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Sample records for sexual content scales

  1. Soundtrack contents and depicted sexual violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaus, J G; Myronuk, L D; Jacobs, W J

    1986-06-01

    Male undergraduates were exposed to a videotaped depiction of heterosexual rape accompanied by one of three soundtracks: the original soundtrack (featuring dialogue and background rock music), relaxing music, or no sound. Subjective reports of sexual arousal, general enjoyment, perceived erotic content, and perceived pornographic content of the sequence were then provided by each subject. Results indicated that males exposed to the videotape accompanied by the original soundtrack found the sequence significantly more pornographic than males exposed to the sequence accompanied by either relaxing background music or no sound. Ratings of sexual arousal, general enjoyment, and the perceived erotic content, however, did not differ significantly across soundtrack conditions. These results are compatible with the assertion that the content of a video soundtrack may influence the impact of depicted sexual violence.

  2. Heavy Sexual Content Versus Safer Sex Content: A Content Analysis of the Entertainment Education Drama Shuga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booker, Nancy Achieng'; Miller, Ann Neville; Ngure, Peter

    2016-12-01

    Extremely popular with Kenyan youth, the entertainment-education drama Shuga was designed with specific goals of promoting condom use, single versus multiple sexual partners, and destigmatization of HIV. Almost as soon as it aired, however, it generated controversy due to its extensive sexual themes and relatively explicit portrayal of sexual issues. To determine how safer sex, antistigma messages, and overall sexual content were integrated into Shuga, we conducted a content analysis. Results indicated that condom use and HIV destigmatization messages were frequently and clearly communicated. Negative consequences for risky sexual behavior were communicated over the course of the entire series. Messages about multiple concurrent partnerships were not evident. In addition, in terms of scenes per hour of programming, Shuga had 10.3 times the amount of sexual content overall, 8.2 times the amount of sexual talk, 17.8 times the amount of sexual behavior, and 9.4 times the amount of sexual intercourse as found in previous analysis of U.S. entertainment programming. Research is needed to determine how these factors may interact to influence adolescent viewers of entertainment education dramas.

  3. Casual Sexual Scripts on the Screen: A Quantitative Content Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmermans, Elisabeth; Van den Bulck, Jan

    2018-07-01

    While existing content analyses have provided insightful information in terms of contextual factors and frequency of sexual behaviors, not much is known about the relational context in which sexual depictions generally occur. The current study addresses this void by employing content analytic methods to measure the frequency and context of depictions of sexual behavior within nine popular television shows produced in the U.S., while taking into account the type of sexual behavior. The results suggest that, in the analyzed television shows, sexual behaviors within a casual sexual context were almost as frequently shown as sexual behaviors within a committed relationship context. Whereas sexual behaviors within a committed relationship context were mainly limited to passionate kissing, sexual behaviors within a casual sexual context mostly consisted of explicit portrayals of sexual intercourse. Additionally, genre seemed to be an important factor when examining casual sexual television content. The situational comedy genre, for example, had no explicit portrayals of intercourse and mainly portrayed kissing couples within a committed relationship. The comedy drama genre, on the contrary, had the largest proportion of explicit sexual portrayals, usually between casual sexual partners. A second goal of this study was to analyze the portrayals of the typical casual sexual experience script and the typical casual sexual relationship script in which these sexual behaviors often occur. For instance, our analyses revealed that female characters were more likely to initiate casual sex compared to male characters. Moreover, casual sex often occurred between former partners.

  4. metal content determination of some sexual dysfunction medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    METAL CONTENT DETERMINATION OF SOME SEXUAL DYSFUNCTION. MEDICINE ... motivation for sexual desire, functioning and response .... generated and optimization of the equipment ... by the users' have to be moderate otherwise it.

  5. Adolescent judgment of sexual content on television: implications for future content analysis research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manganello, Jennifer A; Henderson, Vani R; Jordan, Amy; Trentacoste, Nicole; Martin, Suzanne; Hennessy, Michael; Fishbein, Martin

    2010-07-01

    Many studies of sexual messages in media utilize content analysis methods. At times, this research assumes that researchers and trained coders using content analysis methods and the intended audience view and interpret media content similarly. This article compares adolescents' perceptions of the presence or absence of sexual content on television to those of researchers using three different coding schemes. Results from this formative research study suggest that participants and researchers are most likely to agree with content categories assessing manifest content, and that differences exist among adolescents who view sexual messages on television. Researchers using content analysis methods to examine sexual content in media and media effects on sexual behavior should consider identifying how audience characteristics may affect interpretation of content and account for audience perspectives in content analysis study protocols when appropriate for study goals.

  6. Using the Integrative Model to Explain How Exposure to Sexual Media Content Influences Adolescent Sexual Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleakley, Amy; Hennessy, Michael; Fishbein, Martin; Jordan, Amy

    2011-01-01

    Published research demonstrates an association between exposure to media sexual content and a variety of sex-related outcomes for adolescents. What is not known is the mechanism through which sexual content produces this "media effect" on adolescent beliefs, attitudes, and behavior. Using the Integrative Model of Behavioral Prediction, this…

  7. Exposure to Media Content and Sexual Health Behaviour among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The influence of adolescents' exposure to sexual health content of mass media in their sexual health behaviour in Nigeria is still not clear. Data were gathered through a survey conducted among adolescents aged 12-19 years in Lagos metropolis between November 2009 and February 2010. A multistage sampling strategy ...

  8. Validation of the Sexual Communication Self-Efficacy Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn-Nilas, Christopher; Milhausen, Robin R.; Breuer, Rebecca; Bailey, Julia; Pavlou, Menelaos; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Wingood, Gina M.

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed a newly developed Sexual Communication Self-Efficacy Scale designed to measure the sexual communication self-efficacy of adolescent men and women. Three-hundred and seventy-four U.K. adolescents completed this new scale, along with several other validity measures. Factor analysis revealed that the Sexual Communication…

  9. Validation of the Sexual Communication Self-Efficacy Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn-Nilas, Christopher; Milhausen, Robin R; Breuer, Rebecca; Bailey, Julia; Pavlou, Menelaos; DiClemente, Ralph J; Wingood, Gina M

    2016-04-01

    This study assessed a newly developed Sexual Communication Self-Efficacy Scale designed to measure the sexual communication self-efficacy of adolescent men and women. Three-hundred and seventy-four U.K. adolescents completed this new scale, along with several other validity measures. Factor analysis revealed that the Sexual Communication Self-Efficacy Scale consisted of five underlying factors: contraception communication, positive sexual messages, negative sexual messages, sexual history, and condom negotiation. These factors demonstrated high internal consistency and presents evidence to support construct validity. This scale may have utility in assessing the effectiveness of interventions designed to enhance sexual communication and sexual health behaviors among young people. © 2015 Society for Public Health Education.

  10. Alcohol and Sexual Consent Scale: Development and Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Rose Marie; Matthews, Molly R.; Weiner, Judith; Hogan, Kathryn M.; Popson, Halle C.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To establish a short measure of attitudes toward sexual consent in the context of alcohol consumption. Methods: Using a multistage and systematic measurement development process, the investigators developed the Alcohol and Sexual Consent Scale using a sample of college students. Results: The resulting 12-item scale, the Alcohol and…

  11. Development and validation of a five-factor sexual satisfaction and distress scale for women: the Sexual Satisfaction Scale for Women (SSS-W).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meston, Cindy; Trapnell, Paul

    2005-01-01

    This article presents data based on the responses of over 800 women who contributed to the development of the Sexual Satisfaction Scale for Women (SSS-W). The aim of this study was to develop a comprehensive, multifaceted, valid, and reliable self-report measure of women's sexual satisfaction and distress. Phase I involved the initial selection of items based on past literature and on interviews of women diagnosed with sexual dysfunction and an exploratory factor analysis. Phase II involved an additional administration of the questionnaire, factor analyses, and refinement of the questionnaire items. Phase III involved administration of the final questionnaire to a sample of women with clinically diagnosed sexual dysfunction and controls. Psychometric evaluation of the SSS-W conducted in a sample of women meeting DSM-IV-TR criteria for female sexual dysfunction and in a control sample provided preliminary evidence of reliability and validity. The ability of the SSS-W to discriminate between sexually functional and dysfunctional women was demonstrated for each of the SSS-W domain scores and total score. The SSS-W is a brief, 30-item measure of sexual satisfaction and sexual distress, composed of five domains supported by factor analyses: contentment, communication, compatibility, relational concern, and personal concern. It exhibits sound psychometric properties and has a demonstrated ability to discriminate between clinical and nonclinical samples.

  12. A model of adolescents' seeking of sexual content in their media choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleakley, Amy; Hennessy, Michael; Fishbein, Martin

    2011-07-01

    This article reports on the extent to which adolescents report actively seeking sexual content in media, identifies from which media they report seeking, estimates the association between seeking sexual information and romantic and sexual behavior, and shows that active seeking of sexual content in media sources is explained by an intention to seek such content using the Integrative Model of Behavioral Prediction, a reasoned action approach. The data are a national sample of 810 adolescents aged 13 to 18 years. Results show that 50% of adolescents reported actively seeking sexual content in their media choices, which included movies, television, music, Internet pornography sites, and magazines. Males sought sex content more than females, and gender differences were greatest for seeking from Internet pornography sites, movies, and television. Path analysis demonstrate that seeking sexual content is well-predicted by intentions to seek, and intentions are primarily driven by perceived normative pressure to seek sexual content.

  13. Individual-Based Compulsive Sexual Behavior Scale: Its Development and Importance in Examining Compulsive Sexual Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efrati, Yaniv; Mikulincer, Mario

    2018-04-03

    Compulsive sexual behavior comprises individual-based (e.g., sexual fantasies, compulsive sexual thoughts, masturbation) and partnered (e.g., interpersonal sexual conquests, repeated infidelity) facets. Most instruments for assessing compulsive sexual behavior, however, focus less on the individual-based facet and specifically on fantasies and compulsive thoughts. In the current research, we developed and validated an individual-based compulsive sexual behavior scale (I-CSB). In Study 1 (N = 492), the factorial structure of the I-CSB was examined. In Study 2 (N = 406), we assessed I-CSB's convergent validity. In Study 3 (N = 112), we examined whether the I-CSB differentiates between individuals who suffer from compulsive sexual behavior and those who do not. Results revealed a four-factor structure for individual-based compulsive sexual behavior that is associated with an intense inner conflict regarding sexuality (high arousal contrasting with high sexual anxiety), and that accounts for approximately 75% of the differences between people with compulsive sexual behavior and controls. Results are discussed in light of the need for a broader understanding of compulsive sexual behavior.

  14. Impersonal sex orientation and multitasking influence the effect of sexual media content on involvement with a sexual character

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, I.; Peter, J.; van Oosten, J.M.F.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether responses to sexual media content depend on personal and situational factors. Specifically, we studied the role of the personal factor impersonal sex orientation (IS) and the situational factor multitasking in the effect of sexual media content

  15. Unintentional Exposure to Online Sexual Content and Sexual Behavior Intentions Among College Students in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingwen; Jemmott, John B

    2015-07-01

    This study examined the relations of unintentional exposure to Internet sexual content to intentions for sex and condom use and potential mediators of these relations, including attitudes, norms, and self-efficacy, among college students in China. A sample of 524 Chinese college students completed an online questionnaire. Mediation path analyses were conducted to test the theory of planned behavior as a model of the relations between unintentional exposure and intentions to have sex and use condoms. On average, students reported being unintentionally exposed to Internet sexual content about 3 to 4 times during the past month. Unintentional exposure was indirectly associated with intention to have sex, mediated through descriptive and injunctive norms. Descriptive norm was a stronger mediator for females than males. In contrast, unintentional exposure was unrelated to condom-use intention and mediators. The theory of planned behavior provides a model for the development of Internet-based interventions with these students. © 2014 APJPH.

  16. Assessment of sexually related personal distress accompanying premenopausal sexual dysfunction with an Arabic version of the Female Sexual Distress Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Magdy R; Shaaban, Mohamed M; Meky, Heba K

    2017-10-01

    To assess sexually related personal distress among premenopausal women with female sexual dysfunction (FSD) via a validated Arabic version of the Female Sexual Distress Scale (FSDS). A cross-sectional study was conducted among women attending Suez Canal University Hospital, Egypt, between May 2015 and July 2016. In a pilot study to evaluate test-retest reliability and internal consistency, 42 sexually active premenopausal women (aged ≥20 years) completed the Arabic FSDS at recruitment and 2 weeks later. Subsequently, premenopausal sexually active women (aged 20-45 years) were asked to complete the female sexual function index (FSFI) questionnaire; those with FSD (FSFI score ≤26.55) were invited to return to complete the validated version of the Arabic FSDS. The Arabic FSDS showed good test-retest reliability (Pearson correlation coefficient 0.93-0.98) and internal consistency (Cronbach α 0.83-0.92). Overall, 140 (58.1%) of 241 women who completed the FSFI had sexual dysfunction, of whom 51 (36.4%) had sexually related personal distress. Marriage duration was significantly increased among women with FSD (P<0.001). All FSFI sexual domains except lubrication were negatively correlated with FSDS. FSD and sexually related personal distress were highly interrelated and prevalent. An Arabic version of the FSDS was found to be valid and reliable for evaluation of sexually related personal distress. © 2017 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  17. "Get Lucky!" Sexual Content in Music Lyrics, Videos and Social Media and Sexual Cognitions and Risk among Emerging Adults in the USA and Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Chrysalis L.; Rubin, Mark

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between sexual content in music and sexual cognitions and risk among emerging adults in the USA and Australia. Music content was examined via lyrics, videos and social media. It was hypothesised that there would be a positive association between sexual content in music and sexual cognitions and risk. Sexual…

  18. The Scale of Sexual Aggression in Southeast Asia: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winzer, Lylla; Krahé, Barbara; Guest, Philip

    2017-01-01

    Southeast Asia is one of the most dynamic regions in the world. It is experiencing rapid socioeconomic change that may influence the level of sexual aggression, but data on the scale of sexual aggression in the region remain sparse. The aim of the present article was to systematically review the findings of studies available in English on the prevalence of self-reported sexual aggression and victimization among women and men above the age of 12 years in the 11 countries of Southeast Asia (Brunei, Cambodia, East Timor, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Vietnam). Based on four scientific databases, the search engine Google, Opengrey database, and reference checking, 49 studies were found on sexual victimization. Of those, 32 included only women. Self-reported perpetration was assessed by only three studies and included all-male samples. Prevalence rates varied widely across studies but showed that sexual victimization was widespread among different social groups, irrespective of sex and sexual orientation. Methodological heterogeneity, lack of representativeness of samples, imbalance of information available by country, missing information within studies, and cultural differences hampered the comparability between and within countries. There is a need for operationalizations that specifically address sexual aggression occurring after the age of consent, based on detailed behavioral descriptions of unwanted sexual experiences and allied to a qualitative approach with cultural sensitivity. Data on sexual aggression in conflict settings and in human trafficking are also limited. Recommendations for future research are presented in the discussion.

  19. Sending and Receiving Text Messages with Sexual Content: Relations with Early Sexual Activity and Borderline Personality Features in Late Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkley, Dawn Y; Ackerman, Robert A; Ehrenreich, Samuel E; Underwood, Marion K

    2017-05-01

    This research examined adolescents' written text messages with sexual content to investigate how sexting relates to sexual activity and borderline personality features. Participants (N = 181, 85 girls) completed a measure of borderline personality features prior to 10 th grade and were subsequently given smartphones configured to capture the content of their text messages. Four days of text messaging were micro-coded for content related to sex. Following 12 th grade, participants reported on their sexual activity and again completed a measure of borderline personality features. Results showed that engaging in sexting at age 16 was associated with reporting an early sexual debut, having sexual intercourse experience, having multiple sex partners, and engaging in drug use in combination with sexual activity two years later. Girls engaging in sex talk were more likely to have had sexual intercourse by age 18. Text messaging about hypothetical sex in grade 10 also predicted borderline personality features at age 18. These findings suggest that sending text messages with sexual content poses risks for adolescents. Programs to prevent risky sexual activity and to promote psychological health could be enhanced by teaching adolescents to use digital communication responsibly.

  20. Sending and Receiving Text Messages with Sexual Content: Relations with Early Sexual Activity and Borderline Personality Features in Late Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkley, Dawn Y.; Ackerman, Robert A.; Ehrenreich, Samuel E.; Underwood, Marion K.

    2017-01-01

    This research examined adolescents’ written text messages with sexual content to investigate how sexting relates to sexual activity and borderline personality features. Participants (N = 181, 85 girls) completed a measure of borderline personality features prior to 10th grade and were subsequently given smartphones configured to capture the content of their text messages. Four days of text messaging were micro-coded for content related to sex. Following 12th grade, participants reported on their sexual activity and again completed a measure of borderline personality features. Results showed that engaging in sexting at age 16 was associated with reporting an early sexual debut, having sexual intercourse experience, having multiple sex partners, and engaging in drug use in combination with sexual activity two years later. Girls engaging in sex talk were more likely to have had sexual intercourse by age 18. Text messaging about hypothetical sex in grade 10 also predicted borderline personality features at age 18. These findings suggest that sending text messages with sexual content poses risks for adolescents. Programs to prevent risky sexual activity and to promote psychological health could be enhanced by teaching adolescents to use digital communication responsibly. PMID:28824224

  1. Water content estimated from point scale to plot scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyurek, Z.; Binley, A. M.; Demir, G.; Abgarmi, B.

    2017-12-01

    Soil moisture controls the portioning of rainfall into infiltration and runoff. Here we investigate measurements of soil moisture using a range of techniques spanning different spatial scales. In order to understand soil water content in a test basin, 512 km2 in area, in the south of Turkey, a Cosmic Ray CRS200B soil moisture probe was installed at elevation of 1459 m and an ML3 ThetaProbe (CS 616) soil moisture sensor was established at 5cm depth used to get continuous soil moisture. Neutron count measurements were corrected for the changes in atmospheric pressure, atmospheric water vapour and intensity of incoming neutron flux. The calibration of the volumetric soil moisture was performed, from the laboratory analysis, the bulk density varies between 1.719 (g/cm3) -1.390 (g/cm3), and the dominant soil texture is silty clay loam and silt loamThe water content reflectometer was calibrated for soil-specific conditions and soil moisture estimates were also corrected with respect to soil temperature. In order to characterize the subsurface, soil electrical resistivity tomography was used. Wenner and Schlumberger array geometries were used with electrode spacing varied from 1m- 5 m along 40 m and 200 m profiles. From the inversions of ERT data it is apparent that within 50 m distance from the CRS200B, the soil is moderately resistive to a depth of 2m and more conductive at greater depths. At greater distances from the CRS200B, the ERT results indicate more resistive soils. In addition to the ERT surveys, ground penetrating radar surveys using a common mid-point configuration was used with 200MHz antennas. The volumetric soil moisture obtained from GPR appears to overestimate those based on TDR observations. The values obtained from CS616 (at a point scale) and CRS200B (at a mesoscale) are compared with the values obtained at a plot scale. For the field study dates (20-22.06.2017) the volumetric moisture content obtained from CS616 were 25.14%, 25.22% and 25

  2. Diagnosing Sexual Dysfunction in Men and Women: Sexual History Taking and the Role of Symptom Scales and Questionnaires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzichristou, Dimitris; Kirana, Paraskevi-Sofia; Banner, Linda; Althof, Stanley E; Lonnee-Hoffmann, Risa A M; Dennerstein, Lorraine; Rosen, Raymond C

    2016-08-01

    A detailed sexual history is the cornerstone for all sexual problem assessments and sexual dysfunction diagnoses. Diagnostic evaluation is based on an in-depth sexual history, including sexual and gender identity and orientation, sexual activity and function, current level of sexual function, overall health and comorbidities, partner relationship and interpersonal factors, and the role of cultural and personal expectations and attitudes. To propose key steps in the diagnostic evaluation of sexual dysfunctions, with special focus on the use of symptom scales and questionnaires. Critical assessment of the current literature by the International Consultation on Sexual Medicine committee. A revised algorithm for the management of sexual dysfunctions, level of evidence, and recommendation for scales and questionnaires. The International Consultation on Sexual Medicine proposes an updated algorithm for diagnostic evaluation of sexual dysfunction in men and women, with specific recommendations for sexual history taking and diagnostic evaluation. Standardized scales, checklists, and validated questionnaires are additional adjuncts that should be used routinely in sexual problem evaluation. Scales developed for specific patient groups are included. Results of this evaluation are presented with recommendations for clinical and research uses. Defined principles, an algorithm and a range of scales may provide coherent and evidence based management for sexual dysfunctions. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Sexual Motivations and Ideals Distinguish Sexual Identities within the Self-Concept: A Multidimensional Scaling Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celeste Sangiorgio

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Many studies explore when and how young people make sexual choices but few empirical investigations link their sexual motivations with their inner conceptions about their sexual identities. We used multidimensional scaling (MDS analysis to connect young adult participants’ (N = 128 self-descriptions of twelve identities to their sexual motivations and ideals. Identities clustered along two semantically distinct dimensions: Dimension 1 was anchored by family identities on one side and non-family identities on the other; Dimension 2 was anchored on one side by friend/romantic relationships and achievement-based social identities on the other. Those who cited intimacy (e.g., sex as an expression of love and enhancement (e.g., gratification; to feel good sexual motivations were more likely to describe their sexual identities and gender identities as distinct from other identities, especially for women. Idealizing physically passionate relationships was positively linked to a higher distinction between sexual and non-sexual identities, and between gender and personal identities and family identities. The mental structuring of identities may inform sexual relationship motives, ideals, and expectations.

  4. Sociosexual orientation and multitasking influence the effect of sexual media content on involvement with a sexual character

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, I.; Peter, J.; van Oosten, J.M.F.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether responses to sexual media depend on personal and situational factors. Specifically, we studied the role of sociosexual orientation (i.e., personal factor) and multitasking (i.e., situational factor) in the effects of sexual media content on

  5. Sexuality Information Needs of Latino and African American Ninth Graders: A Content Analysis of Anonymous Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angulo-Olaiz, Francisca; Goldfarb, Eva S.; Constantine, Norman A.

    2014-01-01

    This study used qualitative content analysis to examine anonymous questions about sex and sexuality submitted by Latino and African American adolescents in Los Angeles, California, classrooms. The majority of questions asked about sexuality and sexual behavior, or anatomy and physiology, with fewer questions about pregnancy and pregnancy…

  6. Sexy media matter: exposure to sexual content in music, movies, television, and magazines predicts black and white adolescents' sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jane D; L'Engle, Kelly Ladin; Pardun, Carol J; Guo, Guang; Kenneavy, Kristin; Jackson, Christine

    2006-04-01

    To assess over time whether exposure to sexual content in 4 mass media (television, movies, music, and magazines) used by early adolescents predicts sexual behavior in middle adolescence. An in-home longitudinal survey of 1017 black and white adolescents from 14 middle schools in central North Carolina was conducted. Each teen was interviewed at baseline when he or she was 12 to 14 years old and again 2 years later using a computer-assisted self interview (audio computer-assisted self-interview) to ensure confidentiality. A new measure of each teen's sexual media diet (SMD) was constructed by weighting the frequency of use of 4 media by the frequency of sexual content in each television show, movie, music album, and magazine the teen used regularly. White adolescents in the top quintile of sexual media diet when 12 to 14 years old were 2.2 times more likely to have had sexual intercourse when 14 to 16 years old than those who were in the lowest SMD quintile, even after a number of other relevant factors, including baseline sexual behavior, were introduced. The relationship was not statistically significant for black adolescents after controlling for other factors that were more predictive, including parental disapproval of teen sex and perceived permissive peer sexual norms. Exposure to sexual content in music, movies, television, and magazines accelerates white adolescents' sexual activity and increases their risk of engaging in early sexual intercourse. Black teens appear more influenced by perceptions of their parents' expectations and their friends' sexual behavior than by what they see and hear in the media.

  7. Measuring Sexual Motives: A Test of the Psychometric Properties of the Sexual Motivations Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardin, Charles; Garey, Lorra; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2017-01-01

    Sexual motives refer to functions served by sexual behavior. The Sex Motivations Scale (SMS) has frequently been used to assess sexual motives. At its development, the SMS demonstrated good internal consistency; convergent, divergent, and criterion validity; and configural invariance across sex, age, and Caucasians and African Americans. Yet the metric and scalar invariance of the SMS has not been examined, nor has the measurement invariance of the SMS across Hispanic and Asian Americans, sexual minority status, and relationship status been tested. The criterion validity of the SMS also has yet to be examined for nonintercourse sexual behaviors, such as sexting. The present study aimed to address these gaps in a diverse sample of 2,201 college students (77.60% female; M age  = 22.06; 27.84% Caucasian). Results further affirmed the configural, metric, and scalar invariance of the SMS. The convergent and divergent validity of the SMS was supported in relation to positive and negative affect and attachment patterns; and specific SMS subscales demonstrated associations with sexual intercourse behaviors and sexting, supporting the criterion validity of the SMS. These findings suggest the relevance of the SMS in assessing sexual motives across diverse populations and behaviors.

  8. Motivational and Parental Mediation Factors Related to Kenyan Adolescents' Intake of Sexual Radio and TV Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngula, Kyalo Wa; Miller, Ann Neville; Mberia, Hellen K

    2018-06-01

    Research on the influence of media on youths' sexual behavior in sub-Saharan Africa has focused almost entirely on the effects of multimedia health communication campaigns and edutainment programming. Scholarly literature is nearly silent about the influence of the multiple hours that young people in many sub-Saharan nations spend immersed in increasingly sex-heavy entertainment programming. We surveyed a stratified cluster sample of 437 Nairobi public high school students about motivational and parental mediation factors associated with their exposure to sexual radio and TV content. Watching sexual content in the bedroom predicted higher intake of both sexual radio and TV content. Believing that parents were successful in their efforts to limit media use predicted lower intake of both sexual radio and TV content. A friend/companion motive for watching was associated with taking in higher levels of sexual TV content. For day school students, watching sexual content in the sitting room also predicted higher levels of exposure to sexual TV content.

  9. "All of My Lovers Fit Into This Scale": Sexual Minority Individuals' Responses to Two Novel Measures of Sexual Orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galupo, M Paz; Lomash, Edward; Mitchell, Renae C

    2017-01-01

    Previous qualitative research on traditional measures of sexual orientation raise concerns regarding how well these scales capture sexual minority individuals' experience of sexuality. The present research focused on the critique of two novel scales developed to better capture the way sexual and gender minority individuals conceptualize sexuality. Participants were 179 sexual minority (i.e., gay, lesbian, bisexual, pansexual, queer, asexual) individuals who identified as cisgender (n = 122) and transgender (n = 57). Participants first completed the new scales, then provided qualitative responses regarding how well each scale captured their sexuality. The Sexual-Romantic Scale enabled the measurement of sexual and romantic attraction to each sex independently (same-sex and other-sex). Participants resonated with the way the Sexual-Romantic scale disaggregated sexual and romantic attraction. Although cisgender monosexual (lesbian/gay) individuals positively responded to the separation of same- and other-sex attraction, individuals with either plurisexual (bisexual, pansexual, or fluid) or transgender identities found the binary conceptualization of sex/gender problematic. The Gender-Inclusive Scale incorporated same- and other-sex attraction as well as dimensions of attraction beyond those based on sex (attraction to masculine, feminine, androgynous, and gender non-conforming individuals). The incorporation of dimensions of sexual attraction outside of sex in the Gender-Inclusive Scale was positively regarded by participants of all identities. Findings indicate that the Sexual-Romantic and Gender-Inclusive scales appear to address some of the concerns raised in previous research regarding the measurement of sexual orientation among sexual minority individuals.

  10. Scripts of sexual desire and danger in US and Dutch teen girl magazines: a cross-national content analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joshi, S.P.; Peter, J.; Valkenburg, P.M.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this comparative quantitative content analysis was to investigate how US and Dutch teen girl magazines cover sexual desire (i.e., sexual wanting, and pleasure) and sexual danger (i.e., sexual risk, and negative physical/health consequences of sex). Relying on the sexual scripts framework

  11. Sexuality and gender identity teaching within preclinical medical training in New Zealand: content, attitudes and barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Oscar; Rapsey, Charlene M; Treharne, Gareth J

    2018-06-22

    To investigate inclusion of sexuality and gender identity content, attitudes and barriers to inclusion of content in preclinical curricula of New Zealand medical schools from the perspective of key teaching staff. Staff responsible for curriculum oversight at New Zealand's two medical schools were invited to complete a mixed-methods survey about sexuality and gender identity content in their modules. Of 24 respondents, the majority included very little content relating to sexuality or gender identity (33%) or none at all (54%). This content was deemed important by most participants (69%), and none believed there should be less such content in their curriculum. Time was reported to be the main barrier limiting inclusion of such content. Our finding of limited content is consistent with international literature. Our findings extend the literature by revealing that barriers to greater inclusion of content are not due to overt negative attitudes. Staff responsible for preclinical medical curriculum oversight have positive attitudes about content relating to sexuality and gender identity but perceive curriculum space to be a limiting barrier. This is important as it informs approaches to change. Future interventions with medical schools should focus on methods to increase diverse content as part of existing teaching, education to increase knowledge of LGBTQI relevant material and potentially incorporate strategies used to address unconscious bias. Addressing the perceived barriers of time constraints and lack of relevance is required to ensure medical students receive training to develop the competencies to provide positive healthcare experiences for all patients regardless of sexuality and gender identity.

  12. Sexual Orientation Self-Concept Ambiguity: Scale Adaptation and Validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talley, Amelia E; Stevens, Jordan E

    2017-07-01

    The current article describes the adaptation of a measure of sexual orientation self-concept ambiguity (SSA) from an existing measure of general self-concept clarity. Latent "trait" scores of SSA reflect the extent to which a person's beliefs about their own sexual orientation are perceived as inconsistent, unreliable, or incongruent. Sexual minority and heterosexual women ( n = 348), ages 18 to 30, completed a cross-sectional survey. Categorical confirmatory factor analysis guided the selection of items to form a 10-item, self-report measure of SSA. In the current report, we also examine (a) reliability of the 10-item scale score, (b) measurement invariance based on respondents' sexual identity status and age group, and (c) correlations with preexisting surveys that purport to measure similar constructs and theoretical correlates. Evidence for internal reliability, measurement invariance (based on respondent sex), and convergent validity was also investigated in an independent, validation sample. The lowest SSA scores were reported by women who self-ascribed an exclusively heterosexual or exclusively lesbian/gay sexual identity, whereas those who reported a bisexual, mostly lesbian/gay, or mostly heterosexual identity, reported relatively higher SSA scores.

  13. Sexual recombination in Colletotrichum lindemuthianum occurs on a fine scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, E A; Camargo, O A; Pinto, J M A

    2010-09-08

    Glomerella cingulata f. sp phaseoli is the sexual phase of the fungus Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, the causal agent of common bean anthracnose. This fungus is of great concern, because it causes large economic losses in common bean crops. RAPD markers of five populations of G. cingulata f. sp phaseoli from two Brazilian states were analyzed to determine if this population possesses the sexual reproductive potential to generate the genetic variation that is observed in this phytopathogen. We identified 128 polymorphic bands, amplified by 28 random primers. The estimates of genetic similarity in this analysis ranged from 0.43 to 1.00, and the dendrogram generated from analysis of all genotypes displayed five principal groups, coinciding with the five populations. Genetic differentiation was observed between the populations (GST=0.6455); 69% of the overall observed genetic variation was between individual populations and 31% of the variance was within the sub-populations. We identified significant levels of linkage disequilibrium in all populations. However, the values of the disequilibrium ranged from low to moderate, indicating that this pathogen maintains a genetic structure consistent with sexual reproduction. The mean contribution of sexual reproduction was determined by comparison of the amplitudes of genetic similarity of isolates from sexual and asexual phases. These results support the hypothesis that recombination plays an important role in determining the amplitude of variability in this pathogen population and that this determination occurs on a fine scale.

  14. Clinician Resources to Improve Evidence-Based Sexual Healthcare: Does Content and Design Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinzadeh, Hassan; Dadich, Ann; Bourne, Chris; Murray, Carolyn

    2014-01-01

    This study examines how the design and content of printed educational materials (PEMs) influence clinician capacity to deliver evidence-based sexual healthcare. General practitioners in New South Wales, Australia (n = 214), completed a survey about their use and perceptions of PEMs - a clinical aide, sexual health articles, and an educational…

  15. Ugandan Adolescents' Sources, Interpretation and Evaluation of Sexual Content in Entertainment Media Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Ann Neville; Nalugya, Evangeline; Gabolya, Charles; Lagot, Sarah; Mulwanya, Richard; Kiva, Joseph; Nabasaaka, Grace; Chibita, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Although mounting evidence in Western nations indicates that entertainment media influence young people's sexual socialisation, virtually no research has addressed the topic in sub-Saharan Africa. The present study employed 14 focus groups of Ugandan high school students to identify media through which they were exposed to sexual content, how they…

  16. Pedagogy and Content in Sexuality Education Courses in US Colleges and Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswalt, Sara B.; Wagner, Laurie M.; Eastman-Mueller, Heather P.; Nevers, Joleen M.

    2015-01-01

    Most research on sexuality courses in US higher education was conducted in the 1980s and 1990s. Less is known about what is being taught in undergraduate sexuality courses today; this study sought to fill that gap. Reviewing content based on 161 courses (provided by 150 different instructors) from all regions of the USA, this study examined…

  17. Exposure of Children to Sexual Content on the Internet in Croatia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flander, Gordana Buljan; Cosic, Ivana; Profaca, Bruna

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of children and youth exposure to sexual content and inappropriate sexual questions on the Internet; and to identify emotional and behavioral reactions of children after such exposures. Methods: Sample of the study included 2,880 of children and youth aged 10-16 who identified themselves as Internet users.…

  18. Tweet content related to sexually transmitted diseases: no joking matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabarron, Elia; Serrano, J Artur; Wynn, Rolf; Lau, Annie Y S

    2014-10-06

    Online social media, such as the microblogging site Twitter, have become a space for speedy exchange of information regarding sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), presenting a potential risk environment for how STDs are portrayed. Examining the types of "tweeters" (users who post messages on Twitter) and the nature of "tweet" messages is important for identifying how information related to STDs is posted in online social media. The intent of the study was to describe the types of message emitters on Twitter in relation to two different STDs-chlamydia and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-as well as the nature of content tweeted, including how seriously the topic was treated. We used the Twitter search engine to look for tweets posted worldwide from August 1-7, 2013, and from September 1-7, 2013, containing the words "chlamydia" or "HIV", and the hashtags "#chlamydia" or "#HIV". Tweeters were classified by two independent reviewers according to the type of avatar of the user (human, logo, or fantasy), the identification of the emitter (identifiable, semi-identifiable, or non-identifiable), and the source (private company, general media, scientific media, non-governmental, individual account, academic institution, government department, or undefined). Tweet messages were also independently classified according to their nature (serious or jokes/funny), and whether their main message was factual or of a personal nature/experience. A total of 694 tweets were posted by 426 different users during the first 7 days of August and September, containing the hashtags and/or simple words "chlamydia" and/or "HIV". Jokes or funny tweets were more frequently posted by individual users (89%, 66/74), with a human avatar (81%, 60/74), from a non-identifiable user (72%, 53/74), and they were most frequently related to chlamydia (76%, 56/74). Serious tweets were most frequently posted by the general media (20.6%, 128/620), using a logo avatar (66.9%, 415/620), and with identifiable

  19. Sexually Explicit Media on the Internet: A Content Analysis of Sexual Behaviors, Risk, and Media Characteristics in Gay Male Adult Videos

    OpenAIRE

    Downing, Martin J.; Schrimshaw, Eric W.; Antebi, Nadav; Siegel, Karolynn

    2013-01-01

    Recent research suggests that viewing sexually explicit media (SEM), i.e., adult videos, may influence sexual risk taking among men who have sex with men (MSM). Despite this evidence, very little is known about the content of gay male SEM on the Internet, including the prevalence of sexual risk behaviors and their relation to video- and performer-characteristics, viewing frequency, and favorability. The current study content analyzed 302 sexually explicit videos featuring male same-sex perfor...

  20. Sexual content in video games: an analysis of the Entertainment Software Rating Board classification from 1994 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidaña-Pérez, Dèsirée; Braverman-Bronstein, Ariela; Basto-Abreu, Ana; Barrientos-Gutierrez, Inti; Hilscher, Rainer; Barrientos-Gutierrez, Tonatiuh

    2018-01-11

    Background: Video games are widely used by children and adolescents and have become a significant source of exposure to sexual content. Despite evidence of the important role of media in the development of sexual attitudes and behaviours, little attention has been paid to monitor sexual content in video games. Methods: Data was obtained about sexual content and rating for 23722 video games from 1994 to 2013 from the Entertainment Software Rating Board database; release dates and information on the top 100 selling video games was also obtained. A yearly prevalence of sexual content according to rating categories was calculated. Trends and comparisons were estimated using Joinpoint regression. Results: Sexual content was present in 13% of the video games. Games rated 'Mature' had the highest prevalence of sexual content (34.5%) followed by 'Teen' (30.7%) and 'E10+' (21.3%). Over time, sexual content decreased in the 'Everyone' category, 'E10+' maintained a low prevalence and 'Teen' and 'Mature' showed a marked increase. Both top and non-top video games showed constant increases, with top selling video games having 10.1% more sexual content across the period of study. Conclusion: Over the last 20 years, the prevalence of sexual content has increased in video games with a 'Teen' or 'Mature' rating. Further studies are needed to quantify the potential association between sexual content in video games and sexual behaviour in children and adolescents.

  1. Development and Validation of the Sexual Contingent Self-Worth Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glowacka, Maria; Rosen, Natalie O; Vannier, Sarah; MacLellan, Margaret C

    2017-01-01

    Sexual contingent self-worth (CSW) refers to self-worth that is dependent on maintaining a sexual relationship, and has not been studied previously. This novel construct may have implications for sexual, relationship, and psychological well-being, because it could affect the cognitions, affect, and behaviors of individuals in sexual relationships. The purpose of this study was to develop the Sexual Contingent Self-Worth Scale and examine its reliability and validity in community samples. Two separate online studies (N = 329 and N = 282) included men and women who were in committed, sexually active relationships. The Sexual CSW Scale was adapted from a validated measure of relationship CSW. In Study 1, participants completed the Sexual CSW Scale, whereas in Study 2, participants also responded to standardized measures of related constructs. In addition, participants completed the Sexual CSW Scale again two weeks later in Study 2. Factor analysis yielded two subscales: (a) sexual CSW dependent on positive sexual events in the relationship and (b) sexual CSW dependent on negative sexual events. Results indicated good construct validity, incremental validity, internal consistency, and test-retest reliability for the Sexual CSW Scale. This research contributes to the fields of both CSW and sexuality by introducing a novel domain of CSW.

  2. Assessing Politicized Sexual Orientation Identity: Validating the Queer Consciousness Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Lauren E; Mincer, Elizabeth; Dunn, Sarah R

    2017-01-01

    Building on psychological theories of motivation for collective action, we introduce a new individual difference measure of queer consciousness, defined as a politicized collective identity around sexual orientation. The Queer Consciousness Scale (QCS) consists of 12 items measuring five aspects of a politicized queer identity: sense of common fate, power discontent, system blame, collective orientation, and cognitive centrality. In four samples of adult women and men of varied sexual orientations, the QCS showed good test-retest and Cronbach's reliability and excellent known-groups and predictive validity. Specifically, the QCS was positively correlated with identification as a member of the LGBTQ community, political liberalism, personal political salience, and LGBTQ activism and negatively correlated with right-wing authoritarianism and social dominance orientation. QCS mediated relationships between several individual difference variables and gay rights activism and can be used with both LGBTQ people and allies.

  3. Measuring sexual prejudice against gay men and lesbian women: development of the Sexual Prejudice Scale (SPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chonody, Jill M

    2013-01-01

    The presence of bias against gay men and lesbian women remains an ongoing issue, and accurate measurement is essential to targeted intervention. A validation study of a new instrument, the Sexual Prejudice Scale, is reported. Students (N = 851) from 4 different universities participated in this study. An exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis were conducted, and results of these analyses indicated a 3-factor solution (affective - valuation, stereotyping, and social equality beliefs) for each of the sex-specific scales. Evidence of validity and the results of the reliability analysis are reported. Implications for future research are discussed.

  4. Nurses' knowledge and attitudes towards aged sexuality: validity and internal consistency of the Dutch version of the Aging Sexual Knowledge and Attitudes Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahieu, Lieslot; de Casterlé, Bernadette Dierckx; Van Elssen, Kim; Gastmans, Chris

    2013-11-01

    This paper reports a study testing the content and face validity and internal consistency of the Dutch version of the Aging Sexual Knowledge and Attitudes Scale. The ability of older residents to sexually express themselves is known to be influenced by the knowledge and attitudes of nursing home staff towards later-life sexuality. Although the Aging Sexual Knowledge and Attitudes Scale is a widely used instrument to measure this, there is no validated, Dutch translation available. Instrument development. Following a standard forward/backward translation into Dutch, the scale was further adapted for use in Flemish nursing home settings. Content and face validity and user-friendliness were assessed. The psychometric properties were determined by means of an exploratory study. Data were collected from March-April 2011 at eight Flemish nursing homes. Reliability was assessed using internal consistency and item-total correlations. Both subscales of the Flemish adaptation showed acceptable content validity. The face validity and user-friendliness were deemed favourable with hardly any remarks given by the expert panel. The Cronbach's α was 0.80 and 0.88 for the knowledge and attitude subscales, respectively. The item-total correlations ranged from 0.21-0.48 for the knowledge section and from 0.09-0.68 for the attitude subscale. We conclude from our study that the Dutch version of the scale has acceptable to good psychometric properties. The Flemish adaptation therefore seems to be a valuable instrument for studying nursing staff's knowledge and attitudes towards aged sexuality in Flanders. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Putting things in perspective. Young people’s susceptibility to the effects of sexual media content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oosten, J.M.F.

    2015-01-01

    The current media climate is highly sexualized. Images that were considered pornographic several decades ago have become part of mainstream television, and pornographic content has become widely accessible on the internet. This has led to societal concerns that young viewers encounter content on

  6. A Scale for the Assessment of Attitudes and Knowledge Regarding Sexuality in the Aged.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Charles B.

    This paper presents the Aging Sexuality Knowledge and Attitudes Scale (ASKAS), an instrument designed to assess the particular aspects of sexual knowledge and attitudes as they relate to the aged. Development of ASKAS items from a survey of existant physiological research on sexuality in older adults and a review of social-psychological writing on…

  7. Exposure to sexualized media content and selective attention for sexual cues: An experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doornwaard, Suzan; van den Eijnden, Regina; Johnson, Adam; ter Bogt, Tom

    2014-01-01

    This study examined whether exposure to sexualized media influences the subconscious process of attention allocation to subsequently encountered stimuli. One hundred twenty-three participants (61 females) between 18-23 years (M age = 19.99 years) watched a 3-minute video clip containing either

  8. Perceptions of Childhood Sexual Abuse Survivors: Development and Initial Validation of a New Scale to Measure Stereotypes of Adult Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafar, Sadia; Ross, Erin C.

    2013-01-01

    The Childhood Sexual Abuse Stereotypes Scale was developed to assess stereotypes of adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse. Scale items were derived from two studies that elicited cultural and personal beliefs about, and emotions experienced towards adult childhood sexual abuse survivors among university undergraduates. Two scales, Emotions and…

  9. Framing Child Sexual Abuse: A Longitudinal Content Analysis of Newspaper and Television Coverage, 2002-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weatherred, Jane Long

    2017-01-01

    The way in which the news media frame child sexual abuse can influence public perception. This content analysis of the child sexual abuse coverage of eight national news organizations in the United States from 2002 to 2012 includes the two dominant events of the Catholic Church and Pennsylvania State University child sexual abuse scandals. Census and systematic stratified sampling techniques were applied to articles obtained from the Lexis/Nexis Academic database, resulting in a sample of 503 articles. Intercoder reliability was ensured by double coding a randomly selected sample. Study findings indicate a shift in the attribution of responsibility of child sexual abuse among news organizations over the past decade from an individual-level problem with individual-level solutions to a societal-level problem with institutional culpability. Nevertheless, individual-level solutions continue to be framed as the best possible solution.

  10. Karolinska Psychodynamic Profile for Sexual Disorders: KAPP-SD. A proposal for a psychodynamic rating scale for sexual disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldati, Lorenzo; Köhl, John; Abraham, Georges; Bianchi Demicheli, Francesco; Wilczek, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Our first objective in this paper was to review the literature on psychodynamic rating scales of sexual disorders. Our second objective, based on the findings from our review, was to develop a psychodynamic rating scale for people with sexual disorders: the KAPP-SD. We developed the KAPP-SD by modifying an existing psychodynamic rating scale, which assesses stable modes of mental functioning and character traits, the Karolinska Psychodynamic Profile (KAPP). We removed items 13 and 14 of the KAPP and replaced them with three other items-sexual fantasies, conceptions and role of gender identity, and conceptions and role of sexual orientation. These items are part of the assessment of an individual's sexuality and are used to evaluate a person with a sexual disorder psychodynamically. The KAPP-SD, a modified version of the KAPP, can be found in the Appendix. We developed the KAPP-SD in order to help sex therapists make a rigorous psychodynamic evaluation of persons with sexual disorders, which would give information on the prognosis and on the type of treatment to offer.

  11. Defining the Content of an Online Sexual Health Intervention: The MenSS Website.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Rosie; Gerressu, Makeda; Michie, Susan; Estcourt, Claudia; Anderson, Jane; Ang, Chee Siang; Murray, Elizabeth; Rait, Greta; Stephenson, Judith; Bailey, Julia V

    2015-07-03

    Health promotion and risk reduction are essential components of sexual health care. However, it can be difficult to prioritize these within busy clinical services. Digital interventions may provide a new method for supporting these. The MenSS (Men's Safer Sex) website is an interactive digital intervention developed by a multidisciplinary team, which aims to improve condom use in men who have sex with women (MSW). This paper describes the content of this intervention, and the rationale for it. Content was informed by a literature review regarding men's barriers to condom use, workshops with experts in sexual health and technology (N=16) and interviews with men in sexual health clinics (N=20). Data from these sources were analyzed thematically, and synthesized using the Behavior Change Wheel framework. The MenSS intervention is a website optimized for delivery via tablet computer within a clinic waiting room setting. Key targets identified were condom use skills, beliefs about pleasure and knowledge about risk. Content was developed using behavior change techniques, and interactive website features provided feedback tailored for individual users. This paper provides a detailed description of an evidence-based interactive digital intervention for sexual health, including how behavior change techniques were translated into practice within the design of the MenSS website. Triangulation between a targeted literature review, expert workshops, and interviews with men ensured that a range of potential influences on condom use were captured.

  12. Design and psychometric properties of The Sexual Machism Scale (EMS-Sexism-12)

    OpenAIRE

    Cecilia Díaz Rodríguez; María Rosas Rodríguez; Mónica Teresa González Ramírez

    2013-01-01

    The Sexual Machism Scale (EMS-Sexismo-12) evaluates in both men and women, sexism levels that could result in sexual health risk behaviors. Nowadays there is no Sexual Machism Scale. The analyses were made with 79 participants, 43 men and 36 women, with ages that go from 11 to 76 years. Originally 24 items were elaborated, however exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis guided the reduction of the scale. It is achieved to obtain a brief and precise scale (12 items, 0.91 alpha) with only ...

  13. Adapting and Validating a Scale to Measure Sexual Stigma among Lesbian, Bisexual and Queer Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logie, Carmen H.; Earnshaw, Valerie

    2015-01-01

    Lesbian, bisexual and queer (LBQ) women experience pervasive sexual stigma that harms wellbeing. Stigma is a multi-dimensional construct and includes perceived stigma, awareness of negative attitudes towards one’s group, and enacted stigma, overt experiences of discrimination. Despite its complexity, sexual stigma research has generally explored singular forms of sexual stigma among LBQ women. The study objective was to develop a scale to assess perceived and enacted sexual stigma among LBQ women. We adapted a sexual stigma scale for use with LBQ women. The validation process involved 3 phases. First, we held a focus group where we engaged a purposively selected group of key informants in cognitive interviewing techniques to modify the survey items to enhance relevance to LBQ women. Second, we implemented an internet-based, cross-sectional survey with LBQ women (n=466) in Toronto, Canada. Third, we administered an internet-based survey at baseline and 6-week follow-up with LBQ women in Toronto (n=24) and Calgary (n=20). We conducted an exploratory factor analysis using principal components analysis and descriptive statistics to explore health and demographic correlates of the sexual stigma scale. Analyses yielded one scale with two factors: perceived and enacted sexual stigma. The total scale and subscales demonstrated adequate internal reliability (total scale alpha coefficient: 0.78; perceived sub-scale: 0.70; enacted sub-scale: 0.72), test-retest reliability, and construct validity. Perceived and enacted sexual stigma were associated with higher rates of depressive symptoms and lower self-esteem, social support, and self-rated health scores. Results suggest this sexual stigma scale adapted for LBQ women has good psychometric properties and addresses enacted and perceived stigma dimensions. The overwhelming majority of participants reported experiences of perceived sexual stigma. This underscores the importance of moving beyond a singular focus on

  14. Adapting and validating a scale to measure sexual stigma among lesbian, bisexual and queer women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen H Logie

    Full Text Available Lesbian, bisexual and queer (LBQ women experience pervasive sexual stigma that harms wellbeing. Stigma is a multi-dimensional construct and includes perceived stigma, awareness of negative attitudes towards one's group, and enacted stigma, overt experiences of discrimination. Despite its complexity, sexual stigma research has generally explored singular forms of sexual stigma among LBQ women. The study objective was to develop a scale to assess perceived and enacted sexual stigma among LBQ women. We adapted a sexual stigma scale for use with LBQ women. The validation process involved 3 phases. First, we held a focus group where we engaged a purposively selected group of key informants in cognitive interviewing techniques to modify the survey items to enhance relevance to LBQ women. Second, we implemented an internet-based, cross-sectional survey with LBQ women (n=466 in Toronto, Canada. Third, we administered an internet-based survey at baseline and 6-week follow-up with LBQ women in Toronto (n=24 and Calgary (n=20. We conducted an exploratory factor analysis using principal components analysis and descriptive statistics to explore health and demographic correlates of the sexual stigma scale. Analyses yielded one scale with two factors: perceived and enacted sexual stigma. The total scale and subscales demonstrated adequate internal reliability (total scale alpha coefficient: 0.78; perceived sub-scale: 0.70; enacted sub-scale: 0.72, test-retest reliability, and construct validity. Perceived and enacted sexual stigma were associated with higher rates of depressive symptoms and lower self-esteem, social support, and self-rated health scores. Results suggest this sexual stigma scale adapted for LBQ women has good psychometric properties and addresses enacted and perceived stigma dimensions. The overwhelming majority of participants reported experiences of perceived sexual stigma. This underscores the importance of moving beyond a singular focus on

  15. [Evaluation of the factorial and metric equivalence of the Sexual Assertiveness Scale (SAS) by sex].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra, Juan Carlos; Santos-Iglesias, Pablo; Vallejo-Medina, Pablo

    2012-05-01

    Sexual assertiveness refers to the ability to initiate sexual activity, refuse unwanted sexual activity, and use contraceptive methods to avoid sexually transmitted diseases, developing healthy sexual behaviors. The Sexual Assertiveness Scale (SAS) assesses these three dimensions. The purpose of this study is to evaluate, using structural equation modeling and differential item functioning, the equivalence of the scale between men and women. Standard scores are also provided. A total of 4,034 participants from 21 Spanish provinces took part in the study. Quota sampling method was used. Results indicate a strict equivalent dimensionality of the Sexual Assertiveness Scale across sexes. One item was flagged by differential item functioning, although it does not affect the scale. Therefore, there is no significant bias in the scale when comparing across sexes. Standard scores show similar Initiation assertiveness scores for men and women, and higher scores on Refusal and Sexually Transmitted Disease Prevention for women. This scale can be used on men and women with sufficient psychometric guarantees.

  16. Development and psychometric evaluation of the sexual knowledge and attitudes scale for premarital couples (SKAS-PC: An exploratory mixed method study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Sadat

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Designing a valid and reliable questionnaire that allows a fair evaluation of sexual knowledge and attitudes and develop a proper sexual educational program is necessary. Objective: The present study was designed to develop and psychometric evaluation of the sexual knowledge and attitudes scale for premarital couples. Materials and Methods: An exploratory mixed method study was conducted in two phases; in the first, in order to develop a questionnaire an item pool was generated on sexual knowledge and attitudes through focus group discussions and individual interviews. In the second phase, the psychometric properties of the questionnaire were examined. For this purpose, face validity, content validity as well as construct validity were conducted. Reliability was assessed by the Cronbach’s alpha coefficient to assess internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Results: In the first phase an item pool with 88 questions was generated (sexual knowledge 45 items and sexual attitudes 43 items. In the second phase, the number of final items reduced to 33 and 34 items of sexual knowledge and sexual attitudes respectively, through exploratory factor analysis (EFA. Five factors for sexual knowledge and six factors for sexual attitudes identified by EFA. The Cronbach’s alpha coefficient for two sections was 0.84 and 0.81 respectively. The test- retest correlations for sexual knowledge and sexual attitude was 0.74 and 0.82 respectively. Conclusion: The findings suggest that the Sexual Knowledge and Attitudes Scale for Premarital Couples is a valid and reliable instrument. Further studies are needed to establish stronger psychometric properties for the questionnaire.

  17. Differential Juvenile Hormone Variations in Scale Insect Extreme Sexual Dimorphism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Mifom Vea

    Full Text Available Scale insects have evolved extreme sexual dimorphism, as demonstrated by sedentary juvenile-like females and ephemeral winged males. This dimorphism is established during the post-embryonic development; however, the underlying regulatory mechanisms have not yet been examined. We herein assessed the role of juvenile hormone (JH on the diverging developmental pathways occurring in the male and female Japanese mealybug Planococcus kraunhiae (Kuwana. We provide, for the first time, detailed gene expression profiles related to JH signaling in scale insects. Prior to adult emergence, the transcript levels of JH acid O-methyltransferase, encoding a rate-limiting enzyme in JH biosynthesis, were higher in males than in females, suggesting that JH levels are higher in males. Furthermore, male quiescent pupal-like stages were associated with higher transcript levels of the JH receptor gene, Methoprene-tolerant and its co-activator taiman, as well as the JH early-response genes, Krüppel homolog 1 and broad. The exposure of male juveniles to an ectopic JH mimic prolonged the expression of Krüppel homolog 1 and broad, and delayed adult emergence by producing a supernumeral pupal stage. We propose that male wing development is first induced by up-regulated JH signaling compared to female expression pattern, but a decrease at the end of the prepupal stage is necessary for adult emergence, as evidenced by the JH mimic treatments. Furthermore, wing development seems linked to JH titers as JHM treatments on the pupal stage led to wing deformation. The female pedomorphic appearance was not reflected by the maintenance of high levels of JH. The results in this study suggest that differential variations in JH signaling may be responsible for sex-specific and radically different modes of metamorphosis.

  18. Sex in advertising research: a review of content, effects, and functions of sexual information in consumer advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, Tom

    2002-01-01

    This article is a review of academic research on the content and effects of sexual information in advertising (i.e., sex in advertising). In addition to covering common types of sexual content analyzed in research, inquiry on processing and emotional response effects is reviewed. Several areas for continued research are identified, especially with regard to advertisers' use of sexual outcomes as reasons for using brands and the ability of sexual information to influence brand perceptions. This review has applicability to advertising and marketing research and practice, as well as to any area that employs sexual information for persuasive purposes (e.g., safer-sex social marketing campaigns). In addition, it is hoped that sex researchers will recognize and elaborate on the role of sexual response identified in this research to further inform advertising theory and effects research.

  19. Exploratory Factor Analysis and Psychometric Evaluation of the Teacher Reporting Attitude Scale for Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kerryann; Rassafiani, Mehdi; Mathews, Ben; Farrell, Ann; Butler, Des

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an evaluation of an instrument to measure teachers' attitudes toward reporting child sexual abuse and discusses the instrument's merit for research into reporting practice. Based on responses from 444 Australian teachers, the Teachers' Reporting Attitude Scale for Child Sexual Abuse was evaluated using exploratory factor…

  20. Developing a Scale of Perception of Sexual Abuse in Youth Sports (SPSAYS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Thomas A., III.; Byon, Kevin K.

    2014-01-01

    A scale was developed to measure perceptions of sexual abuse in youth sports by assessing (a) the perceived prevalence of sexual abuse committed by pedophilic youth sport coaches, (b) the perceived likelihood that a coach is a pedophile, (c) perceptions on how youth sport organizations should manage the risk of pedophilia, and (d) media influence…

  1. A psychometric comparison of three scales and a single-item measure to assess sexual satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, Kristen P; Herbenick, Debby; Fortenberry, J Dennis; Sanders, Stephanie; Reece, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to systematically compare and contrast the psychometric properties of three scales developed to measure sexual satisfaction and a single-item measure of sexual satisfaction. The Index of Sexual Satisfaction (ISS), Global Measure of Sexual Satisfaction (GMSEX), and the New Sexual Satisfaction Scale-Short (NSSS-S) were compared to one another and to a single-item measure of sexual satisfaction. Conceptualization of the constructs, distribution of scores, internal consistency, convergent validity, test-retest reliability, and factor structure were compared between the measures. A total of 211 men and 214 women completed the scales and a measure of relationship satisfaction, with 33% (n = 139) of the sample reassessed two months later. All scales demonstrated appropriate distribution of scores and adequate internal consistency. The GMSEX, NSSS-S, and the single-item measure demonstrated convergent validity. Test-retest reliability was demonstrated by the ISS, GMSEX, and NSSS-S, but not the single-item measure. Taken together, the GMSEX received the strongest psychometric support in this sample for a unidimensional measure of sexual satisfaction and the NSSS-S received the strongest psychometric support in this sample for a bidimensional measure of sexual satisfaction.

  2. The Development of a Sexual Harassment Proclivity Scale: Construct Validation and Relationship to Communication Competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingham, Shereen G.; Burleson, Brant R.

    1996-01-01

    Develops and assesses the validity of a self-report measure of sexual harassment proclivities in men. Demonstrates the validity of the scale by its moderate correlations with attitude measures relevant to sexual harassment, its nonsignificant correlation with the need to provide socially desirable responses, and by showing that potential victims…

  3. Sexual Self-Schema Scale for Women-Validation and Psychometric Properties of the Polish Version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowosielski, Krzysztof; Jankowski, Konrad S; Kowalczyk, Robert; Kurpisz, Jacek; Normantowicz-Zakrzewska, Małgorzata; Krasowska, Aleksandra

    2018-06-01

    The sexual self-schema is a part of a broader concept of the self that is believed to be crucial for intrapersonal and interpersonal sexual relationships. To develop and perform psychometric validation of the Polish version of the Sexual Self-Schema Scale for Women (SSSS-W-PL). 561 women 18 to 55 years old were included in the final analysis. Linguistic validation was performed in 4 steps in line with the MAPI Institute guidelines. Convergent validity was calculated using the Pearson r product-moment coefficient between different measures of sexuality (attitudes and experience, behavior, arousal, romantic relationship) and SSSS-W-PL total and factor scores. To test discriminant validity, we applied hierarchical regression analyses predicting the number of lifetime sexual partners, self-rating as a sexual person (1 item, "I feel sexually attractive"; on a 5-point Likert scale), and arousability, with independent variables being extraversion (Ten-Item Personality Inventory), self-esteem (Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale), and the SSSS-W-PL (total and factor scores). Sexual self-schema was measured by the SSSS-W-PL, whereas arousability was measured by the arousal/excitement scale of the Changes in Sexual Functioning Questionnaire. The mean age of the study population was 29.0 ± 7.6 years. The final scale consisted of 24 adjectives grouped within 4 factors: romantic, passionate, direct, and embarrassed. The 4-factor model accounted for 39% of the variance. The Cronbach α was 0.74 for the SSSS-W-PL total score and 0.61 to 0.84 for individual factors. Test-retest reliability of the scale after 2- to 8-week intervals was 0.87 (95% CI = 0.82-0.86, P Self-Schema Scale for Women-Validation and Psychometric Properties of the Polish Version. Sex Med 2018;6:131-142. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Adolescent mothers' sexual, contraceptive, and emotional relationship content with the fathers of their children following a first diagnosis of sexually transmitted infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensel, Devon J; Fortenberry, J Dennis

    2011-09-01

    A sexually transmitted infection (STI) diagnosis may profoundly change the meaning of adolescent women's relationships, particularly when the relationship involves a shared child. This study explored the sexual, contraceptive, and emotional characteristics of sexual partners with whom adolescent women had and did not have children in the 3 months after the first STI diagnosis. Adolescent women (n = 387; age: 14-17 years at enrollment) were tested quarterly for STI and completed partner-specific items on emotional and sexual relationship content. We used nonparametric statistics (SPSS/18.0) to compare these characteristics between partners with whom these adolescent women did (n = 20) or did not (n = 118) share a child. Rates of condom use at last sex, overall condom use, and condom insistence were lower with sexual partners involving shared children as compared with childless sexual partners. Relationship status, commitment to partner, and using no method of contraception were more common in parous sexual relationships as compared with nulliparous sexual relationships after an STI. After an STI, adolescent women have different sexual risk behaviors with the fathers of their children, even after a signal event such as a recent STI diagnosis. Tailored counseling may specifically address the challenges of STI prevention with partners who have the unique status of being the "father of the baby." Copyright © 2011 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A Network Contention Model for the Extreme-scale Simulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelmann, Christian [ORNL; Naughton III, Thomas J [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    The Extreme-scale Simulator (xSim) is a performance investigation toolkit for high-performance computing (HPC) hardware/software co-design. It permits running a HPC application with millions of concurrent execution threads, while observing its performance in a simulated extreme-scale system. This paper details a newly developed network modeling feature for xSim, eliminating the shortcomings of the existing network modeling capabilities. The approach takes a different path for implementing network contention and bandwidth capacity modeling using a less synchronous and accurate enough model design. With the new network modeling feature, xSim is able to simulate on-chip and on-node networks with reasonable accuracy and overheads.

  6. Sexual Self-Schema Scale for Women—Validation and Psychometric Properties of the Polish Version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Nowosielski, MD

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The sexual self-schema is a part of a broader concept of the self that is believed to be crucial for intrapersonal and interpersonal sexual relationships. Aim: To develop and perform psychometric validation of the Polish version of the Sexual Self-Schema Scale for Women (SSSS-W-PL. Methods: 561 women 18 to 55 years old were included in the final analysis. Linguistic validation was performed in 4 steps in line with the MAPI Institute guidelines. Convergent validity was calculated using the Pearson r product-moment coefficient between different measures of sexuality (attitudes and experience, behavior, arousal, romantic relationship and SSSS-W-PL total and factor scores. To test discriminant validity, we applied hierarchical regression analyses predicting the number of lifetime sexual partners, self-rating as a sexual person (1 item, “I feel sexually attractive”; on a 5-point Likert scale, and arousability, with independent variables being extraversion (Ten-Item Personality Inventory, self-esteem (Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and the SSSS-W-PL (total and factor scores. Main Outcomes Measures: Sexual self-schema was measured by the SSSS-W-PL, whereas arousability was measured by the arousal/excitement scale of the Changes in Sexual Functioning Questionnaire. Results: The mean age of the study population was 29.0 ± 7.6 years. The final scale consisted of 24 adjectives grouped within 4 factors: romantic, passionate, direct, and embarrassed. The 4-factor model accounted for 39% of the variance. The Cronbach α was 0.74 for the SSSS-W-PL total score and 0.61 to 0.84 for individual factors. Test-retest reliability of the scale after 2- to 8-week intervals was 0.87 (95% CI = 0.82–0.86, P < .001. The increment variances were statistically significant and ranged from 3.8% to 11.6%. Conclusion: The analysis showed good psychometric properties and internal validity of the SSSS-W-PL. The SSSS-W-PL might be helpful in consulting and

  7. Sexually explicit media on the internet: a content analysis of sexual behaviors, risk, and media characteristics in gay male adult videos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downing, Martin J; Schrimshaw, Eric W; Antebi, Nadav; Siegel, Karolynn

    2014-05-01

    Recent research suggests that viewing sexually explicit media (SEM), i.e., adult videos, may influence sexual risk taking among men who have sex with men. Despite this evidence, very little is known about the content of gay male SEM on the Internet, including the prevalence of sexual risk behaviors and their relation to video- and performer-characteristics, viewing frequency, and favorability. The current study content analyzed 302 sexually explicit videos featuring male same-sex performers that were posted to five highly trafficked adult-oriented websites. Findings revealed that gay male SEM on the Internet features a variety of conventional and nonconventional sexual behaviors. There was a substantial prevalence of unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) (34 %) and was virtually the same as the prevalence of anal sex with a condom (36 %). The presence of UAI was not associated with video length, amateur production, number of video views, favorability, or website source. However, the presence of other potentially high-risk behaviors (e.g., ejaculation in the mouth, and ejaculation on/in/rubbed into the anus) was associated with longer videos, more views, and group sex videos (three or more performers). The findings of high levels of sexual risk behavior and the fact that there was virtually no difference in the prevalence of anal sex with and without a condom in gay male SEM have important implications for HIV prevention efforts, future research on the role of SEM on sexual risk taking, and public health policy.

  8. Developing a Scale to Measure Content Knowledge and Pedagogy Content Knowledge of In-Service Elementary Teachers on Fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi, Farhad; Rafiepour, Abolfazl

    2018-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to develop a scale for measuring content knowledge (CK) and pedagogy content knowledge (PCK) of in-service elementary teachers on mathematical fractions. Another aim of this study was to consider whether CK and PCK are separate from each other, or are in a single body. Therefore, a scale containing 22 items about…

  9. Is sexual content in new media linked to sexual risk behaviour in young people? A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lucy Watchirs; Liu, Bette; Degenhardt, Louisa; Richters, Juliet; Patton, George; Wand, Handan; Cross, Donna; Hocking, Jane S; Skinner, S Rachel; Cooper, Spring; Lumby, Catharine; Kaldor, John M; Guy, Rebecca

    2016-11-01

    Social networking and digital media increasingly have an impact on the lives of young people. We undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies that examined the relationship between exposure to sexually explicit websites (SEWs) and 'sexting' (i.e. sending semi-nude or nude photos from a mobile phone) and the sexual attitudes and practices of young people. In accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta Analyses statement, Medline, EMBASE and PsycINFO were searched for papers that described the statistical association between viewing SEWs or sexting by young people (defined as 10-24 years) and their sexual attitudes and behaviours. Fourteen studies, all cross-sectional in design, met the inclusion criteria. Six studies (10352 participants) examined young people's exposure to SEWs and eight (10429 participants) examined sexting. There was substantial variation across studies in exposure and outcome definitions. Meta-analyses found that SEW exposure was correlated with condomless sexual intercourse (odds ratio (OR) 1.23, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.08-1.38, two studies); sexting was correlated with ever having had sexual intercourse (OR 5.58, 95% CI: 4.46-6.71, five studies), recent sexual activity (OR 4.79, 95% CI: 3.55-6.04, two studies), alcohol and other drug use before sexual intercourse (OR 2.65, 95% CI: 1.99-3.32, two studies) and multiple recent sexual partners (OR 2.79, 95% CI: 1.95-3.63, two studies). Most studies had limited adjustment for important potential confounders. Cross-sectional studies show a strong association between self-reported exposure to sexual content in new media and sexual behaviours in young people. Longitudinal studies would provide a greater opportunity to adjust for confounding, and better insight into the causal pathways underlying the observed associations.

  10. Design and psychometric properties of The Sexual Machism Scale (EMS-Sexism-12

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Díaz Rodríguez

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The Sexual Machism Scale (EMS-Sexismo-12 evaluates in both men and women, sexism levels that could result in sexual health risk behaviors. Nowadays there is no Sexual Machism Scale. The analyses were made with 79 participants, 43 men and 36 women, with ages that go from 11 to 76 years. Originally 24 items were elaborated, however exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis guided the reduction of the scale. It is achieved to obtain a brief and precise scale (12 items, 0.91 alpha with only one factor that explains 98.1% of its variance and adequate goodness of fit indices in confirmatory factor analysis. We also analyzed differences between men and women founding higher scores in men than in women.

  11. Using the Violence Risk Scale-Sexual Offense version in sexual violence risk assessments: Updated risk categories and recidivism estimates from a multisite sample of treated sexual offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olver, Mark E; Mundt, James C; Thornton, David; Beggs Christofferson, Sarah M; Kingston, Drew A; Sowden, Justina N; Nicholaichuk, Terry P; Gordon, Audrey; Wong, Stephen C P

    2018-04-30

    The present study sought to develop updated risk categories and recidivism estimates for the Violence Risk Scale-Sexual Offense version (VRS-SO; Wong, Olver, Nicholaichuk, & Gordon, 2003-2017), a sexual offender risk assessment and treatment planning tool. The overarching purpose was to increase the clarity and accuracy of communicating risk assessment information that includes a systematic incorporation of new information (i.e., change) to modify risk estimates. Four treated samples of sexual offenders with VRS-SO pretreatment, posttreatment, and Static-99R ratings were combined with a minimum follow-up period of 10-years postrelease (N = 913). Logistic regression was used to model 5- and 10-year sexual and violent (including sexual) recidivism estimates across 6 different regression models employing specific risk and change score information from the VRS-SO and/or Static-99R. A rationale is presented for clinical applications of select models and the necessity of controlling for baseline risk when utilizing change information across repeated assessments. Information concerning relative risk (percentiles) and absolute risk (recidivism estimates) is integrated with common risk assessment language guidelines to generate new risk categories for the VRS-SO. Guidelines for model selection and forensic clinical application of the risk estimates are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Progress on scaling up integrated services for sexual and reproductive health and HIV

    OpenAIRE

    Dickinson, Clare; Attawell, Kathy; Druce, Nel

    2009-01-01

    This paper considers new developments to strengthen sexual and reproductive health and HIV linkages and discusses factors that continue to impede progress. It is based on a previous review undertaken for the United Kingdom Department for International Development in 2006 that examined the constraints and opportunities to scaling up these linkages. We argue that, despite growing evidence that linking sexual and reproductive health and HIV is feasible and beneficial, few countries have achieved...

  13. A Brief Scale to Measure Problematic Sexually Explicit Media Consumption: Psychometric Properties of the Compulsive Pornography Consumption (CPC) Scale among Men who have Sex with Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, Syed WB; Simon Rosser, B. R.; Erickson, Darin J.

    2015-01-01

    Although the phenomenon of hypersexuality has been described in the literature, and scales of compulsive sexual behavior have been published, the existing measures do not assess compulsive sexually explicit media (SEM) consumption. This study tested the psychometric properties of a new scale, the Compulsive Pornography Consumption (CPC). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses results showed good psychometric performance of a five item two factor preoccupation-compulsivity solution. As hypothesized, the scale correlates positively with compulsive sexual behavior, internalized homonegativity, and negatively with sexual self-esteem. The scale will enable researchers to investigate the etiologic factors of compulsive SEM use, and enable clinicians to assess problematic consumption. PMID:25838755

  14. Effect of the scale inhibitor on ion content in reverse osmosis system for seawater desalination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yuhua; Liu, Zhenfa; Zhang, Lihui; Li, Haihua

    2017-09-01

    A scale inhibitor was synthesized from polysuccinimide with 2-aminoethanesulfonic acid and aspartic acid. The effect of scale inhibitor on ion content in reverse osmosis system for seawater desalination was studied. The results showed that the ion content of permeate water is lower with the scale inhibitor added in RO system for seawater desalination than without scale inhibitor. On the contrary, the ion content of concentrate water is higher when with scale inhibitor in RO system.

  15. The Uses of Text Messaging in Sexual Relationships Scale: Associations with risky sexual behavior among at-risk African American emerging adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broaddus, Michelle; Dickson-Gomez, Julia

    2017-01-01

    Qualitative and quantitative research was used to create the Uses of Texting in Sexual Relationships scale. At-risk, predominantly African American emerging adults participated in qualitative interviews (N = 20) and quantitative surveys (N = 110) about their uses of text messaging within romantic and sexual relationships. Exploratory factor analysis of items generated from interviews resulted in four subscales: Sexting, Relationship Maintenance, Relationship Development, and Texting for Sexual Safety. Exploratory analyses indicated associations of Sexting with more instances of condomless sex, and Texting for Sexual Safety with fewer instances of condomless sex, which was moderated by relationship power. Further research on the connections between text messaging in relationships and sexual behavior among high-risk and minority young adults is warranted, and intervention efforts to decrease sexual risks need to incorporate these avenues of sexual communication. PMID:27710089

  16. The Uses of Texting in Sexual Relationships Scale: Associations With Risky Sexual Behavior Among At-Risk African American Emerging Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broaddus, Michelle; Dickson-Gomez, Julia

    2016-10-01

    Qualitative and quantitative research was used to create the Uses of Texting in Sexual Relationships scale. At-risk, predominantly African American emerging adults participated in qualitative interviews (N = 20) and quantitative surveys (N = 110) about their uses of text messaging within romantic and sexual relationships. Exploratory factor analysis of items generated from interviews resulted in four subscales: Sexting, Relationship Maintenance, Relationship Development, and Texting for Sexual Safety. Exploratory analyses indicated associations of Sexting with more instances of condomless sex, and Texting for Sexual Safety with fewer instances of condomless sex, which was moderated by relationship power. Further research on the connections between text messaging in relationships and sexual behavior among high-risk and minority young adults is warranted, and intervention efforts to decrease sexual risks need to incorporate these avenues of sexual communication.

  17. Energetics, scaling and sexual size dimorphism of spiders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossi, B; Canals, M

    2015-03-01

    The extreme sexual size dimorphism in spiders has motivated studies for many years. In many species the male can be very small relative to the female. There are several hypotheses trying to explain this fact, most of them emphasizing the role of energy in determining spider size. The aim of this paper is to review the role of energy in sexual size dimorphism of spiders, even for those spiders that do not necessarily live in high foliage, using physical and allometric principles. Here we propose that the cost of transport or equivalently energy expenditure and the speed are traits under selection pressure in male spiders, favoring those of smaller size to reduce travel costs. The morphology of the spiders responds to these selective forces depending upon the lifestyle of the spiders. Climbing and bridging spiders must overcome the force of gravity. If bridging allows faster dispersal, small males would have a selective advantage by enjoying more mating opportunities. In wandering spiders with low population density and as a consequence few male-male interactions, high speed and low energy expenditure or cost of transport should be favored by natural selection. Pendulum mechanics show the advantages of long legs in spiders and their relationship with high speed, even in climbing and bridging spiders. Thus small size, compensated by long legs should be the expected morphology for a fast and mobile male spider.

  18. Validación de la Sexual Assertiveness Scale en mujeres mexicanas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reyna Torres-Obregon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available La asertividad sexual constituye una dimensión fundamental de la sexualidad humana por su relación con distintos indicadores de la salud sexual. Es la capacidad de las personas para iniciar la actividad sexual, rechazar la actividad sexual no deseada y emplear métodos anticonceptivos y así desarrollar comportamientos saludables. Esta se mide a través de la Sexual Assertiveness Scale (SAS. Hasta la fecha, la SAS no se ha validado en población mexicana, por lo que se considera importante examinar sus propiedades psicométricas en esta población. Por lo tanto, este estudio tuvo como objetivo validar la SAS en una muestra de 202 mujeres mexicanas. Mediante un análisis factorial confirmatorio, se confirmó la estructura trifactorial del SAS: inicio, rechazo y embarazo-enfermedades de transmisión sexual (CFI = .953; TLI = .927. Asimismo, se obtuvo una confiabilidad adecuada en las tres subescalas y, de forma global (ω = .85, sus puntuaciones correlacionaron significativamente en la dirección esperada con autoestima sexual y depresión rasgo. Se concluye que la SAS presenta buenas propiedades psicométricas en población femenina mexicana.

  19. Scripts of sexual desire and danger in U.S. and Dutch female teen magazines: a cross-cultural content-analytic comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joshi, S.; Peter, J.; Valkenburg, P.

    2010-01-01

    This content analysis investigated the coverage of sexual desire (i.e., sexual wanting, and pleasure) and danger (i.e., sexual risk, and negative physical/health consequences of sex) in teen girl magazines. We examined how the coverage (a) varies for girls and boys, (b) differs between the United

  20. Sexual Compulsivity Scale, Compulsive Sexual Behavior Inventory, and Hypersexual Disorder Screening Inventory: Translation, Adaptation, and Validation for Use in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanavino, Marco de T; Ventuneac, Ana; Rendina, H Jonathon; Abdo, Carmita H N; Tavares, Hermano; Amaral, Maria L S do; Messina, Bruna; Reis, Sirlene C dos; Martins, João P L B; Gordon, Marina C; Vieira, Julie C; Parsons, Jeffrey T

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological, behavioral, and clinical data on sexual compulsivity in Brazil are very limited. This study sought to adapt and validate the Sexual Compulsivity Scale (SCS), the 22-item version of the Compulsive Sexual Behavior Inventory (CSBI-22), and the Hypersexual Disorder Screening Inventory (HDSI) for use in Brazil. A total of 153 participants underwent psychiatric assessment and completed self-reported measures. The adaptation process of the instruments from English to Portuguese followed the guidelines of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research. The reliability and validity of the HDSI criteria were evaluated and the construct validity of all measures was examined. For the SCS and HDSI, factor analysis revealed one factor for each measure. For the CSBI-22, four factors were retained although we only calculated the scores of two factors (control and violence). All scores had good internal consistency (alpha >.75), presented high temporal stability (>.76), discriminated between patients and controls, and presented strong (ρ > .81) correlations with the Sexual Addiction Screening Test (except for the violence domain = .40) and moderate correlations with the Impulsive Sensation Seeking domain of the Zuckerman Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire (ρ between .43 and .55). The sensitivity of the HDSI was 71.93 % and the specificity was 100 %. All measures showed very good psychometric properties. The SCS, the HDSI, and the control domain of the CSBI-22 seemed to measure theoretically similar constructs, as they were highly correlated (ρ > .85). The findings support the conceptualization of hypersexuality as a cluster of problematic symptoms that are highly consistent across a variety of measures.

  1. An Exploratory Factor Analysis of the Sexual Orientation Counselor Competency Scale: Examining the Variable of Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Shainna; Lambie, Glenn; Bloom, Zachary D.

    2017-01-01

    The Sexual Orientation Counselor Competency Scale (SOCCS), developed by Bidell in 2005, measures counselors' levels of skills, awareness, and knowledge in assisting lesbian, gay, or bisexual (LGB) clients. In an effort to gain an increased understanding of the construct validity of the SOCCS, researchers performed an exploratory factor analysis on…

  2. Scaling up Sexuality Education in Senegal: Integrating Family Life Education into the National Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, Katie; Traoré Seck, Aminata; Chandra-Mouli, Venkatraman; Svanemyr, Joar

    2016-01-01

    In Senegal, school-based sexuality education has evolved over 20 years from family life education (FLE) pilot projects into cross-curricular subjects located within the national curriculum of primary and secondary schools. We conducted a literature review and semi-structured interviews to gather information regarding the scale and nature of FLE…

  3. External Correlates of the MMPI-2 Content Component Scales in Mental Health Inpatients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Bradley A.; Handel, Richard W.; Archer, Robert P.

    2006-01-01

    External correlates of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) Content Component Scales were identified using an inpatient sample of 544 adults. The Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) and Symptom Checklist 90-Revised (SCL-90-R) produced correlates of the Content Component Scales, demonstrating external validity with…

  4. Spiritual Content of Yoruba Concept of Sexuality and Sustenance of Family Values through Eko-Ile (Home Training)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaniyan, Gabriel O.

    2016-01-01

    This paper examined the spiritual content of the Yoruba concept of sexuality and the implications it has for the sustenance of family values by use of "eko ile" (home training) which parents are expected to provide for their children as they prepare them for good citizenship. It is observed that most complaints about bad behaviours of…

  5. Sexual Harassment Policies in K-12 Schools: Examining Accessibility to Students and Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichty, Lauren F.; Torres, Jennifer M. C.; Valenti, Maria T.; Buchanan, NiCole T.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Peer sexual harassment is a significant social problem with consequences for both students and schools. Four out of 5 students report experiencing sexual harassment. These experiences have been linked to poor psychological health and academic withdrawal. Recognizing the seriousness of sexual harassment in schools, Supreme Court rulings…

  6. Sex, Kids and the Family Hour: A Three-Part Study of Sexual Content on Television. A Special Report from Children Now and the Kaiser Family Foundation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser Foundation, Oakland, CA.

    This series of studies focused on the content of television programming about sexual activity and sexual relationships, examining what messages are communicated in the so-called "family hour," the first hour of prime time broadcast television (8-9 p.m. in most areas of the country). First, a content analysis documented the nature of…

  7. National Sexuality Education Standards: Core Content and Skills, K-12. A Special Publication of the Journal of School Health. Special Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    American School Health Association (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this paper, "National Sexuality Education Standards: Core Content and Skills, K-12," is to provide clear, consistent and straightforward guidance on the "essential minimum, core content" for sexuality education that is developmentally and age-appropriate for students in grades K-12. The development of these standards is a result of an…

  8. Content Validation of the Scale of Teachers' Attitudes towards Inclusive Classrooms (STATIC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Trisha Sugita; Busse, R. T.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the content validity of the Scale of Teachers' Attitudes towards Inclusive Classrooms (STATIC). An expert panel of 20 special education teachers and five university faculty members provided individual item ratings on a five-point scale regarding wording and content, along with comments. Item and comment…

  9. Progress on scaling up integrated services for sexual and reproductive health and HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Clare; Attawell, Kathy; Druce, Nel

    2009-11-01

    This paper considers new developments to strengthen sexual and reproductive health and HIV linkages and discusses factors that continue to impede progress. It is based on a previous review undertaken for the United Kingdom Department for International Development in 2006 that examined the constraints and opportunities to scaling up these linkages. We argue that, despite growing evidence that linking sexual and reproductive health and HIV is feasible and beneficial, few countries have achieved significant scale-up of integrated service provision. A lack of common understanding of terminology and clear technical operational guidance, and separate policy, institutional and financing processes continue to represent significant constraints. We draw on experience with tuberculosis and HIV integration to highlight some lessons. The paper concludes that there is little evidence to determine whether funding for health systems is strengthening linkages and we make several recommendations to maximize opportunities represented by recent developments.

  10. Detecting content adaptive scaling of images for forensic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillion, Claude; Sharma, Gaurav

    2010-01-01

    Content-aware resizing methods have recently been developed, among which, seam-carving has achieved the most widespread use. Seam-carving's versatility enables deliberate object removal and benign image resizing, in which perceptually important content is preserved. Both types of modifications compromise the utility and validity of the modified images as evidence in legal and journalistic applications. It is therefore desirable that image forensic techniques detect the presence of seam-carving. In this paper we address detection of seam-carving for forensic purposes. As in other forensic applications, we pose the problem of seam-carving detection as the problem of classifying a test image in either of two classes: a) seam-carved or b) non-seam-carved. We adopt a pattern recognition approach in which a set of features is extracted from the test image and then a Support Vector Machine based classifier, trained over a set of images, is utilized to estimate which of the two classes the test image lies in. Based on our study of the seam-carving algorithm, we propose a set of intuitively motivated features for the detection of seam-carving. Our methodology for detection of seam-carving is then evaluated over a test database of images. We demonstrate that the proposed method provides the capability for detecting seam-carving with high accuracy. For images which have been reduced 30% by benign seam-carving, our method provides a classification accuracy of 91%.

  11. Attitudes among Brazilian University Undergraduates regarding Cinema with Contents on Sexual Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Angelo Brandelli; dos Santos, Camila Backes; Rodrigues, Manoela Carpenedo; Nardi, Henrique Caetano

    2009-01-01

    In this experience report we describe an event using cinema as a way to promote affirmative actions regarding sexual diversity among psychology undergraduates. As undergraduate students, we identify the need of a debate that could overcome the boundaries of the traditional notions of gender, sexuality and desire, in order to rethink what is…

  12. Propiedades psicom??tricas de la versi??n espa??ola de la Sexual Assertiveness Scale (SAS)

    OpenAIRE

    Sierra Freire, Juan Carlos; Vallejo-Medina, Pablo; Santos-Iglesias, Pablo

    2011-01-01

    La asertividad sexual se refiere a la capacidad de las personas para iniciar la actividad sexual, rechazar la actividad sexual no deseada y emplear m??todos anticonceptivos, desarrollando comportamientos saluda- bles. La Sexual Assertiveness Scale (SAS) es una escala de 18 ??tems que eval??a tres dimensiones: Inicio, Rechazo y Prevenci??n Embarazo-ETS (E-ETS). En este estudio 853 personas contestaron la SAS, junto a una bater??a de ins- trumentos afines. La puntuaci??n media de los ??tems ha ...

  13. Sexual self-schemas of female child sexual abuse survivors: relationships with risky sexual behavior and sexual assault in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niehaus, Ashley F; Jackson, Joan; Davies, Stephanie

    2010-12-01

    Childhood sexual trauma has been demonstrated to increase survivors' risk for engaging in unrestricted sexual behaviors and experiencing adolescent sexual assault. The current study used the sexual self-schema construct to examine cognitive representations of sexuality that might drive these behavioral patterns. In Study 1 (N = 774), we attempted to improve the content validity of the Sexual Self Schema Scale for child sexual abuse (CSA) survivors, introducing a fourth sexual self-schema factor titled the "immoral/irresponsible" factor. In Study 2 (N = 1150), the potential differences in sexual self-views, as assessed by the four sexual self-schema factors, between CSA survivors and non-victims were explored. In addition, Study 2 evaluated how these sexual self-schema differences may contribute to participation in unrestricted sexual behaviors and risk for sexual assault in adolescence. Results indicated that a history of CSA impacted the way women viewed themselves as a sexual person on each of the four factors. CSA survivors were found to view themselves as more open and possessing more immoral/irresponsible cognitions about sexuality as compared to women who did not have a CSA history. In addition, the CSA survivors endorsed less embarrassment and passionate/romantic views of their sexual selves. The interaction of CSA severity and the sexual self-schemas explained variance in adolescent sexual assault experiences above and beyond the severity of CSA history and participation in risky sexual behaviors. The findings suggest that sexual self-views may serve to moderate the relationship between CSA and adolescent sexual assault. Implications of these findings and directions for future research are discussed.

  14. The Internalized Homophobia Scale for Vietnamese Sexual Minority Women: Conceptualization, Factor Structure, Reliability, and Associations With Hypothesized Correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Trang Quynh; Poteat, Tonia; Bandeen-Roche, Karen; German, Danielle; Nguyen, Yen Hai; Vu, Loan Kieu-Chau; Nguyen, Nam Thi-Thu; Knowlton, Amy R

    2016-08-01

    We developed the first Vietnamese Internalized Homophobia (IH) scale for use with Vietnamese sexual minority women (SMW). Drawing from existing IH scales in the international literature and based on prior qualitative research about SMW in the Viet Nam context, the scale covers two domains: self-stigma (negative attitudes toward oneself as a sexual minority person) and sexual prejudice (negative attitudes toward homosexuality/same-sex relations in general). Scale items, including items borrowed from existing scales and items based on local expressions, were reviewed and confirmed by members of the target population. Quantitative evaluation used data from an anonymous web-based survey of Vietnamese SMW, including those who identified as lesbian (n = 1187), or as bisexual (n = 641) and those who were unsure about their sexual identity (n = 353). The scale was found to consist of two highly correlated factors reflecting self-stigma (not normal/wholesome and self-reproach and wishing away same-sex sexuality) and one factor reflecting sexual prejudice, and to have excellent internal consistency. Construct validity was evidenced by subscale associations with a wide range of hypothesized correlates, including perceived sexual stigma, outness, social support, connection to other SMW, relationship quality, psychological well-being, anticipation of heterosexual marriage, and endorsement of same-sex marriage legalization. Self-stigma was more strongly associated with psychosocial correlates, and sexual prejudice was more associated with endorsement of legal same-sex marriage. The variations in these associations across the hypothesized correlates and across sexual identity groups were consistent with the minority stress model and the IH literature, and exhibited context-specific features, which are discussed.

  15. [Validation of an HIV and other sexually transmitted infections knowledge scale in an adolescent population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espada, José Pedro; Guillén-Riquelme, Alejandro; Morales, Alexandra; Orgilés, Mireia; Sierra, Juan Carlos

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this research is to determine the validity and reliability of a questionnaire designed to specifically assess the knowledge of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections in a Spanish adolescent population. Cross-sectional study for the validation of a questionnaire. A total of 17 schools in five Spanish provinces. A total of 1,570 adolescent schoolchildren between 13 and 17 years old. A pool of 40 items relating to knowledge about HIV and other sexually transmitted infections was established. This pool was analyzed by an expert panel. It was then administered to a pilot group with the same demographic characteristics of the sample, to ensure comprehension. Item analysis, internal consistency, test/retest and exploratory factorial analysis. A factor analysis was performed, in which five factors that explained 46% of the total variance were retained: general knowledge about HIV, condom as a protective method, routes of HIV transmission, the prevention of HIV, and other sexually transmitted infections. Reliability measures ranged from 0.66 to 0.88. The test-retest correlation was 0.59. There were gender differences in the knowledge of infections. These factors have adequate internal consistency and acceptable test-retest correlation. Theoretically, these factors fit properly with the content of the items. The factors have a moderate relationship, indicating that a high degree of knowledge about an aspect, but not a guarantee of general knowledge. The availability of a questionnaire to assess knowledge of sexually transmitted infections is helpful to evaluate prevention programs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Predictive Accuracy of Violence Risk Scale-Sexual Offender Version Risk and Change Scores in Treated Canadian Aboriginal and Non-Aboriginal Sexual Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olver, Mark E; Sowden, Justina N; Kingston, Drew A; Nicholaichuk, Terry P; Gordon, Audrey; Beggs Christofferson, Sarah M; Wong, Stephen C P

    2018-04-01

    The present study examined the predictive properties of Violence Risk Scale-Sexual Offender version (VRS-SO) risk and change scores among Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal sexual offenders in a combined sample of 1,063 Canadian federally incarcerated men. All men participated in sexual offender treatment programming through the Correctional Service of Canada (CSC) at sites across its five regions. The Static-99R was also examined for comparison purposes. In total, 393 of the men were identified as Aboriginal (i.e., First Nations, Métis, Circumpolar) while 670 were non-Aboriginal and primarily White. Aboriginal men scored significantly higher on the Static-99R and VRS-SO and had higher rates of sexual and violent recidivism; however, there were no significant differences between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal groups on treatment change with both groups demonstrating close to a half-standard deviation of change pre and post treatment. VRS-SO risk and change scores significantly predicted sexual and violent recidivism over fixed 5- and 10-year follow-ups for both racial/ancestral groups. Cox regression survival analyses also demonstrated positive treatment changes to be significantly associated with reductions in sexual and violent recidivism among Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal men after controlling baseline risk. A series of follow-up Cox regression analyses demonstrated that risk and change score information accounted for much of the observed differences between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal men in rates of sexual recidivism; however, marked group differences persisted in rates of general violent recidivism even after controlling for these covariates. The results support the predictive properties of VRS-SO risk and change scores with treated Canadian Aboriginal sexual offenders.

  17. Brief Assessment of Motor Function: Content Validity and Reliability of the Upper Extremity Gross Motor Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cintas, Holly Lea; Parks, Rebecca; Don, Sarah; Gerber, Lynn

    2011-01-01

    Content validity and reliability of the Brief Assessment of Motor Function (BAMF) Upper Extremity Gross Motor Scale (UEGMS) were evaluated in this prospective, descriptive study. The UEGMS is one of five BAMF ordinal scales designed for quick documentation of gross, fine, and oral motor skill levels. Designed to be independent of age and…

  18. Sexual Arousal and Sexually Explicit Media (SEM): Comparing Patterns of Sexual Arousal to SEM and Sexual Self-Evaluations and Satisfaction Across Gender and Sexual Orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hald, Gert Martin; Stulhofer, Aleksandar; Lange, Theis

    2018-03-01

    Investigations of patterns of sexual arousal to certain groups of sexually explicit media (SEM) in the general population in non-laboratory settings are rare. Such knowledge could be important to understand more about the relative specificity of sexual arousal in different SEM users. (i) To investigate whether sexual arousal to non-mainstream vs mainstream SEM contents could be categorized across gender and sexual orientation, (ii) to compare levels of SEM-induced sexual arousal, sexual satisfaction, and self-evaluated sexual interests and fantasies between non-mainstream and mainstream SEM groups, and (iii) to explore the validity and predictive accuracy of the Non-Mainstream Pornography Arousal Scale (NPAS). Online cross-sectional survey of 2,035 regular SEM users in Croatia. Patterns of sexual arousal to 27 different SEM themes, sexual satisfaction, and self-evaluations of sexual interests and sexual fantasies. Groups characterized by sexual arousal to non-mainstream SEM could be identified across gender and sexual orientation. These non-mainstream SEM groups reported more SEM use and higher average levels of sexual arousal across the 27 SEM themes assessed compared with mainstream SEM groups. Only few differences were found between non-mainstream and mainstream SEM groups in self-evaluative judgements of sexual interests, sexual fantasies, and sexual satisfaction. The internal validity and predictive accuracy of the NPAS was good across most user groups investigated. The findings suggest that in classified non-mainstream SEM groups, patterns of sexual arousal might be less fixated and category specific than previously assumed. Further, these groups are not more judgmental of their SEM-related sexual arousal patterns than groups characterized by patterns of sexual arousal to more mainstream SEM content. Moreover, accurate identification of non-mainstream SEM group membership is generally possible across gender and sexual orientation using the NPAS. Hald GM

  19. Exposure to violent and sexual media content undermines school performance in youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakup Çetin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Humans are hard-wired to pay attention to violent and sexual cues. Because humans have limited attention capacity, attention allocated to violent and sexual cues decreases attention that can be allocated to encoding important information in school. This study examined the effects of exposure to violent and sexual media on general school performance and Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL scores in Turkish youth. Methods: The relationship between exposure to violent and sexual media on school performance was assessed in a sample of 1545 Turkish adolescents. Then, we compared the TOEFL scores of 143 Turkish boys aged 14 to 18 divided in 71 living in dormitories in which consumption of media was strictly regulated and 72 living at home. Results: A significant negative relationship was found between exposure to violent/sexual media and school success. The effects remained significant even after controlling for the total amount of media exposure. In addition, boys living in the dormitory in which consumption of media was strictly regulated outscored those living at home on the TOEFL post-test immediately after the end of the study, and on a delayed post-test one week later. Conclusions: Because there was no difference between boys living at home and those living in a dormitory on the pre-test, the post-test and delayed post-test differences cannot be attributed to initial differences in English language proficiency. These results suggest that exposure to violent and sexual media impairs adolescent school performance and foreign language memory.

  20. Psychometric Properties of the Orgasm Rating Scale in Context of Sexual Relationship in a Spanish Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcos-Romero, Ana Isabel; Moyano, Nieves; Sierra, Juan Carlos

    2018-05-01

    The Orgasm Rating Scale (ORS) is one of the few self-reported measures that evaluates the multidimensional subjective experience of orgasm. The objective of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the ORS in context of sex-with-partner in a Spanish sample. We examined a sample of 842 adults from the general Spanish population (310 men, 532 women; mean age = 27.12 years, SD = 9.8). The sample was randomly divided into two, with a balanced proportion of men and women between each sub-sample. Sub-sample 1 consisted of 100 men and 200 women (33.3% and 66.6%) with a mean age of 27.77 years (SD = 10.05). Sub-sample 2 consisted of 210 men and 332 women (38.7% and 61.3%) with a mean age of 26.77 years (SD = 9.65). The ORS, together with the Sexual Opinion Survey-6 and the Massachusetts General Hospital-Sexual Functioning Questionnaire, was administered online. The survey included a consent form, in which confidentiality and anonymity were guaranteed. Based on exploratory factor analysis, we obtained a reduced 25-item version of the ORS, distributed along 4 dimensions (affective, sensory, intimacy, and rewards). We performed both exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis. The Spanish version of the ORS had adequate values of reliability that ranged from .78-.93. The 4 factors explained 59.78% of the variance. The factor structure was invariant across gender at a configural level. Scores from the ORS positively correlated with erotophilia and sexual satisfaction. The scale was useful to differentiate between individuals with orgasmic difficulties and individuals with no difficulties. We found that individuals with orgasmic difficulties showed a lower intensity in the affective, intimacy, and sensorial manifestations of orgasm. This version of the ORS could provide an optimum measure for the clinical assessment to identify individuals with difficulties in their orgasmic capacity, thus, it could be used as screening device for orgasmic

  1. Parental mediation of adolescent media use and demographic factors as predictors of Kenyan high school students' exposure to sexual content in television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngula, Kyalo wa; Mberia, Hellen K; Miller, Ann Neville

    2016-01-01

    Research in Western nations suggests that parents' involvement in their children's media use can make a difference in how adolescents select, process and respond to sexual television messages. Little or no published research has investigated this issue in sub-Saharan Africa, even though adolescents and young adults remain among the groups at highest risk for HIV transmission. This study investigated the relationship between Kenyan adolescents' level of exposure to sexual television content and their parents' mediation of their television use. A cluster sample of 427 Nairobi public high school students was surveyed regarding parental mediation of their media use and their intake of sexual television content. Co-viewing with opposite sex friends was associated with higher intake of sexual TV content. This relationship was stronger among boarding school students than among day school students. Parental mediation and co-viewing variables predicted three times as much variance among boarding than among day school students.

  2. A Qualitative Content Analysis of Sexual Abuse Prevention and Awareness Programming in Texas Private School Athletics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naterman, Shane

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine to what extent private school athletic administrators have implemented programming specifically aimed at combatting the problem of childhood sexual abuse in sport. The study examined published policies and procedures overseen by private school athletic administrators to determine to what extent their…

  3. The impact of radiotherapy for carcinoma of the cervix on sexual function assessed using the LENT SOMA scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, Susan E.; Burns, Meriel P.; Routledge, Jacqueline A.; Swindell, Ric

    2003-01-01

    Background and purpose: As there are few studies examining the impact of radiotherapy on sexuality, we assessed the effect of radiotherapy for carcinoma of the cervix on sexual health and the ability of the LENT system to assess sexual function. Materials and methods: Using the vagina and sexual dysfunction scales of the LENT SOMA scales, subjective scores were measured prospectively before initiation of radiotherapy for 89 women, and at the following times after the start of treatment: 21, 70, 200, 400, 600 and 800 days. Results: There was considerable variation in pre-radiotherapy scores that was not related to disease stage (P=0.054), but was related to patient age (P=0.037, for the average vagina scores and P=0.039 for the maximum vagina scores) The scores were influenced by prior surgery (P<0.0005 for maximum and average vagina scores, P=0.042 average and 0.017 maximum sexual dysfunction scores). For 48 patients for whom data were available at the first three time points, the vagina scores decreased significantly by 70 days compared to pre-radiotherapy scores, but not for sexual dysfunction. There was heterogeneity in the pattern of changes of scores over time: for some women there was no change in vagina subsection score, some increased, and some decreased. Conclusions: The work has shown variation both in pre-treatment sexual function and in the pattern of changes seen following radiotherapy. Our questionnaire proved useful to score subjective sexual and vaginal problems as given in the LENT subjective scales. Further study is needed to assess the effectiveness of the scales in assessing late effects

  4. Do Sex and Violence Sell? A Meta-Analytic Review of the Effects of Sexual and Violent Media and Ad Content on Memory, Attitudes, and Buying Intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lull, Robert B; Bushman, Brad J

    2015-09-01

    It is commonly assumed that sex and violence sell. However, we predicted that sex and violence would have the opposite effect. We based our predictions on the evolution and emotional arousal theoretical framework, which states that people are evolutionarily predisposed to attend to emotionally arousing cues such as sex and violence. Thus, sexual and violent cues demand more cognitive resources than nonsexual and nonviolent cues. Using this framework, we meta-analyzed the effects of sexual media, violent media, sexual ads, and violent ads on the advertising outcomes of brand memory, brand attitudes, and buying intentions. The meta-analysis included 53 experiments involving 8,489 participants. Analyses found that brands advertised in violent media content were remembered less often, evaluated less favorably, and less likely to be purchased than brands advertised in nonviolent, nonsexual media. Brands advertised using sexual ads were evaluated less favorably than brands advertised using nonviolent, nonsexual ads. There were no significant effects of sexual media on memory or buying intentions. There were no significant effects of sexual or violent ads on memory or buying intentions. As intensity of sexual ad content increased, memory, attitudes, and buying intentions decreased. When media content and ad content were congruent (e.g., violent ad in a violent program), memory improved and buying intentions increased. Violence and sex never helped and often hurt ad effectiveness. These results support the evolution and emotional arousal framework. Thus, advertisers should consider the effects of media content, ad content, content intensity, and congruity to design and place more effective ads. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Validity of contents of a paediatric critical comfort scale using mixed methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch-Alcaraz, A; Jordan-Garcia, I; Alcolea-Monge, S; Fernández-Lorenzo, R; Carrasquer-Feixa, E; Ferrer-Orona, M; Falcó-Pegueroles, A

    Critical illness in paediatric patients includes acute conditions in a healthy child as well as exacerbations of chronic disease, and therefore these situations must be clinically managed in Critical Care Units. The role of the paediatric nurse is to ensure the comfort of these critically ill patients. To that end, instruments are required that correctly assess critical comfort. To describe the process for validating the content of a paediatric critical comfort scale using mixed-method research. Initially, a cross-cultural adaptation of the Comfort Behavior Scale from English to Spanish using the translation and back-translation method was made. After that, its content was evaluated using mixed method research. This second step was divided into a quantitative stage in which an ad hoc questionnaire was used in order to assess each scale's item relevance and wording and a qualitative stage with two meetings with health professionals, patients and a family member following the Delphi Method recommendations. All scale items obtained a content validity index >0.80, except physical movement in its relevance, which obtained 0.76. Global content scale validity was 0.87 (high). During the qualitative stage, items from each of the scale domains were reformulated or eliminated in order to make the scale more comprehensible and applicable. The use of a mixed-method research methodology during the scale content validity phase allows the design of a richer and more assessment-sensitive instrument. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Enfermería Intensiva y Unidades Coronarias (SEEIUC). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Sexually explicit racialised media targeting men who have sex with men online: a content analysis of high-risk behaviour depicted in online advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Jaclyn M; Dunham, Emilia; Rowley, Blake; Reisner, Sari L; Mimiaga, Matthew J

    2015-01-01

    Sexually explicit media may perpetuate racial and sexual norms among men who have sex with men. While men may be exposed to sexually explicit media in the online settings where they seek sex with other men, no studies to our knowledge have explored the relationship between the racial and sexual content of advertisements appearing in these spaces. In 2011, using a detailed codebook, 217 sexually explicit advertisements on a male sex-seeking website were coded for themes, actor characteristics and sexual acts depicted. Multivariable logistic regression models examined the association between skin colour, theme, sexual acts and condomless sex acts. Nearly half (45%) featured a 'thug' theme (a style emphasising Black masculinity/hip-hop culture), 21% featured a college theme and 44% featured condomless sex. Advertisements featuring only Black men, advertisements featuring Black men with men of other skin tones and advertisements depicting a thug theme were positively associated with depictions of condomless sex. Online sexually explicit advertisements featuring Black themes and actors more frequently depicted condomless sex than advertisements with White men alone. Future research should examine whether depictions of Black men engaging in condomless sex in online advertisements influence the sexual norms and cognitions of Black men who have sex with men and their partners.

  7. A Content Analysis of How Sexual Behavior and Reproductive Health are Being Portrayed on Primetime Television Shows Being Watched by Teens and Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsler, Janni J; Glik, Deborah; de Castro Buffington, Sandra; Malan, Hannah; Nadjat-Haiem, Carsten; Wainwright, Nicole; Papp-Green, Melissa

    2018-02-01

    Television is a leading source of sexual education for teens and young adults, thus it is important to understand how sexual behavior and reproductive health are portrayed in popular primetime programming. This study is a media content analysis of the 19 top-rated scripted English-language primetime television shows aired between January 1, 2015 and May 31, 2015, and viewed by American youth audiences 12-24 years of age. The purpose of this study is to assess how sex/sexuality and reproductive health are being portrayed in a popular medium that reaches many adolescent and young adult audiences. Themes used for this analysis include youth pregnancy/parenting, mentoring/guidance of youth regarding sexual behavior, sex/sexuality, body image/identity, sexual violence/abuse/harassment, gender identity/sexual orientation, and reproductive health. Themes have been classified in one of the following six categories: visual cues, brief mentions, dialogue, minor storylines, major storylines, and multi-episode storylines. Our findings indicate that narratives providing educational information regarding the risks and consequences of sexual behavior were missing from the television shows we analyzed and that storylines promoting low risk sexual behavior were rare. Sexual violence and abuse, casual sex among adults, lack of contraception use, or no portrayal of consequences of risky behaviors were common. Compared to prior research, we found an emergent theme normalizing non-heterosexual gender identity and sexual orientation. Our findings have important implications as exposure to popular media shapes the perceptions and behaviors of teens and young adults. This study has the potential to shed light on the need to create stories and narratives in television shows watched by American teens and young adults with educational messages regarding the risks and consequences of sexual behavior.

  8. Stigma Among Survivors of Sexual Violence in Congo: Scale Development and Psychometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Sarah McIvor; Robinette, Katie L; Bolton, Paul; Cetinoglu, Talita; Murray, Laura K; Annan, Jeannie; Bass, Judith K

    2018-02-01

    Stigma related to sexual violence (SV) is associated with many negative physical and social outcomes. We sought to create a contextually relevant measure of SV-related stigma for women in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and assess itspsychometrics and validity. Using baseline screening data from two randomized controlled trials of services for female SV survivors in Eastern DRC ( n = 1,184), we conducted exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses to test the measurement model. Cronbach's alphas and Kuder-Richardson 20 (KR-20) statistics were used to evaluate internal consistency. Logistic and linear regressions of the stigma measures with related constructs were used to assess construct validity. Two distinct but related scales were developed based on factor analyses: a four-item scale of discrimination-related stigma (i.e., enacted stigma) and an eight-item scale of combined perceived and internalized stigma (i.e., felt stigma). Both scales showed good internal consistency (KR-20 = .68; α = .86). A higher felt stigma score was associated with significant increases in combined depression and anxiety and trauma symptoms, as well as functional impairment ( p < .001). Having a child as a result of SV was associated with both significantly higher enacted and felt stigma ( p < .001). Neither SV stigma scale was associated with medical care seeking. To address harmful ramifications of stigma among SV survivors, locally relevant quantitative measures are necessary to understand the nature and severity of stigma they experience. Our process of scale creation and evaluation can serve as an example for developing locally relevant SV-related stigma measures.

  9. Sexual Modes Questionnaire (SMQ): Translation and Psychometric Properties of the Italian Version of the Automatic Thought Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimbi, Filippo Maria; Tripodi, Francesca; Simonelli, Chiara; Nobre, Pedro

    2018-03-01

    negative automatic thoughts during sexual activity and to develop multicultural research. This study reports on the translation and validation of the Italian version of a clinically useful and widely used measure (assessing automatic thoughts during sexual activity). Limits regarding sampling technique and use of the Automatic Thoughts subscale are discussed in the article. The present findings support the validity and the internal consistency of the Italian version of the SMQ-AT and allow the assessment of negative automatic thoughts during sexual activity for clinical and research purposes. Nimbi FM, Tripodi F, Simonelli C, Nobre P. Sexual Modes Questionnaire (SMQ): Translation and Psychometric Properties of the Italian Version of the Automatic Thought Scale. J Sex Med 2018;15:396-409. Copyright © 2018 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Double-standards in reporting of risk and responsibility for sexual health: a qualitative content analysis of negatively toned UK newsprint articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Susan P; McDaid, Lisa M; Hilton, Shona

    2014-08-04

    The need to challenge messages that reinforce harmful negative discourses around sexual risk and responsibility is a priority in improving sexual health. The mass media are an important source of information regularly alerting, updating and influencing public opinions and the way in which sexual health issues are framed may play a crucial role in shaping expectations of who is responsible for sexual health risks and healthy sexual practices. We conducted an in-depth, qualitative analysis of 85 negatively toned newspaper articles reporting on sexual health topics to examine how risk and responsibility have been framed within these in relation to gender. Articles published in 2010 in seven UK and three Scottish national newspapers were included. A latent content analysis approach was taken, focusing on interpreting the underlying meaning of text. A key theme in the articles was men being framed as a risk to women's sexual health, whilst it was part of a women's role to "resist" men's advances. Such discourses tended to portray a power imbalance in sexual relationships between women and men. A number of articles argued that it was women who needed to take more responsibility for sexual health. Articles repeatedly suggested that women and teenage girls in particular, lacked the skills and confidence to negotiate safer sex and sex education programmes were often presented as having failed. Men were frequently portrayed as being more promiscuous and engaging in more risky sexual health behaviours than women, yet just one article drew attention to the lack of focus on male responsibility for sexual health. Gay men were used as a bench mark against which rates were measured and framed as being a risk and at risk. The framing of men as a risk to women, whilst women are presented at the same time as responsible for patrolling sexual encounters, organising contraception and preventing sexual ill health reinforces gender stereotypes and undermines efforts to promote a

  11. The Components of Great Sex: Sexuality Education for People Who Desire to Scale the Heights of Optimal Sexuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wampold, Charles H.

    2014-01-01

    Ubiquitous "sex tips" in popular media evidence an unquenchable public interest in learning how to experience "great sex," and studies confirm that a great sexual relationship correlates to general relationship satisfaction, which in turn correlates to overall happiness. However, sexologists have paid scant attention to…

  12. The association between sexual satisfaction and body image in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujols, Yasisca; Seal, Brooke N; Meston, Cindy M

    2010-02-01

    Although sexual functioning has been linked to sexual satisfaction, it only partially explains the degree to which women report being sexually satisfied. Other factors include quality of life, relational variables, and individual factors such as body image. Of the few studies that have investigated the link between body image and sexual satisfaction, most have considered body image to be a single construct and have shown mixed results. The present study assessed multiple body image variables in order to better understand which aspects of body image influence multiple domains of sexual satisfaction, including sexual communication, compatibility, contentment, personal concern, and relational concern in a community sample of women. Women between the ages of 18 and 49 years in sexual relationships (N = 154) participated in an Internet survey that assessed sexual functioning, five domains of sexual satisfaction, and several body image variables. Body image variables included the sexual attractiveness, weight concern, and physical condition subscales of the Body Esteem Scale, the appearance-based subscale of the Cognitive Distractions During Sexual Activity Scale, and body mass index. Total score of the Sexual Satisfaction Scale for Women was the main outcome measure. Sexual functioning was measured by a modified Female Sexual Function Index. Consistent with expectations, correlations indicated significant positive relationships between sexual functioning, sexual satisfaction, and all body image variables. A multiple regression analysis revealed that sexual satisfaction was predicted by high body esteem and low frequency of appearance-based distracting thoughts during sexual activity, even after controlling for sexual functioning status. Several aspects of body image, including weight concern, physical condition, sexual attractiveness, and thoughts about the body during sexual activity predict sexual satisfaction in women. The findings suggest that women who experience

  13. A Scale for E-Content Preparation Skills: Development, Validity and Reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekin, Ahmet; Polat, Ebru

    2016-01-01

    Problem Statement: For an effective teaching and learning process it is critical to provide support for teachers in the development of e-content, and teachers should play an active role in this development. Purpose of the Study: The purpose of this study is to develop a valid and reliable Likert-type scale that will determine pre-service teachers'…

  14. Susceptibility of the MMPI-2 Clinical, Restructured Clinical (RC), and Content Scales to Overreporting and Underreporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellbom, Martin; Ben-Porath, Yossef S.; Graham, John R.; Arbisi, Paul A.; Bagby, R. Michael

    2005-01-01

    The authors examined and compared the susceptibility of three Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) scale sets (Clinical, Restructured Clinical [RC], and Content) to over- and underreporting using five analog samples. Two samples of 85 and 191 undergraduate students, respectively, took the MMPI-2 under underreporting versus…

  15. Giving the Self a Voice in MMPI Self-Report: Jerry Wiggins and the Content Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, David S.

    2004-01-01

    This article places one of Jerry Wiggins' contributions to the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI), his content scales, in the twin contexts of past and recent research, and of Wiggins' own preoccupations growing out of the interpersonal point of view. It highlights Wiggins' perspective on the position of the person in the process…

  16. [Protein content in urine of male and female water vole (Arvicola amphibious) at the period of spring growth and sexual maturation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazarova, G G; Proskurniak, L P

    2012-01-01

    The study was carried out on the captive bread water voles Arvicola amphibious kept in vivarium. At the first decade of January, March, and June, the body length and anogenital distance were measured, the body mass was determined, and urine was collected for determination of its protein content. The obtained results have shown that the protein content depends on sex of the animals and is connected with the reproductive status of males and their dimension-weight characteristics. The urinary protein excretion level in females remained stable at different months, whereas in males its sharp rise was noted at the period of spring growth and sexual maturation. The significant sexual differences were established in March and enhanced in June. In March the urine protein content in males was noted to correlate positively with the body mass and length and with the anogenital distance. The males reached sexual maturity at the earlier calendar terms than the females did; in sexually mature males the urine protein content was significantly higher than in the sexually immature ones.

  17. Accumulation of Content Validation Evidence for the Critical Thinking Self-Assessment Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Girija Gopinathan; Hellsten, Laurie-Ann M; Stamler, Lynnette Leeseberg

    2017-04-01

    Critical thinking skills (CTS) are essential for nurses; assessing students' acquisition of these skills is a mandate of nursing curricula. This study aimed to develop a self-assessment instrument of critical thinking skills (Critical Thinking Self-Assessment Scale [CTSAS]) for students' self-monitoring. An initial pool of 196 items across 6 core cognitive skills and 16 subskills were generated using the American Philosophical Association definition of CTS. Experts' content review of the items and their ratings provided evidence of content relevance using the item-level content validity index (I-CVI) and Aiken's content validity coefficient (VIk). 115 items were retained (range of I-CVI values = .70 to .94 and range of VIk values = .69-.95; significant at pself-assessment purposes.

  18. Effect of Message Format and Content on Attitude Accessibility Regarding Sexually Transmitted Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Parul; Hoffman, Eric; Beam, Michael; Xu, Shan Susan

    2017-11-01

    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are widespread in the United States among people ages 15-24 years and cost almost $16 billion yearly. It is therefore important to understand message design strategies that could help reduce these numbers. Guided by exemplification theory and the extended parallel process model (EPPM), this study examines the influence of message format and the presence versus absence of a graphic image on recipients' accessibility of STI attitudes regarding safe sex. Results of the experiment indicate a significant effect from testimonial messages on increased attitude accessibility regarding STIs compared to statistical messages. Results also indicate a conditional indirect effect of testimonial messages on STI attitude accessibility, though threat is greater when a graphic image is included. Implications and directions for future research are discussed.

  19. Content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Tina Bering

    secondary levels. In subject matter didactics, the question of content is more developed, but it is still mostly confined to teaching on lower levels. As for higher education didactics, discussions on selection of content are almost non-existent on the programmatic level. Nevertheless, teachers are forced...... curriculum, in higher education, and to generate analytical categories and criteria for selection of content, which can be used for systematic didactical reflection. The larger project also concerns reflection on and clarification of the concept of content, including the relation between content at the level......Aim, content and methods are fundamental categories of both theoretical and practical general didactics. A quick glance in recent pedagogical literature on higher education, however, reveals a strong preoccupation with methods, i.e. how teaching should be organized socially (Biggs & Tang, 2007...

  20. [Effect of estradiol on the prolactin content in the adenohypophysis of sexually mature and immature rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arse, Kh A

    1979-01-01

    Gel electrophoresis was used in a comparative study of prolactin content in the hypophysis of rats of different age and sex, and at various stages of the estral cycle. The hormone level in the pubertal rats was twice or thrice greater than in the immature ones; it was by 16% less at the diestrus than at the estrus stage. There was no change in the hypophysis prolactin content in male rats at puberty. Ovariectomy was accompained by a sharp reduction of prolactin in the hypophysis. Replacing estradiol therapy increased the amount of prolactin in the hypophysis, without bringing it, however, to the level characteristic of intact rats. Estrogens are responsible for the maintenance of prolactin level, but apparently other factors influencing its content in the hypophysis also exist.

  1. MMPI-2 validity, clinical and content scales, and the Fake Bad Scale for personal injury litigants claiming idiopathic environmental intolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staudenmayer, Herman; Phillips, Scott

    2007-01-01

    Idiopathic environmental intolerance (IEI) is a descriptor for nonspecific complaints that are attributed to environmental exposure. The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory 2 (MMPI-2) was administered to 50 female and 20 male personal injury litigants alleging IEI. The validity scales indicated no overreporting of psychopathology. Half of the cases had elevated scores on validity scales suggesting defensiveness, and a large number had elevations on Fake Bad Scale (FBS) suggesting overreporting of unauthenticated symptoms. The average T-score profile for females was defined by the two-point code type 3-1 (Hysteria-Hypochondriasis), and the average T-score profile for males was defined by the three-point code type 3-1-2 (Hysteria, Hypochondriasis-Depression). On the content scales, Health Concerns (HEA) scale was significantly elevated. Idiopathic environmental intolerance litigants (a) are more defensive about expressing psychopathology, (b) express distress through somatization, (c) use a self-serving misrepresentation of exaggerated health concerns, and (d) may exaggerate unauthenticated symptoms suggesting malingering.

  2. Scale indicators of social exchange relationships: a comparison of relative content validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colquitt, Jason A; Baer, Michael D; Long, David M; Halvorsen-Ganepola, Marie D K

    2014-07-01

    Although social exchange theory has become one of the most oft-evoked theories in industrial and organizational psychology, there remains no consensus about how to measure its key mechanism: social exchange relationships (Blau, 1964). Drawing on Cropanzano and Byrne's (2000) review of contemporary social exchange theorizing, we examined the content validity of perceived support, exchange quality, affective commitment, trust, and psychological contract fulfillment as indicators of social exchange relationships. We used Hinkin and Tracey's (1999) quantitative approach to content validation, which asks participants to rate the correspondence between scale items and definitions of intended (and unintended) constructs. Our results revealed that some of the most frequently utilized indicators of social exchange relationships--perceived support and exchange quality--were significantly less content valid than rarely used options like affect-based trust. Our results also revealed that 2 direct measures--Bernerth, Armenakis, Feild, Giles, and Walker's (2007) scale and a scale created for this study--were content valid. We discuss the implications of these results for future applications of social exchange theory.

  3. Adaptation and Validation of the Sexual Assertiveness Scale (SAS) in a Sample of Male Drug Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallejo-Medina, Pablo; Sierra, Juan Carlos

    2015-04-21

    The aim of the present study was to adapt and validate the Sexual Assertiveness Scale (SAS) in a sample of male drug users. A sample of 326 male drug users and 322 non-clinical males was selected by cluster sampling and convenience sampling, respectively. Results showed that the scale had good psychometric properties and adequate internal consistency reliability (Initiation = .66, Refusal = .74 and STD-P = .79). An evaluation of the invariance showed strong factor equivalence between both samples. A high and moderate effect of Differential Item Functioning was only found in items 1 and 14 (∆R 2 Nagelkerke = .076 and .037, respectively). We strongly recommend not using item 1 if the goal is to compare the scores of both groups, otherwise the comparison will be biased. Correlations obtained between the CSFQ-14 and the safe sex ratio and the SAS subscales were significant (CI = 95%) and indicated good concurrent validity. Scores of male drug users were similar to those of non-clinical males. Therefore, the adaptation of the SAS to drug users provides enough guarantees for reliable and valid use in both clinical practice and research, although care should be taken with item 1.

  4. Correlation Lengths for Estimating the Large-Scale Carbon and Heat Content of the Southern Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazloff, M. R.; Cornuelle, B. D.; Gille, S. T.; Verdy, A.

    2018-02-01

    The spatial correlation scales of oceanic dissolved inorganic carbon, heat content, and carbon and heat exchanges with the atmosphere are estimated from a realistic numerical simulation of the Southern Ocean. Biases in the model are assessed by comparing the simulated sea surface height and temperature scales to those derived from optimally interpolated satellite measurements. While these products do not resolve all ocean scales, they are representative of the climate scale variability we aim to estimate. Results show that constraining the carbon and heat inventory between 35°S and 70°S on time-scales longer than 90 days requires approximately 100 optimally spaced measurement platforms: approximately one platform every 20° longitude by 6° latitude. Carbon flux has slightly longer zonal scales, and requires a coverage of approximately 30° by 6°. Heat flux has much longer scales, and thus a platform distribution of approximately 90° by 10° would be sufficient. Fluxes, however, have significant subseasonal variability. For all fields, and especially fluxes, sustained measurements in time are required to prevent aliasing of the eddy signals into the longer climate scale signals. Our results imply a minimum of 100 biogeochemical-Argo floats are required to monitor the Southern Ocean carbon and heat content and air-sea exchanges on time-scales longer than 90 days. However, an estimate of formal mapping error using the current Argo array implies that in practice even an array of 600 floats (a nominal float density of about 1 every 7° longitude by 3° latitude) will result in nonnegligible uncertainty in estimating climate signals.

  5. Mineral and water content of A. gigas scales determine local micromechanical properties and energy dissipation mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troncoso, Omar P.; Gigos, Florian; Torres, Fernando G.

    2017-11-01

    Arapaima gigas scales are natural laminated composite materials made of individual layers with different degrees of mineralization, accompanied of varying mechanical properties. This natural design provides scales with hardness and flexibility, and can serve as a source of inspiration for the development of new layered composites with a hard surface and flexible base. In this paper, we have carried out cyclic micro-indentation tests on both; the internal and the highly mineralized external surface of air dried and wet scales, in order to assess the variation of their local micromechanical properties with regard to the mineral and water content. The load-penetration (P-h) curves showed that creep takes place throughout the application of a constant force during the micro-indentation tests, confirming the time dependent response of A. gigas scales. A model that accounted for the elastic, plastic and viscous responses of the samples was used to fit the experimental results. The penetration depth during loading and creep, as well as the energy dissipated are dependent on the water content. The used model suggests that the viscous response of the internal layer increases with the water content.

  6. Validation of the MMPI-2 Low Self-Esteem Content Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brems, C; Lloyd, P

    1995-12-01

    We explored the concurrent validity of the MMPI-2 Low Self-Esteem (LSE) Content scale by asking 216 undergraduate students to complete the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (Butcher, Dahlstrom, Graham, Tellegen, & Kaemmer, 1991), Harter Adult Self-Perception Profile (Harter, 1986a) and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (Rosenberg, 1965). Results suggest the LSE renders a good assessment of global self-esteem as well as being a measure of three distinct components of self-esteem. These specific subscales, identified by factor analysis, were labeled Ineptitude, Negative Self-Value, and Negative Comparison with Others. The LSE and its subscales produced good internal consistency (alpha and Gutman Split Half) coefficients.

  7. Scale for Assessment of Giftedness - teacher's version: evidence of validity content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana de Cassia Nakano

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of high abilities is of great importance in psychology, despite scarce studies in literature. Therefore, the aim of this study was to verify, through content validity, the appropriateness of the items of the High Assessment Scale Skills - Teacher Version. The judges were six post-graduate students in the psychological assessment area who rated the 41 items of the instrument in six factors (academic intellectual ability, specific academic skills, leadership, creativity, artistic talent. The results demonstrated the suitability of the items, most of them with concordance rates above 80% (n = 29 and between 60 and 80% (n = 8. Only four items showed agreement at or below 50%, suggesting the need for reformulation. The analysis of the Kappa coefficients showed indices between 0.69 and 0.81. In general, the results indicated the suitability of the scale to the contents of the pretended model.

  8. Validation and cross-cultural adaptation of sexual dysfunction modified scale in multiple sclerosis for Brazilian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Ataíde Peres da Silva

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS is a chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS. These patients suffer from various comorbidities, including sexual dysfunction (SD. The lesions of MS may affect regions of the CNS along the pathway of sexual response. The Multiple Sclerosis Intimacy and Sexuality Questionnaire-19 (MSISQ-19 is a scale that assesses sexual dysfunction. Adapt and validate the MSISQ-19 to Brazilian patients with MS. 204 individuals were evaluated, 134 patients with MS and 70 healthy persons for the control group. It was determined reproducibility, validity, internal consistency and sensitivity of the MSISQ-19-BR. Among patients with MS, 54.3% of male and 71.7% of female presented some kind of SD. In the control group the results were 12.5% and 19.5%, respectively. The MSISQ-19-BR is reproducible, reliable and valid for the Brazilian population and may be used as a tool for assessing the impact of sexual dysfunction in patients with MS.

  9. The influence of sexual music videos on adolescents' misogynistic beliefs: the role of video content, gender, and affective engagement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oosten, J.M.F.; Peter, J.; Valkenburg, P.M.

    2015-01-01

    Research on how sexual music videos affect beliefs related to sexual aggression is rare and has not differentiated between the effects of music videos by male and female artists. Moreover, little is known about the affective processes that underlie the effects of sexual music videos. Using data from

  10. Content Analysis of the Status and Place of Sexuality Education in the National School Policy and Curriculum in Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mkumbo, Kitila A.

    2009-01-01

    In Tanzania, sexuality education in schools is not provided as a standalone subject; rather it is mainstreamed in other subjects, namely Social Studies, Science, Civics and Biology. However, it is not clear how much sexuality education is covered in these subjects. The purpose of this study was to examine the status of sexuality education in the…

  11. Sexual and Reproductive Health Services and Related Health Information on Pregnancy Resource Center Websites: A Statewide Content Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartzendruber, Andrea; Newton-Levinson, Anna; Feuchs, Ashley E; Phillips, Ashley L; Hickey, Jennifer; Steiner, Riley J

    Pregnancy resource centers (PRCs) are nonprofit organizations with a primary mission of promoting childbirth among pregnant women. Given a new state grant program to publicly fund PRCs, we analyzed Georgia PRC websites to describe advertised services and related health information. We systematically identified all accessible Georgia PRC websites available from April to June 2016. Entire websites were obtained and coded using defined protocols. Of 64 reviewed websites, pregnancy tests and testing (98%) and options counseling (84%) were most frequently advertised. However, 58% of sites did not provide notice that PRCs do not provide or refer for abortion, and 53% included false or misleading statements regarding the need to make a decision about abortion or links between abortion and mental health problems or breast cancer. Advertised contraceptive services were limited to counseling about natural family planning (3%) and emergency contraception (14%). Most sites (89%) did not provide notice that PRCs do not provide or refer for contraceptives. Two sites (3%) advertised unproven "abortion reversal" services. Approximately 63% advertised ultrasound examinations, 22% sexually transmitted infection testing, and 5% sexually transmitted infection treatment. None promoted consistent and correct condom use; 78% with content about condoms included statements that seemed to be designed to undermine confidence in condom effectiveness. Approximately 84% advertised educational programs, and 61% material resources. Georgia PRC websites contain high levels of false and misleading health information; the advertised services do not seem to align with prevailing medical guidelines. Public funding for PRCs, an increasing national trend, should be rigorously examined. Increased regulation may be warranted to ensure quality health information and services. Copyright © 2017 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Sharing "Sex Secrets" on Facebook: A Content Analysis of Youth Peer Communication and Advice Exchange on Social Media about Sexual Health and Intimate Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Tien Ee Dominic; Chu, Tsz Hang

    2017-09-01

    Social media present opportunities and challenges for sexual health communication among young people. This study is one of the first to examine the actual use of Facebook for peer communication of sexual health and intimate relations. Content analysis of 2186 anonymous posts in a "sex secrets" Facebook page unofficially affiliated with a Hong Kong University shows gender balance among posters, inclusiveness of sexual minorities, and frequent sharing of personal experiences in storytelling or advice seeking. The findings illuminate young people's health concerns regarding condom use, avoiding pain, birth control, sexually transmitted infections, and body appearance. Relational concerns found entailed sexual practices, expectations, and needs-predominantly within dating relationships and include not wanting to have sex. Supportive communication among users was prevalent. A majority of posts involved advice solicitation in the form of request for opinion or information (30.38%), request for advice (13.68%), situation comparison (5.40%), or problem disclosure (9.97%). Comments to the advice-seeking posts were mostly supportive (69.49%); nonsupportive responses (unsolicited messages and gratuitous humor) were concentrated with ambiguous advice solicitations. These findings hold implications for understanding self-disclosure of intimate concerns within social networks, and attuning sexual health intervention on social media to young people's actual needs and advice preferences.

  13. The measurement of the total electron content applied to the observation of medium scale gravity wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertel, L.; Bertin, F.; Testud, J.

    1976-01-01

    The interpretation of the measurements of the integrated electron content in terms of gravity wave requires (1) a gravity wave model at thermospheric altitudes; (2) a gravity wave-ionization interaction model in the F-region of the ionosphere; and (3) a computing program for the resulting perturbation on the integrated electron content between the satellite and the earth station used. The gravity wave model considered in this paper takes into account the dissipative effects (viscosity, thermal conduction) which become very importanr above 250 km altitude and the effect of the base wind which is capable of affecting deeply the propagation of the waves of medium scale. Starting with this model, the domains of frequencies and the wavelength of atmospheric waves which may exist in the upper atmosphere are considered. The interaction of such waves and the ionization is examined. The theoretical results give information particularly on the selectivity of the ionospheric response to the wave passage. The deduced selectivity of the models appears to be smaller than that given by other authors who used simplified gravity wave models. The method for computing the perturbation of the of the integrated electron content introduced by the wave passage is given for a geostationary satellite. Computational results are presented for application to the case of medium scale gravity waves. (author)

  14. Design of a small scale boiler package for testing high moisture content biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proctor, Andrew

    2005-07-01

    This report presents the results of a project to design a prototype, small-scale boiler (0.88 MWth output) to enable clean and efficient combustion of high moisture content (>30%) biomass fuels. The boiler was based on an open bottom smoke tube design, modified to incorporate water tubes in the combustion chamber running from front to back. These were added to support refractory bricks to create an extra pass in the boiler combustion chamber such that the reflected heat from the refractory increased the rate of evaporation of moisture from the fuel. A chain grate stoker was employed. The combustion tests involved three biofuels: wood pellets with a low moisture content (8-10%) (to provide combustion rates for a commercially proven biofuel); wood chips from forestry waste with a 30-40% moisture content; and spent mushroom compost with 70-75% moisture. The tests on the wood chips required a number of modifications to the fuel feeding system and to the boiler in order to achieve limited success and the tests with the mushroom compost were unsuccessful due to the combination of the high moisture content and the fuel's low calorific value. Experience gained with the wood chips suggested a number of improvements for a future boiler design. As well as describing the experimental work and test results, the report offers an economic analysis (capital costs, fuel costs, running costs) of the scheme.

  15. A Systematic Review of the Psychometric Properties of the Sexual Relationship Power Scale in HIV/AIDS Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, James M.; Volpe, Ellen M.; Klostermann, Keith; Trabold, Nicole; Xue, Ying

    2014-01-01

    The Sexual Relationship Power Scale (SRPS) was developed over a decade ago to address the lack of reliable and valid measures of relationship power in social, behavioral and medical research. The SRPS and its two subscales (relationship control [RC], decision-making dominance [DMD]) have been used extensively in the field of HIV prevention and sexual risk behavior. We performed a systematic review of the psychometric properties of the SRPS and subscales as reported in the HIV/AIDS literature from 2000 to 2012. A total of 54 published articles were identified that reported reliability or construct validity estimates of the scales. Description of the psychometric properties of the SRPS and subscales are reported according to study population, and several cross-population trends were identified. In general, the SRPS and RC subscale exhibited sound psychometric properties across multiple study populations and research settings. By contrast, the DMD subscale had relatively weak psychometric properties, especially when used with specific populations and research settings. Factors that influenced the psychometric properties of the various scales and subscales included the study population, mean age of the sample, number of items retained in the scale, and modifications to the original scales. We conclude with recommendations for (a) the application and use of the SRPS and subscales, (b) reporting of psychometric properties of the scales in the literature, and (c) areas for future research. PMID:25331613

  16. Psychometric properties of the Female Sexual Distress Scale-Revised among a sample of non-clinical Iranian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghassami, Maryam; Asghari, Ali; Shaeeri, Mohammad R; Soltaninejad, Zahra; Safarinejad, Mohammad R

    2014-10-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the psychometric properties of a Persian version of the Female Sexual Distress Scale-Revised (P-FSDS-R) among a sample of healthy Iranian women. A total of 562 healthy Iranian women completed a battery of questionnaires, including the P-FSDS-R, Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS), Positive and Negative Affect Scales (PANAS) and Locke-Wallace-Marital Adjustment Test (LWMAT). The factor structure and the convergent and divergent validity of the P-FSDS-R were examined, using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis and Pearson product-moment correlations, respectively. To examine the discriminant validity of the P-FSDS-R, data collected from 562 healthy participants were compared with data from 108 women with sexual problems who completed the P-FSDS-R measure. The results of exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses indicate that the P-FSDS-R is conceptualized within a one - factor model. The results also indicate that the P-FSDS-R has good internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Significant correlations in the predicted directions between the P-FSDS-R scores and the scores of DASS, PANAS and LWMAT support both the convergent and divergent validity of the FSDS-R. The results also indicate that the scores of the P-FSDS-R tests significantly differentiated women with and without sexual problems. In general, these findings support the reliability and the validity of the P-FSDS-R among Iranian women.

  17. Developing the content of a locomotor disability scale for adults in Bangladesh: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmud, Ilias; Clarke, Lynda; Ploubidis, George B

    2017-01-01

    Bangladesh has an estimated 17 million adults with disabilities. A significant proportion of them are believed to have locomotor disabilities. There are over 300 non-governmental organizations providing different types of rehabilitation services to them. However, there is no locally developed and validated locomotor disability measurement scale in Bangladesh. The purpose of this study was to develop a locomotor disability scale with disability indicators suitable for adults in Bangladesh. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 25 purposively selected adults with locomotor disabilities to generate scale items. At the second stage, cognitive interviews were conducted with 12 purposively selected adults with locomotor disabilities in order to refine the measurement questions and response categories. Data were analysed using the framework technique- identifying, abstracting, charting and matching themes across the interviews. For a locomotor disability scale, 70 activities (disability indicators) were identified: 37 mobility activities, 9 activities of daily living, 17 work/productivity activities and 7 leisure activities. Cognitive interviews revealed that when asking the respondents to rate their difficulty in performing the activities, instead of just mentioning the activity name, such as taking a bath or shower, a detailed description of the activity and response options were necessary to ensure consistent interpretation of the disability indicators and response options across all respondents. Identifying suitable disability indicators was the first step in developing a locomotor disability scale for adults in Bangladesh. Interviewing adults with locomotor disabilities in Bangladesh ensured that the locomotor disability scale is of relevance to them and consequently it has excellent content validity. Further research is needed to evaluate the psychometric properties of this scale.

  18. Perceived Effects of Sexually Explicit Media among Men who have Sex with Men and Psychometric Properties of the Pornography Consumption Effects Scale (PCES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hald, Gert Martin; Smolenski, Derek; Simon Rosser, B. R.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Researchers have proposed that consumption of Sexually Explicit Media (SEM) may not only adversely influence sexual attitudes and behaviors of Men Who Have Sex with Men (MSM) but (also) play a positive role in the development and sexual education of MSM, be a major source of sexual information for MSM, and provide validation, understanding, and confirmation of MSM’s sexual orientation. However, such claims are in urgent need of empirical validation as is the development of psychometrically sound and easily implemented instruments able to reliably assist such validations. Aim To investigate how MSM who consume SEM self-perceive the impact of SEM on their STI-related sexual risk behaviors (i.e. anal intercourse), sexual knowledge, enjoyment of sex, interest in sex, attitudes toward sex, and understanding of their sexual orientation. Further, to provide a thorough psychometric validation of a reduced and reworked version of the Pornography Consumption Effect Scale. Main Outcomes Measures A revised version of the Pornography Consumption Effect Scale (PCES) by Hald and Malamuth (2008). Results This study found that 97% of MSM reported positive effects of SEM consumption on their sexual knowledge, enjoyment of and interest in sex, attitudes toward sex, and understanding of their sexual orientation. Only 3 % reported any negative effects of their SEM consumption. SEM consumption was found to significantly increase consumers’ interest in having protected anal intercourse while not significantly influencing their interests in having unprotected anal intercourse. The revised version of the PCES showed excellent psychometric performance. Conclusion The study found that MSM generally report positive effects of their consumption of sexually explicit materials in areas related to their sexual knowledge, attitudes, behaviors, and orientation. This finding could have important implications for the sexual health and well-being of MSM by suggesting that SEM

  19. Peer sexual cybervictimization in adolescents: Development and validation of a scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Sánchez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes/Objetivo: El estudio de la ciberconducta sexual en la adolescencia ha recibido mucha atención en los últimos a˜nos, especialmente la referida a los riesgos que suponen la exposición a la pornografía, las solicitudes sexuales indeseadas y el hostigamiento sexual basado en el género. La prevalencia del fenómeno varía entre los diferentes estudios debido a una falta de consenso en la definición y medida del constructo cibervictimización sexual. Este trabajo pretende contribuir en esta área, desarrollando y validando una escala para medir victimización sexual online. Método: Una muestra de 601 adolescentes de dos ciudades espa˜nolas (edad media 14,06 participaron en el estudio. Se realizó una validación cruzada empleando AFE y AFC, así como un análisis multigrupo para comparar la equivalencia de la medida por sexo. Resultados: se confirmó un modelo de segundo orden compuesto por dos factores (Cibervictimización sexual ambigua y Cibervictimización sexual personal invariante por sexo. Los análisis indicaron diferencias significativas en la dimensión ambigua, siendo más frecuente en ellos. Los datos revelaron una prevalencia entre el 17 y 26%, siendo menor la implicación en la forma personal. Conclusiones: Se propone una medida válida e invariante en ambos sexos de la cibervictimización sexual por parte de los iguales en la adolescencia.

  20. Parental mediation of media messages does matter: more interaction about objectionable content is associated with emerging adults' sexual attitudes and behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radanielina-Hita, Marie Louise

    2015-01-01

    An online survey of undergraduates explored the effects of recalled parent-child interaction regarding media on their critical thinking skills, beliefs about alcohol and sex, and current reports of attitudes and risky sexual behaviors. Students from a northwestern university completed the questionnaire three times during the fall of 2011. Effective parental mediation was found to be a protective factor against the negative effects of objectionable content on sexual attitudes and behaviors through its effect on critical thinking toward media content and expectancies. Participants whose parents critiqued media portrayals reported a higher level of critical thinking. More critical orientation toward media decreased the effects of objectionable content on expectancies and sexual behaviors. On the other hand, participants whose parents endorsed media portrayals reported lower levels of critical thinking. Developing critical thinking toward media is an effective approach to helping young people make good decisions about their health. Although viewers' understanding of media content may be biased by the emotional aspect of decision making, critical thinking was shown to decrease the appeal of mediated messages on behaviors. Parents play an important role in developing children's critical thinking skills, and those who mediate their children's media use can establish behaviors that will prove beneficial to their children later in life.

  1. Translation, cultural adaptation, and content validity index of the Juvenile Love Scale to the Brazilian context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorrayne Stephane Soares

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Passionate love involves physiological, emotional, and cognitive features that greatly changes behavior. This phenomenon seems universal or near universal. Even other animal species choose partners. An intense state of passionate love is associated with activity in dopamine pathways of the brain ‘reward system’, and recently has been regarded as a ‘natural addiction’. Instruments or tools to evaluate romantic love during childhood is still scarce. Objective To perform the translation and cultural adaptation of the Juvenile Love Scale (JLS for use in the Brazilian context targeted for adolescents between 14 and 18 years old. Methods The translation and cultural adaptation of JLS followed international recommendations, and its content validity was analyzed by a panel of experts in different areas of knowledge. Results The final version of the JLS for use in the Brazilian context showed high content validity (> 90%. Discussion To our knowledge, this is the first scale for measuring romantic or passionate love in adolescents adapted to the Brazilian context. This instrument is a significant contribution to the study of the dimensions of love, as well as to understand the impact of love on the psychiatric phenomena that pervade life in this stage of development.

  2. Content Validity and Reliability of Multiple Intelligences Developmental Assessment Scales (MIDAS Translated into Persian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Saeidi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to translate MIDAS questionnaire from English into Persian and determine its content validity and reliability. MIDAS was translated and validated on a sample (N = 110 of Iranian adult population. The participants were both male and female with the age range of 17-57. They were at different educational levels and from different ethnic groups in Iran. A translating team, consisting of five members, bilingual in English and Persian and familiar with multiple intelligences (MI theory and practice, were involved in translating and determining content validity, which included the processes of forward translation, back-translation, review, final proof-reading, and testing. The statistical analyses of inter-scale correlation were performed using the Cronbach's alpha coefficient. In an intra-class correlation, the Cronbach's alpha was high for all of the questions. Translation and content validity of MIDAS questionnaire was completed by a proper process leading to high reliability and validity. The results suggest that Persian MIDAS (P-MIDAS could serve as a valid and reliable instrument for measuring Iranian adults MIs.

  3. The Internalized Homophobia Scale for Vietnamese Sexual Minority Women (IHVN-W): Conceptualization, factor structure, reliability, and associations with hypothesized correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Trang Quynh; Poteat, Tonia; Bandeen-Roche, Karen; German, Danielle; Nguyen, Yen Hai; Vu, Loan Kieu-Chau; Nguyen, Nam Thi-Thu; Knowlton, Amy R.

    2016-01-01

    We developed the first Vietnamese internalized homophobia (IH) scale, for use with Vietnamese sexual minority women (SMW). Drawing from existing IH scales in the international literature and based on prior qualitative research about SMW in the Viet Nam context, the scale covers two domains: self-stigma (negative attitudes toward oneself as a sexual minority person) and sexual prejudice (negative attitudes toward homosexuality/same-sex relations in general). Scale items, including items borrowed from existing scales and items based on local expressions, were reviewed and confirmed by members of the target population. Quantitative evaluation used data from an anonymous web-based survey of Vietnamese SMW, including those who identified as lesbian (n=1187), or as bisexual (n=641) and those who were unsure about their sexual identity (n=353). The scale was found to consist of two highly correlated factors reflecting self-stigma (not normal/wholesome and self-reproach and wishing away same-sex sexuality) and one factor reflecting sexual prejudice, and to have excellent internal consistency. Construct validity was evidenced by subscales’ associations with a wide range of hypothesized correlates including perceived sexual stigma, outness, social support, connection to other SMW, relationship quality, psychological well-being, anticipation of heterosexual marriage and endorsement of same-sex marriage legalization. Self-stigma was more strongly associated with psychosocial correlates and sexual prejudice was more associated with endorsement of legal same-sex marriage. The variations in these associations across the hypothesized correlates and across sexual identity groups were consistent with the Minority Stress Model and the IH literature, and exhibited context-specific features, which are discussed. PMID:27007469

  4. "It was only harmless banter!" The development and preliminary validation of the moral disengagement in sexual harassment scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Thomas E; Pina, Afroditi; Giner-Sorolla, Roger

    2016-01-01

    Sexual harassment represents aggressive behavior that is often enacted instrumentally, in response to a threatened sense of masculinity and male identity. To date, however, theoretical attention to the social cognitive processes that regulate workplace harassment is scant. This article presents the development and preliminary validation of the Moral Disengagement in Sexual Harassment Scale (MDiSH); a self-report measure of moral disengagement in the context of hostile work environment harassment. Three studies (total n = 797) document the excellent psychometric properties of this new scale. Male U.K. university students (Study 1: n = 322) and U.S. working males (Studies 2 and 3: n = 475) completed the MDiSH and an array of measures for construct validation. The MDiSH exhibited positive correlations with sexual harassment myth acceptance, male gender identification, and hostile sexism. In Study 3, participants were exposed to a fictitious case of hostile work environment harassment. The MDiSH attenuated moral judgment, negative emotions (guilt, shame, and anger), sympathy, and endorsement of prosocial behavioral intentions (support for restitution) associated with the harassment case. Conversely, the MDiSH increased positive affect (happiness) about the harassment and attribution of blame to the female complainant. Implications for practice and future research avenues are discussed. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. A Matter of Facts...and More: An Exploratory Analysis of the Content of Sexuality Education in the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Rebecca M.; Vanwesenbeeck, Ine; Knijn, Trudie

    2008-01-01

    The Netherlands is often recognized for its approach to adolescent sexual health, noted by the country's low rates of teen pregnancy and high contraceptive use among young people. Different studies have compared the sexual health outcomes of youth in The Netherlands with those of young people in other developed countries, and, to varying degrees,…

  6. Injection Drug User Quality of Life Scale (IDUQOL: Findings from a content validation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palepu Anita

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quality of life studies among injection drug users have primarily focused on health-related measures. The chaotic life-style of many injection drug users (IDUs, however, extends far beyond their health, and impacts upon social relationships, employment opportunities, housing, and day to day survival. Most current quality of life instruments do not capture the realities of people living with addictions. The Injection Drug Users' Quality of Life Scale (IDUQOL was developed to reflect the life areas of relevance to IDUs. The present study examined the content validity of the IDUQOL using judgmental methods based on subject matter experts' (SMEs ratings of various elements of this measure (e.g., appropriateness of life areas or items, names and descriptions of life areas, instructions for administration and scoring. Methods Six SMEs were provided with a copy of the IDUQOL and its administration and scoring manual and a detailed content validation questionnaire. Two commonly used judgmental measures of inter-rater agreement, the Content Validity Index (CVI and the Average Deviation Mean Index (ADM, were used to evaluate SMEs' agreement on ratings of IDUQOL elements. Results A total of 75 elements of the IDUQOL were examined. The CVI results showed that all elements were endorsed by the required number of SMEs or more. The ADM results showed that acceptable agreement (i.e., practical significance was obtained for all elements but statistically significant agreement was missed for nine elements. For these elements, SMEs' feedback was examined for ways to improve the elements. Open-ended feedback also provided suggestions for other revisions to the IDUQOL. Conclusion The results of the study provided strong evidence in support of the content validity of the IDUQOL and direction for the revision of some IDUQOL elements.

  7. Childhood Familial Victimization: An Exploration of Gender and Sexual Identity Using the Scale of Negative Family Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Katherine; McDonald, Courtney

    2017-11-01

    Familial violence poses a serious public health concern and has therefore received a considerable amount of attention from academics and practitioners alike. Research within this field has found that parent-to-parent and parent-to-child violence often occur simultaneously and are especially prevalent within households that suffer from social and environmental stressors. Sibling violence and its relationship to these other forms of familial violence has received considerably less attention, largely related to the widely held belief that sibling violence is natural, especially for boys. Using the Scale of Negative Family Interactions (SNFI), parent-to-child and sibling-to-sibling violence is investigated. Specifically, the relationship between participants' gender and sexual identities and their reports of familial violence are explored to better understand participants' gendered and sexed experiences. Data suggest that gender and sexual minorities may have a unique experience of familial violence, although further research is needed in this area.

  8. Development and Validation of the ADAS Scale and Prediction of Attitudes Toward Affective-Sexual Diversity Among Spanish Secondary Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido-Hernansaiz, Helena; Martín-Fernández, Manuel; Castaño-Torrijos, Aida; Cuevas, Isabel

    2018-01-01

    Violence against non-heterosexual adolescents in educational contexts remains a worrying reality, but no adequate attitudes toward affective-sexual diversity (AtASD) measure exists for Spanish adolescent students. We developed a 27-item scale including cognitive, affective, and behavioral aspects, which was completed by 696 secondary school students from the Madrid area. Factor analyses suggested a unidimensional model, Cronbach's alpha indicated excellent scale scores reliability, and item calibration under the item response theory framework showed that the scale is especially informative for homophobic attitudes. A hierarchical multiple regression analysis showed that variables traditionally related to AtASD (gender, age, religion, nationality, perceived parental/peer attitudes, direct contact with LGB people) also were so in our sample. Moreover, interest in sexuality topics and perceived center's efforts to provide AtASD education were related to better AtASD. Our scale was reliable and valid, and it may also prove useful in efforts to detect those students with homophobic attitudes and to guide interventions.

  9. Contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editor IJRED

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available International Journal of Renewable Energy Development www.ijred.com Volume 1             Number 3            October 2012                ISSN 2252- 4940   CONTENTS OF ARTICLES page Design and Economic Analysis of a Photovoltaic System: A Case Study 65-73 C.O.C. Oko , E.O. Diemuodeke, N.F. Omunakwe, and E. Nnamdi     Development of Formaldehyde Adsorption using Modified Activated Carbon – A Review 75-80 W.D.P Rengga , M. Sudibandriyo and M. Nasikin     Process Optimization for Ethyl Ester Production in Fixed Bed Reactor Using Calcium Oxide Impregnated Palm Shell Activated Carbon (CaO/PSAC 81-86 A. Buasri , B. Ksapabutr, M. Panapoy and N. Chaiyut     Wind Resource Assessment in Abadan Airport in Iran 87-97 Mojtaba Nedaei       The Energy Processing by Power Electronics and its Impact on Power Quality 99-105 J. E. Rocha and B. W. D. C. Sanchez       First Aspect of Conventional Power System Assessment for High Wind Power Plants Penetration 107-113 A. Merzic , M. Music, and M. Rascic   Experimental Study on the Production of Karanja Oil Methyl Ester and Its Effect on Diesel Engine 115-122 N. Shrivastava,  , S.N. Varma and M. Pandey  

  10. Normal, Problematic and Compulsive Consumption of Sexually Explicit Media: Clinical Findings using the Compulsive Pornography Consumption (CPC) Scale among Men who have Sex with Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosser, B. R. Simon; Noor, Syed WB; Iantaffi, Alex

    2015-01-01

    To assess problematic sexually explicit media (SEM) consumption, and to identify clinically meaningful cut-off points, we examined clinical correlates using the new Compulsive Pornography Consumption (CPC) scale among 1165 participating MSM. Building on scale practices in measuring compulsive sexual behavior, two cut-off points were identified. While most (76-80%) MSM do not report compulsive symptoms, about 16-20% report levels of problematic SEM consumption, including 7% with extreme scores consistent with DSM criteria for compulsive disorders. Demographic, sexual, and HIV risk differences were identified between the three groups. Researchers and clinicians are encouraged to consider using the CPC scale for comprehensive assessment of compulsive sexual behavior. PMID:26167109

  11. Farm scale application of EMI and FDR sensors to measuring and mapping soil water content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rallo, Giovanni; Provenzano, Giuseppe

    2017-04-01

    Soil water content (SWC) controls most water exchange processes within and between the soil-plants-atmosphere continuum and can therefore be considered as a practical variable for irrigation farmer choices. A better knowledge of spatial SWC patterns could improve farmer's awareness about critical crop water status conditions and enhance their capacity to characterize their behavior at the field or farm scale. However, accurate soil moisture measurement across spatial and temporal scales is still a challenging task and, specifically at intermediate spatial (0.1-100 ha) and temporal (minutes to days) scales, a data gap remains that limits our understanding over reliability of the SWC spatial measurements and its practical applicability in irrigation scheduling. In this work we compare the integrated EM38 (Geonics Ltd. Canada) response, collected at different sensor positions above ground to that obtained by integrating the depth profile of volumetric SWC measured with Diviner 2000 (Sentek) in conjunction with the depth response function of the EM38 when operated in both horizontal and vertical dipole configurations. On a 1.0-ha Olive grove site in Sicliy (Italy), 200 data points were collected before and after irrigation or precipitation events following a systematic sampling grid with focused measurements around the tree. Inside two different zone of the field, characterized from different soil physical properties, two Diviner 2000 access tube (1.2 m) were installed and used for the EM38 calibration. After calibration, the work aimed to propose the combined use of the FDR and EMI sensors to measuring and mapping root zone soil water content. We found strong correlations (R2 = 0.66) between Diviner 2000 SWC averaged to a depth of 1.2 m and ECa from an EM38 held in the vertical mode above the soil surface. The site-specific relationship between FDR-based SWC and ECa was linear for the purposes of estimating SWC over the explored range of ECa monitored at field levels

  12. Factorial validation of the Attitudes toward Women Scale for Adolescents (AWSA in assessing sexual behaviour patterns in Bolivian and Ecuadorian adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Jaruseviciene

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adolescents’ health is greatly influenced by social determinants, including gender norms. Although research has shown that there is an association between gender attitudes and adolescents’ sexual behaviour, few studies have assessed this relationship carefully. The Attitudes toward Women Scale for Adolescents (AWSA is widely used to assess gender attitudes among adolescents; however, to our knowledge it has not been applied in Latin America. Objective: To apply AWSA in Latin America for the first time, to perform a factorial validation of this scale and to assess the relationship of gender attitudes and sexual behaviour in Bolivian and Ecuadorian adolescents. Design: This cross-sectional study was carried out in 2011 among 14–18 year olds in 20 high schools in Cochabamba (Bolivia and six in Cuenca (Ecuador as a part of a larger project. Schools were purposively selected. A Spanish version of the 12-item AWSA was employed for this study. The assessed aspects of adolescent sexual behaviour were: reported sexual intercourse, reported positive experience during last sexual intercourse and reported current use of contraception. The psychometric properties of AWSA were investigated, and both explanatory and confirmatory factorial analyses were performed. Results: The number of questionnaires included in the analysis was 3,518 in Bolivia and 2,401 in Ecuador. A factorial analysis of AWSA resulted in three factors: power dimension (PD, equality dimension (ED and behavioural dimension (BD. ED showed the highest correlates with adolescent sexual behaviour. Higher scores of this dimension were associated with a more positive experience of sexual relationships, a higher current use of modern contraception and greater sexual activity among girls. Conclusions: This study revealed a three-factorial structure of AWSA and demonstrated that by employing factors, the sensitivity of AWSA increases as compared to using the scale as a whole to

  13. Factorial validation of the Attitudes toward Women Scale for Adolescents (AWSA) in assessing sexual behaviour patterns in Bolivian and Ecuadorian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaruseviciene, Lina; De Meyer, Sara; Decat, Peter; Zaborskis, Apolinaras; Degomme, Olivier; Rojas, Mildrett; Arnold Hagens, Salazar; Auquilla, Nancy; Vega, Bernardo; Gorter, Anna C; Orozco, Miguel; Lazarus, Jeffrey V

    2014-01-01

    Adolescents' health is greatly influenced by social determinants, including gender norms. Although research has shown that there is an association between gender attitudes and adolescents' sexual behaviour, few studies have assessed this relationship carefully. The Attitudes toward Women Scale for Adolescents (AWSA) is widely used to assess gender attitudes among adolescents; however, to our knowledge it has not been applied in Latin America. To apply AWSA in Latin America for the first time, to perform a factorial validation of this scale and to assess the relationship of gender attitudes and sexual behaviour in Bolivian and Ecuadorian adolescents. This cross-sectional study was carried out in 2011 among 14-18 year olds in 20 high schools in Cochabamba (Bolivia) and six in Cuenca (Ecuador) as a part of a larger project. Schools were purposively selected. A Spanish version of the 12-item AWSA was employed for this study. The assessed aspects of adolescent sexual behaviour were: reported sexual intercourse, reported positive experience during last sexual intercourse and reported current use of contraception. The psychometric properties of AWSA were investigated, and both explanatory and confirmatory factorial analyses were performed. The number of questionnaires included in the analysis was 3,518 in Bolivia and 2,401 in Ecuador. A factorial analysis of AWSA resulted in three factors: power dimension (PD), equality dimension (ED) and behavioural dimension (BD). ED showed the highest correlates with adolescent sexual behaviour. Higher scores of this dimension were associated with a more positive experience of sexual relationships, a higher current use of modern contraception and greater sexual activity among girls. This study revealed a three-factorial structure of AWSA and demonstrated that by employing factors, the sensitivity of AWSA increases as compared to using the scale as a whole to assess sexual behaviour. This could have important implications for future

  14. Stereotype content model explains prejudice for an envied outgroup: Scale of anti-Asian American Stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Monica H; Kwan, Virginia S Y; Cheung, Anna; Fiske, Susan T

    2005-01-01

    The Stereotype Content Model hypothesizes anti-Asian American stereotypes differentiating two dimensions: (excessive) competence and (deficient) sociability. The Scale of Anti-Asian American Stereotypes (SAAAS) shows this envious mixed prejudice in six studies. Study 1 began with 131 racial attitude items. Studies 2 and 3 tested 684 respondents on a focused 25-item version. Studies 4 and 5 tested the final 25-item SAAAS on 222 respondents at three campuses; scores predicted outgroup friendships, cultural experiences, and (over)estimated campus presence. Study 6 showed that allegedly low sociability, rather than excessively high competence, drives rejection of Asian Americans, consistent with system justification theory. The SAAAS demonstrates mixed, envious anti-Asian American prejudice, contrasting with more-often-studied contemptuous racial prejudices (i.e., against Blacks).

  15. Internet Sexualities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Döring, Nicola

    The term “internet sexuality” (or OSA, online sexual activities) refers to sexual-related content and activities observable on the internet (cf. Adams, Oye, & Parker, 2003; Cooper, McLoughlin, & Campbell, 2000; Leiblum & Döring, 2002). It designates a variety of sexual phenomena (e.g., pornography, sex education, sexual contacts) related to a wide spectrum of online services and applications (e.g., websites, online chat rooms, peer-to-peer networks). If an even broader range of computer networks - such as the Usenet or bulletin board systems - is included in this extensional definition, one speaks of “online sexuality” or “cybersexuality.”

  16. Content and cultural validity in the development of the Indigenous Play Partner Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dender, Alma M; Stagnitti, Karen E

    2017-08-01

    Culturally relevant assessments of Australian Indigenous children's social pretend play do not exist. This study investigated the content validity and cultural validity of the Indigenous Play Partner Scale (I-PPS). Six pairs of children (i.e. 12 children) aged four-six years from a remote Australian town were videoed playing in pairs, and 14 community elders and mothers participated across three focus groups. The social interactions between the children were transcribed from the videos. Nineteen verbs, grouped into five categories of social interaction, described the social interactions between the pairs of children. The descriptions of the social interaction verbs were presented to the community elders and mothers in a focus group. The themes from the focus groups were 'background of Indigenous understanding of play' and 'proposed social interaction verbs'. The first theme reflected community collaboration, children playing in multi-aged groups and the role of older children within the play. Guided by the focus group discussion, the videos were re-analysed and 20 social interaction verbs were described that reflected the cultural context of play. The content and cultural validity of the I-PPS was established through community consultation. Twenty social interaction verbs, which form the basis of the items of the I-PPS, reflected Indigenous cultural values of being non-judgemental of Indigenous children's social interactions during pretend play. Culturally relevant assessments for Australian Indigenous children do not disadvantage this population group and are essential for practice in occupational therapy. © 2017 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  17. Examining the Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Identity Scale Among Members of an Alternative Sexuality Special Interest Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Robert J; Golom, Frank D; Gemberling, Tess M; Trost, Kristen; Lewis, Robin; Wright, Susan

    2018-05-01

    The present study contributes to a growing body of literature developing psychometrically and theoretically grounded measures of sexual orientation minority identity. We tested psychometric properties and construct validity of a 27-item measure, the Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Identity Scale (LGBIS). The sample consisted of 475 adult (178 male, 237 female, 16 male-to-female, 14 female-to-male, and 30 gender queer persons) members of a special interest group, the National Coalition for Sexual Freedom. Participants completed a health needs questionnaire. Prominent findings included (1) confirmatory factor-analytic, internal consistency, and inter-correlation patterns support two LGBIS factor structures; (2) men, compared primarily to women, reported elevated scores on Acceptance Concerns, Concealment Motivation, Difficulty Process, and Negative Identity; (3) queer-identifying persons tended to report low Concealment Motivation, and high Identity Affirmation and Identity Centrality scores; (4) experimenting/fluid-identifying individuals tended toward higher Identity Uncertainty and Negative Identity, and lower Identity Centrality scores; (5) LGB community involvement was negatively associated with Concealment Motivation, Identity Uncertainty, and Negative Identity, and positively associated with Identity Superiority, Identity Affirmation, and Identity Centrality scores; and (6) Acceptance Concerns, Identity Uncertainty, and Internalized Homonegativity displayed significant positive associations with such mental health symptoms as general anxiety and posttraumatic stress. The LGBIS represents a useful approach to evaluating sexual orientation minority identity. Implications for identity theory, research, and practice are provided.

  18. Effect of water purification process in radioactive content: analysis on small scale purification plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez del Rio, H.; Quiroga S, J. C.; Davila R, J. I.; Mireles G, F.

    2009-10-01

    Water from small scale purification plants is a low cost alternative for consumers in comparison to the bottled commercial presentations. Because of its low cost per liter, the consumption of this product has increased in recent years, stimulating in turn the installation of purification systems for these small businesses. The purpose of this study was to estimate the efficiency of small scale purification systems located in the cities of Zacatecas and Guadalupe, Zacatecas, to reduce the radioactive content of water. It was measured the total alpha and beta activity in water samples of entry and exit to process, through the liquid scintillation technique. In general it was observed that the process is more efficient in removing alpha that beta activity. The fraction of total alpha activity removed varied between 27 and 100%, while between 0 and 77% of the total beta activity was removed by the analyzed plants. In all cases, the total radioactivity level was lower than the maximum permissible value settled by the official mexican standard for drinking water. (Author)

  19. Spatio-temporal variability of soil water content on the local scale in a Mediterranean mountain area (Vallcebre, North Eastern Spain). How different spatio-temporal scales reflect mean soil water content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Antonio J.; Latron, Jérôme; Rubio, Carles M.; Gallart, Francesc; Llorens, Pilar

    2014-08-01

    As a result of complex human-land interactions and topographic variability, many Mediterranean mountain catchments are covered by agricultural terraces that have locally modified the soil water content dynamic. Understanding these local-scale dynamics helps us grasp better how hydrology behaves on the catchment scale. Thus, this study examined soil water content variability in the upper 30 cm of the soil on a Mediterranean abandoned terrace in north-east Spain. Using a dataset of high spatial (regular grid of 128 automatic TDR probes at 2.5 m intervals) and temporal (20-min time step) resolution, gathered throughout a 84-day period, the spatio-temporal variability of soil water content at the local scale and the way that different spatio-temporal scales reflect the mean soil water content were investigated. Soil water content spatial variability and its relation to wetness conditions were examined, along with the spatial structuring of the soil water content within the terrace. Then, the ability of single probes and of different combinations of spatial measurements (transects and grids) to provide a good estimate of mean soil water content on the terrace scale was explored by means of temporal stability analyses. Finally, the effect of monitoring frequency on the magnitude of detectable daily soil water content variations was studied. Results showed that soil water content spatial variability followed a bimodal pattern of increasing absolute variability with increasing soil water content. In addition, a linear trend of decreasing soil water content as the distance from the inner part of the terrace increased was identified. Once this trend was subtracted, resulting semi-variograms suggested that the spatial resolution examined was too high to appreciate spatial structuring in the data. Thus, the spatial pattern should be considered as random. Of all the spatial designs tested, the 10 × 10 m mesh grid (9 probes) was considered the most suitable option for a good

  20. Sexuality generates diversity in the aflatoxin gene cluster: evidence on a global scale.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geromy G Moore

    Full Text Available Aflatoxins are produced by Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus in oil-rich seed and grain crops and are a serious problem in agriculture, with aflatoxin B₁ being the most carcinogenic natural compound known. Sexual reproduction in these species occurs between individuals belonging to different vegetative compatibility groups (VCGs. We examined natural genetic variation in 758 isolates of A. flavus, A. parasiticus and A. minisclerotigenes sampled from single peanut fields in the United States (Georgia, Africa (Benin, Argentina (Córdoba, Australia (Queensland and India (Karnataka. Analysis of DNA sequence variation across multiple intergenic regions in the aflatoxin gene clusters of A. flavus, A. parasiticus and A. minisclerotigenes revealed significant linkage disequilibrium (LD organized into distinct blocks that are conserved across different localities, suggesting that genetic recombination is nonrandom and a global occurrence. To assess the contributions of asexual and sexual reproduction to fixation and maintenance of toxin chemotype diversity in populations from each locality/species, we tested the null hypothesis of an equal number of MAT1-1 and MAT1-2 mating-type individuals, which is indicative of a sexually recombining population. All samples were clone-corrected using multi-locus sequence typing which associates closely with VCG. For both A. flavus and A. parasiticus, when the proportions of MAT1-1 and MAT1-2 were significantly different, there was more extensive LD in the aflatoxin cluster and populations were fixed for specific toxin chemotype classes, either the non-aflatoxigenic class in A. flavus or the B₁-dominant and G₁-dominant classes in A. parasiticus. A mating type ratio close to 1∶1 in A. flavus, A. parasiticus and A. minisclerotigenes was associated with higher recombination rates in the aflatoxin cluster and less pronounced chemotype differences in populations. This work shows that the reproductive nature of

  1. “It Was Only Harmless Banter!” The development and preliminary validation of the moral disengagement in sexual harassment scale.

    OpenAIRE

    Page, Thomas, E.; Pina, Afroditi; Giner-Sorolla, Roger

    2015-01-01

    Sexual harassment represents aggressive behavior that is often enacted instrumentally, in response to a threatened sense of masculinity and male identity. To date, however, theoretical attention to the social cognitive processes that regulate workplace harassment is scant. This article presents the development and preliminary validation of the Moral Disengagement in Sexual Harassment Scale (MDiSH); a self-report measure of moral disengagement in the context of hostile work environment harassm...

  2. Non-Invasive Electrical Impedance Tomography for Multi-Scale Detection of Liver Fat Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yuan; Abiri, Parinaz; Zhang, Shell; Chang, Chih-Chiang; Kaboodrangi, Amir H.; Li, Rongsong; Sahib, Ashish K.; Bui, Alex; Kumar, Rajesh; Woo, Mary; Li, Zhaoping; Packard, René R. Sevag; Tai, Yu-Chong; Hsiai, Tzung K.

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: Obesity is associated with an increased risk of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). While Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a non-invasive gold standard to detect fatty liver, we demonstrate a low-cost and portable electrical impedance tomography (EIT) approach with circumferential abdominal electrodes for liver conductivity measurements. Methods and Results: A finite element model (FEM) was established to simulate decremental liver conductivity in response to incremental liver lipid content. To validate the FEM simulation, we performed EIT imaging on an ex vivo porcine liver in a non-conductive tank with 32 circumferentially-embedded electrodes, demonstrating a high-resolution output given a priori information on location and geometry. To further examine EIT capacity in fatty liver detection, we performed EIT measurements in age- and gender-matched New Zealand White rabbits (3 on normal, 3 on high-fat diets). Liver conductivity values were significantly distinct following the high-fat diet (p = 0.003 vs. normal diet, n=3), accompanied by histopathological evidence of hepatic fat accumulation. We further assessed EIT imaging in human subjects with MRI quantification for fat volume fraction based on Dixon procedures, demonstrating average liver conductivity of 0.331 S/m for subjects with low Body-Mass Index (BMI 25 kg/m²). Conclusion: We provide both the theoretical and experimental framework for a multi-scale EIT strategy to detect liver lipid content. Our preliminary studies pave the way to enhance the spatial resolution of EIT as a marker for fatty liver disease and metabolic syndrome. PMID:29556346

  3. [Validation of a scale of sexuality (interests, emotions, relationships: IERS) in prime adolescence (12 to 15 years)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtois, R; Potard, C; Réveillère, C; Moltrecht, B

    2011-02-01

    conducted according to gender and age. There is no significant difference for "Going out with someone" between boys and girls. On the other hand, there is a difference between "Giving priority to love", which is more important for girls (Psexual relations", more important for boys (Psexual relations" (only for boys (psexuality in prime adolescence that presents good psychometric qualities. It was carried out on a larger and more representative sample of this period than the initial study, although essentially finding the same results as previously. Thus, the use of this scale, coupled or not with the individual analysis of the items which make it up, could allow us to understand sexuality in prime adolescence in three significant dimensions of psychosexual development, as well as regarding risky sexuality, i.e., an excessive interest in genital sexuality, behavioral involvement and precocious sexual relations or an absence of feelings. Copyright © 2010 L'Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Landscape-scale variation in canopy water content of giant sequoias during drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz-Kagan, Tarin; Vaughn, Nicolas R.; Martin, Roberta E.; Brodrick, Philip G.; Stephenson, Nathan L.; Das, Adrian; Nydick, Koren R.; Asner, Gregory P.

    2018-01-01

    Recent drought (2012–2016) caused unprecedented foliage dieback in giant sequoias (Sequoiadendron giganteum), a species endemic to the western slope of the southern Sierra Nevada in central California. As part of an effort to understand and map sequoia response to droughts, we studied the patterns of remotely sensed canopy water content (CWC), both within and among sequoia groves in two successive years during the drought period (2015 and 2016). Our aims were: (1) to quantify giant sequoia responses to severe drought stress at a landscape scale using CWC as an indicator of crown foliage status, and (2) to estimate the effect of environmental correlates that mediate CWC change within and among giant sequoia groves. We utilized airborne high fidelity imaging spectroscopy (HiFIS) and light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data from the Carnegie Airborne Observatory to assess giant sequoia foliage status during 2015 and 2016 of the 2012–2016 droughts. A series of statistical models were generated to classify giant sequoias and to map their location in Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks (SEKI) and vicinity. We explored the environmental correlates and the spatial patterns of CWC change at the landscape scale. The mapped CWC was highly variable throughout the landscape during the two observation years, and proved to be most closely related to geological substrates, topography, and site-specific water balance. While there was an overall net gain in sequoia CWC between 2015 and 2016, certain locations (lower elevations, steeper slopes, areas more distant from surface water sources, and areas with greater climate water deficit) showed CWC losses. In addition, we found greater CWC loss in shorter sequoias and those growing in areas with lower sequoia stem densities. Our results suggest that CWC change indicates sequoia response to droughts across landscapes. Long-term monitoring of giant sequoia CWC will likely be useful for modeling and predicting their population

  5. How unusual are the contents of paraphilias? Paraphilia-associated sexual arousal patterns in a community-based sample of men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlers, Christoph Joseph; Schaefer, Gerard Alfons; Mundt, Ingrid Annette; Roll, Stephanie; Englert, Heike; Willich, Stefan N; Beier, Klaus Michael

    2011-05-01

    This is a report of a cross-sectional study on paraphilia-associated sexual arousal patterns (PASAP) among men in a metropolitan city in Germany, EU. To determine the prevalence of PASAP during sexual fantasies, fantasies accompanying masturbation, and real-life sociosexual behavior. In a cross-sectional study, self-reported sexual history data were collected by questionnaire from 367 volunteers recruited from a community sample of 1,915 men aged 40-79 years. The Derogatis Symptom Checklist-Revised (SCL-90-R) and the Life Satisfaction Questionnaire (LSQ; German original, Fragebogen zur Lebenszufriedenheit, [FLZ]) were administered to obtain a general subjective health measure and a measure of general as well as sex life satisfaction. The Questionnaire on Sexual Experiences and Behaviour was administered to comprehensively assess all relevant sexo-medical data. Results.  The percent of men that reported at least one PASAP was 62.4%. In 1.7% of cases, PASAP were reported to have caused distress. The presence of PASAP was associated with a higher likelihood of being single (odds ratio [OR] 2.6; 95%; confidence interval [CI] 1.047-6.640), masturbating at least once per week (OR 4.4; 95%; CI 1.773-10.914), or having a low general subjective health score (OR 11.9; 95%; CI 2.601-54.553). Pedophilic PASAP in sexual fantasies and in real-life sociosexual behavior was reported by 9.5% and 3.8% of participants, respectively. The findings suggest that paraphilia-related experience can not be regarded as unusual from a normative perspective. At the same time, many men experience PASAP without accompanying problem awareness or distress, even when PASAP contents are associated with potentially causing harm to others. In view of the relevance for sex life and relationship satisfaction, presence of PASAP should be assessed in all sexual medicine consultations. Future research should focus on conditions in which PASAP reach clinical significance in the sense of mental disorders.

  6. Monitoring Landscape Scale Soil Water Content with Cosmic-Ray Neutron Sensors: Validation and Calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahbi, Ammar; Avery, William A.; Dercon, Gerd; Heng, Lee; Weltin, Georg; Franz, Trenton E.; Strauss, Peter; Oismueller, Markus; Desilets, Darin

    2017-01-01

    Increasing populations growth combined with climate change are putting pressure on water resources and agricultural systems around the world. The need for effective water management strategies designed to maximize water use efficiency has made access to soil water content (SWC) information crucial to the global community. This work builds upon ongoing research that began in December 2013 in which a stationary Cosmic-Ray Neutron Sensor (CRNS) was used to monitor SWC within an agricultural system located in north central Austria. Past work at this study site at Petzenkirchen, Austria (100 km west of Vienna) has focused on the calibration and validation of the CRNS technology, and has shown the CRNS to reliably estimate SWC on a large scale (circle with radius of cca. 250 m) when compared to other methods of estimating SWC. This was determined via comparisons of insitu soil sampling, time domain reflectometry (TDR), and time domain transmissivity (TDT) of SWC with estimates of SWC determined from the CRNS. However, questions remain regarding the effective use of the CRNS technology.

  7. Revealing the structure and dust content of debris disks on solar systems scales with GPI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchene, Gaspard; Fitzgerald, Michael P.; Kalas, Paul; Graham, James R.; Arriaga, Pauline; Bruzzone, Sebastian; Chen, Christine; Dawson, Rebekah Ilene; Dong, Ruobing; Draper, Zachary; Esposito, Thomas; Follette, Katherine; Hung, Li-Wei; Lawler, Samantha; Metchev, Stanimir; Millar-Blanchaer, Max; Murray-Clay, Ruth; Perrin, Marshall D.; Rameau, Julien; Wang, Jason; Wolff, Schuyler; Macintosh, Bruce; GPIES Team

    2016-01-01

    High contrast scattered light images offer the best prospect to assess the detailed geometry and structure of dusty debris disks. In turn, such images can yield profound insight on the architecture of the underlying planetary system as dust grains respond to the gravitational pull of planetary bodies. A new generation of extreme adaptive optics systems now enables an unprecedented exploration of circumstellar disks on solar system scales. Here we review the new science derived from over a dozen debris disks imaged with the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) as part of the GPI Exoplanet Survey (GPIES). In addition to its exquisite imaging capability, GPI's polarimetric mode provides invaluable insight on the dust content of each disk, in most cases for the very first time. These early results typically reveal narrow belts of material with evacuated regions roughly 50-100 AU in radius, subtle asymmetries in structure and high degree of linear polarization. We will provide an overview of the disk observations made during the GPIES campaign to date and will discuss in more detail some of the most remarkable systems.This work is supported by grants NSF AST-0909188, -1411868, -1413718; NASA NNX-15AD95G, -14AJ80G, -11AD21G; and the NExSS research network.

  8. Development and validation of the scale of knowledge, comfort and attitudes of physiotherapy students towards human sexuality (SKCAPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla Geraldine Wittkopf

    Full Text Available Introduction Recent studies with Physiotherapy students pointed out for attitudes and conflicting perceptions on their learning process during the phase that precedes the clinical practice. One of those aspects is the human sexuality that appears in the close physical contact that demands Physiotherapists professional practices. Objective To build up the first educational/research instrument that evaluates the knowledge, the comfort and the attitudes of Physiotherapy undergraduate students (SKCAPS. Materials and methods From the literature we extracted three dimensions: knowledge, comfort and attitudes. Initially 50 items were created distributed in the three dimensions that went under the content evaluation, 47 items survived from this process and integrate the first version of SKCAPS. In empiric terms the intern coherence and the reliability of the instrument were tested in 248 students. Results The exploratory factorial analysis carried 37 items in 4 factors that explain 68% of the total variance of the answers of the subjects and that confirmed the proposed dimensions. The dimension comfort became separated in comfort and discomfort. The SKCAPS presented good reliability in terms of intern consistence alpha 0.861. Finally, the instrument was administered to 30 Physiotherapy students for evaluation of clarity following the exclusion of two items that resulted in averages below 8.5. Conclusions With the aim of improve the teaching/learning process, we propose the SKCAPS as the first worth and reliable instrument to evaluate the knowledge, the comfort, the discomfort and the attitudes regard of human sexuality among Physiotherapy students.

  9. Textbook Sexual Inadequacy? A Review of Sexuality Texts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goettsch, Stephen L.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews eight current human sexuality textbooks for both their general organization and substantive content. Addresses specifically the content areas of sexual response cycle; sexual disfunction; acquaintance rape; AIDS and sexually transmitted diseases; extramarital sex; abortion; homosexuality; and pornography. Identifies as a recurring fault…

  10. Determinants of subjective experience of sexual arousal in women: feedback from genital arousal and erotic stimulus content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laan, E.; Everaerd, W.; van der Velde, J.; Geer, J. H.

    1995-01-01

    Sixty-two women participated in a study designed to explore the association between genital and subjective sexual arousal. Four stimulus conditions were created, designed to evoke differential patterns of genital arousal over time. Subjects were instructed to report sensations in their genitalia

  11. Media Portrayals of Love, Marriage & Sexuality for Child Audiences: A Select Content Analysis of Walt Disney Animated Family Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junn, Ellen N.

    This study examined the portrayal of love, marriage, and sexuality in 11 romantic and nonromantic Disney animated films. Results showed that four out of five of the nonromantic films had male leads, with males occupying significantly more screen time than females. Half of the romantic films had female leads, who occupied significantly more screen…

  12. Queering Sex Education: Young Adult Literature with LGBT Content as Complementary Sources of Sex and Sexuality Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittner, Robert

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the nature of young adult texts as complementary sources of informal queer sex and sexuality education, along with a close reading of a sample of this young adult (YA) literature. LGBT teens are often left out of discussions in sex education classrooms in the United States because of discriminatory curricula, ignorance on the…

  13. Development and Validation of a Scale to Measure Adolescent Sexual and Reproductive Health Stigma: Results From Young Women in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Kelli Stidham; Manu, Abubakar; Morhe, Emmanuel; Harris, Lisa H.; Loll, Dana; Ela, Elizabeth; Kolenic, Giselle; Dozier, Jessica L.; Challa, Sneha; Zochowski, Melissa K.; Boakye, Andrew; Adanu, Richard; Dalton, Vanessa K.

    2018-01-01

    Young women’s experiences with sexual and reproductive health (SRH) stigma may contribute to unintended pregnancy. Thus, stigma interventions and rigorous measures to assess their impact are needed. Based on formative work, we generated a pool of 51 items on perceived stigma around different dimensions of adolescent SRH and family planning (sex, contraception, pregnancy, child-bearing, abortion). We tested items in a survey study of 1,080 women ages 15 to 24 recruited from schools, health facilities, and universities in Ghana. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) identified the most conceptually and statistically relevant scale, and multivariable regression established construct validity via associations between stigma and contraceptive use. CFA provided strong support for our hypothesized Adolescent SRH Stigma Scale (chi-square p value stigma (six items), enacted stigma (seven items), and stigmatizing lay attitudes (seven items). The scale demonstrated good internal consistency (α = 0.74) and strong subscale correlations (α = 0.82 to 0.93). Higher SRH stigma scores were inversely associated with ever having used modern contraception (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.96, confidence interval [CI] = 0.94 to 0.99, p value = 0.006). A valid, reliable instrument for assessing SRH stigma and its impact on family planning, the Adolescent SRH Stigma Scale can inform and evaluate interventions to reduce/manage stigma and foster resilience among young women in Africa and beyond. PMID:28266874

  14. Development and psychometric evaluation of the Premarital Sexual Behavior Assessment Scale for Young Women (PSAS-YW): an exploratory mixed method study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani, Azam; Merghati-Khoei, Effat; Moghadam-Banaem, Lida; Hajizadeh, Ebrahim; Hamdieh, Mostafa; Montazeri, Ali

    2014-06-13

    Premarital sexual behaviors are important issue for women's health. The present study was designed to develop and examine the psychometric properties of a scale in order to identify young women who are at greater risk of premarital sexual behavior. This was an exploratory mixed method investigation. Indeed, the study was conducted in two phases. In the first phase, qualitative methods (focus group discussion and individual interview) were applied to generate items and develop the questionnaire. In the second phase, psychometric properties (validity and reliability) of the questionnaire were assessed. In the first phase an item pool containing 53 statements related to premarital sexual behavior was generated. In the second phase item reduction was applied and the final version of the questionnaire containing 26 items was developed. The psychometric properties of this final version were assessed and the results showed that the instrument has a good structure, and reliability. The results from exploratory factory analysis indicated a 5-factor solution for the instrument that jointly accounted for the 57.4% of variance observed. The Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the instrument was found to be 0.87. This study provided a valid and reliable scale to identify premarital sexual behavior in young women. Assessment of premarital sexual behavior might help to improve women's sexual abstinence.

  15. Consensuses and discrepancies of basin-scale ocean heat content changes in different ocean analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gongjie; Cheng, Lijing; Abraham, John; Li, Chongyin

    2018-04-01

    Inconsistent global/basin ocean heat content (OHC) changes were found in different ocean subsurface temperature analyses, especially in recent studies related to the slowdown in global surface temperature rise. This finding challenges the reliability of the ocean subsurface temperature analyses and motivates a more comprehensive inter-comparison between the analyses. Here we compare the OHC changes in three ocean analyses (Ishii, EN4 and IAP) to investigate the uncertainty in OHC in four major ocean basins from decadal to multi-decadal scales. First, all products show an increase of OHC since 1970 in each ocean basin revealing a robust warming, although the warming rates are not identical. The geographical patterns, the key modes and the vertical structure of OHC changes are consistent among the three datasets, implying that the main OHC variabilities can be robustly represented. However, large discrepancies are found in the percentage of basinal ocean heating related to the global ocean, with the largest differences in the Pacific and Southern Ocean. Meanwhile, we find a large discrepancy of ocean heat storage in different layers, especially within 300-700 m in the Pacific and Southern Oceans. Furthermore, the near surface analysis of Ishii and IAP are consistent with sea surface temperature (SST) products, but EN4 is found to underestimate the long-term trend. Compared with ocean heat storage derived from the atmospheric budget equation, all products show consistent seasonal cycles of OHC in the upper 1500 m especially during 2008 to 2012. Overall, our analyses further the understanding of the observed OHC variations, and we recommend a careful quantification of errors in the ocean analyses.

  16. A multi-scale convolutional neural network for phenotyping high-content cellular images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godinez, William J; Hossain, Imtiaz; Lazic, Stanley E; Davies, John W; Zhang, Xian

    2017-07-01

    Identifying phenotypes based on high-content cellular images is challenging. Conventional image analysis pipelines for phenotype identification comprise multiple independent steps, with each step requiring method customization and adjustment of multiple parameters. Here, we present an approach based on a multi-scale convolutional neural network (M-CNN) that classifies, in a single cohesive step, cellular images into phenotypes by using directly and solely the images' pixel intensity values. The only parameters in the approach are the weights of the neural network, which are automatically optimized based on training images. The approach requires no a priori knowledge or manual customization, and is applicable to single- or multi-channel images displaying single or multiple cells. We evaluated the classification performance of the approach on eight diverse benchmark datasets. The approach yielded overall a higher classification accuracy compared with state-of-the-art results, including those of other deep CNN architectures. In addition to using the network to simply obtain a yes-or-no prediction for a given phenotype, we use the probability outputs calculated by the network to quantitatively describe the phenotypes. This study shows that these probability values correlate with chemical treatment concentrations. This finding validates further our approach and enables chemical treatment potency estimation via CNNs. The network specifications and solver definitions are provided in Supplementary Software 1. william_jose.godinez_navarro@novartis.com or xian-1.zhang@novartis.com. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  17. Sexual Narcissism and the Perpetration of Sexual Aggression

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    McNulty, James K.

    2014-01-01

    Despite indirect evidence linking narcissism to sexual aggression, studies directly examining this relationship have yielded inconsistent results. Likely contributing to such inconsistencies, prior research has used global measures of narcissism not sensitive to whether the components of narcissism are activated in sexual versus non-sexual domains. The current research avoided such problems by using a measure of sexual narcissism to predict sexual aggression. In a sample of 299 men and women, Study 1 validated the Sexual Narcissism Scale, a new sexuality research instrument with four subscales—Sexual Exploitation, Sexual Entitlement, Low Sexual Empathy, and Sexual Skill. Then, in a sample of 378 men, Study 2 demonstrated that sexual narcissism was associated with reports of the frequency of sexual aggression, three specific types of sexual aggression (unwanted sexual contact, sexual coercion, and attempted/completed rape), and the likelihood of future sexual aggression. Notably, global narcissism was unrelated to all indices of sexual aggression when sexual narcissism was controlled. That sexual narcissism outperformed global assessments of narcissism to account for variance in sexual aggression suggests that future research may benefit by examining whether sexual narcissism and other sexual-situation-specific measurements of personality can similarly provide a more valid test of the association between personality and other sexual behaviors and outcomes (e.g., contraceptive use, infidelity, sexual satisfaction). PMID:19130204

  18. Sexual narcissism and the perpetration of sexual aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widman, Laura; McNulty, James K

    2010-08-01

    Despite indirect evidence linking narcissism to sexual aggression, studies directly examining this relationship have yielded inconsistent results. Likely contributing to such inconsistencies, prior research has used global measures of narcissism not sensitive to whether the components of narcissism are activated in sexual versus non-sexual domains. The current research avoided such problems by using a measure of sexual narcissism to predict sexual aggression. In a sample of 299 men and women, Study 1 validated the Sexual Narcissism Scale, a new sexuality research instrument with four subscales-Sexual Exploitation, Sexual Entitlement, Low Sexual Empathy, and Sexual Skill. Then, in a sample of 378 men, Study 2 demonstrated that sexual narcissism was associated with reports of the frequency of sexual aggression, three specific types of sexual aggression (unwanted sexual contact, sexual coercion, and attempted/completed rape), and the likelihood of future sexual aggression. Notably, global narcissism was unrelated to all indices of sexual aggression when sexual narcissism was controlled. That sexual narcissism outperformed global assessments of narcissism to account for variance in sexual aggression suggests that future research may benefit by examining whether sexual narcissism and other sexual-situation-specific measurements of personality can similarly provide a more valid test of the association between personality and other sexual behaviors and outcomes (e.g., contraceptive use, infidelity, sexual satisfaction).

  19. Robust spatialization of soil water content at the scale of an agricultural field using geophysical and geostatistical methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henine, Hocine; Tournebize, Julien; Laurent, Gourdol; Christophe, Hissler; Cournede, Paul-Henry; Clement, Remi

    2017-04-01

    Research on the Critical Zone (CZ) is a prerequisite for undertaking issues related to ecosystemic services that human societies rely on (nutrient cycles, water supply and quality). However, while the upper part of CZ (vegetation, soil, surface water) is readily accessible, knowledge of the subsurface remains limited, due to the point-scale character of conventional direct observations. While the potential for geophysical methods to overcome this limitation is recognized, the translation of the geophysical information into physical properties or states of interest remains a challenge (e.g. the translation of soil electrical resistivity into soil water content). In this study, we propose a geostatistical framework using the Bayesian Maximum Entropy (BME) approach to assimilate geophysical and point-scale data. We especially focus on the prediction of the spatial distribution of soil water content using (1) TDR point-scale measurements of soil water content, which are considered as accurate data, and (2) soil water content data derived from electrical resistivity measurements, which are uncertain data but spatially dense. We used a synthetic dataset obtained with a vertical 2D domain to evaluate the performance of this geostatistical approach. Spatio-temporal simulations of soil water content were carried out using Hydrus-software for different scenarios: homogeneous or heterogeneous hydraulic conductivity distribution, and continuous or punctual infiltration pattern. From the simulations of soil water content, conceptual soil resistivity models were built using a forward modeling approach and point sampling of water content values, vertically ranged, were done. These two datasets are similar to field measurements of soil electrical resistivity (using electrical resistivity tomography, ERT) and soil water content (using TDR probes) obtained at the Boissy-le-Chatel site, in Orgeval catchment (East of Paris, France). We then integrated them into a specialization

  20. Web-Scale Discovery Services Retrieve Relevant Results in Health Sciences Topics Including MEDLINE Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Margaret Stovold

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A Review of: Hanneke, R., & O’Brien, K. K. (2016. Comparison of three web-scale discovery services for health sciences research. Journal of the Medical Library Association, 104(2, 109-117. http://dx.doi.org/10.3163/1536-5050.104.2.004 Abstract Objective – To compare the results of health sciences search queries in three web-scale discovery (WSD services for relevance, duplicate detection, and retrieval of MEDLINE content. Design – Comparative evaluation and bibliometric study. Setting – Six university libraries in the United States of America. Subjects – Three commercial WSD services: Primo, Summon, and EBSCO Discovery Service (EDS. Methods – The authors collected data at six universities, including their own. They tested each of the three WSDs at two data collection sites. However, since one of the sites was using a legacy version of Summon that was due to be upgraded, data collected for Summon at this site were considered obsolete and excluded from the analysis. The authors generated three questions for each of six major health disciplines, then designed simple keyword searches to mimic typical student search behaviours. They captured the first 20 results from each query run at each test site, to represent the first “page” of results, giving a total of 2,086 total search results. These were independently assessed for relevance to the topic. Authors resolved disagreements by discussion, and calculated a kappa inter-observer score. They retained duplicate records within the results so that the duplicate detection by the WSDs could be compared. They assessed MEDLINE coverage by the WSDs in several ways. Using precise strategies to generate a relevant set of articles, they conducted one search from each of the six disciplines in PubMed so that they could compare retrieval of MEDLINE content. These results were cross-checked against the first 20 results from the corresponding query in the WSDs. To aid investigation of overall

  1. Development and Validation of a Scale to Measure Adolescent Sexual and Reproductive Health Stigma: Results From Young Women in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Kelli Stidham; Manu, Abubakar; Morhe, Emmanuel; Harris, Lisa H; Loll, Dana; Ela, Elizabeth; Kolenic, Giselle; Dozier, Jessica L; Challa, Sneha; Zochowski, Melissa K; Boakye, Andrew; Adanu, Richard; Dalton, Vanessa K

    2018-01-01

    Young women's experiences with sexual and reproductive health (SRH) stigma may contribute to unintended pregnancy. Thus, stigma interventions and rigorous measures to assess their impact are needed. Based on formative work, we generated a pool of 51 items on perceived stigma around different dimensions of adolescent SRH and family planning (sex, contraception, pregnancy, childbearing, abortion). We tested items in a survey study of 1,080 women ages 15 to 24 recruited from schools, health facilities, and universities in Ghana. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) identified the most conceptually and statistically relevant scale, and multivariable regression established construct validity via associations between stigma and contraceptive use. CFA provided strong support for our hypothesized Adolescent SRH Stigma Scale (chi-square p value < 0.001; root mean square error of approximation [RMSEA] = 0.07; standardized root mean square residual [SRMR] = 0.06). The final 20-item scale included three subscales: internalized stigma (six items), enacted stigma (seven items), and stigmatizing lay attitudes (seven items). The scale demonstrated good internal consistency (α = 0.74) and strong subscale correlations (α = 0.82 to 0.93). Higher SRH stigma scores were inversely associated with ever having used modern contraception (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.96, confidence interval [CI] = 0.94 to 0.99, p value = 0.006). A valid, reliable instrument for assessing SRH stigma and its impact on family planning, the Adolescent SRH Stigma Scale can inform and evaluate interventions to reduce/manage stigma and foster resilience among young women in Africa and beyond.

  2. Sexual Distress and Sexual Problems During Pregnancy: Associations With Sexual and Relationship Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannier, Sarah A; Rosen, Natalie O

    2017-03-01

    Sexual problems are common during pregnancy, but the proportion of pregnant women who experience sexual distress is unknown. In non-pregnant samples, sexual distress is associated with lower sexual and relationship satisfaction. To identify the proportion of women experiencing sexual distress during pregnancy and to compare the sexual and relationship satisfaction of women who report sexual distress during pregnancy with that of women without distress. Two-hundred sixty-one pregnant women completed a cross-sectional online survey. Women completed validated measurements of sexual functioning (Female Sexual Function Index; score sexual problem), sexual distress (Female Sexual Distress Scale; score ≥ 15 indicates clinically significant distress), sexual satisfaction (Global Measure of Sexual Satisfaction), and relationship satisfaction (Couples Satisfaction Index). Overall, 42% of women met the clinical cutoff for sexual distress. Of sexually active women (n = 230), 26% reported concurrent sexual problems and distress and 14% reported sexual distress in the absence of sexual problems. Sexual distress and/or problems in sexual functioning were linked to lower sexual and relationship satisfaction compared with pregnant women with lower sexual distress and fewer sexual problems. Sexual distress is common during pregnancy and associated with lower sexual and relationship satisfaction. Health care providers should ask pregnant women about feelings of sexual distress. Identifying pregnant women who experience sexual distress and referring them to appropriate resources could help minimize sexual and relationship problems during pregnancy. Vannier SA, Rosen NO. Sexual Distress and Sexual Problems During Pregnancy: Associations With Sexual and Relationship Satisfaction. J Sex Med 2017;14:387-395. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Profiles of Cyberpornography Use and Sexual Well-Being in Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaillancourt-Morel, Marie-Pier; Blais-Lecours, Sarah; Labadie, Chloé; Bergeron, Sophie; Sabourin, Stéphane; Godbout, Natacha

    2017-01-01

    Although findings concerning sexual outcomes associated with cyberpornography use are mixed, viewing explicit sexual content online is becoming a common activity for an increasing number of individuals. To investigate heterogeneity in cyberpornography-related sexual outcomes by examining a theoretically and clinically based model suggesting that individuals who spend time viewing online pornography form three distinct profiles (recreational, at-risk, and compulsive) and to examine whether these profiles were associated with sexual well-being, sex, and interpersonal context of pornography use. The present cluster-analytic study was conducted using a convenience sample of 830 adults who completed online self-reported measurements of cyberpornography use and sexual well-being, which included sexual satisfaction, compulsivity, avoidance, and dysfunction. Dimensions of cyberpornography use were assessed using the Cyber Pornography Use Inventory. Sexual well-being measurements included the Global Measure of Sexual Satisfaction, the Sexual Compulsivity Scale, the Sexual Avoidance Subscale, and the Arizona Sexual Experiences Scale. Cluster analyses indicated three distinct profiles: recreational (75.5%), highly distressed non-compulsive (12.7%), and compulsive (11.8%). Recreational users reported higher sexual satisfaction and lower sexual compulsivity, avoidance, and dysfunction, whereas users with a compulsive profile presented lower sexual satisfaction and dysfunction and higher sexual compulsivity and avoidance. Highly distressed less active users were sexually less satisfied and reported less sexual compulsivity and more sexual dysfunction and avoidance. A larger proportion of women and of dyadic users was found among recreational users, whereas solitary users were more likely to be in the highly distressed less active profile and men were more likely to be in the compulsive profile. This pattern of results confirms the existence of recreational and compulsive

  4. The Child PTSD Symptom Scale: Psychometric Properties in Female Adolescent Sexual Assault Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillihan, Seth J.; Aderka, Idan M.; Conklin, Phoebe H.; Capaldi, Sandra; Foa, Edna B.

    2013-01-01

    Traumatic experiences are common among youths and can lead to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In order to identify traumatized children who need PTSD treatment, instruments that can accurately and efficiently evaluate pediatric PTSD are needed. One such measure is the Child PTSD Symptom Scale (CPSS), which has been found to be a reliable and…

  5. Sexual dichroism and pigment localization in the wing scales of Pieris rapae butterflies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giraldo, M. A.; Stavenga, D. G.

    2007-01-01

    The beads in the wing scales of pierid butterflies play a crucially important role in wing coloration as shown by spectrophotometry and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The beads contain pterin pigments, which in Pieris rapae absorb predominantly in the ultraviolet (UV). SEM demonstrates that in

  6. A Qualitative Study on the Content Validity of the Social Capital Scales in the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanne Berthelsen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ II includes scales for measuring 'workplace social capital'. The overall aim of this article is to evaluate the content validity of the following scales: horizontal trust, vertical trust and justice based on data from cognitive interviews using a think-aloud procedure. Informants were selected to achieve variation in gender, age, region of residence, and occupation. A predetermined coding scheme was used to identify: 1 Perspective (reflection on behalf of oneself only or abstraction to a broader perspective, 2 Use of response options, 3 Contexts challenging the process of answering, and 4 Overall reflections included in the retrieval and judgement processes leading to an answer for each item. The results showed that 1 the intended shift from individual to a broader perspective worked for eight out of eleven items. 2 The response option balancing in the middle covered different meanings. Retrieval of information needed to answer constituted a problem in four out of eleven items. 3 Three contextually challenging situations were identified. 4 For most items the reflections corresponded well with the intention of the scales, though the items asking about withheld information caused more problems in answering and lower content validity compared to the other items of the scales. In general, the findings supported the content validity of the COPSOQ II measurement of workplace social capital as a group construct. The study opens for new insight into how concepts and questions are understood and answered among people coming from different occupations and organizational settings.

  7. Sexuality in Irish women with gynecologic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Vicki; Hegarty, Josephine; McCarthy, Geraldine

    2011-03-01

    To investigate sexual self-concept, sexual relationships, and sexual functioning, and the relationship between these and certain demographic variables of Irish women, following a diagnosis of gynecologic cancer. Descriptive, correlational. Outpatient gynecologic oncology clinic in a large university hospital in Southern Ireland. 106 women with a diagnosis of and treatment for various gynecologic cancers (cervical, ovarian, endometrial, and vulvar). The Body Image Scale, Sexual Esteem Scale, and Sexual Self-Schema Scale were administered to women a minimum of six weeks postdiagnosis of any form of gynecologic cancer to measure sexual self-concept; the Intimate Relationships Scale to measure sexual relationships; and the Arizona Sexual Experiences Scale to measure sexual functioning. Sexual self-concept, body image, sexual esteem, sexual self-schema, sexual relationships, and sexual functioning. Participants reported negative changes in relation to their sexual self-concept, sexual relationships, and sexual functioning. Participants reported negative changes in relation to all stages of the sexual response cycle. Gynecologic cancer has the potential to negatively affect a woman's sexual self-concept, sexual relationships, and sexual functioning. Sexuality is a multidimensional construct and must be measured in this way. Healthcare professionals must use a holistic approach when providing information and support to patients with gynecologic cancer. Information must be provided to women on how cancer and its treatment has the potential to affect their sexual self-concept, sexual relationships, and sexual functioning, including information on how to overcome these alterations.

  8. Evaluating the interpersonal content of the MMPI-2-RF Interpersonal Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayearst, Lindsay E; Sellbom, Martin; Trobst, Krista K; Bagby, R Michael

    2013-01-01

    Convergence between the MMPI-2 Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF; Ben-Porath & Tellegen, 2008) interpersonal scales and 2 interpersonal circumplex (IPC) measures was examined. University students (N = 405) completed the MMPI-2 and 2 IPC measures, the Interpersonal Adjectives Scales Revised Big Five Version (IASR-B5; Trapnell & Wiggins, 1990) and the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems Circumplex (IIP-C; Horowitz, Alden, Wiggins, & Pincus, 2000). Internal consistency was adequate for 3 of the 6 scales investigated. The majority of scales were located in their hypothesized locations, although magnitude of correlations was somewhat weaker than anticipated, partly owing to restricted range from using a healthy sample. The expected pattern of correlations that defines a circular matrix was demonstrated, lending support for the convergent and discriminant validity of the MMPI-2-RF interpersonal scales with respect to the assessment of interpersonal traits and problems.

  9. Intraspecific differences in lipid content of calanoid copepods across fine-scale depth ranges within the photic layer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Zarubin

    Full Text Available Copepods are among the most abundant and diverse groups of mesozooplankton in the world's oceans. Each species has a certain depth range within which different individuals (of the same life stage and sex are found. Lipids are accumulated in many calanoid copepods for energy storage and reproduction. Lipid content in some species increases with depth, however studies so far focused mostly on temperate and high-latitude seasonal vertically migrating copepods and compared lipid contents among individuals either from coarse layers or between diapausing, deep-dwelling copepods and individuals found in the photic, near-surface layer. Here we examined whether lipid contents of individual calanoid copepods of the same species, life stage/sex differ between finer depth layers within the upper water column of subtropical and Arctic seas. A total of 6 calanoid species were collected from samples taken at precise depths within the photic layer in both cold eutrophic and warm oligotrophic environments using SCUBA diving, MOCNESS and Multinet. Measurements of lipid content were obtained from digitized photographs of the collected individuals. The results revealed significant differences in lipid content across depth differences as small as 12-15 meters for Mecynocera clausi C5 and Ctenocalanus vanus C5 (Red Sea, Clausocalanus furcatus males and two clausocalanid C5s (Mediterranean Sea, and Calanus glacialis C5 (Arctic. We suggest two possible explanations for the differences in lipid content with depth on such a fine scale: predator avoidance and buoyancy.

  10. Mercury content in wetland rice soil and water of two different seasons at small-scale gold mine processing areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Sugianti

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to identify the impact of small-scale gold processing activities on mercury content in wetland rice soil and water during the rainy and first dry seasons in Central Lombok and West Lombok Districts. The method used for this study was survey method. Measurement of mercury levels in water samples was conducted at Agro Bogor Centre using SNI 6989.77: 2011 methods. The data was collected and processed in a simple statistic presented descriptively, in order to obtain information. Results of the study showed that mercury content soils in the rainy season exceeded the threshold of 0.005 ppm, while in the first dry season the mercury content in soil decreased, but it was still above the threshold value permitted. The contents of mercury in water samples in the rainy season and the first dry season were still at a safe point that was less than 0.05 ppm. The wetland rice soil and water had been polluted with mercury, although the mercury content in the water was still below the threshold, but the accumulation of mercury that could have been absorbed by the plants are of particular concerns. The decrease of mercury content in soil in dry season was due to lack of gold processing activities.

  11. Sexual Fantasy and Masturbation Among Asexual Individuals: An In-Depth Exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yule, Morag A; Brotto, Lori A; Gorzalka, Boris B

    2017-01-01

    Human asexuality is generally defined as a lack of sexual attraction. We used online questionnaires to investigate reasons for masturbation, and explored and compared the contents of sexual fantasies of asexual individuals (identified using the Asexual Identification Scale) with those of sexual individuals. A total of 351 asexual participants (292 women, 59 men) and 388 sexual participants (221 women, 167 men) participated. Asexual women were significantly less likely to masturbate than sexual women, sexual men, and asexual men. Asexual women were less likely to report masturbating for sexual pleasure or fun than their sexual counterparts, and asexual men were less likely to report masturbating for sexual pleasure than sexual men. Both asexual women and men were significantly more likely than sexual women and men to report that they had never had a sexual fantasy. Of those who have had a sexual fantasy, asexual women and men were significantly more likely to endorse the response "my fantasies do not involve other people" compared to sexual participants, and consistently scored each sexual fantasy on a questionnaire as being less sexually exciting than did sexual participants. When using an open-ended format, asexual participants were more likely to report having fantasies about sexual activities that did not involve themselves, and were less likely to fantasize about topics such as group sex, public sex, and having an affair. Interestingly, there was a large amount of overlap between sexual fantasies of asexual and sexual participants. Notably, both asexual and sexual participants (both men and women) were equally likely to fantasize about topics such as fetishes and BDSM.

  12. Determining the Feasibility, Content Validity, and Internal Consistency of a Newly Developed Care Coordination Scale for People with Brain Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian P. Johnson

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: With the increasing complexity of care, people with disabilities and supportive significant others (SSO must often coordinate key aspects of their own care, but no validated scale currently exists to comprehensively characterize the activities done to manage and coordinate their care. Method: This study aimed to improve the feasibility, acceptability, and content validity of the Care and Service Coordination and Management (CASCAM scale and to test its internal consistency. Questionnaire items were administered to 23 individuals with acquired brain injury and 17 SSO. Results: Respondents confirmed content validity and that the instrument addresses important care coordination and management issues. The internal consistency of care coordination domains for medical/ rehabilitative and independent living needs for people with brain injury and their SSO ranged from α = .774 to .945. Conclusion: Care coordination activities by persons with disabilities, including brain injury, and their SSO are multifaceted but feasibly measurable and should be assessed to improve care.

  13. The success factors of scaling-up Estonian sexual and reproductive health youth clinic network--from a grassroots initiative to a national programme 1991-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempers, Jari; Ketting, Evert; Chandra-Mouli, Venkatraman; Raudsepp, Triin

    2015-01-08

    A growing number of middle-income countries are scaling up youth-friendly sexual and reproductive health pilot projects to national level programmes. Yet, there are few case studies on successful national level scale-up of such programmes. Estonia is an excellent example of scale-up of a small grassroots adolescent sexual and reproductive health initiative to a national programme, which most likely contributed to improved adolescent sexual and reproductive health outcomes. This study; (1) documents the scale-up process of the Estonian youth clinic network 1991-2013, and (2) analyses factors that contributed to the successful scale-up. This research provides policy makers and programme managers with new insights to success factors of the scale-up, that can be used to support planning, implementation and scale-up of adolescent sexual and reproductive health programmes in other countries. Information on the scale-up process and success factors were collected by conducting a literature review and interviewing key stakeholders. The findings were analysed using the WHO-ExpandNet framework, which provides a step-by-step process approach for design, implementation and assessment of the results of scaling-up health innovations. The scale-up was divided into two main phases: (1) planning the scale-up strategy 1991-1995 and (2) managing the scaling-up 1996-2013. The planning phase analysed innovation, user organizations (youth clinics), environment and resource team (a national NGO and international assistance). The managing phase examines strategic choices, advocacy, organization, resource mobilization, monitoring and evaluation, strategic planning and management of the scale-up. The main factors that contributed to the successful scale-up in Estonia were: (1) favourable social and political climate, (2) clear demonstrated need for the adolescent services, (3) a national professional organization that advocated, coordinated and represented the youth clinics, (4) enthusiasm

  14. Sexual life and sexual wellness in individuals with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS) and Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser Syndrome (MRKHS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fliegner, Maike; Krupp, Kerstin; Brunner, Franziska; Rall, Katharina; Brucker, Sara Y; Briken, Peer; Richter-Appelt, Hertha

    2014-03-01

    Sexual wellness depends on a person's physical and psychological constitution. Complete Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome (CAIS) and Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser Syndrome (MRKHS) can compromise sexual well-being. To compare sexual well-being in CAIS and MRKHS using multiple measures: To assess sexual problems and perceived distress. To gain insight into participants' feelings of inadequacy in social and sexual situations, level of self-esteem and depression. To determine how these psychological factors relate to sexual (dys)function. To uncover what participants see as the source of their sexual problems. Data were collected using a paper-and-pencil questionnaire. Eleven individuals with CAIS and 49 with MRKHS with/without neovagina treatment were included. Rates of sexual dysfunctions, overall sexual function, feelings of inadequacy in social and sexual situations, self-esteem and depression scores were calculated. Categorizations were used to identify critical cases. Correlations between psychological variables and sexual function were computed. Sexually active subjects were compared with sexually not active participants. A qualitative content analysis was carried out to explore causes of sexual problems. An extended list of sexual problems based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed., text revision, by the American Psychiatric Association and related distress. Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI), German Questionnaire on Feelings of Inadequacy in Social and Sexual Situations (FUSS social scale, FUSS sexual scale), Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSE), Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) subscale depression. Open question on alleged causes of sexual problems. The results point to a far-reaching lack of sexual confidence and sexual satisfaction in CAIS. In MRKHS apprehension in sexual situations is a source of distress, but sexual problems seem to be more focused on issues of vaginal functioning. MRKHS women report being satisfied with their

  15. The Authoritarian Personality in Emerging Adulthood: Longitudinal Analysis Using Standardized Scales, Observer Ratings, and Content Coding of the Life Story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Bill E; Pratt, Michael W; Olsen, Janelle R; Alisat, Susan

    2016-04-01

    Three different methods (a standardized scale, an observer-based Q-sort, and content coding of narratives) were used to study the continuity of authoritarianism longitudinally in emerging and young adults. Authoritarianism was assessed in a Canadian sample (N = 92) of men and women at ages 19 and 32 with Altemeyer's (1996) Right-Wing Authoritarianism (RWA) Scale. In addition, components of the authoritarian personality were assessed at age 26 through Q-sort observer methods (Block, 2008) and at age 32 through content coding of life stories. Age 19 authoritarianism predicted the Q-sort and life story measures of authoritarianism. Two hierarchical regression analyses showed that the Q-sort and life story measures of authoritarianism also predicted the RWA scale at age 32 beyond educational level and parental status, and even after the inclusion of age 19 RWA. Differences and similarities in the pattern of correlates for the Q-sort and life story measures are discussed, including the overall lack of results for authoritarian aggression. Content in narratives may be the result of emerging adult authoritarianism and may serve to maintain levels of authoritarianism in young adulthood. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. A Fundamental Scale of Descriptions for Analyzing Information Content of Communication Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Febres

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The complexity of the description of a system is a function of the entropy of its symbolic description. Prior to computing the entropy of the system’s description, an observation scale has to be assumed. In texts written in artificial and natural languages, typical scales are binary, characters, and words. However, considering languages as structures built around certain preconceived set of symbols, like words or characters, limits the level of complexity that can be revealed analytically. This study introduces the notion of the fundamental description scale to analyze the essence of the structure of a language. The concept of Fundamental Scale is tested for English and musical instrument digital interface (MIDI music texts using an algorithm developed to split a text in a collection of sets of symbols that minimizes the observed entropy of the system. This Fundamental Scale reflects more details of the complexity of the language than using bits, characters or words. Results show that this Fundamental Scale allows to compare completely different languages, such as English and MIDI coded music regarding its structural entropy. This comparative power facilitates the study of the complexity of the structure of different communication systems.

  17. A New Method for Analyzing Content Validity Data Using Multidimensional Scaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xueming; Sireci, Stephen G.

    2013-01-01

    Validity evidence based on test content is of essential importance in educational testing. One source for such evidence is an alignment study, which helps evaluate the congruence between tested objectives and those specified in the curriculum. However, the results of an alignment study do not always sufficiently capture the degree to which a test…

  18. Source of Global Scale Variations in the Midday Vertical Content of Ionospheric Metal Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joiner, J.; Grebowsky, J. M.; Pesnell, W. D.; Aikin, A. C.; Goldberg, Richard A.

    1999-01-01

    An analysis of long baseline NIMBUS 7 SBUV (Solar Backscatter UV Spectrometer) observations of the latitudinal variation of the noontime vertical Mg' content above approx. 70 km have revealed seasonal, solar activity and magnetic activity dependencies in the Mg+ content. The distributions were categorized in terms of magnetic coordinates partially because transport processes lifting metallic ions from the main meteor ionization layer below 100 km up into the F- region and down again are controlled by electrodynamical processes. Alternatively, the Nimbus Mg+ distributions may simply be a result of ion/neutral chemistry changes resulting from atmospheric changes and not dynamics. In such a case magnetic control would not dominate the distributions. Using in situ satellite measurements of metal ions from the Atmosphere Explorer satellites in the region above the main meteor layer and published sounding rocket measurements of the main metallic ion layers, the effects of the dynamics on the vertical content are delineated. The consequences of atmospheric changes on the vertical content are explored by separating the Nimbus measurements in a geodetic frame of reference.

  19. Low gray scale values of computerized images of carotid plaques associated with increased levels of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and with increased plaque lipid content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønholdt, Marie-Louise M.; Nordestgaard, Børge; Weibe, Britt M.

    1997-01-01

    Relatioin between low gray scale values in computerized images of carotid plaques and 1) plasma levels of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and 2) plaque lipid content......Relatioin between low gray scale values in computerized images of carotid plaques and 1) plasma levels of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and 2) plaque lipid content...

  20. Tuning of fluorine content in graphene: towards large-scale production of stoichiometric fluorographene

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mazánek, V.; Jankovský, O.; Luxa, J.; Sedmidubský, D.; Janoušek, Zbyněk; Šembera, Filip; Mikulics, M.; Sofer, Z.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 32 (2015), s. 13646-13655 ISSN 2040-3364 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-09001S Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : graphite oxide * doped graphene * reduction Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 7.760, year: 2015 http://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlepdf/2015/nr/c5nr03243a

  1. Prediction of Fecal Nitrogen and Fecal Phosphorus Content for Lactating Dairy Cows in Large-scale Dairy Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    QU Qing-bo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available To facilitate efficient and sustainable manure management and reduce potential pollution, it's necessary for precise prediction of fecal nutrient content. The aim of this study is to build prediction models of fecal nitrogen and phosphorus content by the factors of dietary nutrient composition, days in milk, milk yield and body weight of Chinese Holstein lactating dairy cows. 20 kinds of dietary nutrient composition and 60 feces samples were collected from lactating dairy cows from 7 large-scale dairy farms in Tianjin City; The fecal nitrogen and phosphorus content were analyzed. The whole data set was divided into training data set and testing data set. The training data set, including 14 kinds of dietary nutrient composition and 48 feces samples, was used to develop prediction models. The relationship between fecal nitrogen or phosphorus content and dietary nutrient composition was illustrated by means of correlation and regression analysis using SAS software. The results showed that fecal nitrogen(FN content was highly positively correlated with organic matter intake(OMI and crude fat intake(CFi, and correlation coefficients were 0. 836 and 0. 705, respectively. Negative correlation coefficient was found between fecal phosphorus(FP content and body weight(BW, and the correlation coefficient was -0.525. Among different approaches to develop prediction models, the results indicated that determination coefficients of multiple linear regression equations were higher than those of simple linear regression equations. Specially, fecal nitrogen content was excellently predicted by milk yield(MY, days in milk(DIM, organic matter intake(OMI and nitrogen intake(NI, and the model was as follows:y=0.43+0.29×MY+0.02×DIM+0.92×OMI-13.01×NI (R2=0.96. Accordingly, the highest determination coefficient of prediction equation of FP content was 0.62, when body weight(BW, phosphorus intake(PI and nitrogen intake(NI were combined as predictors. The prediction

  2. Construct and content validity of the Turkish Birth Satisfaction Scale - Revised (T-BSS-R).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göncü Serhatlıoğlu, Seda; Karahan, Nazan; Hollins Martin, Caroline J; Martin, Colin R

    2018-03-19

    The Birth Satisfaction Scale - Revised (BSS-R) is a valid and reliable scale designed to assess women's experiences of labour and childbirth. To assess factor structure, validity, and reliability of the Turkish Birth Satisfaction Scale - Revised (T-BSS-R) using data collected from a Turkish population. Istanbul Ministry of Health Zeynep Kamil Women's and Children's Training and Research Hospital. A convenience sample of healthy child-bearing women (n = 120) who had experienced a spontaneous vertex delivery at full term. A survey was conducted post backtranslating the T-BSS-R, with survey data analysed using confirmatory factor analysis. Factor modelling found three subscales embedded in the T-BSS-R, which indicated a good model fit, χ 2 = 44.67, CFI = .94; RMSEA = .057; SRMR = .075. A Chi-square value of 1.33 also indicated a good fit. Means for the T-BSS-R subdimensions (1) Stress Experienced (T-BSS-SE-R) = 6.86 ± 3.10, (2) Women's Attributes (T-BSS-WA-R) = 2.84 ± 1.89, (3) Quality of Care (T-BSS-QC-R) = 10.69 ± 3.19 and total scale = 20.39 ± 5.98. The Cronbach alpha coefficient for total scale = 0.71 and for subdimensions T-BSS-SE-R = 0.55, T-BSS-WA-R = 0.44 and T-BSS-QC-R = -0.74. Data analysis determined that the T-BSS-R is a valid and reliable instrument to measure birth satisfaction in a population of Turkish women. The T-BSS-R is available for use from c.hollinsmartin@napier.ac.uk .

  3. Assessment of Sexual Desire for Clinical Trials of Women With Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder: Measures, Desire-Related Behavior, and Assessment of Clinical Significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyke, Robert E; Clayton, Anita H

    2018-01-19

    The Female Sexual Function Index-desire subscale is the standard measure for clinical trials of hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD), but lacks items assessing sexually related behaviors and attitudes toward partner. Counting satisfying sexual events is criticized, but sexual behavior remains important. Mean treatment differences cannot define clinical significance; responder and remitter analyses help. We reviewed measures on sexual desire and sexual behavior relevant to HSDD, and how to assess clinical significance. We conducted a literature review of measures of sexual desire comparing expert-proposed criteria for dysfunctional desire, expert-developed scales, and scales from patient input. Commonly recognized symptoms of HSDD were identified. Results of HSDD trials and scale validation studies were evaluated to extract responder and remitter values. The utility of distribution-based measures of responders and remitters was assessed. Symptom relevance was evaluated as the proportion of symptom sets that included the item; responder and remitter cut points were determined by distribution-based methods. 12 Validated rating scales, 5 scales primarily derived from expert recommendations and 7 scales initially from patient input, and 5 sets of diagnostic criteria for conditions like HSDD were compared. Content varied highly between scales despite compliance with U.S. Food and Drug Administration recommendations for patient-reported outcomes. This disunity favors an expert-recommended scale such as the Elements of Desire Questionnaire with each of the common items, plus a measure of frequency of sexual activity, eg, item in the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System. Registrational drug trials, but not psychological treatment trials, usually give responder/remitter analyses, using dichotomized global impressions or anchor-based definitions. Distribution-based methods are more uniformly applicable to define responder and remitter status. The

  4. Adolescents’ exposure to sexually explicit internet material, sexual uncertainty, and attitudes toward uncommitted sexual exploration: is there a link?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peter, J.; Valkenburg, P.M.

    2008-01-01

    The link between adolescents' exposure to sexual media content and their sexual socialization has hardly been approached from an identity development framework. Moreover, existing research has largely ignored the role of adolescents' exposure to sexually explicit Internet material in that

  5. Beneficial effects of Lepidium meyenii (Maca) on psychological symptoms and measures of sexual dysfunction in postmenopausal women are not related to estrogen or androgen content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Nicole A; Wilcox, Gisela; Walker, Karen Z; Ashton, John F; Cox, Marc B; Stojanovska, Lily

    2008-01-01

    To examine the estrogenic and androgenic activity of Lepidium meyenii (Maca) and its effect on the hormonal profile and symptoms in postmenopausal women. Fourteen postmenopausal women completed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial. They received 3.5 g/day of powered Maca for 6 weeks and matching placebo for 6 weeks, in either order, over a total of 12 weeks. At baseline and weeks 6 and 12 blood samples were collected for the measurement of estradiol, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and sex hormone-binding globulin, and the women completed the Greene Climacteric Scale to assess the severity of menopausal symptoms. In addition, aqueous and methanolic Maca extracts were tested for androgenic and estrogenic activity using a yeast-based hormone-dependent reporter assay. No differences were seen in serum concentrations of estradiol, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and sex hormone-binding globulin between baseline, Maca treatment, and placebo (P > 0.05). The Greene Climacteric Scale revealed a significant reduction in scores in the areas of psychological symptoms, including the subscales for anxiety and depression and sexual dysfunction after Maca consumption compared with both baseline and placebo (P Maca as no physiologically significant activity was observed in yeast-based assays employing up to 4 mg/mL Maca extract (equivalent to 200 mg/mL Maca). Preliminary findings show that Lepidium meyenii (Maca) (3.5 g/d) reduces psychological symptoms, including anxiety and depression, and lowers measures of sexual dysfunction in postmenopausal women independent of estrogenic and androgenic activity.

  6. AudioPairBank: Towards A Large-Scale Tag-Pair-Based Audio Content Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Sager, Sebastian; Elizalde, Benjamin; Borth, Damian; Schulze, Christian; Raj, Bhiksha; Lane, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Recently, sound recognition has been used to identify sounds, such as car and river. However, sounds have nuances that may be better described by adjective-noun pairs such as slow car, and verb-noun pairs such as flying insects, which are under explored. Therefore, in this work we investigate the relation between audio content and both adjective-noun pairs and verb-noun pairs. Due to the lack of datasets with these kinds of annotations, we collected and processed the AudioPairBank corpus cons...

  7. A city scale study on the effects of intensive groundwater heat pump systems on heavy metal contents in groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Gil, Alejandro; Epting, Jannis; Garrido, Eduardo; Vázquez-Suñé, Enric; Lázaro, Jesús Mateo; Sánchez Navarro, José Ángel; Huggenberger, P; Calvo, Miguel Ángel Marazuela

    2016-12-01

    As a result of the increasing use of shallow geothermal resources, hydraulic, thermal and chemical impacts affecting groundwater quality can be observed with ever increasing frequency (Possemiers et al., 2014). To overcome the uncertainty associated with chemical impacts, a city scale study on the effects of intensive geothermal resource use by groundwater heat pump systems on groundwater quality, with special emphasis on heavy metal contents was performed. Statistical analysis of geochemical data obtained from several field campaigns has allowed studying the spatiotemporal relationship between temperature anomalies in the aquifer and trace element composition of groundwater. The relationship between temperature and the concentrations of trace elements resulted in weak correlations, indicating that temperature changes are not the driving factor in enhancing heavy metal contaminations. Regression models established for these correlations showed a very low reactivity or response of heavy metal contents to temperature changes. The change rates of heavy metal contents with respect to temperature changes obtained indicate a low risk of exceeding quality threshold values by means of the exploitation regimes used, neither producing nor enhancing contamination significantly. However, modification of pH, redox potential, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen and alkalinity correlated with the concentrations of heavy metals. In this case, the change rates of heavy metal contents are higher, with a greater risk of exceeding threshold values. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Content Validity of the ADHD Rating Scale (ADHD RS-IV and Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS in Phenylketonuria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen W. Wyrwich PhD

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The ADHD Rating Scale (ADHD RS-IV; parent report and Adult ADHD Self-Rating Scale (ASRS; self-report are validated instruments for measuring symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. The objectives of this study were to elicit descriptions of phenylketonuria (PKU symptoms and assess content validity of these instruments in PKU. Parents (N = 15 of children with PKU (≥8 years old and adults with PKU (N=13 described PKU-related symptoms and commented on the scale’s clarity, comprehensiveness, and relevance to their experience with PKU. Most of the adults (84.6% and all of the children were on a phenylalanine-restricted diet, according to respondent report. The inattentiveness symptoms reported by participants mapped to the inattentive items of the questionnaires. Most participants felt the inattentive items were clear and relevant to their experience. Despite study design limitations, these results demonstrate the relevance of assessing inattentiveness in PKU, and both instruments achieved content validity for inattentive subscale items.

  9. Validation of the Greek Acceptance of Modern Myths about Sexual Aggression (AMMSA Scale: Examining Its Relationships with Sexist and Conservative Political Beliefs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Hantzi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Acceptance of Modern Myths about Sexual Aggression scale measures contemporary beliefs about sexual aggression that tend to blame victims and exonerate perpetrators. A Greek version of the thirty-item AMMSA scale was administered to two diverse convenience samples, one in Greece and one in Cyprus. Convergent and discriminant construct validity were assessed via correlations with other constructs that were hypothesized to be strongly related to AMMSA (Illinois Rape Myth Acceptance; hostile sexism or moderately related (benevolent sexism; social dominance orientation; right-wing authoritarianism. It was found that the Greek AMMSA was unidimensional, highly internally consistent, normally distributed, and showed good construct validity. When sociodemographic data were analyzed, age, gender, and nationality turned out to be significant predictors of AMMSA, with a U-shaped trend for age, higher scores for men than women, and higher scores for Cypriots than Greeks. In sum, the Greek AMMSA scale provides a highly useful instrument for further research on sexual aggression myths, their correlates, and effects on judgment and behavior.

  10. Genetic analysis reveals efficient sexual spore dispersal at a fine spatial scale in Armillaria ostoyae, the causal agent of root-rot disease in conifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutech, Cyril; Labbé, Frédéric; Capdevielle, Xavier; Lung-Escarmant, Brigitte

    Armillaria ostoyae (sometimes named Armillaria solidipes) is a fungal species causing root diseases in numerous coniferous forests of the northern hemisphere. The importance of sexual spores for the establishment of new disease centres remains unclear, particularly in the large maritime pine plantations of southwestern France. An analysis of the genetic diversity of a local fungal population distributed over 500 ha in this French forest showed genetic recombination between genotypes to be frequent, consistent with regular sexual reproduction within the population. The estimated spatial genetic structure displayed a significant pattern of isolation by distance, consistent with the dispersal of sexual spores mostly at the spatial scale studied. Using these genetic data, we inferred an effective density of reproductive individuals of 0.1-0.3 individuals/ha, and a second moment of parent-progeny dispersal distance of 130-800 m, compatible with the main models of fungal spore dispersal. These results contrast with those obtained for studies of A. ostoyae over larger spatial scales, suggesting that inferences about mean spore dispersal may be best performed at fine spatial scales (i.e. a few kilometres) for most fungal species. Copyright © 2017 British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Perceived Effects of Sexually Explicit Media among Men Who Have Sex with Men and Psychometric Properties of the Pornography Consumption Effects Scale (PCES)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Gert Martin; Smolenski, Derek; Rosser, B R Simon

    2013-01-01

    a thorough psychometric validation of a reduced and reworked version of the Pornography Consumption Effects Scale (PCES). Main Outcome Measure. A revised version of the PCES by Hald and Malamuth. Methods. Online cross-sectional survey study of 1,333 US adult Men Who Have Sex with Men. Results. This study...... health potential for MSM. Hald GM, Smolenski D, and Rosser BRS. Perceived effects of sexually explicit media among men who have sex with men and psychometric properties of the Pornography Consumption Effects Scale (PCES). J Sex Med 2013;10:757-767....

  12. Immaterial Boys? A Large-Scale Exploration of Gender-Based Differences in Child Sexual Exploitation Service Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockbain, Ella; Ashby, Matthew; Brayley, Helen

    2017-10-01

    Child sexual exploitation is increasingly recognized nationally and internationally as a pressing child protection, crime prevention, and public health issue. In the United Kingdom, for example, a recent series of high-profile cases has fueled pressure on policy makers and practitioners to improve responses. Yet, prevailing discourse, research, and interventions around child sexual exploitation have focused overwhelmingly on female victims. This study was designed to help redress fundamental knowledge gaps around boys affected by sexual exploitation. This was achieved through rigorous quantitative analysis of individual-level data for 9,042 users of child sexual exploitation services in the United Kingdom. One third of the sample were boys, and gender was associated with statistically significant differences on many variables. The results of this exploratory study highlight the need for further targeted research and more nuanced and inclusive counter-strategies.

  13. Large-Scale Transcriptome Analysis of Two Sugarcane Genotypes Contrasting for Lignin Content.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Vicentini

    Full Text Available Sugarcane is an important crop worldwide for sugar and first generation ethanol production. Recently, the residue of sugarcane mills, named bagasse, has been considered a promising lignocellulosic biomass to produce the second-generation ethanol. Lignin is a major factor limiting the use of bagasse and other plant lignocellulosic materials to produce second-generation ethanol. Lignin biosynthesis pathway is a complex network and changes in the expression of genes of this pathway have in general led to diverse and undesirable impacts on plant structure and physiology. Despite its economic importance, sugarcane genome was still not sequenced. In this study a high-throughput transcriptome evaluation of two sugarcane genotypes contrasting for lignin content was carried out. We generated a set of 85,151 transcripts of sugarcane using RNA-seq and de novo assembling. More than 2,000 transcripts showed differential expression between the genotypes, including several genes involved in the lignin biosynthetic pathway. This information can give valuable knowledge on the lignin biosynthesis and its interactions with other metabolic pathways in the complex sugarcane genome.

  14. Spanish adaptation of the Illinois Sexual Harassment Myth Acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Expósito, Francisca; Herrera, Antonio; Valor-Segura, Inmaculada; Herrera, M Carmen; Lozano, Luis M

    2014-01-01

    Sexual harassment is among the most serious forms of gender violence, and what all violent acts have in common are the many myths associated with them. Three studies were conducted to adapt a Spanish version of the Illinois Sexual Harassment Myth Acceptance (ISHMA) scale, which assesses myths about sexual harassment. The first study aimed to, for the first time, present psychometric data on the Spanish version of the ISHMA. The participants were 339 college students. After adapting the items and measuring their content validity, we examined the test's dimensional structure, statistically analyzed the items, and determined the instrument's reliability (α = .91 for the total scale and between .77 and .84 for the different dimensions). Study 2 involved 326 adult participants from the general population and its objective was to evaluate the scale's dimensional structure through confirmatory factor analysis (χ2 143 = 244.860, p sexual harassment.

  15. Corrosivities in a pilot-scale combustor of a British and two Illinois coals with varying chlorine contents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, I.-Ming; Lytle, J.M.; Kung, S.C.; Ho, K.K.

    2000-01-01

    Many US boiler manufacturers have recommended limits on the chlorine (Cl) content (< 0.25% or < 0.3%) of coals to be used in their boilers. These limits were based primarily on extrapolation of British coal data to predict the probable corrosion behavior of US coals. Even though Cl-related boiler corrosion has not been reported by US utilities burning high-Cl Illinois coals, the manufacturer's limits affect the marketability of high-Cl Illinois coals. This study measured the relative rates of corrosion caused by two high-Cl coals (British and Illinois) and one low-Cl Illinois baseline coal under identical pilot-scale combustion conditions for about 1000 h which gave reliable comparisons. Temperatures used reflected conditions in boiler superheaters. The corrosion probes were fabricated from commercial alloy 304SS frequently used at the hottest superheater section of utility boilers. The results showed no evidence of direct correlation between the coal chlorine content and rate of corrosion. A correlation between the rate of corrosion and the metal temperature was obvious. The results suggested that the different field histories of corrosivity from burning high-Cl Illinois coal and high-Cl British coal occurred because of different metal temperatures operated in US and UK utility boilers. The results of this study can be combined into a database, which could be used for lifting the limits on chlorine contents of coals burned in utility boilers in the US.

  16. Sexual Priming, Gender Stereotyping, and Likelihood to Sexually Harass: Examining the Cognitive Effects of Playing a Sexually-Explicit Video Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Mike Z; Mahood, Chad; Linz, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    The present study examines the short-term cognitive effects of playing a sexually explicit video game with female "objectification" content on male players. Seventy-four male students from a university in California, U.S. participated in a laboratory experiment. They were randomly assigned to play either a sexually-explicit game or one of two control games. Participants' cognitive accessibility to sexual and sexually objectifying thoughts was measured in a lexical decision task. A likelihood-to-sexually-harass scale was also administered. Results show that playing a video game with the theme of female "objectification" may prime thoughts related to sex, encourage men to view women as sex objects, and lead to self-reported tendencies to behave inappropriately towards women in social situations.

  17. Prediction of SOC content by Vis-NIR spectroscopy at European scale using a modified local PLS algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nocita, M.; Stevens, A.; Toth, G.; van Wesemael, B.; Montanarella, L.

    2012-12-01

    In the context of global environmental change, the estimation of carbon fluxes between soils and the atmosphere has been the object of a growing number of studies. This has been motivated notably by the possibility to sequester CO2 into soils by increasing the soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks and by the role of SOC in maintaining soil quality. Spatial variability of SOC masks its slow accumulation or depletion, and the sampling density required to detect a change in SOC content is often very high and thus very expensive and labour intensive. Visible near infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (Vis-NIR DRS) has been shown to be a fast, cheap and efficient tool for the prediction of SOC at fine scales. However, when applied to regional or country scales, Vis-NIR DRS did not provide sufficient accuracy as an alternative to standard laboratory soil analysis for SOC monitoring. Under the framework of Land Use/Cover Area Frame Statistical Survey (LUCAS) project of the European Commission's Joint Research Centre (JRC), about 20,000 samples were collected all over European Union. Soil samples were analyzed for several physical and chemical parameters, and scanned with a Vis-NIR spectrometer in the same laboratory. The scope of our research was to predict SOC content at European scale using LUCAS spectral library. We implemented a modified local partial least square regression (l-PLS) including, in addition to spectral distance, other potentially useful covariates (geography, texture, etc.) to select for each unknown sample a group of predicting neighbours. The dataset was split in mineral soils under cropland, mineral soils under grassland, mineral soils under woodland, and organic soils due to the extremely diverse spectral response of the four classes. Four every class training (70%) and test (30%) sets were created to calibrate and validate the SOC prediction models. The results showed very good prediction ability for mineral soils under cropland and mineral soils

  18. Sexual Arousal and Sexually Explicit Media (SEM)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Gert Martin; Stulhofer, Aleksandar; Lange, Theis

    2018-01-01

    -mainstream and mainstream SEM groups, and (iii) to explore the validity and predictive accuracy of the Non-Mainstream Pornography Arousal Scale (NPAS). METHODS: Online cross-sectional survey of 2,035 regular SEM users in Croatia. MAIN OUTCOMES MEASURES: Patterns of sexual arousal to 27 different SEM themes, sexual...

  19. A SIMPLE METHOD TO CONTROL THE MOISTURE CONTENT OF THE FERMENTING MEDIUM DURING LABORATORY-SCALE SOLID-STATE FERMENTATION EXPERIMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. BORZANI

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available When the moisture content of the fermenting medium significantly decreases during laboratory-scale solid-state fermentation tests, the quantity of water to be periodically added to the medium in order to control its moisture content may be evaluated from the water evaporation rate of the non-inoculated medium.

  20. Methods and methodology of sexual dysfunctions with males. Chapter 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    Examination of patients (liquidators of Chernobyl accident) was carried out in Republican Hospital for Great War Invalids. Sexual function of patients was estimated with help G.V. Vasilenko's questionnaire 'Men's sexual function'. For consideration of sexual dysfunctions the scale for qualitative estimation of potention dysfunction level was used. For revealing of vegetative nervous system dysfunction with examined patients the Ashner effect was studied. The functional status of pituitary gland - gonad system was studied by content of hormones in blood (follicle stimulating and luteinizing hormones). Results of investigations of both the sexual function and hormone level in blood were processed by method of variation statistics. For determination of each factors influence from all acting factors on sexual function the multifactorial dispersion analysis was carried out

  1. Sexual Assault

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Professions Indian Health Careers Indian Preference Loan Repayment Military Transition Student ... Sexual Assault Sexual assault is a significant problem affecting American Indians and Alaska Natives. Sexual assault ...

  2. Instrumentation for Evaluating Medical School Courses in Human Sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggers, T. Thorne; And Others

    A Sex Content Scale was developed to evaluate a series of simulated interviews conducted with 24 second year medical students and an actress who was carefully coached to reveal a specific sexual problem as she felt comfortable with the student and as he/she asked her appropriate questions. A patient response form was also developed to quantify the…

  3. Patterns of Asexuality in China: Sexual Activity, Sexual and Romantic Attraction, and Sexual Desire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Lijun; Su, Yanchen

    2018-05-01

    This study examined patterns of asexuality in Chinese asexual people in terms of sexual activities, sexual/romantic attraction, and sexual desire. The sample included 227 (64 men and 163 women) asexual participants and 57 (26 men and 31 women) uncertain asexual participants recruited from social networks for asexual people. The control group included 217 (115 men and 102 women) heterosexual participants recruited from general social networks. Participants scoring 40 or higher on the Asexuality Identification Scale were classified as asexual. Asexual participants reported having less frequent masturbation, sexual intercourse experience, and sexual and romantic attraction compared to heterosexual participants. Lower sexual attraction among asexuals indicated that "people who experience little or no sexual attraction" would be a more appropriate definition of asexuality. The pattern of uncertain asexual participants' sexual/romantic attraction and sexual desire was intermediate between heterosexual and asexual participants. Asexual participants scored significantly lower on dyadic sexual desire and slightly lower on solitary sexual desire than heterosexual participants. There were significant differences in sexual activities and solitary sexual desire among romantic orientation categories. Homoromantic participants showed higher dyadic sexual desire and were more likely to engage in masturbation, indicating the heterogeneity among asexual people. The findings indicated that Chinese asexual people showed similar patterns of asexuality as in Western nations. Specifically, asexual people have little or no sexual attraction, non-partner-orientated sexual desire, and are heterogeneous in sexual activities and sexual desire. This implies similar mechanisms underlying the etiology of asexuality across cultures.

  4. Hunger and thirst numeric rating scales are not valid estimates for gastric content volumes: a prospective investigation in healthy children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buehrer, Sabin; Hanke, Ursula; Klaghofer, Richard; Fruehauf, Melanie; Weiss, Markus; Schmitz, Achim

    2014-03-01

    A rating scale for thirst and hunger was evaluated as a noninvasive, simple and commonly available tool to estimate preanesthetic gastric volume, a surrogate parameter for the risk of perioperative pulmonary aspiration, in healthy volunteer school age children. Numeric scales with scores from 0 to 10 combined with smileys to rate thirst and hunger were analyzed and compared with residual gastric volumes as measured by magnetic resonance imaging and fasting times in three settings: before and for 2 h after drinking clear fluid (group A, 7 ml/kg), before and for 4 vs 6 h after a light breakfast followed by clear fluid (7 ml/kg) after 2 vs 4 h (crossover, group B), and before and for 1 h after drinking clear fluid (crossover, group C, 7 vs 3 ml/kg). In 30 children aged 6.4-12.8 (median 9.8) years, participating on 1-5 (median two) study days, 496 sets of scores and gastric volumes were determined. Large inter- and intra-individual variations were seen at baseline and in response to fluid and food intake. Significant correlations were found between hunger and thirst ratings in all groups, with children generally being more hungry than thirsty. Correlations between scores and duration of fasting or gastric residual volumes were poor to moderate. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis revealed that thirst and hunger rating scales cannot predict gastric content. Hunger and thirst scores vary considerably inter- and intra-individually and cannot predict gastric volume, nor do they correlate with fasting times in school age children. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Ground Albedo Neutron Sensing (GANS) for Measurement of Integral Soil Water Content at the Small Catchment Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera Villarreyes, C.; Baroni, G.; Oswald, S. E.

    2012-12-01

    Soil water content at the plot or hill-slope scale is an important link between local vadose zone hydrology and catchment hydrology. One largest initiative to cover the measuring gap of soil moisture between point scale and remote sensing observations is the COSMOS network (Zreda et al., 2012). Here, cosmic-ray neutron sensing, which may be more precisely named ground albedo neutron sensing (GANS), is applied. The measuring principle is based on the crucial role of hydrogen as neutron moderator compared to others landscape materials. Soil water content contained in a footprint of ca. 600 m diameter and a depth ranging down to a few decimeters is inversely correlated to the neutron flux at the air-ground interface. This approach is now implemented, e.g. in USA (Zreda et al., 2012) and Germany (Rivera Villarreyes et al., 2011), based on its simple installation and integral measurement of soil moisture at the small catchment scale. The present study performed Ground Albedo Neutron Sensing on farmland at two locations in Germany under different vegetative situations (cropped and bare field) and different seasonal conditions (summer, autumn and winter). Ground albedo neutrons were measured at (i) a farmland close to Potsdam and Berlin cropped with corn in 2010, sunflower in 2011 and winter rye in 2012, and (ii) a mountainous farmland catchment (Schaefertal, Harz Mountains) since middle 2011. In order to test this methodology, classical soil moisture devices and meteorological data were used for comparison. Moreover, several calibration approaches, role of vegetation cover and transferability of calibration parameters to different times and locations were also evaluated. Observations suggest that GANS can overcome the lack of data for hydrological processes at the intermediate scale. Soil moisture from GANS compared quantitatively with mean values derived from a network of classical devices under vegetated and non- vegetated conditions. The GANS approach responded well

  6. Measurement of activity limitations and participation restrictions: examination of ICF-linked content and scale properties of the FIM and PC-PART instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darzins, Susan W; Imms, Christine; Di Stefano, Marilyn

    2017-05-01

    To explore the operationalization of activity and participation-related measurement constructs through comparison of item phrasing, item response categories and scoring (scale properties) for two separate instruments targeting activities of daily living. Personal Care Participation Assessment and Resource Tool (PC-PART) item content was linked to ICF categories using established linking rules. Previously reported ICF-linked FIM content categories and ICF-linked PC-PART content categories were compared to identify common ICF categories between the instruments. Scale properties of both instruments were compared using a patient scenario to explore the instruments' separate measurement constructs. The PC-PART and FIM shared 15 of the 53 level two ICF-linked categories identified across both instruments. Examination of the instruments' scale properties for items with overlapping ICF content, and exploration through a patient scenario, provided supportive evidence that the instruments measure different constructs. While the PC-PART and FIM share common ICF-linked content, they measure separate constructs. Measurement construct was influenced by the instruments' scale properties. The FIM was observed to measure activity limitations and the PC-PART measured participation restrictions. Scrutiny of instruments' scale properties in addition to item content is critical in the operationalization of activity and participation-related measurement constructs. Implications for Rehabilitation When selecting outcome measures for use in rehabilitation it is necessary to examine both the content of the instruments' items and item phrasing, response categories and scoring, to clarify the construct being measured. Measurement of activity limitations as well as participation restrictions in activities of daily living required for community life provides a more comprehensive measurement of rehabilitation outcomes than measurement of either construct alone. To measure the effects of

  7. Brain response to visual sexual stimuli in homosexual pedophiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffer, Boris; Krueger, Tillmann; Paul, Thomas; de Greiff, Armin; Forsting, Michael; Leygraf, Norbert; Schedlowski, Manfred; Gizewski, Elke

    2008-01-01

    The neurobiological mechanisms of deviant sexual preferences such as pedophilia are largely unknown. The objective of this study was to analyze whether brain activation patterns of homosexual pedophiles differed from those of a nonpedophile homosexual control group during visual sexual stimulation. A consecutive sample of 11 pedophile forensic inpatients exclusively attracted to boys and 12 age-matched homosexual control participants from a comparable socioeconomic stratum underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging during a visual sexual stimulation procedure that used sexually stimulating and emotionally neutral photographs. Sexual arousal was assessed according to a subjective rating scale. In contrast to sexually neutral pictures, in both groups sexually arousing pictures having both homosexual and pedophile content activated brain areas known to be involved in processing visual stimuli containing emotional content, including the occipitotemporal and prefrontal cortices. However, during presentation of the respective sexual stimuli, the thalamus, globus pallidus and striatum, which correspond to the key areas of the brain involved in sexual arousal and behaviour, showed significant activation in pedophiles, but not in control subjects. Central processing of visual sexual stimuli in homosexual pedophiles seems to be comparable to that in nonpedophile control subjects. However, compared with homosexual control subjects, activation patterns in pedophiles refer more strongly to subcortical regions, which have previously been discussed in the context of processing reward signals and also play an important role in addictive and stimulus-controlled behaviour. Thus future studies should further elucidate the specificity of these brain regions for the processing of sexual stimuli in pedophilia and should address the generally weaker activation pattern in homosexual men.

  8. Gender, Religiosity, Sexual Activity, Sexual Knowledge, and Attitudes Toward Controversial Aspects of Sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sümer, Zeynep Hatipoğlu

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the role of gender, religiosity, sexual activity, and sexual knowledge in predicting attitudes toward controversial aspects of sexuality among Turkish university students. Participants were 162 female and 135 male undergraduate students who were recruited on a volunteer basis from an urban state university in Turkey. The SKAT-A Attitude Scale along with background information form, sexual activities inventory, and sexual knowledge scale were administered to the participants. Simultaneous multiple regression analyses revealed that religiosity, particularly attendance to religious services was the most significant predictor in explaining university students' attitudes toward masturbation, abortion, homosexuality, pornography, and sexual coercion.

  9. Informational and emotional elements in online support groups: a Bayesian approach to large-scale content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deetjen, Ulrike; Powell, John A

    2016-05-01

    This research examines the extent to which informational and emotional elements are employed in online support forums for 14 purposively sampled chronic medical conditions and the factors that influence whether posts are of a more informational or emotional nature. Large-scale qualitative data were obtained from Dailystrength.org. Based on a hand-coded training dataset, all posts were classified into informational or emotional using a Bayesian classification algorithm to generalize the findings. Posts that could not be classified with a probability of at least 75% were excluded. The overall tendency toward emotional posts differs by condition: mental health (depression, schizophrenia) and Alzheimer's disease consist of more emotional posts, while informational posts relate more to nonterminal physical conditions (irritable bowel syndrome, diabetes, asthma). There is no gender difference across conditions, although prostate cancer forums are oriented toward informational support, whereas breast cancer forums rather feature emotional support. Across diseases, the best predictors for emotional content are lower age and a higher number of overall posts by the support group member. The results are in line with previous empirical research and unify empirical findings from single/2-condition research. Limitations include the analytical restriction to predefined categories (informational, emotional) through the chosen machine-learning approach. Our findings provide an empirical foundation for building theory on informational versus emotional support across conditions, give insights for practitioners to better understand the role of online support groups for different patients, and show the usefulness of machine-learning approaches to analyze large-scale qualitative health data from online settings. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Environmental impacts of a large-scale incinerator with mixed MSW of high water content from a LCA perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Ziyang; Bilitewski, Bernd; Zhu, Nanwen; Chai, Xiaoli; Li, Bing; Zhao, Youcai

    2015-04-01

    Large-scale incinerators are applied widely as a result of the heavy burden of municipal solid waste (MSW) generated, while strong opposition is arising from the public living nearby. A large-scale working incineration plant of 1500 ton/day was chosen for evaluation using life cycle assessment. It was found that the corresponding human toxicity impacts via soil (HTs), human toxicity impacts via water (HTw) and human toxicity impacts via air (HTa) categories are 0.213, 2.171, and 0.012 personal equivalents (PE), and global warming (GW100) and nutrient enrichment (NE) impacts are 0.002 and 0.001 PE per ton of waste burned for this plant. Heavy metals in flue gas, such as Hg and Pb, are the two dominant contributors to the toxicity impact categories, and energy recovery could reduce the GW100 and NE greatly. The corresponding HTs, HTw and HTa decrease to 0.087, 0.911 and 0.008 PE, and GW100 turns into savings of -0.007 PE due to the increase of the heating value from 3935 to 5811 kJ/kg, if a trommel screener of 40 mm mesh size is used to pre-separate MSW. MSW sorting and the reduction of water content by physical pressure might be two promising pre-treatment methods to improve the combustion performance, and the application of stricter standards for leachate discharge and the flue gas purification process are two critical factors for improvement of the environmental profile identified in this work. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Investigations into NOx emissions and burnout for coals with high ash content in a bench scale test facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greul, U.; Kluger, F.; Peter, G.; Spliethoff, H.; Hein, K.R.G. [University of Stuttgart, Stuttgart (Germany). Inst. fuer Verfahrenstechnik und Dampfkesselwesen

    2000-07-01

    At the Stuttgart University's Institute of Process Engineering and Power Plant Technology (IVD) investigations of in-furnace DeNOx technologies with regard to their NOx reduction efficiency are carried out using an electrically heated bench-scale test facility to evaluate the effect of different process parameters independently. The DeNOx technologies of air and fuel staging have been demonstrated to be effective control techniques to reduce NOx from stationary sources. For a wide range of brown and hard coals from Europe, South Africa and Australia test runs with air-staged combustion have been carried out. The ash content of the hard coals used was in the range between 8 and 28%. The investigated parameters were temperature (1000-1300{degree}C), stoichiometry (1.25-0.55), and residence time (1-6 s) in the fuel rich primary zone. With increasing temperatures and residence times in fuel-rich conditions in air-staged combustion NOx emissions below 300 mg/m{sup 3} can be achieved even with hard coals. For a few brown coals NOx values lower than 100 mg/m{sup 3} are possible. Dependent on the coal rank individual parameters are more important than others. For low and medium volatile hard coals the increasing of the residence time is more effective than higher temperature or lower air ratios in the primary zone. However, with high volatile hard coal or brown coal as primary fuel the influence of temperature and stoichiometry in the primary zone plays a key role for NOx reduction effectiveness. The burnout led to restrictions in large scale applications for air-staged combustion especially with hard coals as primary fuel. Investigations at different primary air ratios and temperatures show the effect of these parameters on the burnout values along the course of combustion. 7 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Down scaled Kjeldahl digestion and flow injection conductometric system for determination of protein content in some traditional northern Thai foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanu, Pattama; Jakmunee, Jaroon

    2017-09-01

    A flow injection conductometric (FIC) system for determination of total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) was developed for estimating total protein content in food. A small scale Kjeldahl digestion was performed with a short digestion time of only 20min. The digested solution was injected into the FIC system, and TKN was converted to ammonia gas in an alkaline donor stream of the system. The gas diffused through a membrane and dissolved into an acceptor stream causing an increase in conductivity as detected by a detector and recorded as a peak. Under the optimum condition, a linear calibration graph in the range of 4.00-100.00mgL -1 was obtained with LOD of 0.05mgL -1 . A good precision (0.04% RSD, n=11, 30.00mgNL -1 ) and high sample throughput of 72h -1 was achieved. The method was applied for determination of protein in some traditional northern Thai foods, revealing that they are good sources of proteins. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Relationship between age at menarche and exposure to sexual content in audio-visual media and other factors in Islamic junior high school girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tity Wulandari

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background In recent decades, girls have experienced menarche at earlier ages, which may have negative effects on health. Exposure to audio-visual media and other factors may influence the age at menarche, although past studies have produced inconsistent results. Objective To assess for relationships between the age at menarche and audio-visual media exposure, socio-economic status, nutritional status, physical activity, and psychosocial dysfunction in adolescent girls. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted from August to October 2015 in students from two integrated Islamic junior high schools in Medan, North Sumatera. There were 216 students who met the inclusion criteria: aged 10-16 years and experienced menarche. They were asked to fill out questionnaires that had been previously validated, regarding their history of exposure to audio-visual media, physical activity, and psychosocial dysfunction. The data were analyzed by Chi-square and Fisher’s exact tests in order to assess for relationships between audio-visual media exposure and other potential factors with the age at menarche. Results Of 261 female students at the two schools, 216 had undergone menarche, with a mean age at menarche of 11.6 (SD 1.13 years. There was no significant relationship between age at menarche and audio-visual media exposure (P=0.68. Also, there were no significant relationships between factors such as socio-economic and psychosocial status with age at menarche (P=0.64 and P=0.28, respectively. However, there were significant relationships between earlier age at menarche and overweight/obese nutritional status (P=0.02 as well as low physical activity (P=0.01. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that low physical activity had the strongest influence on early menarche (RP=2.40; 95%CI 0.92 to 6.24. Conclusion Age at menarche is not significantly associated with sexual content of audio-visual media exposure. However, there were significant

  14. LGBT world championships: sexualized ghettos in global scale? Competições esportivas mundiais LGBT: guetos sexualizados em escala global?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Xavier de Camargo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Ghettos are marginal territories, in which ethnic, religious, social and sexual minorities were encapsulated and segregated throughout History. Crossed by flows and tensions on movement in the global landscape, such spaces should be reanalyzed under a global perspective. Aiming to reflect on marginal territories of gender linked to LGBT sports events, this article has tried to re-think the concept of the ghetto from the "Chicago School", and analyze it according to new lenses, applied to two global and specific LGBT world championships (Gay Games and World OutGames. It was noticed that the occurrence of them and the expectations around "possibilities of ejaculation" of bodies, genders, sexualities, and desires, connected to the sports' world itself, open up the perspective that such events will perform a kind of "sexualized ghettos", i.e., territorialized spaces from sexual desires' practices, in the logic of a global circulation of desires, bodies and capitals.Os guetos são espaços circunscritos e marginais nos quais, ao longo da história, minorias religiosas, sociais, étnicas e sexuais foram encapsuladas e segregadas. Atravessados por fluxos e tensões em movimento do global landscape, tais territórios devem ser revisitados sob a ótica da globalização. Com o propósito de analisar territorialidades marginais de gênero atreladas a eventos esportivos LGBT, este artigo buscou ressemantizar o conceito de gueto da "Escola de Chicago" e repensá-lo segundo novas perspectivas analíticas, aplicadas a duas competições esportivas mundiais (Gay Games e World OutGames voltadas para o público LGBT. Percebeu-se que a ocorrência dessas competições e as expectativas em torno de "capitais ejaculantes" de corpos, sexos, desejos e sexualidades vinculados ao esporte abrem a perspectiva de que tais torneios performatizem "guetos sexualizados", isto é, espaços territorializados de práticas itinerantes de desejos, na lógica de uma circulação em

  15. Changes in the contents of strontium, barium, and lead in scales of bream Abramis brama from the Mozhaisk Reservoir over a quarter century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltykova, E A; Pelgunova, L A; Sokolova, E L; Skomorokhov, M O; Demidova, T B; Golubtsov, A S

    2016-03-01

    The heavy metal contents in the scales of bream (Abramis brama) from the Mozhaisk Reservoir collected in the second half of the 1980s were compared to the current values. The concentrations of three out of the seven elements studied in the bream scales have changed severalfold during the past quarter century: that of strontium has decreased, and those of barium and lead have increased. Short-term variations of heavy metal contents have proved to be smaller than the observed long-term differences. There is grounds to believe that these long-term differences adequately reflect the changes that have occurred in the water body.

  16. Health Care Students’ Attitudes Towards Addressing Sexual Health in Their Future Professional Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerbild, H.; Larsen, C. M.; Rolander, B.

    2017-01-01

    Students’ attitudes and educational needs regarding sexual health are important, since their ability to promote sexual health in their future profession can be challenged by their attitudes and knowledge of sexuality and sexual health. There are no existing Danish instruments able to measure...... students’ attitudes towards working with and communicating about sexual health; thus, to be able to use the Students’ Attitudes Towards Addressing Sexual Health (SA-SH) questionnaire in a Danish context, it is necessary to translate and test the translated questionnaire psychometrically. The aim...... of the SA-SH (SA-SH-D) had a Cronbach’s alpha of 0.67. The content validity index showed high relevance (item context validity index 0.82–1.0), and item scale correlation was satisfactory. The SA-SH-D is a valid and reliable questionnaire, which can be used to measure health care professional students...

  17. Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scales are a visible peeling or flaking of outer skin layers. These layers are called the stratum ... Scales may be caused by dry skin, certain inflammatory skin conditions, or infections. Examples of disorders that ...

  18. Subjective sleep quality, unstimulated sexual arousal, and sexual frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Costa

    Full Text Available Introduction: REM sleep deprivation increases unstimulated erections in rats, and total sleep deprivation increases erections during audiovisual sexual stimulation in men, but the effects of sleep problems on human unstimulated sexual arousal are unknown. Objective: We examined the associations of subjective sleep quality with unstimulated sexual arousal, satisfaction with sex life, and sexual frequency and desire over the past month. Methods: 275 Portuguese (169 women reported their anxiety, sexual arousal and sexual desire during a resting state, and completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, the sexual satisfaction subscale of the LiSat scale, the Desire dimensions of the Female Sexual Function Index (women only and International Index of Erectile Function (men only. They additionally reported how many days in the past month they engaged in penile-vaginal intercourse, noncoital sex, and masturbation. Salivary testosterone (T was assayed by luminescence immunoassays. Results: Poorer sleep quality correlated with greater unstimulated sexual arousal in men with higher T levels and in women with higher T levels not taking oral contraceptives. In women with lower T, poorer subjective sleep quality correlated with greater sexual dissatisfaction. In both sexes, sleep quality was uncorrelated with sexual desire and sexual frequency over the past month. Discussion: Consistently with other studies in humans and animals, the findings are congruent with the notion that lack of sleep can increase sexual arousal, but not sexual frequency. T might play a role in the sexual arousal caused by lack of appropriate sleep.

  19. Prime time sexual harassment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grauerholz, E; King, A

    1997-04-01

    This study explores the explicit and implicit messages of sexual harassment that viewers receive when viewing prime-time television in the US. A content analysis of 48 hours of prime-time television reveals that sexual harassment on television is both highly visible and invisible. Sexual harassment is rendered visible simply by its prominence in these programs. Incidents involving quid-pro-quo harassment and environmental harassment occur with regularity on television. Furthermore, about 84% of the shows studied contained at least one incident of sexual harassment; yet these acts of sexual harassment remained largely invisible because none of the behaviors were labeled as sexual harassment. These incidents are presented in humorous ways, and victims are generally unharmed and very effective at ending the harassment. Although such programs may actually reflect the reality of many women's lives in terms of prevalence of sexual harassment, they perpetuate several myths about sexual harassment, such as that sexual harassment is not serious and that victims should be able to handle the situations themselves.

  20. Sexual Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and changes in sexual function are common. These physiological changes can include: A need for more stimulation ... page: Sexuality in later life. National Institute on Aging. https://www.nia.nih.gov/health/publication/sexuality- ...

  1. Sexual Education

    OpenAIRE

    Býmová, Pavlína

    2008-01-01

    The subject matter of this diploma thesis "Sexual Education" is sexual education in the Czech Republic, specifically dedicated to the study of the integration of sexual education into the educational process in schools and families.

  2. Estimating and Up-Scaling Fuel Moisture and Leaf Dry Matter Content of a Temperate Humid Forest Using Multi Resolution Remote Sensing Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Adab

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Vegetation moisture and dry matter content are important indicators in predicting the behavior of fire and it is widely used in fire spread models. In this study, leaf fuel moisture content such as Live Fuel Moisture Content (LFMC, Leaf Relative Water Content (RWC, Dead Fuel Moisture Content (DFMC, and Leaf Dry Matter Content (LDMC (hereinafter known as moisture content indices (MCI were calculated in the field for different forest species at 32 sites in a temperate humid forest (Zaringol forest located in northeastern Iran. These data and several relevant vegetation-biophysical indices and atmospheric variables calculated using Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+ data with moderate spatial resolution (30 m were used to estimate MCI of the Zaringol forest using Artificial Neural Network (ANN and Multiple Linear Regression (MLR methods. The prediction of MCI using ANN showed that ETM+ predicted MCI slightly better (Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE of 6%–12% than MLR (MAPE between 8% and 17%. Once satisfactory results in estimating MCI were obtained by using ANN from ETM+ data, these data were then upscaled to estimate MCI using MODIS data for daily monitoring of leaf water and leaf dry matter content at 500 m spatial resolution. For MODIS derived LFMC, LDMC, RWC, and DLMC, the ANN produced a MAPE between 11% and 29% for the indices compared to MLR which produced an MAPE of 14%–33%. In conclusion, we suggest that upscaling is necessary for solving the scale discrepancy problems between the indicators and low spatial resolution MODIS data. The scaling up of MCI could be used for pre-fire alert system and thereby can detect fire prone areas in near real time for fire-fighting operations.

  3. Tradução e adaptação transcultural para o português brasileiro da Scale for Quality of Sexual Function (QSF Translation and cross-cultural adaptation into Brazilian Portuguese of the Scale for Quality of Sexual Function (QSF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeska Martinho Pereira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Apesar do papel fundamental da função sexual na qualidade de vida da população, há uma escassez na literatura brasileira de instrumentos específicos para sua avaliação e que possam ser utilizados tanto para homens quanto para mulheres. A adaptação da Scale for Quality of Sexual Function (QSF, uma escala unissex, é um passo importante na obtenção de instrumentos que permitam a comparação de resultados entre diferentes populações. OBJETIVO: Descrever o processo de tradução e adaptação semântica da QSF para o português brasileiro. MÉTODOS: A adaptação do instrumento envolveu cinco fases: 1 duas traduções independentes, 2 uma versão de consenso realizada por tradutores e especialistas, 3 avaliação da versão gerada por mais um especialista que não participou das etapas anteriores, 4 retrotradução com avaliação do autor da escala original e, por fim, 5 aplicação da versão obtida em um grupo experimental. RESULTADOS: São descritas todas as etapas de adaptação do instrumento. A participação de especialistas tanto da área de saúde mental quanto de sexualidade humana, desde a primeira fase do processo, contribuiu para discussões amplas, que permitiram a melhor adequação dos itens, tanto conceitual quanto culturalmente. Participaram da aplicação experimental sujeitos de diferentes níveis de escolaridade de ambos os sexos, não sendo detectadas dificuldades na compreensão dos itens. CONCLUSÃO: Por meio dos procedimentos adotados, foi possível elaborar uma versão da QSF em português brasileiro.INTRODUCTION: Despite the important role played by sexual function in quality of life, there is a scarcity of instruments in the Brazilian literature specifically designed to assess this aspect, and especially of instruments that can be used with both men and women. The adaptation of the Scale for Quality of Sexual Function (QSF, a unisex scale, is an important step in the production of instruments

  4. The effects of similarity in sexual excitation, inhibition, and mood on sexual arousal problems and sexual satisfaction in newlywed couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lykins, Amy D; Janssen, Erick; Newhouse, Sarah; Heiman, Julia R; Rafaeli, Eshkol

    2012-05-01

    Despite the importance of sexuality for romantic relationships, there has been little research attention to individual differences and dyadic variables, including couple similarity, and their association with sexual problems and satisfaction. The current study examined the effects of the propensity for sexual inhibition and sexual excitation scales (SIS/SES) and the effects of different mood states on sexuality (Mood and Sexuality Questionnaire [MSQ]), at both the individual and the dyad level, on sexual arousal problems and sexual satisfaction. Similarity in SIS/SES and MSQ was measured in a nonclinical sample of 35 newlywed couples and operationally defined as the within-couple, z-transformed correlations between the two partners' item responses. Sexual arousal problems were assessed using self-report measures (Demographic and Sexual History Questionnaire) and focused on the past 3 months. Sexual satisfaction was assessed using the Global Measure of Sexual Satisfaction. Regression analyses revealed that greater similarity in the effects of anxiety and stress on sexuality was associated with more reported sexual arousal problems of wives. In contrast, the husbands' sexual arousal problems were related only to their own higher SIS1 scores. Higher SES scores predicted lower sexual satisfaction for both husbands and wives. Wives who reported strong positive mood effects on their sexuality indicated greater sexual satisfaction, while husbands who were more similar to their wives in the effect of positive moods on sexuality indicated greater sexual satisfaction. The findings show that, above and beyond one's own sexual propensities, similarity in various aspects of sexuality predicts sexual problems (more so in women) and sexual satisfaction (in both men and women). © 2012 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  5. Cognitive representations of sexual self differ as a function of gender and sexual debut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgren, Kristen P; Schacht, Rebecca L; Mullins, Peter M; Blayney, Jessica A

    2011-02-01

    This research evaluated the association between gender and sexual debut (initial sexual intercourse) and indirect measures of sexuality. A sample of 440 U.S. college students (pre-sexual debut: 144 women, 153 men; post-sexual debut: 49 women, 94 men) completed the Sexual Self-Schema Scale (SSSS), which assessed cognitive representations about sexual aspects of oneself, and three Implicit Association Tests (IAT), which measured the strength of the associations between the concepts of self + sex, women + sex, and men + sex. Results replicated previous findings that (1) men more strongly associated self + sex and women + sex than did women, and (2) men and women had similarly strong associations of men + sex. Post-sexual debut women's self + sexual and women + sexual associations were stronger than pre-sexual debut women's. Men's associations did not differ significantly as a function of sexual debut. Post-sexual debut women's SSSS scores were more direct, more romantic, and less conservative than pre-sexual debut women's. Post-sexual debut men's SSSS scores were more aggressive and more open-minded than pre-sexual debut men's. Sexual debut appeared to be associated with sexualized and sexually liberal cognitive representations in women and, to a lesser extent, sexually liberal and aggressive cognitive representations in men. Findings were consistent with theories of cognitive consistency and provide preliminary evidence that sexual debut status was associated with differing cognitive representations.

  6. Validación Preliminar de la Escala Infantil de Síntomas del Trastorno de Estrés Postraumático (Child PTSD Symptom Scale, CPSS en Niños/as y Adolescentes Víctimas de Violencia Sexual Preliminary Validation of the Child PTSD Symptom Scale (CPSS in Children and Adolescent Victims of Sexual Violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Bustos

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta la validación preliminar en Chile de la Escala Infantil de Síntomas del Trastorno de Estrés Postraumático, desarrollada por Foa, Johnson, Feeny y Treadwell (2001 para evaluar el trastorno en niños/as y adolescentes expuestos a situaciones traumáticas, con arreglo a criterios DSM-IV. La muestra fue de 75 niños y adolescentes chilenos de la región del Bío Bío que sufrieron abuso sexual o violación. Los resultados indican una alta consistencia interna, medida con alfa de Cronbach, de 0,916. Asimismo, la consistencia interna de cada subescala es alta. La validez convergente con el criterio de juicio experto es adecuada, con puntuaciones significativas en la escala y todas las subescalas.The preliminary validation in Chile of the Infantile Scale of Symptoms of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (CPSS is presented. This instrument was developed by Johnson, Feeny, and Treadwell (2001 to evaluate PTSD in children and adolescents exposed to traumatic events, in accordance with DSM-IV criteria. The sample consisted of 75 Chilean children and adolescents of the Bio Bio region of Chile who suffered sexual abuse or rape. The results indicate high internal consistency, measured with Cronbach's alpha, of 0.916. The convergent validity with the criterion of expert judgment is also adequate, with significant punctuations in the scale and all the subscales.

  7. Electrical resistivity tomography to quantify in situ liquid content in a full-scale dry anaerobic digestion reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    André, L; Lamy, E; Lutz, P; Pernier, M; Lespinard, O; Pauss, A; Ribeiro, T

    2016-02-01

    The electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) method is a non-intrusive method widely used in landfills to detect and locate liquid content. An experimental set-up was performed on a dry batch anaerobic digestion reactor to investigate liquid repartition in process and to map spatial distribution of inoculum. Two array electrodes were used: pole-dipole and gradient arrays. A technical adaptation of ERT method was necessary. Measured resistivity data were inverted and modeled by RES2DINV software to get resistivity sections. Continuous calibration along resistivity section was necessary to understand data involving sampling and physicochemical analysis. Samples were analyzed performing both biochemical methane potential and fiber quantification. Correlations were established between the protocol of reactor preparation, resistivity values, liquid content, methane potential and fiber content representing liquid repartition, high methane potential zones and degradations zones. ERT method showed a strong relevance to monitor and to optimize the dry batch anaerobic digestion process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. What Do You Think You Are Measuring? A Mixed-Methods Procedure for Assessing the Content Validity of Test Items and Theory-Based Scaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koller, Ingrid; Levenson, Michael R.; Glück, Judith

    2017-01-01

    The valid measurement of latent constructs is crucial for psychological research. Here, we present a mixed-methods procedure for improving the precision of construct definitions, determining the content validity of items, evaluating the representativeness of items for the target construct, generating test items, and analyzing items on a theoretical basis. To illustrate the mixed-methods content-scaling-structure (CSS) procedure, we analyze the Adult Self-Transcendence Inventory, a self-report measure of wisdom (ASTI, Levenson et al., 2005). A content-validity analysis of the ASTI items was used as the basis of psychometric analyses using multidimensional item response models (N = 1215). We found that the new procedure produced important suggestions concerning five subdimensions of the ASTI that were not identifiable using exploratory methods. The study shows that the application of the suggested procedure leads to a deeper understanding of latent constructs. It also demonstrates the advantages of theory-based item analysis. PMID:28270777

  9. Validity of the clinical and content scales of the Multiphasic Personality Inventory Minnesota 2 for the diagnosis of psychogenic non-epileptic seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Barrio, A; Jiménez-Huete, A; Toledano, R; García-Morales, I; Gil-Nagel, A

    2016-03-01

    The use of the Multiphasic Personality Inventory Minnesota 2 (MMPI-2) for the diagnosis of psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES) is controversial. This study examines the validity of the clinical scales and, unlike previous works, the content scales. Cross-sectional study of 209 patients treated in the epilepsy unit. We performed a logistic regression analysis, taking video-electroencephalography as the reference test, and as predictor variables age, sex, IQ and clinical (model A) or content scales (model B) of the MMPI-2. The models were selected according to the Aikake index and compared using the DeLong test. We analyzed 37 patients with PNES alone, or combined with seizures, and 172 patients with seizures only. The model consisting of sex, Hs (hypochondriasis) and Pa (paranoia) showed a sensitivity of 77.1%, a specificity of 76.8%, a percentage of correct classification of 76.8%, and an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.836 for diagnosing CNEP. Model B, consisting of sex, HEA (health concerns) and FRS (fears), showed a sensitivity of 65.7%, a specificity of 78.0%, a percentage of correct classification of 75.9% and an AUC of 0.840. DeLong's test did not detect significant differences. The MMPI-2 has a moderate validity for the diagnosis of PNES in patients referred to an epilepsy unit. Using content scales does not significantly improve results from the clinical scales. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Reckless Behaviour and Sexual Practices of Emerging Adult Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullis, Ronald L.; Byno, Lucy H.; Shriner, Michael; Mullis, Ann K.

    2009-01-01

    Relations between reckless behaviour and sexual practices of emerging adult women (ages 18-25) within a social cognitive theoretical perspective were examined. In addition, relations between self esteem, sexual attitudes and sexual behaviour were also examined. The Sexual Experience Inventory, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Hendrick Sexual Attitude…

  11. SEXUAL ABUSE IN ADOLESCENTS - DATA FROM A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abused patients scored higher on depression rating scales than non sexually ... between sexual abuse and depresSIon, suicidal symptoms and alcohol nse is .... psychiatric symptoms, including negative cognitions, suicidal. Not present.

  12. The Role of Content and Context in PISA Interest Scales: A study of the embedded interest items in the PISA 2006 science assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drechsel, Barbara; Carstensen, Claus; Prenzel, Manfred

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses interest in science as one of the attitudinal aspects of scientific literacy. Large-scale data from the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2006 are analysed in order to describe student interest more precisely. So far the analyses have provided a general indicator of interest, aggregated over all contexts and contents in the science test. With its innovative approach PISA embeds interest items within the cognitive test unit and its contents and contexts. The main difference from conventional interest measures is that in most questionnaires, a relatively small number of interest items cover broad fields of contents and contexts. The science units represent a number of systematically differentiated scientific contexts and contents. The units' stimulus texts allow for concrete descriptions of relevant content aspects, applications, and contexts. In the analyses, multidimensional item response models are applied in order to disentangle student interest. The results indicate that multidimensional models fit the data. A two-dimensional model separating interest into two different knowledge of science dimensions described in the PISA science framework is further analysed with respect to gender, performance differences, and country. The findings give a comprehensive description of students' interest in science. The paper deals with methodological problems and describes requirements of the test construction for further assessments. The results are discussed with regard to their significance for science education.

  13. Is Support of Censoring Controversial Media Content for the Good of Others? Sexual Strategies and Support of Censoring Pro-Alcohol Advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinguang

    2017-01-01

    At least in the United States, there are widespread concerns with advertising that encourages alcohol consumption, and previous research explains those concerns as aiming to protect others from the harm of excessive alcohol use. 1 Drawing on sexual strategies theory, we hypothesized that support of censoring pro-alcohol advertising is ultimately self-benefiting regardless of its altruistic effect at a proximate level. Excessive drinking positively correlates with having casual sex, and casual sex threatens monogamy, one of the major means with which people adopting a long-term sexual strategy increase their inclusive fitness. Then, one way for long-term strategists to protect monogamy, and thus their reproductive interest is to support censoring pro-alcohol advertising, thereby preventing others from becoming excessive drinkers (and consequently having casual sex) under media influence. Supporting this hypothesis, three studies consistently showed that restricted sociosexuality positively correlated with support of censoring pro-alcohol advertising before and after various value-, ideological-, and moral-foundation variables were controlled for. Also as predicted, Study 3 revealed a significant indirect effect of sociosexuality on censorship support through perceived media influence on others but not through perceived media influence on self. These findings further supported a self-interest analysis of issue opinions, extended third-person-effect research on support of censoring pro-alcohol advertising, and suggested a novel approach to analyzing media censorship support.

  14. Is Comparison the Thief of Joy? Sexual Narcissism and Social Comparisons in the Domain of Sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Lisa C; Muise, Amy; Impett, Emily A

    2017-02-01

    Are people who are high in sexual narcissism more sensitive to information comparing their sex lives with the sex lives of others? Does this sensitivity explain narcissists' lower sexual and relationship satisfaction? We conducted three studies to address this question. Participants completed the Sexual Narcissism Scale (Widman & McNulty, 2010), and then either recalled (Study 1), imagined (Study 2), or actually made (Study 3) a sexual comparison. We found that people high in sexual narcissism (compared with those lower in sexual narcissism) were more bothered when comparing themselves with someone with a higher sexual frequency and felt better about a comparison with someone with a lower sexual frequency. In turn, narcissists' greater sensitivity to upward social comparisons predicted lower sexual and relationship satisfaction. These results suggest that those high in sexual narcissism may use downward sexual comparisons to maintain their grandiose self-views and be particularly sensitive to upward sexual comparisons.

  15. Sexual self-concept and intended sexual behavior of young adolescent Taiwanese girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Hsiang-Chu; Lee, Sheuan; Chang, Ting

    2010-01-01

    People begin to become aware of their sexual drive and erotic feelings as young adolescents. Such activity often has been overlooked in Taiwan, a traditional society, because sexuality is viewed as a private issue. The purpose of this study was to explore the sexual self-concept and intended sexual behavior of young adolescent girls in Taiwan. Participants included 372 girls, 12 to 14 years old, from junior high schools in Taiwan who completed two questionnaires on sexual experience and sexually related items: the Sexual Self-Concept Inventory, the Parental Approval of Sexual Behavior Scale, and the Friends' Approval of Sexual Behavior Scale, which were combined into one scale, with separate scores. Girls' self-reports showed low (negative) sexual self-concept, high perceived parental disapproval, and somewhat high perceived friends' disapproval of sexual activities. Sexual self-concept is associated with perceived parental and peer approval of sexual activities, and it is associated with sexual experience and intended sexual activities as well. A young adolescent girl who has a high score on the perceived sexual arousability factor of the Sexual Self-Concept Inventory is more likely to report the strongest intention toward sexual behavior. Sexual self-concept may play a key role in girls' intended sexual activities, including engaging in low-level sexual activities (e.g., kissing and breast fondling) that occur before intercourse, even when associated with intercourse intention. The research suggests that addressing sexual self-concept needs to be a priority to prevent young girls from engaging in sexual intercourse.

  16. Composting of high moisture content swine manure with corncob in a pilot-scale aerated static bin system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Nengwu

    2006-10-01

    Pilot composting experiments of swine manure with corncob were conducted to evaluate the performance of the aerated static bin composting system. Effects of temperature control (60 and 70 degrees C) and moisture content (70% and 80%) were monitored on the composting by measuring physical and chemical indexes. The results showed that (1) the composting system could destroy pathogens, converted nitrogen from unstable ammonia to stable organic forms, and reduced the volume of waste; (2) significant difference of NH(4)(+)-N (P(12) = 0.074), and (NO(3)(-) + NO(2)(-))-N (P(12) = 0.085) was found between the temperature control treatments; (3) anaerobic reaction in the treatment with 80% moisture content resulted in significant difference of pH (P(23) = 0.006), total organic matter (P(23) = 0.003), and germination index (P(23) = 0.040) between 70% and 80%. Therefore, the optimum initial moisture content was less than 80% with the composting of swine manure and corncob by using the composting system.

  17. Helping Teens Resist Sexual Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Helping Teens Resist Sexual Pressure Page Content Article Body Teens are more ... younger the first time they had intercourse. Helping Teens Resist Sexual Pressure “The pressure on teenagers to have sex ...

  18. 2012 Sexually Transmitted Diseases Surveillance, Other Sexually Transmitted Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2012 Sexually Transmitted Diseases Surveillance Table of Contents Introductory Section Foreword Preface Acronyms Figures- National Profile Figures - ... GISP Profiles Related Links STD Home STD Data & Statistics NCHHSTP Atlas Interactive STD Data - 1996-2013 STD ...

  19. Sexually Dimorphic Scale Worms (Annelida: Polynoidae From Hydrothermal Vents in the Okinawa Trough: Two New Species and Two New Sex Morphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanjie Zhang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Scale worms in the family Polynoidae are common inhabitants of both shallow-water and deep-sea ecosystems, but their diversity in the deep-sea remains poorly known. In the West Pacific, only 10 polynoid species have been described from deep-sea chemosynthetic ecosystems including hydrothermal vents and methane seeps. Here, we described two new species of polynoids based on specimens collected from hydrothermal vents in the Okinawa Trough. Levensteiniella undomarginata sp. nov. is distinguished from other congeners by having elytra with a wave-shaped edge, and that males possess two pairs of nephridial papillae. Branchinotogluma elytropapillata sp. nov. differs from other congeners by having papillae on the elytral edge, and by having a single pair of nephridial papillae and five pairs of C-shaped lamellae in males. Furthermore, we redescribed Lepidonotopodium okinawae (Sui and Li, 2017 and Branchinotogluma japonicus Miura and Hashimoto, 1991, because the original description of the former species did not cover males and that of the latter did not cover females. Sequencing of the cytochrome oxidase I (COI gene in these four species confirmed the sexual dimorphism in vent polynoids for the first time, and provided reliable barcoding sequences for identifying these polychaetes.

  20. Large-scale geographical variation in eggshell heavy metal and calcium content in a passerine bird (Ficedula hypoleuca)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruuskanen, S.; Morales, J.; Laaksonen, T.; Moreno, J.; Mateo, R.; Belskii, E.; Bushuev, A.; Jarvinen, A.; Kerimov, A.; Krams, I.; Morosinotto, C.; Mand, R.; Orell, M.; Qvarnstrom, A.; Slater, F.M.; Siitari, H.; Tilgar, V.; Visser, M.E.; Winkel, W.; Zang, H.; Eeva, T.

    2014-01-01

    Birds have been used as bioindicators of pollution, such as toxic metals. Levels of pollutants in eggs are especially interesting, as developing birds are more sensitive to detrimental effects of pollutants than adults. Only very few studies have monitored intraspecific, large-scale variation in

  1. Lichen elemental content bioindicators for air quality in upper Midwest, USA: A model for large-scale monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan Will-Wolf; Sarah Jovan; Michael C. Amacher

    2017-01-01

    Our development of lichen elemental bioindicators for a United States of America (USA) national monitoring program is a useful model for other large-scale programs. Concentrations of 20 elements were measured, validated, and analyzed for 203 samples of five common lichen species. Collections were made by trained non-specialists near 75 permanent plots and an expert...

  2. Using Cosmic-Ray Neutron Probes to Monitor Landscape Scale Soil Water Content in Mixed Land Use Agricultural Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franz, Trenton E.; Wahbi, Ammar; Weltin, Georg; Heng, Lee; Dercon, Gerd; Vreugdenhi, Mariette; Oismueller, Markus; Strauss, Peter; Desilets, Darin

    2016-01-01

    With an ever-increasing demand for natural resources and the societal need to understand and predict natural disasters such as flood, soil water content (SWC) observations remain a critical variable to monitor in order to optimally allocate resources, establish early warning systems, and improve weather forecasts. However, routine agricultural production practices of soil cultivation, planting, and harvest make the operation and maintenance of direct contact point sensors for long-term monitoring a challenging task. In this work, we used Cosmic-Ray Neutron Probe (CRNP) to monitor landscape average SWC in a mixed agricultural land use system in northeast Austria since December 2013.

  3. Ornament Complexity Is Correlated with Sexual Selection: (A Comment on Raia et al., "Cope's Rule and the Universal Scaling Law of Ornament Complexity").

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Luke; Bro-Jørgensen, Jakob

    2016-08-01

    Raia et al. propose that the evolution of the shape and complexity of animal ornaments (e.g., deer antlers) can be explained by interspecific variation in body size and is not influenced by sexual selection. They claim to show that ornament complexity is related to body size by an 0.25-power law and argue that this finding precludes a role for sexual selection in the evolution of ornament complexity. However, their study does not test alternative hypotheses and mismeasures antler shape allometry by omitting much of the published data. We show that an index of sexual selection (sexual size dimorphism) is positively correlated with size-corrected antler complexity and that the allometric slope of complexity is substantially greater than 0.25, contra Raia et al. We conclude that sexual selection and physical constraints both affect the evolution of antler shape.

  4. Content Validity and Psychometric Properties of the Nomination Scale for Identifying Football Talent (NSIFT: Application to Coaches, Parents and Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Prieto-Ayuso

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The identification of football talent is a critical issue both for clubs and the families of players. However, despite its importance in a sporting, economic and social sense, there appears to be a lack of instruments that can reliably measure talent performance. The aim of this study was to design and validate the Nomination Scale for Identifying Football Talent (NSIFT, with the aim of optimising the processes for identifying said talent. The scale was first validated through expert judgment, and then statistically, by means of an exploratory factor analysis (EFA, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA, internal reliability and convergent validity. The results reveal the presence of three factors in the scale’s factor matrix, with these results being confirmed by the CFA. The scale revealed suitable internal reliability and homogeneity indices. Convergent validity showed that it is teammates who are best able to identify football talent, followed by coaches and parents. It can be concluded that the NSIFT is suitable for use in the football world. Future studies should seek to confirm these results in different contexts by means of further CFAs.

  5. Determinants of alcohol use, risky sexual behavior and sexual health problems among men in low income communities of Mumbai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S K; Schensul, Jean J; Gupta, Kamla; Maharana, Barsharani; Kremelberg, David; Berg, Marlene

    2010-08-01

    This paper summarizes the main results of the survey component of a mixed methods study of alcohol and sexual risk in a general population of young men 18-29 residing in low income communities in the Greater Mumbai area. The survey included demographic variables, and scales and indices measuring work related stress, social influence, exposure to alcohol in childhood, and currently, hyper masculinity, exposure to media and pornography, risk related leisure time activities and alcohol and alcohol/sex expectancies. Measures of alcohol use included frequency/amount/contextual use of six different types of alcohol, a general estimate of frequency and amount (AUDIT), and an estimate of total ml. alcohol consumed in the past 30 days, based on estimates of alcohol content in all types of alcohol consumed, by unit of consumption (glass, peg, bottle) etc. Sexual outcome measures included types and number of partners ever and in past year with and without alcohol, and a critical event with most recent partner (with or without alcohol) and culturally specific indicators of sexual health related to sexual risk taking. A cluster sampling protocol and the use of a screener produced a sample of 1239 men, 1071 thirty day drinkers and 161 nondrinkers. Logistic regression analysis (binary and multinomial) showed relationships between predictor variables and alcohol consumption and alcohol and sexual risk indicators as well as two of the sexual health indicators associated with extramarital sex. Risk behaviors are associated with higher levels of alcohol consumption in this low risk general population of married and unmarried men. Implications for intervention include: (a) reducing or eliminating home drinking, to reduce early childhood exposure; (b) including alcohol in sexual risk and HIV prevention programs; (c) improving couples (married or unmarried) communication to reduce men's search for sexual alternatives, and (d) treating garmi as an indicator of sexual risk taking rather

  6. Sexual Essays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giles, James

    Through a series of interrelated essays, this book explores fundamental issues concerning gender, sexual and romantic attraction, sexual desire and fantasies, the sexual positions, age dysphoria, and the role of naked skin in human sexuality. It does so by exploring experiential, social, biological...... on sex. It is further argued that sexual desire is an existential need based on the experience of having a gendered body. A case study of age dysphoria is presented showing how the conclusions concerning concerning gender and desire apply in an atypical case. The body's fundamental role in sexuality......, and evolutionary aspects of sexual life. The author criticizes several popular views, rejecting both social constructionist accounts of gender and social constructionist and biological accounts of sexual desire. It is argued instead that gender roles and gender are often confused and that gender itself is based...

  7. Sexual Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... protect yourself from sexually transmitted infections. Talking to kids about sex Kids and sexuality — those words strike fear into the hearts of many parents. But talking to kids about sex is an important part of parenting. Children and ...

  8. Sexual Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexual Violence Facts at a Glance 2012 Adults In a nationally representative survey of adults: 1 • Nearly 1 in ... 5.6% and 5.3%, respectively) experienced sexual violence other than rape, such as being made to ...

  9. Sexual Fears and Avoidant Sexual Behavior in Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Stefan P; Mateva, Nonka G; Iliev, Yanko T; Dechev, Ivan D; Karalilova, Rositsa V

    2015-01-01

    Sexual fears, sometimes in the form of phobias, lead to aversive or sexually avoidant behavior blocking sexual closeness and resulting in deep personal and interpersonal distress. To determine the types of sexual fears and aversive behavior in young people of reproductive age (students) and their degree of markedness as to encourage a further implementation of prevention programs and interventions. The study included 116 fifth-year medical students in Plovdiv Medical University. Of these, 55 men and 61 women were assessed with the Sexual Aversion Scale, a 30-item self-rating questionnaire. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders criteria of sexual aversion were used. The statistical analyses used were descriptive statistics and independent samples t-test. Sexual fears and aversive or blocking behavior are mild to moderate, mean score of 1.54 ± 0.04, without statistically significant gender differences. Both sexes have established fear-related sexual aversive motives of sexual behavior related to the risk of unwanted pregnancy and HIV infection. Women have significantly higher average scores for the following statements: fear of sexual intercourse (1.61 vs 1.25), avoidance of situations in which they may be involved sexually (1.95 vs 1.51), avoidance of genital sexual contact (1.44 vs 1.16), fear of catching a sexually transmitted disease (2.46 vs 2.09 ), fear of pregnancy (2.61 vs 2.15) and concerns what other people think of them (2.34 vs 1.93 ). Sexual fears and aversive or blocking behavior were mild to moderate. In both sexes similar fears--aversive or blocking patterns of sexual behavior were found, mainly associated with the fear of unwanted pregnancy and the risk of HIV infection, more expressed in women.

  10. Female sexuality

    OpenAIRE

    Rao, T.S. Sathyanarana; Nagaraj, Anil Kumar M.

    2015-01-01

    Sex is a motive force bringing a man and a woman into intimate contact. Sexuality is a central aspect of being human throughout life and encompasses sex, gender identities and roles, sexual orientation, eroticism, pleasure, intimacy, and reproduction. Sexuality is experienced and expressed in thoughts, fantasies, desires, beliefs, attitudes, values, behaviors, practices, roles and relationships. Though generally, women are sexually active during adolescence, they reach their peak orgasmic fre...

  11. Sexual Regret

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leif Edward Ottesen Kennair

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The current study sought to answer three key questions about explaining the emotion of regret in the domain of casual sex: Are sex differences in sexual regret robust or attenuated in a highly egalitarian culture? What proximate psychological variables might explain sex differences in sexual regret? And what accounts for within-sex variation in experiences of sexual regret about casual sex. We conducted a study of 263 Norwegian students (ages 19–37 who reported how much they regretted having either engaged in, or passed up, their most recent casual sexual experience. Sex differences in sexual regret are not attenuated in this sexually egalitarian culture. The study revealed sex differences in worries about pregnancy, STIs, and reputation; however, these predictors did not succeed in accounting for the sex differences in regret engaging in casual sex. Sexual gratification and socio-sexual orientation both predicted the sex differences in casual sex regret. In contrast, only socio-sexual orientation attenuated the sex difference in regret passing up casual sex. Predictors of within-sex variation in casual sexual regret included worry about sexual reputation, experienced gratification during the encounter, and socio-sexual orientation. Discussion focuses on implications for the psychological design features of this relatively neglected emotion.

  12. Infantile sexuality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeuthen, Katrine Egede; Gammelgård, Judy

    2010-01-01

    When first presented, Freud´s theory of infantile sexuality was a scandal. Not only was the claim that the small child sucking at the mother´s breast experiences a kind of pleasure that Freud without hesitation named sexual, the theory also turned the common understanding of human sexuality up-si...

  13. Large-scale geographical variation in eggshell metal and calcium content in a passerine bird (Ficedula hypoleuca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruuskanen, Suvi; Laaksonen, Toni; Morales, Judith; Moreno, Juan; Mateo, Rafael; Belskii, Eugen; Bushuev, Andrey; Järvinen, Antero; Kerimov, Anvar; Krams, Indrikis; Morosinotto, Chiara; Mänd, Raivo; Orell, Markku; Qvarnström, Anna; Slate, Fred; Tilgar, Vallo; Visser, Marcel E; Winkel, Wolfgang; Zang, Herwig; Eeva, Tapio

    2014-03-01

    Birds have been used as bioindicators of pollution, such as toxic metals. Levels of pollutants in eggs are especially interesting, as developing birds are more sensitive to detrimental effects of pollutants than adults. Only very few studies have monitored intraspecific, large-scale variation in metal pollution across a species' breeding range. We studied large-scale geographic variation in metal levels in the eggs of a small passerine, the pied flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca), sampled from 15 populations across Europe. We measured 10 eggshell elements (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, Se, Sr, and Ca) and several shell characteristics (mass, thickness, porosity, and color). We found significant variation among populations in eggshell metal levels for all metals except copper. Eggshell lead, zinc, and chromium levels decreased from central Europe to the north, in line with the gradient in pollution levels over Europe, thus suggesting that eggshell can be used as an indicator of pollution levels. Eggshell lead levels were also correlated with soil lead levels and pH. Most of the metals were not correlated with eggshell characteristics, with the exception of shell mass, or with breeding success, which may suggest that birds can cope well with the current background exposure levels across Europe.

  14. Factor analysis and psychometric properties of the Mother-Adolescent Sexual Communication (MASC) instrument for sexual risk behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Mary Foster; Fasolino, Tracy K; Tavakoli, Abbas S

    2008-01-01

    Sexual risk behavior is a public health problem among adolescents living at or below poverty level. Approximately 1 million pregnancies and 3 million cases of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are reported yearly. Parenting plays a significant role in adolescent behavior, with mother-adolescent sexual communication correlated with absent or delayed sexual behavior. This study developed an instrument examining constructs of mother-adolescent communication, the Mother-Adolescent Sexual Communication (MASC) instrument. A convenience sample of 99 mothers of middle school children completed the self-administered questionnaires. The original 34-item MASC was reduced to 18 items. Exploratory factor analysis was conducted on the 18-item scale, which resulted in four factors explaining 84.63% of the total variance. Internal consistency analysis produced Cronbach alpha coefficients of .87, .90, .82, and .71 for the four factors, respectively. Convergent validity via hypothesis testing was supported by significant correlations with several subscales of the Parent-Child Relationship Questionnaire (PCRQ) with MASC factors, that is, content and style factors with warmth, personal relationships and disciplinary warmth subscales of the PCRQ, the context factor with personal relationships, and the timing factor with warmth. In light of these findings, the psychometric characteristics and multidimensional perspective of the MASC instrument show evidence of usefulness for measuring and advancing knowledge of mother and adolescent sexual communication techniques.

  15. Why is impaired sexual function distressing to women? The primacy of pleasure in female sexual dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Kyle R; Meston, Cindy M

    2015-03-01

    Recent research has highlighted a complex association between female sexual function and subjective distress regarding sexual activity. These findings are difficult to explain given limited knowledge as to the mechanisms through which impaired sexual function causes distress. The current study assessed whether a number of specific consequences of impaired sexual function, including decreased physical pleasure, disruption of sexual activity, and negative partner responses, mediated the association between sexual function and distress. Eighty-seven women in sexually active relationships reporting impairments in sexual function completed validated self-report measures and daily online assessments of sexual experiences. Participants completed the Sexual Satisfaction Scale for Women, the Female Sexual Function Index, and the Measure of Sexual Consequences. Results suggested that decreased physical pleasure and disruption of sexual activity, but not partner responses, statistically mediated the association between sexual function and distress. Sexual consequences represent potential maintaining factors of sexual dysfunction that are highly distressing to women. Results are discussed in the context of theoretical models of sexual dysfunction and related treatments. © 2014 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  16. On the use of AMSU-based products for the description of soil water content at basin scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Manfreda

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Characterizing the dynamics of soil moisture fields is a key issue in hydrology, offering a strategy to improve our understanding of complex climate-soil-vegetation interactions. Besides in-situ measurements and hydrological models, soil moisture dynamics can be inferred by analyzing data acquired by sensors on board of airborne and/or satellite platforms. In this work, we investigated the use of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration – Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (NOAA-AMSU-A radiometer for the remote characterization of soil water content. To this aim, a field measurement campaign, lasted about three months (3 March 2010–18 May 2010, was carried out using a portable time-domain reflectometer (TDR to get soil water content measures over five different locations within an experimental basin of 32.5 km2, located in the South of Italy. In detail, soil moisture measurements were carried out systematically at the times of satellite overpasses, over two square areas of 400 m2, a triangular area of 200 m2 and two transects of 60 and 170 m, respectively. Each monitored site is characterized by different land covers and soil textures, to account for spatial heterogeneity of land surface. Afterwards, a more extensive comparison (i.e. analyzing a 5 yr data time series was made using soil moisture simulated by a hydrological model. Measured and modeled soil moisture data were compared with two AMSU-based indices: the Surface Wetness Index (SWI and the Soil Wetness Variation Index (SWVI. Both time series of indices have been filtered by means of an exponential filter to account for the fact that microwave sensors only provide information at the skin surface. This allowed to understand the ability of each satellite-based index to account for soil moisture dynamics and to understand its performances under different conditions. As a general remark, the comparison shows a higher ability of the filtered

  17. Factors affecting sexuality in older Australian women: sexual interest, sexual arousal, relationships and sexual distress in older Australian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, J R; O'Neill, S; Travers, C

    2006-10-01

    To investigate the sexual behavior, sexual relationships, sexual satisfaction, sexual dysfunction and sexual distress in a population of older urban Australian women. In 2004, 474 women participating in the Longitudinal Assessment of Ageing in Women (LAW) Study completed a series of questionnaires about sexuality. They included the Short Personal Experiences Questionnaire (SPEQ), Relationship Assessment Scale (RAS), Female Sexual Distress Scale (FSDS), questions concerning past sexual abuse based on the Sex in Australia Study, and questions comparing present and past sexual interest and activity. The percentage of women with partners ranged from 83.3% in the 40 - 49-year age group to 46.4% women in the 70 - 79-year age group. The sexual ability of partners diminished markedly with age, with only 4.8% of the partners using medication to enable erections. Only 2.5% of women reported low relationship satisfaction. The incidence of sexual distress was also low, being reported by only 5.7% of women. Younger women and women with partners had higher levels of distress than older women. Indifference to sexual frequency rose from 26.7% in women aged 40 - 49 years to 72.3% in the 70 - 79-year age group. Past sexual abuse was recalled by 22.7% of women and 11.6% recalled multiple episodes of abuse. Women who recalled abuse had lower scores for satisfaction with sexual frequency. It appears from this study that there is a wide range of sexual experience amongst aging women, from never having had a sexual partner, to having solitary sex, to having a relationship with or without sex into the seventh decade. As women age, they experience a decrease in sexual activity, interest in sex, and distress about sex. This may be associated with the loss of intimate relationships as part of separation, divorce or bereavement. Decreased sexual activity with aging may be interpreted as a biological phenomenon (part of the aging process) or as sexual dysfunction, or it may be the result of

  18. Non-invasive detection of soil water content at intermediate field scale using natural neutrons from cosmic radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oswald, Sascha; Rivera Villarreyes, Carlos; Baroni, Gabriele [Universitaet Potsdam, Institut fuer Erd und Umweltwissenschaften (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    The amount of water in the subsurface is a key factor influencing soil hydrology, run-off, evapotranspiration and plant development. A new measurement method is the so called cosmic ray method, recently introduced for soil moisture measurements by Zreda and coworkers. Secondary neutron fluxes, product of the interaction of primary cosmic-rays at the land surface, are strongly moderated by the presence of water in or above soil (soil moisture, snow and biomass water). Neutron counts at the ground/air interface represent a valuable observation at intermediate spatial scale which can be used to quantify stored water while distinguishing different water holding compartments at the land surface. We have performed such measurements in an agricultural field, in comparison with classical soil moisture measurement at a number of point locations. We discuss how to extract soil moisture values from the neutron counts, drawbacks of the method, but also that the results show a temporal development supported by the accompanying data.

  19. The dual role of media internalization in adolescent sexual behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rousseau, A.; Beyens, I.; Eggermont, S.; Vandenbosch, L.

    Sexualizing media content is prevalent in various media types. Sexualizing media messages and portrayals emphasize unattainable body and appearance ideals as the primary components of sexual desirability. The internalization of these ideals is positively related to self-objectification and sexual

  20. Sexual Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McMahon Sharon

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Health Issue Much attention is devoted to women's reproductive health, but the formative and mature stages of women's sexual lives are often overlooked. We have analyzed cross-sectional data from the Sexual Behaviour module of the 2000/2001 Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS, and reviewed the literature and available indicators of the sexual health of Canadian women. Key Findings Contemporary Canadian adolescents are becoming sexually active at younger ages than in previous generations. The gender gap between young males and females in age at first intercourse has virtually disappeared. The mean age at first intercourse for CCHS respondents aged 15–24 years was between 16 and 17. Canadian-born respondents are significantly younger at first intercourse than those who were born outside of Canada. Few adolescents recognize important risks to their sexual health. Older Canadians are sexually active, and continue to find emotional and physical satisfaction in their sexual relationships. Data Gaps and Recommendations Both health surveys and targeted research must employ a broader understanding of sexuality to measure changes in and determinants of the sexual health of Canadians. There is reluctance to direct questions about sexual issues to younger Canadians, even though increased knowledge of sexual health topics is associated with delayed onset of sexual intercourse. Among adults, sex-positive resources are needed to address aspects of aging, rather than medicalizing age-related sexual dysfunction. Age and gender-appropriate sexual health care, education, and knowledge are important not only for women of reproductive age, but for Canadians at all stages of life.

  1. A pilot-scale steam autoclave system for treating municipal solid waste for recovery of renewable organic content: Operational results and energy usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtman, Kevin M; Bozzi, David V; Franqui-Villanueva, Diana; Offeman, Richard D; Orts, William J

    2016-05-01

    A pilot-scale (1800 kg per batch capacity) autoclave used in this study reduces municipal solid waste to a debris contaminated pulp product that is efficiently separated into its renewable organic content and non-renewable organic content fractions using a rotary trommel screen. The renewable organic content can be recovered at nearly 90% efficiency and the trommel rejects are also much easier to sort for recovery. This study provides the evaluation of autoclave operation, including mass and energy balances for the purpose of integration into organic diversion systems. Several methods of cooking municipal solid waste were explored from indirect oil heating only, a combination of oil and direct steam during the same cooking cycle, and steam only. Gross energy requirements averaged 1290 kJ kg(-1) material in vessel, including the weight of free water and steam added during heating. On average, steam recovery can recoup 43% of the water added and 30% of the energy, supplying on average 40% of steam requirements for the next cook. Steam recycle from one vessel to the next can reduce gross energy requirements to an average of 790 kJ kg(-1). © The Author(s) 2016.

  2. Sexual media exposure, sexual behavior, and sexual violence victimization in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ybarra, Michele L; Strasburger, Victor C; Mitchell, Kimberly J

    2014-11-01

    Emerging research suggests sexual media affects sexual behavior, but most studies are based on regional samples and few include measures of newer mediums. Furthermore, little is known about how sexual media relates to sexual violence victimization. Data are from 1058 youth 14 to 21 years of age in the national, online Growing up with Media study. Forty-seven percent reported that many or almost all/all of at least one type of media they consumed depicted sexual situations. Exposure to sexual media in television and movies, and music was greater than online and in games. All other things equal, more frequent exposure to sexual media was related to ever having had sex, coercive sex victimization, and attempted/completed rape but not risky sexual behavior. Longer standing mediums such as television and movies appear to be associated with greater amounts of sexual media consumption than newer ones, such as the Internet. A nuanced view of how sexual media content may and may not be affecting today's youth is needed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. Psychosexual Correlates of Sexual Double Standard Endorsement in Adolescent Sexuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmerink, Peggy M. J.; Vanwesenbeeck, Ine; van den Eijnden, Regina J. J. M.; ter Bogt, Tom F. M.

    2016-01-01

    Endorsement and enactment of the (hetero)sexual double standard (SDS), prescribing sexual modesty for girls and sexual prowess for boys, has been shown to be negatively related to sexual and mental health. To be able to challenge the SDS, more insight is needed into the conditions that shape gendered sexual attitudes. A survey was conducted among 465 heterosexual adolescents (aged 16–20 years), examining the relationship between a number of relevant demographic and psychosexual variables and SDS endorsement. SDS endorsement was assessed using a newly developed instrument, the Scale for the Assessment of Sexual Standards Among Youth (SASSY). Gender (being male) and religiousness were significantly associated with increased SDS endorsement. For both boys and girls, increased feelings of entitlement to self-induced sexual pleasure (e.g., masturbation) were significantly associated with reduced SDS endorsement, whereas higher gender investment was significantly associated with increased SDS endorsement. Furthermore, increased feelings of entitlement to partner-induced sexual pleasure and more frequent talking about sexuality with peers were associated with increased SDS endorsement among boys but not among girls. We conclude that future research should explore peer influence processes through peer communication about sex, gender investment, and feelings of entitlement to both self and partner-induced sexual pleasure. PMID:26327361

  4. Sexual harassment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sbraga, T P; O'Donohue, W

    2000-01-01

    We review the current state of sexual harassment theory, research, treatment, and prevention. Definitional problems and implications are discussed. An examination of the epidemiology of sexual harassment is presented, highlighting correlates that include characteristics of the organizational environment, the perpetrator, and the recipient of unwanted sexual behavior. Normative responses to sexual harassment and consequences are discussed. Descriptions of the most prevalent models of sexual harassment are offered and the empirical evidence for them is briefly reviewed. From there, the effect of model development and evaluation on the prevention and treatment of sexual harassment is considered. We comment on the steps that would need to be taken to develop viable prevention and treatment programs. Suggestions for fruitful avenues of research and theory development are offered.

  5. Sexual dysfunctions in psoriatic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Isabela Sarbu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Psoriasis is a chronic, immune-mediated disorder with a worldwide occurrence characterized by well-defined infiltrated erythematous papules and plaques, covered by silvery white or yellowish scales. It is a physically, socially and emotionally invalidating disorder that affects 1-2% of the population. Sexual health is an important part of general health and sexual dysfunctions can negatively affect self-esteem, confidence, interpersonal relationships and the quality of life. Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI, Psoriasis Disability Index (PDI and the Impact of Psoriasis on Quality of Life (IPSO questionnaire are all questionnaires used to assess the quality of life of patients with psoriasis and each has one question regarding sexual dysfunction. Several scales were also designed to particularly assess sexual satisfaction in men and women. The aim of this paper is to perform an overview of the existing studies on sexual dysfunction in psoriatic patients.

  6. Male sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsberg, Terrie B

    2010-05-01

    It should be recognized that sexuality in the aging male is of such import that a complete sexual history must be performed. By taking a complete sexual history, facts can be obtained that will allow for appropriate focus relating to a holistic evaluation and will enable us to dispel antiquated sexual myths pertaining to the aging male. If initiated by the history taker, questions concerning sexuality may be discussed more comfortably by the patient. Erectile dysfunction, male sexual response cycle, testosterone, sexually transmitted diseases, human immunodeficiency virus, long-term illness, along with religion and culture are explored in this article with the aim of improving one's knowledge base, self reflection, and awareness of the importance of male sexuality. A complete understanding and appreciation of the aging male's medical history, surgical history, social history, and emotional history as well as his sexual, cultural, and religious concepts will allow the health care provider to better analyze information, and to recommend and provide appropriate advice and treatment to the aging male patient. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Sexual pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boardman, Lori A; Stockdale, Colleen K

    2009-12-01

    Sexual pain is an underrecognized and poorly treated constellation of disorders that significantly impact affected women and their partners. Recognized as a form of chronic pain, sexual pain disorders are heterogeneous and include dyspareunia (superficial and deep), vaginismus, vulvodynia, vestibulitis, and noncoital sexual pain disorder. Women too often tolerate pain in the belief that this will meet their partners' needs. This article provides a review of the terminology and definition of the condition, theories on the pathophysiology, diagnostic considerations, and recommendations on the management of female sexual pain.

  8. Sexual addictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Frederico Duarte; Thibaut, Florence

    2010-09-01

    The potential adverse consequences, personal distress, shame and guilt presented by patients who suffer from sexual addiction require a more in-depth understanding of the phenomenology and psychobiology of this disorder. A bibliographic review was conducted using MEDLINE and EBSCO databases with the following keywords: "sexual addiction," "hypersexuality," "compulsive sexual behavior," "behavioural addiction," "treatment," and "addiction." Several conceptualizations of excessive nonparaphilic sexual disorder have been proposed based on the models of, respectively, obsessive compulsive disorder, impulse control disorder, out of control excessive sexual disorder, and addictive disorder. Despite the lack of robust scientific data, a number of clinical elements, such as the frequent preoccupation with this type of behavior, the time spent in sexual activities, the continuation of this behavior despite its negative consequences, the repeated and unsuccessful efforts made to reduce the behavior, are in favor of an addictive disorder. In addition there is a high comorbidity between excessive sexual behavior and other addictive behaviors. The phenomenology of excessive nonparaphilic sexual disorder favors its conceptualization as an addictive behavior, rather than an obsessive-compulsive, or an impulse control disorder. Moreover, the criteria that are quite close to those of addictive disorders were recently proposed for the future DSM-V in order to improve the characterization of this condition. Finally, controlled studies are warranted in order to establish clear guidelines for treatment of sexual addiction.

  9. Senior Adult Sexuality in Age Segregated and Age Integrated Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Stellye; Rosen, Efrem

    1988-01-01

    Middle-income older adults (N=314) responded to senior adult sexuality scale. Results showed that respondents who selected to reside in age-segregated leisure-type retirement communities exhibited significantly more sexual interest, sexual activities, and liberal sexual attitudes than did respondents residing in age-integrated mainstream…

  10. Content validity and electronic PRO (ePRO) usability of the Lung Cancer Symptom Scale-Mesothelioma (LCSS-Meso) in mesothelioma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelhorn, Heather L; Skalicky, Anne M; Balantac, Zaneta; Eremenco, Sonya; Cimms, Tricia; Halling, Katarina; Hollen, Patricia J; Gralla, Richard J; Mahoney, Martin C; Sexton, Chris

    2018-02-01

    Obtaining qualitative data directly from the patient perspective enhances the content validity of patient-reported outcome (PRO) instruments. The objective of this qualitative study was to evaluate the content validity of the Lung Cancer Symptom Scale for Mesothelioma (LCSS-Meso) and its usability on an electronic device. A cross-sectional methodological study, using a qualitative approach, was conducted among patients recruited from four clinical sites. The primary target population included patients with pleural mesothelioma; data were also collected from patients with peritoneal mesothelioma on an exploratory basis. Semi-structured interviews were conducted consisting of concept elicitation, cognitive interviewing, and evaluation of electronic patient-reported outcome (ePRO) usability. Participants (n = 21) were interviewed in person (n = 9) or by telephone (n = 12); 71% were male with a mean age of 69 years (SD = 14). The most common signs and symptoms experienced by participants with pleural mesothelioma (n = 18) were shortness of breath, fluid build-up, pain, fatigue, coughing, and appetite loss. The most commonly described symptoms for those with peritoneal mesothelioma (n = 4) were bloating, changes in appetite, fatigue, fluid build-up, shortness of breath, and pain. Participants with pleural mesothelioma commonly described symptoms assessed by the LCSS-Meso in language consistent with the questionnaire and a majority understood and easily completed each of the items. The ePRO version was easy to use, and there was no evidence that the electronic formatting changed the way participants responded to the questions. Results support the content validity of the LCSS-Meso and the usability of the electronic format for use in assessing symptoms among patients with pleural mesothelioma.

  11. Images of Sexuality and Aging in Gerontological Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Scherrer, Kristin S.

    2009-01-01

    Discursive portrayals of aging and sexuality have important implications for the creation and reproduction of inequalities. This article delineates some of the images of older adults’ sexualities using an interpretive content analysis of gerontology articles dealing with issues of sexuality in 21 gerontological journals over a 20-year span (1988–2007). The 3 main findings of this analysis were (a) that aging sexualities are asserted, (b) that the sexual identities of older adults vary, and (c...

  12. Sexuality education in different contexts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simovska, Venka; Kane, Ros

    2015-01-01

    Sexuality education is a controversial and contested issue that has evoked wide debate on the question of its aims, contents, methods, pedagogy and desired outcomes. This editorial aims to provide a commentary, positioning the contributions to this Special Issue of Health Education within...... the research landscape concerning sexuality education in schools internationally. The idea for this Special Issue was born in Odense, Denmark, in October 2012, during the 4th European Conference of Health Promoting Schools. The Conference Programme and the debates during the sessions demonstrated the need...... for a wider discussion of sexuality education, particularly within the framework of the health-promoting school. There was recognition of the need to endorse positive and wide socio-ecological views of health, including sexual health and a critical educational approach to sexuality education. The conference...

  13. Sexual revolutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hekma, G.; Giami, A.

    2014-01-01

    The sexual revolution of 1960-1980 created a major break in attitudes and practices in Western societies. It created many new freedoms for gay men, youth and women, in terms of sexual imagery, information, and rights. Leftists denounced the revolution's consumerism whilst feminists lamented its

  14. Sexual Violence Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Emails Sexual Violence Prevention Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir April ... stop sexual violence before it begins. Understanding Sexual Violence Sexual violence is any sexual activity where consent ...

  15. Sexual assault

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, M-L; Hilden, M; Lidegaard, Ø

    2015-01-01

    ) the relationship between victim and perpetrator. RESULTS: Two-thirds of the victims were aged 15-24 years. Seventy-five percent had met the perpetrator before the sexual assault and 70% reported the assault to the police. A physical injury was found in 53, and 27% sustained an anogenital lesion. Alcohol...... is important in creating an environment where women are not reluctant to seek help after a sexual assault. Young age and drinking alcohol were risk factors for sexual assault, and we need to address this when considering preventive strategies.......OBJECTIVE: To describe the victims of sexual assault and the circumstances in which the assaults occur. DESIGN: Descriptive case study. SETTING: Centre for Victims of Sexual Assault (CVSA), Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark. POPULATION OR SAMPLE: A total of 2541 women attending CVSA from 2001...

  16. Sexual prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herek, Gregory M; McLemore, Kevin A

    2013-01-01

    Despite shifts toward greater acceptance in U.S. public opinion and policy, lesbian, gay, and bisexual people remain widely stigmatized. This article reviews empirical research on sexual prejudice, that is, heterosexuals' internalization of cultural stigma, manifested in the form of negative attitudes toward sexual minorities and same-sex desires and behaviors. After briefly reviewing measurement issues, we discuss linkages between sexual prejudice and religion, gender, sexuality, and related variables, and consider how the cultural institutions encompassing these domains create a social context within which individual expressions of prejudice can meet important psychological needs. These include needs for securing social acceptance, affirming values that are central to one's self-concept, and avoiding anxiety and other negative emotions associated with threats to self-esteem. We conclude by discussing factors that may motivate heterosexuals to reduce their own sexual prejudice, including intergroup contact, as well as avenues for future empirical inquiry.

  17. Exploring the effect of sexual empowerment on sexual decision making in female adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Hsiu-Yueh; Lien, Yu-Fen; Lou, Jiunn-Horng; Chen, Sheng-Hwang; Wang, Ruey-Hsia

    2010-03-01

    Traditional health education may not provide adequate sexual information to female adolescents. Sexual health education for female adolescents broadens opportunities for nurses to help female adolescents adopt appropriate sexual attitudes and make appropriate decisions. The purpose of this study was to understand the effect of sexual empowerment on sexual decision making in female adolescents. Twenty-nine female students with steady boyfriends were invited to participate in a sexual empowerment course. Course activities specifically related to sexual empowerment were audio-tape-recorded. Dialogue content was analyzed, and content provided by each study participant was reconfirmed in face-to-face interviews to understand the entire empowerment process in terms of how such may affect responses and to assess the possibility of correctly reinterpreting findings during the member check process. This study also took into consideration degrees of reliability and rigorousness. The four themes found to underlie participant perceptions of their sexual empowerment to make sex-related decisions were as follows: (a) proactively seeking sexual knowledge, (b) reexamining relationships with boyfriends, (c) the right to say "no" and to engage in self-protection, and (d) the need to change sexual attitudes and behaviors. Using the peer group intervention in sexual empowerment may positively impact sexual health decision making in adolescent girls. Nursing professionals may consider peer group intervention as a sexual empowering method in healthcare.

  18. Sexual safety and sexual security among young Black women who have sex with women and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Kamila Anise; Fannin, Ehriel F

    2014-01-01

    To examine sexuality narratives of Black women who have sex with women and men and explore factors that influence their sexual safety and sexual security. Secondary qualitative content analysis. We recruited young self-identified Black women from beauty salons and community-based organizations. Our sample included a subset of five sexually active, Black women age 19 to 25 who reported engaging in sexual relationships with women and men. Participants were selected from a larger parent study that included sexuality narratives from 25 women. We analyzed interview transcripts in which participants described sexual relationships. We used constant comparative techniques and conventional content analysis methodology. We uncovered three themes illustrating influences on sexual safety and sexual security: institutional expectations, emotional connectedness, and sexual behaviors. From this analysis, we derive valuable insights into decision-making processes within sexual relationships from the perspectives of young Black women who have sex with women and men. Clinicians and investigators can use these findings to inform programs designed to improve the sexual health of this often invisible group of women. Nurses are uniquely positioned to support young women as they navigate societal institutions and emotional experiences that inform future sexual decisions and behaviors. © 2014 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  19. Violencia sexual

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Tadayuki Oshikata

    2003-01-01

    Resumo: A violência sexual é um crime clandestino e subnotificado, praticado contra a liberdade sexual da mulher. Provoca traumas físicos e psíquicos, além de expor a doenças sexualmente transmissíveis e gravidez indesejada. Existem poucos serviços no Brasil que oferecem um atendimento especializado para diagnosticar e tratar as mulheres vítimas de violência sexual. A finalidade deste trabalho foi avaliar, através de um estudo descritivo e retrospectivo, 166 mulheres que compareceram na urgên...

  20. Finding Multi-scale Connectivity in Our Geospace Observational System: A New Perspective for Total Electron Content Data Through Network Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGranaghan, R. M.; Mannucci, A. J.; Verkhoglyadova, O. P.; Malik, N.

    2017-12-01

    How do we evolve beyond current traditional methods in order to innovate into the future? In what disruptive innovations will the next frontier of space physics and aeronomy (SPA) be grounded? We believe the answer to these compelling, yet equally challenging, questions lies in a shift of focus: from a narrow, field-specific view to a radically inclusive, interdisciplinary new modus operandi at the intersection of SPA and the information and data sciences. Concretely addressing these broader themes, we present results from a novel technique for knowledge discovery in the magnetosphere-ionosphere-thermosphere (MIT) system: complex network analysis (NA). We share findings from the first NA of ionospheric total electron content (TEC) data, including hemispheric and interplanetary magnetic field clock angle dependencies [1]. Our work shows that NA complements more traditional approaches for the investigation of TEC structure and dynamics, by both reaffirming well-established understanding, giving credence to the method, and identifying new connections, illustrating the exciting potential. We contextualize these new results through a discussion of the potential of data-driven discovery in the MIT system when innovative data science techniques are embraced. We address implications and potentially disruptive data analysis approaches for SPA in terms of: 1) the future of the geospace observational system; 2) understanding multi-scale phenomena; and 3) machine learning. [1] McGranaghan, R. M., A. J. Mannucci, O. Verkhoglyadova, and N. Malik (2017), Finding multiscale connectivity in our geospace observational system: Network analysis of total electron content, J. Geophys. Res. Space Physics, 122, doi:10.1002/2017JA024202.

  1. The large-scale blast score ratio (LS-BSR pipeline: a method to rapidly compare genetic content between bacterial genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason W. Sahl

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. As whole genome sequence data from bacterial isolates becomes cheaper to generate, computational methods are needed to correlate sequence data with biological observations. Here we present the large-scale BLAST score ratio (LS-BSR pipeline, which rapidly compares the genetic content of hundreds to thousands of bacterial genomes, and returns a matrix that describes the relatedness of all coding sequences (CDSs in all genomes surveyed. This matrix can be easily parsed in order to identify genetic relationships between bacterial genomes. Although pipelines have been published that group peptides by sequence similarity, no other software performs the rapid, large-scale, full-genome comparative analyses carried out by LS-BSR.Results. To demonstrate the utility of the method, the LS-BSR pipeline was tested on 96 Escherichia coli and Shigella genomes; the pipeline ran in 163 min using 16 processors, which is a greater than 7-fold speedup compared to using a single processor. The BSR values for each CDS, which indicate a relative level of relatedness, were then mapped to each genome on an independent core genome single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP based phylogeny. Comparisons were then used to identify clade specific CDS markers and validate the LS-BSR pipeline based on molecular markers that delineate between classical E. coli pathogenic variant (pathovar designations. Scalability tests demonstrated that the LS-BSR pipeline can process 1,000 E. coli genomes in 27–57 h, depending upon the alignment method, using 16 processors.Conclusions. LS-BSR is an open-source, parallel implementation of the BSR algorithm, enabling rapid comparison of the genetic content of large numbers of genomes. The results of the pipeline can be used to identify specific markers between user-defined phylogenetic groups, and to identify the loss and/or acquisition of genetic information between bacterial isolates. Taxa-specific genetic markers can then be translated

  2. Genetic analysis reveals efficient sexual spore dispersal at a fine spatial scale in Armillaria ostoyae, the causal agent of root-rot disease in conifers

    OpenAIRE

    Capedevielle, Xavier; Lung, Brigitte; Labbé, Frédéric; Dutech, Cyril; Lung-Escarmant, Brigitte

    2017-01-01

    Armillaria ostoyae (sometimes named A. solidipes) is a fungal species causing root diseases in numerous coniferous forests of the northern hemisphere. The importance of sexual spores for the establishment of new disease centers remains unclear, particularly in the large maritime pine plantations of southwestern France. An analysis of the genetic diversity of a local fungal population distributed over 500 ha in this French forest showed genetic recombination between genotypes to be frequent, c...

  3. Sexual abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iztok Takač

    2012-11-01

    Conclusions: Effective and efficient treatment of victims of sexual abuse requires a systematic approach to the patient, starting with a thorough history, and continuing with a clinical investigation, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of the consequences of sexual abuse. The complete management must include sampling of any potential biological traces from the body of the victim. The key to success is a coordinated cooperation with investigators and forensics.

  4. Enigmatic Sexuality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeuthen, Katrine Egede; Gammelgård, Judy

    2017-01-01

    ? Divided into three sections, Clinical Encounters in Sexuality begins with six chapters on important themes in queer theory: identity, desire, perversion, pleasure, discourse and ethics. Section two includes fourteen responses to the chapters in section one by practising psychoanalysts and psychoanalytic......: psychoanalytic and queer. The book is edited by two psychoanalytic practitioners — one Kleinian, one Freudian-Lacanian — who also have research expertise in sexuality studies. All pieces are new and have been commissioned....

  5. Sexual Jealousy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Buss

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Sexual jealousy is a basic emotion. Although it lacks a distinctive facial expression and is unlikely to solve problems of survival, it evolved because it solves adaptive problems of mating. Some adaptive functions are similar in men and women at one level of abstraction, such as warding off potential mate poachers and deterring relationship defection. Other functions are sex-differentiated, such as increasing paternity probability for men and monopolizing a mate's economic commitments for women. Dozens of studies have documented sex-differentiated design features of jealousy: The relative upset about sexual and emotional aspects of infidelity; processing speed and memorial recall of sexual and emotional infidelity cues; physiological distress to sexual and emotional infidelity cues; qualities of same-sex rivals that evoke jealousy, such as superior job prospects versus greater physical attractiveness; triggers of mate retention tactics; jealous interrogations following the discovery of infidelity; and whether an infidelity produces forgiveness or breakup. Although showing all the hallmarks of evolved functionality, sexual jealousy also leads to tremendous destruction, from humiliation to homicide. By these scientific theoretical and empirical criteria, sexual jealousy is properly considered not only "basic" but also "one of the most important emotions".

  6. Knowledge, attitudes and practices of parents on child sexual abuse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    preventable harm and trauma of sexual abuse in rural communities of Tanzania. .... about preventing child sexual abuse was measured by 10 Likert's scale-type ..... Bensley, L., van Eenwyk, J. & Simmons K. (2000) Self-reported childhood ...

  7. Dairy farmers' use and non-use values in animal welfare: Determining the empirical content and structure with anchored best-worst scaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansson, H; Lagerkvist, C J

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we sought to identify empirically the types of use and non-use values that motivate dairy farmers in their work relating to animal welfare of dairy cows. We also sought to identify how they prioritize between these use and non-use values. Use values are derived from productivity considerations; non-use values are derived from the wellbeing of the animals, independent of the present or future use the farmer may make of the animal. In particular, we examined the empirical content and structure of the economic value dairy farmers associate with animal welfare of dairy cows. Based on a best-worst scaling approach and data from 123 Swedish dairy farmers, we suggest that the economic value those farmers associate with animal welfare of dairy cows covers aspects of both use and non-use type, with non-use values appearing more important. Using principal component factor analysis, we were able to check unidimensionality of the economic value construct. These findings are useful for understanding why dairy farmers may be interested in considering dairy cow welfare. Such understanding is essential for improving agricultural policy and advice aimed at encouraging dairy farmers to improve animal welfare; communicating to consumers the values under which dairy products are produced; and providing a basis for more realistic assumptions when developing economic models about dairy farmers' behavior. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Relationships between attitudes toward sexuality, sexual behaviors, and contraceptive practices among Chinese medical and nursing undergraduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yingchun; Luo, Taizhen; Zhou, Ying

    2015-09-01

    In this study, we investigated attitudes toward sexuality, the prevalence of sexual behaviors and contraceptive use among Chinese medical and nursing undergraduates, and relationships between attitudes toward sexuality and sexual and contraceptive practices among these participants. This was a descriptive, cross-sectional study carried out by using a Personal Attitude toward Sexuality Scale and Sexual and Contraceptive Questionnaire. The participants were recruited in the researcher's lectures. A total of 158 participants joined this study. Overall, Chinese medical and nursing undergraduates in this study held relatively conservative attitudes toward sexuality. The prevalence of sexually-active students was relatively low, and the percentage of contraceptive use among those sexually-active students was also low. Participants' attitudes toward sexuality had statistically-significant effects on their sexual and contraceptive practices. Nearly half of the sexually-active participants reported never using any contraceptive method during sexual intercourse. This finding has important public health implications, as young people represent the group with the largest rate of new infections of HIV/AIDS in China. A more comprehensive sexual education program that extends to college undergraduates and promotes the social acceptability of using contraception, specifically condoms, is needed. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  9. Older widows' perspectives on sexuality: A life course perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasif, Talia; Band-Winterstein, Tova

    2017-04-01

    Sexuality is a significant component in human experience and has an important impact on the individual's general well-being. Life course events and the social construction of sexuality lead older widows to reflect upon their sexuality. To explore and describe the ways in which older widows construct and perceive their sexuality along the life course. A phenomenological-qualitative approach was conducted. Data collection was performed through in-depth, semi-structured interviews with 17 widows, between the ages of 62-91, followed by content analysis. Three major themes emerged: (a) Approaching sexuality: Conservative vs. progressive attitudes; (b) Multiple ways of perceiving sexuality: Constructing a sexual identity along the life course; and (c) Sexual self-perception: Integrating late life and widowhood. Sexuality among widows in later life includes continuity and change processes. In the context of social construction, sexuality is a subject that should be examined in greater depth. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Systematic Assessment for University Sexuality Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westefeld, John S.; Winkelpleck, Judy M.

    1982-01-01

    Suggests systematic empirical assessment is needed to plan university sexuality programing. Proposes the traditional approach of asking about students' attitudes, knowledge, and behavior is useful for developing specific programing content. Presents an assessment model emphasizing assessment of students' desires for sexuality programing in terms…

  11. Sexual Priming, Gender Stereotyping, and Likelihood to Sexually Harass: Examining the Cognitive Effects of Playing a Sexually-Explicit Video Game

    OpenAIRE

    Yao, Mike Z.; Mahood, Chad; Linz, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    The present study examines the short-term cognitive effects of playing a sexually explicit video game with female “objectification” content on male players. Seventy-four male students from a university in California, U.S. participated in a laboratory experiment. They were randomly assigned to play either a sexually-explicit game or one of two control games. Participants’ cognitive accessibility to sexual and sexually objectifying thoughts was measured in a lexical decision task. A likelihood-...

  12. Biochemical, hydrological and mechanical behaviors of high food waste content MSW landfill: Liquid-gas interactions observed from a large-scale experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Liang-Tong; Xu, Hui; Chen, Yun-Min; Lan, Ji-Wu; Lin, Wei-An; Xu, Xiao-Bing; He, Pin-Jing

    2017-10-01

    The high food waste content (HFWC) MSW at a landfill has the characteristics of rapid hydrolysis process, large leachate production rate and fast gas generation. The liquid-gas interactions at HFWC-MSW landfills are prominent and complex, and still remain significant challenges. This paper focuses on the liquid-gas interactions of HFWC-MSW observed from a large-scale bioreactor landfill experiment (5m×5m×7.5m). Based on the connected and quantitative analyses on the experimental observations, the following findings were obtained: (1) The high leachate level observed at Chinese landfills was attributed to the combined contribution from the great quantity of self-released leachate, waste compression and gas entrapped underwater. The contribution from gas entrapped underwater was estimated to be 21-28% of the total leachate level. (2) The gas entrapped underwater resulted in a reduction of hydraulic conductivity, decreasing by one order with an increase in gas content from 13% to 21%. (3) The "breakthrough value" in the gas accumulation zone was up to 11kPa greater than the pore liquid pressure. The increase of the breakthrough value was associated with the decrease of void porosity induced by surcharge loading. (4) The self-released leachate from HFWC-MSW was estimated to contribute to over 30% of the leachate production at landfills in Southern China. The drainage of leachate with a high organic loading in the rapid hydrolysis stage would lead to a loss of landfill gas (LFG) potential of 13%. Based on the above findings, an improved method considering the quantity of self-released leachate was proposed for the prediction of leachate production at HFWC-MSW landfills. In addition, a three-dimensional drainage system was proposed to drawdown the high leachate level and hence to improve the slope stability of a landfill, reduce the hydraulic head on a bottom liner and increase the collection efficiency for LFG. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Teaching and Learning about Sexuality and Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffl, Bernita M.; Kelly, James J.

    1979-01-01

    Describes an experience in developing teaching and learning content on aging and sexuality. Suggestions for a course outline and experiential learning for students and a summary of findings, which has implications for educators in gerontology, are included. (Author)

  14. Sexually Transmitted Diseases Surveillance, 2014: Syphilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2014 Sexually Transmitted Diseases Surveillance Table of Contents Introductory Section Foreword Preface Acronyms Figures- National Profile Figures – ... GISP Profiles Related Links STD Home STD Data & Statistics NCHHSTP Atlas Interactive STD Data – 1996-2013 STD ...

  15. Recollections of Sexual Socialisation among Marginalised Heterosexual Black Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlap, Eloise; Benoit, Ellen; Graves, Jennifer L.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the sexual socialisation process of marginalised, drug-using heterosexual black men, focusing primarily on the sources and content of sexual information. Analysing qualitative interview data, we discovered that the men in our sample both learn about sex and become sexually active at an early age. They most often learn about…

  16. Exploring Parental Perspectives on Parent-Child Sexual Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Sharon M.; Gross, Kevin H.

    2009-01-01

    We examined parental perspectives about parent-child sexual communication through four focus groups conducted with 25 parents of young children. Participant comments fell into six areas: 1) personal experience with sexuality education, 2) current sexuality education efforts, 3) comfort and confidence, 4) content and timing, 5) importance of a…

  17. Pilot-scale incineration of wastes with high content of chlorinated and non-halogenated organophosphorus flame retardants used as alternatives for PBDEs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsukami, Hidenori; Kose, Tomohiro; Watanabe, Mafumi; Takigami, Hidetaka

    2014-01-01

    Chlorinated and non-halogenated organophosphorus flame retardants (OPFRs) including tris(2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate (TCIPP), diethylene glycol bis(di(2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate) (DEG-BDCIPP), triphenyl phosphate (TPHP), and bisphenol A bis(diphenyl phosphate) (BPA-BDPP) have been used increasingly as alternatives to polybrominated diphenyl ethers and other brominated flame retardants. For this study, five batches of incineration experiments of wastes containing approximately 1% of TCIPP, DEG-BDCIPP, TPHP, and BPA-BDPP were conducted using a pilot-scale incinerator. Destruction and emission behaviors of OPFRs were investigated along with the effects on behaviors of unintentional persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), pentachlorobenzene (PeCB), and pentachlorophenol (PCP). Incineration conditions were chosen according to current regulations for waste incinerators in Japan and UNEP. The OPFRs in the input materials were mainly destroyed in the primary combustion with destruction efficiencies greater than 99.999%. Concentrations of the OPFRs in the exhaust gases and ash were, respectively, < 0.01–0.048 μg m −3 and < 0.5–68 μg kg −1 . Almost all of the total phosphorus in the input materials was partitioned into the ash, but less into final exit gases, indicating negligible emissions of volatile phosphorus compounds during incineration. Inputs of chlorinated OPFRs did not affect the formation markedly. Destruction and emission behaviors of unintentional POPs were investigated. Emissions of such POPs in exhaust gases and the ash were lower than the Japanese and international standards. Results show that even in wastes with high contents of chlorinated and non-halogenated OPFRs, waste incineration by the current regulations for the waste incinerators can control environmental emissions of OPFRs and

  18. Full-scale agricultural biogas plant metal content and process parameters in relation to bacterial and archaeal microbial communities over 2.5 year span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repinc, Sabina Kolbl; Šket, Robert; Zavec, Domen; Mikuš, Katarina Vogel; Fermoso, Fernando G; Stres, Blaž

    2018-05-01

    A start-up of 4 MW agricultural biogas plant in Vučja vas, Slovenia, was monitored from 2011 to 2014. The start-up was carried out in 3 weeks with the intake of biomass from three operating full-scale 1-2 MW donor agricultural biogas plants. The samples were taken from donor digesters and from two serial digesters during the start-up over the course of 2.5 years. Bacterial and Archaeal microbial communities progressively diverged from the composition of donor digesters during the start-up phase. The rate of change of Bacterial community decreased exponentially over the first 2.5 years as dynamics within the first 70 days was comparable to that of the next 1.5 years, whereas approximately constant rate was observed for Archaea. Despite rearrangements, the microbial communities remained functionally stable and produced biogas throughout the whole 2.5 years of observation. All systems parameters measured were ordered according to their Kernel density (Gaussian function) ranging from the most dispersed (substrate categories used as cosubstrates, quantities of each cosubstrate, substate dry and volatile matter, process parameters) towards progressively least dispersed (trace metal and ion profiles, aromatic-polyphenolic compounds, biogas plant functional output (energy)). No deficiency was detected in trace metal content as the distribution of metals and elements fluctuated within the suggested limits for biogas over 2.5 year observation. In contrast to the recorded process variables, Bacterial and Archaeal microbial communities exhibited directed changes oriented in time. Variation partitioning showed that a large fraction of variability in the Bacterial and Archaeal microbial communities (55% and 61%, respectively) remained unexplained despite numerous measured variables (n = 44) and stable biogas production. Our results show that the observed reorganization of microbial communities was not directly associated with impact on the full-scale biogas reactor

  19. Pilot-scale incineration of wastes with high content of chlorinated and non-halogenated organophosphorus flame retardants used as alternatives for PBDEs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsukami, Hidenori, E-mail: matsukami.hidenori@nies.go.jp [Center for Material Cycles and Waste Management Research, National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES), 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba 305-8506 (Japan); Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa 277-8563 (Japan); Kose, Tomohiro [Faculty of Applied Life Sciences, Niigata University of Pharmacy and Applied Life Sciences, 265-1, Higashijima, Akiha-ku, Niigata 956-8603 (Japan); Watanabe, Mafumi [Center for Material Cycles and Waste Management Research, National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES), 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba 305-8506 (Japan); Takigami, Hidetaka [Center for Material Cycles and Waste Management Research, National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES), 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba 305-8506 (Japan); Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa 277-8563 (Japan)

    2014-09-15

    Chlorinated and non-halogenated organophosphorus flame retardants (OPFRs) including tris(2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate (TCIPP), diethylene glycol bis(di(2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate) (DEG-BDCIPP), triphenyl phosphate (TPHP), and bisphenol A bis(diphenyl phosphate) (BPA-BDPP) have been used increasingly as alternatives to polybrominated diphenyl ethers and other brominated flame retardants. For this study, five batches of incineration experiments of wastes containing approximately 1% of TCIPP, DEG-BDCIPP, TPHP, and BPA-BDPP were conducted using a pilot-scale incinerator. Destruction and emission behaviors of OPFRs were investigated along with the effects on behaviors of unintentional persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), pentachlorobenzene (PeCB), and pentachlorophenol (PCP). Incineration conditions were chosen according to current regulations for waste incinerators in Japan and UNEP. The OPFRs in the input materials were mainly destroyed in the primary combustion with destruction efficiencies greater than 99.999%. Concentrations of the OPFRs in the exhaust gases and ash were, respectively, < 0.01–0.048 μg m{sup −3} and < 0.5–68 μg kg{sup −1}. Almost all of the total phosphorus in the input materials was partitioned into the ash, but less into final exit gases, indicating negligible emissions of volatile phosphorus compounds during incineration. Inputs of chlorinated OPFRs did not affect the formation markedly. Destruction and emission behaviors of unintentional POPs were investigated. Emissions of such POPs in exhaust gases and the ash were lower than the Japanese and international standards. Results show that even in wastes with high contents of chlorinated and non-halogenated OPFRs, waste incineration by the current regulations for the waste incinerators can control environmental emissions of

  20. Older lesbian sexuality: identity, sexual behavior, and the impact of aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averett, Paige; Yoon, Intae; Jenkins, Carol L

    2012-01-01

    In response to the very limited and mostly outdated literature on older lesbian sexuality, this exploratory study examined older lesbian sexual identity, romantic relationships, the impact of aging, and experiences of discrimination within these contexts. Utilizing an online survey that recruited via numerous online lesbian communities and snowball sampling, 456 lesbians over the age of 50 responded to closed, Likert scale, and open-ended questions that provided a preliminary understanding of older lesbian sexuality. The results indicated that older lesbians have experienced fluidity in past romantic and sexual relationships, as well as in erotic fantasies, despite strong identification with being lesbian. The findings also indicate a decreased focus on sexuality in the context of relationships, with more focus on stability and continuity. Future research is needed that provides greater specificity and detail about older lesbian conceptions of sexual behavior and sexual identity labels, as well as specific sexual behaviors.

  1. Sexuality and Sexual Rights in Muslim Societies

    OpenAIRE

    Liz Ercevik Amado

    2009-01-01

    In August 2008, the Coalition for Sexual and Bodily Rights in Muslim Societies (CSBR) organized the CSBR Sexuality Institute, the first international Institute on sexuality and sexual rights in Muslim societies in Malaysia. Liz Amado presents how the Institute expanded the discourse, knowledge and thinking around sexuality in Muslim societies, as well as providing a unique space for the much needed exchange of information and experience among sexual rights advocates. Development (2009) 52, 59...

  2. Automatically assessing properties of dynamic cameras for camera selection and rapid deployment of video content analysis tasks in large-scale ad-hoc networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Hollander, Richard J. M.; Bouma, Henri; van Rest, Jeroen H. C.; ten Hove, Johan-Martijn; ter Haar, Frank B.; Burghouts, Gertjan J.

    2017-10-01

    Video analytics is essential for managing large quantities of raw data that are produced by video surveillance systems (VSS) for the prevention, repression and investigation of crime and terrorism. Analytics is highly sensitive to changes in the scene, and for changes in the optical chain so a VSS with analytics needs careful configuration and prompt maintenance to avoid false alarms. However, there is a trend from static VSS consisting of fixed CCTV cameras towards more dynamic VSS deployments over public/private multi-organization networks, consisting of a wider variety of visual sensors, including pan-tilt-zoom (PTZ) cameras, body-worn cameras and cameras on moving platforms. This trend will lead to more dynamic scenes and more frequent changes in the optical chain, creating structural problems for analytics. If these problems are not adequately addressed, analytics will not be able to continue to meet end users' developing needs. In this paper, we present a three-part solution for managing the performance of complex analytics deployments. The first part is a register containing meta data describing relevant properties of the optical chain, such as intrinsic and extrinsic calibration, and parameters of the scene such as lighting conditions or measures for scene complexity (e.g. number of people). A second part frequently assesses these parameters in the deployed VSS, stores changes in the register, and signals relevant changes in the setup to the VSS administrator. A third part uses the information in the register to dynamically configure analytics tasks based on VSS operator input. In order to support the feasibility of this solution, we give an overview of related state-of-the-art technologies for autocalibration (self-calibration), scene recognition and lighting estimation in relation to person detection. The presented solution allows for rapid and robust deployment of Video Content Analysis (VCA) tasks in large scale ad-hoc networks.

  3. Pilot-scale incineration of wastes with high content of chlorinated and non-halogenated organophosphorus flame retardants used as alternatives for PBDEs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsukami, Hidenori; Kose, Tomohiro; Watanabe, Mafumi; Takigami, Hidetaka

    2014-09-15

    Chlorinated and non-halogenated organophosphorus flame retardants (OPFRs) including tris(2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate (TCIPP), diethylene glycol bis(di(2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate) (DEG-BDCIPP), triphenyl phosphate (TPHP), and bisphenol A bis(diphenyl phosphate) (BPA-BDPP) have been used increasingly as alternatives to polybrominated diphenyl ethers and other brominated flame retardants. For this study, five batches of incineration experiments of wastes containing approximately 1% of TCIPP, DEG-BDCIPP, TPHP, and BPA-BDPP were conducted using a pilot-scale incinerator. Destruction and emission behaviors of OPFRs were investigated along with the effects on behaviors of unintentional persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), pentachlorobenzene (PeCB), and pentachlorophenol (PCP). Incineration conditions were chosen according to current regulations for waste incinerators in Japan and UNEP. The OPFRs in the input materials were mainly destroyed in the primary combustion with destruction efficiencies greater than 99.999%. Concentrations of the OPFRs in the exhaust gases and ash were, respectively, incineration. Inputs of chlorinated OPFRs did not affect the formation markedly. Destruction and emission behaviors of unintentional POPs were investigated. Emissions of such POPs in exhaust gases and the ash were lower than the Japanese and international standards. Results show that even in wastes with high contents of chlorinated and non-halogenated OPFRs, waste incineration by the current regulations for the waste incinerators can control environmental emissions of OPFRs and unintentional POPs. Incineration is regarded as a best available technology (BAT) for waste management systems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Dyadic sexual communication in pre-menopausal women with self-reported dyspareunia and their partners: associations with sexual function, sexual distress and dyadic adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazmany, Els; Bergeron, Sophie; Verhaeghe, Johan; Van Oudenhove, Lukas; Enzlin, Paul

    2015-02-01

    While there is increasing interest in studying aspects of communication processes in sex research, the association between dyadic sexual communication and relationship and sexuality outcomes has not yet been examined in pre-menopausal women with dyspareunia. To examine the associations between dyadic sexual communication and pain, sexual distress, sexual function and dyadic adjustment in women with self-reported dyspareunia and their male partners. Pre-menopausal women (n=38; M age=24.92, SD=6.12) with self-reported dyspareunia from a community sample and their partners (n=38; M age=26.71, SD=6.59) completed an online survey. The Actor-Partner Interdependence Model was used in order to investigate both actor and partner effects. Both members of the couple completed: (i) the Dyadic Sexual Communication Scale and (ii) the Dyadic Adjustment Scale; women also completed (iii) the Female Sexual Function Index, (iv) the Female Sexual Distress Scale, and (v) a Visual Analogue Scale on pain during intercourse; and men also completed (vi) the International Index of Erectile Functioning. Controlling for relationship duration, women's better dyadic sexual communication was significantly associated with their higher levels of sexual function (P=0.028), lower levels of sexual distress (P=0.003) and higher levels of dyadic adjustment (P=0.005), but not with their pain or men's sexual function or dyadic adjustment. Controlling for relationship duration, men's better dyadic sexual communication was associated with their higher levels of dyadic adjustment (P=0.027) but not with their sexual function, nor with women's sexual function or dyadic adjustment. These findings contribute to the theoretical knowledge on interaction processes in couples with dyspareunia and suggest that it may be important to enhance open and direct communication about sexual matters in couples with dyspareunia. © 2014 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  5. Psychosocial intervention for sexual addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Manju; Maheshwari, Shreemit; Chandran, Suhas; Rao, Suman S; Shivanand, Manohar J; Sathyanarayana Rao, T S

    2018-02-01

    Addiction is the term employed not only for excess consumption of substances, but also for problem behaviours like eating disorders, pathological gambling, computer addiction and pathological preoccupation with video games and sexual acts. No clear diagnostic criterion has been established with validity for behavioral addictions. Sexual addiction, including addiction to pornography is not included as a separate entity because of a lack of strong empirical evidence in this area. Different scales can be used for assessment of sexual addiction. Since there is an absence of established diagnostic criteria, the significance of validity of these scales is doubted. Several of the questions in these scales do not yield information about whether the diagnostic criteria are met or not. Pharmacotherapy, together with psychotherapy proves to have a better outcome in such patients as it helps to synthesize the role of developmental antecedents, reduce current anxiety, depression, guilt and to improve social adjustment.

  6. Relational Intimacy Mediates Sexual Outcomes Associated With Impaired Sexual Function: Examination in a Clinical Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witherow, Marta Parkanyi; Chandraiah, Shambhavi; Seals, Samantha R; Sarver, Dustin E; Parisi, Kathryn E; Bugan, Antal

    2017-06-01

    Relational intimacy is hypothesized to underlie the association between female sexual functioning and various sexual outcomes, and married women and women with sexual dysfunction have been generally absent from prior studies investigating these associations, thus restricting generalizability. To investigate whether relational intimacy mediates sexual outcomes (sexual satisfaction, coital frequency, and sexual distress) in a sample of married women with and without impaired sexual functioning presenting in clinical settings. Using a cross-sectional design, 64 heterosexual married women with (n = 44) and without (n = 20) impaired sexual functioning completed a battery of validated measurements assessing relational intimacy, sexual dysfunction, sexual frequency, satisfaction, and distress. Intimacy measurements were combined using latent factor scores before analysis. Bias-corrected mediation models of the indirect effect were used to test mediation effects. Moderated mediation models examined whether indirect effects were influenced by age and marital duration. Patients completed the Female Sexual Function Index, the Couple's Satisfaction Index, the Sexual Satisfaction Scale for Women, the Inclusion of the Other in the Self Scale, and the Miller Social Intimacy Test. Mediation models showed that impaired sexual functioning is associated with all sexual outcomes directly and indirectly through relational intimacy. Results were predominantly independent of age and marital duration. Findings have important treatment implications for modifying interventions to focus on enhancing relational intimacy to improve the sexual functioning of women with impaired sexual functioning. The importance of the role relational intimacy plays in broad sexual outcomes of women with impaired sexual functioning is supported in clinically referred and married women. Latent factor scores to improve estimation of study constructs and the use of contemporary mediation analysis also are

  7. Sexual self-schema and depressive symptoms after prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyt, Michael A; Carpenter, Kristen M

    2015-04-01

    The years following prostate cancer treatment are characterized by changes in sexual functioning and risk for depressive symptoms. Sexual self-schema (SSS) is a cognitive generalization about sexual aspects of the self that are associated with sexual behavior, affect, and the processing of sexually relevant information. This study tested if men's SSS moderates the impact of sexual morbidity on depressive symptoms. Men (N = 66) treated for localized prostate cancer in the preceding 2 years were assessed at T1 and 4 months later (T2). Questionnaires included the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, Sexual Self-schema Scale for Men, Sexual Experience Scale, and Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite. Regressions controlled for age, sexual activity, and T1 depressive symptoms revealed no significant effect of SSS on depressive symptoms; however, better sexual functioning was related to fewer depressive symptoms (B = -0.25, p < 0.05). Results showed significant interactions between SSS and sexual outcomes. Among men with high SSS, poor sexual functioning was associated with increased depressive symptoms; loss of sexual function was particularly distressing. There was no significant effect of sexual functioning. Among men with high SSS, there was an inverse relationship between sexual engagement and depressive symptoms. Among men with lower SSS, greater frequency of sexual behavior was associated with increased depressive symptoms. SSS may be an important individual difference in determining the impact of sexual morbidity on psychological adjustment. Men high on SSS are more vulnerable to psychological consequences of lower sexual functioning and less engagement in sexual activities. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Follower-Centric Influences on Sexual Decision Making in a Pentecostal Church Faith Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Mpofu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study utilized participatory action research approaches to construct a follower-centric framework for measuring influences on sexual decision making by youth members of a church organization. Participants were Batswana Pentecostal church members self-reporting on their engagement in pre-marital sex (n = 68, females = 62%; age range 15–23 years; median age = 20.3 years from eight of 26 randomly selected congregations. They completed a multi-stage concept mapping process that included free listing of statements of potential influences on their sexual decisions. They then sorted the statements into groupings similar in meaning to them, and rated the same statements for relative importance to their sexual decisions. Multidimensional scaling and hierarchical cluster analysis of the data yielded a five cluster solution in which church teachings emerged as most salient to the teenagers’ sexual decision making followed by future orientation, community norms, knowledge about HIV/AIDS and prevention education. While the youth believed to be influenced by religion teachings on primary sexual abstinence, they self-reported with pre-marital sex. This suggests a need for secondary abstinence education with them to reduce their risk for STIs/HIV and unwanted pregnancies. Concept mapping is serviceable to construct frameworks and to identify content of follower-centric influences on sexual decision making by church youth members.

  9. Sexual Assault

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... who is unable to consent. It also includes abusive sexual contact. It can happen to men, women or children. The attacker can be anyone - a current or former partner, a family member, a person in position of power or trust, a friend, an acquaintance, or a ...

  10. Risky sexual

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GB

    2012-11-03

    Nov 3, 2012 ... AMONG STUDENTS OF JIMMA UNIVERSITY, ETHIOPIA ... control, substance use, peer pressure, campus and outside ... Author: Gurmesa Tura E- mail: gurmesatura@gmail.com or gurmesa.tura@ju.edu.et .... following substances: alcohol, Khat cigarette, .... leading reason was sexual desire 106(42.9%).

  11. Sexual conflict

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lessells, C.M.

    2012-01-01

    Parental care includes a wide variety of traits that enhance offspring development and survival. It is taxonomically widespread and is central to the maintenance of biodiversity through its close association with other phenomena such as sexual selection, life-history evolution, sex allocation,

  12. Sexual Violence

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-04-04

    This podcast discusses sexual violence - what it is, the long-term health problems it can contribute to, and tips to stop it before it begins.  Created: 4/4/2011 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 4/4/2011.

  13. Sexual distress and quality of life among women with bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Thea; Giraldi, A; Vinberg, M

    2017-01-01

    Self-Rating Mania Scale (ASRM), Major Depression Inventory (MDI) and The World Health Organisation Quality of Life-Brief. RESULTS: In total, 61 women (age range 19-63, mean 33.7 years) were recruited. Overall, 54% reported sexual distress (n = 33) and 39% were not satisfied with their sexual life (n......BACKGROUND: Information on the association between bipolar disorder (BD), sexual satisfaction, sexual function, sexual distress and quality of life (QoL) is sparse. This study aims, in women with BD, to (i) investigate sexual dysfunction, sexual distress, general sexual satisfaction and QoL; (ii......) explore whether sexual distress was related to affective symptoms and (iii) investigate whether QoL was associated with sexual distress. The study is a questionnaire survey in an outpatient cohort of women with BD using: Changes in Sexual Functioning Questionnaire, Female Sexual Distress Scale, Altman...

  14. Sexual distress and quality of life among women with bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Thea; Giraldi, A; Vinberg, M

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Information on the association between bipolar disorder (BD), sexual satisfaction, sexual function, sexual distress and quality of life (QoL) is sparse. This study aims, in women with BD, to (i) investigate sexual dysfunction, sexual distress, general sexual satisfaction and QoL; (ii......) explore whether sexual distress was related to affective symptoms and (iii) investigate whether QoL was associated with sexual distress. The study is a questionnaire survey in an outpatient cohort of women with BD using: Changes in Sexual Functioning Questionnaire, Female Sexual Distress Scale, Altman...... Self-Rating Mania Scale (ASRM), Major Depression Inventory (MDI) and The World Health Organisation Quality of Life-Brief. RESULTS: In total, 61 women (age range 19-63, mean 33.7 years) were recruited. Overall, 54% reported sexual distress (n = 33) and 39% were not satisfied with their sexual life (n...

  15. United Kingdom newsprint media reporting on sexual health and blood-borne viruses in 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Susan; Hilton, Shona; McDaid, Lisa M

    2013-12-01

    Improving sexual health and blood-borne virus (BBV) outcomes continue to be of high priority within the United Kingdom (UK) and it is evident that the media can and do impact the public health agenda. This paper presents the first large-scale exploration of UK national newsprint media representations of sexual health and BBVs. Using keyword searches in electronic databases, 677 articles published during 2010 were identified from 12 national (UK-wide and Scottish) newspapers. Content analysis was used to identify manifest content and to examine the tone of articles. Although there was a mixed picture overall in terms of tone, negatively toned articles, which focussed on failures or blame, were common, particularly within HIV/AIDS, hepatitis B and C, and other sexually transmissible infection coverage (41% were assessed as containing negative content; 46% had negative headlines). Differences were found by newspaper genre, with 'serious' newspaper articles appearing more positive and informative than 'midmarket' newspapers or 'tabloids'. Across the sample, particular individuals, behaviours and risk groups were focussed on, not always accurately, and there was little mention of deprivation and inequalities (9%). A gender imbalance was evident, particularly within reproductive health articles (71% focussed on women; 23% on men), raising questions concerning gender stereotyping. There is a need to challenge the role that media messages have in the reinforcement of a negative culture around sexual health in the UK and for a strong collective advocacy voice to ensure that future media coverage is positively portrayed.

  16. Non-erotic thoughts and sexual functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purdon, Christine; Watson, Chris

    2011-10-01

    This study sought to replicate and extend investigations of current models of sexual dysfunction (Barlow, 2002; Janssen, Everaerd, Spiering, & Janssen, 2000) which implicate factors such as spectatoring, failure to use ameliorative strategies, and information processing biases in the development and persistence of sexual difficulties. A sample of 165 (n = 71 men) undergraduates completed measures of sexual dysfunction and relationship satisfaction, and reported on the content and frequency of non-erotic thoughts during sex with a partner (i.e., spectatoring), the emotional impact of non-erotic thoughts, and the strategies used to manage them. They also reported on their main sexual functioning difficulties and the strategies they used to manage those difficulties. Finally, participants were presented with a series of hypothetical sexual scenarios and were asked to report their immediate interpretation of events in the scenario. The content of non-erotic thoughts was similar to previous work (Purdon & Holdaway, 2006), although gender differences in thought content were less pronounced. As in previous research, greater frequency of, and anxiety evoked by, non-erotic thoughts was associated with poorer sexual functioning, but we found that this was over and above relationship satisfaction. Participants both high and low in sexual functioning reported using a variety of strategies to manage their non-erotic thoughts, thought suppression being the least effective, and also used a variety of strategies to manage sexual difficulties. Poorer sexual functioning was associated with more negative interpretations of ambiguous sexual scenarios, but this was mediated by relationship satisfaction. However, positive interpretations were predicted by sexual functioning. Results were discussed in terms of their theoretical and clinical implications.

  17. Estimation of carotenoid content at the canopy scale using the carotenoid triangle ratio index from in situ and simulated hyperspectral data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Weiping; Huang, Wenjiang; Zhou, Xianfeng; Song, Xiaoyu; Casa, Raffaele

    2016-04-01

    Precise estimation of carotenoids (Car) content in plants, from remotely sensed data, is challenging due to their small proportion in the overall total pigment content and to the overlapping of spectral absorption features with chlorophyll (Chl) in the blue region of the spectrum. The use of narrow band vegetation indices (VIs) obtained from hyperspectral data has been considered an effective way to estimate Car content. However, VIs have proved to lack sensitivity to low or high Car content in a number of studies. In this study, the carotenoid triangle ratio index (CTRI), derived from the existing modified triangular vegetation index and a single band reflectance at 531 nm, was proposed and employed to estimate Car canopy content. We tested the potential of three categories of hyperspectral indices earlier proposed for Car, Chl, Car/Chl ratio estimation, and the new CTRI index, for Car canopy content assessment in winter wheat and corn. Spectral reflectance representing plant canopies were simulated using the PROSPECT and SAIL radiative transfer model, with the aim of analyzing saturation effects of these indices, as well as Chl effects on the relationship between spectral indices and Car content. The result showed that the majority of the spectral indices tested, saturated with the increase of Car canopy content above 28 to 64 μg/cm2. Conversely, the CTRI index was more robust and was linearly and highly sensitive to Car content in winter wheat and corn datasets, with coefficients of determination of 0.92 and 0.75, respectively. The corresponding root mean square error of prediction were 6.01 and 9.70 μg/cm2, respectively. Furthermore, the CTRI index did not show a saturation effect and was not greatly influenced by changes of Chl values, outperforming all the other indices tested. Estimation of Car canopy content using the CTRI index provides an insight into diagnosing plant physiological status and environmental stress.

  18. Sexual Assertiveness Mediates the Associations Between Partner Facilitative Responses and Sexual Outcomes in Women With Provoked Vestibulodynia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNicoll, Gabrielle; Corsini-Munt, Serena; O Rosen, Natalie; McDuff, Pierre; Bergeron, Sophie

    2017-10-03

    Provoked vestibulodynia (PVD) is a recurrent idiopathic vulvo-vaginal pain associated with negative sexual and psychological consequences. Facilitative partner responses to pain are currently receiving empirical attention because they are positively associated with women's sexual outcomes. However, the mechanisms through which facilitative responses to pain are associated with these outcomes have not been examined. One potential mechanism is sexual assertiveness, which has been found to be associated with better sexual function and satisfaction in women with PVD. The present study examined whether women's sexual assertiveness mediated the association between women's perception of facilitative partner responses and women's sexual function and satisfaction. Women (N = 140) with PVD symptomatology completed self-reported questionnaires evaluating their perception of their partners' facilitative responses, and their own sexual assertiveness, sexual function, and sexual satisfaction. Dependent measures were sexual function measured by the Female Sexual Function Index and sexual satisfaction assessed by the Global Measure of Sexual Satisfaction Scale. Results indicated that women's higher sexual assertiveness mediated the association between their greater perceived facilitative partner responses and their improved sexual function and satisfaction. Findings suggest a potential mechanism through which partner responses may be associated with women's sexual outcomes.

  19. The Viewpoints of Sexually Active Single Women About Premarital Sexual Relationships: A Qualitative Study in the Iranian Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani, Azam; Merghati-Khoei, Effat; Moghaddam-Banaem, Lida; Hajizadeh, Ebrahim; Montazeri, Ali

    2016-03-01

    Premarital sexual relationships could harm youth's health in terms of sexually transmitted infections or increased risk of unprotected sexual behaviors. Sexual abstinence has been recommended to prevent young adolescents from adverse outcomes of premarital sexual relationships. The aim of this study was to explore the viewpoints of sexually active single women about premarital sexual relationships in the Iranian context. In this qualitative study, we recruited 41 young women aged 18 to 35 years. Data were collected using focus group discussions and individual interviews. We employed conventional content analysis to analyze the data. Multiple data collection methods, maximum variation sampling, and peer checks were applied to enhance the reliability of the findings. Eight themes emerged from the data analysis: 'acceptance of sexual contact in the context of opposite-sex relationships, 'sexual activity as a guarantee for keeping the boyfriend in the relationship', 'premarital sexual relationship as an undeniable personal right', 'having successful marriage in spite of premarital sexual relationships', 'virginity as an old fashioned phenomenon', 'love as a license for premarital sexual behaviors', 'goal-oriented relationship as a license for premarital sexual behaviors', and 'experiencing premarital sexual relationships in order to gain perfection'. Results of this study could be applied to designing interventions, such as promotion of preventive beliefs or educational programs regarding premarital sexual relationships in conservative societies. These interventions could start within families and continue at schools and universities.

  20. [Male sexual and reproductive rights].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, A M

    1998-06-01

    In late 1997, PROFAMILIA began a study of the role of male sexual and reproductive rights as part of the construction of new masculine identities. The work was approached from the disciplines of law and sociology. Patriarchy, as a system of domination, permeated most cultures, giving men a position of power in relation to women and leading to a series of violent and self-destructive male behaviors. The patriarchal system imposed aggressive, promiscuous, risky, and irresponsible behaviors on men, which created a climate for sexual abuse, unwanted pregnancy, propagation of sexually transmitted diseases, and violence against women. Changes in female roles have created the need for changes in male roles. The most visible sexual and reproductive needs of men were studied through literature reviews and semistructured questionnaires with PROFAMILIA clients. Among the needs identified were a new type of male participation in family and domestic life, a new content for male sexual freedom, greater participation of men in reproductive decisions and in raising their children, and new ways of relating to others and sharing feelings and emotions. The need to avoid behaviors that put health at risk was also identified. A review of the evolution of existing sexual and reproductive rights and of the documents that constitute their ethical and juridical framework led to the conclusion that the construction of new rights specifically for men is not necessary, or juridically possible, in the current historical context.

  1. Fighting Child Sexual Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pesanayi Gwirayi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated secondary school pupils’ views on strategies that can be used to prevent child sexual abuse (CSA. A survey design was adopted as the operational framework for data gathering. Data were collected from three secondary schools, all in the Gweru district of Zimbabwe. The sample comprised 268 secondary pupils (50% female; M age = 15.42, SD = 1.376. Each participant was asked to write down three main strategies that can be used to fight CSA on a given questionnaire. The responses were then analyzed using the thematic content analysis technique. The study revealed that most pupils believed that CSA can be prevented through teaching them about it and also reporting to the police. Another significant finding was that pupils’ responses tended to vary with gender and level of education. Whereas female respondents suggested that CSA can be fought by avoiding strangers, saying no to sexual advances, and having reliable friends, their male counterparts suggested teaching the community about CSA, forming new clubs, and enacting life imprisonment for perpetrators, among other suggestions. In terms of level of education, Form 2 participants suggested avoiding strangers, staying home at night, whereas their Form 4 counterparts suggested lessons for Guidance and Counseling, saying no to sexual advances, and having reliable friends. These findings unequivocally demonstrate the need to vigorously engage secondary school pupils in activities aimed at fighting CSA to safeguard their inalienable human rights.

  2. Development of the NIH PROMIS ® Sexual Function and Satisfaction measures in patients with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Kathryn E; Lin, Li; Cyranowski, Jill M; Reeve, Bryce B; Reese, Jennifer Barsky; Jeffery, Diana D; Smith, Ashley Wilder; Porter, Laura S; Dombeck, Carrie B; Bruner, Deborah Watkins; Keefe, Francis J; Weinfurt, Kevin P

    2013-02-01

    We describe the development and validation of the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System(®) Sexual Function and Satisfaction (PROMIS(®) SexFS; National Institutes of Health) measures, version 1.0, for cancer populations. To develop a customizable self-report measure of sexual function and satisfaction as part of the U.S. National Institutes of Health PROMIS Network. Our multidisciplinary working group followed a comprehensive protocol for developing psychometrically robust patient-reported outcome measures including qualitative (scale development) and quantitative (psychometric evaluation) development. We performed an extensive literature review, conducted 16 focus groups with cancer patients and multiple discussions with clinicians, and evaluated candidate items in cognitive testing with patients. We administered items to 819 cancer patients. Items were calibrated using item-response theory and evaluated for reliability and validity. The PROMIS SexFS measures, version 1.0, include 81 items in 11 domains: Interest in Sexual Activity, Lubrication, Vaginal Discomfort, Erectile Function, Global Satisfaction with Sex Life, Orgasm, Anal Discomfort, Therapeutic Aids, Sexual Activities, Interfering Factors, and Screener Questions. In addition to content validity (patients indicate that items cover important aspects of their experiences) and face validity (patients indicate that items measure sexual function and satisfaction), the measure shows evidence for discriminant validity (domains discriminate between groups expected to be different) and convergent validity (strong correlations between scores on PROMIS and scores on conceptually similar older measures of sexual function), as well as favorable test-retest reliability among people not expected to change (interclass correlations from two administrations of the instrument, 1 month apart). The PROMIS SexFS offers researchers a reliable and valid set of tools to measure self-reported sexual function

  3. Perceived Organisational Target Selling, Self- Efficacy, Sexual ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ... Data were gathered using a self report questionnaire consisting of scales measuring variables in the study. Self efficacy, job insecurity, sexual harassment and target selling significantly jointly ...

  4. Sexual Experiences of Chinese Patients Living With an Ostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaomei; Chen, Yongyi; Tang, Xinhui; Chen, Yupan; Liu, Yangyu; Guo, Wei; Liu, Aizhong

    The purpose of this study was to examine the sexual experience of Chinese patients with ostomy and associated factors. A prospective descriptive study using self-report questionnaires. Seventy-five Chinese participants who underwent ostomy surgery in a large cancer specialist hospital in the Hunan province between 2008 and 2013. Data were collected face-to-face by the investigators in an outpatient setting from 75 participants who completed the Arizona Sexual Experience Inventory Scale (ASEX). The t test was used to compare variances between sexual function and dysfunction subgroups. A multiple linear regression model was used to analyze factors influencing sexual life after ostomy surgery. The mean ASEX score was 20.56 (5.378) years, which is higher than the standard for sexual dysfunction. The main subsection of sexual dysfunction included sexual arousal, orgasm ability, vaginal lubrication/penile erection, and sexual satisfaction. Significant differences in the ASEX score were observed in subgroups of age, gender, educational level, family relations, operation modes, stoma type, operation time, complications, supporters, self-care ability, and sexual life guidance. Multiple stepwise regression analysis indicated that family relations, operation modes, ostomy type, complications, and sexual life guidance affected sexual experience. The findings of this study demonstrate that patients with ostomy experience sexual dysfunction and many factors influence their quality of sexual life. WOC nurses and other healthcare providers should consider providing sexual health education for both the patient and spouse to improve the self-care capacity and quality of sexual life following ostomy surgery.

  5. Neural correlates of sexual cue reactivity in individuals with and without compulsive sexual behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voon, Valerie; Mole, Thomas B; Banca, Paula; Porter, Laura; Morris, Laurel; Mitchell, Simon; Lapa, Tatyana R; Karr, Judy; Harrison, Neil A; Potenza, Marc N; Irvine, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Although compulsive sexual behaviour (CSB) has been conceptualized as a "behavioural" addiction and common or overlapping neural circuits may govern the processing of natural and drug rewards, little is known regarding the responses to sexually explicit materials in individuals with and without CSB. Here, the processing of cues of varying sexual content was assessed in individuals with and without CSB, focusing on neural regions identified in prior studies of drug-cue reactivity. 19 CSB subjects and 19 healthy volunteers were assessed using functional MRI comparing sexually explicit videos with non-sexual exciting videos. Ratings of sexual desire and liking were obtained. Relative to healthy volunteers, CSB subjects had greater desire but similar liking scores in response to the sexually explicit videos. Exposure to sexually explicit cues in CSB compared to non-CSB subjects was associated with activation of the dorsal anterior cingulate, ventral striatum and amygdala. Functional connectivity of the dorsal anterior cingulate-ventral striatum-amygdala network was associated with subjective sexual desire (but not liking) to a greater degree in CSB relative to non-CSB subjects. The dissociation between desire or wanting and liking is consistent with theories of incentive motivation underlying CSB as in drug addictions. Neural differences in the processing of sexual-cue reactivity were identified in CSB subjects in regions previously implicated in drug-cue reactivity studies. The greater engagement of corticostriatal limbic circuitry in CSB following exposure to sexual cues suggests neural mechanisms underlying CSB and potential biological targets for interventions.

  6. Puberty and adolescent sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortenberry, J Dennis

    2013-07-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Puberty and Adolescence". Sexuality emerges as a major developmental element of puberty and the adolescent years that follow. However, connecting the sexuality that emerges with puberty and elements of adult sexuality is difficult because much adolescent sexuality research addresses the transition to partnered sexual behaviors (primarily coitus) and consequences such as unplanned pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. This review proposes a framework of an expanded understanding of puberty and adolescent sexuality from the perspective of four hallmarks of adult sexuality: sexual desire; sexual arousal; sexual behaviors; and, sexual function. This approach thus addresses important gaps in understanding of the ontogeny of sex and the continuum of sexuality development from adolescence through the adult lifespan. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The detection of content-based invalid responding: a meta-analysis of the MMPI-2-Restructured Form's (MMPI-2-RF) over-reporting validity scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, Paul B; Ternes, Michael S

    2016-05-01

    This study synthesized research evaluation of the effectiveness of the over-reporting validity scales of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) for detecting intentionally feigned over-endorsements of symptoms using a moderated meta-analysis. After identifying experimental and quasi-experimental studies for inclusion (k = 25) in which the validity scales of the MMPI-2-RF were compared between groups of respondents, moderated meta-analyses were conducted for each of its five over-reporting scales. These meta-analyses explored the general effectiveness of each scale across studies, as well as the impact that several moderators had on scale performance, including comparison group, study type (i.e. real versus simulation), age, education, sex, and diagnosis. The over-reporting scales of the MMPI-2-RF act as effective general measures for the detection of malingering and over endorsement of symptoms with individual scales ranging in effectiveness from an effect size of 1.08 (Symptom Validity; FBS-r) to 1.43 (Infrequent Pathology; Fp-r), each with different patterns of moderating influence. The MMPI-2-RF validity scales effectively discriminate between groups of respondents presenting in either an honest manner or with patterned exaggeration and over-endorsement of symptoms. The magnitude of difference observed between honest and malingering groups was substantially narrower than might be expected using traditional cut-scores for the validity scales, making interpretation within the evaluation context particularly important. While all over-reporting scales are effective, the FBS-r and RBS scales are those least influenced by common and context specific moderating influences, such as respondent or comparison grouping.

  8. [Adolescent sexuality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calero, Juan del Rey

    2010-01-01

    The social Adolescent features are insecurity, narcissism, eroticism, more impetuosity than reason. 1/3 of adolescents have risk behaviour for health. The pregnancy rate in adolescent are 9/1,000 (11,720, the abort about 50 %). The total abort (2009) were 114,480. Increase the rate of 8,4 (1990) to 14,6/ 1,000 (2009). The sexual education fails. The consulting about contraceptives get pregnancy of the OR 3,2, condom OR 2,7. The adolescent are influenced in his matter: oeer have 70-75 % of influence, mother 30-40 %, father 15 %, for yhe environment and education Cyberspace access to information: 33 % exposed to unwanted sexual materials, 1 in 7 solicited sexual online. The argument have 4 central topic: Morality and Responsibility, Desire (responsibility vs gratification), Danger (fear related to pregnancy and STD/VIH), and Victimization. The prevention of STD: so called safe sex, delayed, and abstinence, Prevention HPV vaccine. The information is not enough, are necessary personal integral formation in values as self control, abstinence, mutual respect, responsibility, reasonable decisions.

  9. Cross-cultural differences in the conceptualisation of patients' satisfaction with psychiatric services--content validity of the English version of the Verona Service Satisfaction Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Claire; Hales, Heidi; Ruggeri, Mirella

    2003-03-01

    The VSSS is a multi-dimensional questionnaire developed to address methodological concerns about measurement of satisfaction with services on the part of psychiatric patients. The acceptability, sensitivity, content validity and test-retest reliability of the original version of the VSSS, in Italian, have already been demonstrated [1, 2]. The internal consistency [3] and test-retest reliability [4] of the English translation have been shown to be within acceptable ranges. The content validity of the original 82-item and the 54-item English version has not yet been assessed. The aims of this study were to assess the content validity of the English translation of the VSSS and to compare it with that of the original version in Italian. We used data collected as part of the first wave (T1) of the PRiSM Psychosis Study [5] and repeated the methods used to assess the content validity of the original Italian version of the VSSS [1, 2]. Content elements derived from answers to four open questions were rated independently by CH and HH in terms of their equivalence to VSSS items or dimensions. were compared to those from the content validity study of the Italian version. Results Inter-rater agreement was very high. The largest proportion of the content elements of the answers were rated as equivalent or related to a questionnaire item or a dimension of the VSSS. The dimension 'Professionals' Skills and Behaviour' appears the most significant contributor to satisfaction, as it was most often related to content elements in answers to all four key questions (39.1 %). The second most frequently mentioned dimension was that of 'Types of Intervention' for three out of four open questions, while 'Access' was second most frequent for the fourth. Of the content elements, 17.2 % did not include items or dimensions covered by the VSSS; the three most frequently mentioned were other patients, food and security. The 82-item English version of the VSSS captures sharply most contents

  10. Wide-scale utilization of MSWI fly ashes in cement production and its impact on average heavy metal contents in cements: The case of Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederer, Jakob; Trinkel, Verena; Fellner, Johann

    2017-02-01

    A number of studies present the utilization of fly ashes from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) in cement production as a recycling alternative to landfilling. While there is a lot of research on the impact of MSWI fly ashes utilization in cement production on the quality of concrete or the leaching of heavy metals, only a few studies have determined the resulting heavy metal content in cements caused by this MSWI fly ashes utilization. Making use of the case of Austria, this study (1) determines the total content of selected heavy metals in cements currently produced in the country, (2) designs a scenario and calculates the resulting heavy metal contents in cements assuming that all MSWI fly ashes from Austrian grate incinerators were used as secondary raw materials for Portland cement clinker production and (3) evaluates the legal recyclability of demolished concretes produced from MSWI fly ash amended cements based on their total heavy metal contents. To do so, data from literature and statistics are combined in a material flow analysis model to calculate the average total contents of heavy metals in cements and in the resulting concretes according to the above scenario. The resulting heavy metal contents are then compared (i) to their respective limit values for cements as defined in a new technical guideline in Austria (BMLFUW, 2016), and (ii) to their respective limit values for recycling materials from demolished concrete. Results show that MSWI fly ashes utilization increases the raw material input in cement production by only +0.9%, but the total contents of Cd by +310%, and Hg, Pb, and Zn by +70% to +170%. However these and other heavy metal contents are still below their respective limit values for Austrian cements. The same legal conformity counts for recycling material derived from concretes produced from the MSWI fly ash cements. However, if the MSWI fly ash ratio in all raw materials used for cement production were increased from 0.9% to 22

  11. Sexuality and Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honig, Alice Sterling

    2000-01-01

    Describes normal aspects of sexuality during the early years, including masturbation and children's fanciful sexual ideas. Presents inappropriately mature sexual knowledge as a danger sign of abuse. Discusses whether and what teachers/caregivers should tell children about sexuality, and notes the importance of teaching staff about sexual identity…

  12. The Dual Role of Media Internalization in Adolescent Sexual Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, Ann; Beyens, Ine; Eggermont, Steven; Vandenbosch, Laura

    2017-08-01

    Sexualizing media content is prevalent in various media types. Sexualizing media messages and portrayals emphasize unattainable body and appearance ideals as the primary components of sexual desirability. The internalization of these ideals is positively related to self-objectification and sexual body consciousness. In turn, self-objectification and sexual body consciousness affect adolescents' sexual behavior, albeit in opposing directions. While objectifying self-perceptions are linked to higher levels of sexual behavior, body consciousness during physical intimacy is linked to lower levels of sexual behavior. Based on this knowledge, the present three-wave panel study of 824 Belgian, predominant heterosexual adolescents (M age  = 15.33; SD = 1.45) proposes a dual-pathway model that investigates two different pathways through which the internalization of media ideals may impact adolescents' sexual behavior. An inhibitory pathway links media internalization to lower levels of sexual behavior through sexual body consciousness, and a supportive pathway links media internalization to higher levels of sexual behavior through self-objectification. Structural equation analyses supported the proposed dual-pathway, showing that the impact of media internalization on adolescents' sexual behavior proceeds through an inhibitory pathway and a supportive pathway. Regarding the supportive pathway, media internalization (W1) positively predicted sexual behavior (W3), through valuing appearance over competence (W2). Regarding the inhibitory pathway, media internalization (W1) positively predicted body surveillance, which, in turn, positively predicted sexual body consciousness (all W2). Sexual body consciousness (W2) is negatively related to sexual behavior (W3). From a sexual developmental perspective, these findings emphasize the importance of guiding adolescents in interpreting and processing sexualizing media messages.

  13. Sexual health in women with pelvic floor disorders: measuring the sexual activity and function with questionnaires--a summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espuña Pons, Montserrat

    2009-05-01

    The integration of sexual health into the health care services is important. In women attending urogynecological clinics, the urinary function, anorectal function, and anatomical defects are more often evaluated than those related to sexual activity and function. A group of experts in urogynecology, sexuality, and patient reported outcome development, met in a roundtable with the final objective of reviewing what is currently available and what is needed to accurately evaluate sexual function in women with pelvic floor dysfunction. An article was prepared for each of the issued presented during the roundtable and combined into this supplement. This article is a summary of all articles included in this supplement. The pathophysiology of sexual dysfunction as related to pelvic floor disorders has not been well established. Sexuality questionnaires and scales play an integral role in the diagnosis and treatment of female sexual dysfunction. The Pelvic Organ Prolapse/Urinary Incontinence Sexual Questionnaire (PISQ) is the only validated female sexual function questionnaire specifically developed to assess sexual function in women with urinary incontinence and/or pelvic organ prolapse; however, the PISQ does not screen for sexual activity. The effects of treatments for pelvic floor problems on sexual function have received little attention. There is a need for a validated sexual function measure that evaluates not only the impact of pelvic floor dysfunction on sexual function but also the impact on sexual activity.

  14. Positive and Negative Affect During Sexual Activity: Differences Between Homosexual and Heterosexual Men and Women, With and Without Sexual Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peixoto, Maria Manuela; Nobre, Pedro

    2016-01-02

    Empirical research suggests that emotional response during sexual activity discriminates between sexually functional and dysfunctional heterosexual men and women, with clinics presenting lower positive and higher negative affect. However, there is no evidence about the role of emotions in gay men and lesbian women with sexual problems. The present study analyzed affective states during sexual activity in homosexual and heterosexual men and women, with and without sexual problems. Participants in this study were 156 men and 168 women. A 2 (group) × 2 (sexual orientation) multivariate analysis of variance was performed. Participants completed a web-survey assessing sexual functioning and the Positive Affect-Negative Affect Scale. Findings indicated a main effect of group, with groups with sexual problems reporting significantly more negative and lower positive affect compared with men and women without sexual problems, regardless of sexual orientation. However, findings have also shown an interaction effect in the male sample with gay men, contrary to heterosexual men, reporting similar affective responses regardless of having a sexual dysfunction or not. Overall, findings emphasize the role of affective responses during sexual activity in men and women with sexual problems, suggesting the importance of addressing emotional responses in assessment and treatment of sexual problems in individuals with different sexual orientations.

  15. Evaluation of the Deadly Liver Mob program: insights for roll-out and scale-up of a pilot program to engage Aboriginal Australians in hepatitis C and sexual health education, screening, and care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treloar, Carla; Hopwood, Max; Cama, Elena; Saunders, Veronica; Jackson, L Clair; Walker, Melinda; Ooi, Catriona; Ubrihien, Ashley; Ward, James

    2018-02-01

    Deadly Liver Mob (DLM) is a peer-driven, incentivised health promotion program aimed at increasing understanding of hepatitis C, promoting harm reduction in relation to injecting drug use, and linking participants to screening for hepatitis C, other blood borne viruses and sexually transmissible infections among Aboriginal people in Western Sydney, NSW. This paper presents the evaluation of a pilot study examining the acceptability of the program as a first step of a scalability assessment. Deadly Liver Mob operated in co-located needle and syringe programs and sexual health clinics in two sites: (Site 1: two and a half years for 2 days/week; Site 2: 1 year for 1 day per week). Comparisons were made of the proportion of Aboriginal clients (Site 1) and occasions of service provided to Aboriginal clients (Site 2) in the 12 months prior and post-introduction of DLM. Interviews were conducted with 13 staff involved in delivery of DLM and with 19 clients. A total of 655 and 55 Aboriginal clients, respectively, attended Site 1 and Site 2 for health education. The proportion of Aboriginal clients attending both sites was significantly higher during the DLM compared with prior to its implementation. Of those attending for health education, 79 and 73%, respectively, attended screening following education. DLM clients strongly endorsed the program. Some staff were concerned about workforce capacity to effectively engage Aboriginal clients with multiple and complex needs, managing the differing aims of the participating services involved, and about offering of incentives for attendance at health services. While acceptability was high among staff and clients and preliminary results show high engagement with Aboriginal communities, this evaluation of a pilot program raises some issues to consider in scale up of DLM to other sites. The initiation of additional DLM sites should address issues of alignment with governing strategies and workforce capacity.

  16. Approach and Avoidance Sexual Goals in Couples with Provoked Vestibulodynia: Associations with Sexual, Relational, and Psychological Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Natalie O; Muise, Amy; Bergeron, Sophie; Impett, Emily A; Boudreau, Gillian K

    2015-08-01

    Provoked vestibulodynia (PVD) is a prevalent vulvovaginal pain condition that is triggered primarily during sexual intercourse. PVD adversely impacts women's and their partners' sexual relationship and psychological well-being. Over 80% of women with PVD continue to have intercourse, possibly because of sexual goals that include wanting to pursue desirable outcomes (i.e., approach goals; such as a desire to maintain intimacy) and avoid negative outcomes (i.e., avoidance goals; such as avoiding a partner's disappointment). The aim of this study was to investigate associations between approach and avoidance sexual goals and women's pain, as well as the sexual, relational, and psychological well-being of affected couples. Women with PVD (N = 107) and their partners completed measures of sexual goals, sexual satisfaction, relationship satisfaction, and depression. Women also completed measures of pain during intercourse and sexual functioning. (1) Global Measure of Sexual Satisfaction Scale, (2) Dyadic Adjustment Scale-Revised or the Couple Satisfaction Index, (3) Beck Depression Inventory-II, (4) numerical rating scale of pain during intercourse, and (5) Female Sexual Function Index. When women reported higher avoidance sexual goals, they reported lower sexual and relationship satisfaction, and higher levels of depressive symptoms. In addition, when partners of women reported higher avoidance sexual goals, they reported lower relationship satisfaction. When women reported higher approach sexual goals, they also reported higher sexual and relationship satisfaction. Targeting approach and avoidance sexual goals could enhance the quality and efficacy of psychological couple interventions for women with PVD and their partners. © 2015 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  17. Female Sexual Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Overview Persistent, recurrent problems with sexual response, desire, orgasm or pain — that distress you or strain your ... You have persistent or recurrent difficulty in achieving orgasm after sufficient sexual arousal and ongoing stimulation. Sexual ...

  18. Rethinking Sexual Citizenship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Diane

    2017-04-01

    Over the last two decades sexuality has emerged as a key theme in debates about citizenship, leading to the development of the concept of sexual citizenship. This article reviews this literature and identifies four main areas of critical framing: work that contests the significance of sexuality to citizenship; critiques that focus on the possibilities and limitations of mobilising the language of citizenship in sexual politics; analyses of sexual citizenship in relation to nationalisms and border making; and literature that critically examines western constructions of sexuality and sexual politics underpinning understandings of sexual citizenship. In order to progress the field theoretically, the article seeks to extend critiques of sexual citizenship focusing on two key aspects of its construction: the sexual citizen-subject and spaces of sexual citizenship. It argues for a critical rethink that encompasses a de-centring of a 'western-centric' focus in order to advance understandings of how sexual citizenship operates both in the Global North and South.

  19. Dating and Sexual Feelings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Body Your sexuality Dating and sexual feelings Dating and sexual feelings Thinking about romance, starting to ... you learn how to stay healthy and strong. Dating older guys top If you date someone even ...

  20. Sexual activity and sexual dysfunction of women in the perinatal period: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallwiener, Stephanie; Müller, Mitho; Doster, Anne; Kuon, Ruben Jeremias; Plewniok, Katharina; Feller, Sandra; Wallwiener, Markus; Reck, Corinna; Matthies, Lina Maria; Wallwiener, Christian

    2017-04-01

    Reduced sexual activity and dysfunctional problems are highly prevalent in the perinatal period, and there is a lack of data regarding the degree of normality during pregnancy. Several risk factors have been independently associated with a greater extent of Female Sexual Dysfunction (FSD). Therefore, this study aimed to assess the prevalence of sexual inactivity and sexual dysfunctions in German women during the perinatal period and the verification of potential risk factors. Questionnaires were administered to 315 women prenatally (TI 3rd trimester) and postpartum (TII 1 week, TIII 4 months), including the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI), the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), and the Questionnaire of Partnership (PFB). The frequency of sexual inactivity was 24% (TI), 40.5% (TII), and 19.9% (TIII). Overall, 26.5-34.8% of women were at risk of sexual dysfunction (FSFI score Sexual desire disorder was the most prevalent form of Female sexual dysfunction. Furthermore, especially breastfeeding and low partnership quality were revealed as significant risk factors for sexual dysfunctional problems postpartum. Depressive symptoms having a cesarean section and high maternal education were correlated with dysfunctional problems in several subdomains. Findings indicated that women at risk of FSD differed significantly in aspects of partnership quality, breastfeeding, mode of delivery, maternal education, and depressive symptoms. Aspects of perinatal sexuality should be routinely implemented in the counseling of couples in prenatal classes.

  1. Effects of Sexuality Information on Sexual Behavior and Control of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There was significant correlation between knowledge of sexuality and sexual ... Conclusion: It is recommended that instructors on sexuality education be ... youths facts of sexuality, contraception and sexually transmitted diseases to reduce the ...

  2. A Field-Scale Sensor Network Data Set for Monitoring and Modeling the Spatial and Temporal Variation of Soil Water Content in a Dryland Agricultural Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasch, C. K.; Brown, D. J.; Campbell, C. S.; Cobos, D. R.; Brooks, E. S.; Chahal, M.; Poggio, M.

    2017-12-01

    We describe a soil water content monitoring data set and auxiliary data collected at a 37 ha experimental no-till farm in the Northwestern United States. Water content measurements have been compiled hourly since 2007 by ECH2O-TE and 5TE sensors installed at 42 locations and five depths (0.3, 0.6, 0.9, 1.2, and 1.5 m, 210 sensors total) across the R.J. Cook Agronomy Farm, a Long-Term Agro-Ecosystem Research Site stationed on complex terrain in a Mediterranean climate. In addition to soil water content readings, the data set includes hourly and daily soil temperature readings, annual crop histories, a digital elevation model, Bt horizon maps, seasonal apparent electrical conductivity, soil texture, and soil bulk density. Meteorological records are also available for this location. We discuss the unique challenges of maintaining the network on an operating farm and demonstrate the nature and complexity of the soil water content data. This data set is accessible online through the National Agriculture Library, has been assigned a DOI, and will be maintained for the long term.

  3. The proliferation of sexual health: Diverse social problems and the legitimation of sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Steven; Mamo, Laura

    2017-09-01

    Especially since the 1990s, the term sexual health has flourished in professional, commercial, and lay domains. Yet the more the phrase has become visible, the greater the mutability in its meanings. These developments matter for an understanding of healthism-the idea that modern individuals are enjoined to recognize a moral obligation to maximize their health. Theorists of healthism have paid relatively little attention to sexuality and its frequent rendering as controversial, illegitimate, or stigmatizing. We argue that because pairing "sexual" with "health" serves to legitimize and sanitize sexuality, the framing of sexual issues as matters of sexual health is widely appealing across multiple social arenas, and this appeal helps to explain both the proliferation of the term and the diversification of its uses. Secondly, we argue that while the polysemy of sexual health might suggest that the phrase lacks a clear meaning, in another sense the term is quite meaningful: content analysis of journal articles, newspaper articles, and websites shows that the semantics of sexual health can be categorized into six social problem niches, within which sexuality and health are construed in distinctive ways. For each social problem framing, we identify the implied meanings of both sexuality and health, the "opposite" of sexual health, the institutional action plans, the individual injunctions, and the presumed ontologies of bodies and selves. By focusing on how the conjoining of "sexual" and "health" changes the meanings of both terms, our analysis adds nuance to discussions of healthism: it challenges a singular conception of healthism and points to the need for clearer consideration of its different forms. At the same time, we call attention to the significance of "sexual healthism" as a particular example of the "will to health" while also highlighting implications of characterizing sexual issues as matters of health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Sexual Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Christine Boyce

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This month two general practitioners (GPs describe their approach to sexual health consultations.The issue of a sexually active adolescent demonstrates some differences in legislation pertaining tothe requirement to involve the authorities, although in essence the young person can expect thesame response from these practitioners in two different health care systems. On the other hand apatient at risk of sexually transmitted infections is more likely to be referred to a specialistGenitourinary clinic in the UK although the protocols for screening and education are largely similar.Equally patients who are HIV positive can expect to receive the bulk of their care from specialistclinics in both countries.Midwives are the main stay of antenatal services in Australia and the UK with general practitionersminimally involved in routine cases. Also home births are a negigible proportion of all deliveries ineither country. When patients opt for a home birth our authors expressed the view that GPsgenerally do not have the skills or experience to be the main health professional in attendance.Therefore such births are primarily managed by midwives as the key health care professional. Thefocus of General practitioners is primarily to ensure that the patient is making an informed decisionabout delivering her baby at home. The GP is therefore still in an influential position to assist thewoman in making a decision about where to give birth. As a point of difference in Australia a homebirth would result in out of pocket expences for the mother.The views expressed below are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect health policy orpractice elsewhere in their countries. However we believe they offer an interesting perspective ontheir health care systems and commend the article to our readers.Please

  5. Sexual but not reproductive: exploring the junction and disjunction of sexual and reproductive rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, A M

    2000-01-01

    Although the term "sexual rights" has gained widespread currency, its concrete scope and content have not yet been fully defined. The need for definition is critical not only for promoting governmental accountability but also for ensuring that sexual rights can be claimed by diverse persons around the world. Ironically, the concept of "sexual and reproductive rights" poses a challenge to this effort; practices and people not traditionally addressed by reproductive rights work must be explicitly named and protected. This article considers how international norms have contributed to a gendered regulation of sexuality and of contemporary theories of "socially constructed sexuality," and it proposes a focus on the conditions that contribute to the ability to choose and on the links between sexuality, conduct, identity, social structures, and reproduction. Given the probable politically charged responses, global coalition-building is needed.

  6. Sexuality of people with intestinal ostomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danyelle Braga Rodrigues Cardoso

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to describe the experience of sexuality and other everyday life aspects for people with intestinal ostomy. Methods: qualitative, descriptive study with ten participants of the Specialized Reference Unit who gave interviews with inductive content analysis. Results: the established themes were Physical, emotional and socio-cultural changes, Changes in the exercise of sexuality of people with intestinal ostomy and Importance of the interdisciplinary support of the new sexuality. These changes are linked to body image, the self-esteem and interpersonal relationships with the partner, family and friends, going beyond the visible with the emergence of fear, rejection, difficulty with new relationships, body shame, embarrassment by the collector equipment, fear of the sexual act causes damage to the stoma and difficult to talk about the condition. Conclusion: the ostomy condition requires adaptation process, requiring trained interdisciplinary team in physiological and psychosocial problems resulting from surgical and therapeutic adjuvant treatment, which hinder the sexuality of these individuals.

  7. A Cultural Sexuality or a Sexual Culture?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vandermeersch, Patrick

    1990-01-01

    P. Vandermeersch, A Cultural Sexuality or a Sexual Culture? In: F. VAN DE VIJVER & G. HUTSCHEMAEKERS (ed.), The Investigation of Culture. Current Issues in Cultural Psychology, Tilburg, Tilburg University Press, 1990, 43-58.

  8. The NASA Ames PAH IR Spectroscopic Database: Computational Version 3.00 with Updated Content and the Introduction of Multiple Scaling Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Ricca, A.; Boersma, C.; Allamandola, L. J.

    2018-02-01

    Version 3.00 of the library of computed spectra in the NASA Ames PAH IR Spectroscopic Database (PAHdb) is described. Version 3.00 introduces the use of multiple scale factors, instead of the single scaling factor used previously, to align the theoretical harmonic frequencies with the experimental fundamentals. The use of multiple scale factors permits the use of a variety of basis sets; this allows new PAH species to be included in the database, such as those containing oxygen, and yields an improved treatment of strained species and those containing nitrogen. In addition, the computed spectra of 2439 new PAH species have been added. The impact of these changes on the analysis of an astronomical spectrum through database-fitting is considered and compared with a fit using Version 2.00 of the library of computed spectra. Finally, astronomical constraints are defined for the PAH spectral libraries in PAHdb.

  9. Sexual function and behavior in social phobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodinger, Liron; Hermesh, Haggai; Aizenberg, Dov; Valevski, Avi; Marom, Sofi; Shiloh, Roni; Gothelf, Doron; Zemishlany, Zvi; Weizman, Abraham

    2002-10-01

    Social phobia is a type of performance and interpersonal anxiety disorder and as such may be associated with sexual dysfunction and avoidance. The aim of the present study was to evaluate sexual function and behavior in patients with social phobia compared with mentally healthy subjects. Eighty subjects participated in the study: 40 consecutive, drug-free outpatients with social phobia (DSM-IV) attending an anxiety disorders clinic between November 1997 and April 1999 and 40 mentally normal controls. The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders and the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale were used to quantitatively and qualitatively assess sexual function and behavior. Men with social phobia reported mainly moderate impairment in arousal, orgasm, sexual enjoyment, and subjective satisfaction domains. Women with social phobia reported severe impairment in desire, arousal, sexual activity, and subjective satisfaction. In addition, compared with controls, men with social phobia reported significantly more frequent paid sex (p social phobia reported a significant paucity of sexual partners (p social phobia exhibit a wide range of sexual dysfunctions. Men have mainly performance problems, and women have a more pervasive disorder. Patients of both genders show difficulties in sexual interaction. It is important that clinicians be aware of this aspect of social phobia and initiate open discussions of sexual problems with patients.

  10. The mass media are an important context for adolescents' sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    L'Engle, Kelly Ladin; Brown, Jane D; Kenneavy, Kristin

    2006-03-01

    This study compared influences from the mass media (television, music, movies, magazines) on adolescents' sexual intentions and behaviors to other socialization contexts, including family, religion, school, and peers. A sample of 1011 Black and White adolescents from 14 middle schools in the Southeastern United States completed linked mail surveys about their media use and in-home Audio-CASI interviews about their sexual intentions and behaviors. Analysis of the sexual content in 264 media vehicles used by respondents was also conducted. Exposure to sexual content across media, and perceived support from the media for teen sexual behavior, were the main media influence measures. Media explained 13% of the variance in intentions to initiate sexual intercourse in the near future, and 8-10% of the variance in light and heavy sexual behaviors, which was comparable to other contexts. Media influences also demonstrated significant associations with intentions and behaviors after all other factors were considered. All contextual factors, including media, explained 54% of the variance in sexual intentions and 21-33% of the variance in sexual behaviors. Adolescents who are exposed to more sexual content in the media, and who perceive greater support from the media for teen sexual behavior, report greater intentions to engage in sexual intercourse and more sexual activity. Mass media are an important context for adolescents' sexual socialization, and media influences should be considered in research and interventions with early adolescents to reduce sexual activity.

  11. A Psychometric Review of Measures Assessing Discrimination Against Sexual Minorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Todd G; Bishop, C J; Morrison, Melanie A; Parker-Taneo, Kandice

    2016-08-01

    Discrimination against sexual minorities is widespread and has deleterious consequences on victims' psychological and physical wellbeing. However, a review of the psychometric properties of instruments measuring lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) discrimination has not been conducted. The results of this review, which involved evaluating 162 articles, reveal that most have suboptimal psychometric properties. Specifically, myriad scales possess questionable content validity as (1) items are not created in collaboration with sexual minorities; (2) measures possess a small number of items and, thus, may not sufficiently represent the domain of interest; and (3) scales are "adapted" from measures designed to examine race- and gender-based discrimination. Additional limitations include (1) summed scores are computed, often in the absence of scale score reliability metrics; (2) summed scores operate from the questionable assumption that diverse forms of discrimination are necessarily interrelated; (3) the dimensionality of instruments presumed to consist of subscales is seldom tested; (4) tests of criterion-related validity are routinely omitted; and (5) formal tests of measures' construct validity are seldom provided, necessitating that one infer validity based on the results obtained. The absence of "gold standard" measures, the attendant difficulty in formulating a coherent picture of this body of research, and suggestions for psychometric improvements are noted.

  12. Multidimensional sexual perfectionism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoeber, Joachim; Harvey, Laura N; Almeida, Isabel; Lyons, Emma

    2013-11-01

    Perfectionism is a multidimensional personality characteristic that can affect all areas of life. This article presents the first systematic investigation of multidimensional perfectionism in the domain of sexuality exploring the unique relationships that different forms of sexual perfectionism show with positive and negative aspects of sexuality. A sample of 272 university students (52 male, 220 female) completed measures of four forms of sexual perfectionism: self-oriented, partner-oriented, partner-prescribed, and socially prescribed. In addition, they completed measures of sexual esteem, sexual self-efficacy, sexual optimism, sex life satisfaction (capturing positive aspects of sexuality) and sexual problem self-blame, sexual anxiety, sexual depression, and negative sexual perfectionism cognitions during sex (capturing negative aspects). Results showed unique patterns of relationships for the four forms of sexual perfectionism, suggesting that partner-prescribed and socially prescribed sexual perfectionism are maladaptive forms of sexual perfectionism associated with negative aspects of sexuality whereas self-oriented and partner-oriented sexual perfectionism emerged as ambivalent forms associated with positive and negative aspects.

  13. Sexual risk behaviours and sexual abuse in persons with severe mental illness in Uganda: a qualitative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patric Lundberg

    Full Text Available Persons with severe mental illness (SMI engage in risky sexual behaviours and have high prevalence of HIV in high-income countries. Little is known about sexual behaviours and HIV risk among persons with SMI in sub-Saharan Africa. In this qualitative study we explored how SMI may influence sexual risk behaviours and sexual health risks in Uganda. Individual semi-structured interviews were conducted with 7 male and 13 female psychiatric patients aged 18-49 years. Participants were interviewed in hospital when clinically stable and capable of giving informed consent. Interview transcripts were analysed using manifest content analysis, generating the categories: (1 casual sex during illness episodes, (2 rape by non-partners, (3 exploitation by partners, (4 non-monogamous partners, and (5 sexual inactivity. Our findings suggest that SMI exacerbated sexual vulnerability in the women interviewed, by contributing to casual sex, to exploitative and non-monogamous sexual relationships, and to sexual assault by non-partners. No link could be established between SMI and increased sexual risk behaviours in the men interviewed, due to a small sample of men, and given that men's accounts showed little variability. Our findings also suggest that SMI caused sexual inactivity due to decreased sexual desire, and in men, due to difficulties forming an intimate relationship. Overall, our study highlights how SMI and gender inequality can contribute to the shaping of sexual risk behaviours and sexual health risks, including HIV risk, among persons with SMI in this Ugandan setting.

  14. Placebo and Nocebo Effects in Sexual Medicine: An Experimental Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Tillmann H C; Grob, Carolin; de Boer, Claas; Peschel, Thomas; Hartmann, Uwe; Tenbergen, Gilian; Schedlowski, Manfred

    2016-11-16

    Few studies have investigated placebo and nocebo effects in a human sexuality context. Studying placebo and nocebo responses in this context may provide insight into their potential to modulate sexual drive and function. To examine such effects in sexual medicine, 48 healthy, male heterosexual participants were divided into four groups. Each group received instruction to expect stimulating effects, no effect, or an inhibitory effect on sexual functions. Only one group received the dopamine agonist cabergoline; all other groups received placebo or nocebo. Modulations in sexual experience were examined through an established experimental paradigm of sexual arousal and masturbation-induced orgasm during erotic film sequences with instruction to induce placebo or nocebo effects. Endocrine data, appetitive, consummatory, and refractory sexual behavior parameters were assessed using the Arizona Sexual Experience Scale (ASEX) and the Acute Sexual Experience Scale (ASES). Results showed increased levels of sexual function after administration of cabergoline with significant effects for several parameters. Placebo effects were induced only to a small degree. No negative effects on sexual parameters in the nocebo condition were noted. This paradigm could induce only small placebo and nocebo effects. This supports the view that healthy male sexual function seems relatively resistant to negative external influences.

  15. Sexual Functioning After Childhood Abuse: The Influence of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and Trauma Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornefeld-Ettmann, Pia; Steil, Regina; Lieberz, Klara A; Bohus, Martin; Rausch, Sophie; Herzog, Julia; Priebe, Kathlen; Fydrich, Thomas; Müller-Engelmann, Meike

    2018-04-01

    Impairments in sexual functioning and sexual satisfaction are very common in women who have experienced childhood sexual abuse (CSA). A growing body of literature suggests a high prevalence of sexual distress in patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, the influence of sexual trauma exposure per se and the influence of PTSD symptoms on impairments in sexual functioning remain unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of sexual trauma exposure and PTSD on sexual functioning and sexual satisfaction by comparing 3 groups of women. Women with PTSD after CSA (N = 32), women with a history of CSA and/or physical abuse but without PTSD (trauma controls [TC]; N = 32), and healthy women (N = 32) were compared with regards to self-reported sexual functioning and sexual satisfaction. Trauma exposure was assessed with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, and PTSD was assessed with the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition. Sexual functioning was assessed with the Sexual Experience and Behavior Questionnaire, and sexual satisfaction was assessed with the questionnaire Resources in Sexuality and Relationship. PTSD patients had significantly lower sexual functioning in some aspects of sexual experience (sexual aversion, sexual pain, and sexual satisfaction) but did not significantly differ in sexual arousal and orgasm from the other 2 groups. TC and healthy women did not significantly differ from each other on the measures of sexual functioning or sexual satisfaction. Results suggest that the development of PTSD has a greater impact on sexual functioning than does the experience of a traumatic event. This emphasizes the importance to address possible sexual distress and sexual satisfaction in women with PTSD by administering specific diagnostic instruments and by integrating specific interventions targeting sexual problems into a trauma-specific treatment. The study

  16. Sexual and relationship intimacy among women with provoked vestibulodynia and their partners: associations with sexual satisfaction, sexual function, and pain self-efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bois, Katy; Bergeron, Sophie; Rosen, Natalie O; McDuff, Pierre; Grégoire, Catherine

    2013-08-01

    Provoked vestibulodynia (PVD) is the most frequent subtype of vulvodynia. Women report negative consequences of PVD on their sexual and romantic relationships. Researchers have recently highlighted the importance of examining interpersonal factors such as intimacy, and of including both women and their partners in study designs. The aim of this study was to investigate sexual and relationship intimacy as defined by the Interpersonal Process Model of Intimacy and their associations with sexual satisfaction, sexual function, pain self-efficacy, and pain intensity among women with PVD and their partners. Ninety-one heterosexual women (M age = 27.38, SD = 6.04) diagnosed with PVD and their partners (M age = 29.37, SD = 7.79) completed measures of sexual and relationship intimacy, sexual satisfaction, sexual function, pain self-efficacy, and pain intensity. Dependent measures were the (i) Global Measure of Sexual Satisfaction Scale; (ii) Female Sexual Function Index; (iii) Painful Intercourse Self-Efficacy Scale; and (iv) visual analog scale of pain intensity during intercourse. After controlling for women's age, women's greater sexual intimacy (β = 0.49, P sexual satisfaction and higher pain self-efficacy (β = 0.39, P = 0.001), beyond the effects of partners' sexual intimacy. Also, women's greater sexual intimacy (β = 0.24, P = 0.05) and women's greater relationship intimacy (β = 0.54, P = 0.003) were associated with greater women's sexual function, beyond the effects of partners' sexual and relationship intimacy. Women's self-reported sexual and relationship intimacy in the couple relationship may promote higher sexual satisfaction, sexual function, and pain self-efficacy, as well as possibly foster greater sexual well-being among women with PVD. The authors discuss implications for the inclusion of emotional and interpersonal aspects of the couple's dynamic in clinical interventions and future research in PVD. © 2013

  17. Sexual Orientation (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Sexual Orientation KidsHealth / For Parents / Sexual Orientation What's in this ... orientation is part of that process. What Is Sexual Orientation? The term sexual orientation refers to the gender ( ...

  18. Addressing Sexual Harassment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Ellie L.; Ashbaker, Betty Y.

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses ways on how to address the problem of sexual harassment in schools. Sexual harassment--simply defined as any unwanted and unwelcome sexual behavior--is a sensitive topic. Merely providing students, parents, and staff members with information about the school's sexual harassment policy is insufficient; schools must take…

  19. The Relationship Between Hypersexual Behavior, Sexual Excitation, Sexual Inhibition, and Personality Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rettenberger, Martin; Klein, Verena; Briken, Peer

    2016-01-01

    The term hypersexuality was introduced to describe excessive sexual behavior associated with a person's inability to control his or her sexual behavior. The main aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of different personality traits on the degree of hypersexual behavior as measured by the Hypersexual Behavior Inventory (HBI). A further aim was to evaluate the association between sexual inhibition and excitation [as described in the Dual Control Model (DCM)] and hypersexual behavior. A sample of 1,749 participants completed an internet-based survey comprised the HBI, the short form of the Sexual Inhibition/Sexual Excitation Scales (SIS/SES-SF) as well as more general personality measures: the Behavioral Inhibition System/Behavioral Activation System-scales (BIS/BAS-scales) and a short version of the Big Five Inventory (BFI-10). Using the recommended HBI cut-off, 6.0 % (n = 105) of the present sample could be categorized as hypersexual, which is comparable to the results of previous studies about the prevalence of hypersexual behavior in the general population. The results provided strong support for the components of the DCM-sexual excitation and inhibition-to explain hypersexual behavior, irrespective of gender and sexual orientation. Some of the general personality traits also showed significant relationships with hypersexual behavior. Taken together, the results of the present study provide further support for the relevance of research about the relationships between sexual problems and disorders, the DCM, and personality variables.

  20. "Children are sexually innocent": Iranian parents' understanding of children's sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merghati-Khoei, Effat; Abolghasemi, Naria; Smith, Thomas G

    2014-04-01

    Sexuality education (SE) is hotly contested in the West and there is much abstinence-only education; however, it remains controversial in a variety of contexts, including in Iran. The lack of consensus about children's SE in Muslim societies obliges us to explore different aspects of this topic systematically. The qualitative research presented here was about how Iranian parents perceived children's sexuality. Data from parents of 26 children were collected during four focus group sessions. Informants were selected from Area 5 in West Tehran. This area included 72 primary schools for girls and 82 for boys. The sessions were facilitated by using a semi-structured focus group guide. Content analysis was adopted using combined free and analytical coding to reduce data, to extract meanings, and to categorize domains. One of the three main domains identified, family management of child sexuality, is comprised of the following: (1) understanding of child sexuality, (2) family rules, (3) parent-child interactions, and (4) opposite sex interactions. Parental misinformation, accumulated myths, and ignorance about children's sexual development were evident. Strict family rules and a lack of consistent policy and instruction for SE were also identified. Parents said they were neither well-prepared nor competent to educate their children about sexuality. In fact, a majority of mothers raised "incompetence" as an important determinant in their own parent-child interactions. Societal changes as well as children's socialization patterns have forced parents to accept their children's opposite sex friendships as a reality. Results suggest a community need for developing comprehensive and culturally sensitive SE for schools and parental use.

  1. Simulation of the mineral dust content over Western Africa from the event to the annual scale with the CHIMERE-DUST model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Schmechtig

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The chemistry and transport model CHIMERE-DUST have been used to simulate the mineral dust cycle over the Sahara in 2006. Surface measurements deployed during the AMMA field campaign allow to test the capability of the model to correctly reproduce the atmospheric dust load and surface concentrations from the daily to the seasonal time-scale. The simulated monthly mean Aerosol Optical Depths (AOD and surface concentrations are significantly correlated with the measured ones. The simulated daily concentrations and hourly AOD are in the same range of magnitude than the observed ones despite relatively high simulated dust emissions. The level of agreement between the simulations and the observations has been quantified at different time scales using statistical parameters classically used to evaluate air quality models. The capability of the model to reproduce the altitude of the dust transport was tested for two contrasted cases of low and high altitude transport. These results highlight the sensitivity of the simulations to the surface winds used as external forcing and the necessity to further constrain the dust mass budget at the regional scale.

  2. Sexual risk taking behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buttmann, Nina; Nielsen, Ann; Munk, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Sexual habits and risky sexual behaviour strongly affect public health. Available data indicate that sexually transmitted infections are increasing in many EU countries. Changes in the epidemiology of sexually transmitted diseases across Europe are among other factors suggested to be driven by ch...... by changes in sexual behaviour patterns. The purpose of our study is to assess the occurrence of risky behaviour in men aged 18-45 years from the general population. Furthermore, we aim to examine factors associated with risky sexual behaviour.......Sexual habits and risky sexual behaviour strongly affect public health. Available data indicate that sexually transmitted infections are increasing in many EU countries. Changes in the epidemiology of sexually transmitted diseases across Europe are among other factors suggested to be driven...

  3. Buffer or Brake? The Role of Sexuality-Specific Parenting in Adolescents’ Sexualized Media Consumption and Sexual Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.J. Overbeek (Geertjan); van de Bongardt, D. (Daphne); Baams, L. (Laura)

    2018-01-01

    textabstractOne main source of sexual socialization lies within family interactions. Especially sexuality-specific parenting may determine adolescents’ sexual development—adolescents’ sexual behavior and sexual risk behavior, sexualized media consumption and permissive sexual attitudes—to a

  4. Buffer or Brake? The Role of Sexuality-Specific Parenting in Adolescents’ Sexualized Media Consumption and Sexual Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overbeek, Geertjan; van de Bongardt, Daphne; Baams, Laura

    2018-01-01

    One main source of sexual socialization lies within family interactions. Especially sexuality-specific parenting may determine adolescents’ sexual development—adolescents’ sexual behavior and sexual risk behavior, sexualized media consumption and permissive sexual attitudes—to a significant extent,

  5. Sexual Function Across Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Anita H; Harsh, Veronica

    2016-03-01

    Women experience multiple changes in social and reproductive statuses across the life span which can affect sexual functioning. Various phases of the sexual response cycle may be impacted and can lead to sexual dysfunction. Screening for sexual problems and consideration of contributing factors such as neurobiology, reproductive life events, medical problems, medication use, and depression can help guide appropriate treatment and thereby improve the sexual functioning and quality of life of affected women. Treatment options include psychotropic medications, hormone therapy, and psychotherapy.

  6. Sexuality and Islam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dialmy, Abdessamad

    2010-06-01

    This paper deals with three major questions: (1) What are the sexual norms defined by the sacred texts (Koran and Sunna)? (2) What are the sexual practices currently observed among Moslems? (3) To which extent are current sexual practices of Moslems dissociated from Islamic sexual norms? Sexual standards in Islam are paradoxical: on the one hand, they allow and actually are an enticement to the exercise of sexuality but, on the other hand, they discriminate between male and female sexuality, between marital and pre- or extramarital sexuality, and between heterosexuality and homosexuality. Men are given more rights with regard to the expression of their sexuality; women are forbidden to have extramarital sex (with their slaves) and both genders to have homosexual relationships. The combination of these paradoxical standards with modernisation leads to the current back and forth swing of sexual practices between repression and openness. Partial modernisation leads to greater sexual tolerance. But restrictive sexual standards have gathered strength and have become idealised as a result of the current radicalisation of Islam. This swing of the pendulum between repression and openness is illustrated by phenomena such as public harassment, premarital sexuality, female pleasure, prostitution, and homosexuality. Currently, Islam is not any more the only reference which provides guidance concerning sexual practices but secularisation of sexual laws is still politically unthinkable today. So the only solution is to achieve reform in the name of Islam, through the reinterpretation of repressive holy texts.

  7. Sexual functioning, beliefs about sexual functioning and quality of life of women with infertility problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prathibha Agustus

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The study was conducted in the background of paucity of studies examining the sexual and psychosocial functioning of women with infertility. Aims: The study explored sexual functioning in women with infertility problems, their beliefs about sexuality and their quality of life. Settings and Design: A single group exploratory design with non-probability purposive sampling was used. A total of 30 participants diagnosed with primary infertility were included in the study. Materials and Methods: The data were obtained by individual administration of the following tools: Semi-structured interview schedule, Female Sexual Functioning Inventory, Sexual Dysfunctional Beliefs Questionnaire, World Health Organization Quality of Life Scale − BREF Version and General Health Questionnaire-12. The data obtained were analyzed using descriptive statistics and non-parametric tests. Results: About half of the participants had sexual dysfunction. Pain-related problems were most commonly reported (50%. Factors contributing to dysfunction included inadequate knowledge about sex, sexual stimulation and sexual communication. Along with inadequate self-image, negative childhood experiences, financial difficulties and marital discord in parents influenced the perception of self. Majority of the women had dysfunctional beliefs about sexuality (56%, and greater beliefs were found to be in the domain of sexual conservatism. The overall quality of life was poor, and 56% of women experienced psychological distress. There was significant positive correlation between sexual conservatism and experience of pain and overall sexual functioning. Conclusion: Women with infertility bear dysfunctional beliefs and suffer from problems in sexual functioning, have low quality of life and high psychological distress.

  8. Medical Student Sexuality: How Sexual Experience and Sexuality Training Impact U.S. and Canadian Medical Students’ Comfort in Dealing with Patients’ Sexuality in Clinical Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shindel, Alan W.; Ando, Kathryn A.; Nelson, Christian J.; Breyer, Benjamin N.; Lue, Tom F.; Smith, James F.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To determine factors associated with students’ comfort in addressing patients’ sexuality in the clinical context. Method The authors invited students enrolled in MD-degree-granting and osteopathic medical schools in the United States and Canada to participate in an anonymous Internet survey between February and July 2008. The survey assessed ethnodemographic factors and sexual history. Respondents also completed the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Male respondents completed the International Index of Erectile Function and the Premature Ejaculation Diagnostic Tool. Female respondents completed the Female Sexual Function Index and the Index of Sex Life. The authors used descriptive statistics, ANOVA, and multivariable logistic regression to analyze responses. Results The authors’ analyses included 2,261 completed survey responses: 910 from men, 1,343 from women, and 8 from individuals who self-identified as “other” gendered. Over 53% of respondents (n = 1,206) stated that they felt they had not received sufficient training in medical school to address sexual concerns clinically. Despite this, 81% of students (n = 1,827) reported feeling comfortable dealing with their patients’ sexuality issues. Students with limited sexual experience, students at risk for sexual problems, and students who felt that they had not been trained adequately were less likely to report being comfortable talking to patients about sexual health issues. Conclusions Perception of inadequate sexuality training in medical school and personal issues pertaining to sex may be associated with students’ difficulty in addressing patients’ sexuality. Adequate training is preeminently associated with feeling comfortable addressing patients’ sexuality and should be a priority for medical education. PMID:20671459

  9. Medical student sexuality: how sexual experience and sexuality training impact U.S. and Canadian medical students' comfort in dealing with patients' sexuality in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shindel, Alan W; Ando, Kathryn A; Nelson, Christian J; Breyer, Benjamin N; Lue, Tom F; Smith, James F

    2010-08-01

    To determine factors associated with students' comfort in addressing patients' sexuality in the clinical context. The authors invited students enrolled in MD-degree-granting and osteopathic medical schools in the United States and Canada to participate in an anonymous Internet survey between February and July 2008. The survey assessed ethnodemographic factors and sexual history. Respondents also completed the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Male respondents completed the International Index of Erectile Function and the Premature Ejaculation Diagnostic Tool. Female respondents completed the Female Sexual Function Index and the Index of Sex Life. The authors used descriptive statistics, ANOVA, and multivariable logistic regression to analyze responses. The authors' analyses included 2,261 completed survey responses: 910 from men, 1,343 from women, and 8 from individuals who self-identified as "other" gendered. Over 53% of respondents (n = 1,206) stated that they felt they had not received sufficient training in medical school to address sexual concerns clinically. Despite this, 81% of students (n = 1,827) reported feeling comfortable dealing with their patients' sexuality issues. Students with limited sexual experience, students at risk for sexual problems, and students who felt that they had not been trained adequately were less likely to report being comfortable talking to patients about sexual health issues. Perception of inadequate sexuality training in medical school and personal issues pertaining to sex may be associated with students' difficulty in addressing patients' sexuality. Adequate training is preeminently associated with feeling comfortable addressing patients' sexuality and should be a priority for medical education.

  10. Child sexual abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalid, N.

    2001-01-01

    Background: Child sexual abuse with significant impact on victim's physical, mental and social health has now been recognized as existing on an appreciable scale worldwide. Diversity of opinions exist about the concept, types, prevalence and repercussions along with a paucity of systematic and scientific work in the developing world including Pakistan. Objective: This paper aims at reviewing the literature for clarification of concept, update of estimates and correlates, and to identify lines for future research. Data sources: The literature was search through BMJ-Medline for international data, supplemented by local data through CPSP-MEDLIP service. The search term child sexual abuse with associated sub-heads were used. No constraint of time period, publication type or source applied except english Language version Comparative findings: Wide variations identified in conceptual boundaries with consequent impact on prevalence estimates. Agreement found for its existence as an international problem with rates ranging from 7% - 36% for women and 3% - 29% for men. Female abused 1.5-3 times more than male with exponential high rates in age group 3-6 years and 8-11 years. In 2/3 cases the perpetrator identified belonged to nuclear or extended family. Significant association exists with early onset of psychiatric ailments like substance abuse, eating disorders, personality disorders, dissociative disorders and depression. Conclusion and Suggestion: The need for extensive research studies in immense in developing countries like Pakistan where environmental circumstances suggest its presence at rates higher than the identified elsewhere. In addition to facilitate awareness and perhaps to clarify the concept as well as the prevalence of child sexual abuse researchers need to select methodologies and instruments with international comparison in mind. (author)

  11. The effects of state and trait self-focused attention on sexual arousal in sexually functional and dysfunctional women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meston, Cindy M.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effects of state self-focused attention on sexual arousal and trait self-consciousness on sexual arousal and function in sexually functional (n = 16) and dysfunctional (n = 16) women. Self-focused attention was induced using a 50% reflectant television screen in one of two counterbalanced sessions during which self-report and physiological sexual responses to erotic films were measured. Self-focused attention significantly decreased vaginal pulse amplitude (VPA) responses among sexually functional but not dysfunctional women, and substantially decreased correlations between self-report and VPA measures of sexual arousal. Self-focused attention did not significantly impact subjective sexual arousal in sexually functional or dysfunctional women. Trait private self-consciousness was positively related to sexual desire, orgasm, compatibility, contentment and sexual satisfaction. Public self-consciousness was correlated with sexual pain. The findings are discussed in terms of Masters and Johnson’s [Masters, W. H. & Johnson, V. E. (1970). Human sexual inadequacy. Boston: Little, Brown) concepts of “spectatoring” and “sensate focus.” PMID:15927143

  12. Better sexual acceptability of agomelatine (25 and 50 mg) compared to escitalopram (20 mg) in healthy volunteers. A 9-week, placebo-controlled study using the PRSexDQ scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montejo, Angel L; Deakin, J F W; Gaillard, Raphael; Harmer, Catherine; Meyniel, Florent; Jabourian, Artin; Gabriel, Cecilia; Gruget, Celine; Klinge, Corinna; MacFayden, Christine; Milligan, Holly; Mullings, Emma; Goodwin, Guy

    2015-10-01

    The present double-blind, placebo-controlled study evaluates the effects of agomelatine and the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor escitalopram on sexual dysfunction in healthy men and women. A total of 133 healthy volunteers (67 men, 66 women) were randomly assigned to agomelatine (25 or 50 mg) or escitalopram (20 mg) or placebo for nine weeks. Sexual acceptability was evaluated by using the psychotropic-related sexual dysfunction questionnaire 5-items total score and sexual dysfunction relative to each sub-score (in 110 volunteers with sexual activity). Sexual dysfunction was evaluated at baseline and after two, five and eight weeks of treatment and one week after drug discontinuation. The psychotropic-related sexual dysfunction questionnaire 5-items total score was significantly lower in both agomelatine groups versus escitalopram at all visits (p escitalopram group than in the placebo group at each post-baseline visit (p escitalopram significantly impaired dysfunction relative to "delayed orgasm or ejaculation" (p escitalopram group than in agomelatine groups (p escitalopram. Evaluation of the effect of agomelatine and escitalopram on emotions and motivation in healthy male and female volunteers. ISRCTN75872983. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Biology of Sexual Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Kumar Mysore Nagaraj

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Sexual activity is a multifaceted activity, involving complex interactions between the nervous system, the endocrine system, the vascular system and a variety of structures that are instrumental in sexual excitement, intercourse and satisfaction. Sexual function has three components i.e., desire, arousal and orgasm. Many sexual dysfunctions can be categorized according to the phase of sexual response that is affected. In actual clinical practice however, sexual desire, arousal and orgasmic difficulties more often than not coexist, suggesting an integration of phases. Sexual dysfunction can result from a wide variety of psychological and physiological causes including derangements in the levels of sex hormones and neurotrensmitters. This review deals with the biology of different phases of sexual function as well as implications of hormones and neurotransmitters in sexual dysfunction

  14. Sexual Orientation and Music Education: Continuing a Tradition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergonzi, Louis

    2014-01-01

    This article offers an overview of sexual orientation and music education, in particular how sexual orientation--specifically, heterosexuality--has been dominant in the teaching of music in the United States. Scenarios of heterosexual privilege related to music students, music teachers, and instructional content are presented. After acknowledging…

  15. Attributes of Spirituality Described by Survivors of Sexual Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapik, Gregory P.; Martsolf, Donna S.; Draucker, Claire B.; Strickland, Karen D.

    2010-01-01

    This study focuses on what aspects of attributes of spirituality as defined by Martsolf and Mickley (1998) are most salient for female and male survivors of sexual violence. Content analysis of secondary narrative data, provided by 50 participants in a study of women's and men's responses to sexual violence, was coded to the five attributes of…

  16. Life-Course Typology of Adults Who Experienced Sexual Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draucker, Claire; Martsolf, Donna

    2010-01-01

    Two qualitative methodologies were used to develop a life-course typology of individuals who had been exposed to sexual violence. Interview narratives of 121 adult women and men who participated in qualitative study of women's and men's responses to sexual violence provided the data. The authors combined a narrative approach (holistic-content and…

  17. Local Content

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gibberd, Jeremy

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Local content refers to materials and products made in a country as opposed those that are imported. There is an increasing interest in the concept of local content as a means of supporting local economies and providing jobs (Belderbos & Sleuwaegen...

  18. The Development of the Sexual Assertiveness Questionnaire (SAQ): A Comprehensive Measure of Sexual Assertiveness for Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loshek, Eevett; Terrell, Heather K

    2015-01-01

    Sexual assertiveness has been defined in a number of ways by many researchers, with different aspects of sexual assertiveness emphasized in different measures. Most previous measures have included condom insistence as an important aspect of sexual assertiveness, but this may not translate well to women at all life stages or in varied types of relationships. The goal of the current study was to develop a comprehensive measure of sexual assertiveness that encompasses the aspects of sexual assertiveness that have been emphasized by previous researchers, with the exception of condom insistence. Items were generated based on previous measures and definitions, and an exploratory factor analysis was conducted (Study 1) to better understand the dimensions of sexual assertiveness. The proposed scale was revised and further refined using both exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis in Study 2. The final scale consisted of 18 items that seem to capture three dimensions of sexual assertiveness: the ability to initiate and communicate about desired sex, the ability to refuse unwanted sex, and the ability to communicate about sexual history and risk. Model fit indices indicate that this three-factor solution fits the data well. Implications and suggestions for future research are discussed.

  19. Content validity and its estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaghmale F

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Measuring content validity of instruments are important. This type of validity can help to ensure construct validity and give confidence to the readers and researchers about instruments. content validity refers to the degree that the instrument covers the content that it is supposed to measure. For content validity two judgments are necessary: the measurable extent of each item for defining the traits and the set of items that represents all aspects of the traits. Purpose: To develop a content valid scale for assessing experience with computer usage. Methods: First a review of 2 volumes of International Journal of Nursing Studies, was conducted with onlyI article out of 13 which documented content validity did so by a 4-point content validity index (CV! and the judgment of 3 experts. Then a scale with 38 items was developed. The experts were asked to rate each item based on relevance, clarity, simplicity and ambiguity on the four-point scale. Content Validity Index (CVI for each item was determined. Result: Of 38 items, those with CVIover 0.75 remained and the rest were discarded reSulting to 25-item scale. Conclusion: Although documenting content validity of an instrument may seem expensive in terms of time and human resources, its importance warrants greater attention when a valid assessment instrument is to be developed. Keywords: Content Validity, Measuring Content Validity

  20. Associations Between Penetration Cognitions, Genital Pain, and Sexual Well-being in Women with Provoked Vestibulodynia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Alexandra B; Rosen, Natalie O; Price, Lisa; Bergeron, Sophie

    2016-03-01

    Provoked vestibulodynia (PVD) is a common vulvovaginal pain condition that negatively impacts women's psychological and sexual well-being. Controlled studies have found that women with PVD report greater negative and less positive cognitions about penetration; however, associations between these types of cognitions and women's pain and sexual well-being remain unknown. Further, researchers have yet to examine how interpersonal variables such as sexual communication may impact the association between women's penetration cognitions and PVD outcomes. We examined associations between vaginal penetration cognitions and sexual satisfaction, sexual function, and pain in women with PVD, as well as the moderating role of sexual communication. Seventy-seven women (M age = 28.32, SD = 6.19) diagnosed with PVD completed the catastrophic and pain cognitions and positive cognitions subscales of the Vaginal Penetration Cognition Questionnaire, as well as the Dyadic Sexual Communication Scale. Participants also completed measures of sexual satisfaction, sexual function, and pain. Dependent measures were the (i) Global Measure of Sexual Satisfaction Scale; (ii) Female Sexual Function Index; and (iii) Present Pain Intensity scale of the McGill Pain Questionnaire, with reference to pain during vaginal intercourse. Women's lower catastrophic and pain cognitions, higher positive cognitions, and higher sexual communication were each uniquely associated with higher sexual satisfaction and sexual function. Lower catastrophic and pain cognitions also were associated with women's lower pain. For women who reported higher sexual communication, as positive cognitions increased, there was a significantly greater decrease in pain intensity during intercourse compared to women who reported lower levels of sexual communication. Findings may inform cognitive-behavioral interventions aimed at improving the pain and sexual well-being of women with PVD. Targeting the couple's sexual communication

  1. Preliminary Findings on Men's Sexual Self-Schema and Sexual Offending: Differences Between Subtypes of Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigre-Leirós, Vera; Carvalho, Joana; Nobre, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    Available literature suggests that sexual self-schemas (i.e., cognitive generalizations about sexual aspects of oneself) influence sexual behavior. Nonetheless, there is a lack of research regarding their role in sexual offending. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between the men's sexual self-schema dimensions (passionate-loving, powerful-aggressive, and open-minded-liberal) and different types of sexual-offending behavior. A total of 50 rapists, 65 child molesters (21 pedophilic, 44 nonpedophilic), and 51 nonsexual offenders answered the Men's Sexual Self-Schema Scale, the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI), and the Socially Desirable Response Set Measure (SDRS-5). Data were analyzed using multinomial logistic regression, controlling for age, school education, psychological distress, and social desirability. Results showed that rapists as well as nonsexual offenders were more likely to hold the powerful-aggressive sexual self-view compared to pedophilic and nonpedophilic child molesters. Overall, findings seem to be consistent with both a sociocultural component of aggression and the general cognitive profile of offenders. If further research corroborates these preliminary findings, sexual self-concept may be integrated into a comprehensive multifactorial approach of offending behavior.

  2. Indian concepts on sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Kaustav; Thakurata, Rajarshi Guha

    2013-01-01

    India is a vast country depicting wide social, cultural and sexual variations. Indian concept of sexuality has evolved over time and has been immensely influenced by various rulers and religions. Indian sexuality is manifested in our attire, behavior, recreation, literature, sculptures, scriptures, religion and sports. It has influenced the way we perceive our health, disease and device remedies for the same. In modern era, with rapid globalization the unique Indian sexuality is getting diffused. The time has come to rediscover ourselves in terms of sexuality to attain individual freedom and to reinvest our energy to social issues related to sexuality.

  3. Variations of the petrophysical properties of rocks with increasing hydrocarbons content and their implications at larger scale: insights from the Majella reservoir (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trippetta, Fabio; Ruggieri, Roberta; Lipparini, Lorenzo

    2016-04-01

    Crustal processes such as deformations or faulting are strictly related to the petrophysical properties of involved rocks. These properties depend on mineral composition, fabric, pores and any secondary features such as cracks or infilling material that may have been introduced during the whole diagenetic and tectonic history of the rock. In this work we investigate the role of hydrocarbons (HC) in changing the petrophysical properties of rock by merging laboratory experiments, well data and static models focusing on the carbonate-bearing Majella reservoir. This reservoir represent an interesting analogue for the several oil fields discovered in the subsurface in the region, allowing a comparison of a wide range of geological and geophysical data at different scale. The investigated lithology is made of high porosity ramp calcarenites, structurally slightly affected by a superimposed fracture system and displaced by few major normal faults, with some minor strike-slip movements. Sets of rock specimens were selected in the field and in particular two groups were investigated: 1. clean rocks (without oil) and 2. HC bearing rocks (with different saturations). For both groups, density, porosity, P and S wave velocity, permeability and elastic moduli measurements at increasing confining pressure were conducted on cylindrical specimens at the HP-HT Laboratory of the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV) in Rome, Italy. For clean samples at ambient pressure, laboratory porosity varies from 10 % up to 26 % and P wave velocity (Vp) spans from 4,1 km/s to 4,9 km/s and a very good correlation between Vp, Vs and porosity is observed. The P wave velocity at 100 MPa of confining pressure, ranges between 4,5 km/s and 5,2 km/s with a pressure independent Vp/Vs ratio of about 1,9. The presence of HC within the samples affects both Vp and Vs. In particular velocities increase with the presence of hydrocarbons proportionally respect to the amount of the filled

  4. Sexual Selection of Protamine 1 in Mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüke, Lena; Tourmente, Maximiliano; Roldan, Eduardo R S

    2016-01-01

    Protamines have a crucial role in male fertility. They are involved in sperm chromatin packaging and influence the shape of the sperm head and, hence, are important for sperm performance. Protamine structure is basic with numerous arginine-rich DNA-binding domains. Postcopulatory sexual selection is thought to play an important role in protamine sequence evolution and expression. Here, we analyze patterns of evolution and sexual selection (in the form of sperm competition) acting on protamine 1 gene sequence in 237 mammalian species. We assessed common patterns as well as differences between the major mammalian subclasses (Eutheria, Metatheria) and clades. We found that a high arginine content in protamine 1 associates with a lower sperm head width, which may have an impact on sperm swimming velocity. Increase in arginine content in protamine 1 across mammals appears to take place in a way consistent with sexual selection. In metatherians, increase in sequence length correlates with sexual selection. Differences in selective pressures on sequences and codon sites were observed between mammalian clades. Our study revealed a complex evolutionary pattern of protamine 1, with different selective constraints, and effects of sexual selection, between mammalian groups. In contrast, the effect of arginine content on head shape, and the possible involvement of sperm competition, was identified across all mammals. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Sexual Socialisation in Life Orientation Manuals versus Popular Music: Responsibilisation versus Pleasure, Tension and Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macleod, Catriona; Moodley, Dale; Young, Lisa Saville

    2015-01-01

    This paper compares two forms of sexual socialisation to which learners are exposed: the sexuality education components of the Life Orientation (LO) manuals and the lyrical content and videos of popular songs. We performed a textual analysis of the sexual subject positions made available in, first, the LO manuals used in Grade 10 classes and,…

  6. Beyond the Call of Duty: A Qualitative Study of Teachers' Additional Responsibilities Related to Sexuality Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Marla E.; Madsen, Nikki; Oliphant, Jennifer A.; Resnick, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Seven focus groups were conducted with sexuality educators in Minnesota to explore ways that teaching sexuality education differs from teaching other health education content and to determine if additional supports or resources are needed for sexuality educators. Teachers described many specific additional responsibilities or concerns related to…

  7. A full-scale UASB reactor for treatment of pig and cattle slaughterhouse wastewater with a high oil and grease content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. S. Miranda

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the performance of an 800m³ full-scale UASB reactor in treating meat-packing plant and slaughterhouse effluents containing high concentrations of oil and grease (O&G (413-645 mg/L, resulting in a COD/O&G ratio of 26-32%. Those macromolecules were considered responsible for the unbalance of the system resulting in a total washout of the biomass. The removal of O&G from the influent using a physicochemical system (coagulation-flocculation improved the physical characteristics of the anaerobic sludge, controlling the biomass washout. Reactor performance was significantly improved when the COD/O&G ratio influent was maintained in the 10%. The COD and O&G removal rates obtained after implantation of the physicochemical system were 70-92% and 27-58%, respectively. The specific methanogenic activity (SMA of the biomass shows towards a tendency stabilisation and adaptation to the substrate influent. Pretreatment of the influent allowed the maximum organic load to be increased (1.46 to 2.43 Kg COD/m³.d and improved the quality of the effluent.

  8. It Takes Two: Sexual Communication Patterns and the Sexual and Relational Adjustment of Couples Coping With Provoked Vestibulodynia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rancourt, Kate M; Flynn, Michelle; Bergeron, Sophie; Rosen, Natalie O

    2017-03-01

    Provoked vestibulodynia (PVD) is a prevalent vulvovaginal pain condition that is associated with sexual and relational consequences for women and their partners. Greater perceived quality of sexual communication has been associated with women's lower pain during intercourse and with couples' better sexual and relational well-being. Whether couples' collaborative (eg, expressing feelings or problem solving) and negative (eg, withdrawing or criticizing) sexual communication patterns (SCPs) are differentially associated with couples' adjustment to PVD is unknown. To examine associations between collaborative and negative SCPs and women's pain and the sexual and relationship adjustment of women with PVD and their partners. Women diagnosed with PVD (N = 87) and their partners completed the Sexual Communication Patterns Questionnaire and measurements of pain (women only), sexual functioning, sexual satisfaction, sexual distress, and relationship satisfaction. (i) Numerical rating scale of pain during intercourse, (ii) Female Sexual Function Index and International Index of Erectile Function, (iii) Global Measure of Sexual Satisfaction, (iv) Female Sexual Distress Scale-Revised, and (v) Couple Satisfaction Index. When women reported greater collaborative SCP, they also reported higher sexual and relationship satisfaction. When women reported greater negative SCP, they reported less relationship satisfaction and had partners who reported greater sexual distress. When partners reported greater collaborative SCP, they also reported higher relationship satisfaction and had female partners who were less sexually distressed. When partners reported higher negative SCP, they also reported less relationship satisfaction. There were no associations between SCP and women's or partners' sexual functioning or women's pain. Collaborative SCP may benefit couples' sexual and relational well-being, whereas negative SCP may impede sexual and relational adjustment to PVD. Findings

  9. Sexual Attraction, Sexual Identity, and Psychosocial Wellbeing in a National Sample of Young Women during Emerging Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, Michelle Marie; Zimmerman, Marc; Bauermeister, Jose A.

    2012-01-01

    Identity-based conceptualizations of sexual orientation may not account adequately for variation in young women’s sexuality. Sexual minorities fare worse in psychosocial markers of wellbeing (i.e., depressive symptoms, anxiety, self esteem, social support) than heterosexual youth; however, it remains unclear whether these health disparities exclusively affect individuals who adopt a sexual minority identity or if it also may be present among heterosexually-identified youth who report same-sex attractions. We examined the relationship between sexual attraction, sexual identity, and psychosocial wellbeing in the female only subsample (weighted, n = 391) of a national sample of emerging adults (age 18–24). Women in this study rated on a scale from 1 (Not at all) to 5 (Extremely) their degree of sexual attraction to males and females, respectively. From these scores, women were divided into 4 groups (low female /low male attraction, low female /high male attraction, high female /low male attraction, or high female /high male attraction). We explored the relationship between experiences of attraction, reported sexual identity, and psychosocial outcomes using ordinary least squares regression. The results indicated sexual attraction to be predictive of women’s psychosocial wellbeing as much as or more than sexual identity measures. We discuss these findings in terms of the diversity found in young women’s sexuality, and how sexual minority status may be experienced by this group. PMID:22847750

  10. Are sexual media exposure, parental restrictions on media use and co-viewing TV and DVDs with parents and friends associated with teenagers' early sexual behaviour?☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkes, Alison; Wight, Daniel; Hunt, Kate; Henderson, Marion; Sargent, James

    2013-01-01

    Sexual content in teenagers' media diets is known to predict early sexual behaviour. Research on sexual content has not allowed for the social context of media use, which may affect selection and processing of content. This study investigated whether sexual media content and/or contextual factors (co-viewing, parental media restrictions) were associated with early sexual behaviour using 2251 14–15 year-olds from Scotland, UK. A third (n = 733) reported sexual intercourse. In multivariable analysis the likelihood of intercourse was lower with parental restriction of sexual media and same-sex peer co-viewing; but higher with mixed-sex peer co-viewing. Parental co-viewing, other parental restrictions on media and sexual film content exposure were not associated with intercourse. Findings suggest the context of media use may influence early sexual behaviour. Specific parental restrictions on sexual media may offer more protection against early sex than other restrictions or parental co-viewing. Further research is required to establish causal mechanisms. PMID:24215959

  11. Aspects of sexual self-schema in premenopausal women with dyspareunia: associations with pain, sexual function, and sexual distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazmany, Els; Bergeron, Sophie; Van Oudenhove, Lukas; Verhaeghe, Johan; Enzlin, Paul

    2013-09-01

    Although it is known that women with dyspareunia suffer from impaired psychological and sexual functioning, the study of the various dimensions of sexual self-schema and their associations with these outcomes has been neglected. To examine whether self-image cognitions about vaginal penetration, body image, and feelings and beliefs about one's own genitals contribute to the variance in pain, sexual functioning, and sexual distress. Premenopausal women (n = 231; M age = 24.85, SD = 5.55) with self-reported dyspareunia completed an online survey focusing on self-image cognitions about vaginal penetration, body image, female genital self-image, pain during intercourse, sexual functioning, sexual distress, anxiety, and catastrophizing. (i) Pain intensity during intercourse, (ii) the Female Sexual Function Index without the Pain subscale, and (iii) the Female Sexual Distress Scale. Controlling for anxiety and catastrophizing, negative self-image cognitions about vaginal penetration, negative body image, and negative genital self-image together accounted for a portion of the variance in increased pain intensity, sexual dysfunction, and sexual distress. However, only self-image cognitions about vaginal penetration (β = 0.25, P = 0.005) contributed uniquely to the variance in pain intensity, whereas self-image cognitions about vaginal penetration (β = -0.18, P = 0.048) and genital self-image (β = 0.21, P = 0.008) contributed independently to the variance in sexual functioning. Finally, self-image cognitions about vaginal penetration (β = 0.28, P < 0.001), body image (β = 0.24, P < 0.001) and genital self-image (β = -0.14, P = 0.006) each contributed independently to the variance in sexual distress. Findings suggest that self-image cognitions about vaginal penetration and feelings and beliefs about one's own body and genitals are associated with pain and sexuality outcomes in women with dyspareunia. © 2013

  12. Sexuality and Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events Advocacy Donate A to Z Health Guide Sexuality and Kidney Disease Tweet Share Print Email Can ... It's something everyone needs. Many people think that sexuality refers only to sexual intercourse. But sexuality includes ...

  13. Sexuality, aging, and dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benbow, Susan Mary; Beeston, Derek

    2012-07-01

    Sexuality in later life and its relationship to dementia is a neglected topic: greater understanding of the area has the potential to contribute to the quality of life of people with dementia, their family members, and formal carers. We review current knowledge about sexuality, aging, and dementia. We undertook a review of the recent literature to examine of the following areas: what is known about sexuality and aging, and about attitudes to sexuality and aging; what is known about the relevance of sexuality and aging to people living with dementia and their care; and the management of sexual behaviors causing concern to others. Sexual activity decreases in frequency with increasing age but many older people remain sexually active; there is no age limit to sexual responsiveness; and sexuality is becoming more important to successive cohorts of older people, including people living with dementia and gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgendered elderly people. Attitudes and beliefs toward sexuality and aging are strongly influenced by stereotypes and myths, not only among the general public but also among those working in health and social care. Professional bodies should include sexuality, aging, and dementia in their training curricula. More work is needed on the impact of environmental issues, particularly in group living situations, on older adults' sexuality, and on consent issues. Ethical decision-making frameworks can be useful in practice. Organizations should investigate how to support staff in avoiding a problem-orientated approach and focus on providing holistic person-centered care.

  14. Geophagy practices and the content of chemical elements in the soil eaten by pregnant women in artisanal and small scale gold mining communities in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyanza, Elias C; Joseph, Mary; Premji, Shahirose S; Thomas, Deborah Sk; Mannion, Cynthia

    2014-04-15

    Geophagy, a form of pica, is the deliberate consumption of soil and is relatively common across Sub-Saharan Africa. In Tanzania, pregnant women commonly eat soil sticks sold in the market (pemba), soil from walls of houses, termite mounds, and ground soil (kichuguu). The present study examined geophagy practices of pregnant women in a gold mining area of Geita District in northwestern Tanzania, and also examined the potential for exposure to chemical elements by testing soil samples. We conducted a cross sectional study using a convenience sample of 340 pregnant women, ranging in age from 15-49 years, who attended six government antenatal clinics in the Geita District, Tanzania. Structured interviews were conducted in June-August, 2012, to understand geophagy practices. In addition, soil samples taken from sources identified by pregnant women practicing geophagy were analysed for mineral element content. Geophagy was reported by 155 (45.6%) pregnant women with 85 (54.8%) initiating the practice in the first trimester. A total of 101 (65%) pregnant women reported eating soil 2 to 3 times per day while 20 (13%) ate soil more than 3 times per day. Of 155 pregnant women 107 (69%) bought pemba from local shops, while 48 (31%) consumed ground soil kichuguu. The estimated mean quantity of soil consumed from pemba was 62.5 grams/day. Arsenic, chromium, copper, iron, manganese, nickel and zinc levels were found in both pemba and kichuguu samples. Cadmium and mercury were found only in the kichuguu samples. Based on daily intake estimates, arsenic, copper and manganese for kichuguu and copper and manganese for pemba samples exceed the oral Minimum Risk Levels designated by the U.S. Agency for Toxic Substance and Disease Registry. Almost 50% of participants practiced geophagy in Geita District consistent with other reports from Africa. Both pemba and kichuguu contained chemical elements at varying concentration, mostly above MRLs. As such, pregnant women who eat soil in Geita

  15. Consumer Mobile Apps for Potential Drug-Drug Interaction Check: Systematic Review and Content Analysis Using the Mobile App Rating Scale (MARS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ben Yb; Sharafoddini, Anis; Tran, Nam; Wen, Emily Y; Lee, Joon

    2018-03-28

    General consumers can now easily access drug information and quickly check for potential drug-drug interactions (PDDIs) through mobile health (mHealth) apps. With aging population in Canada, more people have chronic diseases and comorbidities leading to increasing numbers of medications. The use of mHealth apps for checking PDDIs can be helpful in ensuring patient safety and empowerment. The aim of this study was to review the characteristics and quality of publicly available mHealth apps that check for PDDIs. Apple App Store and Google Play were searched to identify apps with PDDI functionality. The apps' general and feature characteristics were extracted. The Mobile App Rating Scale (MARS) was used to assess the quality. A total of 23 apps were included for the review-12 from Apple App Store and 11 from Google Play. Only 5 of these were paid apps, with an average price of $7.19 CAD. The mean MARS score was 3.23 out of 5 (interquartile range 1.34). The mean MARS scores for the apps from Google Play and Apple App Store were not statistically different (P=.84). The information dimension was associated with the highest score (3.63), whereas the engagement dimension resulted in the lowest score (2.75). The total number of features per app, average rating, and price were significantly associated with the total MARS score. Some apps provided accurate and comprehensive information about potential adverse drug effects from PDDIs. Given the potentially severe consequences of incorrect drug information, there is a need for oversight to eliminate low quality and potentially harmful apps. Because managing PDDIs is complex in the absence of complete information, secondary features such as medication reminder, refill reminder, medication history tracking, and pill identification could help enhance the effectiveness of PDDI apps. ©Ben YB Kim, Anis Sharafoddini, Nam Tran, Emily Y Wen, Joon Lee. Originally published in JMIR Mhealth and Uhealth (http://mhealth.jmir.org), 28.03.2018.

  16. Media and technology in adolescent sexual education and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Allyssa L

    2011-01-01

    Media play an important role in the lives of adolescents, providing them with opportunities for education and socialization. Media content is increasingly permeated with violence and sexual references that can be highly influential as adolescents continue the developmental process. Providing patient education is one of the cornerstones of nursing practice, and nurses are ideally suited to affect adolescent and parental education about the sexual and violent content of media. © 2011 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  17. Neural correlates of sexual cue reactivity in individuals with and without compulsive sexual behaviours.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie Voon

    Full Text Available Although compulsive sexual behaviour (CSB has been conceptualized as a "behavioural" addiction and common or overlapping neural circuits may govern the processing of natural and drug rewards, little is known regarding the responses to sexually explicit materials in individuals with and without CSB. Here, the processing of cues of varying sexual content was assessed in individuals with and without CSB, focusing on neural regions identified in prior studies of drug-cue reactivity. 19 CSB subjects and 19 healthy volunteers were assessed using functional MRI comparing sexually explicit videos with non-sexual exciting videos. Ratings of sexual desire and liking were obtained. Relative to healthy volunteers, CSB subjects had greater desire but similar liking scores in response to the sexually explicit videos. Exposure to sexually explicit cues in CSB compared to non-CSB subjects was associated with activation of the dorsal anterior cingulate, ventral striatum and amygdala. Functional connectivity of the dorsal anterior cingulate-ventral striatum-amygdala network was associated with subjective sexual desire (but not liking to a greater degree in CSB relative to non-CSB subjects. The dissociation between desire or wanting and liking is consistent with theories of incentive motivation underlying CSB as in drug addictions. Neural differences in the processing of sexual-cue reactivity were identified in CSB subjects in regions previously implicated in drug-cue reactivity studies. The greater engagement of corticostriatal limbic circuitry in CSB following exposure to sexual cues suggests neural mechanisms underlying CSB and potential biological targets for interventions.

  18. The Viewpoints of Sexually Active Single Women About Premarital Sexual Relationships: A Qualitative Study in the Iranian Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani, Azam; Merghati-Khoei, Effat; Moghaddam-Banaem, Lida; Hajizadeh, Ebrahim; Montazeri, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background: Premarital sexual relationships could harm youth’s health in terms of sexually transmitted infections or increased risk of unprotected sexual behaviors. Sexual abstinence has been recommended to prevent young adolescents from adverse outcomes of premarital sexual relationships. Objectives: The aim of this study was to explore the viewpoints of sexually active single women about premarital sexual relationships in the Iranian context. Patients and Methods: In this qualitative study, we recruited 41 young women aged 18 to 35 years. Data were collected using focus group discussions and individual interviews. We employed conventional content analysis to analyze the data. Multiple data collection methods, maximum variation sampling, and peer checks were applied to enhance the reliability of the findings. Results: Eight themes emerged from the data analysis: ‘acceptance of sexual contact in the context of opposite-sex relationships, ‘sexual activity as a guarantee for keeping the boyfriend in the relationship’, ‘premarital sexual relationship as an undeniable personal right’, ‘having successful marriage in spite of premarital sexual relationships’, ‘virginity as an old fashioned phenomenon’, ‘love as a license for premarital sexual behaviors’, ‘goal-oriented relationship as a license for premarital sexual behaviors’, and ‘experiencing premarital sexual relationships in order to gain perfection’. Conclusions: Results of this study could be applied to designing interventions, such as promotion of preventive beliefs or educational programs regarding premarital sexual relationships in conservative societies. These interventions could start within families and continue at schools and universities. PMID:27162757

  19. Your Sexual Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... increase arousal? • What can help me have an orgasm? • How can I minimize sexual pain? • How can ... difficulties. What are orgasmic problems? Not having an orgasm during sexual activity may not be a problem. ...

  20. Sexual Health and Menopause

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pass through menopause and discover its effects on sexuality. And that’s something we can all be grateful for, since our understanding of how menopause and aging affect sexual health has grown a lot in ...

  1. Aging and sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Lesley

    2010-10-01

    Sexuality has become a medical issue in association with aging. This is due to a number of factors, including increasing age of survival, a positive societal construct that promotes sexuality as important for quality of life as we age, and the medicalisation of sexuality with the advent of prescription medications to treat sexual dysfunction. This article reviews the factors surrounding aging and sexuality and also considers special situations with age, such as institutionalised care and the possibility of elder abuse. Normal physiological changes with aging affect both genders in terms of sexual desire and performance. Other medical conditions increase with age, and these and their treatments will impact on sexuality and the way it can be expressed. Medical practitioners require an understanding of these changes in order to find ways to optimise sexual function in older patients.

  2. Adolescent sexual victimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bramsen, Rikke Holm; Lasgaard, Mathias; Koss, Mary P

    2012-01-01

    at baseline and first time APSV during a 6-month period. Data analysis was a binary logistic regression analysis. Number of sexual partners and displaying sexual risk behaviors significantly predicted subsequent first time peer-on-peer sexual victimization, whereas a history of child sexual abuse, early......The present study set out to investigate predictors of first time adolescent peer-on-peer sexual victimization (APSV) among 238 female Grade 9 students from 30 schools in Denmark. A prospective research design was utilized to examine the relationship among five potential predictors as measured...... sexual onset and failing to signal sexual boundaries did not. The present study identifies specific risk factors for first time sexual victimization that are potentially changeable. Thus, the results may inform prevention initiatives targeting initial experiences of APSV....

  3. Scleroderma and Sexuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scleroderma and Sexuality INTRODUCTION If you or your partner have been diagnosed with scleroderma, you may be wondering how this will ... will continue to find satisfaction and enjoyment through sexuality. If you are single, you may wonder how ...

  4. Rape and Sexual Assault

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PDF 73K) | Appendix H: Data Tables for Sexual Harassment and Sexual Assault Perpetration (PDF 79K) | Appendix I: Data Tables for School Connectedness and Campus Climate (PDF 140K) | Appendix J: ...

  5. Sexual Functions in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Patients: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nergis LAPSEKÝLÝ

    2012-12-01

    and ejeculation time of the male patient was 15 minutes. Conclusion: Sexual dysfunction is a common problem in patients with OCD. Patient may have avoidance that may adversely affect her sexuality. If a patient has avoidance about sexuality, the reason of this avoidance may or may not be the usual and expected thought content like avoidance of contamination. The evaluations of OCD patients about control may also adversely affect their sexuallity. The thought leading to avoidance behavior, may vary from patient to patient. However, to identify these thoughts with cognitive interventions and work with them will improve.the patient. [JCBPR 2012; 1(3.000: 178-183

  6. Number of sexual partners and sexual assertiveness predict sexual victimization: do more partners equal more risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Dave P; Messman-Moore, Terri L; Ward, Rose Marie

    2011-01-01

    In previous studies, number of sexual partners and sexual assertiveness were examined as independent risk factors for sexual victimization among college women. Using a sample of 335 college women, this study examined the interaction of number of sexual partners and sexual assertiveness on verbal sexual coercion and rape. Approximately 32% of the sample reported unwanted sexual intercourse, 6.9% (n = 23) experienced verbal sexual coercion, 17.9% (n = 60) experienced rape, and 7.2% (n = 24) experienced both. As number of sexual partners increased, instances of verbal sexual coercion increased for women low in relational sexual assertiveness but not for women high in relational sexual assertiveness. A similar relationship was not found for rape. Among women who experienced both verbal sexual coercion and rape, increases in number of partners in the context of low refusal and relational assertiveness were associated with increases in verbal sexual coercion and rape. Findings suggest sexual assertiveness is related to fewer experiences of sexual coercion.

  7. An Overview of Sexual Harassment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stier, William F., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    Sexual harassment, according to the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC), is when any unwelcome sexual advances for sexual favors, and other verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature takes place. For sexual harassment to take place there must be some type of behavior, language, or material of a sexual nature, which is offensive.…

  8. Legal protection of child victims of sexual violence in Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Tanjević Nataša

    2010-01-01

    Violence against children is not a new phenomenon. In this regard, the forms in which it occurs as well as methods that allow it to have taken on an astonishing scale worldwide. Certainly, in this sense, sexual violence leaves the hardest and most complicated effects on the victim. Bearing in mind the complexity of sexual violence against children in the work we are going through an analysis of the criminalization of certain creatures that protect the sexual integrity of children from v...

  9. Importancia del estudio del balance del contenido vaginal (BACOVA en el control preventivo de las trabajadoras sexuales Importance of studying the balance of vaginal content (BAVACO in the preventive control of sex workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romina Bologno

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue estudiar a un grupo de 229 trabajadoras sexuales de Comodoro Rivadavia (Chubut, atendidas en centros públicos de salud de dicha ciudad, mediante la aplicación del método conocido como balance del contenido vaginal (BACOVA. Este método comprende el estudio morfológico de la microbiota vaginal, como así también de la reacción infamatoria. Incluye el análisis del contenido vaginal en fresco y por tinciones de Gram y de Giemsa, de modo de integrar la exploración de todo el panorama biológico. El 35,37 % de estas mujeres presentó microbiota normal (MN; el 15,72 %, microbiota intermedia (MI; el 23,14 %, vaginosis bacteriana (VB y el 10,48 %, vaginitis microbiana inespecífca (VMI. Los casos de vaginitis por levaduras y por Trichomonas vaginalis comprendieron el 8,30 % y 6,99 % de las mujeres, respectivamente. Se observó el desplazamiento de la MN hacia una MI, que se correspondió con el predominio de bacterias corineformes. Por otra parte, no se reconoció un marcado desequilibrio del contenido vaginal ante la colonización e infección por levaduras o por T. vaginalis: el 48 % de los casos de estas vaginitis convencionales no presentaron reacción infamatoria vaginal (RIV. El 24,89 % de los casos de MN presentaron una signifcativa RIV, y en más del 50 % de las mujeres se diagnosticaron disfunciones vaginales en ausencia de sintomatología. Estos resultados se podrían asociar a un incremento del riesgo gineco-obstétrico, lo que afecta la salud sexual y reproductiva de la población estudiada.The aim of this work was to study the vaginal microenvironment in sex workers from Comodoro Rivadavia, Chubut. For that purpose, BAVACO procedures were applied. A total of 229 female sex workers attended public health centers. Vaginal secretions were analyzed by Gram and Giemsa stains. The following results were obtained: normal microbiota 35.37 %, intermediate microbiota 15.72 %, bacterial vaginosis 23

  10. Sexual Desire Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Montgomery, Keith A.

    2008-01-01

    Hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) and sexual aversion disorder (SAD) are an under-diagnosed group of disorders that affect men and women. Despite their prevalence, these two disorders are often not addressed by healthcare providers and patients due their private and awkward nature. As physicians, we need to move beyond our own unease in order to adequately address our patients’ sexual problems and implement appropriate treatment. Using the Sexual Response Cycle as the model of the phys...

  11. Asexuality: Sexual Orientation, Paraphilia, Sexual Dysfunction, or None of the Above?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brotto, Lori A; Yule, Morag

    2017-04-01

    Although lack of sexual attraction was first quantified by Kinsey, large-scale and systematic research on the prevalence and correlates of asexuality has only emerged over the past decade. Several theories have been posited to account for the nature of asexuality. The goal of this review was to consider the evidence for whether asexuality is best classified as a psychiatric syndrome (or a symptom of one), a sexual dysfunction, or a paraphilia. Based on the available science, we believe there is not sufficient evidence to support the categorization of asexuality as a psychiatric condition (or symptom of one) or as a disorder of sexual desire. There is some evidence that a subset of self-identified asexuals have a paraphilia. We also considered evidence supporting the classification of asexuality as a unique sexual orientation. We conclude that asexuality is a heterogeneous entity that likely meets conditions for a sexual orientation, and that researchers should further explore evidence for such a categorization.

  12. Exploring co-parent experiences of sexuality in the first 3 months after birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Anders, Sari M; Hipp, Lauren E; Kane Low, Lisa

    2013-08-01

    Research on postpartum sexuality has focused primarily on mothers, though new findings suggest that relational perceptions may have a strong influence over sexual desire and behavior. Little investigation exists regarding sexuality in partners of postpartum women. Additionally, recent findings point to the importance of a partner's sexuality for postpartum women's perceptions of their own sexuality in this time. The goal of this research was to explore women's partners' sexuality in the early postpartum phase taking into account psychosocial context. Partners (N = 114; 95 men, 18 women, 1 unspecified) of postpartum women completed a retrospective online questionnaire about their sexuality during the 3 months following their youngest child's birth. Primary measures included sexual desire (Sexual Desire Inventory), latency to sexual behavior, and enjoyment and initiation of sexual behavior. Other psychosocial variables were investigated: partners' perceptions of the birth mother's sexual desire, perceptions of the birth experience (Questionnaire Measuring Attitudes About Labor and Delivery), postpartum stress (Perceived Stress Scale), body image self-consciousness (Body Image Self-Consciousness Scale), social support (Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support), fatigue, and experiences surrounding breastfeeding. Partners reported most frequent engagement in intercourse in the postpartum period, earliest engagement in masturbation, and highest enjoyment of receiving oral sex compared with other sexual activities. Partners' sexual desire was not correlated with the psychosocial variables measured in the study. Findings for partners' sexuality were similar by gender, except for perceptions of social support and likelihood to engage in intercourse. This study provided a novel perspective on the study of postpartum sexuality by investigating physical and psychosocial influences on the experiences of partners of parous women. Given parallels between sexuality

  13. Components of Sexual Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shively, Michael G.; DeCecco, John P.

    1977-01-01

    This paper examines the four components of sexual identity: biological sex, gender identity, social sex-role, and sexual orientation. Theories about the development of each component and how they combine and conflict to form the individual's sexual identity are discussed. (Author)

  14. Sexual Harassment in Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, John F.; And Others

    As in many other areas of society, sexual harassment has become an important issue in education. It has left the educational community with many questions about what constitutes sexual harassment, how to prevent it, and how to deal with the legal problems that may arise concerning it. This report dispels several myths about sexual harassment in…

  15. Loneliness and Sexual Dysfunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mijuskovic, Ben

    1987-01-01

    Argues that sexual dysfunctions result from early childhood experiences which were originally nonsexual in nature. Contends that psychological difficulties centered around problems of loneliness tend to generate certain sexual dysfunctions. Extends and explores suggestion that genesis of sexual conflicts is in nonsexual infant separation anxiety…

  16. Rethinking Sexual Citizenship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Diane

    2016-01-01

    Over the last two decades sexuality has emerged as a key theme in debates about citizenship, leading to the development of the concept of sexual citizenship. This article reviews this literature and identifies four main areas of critical framing: work that contests the significance of sexuality to citizenship; critiques that focus on the possibilities and limitations of mobilising the language of citizenship in sexual politics; analyses of sexual citizenship in relation to nationalisms and border making; and literature that critically examines western constructions of sexuality and sexual politics underpinning understandings of sexual citizenship. In order to progress the field theoretically, the article seeks to extend critiques of sexual citizenship focusing on two key aspects of its construction: the sexual citizen-subject and spaces of sexual citizenship. It argues for a critical rethink that encompasses a de-centring of a ‘western-centric’ focus in order to advance understandings of how sexual citizenship operates both in the Global North and South. PMID:28490816

  17. Toddlers and Sexual Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that seems sexual to an adult is not sexual to children. They think about it as play. Sex education should start at home at an early age. References Bushnell P and Lucas L. Questions and Answers About Sex. KidsHealth. ... Sexual Behavior in Children: What's Normal? http://www.mayoclinic. ...

  18. Childhood trauma, sexual functions, psychiatric comorbidity and sociodemographic data in obsessive-compulsive disorders with sexual obsessions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burcu Göksan Yavuz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We compared the childhood trauma, the severityof sexual functions, comorbidity of axis I psychiatricdisorder, the types and severity of obsessive-compulsivedisorder (OCD and sociodemographic data of patientswith or without sexual obsession in OCD.Methods: Eighty patients of OCD were recruited fromincluding consecutive admissions to an outpatient clinic.Primary OCD patients assessed each subject using theStructured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders(SCID-I. OCD symptoms and symptoms severity was assessedby the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale(YBOCS. Traumas were assessed by the ChildhoodTrauma Experiences Questionnaire. Sexual functions severitywas assessed by the Arizona Sexual ExperienceScale (ASEX. Current depressive and anxiety symptomsscore were assessed using the 17-item Hamilton RatingScale for Depression (HAM-D and the Hamilton AnxietyScale (HAM-A.Results: The frequency of sexual obsession was 15%in our clinical populations diagnosed with OCD. Historyof emotional abuse and incest were associated with asignificantly higher rate of OCD with sexual obsessions.Religious, aggressive, hoarding obsessions and hoardingcompulsions were associated with a significantly higherrate of OCD with sexual obsessions. Comorbidity of Somatoformdisorder was associated with a significantlyhigher rate of OCD with sexual obsessions. Subjects whohave OCD with sexual obsessions did not significantly differfrom those without sexual obsessions on any ASEX scores, Y-BOCS scores, HAM-D, HAM-A and demographicfeatures.Conclusion: Sexual obsessions were related to religious,aggressive, hoarding obsessions and hoarding compulsions,the emotional abuse, incest and a comorbidy ofsomatoform disorder.Key words: sexual obsessions, childhood trauma, comorbidity

  19. Men pressured and forced into sexual experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struckman-Johnson, C; Struckman-Johnson, D

    1994-02-01

    A predominantly heterosexual sample of 204 college men were asked to report incidents of pressured or forced sexual touch or intercourse since age 16. About 34% indicated they had received coercive sexual contact: 24% from women, 4% from men, and 6% from both sexes. Contact involved only sexual touching for 12% and intercourse for 22%. Sexual contact was pressured in 88% of the 81 reported incidents by tactics of persuasion, intoxication, threat of love withdrawal, and bribery. In 12% of the incidents, sexual contact was forced through physical restraint, physical intimidation, threat of harm, or harm. Contact was initiated by an acquaintance or intimate in 77% of incidents. The negative emotional impact of male contact was rated significantly higher than the impact of female contact. Men with and without coercion experience did not differ, however, for scale scores on sexual esteem, depression, and preoccupation. Interviews with 10 subjects revealed complex reactions to coercive male and female contact, including doubts about one's sexuality, resentment of unexpected or forceful contact, and fear of telling others about the event.

  20. Sexual dysfunction in infertile couples: evaluation and treatment of infertility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayar, U.; Arikan, I.I.; Barut, A.; Harma, M.; Harma, M.; Atasoy, N.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic and the predictive value of Arizona Sexual Experience Scale among primary infertile couples regarding sexual dysfunction. Methods: The cross-sectional and prospective pre, post study comprising primary infertile patients was carried out at Bulent Ecevit University Hospital, Zonguldak, Turkey. Fifty consecutive primary infertile couples not treated previously were investigated between 2003 and 2007 for the presence of sexual dysfunction by a psychiatrist. Arizona Sexual Experience Scale scoring was self-administered to determine sexual dysfunction among couples before treatment and also 3 months after the initiation of the treatment. Results: Pretreatment mean values of the index parametres in both women and men were significantly increased after treatment. Statistically significant positive correlation was observed between pre- and post-treatment total scores in both women (r=0.83; p 14 (Sensitivity: 57%; Specificity: 90%) and >13 (Sensitivity: 83%; Specificity: 93%), respectively. Pre- and post-treatment scores in men were >10 (Sensitivity: 65%; Specificity: 61%), >11 (Sensitivity: 83%; Specificity: 62%), respectively. Binary logistic regression analyses revealed women's pre-treatment and post-treatment scores as a significant factor for prediction of sexual dysfunction independent of sociodemographic factors (p=0.001 and p=0.001, respectively). Conclusion: Evaluation and treatment of infertility is an important risk factor for sexual dysfunction. Pre- and post-treatment Arizona Sexual Experience Scale score could be used as a screening test for sexual dysfunction and might be used to decide pre/post-treatment consultation of couples with a specialist. (author)

  1. Level of Sexual Myths Level in Premature Ejaculation Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Gunes

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study is to determine level of belief in sexual myths in the cases of premature ejacula­tion (PE which is the most common sexual dysfunction in men. Methods: This study included 100 cases who applied Di­cle University Faculty of Medicine hospitals meet prema­ture ejaculation criteria of DSM-5 and 70 healthy controls. Sociodemographic data form, Hamilton Depression Rat­ing Scale (HDS, Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAS, Arizona Sexual Experience Scale (ASES-Men form and Sexual Myths Evaluation Form were applied to partici­pants. Results: In the study, rate of belief in sexual myths in PE cases was found significantly higher than healthy controls. In the PE cases, education time less than 10 years, the presence of comorbid sexual dysfunction were found to be statistically significant factors that increase the level of belief in sexual myths in the PE cases, HDS (p=0.0002, HAS (p=0.0001, ASES (p=0.0004 scores were statisti­cally significantly higher than the control group. In the loss of sexual desire in men with comorbid ASES (p=0.0001, with ED, ASES (p=0.001 and HDS (p=0.040 scores were found statistically significantly higher. Conclusions: Sexual information should be given in the appropriate age by educated person in educational insti­tutions.

  2. Sexual functioning among early post-treatment breast cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avis, Nancy E; Johnson, Aimee; Canzona, Mollie Rose; Levine, Beverly J

    2018-02-17

    This study aims (1) to estimate percentages of partnered women who are sexually active over the first 2 years post-breast cancer diagnosis; (2) to identify factors related to sexual inactivity; and (3) to evaluate separately, among both sexually active and inactive survivors, the relation between sexual problems and treatment-related variables, symptoms, and psychosocial factors. Longitudinal observational study of breast cancer survivors recruited within 8 months of cancer diagnosis and followed for 18 months. The main outcome measures were (1) being sexually active/inactive in the past month and (2) sexual problems assessed with the four-item sexual problem domain of the Quality of Life in Adult Cancer Survivors (QLACS) scale. At baseline, 52.4% of women reported being sexually active in the past month. This percentage increased to 60.7% 18 months later. In multivariable repeated-measures analyses, age, past chemotherapy, depressive symptoms, and lower perceived attractiveness were related to inactivity. Sexually inactive women reported more problems on the QLACS than sexually active women. In stratified multivariable analyses, depressive symptoms were related to greater sexual problems for both sexually active and inactive women, as was vaginal dryness. Among the sexually active women, younger age at diagnosis, less illness intrusiveness, and lower perceived attractiveness were related to more problems. Research has shown that sexual functioning/sexual health are key aspects of quality of life for many cancer survivors, and are often not addressed by health care providers. Future studies should examine how such topics are handled by clinicians in their interactions with survivors.

  3. Hypoactive sexual desire dysfunction in community-dwelling older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeleke, Berihun M; Bell, Robin J; Billah, Baki; Davis, Susan R

    2017-04-01

    To determine the prevalence of hypoactive sexual desire dysfunction (HSDD) and its associated factors in women aged 65 to 79 years. A questionnaire-based, cross-sectional study was conducted amongst community-dwelling older women. Participants were recruited between April and August 2014 from a national database based on electoral rolls. Sexual function and sexual distress were assessed by the Female Sexual Function Index and the Female Sexual Distress Scale-Revised, respectively. HSDD was defined as the presence of both low sexual desire and sexually related personal distress. The mean ± SD age of the 1,548 women was 71 ± 3.4 years and 52.6% were partnered. Among the participants, 88.0% (95% confidence interval [CI], 86.3%-89.6%) had low sexual desire, 15.5% (95% CI, 13.8%-17.4%) had sexually related personal distress, and 13.6% (95% CI, 11.9%-15.4%) had HSDD. The HSDD was more common among partnered than among unpartnered women (23.7% vs 5.9%; P dysfunction (AOR = 1.92; 95% CI, 1.29-2.92), and having moderate-to-severe depressive symptoms (AOR = 4.15; 95% CI, 2.16-7.96) were independently associated with having HSDD. In a subanalysis, HSDD was more common among sexually active than sexually inactive women (31.5% vs 17.3%; P sexually active women had HSDD, as did 22% (95% CI, 11.5%-37.8%) of unpartnered sexually active women. HSDD is common and associated with potentially modifiable risk factors in older women. It should not be assumed that unpartnered older women are sexually inactive or are not distressed by low sexual desire.

  4. The impact of Parkinson disease on patients' sexuality and relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhmann, C; Dogac, S; Vettorazzi, E; Hidding, U; Gerloff, C; Jürgens, T P

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed at examining the impact of Parkinson disease (PD) on patients' sexuality and relationship and to evaluate gender-specific differences. Using a standardized questionnaire on sexual functioning in chronic diseases (SFCE), the impact of PD diagnosis on 38 domains of sexuality before and since PD diagnosis was evaluated retrospectively in 53 consecutive patients in a relationship. Changes in self-assessed ratings on a four-point Likert scale were determined for all patients. In addition, gender-specific differences and the influence of age, depression (BDI-II), medication, disease severity and disease duration on domains of the SFCE were calculated. The importance of non-sexual relational aspects, such as talking about feelings or tenderness increased for both genders after PD diagnosis, especially in women. Sexual function, such as frequency of intercourse, sexual arousal, subjective abnormal sexual fantasies or sexual satisfaction deteriorated in both genders, especially in men. Some sexual aspects improved in women but worsened in men after PD diagnosis. This includes frequency of orgasm dysfunction, fear not to fulfill sexual expectations of the partner, avoidance of sexual acts, withdrawal from relationship, increase of thoughts about divorce, or increase of dissatisfaction with sexuality and relationship. With age, thoughts about divorce declined. With disease duration, frequency of tenderness with the partner increased. Depression unexpectedly correlated with higher frequency of intercourse. Dopaminergic dosage influenced stability of the relationship negatively. PD influences patients' sexuality negatively, independently of age, disease duration or disease severity and men show greater sexual dysfunction and impairment of their sexual relationship than women.

  5. Cybersenga: Ugandan youth preferences for content in an Internet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cybersenga: Ugandan youth preferences for content in an Internet-Delivered Comprehensive Sexuality Education Programme. ... Information sources of information include family members, teachers and peers. Ugandan youth perceive the concept of receiving Internet-based sexuality information as a way to obtain private ...

  6. Methodology and Baseline Results From the Evaluation of a Sexuality Education Activity in Mpumalanga and KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speizer, Ilene S; Mandal, Mahua; Xiong, Khou; Hattori, Aiko; Makina-Zimalirana, Ndinda; Kumalo, Faith; Taylor, Stephen; Ndlovu, Muzi S; Madibane, Mathata; Beke, Andy

    2018-04-01

    In South Africa, adolescents and young adults (ages 15-24) are at risk of HIV, sexually transmitted infections, and unintended pregnancies. Recently, the Department of Basic Education has revised its sexuality education content and teaching strategies (using scripted lessons plans) as part of its life orientation curriculum. This paper presents the methodology and baseline results from the evaluation of the scripted lesson plans and supporting activities. A rigorous cluster-level randomized design with random assignment of schools as clusters is used for the evaluation. Baseline results from grade 8 female and male learners and grade 10 female learners demonstrate that learners are at risk of HIV and early and unintended pregnancies. Multivariable analyses demonstrate that household-level food insecurity and living with an HIV-positive person are associated with sexual experience and pregnancy experience. Implications are discussed for strengthening the current life orientation program for future scale-up by the government of South Africa.

  7. Ambivalent messages in Seventeen Magazine: a content analytic comparison of 1997 and 2007

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joshi, S.P.; Peter, J.; Valkenburg, P.M.

    2010-01-01

    Previous content analyses of teen girl magazines have investigated the concept of sexual ambivalence--messages about sex and sexuality that contradict each other. However, no study to date has examined a more encompassing notion of sexual ambivalence by focusing on relationship ambivalence (i.e.,

  8. Sexual Health Competencies for Undergraduate Medical Education in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Carey Roth; Eckstrand, Kristen L; Knudson, Gail; Koehler, Jean; Leibowitz, Scott; Tsai, Perry; Feldman, Jamie L

    2017-04-01

    The number of hours spent teaching sexual health content and skills in medical education continues to decrease despite the increase in sexual health issues faced by patients across the lifespan. In 2012 and 2014, experts across sexuality disciplines convened for the Summits on Medical School Education and Sexual Health to strategize and recommend approaches to improve sexual health education in medical education systems and practice settings. One of the summit recommendations was to develop sexual health competencies that could be implemented in undergraduate medical education curricula. To discuss the process of developing sexual health competencies for undergraduate medical education in North America and present the resulting competencies. From 2014 to 2016, a summit multidisciplinary subcommittee met through face-to-face, phone conference, and email meetings to review prior competency-based guidelines and then draft and vet general sexual health competencies for integration into undergraduate medical school curricula. The process built off the Association of American Medical Colleges' competency development process for training medical students to care for lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and gender non-conforming patients and individuals born with differences of sex development. This report presents the final 20 sexual health competencies and 34 qualifiers aligned with the 8 overall domains of competence. Development of a comprehensive set of sexual health competencies is a necessary first step in standardizing learning expectations for medical students upon completion of undergraduate training. It is hoped that these competencies will guide the development of sexual health curricula and assessment tools that can be shared across medical schools to ensure that all medical school graduates will be adequately trained and comfortable addressing the different sexual health concerns presented by patients across the lifespan. Bayer CR, Eckstrand KL, Knudson G, et

  9. Anthropology of sexual exploitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalić Velibor

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the authors observe sexual exploitation from an anthropological perspective. They analyze the rational, ethical, emotional and mythological dimensions of human sexuality. Consequently, after setting the phenomenon in a social and historical context, sexual exploitation is closely observed in the contemporary age. Based on thoughts of relevant thinkers, they make the conclusion that the elimination of sexual exploitation is not an utterly legal issue, but political and economical issues as well. Namely, legal norms are not sufficient to overcome sexual exploitation, but, political and economical relationships in contemporary societies, which will be based on sincere equal opportunities must be established.

  10. Original article Sexual self-esteem and sexual needs of young adults with cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaudia Czapla

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Sexuality is an important part of human existence, irrespective of race, religion or level of physical fitness. It can, however, be treated and exhibited by individuals in very different ways. The place of sexuality in a person’s life, and in the way it is materialised, is determined by a number of biopsychosocial factors. For some, the presence of these factors and their influence is not a matter of choice. They may arise as a consequence of the psychophysical condition of their organism. People with motor disabilities undoubtedly belong to this group. Participants and procedure The study was carried out in Poland on a group of 61 people with roughly equal proportions of men and women. Subject selection was non-random; every subject was diagnosed with cerebral palsy (CP and was aged between 15 and 25. All of the subjects had normal levels of intelligence. Two methods were used in the study: Sexual Self-esteem Scale and Sexual Needs Scale. Results The results in terms of sexual self-esteem and sexual needs allowed two different subgroups of subjects to be distinguished (H – with high scores; L – with low scores. The analysis of significance levels of the differences in terms of sexual self-esteem and sexual needs between subgroups H and L confirmed the clear distinction between each of the subgroups’ clinical pictures (p < .001 in 20 out of 21 of the analysed aspects. Falling in love was the only matter that did not differentiate the subgroups. Conclusions There is a clear polarization of the results. Only 1/3 of the respondents had high sexual self-esteem and sexual needs. The remaining 2/3 reported having a rather low sexual self-esteem and low levels of needs with regards to their own sexuality. It needs to be stressed that CP-affected youth, similarly to their peers, may need support in discovering their sexuality and satisfying their sexual needs (2/3 of the respondents. The specifics of the range of support should

  11. Sexual Media and Childhood Well-being and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Rebecca L; Strasburger, Victor C; Brown, Jane D; Donnerstein, Edward; Lenhart, Amanda; Ward, L Monique

    2017-11-01

    Sexual content is highly prevalent in traditional media, and portrayals rarely depict the responsibilities and risks (eg, condom use, pregnancy) associated with sexual activity. Exposure to such content is linked with shifts in attitudes about sex and gender, earlier progression to sexual activity, pregnancy, and sexually transmitted infection among adolescents. However, little information is available about moderators and mediators of these effects. We also know little about digital media, their sex-related content, and their potential influence on youth. Data from a few studies of older youth indicate that sexual displays on social media sites are related to problematic beliefs and behaviors among those who post this content and among viewers. Online pornography appears to be more problematic for youth than off-line sources. Given the vast and increasing amount of time youth spend online and their developmental openness to influence, more research attention to digital sexual media is needed. Those who undertake this work should identify potential negative consequences of use and opportunities to improve adolescent sexual health through digital media. Studies of on- and off-line media in which researchers examine younger media audiences, identify processes explaining sexual media effects on behavior, and moderators of effects are needed. Such studies could be used to inform interventions to reduce negative outcomes and increase positive media effects. Policy makers should stimulate the development of such interventions, including tools to help parents identify and manage negative media influences on their children's sexual well-being and development and dissemination of innovative media literacy programs related to sexual health. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  12. College Students' Attitudes toward Elderly Sexuality: A Two Factor Solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillman, Jennifer L.; Stricker, George

    1996-01-01

    Factor analysis of scores of 458 college students on the Aging Sexuality Knowledge and Attitude Scale revealed a two-factor structure. Religious affiliation and ethnicity uniquely predicted permissive/restrictive attitudes. Death anxiety and salience of elderly sexuality uniquely predicted empathic/indifferent attitudes. Students of different ages…

  13. Within-Group Differences in Sexual Orientation and Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthington, Roger L.; Reynolds, Amy L.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine within-group differences among self-identified sexual orientation and identity groups. To understand these within-group differences, 2 types of analysis were conducted. First, a sample of 2,732 participants completed the Sexual Orientation and Identity Scale. Cluster analyses were used to identify 3…

  14. Sexual activity and aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni Lochlainn, Mary; Kenny, Rose Anne

    2013-08-01

    Sexuality is an important component of emotional and physical intimacy that men and women experience throughout their lives. Research suggesting that a high proportion of men and women remain sexually active well into later life refutes the prevailing myth that aging and sexual dysfunction are inexorably linked. Age-related physiological changes do not render a meaningful sexual relationship impossible or even necessarily difficult. Many of these physiological changes are modifiable. There are various therapeutic options available to patients to achieve maximum sexual capacity in old age. This article reviews the prevalence of sexual activity among older adults, the problems these adults encounter with sexual activity, and the role of the health care professional in addressing these problems. The physiological sex-related changes that occur as part of the normal aging process in men and women are reviewed, as well as the effect of age-related physical and psychological illness on sexual function. The attitudes and perceptions of the media and general public toward sexual activity and aging are summarized. An understanding of the sexual changes that accompany the aging process may help general practitioners and other doctors to give practical and useful advice on sexuality as well as refute the misconception that aging equates to celibacy. A thorough awareness of this aspect of older people's quality of life can raise meaningful expectations for aging patients. Copyright © 2013 American Medical Directors Association, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Human sexual response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basson, Rosemary

    2015-01-01

    The human sexual response to sexually arousing stimuli is a motivational incentive-based cycle comprising subjective experience and physiologic changes. Clinical and empirical data support a circular model of overlapping phases of variable order. Brain imaging data of sexual arousal identify areas of cerebral activation and inhibition reflecting a complex network of cognitive, motivational, emotional, and autonomic components. Psychologic and biologic factors influence the brain's appraisal and processing of sexual stimuli to allow or disallow subsequent arousal. The sexual and non-sexual outcomes influence motivation to future sexual intimacy. Variability is marked both between individuals and within a person's sexual life, influenced by multiple factors, including stage of life cycle, mental health, and relationship happiness. Neurologic disease can interrupt the cycle at many points: by limiting motivation, reducing ability to attend to and feel sexual stimuli, and accomplishing the movements needed to stimulate and experience intercourse. Impairments to genital congestion, penile erection, and orgasm may also occur. Disease-associated changes to the interpersonal relationship and self-image plus frequently comorbid depression will tend to lessen motivation and temper the brain's appraisal of sexual stimuli, so precluding arousal. Therapy begins by explaining the sexual response cycle, clarifying the points of interruption in the patient's own cycle so as to guide treatment. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Establishing and adhering to sexual consent: the association between reading magazines and college students' sexual consent negotiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hust, Stacey J T; Marett, Emily Garrigues; Ren, Chunbo; Adams, Paula M; Willoughby, Jessica F; Lei, Ming; Ran, Weina; Norman, Cassie

    2014-01-01

    Content analyses have cataloged the sexual scripts present in magazines largely because of their perceived value to readers and their potential role as sex educators. Although it is generally agreed that magazines have the potential to influence sexual attitudes and behavioral intentions, the effects of this medium are not as frequently researched as are other forms of media. The current study tested whether exposure to magazines was associated with intentions related to sexual consent negotiation. A survey of 313 college students indicated that exposure to men's magazines was significantly associated with lower intentions to seek sexual consent and lower intentions to adhere to decisions about sexual consent. In contrast, exposure to women's magazines was significantly associated with greater intentions to refuse unwanted sexual activity. Overall, the findings of this study further reinforce the critical need for responsible and realistic portrayals of sex in entertainment media, specifically magazines.

  17. Relational Intimacy and Sexual Frequency: A Correlation or a Cause? A Clinical Study of Heterosexual Married Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witherow, Marta Parkanyi; Chandraiah, Shambhavi; Seals, Samantha R; Bugan, Antal

    2016-01-01

    Researchers and practitioners have noted the importance of using clinical samples in sex therapy research. This study investigated the relationship between perceived levels of marital intimacy, sexual frequency, and sexual functioning among heterosexual married women. A clinical sample of 67 women completed the Couples Satisfaction Index (CSI), the Miller Social Intimacy Test (MSI), the Sexual Satisfaction Scale for Women (SSS-W), the Inclusion of the Other in the Self Scale (IOS), and the Female Sexual Functioning Index (FSFI-6). Data analyses revealed that marital intimacy acted as a predictor in univariate relationships on sexual frequency and sexual functioning but did not act as a mediator on sexual frequency and sexual functioning. Overall, these findings may further the discussion in the treatment of relational intimacy, sexual desire discrepancy, and female sexual dysfunction.

  18. Sexual behavior of infertile women: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokaie, Mahshid; Simbar, Masoumeh; Yassini Ardekani, Seyed Mojtaba

    2015-10-01

    Infertility makes an essential challenge to the sexual life of couples, especially infertile women. When pregnancy does not happen, infertile women think that sexual intercourse is not fruitful and sexual desire became reduce gradually. Infertile women progressively forget that their sexual relationship is also a response to their natural need. This qualitative study was conducted to explore the infertility consequences in the sexual behavior of infertile women. This was a qualitative content analysis study; and it was part of a widespread study, used a sequential mixed-method and conducted from August 2014 until February 2015. A purposeful sampling was used to recruit infertile women who had referred to Yazd Research and Clinical Center for Infertility. Data gathering techniques employed in this research included in-depth semi structured open face-to-face interviews and field notes. Credibility, transferability, confirm ability, and dependability were assessed for the rigor of the data collection. Totally, 15 infertile women and 8 key informants were interviewed. Data analysis showed four themes about impact of infertility on female sexual behavior: 1/ Impact of infertility drugs on couple sexual behavior, 2/ Impact of assisted reproductive technologies on female sexual behavior, 3/ Timed intercourse during infertility and 4/ The psychological impact of infertility on sexual behavior. Some of Iranian infertile women could cope with their problems, but some of them were very affected by infertility drugs and assisted reproductive technologies procedures. Psychosexual counseling before medical treatment could help them to have a better sexual life.

  19. Female sexual distress in infertile Turkish women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serdar Aydın

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the effect of infertility on sexual distress in women attending the infertility clinic. 
 Materials and Methods: In a cross-sectional study we evaluated sexual distress among 88 women who attended the infertility clinic in our institute between January and June 2015. All women who were experiencing primary or secondary infertility during the study sampling were included in the sudy. Sexual distress was measured using the Female sexual distress scale-revised (FSDS-R, a cross-validated patient-reported outcomes measure. Correlations of FSDS-R with patient characteristics and laboratory measurements were calculated using Spearman’s rank correlation tests. Results: With the exceptions of the age of couples and serum anti-mullerian hormone (AMH levels, no predictor of high sexual distress was found in the univariate analysis when comparing groups with regard to the FSDS-R cut-off score. The mean age of the sexually distressed women (33.6±5.8 years vs. 29.3±5.1 years and their partners (35.4±4.8 years vs. 31.6±4.2 years was significantly higher than those of the non distressed women, according to a FSDS-R score over 11 (p<0.05. The serum level of AMH was significantly lower in infertile women with high total sexual distress scores (1.4 vs. 7.6 ng/mL (p<0.001. Conclusion: In infertile women, age of woman, age of partner, and serum AMH levels are related with the hope of women to have a child despite an association with sexual distress. Serum AMH, which is perceived as necessary for fertility, had a significant inverse correlation with levels of sexual stress.

  20. Experience of sexual coercion and risky sexual behavior among Ugandan university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Östergren Per-Olof

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Growing worldwide evidence shows that the experience of sexual coercion is fairly prevalent among young people and is associated with risky sexual behavior thereafter. The causal mechanisms behind this are unclear but may be dependent on specific contextual determinants. Little is known about factors that could buffer the negative effects of coercion. The aim of this study was to assess the association between the experience of sexual coercion and risky sexual behavior among university students of both sexes in Uganda. Methods In 2005, 980 (80% out of a total of 1,220 students enrolled in Mbarara University of Science and Technology in Uganda participated in a self-administered questionnaire covering socio-demographic and religious factors, social capital, mental health, alcohol use, and sexual behavior. A validated scale of six items was used to assess the experience of sexual coercion. Logistic regression analyses were applied to control for confounders. Potential buffering factors were analyzed by testing for effect modification. Results Fifty-nine percent of those who responded had previously had sexual intercourse. Among the male students 29.0%, and among the female students 33.1% reported having had some experience of sexual coercion. After controlling for age, gender, and educational level of household of origin, role of religion and trust in others sexual coercion was found to be statistically significantly associated with previously had sex (OR 1.6, 95% CI; 1.1-2.3, early sexual debut (OR 2.4, 95% CI; 1.5-3.7, as well as with having had a great number of sexual partners (OR 1.9, 95% CI; 1.2-3.0, but not with inconsistent condom use. Scoring low on an assessment of mental health problems, reporting high trust in others, or stating that religion played a major role in one's family of origin seemed to buffer the negative effect that the experience of sexual coercion had on the likelihood of having many sexual partners

  1. Experience of sexual coercion and risky sexual behavior among Ugandan university students

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Growing worldwide evidence shows that the experience of sexual coercion is fairly prevalent among young people and is associated with risky sexual behavior thereafter. The causal mechanisms behind this are unclear but may be dependent on specific contextual determinants. Little is known about factors that could buffer the negative effects of coercion. The aim of this study was to assess the association between the experience of sexual coercion and risky sexual behavior among university students of both sexes in Uganda. Methods In 2005, 980 (80%) out of a total of 1,220 students enrolled in Mbarara University of Science and Technology in Uganda participated in a self-administered questionnaire covering socio-demographic and religious factors, social capital, mental health, alcohol use, and sexual behavior. A validated scale of six items was used to assess the experience of sexual coercion. Logistic regression analyses were applied to control for confounders. Potential buffering factors were analyzed by testing for effect modification. Results Fifty-nine percent of those who responded had previously had sexual intercourse. Among the male students 29.0%, and among the female students 33.1% reported having had some experience of sexual coercion. After controlling for age, gender, and educational level of household of origin, role of religion and trust in others sexual coercion was found to be statistically significantly associated with previously had sex (OR 1.6, 95% CI; 1.1-2.3), early sexual debut (OR 2.4, 95% CI; 1.5-3.7), as well as with having had a great number of sexual partners (OR 1.9, 95% CI; 1.2-3.0), but not with inconsistent condom use. Scoring low on an assessment of mental health problems, reporting high trust in others, or stating that religion played a major role in one's family of origin seemed to buffer the negative effect that the experience of sexual coercion had on the likelihood of having many sexual partners. Conclusion The findings

  2. Experience of sexual coercion and risky sexual behavior among Ugandan university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agardh, Anette; Odberg-Pettersson, Karen; Ostergren, Per-Olof

    2011-07-04

    Growing worldwide evidence shows that the experience of sexual coercion is fairly prevalent among young people and is associated with risky sexual behavior thereafter. The causal mechanisms behind this are unclear but may be dependent on specific contextual determinants. Little is known about factors that could buffer the negative effects of coercion. The aim of this study was to assess the association between the experience of sexual coercion and risky sexual behavior among university students of both sexes in Uganda. In 2005, 980 (80%) out of a total of 1,220 students enrolled in Mbarara University of Science and Technology in Uganda participated in a self-administered questionnaire covering socio-demographic and religious factors, social capital, mental health, alcohol use, and sexual behavior. A validated scale of six items was used to assess the experience of sexual coercion. Logistic regression analyses were applied to control for confounders. Potential buffering factors were analyzed by testing for effect modification. Fifty-nine percent of those who responded had previously had sexual intercourse. Among the male students 29.0%, and among the female students 33.1% reported having had some experience of sexual coercion. After controlling for age, gender, and educational level of household of origin, role of religion and trust in others sexual coercion was found to be statistically significantly associated with previously had sex (OR 1.6, 95% CI; 1.1-2.3), early sexual debut (OR 2.4, 95% CI; 1.5-3.7), as well as with having had a great number of sexual partners (OR 1.9, 95% CI; 1.2-3.0), but not with inconsistent condom use.Scoring low on an assessment of mental health problems, reporting high trust in others, or stating that religion played a major role in one's family of origin seemed to buffer the negative effect that the experience of sexual coercion had on the likelihood of having many sexual partners. The findings of this study suggest that the

  3. Factors stimulating content marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Azad

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to determine factors influencing on content marketing in banking industry. The study designs a questionnaire consists of 40 questions in Likert scale and distributes it among 550 randomly selected regular customers of Bank Mellat in city of Tehran, Iran and 400 properly filled questionnaires are collected. Cronbach alphas for all components of the survey are well above desirable level. Using principle component analysis with Varimax rotation, the study has determined six factors influencing the most on content marketing including organization, details, having new ideas, quality, sensitivity and power while the last component contains only two subcomponents and is removed from the study.

  4. Parental Communication and Perceived Parental Attitudes about Sexuality among Turkish College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topkaya, Nursel

    2012-01-01

    This current study was conducted to examine parental communication and perceived parental attitudes about sexuality with respect to gender among Turkish college students. Moreover, attitudes toward premarital sexuality with respect to gender were explored. A demographic data form, premarital sexual permissiveness scale, parental communication…

  5. The social context of sexual health and sexual risk for urban adolescent girls in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teitelman, Anne M; Bohinski, Julia M; Boente, Alyssa

    2009-07-01

    Sexually transmitted infections including HIV and teenage pregnancy have resulted in considerable morbidity and mortality among girls in the United States. There is a need to further strengthen prevention efforts against these persistent epidemics. In order to promote girls' sexual health and most effectively reduce sexual risk, it is important to understand the social factors that influence the development of a girl's sexuality. The purpose of this study was to begin to fill a void in the literature by exploring girls' perspectives about the social context in which they learn about sex, sexuality, and relationships. Coding and content analysis was used to identify patterns and themes in 33 individual interviews with African American and Euro-American girls. Participants identified family, friends/peers, partners, school, and the media as the most common sources for learning about sexual health. Girls sought out different types of information from each source. Many girls experienced conflicting messages about their sexual health and struggled to integrate the disparate cultural references to sex, sexuality, and relationships that emerged from these different spheres of social life. Girls often had to navigate the journey of their sexual development with little room for reflection about their own thoughts, feelings, desires, and decisions. Health care providers, especially those in mental health, are in an optimal position to promote girls' physical, developmental, and emotional sexual health.

  6. The reciprocal relationship between sexual victimization and sexual assertiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, Jennifer A; Testa, Maria; VanZile-Tamsen, Carol

    2007-03-01

    Low sexual assertiveness has been proposed as a possible mechanism through which sexual revictimization occurs, yet evidence for this has been mixed. In this study, prospective path analysis was used to examine the relationship between sexual refusal assertiveness and sexual victimization over time among a community sample of women. Results provide support for a reciprocal relationship, with historical victimization predicting low sexual assertiveness and low sexual assertiveness predicting subsequent victimization. The effect of recent sexual victimization on subsequent sexual assertiveness also was replicated prospectively. These findings suggest that strengthening sexual assertiveness may help reduce vulnerability to future victimization.

  7. Effect of water purification process in radioactive content: analysis on small scale purification plants; Efecto del proceso de purificacion de agua en el contenido radiactivo: analisis en plantas purificadoras a pequena escala

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez del Rio, H.; Quiroga S, J. C.; Davila R, J. I.; Mireles G, F. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Calle Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98000, Zacatecas (Mexico)], e-mail: hlopez@uaz.edu.mx

    2009-10-15

    Water from small scale purification plants is a low cost alternative for consumers in comparison to the bottled commercial presentations. Because of its low cost per liter, the consumption of this product has increased in recent years, stimulating in turn the installation of purification systems for these small businesses. The purpose of this study was to estimate the efficiency of small scale purification systems located in the cities of Zacatecas and Guadalupe, Zacatecas, to reduce the radioactive content of water. It was measured the total alpha and beta activity in water samples of entry and exit to process, through the liquid scintillation technique. In general it was observed that the process is more efficient in removing alpha that beta activity. The fraction of total alpha activity removed varied between 27 and 100%, while between 0 and 77% of the total beta activity was removed by the analyzed plants. In all cases, the total radioactivity level was lower than the maximum permissible value settled by the official mexican standard for drinking water. (Author)

  8. Evaluation of Sexual Communication Message Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Parent-child communication about sex is an important proximal reproductive health outcome. But while campaigns to promote it such as the Parents Speak Up National Campaign (PSUNC) have been effective, little is known about how messages influence parental cognitions and behavior. This study examines which message features explain responses to sexual communication messages. We content analyzed 4 PSUNC ads to identify specific, measurable message and advertising execution features. We then develop quantitative measures of those features, including message strategies, marketing strategies, and voice and other stylistic features, and merged the resulting data into a dataset drawn from a national media tracking survey of the campaign. Finally, we conducted multivariable logistic regression models to identify relationships between message content and ad reactions/receptivity, and between ad reactions/receptivity and parents' cognitions related to sexual communication included in the campaign's conceptual model. We found that overall parents were highly receptive to the PSUNC ads. We did not find significant associations between message content and ad reactions/receptivity. However, we found that reactions/receptivity to specific PSUNC ads were associated with increased norms, self-efficacy, short- and long-term expectations about parent-child sexual communication, as theorized in the conceptual model. This study extends previous research and methods to analyze message content and reactions/receptivity. The results confirm and extend previous PSUNC campaign evaluation and provide further evidence for the conceptual model. Future research should examine additional message content features and the effects of reactions/receptivity. PMID:21599875

  9. Gendered Sexuality : Exploring dynamics of the sexual double standard

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emmerink, P.M.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/363312633

    2017-01-01

    The sexual double standard (SDS) is a divergent set of expectations for boys and men, and girls and women for engaging in romantic and sexual behaviour. It prescribes that boys and men should be sexually active, assertive and take sexual initiative, whereas girls and women should be sexually

  10. Psychosexual correlates of sexual double standard endorsement in adolescent sexuality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emmerink, Peggy; Vanwesenbeeck, Wilhelmina; van den Eijnden, Regina; ter Bogt, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Endorsement and enactment of the (hetero)sexual double standard (SDS), prescribing sexual modesty for girls and sexual prowess for boys, has been shown to be negatively related to sexual and mental health. To be able to challenge the sexual double standard, more insight is needed into the conditions

  11. Childhood Sexual Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evrim Aktepe

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Sexual abuse is defined as use of child or adolescent by the adults for satisfying of sexual urges and needs with forcing, threatening or tricking. Sexual abuse can be in the form of sexual abuse without touch, sexual touch, interfemoral intercourse, sexual penetration, and sexual exploitation. The prevalence of sexual abuse is reported as 10-40%. It is seen in female four times more than in males. Abusers are frequently male, only 5-15% of them are female. The abuse by females is usually towards male child. Thirty-fifty percent of abuse cases among child and adolescent are outside the family including strangers or familiar person. Some features of abusers are introvert personality, pedophilic and antisocial personality. Most of the abusers have a history of sexual abuse or aggression during childhood. Sexual intercourse between two people who are not allowed to marry by law is called as incest. Family pattern of incest is defined globally as disorganized and dysfunctional. The most commonly reported familial pattern is rigid and patriarchal family pattern with a harsh father using force quite frequently. The clinical features and impacts of the sexual abuse on the child varies according to the relation between abusers and the child, form of abuse, duration of abuse, presence of physical assault, developmental phase, child age and psychological development before the abuse. Sexual abuse history may result in psychiatric disorders including anxiety, depression, substance dependence, suicide act, borderline personality disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder. Abuse negatively affects interpersonal relationships and self esteem of abused individuals. Several studies reported close association between risky sexual behaviors in adulthood and a history of of sexual abuse during childhood. Four traumatic dynamics including traumatic sexuality with abuse, feeling of betrayal, weakness, and stigmatization exist in childhood abuse. Trauma can cause

  12. Perceived sibling relationships of sexual minority youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toomey, Russell B; Richardson, Rhonda A

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships of sexual minority youth and their siblings. The participants were 56 lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender individuals ranging in age from 18 to 24 years, who reported information about a total of 107 siblings. Respondents completed a demographic data questionnaire as well as adapted versions of the Sibling Closeness Scale (SCS) and the Sibling Approval of Sexual Behavior Scale (SASBS) to describe their relationship with each of their siblings. Analyses examined birth order and gender in relation to outness to siblings as well as sibling closeness and approval. Results provide information about disclosure of LGBT status to siblings, elements of closeness and acceptance in sibling relationships of sexual minority youth, and the significance of gender and birth order in these sibling relationships.

  13. Sexual Harassment and Sexual Bulllying (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... out if there's someone at your school. Most schools have a sexual harassment policy or a bullying policy to protect you. Ask a guidance counselor, school nurse, or administrator about your school's policy. If ...

  14. Mothers perception of sexuality education for children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opara, P I; Eke, G K; Akani, N A

    2010-01-01

    Sexuality education is the process of acquiring information and forming attitudes and beliefs about sex, sexual identity, relationships and intimacy. It develops young people's skills so that they make informed choices about their behaviour, and feel confident and competent about acting on these choices. It also equips children to face developmental challenges and empowers them against the ills of abuse, exploitation, unwanted pregnancies amongst others. Mothers who are the primary caregivers should be well informed about sexuality issues. The objective of the study is to determine mothers' perception of sexuality education in children, in Port Harcourt. A structured, anonymous and self-administered questionnaire, used as instrument for data collection, was distributed amongst a convenient sample of women attending a Christian women's convention in Port Harcourt. One hundred and fifty eight women participated in the study. Most of them were married (80.4%), and belonged to the 30-49 years age bracket. Seventy one (44.9%) of the respondents had tertiary education. Over 80% agreed that children needed sexuality education but only 15 women (9.5%) had a good knowledge of the concept of sexuality education. One hundred and eleven (70.2%) believed it was the responsibility of both parents to educate their children and over 70% acknowledged that the home was the best place for such education. 64 (40.5%) believed that 6-10 years was the ideal age for starting sex education while 49% thought that the ideal age was 11-15 years. 65% of respondents discussed sexuality issues with their children at least occasionally, the content mostly involved description of body parts and reproductive organs. The average age of menarche amongst respondents was 14.0. One hundred (63%) of the women had prior knowledge of menstruation before menarche. About half of them had received information from their mothers. The study highlights the need for enlightenment of women on sexuality education

  15. Hormonal contraception and female pain, orgasm and sexual pleasure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Nicole K; Jozkowski, Kristen N; Sanders, Stephanie A

    2014-02-01

    Almost half of all pregnancies in the United States are unintentional, unplanned, or mistimed. Most unplanned pregnancies result from inconsistent, incorrect, or nonuse of a contraceptive method. Diminished sexual function and pleasure may be a barrier to using hormonal contraception. This study explores sexual function and behaviors of women in relation to the use of hormonal vs. nonhormonal methods of contraception. Data were collected as part of an online health and sexuality study of women. Main outcomes variables assess frequencies in two domains: (i) sexual function (proportion of sexual events with experiences of pain or discomfort, arousal, contentment and satisfaction, pleasure and enjoyment, lubrication difficulty, and orgasm) and (ii) sexual behavior (number of times engaged in sexual activity, proportion of sexual events initiated by the woman, and proportion of sexual events for which a lubricant was used). Sociodemographic variables and contraceptive use were used as sample descriptors and correlates. The recall period was the past 4 weeks. The sample included 1,101 women with approximately half (n = 535) using a hormonal contraceptive method exclusively or a combination of a hormonal and nonhormonal method, and about half (n = 566) using a nonhormonal method of contraception exclusively. Hierarchical regression analyses were conducted to examine the relation of hormonal contraceptive use to each of the dependent variables. Women using a hormonal contraceptive method experienced less frequent sexual activity, arousal, pleasure, and orgasm and more difficulty with lubrication even when controlling for sociodemographic variables. This study adds to the literature on the potential negative sexual side effects experienced by many women using hormonal contraception. Prospective research with diverse women is needed to enhance the understanding of potential negative sexual side effects of hormonal contraceptives, their prevalence, and possible mechanisms

  16. Influence of religion on sexual self-perception and sexual satisfaction in patients suffering from schizophrenia and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peitl, Marija Vucic; Peitl, Vjekoslav; Pavlovic, Eduard

    2009-01-01

    It is well documented that religion has an impact on mental health of both healthy people and mental health patients. However, scientific research regarding the influence of religion on sexual experiences and sexual self-perception in mental health patients and healthy people is very scarce. Therefore, our goal was to research how and in what measure religious and atheistic views of patients suffering from depression and schizophrenia and healthy people influence their sexual functions and sexual self-perception. This research was conducted on 100 patients suffering from schizophrenia and 100 patients suffering from depression, while 100 healthy individuals served as a control group. DMS-IV criteria were used when diagnosing schizophrenia and depression. In order to research the aspects of sexual self-perception we used Bezinović's questionnaire and Arizona sexual experience scale (ASEX) to research the aspects of sexual intercourse. Results show that Roman-Catholic patients suffering from schizophrenia experience greater sexual satisfaction than Eastern-Orthodox or atheist schizophrenic patients. Among patients suffering from depression in regard to their differing religious views there were no significant differences regarding sexual satisfaction or the aspects of sexual self-perception. Furthermore, there is a significant difference among healthy individuals when taking into consideration religious views. We established that Muslims have a significantly stronger sexual drive then atheists, Roman-Catholic or Eastern-Orthodox individuals. Compared to Roman-Catholic and Eastern-Orthodox individuals, atheists have better consciousness of their own sexuality. We can conclude that religious views have an influence on sexual functioning and sexual self-perception of patients suffering from depression and schizophrenia and also healthy individuals. Thus, further research on a bigger sample of participants--not only of those religious denominations covered in this

  17. A gender discrepancy analysis of heterosexual sexual behaviors in two university samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jozkowski, Kristen N; Satinsky, Sonya A

    2013-12-01

    The current study aimed to (1) offer a large-scale enumeration of college students' lifetime sexual behaviors and sexual behaviors at last event, and (2) apply a gender discrepancy lens to college students' sexual behaviors in order to examine potential gender differences in heterosexual college students' experiences. Nine-hundred and seventy college students between the ages of 18 and 27 from two large universities in the United States participated in the current study. Participants filled out a paper-pencil questionnaire during the last 30 min of class. Measures of lifetime sexual behaviors and engagement in behaviors at last sexual event were replicated from the National Survey of Sexual Health Behavior. Most college students engaged in some form of sexual behavior (manual, oral, vaginal-penile, anal). Men more frequently reported engaging in receptive sexual behaviors (e.g., receiving oral sex) where as women were more likely to engage in performative sexual behaviors (e.g., performing oral sex). At most recent sexual event, men were more likely than women to report being the sexual initiator. Findings highlight gender differences in sexual behavior and provide a foundation for social norms interventions. Holistic sexual health promotion for young adults includes acknowledging and discouraging sites of disparity in equity and pleasure. Therefore, college-level sexual health educators should pay attention to the potential pleasure gap between men and women in heterosexual encounters, and to see pleasure as an important part of sexual health that should be included in social norms campaigns.

  18. Advertising Content

    OpenAIRE

    Simon P. Anderson; Régis Renault

    2002-01-01

    Empirical evidence suggests that most advertisements contain little direct informa- tion. Many do not mention prices. We analyze a firm'ss choice of advertising content and the information disclosed to consumers. A firm advertises only product informa- tion, price information, or both; and prefers to convey only limited product information if possible. Extending the "persuasion" game, we show that quality information takes precedence over price information and horizontal product information.T...

  19. A population study of the association between sexual function, sexual satisfaction and depressive symptoms in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolosi, Alfredo; Moreira, Edson D; Villa, Marco; Glasser, Dale B

    2004-10-15

    Depression and erectile dysfunction (ED) have a complex and bi-directional relationship. We examined the relationships between erectile dysfunction and depressive symptoms or diagnosed depression, sexual activity and sexual satisfaction. A population survey of men aged 40-70 years was carried out in Brazil, Italy, Japan and Malaysia in 1997-1998. A questionnaire was used to collect life style, sexual behaviors and medical data. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. ED was classified as moderate or complete if the men reported they were "sometimes" or "never" able to achieve and maintain an erection satisfactory for sexual intercourse. Only men with a sexual partner and not taking psychoactive drugs were considered. Diagnosed depression was reported by 2.0% of the men, depressive symptoms by 21.0%. The prevalence of moderate or complete ED was 17.8%. Sexual satisfaction related to the frequency of sexual intercourse and inversely related to depressive symptoms. Depressive symptoms were positively associated with being single (odds ratio [OR] 1.7), widowed, separated or divorced (OR 2.2), moderate or complete ED (1.8), heart disease (1.6) and smoking (1.6), and negatively associated with age, physical activity and frequency of sexual intercourse. Cross-sectional studies cannot establish a temporal cause-effect relationship. However, the confirmation of known associations reassures about the validity of the original findings. The findings suggest that depressive symptoms are linked to ED by the mediation of decreased sexual activity and the dissatisfaction generated by the inability to have a healthy sexual life.

  20. Creation and Validation of the Self-esteem/Self-image Female Sexuality (SESIFS) Questionnaire

    OpenAIRE

    Lordello, Maria CO; Ambrogini, Carolina C; Fanganiello, Ana L; Embiru?u, Teresa R; Zaneti, Marina M; Veloso, Laise; Piccirillo, Livia B; Crude, Bianca L; Haidar, Mauro; Silva, Ivaldo

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Self-esteem and self-image are psychological aspects that affect sexual function. AIMS To validate a new measurement tool that correlates the concepts of self-esteem, self-image, and sexuality. Methods A 20-question test (the self-esteem/self-image female sexuality [SESIFS] questionnaire) was created and tested on 208 women. Participants answered: Rosenberg's self-esteem scale, the female sexual quotient (FSQ), and the SESIFS questionnaire. Pearson's correlation coefficient was u...

  1. sexual promiscuity among female undergraduates in tertiary

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Elizabeth Egbochuku

    female undergraduates, the causes and effects of such unhealthy behaviour on healthy living. Hence ... larger scale what they started in secondary schools. Again ... 1, 2010. 103 mostly under the influence of “psychotropic drugs” that put them in a ... the respondents on issues relating to sexual promiscuity and its attendant.

  2. Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldstein, Irwin; Kim, Noel N.; Clayton, Anita H

    2017-01-01

    The objective of the International Society for the Study of Women's Sexual Health expert consensus panel was to develop a concise, clinically relevant, evidence-based review of the epidemiology, physiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD), a sexual...... dysfunction affecting approximately 10% of adult women. Etiologic factors include conditions or drugs that decrease brain dopamine, melanocortin, oxytocin, and norepinephrine levels and augment brain serotonin, endocannabinoid, prolactin, and opioid levels. Symptoms include lack or loss of motivation...... to participate in sexual activity due to absent or decreased spontaneous desire, sexual desire in response to erotic cues or stimulation, or ability to maintain desire or interest through sexual activity for at least 6 months, with accompanying distress. Treatment follows a biopsychosocial model and is guided...

  3. Sexuality in older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián Sapetti

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Just as the body and its functions undergo changes with age, in the same way sexuality shares this aging process. However, remember a golden rule that we are sexual since we are born until we die; only possibilities are modified with the passage of the years. This article intends to show the changes that occur in the sexual response of the elderly. If sexual life during youth was pleasant and satisfactory this will condition sexuality in the socalled third age and the elderly seek to maintain it, this is not the case for those who had a dysfunctional past. This article briefly describes the andropause and the SIM, vicissitudes, changes and differences in sexual response and chances to maintain eroticism in the older adult. 

  4. Spina bifida and sexuality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Linstow, Michael Ernst; Biering-Sørensen, Ida; Liebach, Annette

    2014-01-01

    , neurological examination, personal interview, Functional Independence Measure (FIMTM), Medical Outcome Study Short Form 36 (SF-36) on quality of life, and questions on sexual function and related topics. Study cohort: Fifty-three participants (27 women, 26 men) with spina bifida (mean age 27.1, range 18......OBJECTIVE: To evaluate sexual function amongst adult individuals with spina bifida and to register their subjective satisfaction with their sexual life and relationships. SETTING: Department for Spinal Cord Injuries, East Denmark. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Cohort study. Medical record information......-35) years. Response rate 74%. RESULTS: Fifty-one percent of subjects regarded their sexual life as a failure or dysfunctional. However, 45% reported being satisfied with their sexual life. Participants with partners were more satisfied with their sexual life than those without partners. Faecal...

  5. Marriage and Sexuality from a Psychiatric Point of View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Bozkurt

    Full Text Available Sexuality, taking on a shape in the interaction of psychological, social, and biological variables, may lose its functionality with the blockage of these components. Sexual dysfunction may be handled as if it is only a symptom being based on the decay of marital relationship in the content of therapy, and sexual dysfunction may be neglected by family and marriage therapists from time to time. Contrarily, sex therapists may show the tendency to handle the problem in aspect of only sexuality. In the relationships of all spouses, thought and emotional intimacy should not be neglected whatever sexual problem they may have. Factors determining happiness such as physical attractiveness, impressiveness, positive and negative attitudes, marriage age, children, socioeconomic conditions, common intentions, and hobbies, sexual life, have attracted the attention of investigators for long time. Most important element among these factors seems to be sexuality. In recent years, researchers have begun to consider interaction between sexuality and marriage much more. Marital life includes food, shelter, togetherness, satisfaction originated from positive marital relationships, sharing role to cause of sexual maturation, acceptance of social role, and responsibility, individual entrepreneurship, and supporting to creativity. Marriage, consisting of spouses completing each other in these fields, is the headstone of social development and maturation. It has been suggested that there is a role of sexual dysfunction in protecting the balance of marital relationships. According to this suggestion, these disorders may prevent any damage to self and conserve the border of ego. Moreover, we may suggest that sexual dysfunction breaks the marital relationship, removes the protective effect on marital balance if we consider the beneficial effects of sexuality in points of intimacy in thought and emotional fields. Sexuality can be only experienced with healthy personality

  6. Women's Sexual Health: Talking about Your Sexual Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... talking to your partner. By Mayo Clinic Staff Women's sexual health, like men's, is important to overall ... well worth addressing. Follow this guide to discussing women's sexual health concerns and promoting sexual enjoyment. Many ...

  7. Health seeking and sexual behaviour among patients with sexually ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Health seeking and sexual behaviour among patients with sexually transmitted ... condom use among patients presenting with sexually transmitted infections (STI) ... having less than 8 years of school education; and being resident in villages.

  8. Mediators of Sexual Revictimization Risk in Adult Sexual Assault Victims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullman, Sarah E.; Vasquez, Amanda L.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined sexual risk behaviors and sexual refusal assertiveness in relationship to child sexual abuse (CSA), emotion dysregulation, and adult sexual revictimization. Path analyses of 1,094 survivors who had sex in the past year were done to examine sexual risk behavior, and sexual refusal assertiveness mediational pathways by which CSA severity and emotion dysregulation may affect revictimization over one year in adult female sexual assault survivors. Exchanging sex for money and sexual refusal assertiveness were significantly associated with emotion dysregulation, whereas exchanging sex for money, and not sexual refusal assertiveness, was only significantly related to CSA severity. Both exchanging sex for money and sex refusal assertiveness mediated the relationship between emotion dysregulation and adult sexual revictimization. Exchanging sex for money mediated the CSA severity-revictimization relationship. These findings demonstrate the importance of considering both risky and protective sexual behaviors in research and prevention programming that address sexual revictimization in women. PMID:25942287

  9. Aging and sexuality.

    OpenAIRE

    Holzapfel, S.

    1994-01-01

    Recent research suggesting that a high proportion of men and women remain sexually active well into later life refutes the prevailing myth that aging and sexual dysfunction are inexorably linked. Age-related physiological changes do not render a meaningful sexual relationship impossible or even necessarily difficult. In men, greater physical stimulation is required to attain and maintain erections, and orgasms are less intense. In women, menopause terminates fertility and produces changes ste...

  10. Playing a Videogame with a Sexualized Female Character Increases Adolescents' Rape Myth Acceptance and Tolerance Toward Sexual Harassment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driesmans, Karolien; Vandenbosch, Laura; Eggermont, Steven

    2015-04-01

    Prior research has documented favorable effects of active and educational videogames among adolescents. However, research on potential negative effects of such games is limited. Scholars have called attention to games portraying sexualized female characters. The purpose of the current study was to experimentally investigate the effect of playing a videogame with a sexualized female character on adolescents' acceptance of rape myths and tolerance for sexual harassment. Fifty-seven secondary school pupils, 12-15 years of age, participated in a 2 (gender: boys versus girls)×2 (game character: nonsexualized versus sexualized female) factorial design experiment. Participants played a game for 15 minutes and were randomly assigned to one of the two game characters. Afterward, they completed established scales to assess rape myth acceptance and tolerance for sexual harassment. Analyses of variance showed greater acceptance of rape myths (P=0.039) and greater tolerance of sexual harassment (P=0.046) in adolescents who played with the sexualized woman compared with adolescents in the control condition. We did not find significant differences between boys and girls or any interaction effect between gender and game character. Findings suggest that gameplaying with a sexualized woman may increase adolescents' acceptance of rape myths and tolerance for sexual harassment. These findings highlight attention to the use of sexualized female game characters in (educational and active) videogames that target adolescents.

  11. Sexual dysfunction among youth: an overlooked sexual health concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, Caroline; Kågesten, Anna E; Blum, Robert Wm

    2016-11-18

    There is growing recognition that youth sexual health entails a broad range of physical, emotional and psychosocial responses to sexual interactions, yet little is known about sexual dysfunctions and well being in youth populations. This study explored sexual dysfunctions among youth and its associations with other domains of sexual health. Sexual dysfunctions were defined as: problems related to orgasm, pain during intercourse, lack of sexual desire or sexual pleasure. Data were drawn from the 2010 French national sexual and reproductive health survey comprising a random sample of 2309 respondents aged 15-24 years. The current analysis included 842 females and 642 males who had sexual intercourse in the last 12 months. Chi square tests were used to test for differences in sexual dysfunctions by sex and explore associations with other domains of sexual health. Half of females (48%) reported at least one sexual dysfunction versus 23% of males. However, over half (57%) of youth reporting at least one dysfunction did not consider this to hinder their sexuality. Altogether, 31% of females cited at least one sexual dysfunction hindering their sexuality-more than three times the 9% of males. Sexual dysfunction was strongly and inversely related to sexual satisfaction for both males and females and additionally to a recent diagnosis of STI or unintended pregnancy for females. Sexual dysfunctions hindering sexuality were also correlated with a history of unintended pregnancy among males. While most youth in France enjoy a satisfying sexual life, sexual dysfunction is common, especially among females. Public health programs and clinicians should screen for and address sexual dysfunction, which substantially reduce youth sexual wellbeing.

  12. About Military Sexual Trauma

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... why Close About Military Sexual Trauma Veterans Health Administration Loading... Unsubscribe from Veterans Health Administration? Cancel Unsubscribe Working... Subscribe Subscribed Unsubscribe 20K Loading... ...