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Sample records for sexual coercion psychological

  1. Review Sexual coercion and adolescent risk behaviour: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sexual coercion affects the individual through multiple short- and long-term medical, emotional, psychological and social consequences, and adolescents are particularly at high risk. Sexual coercion is hypothesised to negatively affect adolescents' decision-making around their sexual behaviours and other risk behaviours.

  2. Sexuality, substance use, and susceptibility to victimization: risk for rape and sexual coercion in a prospective study of college women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messman-Moore, Terri L; Coates, Aubrey A; Gaffey, Kathryn J; Johnson, Carrie F

    2008-12-01

    An 8-month prospective study examined behavioral, personality, and psychological variables thought to increase vulnerability for college women's experience of rape and verbal sexual coercion. Participants were 276 college women who completed self-report surveys. During 1 academic year, 9.5% of women were raped and 11.7% reported verbal sexual coercion. Elevated levels of sexual concerns, dysfunctional sexual behavior, and impaired self-reference were associated with both verbal sexual coercion and rape. Alcohol and marijuana use increased risk only for rape, whereas self-criticism and depression increased risk only for verbal coercion. Findings suggest that multiple aspects of sexuality, such as shame regarding sexuality and using sex to meet nonsexual needs, may increase risk for both types of sexual victimization. Results support conclusions that rape and verbal sexual coercion have both shared and unique risk factors. Implications for future research and intervention programs are discussed.

  3. Male brush-turkeys attempt sexual coercion in unusual circumstances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, David A; Jones, Darryl N; Bulger, David; Brown, Culum

    2014-07-01

    Sexual coercion by males is generally understood to have three forms: forced copulation, harassment and intimidation. We studied Australian brush-turkeys, Alectura lathami, to determine whether some male behaviours towards females at incubation mounds could be classified as aggressive, whether males were attempting sexual coercion and, if so, whether the coercion was successful. We found that some male behaviours towards females were significantly more likely to be followed by the cessation of female mound activity, and hence could be classified as aggressive, while others were significantly more likely to be followed by the commencement of female mound activity, and hence could be classified as enticing. Copulation was preceded by higher rates of male enticement and by higher rates of certain types of male aggression. It therefore seemed that males were attempting sexual coercion. There was little evidence, however, that this combination of coercion and enticement was successful in obtaining copulations. While forced copulation did occur, it was infrequent, and no evidence could be found for intimidation. We conclude that harassment is the primary form of sexual coercion by male brush-turkeys. Although sexual coercion is understood to be a sub-optimal tactic, brush-turkey sexual coercion was employed as a primary tactic by dominant males who owned incubation mounds. One possible explanation for this apparent paradox is that aggression is the default solution for social conflicts in this species, and hence can be interpreted as a behavioural syndrome. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Perceptions of sexual coercion among young women in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayer, Manvir Kaur

    2010-01-01

    This paper sets out to explore Ugandan young women's definitions and perceptions of sexual coercion. A qualitative study was conducted with seven young women in rural Uganda. Participants filmed videos, wrote stories, made drawings and participated in transect walks before analysing their data through formal and informal discussions. Forced sex is defined narrowly to mean only rape. Verbal forms of sexual coercion were recognised, but only after some discussion. Verbal coercion is referred to as "abusing" or "convincing". Young women are commonly pressured into consenting to have sex, despite what they really want, owing to the socio-cultural circumstances. Young women in Uganda are significantly tolerant of sexual coercion. This tolerance appears to arise from power differentials between genders, and the socio-cultural environment shaping their lives. The paper improves understanding of young women's definitions and perceptions of sexual coercion, which is essential to provide effective violence prevention programmes. It also suggests that further research is warranted in this field.

  5. Initiation, desistance, and persistence of men's sexual coercion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Gordon C Nagayama; DeGarmo, David S; Eap, Sopagna; Teten, Andra L; Sue, Stanley

    2006-08-01

    Patterns of sexually coercive behavior were examined among 266 Asian American and 299 European American men over 1 year. Noncoercer (n = 358), desister (n = 120), initiator (n = 39), and persistent (n = 48) sexually coercive groups were identified. The strongest predictor of sexual coercion was past sexual coercion. Persistent sexual coercers were higher than the other groups in delinquency and hostile masculinity and were nearly twice as likely to engage in laboratory sexual harassment. Loss of face attenuated self-reported sexual coercion and laboratory sexual harassment risk among Asian Americans and attenuated only laboratory sexual harassment risk among European Americans. These findings suggest that the heterogeneity of sexually coercive behavior and ethnicity are important research and clinical considerations.

  6. Association between Sexting and Sexual Coercion among Female Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, HyeJeong; Ouytsel, Joris Van; Temple, Jeff R.

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to investigate whether experiences of offline sexual coercion are associated with adolescent females’ involvement in different types of sexting behaviors. It draws on data from 450 ethnically diverse female adolescents with an average age of 19.02 years (SD = 0.74) who were originally recruited in southeast Texas. The participants were asked about their experiences with sexual coercion, and their engagement in sexting behavior (i.e., sending, requesting, and being asked for a sext, and receiving a sext without giving permission). Logistic regressions were used to analyze these relationships, while controlling for age, ethnicity, education level, living situation, and sexting behaviors in the year prior of the study. Offline sexual coercion was significantly associated with sending and being asked for a naked image, as well as receiving a naked image without giving permission. The results suggest that sexting could function as an online extension of offline forms of sexual coercion. PMID:27814493

  7. Sexual coercion among in-school adolescents in Rwanda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adolescents are particularly vulnerable to sexual coercion, as victim as well as perpetrator. This paper aims to adapt sexual and reproductive health interventions to the reality of young people's sexuality and relationships. This study assesses the prevalence of forced sex, characteristics of victims and norms regarding ...

  8. Within the Walls: An Analysis of Sexual Harassment and Sexual Coercion at Naval Consolidated Brig Miramar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    most commonly cited are “ quid pro quo ” and “hostile environment.” Employers are charged with ensuring that the workplace is free from sexual ...ANALYSIS OF SEXUAL HARASSMENT AND SEXUAL COERCION AT NAVAL CONSOLIDATED BRIG MIRAMAR by Robert M. Collins September 2006 Suzanne M. Johnson...AND SUBTITLE: Within the Walls: An Analysis of Sexual Harassment and Sexual Coercion at Naval Consolidated Brig Miramar 6. AUTHORS Robert M. Collins

  9. An Examination of Gender Role Identity, Sexual Self-Esteem, Sexual Coercion and Sexual Victimization in a University Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Theresa C.; Erickson, Chris D.

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between gender role identity, sexual self-esteem and sexual coercion was examined through a questionnaire. Participants were 84 undergraduate students from a university in Washington, DC. Contrary to what has been found in the literature, there were weak relationships between sexual coercion and masculinity, and sexual coercion…

  10. Association between sexting and sexual coercion among female adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, HyeJeong; Van Ouytsel, Joris; Temple, Jeff R

    2016-12-01

    This study aims to investigate whether experiences of offline sexual coercion are associated with adolescent females' involvement in different types of sexting behaviors. It draws on data from 450 ethnically diverse female adolescents with an average age of 19.02 years (SD = 0.74) who were originally recruited in southeast Texas. The participants were asked about their experiences with sexual coercion, and their engagement in sexting behavior (i.e., sending, requesting, and being asked for a sext, and receiving a sext without giving permission). Logistic regressions were used to analyze these relationships, while controlling for age, ethnicity, education level, living situation, and sexting behaviors in the year prior of the study. Offline sexual coercion was significantly associated with sending and being asked for a naked image, as well as receiving a naked image without giving permission. The results suggest that sexting could function as an online extension of offline forms of sexual coercion. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Within the walls an analysis of sexual harassment and sexual coercion at Naval Consolidated Brig Miramar

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Suzanne M.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis explores sexual harassment and sexual coercion among prisoners and staff at Naval Consolidated Brig (NAVCONBRIG) Miramar. The data come from two surveys (one for staff and one for prisoners), which were administered in June and August 2006, respectively. This thesis begins with a review of relevant literature and discussion of reporting procedures, and an overview of the fear of reprisal associated with reporting incidents of sexual harassment coercion. We compare rates of sexual ...

  12. Within the Walls: An Analysis of Sexual Harassment and Sexual Coercion at Naval Consolidated Brig Miramar

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Collins, Robert M; Johnson, Suzanne M

    2006-01-01

    .... This thesis begins with a review of relevant literature and discussion of reporting procedures, and an overview of the fear of reprisal associated with reporting incidents of sexual harassment coercion...

  13. Psychological Coercion in Human Trafficking: An Application of Biderman's Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Susie B; Fehrenbacher, Anne E; Eisenman, David P

    2015-09-01

    This study examined coercive conditions experienced by trafficked persons in the context of Biderman's theory of coercion. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 12 adult women trafficked into Los Angeles County, from 10 countries, for domestic work and/or sex work. Participants described health problems they experienced in relation to their trafficking experience and their perceptions of conditions that caused health problems. Utilizing a framework analysis approach, we analyzed themes using Biderman's framework. Participants reported experiencing the range of nonphysical coercive tactics outlined by Biderman, including isolation, monopolization of perception, induced debility or exhaustion, threats, occasional indulgences, demonstration of omnipotence, degradation, and enforcement of trivial demands. Our analysis demonstrates how these coercion tactics reinforced the submission of trafficked persons to their traffickers even in the absence of physical force or restraints. Such psychological abuse creates extreme stress that can lead to acute and chronic, physical and mental health problems. © The Author(s) 2014.

  14. Testing the Cuckoldry Risk Hypothesis of Partner Sexual Coercion in Community and Forensic Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph A. Camilleri

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Evolutionary theory has informed the investigation of male sexual coercion but has seldom been applied to the analysis of sexual coercion within established couples. The cuckoldry risk hypothesis, that sexual coercion is a male tactic used to reduce the risk of extrapair paternity, was tested in two studies. In a community sample, indirect cues of infidelity predicted male propensity for sexual coaxing in the relationship, and direct cues predicted propensity for sexual coercion. In the forensic sample, we found that most partner rapists experienced cuckoldry risk prior to committing their offence and experienced more types of cuckoldry risk events than non-sexual partner assaulters. These findings suggest that cuckoldry risk influences male sexual coercion in established sexual relationships.

  15. Boys Are Victims, Too: The Influence of Perpetrators' Age and Gender in Sexual Coercion Against Boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jacqueline A; Smith, Edward A; Caldwell, Linda L; Mathews, Catherine; Wegner, Lisa

    2018-06-01

    Sexual coercion among adolescent boys in South Africa is an underresearched topic despite the frequency of such events. Although quantitative research has illuminated the prevalence of sexual coercion toward boys, it has provided little understanding of the context of sexual coercion for adolescent boys. Given the often severe consequences of sexual coercion, it is important to further understand these experiences to inform prevention efforts. The current study aims to provide a more nuanced understanding of the context of sexual coercion. Data come from the baseline assessment for a translational research evaluation of a school-based intervention. The current study focuses on a subset of early and middle adolescent boys who reported experiencing sexual coercion ( n = 223). Analyses examine boys' reports of their perpetrators' characteristics and details about the sexual coercion encounter. Logistic regression is used to examine how coercion tactics used by the perpetrator differs depending on the perpetrator's age and gender. Eighth-grade boys were most likely to report that their perpetrator was a similar-aged female and that perpetrator's age played a particularly important role in what tactics were used. Adult perpetrators were more likely to use physical force, threaten them, harass them electronically, and drink or use drugs at the time. Results provide important insight into boys' experiences of sexual coercion that have implications for both future research and intervention efforts. Although much research is needed on the topic, intervention programs should recognize that both male and female adolescents can be victim and perpetrator.

  16. Experience of sexual coercion and risky sexual behavior among Ugandan university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Östergren Per-Olof

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Growing worldwide evidence shows that the experience of sexual coercion is fairly prevalent among young people and is associated with risky sexual behavior thereafter. The causal mechanisms behind this are unclear but may be dependent on specific contextual determinants. Little is known about factors that could buffer the negative effects of coercion. The aim of this study was to assess the association between the experience of sexual coercion and risky sexual behavior among university students of both sexes in Uganda. Methods In 2005, 980 (80% out of a total of 1,220 students enrolled in Mbarara University of Science and Technology in Uganda participated in a self-administered questionnaire covering socio-demographic and religious factors, social capital, mental health, alcohol use, and sexual behavior. A validated scale of six items was used to assess the experience of sexual coercion. Logistic regression analyses were applied to control for confounders. Potential buffering factors were analyzed by testing for effect modification. Results Fifty-nine percent of those who responded had previously had sexual intercourse. Among the male students 29.0%, and among the female students 33.1% reported having had some experience of sexual coercion. After controlling for age, gender, and educational level of household of origin, role of religion and trust in others sexual coercion was found to be statistically significantly associated with previously had sex (OR 1.6, 95% CI; 1.1-2.3, early sexual debut (OR 2.4, 95% CI; 1.5-3.7, as well as with having had a great number of sexual partners (OR 1.9, 95% CI; 1.2-3.0, but not with inconsistent condom use. Scoring low on an assessment of mental health problems, reporting high trust in others, or stating that religion played a major role in one's family of origin seemed to buffer the negative effect that the experience of sexual coercion had on the likelihood of having many sexual partners

  17. Experience of sexual coercion and risky sexual behavior among Ugandan university students

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Growing worldwide evidence shows that the experience of sexual coercion is fairly prevalent among young people and is associated with risky sexual behavior thereafter. The causal mechanisms behind this are unclear but may be dependent on specific contextual determinants. Little is known about factors that could buffer the negative effects of coercion. The aim of this study was to assess the association between the experience of sexual coercion and risky sexual behavior among university students of both sexes in Uganda. Methods In 2005, 980 (80%) out of a total of 1,220 students enrolled in Mbarara University of Science and Technology in Uganda participated in a self-administered questionnaire covering socio-demographic and religious factors, social capital, mental health, alcohol use, and sexual behavior. A validated scale of six items was used to assess the experience of sexual coercion. Logistic regression analyses were applied to control for confounders. Potential buffering factors were analyzed by testing for effect modification. Results Fifty-nine percent of those who responded had previously had sexual intercourse. Among the male students 29.0%, and among the female students 33.1% reported having had some experience of sexual coercion. After controlling for age, gender, and educational level of household of origin, role of religion and trust in others sexual coercion was found to be statistically significantly associated with previously had sex (OR 1.6, 95% CI; 1.1-2.3), early sexual debut (OR 2.4, 95% CI; 1.5-3.7), as well as with having had a great number of sexual partners (OR 1.9, 95% CI; 1.2-3.0), but not with inconsistent condom use. Scoring low on an assessment of mental health problems, reporting high trust in others, or stating that religion played a major role in one's family of origin seemed to buffer the negative effect that the experience of sexual coercion had on the likelihood of having many sexual partners. Conclusion The findings

  18. Experience of sexual coercion and risky sexual behavior among Ugandan university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agardh, Anette; Odberg-Pettersson, Karen; Ostergren, Per-Olof

    2011-07-04

    Growing worldwide evidence shows that the experience of sexual coercion is fairly prevalent among young people and is associated with risky sexual behavior thereafter. The causal mechanisms behind this are unclear but may be dependent on specific contextual determinants. Little is known about factors that could buffer the negative effects of coercion. The aim of this study was to assess the association between the experience of sexual coercion and risky sexual behavior among university students of both sexes in Uganda. In 2005, 980 (80%) out of a total of 1,220 students enrolled in Mbarara University of Science and Technology in Uganda participated in a self-administered questionnaire covering socio-demographic and religious factors, social capital, mental health, alcohol use, and sexual behavior. A validated scale of six items was used to assess the experience of sexual coercion. Logistic regression analyses were applied to control for confounders. Potential buffering factors were analyzed by testing for effect modification. Fifty-nine percent of those who responded had previously had sexual intercourse. Among the male students 29.0%, and among the female students 33.1% reported having had some experience of sexual coercion. After controlling for age, gender, and educational level of household of origin, role of religion and trust in others sexual coercion was found to be statistically significantly associated with previously had sex (OR 1.6, 95% CI; 1.1-2.3), early sexual debut (OR 2.4, 95% CI; 1.5-3.7), as well as with having had a great number of sexual partners (OR 1.9, 95% CI; 1.2-3.0), but not with inconsistent condom use.Scoring low on an assessment of mental health problems, reporting high trust in others, or stating that religion played a major role in one's family of origin seemed to buffer the negative effect that the experience of sexual coercion had on the likelihood of having many sexual partners. The findings of this study suggest that the

  19. Perceived Conflict Patterns and Relationship Quality Associated with Verbal Sexual Coercion by Male Dating Partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Jennifer; Myhr, Laura

    2008-01-01

    The study of verbal sexual coercion in heterosexual relationships is controversial because nonphysical coercive tactics are often viewed as socially acceptable. It was hypothesized that, within couples, verbal sexual coercion will occur within a larger context of destructive conflict tactics and diminished relationship quality. Female…

  20. Male and female adolescents' perceived interpersonal communication skills according to history of sexual coercion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, V; Reis, J; Stephens, Y

    1997-01-01

    This report summarizes the experience of 61 female adolescents recruited through a private adolescent family planning clinic, and 183 9th through 12th-grade adolescents recruited from a private suburban high school regarding their experiences with dating relationships, sexual communication skills, and psychological status. The samples were predominantly white and middle to upper income. Perceptions of interpersonal communication skills were analyzed according to gender, clinic versus school, and history of sexual coercion. The adolescents were generally confident that they could assert their own preferences and stand up to other regarding sexual issues with the exception of the small group of high school males reporting having had experienced sexual coercion. This group (N = 20) expressed difficulty in talking to their partners about safer sex, getting their partner(s) to listen to them, or turning down alcohol or drugs prior to having sex. These boys were also more likely to report missing classes or having other kinds of trouble with school, to be concerned about use of alcohol and drugs, and about feeling unpopular. None of the female groups had this profile of communication and emotional problems. Implications for preventive education programming on interpersonal skills and sexuality are considered.

  1. Sexual coercion and health-risk behaviors among urban Chinese high school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Song

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the association between health-risk behaviors and a history of sexual coercion among urban Chinese high school students. Design: A cross-sectional study was performed among 109,754 high school students who participated in the 2005 Chinese Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Data were analyzed for 5,215 students who had experienced sexual intercourse (1,483 girls, 3,732 boys. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine the relationship between sexual coercion and the related covariates, and data were stratified by gender. Results: Of those students who had had sexual intercourse, 40.9% of the females and 29.6% of the males experienced sexual coercion (p<0.01. When analyses controlled for demographic characteristics, in the study sample, that is, students who had sexual intercourse, drug use (odds ratios [OR], 2.44, attempted suicide (OR, 2.30, physical abuse (OR, 1.74, binge drinking (OR, 1.62, verbal abuse (OR, 1.29, experience of being drunk (OR, 0.68, and smoking of cigarettes (OR, 0.52 were related to a history of sexual coercion. Patterns of health-risk behaviors also differed among female and male students who had experienced sexual coercion. Conclusions: Sexual coercion is associated with health-risk behaviors. Initiatives to reduce the harm associated with sexual coercion among high school students are needed.

  2. The Psychology of Coercion: Merging Airpower and Prospect Theory

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kimminau, Jon

    1998-01-01

    ... as a negotiated solution to a confrontation. The foundation of coercion is the adversary s decisionmaking process, and most theories of coercion rely on a rational model that weighs costs, benefits, and expectations for success...

  3. Effect of sexual coercion proclivity, insult and fantasy on emotional reactivity and appeal of sexual aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Lindsey A; Gorzalka, Boris B

    2012-08-01

    Fifty-nine heterosexual university males were assessed for Sexual Coercion Proclivity (SCP) and randomly assigned to one of three conditions: Insult/nonsexually coercive fantasy material; no insult/sexually coercive fantasy material; or, insult/sexually coercive fantasy material. Although not differing in terms of anger or anxiety, the high SCP became more frustrated than the low group, particularly when exposed to both insult and sexually coercive (SC) fantasy material. Changes in negative affect predicted anticipated likelihood of engaging in SC among the low SCP group and anticipated enjoyment of SC in the high SCP group. Acculturation accounted for differences observed between Caucasian and Chinese men.

  4. What Money Can't Buy: Different Patterns in Decision Making About Sex and Money Predict Past Sexual Coercion Perpetration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrier Emond, Fannie; Gagnon, Jean; Nolet, Kevin; Cyr, Gaëlle; Rouleau, Joanne-Lucine

    2018-02-01

    Self-reported impulsivity has been found to predict the perpetration of sexual coercion in both sexual offenders and male college students. Impulsivity can be conceptualized as a generalized lack of self-control (i.e., general perspective) or as a multifaceted construct that can vary from one context to the other (i.e., domain-specific perspective). Delay discounting, the tendency to prefer sooner smaller rewards over larger delayed rewards, is a measure of impulsive decision making. Recent sexual adaptations of delay discounting tasks can be used to test domain-specific assumptions. The present study used the UPPS-P impulsivity questionnaire, a standard money discounting task, and a sexual discounting task to predict past use of sexual coercion in a sample of 98 male college students. Results indicated that higher negative urgency scores, less impulsive money discounting, and more impulsive sexual discounting all predicted sexual coercion. Consistent with previous studies, sexuality was discounted more steeply than money by both perpetrators and non-perpetrators of sexual coercion, but this difference was twice as large in perpetrators compared to non-perpetrators. Our study identified three different predictors of sexual coercion in male college students: a broad tendency to act rashly under negative emotions, a specific difficulty to postpone sexual gratification, and a pattern of optimal non-sexual decision making. Results highlight the importance of using multiple measures, including sexuality-specific measures, to get a clear portrait of the links between impulsivity and sexual coercion.

  5. Sexual behaviour in preschool children in the context of intra-parental violence and sexual coercion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cale, Jesse; Lussier, Patrick

    2017-04-01

    Very little is understood about the developmental antecedents of sexual behaviour prior to adolescence. Our aim was to examine the impact of different forms of intimate partner violence on early childhood sexual development. We used data from an ongoing prospective longitudinal cohort study of Canadian families. Intimate partner violence of various kinds was measured using a modified version of the Conflict Tactics Scale. Measures of child sexual development were based on the Child Sexual Behavior Inventory. Both measures relied on parental report. Sexual coercion between parental figures, but not physical violence or emotional aggression, was significantly associated with intrusive sexual behaviours shown by 3- to 5-year-old children. It may seem unlikely that 3- to 5- year-old children can understand that their parents are in a sexually coercive relationship, but our findings suggest that they are sufficiently aware of such behaviours when they occur that they may start to model their own behaviour on them. Clinicians and social workers may need to be more aware of this possibility. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Developing Adolescents' Resistance to Sexual Coercion through Role-Playing Activities in a Virtual World

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinn, Marion; Arnedillo-Sánchez, Inmaculada

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the use of a three dimensional virtual world (3-DVW) to delivery assertiveness training to young adolescents. The case study aims to understand how a sense of presence in VWs facilitates and affect the performance of students role-playing activities to enhance their ability to resist sexual coercion. The results indicate that a…

  7. Explicating the role of sexual coercion and vulnerability alcohol expectancies in rape attributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starfelt, Louise C; Young, Ross McD; White, Katherine M; Palk, Gavan R M

    2015-07-01

    Despite evidence suggesting that alcohol expectancies may influence people's rape perceptions, no study to date has measured context-specific expectancies comprehensively. This study represents an initial investigation of the role of sexual coercion and vulnerability alcohol expectancies in young Australian adults' rape blame attributions. Using a vignette method, it was hypothesized that participants' stronger expectancy endorsement would predict lesser perpetrator blame and greater victim blame. Participants (n = 210; 34.9% males; 18-25 years) read a hypothetical rape scenario and rated dimensions of blameworthiness attributed to the intoxicated sexual perpetrator and victim. Participants completed the Sexual Coercion and Sexual Vulnerability subscales of the Drinking Expectancy Sexual Vulnerabilities Questionnaire for the targets self, men, and women in addition to measures of traditional gender role attitudes and rape myth acceptance. Hierarchical multiple regressions revealed that, as expected, stronger sexual coercion expectancy predicted lower perpetrator blame and greater victim blame. Self-oriented expectancy predicted evaluations of the perpetrator whereas other-oriented expectancy predicted victim evaluations. These effects were robust after controlling for gender role attitudes and rape myth acceptance. Alcohol expectancies appear to be part of a network of beliefs and attitudes which perpetuate biased rape attributions and may be useful to challenge in altering rape perceptions. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. Sexting Coercion as a Component of Intimate Partner Polyvictimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Jody M; Drouin, Michelle; Coupe, Amanda

    2016-07-01

    We examined the role of sexting coercion as a component of the intimate partner abuse (IPA) construct among young adults to determine whether sexting coercion would emerge alongside other forms of partner aggression as a cumulative risk factor for psychological, sexual, and attachment problems. In a sample of 885 undergraduates (301 men and 584 women), 40% had experienced some type of coercion. Although there was some overlap between sexual coercion and sexting coercion (21% of participants had experienced both), some individuals had experienced only sexting coercion (8%) and some only sexual coercion (11%). Women were more likely than men to be coerced into sexting. Both sexting coercion and sexual coercion were significantly and independently related to negative mental health symptoms, sexual problems, and attachment dysfunction, and, notably, sexting coercion was found to be a cumulative risk factor for nearly all of these negative effects. These data support the idea that digital sexual victimization is a new component of IPA polyvictimization, potentially increasing the negative effects experienced by victims of multiple forms of partner aggression.

  9. Sperm Competition Risk and Sexual Coercion Predict Copulatory Duration in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Barbaro

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A man whose romantic partner is sexually unfaithful is at risk of sperm competition and cuckoldry—unwitting investment in offspring to whom he is genetically unrelated. Men, therefore, may have evolved mechanisms to solve the adaptive problems of sperm competition and cuckoldry. The current research investigates another potential anti-cuckoldry tactic: reducing in-pair copulation (IPC duration, thereby more quickly placing his sperm into competition. We hypothesize that IPC duration will be negatively correlated with female infidelity (Hypothesis 1. We further hypothesize that IPC duration will be negatively correlated with sexual coercion (Hypothesis 2. Results of Study 1 (men’s reports, n = 410 indicate that both men’s perceptions of female infidelity and men’s sexual coercion predict shorter IPC duration. Results of Study 2 (women’s reports, n = 455 did not provide statistical support for the study hypotheses. The current research provides an initial investigation of men’s adjustment of copulatory duration and suggests that men reduce IPC duration and ejaculate more quickly at the couple’s most recent copulation, in response to greater risk of sperm competition and in the context of sexual coercion.

  10. Minimization of Male Suffering: Social Perception of Victims and Perpetrators of Opposite-Sex Sexual Coercion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studzinska, Anna Magda; Hilton, Denis

    2017-01-01

    Studies show equal impact of sexual harassment (SH) on men and women, whereas lay perceptions are that women suffer more. We identify the phenomenon of minimization of male suffering (MMS), which occurs when people assume that SH has less effect on men's well-being and which results in the perpetrators of SH on men being evaluated less harshly. To verify whether these effects occur, we conducted two studies in which we presented stories describing acts of sexual coercion (SC, study 1) and SC or financial coercion (FC, study 2) and measured the perceived suffering of victims and the perception of the perpetrators. Both studies showed that female victims were perceived to suffer more from SC and FC and that perpetrators of both acts on women were evaluated more negatively. The results support our hypothesis that the suffering of male victims is minimized as they are perceived to suffer less than women.

  11. The effect of individual differences and manipulated life expectancies on the willingness to engage in sexual coercion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunkel, Curtis S; Mathes, Eugene

    2011-12-16

    The role of the individual difference variables of mate value, short-term and long-term mating preferences, and life history strategy along with the manipulated variable of life expectancy were used to predict differences in the willingness to engage in sexually coercive behaviors. Short-term preferences and long-term preferences were correlated with the willingness to engage in sexual coercion at all life expectancies. Life history strategy was correlated with the willingness to engage in sexual coercion at only the shortest and longest life expectancies. Most importantly short-term and long-term mating preferences interacted with life expectancy to predict the willingness to engage in sexually coercive behaviors. Short life expectancies increased willingness in individuals with high short-term and low long-term preferences. The results are discussed in terms of the varying theories of sexual coercion with emphasis put on a life history approach.

  12. Reexamining issues of conceptualization and willing consent: the hidden role of coercion in experiences of sexual acquiescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, Nicole E; Krishnakumar, Ambika; Leone, Janel M

    2015-07-01

    This study problematizes the literature's conceptualization of sexual compliance, predominantly defined as willing participation in, and consent to, unwanted sexual activity in the absence of immediate partner pressure. Using a feminist theoretical framework, we argue that covert forms of social coercion, including normalized expectations for heterosexual women to participate in sexual activity and maintain relationship satisfaction, ultimately pressure women into participating in unwanted sexual activity. In other words, immediate partner pressure is not necessary for a sexually coercive experience to occur. Results of the current study indicate that relationship control and media influence significantly predict sexual acquiescence, and women acquiesce to unwanted sexual activity in an effort to maintain relationships and partner satisfaction as well as to avoid negative outcomes. Women cite various forms of social coercion, such as fulfilling sexual scripts and relationship obligations, as primary reasons for participating in unwanted sexual activity without resisting their partners. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. Perceived association between diagnostic and non-diagnostic cues of women's sexual interest: General Recognition Theory predictors of risk for sexual coercion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Coreen; Viken, Richard J; Treat, Teresa A

    2010-01-01

    Young men's errors in sexual perception have been linked to sexual coercion. The current investigation sought to explicate the perceptual and decisional sources of these social perception errors, as well as their link to risk for sexual violence. General Recognition Theory (GRT; [Ashby, F. G., & Townsend, J. T. (1986). Varieties of perceptual independence. Psychological Review, 93, 154-179]) was used to estimate participants' ability to discriminate between affective cues and clothing style cues and to measure illusory correlations between men's perception of women's clothing style and sexual interest. High-risk men were less sensitive to the distinction between women's friendly and sexual interest cues relative to other men. In addition, they were more likely to perceive an illusory correlation between women's diagnostic sexual interest cues (e.g., facial affect) and non-diagnostic cues (e.g., provocative clothing), which increases the probability that high-risk men will misperceive friendly women as intending to communicate sexual interest. The results provide information about the degree of risk conferred by individual differences in perceptual processing of women's interest cues, and also illustrate how translational scientists might adapt GRT to examine research questions about individual differences in social perception.

  14. Evaluating a prevention program for teenagers on sexual coercion: a differential effectiveness approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacifici, C; Stoolmiller, M; Nelson, C

    2001-06-01

    The authors evaluated a coeducational program for teenagers on preventing sexual coercion in dating situations. Students examined individual and social attitudes underlying coercive sexual behavior and learned communication skills aimed at preventing or dealing with unwanted sexual advances. Instruction was enhanced by video and an interactive video "virtual date." Outcomes were assessed using sexual attitude scales with a sample of 458 high school students. Student health education classes were randomly assigned to either a treatment or a control condition. Findings, based on a latent variable model of differential effectiveness, showed that students in the treatment group with initial coercive attitude scores at or above the mean benefited significantly more than students with the same range of scores in the control group.

  15. Pornography, Sexual Coercion and Abuse and Sexting in Young People's Intimate Relationships: A European Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Nicky; Barter, Christine; Wood, Marsha; Aghtaie, Nadia; Larkins, Cath; Lanau, Alba; Överlien, Carolina

    2016-03-06

    New technology has made pornography increasingly accessible to young people, and a growing evidence base has identified a relationship between viewing pornography and violent or abusive behavior in young men. This article reports findings from a large survey of 4,564 young people aged 14 to 17 in five European countries which illuminate the relationship between regular viewing of online pornography, sexual coercion and abuse and the sending and receiving of sexual images and messages, known as "sexting." In addition to the survey, which was completed in schools, 91 interviews were undertaken with young people who had direct experience of interpersonal violence and abuse in their own relationships. Rates for regularly viewing online pornography were very much higher among boys and most had chosen to watch pornography. Boys' perpetration of sexual coercion and abuse was significantly associated with regular viewing of online pornography. Viewing online pornography was also associated with a significantly increased probability of having sent sexual images/messages for boys in nearly all countries. In addition, boys who regularly watched online pornography were significantly more likely to hold negative gender attitudes. The qualitative interviews illustrated that, although sexting is normalized and perceived positively by most young people, it has the potential to reproduce sexist features of pornography such as control and humiliation. Sex and relationships education should aim to promote a critical understanding of pornography among young people that recognizes its abusive and gendered values. © The Author(s) 2016.

  16. Experiences of sexual relationships of young black women in an atmosphere of coercion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clüver, Frances; Elkonin, Diane; Young, Charles

    2013-03-01

    Negotiations surrounding sexual activity are characterised by multiple power disparities that include race, social status and age, with gender being the most dominant differential in heterosexual interactions. Research has shown that women are physiologically more at risk of contracting HIV than men, as indicated by the higher infection rates of the former. Many African societies operate via a hegemonic masculinity, with patriarchal governance and female subordination being the norm, placing women at even greater risk of HIV infection. In this qualitative phenomenological study, four black school-going adolescent women living in Grahamstown were interviewed using a semi-structured interview to gather data. An interpretative phenomenological analysis was conducted on the data to provide subjective insights of the experiences of the participants with regard to their interactions with men. From the findings, it became apparent that the participants felt pressured, coerced or manipulated by male counterparts. This pressure and coercion was not just felt in their interactions with older men, but also in their romantic partnerships. Three of the participants experienced pressure to engage in sexual intercourse with their boyfriends when they were unwilling or unready, and they reported being faced with additional pressure to engage in unprotected sex. Furthermore, it became apparent that each participant had an underlying fear of being raped and considered this as a genuine threat to her safety and sexual health. The atmosphere within which these participants negotiate their sexual agency is thus heavily informed by male control, coercion and the threat of violence or rape.

  17. South African women's conceptualisations of and responses to sexual coercion in relation to hegemonic masculinities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Erin; Buikema, Rosemarie; Cooper, Diane

    2016-01-01

    Despite the documented relationship between hegemonic norms of masculinities and South African men's use of sexual violence, less is known about how women's engagement with norms of masculinity influences their agency in sexually coercive experiences. This study applied a narrative approach to assess how women's understandings of hegemonic male norms affected their perceptions of and responses to sexually coercive experiences. Twenty-five sexual history narrative interviews were conducted with women across five South African provinces representing a range of ages, language and sociocultural backgrounds. Interviews elicited stories of first experiences of sex and the range of sexual relationships through adulthood. Data were analysed using principles of thematic and narrative analysis. Coercive sexual experiences informed many women's normative ideas about men's sexuality including being impulsive, controlling and aggressive. This could underpin women's limited ability to exercise agency and their increased vulnerability to sexual abuse. Some women reported levels of trust and respect in subsequent relationships, which typically involved deconstructing norms of men's use of coercion and moving beyond self-blame and guilt. The findings highlight the need to appreciate the fluid and situated nature of women's agency from a relational perspective in terms of how women condone and challenge gender norms that support men's use of sexual violence in their relationships.

  18. Predicting sexual coercion in early adulthood: The transaction among maltreatment, gang affiliation, and adolescent socialization of coercive relationship norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Thao; Kim, Hanjoe; Christopher, Caroline; Caruthers, Allison; Dishion, Thomas J

    2016-08-01

    This study tested a transactional hypothesis predicting early adult sexual coercion from family maltreatment, early adolescent gang affiliation, and socialization of adolescent friendships that support coercive relationship norms. The longitudinal study of a community sample of 998 11-year-olds was intensively assessed in early and middle adolescence and followed to 23-24 years of age. At age 16-17 youth were videotaped with a friend, and their interactions were coded for coercive relationship talk. Structural equation modeling revealed that maltreatment predicted gang affiliation during early adolescence. Both maltreatment and gang affiliation strongly predicted adolescent sexual promiscuity and coercive relationship norms with friends at age 16-17 years. Adolescent sexual promiscuity, however, did not predict sexual coercion in early adulthood. In contrast, higher levels of observed coercive relationship talk with a friend predicted sexual coercion in early adulthood for both males and females. These findings suggest that peers have a socialization function in the development of norms prognostic of sexual coercion, and the need to consider peers in the promotion of healthy relationships.

  19. Female-directed violence as a form of sexual coercion in humans (Homo sapiens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbaro, Nicole; Shackelford, Todd K

    2016-11-01

    Male-perpetrated female-directed violence (FDV) may be associated with greater sexual access to a female. Accordingly, FDV is expected to be associated with greater copulation frequency. Research on nonhuman primates affirms this hypothesis, but no previous research has investigated this relationship in humans (Homo sapiens). The current research tests the hypothesis that FDV is associated with in-pair copulation frequency and, thus, may function as a form of sexual coercion. It was predicted that men who perpetrate FDV will secure more in-pair copulations than men who do not perpetrate violence (Prediction 1a), and that average monthly rates of FDV would positively correlate with in-pair copulation frequency (Prediction 1b). Male participants (n = 355) completed a survey, reporting limited demographic information (e.g., age, relationship length), in-pair copulation frequency, and history of physical violence perpetration. As predicted, violent men secured more in-pair copulations, on average, than nonviolent men, and monthly rates of violence positively correlated with in-pair copulation frequency. In humans, as in nonhuman primates, FDV by males may facilitate greater sexual access to a female. We discuss the implications of the current research for an evolutionary perspective on partner violence, and draw on research on nonhuman primates to highlight profitable avenues of research on FDV in humans. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Perceptions of Psychological Coercion and Human Trafficking in the West Midlands of England: Beginning to Know the Unknown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dando, Coral J.; Walsh, David; Brierley, Robin

    2016-01-01

    Modern slavery is less overt than historical state-sanctioned slavery because psychological abuse is typically used to recruit and then control victims. The recent UK Draft Modern Slavery Bill, and current UK government anti-slavery strategy relies heavily on a shared understanding and public cooperation to tackle this crime. Yet, UK research investigating public understanding of modern slavery is elusive. We report community survey data from 682 residents of the Midlands of England, where modern slavery is known to occur, concerning their understanding of nonphysical coercion and human trafficking (one particular form of modern slavery). Analysis of quantitative data and themed categorization of qualitative data revealed a mismatch between theoretical frameworks and understanding of psychological coercion, and misconceptions concerning the nature of human trafficking. Many respondents did not understand psychological coercion, believed that human trafficking did not affect them, and confused trafficking with immigration. The public are one of the most influential interest groups, but only if well informed and motivated towards positive action. Our findings suggest the need for strategically targeted public knowledge exchange concerning this crime. PMID:27149330

  1. Perceptions of Psychological Coercion and Human Trafficking in the West Midlands of England: Beginning to Know the Unknown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dando, Coral J; Walsh, David; Brierley, Robin

    2016-01-01

    Modern slavery is less overt than historical state-sanctioned slavery because psychological abuse is typically used to recruit and then control victims. The recent UK Draft Modern Slavery Bill, and current UK government anti-slavery strategy relies heavily on a shared understanding and public cooperation to tackle this crime. Yet, UK research investigating public understanding of modern slavery is elusive. We report community survey data from 682 residents of the Midlands of England, where modern slavery is known to occur, concerning their understanding of nonphysical coercion and human trafficking (one particular form of modern slavery). Analysis of quantitative data and themed categorization of qualitative data revealed a mismatch between theoretical frameworks and understanding of psychological coercion, and misconceptions concerning the nature of human trafficking. Many respondents did not understand psychological coercion, believed that human trafficking did not affect them, and confused trafficking with immigration. The public are one of the most influential interest groups, but only if well informed and motivated towards positive action. Our findings suggest the need for strategically targeted public knowledge exchange concerning this crime.

  2. Sexual coercion, commitment, and partner violence among college students - Coerción sexual, compromiso y violencia en las relaciones de pareja de los universitarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Hernández González

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the tactics of sexual coercion among university couples, and their association with the type of commitment with the relationship and experienced physical and sexual violence. Participants were 175 college students,79 women and 96 men. A new sexual coercion scale was developed, based on the DeGue and DiLillo´s (2005 proposal. The exploratory factor analyses showed three components: Insistence, Emotional Manipulation, and Blame. Sexual assault was measured with a single item. Commitment and experienced Physical Violence were measured using existing scales. Discriminant analysis confirmed that participants from the victimized group significantly differedfrom those of the non-victimized group. The variables that significantly contributed to the classification were Negative Commitment and Insistence for the victimized group and Positive Commitment for the non-victimized group. We discuss the implications of the results to prevent partner violence.

  3. Exposure to harsh parenting and pornography as explanations for males' sexual coercion and females' sexual victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Leslie Gordon; Simons, Ronald L; Lei, Man-Kit; Sutton, Tara E

    2012-01-01

    Sexual violence against women is a major concern to researchers and policy makers, as well as to the general public. This study uses a sample of more than 2,000 college students to investigate the extent to which exposure to harsh parenting practices and sexually explicit materials contributes to perpetration and victimization. Findings indicate that frequent corporal punishment in the family of origin combined with consumption of pornographic materials increased the probability that males reported engaging in coercive sexual practices. For females, both frequent corporal punishment and exposure to paternal hostility combined with consumption of pornographic materials were associated with higher levels of reported sexual victimization. These results provide increased understanding of the impact of pornography use among a nonclinical sample, as well as the consequences of experiencing harsh corporal punishment in one's family of origin, on the sexual victimization of females.

  4. The invisible suffering: sexual coercion, interpersonal violence, and mental health--a cross-sectional study among university students in south-western Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anette Agardh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite a history of conflicts and widespread human rights violation in sub-Saharan Africa, little is known about the prevalence of interpersonal violence among the population in this region. Evidence from high-income countries suggests that exposure to violence has mental health consequences and violence also has associations with experiences of sexual coercion. AIMS: This study sought to investigate the prevalence of physical and perceived threats of violence among university students in Uganda and to assess the possible relationship between such violence, sexual coercion, and symptoms of anxiety, depression, and psychoticism, respectively. METHOD: In 2005, 980 Ugandan university students responded to a self-administered questionnaire (response rate 80% that assessed socio-demographic factors, social capital, importance of religion, mental health, experience of violence and sexual coercion, and sexual behaviour factors. Logistic regression analysis was applied as the main analytical tool. RESULTS: Of those who responded, 28% reported perceived threats/threats of violence and 10% exposure to actual physical violence over the previous 12 months, with no significant gender differences in exposure history. Exposure to violence was significantly associated with the experience of sexual coercion among both males and females. Sexual coercion and threats/threats of violence were both significantly associated with poor mental health in males and females, but only males showed a strong association between exposure to physical violence and poor mental health. CONCLUSION: The current study suggests that in terms of general exposure, both males and females in the study population are equally exposed to sexual coercion and interpersonal violence, and both male and female students show generally similar mental health effects of exposure to such violence. The prevalence of interpersonal violence found in our study population may have long

  5. Police sexual coercion and its association with risky sex work and substance use behaviors among female sex workers in St. Petersburg and Orenburg, Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odinokova, Veronika; Rusakova, Maia; Urada, Lianne A; Silverman, Jay G; Raj, Anita

    2014-01-01

    Extensive research documents that female sex workers (FSWs) in Russia are very vulnerable to abuses from police, including police sexual coercion. However, despite qualitative data suggesting abusive policing practices are more likely for FSWs contending with substance abuse issues and risky sex work contexts, there is a paucity of quantitative study evaluating these associations specifically in terms of police sexual coercion. Such research is needed to guide structural interventions to improve health and safety for FSWs in Russia and globally. The purpose of this study is to assess the prevalence of police sexual coercion among FSWs from two Russian cities, St. Petersburg and Orenburg, and to determine whether riskier sex work behaviors and contexts and substance use behaviors, including both IDU and risky alcohol use, are associated with increased risk for sexual coercion from police. FSWs in St. Petersburg and Orenburg were recruited via time-location and convenience sampling and completed structured surveys on demographics (age, education), sex work risks (e.g., violence during sex work) and substance use. Logistic regression analyses assessed associations of substance use and risky sex work with police sexual coercion, adjusting for demographics. Participants (N=896) were aged 15 and older (94% were 20+ years). Most (69%) reported past year binge alcohol use, and 48% reported IDU the day before. Half (56%) reported 4+ clients per day. Rape during sex work ever was reported by 64%. Police sexual coercion in the past 12 months was reported by 38%. In the multivariate model, both current IDU (AOR=2.09, CI=1.45-3.02) and past year binge alcohol use (AOR=1.46, CI=1.03-2.07) were associated with police sexual coercion, as was selling sex on the street (not in venues) (AOR=7.81, CI=4.53-13.48) and rape during sex work (AOR=2.04, CI=1.43-2.92). Current findings document the substantial role police sexual violence plays in the lives of FSWs in Russia. These findings

  6. A Narrative Study of Qualitative Data on Sexual Assault, Coercion and Harassment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairns, Kathleen V.

    1994-01-01

    Describes narrative analysis of college student stories of unwanted sexual attention. Reviews four story types with separate consideration for males and females. Discusses patterns of sexual harassment in residence halls and consequences for residents with particular reference to implications for counseling and recommendations concerning content…

  7. Enhancing Women's Resistance to Sexual Coercion: A Randomized Controlled Trial of the DATE Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson Rowe, Lorelei; Jouriles, Ernest N.; McDonald, Renee; Platt, Cora G.; Gomez, Gabriella S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Despite extensive efforts to develop sexual assault prevention programs for college women, few have been rigorously evaluated, and fewer have demonstrable effects on victimization. This study pilots the Dating Assertiveness Training Experience (DATE), designed to train young women in assertiveness skills for responding to sexual…

  8. Differences in psychological health and family dysfunction by sexual victimization type in a clinical sample of African American adolescent women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecil, Heather; Matson, Steven C

    2005-08-01

    We examined levels of sexual victimization among a sample of 249 14- to 19-year-old African American adolescent women. Victimization was common: 32.1% reported having been raped, 33.7% had experienced sexual coercion, and 10.8% reported an attempted rape. Only 23.4% had never been victimized. We investigated whether levels of psychological health and family dysfunction varied as a function of the type of sexual victimization. Girls who had been raped had lower levels of self-esteem and mastery and higher levels of depression compared to girls who reported no sexual victimization. Significantly higher levels of family cohesion and significantly lower levels of family support were reported by girls who had been raped versus girls who reported no sexual victimization. These findings are a starting point for future studies by providing evidence that levels of mental health and family dysfunction vary by the type of sexual victimization experienced.

  9. Perceived risk of female infidelity moderates the relationship between objective risk of female infidelity and sexual coercion in humans (Homo sapiens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKibbin, William F; Starratt, Valerie G; Shackelford, Todd K; Goetz, Aaron T

    2011-08-01

    Female extrapair copulation (EPC) can be costly to a woman's long-term romantic partner. If a woman has copulated recently with a man other than her long-term partner, her reproductive tract may contain the sperm of both men, initiating sperm competition (whereby sperm from multiple males compete to fertilize an egg). Should the woman become pregnant, her long-term partner is at risk of cuckoldry-investing unwittingly in offspring to whom he is not genetically related. Previous research in humans (Homo sapiens) and in nonhuman animals suggests that males have evolved tactics such as partner-directed sexual coercion that reduce the risk of cuckoldry. The current research provides preliminary evidence that mated men (n = 223) at greater risk of partner EPC, measured as having spent a greater proportion of time apart from their partner since the couple's last in-pair copulation, more frequently perform partner-directed sexually coercive behaviors. This relationship is moderated, however, by men's perceived risk of partner EPC, such that the correlation between the proportion of time spent apart since last in-pair copulation and sexually coercive behaviors remains significant only for those men who perceive themselves to be at some risk of partner EPC. Discussion addresses limitations of this research and highlights directions for future research investigating the relationship between female EPC and men's partner-directed sexual coercion. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. Domestic Violence and Sexual Health among Young Women in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nneka Umera-Okeke

    coercion, physical threats, psychological abuse and controlling actions such as ... sexual risk behavior (Lang, Sales & Salazar, 2011: Exner-Cortens, Eckenrode & .... 25.0. 20.3. 657. 2288. Educational level. Primary. Secondary. Higher. 24.5***.

  11. Psychological Symptoms in Sexually Abused Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Judith A.; Mannarino, Anthony P.

    1988-01-01

    The report examined psychological symptoms exhibited by 24 girls (ages 6-12) evaluated within six months of being sexually abused. Results showed a marked discrepancy between child and parent reports of symptoms with children not reporting as many symptoms of depression, anxiety, or low self-esteem as parents. (Author/DB)

  12. [Role of physical, psychological and sexual abuse in functional digestive disorders. A case-controls trial.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remes-Troche, J M; Cid-Juárez, S; Campos-Ramos, I; Ramos-de la Medina, A; Galmiche, A; Schmulson-Wasserman, M; Roesch-Dietlen, F

    2008-01-01

    Abuse has been considered a significant factor on the development of functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID), especially for severe and treatment-refractory patients. The aim of our study was to evaluate the presence of all FGID according to Rome II criteria, in a group of women with history of physical, psychological and/or sexual abuse. A cross sectional study was performed in 96 women (37 +/- 12 years of age) with history of physical, psychological and/or sexual abuse (cases); and 96 open population women (36 +/- 14 years of age) (controls). The following evaluations were administered: Rome II questionnaire, a self-administered instrument to evaluate history of physical (beating), psychological(insults, public humiliation) and/or sexual abuse (rape, coercion), and HAD questionnaire. Among 96 women with history of abuse,91 (95%) reported to have suffered psychological abuse, 72 (75%) physical abuse, and 24 (25%)sexual abuse. Women with history of abuse had a higher prevalence of rumination (6% vs. 0%, p= 0.02), functional heartburn (26% vs. 13%, p =0.04), aerofagia (17% vs. 5%, p = 0.019), irritable bowel syndrome (38% vs. 18%, p = 0.002), fecalin continence (16% vs. 4%, p = 0.01), elevator anisyndrome (5% vs. 0%, p = 0.05), and proctalgia fugax (29% vs. 15%, p = 0.02) compared to controls. There was a positive correlation between anxiety (r = 0.5, p = 0.001) and depression scores(r = 0.45, p = 0.001), and the number of FGID. We demonstrated a high prevalence of FGID among women with history of physical,psychological, and/or sexual abuse. In this association,concomitant anxiety and depression play a significant role.

  13. Childhood maltreatment history as a risk factor for sexual harassment among U.S. Army soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, L N; Martin, L

    1998-01-01

    Four different types of childhood maltreatment were examined as predictors of unwanted sexual experiences and acknowledged sexual harassment among male and female active duty soldiers in the United States Army. Predictor variables included childhood sexual abuse, physical-emotional abuse, physical neglect, and emotional neglect. Three types of unwanted sexual experiences in the workplace were examined as outcome variables: gender harassment, unwanted sexual attention, and coercion. Both sexual and physical-emotional abuse during childhood were found to be predictors of unwanted sexual experiences and of acknowledged sexual harassment in the workplace. Among female soldiers, the most severe type of unwanted experience-coercion-was predicted only by childhood physical-emotional abuse. Among male soldiers childhood sexual abuse was the strongest predictor of coercion. A greater variety of types of childhood maltreatment predicted sexual harassment outcomes for male soldiers. Childhood maltreatment and adult sexual harassment were predictors of psychological well-being for soldiers of both genders.

  14. Social Isolation and Personal Perspectives on Sexualised Coercion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bodil Maria

    A project on personal perspectives on meanings of sexualised coercion was carried out in cooperation with Center for Victims of Sexual Assault at the University Hospital of Copenhagen. It points to difficulties experienced in the aftermaths of sexualised coercion as being robustly connected to cu...

  15. [Difficulties in psychology and sexual behavior].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    After an introduction by S. Kepes (Fertilite Orthogenie 4(4): 174-177,1972) the participants and audience discussed general topics such as the physician-patient relationship, unconscious motives, attitudes of male partners and physicians, and treatment of minors. Resistance by male partners toward contraception was considered due to fear of inadequacy in the face of female sexuality or to adherence to a double moral standard for wives. A gynecologist claimed that high school students are more likely to request contraception and use it effectively than they were 5 years ago; a midwife said that less privileged adolescents frequently become pregnant. Opinions were expressed that it is inappropriate to consider contraception from a psychological viewpoint, since it is part of a revolution toward a better life; that some psychological difficulties come from the doctor having preferences for certain methods; that the pill does not cause frigidity but is often blamed for preexisting problems; that the press frightens women away from taking the pill; that physicians should prescribe contraception to minors without seeking parental consent (unlawful in France).

  16. Possibility of psychological correction of sexual anomalies in hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Babina S.V.; Dvoryanchikov N.V.

    2014-01-01

    The article examines the possibilities of psychological correction of sexual anomalies in the hospital. We reviewed modern Russian and foreign literature on the treatment of disorders of sexual preference and singled out the main directions of therapy of disorders of sexual preference. We presents a comparative analysis of three therapeutic approaches for the treatment of sexual anomalies (psychopharmacological treatment, cognitive-behavioral therapy, psychotherapy) to determine their effecti...

  17. Psychological and Interpersonal Dimensions of Sexual Function and Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brotto, Lori; Atallah, Sandrine; Johnson-Agbakwu, Crista; Rosenbaum, Talli; Abdo, Carmita; Byers, E Sandra; Graham, Cynthia; Nobre, Pedro; Wylie, Kevan

    2016-04-01

    Psychological, interpersonal, and sociocultural factors play a significant role in making one vulnerable to developing a sexual concern, in triggering the onset of a sexual difficulty, and in maintaining sexual dysfunction in the long term. To focus on psychological and interpersonal aspects of sexual functioning in women and men after a critical review of the literature from 2010 to the present. This report is part 1 of 2 of our collaborative work during the 2015 International Consultation on Sexual Medicine for Committee 2. Systematic review of the literature with a focus on publications since 2010. Our work as sexual medicine clinicians is essentially transdisciplinary, which involves not only the collaboration of multidisciplinary professionals but also the integration and application of new knowledge and evaluation and subsequent revision of our practices to ensure the highest level of care provided. There is scant literature on gender non-conforming children and adolescents to clarify specific developmental factors that shape the development of gender identity, orientation, and sexuality. Conversely, studies consistently have demonstrated the interdependence of sexual function between partners, with dysfunction in one partner often contributing to problems in sexual functioning and/or sexual satisfaction for the other. We recommend that clinicians explore attachment styles of patients, childhood experiences (including sexual abuse), onset of sexual activity, personality, cognitive schemas, infertility concerns, and sexual expectations. Assessment of depression, anxiety, stress, substance use and post-traumatic stress (and their medical treatments) should be carried out as part of the initial evaluation. Clinicians should attempt to ascertain whether the anxiety and/or depression is a consequence or a cause of the sexual complaint, and treatment should be administered accordingly. Cognitive distraction is a significant contributor to sexual response problems

  18. Psychological features and teenage sexual behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurbatova T.N.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of an empirical study on the personality traits of sexually active teenagers. The research identified the personality traits of teenagers who are inclined to look for sexual relations. The research focused on the following: motivation and values, implicit representations about sexual contacts, parent-child relations, and self-concept. The study comprised 465 individuals including 405 school students aged 14-16 and 60 mothers of the teenagers examined. The results demonstrate that teenagers' refusal to begin sexual life, provided they have this opportunity (i.e. a partner, is linked to their subjective perception of the basic values reflected in their consciousness. The research also focused on the features of teenagers' implicit representations with regard to sexual intercourse. This allowed to identify the role of sexual intercourse in teenagers' life. The factors regulating sexual relations in the age under study have been revealed. The research shows that teenage sexual intercourse is mainly driven by cognitive motives combined with the hedonistic (boys and communicational/social ones (girls. Emotionally distant parents are another factor triggering sexual relations. The negatively critical attitude to sexual partners was also displayed, especially by girls. The attitude was expressed by teenagers even where they initiated sexual intercourse themselves, without been pressured into it by their partners. The study has an applied character and enables effective preventive and corrective work with sexually active teenagers.

  19. Personal and common meanings of sexualised coercion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bodil Maria

    In 2003 a research project on the personal and common meanings of sexualised coercion was initiated at the Centre for Victims of Sexual Assault at the University Hospital of Copenhagen. Right from its start in the year 2000 first and second generation migrant women were among those seeking help...... on their difficulties in the aftermath of their experience of sexualised coercion. Reversely, a point of departure in psychiatric diagnosis such as PTSD and depression may contribute to the symbolic violence implicit in many dominant discourses concerning gender, violence as well as ethnicity. My presentation...

  20. Sexual harassment on the job: psychological, social and economic repercussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosselin, H L

    1984-09-01

    This article is an effort to shed new light on what has been commonly termed sexual harassment, to identify its forms and, most importantly, to explore its effect upon those who have been subjected to it. The author's hypothesis is that sexual harassment in the workplace is more a social phenomenon than a personal problem, and that it is the cause of lasting psychological, social and economic after-effects among its victims. Combatting sexual harassment is only part of the solution; we must look beyond its legal aspects to find ways of changing male-female occupational relationships, and we must provide support to victims of sexual harassment.

  1. Number of sexual partners and sexual assertiveness predict sexual victimization: do more partners equal more risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Dave P; Messman-Moore, Terri L; Ward, Rose Marie

    2011-01-01

    In previous studies, number of sexual partners and sexual assertiveness were examined as independent risk factors for sexual victimization among college women. Using a sample of 335 college women, this study examined the interaction of number of sexual partners and sexual assertiveness on verbal sexual coercion and rape. Approximately 32% of the sample reported unwanted sexual intercourse, 6.9% (n = 23) experienced verbal sexual coercion, 17.9% (n = 60) experienced rape, and 7.2% (n = 24) experienced both. As number of sexual partners increased, instances of verbal sexual coercion increased for women low in relational sexual assertiveness but not for women high in relational sexual assertiveness. A similar relationship was not found for rape. Among women who experienced both verbal sexual coercion and rape, increases in number of partners in the context of low refusal and relational assertiveness were associated with increases in verbal sexual coercion and rape. Findings suggest sexual assertiveness is related to fewer experiences of sexual coercion.

  2. Possibility of psychological correction of sexual anomalies in hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babina S.V.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the possibilities of psychological correction of sexual anomalies in the hospital. We reviewed modern Russian and foreign literature on the treatment of disorders of sexual preference and singled out the main directions of therapy of disorders of sexual preference. We presents a comparative analysis of three therapeutic approaches for the treatment of sexual anomalies (psychopharmacological treatment, cognitive-behavioral therapy, psychotherapy to determine their effectiveness and assess the relevance of the role of the psychologist in conducting therapy. These approaches are discussed on the following criteria: therapy target, therapy aims, the extent and depth of changes, specific treatments. The positive and negative aspects of different treatments are indicated. The review allows the conclusion on correct organization of maximum effective treatment of sexual disorders and on the role of the psychologist in the creation and implementation of therapeutic schemes. We also replenished some of the gaps in Russian studies on treatment of sexual behavior disorders.

  3. Female Sexual Dysfunction-Medical and Psychological Treatments, Committee 14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsberg, Sheryl A; Althof, Stanley; Simon, James A; Bradford, Andrea; Bitzer, Johannes; Carvalho, Joana; Flynn, Kathryn E; Nappi, Rossella E; Reese, Jennifer B; Rezaee, Roya L; Schover, Leslie; Shifrin, Jan L

    2017-12-01

    Since the millennium we have witnessed significant strides in the science and treatment of female sexual dysfunction (FSD). This forward progress has included (i) the development of new theoretical models to describe healthy and dysfunctional sexual responses in women; (ii) alternative classification strategies of female sexual disorders; (iii) major advances in brain, hormonal, psychological, and interpersonal research focusing on etiologic factors and treatment approaches; (iv) strong and effective public advocacy for FSD; and (v) greater educational awareness of the impact of FSD on the woman and her partner. To review the literature and describe the best practices for assessing and treating women with hypoactive sexual desire disorder, female sexual arousal disorder, and female orgasmic disorders. The committee undertook a comprehensive review of the literature and discussion among themselves to determine the best assessment and treatment methods. Using a biopsychosocial lens, the committee presents recommendations (with levels of evidence) for assessment and treatment of hypoactive sexual desire disorder, female sexual arousal disorder, and female orgasmic disorders. The numerous significant strides in FSD that have occurred since the previous International Consultation of Sexual Medicine publications are reviewed in this article. Although evidence supports an integrated biopsychosocial approach to assessment and treatment of these disorders, the biological and psychological factors are artificially separated for review purposes. We recognize that best outcomes are achieved when all relevant factors are identified and addressed by the clinician and patient working together in concert (the sum is greater than the whole of its parts). Kingsberg SA, Althof S, Simon JA, et al. Female Sexual Dysfunction-Medical and Psychological Treatments, Committee 14. J Sex Med 2017;14:1463-1491. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by

  4. Prospective relationships between workplace sexual harassment and psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, M B; Einarsen, S

    2012-04-01

    Exposure to workplace sexual harassment (SH) has been associated with impaired mental health, but longitudinal studies confirming the relationship are lacking. To examine gender differences in prospective associations between SH and psychological distress. Baseline questionnaire survey data were collected in 2005 in a representative sample of Norwegian employees. Follow-up data were collected in 2007. SH was measured with the Bergen Sexual Harassment Scale. Psychological distress was measured with the 25 item Hopkins Symptom Checklist (HSCL-25) with cases of psychological distress defined as having a mean score of Workplace measures against SH would be expected to lead to a reduction in mental disorders. The finding that psychological distress predicts SH among men may indicate either a vulnerability factor or a negative perception mechanism.

  5. The psychological impact of aging on sexuality and relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsberg, S A

    2000-01-01

    Aging has a powerful impact on the quality of relationships and sexual functioning. The psychological impact of aging after midlife is a particularly timely topic given improved medical and psychological understanding of sexuality in both women and men, as well as more effective treatment for age-related sexual dysfunctions. It is time to dispel the stereotype of the midlife relationship as the continuation of a traditional heterosexual marriage with grown or almost grown children in order to more effectively address emotional and sexual issues arising in relationships. Regardless of the length or nature of the relationship, however, its quality is enhanced by emotional intimacy, autonomy without too much distance, an ability to manage stress and distractions by external factors, and achieving a satisfying sexual equilibrium. Perception of the quality of the primary relationship and sexuality is influenced by the other factors in a person's life. Thus, the relationship must be examined and issues must be addressed taking these external factors into consideration. Among the most powerful external factors is one's occupation or avocation, as it tends to strongly influence one's sense of identity, self-esteem, and self-worth in all areas of life. To understand and treat effects of aging on sexuality, it is important to address the three components of sexual desire: drive, beliefs/values, and motivation, as well as the sexual equilibrium within the primary relationship. It is also essential to understand how the physiological changes in male and female sexual functioning affect desire and equilibrium. Other health-related changes that occur with aging must be recognized and addressed, including the fact that the oldest of old women will outlive their corresponding male cohort. Treatment implications for these issues are discussed.

  6. Gender nonconformity, sexual orientation, and psychological well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieger, Gerulf; Savin-Williams, Ritch C

    2012-06-01

    Both a same-sex sexual orientation and gender nonconformity have been linked with poorer well-being; however, sexual orientation and gender nonconformity are also correlated. It is, therefore, critical to investigate their independent contributions to well-being. Based on survey responses of 230 female and 245 male high school seniors, the present study is one of the first to provide empirical data on this topic. Both childhood and adolescent gender nonconformity were negatively related to well-being. In the same analyses, neither sexual orientation nor biological sex was a significant predictor of well-being. These results suggest that gender-atypical traits may be more relevant for psychological health than a same-sex sexual orientation. Both environmental and biological influences may account for these findings.

  7. Coercion and integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vala Elias Pimentel de Oliveira, G.

    2017-01-01

    Coercion and integration are widely used to reduce transaction costs. The threat of fines is often the most efficient way to make people pay their taxes. M&A consulting firms and the European Union exist because companies and countries perceive value in concentrating some of their functions under

  8. Social Planning and Economic Coercion

    OpenAIRE

    Hintermann, Beat; Rutherford, Thomas F.

    2014-01-01

    We develop a theory of social planning with a concern for economic coercion, which we define as the difference between consumers’ actual utility, and the "counterfactual" utility they expect to obtain if they were able to set policy themselves. Reasons to limit economic coercion include protecting minorities, preventing disenfranchised groups from engaging in socially costly behavior, or political economy considerations. As long as consumers are fully rational, limiting coercion is equivale...

  9. Is love blind? Sexual behavior and psychological adjustment of adolescents with blindness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kef, S.; Bos, H.

    2006-01-01

    In the present study, we examined sexual knowledge, sexual behavior, and psychological adjustment of adolescents with blindness. The sample included 36 Dutch adolescents who are blind, 16 males and 20 females. Results of the interviews revealed no problems regarding sexual knowledge or psychological

  10. Differences in Psychological Distress and Esteem Based on Sexual Identity Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepler, Dustin; Perrone-McGovern, Kristin

    2016-01-01

    A sample of 791 college students between the ages of 18 and 25 years were administered a series of measures to determine their sexual identity development status, global self-esteem, global psychological distress, sexual-esteem and sexual distress. As hypothesized, results indicated no significant difference in terms of psychological distress,…

  11. Sexual Contact in Childhood, Revictimization, and Lifetime Sexual and Psychological Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Aniruddha; Otis, Nicholas

    2016-07-01

    Using data from the 2010 to 2011 wave of the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project-a nationally representative probability sample of older U.S. adults-this study queried distinctive linkages of mild and of severe childhood sexual contact with lifetime sexual and psychological outcomes among women and men aged 60-99 years (N = 3283). In addition, we examined stratification of these associations by sexual revictimization (forced sex and/or harassment). Among women, sequelae of childhood contact seemed consistently negative for the mild rather than severe variant-but only in the co-presence of revictimization-a pattern that may have remained obscured in previous analysis of event effects. Men's results suggested lifelong eroticizing but not psychological effects of this early experience-with the co-presence of revictimization potentially enhancing rather than lowering their mental health. Overall, findings appeared to reflect gendered patterns of risk-with mild childhood contact potentially channeling women but not men into revictimization and finally to elevated sexuality and poor mental health in late life. Early sexual experiences should thus be conceptualized not as singular events, but as part of a lifelong career with regularities and rhythms that may influence their pathogenic potential.

  12. Psychological Treatment Trials for Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder: A Sexual Medicine Critique and Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyke, Robert E; Clayton, Anita H

    2015-12-01

    Publications claim efficacy for treatment of hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) in women with cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) and mindfulness meditation training (MMT). However, no review has evaluated the evidence for these therapies from the rigorous perspective of sexual medicine. The aim of this study was to evaluate the published controlled trials of CBT and MMT for disorders of sexual desire from the perspective of sexual medicine standards of control paradigms, risk/benefit ratios, and clinical significance. MEDLINE was reviewed from the last 10 years. Evaluated study quality via 10 metrics and efficacy as mean change, and proportion of responders and remitters. Three controlled trials support CBT and two controlled trials support MMT. The reports of the trials each lacked several scientific requirements: a hierarchy of endpoints with a planned primary endpoint, sufficient information on the intervention to reproduce it, randomization, adequate control, accepted measures of benefits and harms, compliance data, and/or outcomes of clinical relevance. Psychological treatments for HSDD are not yet supported by adequate clinical trials. The current scientific and regulatory standards for drug treatment trials should also be applicable to psychological treatment trials. © 2015 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  13. Coercion in psychiatry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kjeld; Nielsen, Bent

    2016-01-01

    , physical restraint, and forced medication. The data source was the electronic patient records, which include statutory information on all forced measures. Multiple logistic regression analyses were applied to calculate the risk (odds ratio, OR (95% confidence interval)) of forced measures being used...... intoxicated by substances at the time of admission (OR = 3.7 (1.7-8.2)). CONCLUSION: Extramural factors should be included when mental health authorities plan efforts to reduce coercion during admission to psychiatric wards. A reduced threshold for admission and improved integrated effort between mental...

  14. Approach and Avoidance Sexual Goals in Couples with Provoked Vestibulodynia: Associations with Sexual, Relational, and Psychological Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Natalie O; Muise, Amy; Bergeron, Sophie; Impett, Emily A; Boudreau, Gillian K

    2015-08-01

    Provoked vestibulodynia (PVD) is a prevalent vulvovaginal pain condition that is triggered primarily during sexual intercourse. PVD adversely impacts women's and their partners' sexual relationship and psychological well-being. Over 80% of women with PVD continue to have intercourse, possibly because of sexual goals that include wanting to pursue desirable outcomes (i.e., approach goals; such as a desire to maintain intimacy) and avoid negative outcomes (i.e., avoidance goals; such as avoiding a partner's disappointment). The aim of this study was to investigate associations between approach and avoidance sexual goals and women's pain, as well as the sexual, relational, and psychological well-being of affected couples. Women with PVD (N = 107) and their partners completed measures of sexual goals, sexual satisfaction, relationship satisfaction, and depression. Women also completed measures of pain during intercourse and sexual functioning. (1) Global Measure of Sexual Satisfaction Scale, (2) Dyadic Adjustment Scale-Revised or the Couple Satisfaction Index, (3) Beck Depression Inventory-II, (4) numerical rating scale of pain during intercourse, and (5) Female Sexual Function Index. When women reported higher avoidance sexual goals, they reported lower sexual and relationship satisfaction, and higher levels of depressive symptoms. In addition, when partners of women reported higher avoidance sexual goals, they reported lower relationship satisfaction. When women reported higher approach sexual goals, they also reported higher sexual and relationship satisfaction. Targeting approach and avoidance sexual goals could enhance the quality and efficacy of psychological couple interventions for women with PVD and their partners. © 2015 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  15. Essentialist beliefs, sexual identity uncertainty, internalized homonegativity and psychological wellbeing in gay men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morandini, James S; Blaszczynski, Alexander; Ross, Michael W; Costa, Daniel S J; Dar-Nimrod, Ilan

    2015-07-01

    The present study examined essentialist beliefs about sexual orientation and their implications for sexual identity uncertainty, internalized homonegativity and psychological wellbeing in a sample of gay men. A combination of targeted sampling and snowball strategies were used to recruit 639 gay identifying men for a cross-sectional online survey. Participants completed a questionnaire assessing sexual orientation beliefs, sexual identity uncertainty, internalized homonegativity, and psychological wellbeing outcomes. Structural equation modeling was used to test whether essentialist beliefs were associated with psychological wellbeing indirectly via their effect on sexual identity uncertainty and internalized homonegativity. A unique pattern of direct and indirect effects was observed in which facets of essentialism predicted sexual identity uncertainty, internalized homonegativity and psychological wellbeing. Of note, viewing sexual orientation as immutable/biologically based and as existing in discrete categories, were associated with less sexual identity uncertainty. On the other hand, these beliefs had divergent relationships with internalized homonegativity, with immutability/biological beliefs associated with lower, and discreteness beliefs associated with greater internalized homonegativity. Of interest, although sexual identity uncertainty was associated with poorer psychological wellbeing via its contribution to internalized homophobia, there was no direct relationship between identity uncertainty and psychological wellbeing. Findings indicate that essentializing sexual orientation has mixed implications for sexual identity uncertainty and internalized homonegativity and wellbeing in gay men. Those undertaking educational and clinical interventions with gay men should be aware of the benefits and of caveats of essentialist theories of homosexuality for this population. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Sexual dysfunctions in MS in relation to neuropsychiatric aspects and its psychological treatment: A scoping review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Anita; van de Vis, Wim; Engelbrecht, Jannie; Pirard, Michelle; Lau, Stefanie; Heesen, Christoph; Köpke, Sascha

    2018-01-01

    Objective Sexual dysfunction in multiple sclerosis (MS) is a significant, but often underestimated and overlooked suffering. Interventions to treat sexual dysfunction in MS are rare. The relation between sexual dysfunction in MS and psychological as well as neuropsychological aspects is evident. However, this field of research remains markedly underdeveloped in this severe chronic illness. The aim of this scoping review is to describe the relevant knowledge in this area and to identify psychological interventions to treat sexual dysfunctions in MS. Methods A scoping review was conducted to answer the following questions: (1) Which psychological and neuropsychological factors impact on sexual dysfunction in MS and vice versa? (2) What kind of psychological interventions aiming to improve sexual dysfunctions in MS are available? A comprehensive search and review of MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and CINAHL was completed by using a recent methodological framework for scoping reviews. Results 23 publications covering a total of 13,259 people with MS and 532 healthy controls were identified. Sexual dysfunction was found to be very common in MS and there is an obvious relation to psychological disorders as e.g. depression and anxiety and also to psychological aspects as partner relationship and quality of life. The relation between sexual dysfunction in MS and neuropsychological impairment has only rarely been studied and no clear results were found. Only two studies were identified, assessing the effectiveness of psychological intervention studies on sexual dysfunction in people with MS, and a third study presenting a secondary analysis of a study targeting depression. All three studies reported significant improvements in sexual dysfunction as well as partly in psychological variables. Conclusions There is a pressing need for the development and adequate evaluation of psychological interventions for sexual dysfunctions in MS. In addition, sexual dysfunction and its impact on

  17. Sexual orientation and sexual behavior among Latino and Asian Americans: implications for unfair treatment and psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, David H; Ayala, George

    2010-09-01

    Research on the sexuality of Asians and Latinos in the United States has been sparse, and the studies that have been done suffer from a number of limitations. Using data from the National Latino and Asian American Study (2002-2003), this study examined self-identified sexual orientation and self-reported sexual behavior among Latinos (n = 2,554; age: M = 38.1, SE = 0.5) and Asians (n = 2,095; age: M = 41.5, SE = 0.8). This study also investigated implications for unfair treatment and psychological distress among sexual minorities identified in the sample. Results indicated heterogeneity in responses to items assessing sexual orientation and sexual behavior including differences in the adoption of lesbian, gay, or bisexual (LGB) identity by gender, ethnicity, nativity, and socioeconomic status. LGB sexual minorities reported higher levels of unfair treatment and psychological distress compared to their non-LGB-identified sexual minority counterparts, and unfair treatment was positively associated with psychological distress. Results highlight the need to consider multiple demographic factors in assessing sexuality, and also suggest that measures of both self-identified sexual orientation and sexual behavior should be collected. In addition, findings provide support for the deleterious influence of unfair treatment among Asians and Latinos in the United States.

  18. Male Infertility and Its Impact on Women’s Sexual Behaviors: Need Attention to Psychological Problem as A Psychological Rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Ghavi

    2017-06-01

    Discussion: Male infertility may be associated with sexual disorders in the partner. Attention to psychological need and rehabilitation in infertile couples may be helping them to increase mental health and quality of life in these people.

  19. Can virtual reality increase the realism of role plays used to teach college women sexual coercion and rape-resistance skills?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouriles, Ernest N; McDonald, Renee; Kullowatz, Antje; Rosenfield, David; Gomez, Gabriella S; Cuevas, Anthony

    2009-12-01

    The present study evaluated whether virtual reality (VR) can enhance the realism of role plays designed to help college women resist sexual attacks. Sixty-two female undergraduate students were randomly assigned to either the Role Play (RP) or Virtual Role Play (VRP) conditions, which were differentiated only by the use of VR technology in the VRP condition. A multimethod assessment strategy was used to evaluate the effects of VR on the experienced realism of sexually threatening role plays. Realism was assessed by participant self-reports of negative affect and perceptions of realism, direct observation of participants' verbal displays of negative affect during the role plays, and measurements of participant heart rate during the role plays. Results indicated that VR can indeed heighten the realism of sexually threatening role plays. Discussion focuses on issues regarding the use of VR-enhanced role plays for helping college women resist sexual attacks.

  20. Internalized Stigma among Sexual Minority Adults: Insights from a Social Psychological Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herek, Gregory M.; Gillis, J. Roy; Cogan, Jeanine C.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a social psychological framework for understanding sexual stigma, and it reports data on sexual minority individuals' stigma-related experiences. The framework distinguishes between stigma's manifestations in society's institutions ("heterosexism") and among individuals. The latter include "enacted sexual stigma" (overt…

  1. Effects of a Sexual Health Education Programme on School Psychological Counsellor Candidates' Sexism Tendencies in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahraman, Hanife

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a sexual health curriculum developed for school psychological counsellors in Turkey on the sexual health knowledge of the participating candidates, their beliefs in sexual myths and their tendencies towards ambivalent sexism and sexism in romantic relationships. The study adopted a semi-experimental design. Study…

  2. The effects of sexism, psychological distress, and difficult sexual situations on U.S. women's sexual risk behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kyung-Hee; Bowleg, Lisa; Neilands, Torsten B

    2011-10-01

    Women represent almost half of the people living with HIV worldwide. Although social discrimination has been recognized as a major obstacle to HIV prevention, few empirical studies have examined the effects of sexism on women's HIV sexual risk behaviors. We analyzed data collected from an ethnically diverse sample of 754 women attending family planning clinics in the San Francisco Bay Area. A majority of respondents reported lifetime experiences of sexism (e.g., 94% reported sexual harassment). Structural equation modeling results demonstrated that experiences of sexism and reports of recent unprotected sex with a primary or a secondary sexual partner were linked through psychological distress and difficult sexual situations. Our results suggest the need to develop HIV prevention strategies for women that address two mechanisms-psychological distress and difficult sexual situations-that link social discrimination to women's sexual risk for HIV.

  3. The Effects of Sexism, Psychological Distress, and Difficult Sexual Situations on U.S. Women’s Sexual Risk Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kyung-Hee; Bowleg, Lisa; Neilands, Torsten B.

    2011-01-01

    Women represent almost half of the people living with HIV worldwide. Although social discrimination has been recognized as a major obstacle to HIV prevention, few empirical studies have examined the effects of sexism on women’s HIV sexual risk behaviors. We analyzed data collected from an ethnically diverse sample of 754 women attending family planning clinics in the San Francisco Bay Area. A majority of respondents reported lifetime experiences of sexism (e.g., 94% reported sexual harassment). Structural equation modeling results demonstrated that experiences of sexism and reports of recent unprotected sex with a primary or a secondary sexual partner were linked through psychological distress and difficult sexual situations. Our results suggest the need to develop HIV prevention strategies for women that address two mechanisms ---psychological distress and difficult sexual situations --- that link social discrimination to women’s sexual risk for HIV. PMID:22010804

  4. Behavioral and Psychological Assessment of Child Sexual Abuse in Clinical Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Savita; Biswas, Parthasarathy

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the behavioral and psychological assessment of Child Sexual Abuse (CSA) in clinical practice. Following a brief introduction regarding definition and etiology of CSA and discussion on issues of behavioral/psychological consequences of CSA, the paper reviews the various approaches towards behavioral/psychological assessment in…

  5. Pushing the Limits of Military Coercion Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Peter Viggo

    2011-01-01

    by coercion theorists is that coercion is hard and that miscalculation, misperception, or practical problems can defeat even a perfectly executed strategy. What they ignore is that the problem also stems from the limits of coercion theory, which has left us with an unnecessarily poor understanding of how...... military coercion works and how the practical problems involved could be addressed. Our understanding of military coercion would be increased markedly if only coercion theorists would make a greater efforts to do three things, namely (1) provide clear operational definitions of key concepts and variables...

  6. Can Virtual Reality Increase the Realism of Role Plays Used to Teach College Women Sexual Coercion and Rape-Resistance Skills?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouriles, Ernest N.; McDonald, Renee; Kullowatz, Antje; Rosenfield, David; Gomez, Gabriella S.; Cuevas, Anthony

    2009-01-01

    The present study evaluated whether virtual reality (VR) can enhance the realism of role plays designed to help college women resist sexual attacks. Sixty-two female undergraduate students were randomly assigned to either the Role Play (RP) or Virtual Role Play (VRP) conditions, which were differentiated only by the use of VR technology in the VRP…

  7. Psychological Violence and Sexual Risk Behavior Among Predominantly African American Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Bina; Mittal, Mona; Schroder, Allison; Ishman, Najah; Quinton, Sylvia; Boekeloo, Bradley

    2017-07-01

    Physical and sexual violence are commonly researched as risk factors for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). However, psychological violence and its relationship with HIV risk behaviors have received limited attention among African American/Black (Black) women. This study examined (a) the frequency of recent (past 3 months) psychological violence, physical violence, and sexual violence and (b) the association of HIV risk behaviors, including unprotected sex, sex under the influence of alcohol/drugs, and sex exchange for money/drugs/shelter, with psychological violence. Participants included 191 women (89.2% Black), who were recruited through information sessions held at community centers, Parent Teacher Association meetings, substance use and HIV counseling centers, radio public service announcements, and word of mouth. Interested women participated in a multisession HIV and substance use prevention program and completed a self-reported assessment at program baseline. The current study utilized baseline data collected for a longitudinal study. Results from descriptive analysis indicated that the rate of psychological violence was higher than physical violence or sexual violence, and it was strongly associated with physical and sexual violence. Furthermore, hierarchical logistic regression analysis showed that unprotected sex was significantly associated with recent psychological violence after controlling for covariates. Findings suggest that recent psychological violence is more common than physical or sexual violence and it relates to sexual risk behaviors among Black women. Recent psychological violence may indicate psychosocial and sexual vulnerability for HIV and warrants particular attention among Black women.

  8. THE CHANGES OF PHYSICAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL SEXUAL COMPLAINS IN WOMEN WITH POST TREATMENT CERVICAL CANCER AFTER SEXUAL NURSING INTERVENTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afiyanti Afiyanti

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Despite increasing awareness related to sexual health for cervical cancer survivors, health care providers are passive in addressing their sexual issues. The objectives were to develop and investigate the effect of a sexual nursing intervention packet to mitigate sexual dysfunction among cervical cancer survivors. Method: A sample of 104 survivors were participated consecutively based on required inclusive criteria in this quasi-experimental study. The sexual nursing intervention packet focused on the physical, psychological, and care of relational aspects of sexual health elements. The packet consisted of 6 weekly 2-hour sessions. Results: The participants reported poor sexual satisfaction and sexual function. There were no statistically signi fi cant differences in sexual interest, sexual arousal, orgasm, and vaginal lubrication improvement following the intervention, although all the variables in the intervention group were improved clinically. The sexual nursing intervention packet was effective in increasing sexual satisfaction and decreasing dispareunia among cervical cancer survivors. Discussion: This study suggests that the quality of life in cervical cancer survivors could be improved with the sexual nursing intervention packet provided as part of supportive group care. This program may be more effective if delivered earlier and for a longer period. Implications for Practice: The sexual nursing intervention packet offers an opportunity to facilitate small-group dynamics that lay the ground for further contacts leading to earlier recognition of sexual problems and active involvement for sexual health improvement for cervical cancer survivors and nurses. It could be utilized for survivor education or support groups to increase sexual satisfaction following cancer treatment.

  9. Phenomenology of the psychological consequences of sexual abuse in children and adolescents, depending on various factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nutskova E.V.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to psychological consequences of sexual abuse in children and adolescents. It presents review of domestic and foreign research of psychological injury in minors. The article gives results of complex psychological and psychiatric examination of 183 juvenile victims of sexual abuse. Psychological effects of sexual abuse in children and adolescents are identified and described on the basis of age, gender, clinical characteristics of the mental state of the victim, as well as the type and duration of the abuse. Intensity and expressiveness of post-traumatic response as well as coverage of personality spheres increase with aging. The data on the gender specificity of the sexual abuse effects suggest that girls more demonstrate internal forms, while external manifestations dominate in boys. The type and duration of sexual abuse determine a wide range of possible psychological consequences. It is noted that the severity of the psychological effects of sexual abuse in victims with mental disorders associated with the trauma is higher than in victims qualified to be mentally sane or having a mental illness, non-associated with psychologically traumatic situations. Psychological consequences exhibited by mentally sane victims show a decrease in their quality of life.

  10. A Social Psychological Model for Predicting Sexual Harassment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryor, John B.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Presents a Person X Situation (PXS) model of sexual harassment suggesting that sexually harassing behavior may be predicted from an analysis of social situational and personal factors. Research on sexual harassment proclivities in men is reviewed, and a profile of men who have a high a likelihood to sexually harass is discussed. Possible PXS…

  11. Effect of corticotropin-releasing factor receptor antagonist on psychologically suppressed masculine sexual behavior in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miwa, Yoshiji; Nagase, Keiko; Oyama, Nobuyuki; Akino, Hironobu; Yokoyama, Osamu

    2011-03-01

    Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) coordinates various responses of the body to stress, and CRF receptors are important targets of treatment for stress-related disorders. To investigate the effect of a nonselective CRF receptor antagonist, astressin, on suppression of masculine sexual behavior by psychological stress in rats. First, we investigated the influence of psychological stress, induced 2 hours per day for three consecutive days, on sexual behavior. Then, rats were divided into 4 groups: a control group, an astressin administration group (A), a psychological stress loading group (PS), and a psychological stress loading and astressin administration group (PS + A). The rats were exposed to sham or psychological stress for three consecutive days. After the last stress loading, the rats were injected with vehicle or astressin, and their sexual behavior was observed. We also measured serum levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). The effects of astressin on sexual behavior and serum levels of ACTH in rats affected by psychological stress were determined. Sexual behavior was reduced after psychological stress loading. The PS rats had significantly longer mount, intromission, and ejaculation latencies and lower ejaculation frequency than did the control, A, and PS + A rats. The intromission latency and ejaculation frequency in the PS + A rats did not achieve the level observed in the controls. There was no significant difference in these parameters between the control and A rats. Serum ACTH levels were significantly lower in PS + A rats than in PS rats. Psychologically suppressed masculine sexual behavior could be partially recovered with astressin administration in rats. These data provide a rationale for the further study of CRF receptor antagonists as novel agents for treating psychological sexual disorders. © 2010 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  12. Surgical castration, coercion and ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, Jesper; Petersen, Thomas Søbirk

    2014-01-01

    the only means by which these offenders are likely to be released from prison, it is reasonable—and close to the heart of modern medical ethics—to consider whether the offer involves some kind of coercion. However, despite McMillan's seemingly careful consideration of this question, it appears to us......John McMillan's detailed ethical analysis concerning the use of surgical castration of sex offenders in the Czech Republic and Germany is mainly devoted to considerations of coercion.1 This is not surprising. When castration is offered as an option to offenders and, at the same time, constitutes...

  13. Medical and Psychology Students' Knowledge and Attitudes regarding Aging and Sexuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Rachel J.; Zweig, Richard A.

    2010-01-01

    The current study surveys medical and doctoral psychology students (N = 100) from an urban northeastern university regarding knowledge and attitudes toward elderly sexuality and aging using the Facts on Aging Quiz, the Aging Sexuality Knowledge and Attitudes Scale, and measures of interest in gerontology, academic/clinical exposure to aging and…

  14. Adult Disclosure of Sexual Abuse: A Primary Cause of Psychological Distress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNulty, Craig; Wardle, Jane

    1994-01-01

    This paper surveys research evidence relating to the disclosure of childhood sexual abuse by adults and argues that, for some adults, the disclosure of sexual abuse may be a primary cause of psychological distress, resulting in the dissolution of social support systems and increasing the individual's vulnerability to psychiatric disorder.…

  15. How Does Sexual Minority Stigma "Get under the Skin"? A Psychological Mediation Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.

    2009-01-01

    Sexual minorities are at increased risk for multiple mental health burdens compared with heterosexuals. The field has identified 2 distinct determinants of this risk, including group-specific minority stressors and general psychological processes that are common across sexual orientations. The goal of the present article is to develop a…

  16. Intensive treatment models and coercion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohlenschlaeger, Johan; Thorup, Anne; Petersen, Lone

    2007-01-01

    and on client satisfaction. Integrated Treatment had fewer bed-days, more patients living in non-supervised accommodation, and better score on quality of life. No differences were found as to the use of coercion. This study adds to the evidence that intensified treatment models are superior to standard...

  17. Talking About Sex When Sex Is Painful: Dyadic Sexual Communication Is Associated With Women's Pain, and Couples' Sexual and Psychological Outcomes in Provoked Vestibulodynia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rancourt, Kate M; Rosen, Natalie O; Bergeron, Sophie; Nealis, Logan J

    2016-11-01

    Provoked vestibulodynia (PVD) is a recurrent vulvovaginal pain condition associated with psychological and sexual consequences for affected women and their partners, including lower quality of dyadic sexual communication compared to pain-free couples. Although greater sexual communication is associated with positive sexual and relational outcomes for both pain-free couples and couples experiencing painful sex, little is known about its role in women's pain and psychological outcomes, especially in a relational context. The present study examined associations between dyadic sexual communication and pain, sexual satisfaction, sexual functioning, and depressive symptoms in a sample of 107 couples in which the woman was diagnosed with PVD via a standardized gynecological assessment. Women completed a measure of pain intensity, and both members of the couple completed measures of their dyadic sexual communication, sexual satisfaction, sexual functioning, and depressive symptoms. Analyses were guided by the actor-partner interdependence model. Women and partners' own perceptions of greater dyadic sexual communication were associated with their own greater sexual satisfaction and sexual functioning, and lower depressive symptoms. Partners' perceptions of greater dyadic sexual communication were also associated with women's lower pain and greater sexual satisfaction. Results point to the importance of dyadic coping conceptualizations for both individual and interpersonal outcomes in PVD. Dyadic sexual communication may be a key treatment target for interventions aimed at improving the pain and psychological and sexual impairments of women with PVD and their partners.

  18. An Overlooked Factor in Sexual Abuse: Psychological and Physical Force Examined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Scott A.

    1998-01-01

    Separate studies of sex offenders in treatment while serving prison sentences and placed on probation suggest that psychological force is more commonly used in sexual assault than physical force. Seven types of psychological force are described, and the conceptual validity of this schematic for use in treatment is evaluated. (Author/EMK)

  19. The Relationship between Psychological Dysfunction and Sexuality within a Marital Context. Report on a Literature Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonnesson, Lena Nilsson

    A literature study was conducted to highlight the relationship between psychological dysfunction and sexuality within a marital context. The research reviewed suggests that women report more psychological symptoms, in particular depression, than do men. The husband's personality and functioning appeared to determine the level of marital…

  20. Psychological Predictors of Sexual Intimate Partner Violence against Black and Hispanic Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brianna Preiser

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although various types of intimate partner violence (IPV tend to co-occur, risk factors of each type of IPV may differ. At the same time, most of the existing literature on risk factors of IPV among minorities has used a cross-sectional design and has focused on physical rather than sexual IPV. We conducted the current study to compare Black and Hispanic women for psychological predators of change in sexual IPV over time. Methods: Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (FFCWS, this study followed 561 Black and 475 Hispanic women with their male partners for four years. Independent variables included male partners’ depression, anxiety, problem alcohol use, and male-to-female physical and psychological IPV perpetration. The dependent variable was sexual IPV reported by female partners, measured at baseline, two years, and four years later. Covariates included age, income, marital status and educational level. We used a multi-group latent growth curve model (LGCM to explain intercept, linear, and quadratic slopes, which represent the baseline, and linear and curvilinear trajectories of male-to-female sexual IPV, where groups were defined based on ethnicity. Results: Psychological IPV was associated with sexual IPV at baseline among both ethnic groups. The male partner’s depression was a risk factor for an increase in sexual IPV over time among Black but not Hispanic women. Anxiety, problem alcohol use and physical IPV did not have an effect on the baseline or change in sexual IPV over time. Psychological IPV was not associated with an increase in sexual IPV over time in either ethnic groups. Conclusions: There is a need for screening of sexual IPV in the presence of psychological IPV among minority women. There is also a need for screening and treatment of male partners’ depression as a strategy to reduce sexual IPV among Black women.

  1. Psychological Predictors of Sexual Intimate Partner Violence against Black and Hispanic Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preiser, Brianna; Assari, Shervin

    2017-12-27

    Background: Although various types of intimate partner violence (IPV) tend to co-occur, risk factors of each type of IPV may differ. At the same time, most of the existing literature on risk factors of IPV among minorities has used a cross-sectional design and has focused on physical rather than sexual IPV. We conducted the current study to compare Black and Hispanic women for psychological predators of change in sexual IPV over time. Methods: Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (FFCWS), this study followed 561 Black and 475 Hispanic women with their male partners for four years. Independent variables included male partners' depression, anxiety, problem alcohol use, and male-to-female physical and psychological IPV perpetration. The dependent variable was sexual IPV reported by female partners, measured at baseline, two years, and four years later. Covariates included age, income, marital status and educational level. We used a multi-group latent growth curve model (LGCM) to explain intercept, linear, and quadratic slopes, which represent the baseline, and linear and curvilinear trajectories of male-to-female sexual IPV, where groups were defined based on ethnicity. Results: Psychological IPV was associated with sexual IPV at baseline among both ethnic groups. The male partner's depression was a risk factor for an increase in sexual IPV over time among Black but not Hispanic women. Anxiety, problem alcohol use and physical IPV did not have an effect on the baseline or change in sexual IPV over time. Psychological IPV was not associated with an increase in sexual IPV over time in either ethnic groups. Conclusions: There is a need for screening of sexual IPV in the presence of psychological IPV among minority women. There is also a need for screening and treatment of male partners' depression as a strategy to reduce sexual IPV among Black women.

  2. Psychological and sexual changes after the cessation of breast-feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, C; Abraham, S; Taylor, A; Llewellyn-Jones, D

    1994-11-01

    To characterize the effect of breast-feeding cessation on the mood and sexuality of women after the birth of their first child. Women in good physical and psychological health, who had been breast-feeding for 6-23 months and had responded to a request for subjects in a parents' magazine, collected data daily for 2 months before and 2 months after weaning. They were asked to rate 14 measures of psychological, physical, and sexual variables at the same time each day on 3- or 5-point scales. Nineteen women completed the study. Five of these subjects became pregnant before weaning and ceased breast-feeding when pregnancy was confirmed; their last menstrual period was 6 weeks before weaning. The non-pregnant women weaned their babies just before or during menstruation. After weaning, the nonpregnant women reported a significant decrease in fatigue, improvement in mood, and an increase in sexual activity, sexual feelings, and frequency of coitus. Significant changes in fatigue and mood occurred during the second week after weaning; in fatigue, sexual activity, and sexual intercourse during the third week; and in the frequency of sexual intercourse in the fourth week. THe results were not caused by the subjects' expectations about breast-feeding and sexuality or perineal comfort. The women who conceived did not show these changes; a gradual increase in fatigue and decline in sexuality was observed. In women who are not pregnant, the cessation of breast-feeding is associated with an improvement in mood, fatigue, and sexuality.

  3. Possible use of psychological corrective measures for people with abnormal sexual preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babina S.V.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper studies the possibility of psychological corrective measures aimed at persons with abnormal sexual preferences. We reviewed domestic and foreign scientific publications described the treatment of sexual disorders and the basic directions of the therapy, and indicated its positive and negative aspects. We have studied progress notes and etiology of "personality disorders and behavior in adulthood" disease class, "disorders of sexual preference" disease subsection and analyzed the efficiency of the psychopharmacological treatment, cognitive-behavioral therapy, and psychotherapy for each violation of sexual preference. The most productive methods of therapeutic intervention are identified. This analysis allows making the most appropriate scheme of psychological correction and treatment for persons with abnormalities of sexual preference.

  4. Psychological complaints reported by sexually abused children during criminal investigations: Istanbul example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doğangün, Burak; Gönültaş, Burak M; Uzun-Oğuz, Esin; Oral, Gökhan; Öztürk, Meral

    2016-06-01

    The present study aims at describing the psychological complaints reported, as a part of the criminal investigation process, by the victims of sexual abuse as a part of the criminal investigation process, without attempting at reaching a medical diagnosis; and it discusses the relation of these reports with variables such as victim's gender, age and relation to the offender, type and duration of abuse, and parental marital status of the victim. Data is obtained from the statements of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) victims under the age of 15, as taken by Istanbul Juvenile Justice Department between the years 2009 and 2012. The sample consists of 175 cases with a total of 202 victim statements. Through the use of content analysis, the main and sub-categories of themes of the statements were determined. By means of the evaluation of the psychological condition of victims, we evaluated them in two categories: psychological complaints including self-harm and risk taking behaviors and psychological complaints with no self-harm and risk taking behaviors. The statistical analyses yield significant relations between the psychological complaints and children's parental marital status. Analysis of initial statements of sexual abuse victims is important as it may greatly contribute to professionals diagnosing and treating psychological complaints of these victims. It is essential that victims of sexual abuse should receive immediate psychological support starting with the criminal investigation process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Department of Defense Annual Report on Sexual Assault in the Military. Fiscal Year 2012. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    sexual relationship – Sexual Coercion – four items regarding classic quid pro quo instances of special treatment or favoritism conditioned on sexual ...relationship – Sexual Coercion – four items regarding classic quid pro quo instances of special treatment or favoritism conditioned on sexual ...and sexual harassment response and prevention in the military. This survey note discusses findings from the 2012 Workplace and Gender Relations

  6. Down syndrome: coercion and eugenics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Linda L; McCabe, Edward R B

    2011-08-01

    Experts agree that coercion by insurance companies or governmental authorities to limit reproductive choice constitutes a eugenic practice. We discuss discrimination against families of children with Down syndrome who chose not to have prenatal testing or chose to continue a pregnancy after a prenatal diagnosis. We argue that this discrimination represents economic and social coercion to limit reproductive choice, and we present examples of governmental rhetoric and policies condoning eugenics and commercial policies meeting criteria established by experts for eugenics. Our purpose is to sensitize the clinical genetics community to these issues as we attempt to provide the most neutral nondirective prenatal genetic counseling we can, and as we provide postnatal care and counseling to children with Down syndrome and their families. We are concerned that if eugenic policies and practices targeting individuals with Down syndrome and their families are tolerated by clinical geneticists and the broader citizenry, then we increase the probability of eugenics directed toward other individuals and communities.

  7. Associations Between Personality Disorder Characteristics, Psychological Symptoms, and Sexual Functioning in Young Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grauvogl, Andrea; Pelzer, Britt; Radder, Veerle; van Lankveld, Jacques

    2018-02-01

    Recently, the etiology of sexual dysfunctions in women has been approached from different angles. In clinical practice and in previous studies, it has been observed that women with sexual problems experience anxiety problems and express more rigid and perfectionistic personality traits than women without these problems. To investigate whether personality disorder characteristics according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) and psychological symptoms are associated with sexual problems in women. 188 women 18 to 25 years old participated in this cross-sectional study. Questionnaires measuring sexual functioning (Female Sexual Function Index), personality disorder characteristics (Assessment of DSM-IV-TR Personality Disorders Questionnaire), and psychological symptoms (Brief Symptom Inventory and Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale) were used. The main outcome measure used was sexual functioning assessed by self-report. Results, using analysis of variance, indicated that women with sexual problems report significantly more cluster A (specifically schizoid) and C (specifically avoidant and obsessive-compulsive) personality disorder characteristics than women without sexual problems. Furthermore, using multiple regression analyses, higher cluster A (specifically schizoid) and lower cluster B (specifically borderline and antisocial) personality disorder characteristics indicated lower levels of sexual functioning. Psychological symptoms partly mediated the effect of cluster A personality disorder characteristics on sexual functioning. The results of this study indicate that clinical practice should extend its scope by focusing more on improving adaptive personality characteristics, such as extraversion and individualism seen in cluster B personality characteristics, and decreasing the perfectionistic, introvert, and self-doubting characteristics seen in cluster C personality characteristics

  8. Maternal and Paternal Psychological Control as Moderators of the Link between Peer Attitudes and Adolescents' Risky Sexual Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudekerk, Barbara A; Allen, Joseph P; Hafen, Christopher A; Hessel, Elenda T; Szwedo, David E; Spilker, Ann

    2014-05-01

    Maternal and paternal psychological control, peer attitudes, and the interaction of psychological control and peer attitudes at age 13 were examined as predictors of risky sexual behavior before age 16 in a community sample of 181 youth followed from age 13 to 16. Maternal psychological control moderated the link between peer attitudes and sexual behavior. Peer acceptance of early sex predicted greater risky sexual behaviors, but only for teens whose mothers engaged in high levels of psychological control. Paternal psychological control demonstrated the same moderating effect for girls; for boys, however, high levels of paternal control predicted risky sex regardless of peer attitudes. Results are consistent with the theory that peer influences do not replace parental influences with regard to adolescent sexual behavior; rather, parental practices continue to serve an important role either directly forecasting sexual behavior or moderating the link between peer attitudes and sexual behavior.

  9. Maternal and Paternal Psychological Control as Moderators of the Link between Peer Attitudes and Adolescents’ Risky Sexual Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudekerk, Barbara A.; Allen, Joseph P.; Hafen, Christopher A.; Hessel, Elenda T.; Szwedo, David E.; Spilker, Ann

    2013-01-01

    Maternal and paternal psychological control, peer attitudes, and the interaction of psychological control and peer attitudes at age 13 were examined as predictors of risky sexual behavior before age 16 in a community sample of 181 youth followed from age 13 to 16. Maternal psychological control moderated the link between peer attitudes and sexual behavior. Peer acceptance of early sex predicted greater risky sexual behaviors, but only for teens whose mothers engaged in high levels of psychological control. Paternal psychological control demonstrated the same moderating effect for girls; for boys, however, high levels of paternal control predicted risky sex regardless of peer attitudes. Results are consistent with the theory that peer influences do not replace parental influences with regard to adolescent sexual behavior; rather, parental practices continue to serve an important role either directly forecasting sexual behavior or moderating the link between peer attitudes and sexual behavior. PMID:25328265

  10. Disclosure and Psychological Well-Being of Sexually Abused Adolescents in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Kindy Yuk-Ip

    2015-01-01

    The role of disclosure on psychological well-being of adolescents with child sexual abuse experience was investigated in a subsample of 74 disclosers among 800 adolescents recruited in the community in Hong Kong. The results supported that CSA experiences have differential impact on adolescents' psychological well-being. Family characteristics of the disclosers accounted for only a small amount of the variance in an array of psychological well-being measures. CSA characteristics were robust predictors of disclosers' sexual eroticism and externalizing behavioral symptoms. Disclosers' cognitive appraisal of CSA experience and quality of parental attachment were strong predictors of their self-esteem and internalizing behavioral problems. After controlling for the aforementioned factors, negative disclosure experience still significantly predicted lower self-esteem, higher sexual anxiety, more internalizing behavior, and more severe post-traumatic stress disorder responses. Research to understand the factors that generate negative disclosure experiences is needed for developing effective intervention strategies to mitigate the negative consequences of disclosure.

  11. Disclosure of sexual victimization: the effects of Pennebaker's emotional disclosure paradigm on physical and psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearns, Megan C; Edwards, Katie M; Calhoun, Karen S; Gidycz, Christine A

    2010-01-01

    Research suggests that many sexual assault survivors do not disclose their experience, which may increase associated distress. Pennebaker's emotional disclosure paradigm has been shown to ameliorate psychological and physical distress in individuals exposed to stressful events. The current study assessed the effectiveness of this paradigm with sexual assault survivors (N = 74). College women with a history of sexual assault wrote about their most severe victimization or about how they spend their time (control). Then 73 women (98.6%) completed a 1-month follow-up assessment. Results indicated that across writing sessions, the disclosure group reported greater reductions in negative mood immediately post-writing. However, both groups showed significant reductions in physical complaints, psychological distress, and traumatic stress symptoms at the 1-month follow-up, suggesting no added benefit to disclosure of a sexual assault using a brief written paradigm.

  12. Psychological Intimate Partner Violence and Sexual Risk Behavior: Examining the Role of Distinct PTSD Symptoms in the Partner Violence-sexual Risk Link

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overstreet, Nicole M.; Willie, Tiara C.; Hellmuth, Julianne C.; Sullivan, Tami P.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Research has examined how physical and sexual intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization increases sexual risk behavior, yet research is lacking on 1) the effect of psychological IPV on sexual risk behavior and 2) factors through which psychological IPV may be linked to sexual risk behavior. METHODS The current study examined the relationship between psychological IPV and sexual risk behavior controlling for other forms of IPV (i.e., physical and sexual) in a sample of 186 HIV-negative community women currently experiencing IPV. Further, this study examined the potential mediating effects of four posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom severity clusters (i.e., re-experiencing, avoidance, numbing, and hyperarousal) on this relationship. FINDINGS Results revealed that greater severity of psychological IPV was uniquely and directly related to greater sexual risk behavior. Additionally, of the four PTSD symptom severity clusters, only avoidance symptom severity mediated the relationship between psychological IPV and sexual risk behavior. CONCLUSION Implications for addressing psychological IPV and PTSD to improve women’s sexual health outcomes are discussed. PMID:25498762

  13. Psychological intimate partner violence and sexual risk behavior: examining the role of distinct posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms in the partner violence-sexual risk link.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overstreet, Nicole M; Willie, Tiara C; Hellmuth, Julianne C; Sullivan, Tami P

    2015-01-01

    Research has examined how physical and sexual intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization increases sexual risk behavior, yet research is lacking on 1) the effect of psychological IPV on sexual risk behavior and 2) factors through which psychological IPV may be linked to sexual risk behavior. The current study examined the relationship between psychological IPV and sexual risk behavior controlling for other forms of IPV (i.e., physical and sexual) in a sample of 186 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-negative community women currently experiencing IPV. Further, this study examined the potential mediating effects of four posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom severity clusters (i.e., re-experiencing, avoidance, numbing, and hyperarousal) on this relationship. Results revealed that greater severity of psychological IPV was uniquely and directly related to greater sexual risk behavior. Additionally, of the four PTSD symptom severity clusters, only avoidance symptom severity mediated the relationship between psychological IPV and sexual risk behavior. Implications for addressing psychological IPV and PTSD to improve women's sexual health outcomes are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Sexual Self Schema as a Moderator of Sexual and Psychological Outcomes for Gynecologic Cancer Survivors

    OpenAIRE

    Carpenter, Kristen M.; Andersen, Barbara L.; Fowler, Jeffrey M.; Maxwell, G. Larry

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Gynecologic cancer patients are at high risk for emotional distress and sexual dysfunction. The present study tested sexual self schema as an individual difference variable that might be useful in identifying those at risk for unfavorable outcomes. First, we tested schema as a predictor of sexual outcomes,including bodychangestress. Second,we examined schema as a contributor to broader quality of life outcomes, specifically as a moderator of the relationship between sexual satisfacti...

  15. Implications of discrimination based on sexuality, gender, and race/ethnicity for psychological distress among working-class sexual minorities: the United for Health Study, 2003-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, David H; Krieger, Nancy; Bennett, Gary G; Lindsey, Jane C; Stoddard, Anne M; Barbeau, Elizabeth M

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the distribution of demographic characteristics, the prevalence of discrimination based on sexuality, gender, and race, and relationships with psychological distress among 178 working-class sexual minorities (i.e., who identified as lesbian, gay, or bisexual (LGB) or had ever engaged in same-sex sexual behaviors) recruited to the United for Health Study (2003-2004). The results indicated considerable heterogeneity in responses to items assessing sexual orientation and sexual behavior, with a majority of sexual minority participants not identifying as LGB (74.2%). The authors found significant demographic differences in LGB identification by gender, race/ethnicity, nativity, and socioeconomic factors. In addition, LGB participants had higher levels of psychological distress than non-LGB-identified sexual minorities. Linear regression analyses revealed that reports of racial/ethnic discrimination and sexuality discrimination were associated with higher levels of psychological distress among sexual minority participants. The results underscore the need to collect multiple measures of sexuality in conducting research on racially diverse working-class communities; to consider demographic factors in collecting sexuality data; and to disaggregate information on sexuality by LGB identification. Findings also highlight the importance of addressing discrimination in ameliorating problematic mental health outcomes among working-class sexual minorities.

  16. COPING AS A MEDIATOR OF INTERNALIZED HOMOPHOBIA AND PSYCHOLOGICAL DISTRESS AMONG YOUNG ADULT SEXUAL MINORITY WOMEN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaysen, Debra; Kulesza, Magdalena; Balsam, Kimberly F; Rhew, Isaac C; Blayney, Jessica A; Lehavot, Keren; Hughes, Tonda L

    2014-09-01

    Sexual minorities have higher rates of depression and anxiety than their heterosexual counterparts. This elevated risk of psychological distress has generally been hypothesized to be a result of the effects of discrimination including internalized negative beliefs about sexual minorities. However, little research has examined the role of various types of coping in mediating between internalized homophobia and mental health. We tested the direct relationship between internalized homophobia and psychological distress and evaluated general and sexual minority-specific coping strategies as potential mediators using structural equation modeling. Data are from a national sample of 1,099 young adult sexual minority women who were on average 20.86 ( SD = 2.12) years old, participating in a study on mental health and substance use. The model demonstrated acceptable fit, χ 2 (83) = 402.9, p homophobia and psychological distress, sexual minority-specific coping did not. Our findings support previous studies that have demonstrated the impact of internalized homophobia on psychological distress as well as the role of coping as a protective/risk factor in this relationship.

  17. Sexual Orientation Differences as Deficits: Science and Stigma in the History of American Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herek, Gregory M

    2010-11-01

    This article briefly describes how psychology, psychiatry, and the mental health professions (here collectively referred to as Psychology) treated sexual orientation differences as deficits for much of the 20th century, as well as some of the negative consequences that practice had for sexual minorities. The 1970s witnessed a remarkable turnaround when the American Psychiatric Association removed homosexuality from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders and the American Psychological Association called for psychologists to work to remove the stigma historically associated with homosexuality. This history illustrates not only how cultural institutions play a central role in legitimating stigma, but also how they can recognize their own complicity in this process and work effectively to undo its harmful effects. It is argued that Psychology still has an important role to play in challenging the differences-as-deficits model in contemporary policy debates. © The Author(s) 2010.

  18. Psychological effects of sexual harassment, appraisal of harassment, and organizational climate among U.S. Army soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, L N; Martin, L

    1998-02-01

    This study examines the effects of three types of unwanted sexual experiences in the workplace on the psychological well-being of male and female U.S. Army soldiers, and the mediating or moderating roles of appraisal of sexual harassment, organizational climate, and the sociodemographic profile of victims. A survey was administered to 1,060 male soldiers and 305 female soldiers between May and July, 1995, at three Army posts in the United States. Unwanted sexual experiences were found to be significant predictors of psychological symptoms for male and female soldiers. Certain aspects of organizational climate and appraisal of sexual harassment were also significant predictors of psychological symptoms.

  19. Psychological First Aid for Children Exposed to Sexual Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenlon, Michael J.; Mufson, Susan A.

    1994-01-01

    Researchers describe here the traumatic stress reactions of a group of fifth-grade children to the sexual assault of their classmate. The children's "secondary trauma"--trauma caused by empathizing or identifying with the victim--presented a distinct yet variable etiology. The authors offer suggestions for working with child secondary…

  20. 6. The Psychological Impact of Child Sexual Abuse on Primary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    46987.2

    school functioning, emotional reactions to the abuse were found to have ... feelings toward the perpetrator were negative or the ... When the child discloses sexual abuse, the parent's reaction .... divorced (n= 2, 5.88%) and single (n= 2, 5.88%).

  1. Risk factors of coercion among psychiatric inpatients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Christoffer; Starkopf, Liis; Hastrup, Lene Halling

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: Reducing the use of coercion among patients with mental disorders has long been a political priority. However, risk factors for coercive measures have primarily been investigated in smaller studies. To reduce the use of coercion, it is crucial to identify people at risk which we aim to do...... and having children, reduced the risk of being subjected to coercive measure (all p risk factors associated with coercive measures. Our findings can assist researchers in identifying patients at risk of coercion and thereby help...... measure (21.9%). Clinical characteristics were the foremost predictors of coercion and patients with organic mental disorder had the highest increased risk of being subjected to a coercive measure (OR = 5.56; 95% CI = 5.04, 6.14). The risk of coercion was the highest in the first admission and decreased...

  2. Impact of Physical, Psychological, and Sexual Violence on Social Adjustment of School Children in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deb, Sibnath; Walsh, Kerryann

    2012-01-01

    This study sought to understand the pervasiveness and impact of physical, psychological, and sexual violence on the social adjustment of Grade 8 and 9 school children in the state of Tripura, India. The study participants, 160 boys and 160 girls, were randomly selected from classes in eight English and Bengali medium schools in Agartala city,…

  3. Bidirectional Associations Between Adolescents' Sexual Behaviors and Psychological Well-Being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nogueira Avelar e Silva, Raquel; van de Bongardt, Daphne; Baams, Laura; Raat, Hein

    Purpose: Assessing bidirectional longitudinal associations between early sexual behaviors (≤16.0 years) and psychological well-being (global self-esteem, physical self-esteem, depression) among 716 adolescents, and the direct and buffering effect of parent-adolescent relationship quality. Methods:

  4. Three Types of Memory for Childhood Sexual Abuse: Relationships to Characteristics of Abuse and Psychological Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, M. Sue

    2008-01-01

    Data from a clinical sample (N = 88) reporting childhood sexual abuse was compared by types of memory, abuse characteristics, and psychological symptoms. Three types of memory were identified from a questionnaire ("Always" n = 27 [31%], "Recovered" n = 41 [46%], and "Both" n = 20 [23%]). When compared with narrative…

  5. In Harm's Way: Factors Related to Psychological Distress following Sexual Harassment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collinsworth, Linda L.; Fitzgerald, Louise F.; Drasgow, Fritz

    2009-01-01

    The negative consequences for victims of sexual harassment are well documented. However, one area unexamined is the process that leads to harm. Researchers have proposed three influences (i.e., objective or stimulus factors, individual factors, and contextual factors) on the psychological, health-related, and organizational outcomes of sexual…

  6. Psychological Sequelae of Childhood Sexual Abuse: Abuse-Related Characteristics, Coping Strategies, and Attributional Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steel, Jennifer; Sanna, Lawrence; Hammond, Barbara; Whipple, James; Cross, Herbert

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to test a model predicting the contribution of abuse-related characteristics and mediating variables such as coping and attributional style in the development of psychological sequelae in adults reporting a history of child sexual abuse (CSA). Methodology: Two hundred and eighty-five males and females from…

  7. Adolescents' Psychological Health and Experiences with Unwanted Sexual Behavior at School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmerman, Greetje

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between experiences with unwanted sexual behavior at school and adolescents' health. Adolescent boys and girls (N = 2,808) participated in a 1998/1999 survey of secondary school students in two regions of The Netherlands. The psychological issues investigated included psychosomatic problems and self-esteem. It…

  8. Adolescents' psychological health and experiences with unwanted sexual behavior at school

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmerman, G

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between experiences with unwanted sexual behavior at school and adolescents' health. Adolescent boys and girls (N = 2,808) participated in a 1998/1999 survey of secondary school students in two regions of The Netherlands. The psychological issues investigated

  9. Psychological and behavioural factors associated with sexual risk behaviour among Slovak students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Dijk Jitse P

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowledge about the prevalence of sexual risk behaviour (SRB in adolescence is needed to prevent unwanted health consequences. Studies on SRB among adolescents in Central Europe are rare and mostly rely on a single indicator for SRB. This study aims to assess the association of behavioural and psychological factors with three types of SRB in adolescents in Central Europe. Methods We obtained data on behavioural factors (having been drunk during previous month, smoking during previous week, early sexual initiation, psychological factors (self-esteem, well-being, extroversion, neuroticism, religiousness, and SRB (intercourse under risky conditions, multiple sexual partners, and inconsistent condom use in 832 Slovak university students (response 94.3%. Results Among those with sexual experience (62%, inconsistent condom use was the most prevalent risk behaviour (81% in females, 72% in males. With the exception of having been drunk in males, no factor was associated with inconsistent condom use. Regarding the other types of SRB, early sexual initiation was most strongly associated. In addition, other, mostly behavioural, factors were associated, in particular having been drunk. Conclusion Results suggest that behavioural factors are more closely related to SRB than psychological factors. Associations differ by type of SRB and gender but offer few clues to target risk groups for inconsistent condom use. Results show a high need for health-promotion programmes in early adolescence that target SRB in conjunction with other health risk behaviours such as alcohol abuse.

  10. A person-centered approach to the multifaceted nature of young adult sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Jenifer K; Barber, Bonnie L

    2010-07-01

    Young adult sexual relationships were examined using a multifaceted, person-centered approach with data from Wave 7 (aged 20-21; N = 1,126) of the Michigan Study of Adolescent Life Transitions. The study utilized hierarchical cluster analyses based on the following measured variables: frequency of sex, importance of regularly having sex, satisfaction with sex life, experience of coercion for sex, and sexual risk reduction. Five distinct clusters emerged for females (Satisfied, Moderate, Active Unprotected, Pressured, and Inactive) and represented patterns such as more partners paired with less risk reduction (Active Unprotected), high satisfaction paired with frequent sex and high-risk reduction (Satisfied), or higher levels of coercion paired with low satisfaction and low-risk reduction (Pressured). Similar clusters emerged for males, with one additional cluster: the Dissatisfied cluster. Clusters differed with respect to relationship status, marital status, and psychological well-being (both males and females) and parental divorce, living situation, and sexual orientation (females only).

  11. The psychological impact of child sexual abuse on primary caregivers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Symptoms of psychological distress experienced by caregivers after an incident of CSA included anxiety, fear, depression, anger, insomnia, and functional impairment. About half the care givers in the study (n= 19, 55.88%) showed support and protection for their children; others (n = 15, 44.12%) were hostile toward and ...

  12. Developing an affirmative position statement on sexual and gender diversity for psychology professionals in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelius J. Victor

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. Against the background of the dominance of patriarchy and heteronormativity in Africa and the resultant stigma, discrimination and victimisation of sexually and gender-diverse people, this article reports on the development of an affirmative position statement by the Psychological Society of South Africa (PsySSA for psychology professionals working with sexually and gender-diverse people. The position statement is an attempt to contribute positively to the de-stigmatisation, amongst psychology professionals, of all people with diverse sexual and gender identities. Objective. In documenting and reflecting on the process of developing the statement — a first on the African continent — the article aims to contribute to the potential resources available to others in their work on similar projects around the world. Design. Although initially intended to be relevant to the African continent, the position statement is appropriate to the South African context specifically, but developed in consultation with a range of stakeholders, also from other African countries. Results. Concerns expressed during stakeholder consultations, and thus taken into account in the development of the statement, include relevance to other African countries, negotiating the politics of representation and language, the importance of including gender and biological variance in addition to sexuality, and the need to be sensitive to how Western influence is constructed in some African contexts. Conclusion. Other national psychology organisations stand to benefit by ‘lessons learned’ during this country-specific process with global implications, especially with respect to broadening the lens from lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex (LGBTI to sexual and gender diversity, as well as an acknowledgement of the multiple and fluid developmental pathways around sexuality and gender, in general.

  13. Maternal and Paternal Psychological Control as Moderators of the Link between Peer Attitudes and Adolescents' Risky Sexual Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudekerk, Barbara A.; Allen, Joseph P.; Hafen, Christopher A.; Hessel, Elenda T.; Szwedo, David E.; Spilker, Ann

    2014-01-01

    Maternal and paternal psychological control, peer attitudes, and the interaction of psychological control and peer attitudes at age 13 were examined as predictors of risky sexual behavior before age 16 in a community sample of 181 youth followed from age 13 to 16. Maternal psychological control moderated the link between peer attitudes and sexual…

  14. Perceived discrimination and sexual precursor behaviors in Mexican American preadolescent girls: The role of psychological distress, sexual attitudes, and marianismo beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Delida; Whittaker, Tiffany A; Hamilton, Emma; Zayas, Luis H

    2016-07-01

    This study explored the relation between perceived discrimination and sexual precursor behaviors among 205 Mexican American preadolescent middle school girls. In addition, this study examined whether psychological distress and sexual attitudes mediated and whether marianismo beliefs moderated this relation. A categorical confirmatory factor analysis (CCFA) of the Marianismo Beliefs Scale (MBS) was conducted to test the factor structure with a preadolescent Mexican American population (ages 11-14). A path analysis of analytic models was then performed to examine the hypothesized relations between perceived discrimination, psychological distress, sexual attitudes, marianismo beliefs, and sexual precursor behaviors. Results of the CCFA did not support the original 5-factor structure of the MBS for preadolescent Latina girls. However, a revised version of the MBS indicated an acceptable model fit, and findings from the path analysis indicated that perceived discrimination was both directly and indirectly linked to sexual precursor behaviors via psychological distress. Marianismo was not found to moderate the relation between perceived discrimination and sexual risk behaviors, however certain marianismo pillars were significantly negatively linked with sexual attitudes and precursor behaviors. This study underscores the importance of psychological distress in the perceived discrimination and sexual precursor link as well as the compensatory aspects of marianismo against sexual precursor behaviors in Mexican American preadolescent girls. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Psychological aspects of sexual functioning among cleric and noncleric alleged sex offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haywood, T W; Kravitz, H M; Grossman, L S; Wasyliw, O E; Hardy, D W

    1996-06-01

    Cleric sexual misconduct with minors is a problem receiving increased attention from the media, victims groups, and church authorities. Mental health professionals are increasingly being asked to assist church and civil authorities to help better understand the problem of cleric sexual misconduct with minors. In the current study we compared self-reported sexual functioning among cleric alleged child molesters, noncleric alleged child molesters, and normal control subjects. We hypothesized clerics would differ from nonclerics and normals in reported sexual functioning. Our sample included 30 Roman Catholic clerics and 39 nonclerics who were alleged to have engaged in sexual misconduct with minors, and 38 normal control subjects, all of whom took the Derogatis Sexual Functioning Inventory (DSFI) as part of their forensic psychiatric evaluation. Our results indicated clerics were more likely to report fewer victims, older victims, and victims of male gender than noncleric alleged child molesters. Clerics differed from nonclerics and normal control subjects on several dimensions of self-reported sexual functioning. Lower offense rate histories among clerics suggest that, as a group, clerics may be less seriously psychologically disordered than noncleric child molesters. Low DSFI scores among Roman Catholic clerics may be accounted for in part by their unique training and socialization process. Future studies should attempt to study the influence of social desirability on DSFI scores. Normative data from nonoffending celibate clergy are needed.

  16. Intensive treatment models and coercion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohlenschlaeger, Johan; Thorup, Anne; Petersen, Lone

    2007-01-01

    . Hospital-based Rehabilitation, an intensified inpatient treatment model, Integrated Treatment, an intensified model of Assertive Community Treatment, and standard treatment were compared for patients with first-episode schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. Ninety-four patients with first-episode schizophrenia......Little evidence exists concerning the optimal treatment for patients with first-episode schizophrenia-spectrum disorders and the effect on traditional outcomes. The aim was to investigate whether optimal treatment models have an effect on the level of use of coercion and on traditional outcomes......-spectrum disorders estimated to benefit from long-term hospitalization were included consecutively from the Copenhagen OPUS-trial and randomized to the three treatment models. At 1-year follow-up, Hospital-based Rehabilitation and Integrated Treatment had better scores on symptoms in the negative dimension...

  17. Sexual Harassment, Psychological Distress, and Problematic Drinking Behavior among College Students: An Examination of Reciprocal Causal Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Jennifer M.; Rospenda, Kathleen M.; Colaneri, Anthony S.

    2016-01-01

    Sexual harassment on college campuses is a frequent occurrence and serious public health concern. Victims of sexual harassment are at risk for many possible negative health consequences. In addition, certain psychological distress symptoms and/or alcohol use may put individuals at increased risk of being victims of sexual harassment. Data from over 2,000 college students in the Midwestern United States were used to examine reciprocal causal effects of the relations between (1) experiencing sexual harassment and alcohol use and (2) experiencing sexual harassment and psychological distress symptoms, specifically depression and anger/hostility. Analyses were conducted separately for sexual harassment that occurs at school and that occurs in college students’ workplaces and also separately for men and women. Results of cross-lagged panel models showed that there were reciprocal causal effects between sexual harassment and alcohol problems, depression, and anger. Discussion focuses on the overall patterns of results as well as the nuances within these findings. PMID:26983588

  18. Sexual Harassment, Psychological Distress, and Problematic Drinking Behavior Among College Students: An Examination of Reciprocal Causal Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Jennifer M; Rospenda, Kathleen M; Colaneri, Anthony S

    2017-01-01

    Sexual harassment on college campuses is a frequent occurrence and serious public health concern. Victims of sexual harassment are at risk for many possible negative health consequences. In addition, certain psychological distress symptoms and/or alcohol use may put individuals at increased risk of being victims of sexual harassment. Data from more than 2,000 college students in the Midwestern United States were used to examine reciprocal causal effects of the relations between (a) experiencing sexual harassment and alcohol use and (b) experiencing sexual harassment and psychological distress symptoms, specifically depression and anger/hostility. Analyses were conducted separately for sexual harassment which occurs at school and which occurs in college students' workplaces, and also separately for men and women. Results of cross-lagged panel models showed that there were reciprocal causal effects between sexual harassment and alcohol problems, depression, and anger. Discussion focuses on the overall patterns of results as well as the nuances within these findings.

  19. Socially sanctioned coercion mechanisms for addiction treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nace, Edgar P; Birkmayer, Florian; Sullivan, Maria A; Galanter, Marc; Fromson, John A; Frances, Richard J; Levin, Frances R; Lewis, Collins; Suchinsky, Richard T; Tamerin, John S; Westermeyer, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    Coercion as a strategy for treatment of addiction is an effective but often negatively perceived approach. The authors review current policies for involuntary commitments and explore coercive dimensions of treating alcohol and drug dependence in the workplace, sports, and through professional licensure. Gender-specific issues in coercion are considered, including evidence for improved treatment retention among pregnant and parenting women coerced via the criminal justice system. Social security disability benefits represent an area where an opportunity for constructive coercion was missed in the treatment of primary or comorbid substance use disorders. The availability of third-party funding for the voluntary treatment of individuals with substance use disorders has decreased. This unmet need, coupled with the evidence for positive clinical outcomes, highlights the call for implementing socially sanctioned mechanisms of coercion.

  20. Perceived coercion in voluntary hospital admission.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Donoghue, Brian

    2014-01-30

    The legal status of service users admitted to psychiatric wards is not synonymous with the level of coercion that they can perceive during the admission. This study aimed to identify and describe the proportion of individuals who were admitted voluntarily but experienced levels of perceived coercion comparable to those admitted involuntarily. Individuals admitted voluntarily and involuntarily to three psychiatric hospitals were interviewed using the MacArthur Admission Experience Interview and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV diagnoses. One hundered sixty-one individuals were interviewed and 22% of the voluntarily admitted service users had levels of perceived coercion similar to that of the majority of involuntarily admitted service users. Voluntarily admitted service users who experienced high levels of perceived coercion were more likely to have more severe psychotic symptoms, have experienced more negative pressures and less procedural justices on admission. Individuals brought to hospital under mental health legislation but who subsequently agreed to be admitted voluntarily and those treated on a secure ward also reported higher levels of perceived coercion. It needs to be ensured that if any service user, whether voluntary or involuntary, experiences treatment pressures or coercion that there is sufficient oversight of the practice, to ensure that individual\\'s rights are respected.

  1. Prevention of Risky Sexual Behaviour through the Formation of Psychological Readiness to Parenthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krysko A.A.,

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In the world there are tendencies of early entering into sexual relations and simultaneous withdrawal of the age of marriage, an increase in the number of early pregnancies and abortions among minors. Existing programs for the prevention of risky sexual behavior are ineffective, since they are one-time, narrowly focused. The author presents the results of an experiment on the prevention of risky sexual behavior in adolescents based on the formation of their ideas of parenting and child-parent relations, and through the prism of this topic, allowing to build an image of reproductive behavior in the present and future. The program is designed taking into account the psychology of modern adolescents, in accordance with the principles of awareness and responsibility, is based on a restorative approach and resource approach to the formation of psychological readiness for parenthood M.E. Lantsburg. The program for the development of psychological preparedness for parenting in adolescents has two targets: the nearest: preventing adolescent pregnancy and reducing its negative consequences in the event of an early pregnancy, and strategic - preparing for the planning and birth of the coveted child in the future. The results prove that the adolescents' views about the family depend both on the experiences they experienced in their own childhood and on the trends in the social and political space discussed in this topic. The study showed that adolescents' views on sexual relations, family and parenthood can be purposefully influenced through a program based on the knowledge of age-related psychology, resource and recovery approaches and using interactive methods of teaching relevant to this age group.

  2. Psychological and behavioural factors associated with sexual risk behaviour among Slovak students

    OpenAIRE

    Kalina, Ondrej; Geckova, Andrea M.; Jarcuska, Pavol; Orosova, Olga; van Dijk, Jitse P.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Knowledge about the prevalence of sexual risk behaviour (SRB) in adolescence is needed to prevent unwanted health consequences. Studies on SRB among adolescents in Central Europe are rare and mostly rely on a single indicator for SRB. This study aims to assess the association of behavioural and psychological factors with three types of SRB in adolescents in Central Europe. Methods We obtained data on behavioural factors (having been drunk during previous month, smoking dur...

  3. Psychological and Physical Health of Nonoffending Parents After Disclosure of Sexual Abuse of Their Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyr, Mireille; Frappier, Jean-Yves; Hébert, Martine; Tourigny, Marc; McDuff, Pierre; Turcotte, Marie-Ève

    2016-10-01

    Disclosure of child sexual abuse can be traumatic for nonoffending parents. Research has shown its impact on mothers' mental health, which includes heightened psychological distress, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder. Very little is known, however, about its impact on their physical health or on fathers' health. The self-perceived mental and physical health of nonoffending parents after child sexual abuse disclosure was compared to determine gender-related differences in this regard. Interviews were conducted with 109 mothers and 43 fathers of 6- to 13-year-old sexually abused children. Bivariate analyses revealed that a fair proportion of parents reported psychological and physical problems after disclosure. However, proportionally more mothers than fathers reported psychological distress, depression, and use of professional services. Fathers were more likely to resort to health services instead of social services and to use medication for depression. Study findings provide leads for health and social service providers for the development of intervention protocols and referral procedures sensitive to gender issues, and they shed new light on specific needs of nonoffending parents.

  4. Neuroticism in child sex offenders and its association with sexual dysfunctions, cognitive distortions, and psychological complaints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boillat, Coralie; Deuring, Gunnar; Pflueger, Marlon O; Graf, Marc; Rosburg, Timm

    Studies in child sex offenders (CSO) often report deviant personality characteristics. In our study, we investigated neuroticism in CSO and tested the hypothesis that CSO with high neuroticism show more serious abuse behavior and are more likely to exhibit sexual dysfunction and cognitive distortions, as compared to CSO with low neuroticism. A sample of 40 CSO (both child sexual abusers and child sexual material users) was split into two subsamples based on their neuroticism scores, obtained by the NEO-Personality Inventory-Revised (NEO-PI-R) questionnaire. Subsequently, we compared their scores in the Multiphasic Sex Inventory (MSI) questionnaire and Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R). Our results show that CSO exhibited higher levels of neuroticism than controls, but were still in the normal range. In CSO, neuroticism was associated with sexual dysfunction and cognitive distortions, rather than with more severe abuse behavior. Moreover, neuroticism in this group was linked to a broad range of psychological problems and psychopathological symptoms, such as somatization or anxiety. Our findings suggest that neuroticism even below the level of personality disorder is associated with a broader range of psychological problems in CSO, which should be addressed in therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Sexual Identity and HIV Status Influence the Relationship Between Internalized Stigma and Psychological Distress in Black Gay and Bisexual Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, Melissa R.; Cook, Stephanie H.; Wilson, Patrick A.

    2016-01-01

    Experiences of internalized homophobia and HIV stigma in young Black gay and bisexual men (GBM) may lead to psychological distress, but levels of distress may be dependent upon their sexual identity or HIV status. In this study, we set out to explore the associations between psychological distress, sexual identity, and HIV status in young Black GBM. Participants were 228 young Black GBM who reported on their psychological distress, their HIV status, and their sexual identity. Results indicated that internalized homophobia was significantly related to psychological distress for gay men, but not for bisexual men. HIV stigma was related to psychological stress for HIV-positive men, but not for HIV-negative men. Results indicate a need for more nuanced examinations of the role of identity in the health and well-being of men who have sex with men. PMID:27017893

  6. Sexual identity and HIV status influence the relationship between internalized stigma and psychological distress in black gay and bisexual men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, Melissa R; Cook, Stephanie H; Wilson, Patrick A

    2016-01-01

    Experiences of internalized homophobia and HIV stigma in young Black gay and bisexual men (GBM) may lead to psychological distress, but levels of distress may be dependent upon their sexual identity or HIV status. In this study, we set out to explore the associations between psychological distress, sexual identity, and HIV status in young Black GBM. Participants were 228 young Black GBM who reported on their psychological distress, their HIV status, and their sexual identity. Results indicated that internalized homophobia was significantly related to psychological distress for gay men, but not for bisexual men. HIV stigma was related to psychological stress for HIV-positive men, but not for HIV-negative men. Results indicate a need for more nuanced examinations of the role of identity in the health and well-being of men who have sex with men.

  7. Acceptance of vulvovaginal pain in women with provoked vestibulodynia and their partners: associations with pain, psychological, and sexual adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerner, Katelynn E; Rosen, Natalie O

    2015-06-01

    Provoked vestibulodynia (PVD) is a common vulvovaginal pain condition associated with negative psychological and sexual consequences for affected women and their sexual partners. Greater pain acceptance has been found to be associated with better functional and psychological outcomes in individuals with chronic pain, and acceptance-based strategies are being increasingly incorporated into treatment protocols. The present study is a novel investigation of pain acceptance in PVD couples. The aim was to examine the associations between acceptance of vulvovaginal pain and women's pain during intercourse, as well as the psychological and sexual adjustment of both women with PVD and their partners. Sixty-one couples (M(age) for women = 27.95 years, SD = 5.87; M(age) for men = 30.48 years, SD = 6.70) in which the woman was diagnosed with PVD completed the Chronic Pain Acceptance Questionnaire, in reference to women's vulvovaginal pain. Women also rated their pain during intercourse, and couples completed measures of anxiety, depression, sexual function, and sexual satisfaction. Dependent measures were (i) women's self-reported pain during intercourse on a numerical rating scale; (ii) State-Trait Anxiety Inventory trait subscale; (iii) Beck Depression Inventory-II; (iv) Derogatis Interview for Sexual Functioning; and (v) Global Measure of Sexual Satisfaction Scale. Women's greater pain acceptance was associated with their lower self-reported pain during intercourse, controlling for partner's pain acceptance. Greater pain acceptance among women was associated with their own lower anxiety and depression, greater sexual functioning, as well as their own and their partner's greater sexual satisfaction, controlling for the partner's pain acceptance. Additionally, greater pain acceptance among male partners was associated with their own lower depression. Findings suggest that psychological interventions for PVD should target increasing couples' vulvovaginal pain acceptance in

  8. Patterns of Intimate Partner Violence and Sexual Risk Behavior among Young Heterosexually Active Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Erin A; Querna, Katherine; Masters, N Tatiana; Beadnell, Blair; Wells, Elizabeth A; Morrison, Diane M; Hoppe, Marilyn J

    2016-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization is linked to sexual risk exposure among women. However, less is known about the intersection of IPV perpetration and sexual risk behavior among men. This study used data from a diverse, community sample of 334 heterosexually active young men, aged 18 to 25, across the United States to examine whether and how men with distinct IPV-related behavior patterns differed in sexual risk-related behavior and attitudes. Participants were recruited and surveyed online, and grouped conceptually based on the types of IPV perpetration behavior(s) used in a current or recent romantic relationship. Groups were then compared on relevant sexual risk variables. Men reporting both physical abuse and sexual coercion against intimate partners reported significantly higher numbers of lifetime partners, higher rates of nonmonogamy, greater endorsement of nonmonogamy, and less frequent condom use relative to nonabusive men or those reporting controlling behavior only. This group also had higher sexually transmitted infection (STI) exposure compared to men who used controlling behavior only and men who used sexual coercion only. Findings suggest that interventions with men who use physical and sexual violence need to account for not only the physical and psychological harm of this behavior but also the sexual risk to which men may expose their partners.

  9. Examining the Job-Related, Psychological, and Physical Outcomes of Workplace Sexual Harassment: A Meta-Analytic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Darius K-S.; Lam, Chun Bun; Chow, Suk Yee; Cheung, Shu Fai

    2008-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the job-related, psychological, and physical outcomes of sexual harassment in the workplace. Using a meta-analytic approach, we analyzed findings from 49 primary studies, with a total sample size of 89,382, to obtain estimates of the population mean effect size of the association between sexual harassment and…

  10. Online or off-line victimisation and psychological well-being: a comparison of sexual-minority and heterosexual youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priebe, Gisela; Svedin, Carl Göran

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare sexual-minority and heterosexual youths' exposure to sexual abuse off-line, problematic sexual meetings off-line with person/s met online and online harassment with regard to prevalence, psychological well-being and support seeking. A nationally representative sample of 3,432 Swedish high school seniors completed an anonymous school-based survey about sexuality, health, sexual abuse and online-related sexual victimisation or harassment. Sexual-minority adolescents reported a greater rate of sexual abuse, problematic sexual meetings off-line with person/s met online and online harassment, compared to heterosexual youth. When compared to non-victimised heterosexual adolescents, victimised heterosexual adolescents and non-victimised and victimised sexual-minority adolescents reported more psychiatric symptoms, lower self-esteem and a weaker sense of coherence. Same-sex sexual orientation was related to more psychiatric symptoms, lower self-esteem and a weaker sense of coherence even when controlled for victimisation and gender. Compared to victimised heterosexual adolescents, victimised sexual-minority adolescents were more likely to seek support because of sexual abuse (females) or Internet-related problems (males and females). Results for sexual-minority youth were basically the same whether sexual orientation was assessed as sexual identity or as sexual or emotional attraction. Health care providers are challenged to not only provide the same care to sexual-minority youth who seek counselling or psychiatric treatment for mental health problems or problems related to victimisation that all adolescents should receive but also to find ways to address topics like prevention of sexual abuse and risk-taking behaviour online or off-line.

  11. [Coercion in Psychiatry - a taboo?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meise, Ullrich; Frajo-Apor, Beatrice; Stippler, Stippler; Wancata, Johannes

    2011-01-01

    History shows that the discussion concerning coercive measures against mentally ill is as old as psychiatry itself. The dilemma of psychiatry lies in its double role - having both a therapeutic and a regulatory function. Violence against sick and disabled people conflicts with the ethical principles of helping professions. This, however, is where the danger lies: that the violent parts of psychiatric work - which in the opinion of experts cannot be entirely avoided - are repressed or seen as taboo and are therefore more difficult to control. Comparisons between EU countries of the nature, frequency and duration of coercive measures are difficult because of the heterogeneity of regulation and differences in established practice. Scientific examination of this issue seems to be insufficient. There are only a few studies on important issues such as how patients rate these measures. An open and thorough debate about the meaning and meaninglessness of coercion and violence in psychiatric treatment would be necessary to prevent "routine violence" or the excessive use of force against the mentally ill.

  12. Sexual Stigma, Psychological Well-Being and Social Engagement among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Beirut, Lebanon

    OpenAIRE

    Wagner, Glenn J.; Aunon, Frances M.; Kaplan, Rachel L.; Karam, Rita; Khouri, Danielle; Tohme, Johnny; Mokhbat, Jacques

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative study sought to explore the sexual identity development of men who have sex with men (MSM) in Beirut, the stigma experienced by these men, and how their psychological well-being and social engagement are shaped by how they cope with this stigma. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 31 MSM, and content analysis was used to identify emergent themes. While many men reported feeling very comfortable with their sexual orientation and had disclosed their sexual orientatio...

  13. Trading or coercion? Variation in male mating strategies between two communities of East African chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaburu, Stefano S K; Newton-Fisher, Nicholas E

    2015-06-01

    Across taxa, males employ a variety of mating strategies, including sexual coercion and the provision, or trading, of resources. Biological market theory (BMT) predicts that trading of commodities for mating opportunities should exist only when males cannot monopolize access to females and/or obtain mating by force, in situations where power differentials between males are low; both coercion and trading have been reported for chimpanzees ( Pan troglodytes ). Here, we investigate whether the choice of strategy depends on the variation in male power differentials, using data from two wild communities of East African chimpanzees ( Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii ): the structurally despotic Sonso community (Budongo, Uganda) and the structurally egalitarian M-group (Mahale, Tanzania). We found evidence of sexual coercion by male Sonso chimpanzees, and of trading-of grooming for mating-by M-group males; females traded sex for neither meat nor protection from male aggression. Our results suggest that the despotism-egalitarian axis influences strategy choice: male chimpanzees appear to pursue sexual coercion when power differentials are large and trading when power differentials are small and coercion consequently ineffective. Our findings demonstrate that trading and coercive strategies are not restricted to particular chimpanzee subspecies; instead, their occurrence is consistent with BMT predictions. Our study raises interesting, and as yet unanswered, questions regarding female chimpanzees' willingness to trade sex for grooming, if doing so represents a compromise to their fundamentally promiscuous mating strategy. It highlights the importance of within-species cross-group comparisons and the need for further study of the relationship between mating strategy and dominance steepness.

  14. Why Us? Perceived Injustice is Associated With More Sexual and Psychological Distress in Couples Coping With Genito-Pelvic Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pâquet, Myriam; Bois, Katy; Rosen, Natalie O; Mayrand, Marie-Hélène; Charbonneau-Lefebvre, Véronique; Bergeron, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    Provoked vestibulodynia (PVD) is the most frequent cause of genito-pelvic pain/penetration disorder (GPPPD) and is associated with negative psychological and sexual consequences for affected women and their partners. PVD is often misdiagnosed or ignored and many couples may experience a sense of injustice, due to the loss of their ability to have a normal sexual life. Perceiving injustice has been documented to have important consequences in individuals with chronic pain. However, no quantitative research has investigated the experience of injustice in this population. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between perceived injustice and pain, sexual satisfaction, sexual distress, and depression among women with PVD and their partners. Women diagnosed with PVD (N = 50) and their partners completed questionnaires of perceived injustice, pain, sexual satisfaction, sexual distress, and depression. (1) Global Measure of Sexual Satisfaction Scale; (2) Female Sexual Distress Scale; (3) Beck Depression Inventory-II; and (4) McGill-Melzack Pain Questionnaire. After controlling for partners' age, women's higher level of perceived injustice was associated with their own greater sexual distress, and the same pattern was found for partners. Women's higher level of perceived injustice was associated with their own greater depression, and the same pattern was found for partners. Women's higher perceived injustice was not associated with their own lower sexual satisfaction but partners' higher perceived injustice was associated with their own lower sexual satisfaction. Perceived injustice was not associated with women's pain intensity. Results suggest that perceiving injustice may have negative consequences for the couple's sexual and psychological outcomes. However, the effects of perceived injustice appear to be intra-individual. Targeting perceived injustice could enhance the efficacy of psychological interventions for women with PVD and their partners

  15. Psychological correlates of sexual dysfunction in female rectal and anal cancer survivors: analysis of baseline intervention data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip, Errol J; Nelson, Christian; Temple, Larissa; Carter, Jeanne; Schover, Leslie; Jennings, Sabrina; Jandorf, Lina; Starr, Tatiana; Baser, Ray; DuHamel, Katherine

    2013-10-01

    Sexual dysfunction represents a complex and multifactorial construct that can affect both men and women and has been noted to often deteriorate significantly after treatment for rectal and anal cancer. Despite this, it remains an understudied, underreported, and undertreated issue in the field of cancer survivorship. This study examined the characteristics of women enrolled in an intervention trial to treat sexual dysfunction, and explored the relationship between sexual functioning and psychological well-being. There were 70 female posttreatment anal or rectal cancer survivors assessed as part of the current study. Participants were enrolled in a randomized intervention trial to treat sexual dysfunction and completed outcome measures prior to randomization. The main outcome measures are quality of life (QOL) (European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Core Quality of Life Questionnaire [EORTC-QLQ-C30] and Colorectal Cancer-Specific Module [QLQ-CR38]), sexual functioning (Female Sexual Functioning Index), and psychological well-being (Brief Symptom Inventory Depression/Anxiety, Impact of Events Scale-Revised, CR-38 Body Image). Women enrolled in the study intervention were on average 55 years old, predominantly Caucasian (79%), married (57%), and a median of 4 years postprimary treatment. For those reporting sexual activity at baseline (N=41), sexual dysfunction was associated with a range of specific measures of psychological well-being, all in the hypothesized direction. The Sexual/Relationship Satisfaction subscale was associated with all measures of psychological well-being (r=-0.45 to -0.70, all Psexual functioning, while a global QOL measure was largely unrelated. For sexually active female rectal and anal cancer survivors enrolled in a sexual health intervention, sexual dysfunction was significantly and consistently associated with specific measures of psychological well-being, most notably Sexual/Relationship Satisfaction. These results

  16. Elegant Coercion and Iran: Beyond the Unitary Actor Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moss, J. C

    2005-01-01

    .... At its core, then, coercion is about state decision-making. Most theories of coercion describe states as if they were unitary actors whose decision-making results from purely rational cost-benefit calculations...

  17. [Relations between self-discrimination of MSM and sexual behavior and psychological factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Zhang, Hong-bo; Xu, Jie; Zhang, Guang-gui; Yang, Hong-wu; Fan, Jing

    2010-07-01

    To understand the self-discrimination experience of MSM and its relationship with sexual behavior and psychological factors. By respondent-driven sampling (RDS) method, a call-for action and anonymous self-administration questionnaire investigation was carried out in Mianyang city on experience of self-discriminations, sexual partners and behaviors and depression symptom, etc. The first 12 qualified people were designated as the "root" in the whole investigation from different MSM subgroups. Every "root" would get 3 recruit cards after their own investigation, then cards could be promoted to another 3 qualified people who were willing to accept questionnaires. And this process would go on till the sample size was accomplished. χ(2) test, rank correlation and contingency coefficient would be applied for the statistical analysis. In total, 201 persons were investigated. Within the past 6 months, 59.2% (119/201) persons felt they did harm to their family or made the family down as gays, 79.6% (160/201) had to disguise their real sexual orientation in avoidance of being discriminated, 39.3% (79/201) were humiliated for having gay sex. It showed correlation between humiliation or harm to family and frequency to disco balls/night clubs (r = 0.196, χ(2) = 7.95, P sexual partners (r = 0.265, χ(2) = 11.422, P sexual behavior in the past 6 months (r = 0.513, χ(2) = 7.442, P sexual orientation in avoidance of being discriminated and the frequency of show up in the cybercafé (r = 0.272, χ(2) = 15.932, P discrimination was connected to entrance into gay-welcome places, acceptance of HIV consultancy and tests, posting gay information among MSM friends and hold of many sexual partners. Meanwhile, the pressure was rising when depression was checked out. Self-discrimination was prevalent among MSM, which had brought critical influence on the individual behavior, MSM psychological health and prevalence of AIDS.

  18. Parental Sexual Orientation and Children's Psychological Well-Being: 2013-2015 National Health Interview Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzo, Jerel P; Mays, Vickie M; Björkenstam, Charlotte; Björkenstam, Emma; Kosidou, Kyriaki; Cochran, Susan D

    2017-11-08

    Debate persists about whether parental sexual orientation affects children's well-being. This study utilized information from the 2013 to 2015 U.S., population-based National Health Interview Survey to examine associations between parental sexual orientation and children's well-being. Parents reported their children's (aged 4-17 years old, N = 21,103) emotional and mental health difficulties using the short form Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Children of bisexual parents had higher SDQ scores than children of heterosexual parents. Adjusting for parental psychological distress (a minority stress indicator) eliminated this difference. Children of lesbian and gay parents did not differ from children of heterosexual parents in emotional and mental health difficulties, yet, the results among children of bisexual parents warrant more research examining the impact of minority stress on families. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  19. Sexual Harassment and Organizational Outcomes Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    quid pro quo type of Sexual harassment and Organizational, 4 sexual harassment (e.g., sexual coercion). This should drive organizational efforts to... Sexual Harassment and Organizational Outcomes Executive Summary Charlie L. Law DEFENSE EQUAL...Executive Summary] No. 99-11 Sexual harassment and Organizational, 2 Executive Summary Issue

  20. Direct coercion – challenges for nursing practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karcz Edyta

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Direct coercion is a part of medical intervention in which the patient’s autonomy as a basic human right is limited. In clinical practice, there are situations in which the use of coercion is indeed necessary to protect the patient and his/her environment against the effects of growing aggression. A very important element of action in such cases is to ensure the safety of both the patient through professional care, and of the personel executing the coercive measure.

  1. Childhood sexual abuse: long-term effects on psychological and sexual functioning in a nonclinical and nonstudent sample of adult women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwald, E; Leitenberg, H; Cado, S; Tarran, M J

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore how the experience of childhood sexual abuse is related to long-term psychological and sexual functioning in a nonclinical and nonstudent community sample of women. Questionnaires were distributed to 1,500 nurses and returned anonymously. Fifty-four women who had been sexually abused as children (age 15 or younger) responded. These subjects were then matched with 54 nonabused control subjects. Although there was no difference on a measure of self-esteem, the abused group reported more symptoms of distress on the Global Severity Index and on seven out of nine subscales of the Derogatis Brief Symptom Inventory. They also reported more disturbance on a scale which examined psychological symptoms that have been commonly reported in the literature to be particularly associated with sexual abuse. These differences between the abused and nonabused groups were evident even after controlling for differences in subjects' perceptions of parental emotional support. Unlike the results for psychological adjustment, however, the abused subjects did not differ from the control subjects on self-reported levels of sexual satisfaction or sexual dysfunction.

  2. A stone in the soup? Changes in sexual prejudice and essentialist beliefs among British students in a class on LGBT psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Hegarty, PJ

    2010-01-01

    Biological theories of sexual orientation, typically presented in human sexuality classes, are considered by many social psychologists to cause reductions in students' sexual prejudice. Yet when biological theories were not presented to 36 psychology students in a 10-week seminar on lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) psychology, both sexual prejudice and two forms of essentialist thinking reduced significantly. Prejudice reduction was causally related to decreased essentialist beli...

  3. Psychological resilience: an approach to the concept, theoretical framework and relation with child sexual abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Gustavo Pinto-Cortez

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Child sexual abuse is a serious public health problem and a violation of human rights from children and adolescents. A prolific research has been developed to determine the magnitude of the problem, psychological effects, risk factors and protective factors. In this context, resilience approach becomes important by explain the mechanisms that promote positive adaptation to adversity. In this paper, it is discussed in the first part, the analysis of the concept of resilience and its various stages of investigation over time. Finally, an integration of this model in understanding and approaching child and adolescent victimization is done.

  4. Emotional security in the family system and psychological distress in female survivors of child sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantón-Cortés, David; Cantón, José; Cortés, María Rosario

    2016-01-01

    The Emotional Security Theory (EST) was originally developed to investigate the association between high levels of interparental conflict and child maladaptative outcome. The objective of the present study was to analyze the effects of emotional security in the family system on psychological distress among a sample of young female adult survivors of child sexual abuse (CSA). The role of emotional security was investigated through the interactive effects of a number of factors including the type of abuse, the continuity of abuse, the relationship with the perpetrator and the existence of disclosure for the abuse. Participants were 167 female survivors of CSA. Information about the abuse was obtained from a self-reported questionnaire. Emotional security was assessed with the Security in the Family System (SIFS) Scale, and the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R) was used to assess psychological distress. In the total sample, insecurity (preoccupation and disengagement) was correlated with high psychological distress scores, whereas no relationship was found between security and psychological distress. The relationship between emotional insecurity and psychological distress was stronger in cases of continued abuse and non-disclosure, while the relationship between emotional security and distress was stronger in cases of extrafamilial abuse and especially isolated or several incidents and when a disclosure had been made. No interactive effect was found between any of the three emotional variables and the type of abuse committed. The results of the current study suggest that characteristics of CSA such as relationship with the perpetrator and, especially, continuity of abuse and whether or not disclosure had been made, can affect the impact of emotional security on psychological distress of CSA survivors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. 18 CFR 706.210 - Coercion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Coercion. 706.210 Section 706.210 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL EMPLOYEE... financial benefit to himself or another person, particularly one with whom he has family, business, or...

  6. Minority stressors, rumination, and psychological distress in monozygotic twins discordant for sexual minority status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmins, Liam; Rimes, Katharine A; Rahman, Qazi

    2017-11-07

    Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals report higher levels of depression and anxiety than heterosexual people. Genetic factors may be a 'common cause' of sexual minority status and psychological distress. Alternatively, these may be correlated because of non-genetic environmental factors (e.g. minority stressors). This study investigated minority stressors and distress in monozygotic twins discordant for sexual minority status. This design provides a test of the role of non-shared environmental factors while minimizing differences due to genetics. Thirty-eight twin pairs in which one was heterosexual and the other was LGB completed a survey. Differences between twin pairs in minority stressors, rumination, psychological distress, and gender non-conformity were examined. Associations between these variables were also tested. Although there were no significant group differences for distress, LGB twins had higher rumination, a vulnerability factor for distress, than heterosexual co-twins. LGB twins also had higher scores than heterosexual co-twins on expectations of rejection, active concealment, self-stigma, prejudice events, childhood gender non-conformity, and lower scores on sexual orientation disclosure. Differences between twin pairs in rumination were positively associated with differences in acceptance concerns and self-stigma. Finally, self-stigma was positively associated with rumination in the full sample of heterosexual co-twins and microaggressions were positively associated with rumination when looking at exclusively heterosexual co-twins. These results support environmental factors as a causal explanation for disparities in rumination between LGB and heterosexual individuals. These factors likely include minority stressors. Rumination may also be associated with minority stressors in heterosexual MZ co-twins of LGB individuals.

  7. Psychological Assessment through Performance-Based Techniques and Self-Reports: A Case Study of a Sexually Abused Girl at Preschool Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalily, Muhammad Tahir; Hallahan, Brian

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the implicit psychological and behavioral consequences of sexual abuse in an adolescent girl who suffered child sexual abuse at preschool age in this case report. We report the manifestations of this abuse on her personality and psychological functioning using a structured clinical interview and a comprehensive psychological…

  8. Assault-related shame mediates the association between negative social reactions to disclosure of sexual assault and psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCou, Christopher R; Cole, Trevor T; Lynch, Shannon M; Wong, Maria M; Matthews, Kathleen C

    2017-03-01

    Several studies have identified associations between social reactions to disclosure of sexual assault and psychological distress; however, no studies have evaluated shame as a mediator of this association. This study evaluated assault-related shame as a mediator of the associations between negative social reactions to disclosure of sexual assault and symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and global distress and hypothesized that there would be an indirect effect of social reactions to disclosure upon symptoms of psychopathology via assault-related shame. Participants were 207 female psychology undergraduates who reported past history of completed or attempted sexual assault and had disclosed the assault to at least 1 other person. Participants completed self-report measures of social reactions to sexual assault disclosure, assault-related shame, and symptoms of psychopathology. Participants reported significant histories of attempted or completed sexual assault and indicated clinically significant symptoms of depression and subthreshold symptoms of PTSD and global distress, on average. Evaluation of structural models confirmed the hypothesized indirect effect of negative social reactions to sexual assault disclosure upon symptoms of PTSD (z = 5.85, p distress (z = 4.82, p disclosure among survivors of attempted or completed sexual assault. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Association between childhood sexual abuse and adverse psychological outcomes among youth in Taipei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Nan; Ahmed, Saifuddin; Zabin, Laurie S

    2012-03-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between a history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and negative psychological consequences in adulthood, controlling for family environments and Confucian values. The data used in this study were collected from Taipei. The final analysis sample comprised 4,084 participants aged 15-24 years. Three sets of logistic regression models were fitted to verify the association between CSA and negative psychological outcomes. Sociodemographic variables, household instability, and parenting variables, as well as Confucian value variables were controlled in models step by step. The overall prevalence of CSA in our analysis sample was 5.2%. The overall prevalence of depression, anxiety, and suicidal ideation among Taipei respondents was 11.8%, 16.4%, and 16.7%, respectively, but young people who experienced CSA had significantly higher rates of all three than young adults who had not experienced CSA. After controlling for other covariates, the odds ratios of depression, anxiety, and suicidal ideation associated with a history of CSA were 1.78 (95% confidence intervals [CI]: 1.25-2.54), 1.77 (95% CI: 1.28-2.44), and 2.56 (95% CI: 1.56-4.29), respectively. Our findings suggested that CSA was an independent predictor of negative psychological consequences in adulthood. In our analysis, we controlled for household, parenting, and Confucian culture factors, which provides a better understanding of how they work together to affect adult psychological status. Copyright © 2012 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. In sickness and in wealth: psychological and sexual costs of income comparison in marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Lamar; Dahl, Michael S; Nielsen, Jimmi

    2013-03-01

    As the percentage of wives outearning their husbands grows, the traditional social norm of the male breadwinner is challenged. The upward income comparison of the husband may cause psychological distress that affects partners' mental and physical health in ways that affect decisions on marriage, divorce, and careers. This article studies this impact through sexual and mental health problems. Using wage and prescription medication data from Denmark, we implement a regression discontinuity design to show that men outearned by their wives are more likely to use erectile dysfunction medication than their male breadwinner counterparts, even when this inequality is small. Breadwinner wives suffer increased insomnia/anxiety medication usage, with similar effects for men. We find no effects for unmarried couples or for men who earned less than their fiancée prior to marriage. Our results suggest that social norms play important roles in dictating how individuals respond to upward social comparisons.

  11. Gender Policing During Childhood and the Psychological Well-Being of Young Adult Sexual Minority Men in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauermeister, José A; Connochie, Daniel; Jadwin-Cakmak, Laura; Meanley, Steven

    2017-05-01

    Hegemonic masculinities (i.e., sets of socially accepted masculine behaviors and beliefs within a given time and culture) may affect the well-being of sexual minority men, yet quantitative relationships between these masculinities and well-being remain largely unexplored. Using data from a national cross-sectional survey of young sexual minority men ( N = 1,484; ages 18-24 years), the current study examined the relationship between parental gender policing during childhood and adolescence and subsequent substance use and psychological distress. Over one third of the sample (37.8%) reported their parent(s) or the person(s) who raised them had policed their gender, including the use of disciplinary actions. Using multivariable regression, this study examined the relationship between parental gender policing and psychological well-being and substance use, after adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, educational attainment, and current student status. Gender policing during childhood and adolescence was associated with recent substance use behaviors and psychological distress in multivariable models. A linear association between substance use behaviors and psychological distress and the number of disciplinary actions experienced during childhood and adolescence was also observed. Parents' attempts to police their sons' gender expression were associated with markers of distress among young sexual minority men. The relationship between parental gender policing during childhood and adolescence and distress among young sexual minority men are discussed.

  12. Gender nonconformity, perceived stigmatization, and psychological well-being in Dutch sexual minority youth and young adults: A mediation analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baams, L.; Beek, T.; Hille, H.; Zevenbergen, F.C.; Bos, H.M.W.

    2013-01-01

    Dutch sexual minority youth and young adults (106 females and 86 males, 16-24 years old) were assessed to establish whether there was a relation between gender nonconformity and psychological well-being and whether this relation was mediated by perceived experiences of stigmatization due to

  13. Group-Level Coping as a Moderator between Heterosexism and Sexism and Psychological Distress in Sexual Minority Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymanski, Dawn M.; Owens, Gina P.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was: (1) to examine concurrently the relationship between heterosexist events and sexist events and psychological distress and (2) to investigate sexual orientation-based and gender-based group-level coping as potential moderators of the heterosexism-distress and sexism-distress links among 282 lesbian and bisexual women.…

  14. Job-related and psychological effects of sexual harassment in the workplace: empirical evidence from two organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, K T; Swan, S; Fitzgerald, L F

    1997-06-01

    Previous evidence regarding the outcomes of sexual harassment in the workplace has come mainly from self-selected samples or analogue studies or those using inadequate measures. The sexual harassment experiences, coping responses, and job-related and psychological outcomes of 447 female private-sector employees and 300 female university employees were examined. Discriminant function analyses indicated that women who had not been harassed and women who had experienced low, moderate, and high frequencies of harassment could be distinguished on the basis of both job-related and psychological outcomes. These outcomes could not be attributed to negative affective disposition, attitudes toward harassment, or general job stress. Results suggest that relatively low-level but frequent types of sexual harassment can have significant negative consequences for working women.

  15. Sexual activity and psychological health as mediators of the relationship between physical health and marital quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galinsky, Adena M; Waite, Linda J

    2014-05-01

    The pathways linking spousal health to marital quality in later life have been little examined at the population level. We develop a conceptual model that links married older adults' physical health and that of their spouse to positive and negative dimensions of marital quality via psychological well-being of both partners and their sexual activity. We use data from 1,464 older adults in 732 marital dyads in the 2010-2011 wave of the National Social Life Health and Aging Project. We find that own fair or poor physical health is linked to lower positive and higher negative marital quality, spouse's health to positive quality, and that own and spouse's mental health and more frequent sex are associated with higher positive and lower negative marital quality. Further, we find that (a) sexual activity mediates the association between own and partner's physical health and positive marital quality, (b) own mental health mediates the association between one's own physical health and both positive and negative marital quality, and (c) partner's mental health mediates the associations of spouse's physical health with positive marital quality. These results are robust to alternative specifications of the model. The results suggest ways to protect marital quality among older adults who are struggling with physical illness in themselves or their partners.

  16. Techniques Used in Forensic Psychological Examinations in Cases of Child and Adolescent Sexual Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Lages Gava

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Currently, there is no standardized protocol for the evaluation of situations of sexual abuse. Thus, this study investigated the techniques used by psychologists in forensic examinations in cases of suspected child and adolescent sexual abuse in the context of the criminal investigation. Semi-structured interviews, which were qualitatively analyzed using the WebQDA software, were applied with twelve psychologists who work as expert witnesses in the Medical-Legal Institute of six Brazilian capitals. The results showed a diversity of actions taken in the forensic examination practice, as well as consensus and controversy regarding the use of psychological testing and the credibility assessment of the report. Flexibility in conducting the forensic examinations by the teams was also observed, with the techniques used adapted according to the needs. The importance of the diversity of techniques was highlighted, as these aim to assist the expert witness to come to reliable conclusions, as well as maintain the rigor and technical quality of the evaluation.

  17. Do no more harm: the psychological stress of the medical examination for alleged child sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Susan; Lamb, Robyn; Tzioumi, Dimitra

    2009-03-01

    Currently, there is some controversy that the medical examination following allegations of child sexual abuse may further traumatise the child. Access for children to appropriate care may be hindered if decisions about referral are influenced by personal beliefs, rather than by recognition of the potential health and psychological benefits of the assessment. We aimed to study the expectations and emotional responses of children and their parents to the medical examination. We conducted a prospective quantitative and qualitative study at the Children's Hospital at Westmead. Participants completed questionnaires pre-examination and post-examination, including Children's Anxiety and Pain Scales. Clinicians recorded a Genital Examination Distress Scale and a questionnaire about potentially prognostic variables. Parents found the medical examination significantly less stressful than they had anticipated. They highlighted the importance of being involved in the process, the child's reaction, staff attitudes and the doctor's explanations. Although most parents expected that the medical would be stressful for their child, this did not correlate with the children's reports of feeling scared beforehand. Increased parental and child distress were significantly associated with the child being 12 years or older. The type of abuse was not significantly linked to any of the parent or child self-reports. Our findings indicate that the medical examination is not as stressful as expected and support the recommendation that timely medical assessment by appropriately trained professionals should be offered for all children following allegations of sexual abuse.

  18. Effects of racial and sexual harassment on work and the psychological well-being of African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, NiCole T; Fitzgerald, Louise F

    2008-04-01

    Research on workplace harassment has typically examined either racial or sexual harassment, without studying both simultaneously. As a result, it remains unknown whether the co-occurrence of racial and sexual harassment or their interactive effects account for unique variance in work and psychological well-being. In this study, hierarchical linear regression analyses were used to explore the influence of racial and sexual harassment on these outcomes among 91 African American women involved in a sexual harassment employment lawsuit. Results indicated that both sexual and racial harassment contributed significantly to the women's occupational and psychological outcomes. Moreover, their interaction was statistically significant when predicting supervisor satisfaction and perceived organizational tolerance of harassment. Using a sample of African American women employed in an organizational setting where harassment was known to have occurred and examining sexual and racial harassment concomitantly makes this study unique. As such, it provides novel insights and an important contribution to an emerging body of research and underscores the importance of assessing multiple forms of harassment when examining organizational stressors, particularly among women of color.

  19. 2010 Workplace and Gender Relations Survey of Active Duty Members. Overview Report on Sexual Harassment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    quid pro quo harassment . Three component measures of sexual harassment are derived from Q30: crude/offensive behavior...in 2010 was lower than in 2006 and 1995 (5% vs. 7% and 8%, respectively). Sexual coercion is defined as classic quid pro quo instances of specific...Unwanted sexual attention includes unwanted attempts to establish a sexual relationship. Sexual coercion includes classic quid pro quo ,

  20. Sexual orientation and gender identity in schools: A call for more research in school psychology-No more excuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espelage, Dorothy L

    2016-02-01

    Research focused on sexual orientation and gender identity among youth is scarce in school psychology journals. Graybill and Proctor (2016; this issue) found that across a sample of eight school support personnel journals only .3 to 3.0% of the articles since 2000 included lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender (LGBT)-related research. It appears that special issues are a mechanism for publishing LGBT-related scholarship. This commentary includes a call for more research in school psychology and other related disciplines that intentionally addresses experiences of LGBT youth and their families. Two articles in this special section are summarized and critiqued with clear directions for future scholarship. Researchers and practitioners are ethically responsible for engaging in social justice oriented research and that includes assessing gender identity and sexual orientation in their studies and prevention program evaluations. Copyright © 2015 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Applying Differential Coercion and Social Support Theory to Intimate Partner Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavala, Egbert; Kurtz, Don L

    2017-09-01

    A review of the current body of literature on intimate partner violence (IPV) shows that the most common theories used to explain this public health issue are social learning theory, a general theory of crime, general strain theory, or a combination of these perspectives. Other criminological theories have received less empirical attention. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to apply Differential Coercion and Social Support (DCSS) theory to test its capability to explain IPV. Data collected from two public universities ( N = 492) shows that three out of four measures of coercion (i.e., physical abuse, emotional abuse, and anticipated strain) predicted IPV perpetration, whereas social support was not found to be significant. Only two social-psychological deficits (anger and self-control) were found to be positive and significant in predicting IPV. Results, as well as the study's limitations and suggestions for future research, are discussed.

  2. The effects of non-physical peer sexual harassment on high school students' psychological well-being in Norway: consistent and stable findings across studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendixen, Mons; Daveronis, Josef; Kennair, Leif Edward Ottesen

    2018-01-01

    The paper examines how strongly non-physical peer sexual harassment is associated with a wide range of well-being outcomes from symptoms of depression and anxiety to self-esteem and body image. Two large community samples of high school students were analyzed (n = 1384 and n = 1485). Students responded to questionnaires on being subject to non-physical sexual harassment, sexual coercion and forced intercourse, and to well-being indicators ranging from anxiety, depression, self-esteem, body image. Regression analyses suggest that being harassed by peers in a non-physical way was moderately associated with lower levels of well-being over and above the effect of other risk factors. This effect was present for all indicators of well-being. The effect of peer harassment on depressive symptoms was moderated by sex (affected women more) but not by sexual or ethnic minority status. The findings imply that although sticks and stones may break bones, it does seem that derogatory words and other forms of non-physical sexual harassment definitely harm high school students.

  3. Fulfilling Desire: Evidence for negative feedback between men’s testosterone, sociosexual psychology, and sexual partner number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puts, David A.; Pope, Lauramarie E.; Hill, Alexander K.; Cárdenas, Rodrigo A.; Welling, Lisa L. M.; Wheatley, John R.; Breedlove, S. Marc

    2015-01-01

    Across human societies and many nonhuman animals, males have greater interest in uncommitted sex (more unrestricted sociosexuality) than do females. Testosterone shows positive associations with male-typical sociosexual behavior in nonhuman animals. Yet, it remains unclear whether the human sex difference in sociosexual psychology (attitudes and desires) is mediated by testosterone, whether any relationships between testosterone and sociosexuality differ between men and women, and what the nature of these possible relationships might be. In studies to resolve these questions, we examined relationships between salivary testosterone concentrations and sociosexual psychology and behavior in men and women. We measured testosterone in all men in our sample, but only in those women taking oral contraception (OC-using women) in order to reduce the influence of ovulatory cycle variation in ovarian hormone production. We found that OC-using women did not differ from normally-ovulating women in sociosexual psychology or behavior, but that circulating testosterone mediated the sex difference in human sociosexuality and predicted sociosexual psychology in men but not OC-using women. Moreover, when sociosexual psychology was controlled, men’s sociosexual behavior (number of sexual partners) was negatively related to testosterone, suggesting that testosterone drives sociosexual psychology in men and is inhibited when those desires are fulfilled. This more complex relationship between androgen and male sexuality may reconcile some conflicting prior reports. PMID:25644313

  4. Psychological assessment through performance-based techniques and self-reports: a case study of a sexually abused girl at preschool age.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Khalily, Muhammad Tahir

    2011-05-01

    We investigated the implicit psychological and behavioral consequences of sexual abuse in an adolescent girl who suffered child sexual abuse at preschool age in this case report. We report the manifestations of this abuse on her personality and psychological functioning using a structured clinical interview and a comprehensive psychological battery including the Beck Anxiety Inventory, the Beck Depression Inventory, the Standard Progressive Matrices, Rorschach Ink Blots, and the Schema Mode Inventory. These investigations were useful in formulating both a diagnosis and a management plan. The girl fulfilled diagnostic criteria for a major depressive episode and borderline personality disorder. This combination of psychological testing may be useful in establishing an accurate multiaxial diagnosis and for understanding the behavioral and psychological sequelae of child sexual abuse in similar cases. The study further suggests that schema-focused therapy is a useful therapeutic tool for individuals who have suffered child sexual abuse at an early age and who have borderline personality disorder.

  5. Sexual stigma, psychological well-being and social engagement among men who have sex with men in Beirut, Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Glenn J; Aunon, Frances M; Kaplan, Rachel L; Karam, Rita; Khouri, Danielle; Tohme, Johnny; Mokhbat, Jacques

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative study sought to explore sexual identity development among men who have sex with men in Beirut, Lebanon; the stigma experienced by these men; and how their psychological well-being and social engagement are shaped by how they cope with this stigma. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 31 men who have sex with men and content analysis was used to identify emergent themes. While many men reported feeling very comfortable with their sexual orientation and had disclosed their sexual orientation to family, most men struggled at least somewhat with their sexuality, often because of perceived stigma from others and internal religious conflict about the immorality of homosexuality. Most participants described experiencing verbal harassment or ridicule or being treated as different or lesser than in social relationships with friends or family. Mechanisms for coping with stigma included social avoidance (trying to pass as heterosexual and limiting interaction with men who have sex with men to the internet) or withdrawal from relationships in an attempt to limit exposure to stigma. Findings suggest that effective coping with both internal and external sexual stigma is central to the psychological well-being and social engagement of men who have sex with men in Beirut, much as has been found in Western gay communities.

  6. Gender, Dialogue and Discursive Psychology: A Pilot Sexuality Intervention with South African High-School Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jearey-Graham, Nicola; Macleod, Catriona Ida

    2017-01-01

    Good-quality sexuality education can be effective in reducing sexual health risks, but may also be disconnected from the lived realities of learners' lives and reinforce gendered stereotypes. In line with the trend towards "empowerment" in and through sexuality education, we implemented a pilot sexuality intervention with Grade 10…

  7. Perceptions of sexual harassment in the workplace :impact of gender, psychological androgyny, and job status

    OpenAIRE

    Long, Denise A.

    1990-01-01

    Sexual harassment has serious implications for both the individual and the organization. However, there appears to be confusion among different groups of people as to what behaviors constitute sexual harassment. The present study was designed as an aid in defining sexual harassment and an attempt to discover any differences which may exist between groups in what is considered to be sexual harassment. Perceiving certain behaviors as being sexual harassment appears to be...

  8. The Conditions under which Growth-Fostering Relationships Promote Resilience and Alleviate Psychological Distress among Sexual Minorities: Applications of Relational Cultural Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mereish, Ethan H.; Poteat, V. Paul

    2015-01-01

    Relational cultural theory posits that resilience and psychological growth are rooted in relational connections and are facilitated through growth-fostering relationships. Framed within this theory, the current study examined the associations between growth-fostering relationships (i.e., relationships characterized by authenticity and mutuality) with a close friend and psychological distress among sexual minorities. More specifically, we tested the moderating effects of individuals’ internalized homophobia and their friend’s sexual orientation on the associations between growth-fostering relationship with their close friend and level of psychological distress. A sample of sexual minorities (N = 661) were recruited online and completed a questionnaire. The 3-way interaction between (a) growth-fostering relationship with a close friend, (b) the close friend’s sexual orientation, and (c) internalized homophobia was significant in predicting psychological distress. Among participants with low levels of internalized homophobia, a stronger growth-fostering relationship with a close heterosexual or LGBT friend was associated with less psychological distress. Among participants with high levels of internalized homophobia, a stronger growth-fostering relationship with a close LGBT friend was associated with less psychological distress but not with a heterosexual friend. Our results demonstrate that growth-fostering relationships may be associated with less psychological distress but under specific conditions. These findings illuminate a potential mechanism for sexual minorities’ resilience and provide support for relational cultural theory. Understanding resilience factors among sexual minorities is critical for culturally sensitive and affirmative clinical practice and future research. PMID:26380836

  9. The relationships among perceived peer acceptance of sexual aggression, punishment certainty, and sexually aggressive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strang, Emily; Peterson, Zoë D

    2013-12-01

    Researching the correlates of men's sexually aggressive behavior (i.e., verbal coercion and rape) is critical to both understanding and preventing sexual aggression. This study examined 120 men who completed an anonymous online questionnaire. The study aimed to determine the relative importance of two potential correlates of men's self-reported use of sexual aggression: (a) perceptions that male peers use and support sexual aggression and (b) perceptions of punishment likelihood associated with sexual aggression. Results revealed that perceptions of male friends' acceptance of sexual aggression were strongly associated with individual men's reports of using verbal coercion and rape. Perceptions of punishment likelihood were negatively correlated with verbal coercion but not with rape through intoxication and force. Implications for sexual aggression prevention are discussed.

  10. Unsafe in the Camouflage Tower: Sexual Victimization and Perceptions of Military Academy Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Jamie A.; Fisher, Bonnie S.; Scherer, Heidi L.; Daigle, Leah E.

    2012-01-01

    Few studies have examined sexual victimization among cadets and midshipmen at the three U.S. Military Academies. Self-report data from the 2005 Service Academy Sexual Assault Survey of Cadets and Midshipmen (n = 5,220) were used to examine the extent of unwanted sexual attention, sexual harassment, unwanted sexual contact, sexual coercion, and…

  11. Sexual Harassment and the University Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hite, Molly

    1990-01-01

    Relates story of a college program director's coercive sexual harassment and the response of women faculty and peers outside the university. Focuses on the distinction between "having affairs" and "sexual coercion." Claims only when definitions of sexual harassment are articulated can men and women begin to talk to one another about the problem.…

  12. Male partners of women with provoked vestibulodynia: attributions for pain and their implications for dyadic adjustment, sexual satisfaction, and psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jodoin, Mélanie; Bergeron, Sophie; Khalifé, Samir; Dupuis, Marie-José; Desrochers, Geneviève; Leclerc, Bianca

    2008-12-01

    Provoked vestibulodynia is a female genital pain condition that results in sexual dysfunction and impacts negatively on the couple. Although patients' causal attributions have been linked to worse psychosexual outcomes, no study has documented the male partners' perspective of this distressing problem and its potential influence on their psychosexual adaptation. To identify whether male partners' attributions for vestibulodynia are possible predictors of their dyadic adjustment, sexual functioning, sexual satisfaction, and psychological distress, as well as of women's pain and sexual functioning. Thirty-eight women with vestibulodynia first completed measures of pain intensity and sexual functioning. Male partners responded to mailed questionnaires assessing their own attributions for genital pain as well as their psychological distress, relationship adjustment, sexual functioning, and sexual satisfaction. Women completed the McGill-Melzack Pain Questionnaire (MPQ) and the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). Attributions of male partners were measured using an adapted version of the Attributional Style Questionnaire (ASQ)-Partner Version. Men also filled out the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI), the Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS), the Sexual History Form (SHF), and the Global Measure of Sexual Satisfaction (GMSEX). All four negative attribution dimensions and higher levels of women's pain intensity successfully predicted increased psychological distress in male partners. Higher levels of both internal and global attributions were associated with men's poorer dyadic adjustment, whereas global and stable attributions were related to their lower sexual satisfaction. Attributions failed to significantly predict sexual functioning in male partners and women's pain and sexual functioning. Evaluation and treatment of sexual pain problems should involve both partners and should explore the role of negative attributions.

  13. Sexual Victimization and the Military Environment: Contributing Factors, Vocational, Psychological, and Medical Sequelae

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sadler, Anne

    1997-01-01

    .... A national sample of 558 women veterans completed a computer-assisted telephone interview assessing their experiences with in-military sexual harassment, unwanted sexual touching, physical assault and rape...

  14. Watching pornographic pictures on the Internet: role of sexual arousal ratings and psychological-psychiatric symptoms for using Internet sex sites excessively.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Matthias; Laier, Christian; Pawlikowski, Mirko; Schächtle, Ulrich; Schöler, Tobias; Altstötter-Gleich, Christine

    2011-06-01

    Excessive or addictive Internet use can be linked to different online activities, such as Internet gaming or cybersex. The usage of Internet pornography sites is one important facet of online sexual activity. The aim of the present work was to examine potential predictors of a tendency toward cybersex addiction in terms of subjective complaints in everyday life due to online sexual activities. We focused on the subjective evaluation of Internet pornographic material with respect to sexual arousal and emotional valence, as well as on psychological symptoms as potential predictors. We examined 89 heterosexual, male participants with an experimental task assessing subjective sexual arousal and emotional valence of Internet pornographic pictures. The Internet Addiction Test (IAT) and a modified version of the IAT for online sexual activities (IATsex), as well as several further questionnaires measuring psychological symptoms and facets of personality were also administered to the participants. Results indicate that self-reported problems in daily life linked to online sexual activities were predicted by subjective sexual arousal ratings of the pornographic material, global severity of psychological symptoms, and the number of sex applications used when being on Internet sex sites in daily life, while the time spent on Internet sex sites (minutes per day) did not significantly contribute to explanation of variance in IATsex score. Personality facets were not significantly correlated with the IATsex score. The study demonstrates the important role of subjective arousal and psychological symptoms as potential correlates of development or maintenance of excessive online sexual activity.

  15. Psychological impact and sexual dysfunction in men with and without spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobo Cuenca, Ana I; Sampietro-Crespo, Antonio; Virseda-Chamorro, Miguel; Martín-Espinosa, Noelia

    2015-02-01

    The World Health Organization recognizes sexual health as a fundamental right that should be guaranteed to all individuals. Sexual dysfunction affects various aspects in the lives (physical, psychic, and social) of affected persons. To assess the different types of sexual dysfunction, the quality of life (QOL), depression, anxiety, and levels of self-esteem observed in 165 men with sexual dysfunction, both with and without spinal cord injury (SCI). Case control study of 85 men with SCI and sexual dysfunction, and 80 men without SCI that have sexual dysfunction. The Sexual Health Evaluation Scale, the Fugl-Meyer Life Satisfaction Questionnaire scale, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Evaluation of the Sexual Health Scale, and Rosenberg's Self-esteem Scale were all used for data collection. Of the members in group A (with SCI), 89.4% (76) showed erectile dysfunction, and 75.2% (64) reported anejaculation. In group B (without SCI), 75 (96.8%) showed erectile dysfunction, and 58.7% (47) had disorders of sexual desire. In group A, 16.47 % (14) showed signs of depression, and 35.3% (30) had signs of anxiety. In group B, 30% (24) had elevated scores regarding depression, and 48.75% (39) had high scores for anxiety. All of the participants reported a high general QOL and a high satisfaction with their QOL but reported that their satisfaction with their sexual lives was only at the acceptable level. Social QOL is significantly higher in the SCI group (t Student P=0.031). The QOL, self-esteem, and anxiety and depression levels are significantly correlated. Men with sexual dysfunction strive to adapt to their situations, with the relationship between the type of sexual dysfunction and the QOL, mood (depression), and self-esteem all being important considerations. Sexuality and employment status are the areas where men with spinal cord injuries report less satisfaction. © 2014 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  16. Psychological and socio-demographic variables associated with sexual risk behavior for sexually transmitted infections/HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludgleydson Fernandes de Araújo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available La población adulta es un grupo ascendente en los nuevos diagnósticos de las infecciones de transmisión sexual (ITS y el VIH. El objetivo principal es analizar si el conocimiento sobre el ITS/VIH, la preocupación por las ITS/VIH y el embarazo y la autoeficacia para rechazar relaciones sexuales son predictoras de las conductas sexuales de riesgo en jóvenes y adultos españoles. Participaron 1.106 jóvenes y adultos de ambos sexos, entre los 17 y los 55 años. Los resultados mostraron que ser soltero, homosexual, haberse hecho la prueba del VIH, haber tenido una ITS, tener estudios universitarios e ingresos económicos mensuales de 900 a más de 1.200 euros tenían las puntuaciones más altas en el conocimiento sobre el ITS/VIH. La autoeficacia predijo gran parte de las conductas sexuales vaginales y anales (la edad de inicio del sexo vaginal y anal y el número de parejas con las que se ha mantenido sexo vaginal. Además, se halló que a mayor conocimiento sobre ITS/VIH, mayor edad de inicio del sexo vaginal y mayor uso del preservativo en la primera relación sexual vaginal. Se espera que estos resultados sean útiles para el desarrollo de programas de prevención de ITS/VIH. © 2013 Asociación Española de Psicología Conductual. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L. Todos los derechos reservados.

  17. Psychological suffering in the daily lives of women who have experienced sexual violence: a phenomenological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiane Herreira Trigueiro

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To understand the daily actions of women who have experienced sexual violence. Method: A qualitative study was conducted with 11 women who suffered sexual violence in southern Brazil. Their testimonies were obtained through phenomenological interviews conducted between October 2014 and April 2015. Results: The daily lives of women after suffering sexual violence were permeated by mental distress, translated into fear. This impacted their mental health by limiting their daily lives, especially social activities (work, school, sentimental, and sexual relations. To overcome the consequences of sexual violence, women sought support from family and friends and reintegration into the labor market and course of studies. Conclusion and implications for practice: Individual and group actions providing psychosocial and social support to women in situations of sexual violence are essential to help victims cope with the consequences of this experience.

  18. Prevalence of physical, verbal and nonverbal sexual harassments and their association with psychological distress among Jimma University female students: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamaru, Almaz; Getachew, Kinde; Mohammed, Yasmin

    2015-01-01

    A number of studies conducted on sexual harassment focused on general magnitude rather than specific details of the various forms of sexual harassment and their effect on psychological health. Thus, the objective of this study was to assess the prevalence rates of the various forms of sexual harassments and their associations with psychological distress among Jimma University female students. Three hundred and eighty five (385) female participants were selected from all colleges using stratified and systematic sampling techniques. A structured questionnaire consisting of items on the various forms of sexual harassment and psychological distress was administered. The prevalence rates of physical, verbal and nonverbal sexual harassments were 78.2%, 90.4% and 80.0%, respectively, while the prevalence rate of psychological distress among students who had experienced sexual harassment was 63.0%. The multivariable logistic regression analyses indicated that students who were physically [adjusted OR = 3.950, 95% CI = (1.979, 7.884)] and nonverbally [(adjusted OR = 12.099, 95% CI= (5.190, 28.205] harassed were 4 and 12 times more likely to experience psychological distress, respectively, adjusted for all other variables. The prevalence of various forms of sexual harassment were higher and strongly associated with psychological distress. Important implications for University officials and policy makers including creating harassment free University have been drawn. Otherwise, female students tend to dropout and their academic achievements suffer a lot as a result of psychological distress; and the government's effort for realizing the gender parity in education would be compromised.

  19. Reproductive coercion and intimate partner violence among rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    Disease Epidemiology, Yale School of Public Health, New Haven, CT, USA, Center for ... Study findings underscore the importance of reducing IPV in ..... mental health30 of Ivorian women. ... coercion may be underreported, due to stigma. In.

  20. Testing a mediation framework for the link between perceived discrimination and psychological distress among sexual minority individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Kelly Yu-Hsin; Kashubeck-West, Susan; Weng, Chih-Yuan; Deitz, Cori

    2015-04-01

    Perceived discrimination is a risk factor for mental health problems among sexual minority individuals. An increasing number of research studies have investigated the mechanisms through which stigma-related stressors such as perceived discrimination are linked with adverse mental health outcomes for sexual minority populations. The integrative mediation framework proposed by Hatzenbuehler (2009) underscores the importance of identifying mediators in the association between stigma-related stressors and mental health outcomes. This study tested 3 mediators--expectations of rejection, anger rumination, and self-compassion--in the perceived discrimination-distress link. Moreover, it examined associations among these mediators. A nationwide sample of 265 sexual minorities responded to an online survey. Structural equation modeling results supported the mediator roles of expectations of rejection, anger rumination, and self-compassion. More specifically, perceived discrimination was associated with expectations of rejection, which, in turn, was associated with increased anger rumination and less self-compassion, resulting in greater psychological distress. The findings suggest several avenues for prevention and intervention with sexual minority individuals. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Sexual, Psychological, and Relational Functioning in Women after Surgical Treatment for Vulvar Malignancy: A Literature Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aerts, Leen; Enzlin, Paul; Vergote, Ignace; Verhaeghe, Johan; Poppe, Willy; Amant, Frederic

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. Vulvectomy is an intrusive treatment option for women with vulvar malignancy that theoretically may affect sexual function. Aim. This study aims to provide a comprehensive review of the literature on the impact of surgical treatment for vulvar malignancy on sexual functioning, overall

  2. Bidirectional Linkages between Psychological Symptoms and Sexual Activities among African American Adolescent Girls in Psychiatric Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, Lisa R.; Donenberg, Geri R.; Emerson, Erin

    2012-01-01

    The current study examines longitudinal associations between light and heavy sexual experiences and psychiatric symptoms in African American adolescent girls receiving mental health care. Research supports bidirectional associations between adolescent romantic and sexual behaviors and depression and other mental health problems, but this finding…

  3. Sexism, Sexual Harassment, and Sexual Assault: Comparing Data from 2002 and 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    were offensive or embarrassing), unwanted sexual attention (attempts to establish a sexual relationship), and sexual coercion (classic quid pro quo ...are defined legally. The quid pro quo type is the easiest to identify and although frequencies are low, it is the most likely to be challenged. This...SEXISM, SEXUAL HARASSMENT AND SEXUAL ASSAULT: COMPARING DATA FROM 2002 AND 2006 Dr. Richard J. Harris University of Texas at San

  4. Adolescent survivors of childhood sexual abuse: the mediating role of attachment style and coping in psychological and interpersonal functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, D L; Levendosky, A A

    1999-11-01

    To examine attachment style and coping strategies as potential mediating variables between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and psychological and interpersonal functioning in an attempt to explain variability in extent of disorder and level of functioning. Eighty adolescent females, aged 14-16 years, answered questions regarding abuse history, attachment style, coping with an interpersonal stressor, depression and trauma symptomatology, and conflict with a best friend. Structural equation modeling analyses indicated that attachment style mediates the effects of CSA and child abuse and neglect on coping and psychological distress. The indirect effects of CSA and other abuse through attachment accounted for most of the effects on coping and psychological distress. Avoidant and cognitive coping strategies also served as mediators in the models, accounting for most of the effects of the other variables on interpersonal conflict. The findings indicate that attachment style and coping strategies influence psychological and interpersonal functioning, mediating the direct effects of CSA and other types of child abuse and neglect. These results have implications for therapeutic intervention with children and adolescents who have experienced child abuse.

  5. Sexual Narcissism and the Perpetration of Sexual Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNulty, James K.

    2014-01-01

    Despite indirect evidence linking narcissism to sexual aggression, studies directly examining this relationship have yielded inconsistent results. Likely contributing to such inconsistencies, prior research has used global measures of narcissism not sensitive to whether the components of narcissism are activated in sexual versus non-sexual domains. The current research avoided such problems by using a measure of sexual narcissism to predict sexual aggression. In a sample of 299 men and women, Study 1 validated the Sexual Narcissism Scale, a new sexuality research instrument with four subscales—Sexual Exploitation, Sexual Entitlement, Low Sexual Empathy, and Sexual Skill. Then, in a sample of 378 men, Study 2 demonstrated that sexual narcissism was associated with reports of the frequency of sexual aggression, three specific types of sexual aggression (unwanted sexual contact, sexual coercion, and attempted/completed rape), and the likelihood of future sexual aggression. Notably, global narcissism was unrelated to all indices of sexual aggression when sexual narcissism was controlled. That sexual narcissism outperformed global assessments of narcissism to account for variance in sexual aggression suggests that future research may benefit by examining whether sexual narcissism and other sexual-situation-specific measurements of personality can similarly provide a more valid test of the association between personality and other sexual behaviors and outcomes (e.g., contraceptive use, infidelity, sexual satisfaction). PMID:19130204

  6. Sexual narcissism and the perpetration of sexual aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widman, Laura; McNulty, James K

    2010-08-01

    Despite indirect evidence linking narcissism to sexual aggression, studies directly examining this relationship have yielded inconsistent results. Likely contributing to such inconsistencies, prior research has used global measures of narcissism not sensitive to whether the components of narcissism are activated in sexual versus non-sexual domains. The current research avoided such problems by using a measure of sexual narcissism to predict sexual aggression. In a sample of 299 men and women, Study 1 validated the Sexual Narcissism Scale, a new sexuality research instrument with four subscales-Sexual Exploitation, Sexual Entitlement, Low Sexual Empathy, and Sexual Skill. Then, in a sample of 378 men, Study 2 demonstrated that sexual narcissism was associated with reports of the frequency of sexual aggression, three specific types of sexual aggression (unwanted sexual contact, sexual coercion, and attempted/completed rape), and the likelihood of future sexual aggression. Notably, global narcissism was unrelated to all indices of sexual aggression when sexual narcissism was controlled. That sexual narcissism outperformed global assessments of narcissism to account for variance in sexual aggression suggests that future research may benefit by examining whether sexual narcissism and other sexual-situation-specific measurements of personality can similarly provide a more valid test of the association between personality and other sexual behaviors and outcomes (e.g., contraceptive use, infidelity, sexual satisfaction).

  7. Gender, Religiosity, Sexual Activity, Sexual Knowledge, and Attitudes Toward Controversial Aspects of Sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sümer, Zeynep Hatipoğlu

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the role of gender, religiosity, sexual activity, and sexual knowledge in predicting attitudes toward controversial aspects of sexuality among Turkish university students. Participants were 162 female and 135 male undergraduate students who were recruited on a volunteer basis from an urban state university in Turkey. The SKAT-A Attitude Scale along with background information form, sexual activities inventory, and sexual knowledge scale were administered to the participants. Simultaneous multiple regression analyses revealed that religiosity, particularly attendance to religious services was the most significant predictor in explaining university students' attitudes toward masturbation, abortion, homosexuality, pornography, and sexual coercion.

  8. A psicologia redescobrirá a sexualidade? La psicologia¿ redescubrirá la sexualidad? Will psychology rediscover sexuality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Paiva

    2008-12-01

    trayectorias de sujetos sexuales. El trabajo de los psicólogos se verá beneficiado en su formación al redescubrir la sexualidad, superar los abordajes psicológicos con pretensiones universalistas, por lo menos en el dominio sexual.Common sense designates the psychologist the most proficient professional to work with sexuality. Rarely, though, we are educating psychologists to work with the sexual life in non-clinical contexts. This article synthesizes a critique of the "sexological" framework, hegemonic throughout the XX century, and argues that the "constructionist" approach, while deconstructing woman's subordination and hetero-normativeness as natural, was validated as an alternative paradigm of great relevance for research and professional practice approaching the sexual sphere. This theoretical framework better understood challenges as the Aids epidemic, especially in contexts of inequality and rights violations; inspired technologies for its prevention based on gender analysis and the understanding of sexual scenarios, scenes, scripts and trajectories by sexual subjects. Psychologists practice will benefit from rediscovering sexuality, surpassing approaches based on personal values, rethinking the sexological and psychological approaches that aim at universalism, at least on the sexuality domain.

  9. Sexual attraction and psychological adjustment in Dutch adolescents: coping style as a mediator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, H.; van Beusekom, G.; Sandfort, T.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined whether feelings of same-sex attraction (SSA) in 12- to 15-year-old Dutch adolescents were related to psychological health (self-esteem and psychological distress) and whether this relation was mediated by coping styles and moderated by biological sex. Data were collected from

  10. Attributions of blame and responsibility in sexual harassment: reexamining a psychological model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Kristen M; Apple, Kevin J; Kahn, Arnold S

    2011-04-01

    Kelley's (Nebr Symp Motiv 15:192-238, 1967) attribution theory can inform sexual harassment research by identifying how observers use consensus, consistency, and distinctiveness information in determining whether a target or perpetrator is responsible for a sexual harassment situation. In this study, Kelley's theory is applied to a scenario in which a male perpetrator sexually harasses a female target in a university setting. Results from 314 predominantly female college students indicate that consistency and consensus information significantly affect participants' judgments of blame and responsibility for the situation. The authors discuss the importance of the reference groups used to derive consensus and distinctiveness information, and reintroduce Kelley's attribution theory as a means of understanding observers' perceptions of sexual harassment.

  11. Sexual and psychological aspects of health status of men who participated in the Chernobyl accident aftermath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leshchinskij, Valerij; Kirkeh, Luchiya; Andronik, Zinaida; Toma, Victoriya; Postovan, Alla

    2011-01-01

    The paper deals with results of a ten years medical follow-up of 188 men aged 21 to 55 years who participated in liquidation of Chernobyl accident consequences. Survey of patients included physical examination, echography of urogenital organs, semen and prostatic secretions analysis, bacterial inoculation of prostate secretion, hormone studies, sexological questionnaire. Sexual dysfunctions were diagnosed in 38 % of men. It was found that sexual dysfunction occur against the background of neurotic disorders that accompany vegetative dysfunctions.

  12. Sexual Victimization and the Military Environment: Contributing Factors, Vocational, Psychological, and Medical Sequelae

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-10-01

    social attitudes are an important causative factor in sexual victimization. A multicultural study found that acceptance of rape myths ("all women want...included attempted or completed sexual penetration of the victim’s vagina , mouth or rectum. Physical assault was defined as any act not occurring during...before the 95th Congress, 2nd Session), Jan. 10-12. Washington, DC, Government Printing Office. Burt, M. R. (1980). "Cultural myths and supports for

  13. Prevention of victimization following sexual assaults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bodil Maria; Sidenius, Katrine

    2004-01-01

    Centre for Victims of Sexual Assault in Copenhagen is a centre for interdisciplinary research and practice. Goals of the centre are to contribute to the documentation of victimization and to prevent further victimization. Research at the centre aims at the examination of the diversity of conditions...... of women exposed to sexualized coercion and the diversity of perspectives on the events....

  14. The impact of abdominal and laparoscopic hysterectomies on women’s sexuality and psychological condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meryem Kürek Eken

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate whether there were any differences in the quality of life, sexual function, and self-esteem of patients who underwent total laparoscopic hysterectomy (TLH (n=42 and total abdominal hysterectomy (TAH (n=42. Materials and Methods: All premenopausal patients who underwent TLH or TAH because of benign uterine disorders were enrolled. The sexual function and quality of life status were assessed preoperatively and 6 months postoperatively using three standardized validated questionnaires: the Arizona Sexual Experiences Scale (ASEX, the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R, and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES. Results: Preoperative ASEX, SCL-90-R and RSES scores were not different among the hysterectomy subgroups. The postoperative SCL-90-R scores were also not different among the hysterectomy subgroups. The postoperative RSES scores were significantly lower (p<0.05 than the preoperative scores for all procedures (indicating improved self-esteem but did not differ among the groups. The postoperative ASEX scores were significantly decreased (p<0.01 as compared with the preoperative scores (indicating improved sexual function. When the average score of each item of the ASEX score was compared in both groups, significant differences were observed in sexual drive and arousal in the laparoscopy group (p<0.01. Conclusion: Women undergoing TLH for benign uterine disease may have better outcomes related to certain sexual function parameters than women undergoing TAH.

  15. Evaluation of psychological support for victims of sexual violence in a conflict setting: results from Brazzaville, Congo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hustache, Sarah; Moro, Marie-Rose; Roptin, Jacky; Souza, Renato; Gansou, Grégoire Magloire; Mbemba, Alain; Roederer, Thomas; Grais, Rebecca F; Gaboulaud, Valérie; Baubet, Thierry

    2009-01-01

    Background Little is known about the impact of psychological support in war and transcultural contexts and in particular, whether there are lasting benefits. Here, we present an evaluation of the late effect of post-rape psychological support provided to women in Brazzaville, Republic of Congo. Methods Women who attended the Médecins Sans Frontières program for sexual violence in Brazzaville during the conflict were selected to evaluate the psychological consequences of rape and the late effect of post-rape psychological support. A total of 178 patients met the eligibility criteria: 1) Women aged more than 15 years; 2) raped by unknown person(s) wearing military clothes; 3) admitted to the program between the 1/1/2002 and the 30/4/2003; and 4) living in Brazzaville. Results The initial diagnosis according to DSM criteria showed a predominance of anxious disorders (54.1%) and acute stress disorders (24.6%). One to two years after the initial psychological care, 64 women were evaluated using the Trauma Screening Questionnaire (TSQ), the Global Assessment of Functioning scale (GAF) and an assessment scale to address medico-psychological care in emergencies (EUMP). Two patients (3.1%) met the needed criteria for PTSD diagnosis from the TSQ. Among the 56 women evaluated using GAF both as pre and post-test, global functioning was significantly improved by initial post-rape support (50 women (89.3%) had extreme or medium impairment at first post-rape evaluation, and 16 (28.6%) after psychological care; p = 0.04). When interviewed one to two years later, the benefit was fully maintained (16 women (28.6%) presenting extreme or medium impairment). Conclusion We found the benefits of post-rape psychological support to be present and lasting in this conflict situation. However, we were unable to evaluate all women for the long-term impact, underscoring the difficulty of leading evaluation studies in unstable contexts. Future research is needed to validate these findings in

  16. Demographic, psychological and behavioral characteristics of child and adolescent victims of sexual abuse

    OpenAIRE

    SERAFIM, Antonio de Pádua; SAFFI, Fabiana; ACHÁ, Maria Fernanda Faria; BARROS, Daniel Martins de

    2011-01-01

    CONTEXTO: A relação entre transtorno mental e histórico de abuso sexual é frequentemente observada na prática clínica e relatada na literatura. OBJETIVO: Descrever os dados demográficos e os aspectos emocionais e comportamentais em crianças e adolescentes vítimas de abuso sexual. MÉTODO: 205 crianças e adolescentes com idade entre 6 e 14 anos, sendo 130 meninas (9,6 ± 3,4 anos) e 75 meninos (7,2 ± 2,9 anos) vítimas de abuso sexual passaram por avaliação psicológica e psiquiátrica individual n...

  17. Play Room as an psychological assessment method in cases of alleged child sexual abuse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagelskjær, Marie

    2017-01-01

    of Play Room from prevention into clinical assessment, in cases of alleged child sexual abuse. Taking its starting point in the theory of Jean Laplanche, this article will discuss how psychoanalytic concepts such as seduction, translation, asymmetry, absence, and listening to listening can be used......This article presents an example of how psychoanalytic theory can be implemented in practice. The aim is to introduce and discuss the semi-projective material ‘Play Room’ which was originally developed to support prevention of sexual abuse among vulnerable children in Denmark. However, a recent...... study has shown that, when measured with a scale called Ability to Answer, children exposed to sexual abuse talked about the illustrations in Play Room in a significantly different way than did a clinical sample and a normal control group. The finding indicates the potential for expanding the scope...

  18. Coercion and pressure in psychiatry: lessons from Ulysses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widdershoven, Guy; Berghmans, Ron

    2007-10-01

    Coercion and pressure in mental healthcare raise moral questions. This article focuses on moral questions raised by the everyday practice of pressure and coercion in the care for the mentally ill. In view of an example from literature-the story of Ulysses and the Sirens-several ethical issues surrounding this practice of care are discussed. Care giver and patient should be able to express feelings such as frustration, fear and powerlessness, and attention must be paid to those feelings. In order to be able to evaluate the intervention, one has to be aware of the variety of goals the intervention can aim at. One also has to be aware of the variety of methods of intervention, each with its own benefits and drawbacks. Finally, an intervention requires a context of care and responsibility, along with good communication and fair treatment before, during and after the use of coercion and pressure.

  19. Nudges and coercion: conceptual, empirical, and normative considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cratsley, Kelso

    2015-01-01

    Given that the concept of coercion remains a central concern for bioethics, Quigley's (Monash Bioethics Rev 32:141-158, 2014) recent article provides a helpful analysis of its frequent misapplication in debates over the use of 'nudges'. In this commentary I present a generally sympathetic response to Quigley's argument while also raising several issues that are important for the larger debates about nudges and coercion. I focus on several closely related topics, including the definition of coercion, the role of empirical research, and the normative concerns at the core of these disputes. I suggest that while a degree of precision is certainly required when deploying the relevant concepts, perhaps informed by empirical data, we need to continue to push these debates towards more pressing normative considerations.

  20. Sexual Harassment: A Common Sample for the University and the Workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauregard, Terri Kinion

    The sexual harassment experienced by a sample of women (N=154) in a university setting was compared with the sexual harassment experienced by them in a workplace setting. Results appeared to support the following generalizations: (1) there is greater gender harassment, unwanted sexual attention, and sexual coercion in the workplace setting than in…

  1. The Social Acceptability of Sexual Slang: Functions of Biological Sex and Psychological Gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Scott A.; Cortese, Juliann

    A study explored the social acceptability that accompanies the expression of sexual slang. The study of gender differences in language use is nothing new. Previous research has indicated that men and women differ in their use of tentative language, topic selection, control techniques, and conversational style. However, this research has examined…

  2. Psychological and behavioural factors associated with sexual risk behaviour among Slovak students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalina, Ondrej; Geckova, Andrea M.; Jarcuska, Pavol; Orosova, Olga; van Dijk, Jitse P.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Knowledge about the prevalence of sexual risk behaviour (SRB) in adolescence is needed to prevent unwanted health consequences. Studies on SRB among adolescents in Central Europe are rare and mostly rely on a single indicator for SRB. This study aims to assess the association of

  3. Coercion within Danish psychiatry compared with 10 other European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Jesper; Aggernæs, Karin Helle

    2012-01-01

    Background: In 2008, the European Committee for the Prevention of Torture and Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (CPT) criticized the use of mechanical restraint in Denmark and referred to it as ill-treatment. What do other European countries do better? To answer this question, we...... the smallest amount of physical coercion. Only Norway, Finland, Sweden and Denmark had comparable representative data on coercion. Conclusions: Norway used less physical restraint than Denmark. We could not find any obvious reasons for the differences in the use of physical restraint. Clinical implications...

  4. An online psychological intervention can improve the sexual satisfaction of men following treatment for localized prostate cancer: outcomes of a Randomised Controlled Trial evaluating My Road Ahead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wootten, Addie C; Meyer, Denny; Abbott, Jo-Anne M; Chisholm, Katherine; Austin, David W; Klein, Britt; McCabe, Marita; Murphy, Declan G; Costello, Anthony J

    2017-07-01

    Prostate cancer treatment often results in significant psycho-sexual challenges for men following treatment; however, many men report difficulty in accessing appropriate care. A randomized controlled trial was undertaken to assess the efficacy of a 10-week self-guided online psychological intervention called My Road Ahead (MRA) for men with localized prostate cancer in improving sexual satisfaction. Participants were randomized to 1 of 3 conditions MRA alone or MRA plus online forum, or forum access alone. Pre, post, and follow-up assessments of overall sexual satisfaction were conducted. Mixed models and structural equation modeling were used to analyze the data. One hundred forty-two men (mean age 61 y; SD = 7) participated. The majority of participants had undergone radical prostatectomy (88%) and all men had received treatment for localized prostate cancer. Significant differences were obtained for the 3 groups (P = .026) and a significant improvement in total sexual satisfaction was observed only for participants who were allocated to MRA + forum with a large effect size (P = .004, partial η 2  = 0.256). Structural equation modeling indicated that increases in sexual function, masculine self-esteem, and sexual confidence contributed significantly to overall sexual satisfaction for the MRA + forum plus forum condition. This study is the first, to our knowledge, that has evaluated a self-guided online psychological intervention tailored to the specific needs of men with prostate cancer. The findings indicate the potential for MRA to deliver support that men may not otherwise receive and also highlight the importance of psychological intervention to facilitate improved sexual outcomes. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Intimate Partner Violence Perpetration by Court-Ordered Men: Distinctions and Intersections among Physical Violence, Sexual Violence, Psychological Abuse, and Stalking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basile, Kathleen C.; Hall, Jeffrey E.

    2011-01-01

    This study assessed the construct validity of two different measurement models of male partners' perpetration of physical violence, sexual violence, psychological abuse, and stalking against intimate partners. Data were obtained from a sample of 340 men arrested for physical assault of a female spouse or partner and court ordered into batterer…

  6. MEASURING COERCION TO PARTICIPATE IN RESEARCH WITHIN A DOUBLY VULNERABLE POPULATION: INITIAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE COERCION ASSESSMENT SCALE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugosh, Karen Leggett; Festinger, David S.; Croft, Jason R.; Marlowe, Douglas B.

    2011-01-01

    Despite many efforts aimed to ensure that research participation is autonomous and not coerced, there exists no reliable and valid measure of perceived coercion for the doubly vulnerable population of substance-abusing offenders. The current study describes the development and initial validation of an instrument measuring perceived coercion to participate in research among substance-abusing offenders. The results indicated that a substantial number of individuals report feeling coerced to participate in the study. In addition, the instrument has adequate levels of internal consistency, a one-dimensional factor structure, and evidence of discriminative validity. This study provides initial support for the instrument’s validity and clinical utility. PMID:20235867

  7. Feminist Psychology and the "Body Problem": Sexuality, Physical Appearance, and Women's Physical and Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrisler, Joan C.

    2011-01-01

    Reductionistic, misogynistic, and heterosexist views of women's bodies have been often expressed and widely shared, and psychology has not been immune to those views. Second-wave feminist psychologists had plenty of work to do to normalize and destigmatize women's bodies and to point out that cultural pressures, social constructions, and…

  8. Psychological distress, health protection, and sexual practices among young men who have sex with men: Using social action theory to guide HIV prevention efforts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian W Holloway

    Full Text Available The present study addresses gaps in the literature related to theory development for young men who have sex with men (YMSM sexual practices through the application and modification of Social Action Theory. Data come from the Healthy Young Men study (N = 526, which longitudinally tracked a diverse cohort of YMSM ages 18-24 to characterize risk and protective factors associated with drug use and sexual practices. Structural equation modeling examined the applicability of, and any necessary modifications to a YMSM-focused version of Social Action Theory. The final model displayed excellent fit (CFI = 0.955, TLI = 0.947, RMSEA = 0.037 and suggested concordance between social support and personal capacity for sexual health promotion. For YMSM, practicing health promotion and avoiding practices that may put them at risk for HIV was associated with both social isolation and psychological distress (β = -0.372, t = -4.601, p<0.001; psychological distress is an internalized response to environmental and cognitive factors and sexual practices are an externalized response. Results point to the utility of Social Action Theory as a useful model for understanding sexual practices among YMSM, the application of which shows health protective sexual practices are a function of sociocognitive factors that are influenced by environmental contexts. Social Action Theory can help prevention scientists better address the needs of this vulnerable population.

  9. Sexual Stigma, Coping Styles, and Psychological Distress: A Longitudinal Study of Men Who Have Sex With Men in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kyung-Hee; Steward, Wayne T; Miège, Pierre; Hudes, Esther; Gregorich, Steven E

    2016-08-01

    The direct link between stigma against sexual minorities and psychological distress is well established. However, few studies have examined the potential mediating roles of avoidant and social support coping in the relationships between internalized and anticipated stigma associated with homosexuality and depressive symptoms and anxiety among Chinese men who have sex with men (MSM). We recruited a longitudinal sample of 493 MSM in Beijing, China from 2011 to 2012. Participants completed computer-based questionnaires at baseline, 6, and 12 months. We found significant indirect effects of anticipated MSM stigma on symptoms of both depression and anxiety via avoidant coping: anticipated MSM stigma at baseline was significantly associated with avoidant coping (B = 0.523, p stigma, avoidant coping had a significant positive effect on depressive symptoms and anxiety at 12 months (B = 0.069, p = 0.001 and B = 0.071, p = 0.014). In contrast, no significant indirect effects of anticipated MSM stigma on either psychological distress outcome via social support coping were found. No significant indirect effects of internalized MSM stigma via either avoidant or social support coping were found. These results underscore the need for interventions that address anticipations of stigma and the use of avoidant coping techniques to manage such anticipations.

  10. 28 CFR 36.206 - Retaliation or coercion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PUBLIC ACCOMMODATIONS AND IN COMMERCIAL FACILITIES General Requirements § 36.206 Retaliation or coercion... opposed any act or practice made unlawful by this part, or because that individual made a charge... any individual in the exercise or enjoyment of, or on account of his or her having exercised or...

  11. Eos a Universal Verifiable and Coercion Resistant Voting Protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patachi, Stefan; Schürmann, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    Authority. Eos uses two mixing phases with the goal to break the connection between the voter and vote, not to preserve vote privacy (which is given already) but to guarantee coercion resistance by making it (nearly) impossible for a coercer to follow their vote through the bulletin board. Eos...

  12. War related sexual violence and it's medical and psychological consequences as seen in Kitgum, Northern Uganda: A cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Despite the recent adoption of the UN resolution 1820 (2008) which calls for the cessation of war related sexual violence against civilians in conflict zones, Africa continues to see some of the worst cases of war related sexual violence including the mass sexual abuse of entire rural communities particularly in the Great Lakes region. In addition to calling for a complete halt to this abuse, there is a need for the systematic study of the reproductive, surgical and psychological effects of war related sexual violence in the African socio-cultural setting. This paper examines the specific long term health consequences of war related sexual violence among rural women living in two internally displaced person's camps in Kitgum district in war affected Northern Uganda who accessed the services of an Isis-Women's International Cross Cultural Exchange (Isis-WICCE) medical intervention. Methods The study employed a purposive cross-sectional study design where 813 respondents were subjected to a structured interview as part of a screening procedure for an emergency medical intervention to identify respondents who required psychological, gynaecological and surgical treatment. Results Over a quarter (28.6%) of the women (n = 573) reported having suffered at least one form of war related sexual violence. About three quarters of the respondents had 'at least one gynaecological complaint' (72.4%) and 'at least one surgical complaint' (75.6%), while 69.4% had significant psychological distress scores (scores greater than or equal to 6 on the WHO SRQ-20). The factors that were significantly associated with war related sexual violence were the age group of less than or equal to 44 years, being Catholic, having suffered other war related physical trauma, and having 'at least one gynaecological complaint'. The specific gynaecological complaints significantly associated with war related sexual violence were infertility, chronic lower abdominal pain, abnormal vaginal

  13. War related sexual violence and it's medical and psychological consequences as seen in Kitgum, Northern Uganda: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Were-Oguttu Juliet

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the recent adoption of the UN resolution 1820 (2008 which calls for the cessation of war related sexual violence against civilians in conflict zones, Africa continues to see some of the worst cases of war related sexual violence including the mass sexual abuse of entire rural communities particularly in the Great Lakes region. In addition to calling for a complete halt to this abuse, there is a need for the systematic study of the reproductive, surgical and psychological effects of war related sexual violence in the African socio-cultural setting. This paper examines the specific long term health consequences of war related sexual violence among rural women living in two internally displaced person's camps in Kitgum district in war affected Northern Uganda who accessed the services of an Isis-Women's International Cross Cultural Exchange (Isis-WICCE medical intervention. Methods The study employed a purposive cross-sectional study design where 813 respondents were subjected to a structured interview as part of a screening procedure for an emergency medical intervention to identify respondents who required psychological, gynaecological and surgical treatment. Results Over a quarter (28.6% of the women (n = 573 reported having suffered at least one form of war related sexual violence. About three quarters of the respondents had 'at least one gynaecological complaint' (72.4% and 'at least one surgical complaint' (75.6%, while 69.4% had significant psychological distress scores (scores greater than or equal to 6 on the WHO SRQ-20. The factors that were significantly associated with war related sexual violence were the age group of less than or equal to 44 years, being Catholic, having suffered other war related physical trauma, and having 'at least one gynaecological complaint'. The specific gynaecological complaints significantly associated with war related sexual violence were infertility, chronic lower abdominal pain

  14. Integrating psychological theory into the design of an online intervention for sexual health: the sexunzipped website.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carswell, Kenneth; McCarthy, Ona; Murray, Elizabeth; Bailey, Julia V

    2012-11-19

    The Internet can provide a confidential and convenient medium for sexual health promotion for young people. This paper describes the development of an interactive, theory-based website (Sexunzipped) aimed at increasing safe sexual behavior of young people, as well as an outline of the evaluation protocol. The website focuses on safer sex, relationships, and sexual pleasure. An overview of the site is provided, including a description of the theoretical constructs which form the basis of the site development. An integrated behavioral model was chosen as the guiding theory for the Sexunzipped intervention. A randomized trial design will be used to evaluate the site quantitatively. The content of the site is described in detail with examples of the main content types: information pages, quizzes, and decision-making activities. We describe the protocol for quantitative evaluation of the website using a randomized trial design and discuss the principal challenges involved in developing the site, including the challenge of balancing the requirements of theory with young people's views on website content and design. Considerations for future interventions are discussed. Developing an online behavior-change intervention is costly and time consuming. Given the large public health potential, the cost involved in developing online interventions, and the need for attractive design, future interventions may benefit from collaborating with established sites that already have a user base, a brand, and a strong Internet presence. It is vital to involve users in decisions about intervention content, design, and features, paying attention to aspects that will attract and retain users' interest. A central challenge in developing effective Internet-based interventions for young people is to find effective ways to operationalize theory in ways that address the views and perspectives of young people.

  15. "Assault-related shame mediates the association between negative social reactions to disclosure of sexual assault and psychological distress": Correction to Decou et al. (2017).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-01

    Reports an error in "Assault-related shame mediates the association between negative social reactions to disclosure of sexual assault and psychological distress" by Christopher R. DeCou, Trevor T. Cole, Shannon M. Lynch, Maria M. Wong and Kathleen C. Matthews ( Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy , 2017[Mar], Vol 9[2], 166-172). In the article, there was an error in the coding of missing values thus effecting the abstract, Methods, Results, and Discussion sections. The frequency counts for sexual assault victimization, reactions to social disclosure, and assault-related shame were calculated incorrectly due to an error in the coding of missing values, and have been corrected in the description of participants and in the results and discussion sections. In addition, the sample size was incorrectly reported as N = 207, and should have appeared as "N = 208." The sample size and corresponding percentages have been corrected throughout the text. Two transcription errors for the indirect effects via PTSD and global distress were also corrected. These indirect effects were incorrectly reported as "PCL-C; β = .27," and "OQ-45.2;β = .21," and should have appeared as "PCL-C;β = .26," and "OQ-45.2; β = .20." (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2016-43136-001.) Objective: Several studies have identified associations between social reactions to disclosure of sexual assault and psychological distress; however, no studies have evaluated shame as a mediator of this association. This study evaluated assault-related shame as a mediator of the associations between negative social reactions to disclosure of sexual assault and symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and global distress and hypothesized that there would be an indirect effect of social reactions to disclosure upon symptoms of psychopathology via assault-related shame. Participants were 207 female psychology undergraduates who reported past

  16. Investigating sexual problems, psychological distress and quality of life in female patients with Takotsubo cardiomyopathy: A prospective case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffari, Mohsen; Lin, Chung-Ying; Broström, Anders; Mårtensson, Jan; Malm, Dan; Burri, Andrea; Fridlund, Bengt; Pakpour, Amir H

    2017-10-01

    Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TSCM) has detrimental effects on both physical and psychological health of sufferers. However, little is known whether TSCM also affects sexual functioning in female patients. The aim of this study was to investigate psychological distress (depression and anxiety), health-related quality of life, and sexual functioning in women with TSCM and compare them with women with acute myocardial infarction and with healthy controls. A three group prospective case-control design was used. Female patients with TSCM or acute myocardial infarction, as well as healthy controls (94 in each group), were recruited across eight Iranian university hospitals. Data were collected at baseline and after six and 18 months using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Short Form-12, the Female Sexual Function Index and the Female Sexual Distress Scale. Multilevel logistic regression was conducted. The TSCM group showed worst sexual functioning and the highest level of anxiety and depression at baseline ( pquality of life at baseline, which was lower in both groups compared with the healthy controls ( pquality of life showed a significant change over time, especially in the TSCM group, with health-related quality of life decreasing, while anxiety and depression were increasing. Compared with the acute myocardial infarction and healthy control groups, the TSCM group showed a higher prevalence of sexual problems (odds ratios = 3.10 and 2.28, respectively) across time. Moreover, sexual functioning was found to be a mediator between anxiety and health-related quality of life in the TSCM group. Depression, anxiety, health-related quality of life, and sexual dysfunction tend to increase over time in female patients with TSCM; thus, healthcare providers should pay attention to these problems and provide appropriate treatment where necessary.

  17. Psychologic and sexual dysfunction in primary and secondary infertile male patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aytac Sahin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to compare depression and sexual dysfunctions observed in primary and secondary infertile patients. Material and method: The study was performed in 39 primary and 31 secondary infertile male patients. Male sexual health was evaluated using the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF score and depression with Beck Depression Inventory (BDI. Results: Mean age of the participants and their partners were 31.54 ± 5.37 (range, 24-48 yrs, and 28.16 ± 5.58 (range, 20- 46 yrs years, respectively. Mean duration of their marriage ranged between 1 and 17 years (mean, 5.06 ± 4.15 yrs. A statistically significant intergroup difference was detected between groups as for BDI scores (p = 0.015; p < 0. 05. BDI scores of the primary group were significantly lower than those of the secondary group. A statistically and extremely significant difference was detected between IIEF scores of the groups (p = 0.006; p < 0.01. IIEF scores of the primary infertile group were higher than those of the secondary group. Conclusion: Our study, frequency of the depression and erectile dysfunction seen in the patients with secondary infertility was seen significantly higher than the patients with primary infertility.

  18. La psicologización de la sexualidad en Argentina (1900-1970 The Psychologization Of Sexuality In Argentina (1900-1970

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Talak

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo analiza diferentes modos de abordar problemas relacionados con la sexualidad en la Argentina, a través de la conformación de conocimientos que utilizan descripciones y explicaciones en términos psicológicos. Se parte de la hipótesis de que conjuntamente con la medicalización de la sexualidad en Argentina se produjo un proceso de psicologización de la misma. El término psicologización alude a la conformación e implantación extendida de una grilla interpretativa de los problemas humanos en términos psicológicos, y a la mayor presencia de los saberes de las disciplinas psicológicas (en sus relaciones con el psicoanálisis y la psiquiatría en este proceso. Se estudian seis casos desde principios del siglo XX hasta comienzos de la década de 1970, y se utilizan como fuentes artículos y libros de autores argentinos. El trabajo se inscribe en el enfoque de una historia de la psicología entendida como historia de las ideas y de las prácticas.This work analyzes different approaches to problems related to sexuality in Argentina, through the constitution of a knowledge that uses psychological descriptions and explanations. Our main hypothesis affirms along with sexuality medicalization, a process of sexuality psychologization befell. The term psychologization refers to the extended constitution and implantation of an interpreting gird of human problems in psychological terms, and the increasing presence of knowledge from psychological disciplines (in their relations with psychoanalysis and psychiatry in this process. Six cases are studied, from the beginnings of the twentieth century to the seventies decade, using articles and books from argentine authors as sources. This article adopts a history of psychology approach in terms of a history of ideas and practices.

  19. The psychological treatment of sexual abuse in children and adolescents: A meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Sánchez-Meca

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mediante una revisión meta-analítica, este estudio investigó la eficacia de los tratamientos psicológicos para niños y adolescentes que han sufrido abuso sexual. Los criterios de selección fueron cumplidos por 33 artículos con los que, utilizando el grupo como unidad de análisis, se identificaron 44 grupos de tratamiento y 7 grupos de control. El índice del tamaño del efecto fue el cambio estandarizado entre las medias del pretest y del postest, y se calculó éste por separado para diferentes medidas de resultado (conductas sexualizadas, ansiedad, depresión, autoestima, problemas de conducta y otras medidas. El tamaño del efecto medio para los grupos tratados fue estadística y clínicamente significativo con todas las medidas de resultado. Se obtuvo eficacia diferencial entre los distintos tratamientos para el promedio global, las conductas sexualizadas y los problemas de conducta. En general, los tratamientos cognitivoconductuales centrados en el trauma combinados con terapia de apoyo y algún elemento psicodinámico (e.g., terapia de juego obtuvieron los mejores resultados. Por último, se discuten las implicaciones clínicas y para la investigación futura de nuestros resultados en este campo.

  20. It Isn’t All Just Fun and Games: Collegiate Participation in Extracurricular Activities and Risk for Generalized and Sexual Harassment, Psychological Distress, and Alcohol Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinley, Meredith; Rospenda, Kathleen M.; Liu, Li; Richman, Judith A.

    2016-01-01

    Collegiate extracurricular activities, despite their benefits, may place students at an increased risk for experiencing harassment. This study utilizes multiple waves of data from an online longitudinal survey to examine how participation in college activities (intramural sports, fraternities/sororities, school clubs) relates to experiences of sexual and generalized harassment and outcomes (psychological distress, heavy alcohol use) among undergraduates (N = 1852, 58.6% female, 57.4% White) in the Midwestern United States. Activity participation was related to harassment, but the pattern depended on the activity, harassment type, and sex. Fraternity/sorority involvement was associated with generalized harassment, whereas school club involvement was linked to both generalized and sexual harassment. Female intramural athletes were at an increased risk to experience both harassment types. In addition to direct relations, activity participation was indirectly linked to future psychological distress (depression, anxiety) and heavy alcohol use via harassment. Implications for intervention with this college student population are discussed. PMID:27771523

  1. Psychological distress, health protection, and sexual practices among young men who have sex with men: Using social action theory to guide HIV prevention efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Ian W.; Traube, Dorian E.; Schrager, Sheree M.; Tan, Diane; Dunlap, Shannon; Kipke, Michele D.

    2017-01-01

    The present study addresses gaps in the literature related to theory development for young men who have sex with men (YMSM) sexual practices through the application and modification of Social Action Theory. Data come from the Healthy Young Men study (N = 526), which longitudinally tracked a diverse cohort of YMSM ages 18–24 to characterize risk and protective factors associated with drug use and sexual practices. Structural equation modeling examined the applicability of, and any necessary modifications to a YMSM-focused version of Social Action Theory. The final model displayed excellent fit (CFI = 0.955, TLI = 0.947, RMSEA = 0.037) and suggested concordance between social support and personal capacity for sexual health promotion. For YMSM, practicing health promotion and avoiding practices that may put them at risk for HIV was associated with both social isolation and psychological distress (β = -0.372, t = -4.601, pcognitive factors and sexual practices are an externalized response. Results point to the utility of Social Action Theory as a useful model for understanding sexual practices among YMSM, the application of which shows health protective sexual practices are a function of sociocognitive factors that are influenced by environmental contexts. Social Action Theory can help prevention scientists better address the needs of this vulnerable population. PMID:28886128

  2. The Structure of Sexual Harassment: A Confirmatory Analysis across Cultures and Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelfand, Michele J.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Three samples (1,746 U.S. female undergraduates, 389 Brazilian female undergraduates, and 307 female university employees) were used to test a tripartite model of sexual harassment (gender harassment, unwanted sexual attention, and sexual coercion). Results confirm the generalizability of the construct across workplace and education settings and…

  3. It Isn’t All Just Fun and Games: Collegiate Participation in Extracurricular Activities and Risk for Generalized and Sexual Harassment, Psychological Distress, and Alcohol Use

    OpenAIRE

    McGinley, Meredith; Rospenda, Kathleen M.; Liu, Li; Richman, Judith A.

    2016-01-01

    Collegiate extracurricular activities, despite their benefits, may place students at an increased risk for experiencing harassment. This study utilizes multiple waves of data from an online longitudinal survey to examine how participation in college activities (intramural sports, fraternities/sororities, school clubs) relates to experiences of sexual and generalized harassment and outcomes (psychological distress, heavy alcohol use) among undergraduates (N = 1852, 58.6% female, 57.4% White) i...

  4. Psychological injury in victims of child sexual abuse: A meta-analytic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara G. Amado

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to assess the effects of child/adolescent sexual abuse (CSA/ASA on the victim's probability of developingsymptoms of depression and anxiety, to quantify injury in populational terms, to establish theprobability of injury, and to determine the different effects of moderators on the severity of injury, a meta-analysis was performed. Given the abundant literature, only studies indexed in the scientific databaseof reference, the Web of Science, were selected. A total of 78 studies met the inclusion criteria: they measuredCSA/ASA victimization or injury in terms of depression or anxiety symptoms, measured the effectsize or included data for computing them, and provided a description of the sample. The results showedthat CSA/ASA victims suffered significant injury, generally of a medium effect size and generalizable, victimshad 70% more probabilities of suffering from injury, and clinical diagnosis was significantly a moreadequate measure of injury than symptoms. The probability of chronic injury (dysthymia was greaterthan developing more severe injury, i.e., major depressive disorder (MDD. In the category of anxiety disorders,injury was expressed with a higher probability in specific phobia. In terms of the victim's gender,females had significantly higher rates of developing a depressive disorder (DD and/or an anxiety disorder(AD, quantified in a 42% and 24% over the baseline, for a DD and AD respectively. As for the type of abuse,the meta-analysis revealed that abuse involving penetration was linked to severe injury, whereas abusewith no contact was associated to less serious injury. The clinical, social, and legal implications of the resultsare discussed.

  5. Attempted suicide, psychological health and exposure to harassment among Japanese homosexual, bisexual or other men questioning their sexual orientation recruited via the internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidaka, Y; Operario, D

    2006-11-01

    To investigate the rates of attempted suicide and its association with psychological distress, experiences of bullying and verbal harassment, and demographic characteristics among Japanese homosexual, bisexual or other men questioning their sexual orientation. A cross-sectional design using Japanese participants recruited through the internet. Of the 1025 respondents, 154 (15%) of the men reported a history of attempted suicide, 716 (70%) showed high levels of anxiety and 133 (13%) showed high levels of depression. 851 (83%) experienced school bullying and 615 (60%) were verbally harassed because of being perceived by others as homosexual. Independent correlates of attempted suicide were psychological distress, history of being verbally harassed, history of sex with a woman, history of meeting a male through the internet, disclosing sexual orientation to six or more friends and not having a university degree. Mental health services and prevention programmes are needed to deal with the psychological consequences of social stigma for Japanese men who are homosexual, bisexual or questioning their sexual orientation.

  6. Attempted suicide, psychological health and exposure to harassment among Japanese homosexual, bisexual or other men questioning their sexual orientation recruited via the internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidaka, Y; Operario, D

    2006-01-01

    Objective To investigate the rates of attempted suicide and its association with psychological distress, experiences of bullying and verbal harassment, and demographic characteristics among Japanese homosexual, bisexual or other men questioning their sexual orientation. Design A cross‐sectional design using Japanese participants recruited through the internet. Results Of the 1025 respondents, 154 (15%) of the men reported a history of attempted suicide, 716 (70%) showed high levels of anxiety and 133 (13%) showed high levels of depression. 851 (83%) experienced school bullying and 615 (60%) were verbally harassed because of being perceived by others as homosexual. Independent correlates of attempted suicide were psychological distress, history of being verbally harassed, history of sex with a woman, history of meeting a male through the internet, disclosing sexual orientation to six or more friends and not having a university degree. Conclusions Mental health services and prevention programmes are needed to deal with the psychological consequences of social stigma for Japanese men who are homosexual, bisexual or questioning their sexual orientation. PMID:17053285

  7. The United States’ Vulnerability to Coercion by China in the Rare Earths Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-14

    someone or something. By definition, in order to be able to exercise economic coercion, one side has to have market power or monopolistic control...THE UNITED STATES’ VULNERABILITY TO COERCION BY CHINA IN THE RARE EARTHS MARKET A thesis presented to the Faculty of the...TITLE AND SUBTITLE The United States’ Vulnerability to Coercion by China in the Rare Earths Market 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c

  8. Physical, psychological, sexual, and systemic abuse of children with disabilities in East Africa: Mapping the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, Niall; Langer, Laurenz; Geniets, Anne

    2017-01-01

    Children with disabilities (CWDs) are at a higher risk of being maltreated than are typical children. The evidence base on the abuse of children with disabilities living in low- and middle-income countries is extremely limited but the problem is particularly acute in East Africa. We don't know the types of evidence that exist on this topic. This problem is compounded by the fact that key indicators of disability, such as reliable prevalence rates, are not available currently. This paper addresses this serious problem by mapping the existing evidence-base to document the coverage, patterns, and gaps in existing research on the abuse of children with disabilities in East Africa. An evidence map, following systematic review guidelines, was conducted and included a systematic search, transparent and structured data extraction, and critical appraisal. Health and social science databases (Medline, EMBASE, PsychInfo, Taylor&Francis, Web of Science, and SAGE) were systematically searched for relevant studies. A substantive grey literature search was also conducted. All empirical research on the abuse of CWDs in East Africa was eligible for inclusion: Data on abuse was systematically extracted and the research evidence, following critical appraisal, mapped according to the type of abuse and disability condition, highlighting gaps and patterns in the evidence-base. 6005 studies were identified and screened, of which 177 received a full-text assessment. Of these, 41 studies matched the inclusion criteria. By mapping the available data and reports and systematically assessing their trustworthiness and relevance, we highlight significant gaps in the available evidence base. Clear patterns emerge that show a major data gap and lack of research on sexual abuse of children with disabilities and an identifiable lack of methodological quality in many relevant studies. These make the development of a concerted and targeted research effort to tackle the abuse of children with

  9. Physical, psychological, sexual, and systemic abuse of children with disabilities in East Africa: Mapping the evidence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niall Winters

    Full Text Available Children with disabilities (CWDs are at a higher risk of being maltreated than are typical children. The evidence base on the abuse of children with disabilities living in low- and middle-income countries is extremely limited but the problem is particularly acute in East Africa. We don't know the types of evidence that exist on this topic. This problem is compounded by the fact that key indicators of disability, such as reliable prevalence rates, are not available currently. This paper addresses this serious problem by mapping the existing evidence-base to document the coverage, patterns, and gaps in existing research on the abuse of children with disabilities in East Africa. An evidence map, following systematic review guidelines, was conducted and included a systematic search, transparent and structured data extraction, and critical appraisal. Health and social science databases (Medline, EMBASE, PsychInfo, Taylor&Francis, Web of Science, and SAGE were systematically searched for relevant studies. A substantive grey literature search was also conducted. All empirical research on the abuse of CWDs in East Africa was eligible for inclusion: Data on abuse was systematically extracted and the research evidence, following critical appraisal, mapped according to the type of abuse and disability condition, highlighting gaps and patterns in the evidence-base. 6005 studies were identified and screened, of which 177 received a full-text assessment. Of these, 41 studies matched the inclusion criteria. By mapping the available data and reports and systematically assessing their trustworthiness and relevance, we highlight significant gaps in the available evidence base. Clear patterns emerge that show a major data gap and lack of research on sexual abuse of children with disabilities and an identifiable lack of methodological quality in many relevant studies. These make the development of a concerted and targeted research effort to tackle the abuse of

  10. The Scope of Sexual, Physical, and Psychological Abuse in a Bedouin-Arab Community of Female Adolescents: The Interplay of Racism, Urbanization, Polygamy, Family Honor, and the Social Marginalization of Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbedour, Salman; Abu-Bader, Soleman; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Abu-Rabia, Aref; El-Aassam, Salman

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: This is an exploratory study of the abuse--especially sexual--of female adolescents in a conservative and traditional Bedouin-Arab community in southern Israel. The objectives were (1) to examine the rate of sexual abuse, (2) to examine the rate of physical and psychological abuse, and (3) to develop regression models to predict these…

  11. Sexual Regret

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leif Edward Ottesen Kennair

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The current study sought to answer three key questions about explaining the emotion of regret in the domain of casual sex: Are sex differences in sexual regret robust or attenuated in a highly egalitarian culture? What proximate psychological variables might explain sex differences in sexual regret? And what accounts for within-sex variation in experiences of sexual regret about casual sex. We conducted a study of 263 Norwegian students (ages 19–37 who reported how much they regretted having either engaged in, or passed up, their most recent casual sexual experience. Sex differences in sexual regret are not attenuated in this sexually egalitarian culture. The study revealed sex differences in worries about pregnancy, STIs, and reputation; however, these predictors did not succeed in accounting for the sex differences in regret engaging in casual sex. Sexual gratification and socio-sexual orientation both predicted the sex differences in casual sex regret. In contrast, only socio-sexual orientation attenuated the sex difference in regret passing up casual sex. Predictors of within-sex variation in casual sexual regret included worry about sexual reputation, experienced gratification during the encounter, and socio-sexual orientation. Discussion focuses on implications for the psychological design features of this relatively neglected emotion.

  12. A Cultural Sexuality or a Sexual Culture?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vandermeersch, Patrick

    1990-01-01

    P. Vandermeersch, A Cultural Sexuality or a Sexual Culture? In: F. VAN DE VIJVER & G. HUTSCHEMAEKERS (ed.), The Investigation of Culture. Current Issues in Cultural Psychology, Tilburg, Tilburg University Press, 1990, 43-58.

  13. POLITICAL COERCION IN THE REFORMATION ERA IN BULELENG REGENCY IN THE PERSPECTIVE OF CULTURAL STUDIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pande Made Suputra

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available During the reformation era much political coercion took place in Buleleng Regency, Bali.Such political coercion occured repeatedly in the general election referred to as Pemiluconducted in 1999 and 2004, and in the election conducted to directly vote for district headsreferred to as Pilkada in 2007. It is interesting to investigate this phenomenon. The problems inthis study are formulated as follows: (1 what factors causing political coercion to take place inthe general election and in the election conducted to directly vote for district heads; (2 how ittook place; and 3 what ideology leading to it and what implications it had on the socio-cultureof the people living in Buleleng Regency?The practical theory, the theory of coercion and the theory of ideology were eclecticallyadopted to establish and analyze concepts. Qualitative method is employed and the data neededwere collected by observation, in-depth interview, and documentation study.The results of the study show: first, the factors causing political coercion to take placevaried; second, six cases of political coercion in Buleleng Regency did not take place suddenly,but through processes and were related to the cultural coercion inherent within local individualsand groups; third, they took place through semiologic deconstruction related to themeaningfulness provided by the common people and political elites to the ‘pemilu and pilkada’.Thus, the ideologies responsible for political coercion were paternalism, binary opposition ,pragmatism and ‘premanisme’ (the broker of coercion ; fourth, the implications the cases ofpolitical coercion had on the people in Buleleng Regency were: the pattern of kinship becamebroken, the culture of physical coercion shifted to the culture of symbolic and economiccoercion; a new consensus was established.The conclusions withdrawn in this study show that the characteristics of the politicalcoercion taking place in Buleleng Regency during the reformation

  14. The relationship between hegemonic norms of masculinity and men's conceptualization of sexually coercive acts by women in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Erin; Cooper, Diane; Greenbaum, Bryant

    2015-03-01

    While sexual abuse against women and girls in South Africa has generated much deserved attention, the awareness of men's experiences of sexual coercion is limited, and often restricted to a homosexual context. This article illuminates men's experiences of pressurized sex in a heterosexual context, which were revealed in a broader men's sexual health study. Fifty sexual history narrative interviews were conducted with men purposively sampled from three age categories: (18-24, 25-54, and 55+), a wide range of cultural and racial backgrounds, and in urban and rural sites across five provinces in South Africa. Narrative interviews began with accounts of early knowledge of sex and sexual experimentation and explored the range of sexual relationships and experiences through adulthood. The narratives privileged the diversity of men's conceptualizations of and the impact of reportedly sexually coercive experiences by women. Many men described feeling unready for their first sexual experiences but pressured to do so by their peers and female partners, who were often older. There were also some instances of sexual coercion by women against men, some of which would constitute a criminal offense in South Africa. Due to the pressure for men to always be responsive to women's sexual desires, these experiences were often not framed as sexual coercion. Nevertheless, for many of these men, such experiences were uncomfortable and unrewarding. Men's negative responses to such experiences appeared to be linked to the fact that they did not fit social stereotypes of masculine sexuality as being initiative and dominant. Such coercive experiences could influence men's sexual risk-taking, including their use of sexual coercion against women. Research on sexual abuse should not be limited to male against male sexual abuse, but needs to explore the meanings and experiences associated with reported coercion against men by women to more comprehensively prevent and respond to sexual violence

  15. Female youth who sexually coerce: prevalence, risk, and protective factors in two national high school surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjellgren, Cecilia; Priebe, Gisela; Svedin, Carl Göran; Mossige, Svein; Långström, Niklas

    2011-12-01

    Sexual coercion is recognized as a serious societal problem. Correlates and risk factors of sexually abusive behavior in females are not well known. Etiological theory and empirical study of female perpetrators of sexual coercion are usually based on small or highly selected samples. Specifically, population-based data are needed to elucidate risk/protective factors. Main outcome measures include a self-report questionnaire containing 65 items tapping socio-demographic and health conditions, social relations, sexual victimization, conduct problems and a set of normative and deviant sexual cognitions, attitudes, and behaviors. We used a 2003-2004 survey of sexual attitudes and experiences among high school students in Norway and Sweden to identify risk factors and correlates to sexually coercive behavior (response rate 80%); 4,363 females participated (Mean = 18.1 years). Thirty-seven women (0.8%) reported sexual coercion (ever talked someone into, used pressure, or forced somebody to have sex). Sexually coercive compared with non-coercive women were similar on socio-demographic variables, but reported less parental care and more parental overprotection, aggression, depressive symptoms, and substance misuse. Also, sexually coercive females reported more sexual lust, sex partners, penetrative sexual victimization, rape myths, use of violent porn, and friends more likely to use porn. When using the Swedish subsample to differentiate risk factors specific for sexual coercion from those for antisocial behavior in general, we found less cannabis use, but more sexual preoccupation, pro-rape attitudes, and friends using violent porn in sexually coercive compared with non-sex conduct problem females. Sexually coercive behavior in high school women was associated with general risk/needs factors for antisocial behavior, but also with specific sexuality-related risk factors. This differential effect has previously been overlooked, agrees with similar findings in men, and

  16. Caracterización Psicológica de un Grupo de Delincuentes Sexuales Chilenos a través del Test de Rorschach Psychological Profile of Chilean Sexual Offenders through the Rorschach Inkblot Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Jiménez Etcheverría

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Es relevante profundizar en las motivaciones que determinan la conducta criminal e intentar una aproximación a la personalidad de quienes delinquen. Así, este estudio tuvo como objetivo determinar la posible existencia de características psicológicas comunes en un grupo de delincuentes sexuales. Con este propósito se utilizó el Test de Rorschach y, como criterio de comparación, datos de individuos con comisión de un delito de hurto y/o robo y datos estadísticos del Rorschach de referencia nacional. Se encontraron diferencias significativas con ambos grupos, lo que sugiere la existencia de un conjunto de características psicológicas en los delincuentes sexuales que les serían propias y les distinguirían tanto del resto de la población como del resto de los delincuentes comunes.It is relevant to deepen our understanding of the motivations of criminal behaviour and to try to understand such personalities. The objective of this study was to determine if there were underlying psychological characteristics common to sexual offenders. For this purpose, the Rorschach Inkblot test was used and, as comparative parameters, individuals with histories of theft and Chilean national Rorschach statistics. Significant differences were found in both groups, which suggest the existence of underlying common psychological traits in sexual offenders. These traits make them stand out from the general population and from other common delinquents.

  17. [The role of parental support in the relationship between homophobic bullying, internalized homophobia and psychological distress among sexual-minority youths (SMY): a moderated mediation approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, Félix-Antoine; Blais, Martin; Hébert, Martine

    Introduction Sexual-minority youths (SMY) report high rates of psychological distress such as depression, anxiety and suicidal ideation (Burton, Marshal, Chisolm, Sucato et Friedman, 2013; Williams & Chapman, 2011). Several studies confirm that the poor mental health outcomes are partly related to their high likelihood of experiencing homophobic victimization (Blais, Gervais, Boucher, Hébert & Lavoie, 2013; Taylor & Peter, 2011; Hughes, McCabe, Wilsnack, West & Boyd, 2010; Chamberland, Richard & Bernier, 2013). Whereas the development of a positive sexual minority identity is crucial for the mental health of SMY (Chamberland, Richard & Chevrier, 2011; Rosario, Schrimshaw & Hunter, 2011; Luhtanen, 2002), the victimization they experience put them at risk of internalizing societal homophobia and heterosexism (Meyer, 2003; Hatzenbuehler, 2009). It is important to identify variables that may influence the impact of distal and proximal factors that impact SMY's mental health.Objectives The objectives of this paper are 1) to document different forms of homophobic victimization experienced by SMY, according to gender and age, and 2) to test the potential moderating effect of parental support in the relationship between homophobic victimization, internalized homophobia and psychological distress.Method Data come from 228 SMY aged 14 to 22 years old recruited through online means as part of the Quebec Youth's Romantic Relationships Survey. The impact of homophobic victimization, parental support, and internalized homophobia on psychological distress is explored by a linear regression model including moderated mediation effects.Results Results show the relationship between homophobic victimization and psychological distress as well as indirect significant relationship through internalized homophobia. The moderated mediation analysis also confirms the moderating role of parental support in the relationship between homophobic victimization and psychological distress. Thus

  18. Review of Randomized Controlled Trials on Psychological Interventions in Child Sexual Abuse: Current Status and Emerging Needs in the Indian Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Vandana; Satapathy, Sujata; Sagar, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a critical, psychologically traumatic and sometimes life-threatening incident often associated with sequel of adverse physical, behavioral, and mental health consequences. Factors such as developmental age of the child, severity of abuse, closeness to the perpetrator, availability of medico-legal-social support network and family care, gender stereotypes in the community complicate the psychological trauma. Although the research on the effects of CSA as well as psychological intervention to reduce the victimization and promote the mental health of the child is in its infancy stage in India, the global research in the past three decades has progressed much ahead. A search was performed using MEDLINE, PubMed, PsycINFO, and Google Scholar from 1984 to 2015 and only 17 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) out of 96 potentially relevant studies were included. While nonspecific therapies covering a wide variety of outcome variables were prominent till 1999s, the trend changed to specific and focused forms of trauma-focused therapies in next one-and-half decades. Novel approaches to psychological interventions have also been witnessed. One intervention (non-RCT) study on effects on general counseling has been reported from India.

  19. [Psychological harassment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puech, Paloma; Pitcho, Benjamin

    2013-04-01

    Two types of harassment are distinguished: sexual and psychological. In the private sector, according to French labour laws and the penal code, psychological harassment is actionable. It is up to the employer to prove the absence of harassment. The sanctions incurred can be up to 5 years imprisonment and a 150,000 euro fine and various measures of compensation for damages can be envisaged.

  20. Lower Psychological Well-Being and Excessive Sexual Interest Predict Symptoms of Compulsive Use of Sexually Explicit Internet Material Among Adolescent Boys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doornwaard, Suzan M.; van Den Eijnden, Regina J J M; Baams, Laura; Vanwesenbeeck, Ine; Ter Bogt, Tom F M

    2016-01-01

    Although a growing body of literature addresses the effects of young people's use of sexually explicit Internet material, research on the compulsive use of this type of online content among adolescents and its associated factors is largely lacking. This study investigated whether factors from three

  1. Integrating Mixed Method Data in Psychological Research: Combining Q Methodology and Questionnaires in a Study Investigating Cultural and Psychological Influences on Adolescent Sexual Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Anke; Worrell, Marcia; Vögele, Claus

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, combining quantitative and qualitative research methods in the same study has become increasingly acceptable in both applied and academic psychological research. However, a difficulty for many mixed methods researchers is how to integrate findings consistently. The value of using a coherent framework throughout the research…

  2. Sexual offences in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinskou, Marie Bruvik; Schierff, Laura Marie; Ejbye-Ernst, Peter

    addresses the question of a dark figure of crime as well as a supposed hidden population of male victims and is consequently developed as a two-stage survey project. The population of interest is men and women above the age of 18 who potentially are victims of sexual offences. The analysis will initially......During the last years, the question of whether or not Denmark suffers from an increasing culture of violation mirroring incidents of rape and sexual coercion has been a hot topic. Thus, the low number of convictions and the complexities of the reported cases has brought about questions...... rape cases has been questioned. The aim of the paper is to present the actual prevalence of sexual offences in Denmark and to investigate the various forms of offenses and their distributions among men as well as women. Thus, this paper work with a conceptualization of rape having both men and women...

  3. It isn't all just fun and games: Collegiate participation in extracurricular activities and risk for generalized and sexual harassment, psychological distress, and alcohol use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinley, Meredith; Rospenda, Kathleen M; Liu, Li; Richman, Judith A

    2016-12-01

    Collegiate extracurricular activities, despite their benefits, may place students at an increased risk for experiencing harassment. This study utilizes multiple waves of data from an online longitudinal survey to examine how participation in college activities (intramural sports, fraternities/sororities, school clubs) relates to experiences of sexual and generalized harassment and outcomes (psychological distress, heavy alcohol use) among undergraduates (N = 1852, 58.6% female, 57.4% White) in the Midwestern United States. Activity participation was related to harassment, but the pattern depended on the activity, harassment type, and sex. Fraternity/sorority involvement was associated with generalized harassment, whereas school club involvement was linked to both generalized and sexual harassment. Female intramural athletes were at an increased risk to experience both harassment types. In addition to direct relations, activity participation was indirectly linked to future psychological distress (depression, anxiety) and heavy alcohol use via harassment. Implications for intervention with this college student population are discussed. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Moving past powerlessness? An exploration of the heterosexualisation of sexual harassment

    OpenAIRE

    Lazard, Lisa

    2009-01-01

    In exploring the discursive constitution of sexual harassment in academic and participant accounts in my PhD research, the construction of victimhood has been a key concern. The accordance of victim status to recipients of sexual violence has been viewed as critical in challenging normalising constructions of sexual violence as ‘just sex’ (e.g. Burt and Estep, 1981). The legitimisation of victim positionings for recipients of sexual coercion has been treated as particularly important for wome...

  5. Conflict, camps and coercion: the ongoing livelihoods crisis in Darfur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan-Smith, Margie; Jaspars, Susanne

    2007-03-01

    This paper presents the findings of a study commissioned by World Food Programme (WFP) in early 2006 to enhance understanding of how the conflict in Darfur has affected livelihoods and markets, and of the effects of food aid. The livelihoods of many in Darfur were devastated early on in the conflict, principally through the widespread looting or destruction of assets and highly restricted population movements, which struck at the heart of pre-conflict livelihoods. Livelihood strategies for most people are now restricted, poorly remunerated and often associated with high risk of attack. Patterns of coercion and exploitation have also become entrenched; and markets and trade, the lifeblood of Da fur's economy pre-conflict, severely disrupted. Against this backdrop the impact of food aid on livelihoods in Darfur has been overwhelmingly positive. The paper proposes a number of preconditions for investment in recovery in Darfur, and recommends ways in which livelihoods can be supported in the current context of ongoing conflict.

  6. When Push Comes to Shove: A Comparative Concept Analysis of Motivation and Coercion in Nursing Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Valerie N

    2016-07-01

    Understanding the fine line between motivation and coercion in nursing education may offer insight into satisfaction and autonomy in young nursing students, leading to increased retention, effectiveness, and professionalism in the workplace. To compare and analyze the concepts of motivation and coercion with application to nursing academia. Using the Walker and Avant method for concept analyses, definitions and defining attributes of motivation and coercion were identified, along with antecedents, consequences, and model cases for each concept. Comparison of the concepts noting comparative terms and notable differences are presented. The comparison of the concepts of motivation and coercion reveals the stark contrast in the consequences of motivational and coercive power interactions in creating professional, satisfied, and empowered nurses. Nurse educators should seek to identify the best ways to create autonomy, competence, and relatedness in their graduates while minimizing coercive power plays which foster distance and dependence. Miller. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Luck Is Not a Strategy: Inefficient Coercion In Operation Allied Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    not constitute a strategy. B. COERCION There is no shortage of literature on coercion and coercive diplomacy, far beyond the ability of this thesis...reorganized as the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFRY), a federation of six republics: Serbia, Montenegro, Croatia, Slovenia , Macedonia, and...republics overpowered Tito’s brand of communism. In the 1974 constitution of the SFRY, the autonomous provinces of Kosovo and Vojvodina had both been

  8. Force, fraud, and coercion : Bridging from knowledge of intercountry adoption to global surrogacy

    OpenAIRE

    Smith Rotabi, K.

    2014-01-01

    This report discusses concerns raised by participants of Thematic Area 4 (Force, Fraud and Coercion) of the International Forum on Intercountry Adoption and Global Surrogacy held in August 2014. There has been a significant body of research on intercountry adoption practices over the past 30 years; force, fraud, and coercion have been identified in a small but important component of the literature. However, this knowledge in intercountry adoption has not yet truly bridged into research in glo...

  9. Force, fraud, and coercion : Bridging from knowledge of intercountry adoption to global surrogacy

    OpenAIRE

    Smith Rotabi, Karen; Cheney, Kristen

    2014-01-01

    textabstractThis report discusses concerns raised by participants of Thematic Area 4 (Force, Fraud and Coercion) of the International Forum on Intercountry Adoption and Global Surrogacy held in August 2014. There has been a significant body of research on intercountry adoption practices over the past 30 years; force, fraud, and coercion have been identified in a small but important component of the literature. However, this knowledge in intercountry adoption has not yet truly bridged into res...

  10. Cumulative childhood trauma and psychological maladjustment of sexually abused children in Korea: mediating effects of emotion regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ji Young; Oh, Kyung Ja

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of the present study was to identify the mediating effects of emotion regulation on the association between cumulative childhood trauma and behavior problems in sexually abused children in Korea, using structural equation modeling (SEM). Data were collected on 171 children (ages 6-13 years) referred to a public counseling center for sexual abuse in Seoul, Korea. Cumulative childhood traumas were defined on the basis of number of traumas (physical abuse, witnessing domestic violence, neglect, traumatic separation from parent, and sexual abuse) and the severity and duration of traumas. Children were evaluated by their parents on emotion regulation using the Emotion Regulation Checklist and internalizing and externalizing behavior problems using the Korean-Child Behavior Checklist. SEM analyses confirmed the complete mediation model, in which emotion dysregulation fully mediates the relationship between cumulative childhood traumas and internalizing/externalizing behavior problems. These findings indicate that emotion regulation is an important mechanism that can explain the negative effects of cumulative childhood traumas and that there is a need to focus on emotion regulation in sexually abused children exposed to cumulative trauma. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The Physiological and Psychological Effects of Exercise on Sexual Functioning: A Literature Review for Adult Health Education Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiannine, Lia M.; Reio, Thomas G., Jr.

    2018-01-01

    Even with the well-recognized benefits of exercise, levels of physical activity are on the decline, while weight gain levels are increasing. The purpose of this evidence-based literature review was to investigate the relationship between physical fitness, sexual functioning and overall health. There is too little information about these…

  12. Psychological influence on American humanist education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu, L.

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper is meant to outline the modalities in which psychology has influenced humanist education in the USA, starting with a historical background and presenting its major trends: positive psychology, transcendentalism, the trend based on new discoveries in genetics and neurology with special focus on the third force psychology. It encourages self-actualization, enabling students to express themselves, to act, to experiment, to make mistakes, to discover and to self-discover. The major objectives of humanist education work together for free manifestation of human individuality and the elimination of any coercion and oppression which may suppress the individual.

  13. Determinants of unmet needs for healthcare and sexual health counselling among Ugandan university students with same-sex sexuality experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Markus; Ross, Michael W; Tumwine, Gilbert; Agardh, Anette

    2016-01-01

    Research from sub-Saharan Africa has shown that persons with same-sex sexuality experience are at elevated risk for ill health due to sexual risk taking, stigma, and discrimination. However, studies of healthcare seeking among young people in this region with same-sex sexuality experience are limited. To identify determinants of unmet healthcare and sexual health counselling needs, respectively, among Ugandan university students with experience of same-sex sexuality. In 2010, 1,954 Ugandan university students completed a questionnaire assessing socio-demographic factors, mental health, alcohol usage, sexual behaviours, and healthcare seeking. The study population consisted of those 570 who reported ever being in love with, sexually attracted to, sexually fantasised about, or sexually engaged with someone of the same sex. Findings showed that 56% and 30% reported unmet healthcare and sexual health counselling needs, respectively. Unmet healthcare needs were associated with poor mental health and exposure to sexual coercion (OR 3.9, 95% confidence intervals [CI]: 2.7-5.7; OR 2.0, 95% CI: 1.3-3.0, respectively). Unmet sexual health counselling needs were significantly associated with poor mental health (OR 3.2, 95% CI: 2.1-4.8), exposure to sexual coercion (OR 2.6, 95% CI: 1.7-3.9), frequent heavy episodic drinking (OR 3.3, 95% CI: 1.9-5.8), and number of sexual partners (OR 1.9, 95% CI: 1.04-3.3). The associations between poor mental health, sexual coercion, and unmet healthcare needs (AOR 4.2, 95% CI: 2.1-8.5; AOR 2.8, 95% CI: 1.3-5.8) and unmet needs for sexual health counselling (AOR 3.3, 95% CI: 1.6-7.1; AOR 2.7, 95% CI: 1.4-5.4) persisted after adjustment for socio-demographic factors, number of sexual partners, and frequent heavy episodic drinking. These findings indicate that exposure to sexual coercion and poor mental health may influence healthcare seeking behaviours of same-sex sexuality experienced students. Targeted interventions that integrate mental

  14. Determinants of unmet needs for healthcare and sexual health counselling among Ugandan university students with same-sex sexuality experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Larsson

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Research from sub-Saharan Africa has shown that persons with same-sex sexuality experience are at elevated risk for ill health due to sexual risk taking, stigma, and discrimination. However, studies of healthcare seeking among young people in this region with same-sex sexuality experience are limited. Objective: To identify determinants of unmet healthcare and sexual health counselling needs, respectively, among Ugandan university students with experience of same-sex sexuality. Design: In 2010, 1,954 Ugandan university students completed a questionnaire assessing socio-demographic factors, mental health, alcohol usage, sexual behaviours, and healthcare seeking. The study population consisted of those 570 who reported ever being in love with, sexually attracted to, sexually fantasised about, or sexually engaged with someone of the same sex. Results: Findings showed that 56% and 30% reported unmet healthcare and sexual health counselling needs, respectively. Unmet healthcare needs were associated with poor mental health and exposure to sexual coercion (OR 3.9, 95% confidence intervals [CI]: 2.7–5.7; OR 2.0, 95% CI: 1.3–3.0, respectively. Unmet sexual health counselling needs were significantly associated with poor mental health (OR 3.2, 95% CI: 2.1–4.8, exposure to sexual coercion (OR 2.6, 95% CI: 1.7–3.9, frequent heavy episodic drinking (OR 3.3, 95% CI: 1.9–5.8, and number of sexual partners (OR 1.9, 95% CI: 1.04–3.3. The associations between poor mental health, sexual coercion, and unmet healthcare needs (AOR 4.2, 95% CI: 2.1–8.5; AOR 2.8, 95% CI: 1.3–5.8 and unmet needs for sexual health counselling (AOR 3.3, 95% CI: 1.6–7.1; AOR 2.7, 95% CI: 1.4–5.4 persisted after adjustment for socio-demographic factors, number of sexual partners, and frequent heavy episodic drinking. Conclusions: These findings indicate that exposure to sexual coercion and poor mental health may influence healthcare seeking behaviours of

  15. Sexual harassment across the color line: experiences and outcomes of cross- versus intraracial sexual harassment among Black women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Krystle C; Buchanan, Nicole T; Settles, Isis H

    2009-01-01

    The current study examined differences in appraisal, harassment, and severity of posttraumatic stress symptoms among 105 Black women who were sexually harassed by either a White (cross-racial sexual harassment) or a Black man (intraracial sexual harassment). Analyses revealed that women appraised cross-racial more negatively than intraracial harassment, despite there being no significant differences in the likelihood of experiencing gender harassment, unwanted sexual attention, or sexual coercion. Further, cross-racial harassment was more likely to include racialized sexual harassment (harassing behaviors combining race and gender simultaneously) and higher status perpetrators. Finally, cross-racial sexual harassment had an indirect (but not direct) mediated effect on posttraumatic stress via participants' appraisals of their harassment. Specifically, the more negative appraisal associated with cross-racial sexual harassment was associated with increased posttraumatic stress symptoms. In light of these findings, consideration of perpetrator race and racially sexualized behaviors could prove significant additions to current models of sexual harassment.

  16. A Phenomenological Study of Sexual Harassment and Violence among Girls Attending High Schools in Urban Slums, Nairobi, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuya, Benta A.; Onsomu, Elijah O.; Moore, DaKysha; Sagwe, Jackline

    2012-01-01

    In 2003, 31% of young Kenyan women ages 15-24 reported sexual harassment and violence (SHV), with a majority experiencing sexual debut due to coercion (Central Bureau of Statistics, 2004). Data were obtained from a sample of 20 girls attending school in Kamu and Lafamu (pseudonyms used for the study sites), 10 girls who had dropped out of school,…

  17. Beneficial effects of Lepidium meyenii (Maca) on psychological symptoms and measures of sexual dysfunction in postmenopausal women are not related to estrogen or androgen content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Nicole A; Wilcox, Gisela; Walker, Karen Z; Ashton, John F; Cox, Marc B; Stojanovska, Lily

    2008-01-01

    To examine the estrogenic and androgenic activity of Lepidium meyenii (Maca) and its effect on the hormonal profile and symptoms in postmenopausal women. Fourteen postmenopausal women completed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial. They received 3.5 g/day of powered Maca for 6 weeks and matching placebo for 6 weeks, in either order, over a total of 12 weeks. At baseline and weeks 6 and 12 blood samples were collected for the measurement of estradiol, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and sex hormone-binding globulin, and the women completed the Greene Climacteric Scale to assess the severity of menopausal symptoms. In addition, aqueous and methanolic Maca extracts were tested for androgenic and estrogenic activity using a yeast-based hormone-dependent reporter assay. No differences were seen in serum concentrations of estradiol, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and sex hormone-binding globulin between baseline, Maca treatment, and placebo (P > 0.05). The Greene Climacteric Scale revealed a significant reduction in scores in the areas of psychological symptoms, including the subscales for anxiety and depression and sexual dysfunction after Maca consumption compared with both baseline and placebo (P Maca as no physiologically significant activity was observed in yeast-based assays employing up to 4 mg/mL Maca extract (equivalent to 200 mg/mL Maca). Preliminary findings show that Lepidium meyenii (Maca) (3.5 g/d) reduces psychological symptoms, including anxiety and depression, and lowers measures of sexual dysfunction in postmenopausal women independent of estrogenic and androgenic activity.

  18. A female sex offender with multiple paraphilias: a psychologic, physiologic (laboratory sexual arousal) and endocrine case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, A J; Swaminath, S; Baxter, D; Poulin, C

    1990-05-01

    A 20 year old female pedophile exhibiting multiple paraphilias and who had been both a victim of incest and an active participant, undertook extensive clinical, psychometric, endocrine and laboratory sexual arousal studies. Her psychiatric, psychometric and physiologic arousal profiles showed similarities to those of a sizable proportion of male child molesters, especially incestors. It is suggested that laboratory arousal tests (using the vaginal photoplethysmograph) may have a role in the assessment of some female sex offenders.

  19. Sexual prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herek, Gregory M; McLemore, Kevin A

    2013-01-01

    Despite shifts toward greater acceptance in U.S. public opinion and policy, lesbian, gay, and bisexual people remain widely stigmatized. This article reviews empirical research on sexual prejudice, that is, heterosexuals' internalization of cultural stigma, manifested in the form of negative attitudes toward sexual minorities and same-sex desires and behaviors. After briefly reviewing measurement issues, we discuss linkages between sexual prejudice and religion, gender, sexuality, and related variables, and consider how the cultural institutions encompassing these domains create a social context within which individual expressions of prejudice can meet important psychological needs. These include needs for securing social acceptance, affirming values that are central to one's self-concept, and avoiding anxiety and other negative emotions associated with threats to self-esteem. We conclude by discussing factors that may motivate heterosexuals to reduce their own sexual prejudice, including intergroup contact, as well as avenues for future empirical inquiry.

  20. Patients subject to high levels of coercion: staff's understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Len; Wright, Steve; Stewart, Duncan

    2014-05-01

    Measures to keep staff and patients safe (containment) frequently involve coercion. A small proportion of patients is subject to a large proportion of containment use. To reduce the use of containment, we need a better understanding of the circumstances in which it is used and the understandings of patients and staff. Two sweeps were made of all the wards, spread over four hospital sites, in one large London mental health organization to identify patients who had been subject to high levels of containment in the previous two weeks. Data were then extracted from their case notes about their past history, current problem behaviours, and how they were understood by the patients involved and the staff. Nurses and consultant psychiatrists were interviewed to supplement the information from the case records. Twenty-six heterogeneous patients were identified, with many ages, genders, diagnoses, and psychiatric specialities represented. The main problem behaviours giving rise to containment use were violence and self-harm. The roots of the problem behaviours were to be found in severe psychiatric symptoms, cognitive difficulties, personality traits, and the implementation of the internal structure of the ward by staff. Staff's range and depth of understandings was limited and did not include functional analysis, defence mechanisms, specific cognitive assessment, and other potential frameworks. There is a need for more in-depth assessment and understanding of patients' problems, which may lead to additional ways to reduce containment use.

  1. Associations among psychological distress, high-risk activism, and conflict between ethnic-racial and sexual minority identities in lesbian, gay, bisexual racial/ethnic minority adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Carlos E; VanDaalen, Rachel A

    2018-03-01

    In this brief report, we present results from a study exploring the associations of high-risk activism (HRA) orientation in lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) issues; HRA orientation in racial/ethnic issues; conflicts in allegiances (CIA) between one's ethnic-racial and sexual minority identities; and anxiety among LGB racial/ethnic minority adults. A racially and ethnically diverse sample of 208 LGB racial/ethnic minority adults (age: M = 27.52, SD = 8.76) completed an online survey. Bivariate correlations showed that HRA orientation in LGB and in racial/ethnic issues, as well as CIA, were each positively associated with anxiety. However, regression analyses indicated that CIA moderated the association between anxiety and HRA orientation in LGB issues (but not racial/ethnic minority issues) such that this association was significant and positive at low levels of CIA and nonsignificant at high levels of CIA. These findings can be used to not only inform psychological practice with this population (e.g., by encouraging practitioners to be more attentive to these issues as potential sources of stress), but also more broadly, as knowledge that can inform the burgeoning psychological literature on collective action. We highlight, for example, the importance of distinguishing between types of activism (i.e., high- vs. low-risk types) in relation to mental health outcomes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Loneliness and Sexual Dysfunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mijuskovic, Ben

    1987-01-01

    Argues that sexual dysfunctions result from early childhood experiences which were originally nonsexual in nature. Contends that psychological difficulties centered around problems of loneliness tend to generate certain sexual dysfunctions. Extends and explores suggestion that genesis of sexual conflicts is in nonsexual infant separation anxiety…

  3. Risk factors of coercion among psychiatric inpatients: a nationwide register-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Christoffer; Starkopf, Liis; Hastrup, Lene Halling; Andersen, Per Kragh; Nordentoft, Merete; Benros, Michael Eriksen

    2017-08-01

    Reducing the use of coercion among patients with mental disorders has long been a political priority. However, risk factors for coercive measures have primarily been investigated in smaller studies. To reduce the use of coercion, it is crucial to identify people at risk which we aim to do in this first large-scale study. A cohort study was conducted among all psychiatric inpatients in Denmark, following 112,233 individuals during 1999-2014. Data from Danish registers were analysed using logistic regression for repeated measures. 24,594 inpatients were exposed to a coercive measure (21.9%). Clinical characteristics were the foremost predictors of coercion and patients with organic mental disorder had the highest increased risk of being subjected to a coercive measure (OR = 5.56; 95% CI = 5.04, 6.14). The risk of coercion was the highest in the first admission and decreased with the number of admissions (all p < 0.001). The following socioeconomic variables were associated with an increased risk of coercion: male sex, unemployment, lower social class and immigrants from low and middle income countries (all p < 0.001). Early retirement and social relations, such as being married and having children, reduced the risk of being subjected to coercive measure (all p < 0.05). From our nationwide data, we identified a broad range of risk factors associated with coercive measures. Our findings can assist researchers in identifying patients at risk of coercion and thereby help targeting new coercion reduction programs.

  4. [Psychological aspects of induced abortion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouniq, C; Moron, P

    1982-06-01

    Results are presented of a literature review to identify social and psychological aspects of abortion. The literature does not provide a true profile of women requesting abortions, but some characteristics emerge. Reasons for requesting abortion include economic problems, difficult previous pregnancies, general medical contraindications to pregnancy, marital conflicts, feelings of loneliness, professional aspirations, problems with existing children, and feelings of insecurity about the future. However, the same feelings are found among women carrying their pregnancies to term. Unplanned pregnancies are more common during periods of depression. Most authors have found about 1/2 of women seeking abortions to be single and about 1/2 to be under 25 years old. Religion does not appear to be a determining factor. 1 study of psychological factors in abortion seekers found that a large number of single women seeking abortion had suffered traumatic experiences in childhood and were seeking security in inappropriate amorous relationships. Helene Deutsch stressed the destructive impulses latent in all pregnancies. Others have cited the ambivalence of the desire for pregnancy and feelings of loss after abortion. Studies published after legalization of abortion in the US and France however have stressed the nearly total absence of moderate or severe psychiatric symptoms after abortion. Responses immediately after the abortion may include feelings of relief, guilt, indifference, or ambivalence. Secondary affects appear minor to most authors. Psychological effects do not appear to be influenced by age, marital status, parity, intelligence, occupation, existence of a later pregnancy, or concommitant sterilization. "Premorbidity" and coercion by spouse or family were most closely associated with psychological symptoms. Numerous authors have found about twice as many negative reactions among women undergoing abortion for medical reasons. Most patients undergoing abortions for

  5. The scope of sexual, physical, and psychological abuse in a Bedouin-Arab community of female adolescents: The interplay of racism, urbanization, polygamy, family honor, and the social marginalization of women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbedour, Salman; Abu-Bader, Soleman; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J; Abu-Rabia, Aref; El-Aassam, Salman

    2006-03-01

    This is an exploratory study of the abuse-especially sexual-of female adolescents in a conservative and traditional Bedouin-Arab community in southern Israel. The objectives were (1) to examine the rate of sexual abuse, (2) to examine the rate of physical and psychological abuse, and (3) to develop regression models to predict these forms of abuse. : A self-administered survey that measured demographic characteristics and psychological abuse was distributed to 217 female high-school students (aged 14-18 years). Sexual and physical abuse were measured via the Finkelhor's scale [Finkelhor, D. (1979). Sexually victimized children. New York: Free Press]. Sixty-nine percent of the participants (n=149) reported no sexual abuse experiences, 16% reported one or two experiences, 11% reported three or four, and 4% reported more than four. Most participants indicated that they had been physically abused at least once by their father (37.1%), mother (43.7%), or siblings (44%) during the previous month. More than 50% of the participants reported being psychologically abused by members of their immediate families. Mother's age and closeness to mother significantly predicted physical abuse, and marital satisfaction and mother's age significantly predicted psychological abuse. This study addresses a topic that has never before been fully investigated--the maltreatment of females in a conservative, tribal Arab community. Although this was an exploratory study, the results attest that female abuse is a serious social problem in this community, and that the rate of abuse exceeds that of other Palestinian groups. These findings demonstrate an immediate need for professional intervention and prevention to address this problem.

  6. "Treat me with respect". A systematic review and thematic analysis of psychiatric patients' reported perceptions of the situations associated with the process of coercion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tingleff, Ellen B; Bradley, Stephen K; Alkier Gildberg, Frederik

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: There is a lack of research into psychiatric patients' perceptions of coercion that discriminates between different types of coercive measures, while also investigating patients' perceptions of undergoing coercion as a process. This knowledge is required to improve our understanding...

  7. Racial Differences in Pregnancy Intention, Reproductive Coercion, and Partner Violence among Family Planning Clients: A Qualitative Exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holliday, Charvonne N; Miller, Elizabeth; Decker, Michele R; Burke, Jessica G; Documet, Patricia I; Borrero, Sonya B; Silverman, Jay G; Tancredi, Daniel J; Ricci, Edmund; McCauley, Heather L

    Unintended pregnancy (UIP) is a persistent public health concern in the United States disproportionately experienced by racial/ethnic minorities and women of low socioeconomic status. UIP often occurs with experiences of reproductive coercion (RC) and intimate partner violence (IPV). The purpose of the study was to qualitatively describe and compare contexts for UIP risk between low-income Black and White women with histories of IPV/RC. Semistructured interviews were conducted with low-income Black and White women with histories of IPV or RC, ages 18 to 29 years, recruited from family planning clinics in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Interviews with 10 non-Hispanic Black women and 34 non-Hispanic White women (N = 44) were included in the analysis. Differences between White and Black women emerged regarding IPV/RC experiences, gender roles in intimate relationships, and trauma histories, including childhood adversity. Fatal threats and IPV related to childbearing were most influential among White women. Among Black women, pregnancy was greatly influenced by RC related to impending incarceration, subfertility, and condom nonuse, and decisions about contraception were often dependent on the male. Sexual abuse, including childhood sexual assault, in the context of sexual/reproductive health was more prominent among White women. Childhood experiences of neglect impacted pregnancy intention and love-seeking behaviors among Black women. Racial differences exist in experiences of IPV/RC with regard to UIP even among women with similar economic resources and health care access. These findings provide much-needed context to the persistent racial/ethnic disparities in UIP and illustrate influences beyond differential access to care and socioeconomic status. Copyright © 2018 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Health-related quality of life, psychological well-being, and sexual function in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia after prostatic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Pierre W C; Wang, Wenru; Jiang, Ying; Zakir, Hussain Abdul Salam; Toh, Poh Choo; Lopez, Violeta; He, Hong-Gu

    2015-11-01

    Patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) may receive prostatic surgery due to severe lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). This study aimed to investigate the health-related quality of life (HRQoL), psychological well-being, and sexual function of patients with BPH after prostatic surgery and identify the predictors of HRQoL among this group of patients. This was a cross-sectional, descriptive, correlational study. A convenience sample of 94 participants was recruited from a urology center in a tertiary public hospital in Singapore. The 12-item Short Form Health Survey version 2 (SF-12v2), International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), and 5-item International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5) were used to measure the study variables. Compared to the general population norms and the findings of similar studies conducted in western countries, this group of patients reported poorer physical health but better mental health as assessed by SF-12v2. Despite the prostatic surgery, over a quarter of the patients experienced moderate LUTS, and 13.8% experienced severe erectile dysfunction. Multiple linear regression analysis identified that LUTS (B=-0.51, p=0.02) and maximum flow rate (B=-0.23, p=0.02) predicted poor physical health, accounting for 45.9% of variance, while HADS-Anxiety (B=-1.07, p<0.01) and LUTS (B=-0.32, p=0.03) predicted poor mental health, accounting for 57.2% of variance. The physical health of BPH patients with prostatic surgery was poor, with many suffering moderate LUTS and sexual dysfunction. Special attention should be given to those patients with severe LUTS who have a low maximum flow rate or have anxiety symptoms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Patterns of sexual behaviour among secondary school students in Swaziland, southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buseh, Aaron G

    2004-07-01

    Among the many sub-Saharan African countries hardest hit by HIV/AIDS is the Kingdom of Swaziland. In an effort to reduce the spread of HIV, young people are an important group to reach with prevention messages. However, before developing such programmes, it is essential to understand young people's sexual risk behaviours. Students (n=941) from four coeducational secondary schools in Swaziland participated in a cross-sectional survey of sexual behaviours. Results indicate that considerable proportions of young people in this study were sexually experienced, irrespective of gender. Findings also suggest unacceptable high levels of sexual coercion, irrespective of age or gender. While boys may be less likely than girls to experience sexual coercion, being a male in this setting was not a protective factor. No significant differences were found on these variables in relation to location of the schools (rural vs. urban). Implications for developing and implementing HIV prevention programmes are suggested.

  10. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of U.S. Merit Systems Protection Board's Survey of Sexual Harassment: The Fit of a Three-Factor Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockdale, Margaret S.; Hope, Kathryn G.

    1997-01-01

    Factor analysis of data from 1,070 federal employees, 575 undergraduates and 575 graduate students, faculty, and staff uncovered some weaknesses in the Merit Systems Protection Board's sexual harassment survey instrument. This type of survey does not adequately measure sexual coercion or quid pro quo forms of harassment. (SK)

  11. Perceived coercion in inpatients with Anorexia nervosa: Associations with illness severity and hospital course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreyer, Colleen C; Coughlin, Janelle W; Makhzoumi, Saniha H; Redgrave, Graham W; Hansen, Jennifer L; Guarda, Angela S

    2016-04-01

    The use of coercion in the treatment for anorexia nervosa (AN) is controversial and the limited studies to date have focused on involuntary treatment. However, coercive pressure for treatment that does not include legal measures is common in voluntarily admitted patients with AN. Empirical data examining the effect of non-legal forms of coerced care on hospital outcomes are needed. Participants (N = 202) with AN, Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder (ARFID), or subthreshold AN admitted to a hospital-based behavioral specialty program completed questionnaires assessing illness severity and perceived coercion around the admissions process. Hospital course variables included inpatient length of stay, successful transition to a step-down partial hospitalization program, and achievement of target weight prior to program discharge. Higher perceived coercion at admission was associated with increased drive for thinness and body dissatisfaction, but not with admission BMI. Perceived coercion was not related to inpatient length of stay, rate of weight gain, or achievement of target weight although it was predictive of premature drop-out prior to transition to an integrated partial hospitalization program. These results, from an adequately powered sample, demonstrate that perceived coercion at admission to a hospital-based behavioral treatment program was not associated with rate of inpatient weight gain or achieving weight restoration, suggesting that coercive pressure to enter treatment does not necessarily undermine formation of a therapeutic alliance or clinical progress. Future studies should examine perceived coercion and long-term outcomes, patient views on coercive pressures, and the effect of different forms of leveraged treatment. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Personality traits of nurses and organizational climate in relation to the use of coercion in psychiatric wards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlowski, Tomasz; Baranowski, Piotr

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the personality traits of nurses and the organizational climate in psychiatric wards affecting the frequency of the use of coercion. The study applied a descriptive, longitudinal design based on a 1-year prospective observation. The best predictor for the initiation of coercion by nursing personnel was a low score on the Creative Personality Factor Scale in Adjective Check List and the low score in the area of Leadership in Kolb's Organizing Climate Questionnaire (KOQC). The best predictor for decisions to use coercion was the low score in the area Requirements in the KOQC, whereas the best predictors for the participation in coercion were a high value for Leadership area and a low value for Requirements area in KOQC. The nursing personnel should be given frequent practical and theoretical training regarding the use of coercion. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. The legitimate role of advocacy in environmental education: how does it differ from coercion?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Cairns

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This paper examines the controversy in the field of environmental education over the role of advocacy versus presentation of scientific information. The former involves a view of education as process, while the latter perceives education solely as content. Environmental issues involve ethical concerns and value judgments. Scientific information cannot give us the answers to our environmental questions, as these questions have all the inherent complexity of any social issue. Advocacy differs from coercion, bias, and prejudice. Coercion, bias, and prejudice have no place in environmental education, while advocacy for ecological systems does.

  14. Perceived stress, external locus of control, and social support as predictors of psychological adjustment among female inmates with or without a history of sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asberg, Kia; Renk, Kimberly

    2014-01-01

    Given the growing number of women who are incarcerated across the United States, the current study investigated the relationships among female inmates' perceptions of their own stress, external locus of control (LOC), social support adequacy, and various aspects of psychological functioning. Generally, female inmates with a self-reported history of childhood sexual abuse did not differ from their nonabused counterparts on the variables of interest. Results suggested that female inmates' perceptions of higher stress, a higher degree of external LOC, and inadequate social support correlated with greater symptoms of depression and hopelessness as well as lower self-esteem. In regression analyses, stress and social support were significant predictors for depression and anxiety. In contrast, stress was the only significant predictor of hopelessness and self-esteem. Finally, none of the predictors examined here was significant in the prediction of traumatic stress. Overall, findings suggested the importance of stress and social support in the prediction of female inmates' adjustment, specifically their symptoms of depression and anxiety.

  15. Biology of Sexual Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Kumar Mysore Nagaraj

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Sexual activity is a multifaceted activity, involving complex interactions between the nervous system, the endocrine system, the vascular system and a variety of structures that are instrumental in sexual excitement, intercourse and satisfaction. Sexual function has three components i.e., desire, arousal and orgasm. Many sexual dysfunctions can be categorized according to the phase of sexual response that is affected. In actual clinical practice however, sexual desire, arousal and orgasmic difficulties more often than not coexist, suggesting an integration of phases. Sexual dysfunction can result from a wide variety of psychological and physiological causes including derangements in the levels of sex hormones and neurotrensmitters. This review deals with the biology of different phases of sexual function as well as implications of hormones and neurotransmitters in sexual dysfunction

  16. Factors associated with sexual arousal, sexual sensation seeking, and sexual satisfaction among African-American adolescent females

    OpenAIRE

    Sales, Jessica M.; Smearman, Erica; Brody, Gene H.; Milhausen, Robin; Philibert, Robert A.; DiClemente, Ralph J.

    2013-01-01

    Sexuality-related constructs such as sexual arousal, sexual sensation seeking (SSS) and sexual satisfaction have been related to sexual behaviors that place one at risk for adverse consequences such as sexually transmitted infections (STIs), HIV, and unintended pregnancy. The biopsychosocial model posits an array of factors, ranging from social environmental factors, biological, and psychological predispositions that may be associated with these sexuality constructs in adolescent samples. Afr...

  17. Male Violence and Sexual Intimidation in a Wild Primate Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baniel, Alice; Cowlishaw, Guy; Huchard, Elise

    2017-07-24

    Sexual violence occurring in the context of long-term heterosexual relationships, such as sexual intimidation, is widespread across human populations [1-3]. However, its evolutionary origins remain speculative because few studies have investigated the existence of comparable forms of sexual coercion in animals [4, 5], in which repeated male aggression toward a female provides the aggressor with delayed mating benefits [6]. Here, we test whether male aggression toward females functions as sexual coercion in wild chacma baboons (Papio ursinus). We found support for all three main predictions of the sexual coercion hypothesis [7]: male aggression (1) is greatest against cycling females, (2) is costly and represents the main source of injuries for cycling females, and (3) increases male mating success with their victims in the future. Detailed analysis of chronological sequences between aggression and matings ruled out other coercive mechanisms, such as short-term harassment and punishment, by showing that aggression and matings are temporally decoupled. This decoupling may explain why some forms of sexual violence have been largely overlooked in well-studied animal populations despite their likely impact on the fitness of both sexes. Finally, we found no support for alternative hypotheses such as a female preference for aggressive males [8, 9]. This new, detailed study of the forms and intensity of sexual intimidation in a wild primate suggests that it may be widespread across mammalian societies, with important implications for understanding the evolution of mate choice and sexual conflict in mammals, as well as the origins of human sexual violence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. HIV prevention interventions to reduce sexual risk for African Americans: the influence of community-level stigma and psychological processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Allecia E; Dovidio, John F; Ballester, Estrellita; Johnson, Blair T

    2014-02-01

    Interventions to improve public health may benefit from consideration of how environmental contexts can facilitate or hinder their success. We examined the extent to which efficacy of interventions to improve African Americans' condom use practices was moderated by two indicators of structural stigma-Whites' attitudes toward African Americans and residential segregation in the communities where interventions occurred. A previously published meta-analytic database was re-analyzed to examine the interplay of community-level stigma with the psychological processes implied by intervention content in influencing intervention efficacy. All studies were conducted in the United States and included samples that were at least 50% African American. Whites' attitudes were drawn from the American National Election Studies, which collects data from nationally representative samples. Residential segregation was drawn from published reports. Results showed independent effects of Whites' attitudes and residential segregation on condom use effect sizes. Interventions were most successful when Whites' attitudes were more positive or when residential segregation was low. These two structural factors interacted: Interventions improved condom use only when communities had both relatively positive attitudes toward African Americans and lower levels of segregation. The effect of Whites' attitudes was more pronounced at longer follow-up intervals and for younger samples and those samples with more African Americans. Tailoring content to participants' values and needs, which may reduce African Americans' mistrust of intervention providers, buffered against the negative influence of Whites' attitudes on condom use. The structural factors uniquely accounted for variance in condom use effect sizes over and above intervention-level features and community-level education and poverty. Results highlight the interplay of social identity and environment in perpetuating intergroup disparities

  19. Coercion, prohibition and great expectations: The continuing failure of the Common European Asylum System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Heijer, M.; Rijpma, J.; Spijkerboer, T.

    2016-01-01

    This contribution explains the European asylum policy crisis from three structural weaknesses of the Common European Asylum System: its reliance on coercion within the EU, its unrealistic expectations of what borders can achieve and the premise of prohibition of refugee movement in its external

  20. A fear of coercion and accountability? Security officers and the non-use of force

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eski, Y.

    2017-01-01

    Based on fieldwork among operational security officers working in the Hamburg and Rotterdam ports, it became clear these frontline port policing professionals possess a critical, even fearful attitude towards coercion while performing their duties in the ports. The power of arrest and the

  1. The Role of Ethics in Reducing and Improving the Quality of Coercion in Mental Health Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norvoll, Reidun; Hem, Marit Helene; Pedersen, Reidar

    2017-03-01

    Coercion in mental health care gives rise to many ethical challenges. Many countries have recently implemented state policy programs or development projects aiming to reduce coercive practices and improve their quality. Few studies have explored the possible role of ethics (i.e., ethical theory, moral deliberation and clinical ethics support) in such initiatives. This study adds to this subject by exploring health professionals' descriptions of their ethical challenges and strategies in everyday life to ensure morally justified coercion and best practices. Seven semi-structured telephone interviews were carried out in 2012 with key informants in charge of central development projects and quality-assurance work in mental health services in Norway. No facilities used formal clinical ethics support. However, the informants described five areas in which ethics was of importance: moral concerns as implicit parts of local quality improvement initiatives; moral uneasiness and idealism as a motivational source of change; creating a normative basis for development work; value-based leadership; and increased staff reflexivity on coercive practices. The study shows that coercion entails both individual and institutional ethical aspects. Thus, various kinds of moral deliberation and ethics support could contribute to addressing coercion challenges by offering more systematic ways of dealing with moral concerns. However, more strategic use of implicit and institutional ethics is also needed.

  2. Force, fraud, and coercion : Bridging from knowledge of intercountry adoption to global surrogacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Smith Rotabi (Karen); K.E. Cheney (Kristen)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractThis report discusses concerns raised by participants of Thematic Area 4 (Force, Fraud and Coercion) of the International Forum on Intercountry Adoption and Global Surrogacy held in August 2014. There has been a significant body of research on intercountry adoption practices over the

  3. Use of psychotropic medication among inpatients during focused efforts in prevention of coercion and restraint

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højlund, Mikkel; Høgh, Lene; Munk-Jørgensen, Povl

    Objective: Department of Psychiatry in Aabenraa participates in a national Danish project supporting efforts to reduce coercion and restraint in psychiatry. Antipsychotic and anxiolytic medicine is widely used among agitated patients, but is also known to contribute to cardio-vascular disease...

  4. A family planning clinic partner violence intervention to reduce risk associated with reproductive coercion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Elizabeth; Decker, Michele R.; McCauley, Heather L.; Tancredi, Daniel J.; Levenson, Rebecca R.; Waldman, Jeffrey; Schoenwald, Phyllis; Silverman, Jay G.

    2010-01-01

    Background This study examined the efficacy of a family planning clinic-based intervention to address intimate partner violence (IPV) and reproductive coercion. Study Design Four free-standing urban family planning clinics in Northern California were randomized to intervention (trained family planning counselors) or standard-of-care. English-and Spanish-speaking females ages 16-29 years (N=906) completed audio computer-assisted surveys prior to a clinic visit and 12 to 24 weeks later (75% retention rate). Analyses included assessment of intervention effects on recent IPV, awareness of IPV services, and reproductive coercion. Results Among women reporting past 3-month IPV at baseline, there was a 71% reduction in the odds of pregnancy coercion among participants in intervention clinics compared to participants from the control clinics that provided standard of care. Women in the intervention arm were more likely to report ending a relationship because the relationship was unhealthy or unsafe regardless of IPV status (AOR 1.63, 95% CI 1.01 – 2.63). Conclusions Results of this pilot study suggest that this intervention may reduce risk for reproductive coercion from abusive male partners among family planning clients and support such women to leave unsafe relationships. PMID:21310291

  5. Effects of victim presence and coercion in restorative justice: An experimental paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saulnier, Alana; Sivasubramaniam, Diane

    2015-08-01

    There is little experimental work examining the ways in which particular procedural features of restorative justice impact offenders. This research describes a new experimental paradigm designed to advance knowledge about causal relationships in restorative justice settings. Apologizing is a core component of restorative procedures, and can result in beneficial outcomes, but previous research suggests that coercion to apologize and the absence of victims in restorative procedures may negatively impact these outcomes. The experimental procedure elicited confessions and apologies for a transgression from participants (N = 101) in a deceptive paradigm. We manipulated coercion (coerced, not coerced) and victim presence (direct, surrogate, ambiguous) to test their effects on offenders' subjective experiences of offering an apology, as well as their effects on the quality of offenders' apologies. Findings indicated that the victim presence and coercion manipulations significantly impacted some of the subjective perceptions of apologizers, including perceptions of accountability and transgression finality. In addition, independent raters evaluated the degree to which the transgressor's apologies conveyed remorse, acceptance of guilt, and potential for dispute resolution. Victim presence and coercion consistently affected the ability of transgressors to convey high quality apologies. Implications for future research and restorative procedures are discussed. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. How IRBs view and make decisions about coercion and undue influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klitzman, Robert

    2013-04-01

    Scholars have debated how to define coercion and undue influence, but how institutional review boards (IRBs) view and make decisions about these issues in actual cases has not been explored. I contacted the leadership of 60 US IRBs (every fourth one in the list of the top 240 institutions by National Institutes of Health funding), and interviewed 39 IRB leaders or administrators from 34 of these institutions (response rate=55%), and 7 members. IRBs wrestled with defining of 'coercion' and 'undue inducement', most notably in deciding about participant compensation. IRBs often use these terms synonymously and define undue inducement in varying ways, often wrestling with these issues, relying on 'gut feelings', and seeking compromises. Ambiguities arose, partly reflecting underlying tensions: whether subjects should 'get paid' versus 'volunteer' (ie, whether subjects should be motivated by compensation vs altruism), and whether subjects should be paid differently based on income, given possible resultant selection bias. Lack of consistent standards emerged between and even on single IRBs. Questions arose concerning certain aspects and types of studies; for example, how to view and weigh providing free care in research, whether and how recruitment flyers should mention compensation, and how to avoid coercion in paediatric, developing world, or students research. These data, the first to probe qualitatively how IRBs view and approach questions about coercion, undue influence and participant compensation, and to examine how IRBs have reviewed actual cases, reveal several critical ambiguities and dilemmas, and have vital implications for future practice, education, policy and research.

  7. Prevalence of physical, psychological, and sexual abuse among a nationwide sample of Arab high school students: association with family characteristics, anxiety, depression, self-esteem, and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Fayez, Ghenaim A; Ohaeri, Jude U; Gado, Osama M

    2012-01-01

    The objectives were first, to assess the lifetime and 12-month prevalence of physical, psychological, and sexual abuse among a stratified random sample of Kuwaiti high school students and second, to explore the association of child abuse with parental characteristics, subjective quality of life (QOL), self-esteem, anxiety, and depression. We assessed the students for experience of abuse by their mothers, fathers, and others, using standard scales on psychological, physical and sexual abuse. They also completed the short version of the World Health Organization's QOL Instrument; the Rosenberg self-esteem scale, and a scale for anxiety and depression. We obtained responses from 4,467 students (49% boys), mean age 16.9 years. About 18, 15, and 18%, indicated that for at least six times in the past 12 months, they experienced psychological abuse by their mothers, fathers and others, respectively. The corresponding figures for lifetime experience were similar. The respective figures for experience of physical abuse during the past 12 months were 4.3, 5.8, and 6.4%. For lifetime experience, the corresponding figures were 3.4, 5.3, and 5.8%. The girls had significantly higher physical/psychological abuse scores. There were no significant gender differences in the prevalence of sexual attacks (8.6%) and someone threatening the subjects with sex (5.9%). The prevalence of someone sexually exposing themselves to the students (15.3%) and unwanted touching of sexual parts (17.4%) was significantly higher among the boys. Over one-third of those abused had experienced multiple abuses. Child abuse was significantly associated with parental divorce, diminished QOL and self-esteem, high scores on anxiety/depression, and difficulty with studies, and social relationships. In the regression analysis involving only the abuse indices, psychological abuse by mothers was the most important predictor of depression, anxiety, and self-esteem (11.5-19.7% of variance). Good quality of

  8. Men and Sexual Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Adult male survivors of childhood sexual abuse. Counseling Psychology Quarterly, 8, 233-241. Garnefski, N., & Diekstra, R. ... Protections Site Index USA.gov White House Inspector General QUICK LIST Apply for Benefits Apply for Health ...

  9. Idade e distúrbios psicológicos: variáveis associadas à disfunção sexual no período pós-infarto Age and psychologic disorders: variables associated to post-infarction sexual dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Janussi Vacanti

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: As informações sobre a disfunção sexual (DS após o infarto do miocárdio (IM são esparsas, principalmente em nosso meio e em relação aos seus preditores. Avaliamos pacientes de ambos os sexos, com vida sexual ativa e sem disfunção sexual prévia ao IM, para estudar a incidência de DS após o IM, e identificar as possíveis variáveis associadas às mesmas. MÉTODOS: Estudamos consecutivamente 43 pacientes, utilizando questionários estruturados para diagnóstico das DS e dos distúrbios psicológicos (DP. Analisamos a influência dos fatores de risco clássicos para aterosclerose, dos DP e do uso de medicamentos na ocorrência de DS até o sexto mês após o IM. RESULTADOS: Após o IM, 91% dos pacientes reiniciaram a atividade sexual. Vinte e seis pacientes (60% apresentaram disfunção sexual até o 6º mês da alta hospitalar (9 com ejaculação precoce, 15 com disfunção erétil e 20 com desejo sexual hipoativo. Os pacientes com DP apresentaram disfunção sexual em maior freqüência que aqueles sem DP (100%x47%, p=0,001. O grupo com disfunção sexual era significativamente mais velho que o grupo sem disfunção sexual: 53±8,9 anos versus 47±8,7 anos (p=0,04. CONCLUSÃO: Os pacientes apresentaram significativa redução da freqüência da atividade sexual e elevada incidência de DS após o infarto agudo do miocárdio. A presença de DP e a idade mais elevada estiveram associadas à maior incidência de DS após o infarto.OBJECTIVE: Data on sexual disfunction (SD after myocardial infarction (MI are sketchy, especially in our community and in regard to predictors. Both males and females, with active sexual life and no sexual dysfunction prior to MI were evaluated in order to investigate SD incidence after MI, as well as to identify the possible variables associated. METHODS: Forty-three patients were studied consecutively, through structured questionnaires for SD and psychological disorders (PD diagnosis. The

  10. Sexuality in Perimenopausal and Postmenopausal Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morokoff, Patricia J.

    1988-01-01

    Reviews psychological and biological aspects of effects of menopause on sexuality. Discusses population studies revealing that postmenopausal status is associated with decline in some components of sexual functioning. Notes that little research has examined psychological response to menopause and its effect on sexual functioning. Research on…

  11. The "Right" Sexuality for Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Sharon

    2008-01-01

    Feminist researchers in psychology and education have been theorizing about the kind of sexuality girls ought to have. They are not afraid to investigate morality and what makes a good life. While they explore the meaning and cultural context of girls' sexual development, the good sexual life they describe may be an elusive ideal that, in the end,…

  12. [Physiology and physiopathology of sexuality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuzin, Béatrice

    2016-01-01

    From desire to orgasm, sexuality, in women and men, is underpinned by a complex organic, psychological and emotional function. Sexual dysfunction encompasses diverse aetiologies, including chronic diseases and iatrogenesis resulting from medication or surgery. The effects of a chronic disease can have an impact on all phases of the sexual response. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Sexuality, intimacy, and gynecological cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijmar Schultz, W.C.M.; van de Wiel, H.B.M.

    2003-01-01

    On a psychological level, not all changes in sexual functioning following gynecological cancer treatment automatically lead to sexual problems or dysfunctions. Whether sexual dissatisfaction occurs will also depend on personal factors, social factors, and the context in which these negative changes

  14. Frequency and severity of sexual harassment in pharmacy practice in Ohio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broedel-Zaugg, K; Shaffer, V; Mawer, M; Sullivan, D L

    1999-01-01

    To determine the frequency and severity of sexual harassment in the pharmacy workplace for both male and female pharmacists, and to identify: (1) instigators, (2) places of occurrence, and (3) pharmacists' responses. Mailed survey using elements of the Sexual Experience Questionnaire (SEQ). One repeat mailing to nonrespondents. Community pharmacies, hospital pharmacies, other pharmacies in the state of Ohio. 789 randomly selected pharmacists registered in Ohio. Not applicable. Amount of gender harassment, unwanted sexual attention, and sexual coercion; differences in occurrences of sexual harassment between men and women; identification of instigators as colleagues, patients, or supervisors; identification of place of occurrence as community pharmacy, hospital pharmacy, or elsewhere; pharmacists' responses and reactions. After two mailings, 265 usable surveys were returned for a response rate of 34%. Women differed significantly from men in total occurrences of sexual harassment, with men reporting 183 instances of sexual harassment and women reporting 281 such experiences. Instigators were colleagues (43%), patients (30%), and superiors (27%). Men reported 143 experiences of unwanted sexual attention, whereas women reported 272 such occurrences. Colleagues were responsible for 47% of instances of unwanted sexual attention, patients were responsible for 37%, and superiors 16%. No significant differences were found between men and women in total number of occurrences of sexual coercion. Sexual harassment in the workplace has been experienced by both male and female pharmacists. Women experienced more hostile work environment harassment than did men. However, quid pro quo harassment did not differ significantly between the sexes.

  15. Development of "Long Live Love+," a School-Based Online Sexual Health Programme for Young Adults. An Intervention Mapping Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mevissen, Fraukje E. F.; van Empelen, Pepijn; Watzeels, Anita; van Duin, Gee; Meijer, Suzanne; van Lieshout, Sanne; Kok, Gerjo

    2018-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a Dutch online programme called "Long Live Love+" focusing on positive, coercion-free relationships, contraception use, and the prevention of STIs, using the Intervention Mapping (IM) approach. All six steps of the approach were followed. Step 1 confirmed the need for a sexual health programme…

  16. Targeting couple and parent-child coercion to improve health behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith Slep, Amy M; Heyman, Richard E; Mitnick, Danielle M; Lorber, Michael F; Beauchaine, Theodore P

    2018-02-01

    This phase of the NIH Science of Behavior Change program emphasizes an "experimental medicine approach to behavior change," that seeks to identify targets related to stress reactivity, self-regulation, and social processes for maximal effects on multiple health outcomes. Within this framework, our project focuses on interpersonal processes associated with health: coercive couple and parent-child conflict. Diabetes and poor oral health portend pain, distress, expense, loss of productivity, and even mortality. They share overlapping medical regimens, are driven by overlapping proximal health behaviors, and affect a wide developmental span, from early childhood to late adulthood. Coercive couple and parent-child conflict constitute potent and destructive influences on a wide range of adult and child health outcomes. Such interaction patterns give rise to disturbed environmental stress reactivity (e.g., disrupted sympathetic nervous and parasympathetic nervous systems) and a wide range of adverse health outcomes in children and adults, including dental caries, obesity, and diabetes-related metabolic markers. In this work, we seek to identify/develop/validate assays assessing coercion, identify/develop and test brief interventions to reduce coercion, and test whether changes in coercion trigger changes in health behaviors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Coercion in the Evolution of Plant-Microbe Communication: A Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, S L; Norman, J S; Friesen, M L

    2018-06-06

    Plants and microbes are dependent on chemical signals as a means of interkingdom communication. There are two predicted paths for the evolution of these signals. Ritualization is the oft-assumed pathway for the evolution of plant-microbe communication systems. In this process, chemical signals, which benefit both receiver and sender, evolve from chemical cues, which benefit only the receiver. However, plant-microbe signaling may evolve from coercive interactions as well, a process known as sensory manipulation. Here, we aim to highlight the prevalence of coercive interactions and discuss sensory manipulation in the context of plant-microbe interactions. We present two examples of stabilized coercion: microbial coercion of plants via the release of phytohormones and plant coercion of microbes via manipulation of quorum-sensing compounds. Furthermore, we provide an evolutionary framework for the emergence of signaling from coercive plant-microbe interactions through the process of sensory manipulation. We hope that researchers will recognize the relevance of coercive interactions in plant-microbe systems and consider sensory manipulation as a plausible evolutionary trajectory for the emergence of plant-microbe signaling.

  18. Independent Contributions of Early Positive Parenting and Mother-Son Coercion on Emerging Social Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akcinar, Berna; Shaw, Daniel S

    2018-06-01

    In the current study, we explored associations between parent-child coercion and positive parenting in the toddler period in relation to children's social-behavioral development during the school-age period. The data were drawn from the Pitt Mother & Child Project, a sample of 310 low-income, ethnically diverse boys. Drawing on tenets of both attachment and social learning theory, it was hypothesized that coercive mother-son interaction would lead to reductions in positive maternal parenting in the toddler period, and that both positive parenting and mother-son coercion in the toddler period would contribute to children's conduct problems at school entry and lower social skills and peer rejection in middle childhood. The results were largely confirmed, such that mother-son coercive interaction at 18 months was related to decreases in positive parenting at 24 months. Additionally, mother-son coercive interaction and positive parenting at 24 months were linked to child conduct problems at age 5, which in turn predicted child social skills and peer rejection during middle childhood. In addition to indirect effects through child conduct problems, mother-son coercion continued to be independently related to school-age peer rejection. The findings are discussed with respect to the importance of early coercive interactions in the growth of child social-behavioral development from early to middle childhood.

  19. Child sexual abuse in Zaria, North

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof Ezechukwu

    2012-02-07

    Feb 7, 2012 ... psychological trauma of sexual abuse, which manifests as major stress and ... to have been sexually active in their adolescence, which highlights some ... presentation in the clinic was 14 days, however three cases presented ...

  20. Psychosocial and sexual aspects of female circumcision

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    S. Abdel-Azim

    Sexual behavior is a result of interaction of biology and psychology. Sexual excitement of the female can be triggered by stimulation of erotogenic areas; part of which is the clitoris. Female ... Cultural traditions and social pressures can.

  1. [Sexuality after breast cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alder, Judith; Bitzer, Johannes

    2010-03-01

    Sexual complaints are an often reported complication of breast cancer treatment, however still under diagnosed and rarely subject of oncologic counseling. The etiology is multifactorial: predisposing factors, triggers and maintaining factors can be identified on a somatic, psychological and social-interactional level. Accordingly, the development of the therapeutic approach is based on the identification and, where possible, modification or compensation of those factors which explain and maintain the sexual problems. Most often, loss of appetence is being reported, however, as it may develop secondary to sexual pain (dyspareunia) which is partly due to lack of lubrication as a consequence of therapy induced hormonal changes, the entire sexual interaction as well as sexual experiences since diagnosis and treatment should be systematically assessed. For treatment, vaginal atrophy, climacteric symptoms and, most importantly, the psychological and relational adjustment process to illness induced changes have to be considered.

  2. Attachment and personality predicts engagement in sexual harassment by male and female college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mènard, Kim S; Shoss, Naomi E; Pincus, Aaron L

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine a trait model of personality (Five-Factor Model) as a mediator of the relationship between attachment styles and sexually harassing behavior in a sample of male (N = 148) and female (N = 278) college students. We found that gender (male) and low Agreeableness predicted engaging in sexual harassment and all three of its subtypes; gender harassment, unwanted sexual attention, and sexual coercion. Further, low Conscientiousness predicted overall sexual harassment, gender harassment, and unwanted sexual attention. Personality traits mediated the relationship between insecure attachment styles (Preoccupation with Relationships and Relationships as Secondary) and sexually harassing behaviors. Thus, factors beyond gender can help predict students' propensity to sexually harass others.

  3. Discursive Psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molder, te H.F.M.

    2016-01-01

    Discursive psychology examines how psychological issues are made relevant and put to use in everyday talk. Unlike traditional psychological perspectives, discursive psychology does not approach the question of what psychology comprises and explains from an analyst's perspective. Instead, the focus

  4. How Statewide LGB Policies Go From “Under Our Skin” to “Into Our Hearts”: Fatherhood Aspirations and Psychological Well-Being Among Emerging Adult Sexual Minority Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Researchers have noted increasingly the public health importance of addressing discriminatory policies towards lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) populations. At present, however, we know little about the mechanisms through which policies affect LGB populations’ psychological well-being; in other words, how do policies get under our skin? Using data from a study of sexual minority young men (N = 1,487; M = 20.80 (SD = 1.93); 65 % White; 92 % gay), we examined whether statewide bans (e.g., same-sex marriage, adoption) moderated the relationship between fatherhood aspirations and psychological well-being. Fatherhood aspirations were associated with lower depressive symptoms and higher self-esteem scores among participants living in states without discriminatory policies. In states with marriage equality bans, fatherhood aspirations were associated with higher depressive symptoms and lower self-esteem scores, respectively. Fatherhood aspirations were associated negatively with self-esteem in states banning same-sex and second parent adoptions, respectively. Our findings underscore the importance of recognizing how anti-equality LGB policies may influence the psychosocial development of sexual minority men. PMID:24233971

  5. How statewide LGB policies go from ‘‘under our skin’’ to ‘‘into our hearts’’: fatherhood aspirations and psychological well-being among emerging adult sexual minority men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauermeister, José A

    2014-08-01

    Researchers have noted increasingly the public health importance of addressing discriminatory policies towards lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) populations. At present, however, we know little about the mechanisms through which policies affect LGB populations’ psychological well-being; in other words, how do policies get under our skin? Using data from a study of sexual minority young men (N = 1,487; M = 20.80 (SD = 1.93); 65% White; 92% gay), we examined whether statewide bans (e.g., same-sex marriage, adoption) moderated the relationship between fatherhood aspirations and psychological well-being. Fatherhood aspirations were associated with lower depressive symptoms and higher self-esteem scores among participants living in states without discriminatory policies. In states with marriage equality bans, fatherhood aspirations were associated with higher depressive symptoms and lower self-esteem scores, respectively. Fatherhood aspirations were associated negatively with self-esteem in states banning same-sex and second parent adoptions, respectively. Our findings underscore the importance of recognizing how anti-equality LGB policies may influence the psychosocial development of sexual minority men.

  6. Sexual activity and aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni Lochlainn, Mary; Kenny, Rose Anne

    2013-08-01

    Sexuality is an important component of emotional and physical intimacy that men and women experience throughout their lives. Research suggesting that a high proportion of men and women remain sexually active well into later life refutes the prevailing myth that aging and sexual dysfunction are inexorably linked. Age-related physiological changes do not render a meaningful sexual relationship impossible or even necessarily difficult. Many of these physiological changes are modifiable. There are various therapeutic options available to patients to achieve maximum sexual capacity in old age. This article reviews the prevalence of sexual activity among older adults, the problems these adults encounter with sexual activity, and the role of the health care professional in addressing these problems. The physiological sex-related changes that occur as part of the normal aging process in men and women are reviewed, as well as the effect of age-related physical and psychological illness on sexual function. The attitudes and perceptions of the media and general public toward sexual activity and aging are summarized. An understanding of the sexual changes that accompany the aging process may help general practitioners and other doctors to give practical and useful advice on sexuality as well as refute the misconception that aging equates to celibacy. A thorough awareness of this aspect of older people's quality of life can raise meaningful expectations for aging patients. Copyright © 2013 American Medical Directors Association, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Human sexual response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basson, Rosemary

    2015-01-01

    The human sexual response to sexually arousing stimuli is a motivational incentive-based cycle comprising subjective experience and physiologic changes. Clinical and empirical data support a circular model of overlapping phases of variable order. Brain imaging data of sexual arousal identify areas of cerebral activation and inhibition reflecting a complex network of cognitive, motivational, emotional, and autonomic components. Psychologic and biologic factors influence the brain's appraisal and processing of sexual stimuli to allow or disallow subsequent arousal. The sexual and non-sexual outcomes influence motivation to future sexual intimacy. Variability is marked both between individuals and within a person's sexual life, influenced by multiple factors, including stage of life cycle, mental health, and relationship happiness. Neurologic disease can interrupt the cycle at many points: by limiting motivation, reducing ability to attend to and feel sexual stimuli, and accomplishing the movements needed to stimulate and experience intercourse. Impairments to genital congestion, penile erection, and orgasm may also occur. Disease-associated changes to the interpersonal relationship and self-image plus frequently comorbid depression will tend to lessen motivation and temper the brain's appraisal of sexual stimuli, so precluding arousal. Therapy begins by explaining the sexual response cycle, clarifying the points of interruption in the patient's own cycle so as to guide treatment. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Paradigm Shift: Implementing "MEGA," a New Tool Proposed to Define and Assess Sexually Abusive Dynamics in Youth Ages 19 and Under

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Lucinda A.; Miccio-Fonseca, L. C.

    2007-01-01

    Previous definitions of sexually abusive behavior in children and adolescents were deficient in failing to (1) highlight salient neuropsychological elements and antisocial behaviors that may contribute to a youth's functioning; (2) discriminate among possible types of coercion (e.g., manipulation, threats, physical force, and use of weapons); and…

  9. Childhood Sexual Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evrim Aktepe

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Sexual abuse is defined as use of child or adolescent by the adults for satisfying of sexual urges and needs with forcing, threatening or tricking. Sexual abuse can be in the form of sexual abuse without touch, sexual touch, interfemoral intercourse, sexual penetration, and sexual exploitation. The prevalence of sexual abuse is reported as 10-40%. It is seen in female four times more than in males. Abusers are frequently male, only 5-15% of them are female. The abuse by females is usually towards male child. Thirty-fifty percent of abuse cases among child and adolescent are outside the family including strangers or familiar person. Some features of abusers are introvert personality, pedophilic and antisocial personality. Most of the abusers have a history of sexual abuse or aggression during childhood. Sexual intercourse between two people who are not allowed to marry by law is called as incest. Family pattern of incest is defined globally as disorganized and dysfunctional. The most commonly reported familial pattern is rigid and patriarchal family pattern with a harsh father using force quite frequently. The clinical features and impacts of the sexual abuse on the child varies according to the relation between abusers and the child, form of abuse, duration of abuse, presence of physical assault, developmental phase, child age and psychological development before the abuse. Sexual abuse history may result in psychiatric disorders including anxiety, depression, substance dependence, suicide act, borderline personality disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder. Abuse negatively affects interpersonal relationships and self esteem of abused individuals. Several studies reported close association between risky sexual behaviors in adulthood and a history of of sexual abuse during childhood. Four traumatic dynamics including traumatic sexuality with abuse, feeling of betrayal, weakness, and stigmatization exist in childhood abuse. Trauma can cause

  10. Between reason and coercion: ethically permissible influence in health care and health policy contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenthal-Barby, J S

    2012-12-01

    In bioethics, the predominant categorization of various types of influence has been a tripartite classification of rational persuasion (meaning influence by reason and argument), coercion (meaning influence by irresistible threats-or on a few accounts, offers), and manipulation (meaning everything in between). The standard ethical analysis in bioethics has been that rational persuasion is always permissible, and coercion is almost always impermissible save a few cases such as imminent threat to self or others. However, many forms of influence fall into the broad middle terrain-and this terrain is in desperate need of conceptual refining and ethical analysis in light of recent interest in using principles from behavioral science to influence health decisions and behaviors. This paper aims to address the neglected space between rational persuasion and coercion in bioethics. First, I argue for conceptual revisions that include removing the "manipulation" label and relabeling this space "nonargumentative influence," with two subtypes: "reason-bypassing" and "reason-countering." Second, I argue that bioethicists have made the mistake of relying heavily on the conceptual categories themselves for normative work and instead should assess the ethical permissibility of a particular instance of influence by asking several key ethical questions, which I elucidate, that relate to (1) the impact of the form of influence on autonomy and (2) the relationship between the influencer and the influenced. Finally, I apply my analysis to two examples of nonargumentative influence in health care and health policy: (1) governmental agencies such as the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) trying to influence the public to be healthier using nonargumentative measures such as vivid images on cigarette packages to make more salient the negative effects of smoking, and (2) a physician framing a surgery in terms of survival rates instead of mortality rates to influence her patient to consent to

  11. Psychological distress and symptoms among patients attending ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The study was carried out to investigate the manifestations of psychological distress and symptoms among individuals receiving treatment for sexually transmitted diseases and to compare them with individuals who were not suffering from sexually transmitted diseases. Methods: Patients attending the sexually ...

  12. Crossing the Threshold From Porn Use to Porn Problem: Frequency and Modality of Porn Use as Predictors of Sexually Coercive Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Ethan A; Miller, Holly A; Bouffard, Jeff A

    2017-11-01

    According to recent statistics, as many as one in five female college students are victims of sexual assault during their college career. To combat what has been called the "Campus Rape Crisis," researchers have attempted to understand what variables are associated with sexually coercive behaviors in college males. Although investigators have found support for the relationship between pornography consumption and sexually coercive behavior, researchers typically operationalize pornography use in terms of frequency of use. Furthermore, frequency of use has been assessed vaguely and inconsistently. The current study offered a more concrete assessment of frequency of use and an additional variable not yet included for pornography use: number of modalities. Beyond examining the relationship between pornography use and sexual coercion likelihood, the current study was the first to use pornography variables in a threshold analysis to test whether there is a cut point that is predictive of sexual coercion likelihood. Analyses were conducted with a sample of 463 college males. Results indicated that both pornography use variables were significantly related to a higher likelihood of sexually coercive behaviors. When both frequency of use and number of modalities were included in the model, modalities were significant and frequency was not. In addition, significant thresholds for both pornography variables that predicted sexual coercion likelihood were identified. These results imply that factors other than frequency of use, such as number of modalities, may be more important for the prediction of sexual coercive behaviors. Furthermore, threshold analyses revealed the most significant increase in risk occurred between one modality and two, indicating that it is not pornography use in general that is related to sexual coercion likelihood, but rather, specific aspects of pornography use.

  13. Do Research Intermediaries Reduce Perceived Coercion to Enter Research Trials Among Criminally Involved Substance Abusers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Festinger, David S; Dugosh, Karen L; Croft, Jason R; Arabia, Patricia L; Marlowe, Douglas B

    2011-01-01

    We examined the efficacy of including a research intermediary (RI) during the consent process in reducing participants' perceptions of coercion to enroll in a research study. Eighty-four drug court clients being recruited into an ongoing study were randomized to receive a standard informed consent process alone (standard condition) or with an RI (intermediary condition). Before obtaining consent, RIs met with clients individually to discuss remaining concerns. Findings provided preliminary evidence that RIs reduced client perceptions that their participation might influence how clinical and judicial staff view them. This suggests that using RIs may improve participant autonomy in clinical studies.

  14. Ethical challenges in connection with the use of coercion. A focus group study of health care personnel in mental health care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hem, M.H.; Molewijk, A.C.; Pedersen, R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: In recent years, the attention on the use of coercion in mental health care has increased. The use of coercion is common and controversial, and involves many complex ethical challenges. The research question in this study was: What kind of ethical challenges related to the use of

  15. Men pressured and forced into sexual experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struckman-Johnson, C; Struckman-Johnson, D

    1994-02-01

    A predominantly heterosexual sample of 204 college men were asked to report incidents of pressured or forced sexual touch or intercourse since age 16. About 34% indicated they had received coercive sexual contact: 24% from women, 4% from men, and 6% from both sexes. Contact involved only sexual touching for 12% and intercourse for 22%. Sexual contact was pressured in 88% of the 81 reported incidents by tactics of persuasion, intoxication, threat of love withdrawal, and bribery. In 12% of the incidents, sexual contact was forced through physical restraint, physical intimidation, threat of harm, or harm. Contact was initiated by an acquaintance or intimate in 77% of incidents. The negative emotional impact of male contact was rated significantly higher than the impact of female contact. Men with and without coercion experience did not differ, however, for scale scores on sexual esteem, depression, and preoccupation. Interviews with 10 subjects revealed complex reactions to coercive male and female contact, including doubts about one's sexuality, resentment of unexpected or forceful contact, and fear of telling others about the event.

  16. Hypoactive sexual desire disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, Sonia L

    2012-08-01

    Hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) is the most prevalent female sexual dysfunction, with estimates of prevalence approximating 10%. By definition it is a deficiency of sexual desire that causes distress. HSDD has no single cause, but physiological, psychological and socio-cultural factors underpinning female sexual desire may all be important in its development. Medical therapeutic strategies to date have concentrated on modulation of hormone levels, particularly androgen administration, yet few products have been approved for the treatment of HSDD in developed countries. More recent medical targets have included agents with 5-hydroxytryptamine agonist activity. Psychological therapeutic approaches have been infrequently studied but concentrate on cognitive behavioural therapy. HSDD is an evolving diagnosis, the existence of which has been questioned by some critics. Whilst HSDD remains the subject of ongoing research, its title and definition are under debate as a new edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of the American Psychiatric Association approaches publication in 2012.

  17. [Adolescence and sexuality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjellberg, G

    2006-03-22

    Different pathological states occurring during adolescence, such as anorexia, bulimia and suicidal attempts are seen as possible manifestations of psychological defence mechanisms against the anxiety-provoking bodily changes of puberty and the necessary psychological transformations inherent to adolescence and sexual maturation. The changes of object of desire and some sexual risk behaviours are illustrated by clinical vignettes. Music is suggested to play a role in the mobilisation of emotions, bodily sensations and in the construction of an imaginary world and thus to be a factor--a part from biological and psycho-social ones--influencing the sexual behaviour of adolescents. Some communication techniques are suggested enabling access to adolescents on sexual matters - a domain of increasing public health importance.

  18. A meta-analytic review of gender differences in perceptions of sexual harassment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotundo, M; Nguyen, D H; Sackett, P R

    2001-10-01

    Research on gender differences in perceptions of sexual harassment informs an ongoing legal debate regarding the use of a reasonable person standard instead of a reasonable woman standard to evaluate sexual harassment claims. The authors report a meta-analysis of 62 studies of gender differences in harassment perceptions. An earlier quantitative review combined all types of social-sexual behaviors for a single meta-analysis; the purpose of this study was to investigate whether the magnitude of the female-male difference varies by type of behavior. An overall standardized mean difference of 0.30 was found, suggesting that women perceive a broader range of social-sexual behaviors as harassing. However, the meta-analysis also found that the female-male difference was larger for behaviors that involve hostile work environment harassment, derogatory attitudes toward women, dating pressure, or physical sexual contact than sexual propositions or sexual coercion.

  19. The Sexual Health of Transgender Men: A Scoping Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Rob; Riley, Erin; Rogers, Erin; Suarez, Nicolas; Metheny, Nick; Senda, Jonathan; Saylor, Kate M; Bauermeister, José A

    There is a general paucity of research concerning the sexual health of transgender individuals, and most existing research focuses on transgender women. A scoping review concerning the sexual health of transgender men was conducted to identify gaps in the literature and to highlight opportunities for future research and intervention. A comprehensive search of seven databases was conducted. The Joanna Briggs Institute Reviewers' Manual was used as a framework. Some 7,485 articles were initially identified using a search strategy applied to seven online databases: 54 articles were identified as relevant to the research questions and reviewed in detail; of those, 33 were included in the final analysis. Studies were conceptualized into four broad themes: sexual behaviors, sexual identity, sexual pleasure and sexual function, and transactional sex. Besides an overall lack of research, existing studies were often characterized by small convenience samples that do not allow for generalization to the larger population of transgender men. Significant gaps in the literature regarding sexual coercion, sexual and intimate partner violence, and relationship quality and functioning among transgender men exist. There is a need to improve the scope and depth of research examining the sexual health of this population, especially concerning sexual risk behaviors and structural barriers to sexual health care access.

  20. Perceptions of coercion in the community: a qualitative study of patients in a Danish assertive community treatment team

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, Marie Høgh; Morthorst, Britt; Nordentoft, Merete

    2010-01-01

    conducted with six purposefully selected patients and analysed using thematic analysis. Patients reported lack of influence on treatment process and a poor alliance with case-mangers, not being recognised as an autonomous person, and experiences of staff crossing the line and intruding privacy, as most...... central to perceptions of coercion. A collaborative and mutually trusting relationship, commitment, persistence and availability of staff, and recognition of the need for social support and help with everyday activities, were most important for counteracting such experiences. Perceptions of coercion were...

  1. Intimate Partner Violence Perpetration by Court-Ordered Men: Distinctions among Subtypes of Physical Violence, Sexual Violence, Psychological Abuse, and Stalking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jeffrey E.; Walters, Mikel L.; Basile, Kathleen C.

    2012-01-01

    This study continues previous work documenting the structure of violence perpetrated by males against their female intimate partners. It assesses the construct validity of a measurement model depicting associations among eight subtypes of perpetration: moderate physical violence, severe physical violence, forced or coerced sexual violence, sexual…

  2. Evaluations of sexual assault: perceptions of guilt and legal elements for male and female aggressors using various coercive strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Brenda L; Oswald, Debra L; Kraus, Shane W

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the extent to which verdict, guilt, and legal components associated with jury instructions of sexual assault differ as a function of aggressor gender, participant gender, and sexual strategy used (consensual, verbal coercion, alcohol, or physical aggression) to obtain sex. Participants (N = 423; 276 women and 147 men) read a vignette depicting either a couple having consensual sex (control), or a male or female aggressor who initiates sexual intercourse via verbal coercion, use of alcohol, or physical abuse. College students were provided with legal instructions of sexual assault then asked to provide a verdict, degree of guilt, and legal components. Female participants rated guilt and coercion higher than did male participants. Ratings of guilt were highest in the physical assault condition followed by the alcohol, verbal, and control conditions. Female aggressors were rated less guilty than male aggressors. Results are explained in relation to sexual scripts and legal decision making. Lack of significance in verdict decisions and interaction effects suggests male and female aggressors are evaluated similarly using coercive strategies; yet, consent for sex was assumed and attributions of guilt was lower when the aggressor was female. Implications for jury instructions and future research are discussed.

  3. Sexual Assault

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Professions Indian Health Careers Indian Preference Loan Repayment Military Transition Student ... Sexual Assault Sexual assault is a significant problem affecting American Indians and Alaska Natives. Sexual assault ...

  4. Coercion, dissatisfaction, and social stigma: an ethnographic study of compensated living kidney donation in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry-Revere, Sigrid; Chen, Deborah; Bastani, Bahar; Golestani, Simin; Agarwal, Rachana; Kugathasan, Howsikan; Le, Melissa

    2018-02-26

    This article updates the qualitative research on Iran reported in the 2012 article by Tong et al. "The experiences of commercial kidney donors: thematic synthesis of qualitative research" (Tong et al. in Transpl Int 25:1138-1149, 2012). The basic approach used in the Tong et al. article is applied to a more recent and more comprehensive study of Iranian living organ donors, providing a clearer picture of what compensated organ donation is like in Iran since the national government began regulating compensated donation. Iran is the only country in the world where kidney selling is legal, regulated, and subsidized by the national government. This article focuses on three themes: (1) coercion and other pressures to donate, (2) donor satisfaction with their donation experience, and (3) whether donors fear social stigma. We found no evidence of coercion, but 68% of the paid living organ donors interviewed felt pressure to donate due to extreme poverty or other family pressures. Even though 27% of the living kidney donors interviewed said they were satisfied with their donation experience, 74% had complaints about the donation process or its results, including some of the donors who said they were satisfied. In addition, 84% of donors indicated they feared experiencing social stigma because of their kidney donation.

  5. Etiological correlates of vaginismus: sexual and physical abuse, sexual knowledge, sexual self-schema, and relationship adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reissing, Elke D; Binik, Yitzchak M; Khalifé, Samir; Cohen, Deborah; Amsel, Rhonda

    2003-01-01

    This study investigated the role of sexual and physical abuse, sexual self-schema, sexual functioning, sexual knowledge, relationship adjustment, and psychological distress in 87 women matched on age, relationship status, and parity and assigned to 3 groups--vaginismus, dyspareunia/vulvar vestibulitis syndrome (VVS), and no pain. More women with vaginismus reported a history of childhood sexual interference, and women in both the vaginismus and VVS groups reported lower levels of sexual functioning and a less positive sexual self-schema. Lack of support for traditionally held hypotheses concerning etiological correlates of vaginismus and the relationship between vaginismus and dyspareunia are discussed.

  6. Sexual Adjustment in the Handicapped

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Dorothea D.; Padrone, Frank J.

    1978-01-01

    Major topics discussed include introduction and background of the growing recognition of sexual feelings and concerns of the handicapped, attitudes and assumptions resulting from lack of information for both the handicapped and the various disciplines that serve them, medical and psychological aspects of sexual response, and services for the…

  7. Fibromyalgia and sexual problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Scarpellini

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review was to describe the recent literature concerning sexual dysfunction in fibromyalgic patients. To this end, we used the common online databases PubMed, MEDLINE and EMBASE (up to June 2012 and searched for the key words fibromyalgia (FM and sexual dysfunction. All the studies examined underlined that FM is strictly associated with sexual dysfunction in women. The major findings observed were related to a decreased sexual desire and arousal, decreased experience of orgasm, and in some studies an increase in genital pain. The psychological aspects, together with the stress related to the constant presence of chronic widespread pain, fatigue and sleep disturbances, are certainly a major factor that adversely affects the sexuality of the patient with FM. Moreover, the drugs most commonly used in these cases may interfere negatively on the sexuality and sexual function of these patients. Therefore, the therapeutic intervention should be targeted and the side effects should be weighed up against the positive effects. It is of the utmost importance to recognise the problem of sexuality and sexual dysfunction in a more complex form of its expression and undertake a multidisciplinary therapeutic intervention to improve the quality of FM patients’ life.

  8. The importance of feeling sexually attractive: Can it predict an individual's experience of their sexuality and sexual relationships across gender and sexual orientation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amos, Natalie; McCabe, Marita

    2017-10-01

    Limited research exists on the implications of feeling sexually attractive for various aspects of sexuality and sexual relationships. This article examined associations between self-perceived sexual attractiveness and sexual esteem, sexual satisfaction and amount of sexual experience, among both men and women who identified as heterosexual (n = 1017), gay or lesbian (n = 1225) or bisexual (n = 651). Results of the study demonstrated that positive self-perceptions of sexual attractiveness predicted greater sexual esteem, greater sexual satisfaction, a higher frequency of sexual activity with others and a larger number of sexual partners among both men and women who identified as heterosexual, gay, lesbian or bisexual. The findings suggest that feeling sexually attractive may have implications for how an individual experiences their sexuality and sexual relationships regardless of their gender or sexual orientation. The importance of considering an individual's self-perceptions of sexual attractiveness when they present with concerns related to their sexual experiences or relationships, and the potential benefits of educational and therapeutic interventions designed to enhance self-perceptions of sexual attractiveness are discussed. © 2015 International Union of Psychological Science.

  9. Perceptions of coercion in the community: a qualitative study of patients in a Danish assertive community treatment team

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, Marie Høgh; Morthorst, Britt; Nordentoft, Merete

    2010-01-01

    Assertive community treatment (ACT) has been claimed to be paternalistic and coercive, yet little is known about how patients experience the assertive aspects of ACT. To explore views on--and perceptions of--coercion of patients in Danish assertive community teams. In-depth interviews were...

  10. Psychosocial and sexual aspects of female circumcision

    OpenAIRE

    S. Abdel-Azim

    2013-01-01

    Sexual behavior is a result of interaction of biology and psychology. Sexual excitement of the female can be triggered by stimulation of erotogenic areas; part of which is the clitoris. Female circumcision is done to minimize sexual desire and to preserve virginity. This procedure can lead to psychological trauma to the child; with anxiety, panic attacks and sense of humiliation. Cultural traditions and social pressures can affect as well the unexcised girl. Female circumcision can reduce fem...

  11. Sexual Objectification of Women: Clinical Implications and Training Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymanski, Dawn M.; Carr, Erika R.; Moffitt, Lauren B.

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on the implications of theory and empirical research on the sexual objectification of women. Drawing largely from the American Psychological Association's 2007 "Guidelines for Psychological Practice With Girls and Women," the 2007 "Report of the American Psychological Association's Task Force on the Sexualization of Girls,"…

  12. Men's sex-dominance inhibition: do men automatically refrain from sexually dominant behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefer, Amy K; Sanchez, Diana T

    2007-12-01

    Men receive conflicting messages about their sexual roles in heterosexual relationships. Men are socialized to initiate and direct sexual activities with women; yet societal norms also proscribe the sexual domination and coercion of women. The authors test these competing hypotheses by assessing whether men inhibit the link between sex and dominance. In Studies 1a and b, using a subliminal priming procedure embedded in a lexical decision task, the authors demonstrate that men automatically suppress the concept of dominance following exposure to subliminal sex primes relative to neutral primes. In Studies 2 and 3, the authors show that men who are less likely to perceive sexual assertiveness as necessary, to refrain from dominant sexual behavior, and who do not invest in masculine gender ideals are more likely to inhibit dominant thoughts following sex primes. Implications for theories of automatic cognitive networks and gender-based sexual roles are discussed.

  13. Parenting in females exposed to intimate partner violence and childhood sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, Anna E; Cranston, Christopher C; Shadlow, Joanna O

    2012-01-01

    Child sexual abuse and intimate partner violence may have a significant impact on parenting. The current study expands on existing research by examining the effects of child sexual abuse and intimate partner violence on parenting styles and parenting self-efficacy. In women from a parenting intervention program (n = 20), child sexual abuse was related to lower parenting self-efficacy and more permissive parenting. In women at a domestic violence shelter (n = 45), child sexual abuse was related to current sexual coercion of the partner, and authoritative parenting was related to higher parenting self-efficacy. These results indicate that having a history of child sexual abuse should be taken into consideration when dealing with mothers in violent relationships.

  14. The impact of coercion on services from the perspective of mental health care consumers with co-occurring disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanhope, Victoria; Marcus, Steven; Solomon, Phyllis

    2009-02-01

    Disengagement from services by people with serious mental illnesses continues to be a major challenge for the mental health system. Assertive community treatment combined with Housing First services is an intervention targeted toward consumers whom the system has failed to engage. The processes involved in engaging and maintaining consumers in mental health services play an important role but remain an understudied aspect of the intervention. This study examined the social interaction between consumers and case managers from the perspective of consumers. Seventy service contacts between unique consumer-case manager dyads were sampled. Consumers with co-occurring serious mental illness and substance use disorders completed interviews after each service contact. They provided information on sociodemographic characteristics, service contact characteristics, consumer-provider relationship, utilization of coercive strategies, perceived coercion, and service contact evaluation. Multivariate regression analyses examined the association of consumer-provider relationship and perceived coercion with service contact evaluation. Consumer-provider relationship was negatively associated with perceived coercion (effect size=.08). Perceived coercion was negatively associated with service contact evaluation (effect size=.34). Perceived coercion was positively associated with time in the program (effect size=.17) and negatively associated with length of the service contact (effect size=.14). Effect sizes ranging from .08 to .34 are typically considered small to medium. Findings demonstrate that for consumers, a positive response to service contacts indicated that they did not feel coerced. With consumers whose connection to services is tenuous, an immediate positive response to service contacts may be vital to maintain engagement. Research is needed to identify supportive case manager strategies that facilitate relationship building.

  15. Ways of explaining sexual harassment: motivating, enabling and legitimizing processes

    OpenAIRE

    Diehl, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation aims to contribute to a comprehensive explanation of sexual harassment by the investigation of three social-psychological processes, which seem to crucially contribute to the etiology of sexual harassment: motivation to sexually harass (e.g., power or sexuality), enabling processes (e.g., through diverse situational cues), and legitimization of sexually harassing behavior (e.g., by applying myths about sexual harassment). By consolidating these three processes into one multi...

  16. Adolescent Sexuality and Positive Well-Being: A Group-Norms Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrangalova, Zhana; Savin-Williams, Ritch C.

    2011-01-01

    The link between adolescent sexual activity and psychological well-being is a controversial issue in developmental psychology. This cross-sectional study investigated the association between three aspects of teenage sexuality (genital sexual experience, age of sexual onset, and number of sex partners) and positive well-being (hedonic, eudaimonic,…

  17. Talking Gender and Sexuality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This edited volume brings together scholars from psychology, linguistics, sociology and communication science to investigate how performative notions of gender and sexuality can be fruitfully explored with the rich set of tools that have been developed by conversation analysis and discursive...... psychology for analysing everyday practical language use, agency and identity in talk. Contributors re-examine the foundations of earlier research on gender in spoken interaction, critically appraise this research to see if and how it 'translates' successfully into the study of sexuality in talk, and promote...... innovative alternatives that integrate the insights of recent feminist and queer theory with qualitative studies of talk and conversation. Detailed empirical analyses of naturally occurring talk are used to uncover how gender and sexual identities, agencies and desires are contingently accomplished...

  18. Burden of Sexual Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balon, Richard

    2017-01-02

    Similar to the burden of other diseases, the burden of sexual dysfunction has not been systematically studied. However, there is growing evidence of various burdens (e.g., economic, symptomatic, humanistic) among patients suffering from sexual dysfunctions. The burden of sexual dysfunction has been studied a bit more often in men, namely the burden of erectile dysfunction (ED), premature ejaculation (PE) and testosterone deficiency syndrome (TDS). Erectile dysfunction is frequently associated with chronic conditions such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and depression. These conditions could go undiagnosed, and ED could be a marker of those diseases. The only available report from the United Kingdom estimated the total economic burden of ED at £53 million annually in terms of direct costs and lost productivity. The burden of PE includes significant psychological distress: anxiety, depression, lack of sexual confidence, poor self-esteem, impaired quality of life, and interpersonal difficulties. Some suggest that increase in female sexual dysfunction is associated with partner's PE, in addition to significant interpersonal difficulties. The burden of TDS includes depression, sexual dysfunction, mild cognitive impairment, and osteoporosis. One UK estimate of the economic burden of female sexual dysfunctions demonstrated that the average cost per patient was higher than the per annum cost of ED. There are no data on burden of paraphilic disorders. The burden of sexual dysfunctions is underappreciated and not well studied, yet it is significant for both the patients and the society.

  19. Sexuality after breast cancer: cultural specificities of Tunisian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the changes in sexual life after treatment of ... to be involved in sexual satisfaction of Tunisian women after breast cancer. ... counseling to maintain and enhance patient's psychological well-being.

  20. Sport and male sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgrò, P; Di Luigi, L

    2017-09-01

    The relationships between sport and sexuality in males are of great social and clinical interest, because of sports and motor activities that highly promote social and sexual relationships. Even if few literature exist, two main questions should be taken into account: whether and how physical exercise and sport positively or negatively influence sexual health and behavior and/or whether and how sexual behavior may affect a sub-sequent sport performance. Physical exercise and sport per se can influence, positively or negatively, the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis function and, consequently, the individual's reproductive and/or sexual health. This depends on individual factors such as genetic and epigenetic ones and on different variables involved in the practice of sport activities (type of sport, intensity and duration of training, doping and drug use and abuse, nutrition, supplements, psychological stress, allostatic load, etc.). If well conducted, motor and sport activities could have beneficial effects on sexual health in males. Among different lifestyle changes, influencing sexual health, regular physical activity is fundamental to antagonize the onset of erectile dysfunction (ED). However, competitive sport can lead both reproductive and/or sexual tract damages and dysfunctions, transient (genital pain, hypoesthesia of the genitalia, hypogonadism, DE, altered sexual drive, etc.) or permanent (hypogonadism, DE, etc.), by acting directly (traumas of the external genitalia, saddle-related disorders in cyclists, etc.) or indirectly (exercise-related hypogonadism, drug abuse, doping, stress, etc.). Sexual activities shortly performed before a sport competition could differently influence sport performance. Due to the few existing data, it is advisable to avoid an absolute pre-competition sexual abstinence.

  1. Sexual Violence Victimization and Associations with Health in a Community Sample of Hispanic Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    BASILE, KATHLEEN C.; SMITH, SHARON G.; WALTERS, MIKEL L.; FOWLER, DAWNOVISE N.; HAWK, KATHRYN; HAMBURGER, MERLE E.

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to add to the limited information currently available on circumstances of sexual violence victimization and associated negative health experiences among Hispanic women. Data come from a community sample of mostly Mexican women in an urban southwestern city. Household interviews were completed with a sample of 142 women during 3 months in 2010. Findings indicate that 31.2% of women reported rape victimization and 22.7% reported being sexually coerced in their lifetime. Victims of rape and/or sexual coercion were significantly more likely to report symptoms of depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) during their lifetime. Among victims whose first unwanted sexual experience resulted in rape and/or sexual coercion, perpetrators were almost always someone known to the victims, and were mostly family members or intimate partners, depending on the victim’s age. About one-fifth of victims were injured and 17.1% needed medical services. These findings suggest the need for more attention to the physical and mental health needs of sexually victimized Hispanic women. PMID:26752978

  2. A prospective investigation of the impact of childhood sexual abuse on the development of sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noll, Jennie G; Trickett, Penelope K; Putnam, Frank W

    2003-06-01

    The sexual attitudes and activities of 77 sexually abused and 89 comparison women (mean age = 20.41, SD = 3.38) were assessed 10 years after disclosure in a longitudinal, prospective study of the long-term effects of childhood sexual abuse. Abused participants were more preoccupied with sex, younger at first voluntary intercourse, more likely to have been teen mothers, and endorsed lower birth controlefficacy than comparison participants. When psychological functioning earlier in development was examined, sexual preoccupation was predicted by anxiety, sexual aversion was predicted by childhood sexual behavior problems, and sexual ambivalence (simultaneous sexual preoccupation and sexual aversion) was predicted by pathological dissociation. Findings also indicate that biological father abuse may be associated with greater sexual aversion and sexual ambivalence.

  3. Theoretical Orientation to Sexual Harassment at Work Place

    OpenAIRE

    Hemalatha, Dr K; Sundaresh, Noopura

    2013-01-01

    To understand the complexity of sexual harassment it requires more complex models but the general problem in the models of sexual harassment in the literature today is their over simplicity. The research paper examines three existing models of sexual harassment from the literature- the psychological model, the organizational model, and the socio-cultural model. From the psychological models, the author examines the impact that "attitudes towards women" has upon the presence of sexual harassme...

  4. Sexual Assertiveness Mediates the Effect of Social Interaction Anxiety on Sexual Victimization Risk among College Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schry, Amie R.; White, Susan W.

    2013-01-01

    Sexual victimization is prevalent among college women and is associated with adverse psychological consequences. Social anxiety, particularly related to interpersonal interaction, may increase risk of sexual victimization among college women by decreasing sexual assertiveness and decreasing the likelihood of using assertive resistance techniques.…

  5. La Psicología Jurídica en el ámbito hospitalario: las prácticas profesionales y la dimensión simbólico-imaginaria en relación a los delitos/derechos sexuales The Juridic Psychology in the hospitality ambit: the professional practice and imaginary-symbolic dimension in relation to the sexual crimes/rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matilde de la Iglesia

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Esta presentación se enmarca en el: UBACYT P423, 2008/10, Análisis de la práctica de la psicología jurídica en relación a los delitos contra la integridad sexual (ley 25087/99 y los derechos sexuales. Dimensiones institucional-organizacional, simbólico-imaginaria e histórico-genealógica. Dirección: Lic. Matilde de la Iglesia. Un abordaje simbólico-imaginario de las prácticas profesionales de la Psicología Jurídica en el ámbito hospitalario ha develado algunos de los imaginarios que conviven y subyacen a las mismas en relación a los delitos y los derechos sexuales. En el ejercicio de dichas prácticas se reproducen las múltiples discriminaciones que sufren aquellos individuos con una identidad sexual o una expresión de género diferente a la hegemónica, como la de aquellos que se han visto vinculados a un delito contra la integridad sexual. En todos los casos se fundamentan las acciones de dichos individuos en términos de "perversión", sin poder discriminar las acepciones del término, con fuerte preeminencia de la sanción moral sobre la ética profesional.This communication forms part of the work of the research group UBACYT P423, 2008/10, Analysis of the practice on legal psychoanalysis in relation to crimes against sexual integrity (law 25087/99 and sexual rights: organisational-institutional, symbolic-imaginary and genealogical-historical dimensions. Director: Matilde de la Iglesia. The symbolic-imaginary approach on Legal Psychology within hospitals has shown some of the imaginaries underlying in these practices as regards sexual offences and sexual rights. In the exercise of these practices, multiple discriminations are reproduced towards those with a sexual identity, a gender expression or who have been related to sexual offenses. In all cases, the actions carried out by these individuals are considered in terms of "perversion", even though the term cannot be defined in its multiple definitions, showing a strong

  6. Preventing compulsory admission to psychiatric inpatient care: Perceived coercion, empowerment and self-reported mental health functioning after 12 months of preventive monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Barbara eLay; Barbara eLay; Thekla eDrack; Marco eBleiker; Silke eLengler; Christina eBlank; Wulf eRössler; Wulf eRössler; Wulf eRössler

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate effects of a preventive monitoring program targeted to reduce compulsory re-hospitalization and perceived coercion in patients with severe mental disorder. We analyze patient outcomes in terms of perceived coercion, empowerment and self-reported mental health functioning at 12 months. Methods: The program consists of individualized psycho-education, crisis cards and, after discharge from the psychiatric hospital, a 24-month preventive monitoring. In total, 238 psychiatr...

  7. Ethical challenges in connection with the use of coercion: a focus group study of health care personnel in mental health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hem, Marit Helene; Molewijk, Bert; Pedersen, Reidar

    2014-12-04

    In recent years, the attention on the use of coercion in mental health care has increased. The use of coercion is common and controversial, and involves many complex ethical challenges. The research question in this study was: What kind of ethical challenges related to the use of coercion do health care practitioners face in their daily clinical work? We conducted seven focus group interviews in three mental health care institutions involving 65 multidisciplinary participants from different clinical fields. The interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. We analysed the material applying a 'bricolage' approach. Basic ethical principles for research ethics were followed. We received permission from the hospitals' administrations and all health care professionals who participated in the focus group interviews. Health care practitioners describe ethical dilemmas they face concerning formal, informal and perceived coercion. They provide a complex picture. They have to handle various ethical challenges, not seldom concerning questions of life and death. In every situation, the dignity of the patient is at stake when coercion is considered as morally right, as well as when coercion is not the preferred intervention. The work of the mental health professional is a complicated "moral enterprise". The ethical challenges deserve to be identified and handled in a systematic way. This is important for developing the quality of health care, and it is relevant to the current focus on reducing the use of coercion and increasing patient participation. Precise knowledge about ethical challenges is necessary for those who want to develop ethics support in mental health care. Better communication skills among health care professionals and improved therapeutic relationships seem to be vital. A systematic focus on ethical challenges when dealing with coercion is an important step forward in order to improve health care in the mental health field.

  8. A qualitative analysis of the temptation to use force in sexual relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schewe, Paul A; Adam, Najma M; Ryan, Kathryn M

    2009-01-01

    College males completed a survey that asked open-ended questions concerning instances in which they might have been tempted to use force to obtain sexual contact with another person. Participants also completed Malamuth's (1989a, 1989b) Attraction to Sexual Aggression scale, Mosher and Sirkin's (1984) Hypermasculinity Inventory. and Burt's (1980) Rape Myth Acceptance and Adversarial Sexual Beliefs scales. Of the 83 participants, 22 (27%) reported that they had been tempted to use force. Participants that indicated they had been tempted to use force scored significantly higher on attraction to sexual aggression and hypermasculinity than those who were never tempted. Reasons for temptation, circumstances of the tempting situations, and possible ties to sexual coercion were explored.

  9. Sexual Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and changes in sexual function are common. These physiological changes can include: A need for more stimulation ... page: Sexuality in later life. National Institute on Aging. https://www.nia.nih.gov/health/publication/sexuality- ...

  10. Sexual Education

    OpenAIRE

    Býmová, Pavlína

    2008-01-01

    The subject matter of this diploma thesis "Sexual Education" is sexual education in the Czech Republic, specifically dedicated to the study of the integration of sexual education into the educational process in schools and families.

  11. Gender Norms and Age-Disparate Sexual Relationships as Predictors of Intimate Partner Violence, Sexual Violence, and Risky Sex among Adolescent Gang Members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nydegger, Liesl A; DiFranceisco, Wayne; Quinn, Katherine; Dickson-Gomez, Julia

    2017-04-01

    Unequal gender norms and age-disparate sexual relationships can lead to power imbalances and are also associated with intimate partner violence (IPV), sexual coercion and violence, and sexual risk behaviors. The present study examined these variables from both victim and perpetrator perspectives among adolescent gang members. Age-disparate sexual relationships were defined as sex partners 5 or more years older among female participants and 5 or more years younger among male participants. Participants were recruited from a mid-sized Midwestern city and completed a 60-90-min audio computer-assisted self-interview in a community-based setting. Participants in this study included 107 female gang members (68 % African-American, 19 % Latina; mean age, 17.6) and 169 male gang members (62 % African-American, 28 % Latino; mean age, 17.7). As hypothesized, endorsing unequal gender norms toward women was significantly related to IPV victimization among female participants and perpetration among male participants, and engagement in group sex in the past month among both female and male participants (ps sexual relationships were significantly more likely to have experienced more IPV and report being raped and males gang members who had age-disparate sexual relationships were significantly more likely to perpetrate IPV in the past year and perpetrate rape (ps sexual relationships were also significantly related to being gang raped among female gang members and participating in a gang rape among male gang members, and engaging in group sex among both female and male gang members (ps sexual relationships were more likely to have been pregnant (ps sexual coercion/violence. Early intervention will also be necessary as these adolescent gang members are already engaged in extremely high-risk, coercive, and violent behaviors.

  12. History of development and modern condition of Chinese military psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr G. Karayani

    2017-12-01

    are analyzed. Psychological war is considered as a component of an information psychological antagonism, along with legal and media-wars. Such types of psychological war as operation-coercion, operation-deceit, operation-dissociation, operation-defense are identified. Methods of psychological war are highlighted. The general review of other trends of military psychological research is given: studying combat influence on soldier mental condition, stress resistance, post combat frustration and posttraumatic growth; collaborating on methods of psychological training and psychological resilience in military men; studying psychological aspects of «man-technics» system, etc. Results. To conclude, the Chinese military psychology is becoming an essential creative force in the PLA’s combat preparedness system and its experience is worthy of careful and in-depth study.

  13. Female Sexual Dysfunctions and Urogynecological Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emillio Sacco

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Female sexual dysfunctions are a highly prevalent and often-underestimated health problem and include disorders of sexual desire, arousal, orgasm and sexual pain, associated with self-distress. Pathophysiology of female sexual dysfunctions is complex and still poorly understood, although it has been related to several biological, medical and psychological factors. Amongst women, urogynecological disorders such as urinary incontinence, overactive bladder syndrome, bladder pain syndrome and pelvic organ prolapse, have been found to be associated with sexual dysfunctions, although the biological and psychological bases of these associations are poorly investigated. Data on sexual function impact of these conditions come from several cross-sectional or community-based, epidemiological studies based on self-administered validated psychometric tools. This review focuses on the most relevant available evidence on the impact of urogynecological disorders and related surgical treatments on female sexual function.

  14. Sexuality in Older Adults (65+)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Træen, Bente; Hald, Gert Martin; Graham, Cynthia A.

    2017-01-01

    INFO. Results: The review showed that although common biological changes may adversely affect sexual function in old age, sexual experience seems to also be affected by psychological and interpersonal factors. Conclusions: Greater life expectancy and better medical care will result in older individuals......Objectives: The aim of the current article was to provide an overview of literature on sexual function and sexual difficulties in older adults. Method: The authors conducted a narrative review of papers published in English between January 2005 and July 2015 based on an extensive search in Psyc...... with chronic diseases living longer. The need for help to cope with changes in sexual health is likely to increase in older adults, as sexuality may be negatively affected through several pathways....

  15. Levels of Motivation and Readiness for Treatment Aligned With Criminal Justice Referral and Coercion Among Substance Users in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Andrew; Hayhurst, Karen Petra; Millar, Tim

    2017-11-01

    Motivation and readiness for substance misuse treatment predict treatment retention and successful treatment outcomes but may be lower among substance users coerced into treatment. We tested for differences associated with legal involvement and with client perceptions of coercion among individuals entering drug misuse treatment in England. Data collection involved 342 treatment agencies. Measures of motivation and readiness for treatment were taken from the Circumstances, Motivation, and Readiness (CMR) scale. Referral source was ordered to represent level of legal involvement and conditions. Perceived coercion was defined by a CMR item. Linear regression models, adjusting for client complexity, tested for differences in motivation and readiness by these measures. Levels of motivation and readiness did not differ according to level of legal conditions (coefficient = -0.38, 95% CI [-1.65, 0.88]). Motivation was inversely associated with perceived coercion (coefficient = -0.28, 95% CI [-0.05, -0.50], p = .014). At the point of treatment entry, criminal justice referral and aligned conditions have no impact on levels of motivation to achieve positive treatment outcomes. Concerns around lower levels of motivation are better focused on those who perceive themselves as coerced rather than on those whose referral carries a level of legal condition.

  16. Obesity and Sexuality Among Older Couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Soyoung; Schafer, Markus H

    2016-04-01

    We investigate whether obesity is associated with sexual activity, sexual frequency, and the range of sexual behaviors in heterosexual older couples. We assess to what extent associations between obesity and sexuality are explained by physical, psychological, and sexual health, and by relationship quality. We use data from 1,698 older adults in 849 partnered dyads in the 2010-2011 wave of the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project and conduct couple-level analysis featuring women's and men's characteristics. Women's obesity-particularly at severe levels-is negatively associated with coupled sexual activity, and that the association is not mediated by hypothesized mediators. Men's obesity did not have any association with sexual activity. There was no significant difference between overweight and normal weight adults across all three sexuality measures. The growing number of older adults with high levels of body mass index, particularly women, may face certain difficulties in maintaining active sexual lives.

  17. Unwanted sexual experiences in young men: evidence from a survey of university students in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehrer, Jocelyn A; Lehrer, Evelyn L; Koss, Mary P

    2013-02-01

    The public health problem of unwanted sexual experiences (USE) in male youths has received little attention. In this study, we examined prevalence of USE, risk factors, contexts, and barriers to disclosure with data from a quantitative survey of students enrolled in General Education courses at a public university in Chile. This study focused on the male sample (N = 466). Approximately 20.4 % of participants reported some form of USE since age 14. Forced sex through physical coercion, forced sex through verbal coercion or while intoxicated, attempted forced sex, and less severe forms of USE were reported by 0.2, 10.1, 1.4, and 8.7 % of participants, respectively. USE before age 14 was reported by 9.4 % of participants and was a significant predictor of USE since age 14 (AOR 6.38, 95 % CI 3.22-12.65, p Chile and elsewhere.

  18. Sexual satisfaction and sexual health among university students in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Jenny A; Mullinax, Margo; Trussell, James; Davidson, J Kenneth; Moore, Nelwyn B

    2011-09-01

    Despite the World Health Organization's definition of sexual health as a state of well-being, virtually no public health research has examined sexual well-being outcomes, including sexual satisfaction. Emerging evidence suggests that sexual well-being indicators are associated with more classic measures of healthy sexual behaviors. We surveyed 2168 university students in the United States and asked them to rate their physiological and psychological satisfaction with their current sexual lives. Many respondents reported that they were either satisfied (approximately half) or very satisfied (approximately one third). In multivariate analyses, significant (P self-comfort, self-esteem (especially among men), relationship status, and sexual frequency. To enhance sexual well-being, public health practitioners should work to improve sexual self-comfort, alleviate sexual guilt, and promote longer term relationships.

  19. The relationship between personality traits and sexual self-esteem and its components

    OpenAIRE

    Firoozi, Mahbobe; Azmoude, Elham; Asgharipoor, Negar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Women's sexual self-esteem is one of the most important factors that affect women's sexual satisfaction and their sexual anxiety. Various aspects of sexual life are blended with the entire personality. Determining the relationship between personality traits and self-concept aspects such as sexual self-esteem leads to better understanding of sexual behavior in people with different personality traits and helps in identifying the psychological variables affecting their sexual perfor...

  20. Emotional Congruence With Children Is Associated With Sexual Deviancy in Sexual Offenders Against Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann, Chantal A; McPhail, Ian V; Helmus, L Maaike; Hanson, R Karl

    2017-09-01

    Emotional congruence with children is a psychologically meaningful risk factor for sexual offending against children. The present study examines the correlates of emotional congruence with children in a sample of 424 adult male sexual offenders who started a period of community supervision in Canada, Alaska, and Iowa between 2001 and 2005. Consistent with previous work, we found sexual offenders against children high in emotional congruence with children were more likely to be sexually deviant, have poor sexual self-regulation, experience social loneliness, and have more distorted cognitions about sex with children. Overall, our findings are most consistent with a sexual deviancy model, with some support for a blockage model.

  1. Reaching out to Ebola victims: Coercion, persuasion or an appeal for self-sacrifice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calain, Philippe; Poncin, Marc

    2015-12-01

    The 2014-2015 Ebola crisis in West Africa has highlighted the practical limits of upholding human rights and common ethical principles when applying emergency public-health measures. The role of medical teams in the implementation of quarantine and isolation has been equivocal, particularly when such measures are opposed by communities who are coerced by the temporary suspension of civil liberties. In their encounters with Ebola victims, outreach teams face moral dilemmas, where the boundaries are unclear between coercion, persuasion and appeals for self-sacrifice. For those teams, we propose a set of practical recommendations aimed at respecting the autonomy of epidemic victims and easing tensions within communities. We recognize that some of these recommendations are progressively achievable, depending on the specific stage or setting of an outbreak. Yet with the increasing availability of experimental treatments and research interventions, weighing patients' autonomy against the common good will become an even more pressing ethical obligation. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Perceived coercion of noninstitutionalized elderly patients undergoing research for the diagnosis of temporomandibular joint dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Oliveira Alves Cavalcanti

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate perceived coercion (PC of noninstitutionalized elderly patients undergoing research for the diagnosis of temporomandibular joint dysfunction. METHOD: A cross-sectional study conducted with 1,112 elderly individuals aged 60 or older, enrolled in the Family Health Programme of the municipality of Areia, State of Paraíba, Brazil, from January to June 2013. The data collection tool was the Perceived Cohesion Scale (PSC. RESULTS: The participants were predominantly women (62.5% in the 60 to 69 age group (45.9%, illiterate (57.9% percent, married or in a common law marriage (54.1%, retired (83.6%, and receiving a monthly income under the minimum wage (72.0%. The average overall PC was 1.25+ 1.15 and Trend 1 (41,4%. There was a difference between the group of individuals who were literate, married and in a common law marriage and the members of the other groups. CONCLUSION: Results showed that the elderly patients were minimally coerced when deciding whether to participate in research for diagnosing temporomandibular joint dysfunction. They also revealed a significant association of PC with literacy and marital status.

  3. Coercion, autonomy, and the preferential option for the poor in the ethics of organ transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaycox, Michael P

    2012-12-01

    The debate concerning whether to legalize and regulate the global market in human organs is hindered by a lack of adequate bioethical language. The author argues that the preferential option for the poor, a theological category, can provide the grounding for an inductive moral epistemology adequate for reforming the use of culturally Western bioethical language. He proposes that the traditional, Western concept of bioethical coercion ought to be modified and expanded because the conditions of the market system, as viewed from the perspective of organ vendors systemically deprived of access to sufficient resources, are sufficiently exploitative as to diminish the possibility of these vendors giving informed consent. Moreover, empirical studies conducted by professionals in medicine, sociology, psychiatry, economics, and medical anthropology continue to contribute support to the growing interdisciplinary consensus that functionally coercive structural factors exert the most significant influence upon a vendor's decision to sell an organ within any market, regardless of legality or degree of regulation. Therefore any proposal to legalize and regulate the organ market remains patently unethical because doing so would likely function to constrain further the agency of poor potential vendors. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Racial/Ethnic Differences in Women's Experiences of Reproductive Coercion, Intimate Partner Violence, and Unintended Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holliday, Charvonne N; McCauley, Heather L; Silverman, Jay G; Ricci, Edmund; Decker, Michele R; Tancredi, Daniel J; Burke, Jessica G; Documét, Patricia; Borrero, Sonya; Miller, Elizabeth

    2017-08-01

    To explore racial/ethnic differences in reproductive coercion (RC), intimate partner violence (IPV), and unintended pregnancy (UIP). We analyzed cross-sectional, baseline data from an intervention that was conducted between August 2008 and March 2009 in five family planning clinics in the San Francisco, California area, to examine the association of race/ethnicity with RC, IPV, and UIP among female patients aged 16-29 (n = 1234). RC was significantly associated with race/ethnicity, p women, with an overall range of 37.1%-50.3% among all racial/ethnic groups (p women (AOR = 1.72, 95% CI = 1.14-2.60). Black and multiracial women seeking care in family planning clinics have a disproportionately high prevalence of RC and UIP. RC may partially explain differences in UIP prevalence, with the effect of race/ethnicity slightly attenuated in RC-adjusted models. However, the impact of RC on risk for UIP was similar for White and Black women. Findings from this study support the need to understand and prevent RC, particularly among women of color. Results are foundational in understanding disparities in RC and UIP that may have implications for refinement of clinical care.

  5. Creative Coercion in Post-Katrina New Orleans: a Neighborhood Strategy to Address Conflict in Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Danley

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The study of relationships within networks has traditionally focused on concepts such as cooperation, collaboration and other forms of partnership (Brown & Keast 2003. The assumption has been that actors in a network have shared vision and are working together. This study tests that idea by using mixed methods and ethnography to examine 15 neighborhood associations in post-Katrina New Orleans, and 71 of their relationships within policy networks. Contrary to our typical understanding of networks, neighborhood associations engage not just in partnership, but also in power struggles. When excluded from policy networks, neighborhood associations use creative coercion to ensure their voice is heard. Facing a power deficit, these associations look for informal levers to assert themselves into policy negotiation. The result is creative and coercive measures, such as co-opting elections, bribery, blackmail and what one neighborhood activist calls ‘guerrilla warfare.’ These conflicts force a reconsideration of networks. Networks are not solely homes of collaborative action; they are also the location of sharp power struggles over priorities.

  6. Predictors of sexual aggression in adolescents: Gender dominance vs. rape supportive attitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nieves Moyano

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the relationship between sexual double standard and rape supportive attitudes in regard to an individual's likelihood to perpetrate sexual aggression. We examined an adolescent sample of 448 boys from Peru, of whom 148 (33.3% reported to have committed sexual aggression. Sexual contact with an unwilling partner was perpetrated by 24.8% of the total sample, sexual coercion by 14.3%, attempted rape by 12.5%, and finally, rape was perpetrated by 10.3%. In all these types of aggression, the most frequent victim was a dating partner. Compared to non-aggressors, male aggressors reported more sexual double standard and supportive attitudes towards rape. Logistic regression analyses revealed that the most relevant variable in the prediction of sexual aggression was the subject having been a victim of sexual abuse during adolescence and having rape supportive attitudes. Our findings suggest that violent attitudes are more important than the endorsement of non-egalitarian beliefs (sexual double standard in the perpetration of sexual violence. These findings provide data from Peru, which contribute to the worldwide data on risk factors for sexual aggression in adolescent males.

  7. Dance and sexuality: many moves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Judith Lynne

    2010-03-01

    This literature review of dance and sexual expression considers dance and religion, dance and sexuality as a source of power, manifestations of sexuality in Western theater art and social dance, plus ritual and non-Western social dance. Expressions of gender, sexual orientation, asexuality, ambiguity, and adult entertainment exotic dance are presented. Prominent concerns in the literature are the awareness, closeting, and denial of sexuality in dance; conflation of sexual expression and promiscuity of gender and sexuality, of nudity and sexuality, and of dancer intention and observer interpretation; and inspiration for infusing sexuality into dance. Numerous disciplines (American studies, anthropology, art history, comparative literature, criminology, cultural studies, communication, dance, drama, English, history, history of consciousness, journalism, law, performance studies, philosophy, planning, retail geography, psychology, social work, sociology, and theater arts) have explored dance and sexual expression, drawing upon the following concepts, which are not mutually exclusive: critical cultural theory, feminism, colonialism, Orientalism, postmodernism, poststructuralism, queer theory, and semiotics. Methods of inquiry include movement analysis, historical investigation, anthropological fieldwork, autoethnography, focus groups, surveys, and self-reflection or autobiographical narrative. Directions for future exploration are addressed.

  8. Treatment of sexually compulsive adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, James

    2008-12-01

    We clarified the nature of sexual compulsivity in adolescence, addressed who is labeled as "sexually compulsive youth," conceptualized the underlying factors of sexual compulsivity, and outlined a treatment format. We focused on trauma, dissociation, attachment, and self-concept. We questioned the conventional perceptions of who is included in this group. We reiterated that the belief that sexually compulsive adolescents are abusive males is no longer considered accurate. The evolution and accessibility of the Internet only raises greater concerns about compulsive sexual behavior, as more adolescents are brought into therapy because of Internet use to seek sexual interaction or stimulation. The sexually compulsive youth is as likely to be the clean-cut, high-achieving, intelligent student as is the economically deprived, juvenile delinquent on the street. This article began with the observation that adolescents rarely receive any direct, accurate information about sexuality and intimacy. The messages taken in through music, television, movies, politicians, popular press, clergy, and school are polarizing and contradictory. Beyond this are the implications as to how we, as a society, treat the youths that do present with sexual behavior problems. We have tended to treat these youth (as well as adults) with disdain and to designate sexually abusive youth the same as adult offenders with harsher, more punitive treatment interventions. Research and clinical experience now strongly question this type of response. This article is consistent with this leaning. Early psychological injury, from sexual abuse, physical abuse, exposure to violence, attachment trauma, or early sexualization, is at the root of sexually compulsive behavior. While it is necessary to reign in out-of-control and destructive behaviors, if we acknowledge that the source of the behavior is psychological injury, then it is cruel and inconsistent to treat the individual with disdain or as a pariah. The

  9. Investigative psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Canter, David V.

    2010-01-01

    The domain of Investigative Psychology covers all aspects of psychology that are relevant to the conduct of criminal or civil investigations. Its focus is on the ways in which criminal activities may be examined and understood in order for the detection of crime to be effective and legal proceedings to be appropriate. As such Investigative Psychology is concerned with psychological input to the full range of issues that relate to the management, investigation and prosecution of crime

  10. Adolescence, Sexual Conflict, and Anorexia Nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo, Felicia F.

    1984-01-01

    Suggests that the high incidence of anorexia nervosa in adolescent girls may be related to developmental sexual pressure. Symptoms appear with the onset of puberty and are related to physiological and psychological changes. (JAC)

  11. Female Sexual Arousal Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giraldi, Annamaria; Rellini, Alessandra H; Pfaus, James

    2012-01-01

    Introduction.  Definitions and terminology for female sexual arousal disorder (FSAD) are currently being debated. While some authors have suggested that FSAD is more a subjective response rather than a genital response, others have suggested that desire and arousal disorders should be combined...... and psychological disorders, as well as to discuss different medical and psychological assessment and treatment modalities. Methods.  The experts of the International Society for Sexual Medicine's Standard Committee convened to provide a survey using relevant databases, journal articles, and own clinical experience....... Results.  Female Arousal Disorders have been defined in several ways with focus on the genital or subjective response or a combination of both. The prevalence varies and increases with increasing age, especially at the time of menopause, while distress decreases with age. Arousal disorders are often...

  12. Positive Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Positive psychology is a deliberate correction to the focus of psychology on problems. Positive psychology does not deny the difficulties that people may experience but does suggest that sole attention to disorder leads to an incomplete view of the human condition. Positive psychologists concern themselves with four major topics: (1) positive…

  13. Kantian Psychologism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sperber, P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/377312894

    2017-01-01

    For more than a hundred years now, the dominant view amongst scholars has been that Kant's philosophy has nothing to do with psychology, or, at the very least, that psychology is inessential to Kant's philosophical project. In the early reception of Kant's work, however, psychology played a central

  14. Childhood Sexual Abuse in Adolescents Adjudicated for Sexual Offenses: Mental Health Consequences and Sexual Offending Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais, Hugo B; Alexander, Apryl A; Fix, Rebecca L; Burkhart, Barry R

    2018-02-01

    Most studies on the mental health consequences of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) focus predominantly on CSA survivors who do not commit sexual offenses. The current study examined the effects of CSA on 498 male adolescents adjudicated for sexual offenses who represent the small portion of CSA survivors who engage in sexual offenses. The prevalence of internalizing symptoms, parental attachment difficulties, specific sexual offending behaviors, and risk for sexually offending were compared among participants with and without a history of CSA. Results indicated that participants with a history of CSA were more likely to be diagnosed with major depression and posttraumatic stress disorder than those who did not report a history of CSA. A history of CSA was also positively correlated with risk for sexually offending and with specific offense patterns and consensual sexual behaviors. No significant differences emerged on parental attachment difficulties. These results highlight that adolescents adjudicated for sexual offenses with a history of CSA present with differences in sexual and psychological functioning as well as markedly different offending patterns when compared with those without a CSA history. Clinical implications and future directions are discussed.

  15. Child sexual abuse, links to later sexual exploitation/high-risk sexual behavior, and prevention/treatment programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalor, Kevin; McElvaney, Rosaleen

    2010-10-01

    This paper reviews the literature on the nature and incidence of child sexual abuse, explores the link between child sexual abuse and later sexual exploitation, and reviews the literature on prevention strategies and effective interventions in child sexual abuse services. Our understanding of the international epidemiology of child sexual abuse is considerably greater than it was just 10 years ago, and studies from around the world are examined. Childhood sexual abuse can involve a wide number of psychological sequelae, including low self-esteem, anxiety, and depression. Numerous studies have noted that child sexual abuse victims are vulnerable to later sexual revictimization, as well as the link between child sexual abuse and later engagement in high-risk sexual behaviour. Survivors of child sexual abuse are more likely to have multiple sex partners, become pregnant as teenagers, and experience sexual assault as adults. Various models which attempt to account for this inter-relationship are presented; most invoke mediating variables such as low self-esteem, drug/alcohol use, PTSD and distorted sexual development. Prevention strategies for child sexual abuse are examined including media campaigns, school-based prevention programmes, and therapy with abusers. The results of a number of meta-analyses are examined. However, researchers have identified significant methodological limitations in the extant research literature that impede the making of recommendations for implementing existing therapeutic programmes unreservedly.

  16. Sexual Dysfunction in Premenopausal Women Treated for Breast ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    affect the woman's self-esteem, sexuality and intimate relationships. ... The psychological effects thereof may impair the man's ability to offer emotional support to the woman .... functional, psychological, social and sexual well- ..... effects on interpersonal and family relations. J .... Comprehensive Cancer Network Experience.

  17. Mathematical psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batchelder, William H

    2010-09-01

    Mathematical psychology is a sub-field of psychology that started in the 1950s and has continued to grow as an important contributor to formal psychological theory, especially in the cognitive areas of psychology such as learning, memory, classification, choice response time, decision making, attention, and problem solving. In addition, there are several scientific sub-areas that were originated by mathematical psychologists such as the foundations of measurement, stochastic memory models, and psychologically motivated reformulations of expected utility theory. Mathematical psychology does not include all uses of mathematics and statistics in psychology, and indeed there is a long history of such uses especially in the areas of perception and psychometrics. What is most unique about mathematical psychology is its approach to theory construction. While accepting the behaviorist dictum that the data in psychology must be observable and replicable, mathematical models are specified in terms of unobservable formal constructs that can predict detailed aspects of data across multiple experimental and natural settings. By now almost all the substantive areas of cognitive and experimental psychology have formal mathematical models and theories, and many of these are due to researchers that identify with mathematical psychology. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Socioecological psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Shigehiro

    2014-01-01

    Socioecological psychology investigates humans' cognitive, emotional, and behavioral adaption to physical, interpersonal, economic, and political environments. This article summarizes three types of socioecological psychology research: (a) association studies that link an aspect of social ecology (e.g., population density) with psychology (e.g., prosocial behavior), (b) process studies that clarify why there is an association between social ecology and psychology (e.g., residential mobility → anxiety → familiarity seeking), and (c) niche construction studies that illuminate how psychological states give rise to the creation and maintenance of a social ecology (e.g., familiarity seeking → dominance of national chain stores). Socioecological psychology attempts to bring the objectivist perspective to psychological science, investigating how objective social and physical environments, not just perception and construal of the environments, affect one's thinking, feeling, and behaviors, as well as how people's thinking, feeling, and behaviors give rise to social and built environments.

  19. Toward Identification of the Sexual Killer: A Comparison of Sexual Killers Engaging in Post-Mortem Sexual Interference and Non-Homicide Sexual Aggressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgs, Tamsin; Carter, Adam J; Stefanska, Ewa B; Glorney, Emily

    2017-08-01

    Establishing a model of sexual assault reflecting psychosocial and behavioral characteristics of perpetrators of sexual killing and rape is necessary for development in risk assessment and intervention. Methodological variations in defining sexual killing have amalgamated serial and non-serial offenders and perpetrators with direct and indirect associations between killing and sexual arousal. This study defined sexual killing specifying that killing should be directly linked to sexual arousal, and sampled 48 sexual killers, operationalized to include only those engaging in post-mortem sexual interference, with one or two known female victims (non-serial), from prison service national (England and Wales) databases. These sexual killers were compared with 48 non-homicide, life or indeterminately sentenced sexual aggressors on psychological and crime scene characteristics. Contrary to previous research, fatal outcomes were associated with neither stranger victims nor weapon presence; sexual killing was characterized by severity of violence less so than non-fatal assault. Sexual killers more often reported problems with emotional loneliness, empathic concern, and sexual entitlement than the sexual aggressors. Theoretical and applied implications are discussed.

  20. Culture and Sexuality: Cognitive-Emotional Determinants of Sexual Dissatisfaction Among Iranian and New Zealand Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdolmanafi, Atefe; Nobre, Pedro; Winter, Sam; Tilley, P J Matt; Jahromi, Reza Ghorban

    2018-05-01

    cultural backgrounds. Limitations include the lack of evaluation of psychological and interpersonal variables that may impact on women's sexual dissatisfaction. These findings suggest that there may be a role of culture in shaping beliefs, attitudes, and values toward sexuality; and provide evidence for the effect of cognitive-emotional variables in predicting women's sexual dissatisfaction. Abdolmanafi A, Nobre P, Winter S, et al. Culture and Sexuality: Cognitive-Emotional Determinants of Sexual Dissatisfaction Among Iranian and New Zealand Women. J Sex Med 2018;15:687-697. Copyright © 2018 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Teenage Sexuality: What Are the Emotional Effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Bebe C.

    Much attention has been given to the physical ramifications of early sexual activity, but little has been said about emotional and psychological repercussions. The breakdown of the American family may be a contributing factor in causing premature sexual activity, along with the strong adolescent sex drive, the fear of loneliness and the media. An…

  2. Reducing Peer Sexual Harassment in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckes, Suzanne

    2006-01-01

    Studies have indicated that as many as 80% of students experience some form of sexual harassment in public schools. Such statistics are troublesome, considering that peer sexual harassment can have long-term psychological effects on student victims. Public schools have a responsibility to provide a safe educational environment free of peer sexual…

  3. Technology-Facilitated Sexual Violence Victimization: Results From an Online Survey of Australian Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Anastasia; Henry, Nicola

    2016-10-01

    Online forms of sexual harassment and abuse as experienced by adults represent an emerging yet under-researched set of behaviors, such that very few studies have sought to estimate the extent of the problem. This article presents the results of an online survey of 2,956 Australian adult (aged 18 to 54 years) experiences of technology-facilitated sexual violence (TFSV) victimization. The prevalence of TFSV was analyzed in relation to a 21-item scale developed in accordance with prior conceptual research identifying multiple dimensions of TFSV including digital sexual harassment, image-based sexual abuse, sexual aggression and/or coercion, and, gender and/or sexuality-based harassment (including virtual sexual violence). Results revealed significant differences in lifetime TFSV victimization for younger (18-24) and non-heterosexual identifying adults. Lifetime TFSV victimization for men and women was not significantly different, though women were more likely to report sexual harassment victimization and men were more likely to report victimization through the distribution of non-consensual images, as well as gender and/or sexuality-based harassment. The authors conclude that although women and men report experiencing similar overall prevalence of TFSV victimization, the nature and impacts of those experiences differ in particular gendered ways that reflect broader patterns in both gender relations and "offline" sexual harassment.

  4. Sexual behaviour and contraception inadolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selene Sam-Soto

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The World Health Organization defines the adolescence as the period between 10 and 19 years old. It is a critical developmental period, in which major physical, psychological, emotional and social changes take place. In terms of sexual and reproductive health, adolescents are considered a vulnerable group. Several risks and negative consequences of unprotected sexual relations are worrisome nationwide. According to the Mexican National Survey carried in 2010, 15.6% of Mexico’s population are adolescents. Sexual education in Mexico is not uniform and lacks an integral vision. There is no culture of prevention with respect to sexual and reproductive rights, sexual health, nor gender equality focused on adolescents. The consequences of these gaps are evident in our health indicators. We consider there is an urgent need to address this issue in an updated, integrative and age-focused manner in order to develop effective programs and diminish consequences such as unwanted pregnancies.

  5. Participatory Bioethics Research and its Social Impact: The Case of Coercion Reduction in Psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abma, Tineke A; Voskes, Yolande; Widdershoven, Guy

    2017-02-01

    In this article we address the social value of bioethics research and show how a participatory approach can achieve social impact for a wide audience of stakeholders, involving them in a process of joint moral learning. Participatory bioethics recognizes that research co-produced with stakeholders is more likely to have impact on healthcare practice. These approaches aim to engage multiple stakeholders and interested partners throughout the whole research process, including the framing of ideas and research questions, so that outcomes are tailored to the interests and context, and the type of impact stakeholders envisage. There is an emphasis on realizing social change through the conduct (not merely the results) of the research, and it is believed that the engagement of stakeholders in the research process will promote their intrinsic motivation to change their practice. Another distinctive feature of participatory bioethics research is that its central normative commitment is to reflection and dialogue, not to a particular substantive ethical approach. In reflection and dialogue there is an emphasis on inclusion and the co-production of knowledge. Furthermore, empirical and normative research are combined, and there is a deliberate attempt to give voice to otherwise marginalized positions. This provides a model of social impact which is relevant not only for bioethics research, but also for other areas of health care research. We will show the merits of a participatory approach to bioethics research with a case example. It concerns the reduction of coercion and in particular seclusion in Dutch mental healthcare. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Working alliance, interpersonal trust and perceived coercion in mental health review hearings.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Donnelly, Vidis

    2011-11-10

    Abstract Background There is some evidence that when mental health commitment hearings are held in accordance with therapeutic jurisprudence principles they are perceived as less coercive, and more just in their procedures leading to improved treatment adherence and fewer hospital readmissions. This suggests an effect of the hearing on therapeutic relationships. We compared working alliance and interpersonal trust in clinicians and forensic patients, whose continued detentions were reviewed by two different legal review bodies according to their legal category. Methods The hearings were rated as positive or negative by patients and treating psychiatrists using the MacArthur scales for perceived coercion, perceived procedural justice (legal and medical) and for the impact of the hearing. We rated Global assessment of Function (GAF), Positive and Negative Symptom Scale (PANSS), Working Alliance Inventory (WAI) and Interpersonal Trust in Physician (ITP) scales six months before the hearing and repeated the WAI and ITP two weeks before and two weeks after the hearing, for 75 of 83 patients in a forensic medium and high secure hospital. Results Psychiatrists agreed with patients regarding the rating of hearings. Patients rated civil hearings (MHTs) more negatively than hearings under insanity legislation (MHRBs). Those reviewed by MHTs had lower scores for WAI and ITP. However, post-hearing WAI and ITP scores were not different from baseline and pre-hearing scores. Using the receiver operating characteristic, baseline WAI and ITP scores predicted how patients would rate the hearings, as did baseline GAF and PANSS scores. Conclusions There was no evidence that positively perceived hearings improved WAI or ITP, but some evidence showed that negatively perceived hearings worsened them. Concentrating on functional recovery and symptom remission remains the best strategy for improved therapeutic relationships.

  7. Working alliance, interpersonal trust and perceived coercion in mental health review hearings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donnelly Vidis

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is some evidence that when mental health commitment hearings are held in accordance with therapeutic jurisprudence principles they are perceived as less coercive, and more just in their procedures leading to improved treatment adherence and fewer hospital readmissions. This suggests an effect of the hearing on therapeutic relationships. We compared working alliance and interpersonal trust in clinicians and forensic patients, whose continued detentions were reviewed by two different legal review bodies according to their legal category. Methods The hearings were rated as positive or negative by patients and treating psychiatrists using the MacArthur scales for perceived coercion, perceived procedural justice (legal and medical and for the impact of the hearing. We rated Global assessment of Function (GAF, Positive and Negative Symptom Scale (PANSS, Working Alliance Inventory (WAI and Interpersonal Trust in Physician (ITP scales six months before the hearing and repeated the WAI and ITP two weeks before and two weeks after the hearing, for 75 of 83 patients in a forensic medium and high secure hospital. Results Psychiatrists agreed with patients regarding the rating of hearings. Patients rated civil hearings (MHTs more negatively than hearings under insanity legislation (MHRBs. Those reviewed by MHTs had lower scores for WAI and ITP. However, post-hearing WAI and ITP scores were not different from baseline and pre-hearing scores. Using the receiver operating characteristic, baseline WAI and ITP scores predicted how patients would rate the hearings, as did baseline GAF and PANSS scores. Conclusions There was no evidence that positively perceived hearings improved WAI or ITP, but some evidence showed that negatively perceived hearings worsened them. Concentrating on functional recovery and symptom remission remains the best strategy for improved therapeutic relationships.

  8. Future Educators’ Gender Norms, Sexuality, and Reproductive Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leodoro J. Labrague

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This investigation explored gender-related norms, sexuality, and reproductive health among education students in a government university in Samar, Philippines. A descriptive-analytical design of study was adopted for this investigation and data were collected over a period of five months. Five hundred fifty (550 education students who were enrolled in the different year level completed the modified John Clelands’ Illustrative Questionnaire for Young People. Results indicated that 14.73% of the students reported having had early sexual experience where in 69.14 % had it unplanned. Among sexually active students, only 17.28% used contraception, with condoms and withdrawal as the most popular choices. Respondents were also found to have some misconceptions regarding HIV/AIDS and STI’s. Result also showed that dating was still acceptable, however, the idea of abortion and sexual coercion were considered wrong. No significant differences in the knowledge about HIV/AIDS and STI’s and gender norms were found across year level. Findings suggest a greater need for education, support and advocacy relative to sexuality so as to create a more positive school environment conducive for holistic growth and development of all students. Thus, school administrators should improve/enhance existing policies and programs relative to reproductive health among college students of the University such as health promotion activities, sexuality education, counseling and alike.

  9. PTSD and Sexual Dysfunction in Men and Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yehuda, Rachel; Lehrner, Amy; Rosenbaum, Talli Y

    2015-05-01

    Difficulties in sexual desire and function often occur in persons with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but many questions remain regarding the mechanisms underlying the occurrence of sexual problems in PTSD. The aim of this review was to present a model of sexual dysfunction in PTSD underpinned by an inability to regulate and redirect the physiological arousal needed for healthy sexual function away from aversive hyperarousal and intrusive memories. A literature review pertaining to PTSD and sexual function was conducted. Evidence for the comorbidity of sexual dysfunction and PTSD is presented, and biological and psychological mechanisms that may underlie this co-occurrence are proposed. This manuscript presents evidence of sexual dysfunction in conjunction with PTSD, and of the neurobiology and neuroendocrinology of PTSD and sexual function. Sexual dysfunction following trauma exposure may be mediated by PTSD-related biological, cognitive, and affective processes. The treatment of PTSD must include attention to sexual dysfunction and vice versa. © 2015 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  10. 'Crisis' and 'everyday' initiators: A qualitative study of coercion and agency in the context of methadone maintenance treatment initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damon, Will; Small, Will; Anderson, Solanna; Maher, Lisa; Wood, Evan; Kerr, Thomas; McNeil, Ryan

    2017-03-01

    Patient attrition is common among people enrolled in methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) programs and most pronounced during the first year of treatment. However, the experiences of patients initiating MMT have been overlooked in the literature. This study explores experiences of MMT initiation among MMT patients, focusing on contextual influences on MMT initiation and perceptions of MMT and their subsequent influence on treatment retention. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with 39 MMT patients in Vancouver, Canada. Individuals reporting enrolment in MMT were recruited from within two ongoing cohort studies comprised of people who use drugs. Interview transcripts were analysed using an inductive and iterative approach. Two groups of MMT initiators were identified: (i) 'crisis initiators' prescribed methadone following critical transition events, such as incarceration or pregnancy; and (ii) 'everyday initiators' enrolled in MMT as part of routine healthcare utilisation. While most 'crisis initiators' and some 'everyday initiators' described experiencing coercion during MMT initiation, 'crisis initiators' were further subjected to the coercive leveraging of their vulnerability to motivate 'consent' for MMT. 'Crisis initiators' developed negative views towards MMT and were more likely to discontinue treatment. Long-standing patient-provider relationships and open dialogue were associated with more positive views regarding MMT, regardless of the circumstances of initiation. Findings underscore the need for clear and effective communication regarding treatment regimens and expectations during MMT initiation. Furthermore, training in trauma-informed care may help reduce perceptions of coercion and rates of early treatment termination. [Damon W, Small W, Anderson S, Maher L, Wood E, Kerr T, McNeil R. Crisis' and 'everyday' initiators: A qualitative study of coercion and agency in the context of methadone maintenance treatment initiation. Drug

  11. Higher Magnitude Cash Payments Improve Research Follow-up Rates Without Increasing Drug Use or Perceived Coercion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Festinger, David S.; Marlowe, Douglas B.; Dugosh, Karen L.; Croft, Jason R.; Arabia, Patricia L.

    2008-01-01

    In a prior study (Festinger et al., 2005) we found that neither the mode (cash vs. gift card) nor magnitude ($10, $40, or $70) of research follow-up payments increased rates of new drug use or perceptions of coercion. However, higher payments and payments in cash were associated with better follow-up attendance, reduced tracking efforts, and improved participant satisfaction with the study. The present study extended those findings to higher payment magnitudes. Participants from an urban outpatient substance abuse treatment program were randomly assigned to receive $70, $100, $130, or $160 in either cash or a gift card for completing a follow-up assessment at 6 months post-admission (n ≅ 50 per cell). Apart from the payment incentives, all participants received a standardized, minimal platform of follow-up efforts. Findings revealed that neither the magnitude nor mode of payment had a significant effect on new drug use or perceived coercion. Consistent with our previous findings, higher payments and cash payments resulted in significantly higher follow-up rates and fewer tracking calls. In addition participants receiving cash vs. gift cards were more likely to use their payments for essential, non-luxury purchases. Follow-up rates for participants receiving cash payments of $100, $130, and $160 approached or exceeded the FDA required minimum of 70% for studies to be considered in evaluations of new medications. This suggests that the use of higher magnitude payments and cash payments may be effective strategies for obtaining more representative follow-up samples without increasing new drug use or perceptions of coercion. PMID:18395365

  12. Prevalence of physical, verbal and nonverbal sexual harassments ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: A number of studies conducted on sexual harassment focused on general magnitude rather than specific details of the various forms of sexual harassment and their effect on psychological health. Thus, the objective of this study was to assess the prevalence rates of the various forms of sexual harassments and ...

  13. Child Sexual Abuse Myths: Attitudes, Beliefs, and Individual Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromer, Lisa DeMarni; Goldsmith, Rachel E.

    2010-01-01

    Child sexual abuse myths comprise incorrect beliefs regarding sexual abuse, victims, and perpetrators. Relations among myth acceptance, responses to disclosure, legal decisions, and victims' subsequent psychological and health outcomes underscore the importance of understanding child sexual abuse myths. Despite accurate knowledge regarding child…

  14. Sexual Harassment Victims: Psycholegal and Family Therapy Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woody, Robert Henley; Perry, Nancy Walker

    1993-01-01

    Examines legal proscriptions and practical definitions of sexual harassment, describes psychological effects of sexual harassment (Sexual Harassment Trauma Syndrome) for victim-client and impact on family system, and offers guidance for family therapy. Focuses on vulnerability of victim-client, reconstruction of self-concept as primary goal of…

  15. A Preliminary Classification of Human Functional Sexual Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, Lawrence; And Others

    1976-01-01

    A preliminary classification is presented for functional human sexual disorders. This system is based on objective behavior and reports of distress. Five categories of sexual disorders are proposed, including the behavioral, psychological and informational components of sexual functioning in the individual and the couple. (Author)

  16. Influences on Women's Perceptions of Climate for Sexual Harassment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lytell, Maria C.

    2009-01-01

    Organizational tolerance of sexual harassment has been repeatedly touted as an important antecedent of sexual harassment. Yet, not much is known about the antecedents of perceptions of organizational tolerance. Based on theories from the sexual harassment, organizational justice, and psychological climate literatures, individuals were hypothesized…

  17. Reproductive And Sexual Health - The Unfinished Agenda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V K Srivastava

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The international community for the first time during the International Conference on Population and Development in 1994 defined the Reproductive Health, not in a demographic context, but as a right and matter of choice for even individual. In the years that followed other International Conferences on women issues reinforced this consensus. The human right relevant of Reproductive Health includes : The right to life and health, The freedom to marry and determine the number, timing and spacing of children, The right to access the information, The right to discrimination and equality for men and women, The right to liberty and security of the person, including freedom from sexual violence and coercion, The right to privacy, The women all over the world have the same reproductive health needs, however, the factors like migration and urbanization that influence the involuntary movement of populations within the national frontiers render them more vulnerable, including to reproductive health problems. This increases their needs for preventive and curative care, including sendees related to safe motherhood, family planning, prevention and treatment of complicated abortions. HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted infections (STls. The consequences of sexual violence, traditional values, extended families, new friends and unfamiliar ways of life, inadequate reproductive health sendees etc are unusual impediments for availing the sendees.

  18. Sexual Essays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giles, James

    Through a series of interrelated essays, this book explores fundamental issues concerning gender, sexual and romantic attraction, sexual desire and fantasies, the sexual positions, age dysphoria, and the role of naked skin in human sexuality. It does so by exploring experiential, social, biological...... on sex. It is further argued that sexual desire is an existential need based on the experience of having a gendered body. A case study of age dysphoria is presented showing how the conclusions concerning concerning gender and desire apply in an atypical case. The body's fundamental role in sexuality......, and evolutionary aspects of sexual life. The author criticizes several popular views, rejecting both social constructionist accounts of gender and social constructionist and biological accounts of sexual desire. It is argued instead that gender roles and gender are often confused and that gender itself is based...

  19. Sexual Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... protect yourself from sexually transmitted infections. Talking to kids about sex Kids and sexuality — those words strike fear into the hearts of many parents. But talking to kids about sex is an important part of parenting. Children and ...

  20. Sexual Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexual Violence Facts at a Glance 2012 Adults In a nationally representative survey of adults: 1 • Nearly 1 in ... 5.6% and 5.3%, respectively) experienced sexual violence other than rape, such as being made to ...

  1. Female sexuality

    OpenAIRE

    Rao, T.S. Sathyanarana; Nagaraj, Anil Kumar M.

    2015-01-01

    Sex is a motive force bringing a man and a woman into intimate contact. Sexuality is a central aspect of being human throughout life and encompasses sex, gender identities and roles, sexual orientation, eroticism, pleasure, intimacy, and reproduction. Sexuality is experienced and expressed in thoughts, fantasies, desires, beliefs, attitudes, values, behaviors, practices, roles and relationships. Though generally, women are sexually active during adolescence, they reach their peak orgasmic fre...

  2. A Desire for Love: Considerations on Sexuality and Sexual Education of People With Intellectual Disability in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kijak, Remigiusz J

    2011-03-01

    This article is intended to attract public attention to the fact that people with intellectual disability, despite their delayed sexual development, still remain sexual beings, which is connected with many individual and social consequences. The empirical data collected in this work provides knowledge about biological and psychological conditioning of sexual development of individuals with intellectual disability. However, the problem of sexuality for this population should be further analyzed. One should also think about the possibility of supporting the psychological and sexual development of people with more severe intellectual disability.

  3. [Political psychology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resch, Mária; Bella, Tamás

    2013-04-21

    In Hungary one can mostly find references to the psychological processes of politics in the writings of publicists, public opinion pollsters, philosophers, social psychologists, and political analysts. It would be still important if not only legal scientists focusing on political institutions or sociologist-politologists concentrating on social structures could analyse the psychological aspects of political processes; but one could also do so through the application of the methods of political psychology. The authors review the history of political psychology, its position vis-à-vis other fields of science and the essential interfaces through which this field of science, which is still to be discovered in Hungary, connects to other social sciences. As far as its methodology comprising psycho-biographical analyses, questionnaire-based queries, cognitive mapping of interviews and statements are concerned, it is identical with the psychiatric tools of medical sciences. In the next part of this paper, the focus is shifted to the essence and contents of political psychology. Group dynamics properties, voters' attitudes, leaders' personalities and the behavioural patterns demonstrated by them in different political situations, authoritativeness, games, and charisma are all essential components of political psychology, which mostly analyses psychological-psychiatric processes and also involves medical sciences by relying on cognitive and behavioural sciences. This paper describes political psychology, which is basically part of social sciences, still, being an interdisciplinary science, has several ties to medical sciences through psychological and psychiatric aspects.

  4. Infantile sexuality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeuthen, Katrine Egede; Gammelgård, Judy

    2010-01-01

    When first presented, Freud´s theory of infantile sexuality was a scandal. Not only was the claim that the small child sucking at the mother´s breast experiences a kind of pleasure that Freud without hesitation named sexual, the theory also turned the common understanding of human sexuality up-si...

  5. Body Image in a Sexual Context : The Relationship between Body Image and Sexual Experiences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Brink, F.

    2017-01-01

    Given the large sociocultural emphasis on appearance and the widespread incidence of a negative body image in current society, scientific understanding of its potential psychological and physical health consequences, including sexual problems, is now of particular importance. The value of

  6. Prosecution's Power, Procedural Rights, and Pleading Guilty: The Problem of Coercion in Plea Bargaining Drug Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloyd, Jerald W.

    1979-01-01

    The forms of psychological pressure placed on the defendant's pleading in drug cases are examined, with emphasis on the interplay between rational and emotional aspects of such situations. Three stages in plea bargaining negotiations are outlined. (Author/MC)

  7. How Ego Depletion Affects Sexual Self-Regulation: Is It More Than Resource Depletion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolet, Kevin; Rouleau, Joanne-Lucine; Benbouriche, Massil; Carrier Emond, Fannie; Renaud, Patrice

    2015-12-21

    Rational thinking and decision making are impacted when in a state of sexual arousal. The inability to self-regulate arousal can be linked to numerous problems, like sexual risk taking, infidelity, and sexual coercion. Studies have shown that most men are able to exert voluntary control over their sexual excitation with various levels of success. Both situational and dispositional factors can influence self-regulation achievement. The goal of this research was to investigate how ego depletion, a state of low self-control capacity, interacts with personality traits-propensities for sexual excitation and inhibition-and cognitive absorption, to cause sexual self-regulation failure. The sexual responses of 36 heterosexual males were assessed using penile plethysmography. They were asked to control their sexual arousal in two conditions, with and without ego depletion. Results suggest that ego depletion has opposite effects based on the trait sexual inhibition, as individuals moderately inhibited showed an increase in performance while highly inhibited ones showed a decrease. These results challenge the limited resource model of self-regulation and point to the importance of considering how people adapt to acute and high challenging conditions.

  8. Psychological behaviorism and behaviorizing psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staats, Arthur W.

    1994-01-01

    Paradigmatic or psychological behaviorism (PB), in a four-decade history of development, has been shaped by its goal, the establishment of a behaviorism that can also serve as the approach in psychology (Watson's original goal). In the process, PB has become a new generation of behaviorism with abundant heuristic avenues for development in theory, philosophy, methodology, and research. Psychology has resources, purview and problem areas, and nascent developments of many kinds, gathered in chaotic diversity, needing unification (and other things) that cognitivism cannot provide. Behaviorism can, within PB's multilevel framework for connecting and advancing both psychology and behaviorism. PMID:22478175

  9. Discursive Psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molder, te H.

    2015-01-01

    Discursive psychology was established in the United Kingdom by the end of the 1980s, mainly in response to the dominant cognitivist approach in social psychology. While it borrowed notions from poststructuralism and sociology of science, it is most akin to conversation analysis. Discursive

  10. Psychological experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boven, Martijn; Emmanuel, Steven M.; McDonald, William; Stewart, Jon

    2015-01-01

    For Kierkegaard the ‘psychological experiment’ is a literary strategy. It enables him to dramatize an existential conflict in an experimental mode. Kierkegaard’s aim is to study the source of movement that animates the existing individual (this is the psychological part). However, he is not

  11. [The multiple interactions between infertility and sexuality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimoun, S

    1993-03-01

    After investigating into literature and clinical experience, we shall line out in this study 4 types of interactions between sexuality and infertility: sexual causes to feminine (vaginism, with and without heavy dyspareunia) or masculine (impotency, ante-portas ejaculation, anejaculation, dysejaculation), infertility; influence of tests and of treatments for infertility on sexual life; influence of infertility on sexuality focusing on the various ambiguous feelings (of culpability, inferiority, aggressivity, passivity); and last, the psychological and sexual interactions with medical assisted procreation, reinforcing the sexual separation of man and woman if the body is considered a machine. Psychosomatic guidance of the couple during these steps (with reassurance as the being helped conception) will allow maintaining on removing sexual attraction.

  12. Recent advances in female sexual dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, A R

    2000-06-01

    Female sexuality has received little scientific study. Recently, increased interest in this field has generated new research in the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and pharmacotherapy of female sexual dysfunction (FSD). A new FSD classification system has been proposed. Although sexual difficulties are highly prevalent among women, the degree of associated distress is unknown. Risk factors for FSD are probably both psychologic and physiologic. Aging or menopause is associated with lubrication difficulties, which can be treated with hormone replacement. Hysterectomy seems more likely to result in improvement rather then deterioration of sexual functioning. Depression may be a predictor of sexual dysfunction after hysterectomy. Vasoactive agents are currently being evaluated as treatment for female sexual arousal disorder. The most important advance in the study of female sexual function is the recent surge of interest in this relatively unexplored field.

  13. Implementation of a Family Planning Clinic-Based Partner Violence and Reproductive Coercion Intervention: Provider and Patient Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Elizabeth; McCauley, Heather L; Decker, Michele R; Levenson, Rebecca; Zelazny, Sarah; Jones, Kelley A; Anderson, Heather; Silverman, Jay G

    2017-06-01

    Despite multiple calls for clinic-based services to identify and support women victimized by partner violence, screening remains uncommon in family planning clinics. Furthermore, traditional screening, based on disclosure of violence, may miss women who fear reporting their experiences. Strategies that are sensitive to the signs, symptoms and impact of trauma require exploration. In 2011, as part of a cluster randomized controlled trial, staff at 11 Pennsylvania family planning clinics were trained to offer a trauma-informed intervention addressing intimate partner violence and reproductive coercion to all women seeking care, regardless of exposure to violence. The intervention sought to educate women about available resources and harm reduction strategies. In 2013, at the conclusion of the trial, 18 providers, five administrators and 49 patients completed semistructured interviews exploring acceptability of the intervention and barriers to implementation. Consensus and open coding strategies were used to analyze the data. Providers reported that the intervention increased their confidence in discussing intimate partner violence and reproductive coercion. They noted that asking patients to share the educational information with other women facilitated the conversation. Barriers to implementation included lack of time and not having routine reminders to offer the intervention. Patients described how receiving the intervention gave them important information, made them feel supported and less isolated, and empowered them to help others. A universal intervention may be acceptable to providers and patients. However, successful implementation in family planning settings may require attention to system-level factors that providers view as barriers. Copyright © 2017 by the Guttmacher Institute.

  14. Sexual Function in Women with a History of Intrafamilial Childhood Sexual Abuse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Ellids; Lau, Marianne Engelbrecht

    2011-01-01

    % dyspareunia. The occurrence of sexual problems was significantly correlated to childhood physical violence, current psychological distress, flashbacks in sexual situations and discomfort with physical endearment. The prevalence of sexual pain disorders were also positively correlated to “no adult support......This study investigated sexual function in women with a history of severe intrafamilial childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and the correlation between sexual problems and the severity of CSA, adult support during childhood and current psychiatric symptoms. The sample consisted of 158 women who...... subsequently began specialized group psychotherapy for CSA sequellae. Clinical interview and questionnaires (Present Sexual Function, Sexual and Body Satisfaction, Symptom Check List 90-R) were used for data collection in a cross sectional study design. Non-parametric analysis, linear and logistic regression...

  15. Sexual Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McMahon Sharon

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Health Issue Much attention is devoted to women's reproductive health, but the formative and mature stages of women's sexual lives are often overlooked. We have analyzed cross-sectional data from the Sexual Behaviour module of the 2000/2001 Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS, and reviewed the literature and available indicators of the sexual health of Canadian women. Key Findings Contemporary Canadian adolescents are becoming sexually active at younger ages than in previous generations. The gender gap between young males and females in age at first intercourse has virtually disappeared. The mean age at first intercourse for CCHS respondents aged 15–24 years was between 16 and 17. Canadian-born respondents are significantly younger at first intercourse than those who were born outside of Canada. Few adolescents recognize important risks to their sexual health. Older Canadians are sexually active, and continue to find emotional and physical satisfaction in their sexual relationships. Data Gaps and Recommendations Both health surveys and targeted research must employ a broader understanding of sexuality to measure changes in and determinants of the sexual health of Canadians. There is reluctance to direct questions about sexual issues to younger Canadians, even though increased knowledge of sexual health topics is associated with delayed onset of sexual intercourse. Among adults, sex-positive resources are needed to address aspects of aging, rather than medicalizing age-related sexual dysfunction. Age and gender-appropriate sexual health care, education, and knowledge are important not only for women of reproductive age, but for Canadians at all stages of life.

  16. Trait sexual motivation questionnaire: concept and validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Rudolf; Kagerer, Sabine; Walter, Bertram; Vaitl, Dieter; Klucken, Tim; Wehrum-Osinsky, Sina

    2015-04-01

    Trait sexual motivation defines a psychological construct that reflects the long-lasting degree of motivation for sexual activities, which is assumed to be the result of biological and sociocultural influences. With this definition, it shares commonalities with other sexuality-related constructs like sexual desire, sexual drive, sexual needs, and sexual compulsivity. The Trait Sexual Motivation Questionnaire (TSMQ) was developed in order to measure trait sexual motivation with its different facets. Several steps were conducted: First, items were composed assessing sexual desire, the effort made to gain sex, as well as specific sexual behaviors. Factor analysis of the data of a first sample (n = 256) was conducted. Second, the factor solution was verified by a confirmatory factor analysis in a second sample (n = 498) and construct validity was demonstrated. Third, the temporal stability of the TSMQ was tested in a third study (n = 59). Questionnaire data. The exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses revealed that trait sexual motivation is best characterized by four subscales: Solitary Sexuality, Importance of Sex, Seeking Sexual Encounters, and Comparison with Others. It could be shown that the test quality of the questionnaire is high. Most importantly for the trait concept, the retest reliability after 1 year was r = 0.87. Our results indicate that the TSMQ is indeed a suitable tool for measuring long-lasting sexual motivation with high test quality and high construct validity. A future differentiation between trait and state sexual motivation might be helpful for clinical as well as forensic research. © 2015 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  17. Objective assessment of sexual arousal in women with a history of hysterectomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, C. P.; ter Kuile, M. M.; Laan, E.; Tuijnman, C. C.; Weijenborg, Ph Th M.; Trimbos, J. B.; Kenter, G. G.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The potential contribution of psychological and anatomical changes to sexual dysfunction following hysterectomy is not clear. Radical hysterectomy for cervical cancer causes surgical damage to the autonomic nerves which are responsible for the increased vaginal blood flow during sexual

  18. Sexual harassment in nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, I; Bender, M P; Finnis, S J

    1997-01-01

    Sexual harassment is a problem faced by women in the workplace which can lead to adverse psychological consequences as well as impaired work performance. Sexual harassment is about the abuse of power and status rather then merely being about sex per se and has to be viewed in the context of institutionalized male power. Although there is a relative dearth of research, there is increasing evidence that sexual harassment of nurses is common and that it can have adverse effects on nurses physical and psychological health as well as a direct impact on patient care. Nursing, by its very nature of having to care for patients bodily needs, transgresses normal social rules regarding bodily contact. This is exploited by the perpetrator who relies on nurses' caring attitude to be able to harass. A descriptive model of the processes involved in harassment is presented which offers the possibility of being able to intervene at a number of points in the process. Interventions need to be aimed at both individual and organizational levels if there is to be a prospect of reducing a major occupational stressor for nurses.

  19. Sexuality and Student Development: Sexual Anxiety As It Relates to Chickering's Vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouse, Roy H.; Doebbeling, Brad

    Psychological stress has been identified as a main variable related to adjustment in college and to college attrition. Five of Chickering's seven areas of development for college students have been related directly to sexuality. Although a major concern of college students is the anxiety associated with sexual issues, little research has been…

  20. Predictors of Quality of Life, Sexual Intercourse, and Sexual Satisfaction among Active Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penhollow, Tina M.; Young, Michael; Denny, George

    2009-01-01

    Background: Relatively little is known about the sexual behaviors of older people, and the relationship between quality of life and sexuality has not been fully explored. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of sociological, cultural, and psychological factors to further explain variance beyond biological changes that…

  1. Judical Remedies for Sexual Harassment and Its Limit

    OpenAIRE

    戒能, 民江

    2007-01-01

    Equal Opportunities in the Employment (Amendment) Act of 2006 has introduced the employers' compulsory obligation to prevent sexual harassment and has reinforced the employers' liability for taking measures against sexual harassment in the workplace. Recently some court cases charging sexual harassment as sexual violence have appeared. These cases of rape in the workplace try defendants from the viewpoint of psychological studies, using such concepts as rape-trauma syndrome. These trends, how...

  2. A Prospective Investigation of the Impact of Childhood Sexual Abuse on the Development of Sexuality

    OpenAIRE

    Noll, Jennie G.; Trickett, Penelope K.; Putnam, Frank W.

    2003-01-01

    The sexual attitudes and activities of 77 sexually abused and 89 comparison women (mean age = 20.41, SD = 3.38) were assessed 10 years after disclosure in a longitudinal, prospective study of the long-term effects of childhood sexual abuse. Abused participants were more preoccupied with sex, younger at first voluntary intercourse, more likely to have been teen mothers, and endorsed lower birth control efficacy than comparison participants. When psychological functioning earlier in development...

  3. Sexual Dysfunction and Intimacy for Ostomates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albaugh, Jeffrey A; Tenfelde, Sandi; Hayden, Dana M

    2017-07-01

    Sex and intimacy presents special challenges for the ostomate. Since some colorectal surgery patients will require either temporary or permanent stomas, intimacy and sexuality is a common issue for ostomates. In addition to the stoma, nerve damage, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy are often used in conjunction with stoma creation for cancer patients, thereby adding physiological dysfunction to the personal psychological impact of the stoma, leading to sexual dysfunction. The purpose of this paper is to describe the prevalence, etiology, and the most common types of sexual dysfunction in men and women after colorectal surgery and particularly those patients with stomas. In addition, treatment strategies for sexual dysfunction will also be described.

  4. Sexual harassment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sbraga, T P; O'Donohue, W

    2000-01-01

    We review the current state of sexual harassment theory, research, treatment, and prevention. Definitional problems and implications are discussed. An examination of the epidemiology of sexual harassment is presented, highlighting correlates that include characteristics of the organizational environment, the perpetrator, and the recipient of unwanted sexual behavior. Normative responses to sexual harassment and consequences are discussed. Descriptions of the most prevalent models of sexual harassment are offered and the empirical evidence for them is briefly reviewed. From there, the effect of model development and evaluation on the prevention and treatment of sexual harassment is considered. We comment on the steps that would need to be taken to develop viable prevention and treatment programs. Suggestions for fruitful avenues of research and theory development are offered.

  5. Psychological Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cognitive-behavioral therapy ), relaxation therapy , hypnotherapy , and biofeedback therapy . Psychological treatments can also be combined. Review of well- ... Antidepressant Medications Newer IBS Medications Probiotics and Antibiotics ... Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Relaxation Techniques for IBS Take Part in Online ...

  6. Male sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsberg, Terrie B

    2010-05-01

    It should be recognized that sexuality in the aging male is of such import that a complete sexual history must be performed. By taking a complete sexual history, facts can be obtained that will allow for appropriate focus relating to a holistic evaluation and will enable us to dispel antiquated sexual myths pertaining to the aging male. If initiated by the history taker, questions concerning sexuality may be discussed more comfortably by the patient. Erectile dysfunction, male sexual response cycle, testosterone, sexually transmitted diseases, human immunodeficiency virus, long-term illness, along with religion and culture are explored in this article with the aim of improving one's knowledge base, self reflection, and awareness of the importance of male sexuality. A complete understanding and appreciation of the aging male's medical history, surgical history, social history, and emotional history as well as his sexual, cultural, and religious concepts will allow the health care provider to better analyze information, and to recommend and provide appropriate advice and treatment to the aging male patient. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Sexual pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boardman, Lori A; Stockdale, Colleen K

    2009-12-01

    Sexual pain is an underrecognized and poorly treated constellation of disorders that significantly impact affected women and their partners. Recognized as a form of chronic pain, sexual pain disorders are heterogeneous and include dyspareunia (superficial and deep), vaginismus, vulvodynia, vestibulitis, and noncoital sexual pain disorder. Women too often tolerate pain in the belief that this will meet their partners' needs. This article provides a review of the terminology and definition of the condition, theories on the pathophysiology, diagnostic considerations, and recommendations on the management of female sexual pain.

  8. Sexual addictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Frederico Duarte; Thibaut, Florence

    2010-09-01

    The potential adverse consequences, personal distress, shame and guilt presented by patients who suffer from sexual addiction require a more in-depth understanding of the phenomenology and psychobiology of this disorder. A bibliographic review was conducted using MEDLINE and EBSCO databases with the following keywords: "sexual addiction," "hypersexuality," "compulsive sexual behavior," "behavioural addiction," "treatment," and "addiction." Several conceptualizations of excessive nonparaphilic sexual disorder have been proposed based on the models of, respectively, obsessive compulsive disorder, impulse control disorder, out of control excessive sexual disorder, and addictive disorder. Despite the lack of robust scientific data, a number of clinical elements, such as the frequent preoccupation with this type of behavior, the time spent in sexual activities, the continuation of this behavior despite its negative consequences, the repeated and unsuccessful efforts made to reduce the behavior, are in favor of an addictive disorder. In addition there is a high comorbidity between excessive sexual behavior and other addictive behaviors. The phenomenology of excessive nonparaphilic sexual disorder favors its conceptualization as an addictive behavior, rather than an obsessive-compulsive, or an impulse control disorder. Moreover, the criteria that are quite close to those of addictive disorders were recently proposed for the future DSM-V in order to improve the characterization of this condition. Finally, controlled studies are warranted in order to establish clear guidelines for treatment of sexual addiction.

  9. Internet Sexualities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Döring, Nicola

    The term “internet sexuality” (or OSA, online sexual activities) refers to sexual-related content and activities observable on the internet (cf. Adams, Oye, & Parker, 2003; Cooper, McLoughlin, & Campbell, 2000; Leiblum & Döring, 2002). It designates a variety of sexual phenomena (e.g., pornography, sex education, sexual contacts) related to a wide spectrum of online services and applications (e.g., websites, online chat rooms, peer-to-peer networks). If an even broader range of computer networks - such as the Usenet or bulletin board systems - is included in this extensional definition, one speaks of “online sexuality” or “cybersexuality.”

  10. Animal Models in Sexual Medicine: The Need and Importance of Studying Sexual Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura-Aquino, Elisa; Paredes, Raúl G

    2017-01-01

    Many different animal models of sexual medicine have been developed, demonstrating the complexity of studying the many interactions that influence sexual responses. A great deal of effort has been invested in measuring sexual motivation using different behavioral models mainly because human behavior is more complex than any model can reproduce. To compare different animal models of male and female behaviors that measure sexual motivation as a key element in sexual medicine and focus on models that use a combination of molecular techniques and behavioral measurements. We review the literature to describe models that evaluate different aspects of sexual motivation. No single test is sufficient to evaluate sexual motivation. The best approach is to evaluate animals in different behavioral tests to measure the motivational state of the subject. Different motivated behaviors such as aggression, singing in the case of birds, and sexual behavior, which are crucial for reproduction, are associated with changes in mRNA levels of different receptors in brain areas that are important in the control of reproduction. Research in animal models is crucial to understand the complexity of sexual behavior and all the mechanisms that influence such an important aspect of human well-being to decrease the physiologic and psychological impact of sexual dysfunctions. In other cases, research in different models is necessary to understand and recognize, not cure, the variability of sexuality, such as asexuality, which is another form of sexual orientation. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Whither Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, Diane F

    2017-07-01

    Contemporary psychology is experiencing tremendous growth in neuroscience, and there is every indication that it will continue to gain in popularity notwithstanding the scarcity of academic positions for newly minted Ph.Ds. Despite the general perception that brain correlates "explain" or "cause" the mind and behavior, these correlates have not yet proven useful in understanding psychological processes, although they offer the possibility of early identification of some disorders. Other recent developments in psychology include increased emphasis on applications and more global representation among researchers and participants. In thinking about the way we want psychology to evolve, psychologists need to pay more than lip service to the idea that complex questions in psychology require multiple levels of analysis with contributions from biological (brain, hormones, and genetics), individual differences and social and cultural perspectives. Early career psychologists who can attain a breadth of knowledge will be well-positioned for a team approach to psychological inquiry. Finally, I offer the belief that an emphasis on enhancing critical thinking skills at all levels of education offers the best hope for the future.

  12. Sexual revictimization in a clinical sample of women reporting childhood sexual abuse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lau, Marianne; Kristensen, Ellids

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Child and adolescent sexual abuse (CSA) increases the risk for adult sexual assault (ASA), and psychological vulnerability as well as aspects of CSA and upbringing might influence the risk. AIMS: The aims of this study were to investigate whether women who reported both CSA and ASA: 1......: The results showed an increased psychological vulnerability among women with ASA, but whether the results are cause or effect of sexual revictimization or can be generalized to other clinical samples are not clear. Interventions targeting the increased risk of ASA should be developed, implemented and tested...

  13. Subjective experience of coercion in psychiatric care: a study comparing the attitudes of patients and healthy volunteers towards coercive methods and their justification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielau, J; Altunbay, J; Gallinat, J; Heinz, A; Bermpohl, F; Lehmann, A; Montag, C

    2016-06-01

    Under certain conditions, coercive interventions in psychotic patients can help to regain insight and alleviate symptoms, but can also traumatize subjects. This study explored attitudes towards psychiatric coercive interventions in healthy individuals and persons suffering from schizophrenia, schizoaffective or bipolar disorder. The impact of personal history of coercive treatment on preferences concerning clinical management of patients unable to consent was investigated. Six case vignettes depicting scenarios of ethical dilemmas and demanding decisions in favour of or against coercive interventions were presented to 60 healthy volunteers and 90 patients. Structured interviews focusing on experienced coercion were performed in conjunction with the Coercion Experience Scale and the Admission Experience Survey. Symptom severity, psychosocial functioning and insight into illness were assessed as influencing variables. Student's t tests compared patients' and controls' judgments, followed by regression analyses to define the predictive value of symptoms and measures of coercion on judgments regarding the total patient sample and patients with experience of fixation. Patients and non-psychiatric controls showed no significant difference in their attitudes towards involuntary admission and forced medication. Conversely, patients more than controls significantly disapproved of mechanical restraint. Subjective experience of coercive interventions played an important role for the justification of treatment against an individual's "natural will". Factors influencing judgments on coercion were overall functioning and personal experience of treatment effectiveness and fairness. Qualitative and quantitative aspects of perceived coercion, in addition to insight into illness, predicted judgments of previously fixated patients. Results underline the importance of the quality of practical implementation and care, if coercive interventions cannot be avoided.

  14. Happiness and Sexual Minority Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomeer, Mieke Beth; Reczek, Corinne

    2016-10-01

    We used logistic regression on nationally representative data (General Social Survey, N = 10,668 and N = 6680) to examine how sexual minority status related to happiness. We considered two central dimensions of sexual minority status-sexual behavior and sexual identity. We distinguished between same-sex, both-sex, and different-sex-oriented participants. Because individuals transition between sexual behavior categories over the life course (e.g., from both-sex partners to only same-sex partners) and changes in sexual minority status have theoretical associations with well-being, we also tested the associations of transitions with happiness. Results showed that identifying as bisexual, gay, or lesbian, having both male and female partners since age 18, or transitioning to only different-sex partners was negatively related to happiness. Those with only same-sex partners since age 18 or in the past 5 years had similar levels of happiness as those with only different-sex partners since age 18. Additional tests showed that the majority of these happiness differences became non-significant when economic and social resources were included, indicating that the lower happiness was a product of structural and societal forces. Our findings clearly and robustly underscored the importance of taking a multi-faceted approach to understanding sexuality and well-being, demonstrating that not all sexual minority groups experience disadvantaged happiness. Our study calls for more attention to positive aspects of well-being such as happiness in examinations of sexual minorities and suggests that positive psychology and other happiness subfields should consider the role of sexual minority status in shaping happiness.

  15. Happiness and Sexual Minority Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomeer, Mieke Beth; Reczek, Corinne

    2017-01-01

    We used logistic regression on nationally representative data (General Social Survey, N = 10,668 and N = 6,680) to examine how sexual minority status related to happiness. We considered two central dimensions of sexual minority status—sexual behavior and sexual identity. We distinguished between same-sex, both-sex, and different-sex oriented participants. Because individuals transition between sexual behavior categories over the life course (e.g., from both-sex partners to only same-sex partners) and changes in sexual minority status have theoretical associations with well-being, we also tested the effects of transitions on happiness. Results showed that identifying as bisexual, gay, or lesbian, having both male and female partners since age 18, or transitioning to only different-sex partners was negatively related to happiness. Those with only same-sex partners since age 18 or in the past five years had similar levels of happiness as those with only different-sex partners since age 18. Additional tests showed that the majority of these happiness differences became non-significant when economic and social resources were included, indicating that the lower happiness was a product of structural and societal forces. Our findings clearly and robustly underscored the importance of taking a multi-faceted approach to understanding sexuality and well-being, demonstrating that not all sexual minority groups experience disadvantaged happiness. Our study calls for more attention to positive aspects of well-being such as happiness in examinations of sexual minorities and suggests that positive psychology and other happiness subfields should consider the role of sexual minority status in shaping happiness. PMID:27102605

  16. Uncovering Indicators of Commercial Sexual Exploitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bounds, Dawn; Delaney, Kathleen R; Julion, Wrenetha; Breitenstein, Susan

    2017-07-01

    It is estimated that annually 100,000 to 300,000 youth are at risk for sex trafficking; a commercial sex act induced by force, fraud, or coercion, or any such act where the person induced to perform such an act is younger than 18 years of age. Increasingly, such transactions are occurring online via Internet-based sites that serve the commercial sex industry. Commercial sex transactions involving trafficking are illegal; thus, Internet discussions between those involved must be veiled. Even so, transactions around sex trafficking do occur. Within these transactions are innuendos that provide one avenue for detecting potential activity. The purpose of this study is to identify linguistic indicators of potential commercial sexual exploitation within the online comments of men posted on an Internet site. Six hundred sixty-six posts from five Midwest cities and 363 unique members were analyzed via content analysis. Three main indicators were found: the presence of youth or desire for youthfulness, presence of pimps, and awareness of vulnerability. These findings begin a much-needed dialogue on uncovering online risks of commercial sexual exploitation and support the need for further research on Internet indicators of sex trafficking.

  17. Sexual self-schema and depressive symptoms after prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyt, Michael A; Carpenter, Kristen M

    2015-04-01

    The years following prostate cancer treatment are characterized by changes in sexual functioning and risk for depressive symptoms. Sexual self-schema (SSS) is a cognitive generalization about sexual aspects of the self that are associated with sexual behavior, affect, and the processing of sexually relevant information. This study tested if men's SSS moderates the impact of sexual morbidity on depressive symptoms. Men (N = 66) treated for localized prostate cancer in the preceding 2 years were assessed at T1 and 4 months later (T2). Questionnaires included the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, Sexual Self-schema Scale for Men, Sexual Experience Scale, and Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite. Regressions controlled for age, sexual activity, and T1 depressive symptoms revealed no significant effect of SSS on depressive symptoms; however, better sexual functioning was related to fewer depressive symptoms (B = -0.25, p < 0.05). Results showed significant interactions between SSS and sexual outcomes. Among men with high SSS, poor sexual functioning was associated with increased depressive symptoms; loss of sexual function was particularly distressing. There was no significant effect of sexual functioning. Among men with high SSS, there was an inverse relationship between sexual engagement and depressive symptoms. Among men with lower SSS, greater frequency of sexual behavior was associated with increased depressive symptoms. SSS may be an important individual difference in determining the impact of sexual morbidity on psychological adjustment. Men high on SSS are more vulnerable to psychological consequences of lower sexual functioning and less engagement in sexual activities. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Physiology of Women's Sexual Function: Basic Knowledge and New Findings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salonia, Andrea; Giraldi, Annamaria; Chivers, Meredith L

    2010-01-01

    Introduction.  Data concerning the physiology of female sexual functioning are still obtained from animal studies, but an increasing amount of novel evidence comes from human studies. Aim.  To gain knowledge of psychological and biologic physiology of women's sexual functioning, mainly addressing...... and responses is of paramount importance. A biopsychological paradigm was considered when reviewing currently available data, thus considering aspects of: (i) sexual differentiation of the brain, which is critical for sex differentiation in behavior; (ii) central neurobiology of sexual function, highlighting...... arousal in women in both procreation/reproduction and recreation/pleasure. The interaction between physiological and psychological states of women's sexual response, nonspecific sexual response, interoceptive awareness, and flexibility of sexual interests have also been addressed. Conclusion.  Further...

  19. Sexual revolutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hekma, G.; Giami, A.

    2014-01-01

    The sexual revolution of 1960-1980 created a major break in attitudes and practices in Western societies. It created many new freedoms for gay men, youth and women, in terms of sexual imagery, information, and rights. Leftists denounced the revolution's consumerism whilst feminists lamented its

  20. Sexual Violence Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Emails Sexual Violence Prevention Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir April ... stop sexual violence before it begins. Understanding Sexual Violence Sexual violence is any sexual activity where consent ...

  1. The role of the sexual assault centre.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Eogan, Maeve

    2013-02-01

    Sexual Assault Centres provide multidisciplinary care for men and women who have experienced sexual crime. These centres enable provision of medical, forensic, psychological support and follow-up care, even if patients chose not to report the incident to the police service. Sexual Support Centres need to provide a ring-fenced, forensically clean environment. They need to be appropriately staffed and available 24 hours a day, 7 days a week to allow prompt provision of medical and supportive care and collection of forensic evidence. Sexual Assault Centres work best within the context of a core agreed model of care, which includes defined multi-agency guidelines and care pathways, close links with forensic science and police services, and designated and sustainable funding arrangements. Additionally, Sexual Assault Centres also participate in patient, staff and community education and risk reduction. Furthermore, they contribute to the development, evaluation and implementation of national strategies on domestic, sexual and gender-based violence.

  2. Women's sexuality: from aging to social representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringa, Virginie; Diter, Kevin; Laborde, Caroline; Bajos, Nathalie

    2013-10-01

    Studies designed in northern countries show that most women are still sexually active after the age of 50. Many factors other than hormones influence sexual life in and after middle age; they include social status, personal characteristics, physical and psychological conditions, relationship factors, and social representations of sexuality. This study aims to analyze various components of sexuality, including its social representations, among women aged 45-55 years, as they reach menopause. Comparison of three groups: all postmenopausal women (277), postmenopausal women not currently using hormonal treatment (HT) (209), postmenopausal women currently using HT (68), with a reference group of premenopausal women (408). All were recruited in a national general population-based survey of sexual behaviors and interviewed by telephone. Practices, sexual function, satisfaction, and representations and expectations concerning sexuality. The women did not differ according to menopausal status for sexual activity, practices (wide range of practices beyond sexual intercourse), dysfunction, or satisfaction. They also attributed equal importance to sexuality. Nevertheless, although postmenopausal women not using HT did not report less sexual activity than premenopausal women, they were less likely to consider that a 3-month period without sex is a sign of difficulty in a relationship (30.3% vs. 47.7%; odds ratio: 0.35 [0.21-0.57], P=0.000). This difference was not observed between postmenopausal women using HT and premenopausal women. Our results suggest that for middle-aged women who are at the onset of menopause, the biological/hormonal changes characterizing menopause do not negatively affect sexual life. Any negative reported effects on sexuality are more likely due to anticipation or negative representations of sexuality around menopause than to biological or hormonal effects. The effect of menopause at this point in women's lives may thus be more symbolic than biological

  3. Sexual Assertiveness Mediates the Associations Between Partner Facilitative Responses and Sexual Outcomes in Women With Provoked Vestibulodynia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNicoll, Gabrielle; Corsini-Munt, Serena; O Rosen, Natalie; McDuff, Pierre; Bergeron, Sophie

    2017-10-03

    Provoked vestibulodynia (PVD) is a recurrent idiopathic vulvo-vaginal pain associated with negative sexual and psychological consequences. Facilitative partner responses to pain are currently receiving empirical attention because they are positively associated with women's sexual outcomes. However, the mechanisms through which facilitative responses to pain are associated with these outcomes have not been examined. One potential mechanism is sexual assertiveness, which has been found to be associated with better sexual function and satisfaction in women with PVD. The present study examined whether women's sexual assertiveness mediated the association between women's perception of facilitative partner responses and women's sexual function and satisfaction. Women (N = 140) with PVD symptomatology completed self-reported questionnaires evaluating their perception of their partners' facilitative responses, and their own sexual assertiveness, sexual function, and sexual satisfaction. Dependent measures were sexual function measured by the Female Sexual Function Index and sexual satisfaction assessed by the Global Measure of Sexual Satisfaction Scale. Results indicated that women's higher sexual assertiveness mediated the association between their greater perceived facilitative partner responses and their improved sexual function and satisfaction. Findings suggest a potential mechanism through which partner responses may be associated with women's sexual outcomes.

  4. Sexual assault

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, M-L; Hilden, M; Lidegaard, Ø

    2015-01-01

    ) the relationship between victim and perpetrator. RESULTS: Two-thirds of the victims were aged 15-24 years. Seventy-five percent had met the perpetrator before the sexual assault and 70% reported the assault to the police. A physical injury was found in 53, and 27% sustained an anogenital lesion. Alcohol...... is important in creating an environment where women are not reluctant to seek help after a sexual assault. Young age and drinking alcohol were risk factors for sexual assault, and we need to address this when considering preventive strategies.......OBJECTIVE: To describe the victims of sexual assault and the circumstances in which the assaults occur. DESIGN: Descriptive case study. SETTING: Centre for Victims of Sexual Assault (CVSA), Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark. POPULATION OR SAMPLE: A total of 2541 women attending CVSA from 2001...

  5. Political psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Susanna; Johnson, Kate M; Beall, Erica; Meindl, Peter; Smith, Benjamin; Graham, Jesse

    2014-07-01

    Political psychology is a dynamic field of research that offers a unique blend of approaches and methods in the social and cognitive sciences. Political psychologists explore the interactions between macrolevel political structures and microlevel factors such as decision-making processes, motivations, and perceptions. In this article, we provide a broad overview of the field, beginning with a brief history of political psychology research and a summary of the primary methodological approaches in the field. We then give a more detailed account of research on ideology and social justice, two topics experiencing a resurgence of interest in current political psychology. Finally, we cover research on political persuasion and voting behavior. By summarizing these major areas of political psychology research, we hope to highlight the wide variety of theoretical and methodological approaches of cognitive scientists working at the intersection of psychology and political science. WIREs Cogn Sci 2014, 5:373-385. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1293 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. The authors have declared no conflicts of interest for this article. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. La violencia física, psicológica, emocional y sexual durante el embarazo: riesgo reproductivo predictor de bajo peso al nacer en Costa Rica Physical, psychological, emotional, and sexual violence during pregnancy as a reproductive-risk predictor of low birthweight in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilda Patricia Núñez-Rivas

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar la prevalencia de la violencia física, psicológica, emocional y sexual durante el embarazo y su asociación con el bajo peso al nacer. MÉTODOS: Se exploró la violencia sufrida por 118 embarazadas de la comunidad urbana marginal Finca San Juan, de Rincón Grande de Pavas, San José, Costa Rica, que dieron a luz entre septiembre de 1998 y noviembre de 1999. Se utilizó un cuestionario de preguntas cerradas previamente validado. Mediante un modelo de regresión lineal múltiple se ajustaron las diferencias entre las medias del peso de los recién nacidos según las características de la madre (edad, años de estudio, condición conyugal, deseo del embarazo, hábitos nocivos, número de embarazos y partos previos, intervalo intergenésico, estatura, aumento total de peso durante el embarazo y enfermedades durante la gestación. Se utilizó un modelo de regresión logística para medir el efecto directo de la violencia sobre el bajo peso al nacer, así como un método no paramétrico para calcular la fracción atribuible en las mujeres expuestas. RESULTADOS: Los niños de madres que sufrieron actos de violencia pesaron como promedio 449,4 g menos (P OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of physical, psychological, emotional, and sexual violence during pregnancy and the association that that violence has with low birthweight. METHODS: For 118 women who gave birth between September 1998 and November 1999 we explored the violence that they had suffered during their pregnancy. All the women were residents of Finca San Juan, a low-income urban settlement in the Rincón Grande de Pavas section of San José, Costa Rica. We used a previously validated questionnaire with closed questions. A multiple linear regression model was used to adjust the average weights of the newborns according to the characteristics of the mother: age, years of schooling, marital status, desire for the pregnancy, harmful habits (smoking, drinking alcohol

  7. Sexual Esteem in Emerging Adulthood: Associations with Sexual Behavior, Contraception Use, and Romantic Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maas, Megan; Lefkowitz, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Sexual esteem is an integral psychological aspect of sexual health (Snell & Papini, 1989), yet it is unclear if sexual esteem is associated with sexual health behavior among heterosexual men and women. The current analysis uses a normative framework for sexual development (Lefkowitz & Gillen, 2006; Tolman & McClelland, 2011) by examining the association of sexual esteem with sexual behavior, contraception use, and romantic relationship characteristics. Participants (N = 518; 56.0% female; mean age = 18.43 years; 26.8% identified as Hispanic/Latino; among non-Hispanic/Latinos, 27.2% of the full sample identified as European American, 22.4% Asian American, 14.9% African American, and 8.7% multiracial) completed web-based surveys at a large northeastern university. Participants who had oral sex more frequently, recently had more oral and penetrative sex partners (particularly for male participants), and spent more college semesters in romantic relationships, tended to have higher sexual esteem than those who had sex less frequently, with fewer partners, or spent more semesters without romantic partners. Sexually active male emerging adults who never used contraception during recent penetrative sex tended to have higher sexual esteem than those who did use it, whereas female emerging adults who never used contraception tended to have lower sexual esteem than those who did use it. Implications of these results for the development of a healthy sexual self-concept in emerging adulthood are discussed. PMID:25210789

  8. Sexual assault incidents among college undergraduates: Prevalence and factors associated with risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude A Mellins

    Full Text Available Sexual assault on college campuses is a public health issue. However varying research methodologies (e.g., different sexual assault definitions, measures, assessment timeframes and low response rates hamper efforts to define the scope of the problem. To illuminate the complexity of campus sexual assault, we collected survey data from a large population-based random sample of undergraduate students from Columbia University and Barnard College in New York City, using evidence based methods to maximize response rates and sample representativeness, and behaviorally specific measures of sexual assault to accurately capture victimization rates. This paper focuses on student experiences of different types of sexual assault victimization, as well as sociodemographic, social, and risk environment correlates. Descriptive statistics, chi-square tests, and logistic regression were used to estimate prevalences and test associations. Since college entry, 22% of students reported experiencing at least one incident of sexual assault (defined as sexualized touching, attempted penetration [oral, anal, vaginal, other], or completed penetration. Women and gender nonconforming students reported the highest rates (28% and 38%, respectively, although men also reported sexual assault (12.5%. Across types of assault and gender groups, incapacitation due to alcohol and drug use and/or other factors was the perpetration method reported most frequently (> 50%; physical force (particularly for completed penetration in women and verbal coercion were also commonly reported. Factors associated with increased risk for sexual assault included non-heterosexual identity, difficulty paying for basic necessities, fraternity/sorority membership, participation in more casual sexual encounters ("hook ups" vs. exclusive/monogamous or no sexual relationships, binge drinking, and experiencing sexual assault before college. High rates of re-victimization during college were reported across

  9. Sexual Health in Undergraduate Medical Education: Existing and Future Needs and Platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shindel, Alan W; Baazeem, Abdulaziz; Eardley, Ian; Coleman, Eli

    2016-07-01

    This article explores the evolution and current delivery of undergraduate medical education in human sexuality. To make recommendations regarding future educational needs, principles of curricular development, and how the International Society for Sexual Medicine (ISSM) should address the need to enhance and promote human sexuality education around the world. The existing literature was reviewed for sexuality education, curriculum development, learning strategies, educational formats, evaluation of programs, evaluation of students, and faculty development. The prevailing theme of most publications in this vein is that sexuality education in undergraduate medical education is currently not adequate to prepare students for future practice. We identified components of the principles of attitudes, knowledge, and skills that should be contained in a comprehensive curriculum for undergraduate medical education in human sexuality. Management of sexual dysfunction; lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender health care; sexuality across genders and lifespan; understanding of non-normative sexual practices; sexually transmitted infections and HIV, contraception; abortion; sexual coercion and violence; and legal aspects were identified as topics meriting particular attention. Curricula should be integrated throughout medical school and based on principles of adult learning. Methods of teaching should be multimodal and evaluations of student performance are critical. To realize much of what needs to be done, faculty development is critical. Thus, the ISSM can play a key role in the provision and dissemination of learning opportunities and materials, it can promote educational programs around the world, and it can articulate a universal curriculum with modules that can be adopted. The ISSM can create chapters, review documents, slide decks, small group and roleplay topics, and video-recorded materials and make all this material easily available. An expert consensus conference

  10. Management of female sexual pain disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Stéphanie C; Goldfinger, Corrie; Thibault-Gagnon, Stéphanie; Pukall, Caroline F

    2011-01-01

    Our understanding of the sexual pain disorders vaginismus and dyspareunia has been fundamentally altered over the past two decades due to increased attention and empirically sound research in this domain. This increased knowledge base has included a shift from a dualistic view of the etiology of painful and/or difficult vaginal penetration being due to either psychological or physiological causes, to a multifactorial perspective. The present chapter reviews current classification and prevalence rates, including ongoing definitional debates. Research regarding the etiology, assessment and management of sexual pain disorders is discussed from a biopsychosocial perspective. Cyclical theories of the development and maintenance of sexual pain disorders, which highlight the complex interplay among physiological, psychological and social factors, are described. Medical/surgical treatment options, pelvic floor rehabilitation and psychological approaches are reviewed, as well as future directions in treatment research. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Effectiveness of structured teaching programme on knowledge regarding sexual health among young adults

    OpenAIRE

    Atul Kumar; Mahalingam Venkateshan; Selvi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Adulthood is the pinnacle of all stages of human growth and development. Sexuality plays the axial role in all the spheres of human life. Individual's health can be regarded on the reciprocal function of his sexuality and sexual practices. Abnormal sexuality results in deviation in physical, physiological, psychological and even economical disturbances. The main aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of structured teaching programme on knowledge regarding sexual health...

  12. From disease to desire, pleasure to the pill: A qualitative study of adolescent learning about sexual health and sexuality in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macintyre, Anna K-J; Montero Vega, Adela Rosa; Sagbakken, Mette

    2015-09-23

    behaviour neglects the way gender inequality, peer-pressure, coercion, media eroticization and religion influence adolescent sexual decision-making. The heteronormativity of information excludes other sexual orientations and disregards the diverse spectrum of human sexual behaviours. Finally, the limited provision of practical information hinders development of skills necessary for ensuring safe, consensual and pleasurable sexual relations. Trusted adults are encouraged to engage adolescents in critical reflection on a broad range of sexuality topics, dispelling myths, and building knowledge and skills necessary to make informed decisions.

  13. Violencia sexual

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Tadayuki Oshikata

    2003-01-01

    Resumo: A violência sexual é um crime clandestino e subnotificado, praticado contra a liberdade sexual da mulher. Provoca traumas físicos e psíquicos, além de expor a doenças sexualmente transmissíveis e gravidez indesejada. Existem poucos serviços no Brasil que oferecem um atendimento especializado para diagnosticar e tratar as mulheres vítimas de violência sexual. A finalidade deste trabalho foi avaliar, através de um estudo descritivo e retrospectivo, 166 mulheres que compareceram na urgên...

  14. Psychological IVF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adrian, Stine Willum

    2015-01-01

    ’. This theoretical work has three aims. First, it seeks to illustrate how the story of psychological IVF offers a rich range of materializations of emotions. Secondly, this work proposes a feminist materialist conceptualization of emotions that is both non-representational and posthuman. This conceptualization draws...

  15. Space psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parin, V. V.; Gorbov, F. D.; Kosmolinskiy, F. P.

    1974-01-01

    Psychological selection of astronauts considers mental responses and adaptation to the following space flight stress factors: (1) confinement in a small space; (2) changes in three dimensional orientation; (3) effects of altered gravity and weightlessness; (4) decrease in afferent nerve pulses; (5) a sensation of novelty and danger; and (6) a sense of separation from earth.

  16. Prevalence and pattern of sexual abuse among children attending ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    owner

    2012-12-02

    Dec 2, 2012 ... Child sexual abuse is defined in various ways, making it challenging to ... elementary schools (aged 6-12 years) and adolescent ... children registered at both clinics (CHOP and consultant clinic). ..... American Psychological.

  17. Risky sexual behaviour and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-01-26

    Jan 26, 2018 ... However, an HIV-positive healthcare workforce is less equipped to ... four partners were 4–12 times more likely to become infected with HIV and women reporting ..... with sexual violence, understanding psychological barriers.

  18. [Prevention of intrafamilial childhood sexual abuse].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazimierczak, Małgorzata; Sipiński, Adam

    2004-01-01

    At work we took up the matter of sexual harassment of children in the family. We presented the history of incest contacts, reasons, conditions causing incest, the perpetrator, his methods and kinds of his actions.We took into consideration description of victims, physical and psychological symptoms of sexual harassment and its effects. We paid attention to effective methods of prevention of incest behavior, diagnostic actions taken in order to confirm any offence and therapy of victims emphasizing role of health service staff.

  19. Trauma Symptoms, Sexual Behaviors, and Substance Abuse: Correlates of Childhood Sexual Abuse and HIV Risks among Men Who Have Sex with Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalichman, Seth C.; Gore-Felton, Cheryl; Benotsch, Eric; Cage, Marjorie; Rompa, David

    2004-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse is associated with high-risk sexual behavior in men who have sex with men. This study examined psychological and behavioral correlates of HIV risk behavior associated with childhood sexual abuse in a sample of men who have sex with men. Men attending a large gay pride event (N = 647) completed anonymous surveys that assessed…

  20. Dual Minority Stress and Asian American Gay Men's Psychological Distress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yung-Chi; Tryon, Georgiana Shick

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the direct and additive effects of racial minority stress and sexual minority stress on the psychological well-being among a community sample of 139 Asian American gay men. Self-esteem was tested to see whether it moderated or mediated the effects of perceived dual minority stress on psychological distress. Results…

  1. Sexual functioning, beliefs about sexual functioning and quality of life of women with infertility problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prathibha Agustus

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The study was conducted in the background of paucity of studies examining the sexual and psychosocial functioning of women with infertility. Aims: The study explored sexual functioning in women with infertility problems, their beliefs about sexuality and their quality of life. Settings and Design: A single group exploratory design with non-probability purposive sampling was used. A total of 30 participants diagnosed with primary infertility were included in the study. Materials and Methods: The data were obtained by individual administration of the following tools: Semi-structured interview schedule, Female Sexual Functioning Inventory, Sexual Dysfunctional Beliefs Questionnaire, World Health Organization Quality of Life Scale − BREF Version and General Health Questionnaire-12. The data obtained were analyzed using descriptive statistics and non-parametric tests. Results: About half of the participants had sexual dysfunction. Pain-related problems were most commonly reported (50%. Factors contributing to dysfunction included inadequate knowledge about sex, sexual stimulation and sexual communication. Along with inadequate self-image, negative childhood experiences, financial difficulties and marital discord in parents influenced the perception of self. Majority of the women had dysfunctional beliefs about sexuality (56%, and greater beliefs were found to be in the domain of sexual conservatism. The overall quality of life was poor, and 56% of women experienced psychological distress. There was significant positive correlation between sexual conservatism and experience of pain and overall sexual functioning. Conclusion: Women with infertility bear dysfunctional beliefs and suffer from problems in sexual functioning, have low quality of life and high psychological distress.

  2. Sexual abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iztok Takač

    2012-11-01

    Conclusions: Effective and efficient treatment of victims of sexual abuse requires a systematic approach to the patient, starting with a thorough history, and continuing with a clinical investigation, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of the consequences of sexual abuse. The complete management must include sampling of any potential biological traces from the body of the victim. The key to success is a coordinated cooperation with investigators and forensics.

  3. Enigmatic Sexuality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeuthen, Katrine Egede; Gammelgård, Judy

    2017-01-01

    ? Divided into three sections, Clinical Encounters in Sexuality begins with six chapters on important themes in queer theory: identity, desire, perversion, pleasure, discourse and ethics. Section two includes fourteen responses to the chapters in section one by practising psychoanalysts and psychoanalytic......: psychoanalytic and queer. The book is edited by two psychoanalytic practitioners — one Kleinian, one Freudian-Lacanian — who also have research expertise in sexuality studies. All pieces are new and have been commissioned....

  4. Sexual dysfnction in Iranian pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safieh Jamali

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sexuality is an important part of women’s health, quality of life, and general well-being. There are many factors influencing the female sexual function, including psychological, physiological, couple relationship, and socio-cultural factors. Pregnancy plays an important role in the sexual function and behavior of women. Objective: This study aims to evaluate the sexual function and determine the prevalence of sexual dysfunction among women during pregnancy. Materials and Methods: The present cross-sectional study was conducted on 257 healthy pregnant women aging between18-40 years who had attended the antenatal clinic, Paymaneh Hospital, Jahrom, Iran between April and October 2011 Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI questionnaire was used for assessing the sexual function Results: The mean age of the participants was reported as 26.45±4.49 years. In addition, 143, 69, and 45 subjects were in their 1st, 2nd, and 3rd trimesters, respectively. Comparison of the second and the third trimesters revealed a significant difference in the scores of all FSFI domains and the mean total FSFI score was reported as 19.9±22.45. Among the study subjects, 197 ones (79.1% had sexual dysfunction (FSFI score <26.5, while only 52 (20.9% had normal sexual function (FSFI score ≥26.5. The sexual dysfunction among pregnant women was rated as 23.4%, 30.5%, and 46.2% in the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd trimesters, respectively. Conclusion: The prevalence of sexual dysfunction is high during pregnancy and reaches higher levels in the third trimester. Therefore, pregnant women and their partners need counseling about physical and psychological changes in pregnancy

  5. An overview of sexual harassment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charney, D A; Russell, R C

    1994-01-01

    A few widely publicized cases have made sexual harassment a salient subject in the 1990s. This article reviews the topic in a comprehensive manner, with particular attention to demographic information, psychosocial consequences, appropriate therapeutic interventions, and related psychological issues. Computerized literature searches were used to identify research and review papers from psychiatry and psychology journals. Nonscientific works that provide additional information are also cited. The literature suggests that sexual harassment is a widespread phenomenon, affecting 42% of women and 15% of men in occupational settings, 73% of women and 22% of men during medical training, and lower percentages in other educational settings. Despite the pervasive nature of this problem, only 1%-7% of victims file formal complaints. Sexual harassment produces an array of psychological and physical symptoms in over 90% of victims, and 12% seek help from mental health care professionals. Self-doubt is a central issue regardless of gender, but in instances where the perpetrator is male and the victim is female, there are ramifications unique to the trauma of gender-based abuse. It is critical that therapists avoid contributing to the process of "second injury" and not imply that patients have brought their troubles on themselves. Key therapeutic tasks include empathy, validation, and empowerment. Few experimental studies have focused on the victims of sexual harassment, and none have focused on the perpetrators. Psychiatry can play an invaluable role in the assessment and treatment of victims, the fostering of education and research in this area, and the understanding of underlying psychological and gender issues.

  6. Sexual Jealousy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Buss

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Sexual jealousy is a basic emotion. Although it lacks a distinctive facial expression and is unlikely to solve problems of survival, it evolved because it solves adaptive problems of mating. Some adaptive functions are similar in men and women at one level of abstraction, such as warding off potential mate poachers and deterring relationship defection. Other functions are sex-differentiated, such as increasing paternity probability for men and monopolizing a mate's economic commitments for women. Dozens of studies have documented sex-differentiated design features of jealousy: The relative upset about sexual and emotional aspects of infidelity; processing speed and memorial recall of sexual and emotional infidelity cues; physiological distress to sexual and emotional infidelity cues; qualities of same-sex rivals that evoke jealousy, such as superior job prospects versus greater physical attractiveness; triggers of mate retention tactics; jealous interrogations following the discovery of infidelity; and whether an infidelity produces forgiveness or breakup. Although showing all the hallmarks of evolved functionality, sexual jealousy also leads to tremendous destruction, from humiliation to homicide. By these scientific theoretical and empirical criteria, sexual jealousy is properly considered not only "basic" but also "one of the most important emotions".

  7. Sexual health and religion: a primer for the sexual health clinician (CME).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellogg Spadt, Susan; Rosenbaum, Talli Y; Dweck, Alyssa; Millheiser, Leah; Pillai-Friedman, Sabitha; Krychman, Michael

    2014-07-01

    Sexual health is an integral part of the multifaceted human experience that is driven both by biological factors and psychological facets. Religion may provide a moral code of conduct or a sexual compass as to sexual norms and behaviors. The aim of this study was to summarize the integration of sexuality and religion. A review of published literature and religious texts was conducted. The integration of religion with country or state politics and laws is a complicated dilemma and will not be discussed in the scope of this article. The extent to which an individual incorporates their religious doctrine into their sexual life is a personal and individualized choice. The sexual medicine health professional will likely encounter a diverse patient population of distinct religious backgrounds, and a primer on religion and sexuality is a much needed adjunctive tool for the clinician. Because religion can influence sexuality and dictate, in part, the behavioral and medical treatments for sexual complaints, the clinician should be familiar with religious guidelines regarding sexuality, and treatment should be customized and individualized. Failure to do so can impact compliance with the therapeutic interventions. Religious awareness also solidifies the therapeutic alliance between clinician and patient as it demonstrates respect and acknowledgment for patient's beliefs and autonomy. © 2014 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  8. Gender-Specific Jealousy and Infidelity Norms as Sources of Sexual Health Risk and Violence Among Young Coupled Nicaraguans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, Sabrina; Zeledón, Perla; Tellez, Ever; Barrington, Clare

    2016-04-01

    Gender inequity negatively affects health in Central America. In 2011, we conducted 60 semistructured interviews and 12 photovoice focus groups with young coupled men and women in León, Nicaragua, to explore the ways in which social norms around marriage and gender affect sexual health and gender-based violence. Participants' depictions of their experiences revealed gendered norms around infidelity that provided a narrative to justify male expressions of jealousy, which included limiting partner autonomy, sexual coercion, and physical violence against women, and resulted in increased women's risk of sexually transmitted infections, including HIV. By understanding and taking account of these different narratives and normalized beliefs in developing health- and gender-based violence interventions, such programs might be more effective in promoting gender-equitable attitudes and behaviors among young men and women in Nicaragua.

  9. Science Meets Practice in Determining Effectiveness of Sexual Orientation Change Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Kristin A.; Gock, Terry S.; Haldeman, Douglas C.

    2012-01-01

    Comments on the original article, "Guidelines for psychological practice with lesbian, gay, and bisexual clients," by the American Psychological Association. Guideline 3 of the acknowledges the diversity of human sexual orientation and that "efforts to change sexual orientation have not been shown to be effective or safe" (p. 14). As noted in the…

  10. Multicentre RCT and economic evaluation of a psychological intervention together with a leaflet to reduce risk behaviour amongst men who have sex with men (MSM prescribed post-exposure prophylaxis for HIV following sexual exposure (PEPSE: A protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Llewellyn Carrie

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP following sexual exposure to HIV has been recommended as a method of preventing HIV infection in the UK. Men who have sex with men (MSM are the group most affected by HIV in the UK and their sexual risk taking behaviour is reported to be increasing. One-to-one behavioural interventions, such as motivational interviewing (MI have been recommended to reduce HIV in high risk groups. The Information, Motivation and Behavioral skills (IMB model has been shown to provide a good basis for understanding and predicting HIV-relevant health behaviour and health behaviour change, however the IMB has yet to be applied to PEP after risky sexual exposure. The primary aim of this trial is to examine the impact of MI augmented with information provision and behavioural skills building (informed by the IMB Model, over and above usual care, on risky sexual behaviour in MSM prescribed PEP after potential sexual exposure. A secondary aim of this research is to examine the impact of the intervention on adherence to PEP. This study will also provide estimates of the cost-effectiveness of the intervention. Methods A manualised parallel group randomised controlled trial with economic evaluation will be conducted. The primary outcome is the proportion of risky sexual practices. Secondary outcomes include: i Levels of adherence to PEP treatment; ii Number of subsequent courses of PEP; iii Levels of motivation to avoid risky sexual behaviours; iv Levels of HIV risk-reduction information/knowledge; v Levels of risk reduction behavioural skills; vi Diagnosis of anal gonorrhoea, Chlamydia and/or HIV. 250 participants will be asked to self-complete a questionnaire at four time points during the study (at 0,3,6,12 months. The intervention will consist of a two-session, fixed duration, telephone administered augmented MI intervention based on the IMB model. A newly developed treatment manual will guide the selection of

  11. Forced into treatment. The role of coercion in clinical practice. Formulated by the Committee on Government Policy. Group for the Advancement of Psychiatry. Report no. 137.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    It is clear to students of child development that setting limits and using parental power are necessary in promoting the maturational process. In fact, family systems theory addresses the issues of power and power coalitions as paramount. Forcing a child into treatment initially is a legitimate role for parents or guardians and is validated by mental health professionals, who feel that this must be accepted as part of their regular clinical work--especially in the case of school-age children, who only rarely can initiate requests for help. Further, the clinical use of power and persuasion has been addressed by a number of authors at both theoretical and pragmatic levels. Child psychiatrists deal with issues of coercion systematically and successfully in clinical practice. Although children often come into treatment against their will--sometimes because of physical pressures or threats and sometimes because of economic or emotional threats--they often can make use of a therapeutic relationship that is negotiated over time and gives careful attention to the child's identified needs and wishes. This experience leads one to recognize that many seemingly overtly coercive treatment contexts may be turned into effective treatment interventions. Exploration of the use of power and coercion as they relate to children--whether in normal development or in treatment--is helpful in the study of the psychopathology of adults who require limit setting, persuasion, or coercion in their treatment, often quite possibly because their childhood developmental experience regarding issues of power was dysfunctional.

  12. Preventing compulsory admission to psychiatric inpatient care: Perceived coercion, empowerment and self-reported mental health functioning after 12 months of preventive monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara eLay

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate effects of a preventive monitoring program targeted to reduce compulsory re-hospitalization and perceived coercion in patients with severe mental disorder. We analyze patient outcomes in terms of perceived coercion, empowerment and self-reported mental health functioning at 12 months. Methods: The program consists of individualized psycho-education, crisis cards and, after discharge from the psychiatric hospital, a 24-month preventive monitoring. In total, 238 psychiatric inpatients who had had compulsory admission(s during the past 24 months were included in the trial. T1-assessment 12 months after baseline was achieved for 182 patients. Results: Study participants reported lower levels of perceived coercion, negative pressures and process exclusion, a higher level of optimism, and a lesser degree of distress due to symptoms, interpersonal relations and social role functioning (significant time effects. However, improvements were not confined to the intervention group, but seen also in the TAU group (no significant group or interaction effects. Altered perceptions were linked to older age, shorter illness duration, female sex, non-psychotic disorder, and compulsory hospitalization not due to risk of harm to others. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that changes in the subjective perspective were fuelled primarily by participation in this study, rather than by having received the specific intervention. The study contributes to a better understanding of the interaction between 'objective' measures (compulsory readmissions and patients’ perceptions and highlights the need for treatment approaches promoting empowerment in individuals with a history of involuntary psychiatric hospitalizations.

  13. Child sexual abuse in Zaria, Northwestern Nigeria | Bugaje ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Child sexual abuse has been reported from all corners of the globe, ... Although the trauma of abuse heals with time, it leaves long term psychological and ... sexual abuse, from August 2008 to October 2009, at a primary health centre in ... Eleven cases (55%) attended school, while three (15%) were hawkers.

  14. Asian American Women's Retrospective Reports of Their Sexual Socialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Janna L.

    2009-01-01

    This study used qualitative research methods to investigate the sexual socialization experiences of young Asian American women, a group often overlooked in psychological research on sexuality. Focus group interviews were conducted with 30 ethnically diverse young Asian American women to explore their perceptions and interpretations of the direct…

  15. The Child Sexual Abuse Epidemic in Addis Ababa: Some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The psychological trauma and physical complaints presented by victims include symptoms of anxiety and depression. Conclusion: It was found out that child sexual abuse cases presented to the legal office was not properly managed. Female children appear to be more prone to sexual abuse than their male counterparts.

  16. Physiology of Women's Sexual Function : Basic Knowledge and New Findings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salonia, Andrea; Giraldi, Annamaria; Chivers, Meredith L.; Georgiadis, Janniko R.; Levin, Roy; Maravilla, Kenneth R.; McCarthy, Margaret M.

    Introduction. Data concerning the physiology of female sexual functioning are still obtained from animal studies, but an increasing amount of novel evidence comes from human studies. Aim. To gain knowledge of psychological and biologic physiology of women's sexual functioning, mainly addressing

  17. A phenomenological study into the experience of their sexuality by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    On reviewing the literature on spinal cord injury (SCI) and sexuality in males, there was found to be a plethora of research in physical domains. Sadly, the psychological aspect of sexuality for men who experience SCI has been largely neglected. For this reason a phenomenological study was conducted to understand the ...

  18. The Neglected Heart: The Emotional Dangers of Premature Sexual Involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lickona, Thomas

    1994-01-01

    Discussions of teen sex usually focus on the dangers of pregnancy and disease but ignore the emotional hazards and destructive psychological consequences of temporary sexual relationships. Teenagers absorbed in a sexual relationship may turn inward at a time then they should be reaching out to others. (SLD)

  19. Sexual concerns and practices after ICD implantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kikkenborg Berg, Selina; Elleman-Jensen, Line; Zwisler, Ann-Dorthe

    2013-01-01

    given about sexual activity, (b) the areas of patient concerns related to sexual function and the ICD, and (c) changes in sexual behavior.Methods:A randomized controlled trial including 196 patients (1:1) was designed, including 12 weeks of exercise training and 1 year of psycho-educational follow......Background:Studies show that patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICD) frequently experience sexual dysfunction. These experiences are often linked to exercise intolerance, side-effects of medication, and psychological problems.Objective:To describe (a) the level of information......-up focusing on modifiable factors associated with poor outcomes, including sexual functioning. The Sex After ICD Survey was administered 6 months after the randomization as part of the planned explorative outcomes. 141 patients responded.Results:The analyses showed that 37 of the 69 (55.2%) patients...

  20. Sexual Dysfunction in Women: A Practical Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faubion, Stephanie S; Rullo, Jordan E

    2015-08-15

    Sexual dysfunction in women is a common and often distressing problem that has a negative impact on quality of life and medication compliance. The problem is often multifactorial, necessitating a multidisciplinary evaluation and treatment approach that addresses biological, psychological, sociocultural, and relational factors. Criteria for sexual interest/arousal disorder require the presence of at least three specific symptoms lasting for at least six months. Lifelong anorgasmia may suggest the patient is unfamiliar or uncomfortable with self-stimulation or sexual communication with her partner. Delayed or less intense orgasms may be a natural process of aging due to decreased genital blood flow and dulled genital sensations. Genito-pelvic pain/penetration disorder includes fear or anxiety, marked tightening or tensing of the abdominal and pelvic muscles, or actual pain associated with attempts toward vaginal penetration that is persistent or recurrent for at least six months. Treatment depends on the etiology. Estrogen is effective for the treatment of dyspareunia associated with genitourinary syndrome of menopause. Testosterone, with and without concomitant use of estrogen, is associated with improvements in sexual functioning in naturally and surgically menopausal women, although data on long-term risks and benefits are lacking. Bupropion has been shown to improve the adverse sexual effects associated with antidepressant use; however, data are limited. Psychotherapy or sex therapy is useful for management of the psychological, relational, and sociocultural factors impacting a woman's sexual function. Clinicians can address many of these issues in addition to providing education and validating women's sexual health concerns.