexual intercourse before age 15. 21.8% of female students used emergency contraception. 66.4% of the 74.0% sexual active students reported using contraceptives, but about 32% of them used methods ineffective against STIs. A general low coverage for rubella, measles and mumps vaccination was revealed. 63.7% of men and 30.9% of woman never had urologic or gynaecological examinations. DISCUSSION: Overall, young adults in Italy are not still enough sensitized on fertility and preconception care. High schools and universities should increase awareness towards preservation of male and female fertility and preconception care.

  15. Sexual harassment and health among male and female police officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haas, Stans; Timmerman, Greetje; Höing, Mechtild

    2009-10-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate whether sexual harassment is related to mental and physical health of both men and women, and to explore the possible moderating effects of gender on the relation between sexual harassment and health. In addition, we investigated whether women were more often bothered by sexual harassment than men, and whether victims who report being bothered by the harassment experience more health problems compared to victims who did not feel bothered. A representative sample of 3,001 policemen and 1,295 policewomen in the Dutch police force filled out an Internet questionnaire. It appeared that women were more often bothered by sexual harassment than men, but gender did not moderate the relation between sexual harassment and mental and physical health. In addition, victims who felt bothered by the harassing behaviors reported more mental and physical health problems than victims who did not feel bothered. The distinction between bothered and nonbothered victims is important because appraisal is an essential aspect in the operationalization of sexual harassment. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  16. Leprosy: International Public Health Policies and Public Health Eras

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    Niyi Awofeso

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Public health policies continue to play important roles in national and international health reforms. However, the influence and legacies of the public health eras during which such policies are formulated remain largely underappreciated. The limited appreciation of this relationship may hinder consistent adoption of public health policies by nation-states, and encumber disinvestment from ineffective or anachronistic policies. This article reviews seven public health eras and highlights how each era has influenced international policy formulation for leprosy control—“the fertile soil for policy learning”. The author reiterates the role of health leadership and health activism in facilitating consistency in international health policy formulation and implementation for leprosy control.

  17. Health workers' attitudes toward sexual and reproductive health services for unmarried adolescents in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilahun, Mesfin; Mengistie, Bezatu; Egata, Gudina; Reda, Ayalu A

    2012-09-03

    Adolescents in developing countries face a range of sexual and reproductive health problems. Lack of health care service for reproductive health or difficulty in accessing them are among them. In this study we aimed to examine health care workers' attitudes toward sexual and reproductive health services to unmarried adolescents in Ethiopia. We conducted a descriptive cross-sectional survey among 423 health care service providers working in eastern Ethiopia in 2010. A pre-tested structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Descriptive statistics, chi-square tests and logistic regression were performed to drive proportions and associations. The majority of health workers had positive attitudes. However, nearly one third (30%) of health care workers had negative attitudes toward providing RH services to unmarried adolescents. Close to half (46.5%) of the respondents had unfavorable responses toward providing family planning to unmarried adolescents. About 13% of health workers agreed to setting up penal rules and regulations against adolescents that practice pre-marital sexual intercourse. The multivariate analysis indicated that being married (OR 2.15; 95% CI 1.44 - 3.06), lower education level (OR 1.45; 95% CI 1.04 - 1.99), being a health extension worker (OR 2.49; 95% CI 1.43 - 4.35), lack of training on reproductive health services (OR 5.27; 95% CI 1.51 - 5.89) to be significantly associated with negative attitudes toward provision of sexual and reproductive services to adolescents. The majority of the health workers had generally positive attitudes toward sexual and reproductive health to adolescents. However, a minority has displayed negatives attitudes. Such negative attitudes will be barriers to service utilization by adolescents and hampers the efforts to reduce sexually transmitted infections and unwanted pregnancies among unmarried adolescents. We therefore call for a targeted effort toward alleviating negative attitudes toward adolescent

  18. SEXUAL HEALTH BEHAVIORS OF ADOLESCENTS IN POKHARA, NEPAL

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    Shrestha Niranjan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adolescent (10–19 years is a transition of age during which hazardous sexual health behaviors may be adopted; increasing vulnerability to several kinds of behavioral disorders like drug use, unsafe sexual act leading to reproductive ill health. Objective of the study was to assess sexual health behaviors of adolescents in Pokhara, Nepal. METHODS: An institution based cross-sectional study was conducted among 15–19 years adolescents studying in grades 11 and 12. Probability sampling techniques were applied. A structured, pretested, envelope sealed self administered questionnaire was distributed among all (1584 adolescents of the 11 and 12 grades of selected institutions. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (16 versions. Descriptive and inferential statistics were applied. RESULTS: About 19.37% adolescents had sexual contact and male participation was higher than females (P<0.05. Nearly one fifth of unmarried were found to be involved in sexual activities and most of them had first sex between 15-19 years age (median age 15.26 years. Of those who had sex, 6.91% had adopted all the three: vaginal, oral and anal sexes and majority had single followed by 2-5 sex partners in their sexual intercourse in the last one year and last month. About 13.93% adolescents were found to be indulged in group sex. Most of them had sex with regular partners and commercial sex workers. More than eight out of every ten who had sex had used contraceptive methods and condom was method of choice (94.77%. CONCLUSIONS: Premarital sexual involvement was prevalent among adolescents; sex with commercial sex workers and non commercial sex partners was perceived to be risk. Behavior change intervention strategies need to be formulated and implemented to promote adolescent reproductive and sexual health.

  19. Sexual harassment in the work place: Its impact on gynecologic oncology and women's health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Gruenigen, Vivian E; Karlan, Beth Y

    2018-05-01

    For the last few months, media and news outlets have exposed prominent professionals in many settings who have taken advantage of their status of power and influence to engage in sexual harassment and discrimination in the workplace. In medicine, harassment may include many types of health professionals including physicians, nurses, medical students, colleagues and even patients. Programs for sexual harassment prevention, education and training vary between industries, workplaces, medical schools and hospitals. It is imperative to engage men and women in awareness, education, empowerment of the bystander and movement for cultural change. A grass roots effort should be started by each of us to reach out to our academic institutions, health systems and private practices to review policy, education and codes of conduct. We have the ability to embrace improvement around gender and diversity in our words and actions. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Culture Clash? Investigating constructions of sexual and reproductive health from the perspective of 1.5 generation migrants in Australia using Q methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dune, T; Perz, J; Mengesha, Z; Ayika, D

    2017-04-04

    ' country of origin are maintained it has a significant influence on how 1.5 generation migrants construct, experience and understand various aspects of sexual and reproductive health. Policy makers, health care professionals and resettlement service providers are advised to engage with migrant parents and youth in exploring, discussing, reframing and reconstructing SRH in an Australian context.

  1. Effect of same-sex marriage laws on health care use and expenditures in sexual minority men: a quasi-natural experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzenbuehler, Mark L; O'Cleirigh, Conall; Grasso, Chris; Mayer, Kenneth; Safren, Steven; Bradford, Judith

    2012-02-01

    We sought to determine whether health care use and expenditures among gay and bisexual men were reduced following the enactment of same-sex marriage laws in Massachusetts in 2003. We used quasi-experimental, prospective data from 1211 sexual minority male patients in a community-based health center in Massachusetts. In the 12 months after the legalization of same-sex marriage, sexual minority men had a statistically significant decrease in medical care visits (mean = 5.00 vs mean = 4.67; P = .05; Cohen's d = 0.17), mental health care visits (mean = 24.72 vs mean = 22.20; P = .03; Cohen's d = 0.35), and mental health care costs (mean = $2442.28 vs mean = $2137.38; P = .01; Cohen's d = 0.41), compared with the 12 months before the law change. These effects were not modified by partnership status, indicating that the health effect of same-sex marriage laws was similar for partnered and nonpartnered men. Policies that confer protections to same-sex couples may be effective in reducing health care use and costs among sexual minority men.

  2. Home-based carers’ perceptions of health promotion on sexual health communication in Vhembe District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorah U. Ramathuba

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The introduction of home-based care in rural communities in the 1980s contributed immensely toward the upliftment of the personal and environmental health of communities. Women’s groups provided health promotion skills and health education to communities and made a difference in health-related behaviour change. Objective: The purpose of the study was to explore and describe the home-based carers’ perception regarding health promotion concerning sexual health communication in Vhembe district, in the context of HIV, amongst communities still rooted in their culture. Method: A qualitative, explorative and descriptive design was used in order to understand home-based carers’ perceptions regarding health promotion on sexual health communication amongst rural communities which may adversely impact on health promotion practices. The population were home-based organisations in Vhembe. The sample was purposive and randomly selected and data were gathered through semi-structured face-to-face interviews and focus groups which determined data saturation. Open coding was used for analysis of data. Results: The results indicated that sexual communication was absent in most relationships and was not seen as necessary amongst married couples. Socioeconomic conditions, power inequity and emotional dependence had a negative impact on decision making and sexual communication. Conclusion: This study, therefore, recommends that educational and outreach efforts should focus on motivating change by improving the knowledge base of home-based carers. Since they are health promoters, they should be able to change the perceptions of the communities toward sexually-transmitted infections and HIV by promoting sexual health communication.

  3. Is oral health a risk factor for sexual health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastham, Jane; Seymour, Robin

    2015-03-01

    New evidence suggests that the extent and severity of periodontal disease may be a significant risk factor for erectile dysfunction, sperm motility and time to conception. This paper reviews the evidence and informs members of the dental team when dealing with this sensitive issue. As more research is forthcoming the topic of oral and sexual health is likely to be part of regular routine medical screening. Any issue concerning oral health as a risk factor for sexual health is likely to be a sensitive subject, rarely discussed in the dental setting. However, as new evidence emerges, this topic is likely to get into the public domain. All members of the dental team should be aware of such an association. Clinical Relevance: Furthermore, the information in this paper may provide further incentive for certain patients to improve their oral health.

  4. Sexual Health Information Seeking Online Among Runaway and Homeless Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barman-Adhikari, Anamika; Rice, Eric

    2011-06-01

    Research shows runaway and homeless youth are reluctant to seek help from traditional health providers. The Internet can be useful in engaging this population and meeting their needs for sexual health information, including information about HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Using a sample of homeless youth living in Los Angeles, California in June 2009, this study assesses the frequency with which runaway and homeless youth seek sexual health information via the Internet, and assesses which youth are more likely to engage in seeking health information from online sources. Drawing from Andersen's (1968) health behavior model and Pescosolido's (1992) network episode model, we develop and refine a model for seeking online sexual health information among homeless youth. Rather than testing the predicative strength of a given model, our aim is to identify and explore conceptually driven correlates that may shed light on the characteristics associated with these help seeking behaviors among homeless youth. Analyses using multivariate logistic regression models reveal that among the sample of youth, females and gay males most frequently seek sexual health information online. We demonstrate the structure of social network ties (e.g., connection with parents) and the content of interactions (e.g., e-mail forwards of health information) across ties are critical correlates of online sexual health information seeking. Results show a continued connection with parents via the Internet is significantly associated with youth seeking HIV or STI information. Similarly for content of interactions, more youth who were sent health information online also reported seeking HIV information and HIV-testing information. We discuss implications for intervention and practice, focusing on how the Internet may be used for dissemination of sexual health information and as a resource for social workers to link transient, runaway, and homeless youth to care.

  5. Understanding health policy leaders' training needs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carey Roth Bayer

    Full Text Available We assessed the training needs of health policy leaders and practitioners across career stages; identified areas of core content for health policy training programs; and, identified training modalities for health policy leaders.We convened a focus group of health policy leaders at varying career stages to inform the development of the Health Policy Leaders' Training Needs Assessment tool. We piloted and distributed the tool electronically. We used descriptive statistics and thematic coding for analysis.Seventy participants varying in age and stage of career completed the tool. "Cost implications of health policies" ranked highest for personal knowledge development and "intersection of policy and politics" ranked highest for health policy leaders in general. "Effective communication skills" ranked as the highest skill element and "integrity" as the highest attribute element. Format for training varied based on age and career stage.This study highlighted the training needs of health policy leaders personally as well as their perceptions of the needs for training health policy leaders in general. The findings are applicable for current health policy leadership training programs as well as those in development.

  6. Making the invisible visible: a systematic review of sexual minority women’s health in Southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Muller

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the past two decades research on sexual and gender minority (lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender; LGBT health has highlighted substantial health disparities based on sexual orientation and gender identity in many parts of the world. We systematically reviewed the literature on sexual minority women’s (SMW health in Southern Africa, with the objective of identifying existing evidence and pointing out knowledge gaps around the health of this vulnerable group in this region. Methods A systematic review of publications in English, French, Portuguese or German, indexed in PubMed or MEDLINE between the years 2000 and 2015, following PRISMA guidelines. Additional studies were identified by searching bibliographies of identified studies. Search terms included (Lesbian OR bisexual OR “women who have sex with women”, (HIV OR depression OR “substance use” OR “substance abuse” OR “mental health” OR suicide OR anxiety OR cancer, and geographical specification. All empirical studies that used quantitative or qualitative methods, which contributed to evidence for SMW’s health in one, a few or all of the countries, were included. Theoretical and review articles were excluded. Data were extracted independently by 2 researchers using predefined data fields, which included a risk of bias/quality assessment. Results Of 315 hits, 9 articles were selected for review and a further 6 were identified through bibliography searches. Most studies were conducted with small sample sizes in South Africa and focused on sexual health. SMW included in the studies were racially and socio-economically heterogeneous. Studies focused predominately on young populations, and highlighted substance use and violence as key health issues for SMW in Southern Africa. Conclusions Although there are large gaps in the literature, the review highlighted substantial sexual-orientation-related health disparities among women in Southern Africa. The

  7. Moving towards a new vision: implementation of a public health policy intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruta Valaitis

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Public health systems in Canada have undergone significant policy renewal over the last decade in response to threats to the public’s health, such as severe acute respiratory syndrome. There is limited research on how public health policies have been implemented or what has influenced their implementation. This paper explores policy implementation in two exemplar public health programs -chronic disease prevention and sexually-transmitted infection prevention - in Ontario, Canada. It examines public health service providers’, managers’ and senior managements’ perspectives on the process of implementation of the Ontario Public Health Standards 2008 and factors influencing implementation. Methods Public health staff from six health units representing rural, remote, large and small urban settings were included. We conducted 21 focus groups and 18 interviews between 2010 (manager and staff focus groups and 2011 (senior management interviews involving 133 participants. Research assistants coded transcripts and researchers reviewed these; the research team discussed and resolved discrepancies. To facilitate a breadth of perspectives, several team members helped interpret the findings. An integrated knowledge translation approach was used, reflected by the inclusion of academics as well as decision-makers on the team and as co-authors. Results Front line service providers often were unaware of the new policies but managers and senior management incorporated them in operational and program planning. Some participants were involved in policy development or provided feedback prior to their launch. Implementation was influenced by many factors that aligned with Greenhalgh and colleagues’ empirically-based Diffusion of Innovations in Service Organizations Framework. Factors and related components that were most clearly linked to the OPHS policy implementation were: attributes of the innovation itself; adoption by individuals

  8. [Health and health-related behaviors according to sexual attraction and behavior].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Glòria; Martí-Pastor, Marc; Gotsens, Mercè; Bartoll, Xavier; Diez, Elia; Borrell, Carme

    2015-01-01

    to Describe perceived health, mental health and certain health-related behaviors according to sexual attraction and behavior in the population residing in Barcelona in 2011. Perceived health, mental health, chronic conditions and health-related behaviors were analyzed in 2675 people aged 15 to 64 years. The Barcelona Health Survey for 2011 was used, which included questions on sexual attraction and behavior. Multivariate robust Poisson regression models were fitted to obtain adjusted prevalence ratios. People feeling same-sex attraction reported a higher prevalence of worse perceived and mental health. These people and those who had had sex with persons of the same sex more frequently reported harmful health-related behaviors. Lesbian, gay, transgender and bisexual people may have health problems that should be explored in depth, prevented, and attended. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  9. Sexual health knowledge, sexual relationships and condom use among male trekking guides in Nepal: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simkhada, Padam; van Teijlingen, Edwin R; Regmi, Pramod R; Bhatta, Prakash

    2010-01-01

    People in Nepal generally hold fairly traditional views about sex and sexual health, whilst Western tourists often have a more liberal approach towards sex and relationships. There is evidence that significant sexual interaction occurs between male trekking guides and female travellers and/or local female sex workers in Nepal. This qualitative study explored trekking guides' sexual health knowledge, sexual relationships and condom use with female trekkers and local female sex workers. A total of 21 in-depth interviews were conducted with male trekking guides. Most reported having had sexual relationships with female trekkers and local female sex workers. Explanations for intercourse with female trekkers included: financial support; getting future trekkers through word-of-mouth advertising from the women they have had sex with; and opportunities for emigration. Interestingly, sexual intercourse is reported as more likely to be initiated by female trekkers than by guides, and more so by older women. In contrast, the main reasons for having sex with local female sex workers included: romantic love or sexual excitement and novelty. Awareness regarding sexual health was high among guides, but several factors discouraged the regular use of condoms. Further research with female tourists would help understand the motivations and reasons for their sexual behaviour.

  10. Thai men's health and sexual attitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongkanand, Apichat; Permpongkosol, Sompol; Tantiwongse, Kavirach

    2011-07-01

    Men's health awareness, including the research and study of quality of life, sexual desires and risk factors, has increased worldwide. In Thailand, this advancement is made possible by cooperation, research and sponsorship from the local Thai community. This article aims to illustrate the sexual attitudes of Thai people, to determine the degree of erectile dysfunction (ED) and to investigate how to manage and cope with ED in a Thai community. We reviewed the relevant literature from Thai-based articles and surveys in regard to men's health, sexual attitudes, the prevalence of ED and common risk factors in the Thai community. The primary risk factor for ED in Thai men was age-related health decline and the presence of vascular disease. Most Thai men will seek consultation from their partner in regard to ED. The main presentation of metabolic disease in Thai patients was dyslipidemia. New selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are not available for premature ejaculation in Thai communities. The debate in regard to malpractice compensation is an issue that should be closely monitored. There is currently a shortage of home care for the elderly in Thailand. The insights provided by the articles helped recruit the study patients and in turn, helped us gain knowledge that can be translated into improved men's health care in Thailand.

  11. Sexuality Education Goes Viral: What We Know about Online Sexual Health Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holstrom, Amelia M.

    2015-01-01

    Internet use among young people in the United States is nearly ubiquitous; they are online from home computers, from school computers, and from mobile devices. This offers incredible opportunity for sexual health educators to access individuals who are at a critical time in sexual development over the life course. Currently, the research base on…

  12. Sexual Health of Women with Spinal Cord Injury in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huib Cornielje

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To identify factors influencing the sexual health of women with spinal cord injury (SCI in Bangladesh.Methods: This study used both qualitative and quantitative methods. The quantitative part used a case-control design. Cases were women with SCI and controls were age-matched women without SCI.  Questionnaires were used to collect data concerning the sexual health status of women. Multivariate logistic regression was done to determine which factors had an independent effect on sexual health.  In-depth interviews were held with a sub-group of women from both groups, and interview guides were used. The in-depth interview data was subjected to content analysis.Results: In total, 92 questionnaires were given out and 30 in-depth interviews were conducted. A relationship was found between physical factors and sexual health, as pain, vaginal dryness and physical discomfort were mentioned more frequently among women with SCI. Environmental and emotional factors such as stigma, satisfaction of the husband and support from the husband and friends had an influence on the sexual health of the women with SCI, as well as the other group of women.Conclusions: From interviews it became clear that most of the women with SCI were dissatisfied with their sexual health as compared to the women without SCI. However, environmental and emotional factors such as attitudes, support and stigma, rather than physical factors, were the most important influences on sexual health in both groups of women.doi: 10.5463/dcid.v23i3.60

  13. Sexual and reproductive health: a public health perspective

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Look, P. F. A. van; Heggenhougen, Kris; Quah, Stella R

    2011-01-01

    .... Major changes have taken place in the last 15 years in the way decision-makers think about the subject and the manner in which programmes deliver comprehensive sexual and reproductive health services...

  14. Guidelines for eHealth and social media in sexual health promotion for young ethnic minorities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kulyk, Olga Anatoliyivna; den Daas, C.; Boom, C.; David, S.; van Gemert-Pijnen, Julia E.W.C.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Recently a rapid growth of modern technologies addressing sexuality and health has taken place. Young ethnic minorities could especially benefit from these eHealth initiatives, but they have to meet their specific needs. Sexual health is a sensitive subject in many cultures and eHealth

  15. Sources of Knowledge of Departmental Policy on Child Sexual Abuse and Mandatory Reporting Identified by Primary School Student-Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Juliette D. G.; Grimbeek, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The introduction of a Department of Education policy on child sexual abuse and mandatory reporting is significant for school teachers. The mandatory reporting of child sexual abuse by school teachers carries wide-ranging and significant implications for the lives of school-aged children, and for the teachers who must implement the policy's…

  16. The Sexuality Education Initiative: a programme involving teenagers, schools, parents and sexual health services in Los Angeles, CA, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Magaly; Ressa, Nicole

    2013-05-01

    In response to abstinence-only programmes in the United States that promote myths and misconceptions about sexuality and sexual behaviour, the comprehensive sexuality education community has been sidetracked from improving the sexuality education available in US schools for almost two decades now. Much work is still needed to move beyond fear-based approaches and the one-way communication of information that many programmes still use. Starting in 2008 Planned Parenthood Los Angeles developed and launched a teen-centred sexuality education programme based on critical thinking, human rights, gender equality, and access to health care that is founded on a theory of change that recognises the complex relationship between the individual and broader environment of cultural norms, socio-economic inequalities, health disparities, legal and institutional factors. The Sexuality Education Initiative is comprised of a 12-session classroom sexuality education curriculum for ninth grade students; workshops for parents; a peer advocacy training programme; and access to sexual health services. This paper describes that experience and presents the rights-based framework that was used, which seeks to improve the learning experience of students, strengthen the capacity of schools, teachers and parents to help teenagers manage their sexuality effectively and understand that they have the right to health care, education, protection, dignity and privacy. Copyright © 2013 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Are school policies focused on sexual orientation and gender identity associated with less bullying? Teachers' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Stephen T; Day, Jack K; Ioverno, Salvatore; Toomey, Russell B

    2016-02-01

    Bullying is common in U.S. schools and is linked to emotional, behavioral, and academic risk for school-aged students. School policies and practices focused on sexual orientation and gender identity (SOGI) have been designed to reduce bullying and show promising results. Most studies have drawn from students' reports: We examined teachers' reports of bullying problems in their schools along with their assessments of school safety, combined with principals' reports of SOGI-focused policies and practices. Merging two independent sources of data from over 3000 teachers (California School Climate Survey) and nearly 100 school principals (School Health Profiles) at the school level, we used multi-level models to understand bullying problems in schools. Our results show that SOGI-focused policies reported by principals do not have a strong independent association with teachers' reports of bullying problems in their schools. However, in schools with more SOGI-focused policies, the association between teachers' assessments of school safety and bullying problems is stronger. Recent developments in education law and policy in the United States and their relevance for student well-being are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Sexual Health and Aging: Keep the Passion Alive

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or refer you to a specialist. Age page: Sexuality in later life. National Institute on Aging. https://www.nia.nih.gov/health/publication/sexuality-later-life. Accessed May 22, 2017. Contraception: You ...

  19. Discrimination, Mental Health, and Substance Use Disorders Among Sexual Minority Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji Hyun; Gamarel, Kristi E; Bryant, Kendall J; Zaller, Nickolas D; Operario, Don

    2016-08-01

    Sexual minority (lesbian, gay, bisexual) populations have a higher prevalence of mental health and substance use disorders compared to their heterosexual counterparts. Such disparities have been attributed, in part, to minority stressors, including distal stressors such as discrimination. However, few studies have examined associations between discrimination, mental health, and substance use disorders by gender among sexual minority populations. We analyzed data from 577 adult men and women who self-identified as lesbian, gay, or bisexual and participated in Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). Six questions assessed discrimination due to sexual orientation. Weighted multivariable logistic regression examined associations between experiences of sexual orientation discrimination and both mental health and substance use disorders. Analyses were conducted separately for sexual minority men and women, adjusting for sociodemographic covariates. Sexual minority men who ever experienced discrimination (57.4%) reported higher odds of any lifetime drug use disorder and cannabis use disorder compared to sexual minority men who never experienced discrimination. Sexual minority women who ever experienced discrimination (42.9%) reported higher odds of any lifetime mood disorder and any lifetime anxiety disorder compared to sexual minority women who never experienced discrimination. The findings suggest that discrimination is differentially associated with internalizing (mental health) and externalizing (substance use) disorders for sexual minority men and women. These findings indicate a need to consider how homophobia and heteronormative discrimination may contribute to distinct health outcomes for lesbian and bisexual women compared with gay and bisexual men.

  20. Sex and sexual health: A survey of Canadian youth and mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frappier, Jean-Yves; Kaufman, Miriam; Baltzer, Franziska; Elliott, April; Lane, Margo; Pinzon, Jorge; McDuff, Pierre

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Apparent changes in adolescent sexual behaviours have led to debate in recent years. A survey on adolescent sexuality was designed to determine mainstream Canadian adolescents’ current knowledge and sources of sexual health information, to identify their needs, and to understand the perceptions and the role of parents in sexual health education. METHODOLOGY In October 2005, on-line interviews were conducted by Ipsos Reid (Ipsos Canada) with 1171 Canadian teenagers (14 to 17 years of age) and 1139 mothers of teenagers. RESULTS Twenty-seven per cent of teens were sexually active at a mean age of 15 years, with an average of 2.5 lifetime partners, and had been in their current relationship for longer than eight months. The last time that they had had sex, 76% had used a condom. Teens and mothers overestimated the percentages of teens sexually active at any age. Most valuable sources of information were school, parents, friends and doctors. Sixty-nine per cent of teens could not find the information that they were looking for, and 62% reported obstacles in getting information. Teens lacked knowledge about sexually transmitted infections and their consequences. Seventy-five per cent of mothers believed that their teenagers’ friends were significant role models when it came to sexuality, and 50% mentioned entertainment celebrities at par with them. However, 45% of teenagers regarded their parents as their role models, far ahead of friends (32%) and entertainment celebrities (15%). Despite saying that they had positive relationships with their mothers, 38% of teens had not discussed sexuality with them. Most teens trusted the information given by health professionals (94%) and believed that it was their role to provide sexual health information. CONCLUSIONS Most adolescents are responsible when it comes to sexuality, but there are still areas of concern. Adolescents identify barriers to getting information and lack knowledge about sexually transmitted

  1. Child Sexual Abuse and Women's Sexual Health: The Contribution of CSA Severity and Exposure to Multiple Forms of Childhood Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacelle, Celine; Hebert, Martine; Lavoie, Francine; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2012-01-01

    Research studies have provided increasing evidence for the potential adverse impact of child sexual abuse on women's sexual health. The present study examined the association between child sexual abuse and sexual health while controlling for various forms of childhood victimization. Self-report questionnaires were administered to 889 young women…

  2. Understanding young bisexual women's sexual, reproductive and mental health through syndemic theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanders, Corey E; Gos, Giselle; Dobinson, Cheryl; Logie, Carmen H

    2016-03-16

    We sought to understand how young bisexual women in Toronto perceive their sexual and reproductive health needs, the challenges to achieving those needs, and the factors contributing both positively and negatively to their sexual and reproductive health. We conducted a community-based research project that included an advisory committee of young bisexual women, academic partners, and a community health centre. Four 2-hour focus group sessions were conducted with a total of 35 participants. Data were analyzed through a constructivist grounded theory approach using Nvivo software. Participants' discussion of their sexual and reproductive health indicated that they perceived social marginalization, particularly biphobia and monosexism, as a significant challenge to their health. Participants also discussed their sexual, reproductive and mental health as interconnected. Young bisexual women in this study perceived their sexual, reproductive and mental health as interconnected and negatively influenced by social marginalization. This perception is in line with syndemic research that illustrates the interrelationship between psychosocial and sexual health. Researchers should further explore the utility of syndemic theory in understanding the complexity of young bisexual women's health.

  3. Gender and sexuality in Norwegian development policy and practice : The introduction of sexual orientation and gender identity in Norwegian development cooperation

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez, Annika W.

    2012-01-01

    Since 2005 Norwegian policy makers have sought to include perspectives on sexual orientation and gender identity in development cooperation. The main objectives of this study has been - To explore how the government and people who work with development cooperation perceive the roles sexual orientation and gender identity may or may not have in development cooperation. - To critically analyse Norway¡¦s development cooperation - its aims, strategies and justification - and explore how sex...

  4. Child Sexual Abuse in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantula, Fennie; Saloojee, Haroon

    2016-01-01

    Although child sexual abuse is a significant public health problem globally, its incidence, prevention, and management is less well described in resource-poor settings. In poorer settings prevention initiatives assume even more importance since resources for managing abused children are severely limited. This article examines the current status of policy and practice related to the prevention of child sexual abuse in Zimbabwe. It identifies implementation challenges and highlights opportunities that could be embraced to reduce CSA in Zimbabwe, based on evidence synthesized from recent work. Although Zimbabwe has a well-established legal and regulatory framework to protect children from child sexual abuse, implementation of existing policies is weak. Financial, human, and material resource constraints are frequently cited to explain limited prevention activity. Effective strategies for the prevention of child sexual abuse should focus on implementing existing legislation, targeting schoolchildren, and getting community involvement. A dedicated budget would help entrench these strategies, but gains can be achieved even in the absence of this.

  5. DIFFERENCES IN MENTAL HEALTH AND SEXUAL OUTCOMES BASED ON TYPE OF NONCONSENUAL SEXUAL PENETRATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinsky, Hanna T.; Shepard, Molly E.; Bird, Elizabeth R.; Gilmore, Amanda K.; Norris, Jeanette; Davis, Kelly Cue; George, William H.

    2016-01-01

    Little is known based on the stratification and localization of penetration type of rape: oral, vaginal, and/or anal. The current study examined associations between type of rape and mental and sexual health symptoms in 865 community women. All penetration types were positively associated with negative mental and sexual health symptoms. Oral and/or anal rape accounted for additional variance in anxiety, depression, some trauma-related symptoms, and dysfunctional sexual behavior than the association with vaginal rape alone. Findings suggest that penetration type can be an important facet of a rape experience and may be useful to assess in research and clinical settings. PMID:27486127

  6. STD Prevention Policies in the United States: Evidence and Opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Leichliter, Jami S.; Seiler, Naomi; Wohlfeiler, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Policies are an important part of public health interventions, including in the area of STD prevention. Similar to other tools used in public health, policies are often evaluated to determine their usefulness. Therefore, we conducted a non-systematic review of policy evidence for sexually transmitted disease prevention. Our review considers assessments or evaluations of STD prevention-specific policies, health care system policies, and other, broader policies that have the potential to impact...

  7. [Sexual initiation, masculinity and health: narratives of young men].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebello, Lúcia Emilia Figueiredo de Sousa; Gomes, Romeu

    2009-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to analyze the narratives of young university students about the experience of sexual initiation. The theoretical and conceptual references used were the sexual scripts of our society that inform people about when, how, where and with whom they should have their sexual experiences, indicating how to act sexually and the reasons why they have to practice some kind of sexual activity. The method used was a qualitative study of narratives from the perspective of dialectic hermeneutics. The methodological design involves the comprehension of sceneries, contexts, environments and characters of the narratives about sexual initiation. The analysis refers to narratives of university students in the city of Rio de Janeiro. Among the meanings of sexual initiation, we emphasize sexual intercourse, the demarcation of a stage of life, the awakening to the opposite sex and the discovery of the body. We observed that the young men's narratives were coherent with what is considered masculine, present in the discourse of different generations. It is concluded that the young men should be encouraged to participate in actions combining health and education aimed at promotion of sexual and reproductive health.

  8. Pilot Evaluation of a Web-Based Intervention Targeting Sexual Health Service Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, K. E.; Newby, K.; Caley, M.; Danahay, A.; Kehal, I.

    2016-01-01

    Sexual health service access is fundamental to good sexual health, yet interventions designed to address this have rarely been implemented or evaluated. In this article, pilot evaluation findings for a targeted public health behavior change intervention, delivered via a website and web-app, aiming to increase uptake of sexual health services among…

  9. Analyzing public health policy: three approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coveney, John

    2010-07-01

    Policy is an important feature of public and private organizations. Within the field of health as a policy arena, public health has emerged in which policy is vital to decision making and the deployment of resources. Public health practitioners and students need to be able to analyze public health policy, yet many feel daunted by the subject's complexity. This article discusses three approaches that simplify policy analysis: Bacchi's "What's the problem?" approach examines the way that policy represents problems. Colebatch's governmentality approach provides a way of analyzing the implementation of policy. Bridgman and Davis's policy cycle allows for an appraisal of public policy development. Each approach provides an analytical framework from which to rigorously study policy. Practitioners and students of public health gain much in engaging with the politicized nature of policy, and a simple approach to policy analysis can greatly assist one's understanding and involvement in policy work.

  10. Sexual Health and Risk Behaviour among East Asian Adolescents in British Columbia

    OpenAIRE

    Homma, Yuko; Saewyc, Elizabeth M.; Wong, Sabrina T.; Zumbo, Bruno D.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the large number of adolescents of East Asian origin in Canada, there is limited research on sexual health among this population. A first step to develop strategies for sexual health promotion for adolescents is to document the prevalence of sexual behaviours. This study thus estimated the prevalence of sexual health and risk behaviours among East Asian adolescents in grades 7 to 12, using the province-wide, school-based 2008 British Columbia Adolescent Health Survey (unweighted N = 4...

  11. Challenging machismo: promoting sexual and reproductive health with Nicaraguan men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, P

    2000-03-01

    This article presents the results of a participatory exploration of male attitudes towards sexual and reproductive health issues in Nicaragua. Nicaraguan culture views men in a machismo concept. The study examined the knowledge, attitudes and behavior of men in relation to the social construction of masculinity: sexuality, reproduction, and fatherhood. Employing 90 men from both rural and urban communities, attitudes towards sexuality, reproduction, abortion and fatherhood were discussed. Several insights were gathered from the research, which explains men's behavior. Thus, it was deemed imperative that in empowering women by promoting sexual and reproductive health among men would require challenging male hegemony and persuading men to participate in health promotion. However, the setting and application of a men's agenda for sexual health promotion should not result in the curtailment of services for women because funds are being reallocated to men, nor should it give men the opportunity to more subtle forms of domination and exploitation.

  12. Investigating Health Belief model component about sexual and reproductive health in college female students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram Aslani

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: One of the critical steps in providing social and family health by concentrating on women's health is expanding sexual and reproductive health and addressing it in various aspects of the national and international level. Therefore in this study the goal is analyzing the components of the health belief model about sexual and reproductive health of female students of University of Medical Sciences of Shahroud. Methods: The present study is a cross-sectional analysis which conducted by participation of 397 female students of University of Medical Sciences of Shahroud in 2014. The data collecting tool was a questionnaire that was consisted of demographic information, knowledge and structures of health belief model. The data was analyzed by SPSS software and t-test and chi-square test. Results: The results showed that students had high self-efficacy (17.7 ± 2 in reproductive health care but the rate of their perceived barriers (3.02± 1.37 that was reported was almost high. Also there was a direct relation between demographic variable of age and the knowledge of students. The average score of students' awareness of sexually transmitted disease that was obtained was 9.97 ± 2.62. There was no significant relationship between age, marital status and their study major with structures of health belief model about sexually transmitted diseases and AIDS and its preventive behaviors. Conclusion: The findings of this study show that the self-efficacy of students about preventive behaviors of unwanted pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases and AIDS is high. In other hand the average of perceived barriers in students is relatively high. Considering the findings it is recommended that sexual and reproductive health programs should be applied in order to reduce the barriers and to further increase the ability of young people. Paper Type: Research Article.

  13. Educational Needs of Adult Men regarding Sexual and Reproductive Health in Ahvaz, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan Hajizadeh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Men’s sexual and reproductive health is one of the most important public health issues. However, less attention has been paid to this matter, compared to women’s health issues. The aim of this study was to evaluate the educational needs of men regarding sexual and reproductive health in Ahvaz, Iran. Methods:This descriptive study was performed on 1,068 adult men (aged 20-60 years, selected via random cluster sampling in Ahvaz city in 2014. In order to determine the educational needs of men regarding sexual and reproductive health, a questionnaire consisting of three major sections (i.e., demographic data, sexual and reproductive health needs, and men’s attitudes was designed. The validity of the questionnaire was determined by content and face validity. Its reliability was assessed by internal consistency (α=85% and test-retest. For data analysis, descriptive statistics, t-test and ANOVA were performed, using SPSS version 19. Results: The majority of men (75.1% had poor knowledge and a moderate attitude (67.3% towards sexual and reproductive health. The three most important educational needs of men regarding sexual and reproductive health were cancers of male reproductive system (83.8%, sexually transmitted diseases (STD/HIV (77.4% and religious attitudes toward sex (77%, respectively. Friends were the most important source of information in all aspects of sexual and reproductive health, while men preferred to receive information from a male physician or counselor. According to the results, men were dissatisfied with the amount of information they received about sexual and reproductive health. Conclusion: Based on the findings, men felt the need for sexual and reproductive health education; these needs were influenced by social and demographic factors, except marital status. If health policymakers pay attention to these educational needs, it is possible to implement suitable programs for improving men's sexual health and

  14. Sexuality Education Delivery in Australian Regional Secondary Schools: A Qualitative Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulme Chambers, Alana; Tomnay, Jane; Clune, Samantha; Roberts, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    Background: Factors affecting the delivery of sexuality education to school students include government policy, school leadership and teacher confidence. Objective: The aim of this paper was to understand, from the perspective of regional education, health and welfare sector professionals, what is needed to support good sexual health for secondary…

  15. American Academy of Pediatrics. Policy statement--sexuality, contraception, and the media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    From a health viewpoint, early sexual activity among US adolescents is a potential problem because of the risk of pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. New evidence points to the media adolescents use frequently (television, music, movies, magazines, and the Internet) as important factors in the initiation of sexual intercourse. There is a major disconnect between what mainstream media portray-casual sex and sexuality with no consequences-and what children and teenagers need-straightforward information about human sexuality and the need for contraception when having sex. Television, film, music, and the Internet are all becoming increasingly sexually explicit, yet information on abstinence, sexual responsibility, and birth control remains rare. It is unwise to promote "abstinence-only" sex education when it has been shown to be ineffective and when the media have become such an important source of information about "nonabstinence." Recommendations are presented to help pediatricians address this important issue.

  16. Young adult sexual health: current and prior sexual behaviors among non-Hispanic white U.S. college students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Jenny A.; Trussell, James; Moore, Nelwyn B.; Davidson, J. Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Objective Less is known about the sexual health of young adults compared to adolescents, despite 20-24 year olds' greater risk of unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. This paper provides information on college students' prior and current sexual practices, including oral sex, vaginal intercourse, anal intercourse, and masturbation. Methods We analyzed data from a cross-sectional sexuality survey of students from two university campuses in the USA, one Midwestern and one Southwestern (N=1504). The sample consisted of non-Hispanic white, never-married students who identified as heterosexual. Results Of 16 possible combinations of four sexual activities (solitary masturbation, oral sex, vaginal intercourse, and anal intercourse), only four contained more than 5% of respondents: masturbation, oral sex, and vaginal intercourse (37%); oral sex and vaginal intercourse only (20%); all four (14%); and none (8%). Twenty percent had ever engaged in anal intercourse. Women were significantly less likely than men to have ever masturbated (48% versus 92%). Analyses exhibited several sexual health challenges, including lack of verbal sexual consent, alcohol use proximal to sex, and lack of contraceptive use. Conclusions Although few young adults are substituting it for vaginal intercourse, anal intercourse is increasingly common, and safer sex efforts should encourage condom use during both sexual activities. Masturbation should be encouraged as an alternative to higher risk sexual practices and an essential aspect of sexual well-being. Finally, practitioners should continue to address specific threats to college students' sexual health, including alcohol use and nonverbal consent. PMID:20152094

  17. Ethnic variations in sexual behaviours and sexual health markers: findings from the third British National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (Natsal-3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayal, Sonali; Hughes, Gwenda; Sonnenberg, Pam; Mohammed, Hamish; Copas, Andrew J; Gerressu, Makeda; Tanton, Clare; Furegato, Martina; Mercer, Catherine H

    2017-10-01

    Sexual health entails the absence of disease and the ability to lead a pleasurable and safe sex life. In Britain, ethnic inequalities in diagnoses of sexually transmitted infections (STI) persist; however, the reasons for these inequalities, and ethnic variations in other markers of sexual health, remain poorly understood. We investigated ethnic differences in hypothesised explanatory factors such as socioeconomic factors, substance use, depression, and sexual behaviours, and whether they explained ethnic variations in sexual health markers (reported STI diagnoses, attendance at sexual health clinics, use of emergency contraception, and sexual function). We analysed probability survey data from Britain's third National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (Natsal-3; n=15 162, conducted in 2010-12). Reflecting Britain's current ethnic composition, we included in our analysis participants who identified in 2011 as belonging to one of the following seven largest ethnic groups: white British, black Caribbean, black African, Indian, Pakistani, white other, and mixed ethnicity. We calculated age-standardised estimates and age-adjusted odds ratios for all explanatory factors and sexual health markers for all these ethnic groups with white British as the reference category. We used multivariable regression to examine the extent to which adjusting for explanatory factors explained ethnic variations in sexual health markers. We included 14 563 (96·0%) of the 15 162 participants surveyed in Natsal-3. Greater proportions of black Caribbean, black African, and Pakistani people lived in deprived areas than those of other ethnic groups (36·9-55·3% vs 16·4-29·4%). Recreational drug use was highest among white other and mixed ethnicity groups (25·6-27·7% in men and 10·3-12·9% in women in the white other and mixed ethnicity groups vs 4·1-15·6% in men and 1·0-11·2% in women of other ethnicities). Compared with white British men, the proportions of black

  18. The no-go zone: a qualitative study of access to sexual and reproductive health services for sexual and gender minority adolescents in Southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Alex; Spencer, Sarah; Meer, Talia; Daskilewicz, Kristen

    2018-01-25

    Adolescents have significant sexual and reproductive health needs. However, complex legal frameworks, and social attitudes about adolescent sexuality, including the values of healthcare providers, govern adolescent access to sexual and reproductive health services. These laws and social attitudes are often antipathetic to sexual and gender minorities. Existing literature assumes that adolescents identify as heterosexual, and exclusively engage in (heteronormative) sexual activity with partners of the opposite sex/gender, so little is known about if and how the needs of sexual and gender minority adolescents are met. In this article, we have analysed data from fifty in-depth qualitative interviews with representatives of organisations working with adolescents, sexual and gender minorities, and/or sexual and reproductive health and rights in Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Zambia and Zimbabwe. Sexual and gender minority adolescents in these countries experience double-marginalisation in pursuit of sexual and reproductive health services: as adolescents, they experience barriers to accessing LGBT organisations, who fear being painted as "homosexuality recruiters," whilst they are simultaneously excluded from heteronormative adolescent sexual and reproductive health services. Such barriers to services are equally attributable to the real and perceived criminalisation of consensual sexual behaviours between partners of the same sex/gender, regardless of their age. The combination of laws which criminalise consensual same sex/gender activity and the social stigma towards sexual and gender minorities work to negate legal sexual and reproductive health services that may be provided. This is further compounded by age-related stigma regarding sexual activity amongst adolescents, effectively leaving sexual and gender minority adolescents without access to necessary information about their sexuality and sexual and reproductive health, and sexual and reproductive health services.

  19. Health policy--why research it and how: health political science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Leeuw, Evelyne; Clavier, Carole; Breton, Eric

    2014-09-23

    The establishment of policy is key to the implementation of actions for health. We review the nature of policy and the definition and directions of health policy. In doing so, we explicitly cast a health political science gaze on setting parameters for researching policy change for health. A brief overview of core theories of the policy process for health promotion is presented, and illustrated with empirical evidence. The key arguments are that (a) policy is not an intervention, but drives intervention development and implementation; (b) understanding policy processes and their pertinent theories is pivotal for the potential to influence policy change; (c) those theories and associated empirical work need to recognise the wicked, multi-level, and incremental nature of elements in the process; and, therefore, (d) the public health, health promotion, and education research toolbox should more explicitly embrace health political science insights. The rigorous application of insights from and theories of the policy process will enhance our understanding of not just how, but also why health policy is structured and implemented the way it is.

  20. Examining the Concept of Choice in Sexual Health Interventions for Young People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Grace; Doull, Marion; Shoveller, Jean A.

    2014-01-01

    Concepts of choice are often drawn upon within sexual health promotion discourses to encourage young people to take "responsibility" for and promote their own sexual health and reproductive control. A systematic literature search using predefined inclusion criteria identified peer-reviewed articles focusing on sexual health interventions…

  1. Sexual Harassment Solutions at Work. Profiles of Successful Policy and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelan, Colleen

    This publication profiles the successful efforts of eight organizations to develop programs and policies to prevent sexual harassment in their workplaces. The profiles highlight a facet of each organization's efforts. An introduction offers a blueprint for action. The first profile is a look at US West and the key elements for developing and…

  2. Hmong American Parents' Views on Promoting Adolescent Sexual Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meschke, Laurie L.; Peter, Christina R.

    2014-01-01

    Parents play an important role in the promotion of adolescent sexual health, but little is known about parents' attitudes and beliefs in immigrant families. We examine Hmong American parents' attitudes about adolescent sexual health using survey data from 202 parents of adolescents with attention to parental gender differences. Breaking from…

  3. Exposure to Media Content and Sexual Health Behaviour among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The influence of adolescents' exposure to sexual health content of mass media in their sexual health behaviour in Nigeria is still not clear. Data were gathered through a survey conducted among adolescents aged 12-19 years in Lagos metropolis between November 2009 and February 2010. A multistage sampling strategy ...

  4. The Core Competencies for Adolescent Sexual and Reproductive Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfers, John; Carlton, Lidia; Gibson, Paul; Puffer, Maryjane; Smith, Sharla; Todd, Kay

    2014-01-01

    The Adolescent Sexual Health Work Group commissioned the development of core competencies that define the knowledge, skills, and attitudes necessary for all providers of adolescent sexual and reproductive health. This article describes the background and rationale for this set of competencies, the history and use of competencies, and the process…

  5. Health Professionals' Responses to Disclosure of Child Sexual Abuse History: Female Child Sexual Abuse Survivors' Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, Kim; Julich, Shirley; Glover, Marewa; Gautam, Jeny

    2010-01-01

    This study reports on a postal questionnaire, conducted in 2004, with female survivors of historic child sexual abuse. The questionnaire explored their experiences of health professionals' responsiveness to disclosure of child sexual abuse history. Of 61 participants, aged between 22 and 65, 69% had disclosed to health professionals. Those who had…

  6. Determinants of Sexual and Reproductive Health among Brazilian youth (aged 18 to 29 years old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Barbosa Fontes

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the main determinants of sexual and reproductive health of Brazilian youth. It was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Medicine Faculty of the University of Brasília, and it received support from Paho and Brazilian Ministry of Health. 1.208 youngsters (18 to 29 years old in 15 states and Federal District were interviewed at their residences, during the second semester of 2011. Margin of error, adjusted regional and nationally, was 2.8% (CI: 95%, regarding the assessed sample. A KAP scale (knowledge, attitudes, and practices with 17 questions (-17 to +17 points was generated. A questionnaire was pre-tested for consistency and validity analysis was performed. KAP scale was used as dependent variable in adjusted linear regression models. Mean KAP score was 5.65 points. Gaps in KAP were: 70% of the youth do not know when the fertility period of a woman is. 42% of youth do not recognize condoms as a method to prevent unwanted pregnancy and STDs. The main factors associated to explaining variances in KAP are gender, education, religion, access to health services, having had sexual intercourse in the last 12 months, and having friends as the main personal reference (p < 0.05. Youngsters with higher education, women, non-Protestant, who claim to know where to find health services have better KAP level of reproductive health. Studies are necessary to support public policies that increase the KAP levels in sexual and reproductive health of the most vulnerable groups, such as the segment comprising low education, men and Protestants.

  7. Sexual Health Education for Children with Visual Impairments: Talking about Sex Is Not Enough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupa, Chelsea; Esmail, Shaniff

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated problems that children with visual impairments experience with sexual health education. The participants identified themes that affected their knowledge of sexual health and the need for sexual health education. Strategies that address sexual health issues for individuals with visual impairments are described.

  8. Combat deployment is associated with sexual harassment or sexual assault in a large, female military cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leardmann, Cynthia A; Pietrucha, Amanda; Magruder, Kathryn M; Smith, Besa; Murdoch, Maureen; Jacobson, Isabel G; Ryan, Margaret A K; Gackstetter, Gary; Smith, Tyler C

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have examined the prevalence, risk factors, and health correlates of sexual stressors in the military, but have been limited to specific subpopulations. Furthermore, little is known about sexual stressors' occurrence and their correlates in relation to female troops deployed to the current operations in Iraq and Afghanistan. Using longitudinal data from Millennium Cohort participants, the associations of recent deployment as well as other individual and environmental factors with sexual harassment and sexual assault were assessed among U.S. female military personnel. Multivariable analyses were used to investigate the associations. Of 13,262 eligible participants, 1,362 (10.3%) reported at least one sexual stressor at follow-up. Women who deployed and reported combat experiences were significantly more likely to report sexual harassment (odds ratio [OR], 2.20; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.84-2.64) or both sexual harassment and sexual assault (OR, 2.47; 95% CI, 1.61-3.78) compared with nondeployers. In addition, significant risk factors for sexual stressors included younger age, recent separation or divorce, service in the Marine Corps, positive screen for a baseline mental health condition, moderate/severe life stress, and prior sexual stressor experiences. Although deployment itself was not associated with sexual stressors, women who both deployed and reported combat were at a significantly increased odds for sexual stressors than other female service members who did not deploy. Understanding the factors associated with sexual stressors can inform future policy and prevention efforts to eliminate sexual stressors. Copyright © 2013 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. All rights reserved.

  9. Tensions between Teaching Sexuality Education and Neoliberal Policy Reform in Quebec's Professional Competencies for Beginning Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Dan; McGray. Robert

    2015-01-01

    This research draws into question the effects that neoliberal policy reforms--with an emphasis on individual and measurable "competencies"--has on new teachers teaching sexuality education in Quebec. While we examine professional competencies that teachers can use to define their mandate for teaching sexuality education as a beginning…

  10. Adolescent Sexual and Reproductive Health in the Niger Delta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There has been an increasing awareness of the need to pay special focus on the adolescent and their sexual and reproductive health. This article reviews the sexual and reproductive health of adolescents in the Niger Delta region (NDR) of Nigeria. The objective is to bring to focus these important issues in the region.

  11. Teenagers' experiences of sexual health dialogue in the rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dialogue with teenagers about sexual health is of global concern, as it is found mostly to be minimal, if not absent. This limitation is influenced by the cultural values, beliefs and norms of teenagers. To a great extent, culture influences which and how sexual health issues can be discussed between teenagers and adults.

  12. Mental health variables and sexual risk behaviour among young ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It becomes a great concern if mental health status has something to do with high sexual risk behaviour in this population. For a more specific and dynamic intervention in reducing cases of HIV and AIDS in Nigeria, the study therefore examines depression, anxiety and stress as mental health variables influencing sexual risk ...

  13. Contemporary patterns of adolescent sexuality in urban Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meekers, D; Ahmed, G

    2000-10-01

    In Botswana, as in other areas in southern Africa, there is a growing concern about the risks associated with adolescent sexuality. To facilitate the design of policies that can address these problems, it is necessary to gain a thorough understanding of contemporary patterns of adolescent sexual behaviour, and the factors that affect them. This paper examines these issues using data from the 1995 Botswana Adolescent Reproductive Health Survey in conjunction with data from focus group discussions. The results suggest that adolescents become sexually active at an early age, and that many of them, males and females alike, have multiple sex partners. This early sexual initiation implies that adolescent reproductive health programmes should target youths aged 13 or younger. For school-based programmes this implies starting no later than Grade 6 or Standard 1, and preferably earlier. Young males appear to be a particularly vulnerable group that needs further attention. Adolescents perceive that teachers, peers and parents have the largest influence on their reproductive health attitudes. Schools appear to have the most potential for providing reproductive health information, because they reach youths both directly and indirectly by educating their peers. The results also show that male and female sexual behaviour is affected by different factors. Among males, having secondary education strongly increases the odds of being sexually active, presumably because such males make attractive partners. Among females, on the other hand, being in school significantly reduces the odds of being sexually active. This finding is consistent with the policy imposing a one-year school expulsion for pregnant schoolgirls, which was implemented as a deterrent to schoolgirl pregnancy.

  14. C-SAFE: A Computer-Delivered Sexual Health Promotion Program for Latinas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Charles H; Kuhn, Tamara; Altamirano, Midori; Lomonaco, Carmela

    2017-07-01

    This article describes the development and evaluation of C-SAFE (Sexual Awareness for Everyone), a computer-delivered sexual health promotion program for Latinas. We first describe the process of adapting an evidence-based, group-level intervention into an individually administered computer-delivered program. We then present the methods and results of a randomized control trial with 321 Latinas in California and Florida to test C-SAFE's preliminary efficacy in reducing sexual health risk. We found no statistically significant differences between the two conditions at a six-month follow-up in terms of sexual behaviors or attitudes toward sexually transmitted infections and condoms, although C-SAFE women reported fewer days in the past month when their mental health was not good (p = .02). C-SAFE condition women also reported more satisfaction than control condition women in their assessment of information presentation (on a scale of 1 = poor and 5 = excellent; C-SAFE = 4.45 vs. control = 4.25, p = .053) and having learned something new (C-SAFE = 95.1% vs. control = 79.3%, χ 2 importance of teachable moments, matching of delivery modalities to implementation contexts, and possible directions for evidence-based sexual health promotion programs given the current sexual health landscape.

  15. Sexual behaviour, contraceptive practice and reproductive health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: The gaps in reproductive health knowledge, negative attitudes, high prevalence of risky sexual activity and poor reproductive health care seeking behaviour call for mounting of educational intervention programmes and development of youth-friendly reproductive health services on campus. KEY WORDS: ...

  16. Health status, health service use, and satisfaction according to sexual identity of young Australian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNair, Ruth; Szalacha, Laura A; Hughes, Tonda L

    2011-01-01

    we sought to compare physical and mental health status, health service use, and satisfaction among young Australian women of varying sexual identity; and to explore associations of all of these variables with satisfaction with their general practitioner (GP). data are from the youngest cohort of women in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health surveyed in 2003. The sample included women aged 25 to 30 who identified as exclusively heterosexual (n = 8,083; 91.3%), mainly heterosexual (n = 568; 6.4%), bisexual (n = 100; 1.1%), or lesbian (n = 99; 1.1%). Univariate analyses compared self-reported mental health, physical health, access to GP services, and satisfaction across the four sexual identity groups. Linear regression, controlling for education, income, and residence, was used to identify factors associated with GP satisfaction. sexual minority women (lesbian, bisexual, and mainly heterosexual) were significantly more likely than were heterosexual women to report poorer mental health and to have more frequently used health services; depression was strongly associated with mental health services use. Bisexual and mainly heterosexual women were most likely to report poorer general health, abnormal Pap tests, sexually transmissible infections, urinary tract infections, hepatitis B or C virus infection, and asthma. Lesbians were most likely to have never had a Pap test or be underscreened. All sexual minority women had lower continuity of GP care and lower satisfaction with that care than heterosexual women. underlying social determinants of physical and mental health disparities experienced by sexual minority women require exploration, including the possible effects of discrimination and marginalization on higher levels of risk taking. Lower continuity of care and lower satisfaction with GP services also need further investigation. 2011 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. [Influence of aging on male sexual health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seisen, T; Rouprêt, M; Costa, P; Giuliano, F

    2012-06-01

    With the increase in life expectancy, men's sexual health has become a major concern for elderly couples. Erectile dysfunction (ED) is responsible for a 50 % decrease of sexually active men between 60 and 85. The aim of this study was to identify objective elements to evaluate the influence of age on male sexual health. Data on the effects of aging on men's sexual health have been explored in Medline and Embase using the MeSH keywords: prostate; sexuality and erectile dysfunction; aging. The articles were selected based on their methodology, relevance, date and language of publication. ED concerns 64 % of 70 years old patients and up to 77.5 % after 75 years. The screening of this pathology is based on standardized diagnostic tools. The most used of them remains the "International Index of Erectile function" which, in its simplified version with 5 items (IIEF-5 or SHIM), presents at the cutoff score of 21, a sensitivity of 98 %, a specificity of 88 % and a kappa index of 0.82. The ED is often responsible for a decrease in the quality of life for 60 % of elderly couples wishing to pursue sexual activity. Some diagnostic tools, such as the "Self-Esteem And Relationship" (SEAR) questionnaire or the "Sexual Experience Questionnaire" (SEX-Q) assess individual and couple satisfaction. Physiological aging seems to favor erection disorders by the development of an Androgen Deficiency of the Aging Male (ADAM) but pathological aging appears to be primarily responsible. Cardiovascular or neurological diseases and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) are, with the polymedication, modifiable risk factors of ED to systematically screen in elderly subjects. Many diagnostic tools allow to detect ED and assess the impact on the quality of life of elderly men. The fundamental element of the management of ED is the research of modifiable risk factors including cardiovascular. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. The future of European health policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koivusalo, Meri Tuulikki

    2005-01-01

    The role of the European Union in health policies is changing. The European social model is under threat due to shifts in E.U. policies on liberalization of service provision, limited public budgets, a focus on the health sector as a productive sector in the context of broader European policies and the Lisbon strategy, and changes in the context of the new Constitutional Treaty. These changes are evident in a new reflection paper on European health strategy and its focus. E.U. health policies are at a critical juncture. The danger is that the current processes will lead European health policies and the health systems of member states more in the direction of U.S. health policies and the commercialization of health systems than toward improvement of the current situation.

  19. Reproductive And Sexual Health - The Unfinished Agenda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V K Srivastava

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The international community for the first time during the International Conference on Population and Development in 1994 defined the Reproductive Health, not in a demographic context, but as a right and matter of choice for even individual. In the years that followed other International Conferences on women issues reinforced this consensus. The human right relevant of Reproductive Health includes : The right to life and health, The freedom to marry and determine the number, timing and spacing of children, The right to access the information, The right to discrimination and equality for men and women, The right to liberty and security of the person, including freedom from sexual violence and coercion, The right to privacy, The women all over the world have the same reproductive health needs, however, the factors like migration and urbanization that influence the involuntary movement of populations within the national frontiers render them more vulnerable, including to reproductive health problems. This increases their needs for preventive and curative care, including sendees related to safe motherhood, family planning, prevention and treatment of complicated abortions. HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted infections (STls. The consequences of sexual violence, traditional values, extended families, new friends and unfamiliar ways of life, inadequate reproductive health sendees etc are unusual impediments for availing the sendees.

  20. Barriers to providing the sexuality education that teachers believe students need.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Marla E; Madsen, Nikki; Oliphant, Jennifer A; Sieving, Renee E

    2013-05-01

    Sexuality education teachers' perspectives are important to gain a full understanding of the issues surrounding teaching this subject. This study uses a statewide sample of public school teachers to examine what sexuality education content is taught, what barriers teachers face, and which barriers are associated with teaching specific topics. Participants included 368 middle and high school teachers with sexuality education assignments in Minnesota. Survey data included topics they teach, what they think they should teach, and barriers they face. Logistic regression was used to examine associations between barriers and teaching each of 9 sexual health topics, among those who believed the topic should be taught. Almost two thirds of participants faced structural barriers; 45% were concerned about parent, student, or administrator response; and one quarter reported restrictive policies. Structural barriers were inversely associated with teaching about communication (OR = 0.20), teen parenting (OR = 0.34), and abortion (OR = 0.32); concerns about responses were associated only with teaching about sexual violence (OR = 0.42); and restrictive policies were inversely associated with teaching about abortion (OR = 0.23) and sexual orientation (OR = 0.47). Addressing teachers' barriers requires a multipronged approach, including curriculum development and evaluation, training, and reframing the policy debate to support a wider range of sexuality education topics. © 2013, American School Health Association.

  1. Sexual Health of Prison Inmates: A Case Study of Kano Central ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sexual and reproductive health of prison inmates suffers from serious neglect in Nigeria. This mixed method study examined prison officials and 160 inmates on prison law and administration, and sexual health of inmates. Most of the inmates examined (82.5%) reported having frequent sexual desire. Wet dreams (46.2%) ...

  2. Sexual Harassment Policies in K-12 Schools: Examining Accessibility to Students and Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichty, Lauren F.; Torres, Jennifer M. C.; Valenti, Maria T.; Buchanan, NiCole T.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Peer sexual harassment is a significant social problem with consequences for both students and schools. Four out of 5 students report experiencing sexual harassment. These experiences have been linked to poor psychological health and academic withdrawal. Recognizing the seriousness of sexual harassment in schools, Supreme Court rulings…

  3. Framing health and foreign policy: lessons for global health diplomacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labonté, Ronald; Gagnon, Michelle L

    2010-08-22

    Global health financing has increased dramatically in recent years, indicative of a rise in health as a foreign policy issue. Several governments have issued specific foreign policy statements on global health and a new term, global health diplomacy, has been coined to describe the processes by which state and non-state actors engage to position health issues more prominently in foreign policy decision-making. Their ability to do so is important to advancing international cooperation in health. In this paper we review the arguments for health in foreign policy that inform global health diplomacy. These are organized into six policy frames: security, development, global public goods, trade, human rights and ethical/moral reasoning. Each of these frames has implications for how global health as a foreign policy issue is conceptualized. Differing arguments within and between these policy frames, while overlapping, can also be contradictory. This raises an important question about which arguments prevail in actual state decision-making. This question is addressed through an analysis of policy or policy-related documents and academic literature pertinent to each policy framing with some assessment of policy practice. The reference point for this analysis is the explicit goal of improving global health equity. This goal has increasing national traction within national public health discourse and decision-making and, through the Millennium Development Goals and other multilateral reports and declarations, is entering global health policy discussion. Initial findings support conventional international relations theory that most states, even when committed to health as a foreign policy goal, still make decisions primarily on the basis of the 'high politics' of national security and economic material interests. Development, human rights and ethical/moral arguments for global health assistance, the traditional 'low politics' of foreign policy, are present in discourse but do

  4. Framing health and foreign policy: lessons for global health diplomacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Labonté Ronald

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Global health financing has increased dramatically in recent years, indicative of a rise in health as a foreign policy issue. Several governments have issued specific foreign policy statements on global health and a new term, global health diplomacy, has been coined to describe the processes by which state and non-state actors engage to position health issues more prominently in foreign policy decision-making. Their ability to do so is important to advancing international cooperation in health. In this paper we review the arguments for health in foreign policy that inform global health diplomacy. These are organized into six policy frames: security, development, global public goods, trade, human rights and ethical/moral reasoning. Each of these frames has implications for how global health as a foreign policy issue is conceptualized. Differing arguments within and between these policy frames, while overlapping, can also be contradictory. This raises an important question about which arguments prevail in actual state decision-making. This question is addressed through an analysis of policy or policy-related documents and academic literature pertinent to each policy framing with some assessment of policy practice. The reference point for this analysis is the explicit goal of improving global health equity. This goal has increasing national traction within national public health discourse and decision-making and, through the Millennium Development Goals and other multilateral reports and declarations, is entering global health policy discussion. Initial findings support conventional international relations theory that most states, even when committed to health as a foreign policy goal, still make decisions primarily on the basis of the 'high politics' of national security and economic material interests. Development, human rights and ethical/moral arguments for global health assistance, the traditional 'low politics' of foreign policy, are

  5. Sexual health definition from the perspective of Iranian experts and description its components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batool Hosein Rashidi

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: According to this study, sexual health has a special definition in each age group and also has different requirements. To start a healthy sexual relationship, at first a correct relationship between a woman and a man must shape. A relationship that is based on customary, religious and social values. Sexual health is a system that consists of abstract components and without proper formation of each of these components we will not be able to access sexual health completely. It seems one of the most important components of sexual health is the knowledge and information about sexual issues. However, further studies are needed to confirm this result.

  6. Women's Sexual Health and Reproductive Function After SCI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtois, Frédérique; Alexander, Marcalee; McLain, Amie B Jackson

    2017-01-01

    Sexual function and to a lesser extent reproduction are often disrupted in women with spinal cord injuries (SCI), who must be educated to better understand their sexual and reproductive health. Women with SCI are sexually active; they can use psychogenic or reflexogenic stimulation to obtain sexual pleasure and orgasm. Treatment should consider a holistic approach using autonomic standards to describe remaining sexual function and to assess both genital function and psychosocial factors. Assessment of genital function should include thoracolumbar dermatomes, vulvar sensitivity (touch, pressure, vibration), and sacral reflexes. Self-exploration should include not only clitoral stimulation, but also stimulation of the vagina (G spot), cervix, and nipples conveyed by different innervation sources. Treatments may consider PDE5 inhibitors and flibanserin on an individual basis, and secondary consequences of SCI should address concerns with spasticity, pain, incontinence, and side effects of medications. Psychosocial issues must be addressed as possible contributors to sexual dysfunctions (eg, lower self-esteem, past sexual history, depression, dating habits). Pregnancy is possible for women with SCI; younger age at the time of injury and at the time of pregnancy being significant predictors of successful pregnancy, along with marital status, motor score, mobility, and occupational scores. Pregnancy may decrease the level of functioning (eg, self-care, ambulation, upper-extremity tasks), may involve complications (eg, decubitus ulcers, weight gain, urological complications), and must be monitored for postural hypotension and autonomic dysreflexia. Taking into consideration the physical and psychosocial determinants of sexuality and childbearing allows women with SCI to achieve positive sexual and reproductive health.

  7. From disease to desire, pleasure to the pill: A qualitative study of adolescent learning about sexual health and sexuality in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macintyre, Anna K-J; Montero Vega, Adela Rosa; Sagbakken, Mette

    2015-09-23

    Sexual and reproductive rights include access to accurate and appropriate information in order to make informed decisions. In the current age of media globalization and Internet, adolescents are exposed to information about sexual health and sexuality from a myriad of sources. The objective of this study was to explore sources of information and adolescent learning about sexual health and sexuality in Santiago, Chile. Data collection included four focus group discussions with a total of 24 adolescents 18-19 years old, 20 semi-structured interviews with adolescents 16-19 years old, and seven interviews with key informants working with adolescents. Audio recordings were transcribed verbatim and analysed using content analysis. The primary sources of sexual health and sexuality information were parents, teachers and friends, whilst secondary sources included health professionals for females and Internet for males. Information provided by the trusted sources of parents, teachers and health professionals tended to focus on biological aspects of sexuality, particularly pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. Limited emphasis was placed on topics such as love, attraction, pleasure, relationships, abstinence and sexual violence. Information focused primarily on heterosexual relations and reproduction. Adolescents learnt about relationships and sexual acts through friends, partners and, for many males, pornography. Findings indicate a lack of available information on partner communication, setting personal limits, and contraception, including morally neutral and medically correct information about emergency contraception. This study highlights numerous gaps between adolescent information needs and information provided by parents, teachers and health professionals. The priority these trusted sources place on providing biological information overshadows learning about emotional and relational aspects of sexuality. This biological rationalization of adolescent sexual

  8. How Statewide LGB Policies Go From “Under Our Skin” to “Into Our Hearts”: Fatherhood Aspirations and Psychological Well-Being Among Emerging Adult Sexual Minority Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Researchers have noted increasingly the public health importance of addressing discriminatory policies towards lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) populations. At present, however, we know little about the mechanisms through which policies affect LGB populations’ psychological well-being; in other words, how do policies get under our skin? Using data from a study of sexual minority young men (N = 1,487; M = 20.80 (SD = 1.93); 65 % White; 92 % gay), we examined whether statewide bans (e.g., same-sex marriage, adoption) moderated the relationship between fatherhood aspirations and psychological well-being. Fatherhood aspirations were associated with lower depressive symptoms and higher self-esteem scores among participants living in states without discriminatory policies. In states with marriage equality bans, fatherhood aspirations were associated with higher depressive symptoms and lower self-esteem scores, respectively. Fatherhood aspirations were associated negatively with self-esteem in states banning same-sex and second parent adoptions, respectively. Our findings underscore the importance of recognizing how anti-equality LGB policies may influence the psychosocial development of sexual minority men. PMID:24233971

  9. Integration of sexual and reproductive health in the medical curriculum in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afsar, H.A.; Sohani, S.; Younas, M.; Mohammad, S.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To assess the knowledge of medical practitioners regarding management of selected reproductive tract infections, diagnosis of sexual dysfunction and identification of sexual abuse and to assess the attitudes and practices of health care providers regarding sexual and reproductive rights in order to recommend areas that need to be incorporated in a sexual and reproductive health curriculum. Design: A cross-sectional survey. Place and Duration of Study: From March to August 2003 in the District Turbat of Balochistan, Pakistan. Subject and Methods: Selected indicators of knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding sexual and reproductive health of primary care physicians were assessed using a pre-tested questionnaire and formal informal interviews. Variables were identified from the literature and previous in-depth interviews, and then formulated into respective questions. A Lichert scale marked from 1 to 5 was used for categorizing responses into agreed, neutral and disagreed. Descriptive statistics were computed using SPSS version 10 for windows. Qualitative interviews were translated and transcribed and analyzed according to pre-judged and emerging themes. Results: Out of 45 physicians interviewed, nearly half scored less than 50% in the knowledge section. Attitudes and practices assessed suggested a tendency to be judgmental, gender/rights discriminatory and with little provision for enabling clients to make their own decisions, so essential for quality sexual health service provision. Conclusion: Keeping in view the importance of the sexual health issues and a lack of ability of health care providers to handle it effectively, deficient areas of sexual health must be integrated into the medical curriculum. Medical educators have the responsibility to train physicians and other health professionals in the core competencies to improve the sexual and reproductive health of their communities. (author)

  10. Mental health, sexual identity, and interpersonal violence: Findings from the Australian longitudinal Women's health study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szalacha, Laura A; Hughes, Tonda L; McNair, Ruth; Loxton, Deborah

    2017-09-30

    We examined the relationships among experiences of interpersonal violence, mental health, and sexual identity in a national sample of young adult women in Australia. We used existing data from the third (2003) wave of young adult women (aged 25-30) in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health (ALSWH). We conducted bivariate analyses and fit multiple and logistic regression models to test experiences of six types of interpersonal violence (physical abuse, severe physical abuse, emotional abuse, sexual abuse, harassment, and being in a violent relationship), and the number of types of violence experienced, as predictors of mental health. We compared types and number of types of violence across sexual identity subgroups. Experiences of interpersonal violence varied significantly by sexual identity. Controlling for demographic characteristics, compared to exclusively heterosexual women, mainly heterosexual and bisexual women were significantly more likely to report physical, sexual, and emotional abuse. Mainly heterosexual and lesbian women were more likely to report severe physical abuse. Mainly heterosexual women were more than three times as likely to have been in a violent relationship in the past three years, and all three sexual minority subgroups were two to three times as likely to have experienced harassment. Bisexual women reported significantly higher levels of depression than any of the other sexual identity groups and scored lower on mental health than did exclusively heterosexual women. In linear regression models, interpersonal violence strongly predicted poorer mental health for lesbian and bisexual women. Notably, mental health indicators were similar for exclusively heterosexual and sexual minority women who did not report interpersonal violence. Experiencing multiple types of interpersonal violence was the strongest predictor of stress, anxiety and depression. Interpersonal violence is a key contributor to mental health disparities

  11. Mother-Child Communication about Sexual Health, HPV and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    Parent-child communication about sexual health is considered an effective ... This study used a brief survey to examine mother-child communication ... percent of mothers who reported being comfortable discussing HIV/sexual ... media should be considered as methods to reduce .... Examining attitudes and knowledge.

  12. Sexual and intimacy health of Roman Catholic priests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDevitt, Patrick J

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the sexual experiences and sexual health of Roman Catholic priests. The qualitative research design looked at priests' responses to the question, "Please share one or more sexual experiences in your lifetime." The qualitative responses were analyzed and categorized into seven groupings: (a) Childhood and adolescent homosexual experiences; (b) Childhood and adolescent heterosexual experiences; (c) Both homosexual and heterosexual childhood and adolescent experiences; (d) Adult sexual experiences before ordination to the priesthood; (e) Adult sexual experiences since ordination to the priesthood; (f) Masturbation; and (g) Other sexual experiences. The data were analyzed by frequency of responses and percentages within each of the seven categories. The results indicate the need for early intervention and education during seminary, ongoing education after ordination, and psychotherapy support for priests.

  13. Transport policy and health inequalities: a health impact assessment of Edinburgh's transport policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, D; Douglas, M J; Conway, L; Noble, P; Hanlon, P

    2003-01-01

    Health impact assessment (HIA) can be used to examine the relationships between inequalities and health. This HIA of Edinburgh's transport policy demonstrates how HIA can examine how different transport policies can affect different population groupings to varying degrees. In this case, Edinburgh's economy is based on tourism, financial services and Government bodies. These need a good transport infrastructure, which maintains a vibrant city centre. A transport policy that promotes walking, cycling and public transport supports this and is also good for health. The HIA suggested that greater spend on public transport and supporting sustainable modes of transport was beneficial to health, and offered scope to reduce inequalities. This message was understood by the City Council and influenced the development of the city's transport and land-use strategies. The paper discusses how HIA can influence public policy.

  14. Evaluation of a Sexual and Reproductive Health Education ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    Faculty of Health, Sports and Social Work, Research Centre Mental Health Nursing, Inholland ... Evaluation research concerning the impact of sexual and reproductive health (SRH) ..... awareness of the existence of HIV, pregnancy and.

  15. Sexual health in women with pelvic floor disorders: measuring the sexual activity and function with questionnaires--a summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espuña Pons, Montserrat

    2009-05-01

    The integration of sexual health into the health care services is important. In women attending urogynecological clinics, the urinary function, anorectal function, and anatomical defects are more often evaluated than those related to sexual activity and function. A group of experts in urogynecology, sexuality, and patient reported outcome development, met in a roundtable with the final objective of reviewing what is currently available and what is needed to accurately evaluate sexual function in women with pelvic floor dysfunction. An article was prepared for each of the issued presented during the roundtable and combined into this supplement. This article is a summary of all articles included in this supplement. The pathophysiology of sexual dysfunction as related to pelvic floor disorders has not been well established. Sexuality questionnaires and scales play an integral role in the diagnosis and treatment of female sexual dysfunction. The Pelvic Organ Prolapse/Urinary Incontinence Sexual Questionnaire (PISQ) is the only validated female sexual function questionnaire specifically developed to assess sexual function in women with urinary incontinence and/or pelvic organ prolapse; however, the PISQ does not screen for sexual activity. The effects of treatments for pelvic floor problems on sexual function have received little attention. There is a need for a validated sexual function measure that evaluates not only the impact of pelvic floor dysfunction on sexual function but also the impact on sexual activity.

  16. Big Data for Public Health Policy-Making: Policy Empowerment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mählmann, Laura; Reumann, Matthias; Evangelatos, Nikolaos; Brand, Angela

    2018-04-04

    Digitization is considered to radically transform healthcare. As such, with seemingly unlimited opportunities to collect data, it will play an important role in the public health policy-making process. In this context, health data cooperatives (HDC) are a key component and core element for public health policy-making and for exploiting the potential of all the existing and rapidly emerging data sources. Being able to leverage all the data requires overcoming the computational, algorithmic, and technological challenges that characterize today's highly heterogeneous data landscape, as well as a host of diverse regulatory, normative, governance, and policy constraints. The full potential of big data can only be realized if data are being made accessible and shared. Treating research data as a public good, creating HDC to empower citizens through citizen-owned health data, and allowing data access for research and the development of new diagnostics, therapies, and public health policies will yield the transformative impact of digital health. The HDC model for data governance is an arrangement, based on moral codes, that encourages citizens to participate in the improvement of their own health. This then enables public health institutions and policymakers to monitor policy changes and evaluate their impact and risk on a population level. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Patient Discussion About Sexual Health With Health Care Providers After Cancer-A National Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Charif, Ali; Bouhnik, Anne-Déborah; Courbiere, Blandine; Rey, Dominique; Préau, Marie; Bendiane, Marc-Karim; Peretti-Watel, Patrick; Mancini, Julien

    2016-11-01

    A discussion about sexuality should become a routine part of the personalized care pathway for patients with cancer. To assess rates of patient discussion about sexuality with health care providers after cancer. We used data from the representative French nationwide 2012 VICAN survey, which included 4,349 adults 18 to 82 years old who were still alive 2 years after diagnosis at 12 cancer sites. Self-reported rates of discussion about sexuality with health care providers were assessed, and associated factors were tested after systematic adjustment for a sexual health indicator (created from six items of the Relationship and Sexuality Scale). Of 4,181 respondents to the question on a discussion about sexuality, 54.7% reported that nobody had proposed a discussion to them, 21.9% did not want any discussion, and 23.4% had had a discussion. Women had less discussion about sexuality with health care providers (11.1% vs 36.7% of men, P < .001) and were more likely to request a discussion at their own initiative (62.9% vs 48.0% of men, P < .001). Discussion about sexuality was more frequent with patients with prostate (56.3%) and cervical (39.6%) cancer, but increasing age was associated with a greater reluctance to discuss this issue (odds ratio = 1.17, 95% CI = 1.04-1.2). The likelihood of discussion increased with severe sexual problems, radiotherapy, general sequelae, having an information-seeker profile, previous professional psychological help, and initial treatment in private centers. Patients initially wishing for psychological help were more likely to desire a discussion about sexuality. Sexuality receives little attention in French patients with cancer. Inequalities in the discussion about sexuality were observed in relation to the type of care center where the patient was initially managed. Information on supportive interventions, including more systematic referral for professional psychological help, should be developed to facilitate discussion and should be

  18. Women's experiences of sexual health when living with Rheumatoid Arthritis - an explorative qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josefsson Kristina

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ICF core sets for patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA acknowledge sexual function and intimate relationships as important since the patients' sexual health can be affected by the disease. About 36-70% of all RA-patients experience a reduced sexual health, and their perceived problems are directly or indirectly caused by their disease. Physiotherapy is often used as non-pharmacological treatment for RA. Mobility treatment, pain reduction, and physical activities are often included in physiotherapy for patients with RA. The aim of the study was to explore sexual health in relation to physiotherapy in women living with RA. Method An explorative qualitative interview study with a phenomenological approach was performed. The study consisted of ten interviews with women with RA. The analysis was performed according to Giorgi. Results The main theme that emerged in the material was that the body and the total life situation affected sexual health. Three categories were included in the theme: 1 sexual health - physical and psychological dimensions, 2 Impacts of RA, and 3 Possibilities to increase sexual health - does physiotherapy make a difference? Conclusions Sexual health was affected by RA in different ways for the informants. Possibilities to improve sexual health were improved partner communication and physiotherapy. Physiotherapy can play an active role in improving sexual health for patients with RA.

  19. Sexuality education in Malaysia: perceived issues and barriers by professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalaf, Zahra Fazli; Low, Wah Yun; Merghati-Khoei, Effat; Ghorbani, Behzad

    2014-07-01

    This research explored the perspectives of Malaysian professionals on the issues and barriers affecting the implementation of sexuality education in Malaysia. This qualitative study involved in-depth interviews with 15 key professionals working in the field of sexuality and reproductive health in Malaysia. Thematic analysis was selected to analyze data. Barriers to sexuality education were perceived from 5 aspects: feasibility, acceptability, accountability, strategies, and community unawareness. Respondents believed that implementing national sexuality education is a time-consuming project. They regarded Malaysian multicultural society as a barrier to national sexuality education, and they believed that school-based sexuality education is not easily accomplished in Malaysia; also abstinence-only policy restricts the access of young people to accurate information. Lack of community involvement was perceived as a key concern to sexuality education. Campaigning to promote awareness of families, teachers, community leaders, and policy makers are recommended to help establishing national sexuality education in Malaysia. © 2014 APJPH.

  20. [We are sexual beings. Sexuality/reproduction pattern. An evaluation and the implications for nurses in the mental health field].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobán Iza, José Manuel

    2006-05-01

    The author pretends to integrate the double-sided aspects of nursing care in the mental health field with the specific attention each individual needs as a sexual being, since this is an intrinsic factor of human beings. The World Health Organization defines sexual health as "the integration of physical, affective, intellectual and social aspects of a sexual being, in such a manner that from those aspects comes the enrichment and development of human personality, communication and love".

  1. Sexual activity and perceived health among Finnish middle-aged women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helenius Hans

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An increasing awareness of the need to address sexual and orgasm experiences as part of life quality and an understanding of the great individual differences between women play roles in women's health and medical care across the specialities. Information is lacking as to how negative attitude toward self (NATS and performance impairment (PI are associated with sexual activity of middle-aged women. We examined the associations of sexual experience, orgasm experience, and lack of sexual desire with perceived health and potential explanatory variables of NATS and PI. Methods Questionnaire was mailed to 2 population-based random samples of menopausal or soon-to-be menopausal women (n = 5510, 70% response stratified according to age (42–46 and 52–56 years. In multivariate analyses of the associations with the outcome variables, perceived health, NATS, and PI were used as covariates in 6 models in which exercise, menstrual symptoms, and illness indicators were taken into account as well. Results Sexual activity variables were associated with perceived health. When present, NATS formed associations with sexual and orgasm experiences, whereas strenuous exercise formed associations with orgasm among 42–46-year-old women alone. Strenuous exercise was not associated with orgasm experience among older women. Conclusion NATS and PI are closely tied to orgasm experiences and the meaning of the roles needs to be exposed. Sexual activity deserves to be addressed more actively in patient contact at least with perimenopausal women.

  2. Utilisation of sexual health services by female sex workers in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Teijlingen Edwin R

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Nepal Demographic Health Survey (NDHS in 2006 showed that more than half (56% of the women with sexually transmitted infections (STIs, including HIV, in Nepal sought sexual health services. There is no such data for female sex workers (FSWs and the limited studies on this group suggest they do not even use routine health services. This study explores FSWs use of sexual health services and the factors associated with their use and non-use of services. Methods This study aimed to explore the factors associated with utilisation of sexual health services by FSWs in the Kathmandu Valley of Nepal, and it used a mixed-method approach consisting of an interviewer administered questionnaire-based survey and in-depth interviews. Results The questionnaire survey, completed with 425 FSWs, showed that 90% FSWs self-reported sickness, and (30.8% reported symptoms of STIs. A quarter (25% of those reporting STIs had never visited any health facilities especially for sexual health services preferring to use non-governmental clinics (72%, private clinics (50%, hospital (27% and health centres (13%. Multiple regression analysis showed that separated, married and street- based FSWs were more likely to seek health services from the clinics or hospitals. In- depth interviews with 15 FSWs revealed that FSWs perceived that personal, structural and socio-cultural barriers, such as inappropriate clinic opening hours, discrimination, the judgemental attitude of the service providers, lack of confidentiality, fear of public exposure, and higher fees for the services as barriers to their access and utilisation of sexual health services. Conclusion FSWs have limited access to information and to health services, and operate under personal, structural and socio-cultural constraints. The 'education' to change individual behaviour, health worker and community perceptions, as well as the training of the health workers, is necessary.

  3. Making health policy: networks in research and policy after 1945.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berridge, Virginia

    2005-01-01

    Science and policy in health and medicine have interacted in new ways in Britain since 1945. The relationship between research and policy has a history. The changing role of social medicine, the rise of health services research and "customer contractor" policies in government have been important. The relationship between research and policy has been analysed by different schools of thought. This chapter categorises them as several groups: "evidence-based", "journalism", "sociology of scientific knowledge" and "science policy studies". The chapters in the book illuminate aspects of these changing relationships. The role of chronic disease epidemiology, of new networks in public health, of media-focussed activism, and of health technology and its advocates have been more important than political interest.

  4. Influential Factors of Puerto Rican Mother-Child Communication About Sexual Health Topics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Maria Idalí; Granberry, Phillip; Person, Sharina; Allison, Jeroan; Rosal, Milagros; Rustan, Sarah

    2016-11-01

    Introduction Latina mothers play a central role in raising and socializing their children; however, few studies have examined the cultural, socio-cognitive and neighborhood-related variables influencing the level of communication between Puerto Rican mothers and their children about sexuality and sexual health. This cross-sectional study sought to examine these influences. Methods Puerto Rican mothers with children aged 10-19 years (n = 193) were selected randomly for an ethnographic interview as part of a community participatory action research project in a U.S. urban northeastern community. Results Bivariate analyses found statistically significant associations between the child's age (p = 0.002), the mother's past communication about traditional gender role norms of women (marianismo) (p < 0.001), her positive outcome expectations for communications with her child (p < 0.025), and her perceptions of the physical condition (p < 0.001) and sexual health problems (p = 0.047) in the neighborhood. In a multivariate model, all of these variables remained significant except sexual health problems, and mother's attitudes toward the obligations of children to parents (familismo) emerged as a factor associated with a decrease in the number of sexual health topics that mothers raised with their children. No significant effects were found for mother's spiritual and religious experience (religiosidad). Discussion Our study highlights the importance of marianismo as a framework within which Puerto Rican mothers communicate sexual health information as well as the need to improve mothers' confidence discussing sexual health issues with their children. Future public health interventions to promote communication about sexuality and sexual health among Puerto Rican mothers should consider addressing this issue as a part of comprehensive neighborhood improvement projects.

  5. Examining E-Loyalty in a Sexual Health Website: Cross-Sectional Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nunn, Alexandra; Crutzen, Rik; Haag, Devon; Chabot, Cathy; Carson, Anna; Ogilvie, Gina; Shoveller, Jean; Gilbert, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Background: Web-based sexual health resources are typically evaluated in terms of their efficacy. Information is lacking about how sexual health promotion websites are perceived and used. It is essential to understand website use to address challenges with adherence and attrition to Web-based health

  6. "The Heart Desires but the Body Refuses": Sexual Scripts, Older Men's Perceptions of Sexuality, and Implications for Their Mental and Sexual Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutagumirwa, Sylivia Karen; Bailey, Ajay

    2018-01-01

    We use sexual scripting theory in the present paper to gain a better understanding of older men's perceptions of their sexuality in relation to dominant Tanzanian cultural norms of masculinity. Qualitative in-depth interviews were conducted with 15 older men, and ten focus group discussions were conducted with 60 men aged 60-82. Participants' recruitment was guided by theoretical sampling strategies. Consistent with the principles of grounded theory, data collection and analysis occurred simultaneously. Our findings indicate that Jando (male initiation rites) serves as a script for male sexuality that outlines the expectations and rewards of male sexuality. Adhering to masculine sexual script affects older men's perceptions of their sexuality in later life and has detrimental effects on their well-being. Older men were concerned with changes in their sexual life, such as the decline in their sexual performance. The majority of the participants said they felt emotionally distressed about the age-related decline in their body and in their sexuality, and they reported that their inability to conform to male sexual scripts undermined their sense of masculinity. Several of the participants reported that in an effort to regain their previous sexual performance, they had turned to remedies and strategies of questionable appropriateness and effectiveness. Our study suggests that older men may benefit from age-related interventions tailored to their cultural background. These interventions may require trained health care providers on mental health issues to bridge the gap between the internalized scripts of ideal male sexuality and the reality of aging.

  7. Girl Talk: A Smartphone Application to Teach Sexual Health Education to Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brayboy, Lynae M.; Schultz, Lucy; Landgren Mills, Benedict S.; Spencer, Noelle; Sepolen, Alexandra; Mezoian, Taylor; Wheeler, Carol; Clark, Melissa A.

    2017-01-01

    Study Objective Produce Girl Talk, a free smartphone application containing comprehensive sexual health information, and determine the application’s desirability and appeal among teenage girls. Design, Setting and Participants 39 girls ages 12–17 from Rhode Island participated in a two-phase prospective study. In Phase I, 22 girls assessed a sexual health questionnaire in focus groups. In Phase 2, 17 girls with iPhones® used Girl Talk for two weeks and answered the revised sexual health questionnaire and interview questions before and after use. Main Outcome Measures Participants’ responses to the sexual health questionnaire, interviews and time viewing the application were used to determine feasibility and desirability of Girl Talk. Results Girl Talk was used on average for 48 minutes during participants’ free time on weekends for 10–15 minute intervals. Reported usefulness of Girl Talk as a sexual health application increased significantly from baseline to follow-up (35.3% vs. 94.1%; p < .001). Knowledge improved most in topics related to Anatomy and Physiology (4.2%), Sexuality and Relationships (3.5%) and STI Prevention (3.4%). Most participants (76.5%) were exposed to sexual health education prior to using Girl Talk, but 94.1% of participants stated that the application provided new and/or more detailed information than health classes. Conclusion Girl Talk can potentially connect teenage girls to more information about sexual health versus traditional methods, and participants recommended the application as a valuable resource to learn about comprehensive sexual health. PMID:27393638

  8. Implementing Health Policy: Lessons from the Scottish Well Men's Policy Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Flora; van Teijlingen, Edwin; Smith, Cairns; Moffat, Mandy

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about how health professionals translate national government health policy directives into action. This paper examines that process using the so-called Well Men's Services (WMS) policy initiative as a 'real world' case study. The WMS were launched by the Scottish Government to address men's health inequalities. Our analysis aimed to develop a deeper understanding of policy implementation as it naturally occurred, used an analytical framework that was developed to reflect the 'rational planning' principles health professionals are commonly encouraged to use for implementation purposes. A mixed-methods qualitative enquiry using a data archive generated during the WMS policy evaluation was used to critically analyze (post hoc) the perspectives of national policy makers, and local health and social care professionals about the: (a) 'policy problem', (b) interventions intended to address the problem, and (c) anticipated policy outcomes. This analysis revealed four key themes: (1) ambiguity regarding the policy problem and means of intervention; (2) behavioral framing of the policy problem and intervention; (3) uncertainty about the policy evidence base and outcomes, and; (4) a focus on intervention as outcome . This study found that mechanistic planning heuristics (as a means of supporting implementation) fails to grapple with the indeterminate nature of population health problems. A new approach to planning and implementing public health interventions is required that recognises the complex and political nature of health problems; the inevitability of imperfect and contested evidence regarding intervention, and, future associated uncertainties.

  9. Experiences of health care providers managing sexual assault ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... participate in matters pertaining to sexual assault. Government should develop clear guidelines that are applicable to rural and urban South Africa. Health care sciences should aim to train more forensic nurses. All relevant departments should work together to alleviate the complications caused by sexual assault incidents ...

  10. Was an epidemic of gonorrhoea among heterosexuals attending an Adelaide sexual health services associated with variations in sex work policing policy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Bi, Peng; Waddell, Russell; Chow, Eric Pf; Donovan, Basil; McNulty, Anna; Fehler, Glenda; Loff, Bebe; Shahkhan, Hana; Fairley, Christopher K

    2016-08-01

    A review of historical trends in gonococcal diagnoses made at the Adelaide Sexual Health Clinic (ASHC), South Australia, identified a substantial rise in diagnoses among heterosexuals between 2006 and 2010. Sex work is illegal in South Australia, regulated in Victoria and legal in New South Wales. This and other factors that could have influenced the epidemic were explored in this analysis. Retrospective analyses of gonorrhoea diagnoses made by sexual health services between 1990 and 2012 in three Australian state capitals, Melbourne (Victoria) and Sydney (New South Wales) were undertaken. At the ASHC the proportion of gonorrhoea diagnoses was higher between 2006 and 2010 among heterosexual men (5.34% vs 0.84%, p<0.001), non-sex worker women (0.64% vs 0.28%, p<0.001) and female sex workers (FSWs) (1.75% vs 0.24%, p<0.001) compared with other years. This relationship was not seen at the Melbourne Sexual Health Clinic and corresponding data from the Sydney Sexual Health Centre showed that FSWs were less likely to have gonorrhoea between 2006 and 2010 than the other groups (p=0.746, p=0.522, p=0.024, respectively). At ASHC FSWs were significantly more likely to be diagnosed between 2006 and 2010 (OR 2.8, 95% CI 1.48 to 5.27, p=0.002). Charges against sex workers peaked in 2007/2008. A substantial, self-limiting rise in diagnoses of heterosexual gonorrhoea was seen in Adelaide FSWs between 2006 and 2010. Removing barriers to condom use is vital to the prevention of HIV and STI transmission. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  11. The politics of sex research and constructions of female sexuality: what relevance to sexual health work with young women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Few, C

    1997-03-01

    By examining the relationship between the cultural construction of female sexuality and the lack of potential for many young heterosexual women to be truly sexually healthy this paper submits that messages for women within HIV prevention programmes can be confused, confining and at times dangerous to women's health and well-being. It is suggested that these messages also reinforce a traditional, biologically determined medical understanding of female sexuality that does not take note of social or culturally based research or commentary on female experience or female desire, but rather confines many women to sexual restrictions, doing little to empower women to prevent sexual risk-taking. The ideological basis of the discussion within this paper is informed by the awareness that applications and understandings of 'sexuality' are diverse and contested within sex research traditions and will influence the choice of research concerns. The 'deterministic' explanation of sexuality that 'sexuality' (the abstract noun referring to the quality of being 'sexual', Williams 1983) is your fate or destiny and that biology causes the patterns of sexual life, is abandoned in this paper in favour of a search for a definition of sexuality which brings together a host of different biological and mental possibilities which are given meaning only in social relations. This allows for a framework for the study of sexuality that relates it to other social phenomena, particularly economic, political and social structures (Foucault 1979); in other words, a study of the 'social construction' of sexuality. This paper suggests that health care professionals need to develop an awareness of the diversities within female sexuality and gain insight into their own values and assumptions about female sexuality if these are not to inhibit effective approaches and interventions in the areas of HIV and sexual health.

  12. Talk with Tiff: teen's inquiries to a sexual health website.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzi, Ruth S; Smith, Peggy B; Barrera, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Because of its availability, anonymity, and low cost of access, the Internet is an increasingly common way for adolescents to find information about sensitive issues. Sexual health website question portals are an important way for adolescents to seek personalized information tailored to their individualized needs. Few studies have examined the content within anonymous e-mails sent to these question portals. The purpose of this qualitative evaluation was to analyze thematic content of anonymous e-mails sent through a question portal on a comprehensive sexual health clinic website for an adolescent family planning clinic in a large city in the southwest United States. Between August 2009 and June 2012, the e-mail server received questions from 484 individuals who were seeking sexual health-related information. The authors used a content analysis to identify recurrent themes in the questions submitted. The most common questions regarded the cost of the clinic's services and testing for sexually transmitted diseases. The questions revealed that adolescents lack basic sexual health knowledge and hold many misconceptions. The findings support the usefulness of online question portals as effective venues for teenagers to quickly and anonymously obtain accurate information on sensitive issues.

  13. Trade policy and health: from conflicting interests to policy coherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blouin, Chantal

    2007-03-01

    Policy incoherence at the interface between trade policy and health can take many forms, such as international trade commitments that strengthen protection of pharmaceutical patents, or promotion of health tourism that exacerbates the shortage of physicians in rural areas. Focusing on the national policy-making process, we make recommendations regarding five conditions that are necessary, but not sufficient, to ensure that international trade policies are coherent with national health objectives. These conditions are: space for dialogue and joint fact-finding; leadership by ministries of health; institutional mechanisms for coordination; meaningful engagement with stakeholders; and a strong evidence base.

  14. Human rights and the sexual and reproductive health of women living with HIV--a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Shubha; Gruskin, Sofia; Khosla, Rajat; Narasimhan, Manjulaa

    2015-01-01

    HIV. Further research is urgently needed to support the sexual and reproductive health and rights of women living with HIV, to identify what works and to inform future programming and policies to improve care, treatment and support for women living with HIV.

  15. Identifying Adolescent Patients at Risk for Sexually Transmitted Infections: Development of a Brief Sexual Health Screening Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victor, Elizabeth C; Chung, Richard; Thompson, Robert J

    2015-08-01

    This study examined the association between survey responses to health behaviors, personality/psychosocial factors, and self-reported sexually transmitted infections (STIs) to create a brief survey to identify youth at risk for contracting STIs. Participants included 200 racially diverse 14- to 18-year-old patients from a pediatric primary care clinic. Two sexual behavior variables and one peer norm variable were used to differentiate subgroups of individuals at risk of contracting a STI based on reported history of STIs using probability (decision tree) analyses. These items, as well as sexual orientation and having ever had oral sex, were used to create a brief sexual health screening (BSHS) survey. Each point increase in total BSHS score was associated with exponential growth in the percentage of sexually active adolescents reporting STIs. Findings suggest that the BSHS could serve as a useful tool for clinicians to quickly and accurately detect sexual risk among adolescent patients. © The Author(s) 2014.

  16. Influential Factors of Puerto Rican Mother–Child Communication About Sexual Health Topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granberry, Phillip; Person, Sharina; Allison, Jeroan; Rosal, Milagros; Rustan, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Latina mothers play a central role in raising and socializing their children; however, few studies have examined the cultural, socio-cognitive and neighborhood-related variables influencing the level of communication between Puerto Rican mothers and their children about sexuality and sexual health. This cross-sectional study sought to examine these influences. Methods Puerto Rican mothers with children aged 10–19 years (n = 193) were selected randomly for an ethnographic interview as part of a community participatory action research project in a U.S. urban northeastern community. Results Bivariate analyses found statistically significant associations between the child’s age (p = 0.002), the mother’s past communication about traditional gender role norms of women (marianismo) (p communications with her child (p communicate sexual health information as well as the need to improve mothers’ confidence discussing sexual health issues with their children. Future public health interventions to promote communication about sexuality and sexual health among Puerto Rican mothers should consider addressing this issue as a part of comprehensive neighborhood improvement projects. PMID:27461018

  17. Using Facebook for Sexual Health Social Marketing in Conservative Asian Countries: A Systematic Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khawaja, Zain-Ul-Abdin; Ali, Khudejah Iqbal; Khan, Shanze

    2017-02-01

    Social marketing related to sexual health is a problematic task, especially in religiously and/or culturally conservative countries. Social media presents a possible alternative channel for sexual health efforts to disseminate information and engage new users. In an effort to understand how well sexual health campaigns and organizations have leveraged this opportunity, this study presents a systematic examination of ongoing Facebook-based sexual health efforts in conservative Asian countries. It was discovered that out of hundreds of sexual health organizations identified in the region, less than half had created a Facebook page. Of those that had, only 31 were found to have posted sexual health-relevant content at least once a month. Many of these 31 organizations were also unsuccessful in maintaining regular official and user activity on their page. In order to assess the quality of the Facebook pages as Web-based information resources, the sexual health-related official activity on each page was analyzed for information (a) value, (b) reliability, (c) currency, and (d) system accessibility. User responsiveness to official posts on the pages was also used to discuss the potential of Facebook as a sexual health information delivery platform.

  18. Health care models guiding mental health policy in Kenya 1965 - 1997

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenkins Rachel

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mental health policy is needed to set the strategy and direction for the provision of mental health services in a country. Policy formulation does not occur in a vacuum, however, but is influenced by local and international factors in the health sector and other sectors. Methods This study was carried out in 1997 to examine the evolution of mental health policy in Kenya between 1965 and 1997 in the context of changing international concepts of health and development. Qualitative content analysis of policy documents was combined with interviews of key policy makers. Results The study showed that during the period 1965-1997 the generic health policy in Kenya changed from one based on the Medical Model in the 1960s and 1970s to one based on the Primary Health Care Model in the late 1970s and the 1980s and finally to one based on the Market Model of health care in the 1990s. The mental health policy, on the other hand, evolved from one based on the Medical Model in the 1960s to one based on the Primary Health Care Model in the 1990s, but did not embrace the Market Model of health care. This resulted in a situation in the 1990s where the mental health policy was rooted in a different conceptual model from that of the generic health policy under which it was supposed to be implemented. This "Model Muddlement" may have impeded the implementation of the mental health policy in Kenya. Conclusions Integration of the national mental health policy with the general health policy and other sector policies would be appropriate and is now underway.

  19. Sexual harassment and health among male and female police officers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haas, Stans; Hoing, Mechtild; Timmerman, M.C.

    2009-01-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate whether sexual harassment is related to mental and physical health of both men and women, and to explore the possible moderating effects of gender on the relation between sexual harassment and health. In addition, we investigated whether women were more

  20. Health Care Organizations and Policy Leadership: Perspectives on Nonsmoker-Only Hiring Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Patricia A; Malone, Ruth E

    2018-02-01

    To explore employers' decisions to base hiring policies on tobacco or nicotine use and community perspectives on such policies, and analyze the implications for organizational identity, community engagement, and health promotion. From 2013 to 2016, 11 executives from six health care organizations and one non-health-care organization with nonsmoker-only hiring policies were interviewed about why and how their policies were created and implemented, concerns about the policies, and perceptions of employee and public reactions. Focus groups were conducted with community members (n = 51) who lived in or near cities where participating employers were based, exploring participants' opinions about why an employer would stop hiring smokers and their support (or not) for such a policy. Most employers excluded from employment those using all forms of nicotine. Several explained their adoption of the policy as a natural extension of a smoke-free campus and as consistent with their identity as health care organizations. They regarded the policy as promoting health. No employer mentioned engaging in a community dialogue before adopting the policy or reported efforts to track the policy's impact on rejected applicants. Community members understood the cost-saving appeal of such policies, but most opposed them. They made few exceptions for health care organizations. Policy decisions undertaken by health care organizations have influence beyond their immediate setting and may establish precedents that others follow. Nonsmoker-only hiring policies may fit with a health care organization's institutional identity but may not be congruent with community values or promote public health.

  1. Visiting Entertainment Venues and Sexual Health in China

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Li; Wu, Zunyou; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Guan, Jihui; Yin, Yueping; Detels, Roger; Wu, Sheng; Lee, Sung-Jae; Cao, Haijun; Lin, Chunqing; Rou, Keming; Liu, Zhendong

    2008-01-01

    Entertainment venues in China are associated with risky sexual behavior. Most previous studies related to entertainment venues in China have focused on sex workers and commercial sex, but this study addressed sexual health in a sample of the general urban population. A randomly selected sample of market vendors (n = 4,510) from an eastern city was recruited and assessed to examine relationships between entertainment venue visits and sexual risk. Both behavioral (self-reports of unprotected se...

  2. Student-Initiated Sexual Health Selective as a Curricular Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie Johnson, BS

    2015-06-01

    Conclusions: The 1-week SHS was successfully implemented through the teamwork of a medical student and faculty champion. It resulted in more accurate knowledge and more open attitudes toward sexual health among participating medical students. Potential benefits to undergraduate medical educators are reviewed. Johnson K, Rullo J, and Faubion S. Student-initiated sexual health selective as a curricular tool. Sex Med 2015;3:118–127.

  3. Sexual Orientation at the National Curriculum Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Altmann

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, sexuality is considered a matter of public health, and the school is a privileged place for the implementation of public policies that promote children’s and adolescents’ health. Thus, it has been established, in agreement with the National Curriculum Parameters (PCNs, as a transversal theme in order to disseminate itself throughout the whole pedagogical field and to broaden its effects in a wide range of different areas, including Physical Education. This research analyzes the requirements of sexuality in the PCNs with the aim of identifying the use of the sexuality concept, the historical uniqueness of this proposal and its possible effects at schools, more specifically through Physical Education.

  4. Are national policies on global health in fact national policies on global health governance? A comparison of policy designs from Norway and Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Catherine M; Clavier, Carole; Potvin, Louise

    2017-01-01

    Since the signing of the Oslo Ministerial Declaration in 2007, the idea that foreign policy formulation should include health considerations has gained traction on the United Nations agenda as evidenced by annual General Assembly resolutions on global health and foreign policy. The adoption of national policies on global health (NPGH) is one way that some member states integrate health and foreign policymaking. This paper explores what these policies intend to do and how countries plan to do it. Using a most similar systems design, we carried out a comparative study of two policy documents formally adopted in 2012. We conducted a directed qualitative content analysis of the Norwegian White Paper on Global health in foreign and development policy and the Swiss Health Foreign Policy using Schneider and Ingram's policy design framework. After replicating analysis methods for each document, we analysed them side by side to explore the commonalities and differences across elements of NPGH design. Analyses indicate that NPGH expect to influence change outside their borders. Targeting the international level, they aim to affect policy venues, multilateral partnerships and international institutions. Instruments for supporting desired changes are primarily those of health diplomacy, proposed as a tool for negotiating interests and objectives for global health between multiple sectors, used internally in Switzerland and externally in Norway. Findings suggest that NPGH designs contribute to constructing the global health governance system by identifying it as a policy target, and policy instruments may elude the health sector actors unless implementation rules explicitly include them. Research should explore how future NPGH designs may construct different kinds of targets as politicised groups of actors on which national governments seek to exercise influence for global health decision-making.

  5. Are national policies on global health in fact national policies on global health governance? A comparison of policy designs from Norway and Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clavier, Carole; Potvin, Louise

    2017-01-01

    Background Since the signing of the Oslo Ministerial Declaration in 2007, the idea that foreign policy formulation should include health considerations has gained traction on the United Nations agenda as evidenced by annual General Assembly resolutions on global health and foreign policy. The adoption of national policies on global health (NPGH) is one way that some member states integrate health and foreign policymaking. This paper explores what these policies intend to do and how countries plan to do it. Methods Using a most similar systems design, we carried out a comparative study of two policy documents formally adopted in 2012. We conducted a directed qualitative content analysis of the Norwegian White Paper on Global health in foreign and development policy and the Swiss Health Foreign Policy using Schneider and Ingram's policy design framework. After replicating analysis methods for each document, we analysed them side by side to explore the commonalities and differences across elements of NPGH design. Results Analyses indicate that NPGH expect to influence change outside their borders. Targeting the international level, they aim to affect policy venues, multilateral partnerships and international institutions. Instruments for supporting desired changes are primarily those of health diplomacy, proposed as a tool for negotiating interests and objectives for global health between multiple sectors, used internally in Switzerland and externally in Norway. Conclusion Findings suggest that NPGH designs contribute to constructing the global health governance system by identifying it as a policy target, and policy instruments may elude the health sector actors unless implementation rules explicitly include them. Research should explore how future NPGH designs may construct different kinds of targets as politicised groups of actors on which national governments seek to exercise influence for global health decision-making. PMID:28589007

  6. Girl Talk: A Smartphone Application to Teach Sexual Health Education to Adolescent Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brayboy, Lynae M; Sepolen, Alexandra; Mezoian, Taylor; Schultz, Lucy; Landgren-Mills, Benedict S; Spencer, Noelle; Wheeler, Carol; Clark, Melissa A

    2017-02-01

    Produce Girl Talk, a free smartphone application containing comprehensive sexual health information, and determine the application's desirability and appeal among teenage girls. Thirty-nine girls ages 12 to 17 years from Rhode Island participated in a 2-phase prospective study. In phase I, 22 girls assessed a sexual health questionnaire in focus groups. In phase II, 17 girls with iPhones used Girl Talk for 2 weeks and answered the revised sexual health questionnaire and interview questions before and after use. Participants' responses to the sexual health questionnaire, interviews, and time viewing the application were used to determine feasibility and desirability of Girl Talk. Girl Talk was used on average for 48 minutes during participants' free time on weekends for 10- to 15-minute intervals. Reported usefulness of Girl Talk as a sexual health application from baseline (6 participants) to follow-up (16 participants) increased significantly (35.3% vs 94.1%; P sexuality and relationships (76.5% to 80.0% out of 10 questions), and STI prevention (75.6% to 79.0% out of 7 questions). Most phase II participants (13 out of 17, or 76.5%) were exposed to sexual health education before using Girl Talk, but 16 out of 17 participants (94.1%) stated that the application provided new and/or more detailed information than health classes. Girl Talk can potentially connect teenage girls to more information about sexual health vs traditional methods, and participants recommended the application as a valuable resource to learn about comprehensive sexual health. Copyright © 2016 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Sexual health, risky sexual behavior and condom use among adolescents young adults and older adults in Chiang Mai, Thailand: findings from a population based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinyopornpanish, Kanokporn; Thanamee, Sanhapan; Jiraporncharoen, Wichuda; Thaikla, Kanittha; McDonald, Jessica; Aramrattana, Apinun; Angkurawaranon, Chaisiri

    2017-12-04

    Sexual health is one of the key dimensions of health across all ages. Understanding risky sexual behaviors remains an important area of public health research. This study aimed to explore sexual health, risky sexual behaviors and factors associated with recent condom use as condom use is considered a main intervention proven to reduce negative health consequences of risky sexual behaviors, specifically related to sexually transmitted infections and unintended pregnancies. A stratified two-stage cluster sampling technique survey was conducted in Chiang Mai, Thailand. Information was obtained about age of first sexual intercourse, sexual activity, condom use, number of partners and history of drug/alcohol use prior to sexual activities within the past 3 months. A weighted analysis was performed to account for data clustering. It is estimated that most men (93%) and women (86%) in Chiang Mai have engaged in sexual intercourse. More than 70% of the people in Chiang Mai over age 30 remained sexually active in the past 3 months, even for populations over age 50. Eight percent of male teenagers reported having more than one sexual partner in the past 3 months. Regular condom use was reported in less than 5% of the population (6.6% men and 3.1% women). Our study demonstrated that sexual health is an important public health issue across all age groups. Condom use has been promoted as one way to minimize and prevent unintended consequences of sexual behavior but overall use remains low.

  8. Public Policy and Health Informatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Katherine

    2018-04-05

    To provide an overview of the history of electronic health policy and identify significant laws that influence health informatics. US Department of Health and Human Services. The development of health information technology has influenced the process for delivering health care. Public policy and regulations are an important part of health informatics and establish the structure of electronic health systems. Regulatory bodies of the government initiate policies to ease the execution of electronic health record implementation. These same bureaucratic entities regulate the system to protect the rights of the patients and providers. Nurses should have an overall understanding of the system behind health informatics and be able to advocate for change. Nurses can utilize this information to optimize the use of health informatics and campaign for safe, effective, and efficient health information technology. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Health Policy Training: A Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiman, Harry J; Smith, L Lerissa; McKool, Marissa; Mitchell, Denise N; Roth Bayer, Carey

    2015-12-23

    The context within which health care and public health systems operate is framed by health policies. There is growing consensus about the need for increased health policy leadership and a health professional workforce prepared to assume these leadership roles. At the same time, there is strong evidence supporting the need for a broader policy lens and the need to intentionally target health disparities. We reviewed the published literature between 1983 and 2013 regarding health policy training. From 5124 articles identified, 33 met inclusion criteria. Articles varied across common themes including target audience, goal(s), health policy definition, and core curricular content. The majority of articles were directed to medical or nursing audiences. Most articles framed health policy as health care policy and only a small number adopted a broader health in all policies definition. Few articles specifically addressed vulnerable populations or health disparities. The need for more rigorous research and evaluation to inform health policy training is compelling. Providing health professionals with the knowledge and skills to engage and take leadership roles in health policy will require training programs to move beyond their limited health care-oriented health policy framework to adopt a broader health and health equity in all policies approach.

  10. Health Policy Training: A Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry J. Heiman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The context within which health care and public health systems operate is framed by health policies. There is growing consensus about the need for increased health policy leadership and a health professional workforce prepared to assume these leadership roles. At the same time, there is strong evidence supporting the need for a broader policy lens and the need to intentionally target health disparities. We reviewed the published literature between 1983 and 2013 regarding health policy training. From 5124 articles identified, 33 met inclusion criteria. Articles varied across common themes including target audience, goal(s, health policy definition, and core curricular content. The majority of articles were directed to medical or nursing audiences. Most articles framed health policy as health care policy and only a small number adopted a broader health in all policies definition. Few articles specifically addressed vulnerable populations or health disparities. The need for more rigorous research and evaluation to inform health policy training is compelling. Providing health professionals with the knowledge and skills to engage and take leadership roles in health policy will require training programs to move beyond their limited health care-oriented health policy framework to adopt a broader health and health equity in all policies approach.

  11. Nonevent stress contributes to mental health disparities based on sexual orientation: evidence from a personal projects analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, David M; LeBlanc, Allen J

    2014-09-01

    This study examined the role of nonevent stress--in the form of frustrated personal project pursuits in the arenas of relationships and work--as a contributing factor to mental health disparities between heterosexual and lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) populations. A purposive sample of 431 LGB (55%) and heterosexually identified (45%) individuals living in the United States and Canada completed the Personal Project Inventory by describing and rating core personal projects they were pursuing. The intensity of perceived barriers to the achievement of relationship- and work-related personal projects served as indicators nonevent stress. Hierarchical linear regression models tested the hypothesis that nonevent stress contributes to the association between sexual orientation and two indicators of mental health: depressive symptoms and psychological well-being. LGB individuals had significantly more depressive symptoms and lower levels of psychological well-being than heterosexuals. Indicators of nonevent stress were significantly associated with mental health outcomes and their inclusion in models attenuated sexual orientation differences in mental health. The critical indirect pathway leading from sexual minority status to mental health occurred via barriers to relationship projects from interpersonal sources. This research suggests that nonevent stress because of structural and interpersonal stigma may contribute to mental health disparities between LGB and heterosexual individuals. The findings have important implications for policy reform around same-sex relationship recognition and workplace discrimination. Future research and clinical work will benefit by expanding existing foci on stress to include nonevent stressors to better understand and address mental health problems, particularly in LGB populations.

  12. Is Sexual Behavior Healthy for Adolescents? A Conceptual Framework for Research on Adolescent Sexual Behavior and Physical, Mental, and Social Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilenko, Sara A.; Lefkowitz, Eva S.; Welsh, Deborah P.

    2014-01-01

    Although research has increasingly emphasized how adolescent sexual behavior may be associated with aspects of health beyond unwanted pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections, no current theoretical or conceptual model fully explains associations between sexual behavior and multiple facets of health. We provide a conceptual model that…

  13. Health discourse, sexual slang and ideological contradictions among Mozambican youth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groes-Green, Christian

    2009-01-01

    . Young people's resistance to enquiry, the paper argues, is due to ideological contradictions between their sexual culture and slang, on the one hand, and Western health discourses associated with colonial and post-colonial opposition to traditional culture and languages, on the other. Mixing colloquial...... Portuguese and changana sexual slang is constructed around ideas of safedeza and pleasure, while dominant health discourses address sexuality as both ‘risky' and ‘dangerous'. In order to gain a deeper understanding of sexual cultures and to make HIV prevention efforts relevant to young people...

  14. A 'mystery shopper' project to evaluate sexual health and contraceptive services for young people in Croydon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sykes, Susie; O'Sullivan, Karin

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the accessibility of, and advice provided by, sexual health and advice services for young people in Croydon, UK using a 'mystery shopper' approach. Nineteen young people aged 13-21 years were trained as mystery shoppers. The group developed a set of standards, based in part on existing guidelines of best practice, that should be met when working with young people. The group accessed local sexual health services in pairs posing as genuine patients. Using one of four scenarios, the mystery shoppers assessed the service they received against the predefined standards. The main access difficulties occurred in the reception area. Confidentiality was a major concern and was frequently not explained. The advice and information received was generally clearly given and with an appropriate level of detail. Additional training and support needs to be offered to receptionists. Confidentiality policies and statements need to be more effectively communicated.

  15. Improving adolescent health policy: incorporating a framework for assessing state-level policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brindis, Claire D; Moore, Kristin

    2014-01-01

    Many US policies that affect health are made at the state, not the federal, level. Identifying state-level policies and data to analyze how different policies affect outcomes may help policy makers ascertain the usefulness of their public policies and funding decisions in improving the health of adolescent populations. A framework for describing and assessing the role of federal and state policies on adolescent health and well-being is proposed; an example of how the framework might be applied to the issue of teen childbearing is included. Such a framework can also help inform analyses of whether and how state and federal policies contribute to the variation across states in meeting adolescent health needs. A database on state policies, contextual variables, and health outcomes data can further enable researchers and policy makers to examine how these factors are associated with behaviors they aim to impact.

  16. Competence of Healthcare Workers in Sexual Health Education for Female Adolescents at Schools

    OpenAIRE

    Mozhgan Javadnoori; Sanaz Zangeneh; Mitra Tadayon; Mohamadreza Akhoond

    2016-01-01

    Background & aim: Sexual health education is one of the responsibilities of healthcare workers at schools, which can reduce the risk of sexually transmitted diseases such as AIDS, unwanted pregnancy, abortion, substance abuse, sexual violence, and suicidal tendencies. This study aimed to investigate healthcare workers’ competence in sexual health education for female adolescents at schools. Methods:This cross-sectional study was conducted on 300 healthcare workers, responsible for sexual heal...

  17. Effectiveness of the Sexual Health/Reproductive Health Education Given to Turkey Adolescents Who Use Alcohol or Substance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ataman, Hacer; Kömürcü, Nuran

    The research was conducted experimentally to evaluate the effectiveness of the sexual health/reproductive health (SH/RH) education given to Turkish adolescents who use alcohol or illicit substances. The population was adolescents who use alcohol and substances and were inpatients at the Child and Adolescent Substance Addiction Research, Treatment and Education Center. The adolescents were grouped into the following three groups: Group 1 (control group), Group 2 (those who have received training once), and Group 3 (those who have received training twice). Data were collected between September 2011 and December 2012 using the forms Self-Introduction and Information on Sexual Health-Reproductive Health and Information on Sexual Health-Reproductive Health Education Modules. Upon studying the total SH/RH test scores of the groups individually, a statistically significant difference was observed in the scores of Groups 2 and 3 (p education in a repetitive manner for prevention of risky sexual behavior.

  18. Relationship Between Use of Videogames and Sexual Health in Adult Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansone, Andrea; Sansone, Massimiliano; Proietti, Marco; Ciocca, Giacomo; Lenzi, Andrea; Jannini, Emmanuele A; Romanelli, Francesco

    2017-07-01

    Videogame use is increasingly prevalent in people of all ages, and despite the wide amount of scientific evidence proving a role for electronic entertainment in human health, there is no evidence about the relation between use of videogames and sexual health. To investigate the association between use of videogames and male sexual health. We administered the two validated questionnaires, the Premature Ejaculation Diagnostic Tool (PEDT) and the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-15), to men 18 to 50 years old recruited through social networks and specific websites. In addition to the questionnaires, volunteers were asked to provide information on their gaming habit and lifestyle. An extended version of the IIEF-15 and PEDT, including data about gaming habits and relevant lifestyles. From June 18, 2014 through July 31, 2014, 599 men 18 to 50 years old completed the questionnaires. One hundred ninety-nine men reported no sexual activity during the previous 4 weeks; four records were rejected because of inherent errors. The remaining 396 questionnaires were analyzed, with 287 "gamers" (playing >1 hour/day on average) and 109 "non-gamers" providing all the required information. We found a lower prevalence of premature ejaculation in gamers compared with non-gamers (mean PEDT score = 3.57 ± 3.38 vs 4.52 ± 3.7, P videogame use and male sexual health. Compared with non-gamers, men playing videogames for more than 1 hour/day were less likely to have premature ejaculation but more likely to have decreased sexual desire. This is the first study aimed to assess male sexual health in gamers. We identified an association between PEDT and IIEF scores and videogame use; however, these findings require validation through interventional studies. Furthermore, volunteers were recruited through social networks, thus increasing the risk of recruitment bias. To our knowledge, this is the first observational study investigating the link between electronic entertainment and

  19. Accessing adolescent sexual and reproductive health services ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adolescent sexual and reproductive health access continues to dominate the development agenda since the historic 1994 Cairo Conference and becomes a huge public health concern for the increasing diverse of undocumented adolescents who have become an important component as irregular migration patterns and ...

  20. Circumcision in Australia: prevalence and effects on sexual health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richters, Juliet; Smith, Anthony M A; de Visser, Richard O; Grulich, Andrew E; Rissel, Christopher E

    2006-08-01

    The results from a telephone survey in 2001-02 of a probability sample of Australian households including 10,173 men aged 16-59 (response rate 69.4%) are used to assess the prevalence of circumcision across social groups in Australia and examine lifetime history of sexually transmissible infection (STI), sexual difficulties in the last year, sexual practices including masturbation, and sexual attitudes. More than half (59%) of the men were circumcised. Circumcision was less common among younger men (32% aged practices at last sexual encounter with a female partner or in masturbation alone. Circumcised men had somewhat more liberal sexual attitudes. Neonatal circumcision was routine in Australia until the 1970s. It appears not to be associated with significant protective or harmful sexual health outcomes. This study provides no evidence about the effects on sexual sensitivity.

  1. Sexual Function in Breastfeeding Women in Family Health Centers of Tabriz, Iran, 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamileh Malakoti

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:There are conflicting evidences about the effects of breastfeeding on postpartum maternal sexual functioning. With regard to the methodological weaknesses of previous studies and cultural differences affecting their issue, the present study aims to evaluate sexual functions of lactating women and its components. Methods:This is a descriptive study in which 200 eligible postpartum women were selected from eight health centers of Tabriz (25 from each center. The eligible women were called and invited to attend the health center. The evaluation was performed using the Persian version of normalized questionnaire of the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI. The participants’ sexual function scores above 28 were considered desirable (regarding the cut-off point mentioned in the Persian version of the questionnaire. Results:Almost all of the lactating women suffered from sexual dysfunctions. Regarding the sexual performance’s components the lowest scores were for libido and sexual arousal. Conclusion:According to the findings of the studies, in order to prevent the effects of sexual dysfunction on lactating women and their family members it is necessary to develop sexual health programs in health centers.

  2. Experiences of sexual harassment and sexual assault in the military among OEF/OIF veterans: implications for health care providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Margret E; Reardon, Annemarie

    2011-01-01

    Given the frequent occurrence and significant health impact of sexual harassment and sexual assault in the military, it is important that for health care providers working with Veterans to have at least some basic knowledge in this area. Targeting providers addressing mental health and psychosocial issues, but also applicable to clinicians working with survivors in a variety of capacities, this article provides an overview of clinical care with survivors of sexual trauma in the military, particularly those who are OEF/OIF Veterans. We cover basic background information, focusing primarily on the impact of sexual trauma in the military, how survivor's reactions are shaped by various aspects of the military context, and general principles to assist clinicians in working effectively with survivors, whatever their role.

  3. Health policy, health systems research and analysis capacity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Health Policy and Systems Research and Analysis (HPSR&A) is an applied science that deals with complexity as it tries to provide lessons, tools and methods to understand and improve health systems and health policy. It is defined by the kinds of questions asked rather than a particular methodology.

  4. Budapest Student Health Behavior Survey--Budapest, Hungary, 1999. Findings on unintentional and intentional injuries, alcohol use, and sexual activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easton, A; Kiss, E; Mowery, P

    2004-06-01

    In Hungary, a large proportion of adult morbidity and mortality can be attributed to health risk behaviors that begin in early adolescence. To date, studies examining health risk behaviors among youth have rarely been undertaken in Hungary. In order to expand current research in this area, the Hungarian Metropolitan Institute of State Public Health and Public Health Officer Service and the Office on Smoking and Health at the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention developed and implemented the Budapest Student Health Behavior Survey. The objective of this study was to examine health behavior risk factors among secondary school students in Budapest in 1999. The 1999 Budapest Student Health Behavior Survey is cross-sectional school-based survey A 2-stage cluster sampling design was used to produce a representative sample of secondary students in grades 9-12 in Budapest. Information was collected on unintentional and intentional injuries, alcohol use, and sexual activity. During the 30 days preceding the survey, 28.7% of students had rarely or never worn a seatbelt and 68.1% drunk alcohol. During the 12 months preceding the survey, 14.5% had been threatened or injured with a weapon, 12.9% experienced dating violence, and 13.5% seriously considered suicide. Of the 44.7% of students who had had sexual intercourse, 29.5% had > or = 4 sex partners. Of sexually active students, 50.4% had not used a condom at last sexual intercourse. Many secondary school students in Budapest practice behaviors that place them at risk for serious health problems both in the short and long-term. Programs and policies that adequately address such behaviors among secondary school students are needed to reduce subsequent morbidity and mortality.

  5. Health Policy as a Specific Area of Social Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominika Pekarová

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose and Originality: The aim of the article was to analyse the work of the health policy which is a very specific part of social policy. In the work we focus on its financing, which is a very important issue in the health care. We try to show, what is the role of the state in the health care system as well as the creation of resources and control costs in the health sector. The work is finding such as financing health care in Slovakia and in other selected countries, and which could be changed for the best operation. Method: The analysis was carried out on the basis of the information which I drew from books and Internet resources. The work is divided into two parts. Contains 9 tables and 3 charts. The first chapter is devoted to a general description of social policy, its funding, with a focus on health policy than its specific area. The second chapter analyses the financing systems of health policy in Slovakia and in selected countries. Results: The results showed that the Slovak health care makes is trying hard to catch up with the level of the best health care systems. However, there are countries, which are doing much worse than us, in terms of funding. Society: It is important to properly invest money but also communication between states. To get help on health and to ensure that citizens know states the best conditions of health care. Limitations / further research: This work is focused on how to bring closer health care and its financing in several different countries economically. IN doing so some other aspects such as what is best level of services, etc. were put aside.

  6. [Historical Transition of Sexuality Education in Japan and Outline of Reproductive Health/Rights].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishioka, Emiko

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the historical transition of sexuality education in Japan and the direction of sexuality education taken by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT). Reproductive health/rights, a key concept in sex education, is also discussed. In Japanese society, discussion on sexuality has long been considered taboo. After the Second World War, sexuality education in Japan began as "purity education." From 1960 until the early 1970s, physical aspects such as genital organs, function, secondary sexual characteristics, and gender differences were emphasized. Comprehensive education as a human being, including physiological, psychological, and social aspects, began to be adopted in the late 1970s. In 2002, it was criticized that teaching genital terms at primary schools and teaching about sexual intercourse and contraceptive methods at junior high schools were "overdue guidance" and "extreme contents." Sexuality education in schools has become a problem and has stagnated for about 10 years. Currently, schools teach sexuality education that does not deviate from the MEXT course guidelines. The direction of MEXT regarding sexuality education should be examined from the basic position that sexual activity by children is inappropriate. Reproductive health/rights apply the concept of human rights to sexuality and reproduction. Reproductive health/rights are key concepts that support sex education and women's health.

  7. Effectiveness of structured teaching programme on knowledge regarding sexual health among young adults

    OpenAIRE

    Atul Kumar; Mahalingam Venkateshan; Selvi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Adulthood is the pinnacle of all stages of human growth and development. Sexuality plays the axial role in all the spheres of human life. Individual's health can be regarded on the reciprocal function of his sexuality and sexual practices. Abnormal sexuality results in deviation in physical, physiological, psychological and even economical disturbances. The main aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of structured teaching programme on knowledge regarding sexual health...

  8. Sexual Health Behaviors of Deaf American Sign Language (ASL) Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiman, Erica; Haynes, Sharon; McKee, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Background Little is known about the sexual health behaviors of Deaf American Sign Language (ASL) users. Objective We sought to characterize the self-reported sexual behaviors of Deaf individuals. Methods Responses from 282 Deaf participants aged 18–64 from the greater Rochester, NY area who participated in the 2008 Deaf Health were analyzed. These data were compared with weighted data from a general population comparison group (N=1890). We looked at four sexual health-related outcomes: abstinence within the past year; number of sexual partners within the last year; condom use at last intercourse; and ever tested for HIV. We performed descriptive analyses, including stratification by gender, age, income, marital status, and educational level. Results Deaf respondents were more likely than the general population respondents to self-report two or more sexual partners in the past year (30.9% vs 10.1%) but self-reported higher condom use at last intercourse (28.0% vs 19.8%). HIV testing rates were similar between groups (47.5% vs 49.4%) but lower for certain Deaf groups: Deaf women (46.0% vs. 58.1%), lower-income Deaf (44.4% vs. 69.7%) and among less educated Deaf (31.3% vs. 57.7%) than among respondents from corresponding general population groups. Conclusion Deaf respondents self-reported higher numbers of sexual partners over the past year compared to the general population. Condom use was higher among Deaf participants. HIV was similar between groups, though HIV testing was significantly lower among lower-income, less well-educated, and female Deaf respondents. Deaf individuals have a sexual health risk profile that is distinct from that of the general population. PMID:26242551

  9. Sexual health behaviors of Deaf American Sign Language (ASL) users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiman, Erica; Haynes, Sharon; McKee, Michael

    2015-10-01

    Little is known about the sexual health behaviors of Deaf American Sign Language (ASL) users. We sought to characterize the self-reported sexual behaviors of Deaf individuals. Responses from 282 Deaf participants aged 18-64 from the greater Rochester, NY area who participated in the 2008 Deaf Health were analyzed. These data were compared with weighted data from a general population comparison group (N = 1890). We looked at four sexual health-related outcomes: abstinence within the past year; number of sexual partners within the last year; condom use at last intercourse; and ever tested for HIV. We performed descriptive analyses, including stratification by gender, age, income, marital status, and educational level. Deaf respondents were more likely than the general population respondents to self-report two or more sexual partners in the past year (30.9% vs 10.1%) but self-reported higher condom use at last intercourse (28.0% vs 19.8%). HIV testing rates were similar between groups (47.5% vs 49.4%) but lower for certain Deaf groups: Deaf women (46.0% vs 58.1%), lower-income Deaf (44.4% vs 69.7%) and among less educated Deaf (31.3% vs 57.7%) than among respondents from corresponding general population groups. Deaf respondents self-reported higher numbers of sexual partners over the past year compared to the general population. Condom use was higher among Deaf participants. HIV was similar between groups, though HIV testing was significantly lower among lower income, less well-educated, and female Deaf respondents. Deaf individuals have a sexual health risk profile that is distinct from that of the general population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Exploring sexual risks in a forensic mental health hospital: perspectives from patients and nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Chris; Happell, Brenda

    2015-01-01

    Patients utilising forensic mental health inpatient services experience a range of sexual risks, including vulnerability to sexual exploitation and exposure to sexually transmissible infections. However, there is a paucity of research exploring the issue of sexual risks from the standpoint of patients and the nurses who work closely with them in inpatient secure settings. This article presents findings from a qualitative exploratory study, which investigated the views of patients and nurses about sexual relationships in forensic mental health settings. Risk was a major theme arising from the data and is the focus of this article. Subthemes from nurse participants included sexual safety, sexual vulnerability, unplanned pregnancies, and male sexuality issues. Subthemes from patients included risks associated with sexual activity, access to information and sexual health care, unplanned pregnancies, vulnerability, and male sexuality issues. Knowledge about these sexual risks by patients and nurses were well articulated, however information and assistance were considered by patients to be less than satisfactory in improving their knowledge or in providing the support they considered important to reduce sexual risks. The issue of risk needs to be addressed, and nurses would be well placed to contribute; however they require education to improve their ability to provide sexual health education to patients along with strategies to ensure patients receive the support and services they require to reduce their exposure to sexual risks.

  11. Sources of Discrimination and Their Associations With Health in Sexual Minority Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Wilson S; Zoccola, Peggy M

    2016-06-01

    Health disparities exist between sexual minorities and heterosexuals. These health disparities may be due to stressful social situations and environments that are created by discrimination. The current study recruited 277 sexual minorities to complete an online survey to examine the effects of discrimination on health. Discrimination from family and friends, compared to non-family and friends, was found to be more strongly associated with poorer health. This effect was partially statistically mediated by perceived stress reactivity. Findings from this study highlight the importance of distinguishing between different sources of discrimination when examining the effect of discrimination on health in sexual minority adults.

  12. [Sexuality in the elderly: The role of the physicians in maintaining sexual health of older men].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakkalakal, D; Weißbach, L

    2015-12-01

    Sexuality in the elderly is still a social taboo. A commitment by medical practices to address the topic of sexuality in later life is essential, given that the sexual health is part of the quality of life. Identification of barriers and discourse of effects in the physician's behavior when dealing with the sexuality of older people. Review and discussion of interdisciplinary literature and social discourse. Compilation of expert opinions. Although the introduction of phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors led to a removal of taboos concerning erectile dysfunction, the sexuality of older men became narrowed to physiological aspects. The elderly still complain that consultations concerning their sexuality receives too little attention in medical practice. Problems are boundaries of shame and disregard of the sexuality of elderly. Sexuality in old age will have to become more prominent in medical practices, due to demographic changes and changing self-images of the elderly. The social role of physicians enables straightforward discussions about sexuality. Taking a sexual history and choosing an active approach proved to be practicable to discuss sexual problems with older people.

  13. Assessment of health risks of policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ádám, Balázs; Molnár, Ágnes; Ádány, Róza; Bianchi, Fabrizio; Bitenc, Katarina; Chereches, Razvan; Cori, Liliana; Fehr, Rainer; Kobza, Joanna; Kollarova, Jana

    2014-01-01

    The assessment of health risks of policies is an inevitable, although challenging prerequisite for the inclusion of health considerations in political decision making. The aim of our project was to develop a so far missing methodological guide for the assessment of the complex impact structure of policies. The guide was developed in a consensual way based on experiences gathered during the assessment of specific national policies selected by the partners of an EU project. Methodological considerations were discussed and summarized in workshops and pilot tested on the EU Health Strategy for finalization. The combined tool, which includes a textual guidance and a checklist, follows the top-down approach, that is, it guides the analysis of causal chains from the policy through related health determinants and risk factors to health outcomes. The tool discusses the most important practical issues of assessment by impact level. It emphasises the transparent identification and prioritisation of factors, the consideration of the feasibility of exposure and outcome assessment with special focus on quantification. The developed guide provides useful methodological instructions for the comprehensive assessment of health risks of policies that can be effectively used in the health impact assessment of policy proposals. - Highlights: • Methodological guide for the assessment of health risks of policies is introduced. • The tool is developed based on the experiences from several case studies. • The combined tool consists of a textual guidance and a checklist. • The top-down approach is followed through the levels of the full impact chain. • The guide provides assistance for the health impact assessment of policy proposals

  14. Assessment of health risks of policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ádám, Balázs, E-mail: badam@cmss.sdu.dk [Unit for Health Promotion Research, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Southern Denmark, Niels Bohrs Vej 9, DK-6700 Esbjerg (Denmark); Department of Preventive Medicine, Faculty of Public Health, University of Debrecen, P.O. Box 9, H-4012 Debrecen (Hungary); Molnár, Ágnes, E-mail: MolnarAg@smh.ca [Department of Preventive Medicine, Faculty of Public Health, University of Debrecen, P.O. Box 9, H-4012 Debrecen (Hungary); Centre for Research on Inner City Health, Keenan Research Centre, Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute, St Michael' s Hospital, Victoria 209, Rm. 3-26.22, M5B 1C6 Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Ádány, Róza, E-mail: adany.roza@sph.unideb.hu [Department of Preventive Medicine, Faculty of Public Health, University of Debrecen, P.O. Box 9, H-4012 Debrecen (Hungary); Bianchi, Fabrizio, E-mail: Fabriepi@ifc.cnr.it [Unit of Environmental Epidemiology, Institute of Clinical Physiology, National Council of Research, Moruzzi 1, 56124 Pisa (Italy); Bitenc, Katarina, E-mail: katarina.bitenc@ivz-rs.si [National Institute of Public Health, Trubarjeva 2, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Chereches, Razvan, E-mail: razvan.m.chereches@gmail.com [Faculty of Political, Administrative and Communication Sciences, Babes-Bolyai University, Strada Mihail Kogalniceanu 1, 3400 Cluj (Romania); Cori, Liliana, E-mail: liliana.cori@ifc.cnr.it [Unit of Environmental Epidemiology, Institute of Clinical Physiology, National Council of Research, Moruzzi 1, 56124 Pisa (Italy); Fehr, Rainer, E-mail: rainer.fehr@uni-bielefeld.de [NRW Centre for Health, Westerfeldstr. 35-37, 33611 Bielefeld (Germany); Kobza, Joanna, E-mail: koga1@poczta.onet.pl [Public Health Department, Silesian Medical University, 18 Medykow Street, 40-752 Katowice (Poland); Kollarova, Jana, E-mail: janakollarova@yahoo.com [Department of Health Promotion, Regional Public Health Authority, Ipelska 1, 04011 Kosice (Slovakia); and others

    2014-09-15

    The assessment of health risks of policies is an inevitable, although challenging prerequisite for the inclusion of health considerations in political decision making. The aim of our project was to develop a so far missing methodological guide for the assessment of the complex impact structure of policies. The guide was developed in a consensual way based on experiences gathered during the assessment of specific national policies selected by the partners of an EU project. Methodological considerations were discussed and summarized in workshops and pilot tested on the EU Health Strategy for finalization. The combined tool, which includes a textual guidance and a checklist, follows the top-down approach, that is, it guides the analysis of causal chains from the policy through related health determinants and risk factors to health outcomes. The tool discusses the most important practical issues of assessment by impact level. It emphasises the transparent identification and prioritisation of factors, the consideration of the feasibility of exposure and outcome assessment with special focus on quantification. The developed guide provides useful methodological instructions for the comprehensive assessment of health risks of policies that can be effectively used in the health impact assessment of policy proposals. - Highlights: • Methodological guide for the assessment of health risks of policies is introduced. • The tool is developed based on the experiences from several case studies. • The combined tool consists of a textual guidance and a checklist. • The top-down approach is followed through the levels of the full impact chain. • The guide provides assistance for the health impact assessment of policy proposals.

  15. "I Don't Shag Dirty Girls": Marginalized Masculinities and the Use of Partner Selection as a Sexual Health Risk Reduction Strategy in Heterosexual Young Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limmer, Mark

    2016-03-01

    Understanding and addressing the sexual risk taking of young men remains a key research, policy, and practice concern in attempts to improve the emotional and physical sexual health of young men and their sexual partners. This article explores one of the ways in which young men attempt to mitigate sexual risk through the assigning of labels to particular young women and using these as a basis for their decisions in relation to sexual activity, contraception, and condom use. The article uses the lens of hegemonic masculinities theory to increase understanding of the role played by the construction and performance of marginalized masculinities and how these in turn are influenced by social exclusionary processes. The article draws on focus group and interview data from 46 young men aged 15 to 17 years living in the northwest of England, purposively selected on the basis of the prevailing policy definitions of social inclusion and exclusion. The article describes a form of marginalized masculinity pertaining to socially excluded young men, which as a result of limited access to other tenets of hegemonic masculinity, is disproportionately reliant on sexual expertise and voracity alongside overt demonstrations of their superiority over women. It is in this context that young women are assigned the labels of "dirty" or "clean" on the basis of a selection of arbitrary judgments relating to dress, demeanor, area of residence, and perceived sexual activities. The motivations of the young men, the impact on young women, and the policy and practice implications are all discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  16. Sexual harassment and discrimination. Impact on physical and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrier, D K

    1990-02-01

    Sexual harassment and sexual discrimination continue to be pervasive problems for women in business, academia, and medicine, with widespread and often serious health, emotional, and economic consequences. It is important that health care providers become aware of the common physical and emotional symptoms associated with these victimization experiences and serve as supportive and informed resources to their patients.

  17. Factors Affecting Sexual History Taking in a Health Center Serving Homeless Persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowicz, Timothy Joseph; Bradway, Christine K

    2018-03-01

    Low rates of documentation of sexual histories have been reported and research on sexual history taking (SHT) has focused on the content of, barriers to collecting, and interventions to improve documentation of sexual histories. Absent from this literature is an understanding of the contextual factors affecting SHT. To address this gap, a focused ethnography of one health center was conducted. Data were collected through observations of health care encounters and interviews with health care providers (HCPs). No SHT was observed and this was likely influenced by patients' characteristics, communication between patients and HCPs, the prioritization of patients' basic needs, and time constraints imposed upon encounters. Given that the health center studied serves patients experiencing homelessness, behavioral health concerns, and opioid use disorder, findings illuminate areas for future inquiry into a patient population affected by social as well as physiologic determinants of health and potentially at high risk for adverse sexual health outcomes.

  18. Sexual partner types and related sexual health risk among out-of-school adolescents in rural south-west Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nobelius, A.; Kalina, B.; Pool, R.; Whitworth, J.; Chesters, J.; Power, R.

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on ‘sexual debut’ among out-of-school youth in Masaka District, Uganda, factors influencing its timing and assistance young people feel they need to delay sexual initiation. Data were drawn from a sexual health needs assessment using applied anthropological techniques with young

  19. Sexual and reproductive health and HIV/AIDS risk perception in the Malawi tourism industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisika, Thomas

    2009-06-01

    Malawi has for a long time relied on agriculture for the generation of foreign exchange. Due to varied reasons like climate change, the Malawi government has, therefore, identified tourism as one way of boosting foreign exchange earnings and is already in the process of developing the sector especially in the area of ecotourism. However, tourism is associated with increasing prostitution, drug abuse and a whole range of other sexual and reproductive health (SRH) problems such as teenage pregnancies, HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). This paper examines the knowledge, attitudes, practices and behaviour as well as risk perceptions associated with HIV/AIDS, sexually transmitted infections and unwanted pregnancies among staff in the tourism industry and communities around tourist facilities in Malawi. The study was descriptive in nature and used both qualitative and quantitative research methods. The qualitative methods involved in-depth interviews and focus group discussions. The quantitative technique employed a survey of 205 purposively selected subjects from the tourism sector. The study concludes that people in the tourism sector are at high risk of HIV/AIDS, sexually transmitted infections and unwanted pregnancies and should be considered as a vulnerable group. The study further observes that this group of people has not adopted behaviours that can protect them from HIV/AIDS, sexually transmitted infections and unwanted pregnancies although there is high demand for voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) which offers a very good entry point for HIV prevention and treatment in the tourism sector. The study recommends that a comprehensive tourism policy covering tourists, employees and communities around tourist facilities is required. Such a policy should address the rights of HIV infected employees and the provision of prevention and treatment services for HIV/AIDS and STIs as well as a broad range of SRH and family planning services especially

  20. Regret Expression and Social Learning Increases Delay to Sexual Gratification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda J Quisenberry

    Full Text Available Modification and prevention of risky sexual behavior is important to individuals' health and public health policy. This study employed a novel sexual discounting task to elucidate the effects of social learning and regret expression on delay to sexual gratification in a behavioral task.Amazon Mechanical Turk Workers were assigned to hear one of three scenarios about a friend who engages in similar sexual behavior. The scenarios included a positive health consequence, a negative health consequence or a negative health consequence with the expression of regret. After reading one scenario, participants were asked to select from 60 images, those with whom they would have casual sex. Of the selected images, participants chose one image each for the person they most and least want to have sex with and person most and least likely to have a sexually transmitted infection. They then answered questions about engaging in unprotected sex now or waiting some delay for condom-protected sex in each partner condition.Results indicate that the negative health outcome scenario with regret expression resulted in delayed sexual gratification in the most attractive and least STI partner conditions, whereas in the least attractive and most STI partner conditions the negative health outcome with and without regret resulted in delayed sexual gratification.Results suggest that the sexual discounting task is a relevant laboratory measure and the framing of information to include regret expression may be relevant for prevention of risky sexual behavior.

  1. Local enactments of national health promotion policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wimmelmann, Camilla Lawaetz

    2017-01-01

    organisational levels. Visiting, observing and interviewing 15 policy workers from 10 municipalities during a two-year period, this study investigated what happened to a Danish national health promotion policy as it was put into practice and managed in the Danish municipalities. The analysis reveals...... the concrete enactments and their locally experienced effects, our understanding of national public health policies risks becoming detached from praxis and unproductive. Public health policy-makers must pay methodological and analytical attention to the policies' multimodality and their concrete locally......Governments of welfare states are firmly committed to public health, resulting in a substantial number of public health policies. Given the multi-level structure of most welfare systems, the influence of a public health policy is related to its ability to spread geographically and move across...

  2. Has untargeted sexual health promotion for young people reached its limit? A quasi-experimental study

    OpenAIRE

    Elliott, Lawrie; Henderson, Marion; Nixon, Catherine; Wight, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Background Theoretically, there may be benefit in augmenting school-based sexual health education with sexual health services, but the outcomes are poorly understood. Healthy Respect 2 (HR2) combined sex education with youth-friendly sexual health services, media campaigns and branding, and encouraged joint working between health services, local government and the voluntary sector.\\ud \\ud This study examined whether HR2: (1) improved young people's sexual health knowledge, attitudes, behaviou...

  3. Reaching consensus: a review on sexual health training modules for professional capacity building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Karimian

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Professional capacity building (PCB is the focus point in health-related subjects.The present study was conducted to systematically review the existing sexual health training modules for health care providers.Methods: The following keywords were used to search: training, education, professional capacity, practitioner, sexual health, skill education, module, course, package and curriculum.The term MESH is referred to Medical Subject Headings and the following databases were investigated: MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL, The Cochrane Library and Web of Science, Scopus, Google Scholar, SID,Magiran, and Iranmedex. All articles from 1980 to 2015 were extracted. Online modules were excluded. Considering that lesson plan was the basis of instruction, the modules were selected based on the characteristics of the lesson plans.Results: A total number of 38 published training modules in the field of sexuality we redetermined. In total, more than half of the modules (58% were designed for medical doctor sand allied health professionals and the remaining (42% were for nurses and midwives. Almost all the modules (97% were introduced and utilized in developed countries, and only 3% were disseminated in developing countries.Conclusion: There are invaluable modules to build professional capacity in the field of sexual health. As a number of modules have been designed for nurses and midwifes, as the first-line health care providers, the use of these groups in sexual counseling and empowerment for sexual health is essential. No sexual health training program was designed in Iran. Therefore, designing such modules according to Iranian culture is strongly recommended.

  4. Reaching consensus: a review on sexual health training modules for professional capacity building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimian, Zahra; Azin, Seied Ali; Javid, Nasrin; Araban, Marzieh; Maasoumi, Raziyeh; Aghayan, Shahrokh; Merghati Khoie, Effat

    2018-01-01

    Background: Professional capacity building (PCB) is the focus point in health-related subjects.The present study was conducted to systematically review the existing sexual health training modules for health care providers. Methods: The following keywords were used to search: training, education, professional capacity, practitioner, sexual health, skill education, module, course, package and curriculum.The term MESH is referred to Medical Subject Headings and the following databases were investigated: MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), The Cochrane Library and Web of Science, Scopus, Google Scholar, SID,Magiran, and Iranmedex. All articles from 1980 to 2015 were extracted. Online modules were excluded. Considering that lesson plan was the basis of instruction, the modules were selected based on the characteristics of the lesson plans. Results: A total number of 38 published training modules in the field of sexuality we redetermined. In total, more than half of the modules (58%) were designed for medical doctor sand allied health professionals and the remaining (42%) were for nurses and midwives. Almost all the modules (97%) were introduced and utilized in developed countries, and only 3% were disseminated in developing countries. Conclusion: There are invaluable modules to build professional capacity in the field of sexual health. As a number of modules have been designed for nurses and midwifes, as the first-line health care providers, the use of these groups in sexual counseling and empowerment for sexual health is essential. No sexual health training program was designed in Iran. Therefore, designing such modules according to Iranian culture is strongly recommended.

  5. Shaping Policy Change in Population Health: Policy Entrepreneurs, Ideas, and Institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béland, Daniel; Katapally, Tarun R

    2018-01-14

    Political realities and institutional structures are often ignored when gathering evidence to influence population health policies. If these policies are to be successful, social science literature on policy change should be integrated into the population health approach. In this contribution, drawing on the work of John W. Kingdon and related scholarship, we set out to examine how key components of the policy change literature could contribute towards the effective development of population health policies. Shaping policy change would require a realignment of the existing school of thought, where the contribution of population health seems to end at knowledge translation. Through our critical analysis of selected literature, we extend recommendations to advance a burgeoning discussion in adopting new approaches to successfully implement evidence-informed population health policies. © 2018 The Author(s); Published by Kerman University of Medical Sciences. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

  6. Dating violence, quality of life and mental health in sexual minority populations: a path analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Janet Yuen-Ha; Choi, Edmond Pui-Hang; Lo, Herman Hay-Ming; Wong, Wendy; Chio, Jasmine Hin-Man; Choi, Anna Wai-Man; Fong, Daniel Yee-Tak

    2017-04-01

    Theories explaining the impact of intimate partner violence (IPV) on mental health have focused on heterosexual relationships. It is unclear whether mental health disparities between heterosexual and sexual minority people are due to IPV or factors related to sexual orientation. The present study aimed to investigate pathways of how sexual orientation influenced quality of life and mental health. The present cross-sectional study was conducted in 1076 young adults in a university population (934 heterosexual and 142 sexual minority groups). Structural equation modelling was used to examine the pathways of sexual orientation, dating violence, sexual orientation concealment, quality of life and mental health (perceived stress, anxiety and depression). After adjusting for sociodemographic factors, quality of life in sexual minority people was poorer [estimate -2.82, 95 % confidence interval (CI) -4.77 to -0.86, p = 0.005], and stress (estimate 2.77, 95 % CI 1.64-3.92, p violence and sexual orientation concealment were mediators, with the models showing a good fit. Our study has progressed investigation of the link between sexual orientation and quality of life and mental health in the Chinese context. It has helped identify health disparities between heterosexual and sexual minority people and determined specific factors affecting their quality of life and mental health.

  7. Improving adolescent sexual and reproductive health in Latin America: reflections from an International Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Córdova Pozo, Kathya; Chandra-Mouli, Venkatraman; Decat, Peter; Nelson, Erica; De Meyer, Sara; Jaruseviciene, Lina; Vega, Bernardo; Segura, Zoyla; Auquilla, Nancy; Hagens, Arnold; Van Braeckel, Dirk; Michielsen, Kristien

    2015-01-24

    In February 2014, an international congress on Promoting Adolescent Sexual and Reproductive Health (ASRH) took place in Cuenca, Ecuador. Its objective was to share evidence on effective ASRH intervention projects and programs in Latin America, and to link this evidence to ASRH policy and program development. Over 800 people participated in the three-day event and sixty-six presentations were presented.This paper summarizes the key points of the Congress and of the Community Embedded Reproductive Health Care for Adolescents (CERCA) project. It aims at guiding future ASRH research and policy in Latin America. 1. Context matters. Individual behaviors are strongly influenced by the social context in which they occur, through determinants at the individual, relational, family, community and societal levels. Gender norms/attitudes and ease of communication are two key determinants. 2. Innovative action. There is limited and patchy evidence of effective approaches to reach adolescents with the health interventions they need at scale. Yet, there exist several promising and innovative examples of providing comprehensive sexuality education through conventional approaches and using new media, improving access to health services, and reaching adolescents as well as families and community members using community-based interventions were presented at the Congress. 3. Better measurement. Evaluation designs and indicators chosen to measure the effect and impact of interventions are not always sensitive to subtle and incremental changes. This can create a gap between measured effectiveness and the impact perceived by the targeted populations. Thus, one conclusion is that we need more evidence to better determine the factors impeding progress in ASRH in Latin American, to innovate and respond flexibly to changing social dynamics and cultural practices, and to better measure the impact of existing intervention strategies. Yet, this Congress offered a starting point from which to

  8. Sexual Health of Polish Athletes with Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard Plinta

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine sexual functioning of Polish athletes with disabilities (including paralympians. The study encompassed 218 people with physical disabilities, aged between 18 and 45 (149 men and 69 women. The entire research population was divided into three groups: Polish paralympians (n = 45, athletes with disabilities (n = 126 and non-athletes with disabilities (n = 47. The quality of sexual life of Polish paralympians was measured by using the Polish version of Female Sexual Function Index and International Index of Erectile Function. Clinically significant erectile dysfunctions were most often diagnosed in non-athletes (83.33% with 50% result of severe erectile dysfunctions, followed by athletes and paralympians with comparable results of 56.98% and 54.17% respectively (p = 0.00388. Statistically significant clinical sexual dysfunctions concerned lubrication, orgasm as well as pain domains, and prevailed among female non-athletes (68.42%, 68.42% and 57.89%. Practising sports at the highest level has a favourable effect on the sexuality of men and women with physical disabilities. Men with physical disabilities manifest more sexual disorders than women, an aspect which should be considered by health-care professionals working with people with disabilities.

  9. Consumer attitudes toward health policy and knowledge about health legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riska, E; Taylor, J A

    1978-01-01

    Consumer attitudes toward key issues affecting health policy decisions in the local community have been ignored both by local health policy makers and by medical sociologists. The authors report an empirical analysis of: (1) consumer attitudes towards federal intervention in health care; (2) consumer perceptions of the free market philosophy of health providers; (3) consumer perceptions of their involvement in health policy making; (4) consumer confidence in present systems of health services delivery; and (5) consumer awareness of recent major health legislation. It was found that consumers are poorly informed about recent health care legislation. The authors compared the attitudes of consumers with those held by local hospital board members toward health policy issues. The differences for all comparisons were statistically significant. The authors argue that hospital board members attribute problems in health services delivery to demand dysfunctions while consumers perceive the problems to be a result of supply dysfunctions. Thus, failure to include consumers on health policy boards guarantees the absence of a solution-oriented dialogue and promotes the continuing predominance of a provider-biased ideology.

  10. Population mental health: evidence, policy, and public health practice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cohen, Neal L; Galea, Sandro

    2011-01-01

    ... on population mental health with public mental health policy and practice. Issues covered in the book include the influence of mental health policies on the care and well-­ being of individuals with mental illness, the interconnectedness of physical and mental disorders, the obstacles to adopting a public health orientation to mental health/mental ill...

  11. Australia's national men's health policy: masculinity matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Margo; Peerson, Anita

    2009-08-01

    The development of Australia's first national men's health policy provides an important opportunity for informed discussions of health and gender. It is therefore a concern that the stated policy appears to deliberately exclude hegemonic masculinity and other masculinities, despite evidence of their major influence on men's health-related values, beliefs, perspectives, attitudes, motivations and behaviour. We provide an evidence-based critique of the proposed approach to a national men's health policy which raises important questions about whether the new policy can achieve its aims if it fails to acknowledge 'masculinity' as a key factor in Australian men's health. The national men's health policy should be a means to encourage gender analysis in health. This will require recognition of the influence of hegemonic masculinity, and other masculinities, on men's health. Recognising the influence of 'masculinity' on men's health is not about 'blaming' men for 'behaving badly', but is crucial to the development of a robust, meaningful and comprehensive national men's health policy.

  12. The association between developmental assets and sexual enjoyment among emerging adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galinsky, Adena M; Sonenstein, Freya L

    2011-06-01

    To examine the associations between three key developmental assets and an aspect of sexual health, sexual enjoyment, which has rarely been studied in young adults, although its importance is stressed in all recent sexual health policy statements. Using data from wave III (2001-2002) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, and multiple logistic and ordered logistic regression, we explored the associations between sexual pleasure and autonomy, self-esteem, and empathy among 3,237 respondents aged 18-26 years in heterosexual relationships of ≥ 3-month duration. We also examined the distribution of sexual pleasure across various socio-demographic groups. Compared with young women, young men reported more regular orgasms and more enjoyment of two kinds of partnered sexual behavior. Sexual enjoyment was not associated with age, race/ethnicity, or socioeconomic status. Among women, autonomy, self-esteem, and empathy co-varied positively with all three sexual enjoyment measures. Among men, all associations were in the same direction, but not all were statistically significant. A substantial gender difference in enjoyment of partnered sexual behavior exists among emerging adults in the United States. This study is the first to use a representative population sample to find a relationship between developmental assets and a positive aspect of sexual health - sexual pleasure. Copyright © 2011 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Prevalence of sexually transmitted infections, and risk factor for sexual health of adolescents, Medellín, Colombia, 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villegas-Castaño, Aracelly

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections in a group of adolescents in Medellín, Colombia, and the most frequent risk factors for acquiring them. Materials and methods: Cross-sectional study, between 2010 and 2013, in 569 students who had started sexual intercourse. A questionnaire was applied, and screening was done for the following infections: hepatitis B, syphilis, HIV, HPV, gonorrhea, Chlamydia trachomatis, bacterial vaginosis, candidiasis, and nongonococcal urethritis in men. Results: Women had the following frequencies of infections: HPV 28.1 %; Chlamydia trachomatis 11.4 %; bacterial vaginosis 42.7 %; candidiasis 14.1 %. Nongonococcal urethritis was found in 6.2 % of men. Hepatitis B, syphilis, HIV, and gonococcal infections were not found. The most frequent risk factors were as follows: to have started sexual relations before the age of 15 (59.9 %; not to use condom (58.2 %; not to have utilized condom in the last sexual intercourse (41.7 %; to lack adequate knowledge on sexual health (39.1 %; to have had three or more sexual partners (30.6 %; to have had sexual partners 10 or more years older than themselves (20.4 %, and to have sexual relations with persons different from the formal partner (18.8 %. Conclusions: The high prevalence of STIs in teenagers that are just starting sexual life must be an alert to implement high impact sexual health programs.

  14. Mixed Messages: Inconsistent Sexual Scripts in Australian Teenage Magazines and Implications for Sexual Health Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Melanie C.

    2018-01-01

    Condom use among Australian adolescents has been shown to be variable, despite good knowledge among this group about sexual health risks and the promotion of condoms as a simple way to reduce the spread of sexually transmitted infections. This study explores dominant constructions of condom use within two Australian lifestyle magazines targeted…

  15. Training Peer Sexual Health Educators: Changes in Knowledge, Counseling Self-Efficacy, and Sexual Risk Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrhardt, Britt L.; Krumboltz, John D.; Koopman, Cheryl

    2007-01-01

    Peer sexual health education programs are widespread on college campuses, but little research has assessed the effect of these programs on the peer educators. This study employed a repeated measures design to examine changes over the academic quarter in the knowledge, counseling self-efficacy, and sexual behavior of 70 college students enrolled in…

  16. Sexual health knowledge and behaviour of young Sudanese Queenslanders: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Judith; Mitchell, Marion; Stewart, Donald; Debattista, Joseph

    2017-06-01

    Background Forced migration is associated with sexual vulnerability. However, little is known about the sexual health literacy and needs of refugee-background youth post resettlement. Conducted in partnership with the Queensland Sudanese community, this study used a cross-sectional survey to explore the sexual health knowledge, attitudes and behaviours of a convenience sample of 16- to 24-year-old Sudanese-background youth in Australia (n=229). Sexually transmissible infection (STI) and HIV knowledge scores were generally low, although they were found to significantly improve the longer participants had lived in Australia (Pbehaviour score suggests generally low levels of risk-taking behaviour. However, of the 140 sexually active participants, 3.1% reported a STI diagnosis, 9.0% reported sex leading to a pregnancy and 33.1% reported they had experienced unwanted sex. Participants also reported engaging in behaviours such as anal sex (33%) and sharing injecting drug equipment. Patterns of sexual behaviour among this predominately refugee-background group are not dissimilar to those of other young Australians. Nonetheless, the self-reported patterns of risk behaviour combined with the low and inaccurate levels of sexual health knowledge suggest this group of young people remain sexually vulnerable, particularly early within their resettlement experience. Culturally and contextually informed sexual health interventions are needed early within the resettlement experience.

  17. Effectiveness of a reproductive sexual health education package among school going adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, M K C; Paul, Mini K; Leena, M L; Thankachi, Yamini; George, Babu; Russell, P S; Pillai, H Vijayan

    2012-01-01

    To assess the effectiveness of a school based "Adolescent Reproductive Sexual Health Education (ARSHE) Package" in improving students' knowledge on reproductive sexual health matters. An ARSHE package originally developed at Child Development Centre, Kerala, modified and approved by ICMR taskforce group was administered in three urban schools (One boys only, one girls only and one co-education) and one co-education rural school at Thiruvananthapuram district, Kerala. The study sample consisted of 1,586 adolescents including 996 boys and 560 girls of class IX and XI. Pre and post intervention knowledge regarding reproductive sexual health matters was assessed using a self-administered questionnaire. In the pre-intervention period, it was observed that majority of adolescents were poorly informed about reproductive sexual health matters, particularly about contraceptives. As compared to boys, girls had much poorer knowledge about prevention of pregnancy and after intervention; there was a statistically significant increase in the knowledge in both boys and girls. Among girls percentage of poor knowledge had reduced significantly from 64.1% to 8.3% and among boys from 37.7% to 3.5%. Similarly, increase in knowledge level was also observed in various other aspects of reproductive and sexual health including, STI, HIV/AIDS and perceptions about premarital sex. The study results revealed the feasibility and effectiveness of school based reproductive and sexual health education intervention programs for adolescents.

  18. Female international students and sexual health - a qualitative study into knowledge, beliefs and attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchard, Adrienne; Laurence, Caroline; Stocks, Nigel

    2011-10-01

    International students make up an increasing proportion of university students in Australia. Research suggests that they have poor sexual health knowledge compared with local students. Thematic analysis was undertaken on focus groups carried out at the University of Adelaide (South Australia), with 21 female international students from Malaysia and China. Four themes were identified: poor sexual health knowledge; complex attitudes about premarital sex; difficulty accessing sexual health information, and poor understanding the role of general practitioners in this area; and ideas about future education. Participants believed that international students have insufficient sexual health education when they arrive in Australia. They were concerned that some students may become more sexually active in Australia, and may not have adequate access to health services and information. All participants felt it was necessary for international students to receive better sexual health education. International students are important to Australian universities, and it should be mandatory to ensure that culturally appropriate sex education is made available to this group.

  19. Adapting public policy theory for public health research: A framework to understand the development of national policies on global health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Catherine M; Clavier, Carole; Potvin, Louise

    2017-03-01

    National policies on global health appear as one way that actors from health, development and foreign affairs sectors in a country coordinate state action on global health. Next to a burgeoning literature in which international relations and global governance theories are employed to understand global health policy and global health diplomacy at the international level, little is known about policy processes for global health at the national scale. We propose a framework of the policy process to understand how such policies are developed, and we identify challenges for public health researchers integrating conceptual tools from political science. We developed the framework using a two-step process: 1) reviewing literature to establish criteria for selecting a theoretical framework fit for this purpose, and 2) adapting Real-Dato's synthesis framework to integrate a cognitive approach to public policy within a constructivist perspective. Our framework identifies multiple contexts as part of the policy process, focuses on situations where actors work together to make national policy on global health, considers these interactive situations as spaces for observing external influences on policy change and proposes policy design as the output of the process. We suggest that this framework makes three contributions to the conceptualisation of national policy on global health as a research object. First, it emphasizes collective action over decisions of individual policy actors. Second, it conceptualises the policy process as organised interactive spaces for collaboration rather than as stages of a policy cycle. Third, national decision-making spaces are opportunities for transferring ideas and knowledge from different sectors and settings, and represent opportunities to identify international influences on a country's global health policy. We discuss two sets of challenges for public health researchers using interdisciplinary approaches in policy research. Copyright

  20. Trade policy and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friel, Sharon; Hattersley, Libby; Townsend, Ruth

    2015-03-18

    Twenty-first-century trade policy is complex and affects society and population health in direct and indirect ways. Without doubt, trade policy influences the distribution of power, money, and resources between and within countries, which in turn affects the natural environment; people's daily living conditions; and the local availability, quality, affordability, and desirability of products (e.g., food, tobacco, alcohol, and health care); it also affects individuals' enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health. In this article, we provide an overview of the modern global trade environment, illustrate the pathways between trade and health, and explore the emerging twenty-first-century trade policy landscape and its implications for health and health equity. We conclude with a call for more interdisciplinary research that embraces complexity theory and systems science as well as the political economy of health and that includes monitoring and evaluation of the impact of trade agreements on health.

  1. Sexual health for people with intellectual disability Salud sexual para personas con discapacidad intelectual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillian Eastgate

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available People with intellectual disability experience the same range of sexual needs and desires as other people. However, they experience many difficulties meeting their needs. They may be discouraged from relieving sexual tension by masturbating. They face a high risk of sexual abuse. They are likely not to be offered the full range of choices for contraception and sexual health screening. Poor education and social isolation may increase their risk of committing sexual offences. However, with appropriate education and good social support, people with intellectual disability are capable of safe, constructive sexual expression and healthy relationships. Providing such support is an essential part of supporting people with intellectual disability.Las personas con discapacidad intelectual experimentan el mismo rango de necesidades y deseos sexuales que las demás, sin embargo éstas encuentran muchas dificultades para satisfacer sus necesidades. En ocasiones se les desalienta de aliviar la tensión sexual mediante masturbación, corren un alto riesgo de sufrir abuso sexual y es muy probable que no se les ofrezcan todas las opciones de anticoncepción y exámenes de salud sexual. La escasa educación y el aislamiento social pueden aumentar el riesgo de que cometan infracciones sexuales. Sin embargo, con una educación apropiada y con un buen apoyo social las personas con discapacidad intelectual pueden encontrar relaciones saludables y una expresión sexual segura y constructiva. Parte esencial de la asistencia a las personas con discapacidad intelectual consiste precisamente en proporcionarles dicho apoyo.

  2. Sexuality-related work discrimination and its association with the health of sexual minority emerging and young adult men in the Detroit Metro Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauermeister, José A; Meanley, Steven; Hickok, Andrew; Pingel, Emily; Vanhemert, William; Loveluck, Jimena

    2014-03-01

    Discrimination has been linked to negative health outcomes among minority populations. The increasing evidence regarding health disparities among sexual minorities has underscored the importance of addressing sexuality discrimination as a public health issue. We conducted a web-based survey between May and September of 2012 in order to obtain a diverse sample of young men who have sex with men (ages 18-29; N = 397; 83% gay; 49% Black, 27% White, 15% Latino) living in the Detroit Metro Area (Michigan, USA). Using multivariate regression models, we examined the association between overall health (self-rated health, days in prior month when their physical or mental health was not good, limited functionality) and experiences of sexuality-based work discrimination. Fifteen percent reported at least one experience of sexuality-based work discrimination in the prior year. Recent workplace discrimination was associated with poorer self-rated health, a greater number of days when health was not good, and more functional limitation. We discuss the importance of addressing sexuality-related discrimination as a public health problem and propose multilevel intervention strategies to address these discriminatory practices.

  3. A tool for sexual minority mental health research: The Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) as a depressive symptom severity measure for sexual minority women in Viet Nam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Trang Quynh; Bandeen-Roche, Karen; Bass, Judith K; German, Danielle; Nguyen, Nam Thi Thu; Knowlton, Amy R

    In a context with limited attention to mental health and prevalent sexual prejudice, valid measurements are a key first step to understanding the psychological suffering of sexual minority populations. We adapted the Patient Health Questionnaire as a depressive symptom severity measure for Vietnamese sexual minority women, ensuring its cultural relevance and suitability for internet-based research. Psychometric evaluation found that the scale is mostly unidimensional and has good convergent validity, good external construct validity, and excellent reliability. The sample's high endorsement of scale items emphasizes the need to study minority stress and mental health in this population.

  4. Sexual coercion and health-risk behaviors among urban Chinese high school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Song

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the association between health-risk behaviors and a history of sexual coercion among urban Chinese high school students. Design: A cross-sectional study was performed among 109,754 high school students who participated in the 2005 Chinese Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Data were analyzed for 5,215 students who had experienced sexual intercourse (1,483 girls, 3,732 boys. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine the relationship between sexual coercion and the related covariates, and data were stratified by gender. Results: Of those students who had had sexual intercourse, 40.9% of the females and 29.6% of the males experienced sexual coercion (p<0.01. When analyses controlled for demographic characteristics, in the study sample, that is, students who had sexual intercourse, drug use (odds ratios [OR], 2.44, attempted suicide (OR, 2.30, physical abuse (OR, 1.74, binge drinking (OR, 1.62, verbal abuse (OR, 1.29, experience of being drunk (OR, 0.68, and smoking of cigarettes (OR, 0.52 were related to a history of sexual coercion. Patterns of health-risk behaviors also differed among female and male students who had experienced sexual coercion. Conclusions: Sexual coercion is associated with health-risk behaviors. Initiatives to reduce the harm associated with sexual coercion among high school students are needed.

  5. Sexual Harassment and Sexual Bulllying (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... out if there's someone at your school. Most schools have a sexual harassment policy or a bullying policy to protect you. Ask a guidance counselor, school nurse, or administrator about your school's policy. If ...

  6. Facilitators and Barriers to Implementing Church-Based Adolescent Sexual Health Programs in Baltimore City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Terrinieka W; Weeks, Fiona H; Illangasekare, Samantha; Rice, Eric; Wilson, James; Hickman, Debra; Blum, Robert W

    2017-02-01

    Black churches are an important community resource and a potentially powerful actor in adolescent health promotion. However, limited research exists describing the factors that may influence the successful implementation of evidence-based adolescent sexual health programs in churches. In the present study, a multi-informant approach was used to identify facilitators and barriers to implementing adolescent sexual health programs in black churches. Nine Black churches located in Baltimore, MD, were recruited to participate in this study. The senior pastor and youth minster from each congregation participated in an in-depth interview (N = 18). A total of 45 youth (ages 13-19 years) and 38 parents participated in 15 focus groups. Qualitative data were transcribed verbatim and analyzed using a qualitative content analytic approach. Participants agreed that comprehensive adolescent sexual health education should be available for youth in black churches. They also believed that abstaining from sex should be discussed in all adolescent sexual health programs. Three facilitators were discussed: widespread endorsement of church-based adolescent sexual health education, positive influence of youth ministers on youth, and life lessons as teaching tools. Four barriers are described: perceived resistance from congregants, discomfort among youth, lack of financial resources, and competing messages at home about sexual health. Our findings suggest that churches are a preferred place for adolescent sexual health education among some parents and youth. Study findings also reinforce the feasibility and desirably of church-based adolescent sexual health programs. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A Technology-Based Peer Education Intervention: Results from a Sexual Health Textline Feasibility Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, Teagen L.; Horowitz, Katie Rose; Garth, José; Mair, Christina; Burke, Jessica G.

    2017-01-01

    Sexuality health education is moving beyond the classroom, with technology expanding youth access to sexual health information. While text message services are increasingly being used to provide information, a peer education approach has yet to be incorporated. Results from this feasibility study support a sexual health textline (IOTAS),…

  8. SEXUAL AND REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH IN ACCRA, GHANA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    David Ofori-Adjei

    2012-06-01

    Jun 1, 2012 ... sexual and reproductive ill health; one in ten women reported menstrual irregularities and almost one quarter ... and fertility from the Women's Health Study of Accra. II (WHSA-II) survey conducted in 2008-9. ..... breast exams (46%), nutrition education (29%) and. HIV tests (25%) were the most commonly ...

  9. Bio-psycho-social factors affecting sexual self-concept: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potki, Robabeh; Ziaei, Tayebe; Faramarzi, Mahbobeh; Moosazadeh, Mahmood; Shahhosseini, Zohreh

    2017-09-01

    Nowadays, it is believed that mental and emotional aspects of sexual well-being are the important aspects of sexual health. Sexual self-concept is a major component of sexual health and the core of sexuality. It is defined as the cognitive perspective concerning the sexual aspects of 'self' and refers to the individual's self-perception as a sexual creature. The aim of this study was to assess the different factors affecting sexual self-concept. English electronic databases including PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science and Google Scholar as well as two Iranian databases including Scientific Information Database and Iranmedex were searched for English and Persian-language articles published between 1996 and 2016. Of 281 retrieved articles, 37 articles were finally included for writing this review article. Factors affecting sexual self-concept were categorized to biological, psychological and social factors. In the category of biological factors, age gender, marital status, race, disability and sexual transmitted infections are described. In the psychological category, the impact of body image, sexual abuse in childhood and mental health history are present. Lastly, in the social category, the roles of parents, peers and the media are discussed. As the development of sexual self-concept is influenced by multiple events in individuals' lives, to promotion of sexual self-concept, an integrated implementation of health policies is recommended.

  10. Risky sexual behaviors, mental health, and history of childhood abuse among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsumi, Atsuro; Izutsu, Takashi; Matsumoto, Toshihiko

    2012-03-01

    Although it seems evident that attention should be paid to risky sexual behaviors and their association with mental health among young people, this topic has not been thoroughly investigated. The present study aims to explore the relationship between sexual risk behaviors and mental health among adolescents. The participants were 251 adolescents in a juvenile detention facility (221 males and 31 females) as the "delinquent" group and 367 high school students (167 males and 200 females) as the "non-delinquent" group. A questionnaire including the Kessler 10, the Impact of Event Scale-Revised, and the Adolescent Dissociative Experience Scale was employed to measure mental health status as well as sexual risk behaviors, suicidal ideation/attempts, and abuse history. Having a history of sexual abuse or of physical abuse was associated with age when one first had sex among males with delinquent behaviors, while same tendency was observed among males without delinquent behaviors. Among the female with delinquent behaviors group, past abuse history was significantly associated with higher number of sex partners. In the non-delinquent group, better mental health among males and, contrarily, worse mental health among females were associated with having more sex partners. The results highlight the importance of addressing abuse history among females and males. Given that poor mental health status in the adolescents was associated with risky sexual behaviors, adolescents are a vulnerable group that requires attention in terms of sexual and reproductive health that integrates mental health and psychosocial components. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Sexual orientation and health among U.S. adults: national health interview survey, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Brian W; Dahlhamer, James M; Galinsky, Adena M; Joestl, Sarah S

    2014-07-15

    To provide national estimates for indicators of health-related behaviors, health status, health care service utilization, and health care access by sexual orientation using data from the 2013 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). NHIS is an annual multipurpose health survey conducted continuously throughout the year. Analyses were based on data collected in 2013 from 34,557 adults aged 18 and over. Sampling weights were used to produce national estimates that are representative of the civilian noninstitutionalized U.S. adult population. Differences in health-related behaviors, health status, health care service utilization, and health care access by sexual orientation were examined for adults aged 18-64, and separately for men and women. Based on the 2013 NHIS data, 96.6% of adults identified as straight, 1.6% identified as gay or lesbian, and 0.7% identified as bisexual. The remaining 1.1% of adults identified as ''something else,'' stated ''I don't know the answer,'' or refused to provide an answer. Significant differences were found in health-related behaviors, health status, health care service utilization, and health care access among U.S. adults aged 18-64 who identified as straight, gay or lesbian, or bisexual. NHIS sexual orientation data can be used to track progress toward meeting the Healthy People 2020 goals and objectives related to the health of lesbian, gay, and bisexual persons. In addition, the data can be used to examine a wide range of health disparities among adults identifying as straight, gay or lesbian, or bisexual. All material appearing in this report is in the public domain and may be reproduced or copied without permission; citation as to source, however, is appreciated.

  12. Advancing LGBT Health Care Policies and Clinical Care Within a Large Academic Health Care System: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruben, Mollie A; Shipherd, Jillian C; Topor, David; AhnAllen, Christopher G; Sloan, Colleen A; Walton, Heather M; Matza, Alexis R; Trezza, Glenn R

    2017-01-01

    Culturally competent health care is especially important among sexual and gender minority patients because poor cultural competence contributes to health disparities. There is a need to understand how to improve health care quality and delivery for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) veterans in particular, because they have unique physical and mental health needs as both LGBT individuals and veterans. The following article is a case study that focuses on the policy and clinical care practices related to LGBT clinical competency, professional training, and ethical provision of care for veteran patients in the VA Boston Healthcare System. We apply Betancourt et al.'s (2003) cultural competence framework to outline the steps that VA Boston Healthcare System took to increase cultural competency at the organizational, structural, and clinical level. By sharing our experiences, we aim to provide a model and steps for other health care systems and programs, including other VA health care systems, large academic health care systems, community health care systems, and mental health care systems, interested in developing LGBT health initiatives.

  13. Sexual health service providers' perceptions of transgender youth in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefkowitz, Ayla R F; Mannell, Jenevieve

    2017-05-01

    Transgender youth often face difficulties when accessing sexual health services. However, few studies investigate health service providers' perceptions of transgender youth, and fewer focus on sexual health. To fill this gap, our study draws on social representations theory to examine sexual health service providers' perceptions of transgender youth and how this influences the provision of health services for this marginalised population in England. A thematic analysis of 20 semi-structured interviews with service providers, conducted between March and June 2014, resulted in five main themes centred on: binary representations of transgender; transgender as homosexuality; uncertain bodies; unstable mental states; and too young to know. Of the service providers interviewed, many understood transgender within a male/female binary, and perceived being transgender to be synonymous with being gay. There was confusion among service providers regarding transgender youths' sexual organs, and most of those interviewed saw transgender youth as mentally unstable and confused. Finally, many service providers perceived that transgender youth are too young to know that they are transgender and make decisions about their body. Some of these representations were potentially stigmatising and many conflicted with transgender youths' representations of themselves. Training by transgender people is recommended to help address these misunderstandings. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Changing patterns of adolescent sexual behavior: consequences for health and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, H L

    1992-07-01

    Sexuality is a fundamental quality of human life, important for health, happiness, individual development, and indeed for the preservation of the human race. During the dynamic period of adolescence in which the passage from childhood to maturity takes place, sexuality takes on new dimensions; feelings become more intense, relationships become more complex, and the consequences of sexual behavior are radically altered. This not only affects the behavior of young people but also of those who interact with them, their families and peers, and those who work in the health, education, youth, social welfare, and other sectors. In the contemporary world the conditions of life for many young people have also changed, and with it patterns of sexual behavior. In general, earlier puberty, later marriage, a decline in the family leading to less control and more autonomy, and intense exposure to sexual stimuli via the mass media and travel across cultural boundaries have made pre-marital adolescent sexual activity more common. This has added to traditional problems of early marriage, newer problems of early pregnancy, childbirth, and induced abortion outside of marriage, sexually transmitted diseases, and human immunodeficiency syndrome infection leading to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. But the work of the World Health Organization (WHO), along with many others in the field, strongly suggests that given appropriate information and services, trust and equity between the sexes, young people will behave responsibly and well. In this paper some of the findings from methods developed by WHO for research, training, advocacy, and evaluation, and findings in relation to patterns and determinants of sexual and reproductive health and development will be described, and future directions suggested.

  15. Relationships between sexual violence and chronic disease: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santaularia, Jeanie; Johnson, Monica; Hart, Laurie; Haskett, Lori; Welsh, Ericka; Faseru, Babalola

    2014-12-16

    Sexual assault is a traumatic event with potentially devastating lifelong effects on physical and mental health. Research has demonstrated that individuals who experience sexual assault during childhood are more likely to engage in risky behaviors later in life, such as smoking, alcohol and drug use, and disordered eating habits, which may increase the risk of developing a chronic disease. Despite the high prevalence and economic burden of sexual assault, few studies have investigated the associations between sexual violence and chronic health conditions in the US. The purpose of this study is to identify associations between sexual violence and health risk behaviors, chronic health conditions and mental health conditions utilizing population based data in Kansas. Secondary analysis was done using data from the 2011 Kansas Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System sexual violence module (N = 4,886). Crude and adjusted prevalence rate ratios were computed to examine associations between sexual assault and health risk behaviors, chronic health conditions and mental health conditions, overall and after adjusting for social demographic characteristics. Additional logistic regression models were implemented to examine the association between sexual assault and health risk behaviors with further adjustment for history of anxiety or depression. There was a significantly higher prevalence of health risk behaviors (heavy drinking, binge drinking and current smoking), chronic health conditions (disability, and current asthma) and mental health conditions (depression, anxiety, and suicidal ideation) among women who ever experienced sexual assault compared to women who did not, even after adjustment for potential confounders. Study findings highlight the need for chronic disease prevention services for victims of sexual violence. There are important implications for policies and practices related to primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention, as well as collaborations

  16. Sexual Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... protect yourself from sexually transmitted infections. Talking to kids about sex Kids and sexuality — those words strike fear into the hearts of many parents. But talking to kids about sex is an important part of parenting. Children and ...

  17. The Influence of Violence Victimization on Sexual Health Behaviors and Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latimer, Jennifer; Fleckman, Julia; Wallace, Maeve; Rountree, Michele; Theall, Katherine

    2017-05-01

    This study examines the implications of a history of personal violence on health and health behaviors. A secondary analysis of cross-sectional data involving adults (n = 214) from a semirural area in southern Louisiana between October 2008 and December 2010 was conducted to ascertain the association between a personal history of violence victimization and indicators of sexual health behaviors and outcomes: communication with sexual partners about HIV status, consistent condom use, and sexually transmitted infection (STI). While violence victimization is widely accepted as a risk factor for high-risk sex behavior, the mechanisms underlying violence victimization's influence on sexual health outcomes remain unclear. Bivariate analyses demonstrated a significant positive association between experience of physical abuse and lifetime history of STI. Surprisingly, respondents reporting lifetime physical violence were more than two times more likely to ask sexual partners about HIV status [odds ratio (OR) for physical attack = 2.23, 95% confidence intervals (CI) = 1.00-4.97; OR for physical injury = 4.60, 95% CI = 1.79-11.85]. Consistent condom use was not significantly associated with violence exposure in adjusted models. There was no evidence that communication with sexual partners mediated the relationship between experiences of violence and condom use. The link between personal history of violence and condom use may be mediated through alternative pathways beyond communication.

  18. Health-related quality of life inequalities by sexual orientation: Results from the Barcelona Health Interview Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marti-Pastor, Marc; Perez, Gloria; German, Danielle; Pont, Angels; Garin, Olatz; Alonso, Jordi; Gotsens, Mercè; Ferrer, Montse

    2018-01-01

    Studies on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) inequalities according to sexual orientation are scarce. The aim of this study was to assess HRQoL inequalities between lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) people and heterosexuals in the 2011 Barcelona population, to describe the extent to which sociodemographic characteristics, health-related behaviors, and chronic conditions could explain such inequalities, and to understand if they are sexual orientation inequities. In the 2011 Barcelona Health Interview Survey 3277 adults answered the EQ-5D, which measures five dimensions of HRQoL summarized into a single utility index (1 = perfect health, 0 = death). To assess HRQoL differences by sexual orientation we constructed Tobit models for the EQ-5D index, and Poisson regression models for the EQ-5D dimensions. In both cases, nested models were constructed to assess the mediator role of selected variables. After adjusting by socio-demographic variables, the LGB group presented a significantly lower EQ-5D index than heterosexuals, and higher prevalence ratios of problems in physical EQ-5D dimensions among both genders: adjusted prevalence ratio (aPR) = 1.70 for mobility (p = 0.046) and 2.11 for usual activities (p = 0.019). Differences in mental dimensions were only observed among men: aPR = 3.15 for pain/discomfort (p = 0.003) and 2.49 for anxiety/depression (p = 0.030). All these differences by sexual orientation disappeared after adding chronic conditions and health-related behaviors in the models. The LGB population presented worse HRQoL than heterosexuals in the EQ-5D index and most dimensions. Chronic conditions, health-related behaviors and gender play a major role in explaining HRQoL differences by sexual orientation. These findings support the need of including sexual orientation into the global agenda of health inequities.

  19. Health-related quality of life inequalities by sexual orientation: Results from the Barcelona Health Interview Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Marti-Pastor

    Full Text Available Studies on health-related quality of life (HRQoL inequalities according to sexual orientation are scarce. The aim of this study was to assess HRQoL inequalities between lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB people and heterosexuals in the 2011 Barcelona population, to describe the extent to which sociodemographic characteristics, health-related behaviors, and chronic conditions could explain such inequalities, and to understand if they are sexual orientation inequities.In the 2011 Barcelona Health Interview Survey 3277 adults answered the EQ-5D, which measures five dimensions of HRQoL summarized into a single utility index (1 = perfect health, 0 = death. To assess HRQoL differences by sexual orientation we constructed Tobit models for the EQ-5D index, and Poisson regression models for the EQ-5D dimensions. In both cases, nested models were constructed to assess the mediator role of selected variables.After adjusting by socio-demographic variables, the LGB group presented a significantly lower EQ-5D index than heterosexuals, and higher prevalence ratios of problems in physical EQ-5D dimensions among both genders: adjusted prevalence ratio (aPR = 1.70 for mobility (p = 0.046 and 2.11 for usual activities (p = 0.019. Differences in mental dimensions were only observed among men: aPR = 3.15 for pain/discomfort (p = 0.003 and 2.49 for anxiety/depression (p = 0.030. All these differences by sexual orientation disappeared after adding chronic conditions and health-related behaviors in the models.The LGB population presented worse HRQoL than heterosexuals in the EQ-5D index and most dimensions. Chronic conditions, health-related behaviors and gender play a major role in explaining HRQoL differences by sexual orientation. These findings support the need of including sexual orientation into the global agenda of health inequities.

  20. Positioning women's and children's health in African union policy-making: a policy analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toure Kadidiatou

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With limited time to achieve the Millennium Development Goals, progress towards improving women's and children's health needs to be accelerated. With Africa accounting for over half of the world's maternal and child deaths, the African Union (AU has a critical role in prioritizing related policies and catalysing required investments and action. In this paper, the authors assess the evolution of African Union policies related to women's and children's health, and analyze how these policies are prioritized and framed. Methods The main method used in this policy analysis was a document review of all African Union policies developed from 1963 to 2010, focusing specifically on policies that explicitly mention health. The findings from this document review were discussed with key actors to identify policy implications. Results With over 220 policies in total, peace and security is the most common AU policy topic. Social affairs and other development issues became more prominent in the 1990s. The number of policies that mentioned health rose steadily over the years (with 1 policy mentioning health in 1963 to 7 in 2010. This change was catalysed by factors such as: a favourable shift in AU priorities and systems towards development issues, spurred by the transition from the Organization of African Unity to the African Union; the mandate of the African Commission on Human and People's Rights; health-related advocacy initiatives, such as the Campaign for the Accelerated Reduction of Maternal Mortality in Africa (CARMMA; action and accountability requirements arising from international human rights treaties, the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs, and new health-funding mechanisms, such as the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. Prioritization of women's and children's health issues in AU policies has been framed primarily by human rights, advocacy and accountability considerations, more by economic and health frames

  1. Positioning women's and children's health in African union policy-making: a policy analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toure, Kadidiatou; Sankore, Rotimi; Kuruvilla, Shyama; Scolaro, Elisa; Bustreo, Flavia; Osotimehin, Babatunde

    2012-02-16

    With limited time to achieve the Millennium Development Goals, progress towards improving women's and children's health needs to be accelerated. With Africa accounting for over half of the world's maternal and child deaths, the African Union (AU) has a critical role in prioritizing related policies and catalysing required investments and action. In this paper, the authors assess the evolution of African Union policies related to women's and children's health, and analyze how these policies are prioritized and framed. The main method used in this policy analysis was a document review of all African Union policies developed from 1963 to 2010, focusing specifically on policies that explicitly mention health. The findings from this document review were discussed with key actors to identify policy implications. With over 220 policies in total, peace and security is the most common AU policy topic. Social affairs and other development issues became more prominent in the 1990s. The number of policies that mentioned health rose steadily over the years (with 1 policy mentioning health in 1963 to 7 in 2010).This change was catalysed by factors such as: a favourable shift in AU priorities and systems towards development issues, spurred by the transition from the Organization of African Unity to the African Union; the mandate of the African Commission on Human and People's Rights; health-related advocacy initiatives, such as the Campaign for the Accelerated Reduction of Maternal Mortality in Africa (CARMMA); action and accountability requirements arising from international human rights treaties, the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), and new health-funding mechanisms, such as the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria.Prioritization of women's and children's health issues in AU policies has been framed primarily by human rights, advocacy and accountability considerations, more by economic and health frames looking at investments and impact. AU policies related

  2. Congruence in reported frequency of parent-adolescent sexual health communication: A study from Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atienzo, Erika E; Ortiz-Panozo, Eduardo; Campero, Lourdes

    2015-08-01

    Most studies on parent-adolescent sexual health communication come from developed countries and are based on either parents' or children's reports. In developing countries, there is little evidence about the agreement among reports of all parties involved in parent-adolescent sexual health communication. The objective of this study is to explore the congruence (agreement) between adolescents and their parents about how frequently they discuss on selected sexual health topics. A total of 1606 parent-adolescent dyads of adolescents attending the first year in public high schools and their parents, in Morelos, Mexico were sampled in this study. The participants completed a self-administered questionnaire that included the frequency of parent-adolescent communication about eight sexual health topics. An ordinal logistic threshold model was used to estimate intra-class correlation coefficients within parent-adolescent dyads (as a measure of congruence) and to test if thresholds were equal between parents and adolescents. Congruence in reported frequency of parent-adolescent sexual health communication ranged from 0.205 (menstruation) to 0.307 (condoms) for mother-adolescent dyads, and from 0.103 (ejaculation) to 0.380 (condoms) for father-adolescent dyads. The thresholds (i.e., the cutoff points that define the categories in the observed ordinal variable) differed between parents and adolescents for each of the sexual health topics explored (pcongruence between parents' and adolescents' reports on parent-adolescent sexual health communication. This might be due to interpretation of frequency and intensity of sexual health communication which differs between parents and adolescents.

  3. [Sexual and reproductive health and the economic crisis in Spain. SESPAS report 2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrañaga, Isabel; Martín, Unai; Bacigalupe, Amaia

    2014-06-01

    Sexual and reproductive health (SRH) is protected by the public authorities to ensure that people enjoy a free, satisfying, and safe sexual life. Despite the approval of the National Sexual and Reproductive Health Strategy in 2011, the progress achieved may be jeopardized by recent proposals for legislative changes affecting this area (abortion Law and 16/2012 Law) and by the impact of the current economic crisis. This article aims to describe the current situation of sexual and reproductive health in the Spanish population and to identify the potential impact of the economic crisis. To this end, we used the following information sources: the National Sexual Health Survey, the DAPHNE surveys, births and fetal deaths statistics from the Spanish National Institute of Statistics, the Registry of Voluntary Pregnancy Interruptions, reports from the National Epidemiology Center, and the National AIDS Registry. Sexual health and the availability of information are rated as good by the Spanish population. Among young people, schools and health services have become less important as information sources and the internet has become more important. Since the beginning of the crisis, contraceptive use and fertility have declined and maternity has been delayed. The economic crisis seems to have affected some indicators of sexual and reproductive health. However, the potential effects on other indicators should continue to be monitored because insufficient time may have passed for accurate determination of the full effect of the crisis. Copyright © 2013 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  4. Accessing Sexual and Reproductive Health Information and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Accessing Sexual and Reproductive Health Information and Services: A Mixed Methods Study of Young ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... and services in Soweto, South Africa using quantitative and qualitative methods.

  5. State health policy for terrorism preparedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziskin, Leah Z; Harris, Drew A

    2007-09-01

    State health policy for terrorism preparedness began before the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001, but was accelerated after that day. In a crisis atmosphere after September 11, the states found their policies changing rapidly, greatly influenced by federal policies and federal dollars. In the 5 years since September 11, these state health policies have been refined. This refinement has included a restatement of the goals and objectives of state programs, the modernization of emergency powers statutes, the education and training of the public health workforce, and a preparation of the health care system to better care for victims of disasters, including acts of terrorism.

  6. [Body modifications and sexual health : Impact of tattoos, body piercing and esthetic genital plastic surgery on the sexual health of women and men].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stirn, Aglaja Valentina; Zannoni, Ronja

    2017-09-01

    The present paper addresses the psychological impact of body modifications (e.g. tattoos, body piercing and esthetic genital plastic surgery) on the sexual health of individuals and refers to past and present research insights. Body modifications are understood as invasive interventions on the human body, especially interventions on the human skin which result in (semi-)permanent changes. Tattoos and body piercing (in particular genital piercing) positively affect the sexual satisfaction and the sexual appeal of men and women but there is a controversial association with high risk sexual behavior. Moreover, this article focuses on esthetic genital plastic surgery based on the increasing interest and insights of the impact on female genital self-perception and sexual behavior.

  7. Elementary Teachers' Knowledge of Legislative and Policy Duties for Reporting Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kerryann; Mathews, Ben; Rassafiani, Mehdi; Farrell, Ann; Butler, Des

    2013-01-01

    This study examined elementary school teachers' knowledge of their legislative and policy-based reporting duties with respect to child sexual abuse. Data were collected from 470 elementary school teachers from urban and rural government and nongovernment schools in 3 Australian states, which at the time of the study had 3 different legislative…

  8. Hookup App Use, Sexual Behavior, and Sexual Health Among Adolescent Men Who Have Sex With Men in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macapagal, Kathryn; Moskowitz, David A; Li, Dennis H; Carrión, Andrés; Bettin, Emily; Fisher, Celia B; Mustanski, Brian

    2018-06-01

    Geosocial networking applications (e.g., "hookup apps") are widely used among adult men who have sex with men (MSM). Little is known about adolescent MSM's (AMSM) use of these apps. Exploratory research is needed as AMSM's app use poses various ethical, legal, and sexual health concerns. This article examined AMSM's app use patterns and its associations with their sexual health and behavior. Two hundred sexually experienced AMSM in the United States (M age = 16.6, 49% racial/ethnic minority) completed online survey questions assessing their use of apps specific to MSM and not specific to MSM to meet partners for dating and sex, as well as their sexual behavior and HIV risk. Overall, 52.5% of participants (n = 105) reported using MSM-specific apps to meet partners for sex. Of these, most participants reported having oral (75.7%, n = 78) and anal sex (62.1%, n = 64) with those partners. Of those who reported having anal sex, 78.1% (n = 50) had sex with those partners more than once, and only 25.0% (n = 16) always used condoms with those partners. Relative to those who used only non-MSM-specific apps, MSM-specific app users reported more sex partners and condomless anal sex partners, greater perceived risk of HIV, more engagement in sexual health services, and greater odds of HIV testing. Use of MSM-specific apps was not uncommon among this sample of AMSM. Patterns of risk behavior and HIV testing were similar to samples of adult MSM app users. Further research should investigate AMSM's app-related sexual and HIV/sexually transmitted infection prevention decision-making to guide sexual health education efforts for AMSM. Copyright © 2018 The Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Good sex/bad sex: the individualised focus of US HIV prevention policy in sub-Saharan Africa, 1995-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esacove, Anne W

    2013-01-01

    The expanding reliance on the health sciences to address social problems is well documented, as are the effects of the social construction of public (health) problems on 'target' populations, intervention design and broader social systems. Less attention has been given in the literature to the cultural meanings that configure public health efforts themselves. This study demonstrates how the cultural understandings of sex and sexuality that inform US human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention policy in sub-Saharan Africa shape policy recommendations. Based on an analysis of 119 US policy documents, a relatively stable and highly gendered narrative of sexual risk was found across the Clinton and (G.W.) Bush administrations. This narrative locates HIV risk in (what is constructed to be) the inevitable clash between women's sexuality and men's sexuality, and delineates HIV risk by the form of relationship in which sex occurs. The two narratives diverge at this point, offering different definitions of 'bad' sex and 'good' sex. This divergence helps to explain the different prevention foci of the administrations - condoms during the Clinton era and abstinence-outside-of-marriage during the Bush administration. In both cases, the sexual risk narrative points to individual targeted prevention strategies, even as the policy identifies structural factors as driving global HIV epidemics. © 2012 The Author. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2012 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Sexual orientation health inequality: Evidence from Understanding Society, the UK Longitudinal Household Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booker, Cara L; Rieger, Gerulf; Unger, Jennifer B

    2017-08-01

    Few studies from the United Kingdom have fully investigated inequalities between members of different sexual minority groups and heterosexuals over range of health outcomes. Using data from over 40,000 individuals, this study explores the health inequalities of sexual minority UK adults. We include respondents who identify as other and those who prefer not to say (PNS). Data come from wave three (2011-2012) of the nationally-representative Understanding Society, the UK Household Longitudinal Study. Sexual orientation was asked in the self-completion portion of the study. Markers of health include physical and mental functioning, minor psychological distress, self-rated health, substance use and disability. Multiple linear and logistic regression analyses tested for differences in markers of health between sexual orientation groups. Overall, heterosexual respondents had the best health while bisexual respondents had the worst. Gay and lesbian respondents reported poorer health than heterosexuals, specifically with regards to mental functioning, distress and illness status. The other and PNS respondents were most similar to each other and generally experienced fewer health inequalities than gay and lesbian respondents; they were less likely to use tobacco or alcohol. In sum, sexual minorities experience health inequality. The inclusion of other and PNS respondents has not been done in other studies and shows that while they may be healthier than gay/lesbian and bisexual respondents they still experiences poorer health than heterosexuals. Health promotion interventions are needed for these other and PNS individuals, who might not participate in interventions targeted toward known sexual minority groups. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Would you say you had unprotected sex if ...? Sexual health language in emails to a reproductive health website.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynn, L L; Foster, Angel M; Trussell, James

    2010-06-01

    The words and metaphors that people use to describe sexuality and reproductive health reflect experiences with peers, sexual partners, health service providers and public health campaigns. In this paper we analyse 1134 emails sent to an emergency contraception website in the USA over the course of one year. Through an examination of the terminology used by authors to describe contraceptive methods, sexual intercourse and other sexual acts, we analyse what those terms signify within their textual context. We find that the kinds of risk concerns used in assessing sexual activity - whether evaluating pregnancy risk, disease transmission risk or moral risk - influence the definitions people give to terms that are multiply defined or whose definitions are culturally contested. This finding emerged clearly in the meanings given to terms for 'sex' and 'unprotected sex', which varied widely. We conclude with a discussion of the implications of this finding for research, clinical care and health education activities.

  12. Sexual health needs and educational intervention preferences for women with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stabile, Cara; Goldfarb, Shari; Baser, Raymond E; Goldfrank, Deborah J; Abu-Rustum, Nadeem R; Barakat, Richard R; Dickler, Maura N; Carter, Jeanne

    2017-08-01

    To assess sexual/vaginal health issues and educational intervention preferences in women with a history of breast or gynecologic cancer. Patients/survivors completed a cross-sectional survey at their outpatient visits. Main outcome measures were sexual dysfunction prevalence, type of sexual/vaginal issues, awareness of treatments, and preferred intervention modalities. Descriptive frequencies were performed, and results were dichotomized by age, treatment status, and disease site. Of 218 eligible participants, 109 (50%) had a history of gynecologic and 109 (50%) a history of breast cancer. Median age was 49 years (range 21-75); 61% were married/cohabitating. Seventy percent (n = 153) were somewhat-to-very concerned about sexual function/vaginal health, 55% (n = 120) reported vaginal dryness, 39% (n = 84) vaginal pain, and 51% (n = 112) libido loss. Many had heard of vaginal lubricants, moisturizers, and pelvic floor exercises (97, 72, and 57%, respectively). Seventy-four percent (n = 161) had used lubricants, 28% moisturizers (n = 61), and 28% pelvic floor exercises (n = 60). Seventy percent (n = 152) preferred the topic to be raised by the medical team; 48% (n = 105) raised the topic themselves. Most preferred written educational material followed by expert discussion (66%, n = 144/218). Compared to women ≥50 years old (41%, n = 43/105), younger women (54%, n = 61/113) preferred to discuss their concerns face-to-face (p = 0.054). Older women were less interested in online interventions (52%, p sexual/vaginal health needs. Preferences for receiving sexual health information vary by age. Improved physician-patient communication, awareness, and educational resources using proven sexual health promotion strategies can help women cope with treatment side effects.

  13. Exposure to culturally sensitive sexual health information and impact on health literacy: a qualitative study among newly arrived refugee women in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Pia; Carlzén, Katarina; Agardh, Anette

    2017-07-01

    In Sweden, migrants have poorer sexual and reproductive health compared to the general population. Health literacy, in the form of the cognitive and social skills enabling access to health promoting activities, is often poorer among migrants, partly due to language and cultural barriers. Culturally sensitive health education provides a strategy for enhancing health literacy. Since 2012, specially trained civic and health communicators have provided sexual and reproductive health and rights information to newly arrived refugees in Skåne, Sweden. The aim of this study was to explore how information on sexual and reproductive health and rights was perceived by female recipients and whether being exposed to such information contributed to enhanced sexual and reproductive health and rights literacy. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with nine women and analysed using qualitative content analysis. Two themes emerged: (1) opening the doors to new understandings of sexual and reproductive health and rights and (2) planting the seed for engagement in sexual and reproductive health and rights issues, illustrating how cultural norms influenced perceptions, but also how information opened up opportunities for challenging these norms. Gender-separate groups may facilitate information uptake, while discussion concerning sexual health norms may benefit from taking place in mixed groups.

  14. Sexual and reproductive health in Greenland: evaluation of implementing sexual peer-to-peer education in Greenland (the SexInuk project).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homøe, Anne-Sophie; Knudsen, Ane-Kersti Skaarup; Nielsen, Sigrid Brisson; Grynnerup, Anna Garcia-Alix

    2015-01-01

    For decades, the rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), such as gonorrhoea, chlamydia and syphilis, have increased in Greenland, especially within the young age groups (15-29 years). From 2006 to 2013, the number of abortions has been consistent with approximately 800-900 abortions per year in Greenland, which is nearly as high as the total number of births during the same period. Previous studies in Greenland have reported that knowledge about sexual health is important, both as prevention and as facilitator to stop the increasing rates of STIs. A peer-to-peer education programme about sexual health requires adaption to cultural values and acceptance among the population and government in order to be sustainable. Formative evaluation of a voluntary project (SexInuk), in relation to peer-to-peer education with focus on sexual health. Two workshops were conducted in Nuuk, Greenland, to recruit Greenlandic students. Qualitative design with focus group interviews (FGIs) to collect qualitative feedback on feasibility and implementation of the project. Supplemented with a brief questionnaire regarding personal information (gender, age, education) and questions about the educational elements in the SexInuk project. Eight Greenlandic students, who had completed one or two workshops, were enrolled. The FGIs showed an overall consensus regarding the need for improving sexual health education in Greenland. The participants requested more voluntary educators, to secure sustainability. The articulation of taboo topics in the Greenlandic society appeared very important. The participants suggested more awareness by promoting the project. Cultural values and language directions were important elements in the FGIs. To our knowledge, voluntary work regarding peer-to-peer education and sexual health has not been structurally evaluated in Greenland before. To achieve sustainability, the project needs educators and financial support. Further research is needed to investigate

  15. Health, body image, gender, and migration status: their relationship to sexuality in old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shkolnik, Darya; Iecovich, Esther

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the relationships between gender, migration status, perceived health, body image, and sexual activity and satisfaction among older adults. It was hypothesized that men and those who are long-standing residents in Israel will report better perceived health, a positive body image, and these will be associated with greater sexuality, compared with women, new immigrants with poorer perceived health and a negative body image. The sample included 200 respondents who were 60 years and older, functionally independent and living with a spouse or a partner for at least one year, heterosexual, and living in the community in Israel. Respondents were recruited through community-based services for older persons and snowballing. Multivariate analyses were performed to examine differences by groups of respondents and to identify the best predictors of the outcome variables. The majority had some kind of sexual activity. No significant differences were found between men and women with regard to perceived health, body image, sexual activity and satisfaction, but significant differences were found between new immigrants from former Soviet Union countries and long-standing residents in Israel. Mental health, age, and migration status were significant in explaining sexual activity, while age, education, and sexual activity were significant in explaining sexual satisfaction. A variety of factors play a role with regard to sexuality in old age, in particular immigration status. Appropriate interventions can help older adults cope with the determinants that negatively affect their mental health and sexual life.

  16. How statewide LGB policies go from ‘‘under our skin’’ to ‘‘into our hearts’’: fatherhood aspirations and psychological well-being among emerging adult sexual minority men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauermeister, José A

    2014-08-01

    Researchers have noted increasingly the public health importance of addressing discriminatory policies towards lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) populations. At present, however, we know little about the mechanisms through which policies affect LGB populations’ psychological well-being; in other words, how do policies get under our skin? Using data from a study of sexual minority young men (N = 1,487; M = 20.80 (SD = 1.93); 65% White; 92% gay), we examined whether statewide bans (e.g., same-sex marriage, adoption) moderated the relationship between fatherhood aspirations and psychological well-being. Fatherhood aspirations were associated with lower depressive symptoms and higher self-esteem scores among participants living in states without discriminatory policies. In states with marriage equality bans, fatherhood aspirations were associated with higher depressive symptoms and lower self-esteem scores, respectively. Fatherhood aspirations were associated negatively with self-esteem in states banning same-sex and second parent adoptions, respectively. Our findings underscore the importance of recognizing how anti-equality LGB policies may influence the psychosocial development of sexual minority men.

  17. Policy Capacity for Health Reform: Necessary but Insufficient: Comment on "Health Reform Requires Policy Capacity".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Owen

    2015-09-04

    Forest and colleagues have persuasively made the case that policy capacity is a fundamental prerequisite to health reform. They offer a comprehensive life-cycle definition of policy capacity and stress that it involves much more than problem identification and option development. I would like to offer a Canadian perspective. If we define health reform as re-orienting the health system from acute care to prevention and chronic disease management the consensus is that Canada has been unsuccessful in achieving a major transformation of our 14 health systems (one for each province and territory plus the federal government). I argue that 3 additional things are essential to build health policy capacity in a healthcare federation such as Canada: (a) A means of "policy governance" that would promote an approach to cooperative federalism in the health arena; (b) The ability to overcome the "policy inertia" resulting from how Canadian Medicare was implemented and subsequently interpreted; and (c) The ability to entertain a long-range thinking and planning horizon. My assessment indicates that Canada falls short on each of these items, and the prospects for achieving them are not bright. However, hope springs eternal and it will be interesting to see if the July, 2015 report of the Advisory Panel on Healthcare Innovation manages to galvanize national attention and stimulate concerted action. © 2016 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.

  18. A review of the health effects of sexual assault on African American women and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadsworth, Pamela; Records, Kathie

    2013-01-01

    To review the research findings for mental and physical health outcomes and health behaviors of African American women and adolescents after sexual assault. Searches of the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Cochrane Library, PsycINFO, and PubMed from January 2001 through May 2012 using the terms Blacks, African Americans, sexual abuse, sexual offenses, and rape. Criteria for inclusion included (a) results of primary research conducted in the United States and published in English, (b) African American females age 13 and older, (c) sexual assault or sexual abuse reported as distinct from other types of abuse, and (d) health status as an outcome variable. Twenty-one publications met inclusion criteria. Articles were reviewed for the mental and physical health and health behavior outcomes associated with sexual assault of African American women and adolescents. Sexual assault was associated with increased risk of poor mental and physical health outcomes in the general population of women and adolescents. There was an increased risk of unhealthy behaviors (e.g., drinking, drug use, risky sexual behaviors) for all women and adolescents, with the highest risk reported for African American women and adolescents. Help seeking from family and friends demonstrated conflicting results. Cumulative effects of repeated assaults appear to worsen health outcomes. Sexual assault has significant effects on the physical and mental health and health behaviors of women and adolescents in the general population. Less evidence is available for differences among African American women and adolescents. More research is needed to understand the influence of race on women's and adolescents' responses to assault. © 2013 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  19. Associations between mental health, substance use, and sexual abuse experiences among Latinas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulibarri, Monica D; Ulloa, Emilio C; Salazar, Marissa

    2015-01-01

    This study examined self-reported sexually abusive experiences in childhood and adulthood as correlates of current drug use, alcohol abuse, and depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Participants were 204 Latina women 18-34 years old. Results indicated significant relationships between history of sexual abuse (regardless of age of occurrence), depression symptoms, PTSD symptoms, alcohol abuse, and drug use. When examined separately, childhood sexual abuse was associated with symptoms of depression, PTSD, and substance use but not alcohol abuse behaviors. Experiencing sexual abuse in adulthood was associated with symptoms of depression, alcohol abuse behaviors, and substance use but not PTSD symptoms. Structural equation modeling showed that substance use partially mediated the relationship between sexual abuse and mental health outcomes. These findings suggest mental health and substance use services should incorporate treatment for trauma, which may be the root of comorbid mental health and substance use issues.

  20. Sexual and reproductive health in rheumatic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Østensen, Monika

    2017-08-01

    Family size is reduced among patients with rheumatic diseases. The causes for the low number of children are multifactorial and include impaired sexual function, decreased gonadal function, pregnancy loss, therapy and personal choices. Sexuality contributes to quality of life in patients with rheumatic disease, but is often ignored by health professionals. Both disease-related factors and psychological responses to chronic disease can impair sexual functioning. Toxic effects of anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive drugs can induce transient or permanent gonadal failure in women and men. Furthermore, permanent infertility can be a consequence of treatment with cyclophosphamide, whereas transient infertility can be caused by NSAIDs in women and sulfasalazine in men. These adverse effects must be communicated to the patients, and measures to preserve fertility should be initiated before the start of gonadotoxic therapy. Management of patients of both genders should include regular family planning, effective treatment of high disease activity, sexual counselling, and, if necessary, infertility treatment.

  1. Understanding sexual orientation and health in Canada: Who are we capturing and who are we missing using the Statistics Canada sexual orientation question?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharma, Christoffer; Bauer, Greta R

    2017-04-20

    Public health research on inequalities in Canada depends heavily on population data sets such as the Canadian Community Health Survey. While sexual orientation has three dimensions - identity, behaviour and attraction - Statistics Canada and public health agencies assess sexual orientation with a single questionnaire item on identity, defined behaviourally. This study aims to evaluate this item, to allow for clearer interpretation of sexual orientation frequencies and inequalities. Through an online convenience sampling of Canadians ≥14 years of age, participants (n = 311) completed the Statistics Canada question and a second set of sexual orientation questions. The single-item question had an 85.8% sensitivity in capturing sexual minorities, broadly defined by their sexual identity, lifetime behaviour and attraction. Kappa statistic for agreement between the single item and sexual identity was 0.89; with past year, lifetime behaviour and attraction were 0.39, 0.48 and 0.57 respectively. The item captured 99.3% of those with a sexual minority identity, 84.2% of those with any lifetime same-sex partners, 98.4% with a past-year same-sex partner, and 97.8% who indicated at least equal attraction to same-sex persons. Findings from Statistics Canada surveys can be best interpreted as applying to those who identify as sexual minorities. Analyses using this measure will underidentify those with same-sex partners or attractions who do not identify as a sexual minority, and should be interpreted accordingly. To understand patterns of sexual minority health in Canada, there is a need to incorporate other dimensions of sexual orientation.

  2. Childhood Diabesity: International Applications for Health Education and Health Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinzon-Perez, Helda; Kotkin-Jaszi, Suzanne; Perez, Miguel A.

    2010-01-01

    Health policy has a direct impact on health education initiatives, health care delivery, resource allocation, and quality of life. Increasing rates in the epidemics of obesity and obesity-dependent diabetes mellitus (aka diabesity) suggest that health policy changes should be included in health education and disease prevention strategies. Health…

  3. Sexual Harassment at Camp: Reducing Liability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakleaf, Linda; Grube, Angela Johnson

    2003-01-01

    Employers are responsible for sexual harassment perpetrated by a supervisor. Camps may be responsible for sexual harassment between campers. Steps to reduce liability include providing multiple channels for reporting sexual harassment; having written policies prohibiting sexual harassment and procedures for reporting it; posting these policies and…

  4. Sexual health of ethnic minority MSM in Britain (MESH project: design and methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Low Nicola

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Men who have sex with men (MSM remain the group most at risk of acquiring HIV infection in Britain. HIV prevalence appears to vary widely between MSM from different ethnic minority groups in this country for reasons that are not fully understood. The aim of the MESH project was to examine in detail the sexual health of ethnic minority MSM living in Britain. Methods/Design The main objectives of the MESH project were to explore among ethnic minority MSM living in Britain: (i sexual risk behaviour and HIV prevalence; (ii their experience of stigma and discrimination; (iii disclosure of sexuality; (iv use of, and satisfaction with sexual health services; (v the extent to which sexual health services (for treatment and prevention are aware of the needs of ethnic minority MSM. The research was conducted between 2006 and 2008 in four national samples: (i ethnic minority MSM living in Britain; (ii a comparison group of white British MSM living in Britain; (iii NHS sexual health clinic staff in 15 British towns and cities with significant ethnic minority communities and; (iv sexual health promotion/HIV prevention service providers. We also recruited men from two "key migrant" groups living in Britain: MSM born in Central or Eastern Europe and MSM born in Central or South America. Internet-based quantitative and qualitative research methods were used. Ethnic minority MSM were recruited through advertisements on websites, in community venues, via informal networks and in sexual health clinics. White and "key migrant" MSM were recruited mostly through Gaydar, one of the most popular dating sites used by gay men in Britain. MSM who agreed to take part completed a questionnaire online. Ethnic minority MSM who completed the online questionnaire were asked if they would be willing to take part in an online qualitative interview using email. Service providers were identified through the British Association of Sexual Health and HIV (BASHH and

  5. The behaviour and sexual health of young international travellers (backpackers) in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNulty, A M; Egan, C; Wand, H; Donovan, B

    2010-06-01

    To study the demographics, risk behaviours and morbidity of young long-term international travellers (backpackers) attending a sexual health service in Sydney, Australia. Data on new patients were extracted from the Sydney Sexual Health Centre database for the period 1998 to 2006. The sexual risk behaviours and morbidity of the backpackers were compared with other patients of a similar age. The 5698 backpackers who attended the centre reported higher numbers of sexual partners (three or more partners in the past 3 months, 18% vs 12%, p<0.001) and a greater proportion drank alcohol at hazardous levels (22%) than the comparison group (9%, p<0.001). Rates of consistent (100%) condom use in the past 3 months were low in both backpackers (22%) and the comparison population (19%). Backpackers had higher rates of genital chlamydia infection (7% vs 5%, p<0.001) and reported higher rates of previous sexually transmitted infections (15% vs 10%, p<0.001). Backpackers should be a priority population for sexual health promotion and access to services.

  6. Current approaches to the European Health Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anda CURTA

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to identify the key elements that define the new European health policy. We observed that the health policy actually appeared to be an enclave within the integration process. The development of health policy in the new Member States followed a common pattern. Therefore, the European health policy reflected a general desire on behalf of the members to have more clarity of the rules in this area, given the different interpretation of the rules by different Member States.The Lisbon Treaty does not bring substantive changes regarding the public health policy, therefore the Member States shall keep their competence in defining the organization and financing this domain. However, the EU2020 Strategy states that “Europe faces a moment of transformation”. Therefore, the “Europeanization” of health policy could lead to the positive developments that all EU citizens are expecting.

  7. [Workplace health promotion in public health policies in Poland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puchalski, Krzysztof; Korzeniowska, Elzbieta

    2008-01-01

    In this paper the author analyses how far in Poland the idea of workplace health promotion (WHP) does exist in the area of public health understood in its broadest sense. The analysis encapsulates the following issues: (a) the national legislative policy, (b) strategies, programs and projects concerning health issues launched or coordinated by the state or local administration, (c) grassroots initiatives for health promotion supported by local and regional administration, (d) civic projects or business strategies for health. In addition, the author emphasizes the marginalization of workplace health promotion and lack of cohesive policy in this field as well as, the fact that health problems of the working population arising from current demographic, technological, economic and social changes that could be dealt with through developing and implementing WHP projects are not yet fully perceived by public health policy makers.

  8. Shifting the paradigm in Oregon from teen pregnancy prevention to youth sexual health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nystrom, Robert J; Duke, Jessica E A; Victor, Brad

    2013-01-01

    Oregon's work on teen pregnancy prevention during the previous 20 years has shifted from a risk-focused paradigm to a youth development model that places young people at the center of their sexual health and well-being. During 2005, the Oregon Governor's Office requested that an ad hoc committee of state agency and private partners develop recommendations for the next phase of teen pregnancy prevention. As a result of that collaborative effort, engagement of young people, and community input, the Oregon Youth Sexual Health Plan was released in 2009. The plan focuses on development of young people and embraces sexuality as a natural part of adolescent development. The plan's five goals and eight objectives guide the work of state agencies and partners addressing youth sexual health. Oregon's development of a statewide plan can serve as a framework for other states and entities to address all aspects of youth sexual health.

  9. Based Sexual Health Services in Malawi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    To more effectively address individuals' and couples' sexual and reproductive health needs, innovative service delivery ... We collected qualitative data from six focus group discussions and 10 husband-wife in- .... Counseling partners together in their home may .... young men (13.2 percent versus 3.9 percent in ages.

  10. The Impact of Racism on the Sexual and Reproductive Health of African American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prather, Cynthia; Fuller, Taleria R.; Marshall, Khiya J.; Jeffries, William L.

    2016-01-01

    African American women are disproportionately affected by multiple sexual and reproductive health conditions compared with women of other races/ethnicities. Research suggests that social determinants of health, including poverty, unemployment, and limited education, contribute to health disparities. However, racism is a probable underlying determinant of these social conditions. This article uses a socioecological model to describe racism and its impact on African American women’s sexual and reproductive health. Although similar models have been used for specific infectious and chronic diseases, they have not described how the historical underpinnings of racism affect current sexual and reproductive health outcomes among African American women. We propose a socioecological model that demonstrates how social determinants grounded in racism affect individual behaviors and interpersonal relationships, which may contribute to sexual and reproductive health outcomes. This model provides a perspective to understand how these unique contextual experiences are intertwined with the daily lived experiences of African American women and how they are potentially linked to poor sexual and reproductive health outcomes. The model also presents an opportunity to increase dialog and research among public health practitioners and encourages them to consider the role of these contextual experiences and supportive data when developing prevention interventions. Considerations address the provision of opportunities to promote health equity by reducing the effects of racism and improving African American women’s sexual and reproductive health. PMID:27227533

  11. The Impact of Racism on the Sexual and Reproductive Health of African American Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prather, Cynthia; Fuller, Taleria R; Marshall, Khiya J; Jeffries, William L

    2016-07-01

    African American women are disproportionately affected by multiple sexual and reproductive health conditions compared with women of other races/ethnicities. Research suggests that social determinants of health, including poverty, unemployment, and limited education, contribute to health disparities. However, racism is a probable underlying determinant of these social conditions. This article uses a socioecological model to describe racism and its impact on African American women's sexual and reproductive health. Although similar models have been used for specific infectious and chronic diseases, they have not described how the historical underpinnings of racism affect current sexual and reproductive health outcomes among African American women. We propose a socioecological model that demonstrates how social determinants grounded in racism affect individual behaviors and interpersonal relationships, which may contribute to sexual and reproductive health outcomes. This model provides a perspective to understand how these unique contextual experiences are intertwined with the daily lived experiences of African American women and how they are potentially linked to poor sexual and reproductive health outcomes. The model also presents an opportunity to increase dialog and research among public health practitioners and encourages them to consider the role of these contextual experiences and supportive data when developing prevention interventions. Considerations address the provision of opportunities to promote health equity by reducing the effects of racism and improving African American women's sexual and reproductive health.

  12. Satisfaction (sexual, life, relationship, and mental health) is associated directly with penile-vaginal intercourse, but inversely with other sexual behavior frequencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Stuart; Costa, Rui Miguel

    2009-07-01

    Some sex therapists and educators assume that many sexual behaviors provide comparable sexual satisfaction. Evidence is required to determine whether sexual behaviors differ in their associations with both sexual satisfaction and satisfaction with other aspects of life. To test the hypothesis that satisfaction with sex life, life in general, sexual partnership, and mental health correlates directly with frequency of penile-vaginal intercourse (PVI) and inversely with frequency of both masturbation and partnered sexual activity excluding PVI (noncoital sex). A representative sample of 2,810 Swedes reported frequency of PVI, noncoital sex, and masturbation during the past 30 days, and degree of satisfaction with their sex life, life in general, partnership, and mental health. Multivariate analyses (for the sexes separately and combined) considering the different satisfaction parameters as dependent variables, and the different types of sexual activities (and age) as putative predictors. For both sexes, multivariate analyses revealed that PVI frequency was directly associated with all satisfaction measures (part correlation = 0.50 with sexual satisfaction), masturbation frequency was independently inversely associated with almost all satisfaction measures, and noncoital sex frequencies independently inversely associated with some satisfaction measures (and uncorrelated with the rest). Age did not confound the results. The results are consistent with evidence that specifically PVI frequency, rather than other sexual activities, is associated with sexual satisfaction, health, and well-being. Inverse associations between satisfaction and masturbation are not due simply to insufficient PVI.

  13. Policy Capacity Meets Politics: Comment on "Health Reform Requires Policy Capacity".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fafard, Patrick

    2015-07-22

    It is difficult to disagree with the general argument that successful health reform requires a significant degree of policy capacity or that all players in the policy game need to move beyond self-interested advocacy. However, an overly broad definition of policy capacity is a problem. More important perhaps, health reform inevitably requires not just policy capacity but political leadership and compromise. © 2015 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.

  14. Effects of a sexual health care nursing record on the attitudes and practice of oncology nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Dukyoo; Kim, Jung-Hee

    2016-10-01

    A nursing record focused on sexual health care for patients with cancer could encourage oncology nurses to provide sexual health care for oncology patients in a simple and effective manner. However, existing electronic information systems focus on professional use and not sexual health care, which could lead to inefficiencies in clinical practice. To examine the effects of a sexual health care nursing record on the attitudes and practice of oncology nurses. Twenty-four full-time registered nurses caring for oncology patients were randomly assigned to the intervention and control groups in Korea. The researchers developed a sexual health care record and applied it to the intervention group for one month. Data were analyzed by Mann-Whitney U test and chi-square test. Content analysis was used to analyze interviews. Oncology nurses using the sexual health care record had significantly higher levels of sexual health care practice at 4 weeks post-intervention as compared to those who provided usual care to patients with cancer. A sexual health care record may have the potential to facilitate oncology nurses' practice of sexual health care. This study highlighted the importance of using SHC records with oncology patients to improve nursing practice related to sexuality issues. A nursing record focused on SHC for patients with cancer could make it easier and more effective for oncology nurses to provide such care to their patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Sexual health communication between cancer survivors and providers: how frequently does it occur and which providers are preferred?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sporn, Nora J; Smith, Kelly B; Pirl, William F; Lennes, Inga T; Hyland, Kelly A; Park, Elyse R

    2015-09-01

    Sexual health concerns in cancer survivors are often unaddressed by providers. Study objectives were to assess cancer survivors' reported rates of communication with oncology providers about sexual health, preference for such communication with their oncology or primary care providers (PCPs), and factors associated with these communication rates and preferences. Sixty-six patients attending a cancer survivorship clinic were asked how often their oncologist addressed and initiated discussion about sexual functioning and whether they wanted their oncologist or PCP to ask about their sexual health. We also assessed whether various sociodemographic characteristics and levels of depression, anxiety, and sexual satisfaction were associated with survivors' sexual health communication rates and preferences. 41% of patients wanted their oncologist to ask about sexual health and 58% of patients wanted their PCP to ask about sexual health. Over 90% of patients reported that their oncologist infrequently addressed sexual health concerns and that their oncologist was unlikely to initiate such discussions. Education level influenced whether patients wanted their oncologist to ask about sexual health. Age, education level, and insurance type influenced whether patients wanted their PCP to ask about sexual health. Levels of depression, anxiety, and sexual satisfaction were not associated with communication rates or preferences. Patients attending a survivorship clinic reported infrequent communication about sexual health with their oncology providers, despite wanting their providers to ask about sexual health concerns. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Changes in Reported Sexual Orientation Following US States Recognition of Same-Sex Couples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corliss, Heather L.; Spiegelman, Donna; Williams, Kerry; Austin, S. Bryn

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To compare changes in self-reported sexual orientation of women living in states with any recognition of same-sex relationships (e.g., hospital visitation, domestic partnerships) with those of women living in states without such recognition. Methods. We calculated the likelihood of women in the Nurses’ Health Study II (n = 69 790) changing their reported sexual orientation between 1995 and 2009. Results. We used data from the Nurses’ Health Study II and found that living in a state with same-sex relationship recognition was associated with changing one’s reported sexual orientation, particularly from heterosexual to sexual minority. Individuals who reported being heterosexual in 1995 were 30% more likely to report a minority orientation (i.e., bisexual or lesbian) in 2009 (risk ratio = 1.30; 95% confidence interval = 1.05, 1.61) if they lived in a state with any recognition of same-sex relationships compared with those who lived in a state without such recognition. Conclusions. Policies recognizing same-sex relationships may encourage women to report a sexual minority orientation. Future research is needed to clarify how other social and legal policies may affect sexual orientation self-reports. PMID:27736213

  17. Age differences at sexual debut and subsequent reproductive health: Is there a link?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reynolds Heidi

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Experiences at sexual debut may be linked to reproductive health later in life. Additionally, young women with older sexual partners may be at greater risk for HIV and sexually transmitted infections. This study examines sexual debut with an older partner and subsequent reproductive health outcomes among 599 sexually experienced women aged 15–24 who utilized voluntary counseling and testing or reproductive health services in Port-au-Prince, Haiti. Methods Logistic regression models, controlling for socioeconomic and demographic factors, examined whether age differences at first sex were significantly associated with STI diagnosis in the previous 12 months and family planning method use at last intercourse. Results Sixty-five percent of women reported sexual initiation with a partner younger or less than 5 years older, 28% with a partner 5 to 10 years older, and 7% with a partner 10 or more years older. There was a trend towards decreased likelihood of recent use of family planning methods in women who had first sexual intercourse with a partner 5 to 9 years older compared to women with partners who were younger or less than 5 years older. Age differences were not linked to recent STI diagnosis. Conclusion Programs focusing on delaying sexual debut should consider age and gender-based power differentials between younger women and older men. Future research should examine whether wide age differences at sexual debut are predictive of continued involvement in cross-generational relationships and risky sexual behaviors and explore the mechanisms by which cross-generational first sex and subsequent reproductive health may be connected.

  18. Discrimination, Mental Health, and Substance Use Disorders Among Sexual Minority Populations

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Ji Hyun; Gamarel, Kristi E.; Bryant, Kendall J.; Zaller, Nickolas D.; Operario, Don

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Sexual minority (lesbian, gay, bisexual) populations have a higher prevalence of mental health and substance use disorders compared to their heterosexual counterparts. Such disparities have been attributed, in part, to minority stressors, including distal stressors such as discrimination. However, few studies have examined associations between discrimination, mental health, and substance use disorders by gender among sexual minority populations.

  19. Mental- and physical-health indicators and sexually explicit media use behavior by adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, James B; Weaver, Stephanie Sargent; Mays, Darren; Hopkins, Gary L; Kannenberg, Wendi; McBride, Duane

    2011-03-01

    Converging evidence from culturally diverse contexts indicates that sexually explicit media use behavior (SEMB; i.e., pornography consumption) is associated with risky sexual health perceptions and behaviors, many that involve high risks of HIV/STD transmission. Essentially unexplored, and the focus here, are potential relationships between SEMB and nonsexual mental- and physical-health indicators. Variability in six continuously measured health indicators (depressive symptoms, mental- and physical-health diminished days, health status, quality of life, and body mass index) was examined across two levels (users, nonusers) of SEMB. A sample of 559 Seattle-Tacoma Internet-using adults was surveyed in 2006. Multivariate general linear models parameterized in a SEMB by respondent gender (2 × 2) factorial design were computed incorporating adjustments for several demographics. SEMB was reported by 36.7% (n = 205) of the sample. Most SEMB users (78%) were men. After adjusting for demographics, SEMB users, compared to nonusers, reported greater depressive symptoms, poorer quality of life, more mental- and physical-health diminished days, and lower health status. The findings show that mental- and physical-health indicators vary significantly across SEMB, suggesting the value of incorporating these factors in future research and programmatic endeavors. In particular, the findings suggest that evidence-based sexual health promotion strategies simultaneously addressing individuals' SEMB and their mental health needs might be a useful approach to improve mental health and address preventable sexual health outcomes associated with SEMB. © 2010 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  20. The Oregon Public Health Policy Institute: Building Competencies for Public Health Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jangho; Bernell, Stephanie; Tynan, Michael; Alvarado, Carla Sarai; Eversole, Tom; Mosbaek, Craig; Beathard, Candice

    2015-01-01

    The Oregon Public Health Policy Institute (PHPI) was designed to enhance public health policy competencies among state and local health department staff. The Oregon Health Authority funded the College of Public Health and Human Sciences at Oregon State University to develop the PHPI curriculum in 2012 and offer it to participants from 4 state public health programs and 5 local health departments in 2013. The curriculum interspersed short instructional sessions on policy development, implementation, and evaluation with longer hands-on team exercises in which participants applied these skills to policy topics their teams had selected. Panel discussions provided insights from legislators and senior Oregon health experts. Participants reported statistically significant increases in public health policy competencies and high satisfaction with PHPI overall. PMID:26066925

  1. Surgical Procedures for BPH/LUTS: Impact on Male Sexual Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becher, Edgardo F; McVary, Kevin T

    2014-01-01

    Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) because of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) are a highly prevalent condition in men over 50 years old, and their incidence increases with age. The relationship between LUTS and erectile dysfunction (ED) has received increased attention recently because both diseases are highly prevalent, frequently co-associated in the same aging male group, and contribute significantly to the overall quality of life. In this review, we will examine the literature to assess the impact of surgical and minimally invasive treatments for LUTS/BPH on the male's sexual health. The impact of the various surgical and minimally invasive treatments for LUTS/BPH was reviewed to ascertain the impact on erectile and ejaculatory function. Sexual side effects of treatment for LUTS/BPH are underappreciated by urologists but likely play a prominent role in patient decision making, creating a disparity between provider and patient. Almost all accepted therapies for LUTS (surgical or medical) can affect some aspect of sexual health, making it imperative that health-care professionals understand their patients' concerns and motivations in these two linked diseases. The incidence of newly diagnosed postoperative ED in patients treated with monopolar transurethral resection (TURP) is around 14%, with reported values in various studies ranging from 0-32.5%, 7.7%, 6.5%, 17%, to 14%. Importantly, there is no significant difference reported between bipolar and monopolar TURP on sexual function. The risk of sexual side effects is an important one to consider in discussing the implications for any LUTS intervention as they play a prominent role in patient motivation, acceptance of bother and decision making concerning surgical intervention, thus creating a potential disparity between provider and patient. Becher EF and McVary KT. Surgical procedures for BPH/LUTS: Impact on male sexual health. Sex Med Rev 2014;2:47-55. Copyright © 2014 International Society for Sexual

  2. Promoting Parent-Child Sexual Health Dialogue with an Intergenerational Game: Parent and Youth Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Cruz, Jina; Santa Maria, Diane; Dube, Sara; Markham, Christine; McLaughlin, Jeffrey; Wilkerson, Johnny M; Peskin, Melissa F; Tortolero, Susan; Shegog, Ross

    2015-04-01

    Sexual health discussions between parents and their preadolescent youth can delay sexual debut and increase condom and contraceptive use. However, parents frequently report being uncomfortable talking with their youth about sex, often reporting a lack of self-efficacy and skills to inform and motivate responsible decision making by youth. Intergenerational games may support parent-youth sexual health communication. The purpose of this study was to explore parent and youth perspectives on a proposed intergenerational game designed to increase effective parent-youth sexual health communication and skills training. Eight focus groups were conducted: four with parents (n=20) and four with their 11-14-year-old youth (n=19), to identify similarities and differences in perspectives on gaming context, delivery channel, content, and design (components, features, and function) that might facilitate dyadic sexual health communication. Participants concurred that a sex education game could improve communication while being responsive to family time constraints. They affirmed the demand for an immersive story-based educational adventure game using mobile platforms and flexible communication modalities. Emergent themes informed the development of a features inventory (including educational and gaming strategies, communication components, channel, and setting) and upper-level program flow to guide future game development. This study supports the potential of a game to be a viable medium to bring a shared dyadic sexual health educational experience to parents and youth that could engage them in a motivationally appealing way to meaningfully impact their sexual health communication and youth sexual risk behaviors.

  3. Use of the Internet for Sexual Health Among Sexually Experienced Persons Aged 16 to 44 Years: Evidence from a Nationally Representative Survey of the British Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estcourt, Claudia S; Johnson, Anne M; Sonnenberg, Pam; Wellings, Kaye; Mercer, Catherine H

    2016-01-01

    Background Those who go online regarding their sexual health are potential users of new Internet-based sexual health interventions. Understanding the size and characteristics of this population is important in informing intervention design and delivery. Objective We aimed to estimate the prevalence in Britain of recent use of the Internet for key sexual health reasons (for chlamydia testing, human immunodeficiency virus [HIV] testing, sexually transmitted infection [STI] treatment, condoms/contraceptives, and help/advice with one’s sex life) and to identify associated sociodemographic and behavioral factors. Methods Complex survey analysis of data from 8926 sexually experienced persons aged 16-44 years in a 2010-2012 probability survey of Britain’s resident population. Prevalence of recent (past year) use of Internet sources for key sexual health reasons was estimated. Factors associated with use of information/support websites were identified using logistic regression to calculate age-adjusted odds ratios (AORs). Results Recent Internet use for chlamydia/HIV testing or STI treatment (combined) was very low (men: 0.31%; women: 0.16%), whereas 2.35% of men and 0.51% of women reported obtaining condoms/contraceptives online. Additionally, 4.49% of men and 4.57% of women reported recent use of information/support websites for advice/help with their sex lives. Prevalence declined with age (men 16-24 years: 7.7%; 35-44 years: 1.84%, PInternet sexual health seeking. Conclusions A minority in Britain used the Internet for the sexual health reasons examined. Use of information/support websites was reported by those at greater STI risk, including younger people, indicating that demand for online STI services, and Internet-based sexual health interventions in general, may increase over time in this and subsequent cohorts. However, the impact on health inequalities needs addressing during design and evaluation of online sexual health interventions so that they maximize

  4. Use of the Internet for Sexual Health Among Sexually Experienced Persons Aged 16 to 44 Years: Evidence from a Nationally Representative Survey of the British Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aicken, Catherine R H; Estcourt, Claudia S; Johnson, Anne M; Sonnenberg, Pam; Wellings, Kaye; Mercer, Catherine H

    2016-01-20

    Those who go online regarding their sexual health are potential users of new Internet-based sexual health interventions. Understanding the size and characteristics of this population is important in informing intervention design and delivery. We aimed to estimate the prevalence in Britain of recent use of the Internet for key sexual health reasons (for chlamydia testing, human immunodeficiency virus [HIV] testing, sexually transmitted infection [STI] treatment, condoms/contraceptives, and help/advice with one's sex life) and to identify associated sociodemographic and behavioral factors. Complex survey analysis of data from 8926 sexually experienced persons aged 16-44 years in a 2010-2012 probability survey of Britain's resident population. Prevalence of recent (past year) use of Internet sources for key sexual health reasons was estimated. Factors associated with use of information/support websites were identified using logistic regression to calculate age-adjusted odds ratios (AORs). Recent Internet use for chlamydia/HIV testing or STI treatment (combined) was very low (men: 0.31%; women: 0.16%), whereas 2.35% of men and 0.51% of women reported obtaining condoms/contraceptives online. Additionally, 4.49% of men and 4.57% of women reported recent use of information/support websites for advice/help with their sex lives. Prevalence declined with age (men 16-24 years: 7.7%; 35-44 years: 1.84%, PInternet sexual health seeking. A minority in Britain used the Internet for the sexual health reasons examined. Use of information/support websites was reported by those at greater STI risk, including younger people, indicating that demand for online STI services, and Internet-based sexual health interventions in general, may increase over time in this and subsequent cohorts. However, the impact on health inequalities needs addressing during design and evaluation of online sexual health interventions so that they maximize public health benefit.

  5. Social determinants in the sexual health of adolescent Aboriginal Australians: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacPhail, Catherine; McKay, Kathy

    2018-03-01

    While research indicates that Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adolescents may be at increased risk of some sexually transmitted infections, there is limited information about factors that may place these young people at more risk of adverse sexual health than their non-Indigenous counterparts. Current research has tended to focus on surveillance-type data, but there is an increasing need to understand social determinants of sexual health risk. This systematic review assessed the evidence of social determinants impacting on Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adolescents' sexual health in Australia. Published, English-language literature was searched across key databases from 2003 to 2015. Fourteen studies were included in the qualitative synthesis. Findings suggest that social determinants such as access to healthcare, poverty, substance use, educational disadvantage, sociocultural context, gender inequalities, status and identity, and social disadvantage impacted on Indigenous adolescents' sexual behaviours and sexual health risk. Evidence from the literature included in the review suggests that peer education may be an acceptable and appropriate approach for addressing such issues. There remains a need for programmes and services to be community-developed and community-led, thus ensuring cultural appropriateness and relevance. However, there is also a significant need for such programmes to be effectively and rigorously evaluated with data that goes beyond surveillance, and seeks to unpack how sexual norms are experienced by Indigenous adolescents, particularly outside of remote Australia - and how these experiences act as either risk or protective factors to good sexual health and positive social and emotional well-being. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Quality of life and sexual health after sex reassignment surgery in transsexual men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierckx, Katrien; Van Caenegem, Eva; Elaut, Els; Dedecker, David; Van de Peer, Fleur; Toye, Kaatje; Weyers, Steven; Hoebeke, Piet; Monstrey, Stan; De Cuypere, Griet; T'Sjoen, Guy

    2011-12-01

    Although sexual health after genital surgery is an important outcome factor for many transsexual persons, little attention has been attributed to this subject. To provide data on quality of life and sexual health after sex reassignment surgery (SRS) in transsexual men. A single-center, cross-sectional study in 49 transsexual men (mean age 37 years) after long-term testosterone therapy and on average 8 years after SRS. Ninety-four percent of the participants had phalloplasty. Self-reported physical and mental health using the Dutch version of the Short Form-36 Health Survey; sexual functioning before and after SRS using a newly constructed specific questionnaire. Compared with a Dutch reference population of community-dwelling men, transsexual men scored well on self-perceived physical and mental health. The majority reported having been sexually active before hormone treatment, with more than a quarter having been vaginally penetrated frequently before starting hormone therapy. There was a tendency toward less vaginal involvement during hormone therapy and before SRS. Most participants reported an increase in frequency of masturbation, sexual arousal, and ability to achieve orgasm after testosterone treatment and SRS. Almost all participants were able to achieve orgasm during masturbation and sexual intercourse, and the majority reported a change in orgasmic feelings toward a more powerful and shorter orgasm. Surgical satisfaction was high, despite a relatively high complication rate. Results of the current study indicate transsexual men generally have a good quality of life and experience satisfactory sexual function after SRS. © 2011 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  7. Perception of health care providers about sexually transmitted infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.; Izhar, V.

    2015-01-01

    Sexually transmitted infections represent a global health problem leading to social stigma and early morbidity and mortality. Prior to this study, different health care providers were dealing with sexually transmitted infections with various parameters and were not following the standard regime given by the WHO. The aim of this study was to investigate the perception of health care providers about sexually transmitted infections and its treatment guidelines. Methods: Cross sectional questionnaire based study was conducted from health care providers(specialists, family physicians, homeopaths and others )of Lahore from Jan 2014 to December 2014. Data was collected with consent through convenience purposive sampling of randomly selected 100 specialists, 200 family physicians, 100 homeopaths and 100 others. Trained investigators pre-tested the validity and reliability of the questionnaire before use. Data of response was coded, entered and analyzed using SPSS. Results: Out of 500 practitioners 475 (95%) completed the questionnaire. Those excluded were due to insufficient data in questionnaire. Almost all respondents were aware of STIs and the guidelines and claimed to have decent knowledge. Apart from some disagreement on the user- friendliness and communication facilitating properties, the health care provider's attitude were positive. Conclusion: Overall, all the health care providers knew about sexually transmitted infections. It was the treatment according to the guidelines, in which they differed. Specialists and Family physician in Lahore, Pakistan knew and followed the STIs guidelines while managing the patients. Homeopaths and others were receiving patients and treating most of these infections but were not aware of the standard guidelines yet somehow their patients were treated and satisfied. Enhancing the familiarity of the guidelines among users can result in a positive outcome on the treatment of STIs. (author)

  8. Youth sexual health improvement in Estonia, 1990-2009: The role of sexuality education and youth-friendly services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haldre, K.; Part, K.; Ketting, E.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives A new school curriculum was introduced in Estonia in 1996 comprising for the first time sexuality education (SE) topics. The first youth counselling centres (YCCs) addressing sexual health matters were set up in 1991-1992. This study describes the development of school-based SE

  9. Communicating with School Nurses about Sexual Orientation and Sexual Health: Perspectives of Teen Young Men Who Have Sex With Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasberry, Catherine N.; Morris, Elana; Lesesne, Catherine A.; Kroupa, Elizabeth; Topete, Pablo; Carver, Lisa H.; Robin, Leah

    2015-01-01

    Black and Latino young men who have sex with men (YMSM) are at disproportionate risk for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including HIV. This study informs school-centered strategies for connecting YMSM to health services by describing their willingness, perceived safety, and experiences in talking to school staff about sexual health.…

  10. African-American Fathers' Perspectives on Facilitators and Barriers to Father-Son Sexual Health Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randolph, Schenita D; Coakley, Tanya; Shears, Jeffrey; Thorpe, Roland J

    2017-06-01

    African-American males ages 13 through 24 are disproportionately affected by sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), accounting for over half of all HIV infections in this age group in the United States. Clear communication between African-American parents and their youth about sexual health is associated with higher rates of sexual abstinence, condom use, and intent to delay initiation of sexual intercourse. However, little is known about African-American fathers' perceptions of what facilitates and inhibits sexual