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Sample records for sexual arousal ratings

  1. Heart Rate Variability in Male Sexual Arousal and Erectile Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-22

    research and practice to assess cardiac autonomic tone with patients presenting with ED symptoms. However, HRV patterns during sexual arousal and activity... masturbation or 18 other sexual activities, was associated with greater levels of HRV among cohabitating individuals [F(1,38) = 8.4, p < 0.01...respectively. The key issue for clinical practice is whether the ANS disturbances predicted in Hypotheses 2 limit tumescence or whether tumescence

  2. Female sexual arousal disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giraldi, Annamaria; Rellini, Alessandra H.; Pfaus, James; Laan, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    Definitions and terminology for female sexual arousal disorder (FSAD) are currently being debated. While some authors have suggested that FSAD is more a subjective response rather than a genital response, others have suggested that desire and arousal disorders should be combined in one entity.

  3. Female Sexual Arousal Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giraldi, Annamaria; Rellini, Alessandra H; Pfaus, James

    2012-01-01

    Introduction.  Definitions and terminology for female sexual arousal disorder (FSAD) are currently being debated. While some authors have suggested that FSAD is more a subjective response rather than a genital response, others have suggested that desire and arousal disorders should be combined...... and psychological disorders, as well as to discuss different medical and psychological assessment and treatment modalities. Methods.  The experts of the International Society for Sexual Medicine's Standard Committee convened to provide a survey using relevant databases, journal articles, and own clinical experience....... Results.  Female Arousal Disorders have been defined in several ways with focus on the genital or subjective response or a combination of both. The prevalence varies and increases with increasing age, especially at the time of menopause, while distress decreases with age. Arousal disorders are often...

  4. The neurophysiology of sexual arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schober, Justine M; Pfaff, Donald

    2007-09-01

    Our understanding of the process and initiation of sexual arousal is being enhanced by both animal and human studies, inclusive of basic science principles and research on clinical outcomes. Sexual arousal is dependent on neural (sensory and cognitive) factors, hormonal factors, genetic factors and, in the human case, the complex influences of culture and context. Sexual arousal activates the cognitive and physiologic processes that can eventually lead to sexual behavior. Sexual arousal comprises a particular subset of central nervous system arousal functions which depend on primitive, fundamental arousal mechanisms that cause generalized brain activity, but are manifest in a sociosexual context. The neurophysiology of sexual arousal is seen as a bidirectional system universal to all vertebrates. The following review includes known neural and genomic mechanisms of a hormone-dependent circuit for simple sex behavior. New information about hormone effects on causal steps related to sex hormones' nuclear receptor isoforms expressed by hypothalamic neurons continues to enrich our understanding of this neurophysiology.

  5. Sexual Arousal and Sexually Explicit Media (SEM)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Gert Martin; Stulhofer, Aleksandar; Lange, Theis

    2018-01-01

    -mainstream and mainstream SEM groups, and (iii) to explore the validity and predictive accuracy of the Non-Mainstream Pornography Arousal Scale (NPAS). METHODS: Online cross-sectional survey of 2,035 regular SEM users in Croatia. MAIN OUTCOMES MEASURES: Patterns of sexual arousal to 27 different SEM themes, sexual...

  6. One Session of Autogenic Training Increases Acute Subjective Sexual Arousal in Premenopausal Women Reporting Sexual Arousal Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Amelia M; Hixon, J Gregory; Nichols, Lindsey M; Meston, Cindy M

    2018-01-01

    Below average heart rate variability (HRV) has been associated with sexual arousal dysfunction and overall sexual dysfunction in women. Autogenic training, a psychophysiologic relaxation technique, has been shown to increase HRV. In a recent study, sexually healthy women experienced acute increases in physiologic (ie, genital) and subjective sexual arousal after 1 brief session of autogenic training. To build on these findings by testing the effects of a single session of autogenic training on sexual arousal in a sample of women who reported decreased or absent sexual arousal for at least 6 months. Genital sexual arousal, subjective sexual arousal, and perceived genital sensations were assessed in 25 women 20 to 44 years old before and after listening to a 22-minute autogenic training recording. HRV was assessed with electrocardiography. Change in genital sexual arousal, subjective sexual arousal, and perceived genital sensations from the pre-manipulation erotic film to the post-manipulation erotic film. Marginally significant increases in discrete subjective sexual arousal (P = .051) and significant increases in perceived genital sensations (P = .018) were observed. In addition, degree of change in HRV significantly moderated increases in subjective arousal measured continuously over time (P autogenic training, and other interventions that aim to increase HRV, could be a useful addition to treatment protocols for women who are reporting a lack of subjective arousal or decreased genital sensations. There are few treatment options for women with arousal problems. We report on a new psychosocial intervention that could improve arousal. Limitations include a relatively small sample and the lack of a control group. Our findings indicate that autogenic training significantly improves acute subjective arousal and increases perceived genital sensations in premenopausal women with self-reported arousal concerns. Stanton AM, Hixon JG, Nichols LM, Meston CM. One Session of

  7. Subjective Sexual Arousal to Films of Masturbation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosher, Donald L.; Abramson, Paul R.

    1977-01-01

    A film of a male or female masturbating was viewed by 96 males and 102 females. Males reported the highest level of sexual arousal to the female film and the lowest level of arousal to the male film. Females were sexually aroused by both films. (Author)

  8. Watching pornographic pictures on the Internet: role of sexual arousal ratings and psychological-psychiatric symptoms for using Internet sex sites excessively.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Matthias; Laier, Christian; Pawlikowski, Mirko; Schächtle, Ulrich; Schöler, Tobias; Altstötter-Gleich, Christine

    2011-06-01

    Excessive or addictive Internet use can be linked to different online activities, such as Internet gaming or cybersex. The usage of Internet pornography sites is one important facet of online sexual activity. The aim of the present work was to examine potential predictors of a tendency toward cybersex addiction in terms of subjective complaints in everyday life due to online sexual activities. We focused on the subjective evaluation of Internet pornographic material with respect to sexual arousal and emotional valence, as well as on psychological symptoms as potential predictors. We examined 89 heterosexual, male participants with an experimental task assessing subjective sexual arousal and emotional valence of Internet pornographic pictures. The Internet Addiction Test (IAT) and a modified version of the IAT for online sexual activities (IATsex), as well as several further questionnaires measuring psychological symptoms and facets of personality were also administered to the participants. Results indicate that self-reported problems in daily life linked to online sexual activities were predicted by subjective sexual arousal ratings of the pornographic material, global severity of psychological symptoms, and the number of sex applications used when being on Internet sex sites in daily life, while the time spent on Internet sex sites (minutes per day) did not significantly contribute to explanation of variance in IATsex score. Personality facets were not significantly correlated with the IATsex score. The study demonstrates the important role of subjective arousal and psychological symptoms as potential correlates of development or maintenance of excessive online sexual activity.

  9. Female sexual arousal in amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilczynski, Walter; Lynch, Kathleen S

    2011-05-01

    Rather than being a static, species specific trait, reproductive behavior in female amphibians is variable within an individual during the breeding season when females are capable of reproductive activity. Changes in receptivity coincide with changes in circulating estrogen. Estrogen is highest at the point when females are ready to choose a male and lay eggs. At this time female receptivity (her probability of responding to a male vocal signal) is highest and her selectivity among conspecific calls (measured by her probability of responding to a degraded or otherwise usually unattractive male signal) is lowest. These changes occur even though females retain the ability to discriminate different acoustic characteristics of various conspecific calls. After releasing her eggs, female amphibians quickly become less receptive and more choosy in terms of their responses to male sexual advertisement signals. Male vocal signals stimulate both behavior and estrogen changes in amphibian females making mating more probable. The changes in female reproductive behavior are the same as those generally accepted as indicative of a change in female sexual arousal leading to copulation. They are situationally triggered, gated by interactions with males, and decline with the consummation of sexual reproduction with a chosen male. The changes can be triggered by either internal physiological state or by the presence of stimuli presented by males, and the same stimuli change both behavior and physiological (endocrine) state in such a way as to make acceptance of a male more likely. Thus amphibian females demonstrate many of the same general characteristics of changing female sexual state that in mammals indicate sexual arousal. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Sexual arousal, is it for mammals only?

    OpenAIRE

    Ball, Gregory F.; Balthazart, Jacques

    2010-01-01

    Sexual arousal has many dimensions and has consequently been defined in various ways. In humans sexual arousal can be assessed based in part on verbal communication. In male non-human mammalian species it has been argued that arousal can only be definitively inferred if the subject exhibits a penile erection in a sexual context. In non-mammalian species that lack an intromittent organ, as is the case for most avian species, the question of how to assess sexual arousal has not been thoroughly ...

  11. Brief Emotion Regulation Training Facilitates Arousal Control During Sexual Stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Overveld, Mark; Borg, Charmaine

    2015-01-01

    Disgust, a negative emotion which evokes strong behavioral avoidance tendencies, has been associated with sexual dysfunction. Recently, it was postulated that healthy sexual functioning requires a balance between excitatory (increased sexual arousal) and inhibitory processes (lowered disgust levels). This suggests that amplification of excitatory processes (like sexual arousal) could be a valuable addition to treatments for affect-based sexual dysfunctions. The major aim of the present study was to establish whether up-regulation could effectively enhance arousal levels during sexual stimuli, and whether such a training would simultaneously reduce disgust. Students (N = 163, mean age = 20.73 years, SD = 2.35) were trained in up-regulation of affect using either a sexual arousal film (i.e., female-friendly erotic movie) or a threat arousal film clip (i.e., horror movie), while control groups viewed the films without training instructions. Following this, participants viewed and rated state emotions during a series of pictures (sexual, disgusting, or neutral). Up-regulation of mood successfully enhanced general arousal in both groups, yet these arousal levels were not paralleled by reductions in disgust. Overall, the findings indicate that emotion regulation training by maximizing positive affect and general arousal could be an effective instrument to facilitate affect-related disturbances in sexual dysfunctions.

  12. Sexual Desire and Arousal Disorders in Women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laan, Ellen; Both, Stephanie

    2011-01-01

    According to incentive motivation theory, sexual desire is the result of the interplay between a sensitive sexual response system and stimuli that activate the system. From this notion it follows that sexual desire is not a cause but a consequence of sexual arousal. The effects of hormones, somatic

  13. Sexual arousal, is it for mammals only?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Gregory F.; Balthazart, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    Sexual arousal has many dimensions and has consequently been defined in various ways. In humans sexual arousal can be assessed based in part on verbal communication. In male non-human mammalian species it has been argued that arousal can only be definitively inferred if the subject exhibits a penile erection in a sexual context. In non-mammalian species that lack an intromittent organ, as is the case for most avian species, the question of how to assess sexual arousal has not been thoroughly addressed. Based on studies performed in male Japanese quail, we argue that several behavioral or physiological characteristics provide suitable measures of sexual arousal in birds and probably also in other tetrapods. These indices include the performance of appetitive sexual behavior in anticipation of copulation (although anticipation and arousal are not the synonyms), the activation of specific brain areas as identified by the detection of the expression of immediate early genes (fos, egr-1) or by 2-deoxygucose quantitative autoradiography, and above all the release of dopamine in the medial preoptic areas as measured by in vivo dialysis. Based on these criteria, it is possible to assess in birds sexual arousal in its broadest sense but meeting the more restrictive definition of arousal proposed for mammals (erection in an explicit sexual context) is and will probably remain impossible in birds until refinement of in vivo imaging techniques such fMRI allow us to match in different species, with and without an intromittent organ, the brain areas that are activated in the presence of specific stimuli. PMID:21073874

  14. Sexual arousal, is it for mammals only?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Gregory F; Balthazart, Jacques

    2011-05-01

    Sexual arousal has many dimensions and has consequently been defined in various ways. In humans, sexual arousal can be assessed based in part on verbal communication. In male non-human mammalian species, it has been argued that arousal can only be definitively inferred if the subject exhibits a penile erection in a sexual context. In non-mammalian species that lack an intromittent organ, as is the case for most avian species, the question of how to assess sexual arousal has not been thoroughly addressed. Based on studies performed in male Japanese quail, we argue that several behavioral or physiological characteristics provide suitable measures of sexual arousal in birds and probably also in other tetrapods. These indices include, the performance of appetitive sexual behavior in anticipation of copulation (although anticipation and arousal are not synonymous), the activation of specific brain area as identified by the detection of the expression of immediate early genes (fos, egr-1) or by 2-deoxyglucose quantitative autoradiography, and above all, by the release of dopamine in the medial preoptic area as measured by in vivo dialysis. Based on these criteria, it is possible to assess in birds sexual arousal in its broadest sense but meeting the more restrictive definition of arousal proposed for male mammals (erection in an explicit sexual context) is and will probably remain impossible in birds until refinement of in vivo imaging techniques such fMRI allow us to match in different species, with and without an intromittent organ, the brain areas that are activated in the presence of specific stimuli. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Subjective sleep quality, unstimulated sexual arousal, and sexual frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Costa

    Full Text Available Introduction: REM sleep deprivation increases unstimulated erections in rats, and total sleep deprivation increases erections during audiovisual sexual stimulation in men, but the effects of sleep problems on human unstimulated sexual arousal are unknown. Objective: We examined the associations of subjective sleep quality with unstimulated sexual arousal, satisfaction with sex life, and sexual frequency and desire over the past month. Methods: 275 Portuguese (169 women reported their anxiety, sexual arousal and sexual desire during a resting state, and completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, the sexual satisfaction subscale of the LiSat scale, the Desire dimensions of the Female Sexual Function Index (women only and International Index of Erectile Function (men only. They additionally reported how many days in the past month they engaged in penile-vaginal intercourse, noncoital sex, and masturbation. Salivary testosterone (T was assayed by luminescence immunoassays. Results: Poorer sleep quality correlated with greater unstimulated sexual arousal in men with higher T levels and in women with higher T levels not taking oral contraceptives. In women with lower T, poorer subjective sleep quality correlated with greater sexual dissatisfaction. In both sexes, sleep quality was uncorrelated with sexual desire and sexual frequency over the past month. Discussion: Consistently with other studies in humans and animals, the findings are congruent with the notion that lack of sleep can increase sexual arousal, but not sexual frequency. T might play a role in the sexual arousal caused by lack of appropriate sleep.

  16. Psychopathology and Deviant Sexual Arousal in Incarcerated Sexual Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serin, Ralph C.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Investigates the relationship between psychopathology and deviant sexual arousal in sexual offenders (n=65), with approximately equal numbers of rapists and child molesters. Differentiating between rapists, extrafamilial pedophiles, and incest offenders revealed that the relationship between psychopathology and arousal was most apparent for…

  17. Performance demand and sexual arousal in women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laan, E.; Everaerd, W.; van Aanhold, M. T.; Rebel, M.

    1993-01-01

    Up to now, no experimental studies have inquired into the possible role of performance demand in female sexuality. The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of performance demand on sexual arousal in functional women, using explicit instructions. Forty-eight female subjects were

  18. Mood and sexual arousal in women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laan, E.; Everaerd, W.; van Berlo, R.; Rijs, L.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of a positive 'mood for sex' on genital and subjective sexual arousal in functional women, using a musical mood induction procedure. Fifty-one female Ss were randomly assigned to one of four conditions: erotic film preceded by mood induction;

  19. Sexual Arousal and Sexually Explicit Media (SEM: Comparing Patterns of Sexual Arousal to SEM and Sexual Self-Evaluations and Satisfaction Across Gender and Sexual Orientation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gert Martin Hald, PhD

    2018-03-01

    Hald GM, Stulhofer A, Lange T, et al. Sexual Arousal and Sexually Explicit Media (SEM: Comparing Patterns of Sexual Arousal to SEM and Sexual Self-Evaluations and Satisfaction Across Gender and Sexual Orientation. Sex Med 2018;6:30–38.

  20. The effects of experimentally-induced sad and happy mood on sexual arousal in sexually healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ter Kuile, Moniek M; Both, Stephanie; van Uden, Janneke

    2010-03-01

    In depressed women, common sexual difficulties include decreased sexual desire, sexual arousal and orgasmic difficulties, reduced sexual satisfaction, and reduced sexual pleasure. Experimental research on the influence of depressed mood on genital and subjective sexual arousal in women is scarce. To investigate the effects of sad mood on genital and subjective sexual arousal in sexually healthy women, using a mood induction procedure. Thirty-two subjects received a sad mood and a happy mood induction, on two different days, using a within subjects design. The mood induction procedure was a combination of the Velten procedure and music. In the Velten procedure, the subject is asked to read sad or happy self-referent sentences and to experience the mood suggested by these sentences. Immediately following mood induction, the subjects were exposed to an erotic film clip. Genital arousal was assessed using vaginal photoplethysmography. Self-report ratings of sad and happy mood, subjective sexual arousal and affective reactions were collected before and after the erotic clip. The sad and happy mood ratings indicated that the mood inductions affected mood as intended. No difference in genital sexual arousal was found between the sad and happy mood conditions. Subjects reported significantly less subjective sexual arousal and positive affect and marginally significant fewer genital sensations and more negative affect in the sad mood condition than in the happy mood condition. The results provide empirical support for the idea that mood can impact on subjective sexual arousal in women.

  1. Sexual Arousal and Sexually Explicit Media (SEM): Comparing Patterns of Sexual Arousal to SEM and Sexual Self-Evaluations and Satisfaction Across Gender and Sexual Orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hald, Gert Martin; Stulhofer, Aleksandar; Lange, Theis

    2018-03-01

    Investigations of patterns of sexual arousal to certain groups of sexually explicit media (SEM) in the general population in non-laboratory settings are rare. Such knowledge could be important to understand more about the relative specificity of sexual arousal in different SEM users. (i) To investigate whether sexual arousal to non-mainstream vs mainstream SEM contents could be categorized across gender and sexual orientation, (ii) to compare levels of SEM-induced sexual arousal, sexual satisfaction, and self-evaluated sexual interests and fantasies between non-mainstream and mainstream SEM groups, and (iii) to explore the validity and predictive accuracy of the Non-Mainstream Pornography Arousal Scale (NPAS). Online cross-sectional survey of 2,035 regular SEM users in Croatia. Patterns of sexual arousal to 27 different SEM themes, sexual satisfaction, and self-evaluations of sexual interests and sexual fantasies. Groups characterized by sexual arousal to non-mainstream SEM could be identified across gender and sexual orientation. These non-mainstream SEM groups reported more SEM use and higher average levels of sexual arousal across the 27 SEM themes assessed compared with mainstream SEM groups. Only few differences were found between non-mainstream and mainstream SEM groups in self-evaluative judgements of sexual interests, sexual fantasies, and sexual satisfaction. The internal validity and predictive accuracy of the NPAS was good across most user groups investigated. The findings suggest that in classified non-mainstream SEM groups, patterns of sexual arousal might be less fixated and category specific than previously assumed. Further, these groups are not more judgmental of their SEM-related sexual arousal patterns than groups characterized by patterns of sexual arousal to more mainstream SEM content. Moreover, accurate identification of non-mainstream SEM group membership is generally possible across gender and sexual orientation using the NPAS. Hald GM

  2. Brief Emotion Regulation Training Facilitates Arousal Control During Sexual Stimuli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Overveld, Mark; Borg, Charmaine

    2015-01-01

    Disgust, a negative emotion which evokes strong behavioral avoidance tendencies, has been associated with sexual dysfunction. Recently, it was postulated that healthy sexual functioning requires a balance between excitatory (increased sexual arousal) and inhibitory processes (lowered disgust

  3. Differences in Perceived and Physiologic Genital Arousal Between Women With and Without Sexual Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handy, Ariel B; Stanton, Amelia M; Pulverman, Carey S; Meston, Cindy M

    2018-01-01

    Many sexual psychophysiologic studies have failed to find differences in physiologic genital arousal between women with and those without sexual dysfunction. However, differences in self-reported (ie, perceived) measures of genital responses between these 2 groups of women have been noted. To determine whether women with and without sexual dysfunction differ on measures of physiologic and perceived genital arousal based on type of analytic technique used, to explore differences in perceived genital arousal, and to assess the relation between physiologic and perceived genital arousal. Data from 5 studies (N = 214) were used in this analysis. Women were categorized into 3 groups: women with arousal-specific sexual dysfunction (n = 40), women with decreased sexual function (n = 72), and women who were sexually functional (n = 102). Women viewed an erotic film while their physiologic genital arousal was measured using a vaginal photoplethysmograph. After watching the film, women completed a self-report measure of perceived genital arousal. There were differences in vaginal pulse amplitude (VPA) levels and association of VPA with perceived genital sensations based on level of sexual function. Commonly used methods of analysis failed to identify significant differences in VPA among these groups of women. When VPA data were analyzed with hierarchical linear modeling, significant differences emerged. Notably, women with arousal-specific dysfunction exhibited lower VPA than sexually functional women at the beginning of the assessment. As the erotic film progressed, women with arousal-specific dysfunction became aroused at a faster rate than sexually functional women, and these 2 groups ultimately reached a similar level of VPA. Sexually functional women reported the highest levels of perceived genital responses among the 3 groups of women. No significant relation between VPA and perceived genital arousal emerged. Women's perception of their genital responses could play

  4. A Single Session of Autogenic Training Increases Acute Subjective and Physiological Sexual Arousal in Sexually Functional Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Amelia; Meston, Cindy

    2017-10-03

    Heart rate variability (HRV) has recently been associated with female sexual function (Stanton, Lorenz, Pulverman, & Meston, 2015). Below-average HRV was identified as a possible risk factor for sexual arousal dysfunction and overall sexual dysfunction in women. Based on this newly established relationship between HRV and female sexual function, the present study examined the effect of autogenic training to increase HRV on acute physiological and subjective sexual arousal in women. Specifically, vaginal pulse amplitude (VPA), an index of genital sexual arousal, and subjective sexual arousal were assessed in 33 sexually functional women, aged 18 to 27, before and after a short session of autogenic training. Autogenic training, a relaxation technique that restores the balance between the activity of the sympathetic and the parasympathetic branches of the autonomic nervous system, has been shown to significantly increase HRV (Miu, Heilman, & Miclea, 2009). After autogenic training, significant increases in both VPA (p <.05) and subjective sexual arousal (p <.005) were observed. Moreover, change in HRV from pre- to postmanipulation significantly moderated changes in subjective sexual arousal (p <.05) when it was measured continuously during the presentation of the erotic stimulus. This cost-effective, easy-to-administer behavioral intervention may have important implications for increasing sexual arousal in women.

  5. Sexual Arousal Patterns of Autogynephilic Male Cross-Dressers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Kevin J; Rosenthal, A M; Miller, David I; Bailey, J Michael

    2017-01-01

    Men's sexual arousal patterns have been an important window into the nature of their erotic interests. Autogynephilia is a natal male's paraphilic tendency to be sexually aroused by the thought or image of being a woman. Autogynephilic arousal per se is difficult to assess objectively, because it is inwardly focused. However, assessing sexual arousal patterns of autogynephilic males in response to external stimuli is also potentially useful. For example, there is substantial association between autogynephilia and gynandromorphophilia (GAMP), or sexual attraction to gynandromorphs (GAMs), colloquially "she-males." GAMP men's sexual arousal patterns in response to GAM, female, and male stimuli have recently been characterized. In the present study, we extended this understanding by comparing the sexual arousal patterns of autogynephilic male cross-dressers, GAMP men, heterosexual men, and homosexual men. Erotic stimuli included sexually explicit videos of men, women, and GAMs. Autogynephilic men were much more similar in their arousal patterns to heterosexual and GAMP men than to homosexual men. However, similar to GAMP men, autogynephilic men showed increased arousal by GAM stimuli relative to female stimuli compared with heterosexual men.

  6. Sexual arousal in men: a review and conceptual analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Erick

    2011-05-01

    Sexual arousal is an emotional/motivational state that can be triggered by internal and external stimuli and that can be inferred from central (including verbal), peripheral (including genital), and behavioral (including action tendencies and motor preparation) responses. This article, while focusing on sexual arousal in men, provides a conceptual analysis of this construct, reviews models of sexual arousal, and discusses the usefulness of perspectives derived from motivation and emotion research in improving our understanding of its determinants and behavioral correlates. In this, it considers the role of genital feedback in men's subjective sexual arousal and the connections between sexual arousal and sexual desire. Future research and definitions may increasingly focus on its central integrative functions (as opposed to its input and output characteristics). Yet, the study of sexual arousal can be expected to continue to benefit from the measurement of its genital, verbal, and behavioral components. Instances of discordance between response components suggest that they are, at least in part, under the control of different mechanisms, and it is proposed that a better understanding of sexual arousal will prove contingent on a better understanding of such mechanisms and the conditions under which they converge and diverge. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Disgust versus Lust: Exploring the Interactions of Disgust and Fear with Sexual Arousal in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischman, Diana S.; Hamilton, Lisa Dawn; Fessler, Daniel M. T.; Meston, Cindy M.

    2015-01-01

    Sexual arousal is a motivational state that moves humans toward situations that inherently pose a risk of disease transmission. Disgust is an emotion that adaptively moves humans away from such situations. Incongruent is the fact that sexual activity is elementary to human fitness yet involves strong disgust elicitors. Using an experimental paradigm, we investigated how these two states interact. Women (final N=76) were assigned to one of four conditions: rate disgust stimuli then watch a pornographic clip; watch a pornographic clip then rate disgust stimuli; rate fear stimuli then watch a pornographic clip; or watch a pornographic clip then rate fear stimuli. Women’s genital sexual arousal was measured with vaginal photoplethysmography and their disgust and fear reactions were measured via self-report. We did not find that baseline disgust propensity predicted sexual arousal in women who were exposed to neutral stimuli before erotic content. In the Erotic-before-Disgust condition we did not find that sexual arousal straightforwardly predicted decreased image disgust ratings. However, we did find some evidence that sexual arousal increased self-reported disgust in women with high trait disgust and sexual arousal decreased self-reported disgust in women with low trait disgust. Women who were exposed to disgusting images before erotic content showed significantly less sexual arousal than women in the control condition or women exposed to fear-inducing images before erotic content. In the Disgust-before-Erotic condition the degree of self-reported disgust was negatively correlated with genital sexual arousal. Hence, in the conflict between the ultimate goals of reproduction and disease avoidance, cues of the presence of pathogens significantly reduce the motivation to engage in mating behaviors that, by their nature, entail a risk of pathogen transmission. PMID:26106894

  8. Disgust versus Lust: Exploring the Interactions of Disgust and Fear with Sexual Arousal in Women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana S Fleischman

    Full Text Available Sexual arousal is a motivational state that moves humans toward situations that inherently pose a risk of disease transmission. Disgust is an emotion that adaptively moves humans away from such situations. Incongruent is the fact that sexual activity is elementary to human fitness yet involves strong disgust elicitors. Using an experimental paradigm, we investigated how these two states interact. Women (final N=76 were assigned to one of four conditions: rate disgust stimuli then watch a pornographic clip; watch a pornographic clip then rate disgust stimuli; rate fear stimuli then watch a pornographic clip; or watch a pornographic clip then rate fear stimuli. Women's genital sexual arousal was measured with vaginal photoplethysmography and their disgust and fear reactions were measured via self-report. We did not find that baseline disgust propensity predicted sexual arousal in women who were exposed to neutral stimuli before erotic content. In the Erotic-before-Disgust condition we did not find that sexual arousal straightforwardly predicted decreased image disgust ratings. However, we did find some evidence that sexual arousal increased self-reported disgust in women with high trait disgust and sexual arousal decreased self-reported disgust in women with low trait disgust. Women who were exposed to disgusting images before erotic content showed significantly less sexual arousal than women in the control condition or women exposed to fear-inducing images before erotic content. In the Disgust-before-Erotic condition the degree of self-reported disgust was negatively correlated with genital sexual arousal. Hence, in the conflict between the ultimate goals of reproduction and disease avoidance, cues of the presence of pathogens significantly reduce the motivation to engage in mating behaviors that, by their nature, entail a risk of pathogen transmission.

  9. Disgust versus Lust: Exploring the Interactions of Disgust and Fear with Sexual Arousal in Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischman, Diana S; Hamilton, Lisa Dawn; Fessler, Daniel M T; Meston, Cindy M

    2015-01-01

    Sexual arousal is a motivational state that moves humans toward situations that inherently pose a risk of disease transmission. Disgust is an emotion that adaptively moves humans away from such situations. Incongruent is the fact that sexual activity is elementary to human fitness yet involves strong disgust elicitors. Using an experimental paradigm, we investigated how these two states interact. Women (final N=76) were assigned to one of four conditions: rate disgust stimuli then watch a pornographic clip; watch a pornographic clip then rate disgust stimuli; rate fear stimuli then watch a pornographic clip; or watch a pornographic clip then rate fear stimuli. Women's genital sexual arousal was measured with vaginal photoplethysmography and their disgust and fear reactions were measured via self-report. We did not find that baseline disgust propensity predicted sexual arousal in women who were exposed to neutral stimuli before erotic content. In the Erotic-before-Disgust condition we did not find that sexual arousal straightforwardly predicted decreased image disgust ratings. However, we did find some evidence that sexual arousal increased self-reported disgust in women with high trait disgust and sexual arousal decreased self-reported disgust in women with low trait disgust. Women who were exposed to disgusting images before erotic content showed significantly less sexual arousal than women in the control condition or women exposed to fear-inducing images before erotic content. In the Disgust-before-Erotic condition the degree of self-reported disgust was negatively correlated with genital sexual arousal. Hence, in the conflict between the ultimate goals of reproduction and disease avoidance, cues of the presence of pathogens significantly reduce the motivation to engage in mating behaviors that, by their nature, entail a risk of pathogen transmission.

  10. Neuroendocrine response to film-induced sexual arousal in men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exton, N G; Truong, T C; Exton, M S; Wingenfeld, S A; Leygraf, N; Saller, B; Hartmann, U; Schedlowski, M

    2000-02-01

    The psychoneuroendocrine responses to sexual arousal have not been clearly established in humans. However, we have demonstrated previously that masturbation-induced orgasm stimulates cardiovascular activity and induces increases in catecholamines and prolactin in blood of both males and females. We presently investigated the role of orgasm in producing these effects. Therefore, in this study parallel analysis of prolactin, adrenaline, noradrenaline, and cortisol concentrations, together with cardiovascular variables of systolic/diastolic blood pressure and heart rate were undertaken during film-induced sexual arousal in nine healthy adult men and nine healthy adult women. Blood was drawn continuously via an indwelling cannula and connected tubing system passed through a mini-pump. In parallel, the cardiovascular parameters were recorded continuously via a computerised finger-cuff sensor. Subjective sexual arousal increased significantly in both men and women during the erotic film, with sexual arousal eliciting an increase in blood pressure in both males and females, and plasma noradrenaline in females only. In contrast, adrenaline, cortisol and prolactin levels were unaffected by sexual arousal. These data further consolidate the role of sympathetic activation in sexual arousal processes. Furthermore, they demonstrate that increases in plasma prolactin during sexual stimulation are orgasm-dependent, suggesting that prolactin may regulate a negative-feedback sexual-satiation mechanism.

  11. Feelings of disgust and disgust-induced avoidance weaken following induced sexual arousal in women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charmaine Borg

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sex and disgust are basic, evolutionary relevant functions that are often construed as paradoxical. In general the stimuli involved in sexual encounters are, at least out of context strongly perceived to hold high disgust qualities. Saliva, sweat, semen and body odours are among the strongest disgust elicitors. This results in the intriguing question of how people succeed in having pleasurable sex at all. One possible explanation could be that sexual engagement temporarily reduces the disgust eliciting properties of particular stimuli or that sexual engagement might weaken the hesitation to actually approach these stimuli. METHODOLOGY: Participants were healthy women (n = 90 randomly allocated to one of three groups: the sexual arousal, the non-sexual positive arousal, or the neutral control group. Film clips were used to elicit the relevant mood state. Participants engaged in 16 behavioural tasks, involving sex related (e.g., lubricate the vibrator and non-sex related (e.g., take a sip of juice with a large insect in the cup stimuli, to measure the impact of sexual arousal on feelings of disgust and actual avoidance behaviour. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The sexual arousal group rated the sex related stimuli as less disgusting compared to the other groups. A similar tendency was evident for the non-sex disgusting stimuli. For both the sex and non-sex related behavioural tasks the sexual arousal group showed less avoidance behaviour (i.e., they conducted the highest percentage of tasks compared to the other groups. SIGNIFICANCE: This study has investigated how sexual arousal interplays with disgust and disgust eliciting properties in women, and has demonstrated that this relationship goes beyond subjective report by affecting the actual approach to disgusting stimuli. Hence, this could explain how we still manage to engage in pleasurable sexual activity. Moreover, these findings suggest that low sexual arousal might be a key feature in the

  12. Predictors of sexual assertiveness: the role of sexual desire, arousal, attitudes, and partner abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Iglesias, Pablo; Sierra, Juan Carlos; Vallejo-Medina, Pablo

    2013-08-01

    This study was conducted to test interpersonal, attitudinal, and sexual predictors of sexual assertiveness in a Spanish sample of 1,619 men and 1,755 women aged 18-87 years. Participants completed measures of sexual assertiveness, solitary and dyadic sexual desire, sexual arousal, erectile function, sexual attitudes, and frequency of partner abuse. In men, higher sexual assertiveness was predicted by less non-physical abuse, more positive attitudes toward sexual fantasies and erotophilia, higher dyadic desire, and higher sexual arousal. In women, higher sexual assertiveness was predicted by less non-physical abuse, less solitary sexual desire and higher dyadic sexual desire, arousal, erotophilia, and positive attitudes towards sexual fantasies. Results were discussed in the light of prevention and educational programs that include training in sexual assertiveness skills.

  13. Disorders in sexual desire and sexual arousal in women, a 2010 state of the art

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Both, Stephanie; Laan, Ellen; Schultz, Willibrord Weijmar

    2010-01-01

    In this contribution, female sexual desire and arousal disorders are viewed from the perspective of incentive motivation and information processing models of sexual response. The effects of hormones, somatic disease, and medication on sexual arousability are discussed, as well as the influence of

  14. Sexual arousal and rhythmic synchronization: A possible effect of vasopressin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miani, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Music is ubiquitous. Yet, its biological relevance is still an ongoing debate. Supporting the view that music had an ancestral role in courtship displays, a pilot study presented here provides preliminary evidence on the link between music and sexual selection. The underlying hypothesis is based...... by vasopressin and its genes. Hence, to test this hypothesis, a rhythmic synchronization task was employed here on one male subject during sexual arousal. Results revealed a significant effect of sexual arousal on rhythm synchronization. This is the first report that empirically supports the hypothesis...

  15. Sex differences in patterns of genital sexual arousal: measurement artifacts or true phenomena?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suschinsky, Kelly D; Lalumière, Martin L; Chivers, Meredith L

    2009-08-01

    Sex differences in patterns of sexual arousal have been reported recently. Men's genital arousal is typically more category-specific than women's, such that men experience their greatest genital arousal to stimuli depicting their preferred sex partners whereas women experience significant genital arousal to stimuli depicting both their preferred and non-preferred sex partners. In addition, men's genital and subjective sexual arousal patterns are more concordant than women's: The correlation between genital and subjective sexual arousal is much larger in men than in women. These sex differences could be due to low response-specificity in the measurement of genital arousal in women. The most commonly used measure of female sexual arousal, vaginal photoplethysmography, has not been fully validated and may not measure sexual arousal specifically. A total of 20 men and 20 women were presented with various sexual and non-sexual emotionally laden short film clips while their genital and subjective sexual arousal were measured. Results suggest that vaginal photoplethysmography is a measure of sexual arousal exclusively. Women's genital responses were highest during sexual stimuli and absent during all non-sexual stimuli. Sex differences in degree of category-specificity and concordance were replicated: Men's genital responses were more category-specific than women's and men's genital and subjective sexual arousal were more strongly correlated than women's. The results from the current study support the continued use of vaginal photoplethysmography in investigating sex differences in patterns of sexual arousal.

  16. Optimizing assessment of sexual arousal in postmenopausal women using erotic film clips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos Alarcon, Lauren G; Dai, Jing; Collins, Karen; Perez, Mindy; Woodard, Terri; Diamond, Michael P

    2017-10-01

    This study sought to assess sexual arousal in a subgroup of women by identifying erotic film clips that would be most mentally appealing and physically arousing to postmenopausal women. By measuring levels of mental appeal and self-reported physical arousal using a bidirectional scale, we aimed to elucidate the clips that would best be utilized for sexual health research in the postmenopausal or over 50-year-old subpopulation. Our results showed that postmenopausal women did not rate clips with older versus younger actors differently (p>0.05). The mean mental and mean physical scores were significantly correlated for both premenopausal subject ratings (r=0.69, perotic film clips; this knowledge is relevant for design of future sexual function research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Genital responsiveness in healthy women with and without sexual arousal disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laan, Ellen; van Driel, Esther M.; van Lunsen, Rik H. W.

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Most pharmacological treatments that are currently being developed for women with sexual arousal disorder are aimed at remedying a vasculogenic deficit. AIM: This study investigated whether pre- and postmenopausal women with sexual arousal disorder are less genitally responsive to

  18. Cognitive Factors in Sexual Arousal: The Role of Distraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geer, James H.; Fuhr, Robert

    1976-01-01

    Four groups of male undergraduates were instructed to perform complex cognitive operations when randomly presented single digits of a dichotic listening paradigm. An erotic tape recording was played into the nonattended ear. Sexual arousal varied directly as a function of the complexity of the distracting cognitive operations. (Author)

  19. Women's Sexual Desire and Arousal Disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brotto, Lori A.; Bitzer, Johannes; Laan, Ellen; Leiblum, Sandra; Luria, Mijal

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction. A committee of five was convened to update the chapter on women's sexual dysfunctions from the perspective of diagnostic issues, pathophysiology, assessment, and treatment. Aim. To review the literature since 2003 and provide recommendations based on evidence. Methods.

  20. Happiness and Arousal: Framing Happiness as Arousing Results in Lower Happiness Ratings for Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Par eBjalkebring

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Older adults have been shown to describe their happiness as lower in arousal when compared to younger adults. In addition, older adults prefer low arousal positive emotions over high arousal positive emotions in their daily lives. We experimentally investigated whether or not changing a few words in the description of happiness could influence a person’s rating of their happiness. We randomly assigned 193 participants, aged 22-92 years, to one of three conditions (high arousal, low arousal, or control. In line with previous findings, we found that older participants rated their happiness lower when framed as high in arousal (i.e., ecstatic, to be bursting with positive emotions and rated their happiness higher when framed as low in arousal (i.e., satisfied, to have a life filled with positive emotions. Younger adults remained uninfluenced by the manipulation. Our study demonstrates that arousal is essential to understanding ratings of happiness, and gives support to the notion that there are age differences in the preference for arousal.

  1. The effect of a dopamine antagonist on conditioning of sexual arousal in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brom, Mirte; Laan, Ellen; Everaerd, Walter; Spinhoven, Philip; Trimbos, Baptist; Both, Stephanie

    2016-04-01

    Dopamine (DA) plays a key role in reward-seeking behaviours. Accumulating evidence from animal and human studies suggests that human sexual reward learning may also depend on DA transmission. However, research on the role of DA in human sexual reward learning is completely lacking. To investigate whether DA antagonism attenuates classical conditioning of sexual response in humans. Healthy women were randomly allocated to one of two treatment conditions: haloperidol (n = 29) or placebo (n = 29). A differential conditioning paradigm was applied with genital vibrostimulation as unconditional stimulus (US) and neutral pictures as conditional stimuli (CSs). Genital arousal was assessed, and ratings of affective value and subjective sexual arousal were obtained. Haloperidol administration affected unconditional genital responding. However, no significant effects of medication were found for conditioned responding. No firm conclusions can be drawn about whether female sexual reward learning implicates DA transmission since the results do not lend themselves to unambiguous interpretation.

  2. Nipple/Breast stimulation and sexual arousal in young men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Roy; Meston, Cindy

    2006-05-01

    The role of nipple/breast stimulation in influencing sexual arousal in men and women during lovemaking has only been the subject of opinion-based comment rather than evidence-based study. No attempt to question people about such sexual behavior has ever been undertaken. The study was designed to ascertain the effects of nipple/breast manipulation in young men and women on their sexual arousal. A short questionnaire about nipple/breast stimulation during sexual activity was administered to 301 (148 men; 153 women) sexually experienced undergraduates (age range 17-29 years, 95% between 18 and 22). Replies to questions in questionnaire. The major findings in regard to the women were that 81.5% reported that stimulation of their nipples/breasts caused or enhanced their sexual arousal, 78.2% agreed that when sexually aroused such manipulation increased their arousal, 59.1% had asked to have their nipples stimulated during lovemaking, and only 7.2% found that the manipulation decreased their arousal. In regard to the men, 51.7% reported that nipple stimulation caused or enhanced their sexual arousal, 39% agreed that when sexually aroused such manipulation increased their arousal, only 17.1% had asked to have their nipples stimulated, and only 7.5% found that such stimulation decreased their arousal. Manipulation of the nipples/breasts causes or enhances sexual arousal in approximately 82% of young women and 52% of young men with only 7-8% reporting that it decreased their arousal.

  3. Factors associated with sexual arousal, sexual sensation seeking, and sexual satisfaction among African-American adolescent females

    OpenAIRE

    Sales, Jessica M.; Smearman, Erica; Brody, Gene H.; Milhausen, Robin; Philibert, Robert A.; DiClemente, Ralph J.

    2013-01-01

    Sexuality-related constructs such as sexual arousal, sexual sensation seeking (SSS) and sexual satisfaction have been related to sexual behaviors that place one at risk for adverse consequences such as sexually transmitted infections (STIs), HIV, and unintended pregnancy. The biopsychosocial model posits an array of factors, ranging from social environmental factors, biological, and psychological predispositions that may be associated with these sexuality constructs in adolescent samples. Afr...

  4. Determinants of subjective experience of sexual arousal in women: feedback from genital arousal and erotic stimulus content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laan, E.; Everaerd, W.; van der Velde, J.; Geer, J. H.

    1995-01-01

    Sixty-two women participated in a study designed to explore the association between genital and subjective sexual arousal. Four stimulus conditions were created, designed to evoke differential patterns of genital arousal over time. Subjects were instructed to report sensations in their genitalia

  5. The effects of similarity in sexual excitation, inhibition, and mood on sexual arousal problems and sexual satisfaction in newlywed couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lykins, Amy D; Janssen, Erick; Newhouse, Sarah; Heiman, Julia R; Rafaeli, Eshkol

    2012-05-01

    Despite the importance of sexuality for romantic relationships, there has been little research attention to individual differences and dyadic variables, including couple similarity, and their association with sexual problems and satisfaction. The current study examined the effects of the propensity for sexual inhibition and sexual excitation scales (SIS/SES) and the effects of different mood states on sexuality (Mood and Sexuality Questionnaire [MSQ]), at both the individual and the dyad level, on sexual arousal problems and sexual satisfaction. Similarity in SIS/SES and MSQ was measured in a nonclinical sample of 35 newlywed couples and operationally defined as the within-couple, z-transformed correlations between the two partners' item responses. Sexual arousal problems were assessed using self-report measures (Demographic and Sexual History Questionnaire) and focused on the past 3 months. Sexual satisfaction was assessed using the Global Measure of Sexual Satisfaction. Regression analyses revealed that greater similarity in the effects of anxiety and stress on sexuality was associated with more reported sexual arousal problems of wives. In contrast, the husbands' sexual arousal problems were related only to their own higher SIS1 scores. Higher SES scores predicted lower sexual satisfaction for both husbands and wives. Wives who reported strong positive mood effects on their sexuality indicated greater sexual satisfaction, while husbands who were more similar to their wives in the effect of positive moods on sexuality indicated greater sexual satisfaction. The findings show that, above and beyond one's own sexual propensities, similarity in various aspects of sexuality predicts sexual problems (more so in women) and sexual satisfaction (in both men and women). © 2012 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  6. The Impact of Sexual Arousal on Sexual Risk-Taking and Decision-Making in Men and Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skakoon-Sparling, Shayna; Cramer, Kenneth M; Shuper, Paul A

    2016-01-01

    Sexual arousal has emerged as an important contextual feature in sexual encounters that can impact safer-sex decision-making. We conducted two experiments that investigated the effects of sexual arousal among male and female participants. Experiment 1 (N = 144) examined the impact of sexual around on sexual health decision-making. Sexually explicit and neutral video clips as well as hypothetical romantic scenarios were used to evaluate the effects of sexual arousal on sexual risk-taking intentions. Men and women who reported higher levels of sexual arousal also displayed greater intentions to participate in risky sexual behavior (e.g., unprotected sex with a new sex partner). Experiment 2 (N = 122) examined the impact of sexual arousal on general risk-taking, using the same videos clips as in Experiment 1 and a modified version of a computerized Blackjack card game. Participants were offered a chance to make either a risky play or a safe play during ambiguous conditions. Increased sexual arousal in Experiment 2 was associated with impulsivity and a greater willingness to make risky plays in the Blackjack game. These findings suggest that, in situations where there are strong sexually visceral cues, both men and women experiencing strong sexual arousal may have lower inhibitions and may experience impaired decision-making. This phenomenon may have an impact during sexual encounters and may contribute to a failure to use appropriate prophylactic protection.

  7. No longer his and hers, but ours: examining sexual arousal in response to erotic stories designed for both sexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Christina L; Cortez, Angelberto

    2011-01-01

    Research on sexual arousal and erotica has focused primarily on men and women's responses to erotic films and stories designed for a sex-specific audience. To reduce the confounds of relying on separate materials when evaluating sex differences in arousal, the present study designed suggestive and explicit erotic stories that were rated as being equally appealing to men and women. Participants were 212 undergraduate students who completed self-report measures of sexual self-esteem, sexual desire, and pre- and posttest measures of arousal. As hypothesized, women in the suggestive and explicit conditions reported a significant increase in sexual arousal; however, only men who read the explicit story demonstrated significant elevations in arousal. The creation of "equally appealing" erotic stories has challenged the existing research paradigm and has initiated the investigation of sexual arousal from a set of common materials designed for both sexes. The benefits of creating a series of equally appealing erotic materials extends beyond empirical research and may ultimately facilitate greater openness and communication between heterosexual couples.

  8. Women's self-rated attraction to male faces does not correspond with physiological arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagerman, S; Woolard, Z; Anderson, K; Tatler, B W; Moore, F R

    2017-10-19

    There has been little work to determine whether attractiveness ratings of faces correspond to sexual or more general attraction. We tested whether a measure of women's physiological arousal (pupil diameter change) was correlated with ratings of men's facial attractiveness. In Study 1, women rated the faces of men for whom we also measured salivary testosterone. They rated each face for attractiveness, and for desirability for friendship and long- and short-term romantic relationships. Pupil diameter change was not related to subjective ratings of attractiveness, but was positively correlated with the men's testosterone. In Study 2 we compared women's pupil diameter change in response to the faces of men with high versus low testosterone, as well as in response to non-facial images pre-rated as either sexually arousing or threatening. Pupil dilation was not affected by testosterone, and increased relatively more in response to sexually arousing than threatening images. We conclude that self-rated preferences may not provide a straightforward and direct assessment of sexual attraction. We argue that future work should identify the constructs that are tapped via attractiveness ratings of faces, and support the development of methodology which assesses objective sexual attraction.

  9. Sexual touching and difficulties with sexual arousal and orgasm among U.S. older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galinsky, Adena M

    2012-08-01

    Little is known about the non-genitally-focused sexual behavior of those experiencing sexual difficulties. The objective of this study was to review the theory supporting a link between sexual touching and difficulties with sexual arousal and orgasm, and to examine associations between these constructs among older adults in the United States. The data were from the 2005-2006 National Social Life Health and Aging Project, which surveyed 3,005 community-dwelling men and women ages 57-85 years. The 1,352 participants who had had sex in the past year reported on their frequency of sexual touching and whether there had been a period of several months or more in the past year when they were unable to climax, had trouble getting or maintaining an erection (men) or had trouble lubricating (women). Women also reported how often they felt sexually aroused during partner sex in the last 12 months. The odds of being unable to climax were greater by 2.4 times (95% CI 1.2-4.8) among men and 2.8 times (95% CI 1.4-5.5) among women who sometimes, rarely or never engaged in sexual touching, compared to those who always engaged in sexual touching, controlling for demographic factors and physical health. These results were attenuated but persisted after controlling for emotional relationship satisfaction and psychological factors. Similar results were obtained for erectile difficulties among men and subjective arousal difficulties among women, but not lubrication difficulties among women. Infrequent sexual touching is associated with arousal and orgasm difficulties among older adults in the United States.

  10. Sexual Touching and Difficulties with Sexual Arousal and Orgasm Among U.S. Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the non-genitally-focused sexual behavior of those experiencing sexual difficulties. The objective of this study was to review the theory supporting a link between sexual touching and difficulties with sexual arousal and orgasm, and to examine associations between these constructs among older adults in the United States. The data were from the 2005–2006 National Social Life Health and Aging Project, which surveyed 3,005 community-dwelling men and women ages 57–85 years. The 1,352 participants who had had sex in the past year reported on their frequency of sexual touching and whether there had been a period of several months or more in the past year when they were unable to climax, had trouble getting or maintaining an erection (men) or had trouble lubricating (women). Women also reported how of ten they felt sexually aroused during partner sex in the last 12 months. The odds of being unable to climax were greater by 2.4 times (95% CI 1.2–4.8) among men and 2.8 times (95% CI 1.4–5.5) among women who sometimes, rarely or never engaged in sexual touching, compared to those who always engaged in sexual touching, controlling for demographic factors and physical health. These results were attenuated but persisted after controlling for emotional relationship satisfaction and psychological factors. Similar results were obtained for erectile difficulties among men and subjective arousal difficulties among women, but not lubrication difficulties among women. Infrequent sexual touching is associated with arousal and orgasm difficulties among older adults in the United States. PMID:22160881

  11. Female sexual arousal: genital anatomy and orgasm in intercourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallen, Kim; Lloyd, Elisabeth A

    2011-05-01

    In men and women sexual arousal culminates in orgasm, with female orgasm solely from sexual intercourse often regarded as a unique feature of human sexuality. However, orgasm from sexual intercourse occurs more reliably in men than in women, likely reflecting the different types of physical stimulation men and women require for orgasm. In men, orgasms are under strong selective pressure as orgasms are coupled with ejaculation and thus contribute to male reproductive success. By contrast, women's orgasms in intercourse are highly variable and are under little selective pressure as they are not a reproductive necessity. The proximal mechanisms producing variability in women's orgasms are little understood. In 1924 Marie Bonaparte proposed that a shorter distance between a woman's clitoris and her urethral meatus (CUMD) increased her likelihood of experiencing orgasm in intercourse. She based this on her published data that were never statistically analyzed. In 1940 Landis and colleagues published similar data suggesting the same relationship, but these data too were never fully analyzed. We analyzed raw data from these two studies and found that both demonstrate a strong inverse relationship between CUMD and orgasm during intercourse. Unresolved is whether this increased likelihood of orgasm with shorter CUMD reflects increased penile-clitoral contact during sexual intercourse or increased penile stimulation of internal aspects of the clitoris. CUMD likely reflects prenatal androgen exposure, with higher androgen levels producing larger distances. Thus these results suggest that women exposed to lower levels of prenatal androgens are more likely to experience orgasm during sexual intercourse. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Increased sexual arousal in patients with movement disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teive, Hélio A G; Moro, Adriana; Moscovich, Mariana; Munhoz, Renato P

    2016-04-01

    Increased of sexual arousal (ISA) has been described in different neurological diseases. The purpose of this study was present a case series of ISA in patients with movement disorders. Fifteen patients with different forms of movement disorders (Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, Tourette's syndrome, spinocerebellar ataxia type 3), were evaluated in the Movement Disorders Unit of the Federal University of Paraná. Among Parkinson's disease patients there were seven cases with different forms of ISA due to dopaminergic agonist use, levodopa abuse, and deep brain stimulation (DBS). In the group with hyperkinetic disorders, two patients with Huntington's disease, two with Tourette's syndrome, and four with spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 presented with ISA. ISA in this group of patients had different etiologies, predominantly related to dopaminergic treatment or DBS in Parkinson's disease, part of the background clinical picture in Huntington's disease and Tourette's syndrome, and probably associated with cultural aspects in patients with spinocerebellar ataxia type 3.

  13. Misattribution of musical arousal increases sexual attraction towards opposite-sex faces in females.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela M Marin

    Full Text Available Several theories about the origins of music have emphasized its biological and social functions, including in courtship. Music may act as a courtship display due to its capacity to vary in complexity and emotional content. Support for music's reproductive function comes from the recent finding that only women in the fertile phase of the reproductive cycle prefer composers of complex melodies to composers of simple ones as short-term sexual partners, which is also in line with the ovulatory shift hypothesis. However, the precise mechanisms by which music may influence sexual attraction are unknown, specifically how music may interact with visual attractiveness cues and affect perception and behaviour in both genders. Using a crossmodal priming paradigm, we examined whether listening to music influences ratings of facial attractiveness and dating desirability of opposite-sex faces. We also tested whether misattribution of arousal or pleasantness underlies these effects, and explored whether sex differences and menstrual cycle phase may be moderators. Our sample comprised 64 women in the fertile or infertile phase (no hormonal contraception use and 32 men, carefully matched for mood, relationship status, and musical preferences. Musical primes (25 s varied in arousal and pleasantness, and targets were photos of faces with neutral expressions (2 s. Group-wise analyses indicated that women, but not men, gave significantly higher ratings of facial attractiveness and dating desirability after having listened to music than in the silent control condition. High-arousing, complex music yielded the largest effects, suggesting that music may affect human courtship behaviour through induced arousal, which calls for further studies on the mechanisms by which music affects sexual attraction in real-life social contexts.

  14. A psychophysiological investigation of sexual arousal in women with lifelong vaginismus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherner, Rebecca A; Reissing, Elke D

    2013-05-01

    Relatively little is known about the subjective reactions of women with lifelong vaginismus to erotic stimuli and genital arousal has never been investigated. Reports of maladaptive cognitions and fears regarding sexuality and intercourse suggest that anxiety may interfere with sexual arousal in women with vaginismus. To examine the genital and subjective responses to sexually explicit film stimuli of women with lifelong vaginismus compared with women with lifelong dyspareunia and women with no pain. Forty-five women (15 vaginismus, 15 dyspareunia, and 15 no pain) viewed two neutral and two erotic film sets, one depicting sexual activity without vaginal penetration and the other depicting intercourse, over two testing sessions. Vulvar temperature was recorded using an infrared camera. Participants completed a measure of subjective responses after viewing each film. All groups experienced increased vulvar temperature during the erotic films regardless of activity depicted. In response to the erotic films, the vaginismus group reported less mental arousal than the no-pain group and a range of negative subjective responses, including threat and disgust. Overall, participants showed concordance between peak subjective sexual arousal and temperature change from baseline to peak arousal. Despite negative subjective responses, women with vaginismus responded with increased genital sexual arousal to erotic films. The resilience of genital arousal may have resulted from moderate levels of anxiety experienced in the laboratory setting facilitating sexual response regardless of subjective appraisal; however, anxiety experienced in a dyadic context may interfere more substantially. © 2013 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  15. Uncovering category specificity of genital sexual arousal in women: The critical role of analytic technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulverman, Carey S; Hixon, J Gregory; Meston, Cindy M

    2015-10-01

    Based on analytic techniques that collapse data into a single average value, it has been reported that women lack category specificity and show genital sexual arousal to a large range of sexual stimuli including those that both match and do not match their self-reported sexual interests. These findings may be a methodological artifact of the way in which data are analyzed. This study examined whether using an analytic technique that models data over time would yield different results. Across two studies, heterosexual (N = 19) and lesbian (N = 14) women viewed erotic films featuring heterosexual, lesbian, and gay male couples, respectively, as their physiological sexual arousal was assessed with vaginal photoplethysmography. Data analysis with traditional methods comparing average genital arousal between films failed to detect specificity of genital arousal for either group. When data were analyzed with smoothing regression splines and a within-subjects approach, both heterosexual and lesbian women demonstrated different patterns of genital sexual arousal to the different types of erotic films, suggesting that sophisticated statistical techniques may be necessary to more fully understand women's genital sexual arousal response. Heterosexual women showed category-specific genital sexual arousal. Lesbian women showed higher arousal to the heterosexual film than the other films. However, within subjects, lesbian women showed significantly different arousal responses suggesting that lesbian women's genital arousal discriminates between different categories of stimuli at the individual level. Implications for the future use of vaginal photoplethysmography as a diagnostic tool of sexual preferences in clinical and forensic settings are discussed. © 2015 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  16. Sexy thoughts: effects of sexual cognitions on testosterone, cortisol, and arousal in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldey, Katherine L; van Anders, Sari M

    2011-05-01

    Previous research suggests that sexual stimuli increase testosterone (T) in women and shows inconsistent effects of sexual arousal on cortisol (C), but effects of cognitive aspects of arousal, rather than behaviors or sensory stimuli, are unclear. The present study examined whether sexual thoughts affect T or C and whether hormonal contraceptive (HC) use moderated this effect, given mixed findings of HC use confounding hormone responses. Participants (79 women) provided a baseline saliva sample for radioimmunoassay. We created the Imagined Social Situation Exercise (ISSE) to test effects of imagining social interactions on hormones, and participants were assigned to the experimental (sexual) or one of three control (positive, neutral, stressful) conditions. Participants provided a second saliva sample 15 min post-activity. Results indicated that for women not using HCs, the sexual condition increased T compared to the stressful or positive conditions. In contrast, HC using women in the sexual condition had decreased T relative to the stressful condition and similar T to the positive condition. The effect was specific to T, as sexual thoughts did not change C. For participants in the sexual condition, higher baseline T predicted larger increases in sexual arousal but smaller increases in T, likely due to ceiling effects on T. Our results suggest that sexual thoughts change T but not C, baseline T levels and HC use may contribute to variation in the T response to sexual thoughts, and cognitive aspects of sexual arousal affect physiology. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Increased sexual arousal in patients with movement disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélio A. G. Teive

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Increased of sexual arousal (ISA has been described in different neurological diseases. The purpose of this study was present a case series of ISA in patients with movement disorders. Method Fifteen patients with different forms of movement disorders (Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease, Tourette´s syndrome, spinocerebellar ataxia type 3, were evaluated in the Movement Disorders Unit of the Federal University of Paraná. Results Among Parkinson’s disease patients there were seven cases with different forms of ISA due to dopaminergic agonist use, levodopa abuse, and deep brain stimulation (DBS. In the group with hyperkinetic disorders, two patients with Huntington’s disease, two with Tourette’s syndrome, and four with spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 presented with ISA. Conclusions ISA in this group of patients had different etiologies, predominantly related to dopaminergic treatment or DBS in Parkinson’s disease, part of the background clinical picture in Huntington’s disease and Tourette’s syndrome, and probably associated with cultural aspects in patients with spinocerebellar ataxia type 3.

  18. The effects of state and trait self-focused attention on sexual arousal in sexually functional and dysfunctional women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meston, Cindy M.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effects of state self-focused attention on sexual arousal and trait self-consciousness on sexual arousal and function in sexually functional (n = 16) and dysfunctional (n = 16) women. Self-focused attention was induced using a 50% reflectant television screen in one of two counterbalanced sessions during which self-report and physiological sexual responses to erotic films were measured. Self-focused attention significantly decreased vaginal pulse amplitude (VPA) responses among sexually functional but not dysfunctional women, and substantially decreased correlations between self-report and VPA measures of sexual arousal. Self-focused attention did not significantly impact subjective sexual arousal in sexually functional or dysfunctional women. Trait private self-consciousness was positively related to sexual desire, orgasm, compatibility, contentment and sexual satisfaction. Public self-consciousness was correlated with sexual pain. The findings are discussed in terms of Masters and Johnson’s [Masters, W. H. & Johnson, V. E. (1970). Human sexual inadequacy. Boston: Little, Brown) concepts of “spectatoring” and “sensate focus.” PMID:15927143

  19. The mediating effect of daily stress on the sexual arousal function of women with a history of childhood sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zollman, Gena; Rellini, Alessandra; Desrocher, Danielle

    2013-01-01

    Psychopathologies such as posttraumatic stress disorder are often proposed as mediators of the sexual arousal dysfunction experienced by women with a history of childhood maltreatment. However, posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms are only part of the difficulties experienced by these women. Other factors to consider include negative affectivity and perceived daily stress. To assess the mediating role of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, negative affectivity, and perceived daily stress, we collected data from 62 women with and without a history of childhood maltreatment (sexual, physical and emotional abuse). A comprehensive assessment of sexual arousal functioning and sexual responses was obtained using self-reported measures and psychophysiological measures of vaginal engorgement and subjective sexual arousal during exposure to sexual visual stimuli. The model assessed the simultaneous mediating effect of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, negative affectivity and perceived daily stress on the relation between childhood maltreatment and sexual variables. Daily stress, showed a significant and stronger mediation effect on sexual arousal functioning as compared to posttraumatic stress disorder and negative affectivity. These findings suggest that daily stress may be an important mechanism to consider when treating sexual arousal functioning in women who have a history of childhood maltreatment.

  20. Affective and Autonomic Responses to Erotic Images: Evidence of Disgust-Based Mechanisms in Female Sexual Interest/Arousal Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePesa, Natasha S; Cassisi, Jeffrey E

    2017-09-01

    Disgust has recently been implicated in the development and maintenance of female sexual dysfunction, yet most empirical studies have been conducted with a sexually healthy sample. The current study contributes to the literature by expanding the application of a disgust model of sexual functioning to a clinically relevant sample of women with low sexual desire/arousal and accompanying sexual distress. Young women (mean age = 19.12 years) with psychometrically defined sexual dysfunction (i.e., female sexual interest/arousal disorder [FSIAD] group) and a healthy control group were compared in their affective (i.e., facial electromyography [EMG] and self-report) and autonomic (i.e., heart rate and electrodermal activity) responses to disgusting, erotic, positive, and neutral images. Significant differences were predicted in responses to erotic images only. Specifically, it was hypothesized that the FSIAD group would display affective and autonomic responses consistent with a disgust response, while responses from the control group would align with a general appetitive response. Results largely supported study hypotheses. The FSIAD group displayed significantly greater negative facial affect, reported more subjective disgust, and recorded greater heart rate deceleration than the control group in response to erotic stimuli. Greater subjective disgust response corresponded with more sexual avoidance behavior. Planned follow-up analyses explored correlates of subjective disgust responses.

  1. The role of incentive learning and cognitive regulation in sexual arousal

    OpenAIRE

    Brom, Mirte

    2016-01-01

    Insight in the underlying mechanisms of sexual motivation is essential to understand disorders in sexual desire and such understanding may be helpful in the development of new and effective psychological and pharmacological interventions, since empirically validated treatments are lacking for female sexual interest/arousal disorder as well as hypersexuality and related disorders. Because much sexual behaviour is thought to be acquired through learning, and given the specific hypothesis that c...

  2. Cerebral activation associated with visually evoked sexual arousal in the limbic system: functional MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eun, Sung Jong; Kong, Gwang Woo; Kim, Hyung Joong; Seo, Jeong Jin; Kang, Heoung Keun; Cho, Ki Hyun; Yoon, Ka Hyun; Kim, Kyung Yo

    2004-01-01

    To identify the brain centers associated with visually evoked sexual arousal in the human brain, and to investigate the neural mechanism for sexual arousal using functional MRI (fMRI). A total of 20 sexually potent volunteers consisting of 10 males (mean age: 24) and 10 females (mean age: 23) underwent fMRI on a 1.5T MR scanner (GE Signa Horizon). The fMRI data were obtained from 7 slices (10 mm slice thickness) parallel to the AC-PC (anterior commissure and posterior commissure) line, giving a total of 511 MR images. The sexual stimulation consisted of a 1-minute rest with black screen, followed by a 4-minute stimulation by an erotic video film, and concluded with a 2-minute rest. The brain activation maps and their quantification were analyzed by the statistical parametric mapping (SPM 99) program. The brain activation regions associated with visual sexual arousal in the limbic system are the posterior cingulate gyrus, parahippocampal gyrus, hypothalamus, medial cingulate gyrus, thalamus, amygdala, anterior cingulate gyrus, insula, hippocampus, caudate nucleus, globus pallidus and putamen. Especially, the parahippocampal gyrus, cingulate gyrus, thalamus and hypothalamus were highly activated in comparison with other areas. The overall activities of the limbic lobe, diencephalon, and basal ganglia were 11.8%, 10.5%, and 3.4%, respectively. In the correlation test between brain activity and sexual arousal, the hypothalamus and thalamus showed positive correlation, but the other brain areas showed no correlation. The fMRI is useful to quantitatively evaluate the cerebral activation associated with visually evoked, sexual arousal in the human brain. This result may be helpful by providing clinically valuable information on sexual disorder in humans as well as by increasing the understanding of the neuroanatomical correlates of sexual arousal

  3. Cerebral activation associated with visually evoked sexual arousal in the limbic system: functional MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eun, Sung Jong; Kong, Gwang Woo; Kim, Hyung Joong; Seo, Jeong Jin; Kang, Heoung Keun; Cho, Ki Hyun; Yoon, Ka Hyun [School of Medicine, Chonnam National Univ., Kwangju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kyung Yo [Wonkwang Univ., Iksan (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-08-01

    To identify the brain centers associated with visually evoked sexual arousal in the human brain, and to investigate the neural mechanism for sexual arousal using functional MRI (fMRI). A total of 20 sexually potent volunteers consisting of 10 males (mean age: 24) and 10 females (mean age: 23) underwent fMRI on a 1.5T MR scanner (GE Signa Horizon). The fMRI data were obtained from 7 slices (10 mm slice thickness) parallel to the AC-PC (anterior commissure and posterior commissure) line, giving a total of 511 MR images. The sexual stimulation consisted of a 1-minute rest with black screen, followed by a 4-minute stimulation by an erotic video film, and concluded with a 2-minute rest. The brain activation maps and their quantification were analyzed by the statistical parametric mapping (SPM 99) program. The brain activation regions associated with visual sexual arousal in the limbic system are the posterior cingulate gyrus, parahippocampal gyrus, hypothalamus, medial cingulate gyrus, thalamus, amygdala, anterior cingulate gyrus, insula, hippocampus, caudate nucleus, globus pallidus and putamen. Especially, the parahippocampal gyrus, cingulate gyrus, thalamus and hypothalamus were highly activated in comparison with other areas. The overall activities of the limbic lobe, diencephalon, and basal ganglia were 11.8%, 10.5%, and 3.4%, respectively. In the correlation test between brain activity and sexual arousal, the hypothalamus and thalamus showed positive correlation, but the other brain areas showed no correlation. The fMRI is useful to quantitatively evaluate the cerebral activation associated with visually evoked, sexual arousal in the human brain. This result may be helpful by providing clinically valuable information on sexual disorder in humans as well as by increasing the understanding of the neuroanatomical correlates of sexual arousal.

  4. Magnetic resonance imaging of male and female genitals during coitus and female sexual arousal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schultz, WW; van Andel, P; Sabelis, [No Value; Mooyaart, E

    1999-01-01

    Objective To find out whether taking images of the male and female genitals during coitus is feasible and to find out whether former and current ideas about the anatomy during sexual intercourse and during female sexual arousal are based on assumptions or on facts. Design Observational study Setting

  5. The effects of tibolone on vaginal blood flow, sexual desire and arousability in postmenopausal women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laan, E.; van Lunsen, R. H.; Everaerd, W.

    2001-01-01

    AIMS: To compare the effects of 3 months' tibolone treatment with the effects of placebo on sexual function (in particular, vaginal blood flow, and sexual desire and arousability) and climacteric symptoms in postmenopausal women. METHODS: A randomized, double-blind, cross-over study was conducted in

  6. The relationship of deviant sexual arousal and psychopathy in incest offenders, extrafamilial child molesters, and rapists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firestone, P; Bradford, J M; Greenberg, D M; Serran, G A

    2000-01-01

    The relationship between deviant sexual arousal, as measured by auditory phallometric stimuli, and psychopathy, as measured by the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised, was examined in 156 incest offenders, 260 extrafamilial child molesters, and 123 rapists. Subjects in each group had never been convicted of another type of sexual offense. Replicating previous research, rapists were more psychopathic than incest offenders and child molesters. Deviant sexual arousal to auditory stimuli was evident only on the Pedophile Index for child molesters. When the relationship between psychopathy and deviant sexual arousal was evaluated in the three groups combined, several significant correlations emerged. However, a finer analysis of these correlations revealed that child molesters evidenced a significant correlation between psychopathy and the Rape Index and psychopathy and the Pedophile Index. There were no such significant findings in the incest offender or rapist groups. Implications of the results are discussed.

  7. Neural pathways in processing of sexual arousal: a dynamic causal modeling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seok, J-W; Park, M-S; Sohn, J-H

    2016-09-01

    Three decades of research have investigated brain processing of visual sexual stimuli with neuroimaging methods. These researchers have found that sexual arousal stimuli elicit activity in a broad neural network of cortical and subcortical brain areas that are known to be associated with cognitive, emotional, motivational and physiological components. However, it is not completely understood how these neural systems integrate and modulated incoming information. Therefore, we identify cerebral areas whose activations were correlated with sexual arousal using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging and used the dynamic causal modeling method for searching the effective connectivity about the sexual arousal processing network. Thirteen heterosexual males were scanned while they passively viewed alternating short trials of erotic and neutral pictures on a monitor. We created a subset of seven models based on our results and previous studies and selected a dominant connectivity model. Consequently, we suggest a dynamic causal model of the brain processes mediating the cognitive, emotional, motivational and physiological factors of human male sexual arousal. These findings are significant implications for the neuropsychology of male sexuality.

  8. Stimuli eliciting sexual arousal in males who offend adult women: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolárský, A; Madlafousek, J; Novotná, V

    1978-03-01

    The sexually arousing effects of short film scenes showing a naked actress's seductive behavior were phalloplethysmographically measured in 14 sexual deviates. These were males who had offended adult women, predominantly exhibitionists. Controls were 14 normal men. Deviates responded positively to the scenes and differentiated strong and weak seduction scenes similarly to normals. Consequently, the question arises of why deviates avoid their victim's erotic cooperation and why they do not offend their regular sexual partners. Post hoc analysis of five scenes which elicited a strikingly higher response in deviates than in normals suggested that these scenes contained reduced seductive behavior but unrestrained presentation of the genitals. This finding further encourages the laboratory study of stimulus conditions for abnormal sexual arousal which occurs during the sexual offense.

  9. Viewing sexual images is associated with reduced physiological arousal response to gambling loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lui, Ming; Hsu, Ming

    2018-01-01

    Erotic imagery is one highly salient emotional signal that exists everywhere in daily life. The impact of sexual stimuli on human decision-making, however, has rarely been investigated. This study examines the impact of sexual stimuli on financial decision-making under risk. In each trial, either a sexual or neutral image was presented in a picture categorization task before a gambling task. Thirty-four men made gambling decisions while their physiological arousal, measured by skin conductance responses (SCRs), was recorded. Behaviorally, the proportion of gambling decisions did not differ between the sexual and neutral image trials. Physiologically, participants had smaller arousal differences, measured in micro-siemen per dollar, between losses and gains in the sexual rather than in the neutral image trials. Moreover, participants' SCRs to losses relative to gains predicted the proportion of gambling decisions in the neutral image trials but not in the sexual image trials. The results were consistent with the hypothesis that the presence of emotionally salient sexual images reduces attentional and arousal-related responses to gambling losses. Our results are consistent with the theory of loss attention involving increased cognitive investment in losses compared to gains. The findings also have potential practical implications for our understanding of the specific roles of sexual images in human financial decision making in everyday life, such as gambling behaviors in the casino.

  10. Satiation therapy: a procedure for reducing deviant sexual arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, W L

    1979-01-01

    Two single-case experiments demonstrated the efficacy of satiation therapy with adult males who had long-standing deviant sexual interests. The procedure involves the pairing of prolonged masturbation (1 hour) with the verbalization by the patient of his deviant sexual fantasies and in both cases the designs permitted the attribution of control over aberrant responding to the satiation therapy. The results are discussed in terms of the possible active ingredients of the procedure. PMID:511807

  11. Cybersex addiction: Experienced sexual arousal when watching pornography and not real-life sexual contacts makes the difference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laier, Christian; Pawlikowski, Mirko; Pekal, Jaro; Schulte, Frank P; Brand, Matthias

    2013-06-01

    Background and aims Cybersex addiction is discussed controversially, while empirical evidence is widely missing. With respect to its mechanisms of development and maintenance Brand et al. (2011) assume that reinforcement due to cybersex should lead to the development of cue-reactivity and craving explaining recurrent cybersex use in the face of growing but neglected negative consequences. To support this hypothesis, two experimental studies were conducted. Methods In a cue-reactivity paradigm 100 pornographic cues were presented to participants and indicators of sexual arousal and craving were assessed. The first study aimed at identifying predictors of cybersex addiction in a freely recruited sample of 171 heterosexual males. The aim of the second study was to verify the findings of the first study by comparing healthy (n = 25) and problematic (n = 25) cybersex users. Results The results show that indicators of sexual arousal and craving to Internet pornographic cues predicted tendencies towards cybersex addiction in the first study. Moreover, it was shown that problematic cybersex users report greater sexual arousal and craving reactions resulting from pornographic cue presentation. In both studies, the number and subjective quality of real-life sexual contacts were not associated to cybersex addiction. Discussion The results support the gratification hypothesis, which assumes reinforcement, learning mechanisms, and craving to be relevant processes in the development and maintenance of cybersex addiction. Poor or unsatisfying sexual real-life contacts cannot sufficiently explain cybersex addiction. Conclusions Positive reinforcement in terms of gratification plays a major role in cybersex addiction.

  12. A female sex offender with multiple paraphilias: a psychologic, physiologic (laboratory sexual arousal) and endocrine case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, A J; Swaminath, S; Baxter, D; Poulin, C

    1990-05-01

    A 20 year old female pedophile exhibiting multiple paraphilias and who had been both a victim of incest and an active participant, undertook extensive clinical, psychometric, endocrine and laboratory sexual arousal studies. Her psychiatric, psychometric and physiologic arousal profiles showed similarities to those of a sizable proportion of male child molesters, especially incestors. It is suggested that laboratory arousal tests (using the vaginal photoplethysmograph) may have a role in the assessment of some female sex offenders.

  13. Animal models of female sexual dysfunction: basic considerations on drugs, arousal, motivation and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ågmo, Anders

    2014-06-01

    Female sexual dysfunctions are a heterogeneous group of symptoms with unknown but probably varying etiology. Social factors may contribute both to the prevalence and to the origin of these dysfunctions. The present review focuses on female hypoactive sexual desire disorder, sexual arousal disorder and orgasmic disorder. These disorders are generally the most common, according to epidemiological studies, and they can all be considered as disorders of motivation. An incentive motivational model of sexual behavior, applicable to humans as well as to non-human animals, is described and the dysfunctions placed into the context of this model. It is shown that endocrine alterations as well as observable alterations in neurotransmitter activity are unlikely causes of the disorders. A potential role of learning is stressed. Nevertheless, the role of some transmitters in female rodent sexual behavior is analyzed, and compared to data from women, whenever such data are available. The conclusion is that there is no direct coincidence between effects on rodent copulatory behavior and sexual behavior in women. Based on these and other considerations, it is suggested that sexual approach behaviors rather than copulatory reflexes in rodents might be of some relevance for human sexual behavior, and perhaps even for predicting the effects of interventions, perhaps even the effects of drugs. Female copulatory behaviors, including the proceptive behaviors, are less appropriate. The common sexual dysfunctions in women are not problems with the performance of copulatory acts, but with the desire for such acts, by feeling aroused by such acts and experiencing the pleasure expected to be caused by such acts. Finally, it is questioned whether female sexual dysfunctions are appropriate targets for pharmacological treatment. © 2013.

  14. Stability of Self-Reported Arousal to Sexual Fantasies Involving Children in a Clinical Sample of Pedophiles and Hebephiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundmann, Dorit; Krupp, Jurian; Scherner, Gerold; Amelung, Till; Beier, Klaus M

    2016-07-01

    In forensic research, there is a controversial discussion concerning the changeability or stability of pedophilia. Seto (2012) conceptualized pedophilia as a sexual age orientation characterized by an early onset, correlations with sexual and romantic behavior, and stability over time. However, empirical data are sparse and are mostly based on samples of detected offenders. The present study examined self-reported arousal to sexual fantasies involving children in a clinical sample of pedo-/hebephiles. In Study 1, retrospective self-reports on the age of onset and duration of sexual interest in minors were examined. In Study 2, the stability and variability of self-reported arousal to sexual fantasies involving children were evaluated prospectively. Non-prosecuted self-identifying pedo-/hebephilic men seeking professional help were recruited within the Berlin Prevention Project Dunkelfeld. Between 2005 and 2013, 494 participants completed the intake assessment. Self-reported data were collected via questionnaire focusing on sexual arousal to fantasies during masturbation involving prepubescent and/or early pubescent minors. Subsequent assessments of sexual arousal were obtained for 121 of the participants. The average time between the first and last assessment was approximately 29 months. Spearman's correlation coefficients examined the between-group rank-order and Wilcoxon signed-rank tests examined the within-individual mean-level stability. The majority of subjects reported an early onset of their pedo-/hebephilic sexual arousal. The rank-order stability was medium to high. Over the investigated period, the majority of subjects showed no or only minimal decrease or increase of self-reported sexual arousal. These results suggested that sexual arousal to fantasies involving prepubescent and/or early pubescent children is stable. Furthermore, the results support the conceptualization of pedo-/hebephilia as a sexual age orientation in men.

  15. Understanding Women's Subjective Sexual Arousal Within the Laboratory: Definition, Measurement, and Manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handy, Ariel B; Stanton, Amelia M; Meston, Cindy M

    2018-04-01

    Subjective sexual arousal (SSA) is positive, cognitive engagement in sexual activity. SSA is considered an important aspect of the sexual experience, as it has been found to facilitate sexual activity and, in situations of chronically low or absent arousal, potentially cause distress. Despite the clinical implications of SSA, a thorough review of how to manipulate SSA has yet to be conducted. To review the state of knowledge about SSA in women, including its definition, measurement, and the outcomes of studies attempting to manipulate SSA within a laboratory setting. A comprehensive search of the electronic databases of PubMed and PsycINFO was conducted. The generated list of articles was reviewed and duplicates were removed. Individual articles were assessed for inclusion and, when appropriate, relevant content was extracted. The potential effects of various manipulations of SSA in a laboratory setting was the main outcome. 44 studies were included in this review. Manipulations were grouped into 3 primary categories: pharmacological (n = 16), cognitive (n = 22), and those based on changes to the autonomic nervous system (n = 6). Results suggest that cognitive manipulation is the most effective method of increasing SSA. Altering the relative balance of the 2 branches of the autonomic nervous system (the sympathetic nervous system and the parasympathetic nervous system) also appears to be a promising avenue for increasing SSA. This review supports the use of cognitive manipulation for increasing women's SSA in a laboratory setting. Avenues for future research and recommendations for clinicians are discussed. Handy AB, Stanton AM, Meston CM. Understanding Women's Subjective Sexual Arousal Within the Laboratory: Definition, Measurement, and Manipulation. Sex Med Rev 2018;6:201-216. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Experimental effects of exposure to pornography: the moderating effect of personality and mediating effect of sexual arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hald, Gert Martin; Malamuth, Neil N

    2015-01-01

    Using a randomly selected community sample of 200 Danish young adult men and women in a randomized experimental design, the study investigated the effects of a personality trait (agreeableness), past pornography consumption, and experimental exposure to non-violent pornography on attitudes supporting violence against women (ASV). We found that lower levels of agreeableness and higher levels of past pornography consumption significantly predicted ASV. In addition, experimental exposure to pornography increased ASV but only among men low in agreeableness. This relationship was found to be significantly mediated by sexual arousal with sexual arousal referring to the subjective assessment of feeling sexually excited, ready for sexual activities, and/or bodily sensations associated with being sexually aroused. In underscoring the importance of individual differences, the results supported the hierarchical confluence model of sexual aggression and the media literature on affective engagement and priming effects.

  17. Psychometric Properties of the Sexual Event Diary in a Sample of Dutch Women With Female Sexual Interest/Arousal Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Nes, Yvonne; Bloemers, Jos; Kessels, Rob; van der Heijden, Peter G M; van Rooij, Kim; Gerritsen, Jeroen; DeRogatis, Leonard; Tuiten, Adriaan

    2018-05-01

    Efficacy of on-demand drugs for women with hypoactive sexual desire disorder or female sexual interest/arousal disorder (FSIAD) should be assessed using a validated instrument that assesses the discrete sexual events during which the on-demand drug is taken, because this type of assessment is more proximate to an on-demand drug's efficacy compared to instruments that assess sexual function over longer periods of time. The aim of this study was to assess the psychometric properties of the Dutch translation of the previously validated 11-item Sexual Event Diary (SED) for measuring sexual satisfaction and sexual functioning during discrete sexual events. Psychometric assessment was performed on data of 1,840 SEDs from 139 women with hypoactive sexual desire disorder/FSIAD, collected during a randomized clinical cross-over trial conducted in the Netherlands. Item scores of the SED at the event level, and at subject level, summarized item scores during the placebo run-in period (PRI) and active treatment period, and score changes from PRI to active treatment period. Reliability and convergent validity were confirmed. All item scores showed the ability to discriminate between known groups. Larger mean score changes from PRI were observed in groups with known benefit from the medication, as compared to those with no benefit. Guyatt effect sizes ranged from 0.51-1.02, thereby demonstrating ability to detect change. The Dutch version of the SED is an excellent instrument for assessing female sexual functioning and sexual satisfaction during discrete sexual events and for assessing these concepts over longer periods of time. Data were collected in a randomized, well-controlled trial. The large number of data points gave high statistical power, and the results confirmed previous findings. However, care is needed when generalizing the SED's validity to other areas of research, eg, recreational drug use and sexual risky behaviors, since the current validation study has not used

  18. Concordance between women's physiological and subjective sexual arousal is associated with consistency of orgasm during intercourse but not other sexual behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brody, Stuart; Laan, Ellen; van Lunsen, Rik H. W.

    2003-01-01

    Many studies have found a discordance between women's genital (vaginal pulse amplitude) and subjective sexual arousal responses to erotica. We hypothesized that the association between the physiological and subjective domains would be greater for women with greater orgasmic consistency during

  19. Factors affecting sexuality in older Australian women: sexual interest, sexual arousal, relationships and sexual distress in older Australian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, J R; O'Neill, S; Travers, C

    2006-10-01

    To investigate the sexual behavior, sexual relationships, sexual satisfaction, sexual dysfunction and sexual distress in a population of older urban Australian women. In 2004, 474 women participating in the Longitudinal Assessment of Ageing in Women (LAW) Study completed a series of questionnaires about sexuality. They included the Short Personal Experiences Questionnaire (SPEQ), Relationship Assessment Scale (RAS), Female Sexual Distress Scale (FSDS), questions concerning past sexual abuse based on the Sex in Australia Study, and questions comparing present and past sexual interest and activity. The percentage of women with partners ranged from 83.3% in the 40 - 49-year age group to 46.4% women in the 70 - 79-year age group. The sexual ability of partners diminished markedly with age, with only 4.8% of the partners using medication to enable erections. Only 2.5% of women reported low relationship satisfaction. The incidence of sexual distress was also low, being reported by only 5.7% of women. Younger women and women with partners had higher levels of distress than older women. Indifference to sexual frequency rose from 26.7% in women aged 40 - 49 years to 72.3% in the 70 - 79-year age group. Past sexual abuse was recalled by 22.7% of women and 11.6% recalled multiple episodes of abuse. Women who recalled abuse had lower scores for satisfaction with sexual frequency. It appears from this study that there is a wide range of sexual experience amongst aging women, from never having had a sexual partner, to having solitary sex, to having a relationship with or without sex into the seventh decade. As women age, they experience a decrease in sexual activity, interest in sex, and distress about sex. This may be associated with the loss of intimate relationships as part of separation, divorce or bereavement. Decreased sexual activity with aging may be interpreted as a biological phenomenon (part of the aging process) or as sexual dysfunction, or it may be the result of

  20. Do drives drive the train of thought?-Effects of hunger and sexual arousal on mind-wandering behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rummel, Jan; Nied, Laura

    2017-10-01

    Physiological needs that are currently unfulfilled are known to affect human cognition and behavior. The present study investigates whether and how the temporary activation of two primary physiological needs, namely hunger and sexual arousal, influence both the frequency and the contents of mind-wandering episodes. To induce hunger, one group of participants fasted for a minimum of five hours whereas another group of participants was exposed to audio material with explicit sexual content to provoke sexual arousal. Both groups as well as an additional control group, which had not received hunger instructions and had not been exposed to arousing material of any kind beforehand, performed a reading task during which mind wandering was assessed using a standard experience-sampling method. Results showed that acute hunger but not elevated sexual arousal renders the occurrence of mind-wandering episodes more likely. Induction of both hunger and sexual arousal rendered the occurrence of need-related off-task thoughts more likely and changed time orientations of mind wandering. The present findings are well in line with the assumption that unfulfilled needs regularly achieve cognitive priority and extend the cognitive-priority idea to self-generated thoughts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The Effects of False Physiological Feeback, on Sexual Arousal in Sexually Functional and Dysfunctional Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-03-31

    sex as myself masturbating it nauseates me. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 17. The thought of engaging in unusual sex practices is highly arousing...addition, this group’s cure often included abstaining from sex and masturbation in order to resensitize the erectile mechanism. A series of electrical...and mechanical anti- masturbation devices were developed to help those who found it difficult to abstain (Dunsmuir, 1999). In the late 1800s, Kellogg

  2. How hot is he? A psychophysiological and psychosocial examination of the arousal patterns of sexually functional and dysfunctional men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarin, Sabina; Amsel, Rhonda; Binik, Yitzchak M

    2014-07-01

    Despite much theorizing about the interchangeability of desire and arousal, research has yet to identify whether men with desire vs. arousal disorders can be differentiated based on their psychophysiological patterns of arousal. Additionally, little research has examined the relationship between subjective (SA) and genital arousal (GA) in sexually dysfunctional men. To compare patterns of SA and GA in a community sample of men meeting DSM-IV-TR criteria for hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD), erectile dysfunction (ED), both HSDD and ED (ED/HSDD), and healthy controls. Seventy-one men (19 controls, 13 HSDD, 19 ED, 20 ED/HSDD) completed self-report measures and watched two 15-minute film clips (neutral and erotic), while GA and SA were measured both continuously and discretely. Groups were compared on genital temperature (as an indicator of GA), SA, and psychosocial variables (i.e., body image, emotion regulation, sexual attitudes, sexual inhibition/excitation, mood, and trauma). Genital temperature increased for all groups during the erotic condition, yet men with ED and ED/HSDD showed less GA than men without erectile difficulties. All groups increased in SA during the erotic condition, yet ED/HSDD men reported less SA than controls or ED men. SA and GA were highly correlated for controls, and less strongly correlated for clinical groups; men with ED showed low agreement between SA and GA. Groups also differed on body image, sexual inhibition/excitation, sexual attitudes and alexithymia. Low desire vs. arousal sufferers have unique patterns of response, with those with both difficulties showing greatest impairment. Results have important implications for the diagnosis and treatment of these disorders. © 2014 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  3. Brain activations to emotional pictures are differentially associated with valence and arousal ratings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antje B M Gerdes

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have investigated the neural responses triggered by emotional pictures, but the specificity of the involved structures such as the amygdala or the ventral striatum is still under debate. Furthermore, only few studies examined the association of stimuli’s valence and arousal and the underlying brain responses. Therefore, we investigated brain responses with functional magnetic resonance imaging of 17 healthy subjects to pleasant and unpleasant affective pictures with comparable arousal levels and afterwards assessed ratings of valence and arousal. As expected, unpleasant pictures strongly activated the right and left amygdala, the right hippocampus, and the medial occipital lobe, whereas pleasant pictures elicited significant activations in left occipital regions, and in parts of the medial temporal lobe. The direct comparison of unpleasant and pleasant pictures which were comparable in arousal clearly indicated stronger amygdala activation in response to the unpleasant pictures. Most important, correlational analyses revealed on the one hand that the arousal of unpleasant pictures was significantly associated with activations in the right amygdala and the left caudate body. On the other hand, valence of pleasant pictures was significantly correlated with activations in the right caudate head, extending to the nucleus accumbens (NAcc and the left dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex. These findings support the notion that the amygdala is primarily involved in processing of unpleasant stimuli, and the stronger the more arousing the stimuli are, whereas reward-related structures like the NAcc primarily responds to pleasant stimuli, the stronger the more positive the valence of these stimuli is.

  4. A Pilot Study of Eight-Session Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy Adapted for Women's Sexual Interest/Arousal Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Laurel Q P; Handy, Ariel B; Brotto, Lori A

    2017-09-01

    While few treatment options exist for low sexual desire and arousal, the most common sexual dysfunction in women, a growing body of research supports the efficacy of mindfulness-based approaches. The mechanisms underlying improvements, and whether they are due to mindfulness practice or other treatment components, are unclear. As a result, we designed and pilot-tested an eight-session group mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for sexuality (MBCT-S) program that includes more extensive practice of mindfulness skills and closely aligns with the evidence-based MBCT program for depression and anxiety. A total of 26 women (mean age 43.9, range 25 to 63) with a diagnosis of sexual interest/arousal disorder participated in eight weekly group sessions, before and after which they completed validated questionnaires. The majority of women attended all sessions and completed the recommended at-home mindfulness exercises. Compared to baseline, women reported significant improvements in sexual desire, overall sexual function, and sex-related distress, regardless of treatment expectations, relationship duration, or low desire duration. Depressed mood and mindfulness also significantly improved and mediated increases in sexual function. These pilot data suggest that eight-session MBCT-S is feasible and significantly improves sexual function, and provide the basis for a larger randomized-controlled trial (RCT) with a longer follow-up period.

  5. The Effect of False Physiological Feedback on Sexual Arousal in Sexually Functional and Dysfunctional Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    functioning group 7 LIST OF TABLES Table 1. Zilbergeld’s (1999) Myths of Male Sexuality Table 2. Timeline of Information Collected During the Study...have some degree of calcification in their phallus to aid entry into the vagina . Protracted erections for the purpose of pleasure are extremely rare...or cultural taboos about sex that influenced their cognitive development. In addition, dysfunctional men tend to believe more myths about sex than

  6. Affective Norms for Italian Words in Older Adults: Age Differences in Ratings of Valence, Arousal and Dominance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairfield, Beth; Ambrosini, Ettore; Mammarella, Nicola; Montefinese, Maria

    2017-01-01

    In line with the dimensional theory of emotional space, we developed affective norms for words rated in terms of valence, arousal and dominance in a group of older adults to complete the adaptation of the Affective Norms for English Words (ANEW) for Italian and to aid research on aging. Here, as in the original Italian ANEW database, participants evaluated valence, arousal, and dominance by means of the Self-Assessment Manikin (SAM) in a paper-and-pencil procedure. We observed high split-half reliabilities within the older sample and high correlations with the affective ratings of previous research, especially for valence, suggesting that there is large agreement among older adults within and across-languages. More importantly, we found high correlations between younger and older adults, showing that our data are generalizable across different ages. However, despite this across-ages accord, we obtained age-related differences on three affective dimensions for a great number of words. In particular, older adults rated as more arousing and more unpleasant a number of words that younger adults rated as moderately unpleasant and arousing in our previous affective norms. Moreover, older participants rated negative stimuli as more arousing and positive stimuli as less arousing than younger participants, thus leading to a less-curved distribution of ratings in the valence by arousal space. We also found more extreme ratings for older adults for the relationship between dominance and arousal: older adults gave lower dominance and higher arousal ratings for words rated by younger adults with middle dominance and arousal values. Together, these results suggest that our affective norms are reliable and can be confidently used to select words matched for the affective dimensions of valence, arousal and dominance across younger and older participants for future research in aging.

  7. Stronger Association Between Valence- and Arousal Ratings of Affective Pictures with Older Age: Evidence for Variation Across Emotion Categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Mai Bjørnskov; Mehlsen, Mimi Yung; Lyby, Marlene Skovgaard

    A sample of older and younger adults rated affective pictures according to valence, arousal and emotion category (happiness, sadness and disgust). Results indicate that older age is associated with a stronger linear association between ratings of arousal and valence. Further, the strength...... of the association vary according to emotion category....

  8. Polymorphisms in the dopamine D4 receptor gene (DRD4) contribute to individual differences in human sexual behavior: desire, arousal and sexual function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Zion, I Z; Tessler, R; Cohen, L; Lerer, E; Raz, Y; Bachner-Melman, R; Gritsenko, I; Nemanov, L; Zohar, A H; Belmaker, R H; Benjamin, J; Ebstein, R P

    2006-08-01

    Although there is some evidence from twin studies that individual differences in sexual behavior are heritable, little is known about the specific molecular genetic design of human sexuality. Recently, a specific dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) agonist was shown in rats to induce penile erection through a central mechanism. These findings prompted us to examine possible association between the well-characterized DRD4 gene and core phenotypes of human sexual behavior that included desire, arousal and function in a group of 148 nonclinical university students. We observed association between the exon 3 repeat region, and the C-521T and C-616G promoter region SNPs, with scores on scales that measure human sexual behavior. The single most common DRD4 5-locus haplotype (19%) was significantly associated with Desire, Function and Arousal scores. The current results are consistent with animal studies that show a role for dopamine and specifically the DRD4 receptor in sexual behavior and suggest that one pathway by which individual variation in human desire, arousal and function are mediated is based on allelic variants coding for differences in DRD4 receptor gene expression and protein concentrations in key brain areas.

  9. Emotional Valence, Arousal, and Threat Ratings of 160 Chinese Words among Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Samuel M Y; Mak, Christine W Y; Yeung, Dannii; Duan, Wenjie; Tang, Sandy; Yeung, June C; Ching, Rita

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to provide ratings of valence/pleasantness, arousal/excitement, and threat/potential harm for 160 Chinese words. The emotional valence classification (positive, negative, or neutral) of all of the words corresponded to that of the equivalent English language words. More than 90% of the participants, junior high school students aged between 12 and 17 years, understood the words. The participants were from both mainland China and Hong Kong, thus the words can be applied to adolescents familiar with either simplified (e.g. in mainland China) or traditional Chinese (e.g. in Hong Kong) with a junior secondary school education or higher. We also established eight words with negative valence, high threat, and high arousal ratings to facilitate future research, especially on attentional and memory biases among individuals prone to anxiety. Thus, the new emotional word list provides a useful source of information for affective research in the Chinese language.

  10. Menopause-related brain activation patterns during visual sexual arousal in menopausal women: An fMRI pilot study using time-course analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gwang-Won; Jeong, Gwang-Woo

    2017-02-20

    The aging process and menopausal transition are important factors in sexual dysfunction of menopausal women. No neuroimaging study has assessed the age- and menopause-related changes on brain activation areas associated with sexual arousal in menopausal women. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the time course of regional brain activity associated with sexual arousal evoked by visual stimulation in premenopausal and menopausal women, and further to assess the effect of menopause on the brain areas associated with sexual arousal in menopausal women using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Thirty volunteers consisting of 15 premenopausal and 15 menopausal women underwent the fMRI. For the activation condition, volunteers viewed sexually arousing visual stimulation. The brain areas with significantly higher activation in premenopausal women compared with menopausal women included the thalamus, amygdala, and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) using analysis of covariance adjusting for age (psexual arousal. These findings might help elucidate the neural mechanisms associated with sexual dysfunction in menopausal women. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Is there an inhibitory role of cortisol in the mechanism of male sexual arousal and penile erection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uckert, Stefan; Fuhlenriede, Mark H; Becker, Armin J; Stief, Christian G; Scheller, Friedemann; Knapp, Wolfram H; Jonas, Udo

    2003-12-01

    It has been speculated for more than 2 decades whether there is a significance of adrenal corticosteroids, such as cortisol, in the process of normal male sexual function, especially in the control of sexual arousal and the penile erectile tissue. However, only few in vivo studies have been carried out up until now on the effects of cortisol on human male sexual performance and penile erection. In order to evaluate further the role of cortisol in male sexual activity, the present study was conducted to detect serum levels of cortisol in the systemic and cavernous blood taken during different penile conditions from healthy males. The effects of cortisol derivative prednisolone, catecholamine norepinephrine (NE) and the peptide endothelin-1 (ET-1) on isolated human corpus cavernosum (HCC) were investigated using the organ bath technique. Fifty-four healthy adult male subjects were exposed to erotic stimuli in order to elicit penile tumescence and rigidity. Whole blood was simultaneously aspirated from the corpus cavernosum and the cubital vein during different penile conditions. Serum levels of cortisol (microg/dl) were determined by means of a radioimmunoassay (ELISA). In the healthy volunteers, cortisol serum levels significantly decreased in the systemic circulation and the cavernous blood with increasing sexual arousal, when the flaccid penis became rigid. During detumescence, the mean cortisol level remained unaltered in the systemic circulation, whereas in the cavernous compartment, it was found to decrease further. Under all penile conditions, no significant differences were registered between cortisol levels in the systemic circulation and in the cavernous blood. Cumulative addition of NE and ET-1 (0.001-10 microM) induced contraction of isolated HCC strips, whereas the contractile response to prednisolone was negligible. Our results strongly suggest an inhibitory role for cortisol in the mechanism of male sexual response and behaviour. These properties are

  12. Time-Course Analysis of the Neuroanatomical Correlates of Sexual Arousal Evoked by Erotic Video Stimuli in Healthy Males

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundaram, Thirunavukkarasu; Jeong, Gwang Woo; Kim, Tae Hoon; Kim, Gwang Won; Baek, Han Su; Kang, Heoung Keun [Chonnam National University Hospital, Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-06-15

    To assess the dynamic activations of the key brain areas associated with the time-course of the sexual arousal evoked by visual sexual stimuli in healthy male subjects. Fourteen right-handed heterosexual male volunteers participated in this study. Alternatively combined rest period and erotic video visual stimulation were used according to the standard block design. In order to illustrate and quantify the spatiotemporal activation patterns of the key brain regions, the activation period was divided into three different stages as the EARLY, MID and LATE stages. For the group result (p < 0.05), when comparing the MID stage with the EARLY stage, a significant increase of the brain activation was observed in the areas that included the inferior frontal gyrus, the supplementary motor area, the hippocampus, the head of the caudate nucleus, the midbrain, the superior occipital gyrus and the fusiform gyrus. At the same time, when comparing the EARLY stage with the MID stage, the putamen, the globus pallidus, the pons, the thalamus, the hypothalamus, the lingual gyrus and the cuneus yielded significantly increased activations. When comparing the LATE stage with the MID stage, all the above mentioned brain regions showed elevated activations except the hippocampus. Our results illustrate the spatiotemporal activation patterns of the key brain regions across the three stages of visual sexual arousal.

  13. Time-course analysis of the neuroanatomical correlates of sexual arousal evoked by erotic video stimuli in healthy males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaram, Thirunavukkarasu; Jeong, Gwang-Woo; Kim, Tae-Hoon; Kim, Gwang-Won; Baek, Han-Su; Kang, Heoung-Keun

    2010-01-01

    To assess the dynamic activations of the key brain areas associated with the time-course of the sexual arousal evoked by visual sexual stimuli in healthy male subjects. Fourteen right-handed heterosexual male volunteers participated in this study. Alternatively combined rest period and erotic video visual stimulation were used according to the standard block design. In order to illustrate and quantify the spatiotemporal activation patterns of the key brain regions, the activation period was divided into three different stages as the EARLY, MID and LATE stages. For the group result (p < 0.05), when comparing the MID stage with the EARLY stage, a significant increase of the brain activation was observed in the areas that included the inferior frontal gyrus, the supplementary motor area, the hippocampus, the head of the caudate nucleus, the midbrain, the superior occipital gyrus and the fusiform gyrus. At the same time, when comparing the EARLY stage with the MID stage, the putamen, the globus pallidus, the pons, the thalamus, the hypothalamus, the lingual gyrus and the cuneus yielded significantly increased activations. When comparing the LATE stage with the MID stage, all the above mentioned brain regions showed elevated activations except the hippocampus. Our results illustrate the spatiotemporal activation patterns of the key brain regions across the three stages of visual sexual arousal.

  14. Time-Course Analysis of the Neuroanatomical Correlates of Sexual Arousal Evoked by Erotic Video Stimuli in Healthy Males

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundaram, Thirunavukkarasu; Jeong, Gwang Woo; Kim, Tae Hoon; Kim, Gwang Won; Baek, Han Su; Kang, Heoung Keun

    2010-01-01

    To assess the dynamic activations of the key brain areas associated with the time-course of the sexual arousal evoked by visual sexual stimuli in healthy male subjects. Fourteen right-handed heterosexual male volunteers participated in this study. Alternatively combined rest period and erotic video visual stimulation were used according to the standard block design. In order to illustrate and quantify the spatiotemporal activation patterns of the key brain regions, the activation period was divided into three different stages as the EARLY, MID and LATE stages. For the group result (p < 0.05), when comparing the MID stage with the EARLY stage, a significant increase of the brain activation was observed in the areas that included the inferior frontal gyrus, the supplementary motor area, the hippocampus, the head of the caudate nucleus, the midbrain, the superior occipital gyrus and the fusiform gyrus. At the same time, when comparing the EARLY stage with the MID stage, the putamen, the globus pallidus, the pons, the thalamus, the hypothalamus, the lingual gyrus and the cuneus yielded significantly increased activations. When comparing the LATE stage with the MID stage, all the above mentioned brain regions showed elevated activations except the hippocampus. Our results illustrate the spatiotemporal activation patterns of the key brain regions across the three stages of visual sexual arousal

  15. Psilocybin links binocular rivalry switch rate to attention and subjective arousal levels in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Olivia L; Hasler, Felix; Pettigrew, John D; Wallis, Guy M; Liu, Guang B; Vollenweider, Franz X

    2007-12-01

    Binocular rivalry occurs when different images are simultaneously presented to each eye. During continual viewing of this stimulus, the observer will experience repeated switches between visual awareness of the two images. Previous studies have suggested that a slow rate of perceptual switching may be associated with clinical and drug-induced psychosis. The objective of the study was to explore the proposed relationship between binocular rivalry switch rate and subjective changes in psychological state associated with 5-HT2A receptor activation. This study used psilocybin, the hallucinogen found naturally in Psilocybe mushrooms that had previously been found to induce psychosis-like symptoms via the 5-HT2A receptor. The effects of psilocybin (215 microg/kg) were considered alone and after pretreatment with the selective 5-HT2A antagonist ketanserin (50 mg) in ten healthy human subjects. Psilocybin significantly reduced the rate of binocular rivalry switching and increased the proportion of transitional/mixed percept experience. Pretreatment with ketanserin blocked the majority of psilocybin's "positive" psychosis-like hallucinogenic symptoms. However, ketanserin had no influence on either the psilocybin-induced slowing of binocular rivalry or the drug's "negative-type symptoms" associated with reduced arousal and vigilance. Together, these findings link changes in binocular rivalry switching rate to subjective levels of arousal and attention. In addition, it suggests that psilocybin's effect on binocular rivalry is unlikely to be mediated by the 5-HT2A receptor.

  16. Electroencephalographic activity during sexual behavior: a novel approach to the analysis of drug effects on arousal and motivation relevant for sexual dysfunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-González, Marisela; Guevara, Miguel Angel; Agmo, Anders

    2014-06-01

    The neurobiological bases of human sexual behavior are only partly understood. The etiology of most human sexual dysfunctions is not understood at all. Nevertheless, substantial progress has been made in the treatment of some male sexual disorders. The prime example should be erectile deficiency, where several efficient and safe treatments are available. Pharmacological treatment for premature ejaculation is also available, although it is still in an early stage. Disorders of sexual desire have attracted much attention when women are affected but far less so when men are concerned. Whereas animal models appropriate for testing treatments for problems with erection and premature ejaculation are available, it is questionable whether such models of the desire disorders have predictive validity. There seems to be many factors involved both in reduced and enhanced sexual desire, most of which are unknown. In this review we present some data suggesting that an electroencephalographic analysis of brain activity during exposure to sexually relevant stimuli in male rats and men and during execution of sexual behaviors in male rats may provide useful information. The effects of a commonly used drug, ethanol, on the electroencephalogram recorded during sexual events in rats and men are also described. Although this approach to the analysis of the central nervous activity associated with sexual desire, arousal and behavior is still in its infancy, the data obtained so far show a remarkable similarity between men and rats. This suggests that animal studies of electroencephalographic responses to drugs in sexual contexts may be useful for predicting effects in the human male. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The Aggression-Inhibiting and Aggression-Facilitating Influence of Heightened Sexual Arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Robert A.; Bell, Paul A.

    Eighty-six undergraduate males participated in an experiment designed to investigate the impact of various types of erotic stimuli upon aggression. On the basis of previous research, it was hypothesized that exposure to mild erotic stimuli would tend to inhibit subsequent aggression, while exposure to more arousing stimuli of this type would…

  18. Objective assessment of sexual arousal in women with a history of hysterectomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, C. P.; ter Kuile, M. M.; Laan, E.; Tuijnman, C. C.; Weijenborg, Ph Th M.; Trimbos, J. B.; Kenter, G. G.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The potential contribution of psychological and anatomical changes to sexual dysfunction following hysterectomy is not clear. Radical hysterectomy for cervical cancer causes surgical damage to the autonomic nerves which are responsible for the increased vaginal blood flow during sexual

  19. Reconceptualising women’s sexual desire and arousal in DSM-5

    OpenAIRE

    Graham, Cynthia A.

    2015-01-01

    The publication of the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) in 2013 was the culmination of more than a decade of work by the APA DSM-5 task force and Work Groups. From 2007 to 2013, I served as a member of the Sexual Dysfunctions subworkgroup, part of the Sexual and Gender Identity Disorders workgroup. In the area of sexual disorders, some of the most significant changes were made in diagnostic categories for female sexual dysfunction. The DSM-IV ...

  20. Modeling and simulation of sexual activity daily diary data of patients with female sexual arousal disorder treated with sildenafil citrate (Viagra).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claret, Laurent; Cox, Eugene H; McFadyen, Lynn; Pidgen, Alwyn; Johnson, Patrick J; Haughie, Scott; Boolell, Mitra; Bruno, Rene

    2006-08-01

    To develop a model to explore the dose-response of sildenafil citrate in patients with female sexual arousal disorder (FSAD) based on telephone sexual activity daily diary (TSADD) data obtained in double-blind, placebo controlled clinical studies. Data were available on 614 patients with FSAD. A parametric model (Weibull distribution) was developed to describe the probability density function of the time between sexual events. Orgasm satisfaction scores and overall sexual satisfaction scores were simultaneously modeled as ordered categorical variables. Simulations were performed to evaluate the expected clinical response in patients with FSAD. The expected time between sexual events was approximately 3.5 days. Satisfaction scores increased with time to achieve a plateau after 3 to 4 weeks on treatment. The expected probability of satisfying orgasm (score of 3 and higher) ranged from 34.7% for placebo to 41.6% for 100 mg sildenafil citrate. Treatment effect (difference from placebo) was 6.9% for 100 mg sildenafil citrate, ranging from 0.6 to 24.7% for testosterone levels of 0.1 to 4.0 pg/ml. The treatment effect in postmenopausal women was larger than in premenopausal women. A modeling and simulation framework to support drug development in FSAD was developed. Sildenafil citrate demonstrated a dose-dependent effect in patients with FSAD.

  1. Influence of Body Odors and Gender on Perceived Genital Arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves-Oliveira, Patrícia; Carvalho, Joana; Ferreira, Jacqueline; Alho, Laura; Nobre, Pedro; Olsson, Mats J; Soares, Sandra C

    2018-04-01

    Olfaction is often linked to mating behavior in nonhumans. Additionally, studies in mating behavior have shown that women seem to be more affected by odor cues than men. However, the relationship between odor cues and sexual response-specifically, sexual arousal-has not been studied yet. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of the exposure to human body odors (from individuals of the opposite gender) on perceived genital arousal, while these were presented concomitantly to sexually explicit video clips. Eighty university students (40 women) rated their perceived genital arousal (perceived degree of erection/genital lubrication) in response to an audiovisual sexual stimulus, while simultaneously exposed to a body odor from an opposite-gender donor or no odor. Participants also rated each odor sample's (body odor and no odor) perceived pleasantness, intensity, and familiarity. Findings indicated that odor condition had an effect on women's (but not men's) perceived genital arousal, with women showing higher levels of perceived genital arousal in the no odor condition. Also, results showed that women rated body odors as less pleasant than no odor. Notwithstanding, the odor ratings do not seem to explain the association between body odor and perceived genital arousal. The current results support the hypothesis that women, rather than men, are sensitive to odors in the context of sexual response. The findings of this study have relevance for the understanding of human sexuality with respect to chemosensory communication.

  2. The role of incentive learning and cognitive regulation in sexual arousal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brom, Mirte

    2016-01-01

    Insight in the underlying mechanisms of sexual motivation is essential to understand disorders in sexual desire and such understanding may be helpful in the development of new and effective psychological and pharmacological interventions, since empirically validated treatments are lacking for female

  3. The effect of a dopamine antagonist on conditioning of sexual arousal in women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brom, Mirte; Laan, Ellen; Everaerd, Walter; Spinhoven, Philip; Trimbos, Baptist; Both, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    Dopamine (DA) plays a key role in reward-seeking behaviours. Accumulating evidence from animal and human studies suggests that human sexual reward learning may also depend on DA transmission. However, research on the role of DA in human sexual reward learning is completely lacking. To investigate

  4. Cerebral activation associated with sexual arousal in response to a pornographic clip: A 15O-H2O PET study in heterosexual men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocher, M; Chisin, R; Parag, Y; Freedman, N; Meir Weil, Y; Lester, H; Mishani, E; Bonne, O

    2001-07-01

    This study attempted to use PET and 15O-H2O to measure changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) during sexual arousal evoked in 10 young heterosexual males while they watched a pornographic video clip, featuring heterosexual intercourse. This condition was compared with other mental setups evoked by noisy, nature, and talkshow audiovisual clips. Immediately after each clip, the participants answered three questions pertaining to what extent they thought about sex, felt aroused, and sensed an erection. They scored their answers using a 1 to 10 scale. SPM was used for data analysis. Sexual arousal was mainly associated with activation of bilateral, predominantly right, inferoposterior extrastriate cortices, of the right inferolateral prefrontal cortex and of the midbrain. The significance of those findings is discussed in the light of current theories concerning selective attention, "mind reading" and mirroring, reinforcement of pleasurable stimuli, and penile erection.

  5. Vaginal hemodynamic changes during sexual arousal in a rat model by diffuse optical spectroscopy (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Hyeryun; Seong, Myeongsu; Lee, Hyun-Suk; Park, Kwangsung; Kim, Jae Gwan

    2017-02-01

    Not only men suffer from sexual dysfunction, but the number of women who have sexual dysfunction rises. Therefore, it is necessary to develop an objective diagnostic technique to examine the sexual dysfunction of female patients, who are afflicted with the disorders. For this purpose, we developed a diffuse optical spectroscopy (DOS) probe to measure the change of oxy-, deoxy-, and total hemoglobin concentration along with blood flow from vaginal wall of female rats. A cylindrical stainless steel DOS probe with a diameter of 3 mm was designed for the vaginal wall of rats which consisted of two lasers (785 and 850nm) and two spectrometers with a separation of 2 mm. A thermistor was placed on the top of the probe to measure the temperature change from vaginal wall during experiments. A modified Beer-Lambert's law is utilized to acquire the changes of oxy-, deoxy-, and total hemoglobin, and blood flow information is obtained by diffuse speckle contrast analysis technique. For the experiments, Sprague Dawley ( 400 g) female rats were divided into two groups (control and vaginal dryness model). Vaginal oxygenation, blood flow and temperature were continuously monitored before and after sexual around induced by apomorphine. After the measurement, histologic examination was performed to support the results from DOS probe in the vaginal wall. The hemodynamic information acquired by the DOS probe can be utilized to establish an objective and accurate standard of the female sexual disorders.

  6. Evaluative ratings and attention across the life span: emotional arousal and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Vera; Bruno, Nicola; Chattat, Rabih; Codispoti, Maurizio

    2017-04-01

    This study was designed to investigate the evolution of emotional processing over the whole adult life span as a function of stimulus arousal and participants' gender. To this end, self-reported affective evaluation and attentional capture prompted by pleasant and unpleasant pictures varying in arousal were measured in a large sample of participants (n = 211) balanced by gender and equally spread across seven decades from 20 to 90 years. Results showed age differences only for affective evaluation of pleasant stimuli, with opposite patterns depending on stimulus arousal. As age increased, low-arousing pleasant cues (e.g. images of babies) were experienced as more pleasant and arousing by both males and females, whereas high-arousing stimuli (e.g. erotic images) were experienced as less pleasant only by females. In contrast, emotional pictures (both pleasant and unpleasant) were effective at capturing attention in a similar way across participants, regardless of age and gender. Taken together, these findings suggest that specific emotional cues prompt different subjective responses across different age groups, while basic mechanisms involved in attentional engagement towards both pleasant and unpleasant stimuli are preserved in healthy ageing.

  7. Feelings of Disgust and Disgust-Induced Avoidance Weaken following Induced Sexual Arousal in Women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borg, Charmaine; de Jong, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Sex and disgust are basic, evolutionary relevant functions that are often construed as paradoxical. In general the stimuli involved in sexual encounters are, at least out of context strongly perceived to hold high disgust qualities. Saliva, sweat, semen and body odours are among the

  8. Predator cat odors activate sexual arousal pathways in brains of Toxoplasma gondii infected rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick K House

    Full Text Available Cat odors induce rapid, innate and stereotyped defensive behaviors in rats at first exposure, a presumed response to the evolutionary pressures of predation. Bizarrely, rats infected with the brain parasite Toxoplasma gondii approach the cat odors they typically avoid. Since the protozoan Toxoplasma requires the cat to sexually reproduce, this change in host behavior is thought to be a remarkable example of a parasite manipulating a mammalian host for its own benefit. Toxoplasma does not influence host response to non-feline predator odor nor does it alter behavior on olfactory, social, fear or anxiety tests, arguing for specific manipulation in the processing of cat odor. We report that Toxoplasma infection alters neural activity in limbic brain areas necessary for innate defensive behavior in response to cat odor. Moreover, Toxoplasma increases activity in nearby limbic regions of sexual attraction when the rat is exposed to cat urine, compelling evidence that Toxoplasma overwhelms the innate fear response by causing, in its stead, a type of sexual attraction to the normally aversive cat odor.

  9. Predator cat odors activate sexual arousal pathways in brains of Toxoplasma gondii infected rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, Patrick K; Vyas, Ajai; Sapolsky, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Cat odors induce rapid, innate and stereotyped defensive behaviors in rats at first exposure, a presumed response to the evolutionary pressures of predation. Bizarrely, rats infected with the brain parasite Toxoplasma gondii approach the cat odors they typically avoid. Since the protozoan Toxoplasma requires the cat to sexually reproduce, this change in host behavior is thought to be a remarkable example of a parasite manipulating a mammalian host for its own benefit. Toxoplasma does not influence host response to non-feline predator odor nor does it alter behavior on olfactory, social, fear or anxiety tests, arguing for specific manipulation in the processing of cat odor. We report that Toxoplasma infection alters neural activity in limbic brain areas necessary for innate defensive behavior in response to cat odor. Moreover, Toxoplasma increases activity in nearby limbic regions of sexual attraction when the rat is exposed to cat urine, compelling evidence that Toxoplasma overwhelms the innate fear response by causing, in its stead, a type of sexual attraction to the normally aversive cat odor.

  10. Sexual picture processing interferes with decision-making under ambiguity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laier, Christian; Pawlikowski, Mirko; Brand, Matthias

    2014-04-01

    Many people watch sexually arousing material on the Internet in order to receive sexual arousal and gratification. When browsing for sexual stimuli, individuals have to make several decisions, all possibly leading to positive or negative consequences. Decision-making research has shown that decisions under ambiguity are influenced by consequences received following earlier decisions. Sexual arousal might interfere with the decision-making process and should therefore lead to disadvantageous decision-making in the long run. In the current study, 82 heterosexual, male participants watched sexual pictures, rated them with respect to sexual arousal, and were asked to indicate their current level of sexual arousal before and following the sexual picture presentation. Afterwards, subjects performed one of two modified versions of the Iowa Gambling Task in which sexual pictures were displayed on the advantageous and neutral pictures on the disadvantageous card decks or vice versa (n = 41/n = 41). Results demonstrated an increase of sexual arousal following the sexual picture presentation. Decision-making performance was worse when sexual pictures were associated with disadvantageous card decks compared to performance when the sexual pictures were linked to the advantageous decks. Subjective sexual arousal moderated the relationship between task condition and decision-making performance. This study emphasized that sexual arousal interfered with decision-making, which may explain why some individuals experience negative consequences in the context of cybersex use.

  11. Emotional arousal and discount rate in intertemporal choice are reference dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lempert, Karolina M; Glimcher, Paul W; Phelps, Elizabeth A

    2015-04-01

    Many decisions involve weighing immediate gratification against future consequences. In such intertemporal choices, people often choose smaller, immediate rewards over larger delayed rewards. It has been proposed that emotional responses to immediate rewards lead us to choose them at our long-term expense. Here we utilize an objective measure of emotional arousal-pupil dilation-to examine the role of emotion in these decisions. We show that emotional arousal responses, as well as choices, in intertemporal choice tasks are reference-dependent and reflect the decision-maker's recent history of offers. Arousal increases when less predictable rewards are better than expected, whether those rewards are immediate or delayed. Furthermore, when immediate rewards are less predictable than delayed rewards, participants tend to be patient. When delayed rewards are less predictable, immediate rewards are preferred. Our findings suggest that we can encourage people to be more patient by changing the context in which intertemporal choices are made. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Qualitative and quantitative measurement of brain activity associated with visual sexual arousal in males and females: 3.0 tesIa functional MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyung Joong; Jeong, Gwang Woo; Eun, Sung Jong; Cho, Seong Hoon; Seo, Jeong Jin; Kang, Heoung Keun; Park, Kwang Sung

    2004-01-01

    The present study utilized 3.0 Tesla functional MR imaging to identify and quantify the activated brain regions associated with visually evoked sexual arousal, and also to discriminate the gender differences between the cortical activation patterns in response to sexual stimuli. A total of 24 healthy, right-handed volunteers, 14 males (mean age: 24) and 10 females (mean age: 23), with normal heterosexual function underwent functional MRI on a 3.0T MR scanner (Forte, Isole technique, Korea). The sexual stimulation consisted of a 1-minute rest with black screen, followed by a 3- minute stimulation by an erotic video film, and concluded with a 1-minute rest. The fMRI data was obtained from 20 slices (5 mm slice thickness, no gap) parallel to the AC-PC (anterior commissure and posterior commissure) line on the sagittal plane, giving a total of 2,100 images. The brain activation maps and the resulting quantification were analyzed by the statistical parametric mapping program, SPM 99. The mean-activated images were obtained from each individual activation map using one sampled t-test. The FALBA program, which is a new algorithm based on the pixel differentiation method, was used to identify and quantify the brain activation and lateralization indices with respect to the functional and anatomical terms. In both male and female volunteers, significant brain activation showed in the limbic areas of the parahippocampal gyrus, septal area, cingulate gyrus and thalamus. It is interesting to note that the septal areas gave a relatively lower activation ratio with high brain activities. On the contrary, the putamen, insula cortex, and corpus callosum gave a higher activation ratio with low brain activities. In particular, brain activation in the septal area, which was not reported in the previous fMRI studies under 1.5 Tesla, represents a distinct finding of this study using 3.0T MR scanner. The overall lateralization index of activation shows left predominance (LI= 35.3%) in

  13. Qualitative and quantitative measurement of brain activity associated with visual sexual arousal in males and females: 3.0 tesIa functional MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyung Joong; Jeong, Gwang Woo; Eun, Sung Jong; Cho, Seong Hoon; Seo, Jeong Jin; Kang, Heoung Keun; Park, Kwang Sung [School of Medicine, Chonnam National Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-08-01

    The present study utilized 3.0 Tesla functional MR imaging to identify and quantify the activated brain regions associated with visually evoked sexual arousal, and also to discriminate the gender differences between the cortical activation patterns in response to sexual stimuli. A total of 24 healthy, right-handed volunteers, 14 males (mean age: 24) and 10 females (mean age: 23), with normal heterosexual function underwent functional MRI on a 3.0T MR scanner (Forte, Isole technique, Korea). The sexual stimulation consisted of a 1-minute rest with black screen, followed by a 3- minute stimulation by an erotic video film, and concluded with a 1-minute rest. The fMRI data was obtained from 20 slices (5 mm slice thickness, no gap) parallel to the AC-PC (anterior commissure and posterior commissure) line on the sagittal plane, giving a total of 2,100 images. The brain activation maps and the resulting quantification were analyzed by the statistical parametric mapping program, SPM 99. The mean-activated images were obtained from each individual activation map using one sampled t-test. The FALBA program, which is a new algorithm based on the pixel differentiation method, was used to identify and quantify the brain activation and lateralization indices with respect to the functional and anatomical terms. In both male and female volunteers, significant brain activation showed in the limbic areas of the parahippocampal gyrus, septal area, cingulate gyrus and thalamus. It is interesting to note that the septal areas gave a relatively lower activation ratio with high brain activities. On the contrary, the putamen, insula cortex, and corpus callosum gave a higher activation ratio with low brain activities. In particular, brain activation in the septal area, which was not reported in the previous fMRI studies under 1.5 Tesla, represents a distinct finding of this study using 3.0T MR scanner. The overall lateralization index of activation shows left predominance (LI= 35.3%) in

  14. Toward Personalized Sexual Medicine (Part 1) : Integrating the “Dual Control Model” into Differential Drug Treatments for Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder and Female Sexual Arousal Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloemers, J.; van Rooij, K.; Poels, S.; Goldstein, I.; Everaerd, W.; Koppeschaar, H.; Chivers, M.; Gerritsen, J.; van Ham, D.; Olivier, B.; Tuiten, A.

    In three related manuscripts we describe our drug development program for the treatment of Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder (HSDD). In this first theoretical article we will defend the hypothesis that different causal mechanisms are responsible for the emergence of HSDD: low sexual desire in women

  15. Torpor patterns, arousal rates, and temporal organization of torpor entry in wildtype and UCP1-ablated mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oelkrug, R; Heldmaier, G; Meyer, C W

    2011-01-01

    In eutherian mammals, uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) mediated non-shivering thermogenesis from brown adipose tissue (BAT) provides a mechanism through which arousal from torpor and hibernation is facilitated. In order to directly assess the magnitude by which the presence or absence of UCP1 affects torpor patterns, rewarming and arousal rates within one species we compared fasting induced torpor in wildtype (UCP1(+/+)) and UCP1-ablated mice (UCP(-/-)). Torpor was induced by depriving mice of food for up to 48 h and by a reduction of ambient temperature (T (a)) from 30 to 18°C at four different time points after 18, 24, 30 and 36 h of food deprivation. In most cases, torpor bouts occurred within 20 min after the switch in ambient temperature (30-18°C). Torpor bouts expressed during the light phase lasted 3-6 h while significantly longer bouts (up to 16 h) were observed when mice entered torpor during the dark phase. The degree of hypometabolism (5-22 ml h(-1)) and hypothermia (19.5-26.7°C) was comparable in wildtype and UCP1-ablated mice, and both genotypes were able to regain normothermia. In contrast to wildtype mice, UCP1-ablated mice did not display multiple torpor bouts per day and their peak rewarming rates from torpor were reduced by 50% (UCP1(+/+): 0.24 ± 0.08°C min(-1); UCP1(-/-): 0.12 ± 0.04°C min(-1)). UCP1-ablated mice therefore took significantly longer to rewarm from 25 to 32°C (39 vs. 70 min) and required 60% more energy for this process. Our results demonstrate the energetic benefit of functional BAT for rapid arousal from torpor. They also suggest that torpor entry and maintenance may be dependent on endogenous rhythms.

  16. Association between higher levels of sexual function, activity, and satisfaction and self-rated successful aging in older postmenopausal women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Wesley K.; Charo, Lindsey; Vahia, Ipsit V.; Depp, Colin; Allison, Matthew; Jeste, Dilip V.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To determine if measures of successful-aging are associated with sexual activity, satisfaction, and function in older post-menopausal women. Design Cross-sectional study using self-report surveys; analyses include chi-square and t-tests and multiple linear regression analyses. Setting Community-dwelling older post-menopausal women in the greater San Diego Region. Participants 1,235 community-dwelling women aged 60-89 years participating at the San Diego site of the Women's Health Initiative. Measurements Demographics and self-report measures of sexual activity, function, and satisfaction and successful aging. Results Sexual activity and functioning (desire, arousal, vaginal tightness, use of lubricants, and ability to climax) were negatively associated with age, as were physical and mental health. In contrast, sexual satisfaction and self-rated successful aging and quality of life remained unchanged across age groups. Successful aging measures were positively associated with sexual measures, especially self-rated quality of life and sexual satisfaction. Conclusions Self-rated successful aging, quality of life, and sexual satisfaction appear to be stable in the face of declines in physical health, some cognitive abilities, and sexual activity and function and are positively associated with each other across ages 60-89 years. PMID:21797827

  17. A phase 2a multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial to investigate the efficacy, safety, and toleration of CP-866,087 (a high-affinity mu-opioid receptor antagonist) in premenopausal women diagnosed with female sexual arousal disorder (FSAD)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orri, Miguel; Abraham, Lucy; Giraldi, Annamaria

    2013-01-01

    Female sexual arousal disorder (FSAD) is a condition that can affect women of all ages and have a significant negative impact on emotional well-being.......Female sexual arousal disorder (FSAD) is a condition that can affect women of all ages and have a significant negative impact on emotional well-being....

  18. Comparison of Brain Activation Images Associated with Sexual Arousal Induced by Visual Stimulation and SP6 Acupuncture: fMRI at 3 Tesla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Nam Gil [Dept. of Radiology, Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Han, Jae Bok; Jang, Seong Joo [Dept. of Radiology, Dongshin University, Naju (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-06-15

    This study was performed not only to compare the brain activation regions associated with sexual arousal induced by visual stimulation and SP6 acupuncture, but also to evaluate its differential neuro-anatomical mechanism in healthy women using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) at 3 Tesla (T). A total of 21 healthy right-handed female volunteers (mean age 22 years, range 19 to 32) underwent fMRI on a 3T MR scanner. The stimulation paradigm for sexual arousal consisted of two alternating periods of rest and activation. It began with a 1-minute rest period, 3 minutes of stimulation with either of an erotic video film or SP6 acupuncture, followed by 1-minute rest. In addition, a comparative study on the brain activation patterns between an acupoint and a shampoint nearby GB37 was performed. The fMRI data were obtained from 20 slices parallel to the AC-PC line on an axial plane, giving a total of 2,000 images. The mean activation maps were constructed and analyzed by using the statistical parametric mapping (SPM99) software. As comparison with the shampoint, the acupoint showed 5 times and 2 times higher activities in the neocortex and limbic system, respectively. Note that brain activation in response to stimulation with the shampoint was not observed in the regions including the HTHL in the diencephalon, GLO and AMYG in the basal ganglia, and SMG in the parietal lobe. In the comparative study of visual stimulation vs. SP6 acupuncture, the mean activation ratio of stimulus was not significantly different to each other in both the neocortex and the limbic system (p < 0.05). The mean activities induced by both stimuli were not significantly different in the neocortex, whereas the acupunctural stimulation showed higher activity in the limbic system (p < 0.05). This study compared the differential brain activation patterns and the neural mechanisms for sexual arousal, which were induced by visual stimulation and SP6 acupuncture by using 3T fMRI. These findings

  19. Comparison of Brain Activation Images Associated with Sexual Arousal Induced by Visual Stimulation and SP6 Acupuncture: fMRI at 3 Tesla

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Nam Gil; Han, Jae Bok; Jang, Seong Joo

    2009-01-01

    This study was performed not only to compare the brain activation regions associated with sexual arousal induced by visual stimulation and SP6 acupuncture, but also to evaluate its differential neuro-anatomical mechanism in healthy women using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) at 3 Tesla (T). A total of 21 healthy right-handed female volunteers (mean age 22 years, range 19 to 32) underwent fMRI on a 3T MR scanner. The stimulation paradigm for sexual arousal consisted of two alternating periods of rest and activation. It began with a 1-minute rest period, 3 minutes of stimulation with either of an erotic video film or SP6 acupuncture, followed by 1-minute rest. In addition, a comparative study on the brain activation patterns between an acupoint and a shampoint nearby GB37 was performed. The fMRI data were obtained from 20 slices parallel to the AC-PC line on an axial plane, giving a total of 2,000 images. The mean activation maps were constructed and analyzed by using the statistical parametric mapping (SPM99) software. As comparison with the shampoint, the acupoint showed 5 times and 2 times higher activities in the neocortex and limbic system, respectively. Note that brain activation in response to stimulation with the shampoint was not observed in the regions including the HTHL in the diencephalon, GLO and AMYG in the basal ganglia, and SMG in the parietal lobe. In the comparative study of visual stimulation vs. SP6 acupuncture, the mean activation ratio of stimulus was not significantly different to each other in both the neocortex and the limbic system (p < 0.05). The mean activities induced by both stimuli were not significantly different in the neocortex, whereas the acupunctural stimulation showed higher activity in the limbic system (p < 0.05). This study compared the differential brain activation patterns and the neural mechanisms for sexual arousal, which were induced by visual stimulation and SP6 acupuncture by using 3T fMRI. These findings

  20. A Public Database of Immersive VR Videos with Corresponding Ratings of Arousal, Valence, and Correlations between Head Movements and Self Report Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin J. Li

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Virtual reality (VR has been proposed as a methodological tool to study the basic science of psychology and other fields. One key advantage of VR is that sharing of virtual content can lead to more robust replication and representative sampling. A database of standardized content will help fulfill this vision. There are two objectives to this study. First, we seek to establish and allow public access to a database of immersive VR video clips that can act as a potential resource for studies on emotion induction using virtual reality. Second, given the large sample size of participants needed to get reliable valence and arousal ratings for our video, we were able to explore the possible links between the head movements of the observer and the emotions he or she feels while viewing immersive VR. To accomplish our goals, we sourced for and tested 73 immersive VR clips which participants rated on valence and arousal dimensions using self-assessment manikins. We also tracked participants' rotational head movements as they watched the clips, allowing us to correlate head movements and affect. Based on past research, we predicted relationships between the standard deviation of head yaw and valence and arousal ratings. Results showed that the stimuli varied reasonably well along the dimensions of valence and arousal, with a slight underrepresentation of clips that are of negative valence and highly arousing. The standard deviation of yaw positively correlated with valence, while a significant positive relationship was found between head pitch and arousal. The immersive VR clips tested are available online as supplemental material.

  1. Male bisexual arousal: a matter of curiosity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieger, Gerulf; Rosenthal, Allen M; Cash, Brian M; Linsenmeier, Joan A W; Bailey, J Michael; Savin-Williams, Ritch C

    2013-12-01

    Conflicting evidence exists regarding whether bisexual-identified men are sexually aroused to both men and women. We hypothesized that a distinct characteristic, level of curiosity about sexually diverse acts, distinguishes bisexual-identified men with and without bisexual arousal. Study 1 assessed men's (n=277) sexual arousal via pupil dilation to male and female sexual stimuli. Bisexual men were, on average, higher in their sexual curiosity than other men. Despite this general difference, only bisexual-identified men with elevated sexual curiosity showed bisexual arousal. Those lower in curiosity had responses resembling those of homosexual men. Study 2 assessed men's (n=72) sexual arousal via genital responses and replicated findings of Study 1. Study 3 provided information on the validity on our measure of sexual curiosity by relating it to general curiosity and sexual sensation seeking (n=83). Based on their sexual arousal and personality, at least two groups of men identify as bisexual. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. How unusual are the contents of paraphilias? Paraphilia-associated sexual arousal patterns in a community-based sample of men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlers, Christoph Joseph; Schaefer, Gerard Alfons; Mundt, Ingrid Annette; Roll, Stephanie; Englert, Heike; Willich, Stefan N; Beier, Klaus Michael

    2011-05-01

    This is a report of a cross-sectional study on paraphilia-associated sexual arousal patterns (PASAP) among men in a metropolitan city in Germany, EU. To determine the prevalence of PASAP during sexual fantasies, fantasies accompanying masturbation, and real-life sociosexual behavior. In a cross-sectional study, self-reported sexual history data were collected by questionnaire from 367 volunteers recruited from a community sample of 1,915 men aged 40-79 years. The Derogatis Symptom Checklist-Revised (SCL-90-R) and the Life Satisfaction Questionnaire (LSQ; German original, Fragebogen zur Lebenszufriedenheit, [FLZ]) were administered to obtain a general subjective health measure and a measure of general as well as sex life satisfaction. The Questionnaire on Sexual Experiences and Behaviour was administered to comprehensively assess all relevant sexo-medical data. Results.  The percent of men that reported at least one PASAP was 62.4%. In 1.7% of cases, PASAP were reported to have caused distress. The presence of PASAP was associated with a higher likelihood of being single (odds ratio [OR] 2.6; 95%; confidence interval [CI] 1.047-6.640), masturbating at least once per week (OR 4.4; 95%; CI 1.773-10.914), or having a low general subjective health score (OR 11.9; 95%; CI 2.601-54.553). Pedophilic PASAP in sexual fantasies and in real-life sociosexual behavior was reported by 9.5% and 3.8% of participants, respectively. The findings suggest that paraphilia-related experience can not be regarded as unusual from a normative perspective. At the same time, many men experience PASAP without accompanying problem awareness or distress, even when PASAP contents are associated with potentially causing harm to others. In view of the relevance for sex life and relationship satisfaction, presence of PASAP should be assessed in all sexual medicine consultations. Future research should focus on conditions in which PASAP reach clinical significance in the sense of mental disorders.

  3. Childhood sexual abuse, selective attention for sexual cues and the effects of testosterone with or without Vardenafil on physiological sexual arousal in women with sexual dysfunction: a pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Made, F.; Bloemers, J.; van Ham, D.; El Yassem, W.; Kleiverda, G.; Everaerd, W.; Olivier, B.; Tuiten, A.

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Female sexual dysfunction (FSD) may be associated with reduced central sensitivity for sexual cues. A single dose of testosterone might induce an increase in sensitivity for sexual stimuli, which in turn allows a PDE5 inhibitor to be effective in boosting the physiological sexual

  4. Brain Activation in Response to Visually Evoked Sexual Arousal in Male-to-Female Transsexuals: 3.0 Tesla Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Seok-Kyun; Kim, Gwang-Won; Yang, Jong-Chul; Kim, Seok-Kwun; Kang, Heoung-Keun

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to contrast the differential brain activation patterns in response to visual stimulation with both male and female erotic nude pictures in male-to-female (MTF) transsexuals who underwent a sex reassignment surgery. Materials and Methods A total of nine healthy MTF transsexuals after a sex reassignment surgery underwent fMRI on a 3.0 Tesla MR Scanner. The brain activation patterns were induced by visual stimulation with both male and female erotic nude pictures. Results The sex hormone levels of the postoperative MTF transsexuals were in the normal range of healthy heterosexual females. The brain areas, which were activated by viewing male nude pictures when compared with viewing female nude pictures, included predominantly the cerebellum, hippocampus, putamen, anterior cingulate gyrus, head of caudate nucleus, amygdala, midbrain, thalamus, insula, and body of caudate nucleus. On the other hand, brain activation induced by viewing female nude pictures was predominantly observed in the hypothalamus and the septal area. Conclusion Our findings suggest that distinct brain activation patterns associated with visual sexual arousal in postoperative MTF transsexuals reflect their sexual orientation to males. PMID:22563262

  5. Brain Activation in Response to Visually Evoked Sexual Arousal in Male-to-Female Transsexuals: 3.0 Tesla Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Seok Kyun; Kim, Gwang Won; Kang, Heoung Keun; Jeong, Gwang Woo [Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Jong Chul [Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seok Kwun [Dong-A University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to contrast the differential brain activation patterns in response to visual stimulation with both male and female erotic nude pictures in male-to-female (MTF) transsexuals who underwent a sex reassignment surgery. A total of nine healthy MTF transsexuals after a sex reassignment surgery underwent fMRI on a 3.0 Tesla MR Scanner. The brain activation patterns were induced by visual stimulation with both male and female erotic nude pictures. The sex hormone levels of the postoperative MTF transsexuals were in the normal range of healthy heterosexual females. The brain areas, which were activated by viewing male nude pictures when compared with viewing female nude pictures, included predominantly the cerebellum, hippocampus, putamen, anterior cingulate gyrus, head of caudate nucleus, amygdala, midbrain, thalamus, insula, and body of caudate nucleus. On the other hand, brain activation induced by viewing female nude pictures was predominantly observed in the hypothalamus and the septal area. Our findings suggest that distinct brain activation patterns associated with visual sexual arousal in postoperative MTF transsexuals reflect their sexual orientation to males.

  6. Brain Activation in Response to Visually Evoked Sexual Arousal in Male-to-Female Transsexuals: 3.0 Tesla Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Seok Kyun; Kim, Gwang Won; Kang, Heoung Keun; Jeong, Gwang Woo; Yang, Jong Chul; Kim, Seok Kwun

    2012-01-01

    This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to contrast the differential brain activation patterns in response to visual stimulation with both male and female erotic nude pictures in male-to-female (MTF) transsexuals who underwent a sex reassignment surgery. A total of nine healthy MTF transsexuals after a sex reassignment surgery underwent fMRI on a 3.0 Tesla MR Scanner. The brain activation patterns were induced by visual stimulation with both male and female erotic nude pictures. The sex hormone levels of the postoperative MTF transsexuals were in the normal range of healthy heterosexual females. The brain areas, which were activated by viewing male nude pictures when compared with viewing female nude pictures, included predominantly the cerebellum, hippocampus, putamen, anterior cingulate gyrus, head of caudate nucleus, amygdala, midbrain, thalamus, insula, and body of caudate nucleus. On the other hand, brain activation induced by viewing female nude pictures was predominantly observed in the hypothalamus and the septal area. Our findings suggest that distinct brain activation patterns associated with visual sexual arousal in postoperative MTF transsexuals reflect their sexual orientation to males.

  7. Sexual selection, germline mutation rate and sperm competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Møller AP

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An important component of sexual selection arises because females obtain viability benefits for their offspring from their mate choice. Females choosing extra-pair fertilization generally favor males with exaggerated secondary sexual characters, and extra-pair paternity increases the variance in male reproductive success. Furthermore, females are assumed to benefit from 'good genes' from extra-pair sires. How additive genetic variance in such viability genes is maintained despite strong directional selection remains an evolutionary enigma. We propose that sexual selection is associated with elevated mutation rates, changing the balance between mutation and selection, thereby increasing variance in fitness and hence the benefits to be obtained from good genes sexual selection. Two hypotheses may account for such elevated mutation: (1 Increased sperm production associated with sperm competition may increase mutation rate. (2 Mutator alleles increase mutation rates that are revealed by the expression of condition-dependent secondary sexual characters used by choosy females during their mate choice. M Petrie has independently developed the idea that mutator alleles may account for the maintenance of genetic variation in viability despite strong directional selection. Results A comparative study of birds revealed a positive correlation between mutation rate at minisatellite loci and extra-pair paternity, but not between mutation rate and relative testes mass which is a measure of relative sperm production. Minisatellite mutation rates were not related to longevity, suggesting a meiotic rather than a mitotic origin of mutations. Conclusion We found evidence of increased mutation rate in species with more intense sexual selection. Increased mutation was not associated with increased sperm production, and we suggest that species with intense sexual selection may maintain elevated mutation rates because sexual selection continuously

  8. Giving In to Arousal or Staying Stuck in Disgust? Disgust-Based Mechanisms in Sex and Sexual Dysfunction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Peter J.; van Overveld, Mark; Borg, Charmaine

    2013-01-01

    Sex and disgust seem like strange bedfellows. The premise of this review is that disgust-based mechanisms nevertheless hold great promise for improving our understanding of sexual behavior, including dysfunctions. Disgust is a defensive emotion that protects the organism from contamination.

  9. High rate of teenage pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is increased in teenage pregnancy despite the presence of dual protection practice and health care awareness programmes related to health and sexuality education in South Africa. The present study explores the underlying causes of high teenage pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases rates, including HIV ...

  10. A test-retest assessment of the effects of mental load on ratings of affect, arousal and perceived exertion during submaximal cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, Jesús; Perales, José C; Jiménez, Raimundo; Cárdenas, David

    2018-04-24

    This study aimed to test the effects of mental (i.e. executive) load during a dual physical-mental task on ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), affective valence, and arousal. The protocol included two dual tasks with matched physical demands but different executive demands (2-back and oddball), carried out on different days. The procedure was run twice to assess the sensitivity and stability of RPE, valence and arousal across the two trials. Linear mixed-effects analyses showed less positive valence (-0.44 points on average in a 1-9 scale; R β 2  = 0.074 [CI90%, 0.052-0.098]), and heightened arousal (+0.13 points on average in a 1-9 scale; R β 2  = 0.006 [CI90%, 0.001-0.015]), for the high executive load condition, but showed no effect of mental load on RPE. Separated analyses for the two task trials yielded best-fitting models that were identical across trials for RPE and valence, but not for arousal. Model fitting was improved by assuming a 1-level autoregressive covariance structure for all analyses. In conclusion, executive load during a dual physical-mental task modulates the emotional response to effort, but not RPE. The autoregressive covariance suggests that people tend to anchor estimates on prior ones, which imposes certain limits on scales' usability.

  11. Teen birth rates in sexually abused and neglected females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noll, Jennie G; Shenk, Chad E

    2013-04-01

    Prospectively track teen childbirths in maltreated and nonmaltreated females and test the hypothesis that child maltreatment is an independent predictor of subsequent teen childbirth over and above demographic characteristics and other risk factors. Nulliparous adolescent females (N = 435) aged 14 to 17 years were assessed annually through age 19 years. Maltreated females were referred by Child Protective Services agencies for having experienced substantiated sexual abuse, physical abuse, or neglect within the preceding 12 months. Comparison females were matched on race, family income, age and family constellation. Teen childbirth was assessed via self-report during annual interviews. Births were confirmed using hospital delivery records. Seventy participants gave birth during the study, 54 in the maltreated group and 16 in the comparison group. Maltreated females were twice as likely to experience teen childbirth after controlling for demographic confounds and known risk factors (odds ratio = 2.17, P = 0.01). Birth rates were highest for sexually abused and neglected females. Sexual abuse and neglect were both independent predictors of teen childbirth after controlling for demographic confounds, other risk factors and alternative forms of maltreatment occurring earlier in development. Results provide evidence that sexual abuse and neglect are unique predictors of subsequent teen childbirth. Partnerships between protective service providers and teen childbirth prevention strategists hold the best promise for further reducing the US teen birth rate. Additional research illuminating the pathways to teen childbirth for differing forms of maltreatment is needed so that tailored interventions can be realized.

  12. Disparities in sexually transmitted disease rates across the "eight Americas".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesson, Harrell W; Kent, Charlotte K; Owusu-Edusei, Kwame; Leichliter, Jami S; Aral, Sevgi O

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine rates of 3 bacterial sexually transmitted diseases (STDs; syphilis, gonorrhea, and chlamydia) in 8 subpopulations (known as the "eight Americas") defined by race and a small number of county-level sociodemographic and geographical characteristics. The eight Americas are (1) Asians and Pacific Islanders in specific counties; (2) Northland low-income rural white; (3) Middle America; (4) Low-income whites in Appalachia and Mississippi Valley; (5) Western Native American; (6) Black middle America; (7) Southern low-income rural black; and (8) High-risk urban black. A list of the counties comprising each of the eight Americas was obtained from the corresponding author of the original eight Americas project, which examined disparities in mortality rates across the eight Americas. Using county-level STD surveillance data, we calculated syphilis, gonorrhea, and chlamydia rates (new cases per 100,000) for each of the eight Americas. Reported STD rates varied substantially across the eight Americas. STD rates were generally lowest in Americas 1 and 2 and highest in Americas 6, 7, and 8. Although disparities in STDs across the eight Americas are generally similar to the well-established disparities in STDs across race/ethnicity, the grouping of counties into the eight Americas does offer additional insight into disparities in STDs in the United States. The high STD rates we found for black Middle America are consistent with the assertion that sexual networks and social factors are important drivers of racial disparities in STDs.

  13. The Sexual Disgust Questionnaire; a Psychometric Study and a First Exploration in Patients with Sexual Dysfunctions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Overveld, Mark; de Jong, Peter J.; Peters, Madelon L.; van Lankveld, Jacques; Melles, Reinhilde; ter Kuile, Moniek M.

    Introduction. Disgust may be involved in sexual problems by disrupting sexual arousal and motivating avoidance of sexual intercourse. To test whether heightened disgust for sexual contaminants is related to sexual dysfunctions, the Sexual Disgust Questionnaire (SDQ) has recently been developed.

  14. Effects of individual differences on the efficacy of different distracters during visual sexual stimulation in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Verena M; Prause, Nicole

    2012-02-01

    Distractions from sexual cues have been shown to decrease the sexual response, but it is unclear how distracters decrease sexual response. Individual differences may modulate the efficacy of distracters. Forty women viewed three sexual films while their labial temperature and continuous self-reported sexual arousal were monitored. One sexual film had simultaneous verbal distracters concerning dissatisfaction with one's physical appearance (higher salience distracter), a second had distracters concerning daily chores (lower salience distracter), and the third sexual film had no distracters. Participant's reporting greater relationship satisfaction and more communication with their partner about their own physical appearance were expected to decrease the efficacy (increased sexual arousal) of the distracters concerning physical appearance. Contrary to expectations, women who received less feedback about their body from their partners reported less sexual arousal during a sexual film with body distracters than a sexual film with general distracters or a sexual film with no distracters. All women exhibited lower labial temperature in Minutes 2 and 3 of the sexual film with body image distracters as compared to the other two sexual films. Possible explanations explored include self-verification theory and individual differences in the indicators that women consider when rating their sexual arousal.

  15. Sex Attracts: Investigating Individual Differences in Attentional Bias to Sexual Stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagerer, Sabine; Wehrum, Sina; Klucken, Tim; Walter, Bertram; Vaitl, Dieter; Stark, Rudolf

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the impact of sexual stimuli and the influence of sexual motivation on the performance in a dot-probe task and a line-orientation task in a large sample of males and females. All pictures (neutral, erotic) were rated on the dimensions of valence, arousal, disgust, and sexual arousal. Additionally, questionnaires measuring sexual interest/desire/motivation were employed. The ratings of the sexual stimuli point to a successful picture selection because sexual arousal did not differ between the sexes. The stimuli were equally arousing for men and women. Higher scores in the employed questionnaires measuring sexual interest/desire/motivation led to higher sexual arousal ratings of the sex pictures. Attentional bias towards sex pictures was observed in both experimental tasks. The attentional biases measured by the dot-probe and the line-orientation task were moderately intercorrelated suggesting attentional bias as a possible marker for a sex-attention trait. Finally, only the sexual sensation seeking score correlated with the attentional biases of the two tasks. Future research is needed to increase the predictive power of these indirect measures of sexual interest. PMID:25238545

  16. Sex attracts: investigating individual differences in attentional bias to sexual stimuli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Kagerer

    Full Text Available We investigated the impact of sexual stimuli and the influence of sexual motivation on the performance in a dot-probe task and a line-orientation task in a large sample of males and females. All pictures (neutral, erotic were rated on the dimensions of valence, arousal, disgust, and sexual arousal. Additionally, questionnaires measuring sexual interest/desire/motivation were employed. The ratings of the sexual stimuli point to a successful picture selection because sexual arousal did not differ between the sexes. The stimuli were equally arousing for men and women. Higher scores in the employed questionnaires measuring sexual interest/desire/motivation led to higher sexual arousal ratings of the sex pictures. Attentional bias towards sex pictures was observed in both experimental tasks. The attentional biases measured by the dot-probe and the line-orientation task were moderately intercorrelated suggesting attentional bias as a possible marker for a sex-attention trait. Finally, only the sexual sensation seeking score correlated with the attentional biases of the two tasks. Future research is needed to increase the predictive power of these indirect measures of sexual interest.

  17. Female Sexual Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Overview Persistent, recurrent problems with sexual response, desire, orgasm or pain — that distress you or strain your ... You have persistent or recurrent difficulty in achieving orgasm after sufficient sexual arousal and ongoing stimulation. Sexual ...

  18. Perceived Sexual Orientation Based on Vocal and Facial Stimuli Is Linked to Self-Rated Sexual Orientation in Czech Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentova, Jaroslava Varella; Havlíček, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has shown that lay people can accurately assess male sexual orientation based on limited information, such as face, voice, or behavioral display. Gender-atypical traits are thought to serve as cues to sexual orientation. We investigated the presumed mechanisms of sexual orientation attribution using a standardized set of facial and vocal stimuli of Czech men. Both types of stimuli were rated for sexual orientation and masculinity-femininity by non-student heterosexual women and homosexual men. Our data showed that by evaluating vocal stimuli both women and homosexual men can judge sexual orientation of the target men in agreement with their self-reported sexual orientation. Nevertheless, only homosexual men accurately attributed sexual orientation of the two groups from facial images. Interestingly, facial images of homosexual targets were rated as more masculine than heterosexual targets. This indicates that attributions of sexual orientation are affected by stereotyped association between femininity and male homosexuality; however, reliance on such cues can lead to frequent misjudgments as was the case with the female raters. Although our study is based on a community sample recruited in a non-English speaking country, the results are generally consistent with the previous research and thus corroborate the validity of sexual orientation attributions. PMID:24358180

  19. Perceived sexual orientation based on vocal and facial stimuli is linked to self-rated sexual orientation in Czech men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslava Varella Valentova

    Full Text Available Previous research has shown that lay people can accurately assess male sexual orientation based on limited information, such as face, voice, or behavioral display. Gender-atypical traits are thought to serve as cues to sexual orientation. We investigated the presumed mechanisms of sexual orientation attribution using a standardized set of facial and vocal stimuli of Czech men. Both types of stimuli were rated for sexual orientation and masculinity-femininity by non-student heterosexual women and homosexual men. Our data showed that by evaluating vocal stimuli both women and homosexual men can judge sexual orientation of the target men in agreement with their self-reported sexual orientation. Nevertheless, only homosexual men accurately attributed sexual orientation of the two groups from facial images. Interestingly, facial images of homosexual targets were rated as more masculine than heterosexual targets. This indicates that attributions of sexual orientation are affected by stereotyped association between femininity and male homosexuality; however, reliance on such cues can lead to frequent misjudgments as was the case with the female raters. Although our study is based on a community sample recruited in a non-English speaking country, the results are generally consistent with the previous research and thus corroborate the validity of sexual orientation attributions.

  20. Karolinska Psychodynamic Profile for Sexual Disorders: KAPP-SD. A proposal for a psychodynamic rating scale for sexual disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldati, Lorenzo; Köhl, John; Abraham, Georges; Bianchi Demicheli, Francesco; Wilczek, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Our first objective in this paper was to review the literature on psychodynamic rating scales of sexual disorders. Our second objective, based on the findings from our review, was to develop a psychodynamic rating scale for people with sexual disorders: the KAPP-SD. We developed the KAPP-SD by modifying an existing psychodynamic rating scale, which assesses stable modes of mental functioning and character traits, the Karolinska Psychodynamic Profile (KAPP). We removed items 13 and 14 of the KAPP and replaced them with three other items-sexual fantasies, conceptions and role of gender identity, and conceptions and role of sexual orientation. These items are part of the assessment of an individual's sexuality and are used to evaluate a person with a sexual disorder psychodynamically. The KAPP-SD, a modified version of the KAPP, can be found in the Appendix. We developed the KAPP-SD in order to help sex therapists make a rigorous psychodynamic evaluation of persons with sexual disorders, which would give information on the prognosis and on the type of treatment to offer.

  1. Effects of Voice on Emotional Arousal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Psyche eLoui

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Music is a powerful medium capable of eliciting a broad range of emotions. Although the relationship between language and music is well documented, relatively little is known about the effects of lyrics and the voice on the emotional processing of music and on listeners’ preferences. In the present study, we investigated the effects of vocals in music on participants’ perceived valence and arousal in songs. Participants (N = 50 made valence and arousal ratings for familiar songs that were presented with and without the voice. We observed robust effects of vocal content on perceived arousal. Furthermore, we found that the effect of the voice on enhancing arousal ratings is independent of familiarity of the song and differs across genders and age: females were more influenced by vocals than males; furthermore these gender effects were enhanced among older adults. Results highlight the effects of gender and aging in emotion perception and are discussed in terms of the social roles of music.

  2. Your Sexual Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... increase arousal? • What can help me have an orgasm? • How can I minimize sexual pain? • How can ... difficulties. What are orgasmic problems? Not having an orgasm during sexual activity may not be a problem. ...

  3. Sexual Functioning Among Endometrial Cancer Patients Treated With Adjuvant High-Dose-Rate Intra-Vaginal Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damast, Shari, E-mail: shari.damast@yale.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Alektiar, Kaled M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Goldfarb, Shari [Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Eaton, Anne; Patil, Sujata [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Mosenkis, Jeffrey [Department of Comparative Human Development, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Bennett, Antonia [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Atkinson, Thomas [Department of Psychiatry, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Jewell, Elizabeth; Leitao, Mario; Barakat, Richard; Carter, Jeanne [Department of Surgery, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Basch, Ethan [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)

    2012-10-01

    Purpose: We used the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) to investigate the prevalence of sexual dysfunction (SD) and factors associated with diminished sexual functioning in early stage endometrial cancer (EC) patients treated with simple hysterectomy and adjuvant brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: A cohort of 104 patients followed in a radiation oncology clinic completed questionnaires to quantify current levels of sexual functioning. The time interval between hysterectomy and questionnaire completion ranged from <6 months to >5 years. Multivariate regression was performed using the FSFI as a continuous variable (score range, 1.2-35.4). SD was defined as an FSFI score of <26, based on the published validation study. Results: SD was reported by 81% of respondents. The mean ({+-} standard deviation) domain scores in order of highest-to-lowest functioning were: satisfaction, 2.9 ({+-}2.0); orgasm, 2.5 ({+-}2.4); desire, 2.4 ({+-}1.3); arousal, 2.2 ({+-}2.0); dryness, 2.1 ({+-}2.1); and pain, 1.9 ({+-}2.3). Compared to the index population in which the FSFI cut-score was validated (healthy women ages 18-74), all scores were low. Compared to published scores of a postmenopausal population, scores were not statistically different. Multivariate analysis isolated factors associated with lower FSFI scores, including having laparotomy as opposed to minimally invasive surgery (effect size, -7.1 points; 95% CI, -11.2 to -3.1; P<.001), lack of vaginal lubricant use (effect size, -4.4 points; 95% CI, -8.7 to -0.2, P=.040), and short time interval (<6 months) from hysterectomy to questionnaire completion (effect size, -4.6 points; 95% CI, -9.3-0.2; P=.059). Conclusions: The rate of SD, as defined by an FSFI score <26, was prevalent. The postmenopausal status of EC patients alone is a known risk factor for SD. Additional factors associated with poor sexual functioning following treatment for EC included receipt of laparotomy and lack of vaginal lubricant use.

  4. Sexual Functioning Among Endometrial Cancer Patients Treated With Adjuvant High-Dose-Rate Intra-Vaginal Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damast, Shari; Alektiar, Kaled M.; Goldfarb, Shari; Eaton, Anne; Patil, Sujata; Mosenkis, Jeffrey; Bennett, Antonia; Atkinson, Thomas; Jewell, Elizabeth; Leitao, Mario; Barakat, Richard; Carter, Jeanne; Basch, Ethan

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: We used the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) to investigate the prevalence of sexual dysfunction (SD) and factors associated with diminished sexual functioning in early stage endometrial cancer (EC) patients treated with simple hysterectomy and adjuvant brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: A cohort of 104 patients followed in a radiation oncology clinic completed questionnaires to quantify current levels of sexual functioning. The time interval between hysterectomy and questionnaire completion ranged from 5 years. Multivariate regression was performed using the FSFI as a continuous variable (score range, 1.2-35.4). SD was defined as an FSFI score of <26, based on the published validation study. Results: SD was reported by 81% of respondents. The mean (± standard deviation) domain scores in order of highest-to-lowest functioning were: satisfaction, 2.9 (±2.0); orgasm, 2.5 (±2.4); desire, 2.4 (±1.3); arousal, 2.2 (±2.0); dryness, 2.1 (±2.1); and pain, 1.9 (±2.3). Compared to the index population in which the FSFI cut-score was validated (healthy women ages 18-74), all scores were low. Compared to published scores of a postmenopausal population, scores were not statistically different. Multivariate analysis isolated factors associated with lower FSFI scores, including having laparotomy as opposed to minimally invasive surgery (effect size, −7.1 points; 95% CI, −11.2 to −3.1; P<.001), lack of vaginal lubricant use (effect size, −4.4 points; 95% CI, −8.7 to −0.2, P=.040), and short time interval (<6 months) from hysterectomy to questionnaire completion (effect size, −4.6 points; 95% CI, −9.3-0.2; P=.059). Conclusions: The rate of SD, as defined by an FSFI score <26, was prevalent. The postmenopausal status of EC patients alone is a known risk factor for SD. Additional factors associated with poor sexual functioning following treatment for EC included receipt of laparotomy and lack of vaginal lubricant use.

  5. Comparing Sexual Assult Survey Prevalence Rates at Military Service Academies and U.S. Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-15

    and Weitzman, L. (1988). The incidence and dimensions of sexual harassment in academia and the workplace . Journal of Vocational Behavior, 32, 152...nonconforming,” or as something not listed on the survey. This group had high rates of being victims of nonconsensual sexual contact and harassment . However...physical harm or promised rewards, or 4) failure to obtain affirmative consent. The study also collected data on sexual harassment , stalking, and

  6. Emotionally arousing pictures increase blood glucose levels and enhance recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, T M; Varnhagen, C K; Parent, M B

    2001-05-01

    Arousal enhances memory in human participants and this enhancing effect is likely due to the release of peripheral epinephrine. As epinephrine does not readily enter the brain, one way that peripheral epinephrine may enhance memory is by increasing circulating blood glucose levels. The present study investigated the possibility that emotionally arousing color pictures would improve memory and elevate blood glucose levels in human participants. Blood glucose levels were measured before, 15 min, and 30 min after male university students viewed 60 emotionally arousing or relatively neutral pictures. Participants viewed each picture for 6 s and then had 10 s to rate the arousal (emotional intensity) and valence (pleasantness) of each picture. A free-recall memory test was given 30 min after the last picture was viewed. Although the emotionally arousing and neutral picture sets were given comparable valence ratings, participants who viewed the emotionally arousing pictures rated the pictures as being more arousing, recalled more pictures, and had higher blood glucose levels after viewing the pictures than did participants who viewed the neutral pictures. These findings indicate that emotionally arousing pictures increase blood glucose levels and enhance memory, and that this effect is not due to differences in the degree of pleasantness of the stimuli. These findings support the possibility that increases in circulating blood glucose levels in response to emotional arousal may be part of the biological mechanism that allows emotional arousal to enhance memory. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  7. The Influence of Emotion Upregulation on the Expectation of Sexual Reward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brom, Mirte; Laan, Ellen; Everaerd, Walter; Spinhoven, Philip; Trimbos, Baptist; Both, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    Emotion regulation research has shown successful altering of unwanted aversive emotional reactions. Cognitive strategies can also downregulate expectations of reward arising from conditioned stimuli, including sexual stimuli. However, little is known about whether such strategies can also efficiently upregulate expectations of sexual reward arising from conditioned stimuli, and possible gender differences therein. The present study examined whether a cognitive upregulatory strategy could successfully upregulate sexual arousal elicited by sexual reward-conditioned cues in men and women. Men (n = 40) and women (n = 53) participated in a study using a differential conditioning paradigm, with genital vibrostimulation as unconditioned stimulus (US) and sexually relevant pictures as conditional stimuli. Penile circumference and vaginal pulse amplitude were assessed and ratings of US expectancy, affective value, and sexual arousal value were obtained. Also a stimulus response compatibility task was included to assess automatic approach and avoidance tendencies. Evidence was found for emotion upregulation to increase genital arousal response in the acquisition phase in both sexes, and to enhance resistance to extinction of conditioned genital responding in women. In men, the emotion upregulatory strategy resulted in increased conditioned positive affect. The findings support that top-down modulation may indeed influence conditioned sexual responses. This knowledge may have implications for treating disturbances in sexual appetitive responses, such as low sexual arousal and desire. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. From the Kitchen to the Bedroom: Frequency Rates and Consequences of Sexual Harassment among Female Domestic Workers in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSouza, Eros R.; Cerqueira, Elder

    2009-01-01

    Sexual harassment has been investigated mostly in developed countries. The authors examined frequency rates and consequences of sexual harassment among female domestic workers in Brazil. Twenty-six percent had been sexually harassed at work during the past year. Live-in workers were at significantly greater risk for experiencing sexual harassment…

  9. Persistent genital arousal disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eibye, Simone; Jensen, Hans Mørch

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of a woman suffering from persistent genital arousal disorder (PGAD) after paroxetine cessation. She was admitted to a psychiatric department and diagnosed with agitated depression. Physical investigation showed no gynaecological or neurological explanation; however, a pelvic MRI...

  10. Amines, Astrocytes and Arousal

    OpenAIRE

    Bazargani, N.; Attwell, D.

    2017-01-01

    Amine neurotransmitters, such as noradrenaline, mediate arousal, attention, and reward in the CNS. New data suggest that, from flies to mammals, a major mechanism for amine transmitter action is to raise astrocyte [Ca2+]i and release gliotransmitters that modulate neuronal activity and behavior.

  11. The scoring of arousal in sleep: reliability, validity, and alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, Michael H; Doghramji, Karl; Roehrs, Timothy; Stepanski, Edward J; Sheldon, Stephen H; Walters, Arthur S; Wise, Merrill; Chesson, Andrew L

    2007-03-15

    The reliability and validity of EEG arousals and other types of arousal are reviewed. Brief arousals during sleep had been observed for many years, but the evolution of sleep medicine in the 1980s directed new attention to these events. Early studies at that time in animals and humans linked brief EEG arousals and associated fragmentation of sleep to daytime sleepiness and degraded performance. Increasing interest in scoring of EEG arousals led the ASDA to publish a scoring manual in 1992. The current review summarizes numerous studies that have examined scoring reliability for these EEG arousals. Validity of EEG arousals was explored by review of studies that empirically varied arousals and found deficits similar to those found after total sleep deprivation depending upon the rate and extent of sleep fragmentation. Additional data from patients with clinical sleep disorders prior to and after effective treatment has also shown a continuing relationship between reduction in pathology-related arousals and improved sleep and daytime function. Finally, many suggestions have been made to refine arousal scoring to include additional elements (e.g., CAP), change the time frame, or focus on other physiological responses such as heart rate or blood pressure changes. Evidence to support the reliability and validity of these measures is presented. It was concluded that the scoring of EEG arousals has added much to our understanding of the sleep process but that significant work on the neurophysiology of arousal needs to be done. Additional refinement of arousal scoring will provide improved insight into sleep pathology and recovery.

  12. Caffeine effects on resting-state arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Robert J; Rushby, Jacqueline A; Wallace, Mark J; Clarke, Adam R; Johnstone, Stuart J; Zlojutro, Ilinka

    2005-11-01

    This study examined the use of caffeine to manipulate arousal level without the confounds associated with task-related activation. From previous work in our laboratory, an increase in skin conductance level (SCL) and EEG alpha frequency, together with a global decrease in alpha power, were used as markers of arousal increase, and we sought to identify these effects with caffeine ingestion. We examined the effect of a single oral dose of caffeine (250 mg) in a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled repeated-measures cross-over study. Eighteen healthy university students (mean age 21 years; 13/18 females) participated in two sessions 1 week apart. EEG and autonomic data (SCL, heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and respiration rate) from a 2 min eyes-closed epoch, commencing approximately 30 min after ingestion of caffeine or placebo, were examined. Caffeine was associated with increased SCL, a global reduction in EEG power in the alpha band, and a global increase in alpha frequency. There were no cardiovascular effects. The positive results are consistent with recent electrodermal and EEG studies of arousal and suggest that caffeine may be utilised as a task-free means of manipulating arousal in future investigations. Further work is necessary to clarify the absence of cardiovascular effects, and to integrate those data with emerging conceptualisations of arousal and activation. The present data support the use of caffeine as a simple tool to explore the role of arousal in both normal and atypical functioning, and this may be useful in determining the validity and importance of supposed hyper- or hypo-arousal in such syndromes as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD).

  13. Eyes wide shopped: shopping situations trigger arousal in impulsive buyers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serfas, Benjamin G; Büttner, Oliver B; Florack, Arnd

    2014-01-01

    The present study proposes arousal as an important mechanism driving buying impulsiveness. We examined the effect of buying impulsiveness on arousal in non-shopping and shopping contexts. In an eye-tracking experiment, we measured pupil dilation while participants viewed and rated pictures of shopping scenes and non-shopping scenes. The results demonstrated that buying impulsiveness is closely associated with arousal as response to viewing pictures of shopping scenes. This pertained for hedonic shopping situations as well as for utilitarian shopping situations. Importantly, the effect did not emerge for non-shopping scenes. Furthermore, we demonstrated that arousal of impulsive buyers is independent from cognitive evaluation of scenes in the pictures.

  14. Heterosexual Men's Ratings of Sexual Attractiveness of Adolescent Girls: A Cross-Cultural Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Paul; Lowe, Rob; Petrova, Hristina

    2015-11-01

    Following an identical procedure to the one we previously reported (O'Donnell, Lowe, Brotherton, & Bennett, 2014), we examined ratings of sexual attraction to photographs of (the same) adolescent girls (Tanner stages 3-4) labelled as either 14-15 years or 16-17 years old, women, and men. Ratings were made by Bulgarian heterosexual men by pressing buttons on a response box which recorded the ratings made and the time in milliseconds taken to respond. Despite the age of sexual consent in Bulgaria being 14 years, the pattern of findings did not differ from those found in the UK, where the age of consent is 16 years. That is, mean ratings of the sexual attractiveness of the girls labelled as younger were lower than those of the (same) girls labelled as older, and those of the women. In addition, correlations revealed significantly longer responding times when younger girls (and men) were rated as more highly sexually attractive. These associations were reversed in response to the photographs of women. We take these findings to indicate an inhibitory effect arising from generalized sexual norms relating to the inappropriateness of sexual attraction to young girls; the greater the attraction, the higher the inhibition. This second replication of our initial findings suggests a robust effect that may be of benefit in exploration of pedophile or sex offender groups.

  15. The role of salivary cortisol and DHEA-S in response to sexual, humorous, and anxiety-inducing stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Lisa Dawn; Meston, Cindy M

    2011-05-01

    Stress and anxiety are commonly thought to be detrimental to sexual function. Several studies in both the human and animal literature, however, have found that inducing anxiety can enhance sexual function in women. The mechanisms that explain a negative relationship between physical and psychological stress and sexual functioning are well documented, but little is known about how stress or anxiety might have a facilitatory effect on sexual arousal. As an initial step in exploring the relationship between anxiety and sexual arousal, the present study examined the role of the autonomic nervous system, and the adrenal hormones cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEA-S) in response to a sexual film, an anxiety-inducing film, and a humorous film. Nineteen premenopausal women (mean age 24.4 years) who were free from sexual difficulties came into the lab on three separate days. At each session they were shown an anxiety-inducing, sexually arousing, or humorous (control) film while their physiological arousal was measured. They also provided saliva samples before and after each film. Cortisol significantly decreased, while DHEA-S increased in the sexual and humorous conditions. Neither hormone changed significantly in the anxiety-inducing condition. Autonomic nervous system activity measured by heart rate and heart rate variability did not change in response to the sexual or anxiety-inducing films, but heart rate variability increased significantly in response to the humorous film. The cortisol/DHEA-S ratio at the post-sexual film time point was significantly negatively correlated with genital arousal (measured by vaginal pulse amplitude). Anxiety-inducing films did not result in a physiological stress response, which can explain why they do not impair sexual function. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Lifetime depression history and sexual function in women at midlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyranowski, Jill M; Bromberger, Joyce; Youk, Ada; Matthews, Karen; Kravitz, Howard M; Powell, Lynda H

    2004-12-01

    We examined the association between lifetime depression history and sexual function in a community-based sample of midlife women. Specifically, 914 women aged 42-52 who were participants in the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation completed a self-report assessment of their sexual behaviors, sexual desire, sexual arousal, and sexual satisfaction over the past 6 months. On the basis of the Structured Clinical Interview for the DSM-IV , participants were categorized into 1 of 3 lifetime major depressive disorder (MDD) history groups: no MDD history, single episode MDD, and recurrent MDD. In line with previous reports, women with a history of recurrent MDD reported experiencing less frequent sexual arousal, less physical pleasure, and less emotional satisfaction within their current sexual relationships. Although the groups did not differ in their reported frequency of sexual desire or partnered sexual behaviors, lifetime depression history was associated with increased rates of self-stimulation (masturbation). Associations between lifetime depression history and lower levels of physical pleasure within partnered sexual relationships and higher rates of masturbation remained significant following control for current depressive symptoms, study site, marital status, psychotropic medication use, and lifetime history of anxiety or substance abuse/dependence disorder. Future research is needed to characterize the temporal and etiologic relationships among lifetime depressive disorder, current mood state, and sexual function in women across the lifespan.

  17. What explains between-school differences in rates of sexual experience?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williamson Lisa

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Schools have the potential to influence their pupils' behaviour through the school's social organisation and culture, as well as through the formal curriculum. This paper provides the first attempt to explain the differences between schools in rates of reported heterosexual sexual experience amongst 15 and 16 year olds. It first examined whether variations in rates of sexual experience remained after controlling for the known predictors of sexual activity. It then examined whether these residuals, or 'school effects', were attributable to processes within the school, or were more likely to reflect characteristics of the neighbourhood. Methods Longitudinal survey data from 4,926 pupils in 24 Scottish schools were linked to qualitative and quantitative data on school processes including quality of relationships (staff-pupil, etc, classroom discipline, organisation of Personal and Social Education, school appearance and pupil morale. Multi-level modelling was used to test a range of models and the resulting 'school effects' were then interpreted using the process data. Results Overall, 42% of girls and 33% of boys reported experience of sexual intercourse, with rates by school ranging from 23% to 61%. When individual socio-economic and socio-cultural factors were taken into account the school variation dropped sharply, though pupils' attitudes and aspirations had little effect. There was very little correlation between boys' and girls' rates of sexual experience by school, after controlling for known predictors of sexual activity. Girls were more influenced by individual socio-economic factors than boys. School-level socio-economic factors were predictive even after taking account of individual socio-cultural factors, suggesting that the wider socio-economic environment further influenced young people's sexual experience. Conclusion Importantly, school processes did not explain the variation between schools in sexual experience

  18. Sexual content in video games: an analysis of the Entertainment Software Rating Board classification from 1994 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidaña-Pérez, Dèsirée; Braverman-Bronstein, Ariela; Basto-Abreu, Ana; Barrientos-Gutierrez, Inti; Hilscher, Rainer; Barrientos-Gutierrez, Tonatiuh

    2018-01-11

    Background: Video games are widely used by children and adolescents and have become a significant source of exposure to sexual content. Despite evidence of the important role of media in the development of sexual attitudes and behaviours, little attention has been paid to monitor sexual content in video games. Methods: Data was obtained about sexual content and rating for 23722 video games from 1994 to 2013 from the Entertainment Software Rating Board database; release dates and information on the top 100 selling video games was also obtained. A yearly prevalence of sexual content according to rating categories was calculated. Trends and comparisons were estimated using Joinpoint regression. Results: Sexual content was present in 13% of the video games. Games rated 'Mature' had the highest prevalence of sexual content (34.5%) followed by 'Teen' (30.7%) and 'E10+' (21.3%). Over time, sexual content decreased in the 'Everyone' category, 'E10+' maintained a low prevalence and 'Teen' and 'Mature' showed a marked increase. Both top and non-top video games showed constant increases, with top selling video games having 10.1% more sexual content across the period of study. Conclusion: Over the last 20 years, the prevalence of sexual content has increased in video games with a 'Teen' or 'Mature' rating. Further studies are needed to quantify the potential association between sexual content in video games and sexual behaviour in children and adolescents.

  19. The Influence of Presession Factors in the Assessment of Deviant Arousal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Jorge R.; Vollmer, Timothy R.; Hall, Astrid

    2011-01-01

    Three adult male sex offenders with developmental disabilities participated in an evaluation of presession factors that may influence levels of sexual arousal measured with a penile plethysmograph. We evaluated the effects of presession masturbation (1 participant) and arousal-suppression strategies (2 participants). Results showed that presession…

  20. Soundtrack contents and depicted sexual violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaus, J G; Myronuk, L D; Jacobs, W J

    1986-06-01

    Male undergraduates were exposed to a videotaped depiction of heterosexual rape accompanied by one of three soundtracks: the original soundtrack (featuring dialogue and background rock music), relaxing music, or no sound. Subjective reports of sexual arousal, general enjoyment, perceived erotic content, and perceived pornographic content of the sequence were then provided by each subject. Results indicated that males exposed to the videotape accompanied by the original soundtrack found the sequence significantly more pornographic than males exposed to the sequence accompanied by either relaxing background music or no sound. Ratings of sexual arousal, general enjoyment, and the perceived erotic content, however, did not differ significantly across soundtrack conditions. These results are compatible with the assertion that the content of a video soundtrack may influence the impact of depicted sexual violence.

  1. Video lottery: winning expectancies and arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladouceur, Robert; Sévigny, Serge; Blaszczynski, Alexander; O'Connor, Kieron; Lavoie, Marc E

    2003-06-01

    This study investigates the effects of video lottery players' expectancies of winning on physiological and subjective arousal. Participants were assigned randomly to one of two experimental conditions: high and low winning expectancies. Participants played 100 video lottery games in a laboratory setting while physiological measures were recorded. Level of risk-taking was controlled. Participants were 34 occasional or regular video lottery players. They were assigned randomly into two groups of 17, with nine men and eight women in each group. The low-expectancy group played for fun, therefore expecting to win worthless credits, while the high-expectancy group played for real money. Players' experience, demographic variables and subjective arousal were assessed. Severity of problem gambling was measured with the South Oaks Gambling Screen. In order to measure arousal, the average heart rate was recorded across eight periods. Participants exposed to high as compared to low expectations experienced faster heart rate prior to and during the gambling session. According to self-reports, it is the expectancy of winning money that is exciting, not playing the game. Regardless of the level of risk-taking, expectancy of winning is a cognitive factor influencing levels of arousal. When playing for fun, gambling becomes significantly less stimulating than when playing for money.

  2. Extinction of aversive classically conditioned human sexual response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brom, Mirte; Laan, Ellen; Everaerd, Walter; Spinhoven, Philip; Both, Stephanie

    2015-04-01

    Research has shown that acquired subjective likes and dislikes are quite resistant to extinction. Moreover, studies on female sexual response demonstrated that diminished genital arousal and positive affect toward erotic stimuli due to aversive classical conditioning did not extinguish during an extinction phase. Possible resistance to extinction of aversive conditioned sexual responses may have important clinical implications. However, resistance to extinction of aversive conditioned human sexual response has not been studied using extensive extinction trials. This article aims to study resistance to extinction of aversive conditioned sexual responses in sexually functional men and women. A differential conditioning experiment was conducted, with two erotic pictures as conditioned stimulus (CSs) and a painful stimulus as unconditioned stimuli (USs). Only one CS (the CS+) was followed by the US during the acquisition phase. Conditioned responses were assessed during the extinction phase. Penile circumference and vaginal pulse amplitude were assessed, and ratings of affective value and subjective sexual arousal were obtained. Also, a stimulus response compatibility task was included to assess automatic approach and avoidance tendencies. Men and women rated the CS+ more negative as compared with the CS-. During the first trials of the extinction phase, vaginal pulse amplitude was lower in response to the CS+ than in response to the CS-, and on the first extinction trial women rated the CS+ as less sexually arousing. Intriguingly, men did not demonstrate attenuated genital and subjective sexual response. Aversive conditioning, by means of painful stimuli, only affects sexual responses in women, whereas it does not in men. Although conditioned sexual likes and dislikes are relatively persistent, conditioned affect eventually does extinguish. © 2014 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  3. Dynamic Variation in Sexual Contact Rates in a Cohort of HIV-Negative Gay Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Severson, E O; Volz, E; Koopman, J S; Leitner, T; Ionides, E L

    2015-08-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission models that include variability in sexual behavior over time have shown increased incidence, prevalence, and acute-state transmission rates for a given population risk profile. This raises the question of whether dynamic variation in individual sexual behavior is a real phenomenon that can be observed and measured. To study this dynamic variation, we developed a model incorporating heterogeneity in both between-person and within-person sexual contact patterns. Using novel methodology that we call iterated filtering for longitudinal data, we fitted this model by maximum likelihood to longitudinal survey data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Collaborative HIV Seroincidence Study (1992-1995). We found evidence for individual heterogeneity in sexual behavior over time. We simulated an epidemic process and found that inclusion of empirically measured levels of dynamic variation in individual-level sexual behavior brought the theoretical predictions of HIV incidence into closer alignment with reality given the measured per-act probabilities of transmission. The methods developed here provide a framework for quantifying variation in sexual behaviors that helps in understanding the HIV epidemic among gay men. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  4. Base Rates, Multiple Indicators, and Comprehensive Forensic Evaluations: Why Sexualized Behavior Still Counts in Assessments of Child Sexual Abuse Allegations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everson, Mark D.; Faller, Kathleen Coulborn

    2012-01-01

    Developmentally inappropriate sexual behavior has long been viewed as a possible indicator of child sexual abuse. In recent years, however, the utility of sexualized behavior in forensic assessments of alleged child sexual abuse has been seriously challenged. This article addresses a number of the concerns that have been raised about the…

  5. Differential effects of arousal in positive and negative autobiographical memories.

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    Ford, Jaclyn Hennessey; Addis, Donna Rose; Giovanello, Kelly S

    2012-01-01

    Autobiographical memories are characterised by a range of emotions and emotional reactions. Recent research has demonstrated that differences in emotional valence (positive vs. negative emotion) and arousal (the degree of emotional intensity) differentially influence the retrieved memory narrative. Although the mnemonic effects of valence and arousal have both been heavily studied, it is currently unclear whether the effects of emotional arousal are equivalent for positive and negative autobiographical events. In the current study, multilevel models were used to examine differential effects of emotional valence and arousal on the richness of autobiographical memory retrieval both between and within subjects. Thirty-four young adults were asked to retrieve personal autobiographical memories associated with popular musical cues and to rate the valence, arousal and richness of these events. The multilevel analyses identified independent influences of valence and intensity upon retrieval characteristics at the within- and between-subject levels. In addition, the within-subject interactions between valence and arousal highlighted differential effects of arousal for positive and negative memories. These findings have important implications for future studies of emotion and memory, highlighting the importance of considering both valence and arousal when examining the role emotion plays in the richness of memory representation.

  6. Interoception and sexual response in women with low sexual desire

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    Velten, Julia

    2017-01-01

    Sexual concordance is defined as the association between genital response and self-reported sexual arousal. Though one might predict a strong association between sexual concordance and awareness of other internal physiological sensations (termed interoception), past research on sexually healthy women has not found these different domains to be related. The aim of the present study was to test the association between interoception and sexual concordance in a clinical sample of women with Sexual Interest/Arousal Disorder (SIAD). Fifty-two women with SIAD completed the Multidimensional Assessment of Interoceptive Awareness (MAIA), a validated self-report measure of interoception, and completed a heart-beat accuracy test, an objective measure of interoception. They also participated in a laboratory-based assessment of physiological sexual arousal and self-reported sexual arousal while viewing an erotic film. Mental and physiological arousal were correlated at r = 0.27 (range -0.80 to 0.95). There was no significant association between sexual concordance and women’s heartrate awareness. However, five aspects of interoceptive awareness (noticing, emotional awareness, self-regulation, body-listening, and trusting), were predictive of lower, and one aspect (not-distracting) was predictive of higher sexual concordance. We discuss the findings in relation to the role of emotions and arousal states in the interoception-sexual concordance relationship. PMID:29020067

  7. Interoception and sexual response in women with low sexual desire.

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    Julia Velten

    Full Text Available Sexual concordance is defined as the association between genital response and self-reported sexual arousal. Though one might predict a strong association between sexual concordance and awareness of other internal physiological sensations (termed interoception, past research on sexually healthy women has not found these different domains to be related. The aim of the present study was to test the association between interoception and sexual concordance in a clinical sample of women with Sexual Interest/Arousal Disorder (SIAD. Fifty-two women with SIAD completed the Multidimensional Assessment of Interoceptive Awareness (MAIA, a validated self-report measure of interoception, and completed a heart-beat accuracy test, an objective measure of interoception. They also participated in a laboratory-based assessment of physiological sexual arousal and self-reported sexual arousal while viewing an erotic film. Mental and physiological arousal were correlated at r = 0.27 (range -0.80 to 0.95. There was no significant association between sexual concordance and women's heartrate awareness. However, five aspects of interoceptive awareness (noticing, emotional awareness, self-regulation, body-listening, and trusting, were predictive of lower, and one aspect (not-distracting was predictive of higher sexual concordance. We discuss the findings in relation to the role of emotions and arousal states in the interoception-sexual concordance relationship.

  8. Can Arousal Modulate Response Inhibition?

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    Weinbach, Noam; Kalanthroff, Eyal; Avnit, Amir; Henik, Avishai

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to examine if and how arousal can modulate response inhibition. Two competing hypotheses can be drawn from previous literature. One holds that alerting cues that elevate arousal should result in an impulsive response and therefore impair response inhibition. The other suggests that alerting enhances processing of…

  9. Decision Strategies in Continuous Ratings of Jealousy Feelings Elicited by Sexual and Emotional Infidelity

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    Achim Schützwohl

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Two studies (total N = 689 tested the assumption of DeSteno, Bartlett, Braverman, and Salovey (2002 that sex differences in jealousy predicted by the evolutionary view are an artifact of measurement because they are restricted to a forced-choice response format and do not emerge when using continuous jealousy ratings. In Study 1, men and women rated how much a mate's emotional and sexual infidelity contributed to their jealousy feeling. In Study 2, men and women rated the intensity of their jealousy feeling elicited by a mate's emotional and sexual infidelity. In one condition they were asked to make their ratings spontaneously whereas in the other condition they were instructed to make their ratings only after careful consideration. The results of both studies lend no support for the artifact-of-measurement assumption. The implications of the present finding for the assumption of DeSteno et al. (2002 are discussed.

  10. Physiological arousal in processing recognition information

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    Guy Hochman

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The recognition heuristic (RH; Goldstein and Gigerenzer, 2002 suggests that, when applicable, probabilistic inferences are based on a noncompensatory examination of whether an object is recognized or not. The overall findings on the processes that underlie this fast and frugal heuristic are somewhat mixed, and many studies have expressed the need for considering a more compensatory integration of recognition information. Regardless of the mechanism involved, it is clear that recognition has a strong influence on choices, and this finding might be explained by the fact that recognition cues arouse affect and thus receive more attention than cognitive cues. To test this assumption, we investigated whether recognition results in a direct affective signal by measuring physiological arousal (i.e., peripheral arterial tone in the established city-size task. We found that recognition of cities does not directly result in increased physiological arousal. Moreover, the results show that physiological arousal increased with increasing inconsistency between recognition information and additional cue information. These findings support predictions derived by a compensatory Parallel Constraint Satisfaction model rather than predictions of noncompensatory models. Additional results concerning confidence ratings, response times, and choice proportions further demonstrated that recognition information and other cognitive cues are integrated in a compensatory manner.

  11. Biology of Sexual Dysfunction

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    Anil Kumar Mysore Nagaraj

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Sexual activity is a multifaceted activity, involving complex interactions between the nervous system, the endocrine system, the vascular system and a variety of structures that are instrumental in sexual excitement, intercourse and satisfaction. Sexual function has three components i.e., desire, arousal and orgasm. Many sexual dysfunctions can be categorized according to the phase of sexual response that is affected. In actual clinical practice however, sexual desire, arousal and orgasmic difficulties more often than not coexist, suggesting an integration of phases. Sexual dysfunction can result from a wide variety of psychological and physiological causes including derangements in the levels of sex hormones and neurotrensmitters. This review deals with the biology of different phases of sexual function as well as implications of hormones and neurotransmitters in sexual dysfunction

  12. Human sexual response.

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    Basson, Rosemary

    2015-01-01

    The human sexual response to sexually arousing stimuli is a motivational incentive-based cycle comprising subjective experience and physiologic changes. Clinical and empirical data support a circular model of overlapping phases of variable order. Brain imaging data of sexual arousal identify areas of cerebral activation and inhibition reflecting a complex network of cognitive, motivational, emotional, and autonomic components. Psychologic and biologic factors influence the brain's appraisal and processing of sexual stimuli to allow or disallow subsequent arousal. The sexual and non-sexual outcomes influence motivation to future sexual intimacy. Variability is marked both between individuals and within a person's sexual life, influenced by multiple factors, including stage of life cycle, mental health, and relationship happiness. Neurologic disease can interrupt the cycle at many points: by limiting motivation, reducing ability to attend to and feel sexual stimuli, and accomplishing the movements needed to stimulate and experience intercourse. Impairments to genital congestion, penile erection, and orgasm may also occur. Disease-associated changes to the interpersonal relationship and self-image plus frequently comorbid depression will tend to lessen motivation and temper the brain's appraisal of sexual stimuli, so precluding arousal. Therapy begins by explaining the sexual response cycle, clarifying the points of interruption in the patient's own cycle so as to guide treatment. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Brain response to visual sexual stimuli in homosexual pedophiles.

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    Schiffer, Boris; Krueger, Tillmann; Paul, Thomas; de Greiff, Armin; Forsting, Michael; Leygraf, Norbert; Schedlowski, Manfred; Gizewski, Elke

    2008-01-01

    The neurobiological mechanisms of deviant sexual preferences such as pedophilia are largely unknown. The objective of this study was to analyze whether brain activation patterns of homosexual pedophiles differed from those of a nonpedophile homosexual control group during visual sexual stimulation. A consecutive sample of 11 pedophile forensic inpatients exclusively attracted to boys and 12 age-matched homosexual control participants from a comparable socioeconomic stratum underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging during a visual sexual stimulation procedure that used sexually stimulating and emotionally neutral photographs. Sexual arousal was assessed according to a subjective rating scale. In contrast to sexually neutral pictures, in both groups sexually arousing pictures having both homosexual and pedophile content activated brain areas known to be involved in processing visual stimuli containing emotional content, including the occipitotemporal and prefrontal cortices. However, during presentation of the respective sexual stimuli, the thalamus, globus pallidus and striatum, which correspond to the key areas of the brain involved in sexual arousal and behaviour, showed significant activation in pedophiles, but not in control subjects. Central processing of visual sexual stimuli in homosexual pedophiles seems to be comparable to that in nonpedophile control subjects. However, compared with homosexual control subjects, activation patterns in pedophiles refer more strongly to subcortical regions, which have previously been discussed in the context of processing reward signals and also play an important role in addictive and stimulus-controlled behaviour. Thus future studies should further elucidate the specificity of these brain regions for the processing of sexual stimuli in pedophilia and should address the generally weaker activation pattern in homosexual men.

  14. Puberty and adolescent sexuality.

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    Fortenberry, J Dennis

    2013-07-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Puberty and Adolescence". Sexuality emerges as a major developmental element of puberty and the adolescent years that follow. However, connecting the sexuality that emerges with puberty and elements of adult sexuality is difficult because much adolescent sexuality research addresses the transition to partnered sexual behaviors (primarily coitus) and consequences such as unplanned pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. This review proposes a framework of an expanded understanding of puberty and adolescent sexuality from the perspective of four hallmarks of adult sexuality: sexual desire; sexual arousal; sexual behaviors; and, sexual function. This approach thus addresses important gaps in understanding of the ontogeny of sex and the continuum of sexuality development from adolescence through the adult lifespan. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Sexual function among married menopausal women in Amol (Iran

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    Shabnam Omidvar

    2011-01-01

    Conclusion: Findings revealed high percentage of sexual desire disorder and sexual arousal disorder in menopausal women. Therefore, we should have emphasis on counseling and education about sexual activities during the menopause period.

  16. Adolescent sexual assault victims and the legal system: building community relationships to improve prosecution rates.

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    Campbell, Rebecca; Greeson, Megan R; Bybee, Deborah; Fehler-Cabral, Giannina

    2012-09-01

    Adolescents are at high risk for sexual assault, but few of these crimes are reported to the police and prosecuted by the criminal justice system. To address this problem, communities throughout the United States have implemented multidisciplinary interventions to improve post-assault care for victims and increase prosecution rates. The two most commonly implemented interventions are Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner (SANE) Programs and Sexual Assault Response Teams (SARTs). The purpose of this study was to determine whether community-level context (i.e., stakeholder engagement and collaboration) was predictive of adolescent legal case outcomes, after accounting for "standard" factors that affect prosecution success (i.e., victim, assault, and evidence characteristics). Overall, 40% of the adolescent cases from these two SANE-SART programs (over a 10-year period) were successfully prosecuted. Cases were more likely to be prosecuted for younger victims, those with disabilities, those who knew their offenders, and instances in which the rape evidence collection kit was submitted by police for analysis. After accounting for these influences, multi-level modeling results revealed that in one site decreased allocation of community resources to adolescent sexual assault cases had a significant negative effect on prosecution case outcomes. Results are explained in terms of Wolff's (Am J Community Psychol 29:173-191, 2001) concept of "over-coalitioned" communities and Kelly's (1968) ecological principles.

  17. Termination of respiratory events with and without cortical arousal in obstructive sleep apnea.

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    Jordan, Amy S; Eckert, Danny J; Wellman, Andrew; Trinder, John A; Malhotra, Atul; White, David P

    2011-11-15

    A total of 20-30% of respiratory events in obstructive sleep apnea are terminated without clear arousal. Arousals are thought to predispose to further events by promoting hyperventilation, hypocapnia, and upper-airway dilator muscle hypotonia. Therefore, events terminated without arousal may promote stable breathing. To compare physiologic changes at respiratory event termination with American Sleep Disorders Association (ASDA) Arousal to No Arousal, and determine whether secondary respiratory events are less common and have higher dilator muscle activity after No Arousal compared with ASDA Arousal. Patients with obstructive sleep apnea wore sleep staging, genioglossus (EMG(GG)), and tensor palatini (EMG(TP)) electrodes plus a nasal mask and pneumotachograph. During stable sleep, continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) was lowered for 3-minute periods to induce respiratory events. Physiologic variables were compared between events terminated with (1) ASDA Arousal, (2) No Arousal, or (3) sudden CPAP increase (CPAPinc, control). Sixteen subjects had adequate data. EMG(GG), EMG(TP), and heart rate increased after ASDA Arousal (340 ± 57%, 215 ± 28%, and 110.7 ± 2.3%) and No Arousal (185 ± 32%, 167 ± 15%, and 108.5 ± 1.6%) but not CPAPinc (90 ± 10%, 94 ± 11%, and 102.1 ± 1%). Ventilation increased more after ASDA Arousal than No Arousal and CPAPinc, but not after accounting for the severity of respiratory event. Fewer No Arousals were followed by secondary events than ASDA Arousals. However, low dilator muscle activity did not occur after ASDA Arousal or No Arousal (EMG(GG) rose from 75 ± 5 to 125 ± 7%) and secondary events were less severe than initial events (ventilation rose 4 ± 0.4 to 5.5 ± 0.51 L/min). Respiratory events that were terminated with ASDA Arousal were more severely flow-limited, had enhanced hyperventilation after event termination, and were more often followed by secondary events than No arousal. However, secondary events were not

  18. Musical Tasks and Energetic Arousal.

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    Lim, Hayoung A; Watson, Angela L

    2018-03-08

    Music is widely recognized as a motivating stimulus. Investigators have examined the use of music to improve a variety of motivation-related outcomes; however, these studies have focused primarily on passive music listening rather than active participation in musical activities. To examine the influence of participation in musical tasks and unique participant characteristics on energetic arousal. We used a one-way Welch's ANOVA to examine the influence of musical participation (i.e., a non-musical control and four different musical task conditions) upon energetic arousal. In addition, ancillary analyses of participant characteristics including personality, age, gender, sleep, musical training, caffeine, nicotine, and alcohol revealed their possible influence upon pretest and posttest energetic arousal scores. Musical participation yielded a significant relationship with energetic arousal, F(4, 55.62) = 44.38, p = .000, estimated ω2 = 0.60. Games-Howell post hoc pairwise comparisons revealed statistically significant differences between five conditions. Descriptive statistics revealed expected differences between introverts' and extraverts' energetic arousal scores at the pretest, F(1, 115) = 6.80, p = .010, partial η2= .06; however, mean differences failed to reach significance at the posttest following musical task participation. No other measured participant characteristics yielded meaningful results. Passive tasks (i.e., listening to a story or song) were related to decreased energetic arousal, while active musical tasks (i.e., singing, rhythm tapping, and keyboard playing) were related to increased energetic arousal. Musical task participation appeared to have a differential effect for individuals with certain personality traits (i.e., extroverts and introverts).

  19. Hypnotherapy for persistent genital arousal disorder: a case study.

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    Elkins, Gary R; Ramsey, Derek; Yu, Yimin

    2014-01-01

    Persistent genital arousal disorder (PGAD) is characterized by intrusive sexual arousal that is unresolvable via sexual activity and persists for an extended period of time. PGAD's etiology is unknown, and it has no established treatments. This case study reports on a 71-year-old female patient diagnosed with PGAD who received 9 sessions of hypnotherapy. The following measures were administered at baseline and follow-up: Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and visual analogue measurements of quality of life, intensity of symptoms, and marital interference. At follow-up, there were significant improvements in all measures. Given the currently limited alternatives for treatment, this case study suggests that hypnotherapy may be beneficial for some patients with PGAD.

  20. Effects of music on arousal during imagery in elite shooters: A pilot study.

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    Garry Kuan

    Full Text Available Beneficial effects of music on several performance-related aspects of sport have been reported, but the processes involved are not well understood. The purpose of the present study was to investigate effects of relaxing and arousing classical music on physiological indicators and subjective perceptions of arousal during imagery of a sport task. First, appropriate music excerpts were selected. Then, 12 skilled shooters performed shooting imagery while listening to the three preselected music excerpts in randomized order. Participants' galvanic skin response, peripheral temperature, and electromyography were monitored during music played concurrently with imagery. Subjective music ratings and physiological measures showed, as hypothesized, that unfamiliar relaxing music was the most relaxing and unfamiliar arousing music was the most arousing. Researchers should examine the impact of unfamiliar relaxing and arousing music played during imagery on subsequent performance in diverse sports. Practitioners can apply unfamiliar relaxing and arousing music with imagery to manipulate arousal level.

  1. Effects of music on arousal during imagery in elite shooters: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuan, Garry; Morris, Tony; Terry, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Beneficial effects of music on several performance-related aspects of sport have been reported, but the processes involved are not well understood. The purpose of the present study was to investigate effects of relaxing and arousing classical music on physiological indicators and subjective perceptions of arousal during imagery of a sport task. First, appropriate music excerpts were selected. Then, 12 skilled shooters performed shooting imagery while listening to the three preselected music excerpts in randomized order. Participants' galvanic skin response, peripheral temperature, and electromyography were monitored during music played concurrently with imagery. Subjective music ratings and physiological measures showed, as hypothesized, that unfamiliar relaxing music was the most relaxing and unfamiliar arousing music was the most arousing. Researchers should examine the impact of unfamiliar relaxing and arousing music played during imagery on subsequent performance in diverse sports. Practitioners can apply unfamiliar relaxing and arousing music with imagery to manipulate arousal level.

  2. Shale gas activity and increased rates of sexually transmitted infections in Ohio, 2000-2016.

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    Nicole C Deziel

    Full Text Available The growing shale gas ("fracking" industry depends on a mobile workforce, whose influx could have social impacts on host communities. Sexually transmitted infections (STIs can increase through sexual mixing patterns associated with labor migration. No prior studies have quantified the relationship between shale gas activity and rates of three reportable STIs: chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis.We conducted a longitudinal, ecologic study from 2000-2016 in Ohio, situated in a prolific shale gas region in the United States (US. Data on reported cases of chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis by county and year were obtained from the Ohio Department of Health. All 88 counties were classified as none, low, and high shale gas activity in each year, using data from the Ohio Department of Natural Resources. Annual rate ratios (RR and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs were calculated from mixed-effects Poisson regression models evaluating the relationship between shale gas activity and reported annual STI rates while adjusting for secular trends and potential confounders obtained from the US Census.Compared to counties with no shale gas activity, counties with high activity had 21% (RR = 1.21; 95%CI = 1.08-1.36 increased rates of chlamydia and 19% (RR = 1.27; 95%CI 0.98-1.44 increased rates of gonorrhea, respectively. No association was observed for syphilis.This first report of a link between shale gas activity and increased rates of both chlamydia and gonorrhea may inform local policies and community health efforts.

  3. Eyes Wide Shopped: Shopping Situations Trigger Arousal in Impulsive Buyers

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    Serfas, Benjamin G.; Büttner, Oliver B.; Florack, Arnd

    2014-01-01

    The present study proposes arousal as an important mechanism driving buying impulsiveness. We examined the effect of buying impulsiveness on arousal in non-shopping and shopping contexts. In an eye-tracking experiment, we measured pupil dilation while participants viewed and rated pictures of shopping scenes and non-shopping scenes. The results demonstrated that buying impulsiveness is closely associated with arousal as response to viewing pictures of shopping scenes. This pertained for hedonic shopping situations as well as for utilitarian shopping situations. Importantly, the effect did not emerge for non-shopping scenes. Furthermore, we demonstrated that arousal of impulsive buyers is independent from cognitive evaluation of scenes in the pictures. PMID:25489955

  4. Eyes wide shopped: shopping situations trigger arousal in impulsive buyers.

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    Benjamin G Serfas

    Full Text Available The present study proposes arousal as an important mechanism driving buying impulsiveness. We examined the effect of buying impulsiveness on arousal in non-shopping and shopping contexts. In an eye-tracking experiment, we measured pupil dilation while participants viewed and rated pictures of shopping scenes and non-shopping scenes. The results demonstrated that buying impulsiveness is closely associated with arousal as response to viewing pictures of shopping scenes. This pertained for hedonic shopping situations as well as for utilitarian shopping situations. Importantly, the effect did not emerge for non-shopping scenes. Furthermore, we demonstrated that arousal of impulsive buyers is independent from cognitive evaluation of scenes in the pictures.

  5. Prevalence rates of male and female sexual violence perpetrators in a national sample of adolescents.

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    Ybarra, Michele L; Mitchell, Kimberly J

    2013-12-01

    IMPORTANCE Sexual violence can emerge in adolescence, yet little is known about youth perpetrators-especially those not involved with the criminal justice system. OBJECTIVE To report national estimates of adolescent sexual violence perpetration and details of the perpetrator experience. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Data were collected online in 2010 (wave 4) and 2011 (wave 5) in the national Growing Up With Media study. Participants included 1058 youths aged 14 to 21 years who at baseline read English, lived in the household at least 50% of the time, and had used the Internet in the last 6 months. Recruitment was balanced on youths' biological sex and age. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Forced sexual contact, coercive sex, attempted rape, and completed rape. RESULTS Nearly 1 in 10 youths (9%) reported some type of sexual violence perpetration in their lifetime; 4% (10 females and 39 males) reported attempted or completed rape. Sixteen years old was the mode age of first sexual perpetration (n = 18 [40%]). Perpetrators reported greater exposure to violent X-rated content. Almost all perpetrators (98%) who reported age at first perpetration to be 15 years or younger were male, with similar but attenuated results among those who began at ages 16 or 17 years (90%). It is not until ages 18 or 19 years that males (52%) and females (48%) are relatively equally represented as perpetrators. Perhaps related to age at first perpetration, females were more likely to perpetrate against older victims, and males were more likely to perpetrate against younger victims. Youths who started perpetrating earlier were more likely than older youths to get in trouble with caregivers; youths starting older were more likely to indicate that no one found out about the perpetration. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Sexual violence perpetration appears to emerge earlier for males than females, perhaps suggesting different developmental trajectories. Links between perpetration and violent sexual

  6. Increasing arousal enhances inhibitory control in calm but not excitable dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Emily E.; MacLean, Evan L.; Hare, Brian A.

    2015-01-01

    The emotional-reactivity hypothesis proposes that problem-solving abilities can be constrained by temperament, within and across species. One way to test this hypothesis is with the predictions of the Yerkes-Dodson law. The law posits that arousal level, a component of temperament, affects problem solving in an inverted U-shaped relationship: optimal performance is reached at intermediate levels of arousal and impeded by high and low levels. Thus, a powerful test of the emotional-reactivity hypothesis is to compare cognitive performance in dog populations that have been bred and trained based in part on their arousal levels. We therefore compared a group of pet dogs to a group of assistance dogs bred and trained for low arousal (N = 106) on a task of inhibitory control involving a detour response. Consistent with the Yerkes-Dodson law, assistance dogs, which began the test with lower levels of baseline arousal, showed improvements when arousal was artificially increased. In contrast, pet dogs, which began the test with higher levels of baseline arousal, were negatively affected when their arousal was increased. Furthermore, the dogs’ baseline levels of arousal, as measured in their rate of tail wagging, differed by population in the expected directions. Low-arousal assistance dogs showed the most inhibition in a detour task when humans eagerly encouraged them while more highly aroused pet dogs performed worst on the same task with strong encouragement. Our findings support the hypothesis that selection on temperament can have important implications for cognitive performance. PMID:26169659

  7. Increasing arousal enhances inhibitory control in calm but not excitable dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Emily E; MacLean, Evan L; Hare, Brian A

    2015-11-01

    The emotional-reactivity hypothesis proposes that problem-solving abilities can be constrained by temperament, within and across species. One way to test this hypothesis is with the predictions of the Yerkes-Dodson law. The law posits that arousal level, a component of temperament, affects problem solving in an inverted U-shaped relationship: Optimal performance is reached at intermediate levels of arousal and impeded by high and low levels. Thus, a powerful test of the emotional-reactivity hypothesis is to compare cognitive performance in dog populations that have been bred and trained based in part on their arousal levels. We therefore compared a group of pet dogs to a group of assistance dogs bred and trained for low arousal (N = 106) on a task of inhibitory control involving a detour response. Consistent with the Yerkes-Dodson law, assistance dogs, which began the test with lower levels of baseline arousal, showed improvements when arousal was artificially increased. In contrast, pet dogs, which began the test with higher levels of baseline arousal, were negatively affected when their arousal was increased. Furthermore, the dogs' baseline levels of arousal, as measured in their rate of tail wagging, differed by population in the expected directions. Low-arousal assistance dogs showed the most inhibition in a detour task when humans eagerly encouraged them, while more highly aroused pet dogs performed worst on the same task with strong encouragement. Our findings support the hypothesis that selection on temperament can have important implications for cognitive performance.

  8. Improving HIV post-exposure prophylaxis rates after pediatric acute sexual assault.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Samantha; Deutsch, Stephanie A; Gieseker, Rebecca; Molnar, Jennifer; Lavelle, Jane M; Scribano, Philip V

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of our study was to increase the rate of children with appropriate HIV-PEP regimens among those diagnosed with sexual assault in The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia Emergency Department (ED). The outcome measure was the percent of patients receiving correct HIV-PEP. We retrospectively reviewed 97 charts over 31 months to define the baseline rate of children receiving appropriate HIV-PEP regimens (pre QI-implementation period: 2/2012-8/2014). Among children in which HIV-PEP was indicated following sexual assault, 40% received the recommended 28-day course. Root cause analysis indicated prescribing errors accounted for 87% of patients not receiving appropriate HIV-PEP. Process drivers included standardizing care coordination follow-up calls to elicit specific information about HIV-PEP, ED educational initiatives targeted at HIV-PEP prescribing, revision of the clinical pathway to specify indicated duration of HIV-PEP, and revision of the order set to auto-populate the number of days for the HIV-PEP prescription. During the QI-implementation period (9/2014-4/2015), the rate of appropriate HIV-PEP increased to 64% (median 60%) and the average number of days between incorrect HIV-PEP regimens was 24.5. Post QI-implementation (5/2015-3/2016), the rate of appropriate HIV-PEP increased to 84% (median 100%) and the average number of days between incorrect HIV-PEP regimens increased to 78.4. A multifaceted quality improvement process improved the rate of receipt of appropriate HIV-PEP regimens for pediatric victims of sexual assault. Decision support tools are instrumental in sustaining ideal care delivery, but require ongoing evaluation and improvement in order to remain optimally effective. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The polarizing effect of arousal on negotiation.

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    Brown, Ashley D; Curhan, Jared R

    2013-10-01

    In this research, we examined the impact of physiological arousal on negotiation outcomes. Conventional wisdom and the prescriptive literature suggest that arousal should be minimized given its negative effect on negotiations, whereas prior research on misattribution of arousal suggests that arousal might polarize outcomes, either negatively or positively. In two experiments, we manipulated arousal and measured its effect on subjective and objective negotiation outcomes. Our results support the polarization effect. When participants had negative prior attitudes toward negotiation, arousal had a detrimental effect on outcomes, whereas when participants had positive prior attitudes toward negotiation, arousal had a beneficial effect on outcomes. These effects occurred because of the construal of arousal as negative or positive affect, respectively. Our findings have important implications not only for negotiation, but also for research on misattribution of arousal, which previously has focused on the target of evaluation, in contrast to the current research, which focused on the critical role of the perceiver.

  10. The Association between State Policy Environments and Self-Rated Health Disparities for Sexual Minorities in the United States

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    Gilbert Gonzales

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available A large body of research has documented disparities in health and access to care for lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB people in the United States. Less research has examined how the level of legal protection afforded to LGB people (the state policy environment affects health disparities for sexual minorities. This study used data on 14,687 sexual minority adults and 490,071 heterosexual adults from the 2014–2016 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System to document differences in health. Unadjusted state-specific prevalence estimates and multivariable logistic regression models were used to compare poor/fair self-rated health by gender, sexual minority status, and state policy environments (comprehensive versus limited protections for LGB people. We found disparities in self-rated health between sexual minority adults and heterosexual adults in most states. On average, sexual minority men in states with limited protections and sexual minority women in states with either comprehensive or limited protections were more likely to report poor/fair self-rated health compared to their heterosexual counterparts. This study adds new findings on the association between state policy environments and self-rated health for sexual minorities and suggests differences in this relationship by gender. The associations and impacts of state-specific policies affecting LGB populations may vary by gender, as well as other intersectional identities.

  11. Valence, arousal, and task effects in emotional prosody processing

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    Silke ePaulmann

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Previous research suggests that emotional prosody processing is a highly rapid and complex process. In particular, it has been shown that different basic emotions can be differentiated in an early event-related brain potential (ERP component, the P200. Often, the P200 is followed by later long lasting ERPs such as the late positive complex (LPC. The current experiment set out to explore in how far emotionality and arousal can modulate these previously reported ERP components. In addition, we also investigated the influence of task demands (implicit vs. explicit evaluation of stimuli. Participants listened to pseudo-sentences (sentences with no lexical content spoken in six different emotions or in a neutral tone of voice while they either rated the arousal level of the speaker or their own arousal level. Results confirm that different emotional intonations can first be differentiated in the P200 component, reflecting a first emotional encoding of the stimulus possibly including a valence tagging process. A marginal significant arousal effect was also found in this time-window with high arousing stimuli eliciting a stronger P200 than low arousing stimuli. The P200 component was followed by a long lasting positive ERP between 400 and 750 ms. In this late time-window, both emotion and arousal effects were found. No effects of task were observed in either time-window. Taken together, results suggest that emotion relevant details are robustly decoded during early processing and late processing stages while arousal information is only reliably taken into consideration at a later stage of processing.

  12. Bullying and sexual harassment of junior doctors in New South Wales, Australia: rate and reporting outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llewellyn, Anthony; Karageorge, Aspasia; Nash, Louise; Li, Wenlong; Neuen, Dennis

    2018-02-16

    Objective The aim of this study was to describe rates of exposure to bullying and sexual harassment in junior doctors in first- or second-year prevocational medical training (PGY1 or PGY2 respectively) positions in New South Wales (NSW) and the Australian Capital Territory (ACT), and to explore the types of actions taken in response. Methods A cross-sectional survey of junior doctors in PGY1 or PGY2 positions was undertaken in 2015 and 2016 (n=374 and 440 respectively). Thematic analysis was undertaken on free-text responses to describe the reporting process and outcomes in more depth. Results The estimated response rate was 17-20%. Results from both surveys followed almost identical trends. Most respondents in 2015 and 2016 reported being bullied (n=203 (54.3%) and 253 (57.5%) respectively), 16-19% reported sexual harassment (n=58 and 82 respectively) and 29% of females reported sexual harassment. Qualitative analysis elucidated reasons for not taking action in response to bullying and harassment, including workplace normalisation of these behaviours, fear of reprisal and lack of knowledge or confidence in the reporting process. For respondents who did take action, most reported ineffective or personally harmful outcomes when reporting to senior colleagues, including being dismissed or blamed, and an intention not to trust the process in the future. Conclusions The findings suggest that interventions targeted at the level of junior doctors to improve the culture of bullying and harassment in medicine are unlikely to be helpful. Different approaches that address the problem in a more systemic way are needed, as is further research about the effectiveness of such interventions. What is known about the topic? Bullying and sexual harassment are common workplace experiences in the medical profession. What does this paper add? Over half the junior doctors in the present study experienced bullying and nearly one-fifth experienced sexual harassment. Junior doctors are

  13. Pornography consumption, sexual experiences, lifestyles, and self-rated health among male adolescents in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattebo, Magdalena; Tydén, Tanja; Häggström-Nordin, Elisabet; Nilsson, Kent W; Larsson, Margareta

    2013-09-01

    To describe patterns of pornography use among high school boys and to investigate differences between frequent, average, and nonfrequent users of pornography with respect to sexual experiences, lifestyles, and self-rated health. A population-based classroom survey among 16-year-old boys (n = 477), from 53 randomly selected high school classes in 2 towns in mid-Sweden. Almost all boys, 96% (n = 453), had watched pornography. Frequent users of pornography (everyday) (10%, n = 47) differed from average users (63%, n = 292) and nonfrequent users (27%, n = 126). Frequent users versus average users and nonfrequent users had more sexual experiences, such as one night stands (45, 32, 25%, respectively) and sex with friends more than 10 times (13, 10, 2%). A higher proportion of frequent users spent more than 10 straight hours at the computer several times a week (32, 5, 8%) and reported more relationship problems with peers (38, 22, 21%), truancy at least once a week (11, 6, 5%), obesity (13, 3, 3%), use of oral tobacco (36, 29, 20%), and use of alcohol (77, 70, 52%) versus average and nonfrequent users. One third of frequent users watched more pornography than they actually wanted. There were no differences between the groups regarding physical and psychological self-rated health. The boys, defined as frequent users of pornography, were more sexually experienced, spent more time at the computer, and reported an unhealthier lifestyle compared with average and nonfrequent users. No differences regarding self-rated health were detected even though obesity was twice as common among frequent users.

  14. [A survey on AIDS knowledge rate and sexual behavior among men who have sex with men population at sexually transmitted disease clinic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Dan; Xie, Hongfu; Yi, Mei; Li, Ji; Chen, Mingliang; Feng, Hao; Cheng, Xiaoming; Zhang, Guiying

    2010-07-01

    To survey on men who have sex with men (MSM) population's sexual behaviors, condom-service condition, HIV related knowledge and other issues among MSM population at sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics to understand the characteristics of behaviors and offer suggestions for effective health education and behavior intervention. From January to December, 2009, we used anonymous questionnaires which involved in their mastery of demographic characteristics, sexual behavior, condom-service condition, HIV related knowledge, and so one, to investigate 200 MSM at 3 STD clinics of comprehensive hospital. The average age of informant was (26.7+/- 8.9) years and 121 individuals (62.6%) had confirmed with STD in recent one year. In the recent 6 months, the average number of homosexual partners was 9.2+/- 4.8 and 102 (52.8%) had heterosexual partners. In the sexual intercourse with homosexual, 123 individuals had anal intercourse (63.7 %) and 117 had oral intercourse (60.6%). In the sexual intercourse with heterosexual, 92 (90.2%) individuals had vaginal intercourse, 37 (36.2%) had anal intercourse, and 59 (57.8%) had oral sex behavior.There were a statistical difference between heterosexual and homosexual sex behaviors (Pcondom-using frequency had statistic difference in different sexual behaviors(χ²=188.396, Pcondom-using condition in sexual behaviors except the heterosexual anal intercourse. High AIDS knowledge mastery rate is found in our survey. The respondents get HIV/AIDS knowledge through various ways actively. There is no obvious relation between the mastery of HIV related knowledge and condom-using frequency. The ratio of non-protected sexual behaviors is high in heterosexuals. How to adopt effective methods for behavior intervention to MSM at STD clinic needs to be further studied.

  15. Sexual Self-Schema Scale for Women-Validation and Psychometric Properties of the Polish Version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowosielski, Krzysztof; Jankowski, Konrad S; Kowalczyk, Robert; Kurpisz, Jacek; Normantowicz-Zakrzewska, Małgorzata; Krasowska, Aleksandra

    2018-06-01

    The sexual self-schema is a part of a broader concept of the self that is believed to be crucial for intrapersonal and interpersonal sexual relationships. To develop and perform psychometric validation of the Polish version of the Sexual Self-Schema Scale for Women (SSSS-W-PL). 561 women 18 to 55 years old were included in the final analysis. Linguistic validation was performed in 4 steps in line with the MAPI Institute guidelines. Convergent validity was calculated using the Pearson r product-moment coefficient between different measures of sexuality (attitudes and experience, behavior, arousal, romantic relationship) and SSSS-W-PL total and factor scores. To test discriminant validity, we applied hierarchical regression analyses predicting the number of lifetime sexual partners, self-rating as a sexual person (1 item, "I feel sexually attractive"; on a 5-point Likert scale), and arousability, with independent variables being extraversion (Ten-Item Personality Inventory), self-esteem (Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale), and the SSSS-W-PL (total and factor scores). Sexual self-schema was measured by the SSSS-W-PL, whereas arousability was measured by the arousal/excitement scale of the Changes in Sexual Functioning Questionnaire. The mean age of the study population was 29.0 ± 7.6 years. The final scale consisted of 24 adjectives grouped within 4 factors: romantic, passionate, direct, and embarrassed. The 4-factor model accounted for 39% of the variance. The Cronbach α was 0.74 for the SSSS-W-PL total score and 0.61 to 0.84 for individual factors. Test-retest reliability of the scale after 2- to 8-week intervals was 0.87 (95% CI = 0.82-0.86, P Self-Schema Scale for Women-Validation and Psychometric Properties of the Polish Version. Sex Med 2018;6:131-142. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The acute effects of intranasal oxytocin administration on endocrine and sexual function in males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burri, Andrea; Heinrichs, Markus; Schedlowski, Manfred; Kruger, Tillmann H C

    2008-06-01

    The role of the neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) ranges from the modulation of neuroendocrine physiological effects to the establishment of complex social and bonding behaviours. Experimental studies in animals, as well as case reports in humans, suggest that OT affects different aspects of sexual behaviour and has predominantly facilitating properties for sexual appetence and performance. Using a previously established experimental paradigm of sexual arousal and masturbation-induced orgasm, this study investigated the acute effects of intranasal OT application (24I.U.) on endocrine parameters and measures of sexual appetence and function in healthy men (n=10). In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, balanced cross-over design, sexual arousal, and orgasm were induced by an erotic film and masturbation. In addition to the continuous recording of endocrine (OT, cortisol, prolactin, epinephrine, norepinephrine) and cardiovascular data (heart rate), parameters of appetitive, consummatory, and refractory sexual behaviour were assessed using the acute sexual experience scale (ASES). OT plasma levels were significantly elevated after intranasal OT throughout the whole experiment (>60 min). In addition, OT treatment induced significantly higher increases in epinephrine plasma levels during sexual activity without affecting cortisol levels, prolactin levels or heart rate. OT treatment did not alter appetitive, consummatory, and refractory sexual behaviour according to the ASES. However, when subjects were asked about their subjective perception of whether OT or placebo had been applied, eight out of 10 subjects in the OT group answered correctly, thus pointing to an altered perception of arousal. In conclusion, intranasally administered OT leads to a marked increase in OT plasma levels together with increased secretion of catecholamines when subjects are engaged in sexual activity in a laboratory setting. As the effects of OT on sexual behaviour were equivocal, future studies

  17. Shale gas activity and increased rates of sexually transmitted infections in Ohio, 2000–2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humeau, Zoe; Elliott, Elise G.; Warren, Joshua L.; Niccolai, Linda M.

    2018-01-01

    Background The growing shale gas (“fracking”) industry depends on a mobile workforce, whose influx could have social impacts on host communities. Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) can increase through sexual mixing patterns associated with labor migration. No prior studies have quantified the relationship between shale gas activity and rates of three reportable STIs: chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis. Methods We conducted a longitudinal, ecologic study from 2000–2016 in Ohio, situated in a prolific shale gas region in the United States (US). Data on reported cases of chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis by county and year were obtained from the Ohio Department of Health. All 88 counties were classified as none, low, and high shale gas activity in each year, using data from the Ohio Department of Natural Resources. Annual rate ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated from mixed-effects Poisson regression models evaluating the relationship between shale gas activity and reported annual STI rates while adjusting for secular trends and potential confounders obtained from the US Census. Results Compared to counties with no shale gas activity, counties with high activity had 21% (RR = 1.21; 95%CI = 1.08–1.36) increased rates of chlamydia and 19% (RR = 1.27; 95%CI 0.98–1.44) increased rates of gonorrhea, respectively. No association was observed for syphilis. Conclusion This first report of a link between shale gas activity and increased rates of both chlamydia and gonorrhea may inform local policies and community health efforts. PMID:29570712

  18. Rates of sexual history taking and screening in HIV-positive men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacRae, Alasdair; Lord, Emily; Forsythe, Annabel; Sherrard, Jackie

    2017-03-01

    A case note audit was undertaken of HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) to ascertain whether national guidelines for taking sexual histories, including recreational drug use and sexually transmitted infection (STI) screening were being met. The notes of 142 HIV-positive men seen in 2015 were available, of whom 85 were MSM. Information was collected regarding sexual history, recreational drug use documentation, sexually transmitted infection screen offer and test results. Seventy-seven (91%) of the MSM had a sexual history documented, of whom 60 (78%) were sexually active. STI screens were offered to 58/60 (97%) of those who were sexually active and accepted by 53 (91%). Twelve (23%) of these had an STI. A recreational drug history was taken in 63 (74%) with 17 (27%) reporting use and 3 (5%) chemsex. The high rate of STIs highlights that regular screening in this group is essential. Additionally, the fact that over a quarter reported recreational drug use and given the increasing concern around chemsex, questions about this should be incorporated into the sexual history proforma.

  19. Memory enhancement by a semantically unrelated emotional arousal source induced after learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielson, Kristy A; Yee, Douglas; Erickson, Kirk I

    2005-07-01

    It has been well established that moderate physiological or emotional arousal modulates memory. However, there is some controversy about whether the source of arousal must be semantically related to the information to be remembered. To test this idea, 35 healthy young adult participants learned a list of common nouns and afterward viewed a semantically unrelated, neutral or emotionally arousing videotape. The tape was shown after learning to prevent arousal effects on encoding or attention, instead influencing memory consolidation. Heart rate increase was significantly greater in the arousal group, and negative affect was significantly less reported in the non-arousal group after the video. The arousal group remembered significantly more words than the non-arousal group at both 30 min and 24 h delays, despite comparable group memory performance prior to the arousal manipulation. These results demonstrate that emotional arousal, even from an unrelated source, is capable of modulating memory consolidation. Potential reasons for contradictory findings in some previous studies, such as the timing of "delayed" memory tests, are discussed.

  20. Discharge patterns of human genioglossus motor units during arousal from sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Vanessa; Malhotra, Atul; Nicholas, Christian L; Worsnop, Christopher; Jordan, Amy S; Butler, Jane E; Saboisky, Julian P; Gandevia, Simon C; White, David P; Trinder, John

    2010-03-01

    Single motor unit recordings of the human genioglossus muscle reveal motor units with a variety of discharge patterns. Integrated multiunit electromyographic recordings of genioglossus have demonstrated an abrupt increase in the muscle's activity at arousal from sleep. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of arousal from sleep on the activity of individual motor units as a function of their particular discharge pattern. Genioglossus activity was measured using intramuscular fine-wire electrodes inserted via a percutaneous approach. Arousals from sleep were identified using the ASDA criterion and the genioglossus electromyogram recordings analyzed for single motor unit activity. Sleep research laboratory. Sleep and respiratory data were collected in 8 healthy subjects (6 men). 138 motor units were identified during prearousalarousal sleep: 25% inspiratory phasic, 33% inspiratory tonic, 4% expiratory phasic, 3% expiratory tonic, and 35% tonic. At arousal from sleep inspiratory phasic units significantly increased the proportion of a breath over which they were active, but did not appreciably increase their rate of firing. 80 new units were identified at arousals, 75% were inspiratory, many of which were active for only 1 or 2 breaths. 22% of units active before arousal, particularly expiratory and tonic units, stopped at the arousal. Increased genioglossus muscle activity at arousal from sleep is primarily due to recruitment of inspiratory phasic motor units. Further, activity within the genioglossus motoneuron pool is reorganized at arousal as, in addition to recruitment, approximately 20% of units active before arousals stopped firing.

  1. Sexual Behavior in Adults with Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Bourgondien, Mary E.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    A survey of the sexual behavior of 89 adults with autism living in group homes found that the majority of individuals were engaging in some form of sexual behavior. Masturbation was the most common sexual behavior; however, person-oriented sexual behaviors with obvious signs of arousal were also found. Information regarding group home sexuality…

  2. Sympathetic arousal increases a negative memory bias in young women with low sex hormone levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Shawn E.; Barber, Sarah J.; Chai, Audrey; Clewett, David V.; Mather, Mara

    2015-01-01

    Emotionally arousing events are typically better attended to and remembered than neutral ones. Current theories propose that arousal-induced increases in norepinephrine during encoding bias attention and memory in favor of affectively salient stimuli. Here, we tested this hypothesis by manipulating levels of physiological arousal prior to encoding and examining how it influenced memory for emotionally salient images, particularly those that are negative rather than positive in valence. We also tested whether sex steroid hormones interact with noradrenergic activity to influence these emotional memory biases in women. Healthy naturally cycling women and women on hormonal contraception completed one of the following physiological arousal manipulations prior to viewing a series of negative, positive and neutral images: 1) Immediate handgrip arousal – isometric handgrip immediately prior to encoding, 2) Residual handgrip arousal – isometric handgrip 15 min prior to encoding, or 3) No handgrip. Sympathetic arousal was measured throughout the session via pupil diameter changes. Levels of 17β-estradiol and progesterone were measured via salivary samples. Memory performance was assessed approximately 10 minutes after encoding using a surprise free recall test. The results indicated that handgrip successfully increased sympathetic arousal compared to the control task. Under immediate handgrip arousal, women showed enhanced memory for negative images over positive images; this pattern was not observed in women assigned to the residual and no-handgrip arousal conditions. Additionally, under immediate handgrip arousal, both high estradiol and progesterone levels attenuated the memory bias for negative over positive images. Follow-up hierarchical linear models revealed consistent effects when accounting for trial-by-trial variability in normative International Affective Picture System valence and arousal ratings. These findings suggest that heightened sympathetic arousal

  3. Psychometric Properties of the Orgasm Rating Scale in Context of Sexual Relationship in a Spanish Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcos-Romero, Ana Isabel; Moyano, Nieves; Sierra, Juan Carlos

    2018-05-01

    The Orgasm Rating Scale (ORS) is one of the few self-reported measures that evaluates the multidimensional subjective experience of orgasm. The objective of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the ORS in context of sex-with-partner in a Spanish sample. We examined a sample of 842 adults from the general Spanish population (310 men, 532 women; mean age = 27.12 years, SD = 9.8). The sample was randomly divided into two, with a balanced proportion of men and women between each sub-sample. Sub-sample 1 consisted of 100 men and 200 women (33.3% and 66.6%) with a mean age of 27.77 years (SD = 10.05). Sub-sample 2 consisted of 210 men and 332 women (38.7% and 61.3%) with a mean age of 26.77 years (SD = 9.65). The ORS, together with the Sexual Opinion Survey-6 and the Massachusetts General Hospital-Sexual Functioning Questionnaire, was administered online. The survey included a consent form, in which confidentiality and anonymity were guaranteed. Based on exploratory factor analysis, we obtained a reduced 25-item version of the ORS, distributed along 4 dimensions (affective, sensory, intimacy, and rewards). We performed both exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis. The Spanish version of the ORS had adequate values of reliability that ranged from .78-.93. The 4 factors explained 59.78% of the variance. The factor structure was invariant across gender at a configural level. Scores from the ORS positively correlated with erotophilia and sexual satisfaction. The scale was useful to differentiate between individuals with orgasmic difficulties and individuals with no difficulties. We found that individuals with orgasmic difficulties showed a lower intensity in the affective, intimacy, and sensorial manifestations of orgasm. This version of the ORS could provide an optimum measure for the clinical assessment to identify individuals with difficulties in their orgasmic capacity, thus, it could be used as screening device for orgasmic

  4. [Anatomy and physiology of sexuality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cour, F; Droupy, S; Faix, A; Methorst, C; Giuliano, F

    2013-07-01

    Knowledge of the physiology of male and female sexuality has advanced considerably. Initially there is always desire with its biological neuroendocrine components and its emotional field which is particularly marked in women. There is a distinction between "spontaneous" sexual desire related to intrinsic affective, cognitive stimuli, and fantasies, and "reactive" sexual desire in response to physical arousal. There are similarities between men and women concerning the activation of cerebral zones in sexual arousal contexts in laboratory conditions. The neural pathways for sexual arousal are similar between men and women, bringing into play the sympathetic centres of the thoracic and lumbar spinal cord and, at the sacral level, the parasympathetic center and the motoneurons controlling the muscular contractions of the pelviperineal striated muscles. Genital sensitivity is mainly transmitted by the pudendal nerve in both men and women. Sexual arousal in men consists of penile erection, and ejaculation accompanied with orgasm. In women, sexual arousal causes increase in blood to flow to the vagina leading to lubrication and to the vulva leading to the erection of the clitoris and vulvar hyperaemia. The orgasm which can be multiple in women is accompanied by contractions of the striated perineal muscles. Several neurotransmitters are closely involved in the control of sexuality at the central level: dopamine, ocytocin, serotonin, and peripheral: nitric oxide and noradrenaline in men, vasoactive intestinal peptide and neuropeptide Y in women. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  5. A Controlled Study on Vaginal Blood Flow During Sexual Arousal Among Early-Stage Cervical Cancer Survivors Treated With Conventional Radical or Nerve-Sparing Surgery With or Without Radiotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, Rinske Maria; Pieterse, Quirine D.; van Lonkhuijzen, Luc R. C. W.; Trimbos, Baptist J. B. M. Z.; Creutzberg, Carien L.; Kenter, Gemma G.; de Kroon, Cor D.; ter Kuile, Moniek M.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Sexual problems among cervical cancer survivors may in part be caused by reduced vaginal blood flow due to damaged hypogastric nerves during radical hysterectomy with pelvic lymphadenectomy and/or by radiation-induced vaginal changes after pelvic radiotherapy. A nerve-sparing modification

  6. Pornography and the Male Sexual Script: An Analysis of Consumption and Sexual Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chyng; Bridges, Ana; Johnson, Jennifer A; Ezzell, Matthew B

    2016-05-01

    Pornography has become a primary source of sexual education. At the same time, mainstream commercial pornography has coalesced around a relatively homogenous script involving violence and female degradation. Yet, little work has been done exploring the associations between pornography and dyadic sexual encounters: What role does pornography play inside real-world sexual encounters between a man and a woman? Cognitive script theory argues media scripts create a readily accessible heuristic model for decision-making. The more a user watches a particular media script, the more embedded those codes of behavior become in their worldview and the more likely they are to use those scripts to act upon real life experiences. We argue pornography creates a sexual script that then guides sexual experiences. To test this, we surveyed 487 college men (ages 18-29 years) in the United States to compare their rate of pornography use with sexual preferences and concerns. Results showed the more pornography a man watches, the more likely he was to use it during sex, request particular pornographic sex acts of his partner, deliberately conjure images of pornography during sex to maintain arousal, and have concerns over his own sexual performance and body image. Further, higher pornography use was negatively associated with enjoying sexually intimate behaviors with a partner. We conclude that pornography provides a powerful heuristic model which is implicated in men's expectations and behaviors during sexual encounters.

  7. Hypocretin as a Hub for Arousal and Motivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan M. Tyree

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The lateral hypothalamus is comprised of a heterogeneous mix of neurons that serve to integrate and regulate sleep, feeding, stress, energy balance, reward, and motivated behavior. Within these populations, the hypocretin/orexin neurons are among the most well studied. Here, we provide an overview on how these neurons act as a central hub integrating sensory and physiological information to tune arousal and motivated behavior accordingly. We give special attention to their role in sleep-wake states and conditions of hyper-arousal, as is the case with stress-induced anxiety. We further discuss their roles in feeding, drug-seeking, and sexual behavior, which are all dependent on the motivational state of the animal. We further emphasize the application of powerful techniques, such as optogenetics, chemogenetics, and fiber photometry, to delineate the role these neurons play in lateral hypothalamic functions.

  8. Night-to-night arousal variability and interscorer reliability of arousal measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loredo, J S; Clausen, J L; Ancoli-Israel, S; Dimsdale, J E

    1999-11-01

    Measurement of arousals from sleep is clinically important, however, their definition is not well standardized, and little data exist on reliability. The purpose of this study is to determine factors that affect arousal scoring reliability and night-to-night arousal variability. The night-to-night arousal variability and interscorer reliability was assessed in 20 subjects with and without obstructive sleep apnea undergoing attended polysomnography during two consecutive nights. Five definitions of arousal were studied, assessing duration of electroencephalographic (EEG) frequency changes, increases in electromyographic (EMG) activity and leg movement, association with respiratory events, as well as the American Sleep Disorders Association (ASDA) definition of arousals. NA. NA. NA. Interscorer reliability varied with the definition of arousal and ranged from an Intraclass correlation (ICC) of 0.19 to 0.92. Arousals that included increases in EMG activity or leg movement had the greatest reliability, especially when associated with respiratory events (ICC 0.76 to 0.92). The ASDA arousal definition had high interscorer reliability (ICC 0.84). Reliability was lowest for arousals consisting of EEG changes lasting <3 seconds (ICC 0.19 to 0.37). The within subjects night-to-night arousal variability was low for all arousal definitions In a heterogeneous population, interscorer arousal reliability is enhanced by increases in EMG activity, leg movements, and respiratory events and decreased by short duration EEG arousals. The arousal index night-to-night variability was low for all definitions.

  9. Arousal and consumer in-store behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groeppel-Klein, Andrea

    2005-11-15

    From a psychophysiological point of view, arousal is a fundamental feature of behavior. As reported in different empirical studies based on insights from theories of consumer behavior, store atmosphere should evoke phasic arousal reactions to attract consumers. Most of these empirical investigations used verbal scales to measure consumers' perceived phasic arousal at the point-of-sale (POS). However, the validity of verbal arousal measurement is questioned; self-reporting methods only allow a time-lagged measurement. Furthermore, the selection of inappropriate items to represent perceived arousal is criticized, and verbal reports require some form of cognitive evaluation of perceived arousal by the individual, who might (in a non-measurement condition) not even be aware of the arousal. By contrast, phasic electrodermal reaction (EDR) has proven to be the most appropriate and valid indicator for measuring arousal [W. Boucsein, Physiologische Grundlagen und Messmethoden der dermalen Aktivität. In: F. Rösler (Ed.), Enzyklopädie der Psychologie, Bereich Psychophysiologie, Band 1: Grundlagen and Methoden der Psychophysiologie, Kapitel, Vol. 7, Hogrefe, Göttingen, 2001, pp. 551-623] that could be relevant to behavior. EDR can be recorded simultaneously to the perception of stimuli. Furthermore, telemetric online device can be used, which enables physiological arousal measurement while participants can move freely through the store and perform the assigned task in the experiments. The present paper delivers insights on arousal theory and results from empirical studies using EDR to measure arousal at the POS.

  10. Elevated arousal levels enhance contrast perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dongho; Lokey, Savannah; Ling, Sam

    2017-02-01

    Our state of arousal fluctuates from moment to moment-fluctuations that can have profound impacts on behavior. Arousal has been proposed to play a powerful, widespread role in the brain, influencing processes as far ranging as perception, memory, learning, and decision making. Although arousal clearly plays a critical role in modulating behavior, the mechanisms underlying this modulation remain poorly understood. To address this knowledge gap, we examined the modulatory role of arousal on one of the cornerstones of visual perception: contrast perception. Using a reward-driven paradigm to manipulate arousal state, we discovered that elevated arousal state substantially enhances visual sensitivity, incurring a multiplicative modulation of contrast response. Contrast defines vision, determining whether objects appear visible or invisible to us, and these results indicate that one of the consequences of decreased arousal state is an impaired ability to visually process our environment.

  11. Comparing the Rates of Early Childhood Victimization across Sexual Orientations: Heterosexual, Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Mostly Heterosexual.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Zou

    Full Text Available Few studies have examined the rates of childhood victimization among individuals who identify as "mostly heterosexual" (MH in comparison to other sexual orientation groups. For the present study, we utilized a more comprehensive assessment of adverse childhood experiences to extend prior literature by examining if MH individuals' experience of victimization more closely mirrors that of sexual minority individuals or heterosexuals. Heterosexual (n = 422 and LGB (n = 561 and MH (n = 120 participants were recruited online. Respondents completed surveys about their adverse childhood experiences, both maltreatment by adults (e.g., childhood physical, emotional, and sexual abuse and childhood household dysfunction and peer victimization (i.e., verbal and physical bullying. Specifically, MH individuals were 1.47 times more likely than heterosexuals to report childhood victimization experiences perpetrated by adults. These elevated rates were similar to LGB individuals. Results suggest that rates of victimization of MH groups are more similar to the rates found among LGBs, and are significantly higher than heterosexual groups. Our results support prior research that indicates that an MH identity falls within the umbrella of a sexual minority, yet little is known about unique challenges that this group may face in comparison to other sexual minority groups.

  12. Functional wiring of hypocretin and LC-NE neurons: implications for arousal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew E Carter

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available To survive in a rapidly changing environment, animals must sense their external world and internal physiological state and properly regulate levels of arousal. Levels of arousal that are abnormally high may result in inefficient use of internal energy stores and unfocused attention to salient environmental stimuli. Alternatively, levels of arousal that are abnormally low may result in the inability to properly seek food, water, sexual partners, and other factors necessary for life. In the brain, neurons that express hypocretin neuropeptides may be uniquely posed to sense the external and internal state of the animal and tune arousal state according to behavioral needs. In recent years, we have applied temporally precise optogenetic techniques to study the role of these neurons and their downstream connections in regulating arousal. In particular, we have found that noradrenergic neurons in the brainstem locus coeruleus are particularly important for mediating the effects of hypocretin neurons on arousal. Here, we discuss our recent results and consider the implications of the anatomical connectivity of these neurons in regulating the arousal state of an organism across various states of sleep and wakefulness.

  13. Affective picture processing and motivational relevance: arousal and valence effects on ERPs in an oddball task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Kate E; Martin, Frances H

    2009-06-01

    There are two dominant theories of affective picture processing; one that attention is more deeply engaged by motivationally relevant stimuli (i.e., stimuli that activate both the appetitive and aversive systems), and two that attention is more deeply engaged by aversive stimuli described as the negativity bias. In order to identify the theory that can best account for affective picture processing, event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded from 34 participants during a modified oddball paradigm in which levels of stimulus valence, arousal, and motivational relevance were systematically varied. Results were partially consistent with motivated attention models of emotional perception, as P3b amplitude was enhanced in response to highly arousing and motivationally relevant sexual and unpleasant stimuli compared to respective low arousing and less motivationally relevant stimuli. However P3b amplitudes were significantly larger in response to the highly arousing sexual stimuli compared to all other affective stimuli, which is not consistent with either dominant theory. The current study therefore highlights the need for a revised model of affective picture processing and provides a platform for further research investigating the independent effects of sexual arousal on cognitive processing.

  14. Self-ratings of genital anatomy, sexual sensitivity and function in men using the 'Self-Assessment of Genital Anatomy and Sexual Function, Male' questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schober, Justine M; Meyer-Bahlburg, Heino F L; Dolezal, Curtis

    2009-04-01

    To assess the perceptions of healthy men of their genital anatomy and sexual sensitivity, along with the re-test reliability of these ratings, in a new self-reported questionnaire, the Self-Assessment of Genital Anatomy and Sexual Function, Male (SAGASF-M). Eighty-one healthy, sexually active, men aged 22-57 years (median 33), with no history of genital surgery, completed the SAGASF-M. This questionnaire comprises written text and images enabling men to rate details of their genital appearance, overall genital erotic and pain sensitivity, orgasm intensity, and effort required for achieving orgasm through stimulation of specified areas around the glans and shaft of the penis, scrotum and anus, along with the contribution of other sexually sensitive areas of the body. Anatomical locations were compared for the functional ratings by mixed-model analysis of variance (anova). A second sample of 38 healthy men (median age 26 years, range 22-64) from the same source completed the SAGASF-M twice with an interval of 2 weeks. There was little variability in anatomy ratings. Ratings of overall penile sensitivity to sexual stimulation gave higher values of 'sexual pleasure' for penile stimulation by the partner than by self (P = 0.002) and marginally higher ratings of 'orgasm intensity' by partner stimulation (P = 0.077), but there were no corresponding differences on ratings of 'effort needed to reach orgasm' or of 'discomfort/pain'. Overall discrimination between genital areas was highly significant (mixed-model anova, P = 0.001) for ratings of 'sexual pleasure', 'orgasm intensity' and 'orgasm effort', but was not significant for 'discomfort/pain'. Ranked by degree of 'sexual pleasure', the area 'underside of the glans' was highest, followed by 'underside of the penile shaft', 'upper side of the glans', 'left and right sides of the glans', 'one or both sides of the penis', 'upper side of the penile shaft', 'foreskin' (11 subjects), 'skin between the scrotum and anus', 'back

  15. Sadistic Sexual Assault Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Alghffar EA; Said AA

    2017-01-01

    Sexual sadism disorder is the condition of experiencing sexual arousal in response to the extreme pain, suffering or humiliation of others [1]. Several other terms have been used to describe the condition, and the condition may overlap with other conditions that involve inflicting pain. It is distinct from situations in which consenting individuals use mild or simulated pain or humiliation for sexual excitement [4]. Sexual sadism disorder has been found to be potentially dangerous if paired w...

  16. Enhanced auditory arousal increases intake of less palatable and healthier foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Privitera, Gregory J; Diaz, Melissa; Haas, Meagan C

    2014-01-23

    Two experiments were conducted to test a prediction of the arousal hypothesis that increased arousal will increase intake of less palatable and healthy foods. In both experiments, arousal was manipulated by adjusting the volume of a movie (soft, loud volume) while participants consumed foods. In Experiment 1, participants ate fresh (palatable) or stale (less palatable) popcorn during a 9-minute movie played at a soft or loud volume. Experiment 2 used the same procedures with healthier foods (carrot sticks and apple slices). Partial support for the arousal hypothesis in Experiment 1 showed that participants consumed more stale but not fresh popcorn in the loud (high arousal) versus soft (low arousal) volume group. These findings suggest that low but not high palatable foods are susceptible to manipulations of arousal. Consistent with this interpretation, Experiment 2 showed that high but not low environmental arousal increased intake of the fruits and vegetables, which are typically rated as lower in palatability compared to high fat foods. These results show that high arousal in an eating-typical environment increases intake of less palatable foods, and healthy foods (i.e., fruits and vegetables). Increasing the availability of healthier foods in a loud food environment can have a positive impact on increasing intake of fruits and vegetables in that environment.

  17. CAP, epilepsy and motor events during sleep: the unifying role of arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrino, Liborio; Halasz, Peter; Tassinari, Carlo Alberto; Terzano, Mario Giovanni

    2006-08-01

    Arousal systems play a topical neurophysiologic role in protecting and tailoring sleep duration and depth. When they appear in NREM sleep, arousal responses are not limited to a single EEG pattern but are part of a continuous spectrum of EEG modifications ranging from high-voltage slow rhythms to low amplitude fast activities. The hierarchic features of arousal responses are reflected in the phase A subtypes of CAP (cyclic alternating pattern) including both slow arousals (dominated by the ASDA arousals). CAP is an infraslow oscillation with a periodicity of 20-40s that participates in the dynamic organization of sleep and in the activation of motor events. Physiologic, paraphysiologic and pathologic motor activities during NREM sleep are always associated with a stereotyped arousal pattern characterized by an initial increase in EEG delta power and heart rate, followed by a progressive activation of faster EEG frequencies. These findings suggest that motor patterns are already written in the brain codes (central pattern generators) embraced with an automatic sequence of EEG-vegetative events, but require a certain degree of activation (arousal) to become visibly apparent. Arousal can appear either spontaneously or be elicited by internal (epileptic burst) or external (noise, respiratory disturbance) stimuli. Whether the outcome is a physiologic movement, a muscle jerk or a major epileptic attack will depend on a number of ongoing factors (sleep stage, delta power, neuro-motor network) but all events share the common trait of arousal-activated phenomena.

  18. The effect of arousal and eye gaze direction on trust evaluations of stranger's faces: A potential pathway to paranoid thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Jennie; Middlemiss, Megan; Bruce, Vicki; Smailes, David; Dudley, Robert

    2018-09-01

    When asked to evaluate faces of strangers, people with paranoia show a tendency to rate others as less trustworthy. The present study investigated the impact of arousal on this interpersonal bias, and whether this bias was specific to evaluations of trust or additionally affected other trait judgements. The study also examined the impact of eye gaze direction, as direct eye gaze has been shown to heighten arousal. In two experiments, non-clinical participants completed face rating tasks before and after either an arousal manipulation or control manipulation. Experiment one examined the effects of heightened arousal on judgements of trustworthiness. Experiment two examined the specificity of the bias, and the impact of gaze direction. Experiment one indicated that the arousal manipulation led to lower trustworthiness ratings. Experiment two showed that heightened arousal reduced trust evaluations of trustworthy faces, particularly trustworthy faces with averted gaze. The control group rated trustworthy faces with direct gaze as more trustworthy post-manipulation. There was some evidence that attractiveness ratings were affected similarly to the trust judgements, whereas judgements of intelligence were not affected by higher arousal. In both studies, participants reported low levels of arousal even after the manipulation and the use of a non-clinical sample limits the generalisability to clinical samples. There is a complex interplay between arousal, evaluations of trustworthiness and gaze direction. Heightened arousal influences judgements of trustworthiness, but within the context of face type and gaze direction. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Emotional intelligence buffers the effect of physiological arousal on dishonesty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pittarello, Andrea; Conte, Beatrice; Caserotti, Marta; Scrimin, Sara; Rubaltelli, Enrico

    We studied the emotional processes that allow people to balance two competing desires: benefitting from dishonesty and keeping a positive self-image. We recorded physiological arousal (skin conductance and heart rate) during a computer card game in which participants could cheat and fail to report a

  20. Prediction of valence and arousal from music features

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Den Brinker, A.C.; Van Dinther, C.H.B.A.; Skowronek, J.

    2011-01-01

    Mood is an important attribute of music and knowledge on mood can beused as a basic ingredient in music recommender and retrieval systems. Moods are assumed to be dominantly determined by two dimensions:valence and arousal. An experiment was conducted to attain data forsong-based ratings of valence

  1. Arousal from sleep mechanisms in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Patricia; Kato, Ineko; Richardson, Heidi L; Yang, Joel S C; Montemitro, Enza; Horne, Rosemary S C

    2010-08-01

    Arousals from sleep allow sleep to continue in the face of stimuli that normally elicit responses during wakefulness and also permit awakening. Such an adaptive mechanism implies that any malfunction may have clinical importance. Inadequate control of arousal in infants and children is associated with a variety of sleep-related problems. An excessive propensity to arouse from sleep favors the development of repeated sleep disruptions and insomnia, with impairment of daytime alertness and performance. A lack of an adequate arousal response to a noxious nocturnal stimulus reduces an infant's chances of autoresuscitation, and thus survival, increasing the risk for Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS). The study of arousability is complicated by many factors including the definition of an arousal; the scoring methodology; the techniques used (spontaneous arousability versus arousal responses to endogenous or exogenous stimuli); and the confounding factors that complicate the determination of arousal thresholds by changing the sleeper's responses to a given stimulus such as prenatal drug, alcohol, or cigarette use. Infant age and previous sleep deprivation also modify thresholds. Other confounding factors include time of night, sleep stages, the sleeper's body position, and sleeping conditions. In this paper, we will review these different aspects for the study of arousals in infants and also report the importance of these studies for the understanding of the pathophysiology of some clinical conditions, particularly SIDS. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. From the kitchen to the bedroom: frequency rates and consequences of sexual harassment among female domestic workers in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSouza, Eros R; Cerqueira, Elder

    2009-08-01

    Sexual harassment has been investigated mostly in developed countries. The authors examined frequency rates and consequences of sexual harassment among female domestic workers in Brazil. Twenty-six percent had been sexually harassed at work during the past year. Live-in workers were at significantly greater risk for experiencing sexual harassment than those residing in their own homes, when controlling for participants' age, race, and social class. Women residing in their employers' residences used more alcohol and drugs than their counterparts. Harassed women had significantly higher self-esteem impairment and anxiety and depression than nonharassed women. Nonharassed women residing in their own homes had the best physical well-being. Concerning participants' worst sexually harassing experiences, the perpetrators were likely to be men (75%), who also engaged in more severe types of sexual harassment than female perpetrators. The emotional reactions to such incidents were significantly more negative when perpetrated by men than by women. Implications for foreign in-home workers employed by Europeans and North Americans are discussed.

  3. Beyond intensity: Spectral features effectively predict music-induced subjective arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingras, Bruno; Marin, Manuela M; Fitch, W Tecumseh

    2014-01-01

    Emotions in music are conveyed by a variety of acoustic cues. Notably, the positive association between sound intensity and arousal has particular biological relevance. However, although amplitude normalization is a common procedure used to control for intensity in music psychology research, direct comparisons between emotional ratings of original and amplitude-normalized musical excerpts are lacking. In this study, 30 nonmusicians retrospectively rated the subjective arousal and pleasantness induced by 84 six-second classical music excerpts, and an additional 30 nonmusicians rated the same excerpts normalized for amplitude. Following the cue-redundancy and Brunswik lens models of acoustic communication, we hypothesized that arousal and pleasantness ratings would be similar for both versions of the excerpts, and that arousal could be predicted effectively by other acoustic cues besides intensity. Although the difference in mean arousal and pleasantness ratings between original and amplitude-normalized excerpts correlated significantly with the amplitude adjustment, ratings for both sets of excerpts were highly correlated and shared a similar range of values, thus validating the use of amplitude normalization in music emotion research. Two acoustic parameters, spectral flux and spectral entropy, accounted for 65% of the variance in arousal ratings for both sets, indicating that spectral features can effectively predict arousal. Additionally, we confirmed that amplitude-normalized excerpts were adequately matched for loudness. Overall, the results corroborate our hypotheses and support the cue-redundancy and Brunswik lens models.

  4. [Age-related aspects of male rats sexual behavior with different senescence rates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amstislavskaia, T G; Gladkikh, D V; Belousova, I I; Maslova, L N; Kolosova, N G

    2010-01-01

    Social and sexual behavior of males Wistar and senescence-accelerated OXYS rats was studied. The experimental model excluding direct interaction between partners showed that the exploratory activity decreased with aging in rats of both strains, but social motivation didn't change. No interstrain differences in intensity of sexual motivation in the presence of an inaccessible receptive female were observed in 4-month rats. The level of sexual motivation of 12-month Wistar rats didn't differ from that of 4-month animals. However, in 12-month OXYS males, sexual motivation was decreased as compared to both 4- and 12-month Wistar rats. The same regularities were found under conditions of direct interaction with a partner. Behavioral changes in 12-month OXYS rats were considered as genetically determinate abnormality at the initial stage of sexual behavior, i.e., sexual motivation. The results suggest the accelerated senescence of the reproductive system of OXYS rats.

  5. Association of State-Mandated Abstinence-only Sexuality Education with Rates of Adolescent HIV Infection and Teenage Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliot, L M; Booth, M M; Patterson, G; Althoff, M; Bush, C K; Dery, M A

    2017-01-01

    Abstinence-only sexuality education (AOSE); is required in the public school systems of many states, raising public health concerns and perpetuating health disparities through school systems. This study aimed to determine the correlations between state-mandated AOSE and the rates of adolescent HIV and teen pregnancy. Using publicly available data on all 50 United States' laws and policies on AOSE, states were ranked according to their level of abstinence emphasis on sexuality education (Level 0 - Level 3);. We calculated the relative proportion of Black students in public schools and the proportion of families below the federal poverty line then ranked them by state. We compared the states' ranks to the incidence of adolescent HIV and teen pregnancy in those states to identify associations between variables. The majority of states (~44 percent ); have legally mandated AOSE policies (Level 3); and adolescent HIV and teen pregnancy rates were highest in these Level 3 states. There were significant, positive correlations between HIV incidence rates of 13-19 year olds, HIV rates of 20-24 year olds, teen pregnancy rates, and AOSE level, with the proportion of the population that lives below the federal poverty level, and whether they attended schools that had a greater than 50 percent of an African American population. These data show a clear association between state sexuality education policies and adolescent HIV and teen pregnancy rates not previously demonstrated. Our data further show that states that have higher proportions of at-risk populations, with higher adolescent HIV and teen pregnancy rates, are more likely to also have restrictive AOSE policies. These populations may be more likely to attend public schools where AOSE is taught, increasing their risk for HIV and teen pregnancy. The World Health Organization considers fact-based Comprehensive Sexuality Education a human right, and the authors believe it is past time to end harmful, discriminatory sexuality

  6. Detection of arousals in Parkinson's disease patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Gertrud Laura; Kempfner, Jacob; Jennum, Poul

    2011-01-01

    sleepiness. Manual scoring of arousals is time-consuming and the inter-score agreement is highly varying especially for patients with sleep related disorders. The aim of this study was to design an arousal detection algorithm capable of detecting arousals from sleep, in both non-REM and REM sleep in patients......Arousal from sleep are short awakenings, which can be identified in the EEG as an abrupt change in frequency. Arousals can occur in all sleep stages and the number and frequency increase with age. Frequent arousals during sleep results in sleep fragmentation and is associated with daytime...... suffering from Parkinson's disease (PD). The proposed algorithm uses features from EEG, EMG and the manual sleep stage scoring as input to a feed-forward artificial neural network (ANN). The performance of the algorithm has been assessed using polysomnographic (PSG) recordings from a total of 8 patients...

  7. Trigeminal induced arousals during human sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiser, Clemens; Baja, Jan; Lenz, Franziska; Sommer, J Ulrich; Hörmann, Karl; Herr, Raphael M; Stuck, Boris A

    2015-05-01

    Arousals caused by external stimuli during human sleep have been studied for most of the sensorial systems. It could be shown that a pure nasal trigeminal stimulus leads to arousals during sleep. The frequency of arousals increases dependent on the stimulus concentration. The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of different stimulus durations on arousal frequency during different sleep stages. Ten young healthy volunteers with 20 nights of polysomnography were included in the study. Pure trigeminal stimulation with both different concentrations of CO2 (0, 10, 20, 40% v/v) and different stimulus durations (1, 3, 5, and 10 s) were applied during different sleep stages to the volunteers using an olfactometer. The application was performed during different sleep stages (light sleep, deep sleep, REM sleep). The number of arousals increased with rising stimulus duration and stimulus concentration during each sleep stage. Trigeminal stimuli during sleep led to arousals in dose- and time-dependent manner.

  8. The relation of plasma androgen levels to sexual behaviors and attitudes of women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persky, H; Dreisbach, L; Miller, W R; O'Brien, C P; Khan, M A; Lief, H I; Charney, N; Strauss, D

    1982-09-01

    Four androgens: dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), androstenedione (A), testosterone (T), and dihydrotestosterone (DHT), a variety of sexual behaviors and attitudes, and several moods were determined regularly in two groups of healthy, married women who differed by three decades in age. The younger women exhibited significantly higher levels of each androgen, the differences being almost entirely attributable to ovarian failure in the older group. Although the older women reported the same levels of sexual desire and sexual arousal as the younger women, their intercourse frequencies and self-rated sexual gratification scores were significantly lower than the values obtained for the younger wives. One or more of the androgen levels related significantly and in the expected direction to each stage of the four-stage sexual response process. Global measures of so-called "sexual adjustment" and estimates of anxiety, depression, and hostility feelings experienced by these women did not relate significantly to any of the four androgen levels.

  9. The impact of Parkinson disease on patients' sexuality and relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhmann, C; Dogac, S; Vettorazzi, E; Hidding, U; Gerloff, C; Jürgens, T P

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed at examining the impact of Parkinson disease (PD) on patients' sexuality and relationship and to evaluate gender-specific differences. Using a standardized questionnaire on sexual functioning in chronic diseases (SFCE), the impact of PD diagnosis on 38 domains of sexuality before and since PD diagnosis was evaluated retrospectively in 53 consecutive patients in a relationship. Changes in self-assessed ratings on a four-point Likert scale were determined for all patients. In addition, gender-specific differences and the influence of age, depression (BDI-II), medication, disease severity and disease duration on domains of the SFCE were calculated. The importance of non-sexual relational aspects, such as talking about feelings or tenderness increased for both genders after PD diagnosis, especially in women. Sexual function, such as frequency of intercourse, sexual arousal, subjective abnormal sexual fantasies or sexual satisfaction deteriorated in both genders, especially in men. Some sexual aspects improved in women but worsened in men after PD diagnosis. This includes frequency of orgasm dysfunction, fear not to fulfill sexual expectations of the partner, avoidance of sexual acts, withdrawal from relationship, increase of thoughts about divorce, or increase of dissatisfaction with sexuality and relationship. With age, thoughts about divorce declined. With disease duration, frequency of tenderness with the partner increased. Depression unexpectedly correlated with higher frequency of intercourse. Dopaminergic dosage influenced stability of the relationship negatively. PD influences patients' sexuality negatively, independently of age, disease duration or disease severity and men show greater sexual dysfunction and impairment of their sexual relationship than women.

  10. Rates and Predictors of Obesity Among African American Sexual Minority Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Alicia K; Li, Chien-Ching; McConnell, Elizabeth; Aranda, Frances; Smith, Christina

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine rates of and risk factors for obesity in a community sample of African American sexual minority women (SMW). Data were collected using self-administered paper-and-pencil survey questionnaires (n = 219). Participants were primarily middle aged (M = 40.1; standard deviation [SD] = 10.5 years), well educated (56.9% with a college education and above), insured (82.3%), and had a median income range from $30,000 to $39,999. The mean body mass index (BMI) of the sample was 31.6 (SD = 8.0). Based on BMI scores, over half of the participants were identified as obese (53.9%) and 25.6% were overweight. A number of comorbid illnesses were reported that could be exacerbated by excess weight, including arthritis (21.3%), adult-onset diabetes (4.9%), back problems (23.2%), high cholesterol (15.3%), high blood pressure (19.2%), and heart disease (12%). Multiple risk factors for obesity were observed, including infrequent exercise (American SMW report high rates of obesity, chronic health conditions exacerbated by weight, and health and dietary behaviors that increase risk for weight-related health disparities. These study findings have implications for additional research and intervention development.

  11. Bi-directional associations between psychological arousal, cortisol, and sleep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garde, Anne Helene; Albertsen, Karen; Persson, Roger

    2012-01-01

    The aim was to elucidate the possible bi-directional relation between daytime psychological arousal, cortisol, and self-reported sleep in a group of healthy employees in active employment. Logbook ratings of sleep (Karolinska Sleep Questionnaire), stress, and energy, as well as positive...... and negative experiences in work and private life, were collected together with salivary cortisol over 3 days (n = 265). Higher bedtime ratings of stress and problems during the day were associated with morning ratings of poor sleep. Poorer morning ratings of sleep were associated with higher ratings of stress...... and problems during the day. The results underpin the possibility that arousal and poor sleep might create a self-reinforcing vicious circle that negatively affects a person's well-being....

  12. Emotions and false memories: valence or arousal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corson, Yves; Verrier, Nadège

    2007-03-01

    The effects of mood on false memories have not been studied systematically until recently. Some results seem to indicate that negative mood may reduce false recall and thus suggest an influence of emotional valence on false memory. The present research tested the effects of both valence and arousal on recall and recognition and indicates that the effect is actually due to arousal. In fact, whether participants' mood is positive, negative, or neutral, false memories are significantly more frequent under conditions of high arousal than under conditions of low arousal.

  13. Hyper-arousal decreases human visual thresholds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam J Woods

    Full Text Available Arousal has long been known to influence behavior and serves as an underlying component of cognition and consciousness. However, the consequences of hyper-arousal for visual perception remain unclear. The present study evaluates the impact of hyper-arousal on two aspects of visual sensitivity: visual stereoacuity and contrast thresholds. Sixty-eight participants participated in two experiments. Thirty-four participants were randomly divided into two groups in each experiment: Arousal Stimulation or Sham Control. The Arousal Stimulation group underwent a 50-second cold pressor stimulation (immersing the foot in 0-2° C water, a technique known to increase arousal. In contrast, the Sham Control group immersed their foot in room temperature water. Stereoacuity thresholds (Experiment 1 and contrast thresholds (Experiment 2 were measured before and after stimulation. The Arousal Stimulation groups demonstrated significantly lower stereoacuity and contrast thresholds following cold pressor stimulation, whereas the Sham Control groups showed no difference in thresholds. These results provide the first evidence that hyper-arousal from sensory stimulation can lower visual thresholds. Hyper-arousal's ability to decrease visual thresholds has important implications for survival, sports, and everyday life.

  14. Simultaneous conditioning of valence and arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawronski, Bertram; Mitchell, Derek G V

    2014-01-01

    Evaluative conditioning (EC) refers to the change in the valence of a conditioned stimulus (CS) due to its pairing with a positive or negative unconditioned stimulus (US). To the extent that core affect can be characterised by the two dimensions of valence and arousal, EC has important implications for the origin of affective responses. However, the distinction between valence and arousal is rarely considered in research on EC or conditioned responses more generally. Measuring the subjective feelings elicited by a CS, the results from two experiments showed that (1) repeated pairings of a CS with a positive or negative US of either high or low arousal led to corresponding changes in both CS valence and CS arousal, (2) changes in CS arousal, but not changes in CS valence, were significantly related to recollective memory for CS-US pairings, (3) subsequent presentations of the CS without the US reduced the conditioned valence of the CS, with conditioned arousal being less susceptible to extinction and (4) EC effects were stronger for high arousal than low arousal USs. The results indicate that the conditioning of affective responses can occur simultaneously along two independent dimensions, supporting evidence in related areas that calls for a consideration of both valence and arousal. Implications for research on EC and the acquisition of emotional dispositions are discussed.

  15. Do East Asian and Euro-Canadian women differ in sexual psychophysiology research participation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Jane S T; Brotto, Lori A; Yule, Morag A

    2010-07-01

    Evidence from studies of ethnic differences in sexual conservativeness and Papanicolaou (Pap) testing behaviors suggests that there may be culture-linked differences in rates of participation in physically invasive sexuality studies, resulting in volunteer bias. The effects of ethnicity and acculturation on participation in female psychophysiological sexual arousal research were investigated in a sample of Euro-Canadian (n = 50) and East Asian (n = 58) women. Participants completed a battery of questionnaires and were given either course credits or $10 for their participation. Participants were then informed about the opportunity to participate in a second phase of the study, which involved psychophysiological sexual arousal testing and which was completely optional. Contrary to expectations, the results showed that the East Asian women were more likely to participate in Phase 2 than the Euro-Canadian women. Among the East Asian women, greater heritage acculturation and lower mainstream acculturation predicted a lower likelihood of Phase 2 participation. The findings suggest the need to be wary of overgeneralizing female psychophysiological sexual arousal research results and may have implications for improving Pap testing behaviors in East Asian women.

  16. Role of Partner Novelty in Sexual Functioning: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Heather; Gorzalka, Boris B

    2015-01-01

    This review investigates whether sexual desire and arousal decline in response to partner familiarity, increase in response to partner novelty, and show differential responding in men and women. These questions were considered through the perspective of two leading evolutionary theories regarding human mating strategies: sexual strategies theory and attachment fertility theory. The hypotheses emerging from these theories were evaluated through a critical analysis of several areas of research including habituation of arousal to erotic stimuli, preferences regarding number of sexual partners, the effect of long-term monogamous relationships on sexual arousal and desire, and prevalence and risk factors associated with extradyadic behavior. The current literature best supports the predictions made by sexual strategies theory in that sexual functioning has evolved to promote short-term mating. Sexual arousal and desire appear to decrease in response to partner familiarity and increase in response to partner novelty in men and women. Evidence to date suggests this effect may be greater in men.

  17. Sexual Self-Schema Scale for Women—Validation and Psychometric Properties of the Polish Version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Nowosielski, MD

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The sexual self-schema is a part of a broader concept of the self that is believed to be crucial for intrapersonal and interpersonal sexual relationships. Aim: To develop and perform psychometric validation of the Polish version of the Sexual Self-Schema Scale for Women (SSSS-W-PL. Methods: 561 women 18 to 55 years old were included in the final analysis. Linguistic validation was performed in 4 steps in line with the MAPI Institute guidelines. Convergent validity was calculated using the Pearson r product-moment coefficient between different measures of sexuality (attitudes and experience, behavior, arousal, romantic relationship and SSSS-W-PL total and factor scores. To test discriminant validity, we applied hierarchical regression analyses predicting the number of lifetime sexual partners, self-rating as a sexual person (1 item, “I feel sexually attractive”; on a 5-point Likert scale, and arousability, with independent variables being extraversion (Ten-Item Personality Inventory, self-esteem (Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and the SSSS-W-PL (total and factor scores. Main Outcomes Measures: Sexual self-schema was measured by the SSSS-W-PL, whereas arousability was measured by the arousal/excitement scale of the Changes in Sexual Functioning Questionnaire. Results: The mean age of the study population was 29.0 ± 7.6 years. The final scale consisted of 24 adjectives grouped within 4 factors: romantic, passionate, direct, and embarrassed. The 4-factor model accounted for 39% of the variance. The Cronbach α was 0.74 for the SSSS-W-PL total score and 0.61 to 0.84 for individual factors. Test-retest reliability of the scale after 2- to 8-week intervals was 0.87 (95% CI = 0.82–0.86, P < .001. The increment variances were statistically significant and ranged from 3.8% to 11.6%. Conclusion: The analysis showed good psychometric properties and internal validity of the SSSS-W-PL. The SSSS-W-PL might be helpful in consulting and

  18. Attribution of Arousal as a Mediator of the Effectiveness of Fear-Arousing Communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Norbert; And Others

    Characteristics of the situation in which a fear-arousing communication is received affect the effectiveness of the communication. The influence of situational factors affecting a recipient's interpretation of the arousal induced by communication were investigated with smokers (N=37) who were exposed to a fear-arousing anti-smoking movie. Prior to…

  19. Functional neuroanatomy in depressed patients with sexual dysfunction: blood oxygenation level dependent functional MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jong Chul

    2004-01-01

    To demonstrate the functional neuroanatomy associated with sexual arousal visually evoked in depressed males who have underlying sexual dysfunction using Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent-based fMRI. Ten healthy volunteers (age range 21-55: mean 32.5 years), and 10 depressed subjects (age range 23-51: mean 34.4 years, mean Beck Depression Inventory score of 39.6 ± 5.9, mean Hamilton Rating Scale Depression (HAMD)-17 score of 33.5 ± 6.0) with sexual arousal dysfunction viewed erotic and neutral video films during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with 1.5 T MR scanner (GE Signa Horizon). The fMRI data were obtained from 7 oblique planes using gradient-echo EPI (flip angle/TR/TE=90 .deg. /6000 ms/50 ms). The visual stimulation paradigm began with 60 sec of black screen, 150 sec of neutral stimulation with a documentary video film, 30 sec of black screen, 150 sec of sexual stimulation with an erotic video film followed by 30 sec of black screen. The brain activation maps and their quantification were analyzed by SPM99 program. There was a significant difference of brain activation between two groups during visual sexual stimulation. In depressed subjects, the level of activation during the visually evoked sexual arousal was significantly less than that of healthy volunteers, especially in the cerebrocortical areas of the hypothalamus, thalamus, caudate nucleus, and inferior and superior temporal gyri. On the other hand, the cerebral activation patterns during the neutral condition in both groups showed no significant differences (ρ < 0.01). This study is the first demonstration of the functional neuroanatomy of the brain associated with sexual dysfunction in depressed patients using fMRI. In order to validate our physiological neuroscience results, further studies that would include patients with other disorders and sexual dysfunction, and depressed patients without sexual dysfunction and their treatment response are needed

  20. Functional neuroanatomy in depressed patients with sexual dysfunction: blood oxygenation level dependent functional MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jong Chul [Chonnam National Univ. Hospital, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-06-15

    To demonstrate the functional neuroanatomy associated with sexual arousal visually evoked in depressed males who have underlying sexual dysfunction using Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent-based fMRI. Ten healthy volunteers (age range 21-55: mean 32.5 years), and 10 depressed subjects (age range 23-51: mean 34.4 years, mean Beck Depression Inventory score of 39.6 {+-} 5.9, mean Hamilton Rating Scale Depression (HAMD)-17 score of 33.5 {+-} 6.0) with sexual arousal dysfunction viewed erotic and neutral video films during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with 1.5 T MR scanner (GE Signa Horizon). The fMRI data were obtained from 7 oblique planes using gradient-echo EPI (flip angle/TR/TE=90 .deg. /6000 ms/50 ms). The visual stimulation paradigm began with 60 sec of black screen, 150 sec of neutral stimulation with a documentary video film, 30 sec of black screen, 150 sec of sexual stimulation with an erotic video film followed by 30 sec of black screen. The brain activation maps and their quantification were analyzed by SPM99 program. There was a significant difference of brain activation between two groups during visual sexual stimulation. In depressed subjects, the level of activation during the visually evoked sexual arousal was significantly less than that of healthy volunteers, especially in the cerebrocortical areas of the hypothalamus, thalamus, caudate nucleus, and inferior and superior temporal gyri. On the other hand, the cerebral activation patterns during the neutral condition in both groups showed no significant differences ({rho} < 0.01). This study is the first demonstration of the functional neuroanatomy of the brain associated with sexual dysfunction in depressed patients using fMRI. In order to validate our physiological neuroscience results, further studies that would include patients with other disorders and sexual dysfunction, and depressed patients without sexual dysfunction and their treatment response are needed.

  1. Sexual dysfunction during primiparous and multiparous women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Normal sexual functioning comprises of sexual activity together with transition through the phases from arousal to relaxation with no problem. Delivery has different effects on body organs, especially, on genitalia the disorder of which can cause sexual dysfunctions. In this study, an attempt is made to compare postpartum ...

  2. Alexithymia and empathy predict changes in autonomic arousal during affective stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanov, Volodymyr B; Bogdanova, Olena V; Gorlov, Dmytro S; Gorgo, Yuriy P; Dirckx, Joris J J; Makarchuk, Mykola Y; Schoenen, Jean; Critchley, Hugo

    2013-09-01

    Alexithymia, the inability to describe one's own emotions, is linked to deficits in empathy, manifesting as a diminished capacity to recognize or understand the emotions and mental states of others. Several brain centers of autonomic control and interoception that are activated in empathy are thought to misfunction in alexithymia. We hypothesized that individual differences in autonomic changes under affective stimulation might be associated with differences in alexithymia and empathy. We studied 21 healthy volunteers, comparing their alexithymia and empathy scores with changes in their sympathetic autonomic arousal, indexed by the palmar skin potential level, during 3 tasks: playing a computer game, performing mental arithmetic, and watching a negative emotional valence video. Both autonomic and subjective sense of arousal increased at the beginning of each task and then gradually subsided over the course of the task. Higher autonomic arousal at the onset of the computer game was associated with higher empathy scores, and at the onset of the negative video with higher scores for both empathy and alexithymia. Alexithymia delayed the habituation of autonomic arousal during the computer game, while the empathy score was related to a faster decline in arousal during the negative video task. High alexithymia and high empathy scores were linked to increased autonomic arousal at the onset of emotional stimulation, but were distinguishable in the rates of habituation of the evoked arousal. Our data provide insight into the relationships among interacting psychological traits, physiologic regulation, and the arousal dimension of emotional experience.

  3. Evoking and Measuring Arousal in Game Settings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cusveller, J.; Gerritsen, C.; de Man, J.; Gobel, S.; Wiemeyer, J.

    2014-01-01

    Serious games seem to be more effective if the participant feels more involved in the game. The participant should experience a high sense of presence which can be obtained by matching the level of excitement to the level of arousal a participant experiences. The level of arousal should be measured

  4. Sociodemographic and clinical correlates of sexual dysfunction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-02-09

    Feb 9, 2016 ... Objectives: In this study, we described the various types of sexual dysfunction ... Index of Erectile Function Questionnaire for the male participants and the Female ... dopamine, arousal by acetylcholine and nitric oxide, and.

  5. Violent crime rates as a proxy for the social determinants of sexually transmissible infection rates: the consistent state-level correlation between violent crime and reported sexually transmissible infections in the United States, 1981-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesson, Harrell W; Owusu-Edusei, Kwame; Leichliter, Jami S; Aral, Sevgi O

    2013-11-01

    Numerous social determinants of health are associated with violent crime rates and sexually transmissible infection (STI) rates. This report aims to illustrate the potential usefulness of violent crime rates as a proxy for the social determinants of STI rates. For each year from 1981 to 2010, we assessed the strength of the association between the violent crime rate and the gonorrhoea (Neisseria gonorrhoeae) rate (number of total reported cases per 100?000) at the state level. Specifically, for each year, we calculated Pearson correlation coefficients (and P-values) between two variables (the violent crime rate and the natural log of the gonorrhoea rate) for all 50 states and Washington, DC. For comparison, we also examined the correlation between gonorrhoea rates, and rates of poverty and unemployment. We repeated the analysis using overall syphilis rates instead of overall gonorrhoea rates. The correlation between gonorrhoea and violent crime was significant at the P<0.001 level for every year from 1981 to 2010. Syphilis rates were also consistently correlated with violent crime rates. In contrast, the P-value for the correlation coefficient exceeded 0.05 in 9 of the 30 years for the association between gonorrhoea and poverty, and in 17 of the 30 years for that between gonorrhoea and unemployment. Because violent crime is associated with many social determinants of STIs and because it is consistently associated with STI rates, violent crime rates can be a useful proxy for the social determinants of health in statistical analyses of STI rates.

  6. Sexuality Following Radical Prostatectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fode, Mikkel; Serefoglu, Ege C; Albersen, Maarten

    2017-01-01

    incontinence in relation to sexual activity after surgery. This can present at the time of orgasm (ie, climacturia) or arise during arousal. In general, the problem subsides with time and pelvic floor training and tension penile loops can be used as treatments. Orgasmic disturbances after radical prostatectomy...

  7. Race, gender, class, and sexual orientation: intersecting axes of inequality and self-rated health in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Intersectionality theory, a way of understanding social inequalities by race, gender, class, and sexuality that emphasizes their mutually constitutive natures, possesses potential to uncover and explicate previously unknown health inequalities. In this paper, the intersectionality principles of "directionality," "simultaneity," "multiplicativity," and "multiple jeopardy" are applied to inequalities in self-rated health by race, gender, class, and sexual orientation in a Canadian sample. Methods The Canadian Community Health Survey 2.1 (N = 90,310) provided nationally representative data that enabled binary logistic regression modeling on fair/poor self-rated health in two analytical stages. The additive stage involved regressing self-rated health on race, gender, class, and sexual orientation singly and then as a set. The intersectional stage involved consideration of two-way and three-way interaction terms between the inequality variables added to the full additive model created in the previous stage. Results From an additive perspective, poor self-rated health outcomes were reported by respondents claiming Aboriginal, Asian, or South Asian affiliations, lower class respondents, and bisexual respondents. However, each axis of inequality interacted significantly with at least one other: multiple jeopardy pertained to poor homosexuals and to South Asian women who were at unexpectedly high risks of fair/poor self-rated health and mitigating effects were experienced by poor women and by poor Asian Canadians who were less likely than expected to report fair/poor health. Conclusions Although a variety of intersections between race, gender, class, and sexual orientation were associated with especially high risks of fair/poor self-rated health, they were not all consistent with the predictions of intersectionality theory. I conclude that an intersectionality theory well suited for explicating health inequalities in Canada should be capable of accommodating axis

  8. Race, gender, class, and sexual orientation: intersecting axes of inequality and self-rated health in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veenstra Gerry

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intersectionality theory, a way of understanding social inequalities by race, gender, class, and sexuality that emphasizes their mutually constitutive natures, possesses potential to uncover and explicate previously unknown health inequalities. In this paper, the intersectionality principles of "directionality," "simultaneity," "multiplicativity," and "multiple jeopardy" are applied to inequalities in self-rated health by race, gender, class, and sexual orientation in a Canadian sample. Methods The Canadian Community Health Survey 2.1 (N = 90,310 provided nationally representative data that enabled binary logistic regression modeling on fair/poor self-rated health in two analytical stages. The additive stage involved regressing self-rated health on race, gender, class, and sexual orientation singly and then as a set. The intersectional stage involved consideration of two-way and three-way interaction terms between the inequality variables added to the full additive model created in the previous stage. Results From an additive perspective, poor self-rated health outcomes were reported by respondents claiming Aboriginal, Asian, or South Asian affiliations, lower class respondents, and bisexual respondents. However, each axis of inequality interacted significantly with at least one other: multiple jeopardy pertained to poor homosexuals and to South Asian women who were at unexpectedly high risks of fair/poor self-rated health and mitigating effects were experienced by poor women and by poor Asian Canadians who were less likely than expected to report fair/poor health. Conclusions Although a variety of intersections between race, gender, class, and sexual orientation were associated with especially high risks of fair/poor self-rated health, they were not all consistent with the predictions of intersectionality theory. I conclude that an intersectionality theory well suited for explicating health inequalities in Canada should be

  9. Sex Differences in Emotional Evaluation of Film Clips: Interaction with Five High Arousal Emotional Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffei, Antonio; Vencato, Valentina; Angrilli, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate gender differences in the emotional evaluation of 18 film clips divided into six categories: Erotic, Scenery, Neutral, Sadness, Compassion, and Fear. 41 female and 40 male students rated all clips for valence-pleasantness, arousal, level of elicited distress, anxiety, jittery feelings, excitation, and embarrassment. Analysis of positive films revealed higher levels of arousal, pleasantness, and excitation to the Scenery clips in both genders, but lower pleasantness and greater embarrassment in women compared to men to Erotic clips. Concerning unpleasant stimuli, unlike men, women reported more unpleasantness to the Compassion, Sadness, and Fear compared to the Neutral clips and rated them also as more arousing than did men. They further differentiated the films by perceiving greater arousal to Fear than to Compassion clips. Women rated the Sadness and Fear clips with greater Distress and Jittery feelings than men did. Correlation analysis between arousal and the other emotional scales revealed that, although men looked less aroused than women to all unpleasant clips, they also showed a larger variance in their emotional responses as indicated by the high number of correlations and their relatively greater extent, an outcome pointing to a masked larger sensitivity of part of male sample to emotional clips. We propose a new perspective in which gender difference in emotional responses can be better evidenced by means of film clips selected and clustered in more homogeneous categories, controlled for arousal levels, as well as evaluated through a number of emotion focused adjectives. PMID:26717488

  10. Sex Differences in Emotional Evaluation of Film Clips: Interaction with Five High Arousal Emotional Categories.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Maffei

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to investigate gender differences in the emotional evaluation of 18 film clips divided into six categories: Erotic, Scenery, Neutral, Sadness, Compassion, and Fear. 41 female and 40 male students rated all clips for valence-pleasantness, arousal, level of elicited distress, anxiety, jittery feelings, excitation, and embarrassment. Analysis of positive films revealed higher levels of arousal, pleasantness, and excitation to the Scenery clips in both genders, but lower pleasantness and greater embarrassment in women compared to men to Erotic clips. Concerning unpleasant stimuli, unlike men, women reported more unpleasantness to the Compassion, Sadness, and Fear compared to the Neutral clips and rated them also as more arousing than did men. They further differentiated the films by perceiving greater arousal to Fear than to Compassion clips. Women rated the Sadness and Fear clips with greater Distress and Jittery feelings than men did. Correlation analysis between arousal and the other emotional scales revealed that, although men looked less aroused than women to all unpleasant clips, they also showed a larger variance in their emotional responses as indicated by the high number of correlations and their relatively greater extent, an outcome pointing to a masked larger sensitivity of part of male sample to emotional clips. We propose a new perspective in which gender difference in emotional responses can be better evidenced by means of film clips selected and clustered in more homogeneous categories, controlled for arousal levels, as well as evaluated through a number of emotion focused adjectives.

  11. Congruent bodily arousal promotes the constructive recognition of emotional words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kever, Anne; Grynberg, Delphine; Vermeulen, Nicolas

    2017-08-01

    Considerable research has shown that bodily states shape affect and cognition. Here, we examined whether transient states of bodily arousal influence the categorization speed of high arousal, low arousal, and neutral words. Participants realized two blocks of a constructive recognition task, once after a cycling session (increased arousal), and once after a relaxation session (reduced arousal). Results revealed overall faster response times for high arousal compared to low arousal words, and for positive compared to negative words. Importantly, low arousal words were categorized significantly faster after the relaxation than after the cycling, suggesting that a decrease in bodily arousal promotes the recognition of stimuli matching one's current arousal state. These findings highlight the importance of the arousal dimension in emotional processing, and suggest the presence of arousal-congruency effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Sexual orientation and self-rated health: the role of social capital, offence, threat of violence, and violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelsson, Jakob; Modén, Birgit; Rosvall, Maria; Lindström, Martin

    2013-07-01

    To study the association between sexual orientation and self-rated health, including trust, offence, threat of violence, and violence. DESIGN/SETTING/PARTICIPANTS/MEASUREMENT: The 2008 Public Health Survey in Skåne is a cross-sectional postal questionnaire study. A total of 28,198 persons aged 18-80 years responded (55%). Logistic regressions analysed the association between sexual orientation and self-rated health. 27.4% of all men and 30.0% of all women rated their health as poor. Poor self-rated health was significantly more prevalent in higher age, among immigrants, people with lower education, low social support, low trust, experience of being offended, experience of threat of violence and violence, and bisexual and other orientation. Homosexual and bisexual men and women had higher age-adjusted odds ratios of having felt offended compared to heterosexual respondents. The odds ratios of low trust, threat of violence (men), and experience of violence (women) were significant for respondents with bisexual orientation but not for respondents with homosexual orientation. In the age-adjusted model, no significant association was observed between homosexual orientation and poor self-rated health among women. All other associations between sexual orientation and health were significant in the age-adjusted model but non-significant in the multiple models. Associations between sexual orientation and health disappear after multiple adjustments including trust and experience of offence, threat of violence, and violence. The study suggests that the group with bisexual orientation seems to be more exposed to low social capital (trust), threat of violence, and violence than the group with homosexual orientation.

  13. Rates and Covariates of Recent Sexual and Physical Violence Against HIV-Infected Outpatient Drinkers in Western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papas, Rebecca K; Gakinya, Benson N; Mwaniki, Michael M; Lee, Hana; Kiarie, Stella W; Martino, Steve; Loxley, Michelle P; Keter, Alfred K; Klein, Debra A; Sidle, John E; Baliddawa, Joyce B; Maisto, Stephen A

    2017-08-01

    Victimization from physical and sexual violence presents global health challenges. Partner violence is higher in Kenya than Africa. Violence against drinkers and HIV-infected individuals is typically elevated, so dual vulnerabilities may further augment risk. Understanding violence risks can improve interventions. Participants were 614 HIV-infected outpatient drinkers in western Kenya enrolled in a randomized trial to reduce alcohol use. At baseline, past 90-day partner physical and sexual violence were examined descriptively and in gender-stratified regression models. We hypothesized higher reported violence against women than men, and positive violence association with HIV stigma and alcohol use across gender. Women reported significantly more current sexual (26.3 vs. 5.7%) and physical (38.9 vs. 24.8%) victimization than men. Rates were generally higher than Kenyan lifetime national averages. In both regression models, HIV stigma and alcohol-related sexual expectations were significantly associated with violence while alcohol use was not. For women, higher violence risk was also conferred by childhood violence, past-year transactional sex, and younger age. HIV-infected Kenyan drinkers, particularly women, endorse high current violence due to multiple risk factors. Findings have implications for HIV interventions. Longitudinal research is needed to understand development of risk.

  14. A Dyadic Approach to Understanding the Link Between Sexual Functioning and Sexual Satisfaction in Heterosexual Couples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pascoal, Patrícia M.; Byers, E. Sandra; Alvarez, Maria-João; Santos-Iglesias, Pablo; Nobre, Pedro J.; Pereira, Cicero Roberto; Laan, Ellen

    2017-01-01

    Researchers have demonstrated that several dimensions of sexual functioning (e.g., sexual desire, arousal, orgasm) are associated with the sexual satisfaction of individuals in a committed mixed-sex (male-female) relationship. We extended this research by comparing a dyadic model that included both

  15. Role of Sexuality in Body Integrity Identity Disorder (BIID): A Cross-Sectional Internet-Based Survey Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, Rianne M.; van der Wal, Sija J.; Vulink, Nienke C.; Denys, Damiaan

    2017-01-01

    Body integrity identity disorder (BIID)-a strong desire for amputation or paralysis-is often accompanied by feelings and cognitions of sexual arousal, although this sexual component has been largely neglected in the recent literature. To examine the presence of BIID-related sexual arousal in

  16. Not always a matter of context: direct effects of red on arousal but context-dependent moderations on valence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa L. Buechner

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The arousal theory of color proposes that red is associated with arousal. Research on the color-in-context theory, in turn, states that the context in which red is perceived influences its valence-related meaning and behavioral responses to it. This study faces and integrates these theories by examining the influence of red on both arousal and valence perceptions of test-relevant and neutral stimuli, rendering a color 2 (red vs. blue × context 2 (test vs. neutral between-subjects design. Participants rated different pictures regarding their arousal and valence component, respectively. In line with the assumptions of both theories, red increased arousal perceptions of stimuli irrespective of their valence but a context × color interaction was found for valence perceptions: for participants viewing test-relevant pictures, red increased their perceptions of negativity compared to neutral pictures. The present study shows that both theories are actually compatible when differentiating the arousal and valence component.

  17. Sexual thoughts: links to testosterone and cortisol in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldey, Katherine L; van Anders, Sari M

    2012-12-01

    Sexual stimuli increase testosterone (T) or cortisol (C) in males of a variety of species, including humans, and just thinking about sex increases T in women. We investigated whether sexual thoughts change T or C in men and whether hormone measures (baseline, post-activity, and changes) correlate with psychological sexual arousal. We used the Imagined Social Situation Exercise to assess how hormones respond to and correlate with sexual thoughts and arousal relative to three control conditions: neutral, stressful, and positive. A total of 99 men provided a baseline saliva sample, imagined and wrote about a sexual or control situation, and provided a second saliva sample 15 min later. Results indicated that, for participants in the sexual condition, higher baseline and post-activity C corresponded to larger increases in self- reported sexual and autonomic arousal. Although sexual thoughts increased sexual arousal, they did not change T or C compared to control conditions. Our results suggest that sexual thoughts are not sufficient to change T or C in men, but C may facilitate sexual arousal by directing energy towards a sexual situation.

  18. Self-reported Chlamydia testing rates of sexually active women aged 15-25 years in the United States, 2006-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Guoyu; Hoover, Karen W; Leichliter, Jami S; Peterman, Thomas A; Kent, Charlotte K

    2012-08-01

    Using the 2006-2008 National Survey of Family Growth, we estimated a 37.9% annual chlamydia testing rate for sexually active US women aged 15 to 25 years, defined as having ≥ 1 sex partner in the past year. Our results highlight the need for increased testing among sexually active young women.

  19. Interplay between affect and arousal in recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Ciara M; Bahri, Pooja; Soto, David

    2010-07-23

    Emotional states linked to arousal and mood are known to affect the efficiency of cognitive performance. However, the extent to which memory processes may be affected by arousal, mood or their interaction is poorly understood. Following a study phase of abstract shapes, we altered the emotional state of participants by means of exposure to music that varied in both mood and arousal dimensions, leading to four different emotional states: (i) positive mood-high arousal; (ii) positive mood-low arousal; (iii) negative mood-high arousal; (iv) negative mood-low arousal. Following the emotional induction, participants performed a memory recognition test. Critically, there was an interaction between mood and arousal on recognition performance. Memory was enhanced in the positive mood-high arousal and in the negative mood-low arousal states, relative to the other emotional conditions. Neither mood nor arousal alone but their interaction appears most critical to understanding the emotional enhancement of memory.

  20. Interplay between affect and arousal in recognition memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciara M Greene

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Emotional states linked to arousal and mood are known to affect the efficiency of cognitive performance. However, the extent to which memory processes may be affected by arousal, mood or their interaction is poorly understood.Following a study phase of abstract shapes, we altered the emotional state of participants by means of exposure to music that varied in both mood and arousal dimensions, leading to four different emotional states: (i positive mood-high arousal; (ii positive mood-low arousal; (iii negative mood-high arousal; (iv negative mood-low arousal. Following the emotional induction, participants performed a memory recognition test. Critically, there was an interaction between mood and arousal on recognition performance. Memory was enhanced in the positive mood-high arousal and in the negative mood-low arousal states, relative to the other emotional conditions.Neither mood nor arousal alone but their interaction appears most critical to understanding the emotional enhancement of memory.

  1. Teen clinics: missing the mark? Comparing pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections rates among enrolled and non-enrolled adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Souradet Y; Metge, Colleen; Taylor, Carole; Chartier, Mariette; Charette, Catherine; Lix, Lisa; Santos, Rob; Sarkar, Joykrishna; Nickel, Nathan C; Burland, Elaine; Chateau, Dan; Katz, Alan; Brownell, Marni; Martens, Patricia J

    2016-06-21

    In Manitoba, Canada, school-based clinics providing sexual and reproductive health services for adolescents have been implemented to address high rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and pregnancies. The objectives of this population-based study were to compare pregnancy and STI rates between adolescents enrolled in schools with school-based clinics, those in schools without clinics, and those not enrolled in school. Data were from the PATHS Data Resource held in the Population Health Research Data Repository housed at the Manitoba Centre for Health Policy. Adolescents aged 14 to 19 between 2003 and 2009 were included in the study. Annualized rates of pregnancies and positive STI tests were estimated and Poisson regression models were used to test for differences in rates amongst the three groups. As a proportion, pregnancies among non-enrolled female adolescents accounted for 55 % of all pregnancies in this age group during the study period. Pregnancy rates were 2-3 times as high among non-enrolled female adolescents. Compared to adolescents enrolled in schools without school-based clinics, age-adjusted STI rates were 3.5 times (p pregnancies and STIs were observed among non-enrolled adolescents. Although provision of reproductive and health services to in-school adolescents should remain a priority, program planning and design should consider optimal strategies to engage out of school youth.

  2. Arousal, mood, and the Mozart effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, W F; Schellenberg, E G; Husain, G

    2001-05-01

    The "Mozart effect" refers to claims that people perform better on tests of spatial abilities after listening to music composed by Mozart. We examined whether the Mozart effect is a consequence of between-condition differences in arousal and mood. Participants completed a test of spatial abilities after listening to music or sitting in silence. The music was a Mozart sonata (a pleasant and energetic piece) for some participants and an Albinoni adagio (a slow, sad piece) for others. We also measured enjoyment, arousal, and mood. Performance on tbe spatial task was better following the music than the silence condition but only for participants who heard Mozart. The two music selections also induced differential responding on the enjoyment, arousal and mood measures. Moreover, when such differences were held constant by statistical means, the Mozart effect disappeared. These findings provide compelling evidence that the Mozart effect is an artifact of arousal and mood.

  3. Age, growth rate and size at sexual maturity of Labeobarbus aeneus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Of 193 L. aeneus collected by gillnetting, 96 were assessed for sexual maturity, and ages were estimated using scales (n = 143) and whole otoliths (n = 167). Whole otoliths were found to be the most appropriate method for ageing. Both males and females were present in all age classes, which ranged from 2 to 19 years.

  4. Age estimation, growth rate and size at sexual maturity of tigerfish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 206 tigerfish Hydrocynus vittatus, collected by angling in August 2005, 2006 and 2007, was assessed for sexual maturity and relative ages were estimated from 135 of these, using scales and whole and sectioned otoliths. Sectioned otoliths were the most appropriate method for ageing H. vittatus of up to 20 years ...

  5. The detection, rate and manifestation of residual sexuality in apomictic populations of Pilosella (Asteraceae, Lactuceae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krahulcová, Anna; Rotreklová, O.; Krahulec, František

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 2 (2014), s. 239-258 ISSN 1211-9520 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/10/1363 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : facultative apomixis * haploid parthenogenesis * interspecific hybridization * Pilosella * residual sexuality Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.778, year: 2014

  6. Dissociable modulation of overt visual attention in valence and arousal revealed by topology of scan path.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianguang Ni

    Full Text Available Emotional stimuli have evolutionary significance for the survival of organisms; therefore, they are attention-grabbing and are processed preferentially. The neural underpinnings of two principle emotional dimensions in affective space, valence (degree of pleasantness and arousal (intensity of evoked emotion, have been shown to be dissociable in the olfactory, gustatory and memory systems. However, the separable roles of valence and arousal in scene perception are poorly understood. In this study, we asked how these two emotional dimensions modulate overt visual attention. Twenty-two healthy volunteers freely viewed images from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS that were graded for affective levels of valence and arousal (high, medium, and low. Subjects' heads were immobilized and eye movements were recorded by camera to track overt shifts of visual attention. Algebraic graph-based approaches were introduced to model scan paths as weighted undirected path graphs, generating global topology metrics that characterize the algebraic connectivity of scan paths. Our data suggest that human subjects show different scanning patterns to stimuli with different affective ratings. Valence salient stimuli (with neutral arousal elicited faster and larger shifts of attention, while arousal salient stimuli (with neutral valence elicited local scanning, dense attention allocation and deep processing. Furthermore, our model revealed that the modulatory effect of valence was linearly related to the valence level, whereas the relation between the modulatory effect and the level of arousal was nonlinear. Hence, visual attention seems to be modulated by mechanisms that are separate for valence and arousal.

  7. Personality modulates the effects of emotional arousal and valence on brain activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehoe, Elizabeth G; Toomey, John M; Balsters, Joshua H; Bokde, Arun L W

    2012-10-01

    The influence of personality on the neural correlates of emotional processing is still not well characterized. We investigated the relationship between extraversion and neuroticism and emotional perception using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in a group of 23 young, healthy women. Using a parametric modulation approach, we examined how the blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signal varied with the participants' ratings of arousal and valence, and whether levels of extraversion and neuroticism were related to these modulations. In particular, we wished to test Eysenck's biological theory of personality, which links high extraversion to lower levels of reticulothalamic-cortical arousal, and neuroticism to increased reactivity of the limbic system and stronger reactions to emotional arousal. Individuals high in neuroticism demonstrated reduced sustained activation in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and attenuated valence processing in the right temporal lobe while viewing emotional images, but an increased BOLD response to emotional arousal in the right medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). These results support Eysenck's theory, as well as our hypothesis that high levels of neuroticism are associated with attenuated reward processing. Extraversion was inversely related to arousal processing in the right cerebellum, but positively associated with arousal processing in the right insula, indicating that the relationship between extraversion and arousal is not as simple as that proposed by Eysenck.

  8. Musically induced arousal affects pain perception in females but not in males: a psychophysiological examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenntner-Mabiala, Ramona; Gorges, Susanne; Alpers, Georg W; Lehmann, Andreas C; Pauli, Paul

    2007-04-01

    The present study investigated affective and physiological responses to changes of tempo and mode in classical music and their effects on heat pain perception. Thirty-eight healthy non-musicians (17 female) listened to sequences of 24 music stimuli which were variations of 4 pieces of classical music. Tempo (46, 60, and 95 beats/min) and mode (major and minor) were manipulated digitally, all other musical elements were held constant. Participants rated valence, arousal, happiness and sadness of the musical stimuli as well as the intensity and the unpleasantness of heat pain stimuli which were applied during music listening. Heart rate, respiratory rate and end-tidal PCO(2) were recorded. Pain ratings were highest for the fastest tempo. Also, participants' arousal ratings, their respiratory rate and heart rate were accelerated by the fastest tempo. The modulation of pain perception by the tempo of music seems to be mediated by the listener's arousal.

  9. Differential use of sensory information in sexual behavior as a function of gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herz, R S; Cahill, E D

    1997-09-01

    Olfactory information is critical to mammalian sexual behavior. Based on parental investment theory the relative importance of olfaction compared with vision, touch, and hearing should be different for human males and females. In particular, because of its link to immunological profile and offspring viability, odor should be a more important determinant of sexual choice and arousal for females than for males. To test this hypothesis a questionnaire was developed and administered to 332 adults (166 males, 166 females). Subjects used a 1-7 scale to indicate how much they agreed with a series of statements concerning the importance of olfactory, visual, auditory, and tactile information for their sexual responsivity. The data reveal that males rated visual and olfactory information as being equally important for selecting a lover, while females considered olfactory information to be the single most important variable in mate choice. Additionally, when considering sexual activity, females singled out body odor from all other sensory experiences as most able to negatively affect desire, while males regarded odors as much more neutral stimuli for sexual arousal. The present results support recent findings in mice and humans concerning the relation of female preferences in body odor and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) compatibility and can be explained by an evolutionary analysis of sex differences in reproductive strategies. This work represents the first direct examination of the role of different forms of sensory information in human sexual behavior.

  10. The Role of Arousal in the Spontaneous Regulation of Emotions in Healthy Aging: An fMRI Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanda eDolcos

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite ample support for enhanced affective well-being and emotional stability in healthy aging, the role of potentially important dimensions, such as the emotional arousal, has not been systematically investigated in neuroimaging studies. In addition, the few behavioral studies that examined effects of arousal have produced inconsistent findings. The present study manipulated the arousal of pictorial stimuli to test the hypothesis that preserved emotional functioning in aging is modulated by the level of arousal, and to identify the associated neural correlates. Young and older healthy participants were presented with negative and neutral pictures, which they rated for emotional content, while fMRI data were recorded. There were three main novel findings regarding the neural mechanisms underlying the processing of negative pictures with different levels of arousal in young and older adults. First, the common engagement of the right amygdala in young and older adults was driven by high arousing negative stimuli. Second, complementing an age-related reduction in the subjective ratings for low arousing negative pictures, there were opposing patterns of activity in the rostral/ventral anterior cingulate cortex (ACC and the amygdala, which showed increased vs. decreased responses, respectively, to low arousing negative pictures. Third, increased spontaneous activity in the ventral ACC/ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC in older adults was linked to reduced ratings for low arousing negative pictures. Overall, these findings advance our understanding of the neural correlates underlying processing of negative emotions with different levels of arousal in the context of enhanced emotional functioning in healthy aging. Notably, the results support the idea that older adults have emotion regulation networks chronically activated, in the absence of explicit induction of the goal to regulate emotions, and that this effect is specific to low arousing

  11. Rapid upregulation of heart antioxidant enzymes during arousal from estivation in the Giant African snail (Achatina fulica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salway, Kurtis D; Tattersall, Glenn J; Stuart, Jeffrey A

    2010-11-01

    Estivation is an adaptive response to environments characterized by elevated temperatures and desiccative stress, as may occur during summer dry seasons. Similar to diapause and hibernation, it is characterized by low levels of activity, a drastically suppressed metabolic rate and enhanced stress resistance. We tested the hypothesis that Achatina fulica, a pulmonate land snail, enhances stress resistance during estivation and/or arousal by upregulating intracellular antioxidant defenses in the heart, kidney, hepatopancreas and foot tissues. No statistically significant changes in mitochondrial or cytosolic superoxide dismutase levels or activities, or glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase or catalase activities were associated with estivation in any tissue, however. In contrast, during arousal from estivation, activities of several antioxidant enzymes increased in heart, hepatopancreas and foot. In heart, a rapid increase in MnSOD protein levels was observed that peaked at 2h post arousal, but no such change was observed in CuZnSOD protein levels. Glutathione peroxidase activity was upregulated at 1h post arousal and remained elevated until 8h post arousal in heart tissue. Glutathione peroxidase was also upregulated at 24h post arousal in foot tissue. Glutathione reductase activity was upregulated at 4h post arousal in heart and foot tissues whereas catalase activity showed no changes. Markers of lipid peroxidation and protein damage revealed no significant increases during estivation or arousal. Therefore, antioxidant enzymes may play a role in oxidative stress defense specifically during arousal from estivation in A. fulica. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The impact of childbirth on female sexuality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Leal

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare variables related to sexual functioning, namely: sexual desire, arousal, orgasm, pain, sexual satisfaction and sexual function in women during the pregnancy and 3 months after delivery. Methods: This is an exploratory and descriptive, quantitative study. A non-probability, convenience sample of 62 women in the first stage, and of 52 women in the second stage, was used. The two groups were not significantly different regarding socio-demographic aspects. The main outcome measures used were the female sexual function as assessed by the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI and a Socio-demographic and Clinical Questionnaire. Results: The women presented higher mean levels of sexual satisfaction after birth, than during the pregnancy presenting statistically significant differences. Also they had lower mean levels of sexual desire, sexual arousal and vaginal lubrication after delivery. Regarding the orgasm, they presented higher mean levels in the postpartum period. The overall sexual function after childbirth did not present significant differences when comparing the pregnancy period to the postpartum, but presented higher mean levels during the pregnancy. Pain levels were higher during the pregnancy. Conclusion: We found no significant differences between the two groups, in most of the studied variables. However, Sexual Arousal and Sexual Satisfaction presented statistically significant differences.

  13. Toward a More Evidence-Based Nosology and Nomenclature for Female Sexual Dysfunctions—Part II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parish, Sharon J; Goldstein, Andrew T; Goldstein, Sue W

    2016-01-01

    to definitions of female sexual desire, arousal, and orgasm disorders and persistent genital arousal disorder. The attendees consisted of 10 psychiatrists and psychologists; 12 health care providers in specialties such as gynecology, internal medicine, and sexual medicine; three basic scientists; and one...

  14. Neural Correlates of Processing Negative and Sexually Arousing Pictures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Kira; West, Robert; Mullaney, Kellie M.

    2012-01-01

    Recent work has questioned whether the negativity bias is a distinct component of affective picture processing. The current study was designed to determine whether there are different neural correlates of processing positive and negative pictures using event-related brain potentials. The early posterior negativity and late positive potential were greatest in amplitude for erotic pictures. Partial Least Squares analysis revealed one latent variable that distinguished erotic pictures from neutral and positive pictures and another that differentiated negative pictures from neutral and positive pictures. The effects of orienting task on the neural correlates of processing negative and erotic pictures indicate that affective picture processing is sensitive to both stimulus-driven, and attentional or decision processes. The current data, together with other recent findings from our laboratory, lead to the suggestion that there are distinct neural correlates of processing negative and positive stimuli during affective picture processing. PMID:23029071

  15. Emotional arousal and memory after deep encoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leventon, Jacqueline S; Camacho, Gabriela L; Ramos Rojas, Maria D; Ruedas, Angelica

    2018-05-22

    Emotion often enhances long-term memory. One mechanism for this enhancement is heightened arousal during encoding. However, reducing arousal, via emotion regulation (ER) instructions, has not been associated with reduced memory. In fact, the opposite pattern has been observed: stronger memory for emotional stimuli encoded with an ER instruction to reduce arousal. This pattern may be due to deeper encoding required by ER instructions. In the current research, we examine the effects of emotional arousal and deep-encoding on memory across three studies. In Study 1, adult participants completed a writing task (deep-encoding) for encoding negative, neutral, and positive picture stimuli, whereby half the emotion stimuli had the ER instruction to reduce the emotion. Memory was strong across conditions, and no memory enhancement was observed for any condition. In Study 2, adult participants completed the same writing task as Study 1, as well as a shallow-encoding task for one-third of negative, neutral, and positive trials. Memory was strongest for deep vs. shallow encoding trials, with no effects of emotion or ER instruction. In Study 3, adult participants completed a shallow-encoding task for negative, neutral, and positive stimuli, with findings indicating enhanced memory for negative emotional stimuli. Findings suggest that deep encoding must be acknowledged as a source of memory enhancement when examining manipulations of emotion-related arousal. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Does Emotional Arousal Influence Swearing Fluency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Richard; Zile, Amy

    2017-08-01

    This study assessed the effect of experimentally manipulated emotional arousal on swearing fluency. We hypothesised that swear word generation would be increased with raised emotional arousal. The emotional arousal of 60 participants was manipulated by having them play a first-person shooter video game or, as a control, a golf video game, in a randomised order. A behavioural measure of swearing fluency based on the Controlled Oral Word Association Test was employed. Successful experimental manipulation was indicated by raised State Hostility Questionnaire scores after playing the shooter game. Swearing fluency was significantly greater after playing the shooter game compared with the golf game. Validity of the swearing fluency task was demonstrated via positive correlations with self-reported swearing fluency and daily swearing frequency. In certain instances swearing may represent a form of emotional expression. This finding will inform debates around the acceptability of using taboo language.

  17. Financial Anxiety, Physiological Arousal, and Planning Intention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Grable

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Results from this exploratory clinical study indicate that financial anxiety—holding an unhealthy attitude about one’s financial situation—and physiological arousal—the physical precursor to behavior—play important roles in shaping consumer intention to engage in future financial planning activity. Findings suggest that those who are most likely to engage the services of a financial adviser exhibit low levels of financial anxiety and moderate to high levels of physiological arousal. The least likely to seek the help of a financial adviser are those who exhibit high financial anxiety and low physiological arousal. Results support findings documented in the literature that high anxiety levels often lead to a form of self-imposed helplessness. In order to move those experiencing financial anxiety towards financial solutions, financial advisers ought to take steps to simultaneously reduce financial stressors and stimulate arousal as a way to promote behavioral change and help seeking.

  18. Longitudinal changes in sexual functioning as women transition through menopause: results from the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avis, Nancy E; Brockwell, Sarah; Randolph, John F; Shen, Shunhua; Cain, Virginia S; Ory, Marcia; Greendale, Gail A

    2009-01-01

    Sexual functioning is an important component of women's lives. The extent to which the menopausal transition is associated with decreased sexual functioning remains inconclusive. This study seeks to determine if advancing through the menopausal transition is associated with changes in sexual functioning. This was a prospective, longitudinal cohort study of women aged 42 to 52 years at baseline recruited at seven US sites (N = 3,302) in the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN). Cohort-eligible women had an intact uterus, had at least one ovary, were not currently using exogenous hormones, were either premenopausal or early perimenopausal, and self-identified as one of the study's designated racial/ethnic groups. Data from the baseline interview and six annual follow-up visits are reported. Outcomes are self-reported ratings of importance of sex; frequency of sexual desire, arousal, masturbation, sexual intercourse, and pain during intercourse; and degree of emotional satisfaction and physical pleasure. With adjustment for baseline age, chronological aging, and relevant social, health, and psychological parameters, the odds of reporting vaginal or pelvic pain increased and desire decreased by late perimenopause. Masturbation increased at early perimenopause but declined during postmenopause. The menopausal transition was unrelated to other outcomes. Health, psychological functioning, and importance of sex were related to all sexual function outcomes. Age, race/ethnicity, marital status, change in relationship, and vaginal dryness were also associated with sexual functioning. Pain during sexual intercourse increases and sexual desire decreases over the menopausal transition. Masturbation increases during the early transition, but then declines in postmenopause. With adjustment for other factors, the menopausal transition was not independently associated with reports of the importance of sex, sexual arousal, frequency of sexual intercourse, emotional

  19. Micro-arousals during nocturnal sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halász, P; Kundra, O; Rajna, P; Pál, I; Vargha, M

    1979-01-01

    In 8 young adult human subjects EEG- and polygraphic characteristics of transient shifts towards arousal (micro-arousal, MA) have been studied during sleep under five different experimental conditions in 40 night sessions. Out of the five applied experimental situations, two (psychostimulant application and sensory stimulation) resulted in a shift of the balance between the systems of sleep and arousal towards an increased activity of the arousal system, while an other condition (rebound following partial sleep deprivation) led to an opposite change to a rise in "sleep pressure". An inverse correlation has been found between the frequency of MA and the depth of sleep, a finding consistently observed in every subject and in every experimental situation. During the process of sleep periodic changes in the dispersity of MA could be seen; the number of MA-s decreased and increased according to the descending and ascending slope of the sleep cycles. During the ascending slope of cycles there was a coupling between the occurence of MA-s and the changes of phases. Increases in the level of activation and in sleep pressure did not influence the occurrence of MA-s. Increasing the tone of the arousal system in chemical way, or by means of enhancing the phasic sensory input resulted in a reduction of the difference between the number of MA on the descending and ascending slopes of cycles. During the phases of sleep, the spontaneous occurrence of MA-s went parallel with the possibility to evoke MA-s by sensory stimuli. These data show that MA is a regular phenomenon of nocturnal sleep; MA manifests itself as a result of phasic functioning of the reticular arousal system and plays a role in the organization of those periods of the sleep cycle, which tend toward arousal. It is suggested that MA-phenomenon is considered a standard measure of sleep and that it could represent an indicator of the function of the arousal system controlled by external or internal mechanisms during

  20. Classical conditioning of sexual response in women: a replication study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Both, Stephanie; Brauer, Marieke; Laan, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    According to incentive motivation models, sexual stimuli play a crucial role in eliciting sexual arousal, desire, and behavior. Therefore, it seems highly valuable to investigate the process through which stimuli acquire motivational value. Although many theories of human sexual behavior assume that

  1. An Analysis of College Students' Anonymous Questions about Human Sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valois, Robert F.; Waring, Kathryn A.

    1991-01-01

    Study analyzed the frequency and type of questions about sexuality submitted anonymously by college students in health education courses over five semesters. The most common categories were sexual arousal/response; general anatomy/physiology; contraception; dating/relationships; pregnancy/fertility; and sexually transmitted diseases. The appendix…

  2. How Arousal Affects Younger and Older Adults' Memory Binding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nashiro, Kaoru; Mather, Mara

    2009-01-01

    A number of recent studies have shown that associative memory for within-item features is enhanced for emotionally arousing items, whereas arousal-enhanced binding is not seen for associations between distinct items (for a review see Mather, 2007). The costs and benefits of arousal in memory binding have been examined for younger adults but not for older adults. The present experiment examined whether arousal would enhance younger and older adults' within-item and between-item memory binding. The results revealed that arousal improved younger adults' within-item memory binding but not that of older adults. Arousal worsened both groups' between-item memory binding. PMID:21240821

  3. [Light therapy as a treatment for sexual dysfunctions--beyond a pilot study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossini, Letizia; Caterini, Claudia; Koukouna, Despoina; Casolaro, Ilaria; Roggi, Monica; Di Volo, Silvia; Fargnoli, Francesco; Ponchietti, Roberto; Benbow, Jim; Fagiolini, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Seasonal trends were demonstrated in reproduction and sexual activity. Through the secretion ofmelatonin the pineal gland plays an important role in the neuroendocrine control of sexual function and reproductive physiology. We hypothesized that inhibition of the pineal gland activity through a light treatment may favorably affect sexual function. We recruited 24 subjects with a diagnosis of hypoactive sexual desire disorder and/or primary sexual arousal disorder. The subjects were randomly assigned to either active light treatment (ALT) or placebo light treatment (L-PBO). Participants were assessed during the first evaluation and after 2 weeks of treatment, using the Structured Clinical Interview for Sexual Disorders DSM-IV (SCID-S) and a self-administered rating scale of the level of sexual satisfaction (1 to 10). Repeated ANOVA measures were performed to compare the two groups of patients. Post-hoc analysis was performed by Holm-Sidak test for repeated comparisons. Results. At baseline the two groups were comparable. After 2 weeks the group treated with Light Therapy showed a significant improvement in sexual satisfaction, about 3 times higher than the group that received placebo, while no significant improvement was observed in the group L-PBO. Conclusions. Our results confirm a potentially beneficial effect of Light Therapy on primary sexual dysfunction. In the future, we propose to correlate clinical findings with testosterone levels pre/post treatment.

  4. An Online Cross-Sectional Comparison of Women With Symptoms of Persistent Genital Arousal, Painful Persistent Genital Arousal, and Chronic Vulvar Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackowich, Robyn A; Pink, Leah; Gordon, Allan; Poirier, Évéline; Pukall, Caroline F

    2018-04-01

    Persistent genital arousal disorder (PGAD) is an understudied condition characterized by unwanted physiologic genital arousal in the absence of subjective sexual arousal. Markos and Dinsmore (Int J STD AIDS 2013;24:852-858) theorized that PGAD shares a number of similarities with vulvodynia (unexplained chronic vulvar pain [CVP]), including symptom characteristics and comorbidities. To compare medical histories, symptom characteristics, pain characteristics, and daily functioning among women with persistent genital pain (PGA) (n = 42), painful PGA (n = 37), and CVP (n = 42) symptoms. An online cross-sectional survey was conducted from October 2015 through April 2016. Self-report measures of symptoms, diagnosed medical conditions, pain characteristics (McGill Pain Questionnaire), catastrophizing (Pain Catastrophizing Scale), and daily functioning (Functional Status Questionnaire) were collected. All 3 groups reported similar medical diagnoses and high frequencies of other chronic pelvic pain conditions. Women in all 3 groups reported comparable ages at symptom onset and timing of symptom expression (ie, constant vs intermittent). Women in the 2 PGA groups reported significantly greater feelings of helplessness than women in the CVP group. Women in the painful PGA and CVP groups endorsed significantly more sensory terms to describe their symptoms compared with women in the PGA group, whereas women in the painful PGA group reported significantly more affective terms to describe their symptoms compared with women in the CVP group. Women in the 2 PGA groups reported that their symptoms interfered significantly with most areas of daily functioning. Given the similarities between PGA and CVP symptoms, women with PGA may benefit from similar assessment, treatment, and research approaches. Limitations of the present study include its sole use of self-report measures; the presence of PGA or CVP symptoms was not confirmed by clinical assessment. However, the anonymous

  5. Extinction of Aversive Classically Conditioned Human Sexual Response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brom, M.; Laan, E.; Everaerd, W.; Spinhoven, P.; Both, S.

    INTRODUCTION: Research has shown that acquired subjective likes and dislikes are quite resistant to extinction. Moreover, studies on female sexual response demonstrated that diminished genital arousal and positive affect toward erotic stimuli due to aversive classical conditioning did not extinguish

  6. The role of conditioning, learning and dopamine in sexual behavior: a narrative review of animal and human studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brom, Mirte; Both, Stephanie; Laan, Ellen; Everaerd, Walter; Spinhoven, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Many theories of human sexual behavior assume that sexual stimuli obtain arousing properties through associative learning processes. It is widely accepted that classical conditioning contributes to the etiology of both normal and maladaptive human behaviors. Despite the hypothesized importance of

  7. The role of conditioning, learning and dopamine in sexual behavior : A narrative review of animal and human studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brom, M.; Both, S.; Laan, E.; Everaerd, W.; Spinhoven, P.

    Many theories of human sexual behavior assume that sexual stimuli obtain arousing properties through associative learning processes. It is widely accepted that classical conditioning contributes to the etiology of both normal and maladaptive human behaviors. Despite the hypothesized importance of

  8. Toward Identification of the Sexual Killer: A Comparison of Sexual Killers Engaging in Post-Mortem Sexual Interference and Non-Homicide Sexual Aggressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgs, Tamsin; Carter, Adam J; Stefanska, Ewa B; Glorney, Emily

    2017-08-01

    Establishing a model of sexual assault reflecting psychosocial and behavioral characteristics of perpetrators of sexual killing and rape is necessary for development in risk assessment and intervention. Methodological variations in defining sexual killing have amalgamated serial and non-serial offenders and perpetrators with direct and indirect associations between killing and sexual arousal. This study defined sexual killing specifying that killing should be directly linked to sexual arousal, and sampled 48 sexual killers, operationalized to include only those engaging in post-mortem sexual interference, with one or two known female victims (non-serial), from prison service national (England and Wales) databases. These sexual killers were compared with 48 non-homicide, life or indeterminately sentenced sexual aggressors on psychological and crime scene characteristics. Contrary to previous research, fatal outcomes were associated with neither stranger victims nor weapon presence; sexual killing was characterized by severity of violence less so than non-fatal assault. Sexual killers more often reported problems with emotional loneliness, empathic concern, and sexual entitlement than the sexual aggressors. Theoretical and applied implications are discussed.

  9. The Sexual Disgust Questionnaire; a psychometric study and a first exploration in patients with sexual dysfunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Overveld, Mark; de Jong, Peter J; Peters, Madelon L; van Lankveld, Jacques; Melles, Reinhilde; ter Kuile, Moniek M

    2013-02-01

    Disgust may be involved in sexual problems by disrupting sexual arousal and motivating avoidance of sexual intercourse. To test whether heightened disgust for sexual contaminants is related to sexual dysfunctions, the Sexual Disgust Questionnaire (SDQ) has recently been developed. Previous research showed that particularly women with vaginismus display a generally heightened dispositional disgust propensity and heightened disgust toward stimuli depicting sexual intercourse. To determine the psychometric properties of the SDQ and test whether heightened disgust toward sexual stimuli is specific to vaginismus or can be observed in other sexual dysfunctions as well. First, a large sample of undergraduates and university employees completed the SDQ (N = 762) and several trait disgust indices. Next, women with vaginismus (N = 39), dyspareunia (N = 45), and men with erectile disorder (N = 28) completed the SDQ and were compared to participants without sexual problems (N = 70). SDQ to index sexual disgust. The SDQ proved a valid and reliable index to establish disgust propensity for sexual stimuli. Supporting construct validity of the SDQ, sexual disgust correlated with established trait indices. Furthermore, sexual disgust and willingness to handle sexually contaminated stimuli were associated with sexual functioning in women, but not in men. Specifically women with vaginismus displayed heightened sexual disgust compared to women without sexual problems, while men with erectile disorders demonstrated a lower willingness to handle sexually contaminated stimuli compared to men without sexual problems. The SDQ appears a valid and reliable measure of sexual disgust. The pattern of SDQ-scores across males and females with and without sexual dysfunctions corroborates earlier research suggesting that disgust appraisals are involved especially in vaginismus and supports the view that the difficulty with vaginal penetration experienced by women in vaginismus may partly be due to

  10. Pleasure, arousal, dominance: Mehrabian and Russell revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, I.C.; van der Voordt, Theo; de Boon, J; Vink, P.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a discursive review of the dimensions pleasure, arousal and dominance that Mehrabian and Russell developed in 1974 to assess environmental perception, experience, and psychological responses. Since then numerous researchers applied these dimensions to assess the experience of the

  11. Sexual affordances, perceptual-motor invariance extraction and intentional nonlinear dynamics: sexually deviant and non-deviant patterns in male subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renaud, Patrice; Goyette, Mathieu; Chartier, Sylvain; Zhornitski, Simon; Trottier, Dominique; Rouleau, Joanne-L; Proulx, Jean; Fedoroff, Paul; Bradford, John-P; Dassylva, Benoit; Bouchard, Stephane

    2010-10-01

    Sexual arousal and gaze behavior dynamics are used to characterize deviant sexual interests in male subjects. Pedophile patients and non-deviant subjects are immersed with virtual characters depicting relevant sexual features. Gaze behavior dynamics as indexed from correlation dimensions (D2) appears to be fractal in nature and significantly different from colored noise (surrogate data tests and recurrence plot analyses were performed). This perceptual-motor fractal dynamics parallels sexual arousal and differs from pedophiles to non-deviant subjects when critical sexual information is processed. Results are interpreted in terms of sexual affordance, perceptual invariance extraction and intentional nonlinear dynamics.

  12. Effect of PLISSIT Model on Solution of Sexual Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esra Uslu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This systematic review study aims to determine the effect of PLISSIT model (permission, limited information, special suggestions, intensive therapy in the care of individuals having sexual problems. Two of the studies included in the systematic review have been carried out in Iran and one of them in Turkey. These studies were limited to the patients with stoma and women having sexual problems. Results presented that care via PLISSIT model improves the sexual functions and reduces sexual stress, increases the sexual desire, sexual arousal, lubrication, orgasm, sexual satisfaction and frequency of sexual activity. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2016; 8(1: 52-63

  13. A combination of high stress-induced tense and energetic arousal compensates for impairing effects of stress on memory retrieval in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehringer, Andreas; Schwabe, Lars; Schachinger, Hartmut

    2010-09-01

    Stress can both impair and enhance memory retrieval. Glucocorticoids mediate impairing effects of stress on memory retrieval. Little is known, however, about factors that facilitate post-stress memory performance. Here, we asked whether stress-induced arousal mediates facilitative stress effects on memory retrieval. Two arousal dimensions were separated: tense arousal, which is characterized by feelings ranging from tension and anxiety to calmness and quietness, and energetic arousal, which is associated with feelings ranging from energy and vigor to states of fatigue and tiredness. Fifty-one men (mean age +/- SEM: 24.57 +/- 0.61 years) learned emotional and neutral words. Memory for these words was tested 165 min later, after participants were exposed to a psychosocial stress or a non-arousing control condition. Changes in heart rate, self-reported (energetic and tense) arousal, and saliva cortisol in response to the stress/control condition were measured. Overall, stress impaired memory retrieval. However, stressed participants with large increases in both tense and energetic arousal performed comparably to controls. Neither salivary cortisol level nor autonomic arousal predicted memory performance after controlling for changes in energetic and tense arousal. The present data indicate that stress-induced concurrent changes in tense and energetic arousal can compensate for impairing effects of stress on memory retrieval. This finding could help to explain some of the discrepancies in the literature on stress and memory.

  14. Sexual Well-Being in Older Women: The Relevance of Sexual Excitation and Sexual Inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Suzanne; Reissing, Elke D

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to use the dual control model of sexual response (DCM) to investigate variation in sexual well-being among women 50 years of age and older. Data from 185 women 50 years of age and older (M = 59.46, SD = 6.96) were used to examine the relationships between sexual excitation (SE) and sexual inhibition (SI) and their lower-order factors to indicators of sexual well-being (i.e., sexual functioning, satisfaction, distress, frequency of sexual activity, and breadth of sexual behavior). Possible moderating factors were also explored. Independently, SE and SI were associated with the majority of the indicators of sexual well-being, and the directions of associations were consistent with the tenets of the DCM. SE and SI lower-order factors were significant predictors of sexual function, satisfaction, and frequency of sexual activity. Sexual distress was predicted more strongly by SI factors and breadth of sexual behavior by one SE lower-order factor (arousability). Partner physical and mental health and participant's own mental health were identified as moderating variables of these associations. Findings of this study are discussed considering the contribution of the DCM to understanding the role of diversity in older women's sexual well-being.

  15. Fibromyalgia and sexual problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Scarpellini

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review was to describe the recent literature concerning sexual dysfunction in fibromyalgic patients. To this end, we used the common online databases PubMed, MEDLINE and EMBASE (up to June 2012 and searched for the key words fibromyalgia (FM and sexual dysfunction. All the studies examined underlined that FM is strictly associated with sexual dysfunction in women. The major findings observed were related to a decreased sexual desire and arousal, decreased experience of orgasm, and in some studies an increase in genital pain. The psychological aspects, together with the stress related to the constant presence of chronic widespread pain, fatigue and sleep disturbances, are certainly a major factor that adversely affects the sexuality of the patient with FM. Moreover, the drugs most commonly used in these cases may interfere negatively on the sexuality and sexual function of these patients. Therefore, the therapeutic intervention should be targeted and the side effects should be weighed up against the positive effects. It is of the utmost importance to recognise the problem of sexuality and sexual dysfunction in a more complex form of its expression and undertake a multidisciplinary therapeutic intervention to improve the quality of FM patients’ life.

  16. Mixed Emotions: An Incentive Motivational Model of Sexual Deviance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smid, Wineke J; Wever, Edwin C

    2018-05-01

    Sexual offending behavior is a complex and multifaceted phenomenon. Most existing etiological models describe sexual offending behavior as a variant of offending behavior and mostly include factors referring to disinhibition and sexual deviance. In this article, we argue that there is additional value in describing sexual offending behavior as sexual behavior in terms of an incentive model of sexual motivation. The model describes sexual arousal as an emotion, triggered by a competent stimulus signaling potential reward, and comparable to other emotions coupled with strong bodily reactions. Consequently, we describe sexual offending behavior in terms of this new model with emphasis on the development of deviant sexual interests and preferences. Summarized, the model states that because sexual arousal itself is an emotion, there is a bidirectional relationship between sexual self-regulation and emotional self-regulation. Not only can sex be used to regulate emotional states (i.e., sexual coping), emotions can also be used, consciously or automatically, to regulate sexual arousal (i.e., sexual deviance). Preliminary support for the model is drawn from studies in the field of sex offender research as well as sexology and motivation research.

  17. The Carotid Body and Arousal in the Fetus and Neonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Arousal from sleep is a major defense mechanism in infants against hypoxia and/or hypercapnia. Arousal failure may be an important contributor to SIDS. Areas of the brainstem that have been found to be abnormal in a majority of SIDS infants are involved in the arousal process. Arousal is sleep state dependent, being depressed during AS in most mammals, but depressed during QS in human infants. Repeated exposure to hypoxia causes a progressive blunting of arousal that may involve medullary raphe GABAergic mechanisms. Whereas CB chemoreceptors contribute heavily to arousal in response to hypoxia, serotonergic central chemoreceptors have been implicated in the arousal response to CO2. Pulmonary or chest wall mechanoreceptors also contribute to arousal in proportion to the ventilatory response and decreases in their input may contribute to depressed arousal during AS. Little is known about specific arousal pathways beyond the NTS. Whether CB chemoreceptor stimulation directly stimulates arousal centers or whether this is done indirectly through respiratory networks remains unknown. This review will focus on arousal in response to hypoxia and CO2 in the fetus and newborn and will outline what we know (and don’t know) about the involvement of the carotid body in this process. PMID:22684039

  18. The Influence of Survey Methodology in Estimating Prevalence Rates of Childhood Sexual Abuse Among Navy Recruits

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Olson, Cheryl B; Stander, Valerie A; Merril, Lex L

    2000-01-01

    ...% of the participants self-defined themselves as abused. Despite these differences in abuse rates, data from the SHIP survey, from SRB operational definitions, and from SRB self-definitions all independently accounted for variability in participants...

  19. Male sexual strategies modify ratings of female models with specific waist-to-hip ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brase, Gary L; Walker, Gary

    2004-06-01

    Female waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) has generally been an important general predictor of ratings of physical attractiveness and related characteristics. Individual differences in ratings do exist, however, and may be related to differences in the reproductive tactics of the male raters such as pursuit of short-term or long-term relationships and adjustments based on perceptions of one's own quality as a mate. Forty males, categorized according to sociosexual orientation and physical qualities (WHR, Body Mass Index, and self-rated desirability), rated female models on both attractiveness and likelihood they would approach them. Sociosexually restricted males were less likely to approach females rated as most attractive (with 0.68-0.72 WHR), as compared with unrestricted males. Males with lower scores in terms of physical qualities gave ratings indicating more favorable evaluations of female models with lower WHR. The results indicate that attractiveness and willingness to approach are overlapping but distinguishable constructs, both of which are influenced by variations in characteristics of the raters.

  20. Persistent genital arousal disorder (PGAD): case report of long-term symptomatic management with electroconvulsive therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korda, Joanna B; Pfaus, James G; Kellner, Charles H; Goldstein, Irwin

    2009-10-01

    This is the second case report of a woman with bipolar disorder type I who noted the onset of persistent genital arousal disorder (PGAD) symptoms after abrupt cessation of paroxetine. With the worsening of PGAD symptoms, she developed severe depression and suicidal thoughts, resulting in her undergoing electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) as management. To describe a case of PGAD and develop hypotheses to explain the beneficial actions of ECT on PGAD based on 4 years of ECT administration. Patient self-report after obtaining consent, as well as literature review. After the fourth ECT, the patient's PGAD symptoms abated serendipitously. She was placed on ECT on demand for the treatment of her PGAD. With each ECT treatment, PGAD symptoms immediately disappeared, relapsing slowly over time until the next ECT was administered. The patient has, thus far, received a total of 30 treatments of ECT. Side effects continue to be minimal and include brief short-term memory loss, headache, and muscle aches. ECT is known to induce cerebral excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitter changes after acute and chronic administration. Sexual arousal is stimulated by the action of hypothalamic and limbic dopamine, noradrenaline, melanocortin, and oxytocin, and inhibited by serotonin, cerebral opioids, and endocannabinoids. Based on the patient's bipolar disorder, the mechanism of action of ECT and the observation of ECT effectiveness on her PGAD, we hypothesize the following: (i) bipolar disorder led to central hyperactive dopamine release, an important component in the pathophysiology of her PGAD; (ii) central serotonin deficiency after selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) withdrawal resulted in a lack of inhibition of sexual excitement; (iii) ECT resulted in lowering of the hyperstimulated central dopamine release; and (iv) ECT led to an increase in sexual inhibition by stimulating serotonin activity. Further research in the central control of sexual arousal is needed.

  1. Female Sexual Function During the Menopausal Transition in a Group of Iranian Women

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    Tahereh Eftekhar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the prevalence of sexual problems in Iranian women and association of sexual dysfunction with menopausal symptoms.Materials and methods: In this cross-sectional study, 151 married women with the age of 40-60 yearsold who were referred for treatmentto Department of Gynecology in Vali-e-Asr Hospital (Tehran, Iran from April to July 2012, were recruited. They were evaluated concerning their sexual function in the domains of desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction and pain with the female sexual function index (FSFI questionnaire.Menopause rating scale (MRS was developed for the diagnosis and quantification of climacteric symptoms.Results: Total frequency of sexual dysfunction was 53% with the domains of lubrication, arusal and desire being commonly affected 62%, 70% and 98.5% of cases respectively. There is a relationship between severity of somatic and urogenital symptoms with sexual dysfunction (p = 0.03, p = 0.00 respectively.Conclusion: A considerable percentage of women experienced sexual dysfunctions in this period. Somatic and urogenital symptoms during the menopausal period could be a factor to maintain or intensity of sexual dysfunctions.

  2. Longitudinal Changes in Sexual Functioning as Women Transition Through Menopause: Results from the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avis, Nancy E.; Brockwell, Sarah; Randolph, John F.; Shen, Shunhua; Cain, Virginia S.; Ory, Marcia; Greendale, Gail A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Sexual functioning is an important component of women’s lives. The extent to which the menopause transition is associated with decreased sexual functioning remains inconclusive. This study seeks to determine if advancing through the menopause transition is associated with changes in sexual functioning. Design A prospective, longitudinal cohort study of women aged 42–52 at baseline recruited at 7 US sites (N=3302) in the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN). Cohort eligible women had an intact uterus, at least one ovary, were not currently using exogenous hormones, were either pre- or early perimenopausal, and self-identified as one of the study’s designated racial/ethnic groups. Data from the baseline interview and six annual follow-up visits are reported. Outcomes are self-reported ratings of importance of sex; frequency of sexual desire, arousal, masturbation, sexual intercourse, and pain during intercourse; degree of emotional satisfaction and physical pleasure. Results Adjusting for baseline age, chronological aging, and relevant social, health, and psychological parameters, the odds of reporting vaginal or pelvic pain increased and desire decreased by late perimenopause. Masturbation increased at early perimenopause, but declined during postmenopause. Menopausal transition was unrelated to other outcomes. Health, psychological functioning, and importance of sex were related to all sexual function outcomes. Age, race/ethnicity, marital status, change in relationship, and vaginal dryness were also associated with sexual functioning. Conclusions Pain during sexual intercourse increases and sexual desire decreases over the menopausal transition. Masturbation increases during the early transition, but then declines in postmenopause. Adjusting for other factors, the menopausal transition was not independently associated with reports of the importance of sex, sexual arousal, frequency of sexual intercourse, emotional satisfaction with

  3. [Environmental uncertainty and arousal/stress as the direct determinants of animal behaviour].

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    Popov, S V

    2010-01-01

    A model of direct behavioural mechanisms is suggested. The suggestion is founded on the following prerequisites: the law of optimum arousal by Yerkes-Dodson; the data on animals' purposeful striving towards the optimum; and the data on effect of stimuli uncertainty (unpredictability and/or uncontrollability) on susceptibility to the stimuli. The key postulate of the model is animals' ability to affect the environment uncertainty with their behaviour and, hence, to change their susceptibility to various stimuli and optimize their stress/arousal level. This function of behaviour had never been discussed and seems to be rather important for proximal behavioural mechanisms and for forming direct motives of behaviour. Optimization of arousal level may be viewed as "universal benefit" at the level of direct behavioural mechanisms (similar to "joint genetic fitness" at the level of evolutional mechanisms). Within the model framework it is possible to take up some sophisticated aspects of ethology such as social relations forming, "begging for punishment", "zoo stereotypy", and so on. Among verifiable predictions that can be derived from its analysis, the following ones are worthwhile: (1) the stronger of two similar social relations cannot be more stressful than the weaker one; (2) the intensity of marking activity never increases as arousal/stress level decreases; (3) stress/arousal level of an animal having been experienced "zoo stereotypy" for a long time can never be higher than that of a conspecific individual showing the behaviour for the first time; (4) the rate of "begging for punishment" behaviour of an individual should positively correlate with environmental uncertainty; (5) arousal/stress level of an individual looking for novelty can never be higher than arousal/stress level of the same individual when avoiding novelty; (6) the striving of a specimen for displaying the behaviour promoting an increase in uncertainty can be suppressed by raising the

  4. Pleasure, arousal, dominance: Mehrabian and Russell revisited

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    Bakker, I.C.; van der Voordt, Theo; de Boon, J; Vink, P.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a discursive review of the dimensions pleasure, arousal and dominance that Mehrabian and Russell developed in 1974 to assess environmental perception, experience, and psychological responses. Since then numerous researchers applied these dimensions to assess the experience of the physical environment and its perceived qualities. Although the dimensions appeared to be useful, there is a long-lasting debate going on among environmental psychologists about the interpretation ...

  5. Sexual Conflict and Gender Gap Effects: Associations between Social Context and Sex on Rated Attractiveness and Economic Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouda-Vossos, Amany; Dixson, Barnaby J; Brooks, Robert C

    2016-01-01

    Human mate choice research often concerns sex differences in the importance of traits such as physical attractiveness and social status. A growing number of studies indicate that cues to social context, including other people who appear in stimulus photographs, can alter that individual's attractiveness. Fewer studies, however, consider judgements of traits other than physical attractiveness, such as wealth. Here we manipulate the presence/absence of other people in photographs of target models, and test the effects on judgments of both attractiveness and earnings (a proxy for status). Participants (N = 2044) rated either male or female models for either physical attractiveness or social/economic status when presented alone, with same sex others or with opposite sex others. We collectively refer to this manipulation as 'social context'. Male and female models received similar responses for physical attractiveness, but social context affected ratings of status differently for women and men. Males presented alongside other men received the highest status ratings while females presented alone were given the highest status ratings. Further, the status of females presented alongside a male was constrained by the rated status of that male. Our results suggests that high status may not directly lead to high attractiveness in men, but that status is more readily attributed to men than to women. This divide in status between the sexes is very clear when men and women are presented together, possibly reflecting one underlying mechanism of the modern day gender gap and sexist attitudes to women's economic participation. This adds complexity to our understanding of the relationship between attractiveness, status, and sex in the light of parental investment theory, sexual conflict and economic theory.

  6. Sexual Conflict and Gender Gap Effects: Associations between Social Context and Sex on Rated Attractiveness and Economic Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixson, Barnaby J.

    2016-01-01

    Human mate choice research often concerns sex differences in the importance of traits such as physical attractiveness and social status. A growing number of studies indicate that cues to social context, including other people who appear in stimulus photographs, can alter that individual’s attractiveness. Fewer studies, however, consider judgements of traits other than physical attractiveness, such as wealth. Here we manipulate the presence/absence of other people in photographs of target models, and test the effects on judgments of both attractiveness and earnings (a proxy for status). Participants (N = 2044) rated either male or female models for either physical attractiveness or social/economic status when presented alone, with same sex others or with opposite sex others. We collectively refer to this manipulation as ‘social context’. Male and female models received similar responses for physical attractiveness, but social context affected ratings of status differently for women and men. Males presented alongside other men received the highest status ratings while females presented alone were given the highest status ratings. Further, the status of females presented alongside a male was constrained by the rated status of that male. Our results suggests that high status may not directly lead to high attractiveness in men, but that status is more readily attributed to men than to women. This divide in status between the sexes is very clear when men and women are presented together, possibly reflecting one underlying mechanism of the modern day gender gap and sexist attitudes to women’s economic participation. This adds complexity to our understanding of the relationship between attractiveness, status, and sex in the light of parental investment theory, sexual conflict and economic theory. PMID:26731414

  7. Emotion Processing for Arousal and Neutral Content in Alzheimer's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina Satler

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess the ability of Alzheimer's disease (AD patients to perceive emotional information and to assign subjective emotional rating scores to audiovisual presentations. Materials and Methods. 24 subjects (14 with AD, matched to controls for age and educational levels were studied. After neuropsychological assessment, they watched a Neutral story and then a story with Emotional content. Results. Recall scores for both stories were significantly lower in AD (Neutral and Emotional: P=.001. CG assigned different emotional scores for each version of the test, P=.001, while ratings of AD did not differ, P=.32. Linear regression analyses determined the best predictors of emotional rating and recognition memory for each group among neuropsychological tests battery. Conclusions. AD patients show changes in emotional processing on declarative memory and a preserved ability to express emotions in face of arousal content. The present findings suggest that these impairments are due to general cognitive decline.

  8. Emotion processing for arousal and neutral content in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satler, Corina; Uribe, Carlos; Conde, Carlos; Da-Silva, Sergio Leme; Tomaz, Carlos

    2010-02-01

    Objective. To assess the ability of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients to perceive emotional information and to assign subjective emotional rating scores to audiovisual presentations. Materials and Methods. 24 subjects (14 with AD, matched to controls for age and educational levels) were studied. After neuropsychological assessment, they watched a Neutral story and then a story with Emotional content. Results. Recall scores for both stories were significantly lower in AD (Neutral and Emotional: P = .001). CG assigned different emotional scores for each version of the test, P = .001, while ratings of AD did not differ, P = .32. Linear regression analyses determined the best predictors of emotional rating and recognition memory for each group among neuropsychological tests battery. Conclusions. AD patients show changes in emotional processing on declarative memory and a preserved ability to express emotions in face of arousal content. The present findings suggest that these impairments are due to general cognitive decline.

  9. Physical therapy treatment of persistent genital arousal disorder during pregnancy: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Talli Yehuda

    2010-03-01

    Persistent genital arousal disorder (PGAD) is described as the spontaneous, intrusive, and unwanted genital arousal in the absence of sexual interest and desire. Whether the etiology of this disorder is essentially central or peripheral is unclear; however, a presenting symptom may be persistent engorgement of genital erectile and vascular tissue. To describe a case of a distressed 27 year old pregnant woman with symptoms consistent with PGAD, and the intervention leading to the resolution of symptoms. A patient with symptoms of PGAD was assessed. Information regarding this condition was offered. A manual therapy treatment was provided to decrease muscle hypertonus near the pudendal nerve, and a home intervention was suggested. Complete resolution of symptoms per patient's report 1 week later. Treatment with pelvic floor manual therapy directed at the pudendal nerve may provide safe and significant relief from PGAD symptoms in a pregnant woman patient.

  10. Sexual victimization of youth with a physical disability: an examination of prevalence rates, and risk and protective factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller-Johnson, Katrin; Eisner, Manuel P; Obsuth, Ingrid

    2014-11-01

    Children with disabilities have been shown to be at greater risk of victimization than those without. Although much of the research combines disability of any type into a single disability category, recent evidence suggests that not all types of disabilities are equally associated with victimization. To date, little knowledge exists about the victimization of youth with physical disabilities. This study used data from a national school-based survey of adolescents (n = 6,749, mean age = 15.41, SD = .66) in Switzerland to investigate sexual victimization (SV) among physically disabled youth. Two subtypes of SV were differentiated: contact SV, including penetration or touching/kissing, and non-contact SV, such as exhibitionism, verbal harassment, exposure to sexual acts, or cyber SV. A total of 360 (5.1%) youth self-identified as having a physical disability. Lifetime prevalence rates for contact SV were 25.95% for girls with a physical disability (odds ratio [OR] = 1.29 compared with able-bodied girls), 18.50% for boys with physical disability (OR = 2.78 compared with able-bodied boys), and 22.35% for the total sample with physical disability (OR = 1.74 compared with able-bodied youth). For non-contact SV, the lifetime prevalence was 48.11% for girls with a physical disability (OR = 1.44 compared with able-bodied girls), 31.76% for boys with physical disability (OR = 1.95 compared with able-bodied boys), and 40.28% for the total sample with physical disability (OR = 1.67 compared with able-bodied youth). After controlling for other risk factors, physical disability was a significant predictor of contact and non-contact SV for boys, but not for girls. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. Psychophysiological correlates of sexually and non-sexually motivated attention to film clips in a workload task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Sandra; Leite, Jorge; Galdo-Álvarez, Santiago; Gonçalves, Oscar F

    2011-01-01

    Some authors have speculated that the cognitive component (P3) of the Event-Related Potential (ERP) can function as a psychophysiological measure of sexual interest. The aim of this study was to determine if the P3 ERP component in a workload task can be used as a specific and objective measure of sexual motivation by comparing the neurophysiologic response to stimuli of motivational relevance with different levels of valence and arousal. A total of 30 healthy volunteers watched different films clips with erotic, horror, social-positive and social-negative content, while answering an auditory oddball paradigm. Erotic film clips resulted in larger interference when compared to both the social-positive and auditory alone conditions. Horror film clips resulted in the highest levels of interference with smaller P3 amplitudes than erotic and also than social-positive, social-negative and auditory alone condition. No gender differences were found. Both horror and erotic film clips significantly decreased heart rate (HR) when compared to both social-positive and social-negative films. The erotic film clips significantly increased the skin conductance level (SCL) compared to the social-negative films. The horror film clips significantly increased the SCL compared to both social-positive and social-negative films. Both the highly arousing erotic and non-erotic (horror) movies produced the largest decrease in the P3 amplitude, a decrease in the HR and an increase in the SCL. These data support the notion that this workload task is very sensitive to the attentional resources allocated to the film clip, although they do not act as a specific index of sexual interest. Therefore, the use of this methodology seems to be of questionable utility as a specific measure of sexual interest or as an objective measure of the severity of Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder. © 2011 Carvalho et al.

  12. Psychophysiological correlates of sexually and non-sexually motivated attention to film clips in a workload task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Carvalho

    Full Text Available Some authors have speculated that the cognitive component (P3 of the Event-Related Potential (ERP can function as a psychophysiological measure of sexual interest. The aim of this study was to determine if the P3 ERP component in a workload task can be used as a specific and objective measure of sexual motivation by comparing the neurophysiologic response to stimuli of motivational relevance with different levels of valence and arousal. A total of 30 healthy volunteers watched different films clips with erotic, horror, social-positive and social-negative content, while answering an auditory oddball paradigm. Erotic film clips resulted in larger interference when compared to both the social-positive and auditory alone conditions. Horror film clips resulted in the highest levels of interference with smaller P3 amplitudes than erotic and also than social-positive, social-negative and auditory alone condition. No gender differences were found. Both horror and erotic film clips significantly decreased heart rate (HR when compared to both social-positive and social-negative films. The erotic film clips significantly increased the skin conductance level (SCL compared to the social-negative films. The horror film clips significantly increased the SCL compared to both social-positive and social-negative films. Both the highly arousing erotic and non-erotic (horror movies produced the largest decrease in the P3 amplitude, a decrease in the HR and an increase in the SCL. These data support the notion that this workload task is very sensitive to the attentional resources allocated to the film clip, although they do not act as a specific index of sexual interest. Therefore, the use of this methodology seems to be of questionable utility as a specific measure of sexual interest or as an objective measure of the severity of Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder.

  13. Examining the sexual function and related attitudes among aged women: A cross- sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamali, Safieh; Rahmanian, Afifeh; Javadpour, Shohreh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Sexual function and its subsequent satisfaction are among the most important aspects of women’s life. However, this instinct could be influenced by some factors such as diseases, drug using, aging, and hormonal and physiologic changes associated with menopause, and sexual behavior. Objective: The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence rates of sexual dysfunction, and related attitudes among aged women in Jahrom, Iran. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 746 postmenopausal women aged between 50 and 89 years old who had referred to obstetric and gynecologic clinic in Jahrom, from April to October 2014. Female Sexual Function Index questionnaire was used order to assess the sexual function. The cases were classified into three categories according to the attitude scores: negative (17-32), medium (33-38), and positive (39-48). One-way ANOVA test was used to determine the relationship between FSFI and attitude scores. Results: The participants’ mean±SD age was 60.10±6.89 years and the total mean score of FSFI was 19.31±8.5. In addition, 81.5% of the women had sexual dysfunction (FSFIsexual function (FSFI> 26.55). Almost 62.1% the women displayed a negative attitude towards sexuality and only 18.8% women had positive attitude. Feeling of dyspareunia (p= 0.02), lubrication (psexuality, respectively Conclusion: Our data showed that sexual disorders were highly prevalent among postmenopausal women. The most affected problems were arousal, dyspareunia, and lubrication. More than half of the women had negative attitude towards sexual function consequently this could affect their sexual function. So, it seems screening of sexual dysfunction for finding the causes in women should be the main sexual health program. Also, it would be important to emphasis the role of physicians and experts on education and counseling in this subject. PMID:27141546

  14. Pain increases during sympathetic arousal in patients with complex regional pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, P D; Finch, P M; Skipworth, S; Blockey, P

    2001-10-09

    To investigate the effect of sympathetic arousal on pain and vasomotor responses in healthy control subjects and patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), and to determine whether pain increases in patients with particular symptoms. In experiments 1 and 2, capsaicin was applied to the forearm of 24 healthy subjects to induce thermal hyperalgesia. Vascular responses were monitored and subjects rated thermal hyperalgesia before and after being startled (experiment 1), and before, during, and after mental arithmetic, breath holding, forehead cooling, the Valsalva maneuver, and a cold pressor test in experiment 2. In a third experiment, sensitivity to heat, cold, and mechanical stimulation was investigated in 61 patients with CRPS. Pain ratings and vascular and electrodermal responses were recorded after patients were startled and during forehead cooling. In experiment 1, thermal hyperalgesia decreased in healthy control subjects after they were startled, and digital blood vessels constricted symmetrically. In experiment 2, thermal hyperalgesia decreased during and after other forms of sympathetic arousal. However, in experiment 3, ratings of clinical pain increased during forehead cooling or after being startled in over 70% of patients with CRPS. Pain increased most consistently during forehead cooling in patients with cold allodynia or punctate allodynia. Digital blood vessels constricted more intensely on the symptomatic than the nonsymptomatic side in patients with CRPS during sympathetic arousal. Normal inhibitory influences on pain during sympathetic arousal are compromised in the majority of patients with CRPS. The augmented vasoconstrictor response in the symptomatic limb during sympathetic arousal is consistent with adrenergic supersensitivity. An adrenergic sensitivity in nociceptive afferents might contribute to pain and hyperalgesia during sympathetic arousal in certain patients with CRPS.

  15. Unpacking the racial disparity in HIV rates: the effect of race on risky sexual behavior among Black young men who have sex with men (YMSM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clerkin, Elise M; Newcomb, Michael E; Mustanski, Brian

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the large disparity in HIV prevalence rates between young Black and White Americans, including young men who have sex with men (YMSM). Research focusing on individual behaviors has proven insufficient to explain the disproportionately high rate of HIV among Black YMSM. The purpose of the present study was to gain a greater understanding of the pronounced racial disparity in HIV by evaluating whether YMSM are more likely to engage in risky sexual behaviors as a function of their partner's race. Participants included 117 YMSM from a longitudinal study evaluating lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender youth (ages 16-20 at baseline), who reported characteristics and risk behaviors of up to 9 sexual partners over an 18-month period. Results indicated that participants were less likely to have unprotected sex with Black partners, and this finding was not driven by a response bias (i.e., Black YMSM did not appear to be minimizing their reports of unprotected sex). Furthermore, there was support for the hypothesis that participants' sexual networks were partially determined by their race insofar as sexual partnerships were much more likely to be intra-racial (as opposed to interracial). It is possible that dyad- and sexual network-level factors may be needed to understand racial disparities in HIV among YMSM.

  16. Sexual dimorphism in cortisol secretion starts after age 10 in healthy children: urinary cortisol metabolite excretion rates during growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wudy, Stefan A; Hartmann, Michaela F; Remer, Thomas

    2007-10-01

    Detailed data on the physiological pattern of adrenocortical activity during normal growth are lacking. An established method to determine adrenocortical glucocorticoid secretion is the measurement of 24-h excretion rates of major urinary cortisol metabolites (C21). To test the hypothesis that the frequently reported higher cortisol secretion in men than in women develops during puberty, we examined C21 together with excretions of combined urinary free and conjugated cortisol (F(comb)) in 400 healthy boys and girls aged 3-18 yr using GC-MS. Daily excretion rates of C21, F(comb), and body surface area (BSA)-corrected F(comb) significantly increased with age in both sexes. In contrast, C21/BSA (microgxm(-2).day(-1)) declined from the age of 3-4 yr to 7-8 yr in boys and girls (P activity (allotetrahydrocortisol/tetrahydrocortisol) in females compared with males. Our results demonstrate dynamic changes in adrenocortical activity in healthy children resulting in an emerging sexual dimorphism in cortisol secretion after age 11. The latter can be explained, at least partly, by diverging 5alpha-reductase activities in boys and girls. F(comb), a frequently analyzed GC-MS parameter, proved not to reflect dynamic changes in cortisol secretion. In conclusion, the varying metabolic need for cortisol during normal growth may have implications for future improvements in glucocorticoid replacement therapy.

  17. Arousal-But Not Valence-Reduces False Memories at Retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirandola, Chiara; Toffalini, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    Mood affects both memory accuracy and memory distortions. However, some aspects of this relation are still poorly understood: (1) whether valence and arousal equally affect false memory production, and (2) whether retrieval-related processes matter; the extant literature typically shows that mood influences memory performance when it is induced before encoding, leaving unsolved whether mood induced before retrieval also impacts memory. We examined how negative, positive, and neutral mood induced before retrieval affected inferential false memories and related subjective memory experiences. A recognition-memory paradigm for photographs depicting script-like events was employed. Results showed that individuals in both negative and positive moods-similar in arousal levels-correctly recognized more target events and endorsed fewer false memories (and these errors were linked to remember responses less frequently), compared to individuals in neutral mood. This suggests that arousal (but not valence) predicted memory performance; furthermore, we found that arousal ratings provided by participants were more adequate predictors of memory performance than their actual belonging to either positive, negative or neutral mood groups. These findings suggest that arousal has a primary role in affecting memory, and that mood exerts its power on true and false memory even when induced at retrieval.

  18. Disentangling the Effect of Valence and Arousal on Judgments Concerning Moral Transgressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Viña, Luis; Garcia-Burgos, David; Okan, Yasmina; Cándido, Antonio; González, Felisa

    2015-08-10

    An increasing body of research has investigated the effect of emotions on judgments concerning moral transgressions. Yet, few studies have controlled for arousal levels associated with the emotions. High arousal may affect moral processing by triggering attention to salient features of transgressions, independently of valence. Therefore previously documented differences in effects of negative and positive emotions may have been confounded by differences in arousal. We conducted two studies to shed light on this issue. In Study 1 we developed a questionnaire including vignettes selected on the basis of psychometrical properties (i.e., mean ratings of the actions and variability). This questionnaire was administered to participants in Study 2, after presenting them with selected pictures inducing different valence but equivalent levels of arousal. Negative pictures led to more severe moral judgments than neutral (p = .054, d = 0.60) and positive pictures (p = .002, d = 1.02), for vignettes that were not associated with extreme judgments. In contrast, positive pictures did not reliably affect judgments concerning such vignettes. These findings suggest that the observed effects of emotions cannot be accounted for by an increase in attention linked to the arousal which accompanies these emotions.

  19. Arousal-But Not Valence-Reduces False Memories at Retrieval.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Mirandola

    Full Text Available Mood affects both memory accuracy and memory distortions. However, some aspects of this relation are still poorly understood: (1 whether valence and arousal equally affect false memory production, and (2 whether retrieval-related processes matter; the extant literature typically shows that mood influences memory performance when it is induced before encoding, leaving unsolved whether mood induced before retrieval also impacts memory. We examined how negative, positive, and neutral mood induced before retrieval affected inferential false memories and related subjective memory experiences. A recognition-memory paradigm for photographs depicting script-like events was employed. Results showed that individuals in both negative and positive moods-similar in arousal levels-correctly recognized more target events and endorsed fewer false memories (and these errors were linked to remember responses less frequently, compared to individuals in neutral mood. This suggests that arousal (but not valence predicted memory performance; furthermore, we found that arousal ratings provided by participants were more adequate predictors of memory performance than their actual belonging to either positive, negative or neutral mood groups. These findings suggest that arousal has a primary role in affecting memory, and that mood exerts its power on true and false memory even when induced at retrieval.

  20. The Role of Ovarian Hormones and the Medial Amygdala in Sexual Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holder, Mary K; Mong, Jessica A

    2017-12-01

    Although research into the neurobiology of sexual desire in women is active, relatively little is understood about the origins of sexual motivation in women. The purpose of our review is to discuss factors that influence a central sexual motivate state and generalized arousal as potential drivers of sexual motivation in women and female rats. Sexual motivation is the product of interactions of the central motive state and salient sexually-relevant cues. Ovarian hormones and generalized arousal influence the central motive state, and endogenous levels of estradiol and progesterone correlate with sexual motivation and behavior in women. The amygdala is a key integratory site for generalized arousal and sexual sensory stimulation, which could then increase sexual motivation through its downstream projections. Our model of enhanced female sexual motivation suggests that the combined effects of dopamine and progesterone receptor activation in the medial amygdala increases the incentive properties of a sexual stimulus. Further study into the interactions of ovarian hormones and mediators of generalized arousal on the processing of sexually-relevant cues informs our understanding of the neurobiology of female sexual motivation and could lead to the development of therapeutics to treat the dysfunctions of sexual desire in women.

  1. Chronic procrastination among Turkish adults: exploring decisional, avoidant, and arousal styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Joseph R; Ozer, Bilge Uzun; Demir, Ayhan

    2009-06-01

    The authors examined the prevalence of chronic procrastination (decisional, avoidant, and arousal styles) as functions of demographic variables among 354 Turkish adults (148 men, 206 women; M age = 38.7 years, SD = 8.26 years). Prevalence analyses showed that among Turkish participants, 17.5% were indecisive procrastinators, 13.8% were avoidant procrastinators, and 14.7% were arousal procrastinators. Results did not yield significant differences for gender or age on any forms of procrastination, which is consistent with other international samples. However, significant differences emerged depending on the number of children such that Turkish adults who had more than 3 children claimed to be more indecisive than they claimed to be arousal or avoidant procrastinators. Respondents with less than a graduate degree reported higher rates of indecision than did respondents with at least a graduate degree.

  2. The Effect of Acute Exercise on Affect and Arousal in Inpatient Mental Health Consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Robert; Reaburn, Peter; Happell, Brenda

    2016-09-01

    Acute exercise performed at a self-selected intensity improves affect and may improve long-term adherence. Similarly, in people with severe depression, acute aerobic exercise performed at self-selected intensity improves affect and arousal. However, the relationship between changes in affect and arousal and perceived exercise intensity in people with mental illness has not been evaluated. Affect and arousal were assessed immediately prior to, and immediately following, a group exercise program performed at a self-selected intensity in 40 inpatient mental health consumers who received a diagnosis of anxiety or bipolar or depressive disorders. Exercise intensity was assessed immediately after exercise. Postexercise affect was significantly improved for people with bipolar and depressive disorders but not for people with anxiety disorders. For the group as a whole, results showed a significant curvilinear relationship between ratings of perceived exertion and postexercise affect. These data will inform the development and delivery of future exercise interventions for inpatient mental health consumers.

  3. People, clothing, music, and arousal as contextual retrieval cues in verbal memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standing, Lionel G; Bobbitt, Kristin E; Boisvert, Kathryn L; Dayholos, Kathy N; Gagnon, Anne M

    2008-10-01

    Four experiments (N = 164) on context-dependent memory were performed to explore the effects on verbal memory of incidental cues during the test session which replicated specific features of the learning session. These features involved (1) bystanders, (2) the clothing of the experimenter, (3) background music, and (4) the arousal level of the subject. Social contextual cues (bystanders or experimenter clothing) improved verbal recall or recognition. However, recall decreased when the contextual cue was a different stimulus taken from the same conceptual category (piano music by Chopin) that was heard during learning. Memory was unaffected by congruent internal cues, produced by the same physiological arousal level (low, moderate, or high heart rate) during the learning and test sessions. However, recall increased with the level of arousal across the three congruent conditions. The results emphasize the effectiveness as retrieval cues of stimuli which are socially salient, concrete, and external.

  4. Influência dos sintomas climatéricos sobre a função sexual de mulheres de meia-idade Influence of menopausal symptoms on sexual function in middle-aged women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Uchôa Leitão Cabral

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a influência dos sintomas climatéricos na função sexual de mulheres de meia-idade. MÉTODOS: Estudo populacional de corte transversal, com amostra de 370 mulheres entre 40 e 65 anos, atendidas nas Unidades Básicas de Saúde da cidade de Natal, no estado do Rio Grande do Norte, Brasil. Aplicou-se um questionário referente s características sociodemográficas, clínicas e comportamentais das mulheres. A função sexual foi avaliada pelo Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI, enquanto os sintomas do climatério pelo Menopause Rating Scale (MRS. RESULTADOS: No grupo estudado, 67% das mulheres apresentaram risco de disfunção sexual (FSFI≤26,5. Todos os domínios do FSFI (desejo, excitação, lubrificação, orgasmo, satisfação e dor apresentaram escores mais baixos nas mulheres com risco de disfunção sexual (pPURPOSE: To evaluate the influence of climacteric symptoms on the sexual function in middle-aged women. METHODS: A cross-sectional population study was conducted on a sample of 370 middle-aged women, aged 40 to 65 years-old, cared for at the Basic Health Units in Natal, in the state of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. We used a questionnaire containing questions on sociodemographic, clinical, and behavioral characteristics. Sexual function was evaluated by the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI, while the menopause symptoms by the Menopause Rating Scale (MRS. RESULTS: In the studied group, 67% of the women reported risk for sexual dysfunction (FSFI≤26.5. All FSFI domains (desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction, and pain were lower in women with risk for sexual dysfunction (p<0.001. The arousal, orgasm, and pain domains were most likely to contribute to lower FSFI scores. All somatovegetative, urogenital, and psychological MRS symptoms were more elevated in women with risk for sexual dysfunction, being significant for all comparisons (p<0.001. Logistic regression analysis revealed that the likelihood of

  5. Impact of Virtual Reality on Young Adults' Physiological Arousal and Aggressive Thoughts: Interaction versus Observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvert, Sandra L.; Tan, Siu-Lan

    1994-01-01

    Compared to college students who only watched a violent virtual reality game, those who played the game exhibited a higher heart rate after the game, reported more dizziness and nausea during the game, and exhibited more aggressive thoughts on a posttest questionnaire. Results suggest support for arousal and cognitive, but not psychoanalytic,…

  6. Sexual Masochism Disorder with Asphyxiophilia: A Deadly yet Underrecognized Disease

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    Anna Coluccia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available DSM-5 distinguishes between paraphilias and paraphilic disorders. Paraphilias are defined as atypical, yet not necessarily disordered, sexual practices. Paraphilic disorders are instead diseases, which include distress, impairment in functioning, or entail risk of harm one’s self or others. Hence, DSM-5 new approach to paraphilias demedicalizes and destigmatizes unusual sexual behaviors, provided they are not distressing or detrimental to self or others. Asphyxiophilia, a dangerous and potentially deadly form of sexual masochism involving sexual arousal by oxygen deprivation, are clearly described as disorders. Although autoerotic asphyxia has been associated with estimated mortality rates ranging from 250 to 1000 deaths per year in the United States, in Italy, knowledge on this condition is very poor. Episodes of death caused by autoerotic asphyxia seem to be underestimated because it often can be confounded with suicide cases, particularly in the Italian context where family members of the victim often try to disguise autoerotic behaviors of the victims. The current paper provides a review on sexual masochism disorder with asphyxiophilia and discusses one specific case as an example to examine those conditions that may or may not influence the likelihood that death from autoerotic asphyxia be erroneously reported as suicide or accidental injury.

  7. Homosexual Behavior in Female Mountain Gorillas: Reflection of Dominance, Affiliation, Reconciliation or Arousal?

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    Cyril C Grueter

    Full Text Available Humans are unique among primates for not only engaging in same-sex sexual acts, but also forming homosexual pair bonds. To shed light on the evolutionary origins of homosexuality, data on the occurrence and contexts of same-sex behavior from nonhuman primates may be of particular significance. Homosexual behavior involving females is poorly researched in most primate taxa, exceptions being Japanese macaques, rhesus macaques, Hanuman langurs and bonobos. We present data on homosexual behavior in female mountain gorillas in the Virunga Volcanoes (Rwanda and test four functional hypotheses, namely reconciliation, affiliation, dominance expression and sexual arousal. Homosexual interactions between females involved both ventro-dorsal and ventro-ventral copulations accompanied by vocalizations and courtship displays. The only sociosexual hypothesis that received partial empirical support is the social status hypothesis, i.e., that mounting reaffirms the dominance hierarchy. There is also some limited evidence that same-sex behavior reflects an overall state of arousal or is triggered via a 'pornographic' effect. An adaptive function of female homosexual behavior is not readily apparent, and we tentatively conclude (until a more rigorous test becomes available that it may simply be related to sexual gratification or that it is an evolutionary by-product of an adaptation.

  8. Homosexual Behavior in Female Mountain Gorillas: Reflection of Dominance, Affiliation, Reconciliation or Arousal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grueter, Cyril C; Stoinski, Tara S

    2016-01-01

    Humans are unique among primates for not only engaging in same-sex sexual acts, but also forming homosexual pair bonds. To shed light on the evolutionary origins of homosexuality, data on the occurrence and contexts of same-sex behavior from nonhuman primates may be of particular significance. Homosexual behavior involving females is poorly researched in most primate taxa, exceptions being Japanese macaques, rhesus macaques, Hanuman langurs and bonobos. We present data on homosexual behavior in female mountain gorillas in the Virunga Volcanoes (Rwanda) and test four functional hypotheses, namely reconciliation, affiliation, dominance expression and sexual arousal. Homosexual interactions between females involved both ventro-dorsal and ventro-ventral copulations accompanied by vocalizations and courtship displays. The only sociosexual hypothesis that received partial empirical support is the social status hypothesis, i.e., that mounting reaffirms the dominance hierarchy. There is also some limited evidence that same-sex behavior reflects an overall state of arousal or is triggered via a 'pornographic' effect. An adaptive function of female homosexual behavior is not readily apparent, and we tentatively conclude (until a more rigorous test becomes available) that it may simply be related to sexual gratification or that it is an evolutionary by-product of an adaptation.

  9. Sexuality in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jucilene Sales da Paixão Silva

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the sexual behavior of women with polycystic ovary syndrome and the relationship between sexual behavior and the clinical parameters related to this syndrome (obesity, hirsutism and menstrual irregularities. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out involving 48 women with polycystic ovary syndrome. The evaluation was based on the complaints reported by the women with particular emphasis on sexual satisfaction, the presence of a sexual partner, phases of the sexual response cycle (desire, arousal, orgasm and resolution phases, sexual frequency, practice of masturbation, evaluation of less usual sexual habits, degree of intimacy and the quality of communication in the women’s involvement with their sexual partner. The variables of sexual behavior (sexual satisfaction, masturbation, sexual fantasies, frequency of desire, arousal and orgasm were compared with three clinical parameters: menstrual cycle, hirsutism and body mass index (BMI. Results: The sexual initiation, ways of expressing sexuality, communication and intimacy with partner and sexual satisfaction were not influenced by the clinical aspects of the syndrome. With respect to association of polycystic ovary syndrome clinical parameters with sexual behavior, a statistically significant correlation was found with the menstrual cycle. Conclusion: The absence of menstruation affected sexual interest in activities not involving the partner, thus increasing the frequency of masturbation.

  10. Incidence of sexual dysfunction: a prospective survey in Ghanaian females

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    Amidu Nafiu

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sexuality is a complex phenomenon that is being influenced by psychological as well as physiological factors. Its dysfunction includes desire, arousal, orgasmic and sex pain disorders. The present study aimed to assess the incidence of sexual dysfunction (SD and related risk factors in a cohort of Ghanaian women. Method The Golombok Rust Inventory of Sexual Satisfaction (GRISS was administered to 400 healthy women between 18 and 58 years old (mean +/- SD: 30.1 +/- 7.9 domiciled in the Kumasi metropolis. Results The response rate was 75.3% after 99 were excluded. Of the remaining 301 women, 50% were engaged in exercise, 26.7% indulge in alcoholic beverages and only 2% were smokers. A total of 62.1% of the women had attained high education, whilst, 28.9% were married. After logistic regression analysis, alcohol emerged (OR: 2.0; CI: 1.0 - 3.8; p = 0.04 as the main risk factor for SD. The overall prevalence of SD in these subjects was 72.8%. Severe difficulties with sexual function were identified in 3.3% of the studied population. The most prevalent areas of difficulty were anorgasmia (72.4%, sexual infrequency (71.4%, dissatisfaction (77.7%, vaginismus (68.1%, avoidance of sexual intercourse (62.5%, non-sensuality (61.5% and non-communication (54.2%. Whereas 8% had severe difficulties with anorgasmia, only 6% had severe difficulties with vaginismus. Conclusion SD affects more than 70% of Ghanaian women who are sexually active. Alcohol significantly influences sexual activity.

  11. Incidence of sexual dysfunction: a prospective survey in Ghanaian females

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Sexuality is a complex phenomenon that is being influenced by psychological as well as physiological factors. Its dysfunction includes desire, arousal, orgasmic and sex pain disorders. The present study aimed to assess the incidence of sexual dysfunction (SD) and related risk factors in a cohort of Ghanaian women. Method The Golombok Rust Inventory of Sexual Satisfaction (GRISS) was administered to 400 healthy women between 18 and 58 years old (mean +/- SD: 30.1 +/- 7.9) domiciled in the Kumasi metropolis. Results The response rate was 75.3% after 99 were excluded. Of the remaining 301 women, 50% were engaged in exercise, 26.7% indulge in alcoholic beverages and only 2% were smokers. A total of 62.1% of the women had attained high education, whilst, 28.9% were married. After logistic regression analysis, alcohol emerged (OR: 2.0; CI: 1.0 - 3.8; p = 0.04) as the main risk factor for SD. The overall prevalence of SD in these subjects was 72.8%. Severe difficulties with sexual function were identified in 3.3% of the studied population. The most prevalent areas of difficulty were anorgasmia (72.4%), sexual infrequency (71.4%), dissatisfaction (77.7%), vaginismus (68.1%), avoidance of sexual intercourse (62.5%), non-sensuality (61.5%) and non-communication (54.2%). Whereas 8% had severe difficulties with anorgasmia, only 6% had severe difficulties with vaginismus. Conclusion SD affects more than 70% of Ghanaian women who are sexually active. Alcohol significantly influences sexual activity. PMID:20809943

  12. Emotional states of love moderate the association between catecholamines and female sexual responses in the laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dundon, Carolyn M; Rellini, Alessandra H

    2012-10-01

    Research suggests that there are three interrelated, yet distinct, emotion-motivation brain systems for human love (lust, romantic love, and attachment), each associated with a unique catecholaminergic and hormonal profile. Of interest for the current study are norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine (DA), which have a hypothesized connection with romantic love. As NE and DA are also known to facilitate sexual arousal, it is plausible that NE and DA may have a greater positive association with the sexual arousal responses of women in romantic love compared with women in lust. This study investigated if the effects of NE and DA activity on sexual arousal responses would differ depending on emotion-motivation state (Lust or Romantic). Physiological sexual arousal was assessed by photoplethysmography and subjective sexual arousal was assessed with a participant-controlled lever. Seventeen women were included in the Lust group and 29 in the Romantic group. All participants provided a urine sample (to assess NE and DA) and completed a psychophysiological assessment. Elevated NE was positively and significantly associated with greater subjective and physiological sexual arousal for the Lust group, but not for the Romantic group. Similarly, elevated DA was positively and significantly associated with greater subjective sexual arousal for the Lust group, but not for the Romantic group. The sexual arousal responses of women in the Lust group, but not in the Romantic group, were positively and significantly associated with elevated NE and DA. It is feasible that, when women are seeking a partner (Lust), NE and DA may facilitate attention toward sexually relevant stimuli. © 2012 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  13. Prevalence Rate and Demographic and Clinical Correlates of Child Sexual Abuse Among New Psychiatric Outpatients in a City in Northern Alberta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agyapong, Vincent I O; Juhás, Michal; Ritchie, Amanda; Ogunsina, Olurotimi; Ambrosano, Lorella; Corbett, Sandra

    2017-01-01

    The prevalence rate for child sexual abuse among new psychiatric outpatients in Fort McMurray was 20.7%. With an odds ratio for sex of 3.30, female patients are about 3 times more likely to report a history of child sexual abuse compared with male patients when controlling for other factors. Similarly, patients with at most high school education and those with previous contact with psychiatric services were about 2 times more likely to report a history of child sexual abuse compared to the patients with college or university education or no previous contact with psychiatric services, respectively. Similarly, patients with histories of substance abuse and patients with family histories of mental illness had higher likelihoods of reporting histories of child sexual abuse compared to patients without histories of substance abuse or family histories of mental illness, respectively. Our findings suggest that victims of child sexual abuse are an at-risk population in need of ongoing mental health and educational support.

  14. The significance of ASDA arousals in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Maria-Cecilia; Marcus, Carole L

    2007-12-01

    Sleep disorders are common in children. The sleep disturbances associated with these disease processes may impact neurodevelopment and result in daytime behavioral and cognitive changes. Currently, there are no precise methods to accurately assess sleep disruption in the pediatric age group. There is evidence that American Sleep Disorders Association (ASDA) arousals are insufficient markers of sleep disruption in children. Other techniques that have been used to assess sleep disruption include unconventional means of evaluating the electroencephalogram (EEG) during sleep and evaluating subcortical or autonomic activation. The aim of this review is to discuss the application of conventional and unconventional markers of sleep disruption in children.

  15. Arousal Rather than Basic Emotions Influence Long-Term Recognition Memory in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchewka, Artur; Wypych, Marek; Moslehi, Abnoos; Riegel, Monika; Michałowski, Jarosław M; Jednoróg, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    Emotion can influence various cognitive processes, however its impact on memory has been traditionally studied over relatively short retention periods and in line with dimensional models of affect. The present study aimed to investigate emotional effects on long-term recognition memory according to a combined framework of affective dimensions and basic emotions. Images selected from the Nencki Affective Picture System were rated on the scale of affective dimensions and basic emotions. After 6 months, subjects took part in a surprise recognition test during an fMRI session. The more negative the pictures the better they were remembered, but also the more false recognitions they provoked. Similar effects were found for the arousal dimension. Recognition success was greater for pictures with lower intensity of happiness and with higher intensity of surprise, sadness, fear, and disgust. Consecutive fMRI analyses showed a significant activation for remembered (recognized) vs. forgotten (not recognized) images in anterior cingulate and bilateral anterior insula as well as in bilateral caudate nuclei and right thalamus. Further, arousal was found to be the only subjective rating significantly modulating brain activation. Higher subjective arousal evoked higher activation associated with memory recognition in the right caudate and the left cingulate gyrus. Notably, no significant modulation was observed for other subjective ratings, including basic emotion intensities. These results emphasize the crucial role of arousal for long-term recognition memory and support the hypothesis that the memorized material, over time, becomes stored in a distributed cortical network including the core salience network and basal ganglia.

  16. Can sustained arousal explain the Chronic Fatigue Syndrome?

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    Eriksen Hege R

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We present an integrative model of disease mechanisms in the Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS, unifying empirical findings from different research traditions. Based upon the Cognitive activation theory of stress (CATS, we argue that new data on cardiovascular and thermoregulatory regulation indicate a state of permanent arousal responses – sustained arousal – in this condition. We suggest that sustained arousal can originate from different precipitating factors (infections, psychosocial challenges interacting with predisposing factors (genetic traits, personality and learned expectancies (classical and operant conditioning. Furthermore, sustained arousal may explain documented alterations by establishing vicious circles within immunology (Th2 (humoral vs Th1 (cellular predominance, endocrinology (attenuated HPA axis, skeletal muscle function (attenuated cortical activation, increased oxidative stress and cognition (impaired memory and information processing. Finally, we propose a causal link between sustained arousal and the experience of fatigue. The model of sustained arousal embraces all main findings concerning CFS disease mechanisms within one theoretical framework.

  17. Detection of arousals in Parkinson’s disease patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Gertrud Laura; Kempfner, Jacob; Jennum, Poul

    2011-01-01

    sleepiness. Manual scoring of arousals is time-consuming and the inter-score agreement is highly varying especially for patients with sleep related disorders. The aim of this study was to design an arousal detection algorithm capable of detecting arousals from sleep, in both non-REM and REM sleep in patients......Arousal from sleep are short awakenings, which can be identified in the EEG as an abrupt change in frequency. Arousals can occur in all sleep stages and the number and frequency increase with age. Frequent arousals during sleep results in sleep fragmentation and is associated with daytime...... suffering from Parkinson’s disease (PD). The proposed algorithm uses features from EEG, EMG and the manual sleep stage scoring as input to a feed-forward artificial neural network (ANN). The performance of the algorithm has been assessed using polysomnographic (PSG) recordings from a total of 8 patients...

  18. Interobserver variability in recognizing arousal in respiratory sleep disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drinnan, M J; Murray, A; Griffiths, C J; Gibson, G J

    1998-08-01

    Daytime sleepiness is a common consequence of repeated arousal in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Arousal indices are sometimes used to make decisions on treatment, but there is no evidence that arousals are detected similarly even by experienced observers. Using the American Sleep Disorders Association (ASDA) definition of arousal in terms of the accompanying electroencephalogram (EEG) changes, we have quantified interobserver agreement for arousal scoring and identified factors affecting it. Ten patients with suspected OSA were studied; three representative EEG events during each of light, slow-wave, and rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep were extracted from each record (90 events total) and evaluated by experts in 14 sleep laboratories. Observers differed (ANOVA, p ASDA definition of arousal is only moderately repeatable. Account should be taken of this variability when results from different centers are compared.

  19. Interplay between Affect and Arousal in Recognition Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Greene, Ciara M.; Bahri, Pooja; Soto, David

    2010-01-01

    Background: Emotional states linked to arousal and mood are known to affect the efficiency of cognitive performance. However, the extent to which memory processes may be affected by arousal, mood or their interaction is poorly understood. Methodology/Principal Findings: Following a study phase of abstract shapes, we altered the emotional state of participants by means of exposure to music that varied in both mood and arousal dimensions, leading to four different emotional states: (i) positive...

  20. Arousal, anxiety, and performance: a reexamination of the Inverted-U hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arent, Shawn M; Landers, Daniel M

    2003-12-01

    Until recently, the traditional Inverted-U hypothesis had been the primary model used by sport psychologists to describe the arousal-performance relationship. However, many sport psychology researchers have challenged this relationship, and the current trend is a shift toward a more "multidimensional" view of arousal-anxiety and its effects on performance. In the current study, 104 college-age participants performed a simple response time task while riding a bicycle ergometer. Participants were randomly assigned to one of eight arousal groups (between 20 and 90% of heart rate reserve) and were told they were competing for a cash prize. Prior to the task, the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 and Sport Anxiety Scale (SAS) were administered to assess the influence of cognitive and somatic anxiety. As hypothesized, regression analysis revealed a significant quadratic trend for arousal and reaction time. This accounted for 13.2% of the variance, F change (1, 101) = 15.10, p performance beyond that accounted for by the nonsignificant linear trend. As predicted by the Inverted-U hypothesis, optimal performance on the simple task was seen at 60 and 70% of maximum arousal. Furthermore, for the simple task used in this study, only somatic anxiety as measured by the SAS accounted for significant variance in performance beyond that accounted for by arousal alone. These findings support predictions of the Inverted-U hypothesis and raise doubts about the utility theories that rely on differentiation of cognitive and somatic anxiety to predict performance on simple tasks that are not cognitively loaded.

  1. Effects of arousal and context on recognition memory for emotional pictures in younger and older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Yang, Jiongjiong

    2017-01-01

    Background/Study context Previous studies found that older adults tend to remember more positive than negative information (i.e., positivity bias), leading to an age-related positivity effect. However, the extent to which factors of arousal and contextual information influence the positivity bias in older adults remains to be determined. Methods In this study, 27 Chinese younger adults (20.00±1.75 years) and 33 Chinese older adults (70.76 ± 5.49) learned pictures with negative, positive and neutral valences. Half of the pictures had a human context, and the other half did not. In addition, emotional dimensions of negative and positive pictures were divided into high-arousal and low-arousal. The experimental task was to provide old/new recognition and confidence rating judgments. Results Both groups of subjects showed the positivity bias for low-arousal pictures, but the positivity bias was restricted to low-arousal pictures without the human context in older adults. In addition, the positivity bias was mainly driven by the recollection process in younger adults, and it was mainly driven by both the recollection and familiarity processes in older adults. The recognition of the nonhuman positive pictures was correlated with cognitive control abilities, but the recognition of pictures with human contexts was correlated with general memory abilities in older adults. Conclusion This study highlights the importance of arousal and contextual information in modulating emotional memory in younger and older adults. It suggests that there are different mechanisms for memorizing pictures with and without human contexts in older adults. PMID:28230422

  2. The relationship between overactive bladder and sexual activity in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel Ankur S.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: We assessed the relationships between bladder symptoms, demographic, and medical history variables and sexual dysfunction in women with overactive bladder (OAB disorder. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventy-eight women diagnosed with OAB completed self-administered questionnaires related to overall heath status, bladder function, and sexual function. Data were compiled for questionnaire responses, and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to determine predictors of sexual dysfunction. RESULTS: Bothersome bladder symptoms were reported by superscript three 60% of the sample. Sixty-percent of the sample was sexually active in the past month. Difficulty with sexual arousal, orgasm, and sexual enjoyment were reported by about 25% of the women. Sexual partner status was the best predictor of sexual arousal, orgasm, and sexual enjoyment. Menopausal status emerged as an important predictor of arousal and sexual enjoyment. CONCLUSION: The majority of women with symptoms of OAB viewed these symptoms as bothersome. However, the extent of symptom bother did not predict aspects of female sexual dysfunction (FSD. Instead, menopausal and partner status emerged as the best predictors of FSD in our sample.

  3. Ventilatory response to induced auditory arousals during NREM sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badr, M S; Morgan, B J; Finn, L; Toiber, F S; Crabtree, D C; Puleo, D S; Skatrud, J B

    1997-09-01

    Sleep state instability is a potential mechanism of central apnea/hypopnea during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. To investigate this postulate, we induced brief arousals by delivering transient (0.5 second) auditory stimuli during stable NREM sleep in eight normal subjects. Arousal was determined according to American Sleep Disorders Association (ASDA) criteria. A total of 96 trials were conducted; 59 resulted in cortical arousal and 37 did not result in arousal. In trials associated with arousal, minute ventilation (VE) increased from 5.1 +/- 1.24 minutes to 7.5 +/- 2.24 minutes on the first posttone breath (p = 0.001). However, no subsequent hypopnea or apnea occurred as VE decreased gradually to 4.8 +/- 1.5 l/minute (p > 0.05) on the fifth posttone breath. Trials without arousal did not result in hyperpnea on the first breath nor subsequent hypopnea. We conclude that 1) auditory stimulation resulted in transient hyperpnea only if associated with cortical arousal; 2) hypopnea or apnea did not occur following arousal-induced hyperpnea in normal subjects; 3) interaction with fluctuating chemical stimuli or upper airway resistance may be required for arousals to cause sleep-disordered breathing.

  4. Lifetime and current sexual assault and harassment victimization rates of active-duty United States Air Force women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostock, Deborah J; Daley, James G

    2007-09-01

    From a stratified random sample, 2,018 active-duty United States Air Force women completed a telephone survey dealing with sexual assault and harassment. The lifetime prevalence of rape among Air Force women (28%) was more than twice as high as the prevalence in a national sample (13%). Nearly half of the military sample had been the victims of rape, molestation, or attempted sexual assault. The majority of both initial rapes (75%) and most recent rapes (56%) involved assault by civilians when the victims were civilians. Family members perpetrated 29% of initial rapes and 33% of most recent rapes. Regarding military status of the perpetrator, 14% of first-time victims were raped by a military member, 26% of multiple-time victims were raped by a military member, 31.8% of military women were sexually harassed by a military supervisor or boss, and 26.7% of military women were sexually harassed by a military coworker.

  5. Disgust and sexual problems : Theoretical conceptualization and case illustrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Peter J.; van Lankveld, Jacques; Elgersma, Hermien J.; Borg, Charmaine

    There is increasing consensus that the present DSM IV-TR (2000) sexual disorders classification, of desire, arousal, orgasm, and pain is unsatisfactory. This differentiation seems neither adequate as a lead for understanding the mechanisms involved in these sexual problems nor appropriate as a guide

  6. Female Sexual Dysfunction and its Associated Risk Factors: An Epidemiological Study in the North-East of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Jafarzadeh Esfehani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Female sexual function (FSD is a multifactorial phenomenon. Sexual function is influenced by different personal and environmental factors. This study aimed to evaluate FSD and its contributing factors using female sexual function index (FSFI. Methods:This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on 264 women referring to 11 health centers of Sabzevar, Iran during October 2012 to January 2013 using a convenience sampling. Data were collected using a validated Persian version of FSFI containing six domains of sexual desire, lubrication, sexual arousal, sexual satisfaction, orgasm and sexual pain as well as demographic questionnaire. A total score of Results: The mean age of women enrolled in this study was 32.2±10.27 years . Considering the cut-off point of sexual dysfunction at 28, 62.1% of the study population had FSD. Highest rate of FSD was estimated at 49.2%, Age was associated with a significant decline in total scores of FSFI (P=0.042. Moreover, a significant correlation was observed between duration of marriage and total scores of FSFI (P

  7. Differences in neural activity when processing emotional arousal and valence in autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Angela; Wang, Zhishun; Huo, Yuankai; Goh, Suzanne; Russell, James A; Peterson, Bradley S

    2016-02-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) often have difficulty recognizing and interpreting facial expressions of emotion, which may impair their ability to navigate and communicate successfully in their social, interpersonal environments. Characterizing specific differences between individuals with ASD and their typically developing (TD) counterparts in the neural activity subserving their experience of emotional faces may provide distinct targets for ASD interventions. Thus we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and a parametric experimental design to identify brain regions in which neural activity correlated with ratings of arousal and valence for a broad range of emotional faces. Participants (51 ASD, 84 TD) were group-matched by age, sex, IQ, race, and socioeconomic status. Using task-related change in blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) fMRI signal as a measure, and covarying for age, sex, FSIQ, and ADOS scores, we detected significant differences across diagnostic groups in the neural activity subserving the dimension of arousal but not valence. BOLD-signal in TD participants correlated inversely with ratings of arousal in regions associated primarily with attentional functions, whereas BOLD-signal in ASD participants correlated positively with arousal ratings in regions commonly associated with impulse control and default-mode activity. Only minor differences were detected between groups in the BOLD signal correlates of valence ratings. Our findings provide unique insight into the emotional experiences of individuals with ASD. Although behavioral responses to face-stimuli were comparable across diagnostic groups, the corresponding neural activity for our ASD and TD groups differed dramatically. The near absence of group differences for valence correlates and the presence of strong group differences for arousal correlates suggest that individuals with ASD are not atypical in all aspects of emotion-processing. Studying these similarities

  8. PTSD and Sexual Dysfunction in Men and Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yehuda, Rachel; Lehrner, Amy; Rosenbaum, Talli Y

    2015-05-01

    Difficulties in sexual desire and function often occur in persons with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but many questions remain regarding the mechanisms underlying the occurrence of sexual problems in PTSD. The aim of this review was to present a model of sexual dysfunction in PTSD underpinned by an inability to regulate and redirect the physiological arousal needed for healthy sexual function away from aversive hyperarousal and intrusive memories. A literature review pertaining to PTSD and sexual function was conducted. Evidence for the comorbidity of sexual dysfunction and PTSD is presented, and biological and psychological mechanisms that may underlie this co-occurrence are proposed. This manuscript presents evidence of sexual dysfunction in conjunction with PTSD, and of the neurobiology and neuroendocrinology of PTSD and sexual function. Sexual dysfunction following trauma exposure may be mediated by PTSD-related biological, cognitive, and affective processes. The treatment of PTSD must include attention to sexual dysfunction and vice versa. © 2015 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  9. Etiology and Management of Sexual Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narendra Kumar Muthugaduru Shivarudrappa

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Sexual dysfunction is the impairment or disruption of any of the three phases of normal sexual functioning, including loss of libido, impairment of physiological arousal and loss, delay or alteration of orgasm. Each one of these can be affected by an orchestra of factors like senility, medical and surgical illnesses, medications and drugs of abuse. Non-pharmacological therapy is the main stay in the treatment of sexual dysfunction and drugs are used as adjuncts for a quicker and better result. Management in many of the cases depends on the primary cause. Here is a review of the major etiological factors of sexual dysfunction and its management

  10. Direct manipulation of physiological arousal in induced anxiety therapy - biofeedback approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sappington, A A

    1977-10-01

    This study investigated the role of physiological arousal in the affect induction phase of Induced Anxiety therapy by using biofeedback to facilitate arousal. Twenty-one college students who were suffering from free-floating anxiety were assigned randomly to one of three groups: (1) a no-treatment control group simply completed the measures before and after therapy; (2) a conventional Induced Anxiety group went through five standard Induced Anxiety sessions; and (3) biofeedback Induced Anxiety group went through a similar procedure except that biofeedback was used in the affect induction phase to facilitate heart rate increase. It was found that the biofeedback procedure did result in a greater heart rate increase during the affect induction phase arousal than did the conventional procedure (.01 level of significance), but did not facilitate subjective emotional arousal. Biofeedback Induced Anxiety resulted in a greater reduction of trait anxiety as measured by the Multiple Affect Adjective Check List than did the no-treatment group or the conventonal Induced Anxiety group. The conventional Induced Anxiety group did not differ significantly from the no-treatment control group.

  11. Distinct populations of neurons respond to emotional valence and arousal in the human subthalamic nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieger, Tomáš; Serranová, Tereza; Růžička, Filip; Vostatek, Pavel; Wild, Jiří; Štastná, Daniela; Bonnet, Cecilia; Novák, Daniel; Růžička, Evžen; Urgošík, Dušan; Jech, Robert

    2015-03-10

    Both animal studies and studies using deep brain stimulation in humans have demonstrated the involvement of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) in motivational and emotional processes; however, participation of this nucleus in processing human emotion has not been investigated directly at the single-neuron level. We analyzed the relationship between the neuronal firing from intraoperative microrecordings from the STN during affective picture presentation in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and the affective ratings of emotional valence and arousal performed subsequently. We observed that 17% of neurons responded to emotional valence and arousal of visual stimuli according to individual ratings. The activity of some neurons was related to emotional valence, whereas different neurons responded to arousal. In addition, 14% of neurons responded to visual stimuli. Our results suggest the existence of neurons involved in processing or transmission of visual and emotional information in the human STN, and provide evidence of separate processing of the affective dimensions of valence and arousal at the level of single neurons as well.

  12. Self-Awareness of the Male Sexual Response after Spinal Cord Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Fernando Luiz; Savall, Ana Carolina R.; Mendes, Aline K.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the impact of spinal cord injury on men's sexual motivation, through the sexual desire self-assessment, and the sexual arousal and orgasm physiological responses. This research consisted of a descriptive, nonprobabilistic and comparative study, designed to outline the target population characteristics to compare…

  13. Female sexual function following a novel transobturator sling procedure without paraurethral dissection (modified-TOT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burak Arslan

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose To determine whether there is a difference in sexual function after modified and classical TOT procedures. Materials and Methods Of the 80 sexually active women with SUI, 36 underwent an original outside-in TOT as described by Delorme, and 44 underwent modified TOT procedure, between 2011 and 2015. The severity of incontinence and sexual function were evaluated using International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Short Form (ICIQ-SF and Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI questionnaires preoperatively and 3 months after surgery. Results The postoperative ICIQ-SF score was significantly lower than the preoperative ICIQ-SF score in both groups (p=0.004 for modified TOT and p=0.002 for classical TOT. There was no significant difference in the ICIQ-SF score reduction between the two groups (14.1±2.1 vs. 14.4±1.9; p=0.892. Complication rates according to the Clavien-Dindo classification were also similar in both groups. In both groups, difference between preoperative and postoperative FSFI scores revealed a statistically significant improvement in all domains. Comparison of postoperative 3-month FSFI scores of modified and classical TOT groups showed statistically significant differences in arousal, lubrication and orgasm domains. Desire, satisfaction, pain and total FSFI scores did not differ significantly between two groups. Conclusion The modified TOT technique is a simple, reliable and minimal invasive procedure. The cure rate of incontinence and complication rates are the same as those of the classical TOT technique. However, due to the positive effects of minimal tissue damage on sexual arousal and orgasmic function, modified TOT has an advantage over the classical TOT.

  14. Association of religiousness and sexual disorders: A cross-sectional study on married women of reproductive age referring to public health centers of Shiraz, South of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Ghodrati

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Sexual health status of married women in the reproductive age, one of the most important community health issues. Recent research has highlighted the effects of religious beliefs with sexual life and sexual problem may be mediated This study aimed to investigate the association of religiousness and .through individual differences in spirituality. sexual disorders in a cross-sectional study in women of reproductive . This cross-sectional study was conducted on women aged 15-45 years old referring to Shiraz health centers in 2015 with a sample size of 210. Cluster sampling was done firstly. Then, purpose ful sampling was conducted in each center. Data collection was done using Religious Attitude Questionnaire and Female Sexual Dysfunction index. Correlation coefficient and Fisher's test The mean age of the study population was 30.67±6.60 . were performed for data analysis in SPSS software. According to the findings, 74.3% had sexual dysfunction. Furthermore, the rate of impaired sexual desire was 72.9 % and 62.4% in sexual arousal . Orgasmic disorder was the highest reported sexual dysfunction. There was a statistically significant correlation between religious thoughts and different dimensions of sexual function such as sexual desire (P= 0.005, psychological stimulation (p= 0.05, lubrication (p= 0.02, orgasm (p=0.013, and satisfaction ( p= 0.001. Religious thoughts with dimensions of sexual function (libido, orgasm, etc. was associated.So, the improvement in families and society ’s sexual health could result from the increase in the individuals' knowledge about sex related issues and religious thoughts in this regard. Therefore, sexual health education, in accordance with religious values, is one of the priorities in community health system.

  15. Quantifying the Arousal Threshold Using Polysomnography in Obstructive Sleep Apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sands, Scott A; Terrill, Philip I; Edwards, Bradley A; Taranto Montemurro, Luigi; Azarbarzin, Ali; Marques, Melania; de Melo, Camila M; Loring, Stephen H; Butler, James P; White, David P; Wellman, Andrew

    2018-01-01

    Precision medicine for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) requires noninvasive estimates of each patient's pathophysiological "traits." Here, we provide the first automated technique to quantify the respiratory arousal threshold-defined as the level of ventilatory drive triggering arousal from sleep-using diagnostic polysomnographic signals in patients with OSA. Ventilatory drive preceding clinically scored arousals was estimated from polysomnographic studies by fitting a respiratory control model (Terrill et al.) to the pattern of ventilation during spontaneous respiratory events. Conceptually, the magnitude of the airflow signal immediately after arousal onset reveals information on the underlying ventilatory drive that triggered the arousal. Polysomnographic arousal threshold measures were compared with gold standard values taken from esophageal pressure and intraoesophageal diaphragm electromyography recorded simultaneously (N = 29). Comparisons were also made to arousal threshold measures using continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) dial-downs (N = 28). The validity of using (linearized) nasal pressure rather than pneumotachograph ventilation was also assessed (N = 11). Polysomnographic arousal threshold values were correlated with those measured using esophageal pressure and diaphragm EMG (R = 0.79, p < .0001; R = 0.73, p = .0001), as well as CPAP manipulation (R = 0.73, p < .0001). Arousal threshold estimates were similar using nasal pressure and pneumotachograph ventilation (R = 0.96, p < .0001). The arousal threshold in patients with OSA can be estimated using polysomnographic signals and may enable more personalized therapeutic interventions for patients with a low arousal threshold. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Content-specific gender differences in emotion ratings from early to late adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Patrick; von Gunten, Armin; Danuser, Brigitta

    2013-12-01

    The investigation of gender differences in emotion has attracted much attention given the potential ramifications on our understanding of sexual differences in disorders involving emotion dysregulation. Yet, research on content-specific gender differences across adulthood in emotional responding is lacking. The aims of the present study were twofold. First, we sought to investigate to what extent gender differences in the self-reported emotional experience are content specific. Second, we sought to determine whether gender differences are stable across the adult lifespan. We assessed valence and arousal ratings of 14 picture series, each of a different content, in 94 men and 118 women aged 20 to 81. Compared to women, men reacted more positively to erotic images, whereas women rated low-arousing pleasant family scenes and landscapes as particularly positive. Women displayed a disposition to respond with greater defensive activation (i.e., more negative valence and higher arousal), in particular to the most arousing unpleasant contents. Importantly, significant interactions between gender and age were not found for any single content. This study makes a novel contribution by showing that gender differences in the affective experiences in response to different contents persist across the adult lifespan. These findings support the "stability hypothesis" of gender differences across age. © 2013 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.

  17. Emotional arousal and overeating in restrained eaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cools, J; Schotte, D E; McNally, R J

    1992-05-01

    We tested the effects of 3 mood inductions (neutral, positive, and negative) on food intake in 91 women of varying degrees of dietary restraint. Mood induction was accomplished by exposure to 1 of 3 film segments: a travelogue (neutral affect), a comedy film (positive affect), and a horror film (negative affect). In subjects exposed to the neutral film, food intake decreased with increasing levels of dietary restraint. Among subjects who viewed either the comedy film or the horror film, however, food intake increased with increasing restraint. Although the horror film appeared to be more disinhibiting than the comedy film, this effect may have resulted from a difference in the intensity of the emotions induced rather than from their valence. These results suggest that emotional arousal, regardless of valence, may trigger overeating among restrained eaters.

  18. Reduction of the Misinformation Effect by Arousal Induced after Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Shaun M.; Nielson, Kristy A.

    2010-01-01

    Misinformation introduced after events have already occurred causes errors in later retrieval. Based on literature showing that arousal induced after learning enhances delayed retrieval, we investigated whether post-learning arousal can reduce the misinformation effect. 251 participants viewed four short film clips, each followed by a retention…

  19. No arousal-biased competition in focused visuospatial attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ásgeirsson, Árni Gunnar; Nieuwenhuis, Sander

    2017-11-01

    Arousal sometimes enhances and sometimes impairs perception and memory. A recent theory attempts to reconcile these findings by proposing that arousal amplifies the competition between stimulus representations, strengthening already strong representations and weakening already weak representations. Here, we report a stringent test of this arousal-biased competition theory in the context of focused visuospatial attention. Participants were required to identify a briefly presented target in the context of multiple distractors, which varied in the degree to which they competed for representation with the target, as revealed by psychophysics. We manipulated arousal using emotionally arousing pictures (Experiment 1), alerting tones (Experiment 2) and white-noise stimulation (Experiment 3), and validated these manipulations with electroencephalography and pupillometry. In none of the experiments did we find evidence that arousal modulated the effect of distractor competition on the accuracy of target identification. Bayesian statistics revealed moderate to strong evidence against arousal-biased competition. Modeling of the psychophysical data based on Bundesen's (1990) theory of visual attention corroborated the conclusion that arousal does not bias competition in focused visuospatial attention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Emotional Arousal Does Not Enhance Association-Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madan, Christopher R.; Caplan, Jeremy B.; Lau, Christine S. M.; Fujiwara, Esther

    2012-01-01

    Emotionally arousing information is remembered better than neutral information. This enhancement effect has been shown for memory for items. In contrast, studies of association-memory have found both impairments and enhancements of association-memory by arousal. We aimed to resolve these conflicting results by using a cued-recall paradigm combined…

  1. Bidirectional interactions between the baroreceptor reflex and arousal: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvani, Alessandro; Calandra-Buonaura, Giovanna; Benarroch, Eduardo E; Dampney, Roger A L; Cortelli, Pietro

    2015-02-01

    Studies involving genetic engineering on animal models and mathematical analysis of cardiovascular signals on humans are shedding new light on the interactions between the arterial baroreceptor reflex (baroreflex) and arousal. Baroreceptor stimulation, if very mild or performed under anaesthesia, may inhibit cortical arousal. However, substantial increases or decreases in baroreflex activation cause arousal in animal models and human subjects in physiological conditions. On the other hand, cardiovascular changes during autonomic arousals and between the states of wakefulness and sleep involve changes in the baroreflex set point and balance with central autonomic commands. Neural connectivity and functional data suggest that the nucleus of the solitary tract, adrenergic C1 neurons of the medulla, and the parabrachial nucleus of the pons mediate the bidirectional interactions between the baroreflex and arousal. These interactions may constitute a positive feedback loop that facilitates sharp and coordinated brain state and autonomic transitions upon arousal: upon arousal, central autonomic commands may increase blood pressure, thereby loading baroreceptors and further increasing arousal. Anomalies of this feedback loop may play a role in the pathophysiology of disease conditions associated with cardiovascular and sleep-wake cycle alterations. These conditions include: obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome, with its association with excessive daytime sleepiness and baroreflex impairment; and insomnia, with its association with autonomic hyperarousal and hypertension. When faced with disorders associated with cardiovascular and sleep-wake cycle alterations, clinical reasoning should entertain the possibility that both conditions are strongly influenced by anomalies of baroreflex function. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Depression, Fatigue, and Pre-Sleep Arousal: A Mediation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlson, Cynthia W.; Stevens, Natalie R.; Olson, Christy A.; Hamilton, Nancy A.

    2010-01-01

    Fatigue is a common and debilitating symptom of clinical depression; however, the causes are not well understood. The present study was designed to test the hypotheses that subjective sleep, objective sleep, and arousal in the pre-sleep state would mediate the relationship between depression status and fatigue. Sleep, pre-sleep arousal, and…

  3. Effects of Arousal on Mouse Sensory Cortex Depend on Modality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Shimaoka

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Changes in arousal modulate the activity of mouse sensory cortex, but studies in different mice and different sensory areas disagree on whether this modulation enhances or suppresses activity. We measured this modulation simultaneously in multiple cortical areas by imaging mice expressing voltage-sensitive fluorescent proteins (VSFP. VSFP imaging estimates local membrane potential across large portions of cortex. We used temporal filters to predict local potential from running speed or from pupil dilation, two measures of arousal. The filters provided good fits and revealed that the effects of arousal depend on modality. In the primary visual cortex (V1 and auditory cortex (Au, arousal caused depolarization followed by hyperpolarization. In the barrel cortex (S1b and a secondary visual area (LM, it caused only hyperpolarization. In all areas, nonetheless, arousal reduced the phasic responses to trains of sensory stimuli. These results demonstrate diverse effects of arousal across sensory cortex but similar effects on sensory responses. : Shimaoka et al. use voltage-sensitive imaging to show that the effects of arousal on the mouse cortex are markedly different across areas and over time. In all the sensory areas studied, nonetheless, arousal reduced the phasic voltage responses to trains of sensory stimuli. Keywords: cerebral cortex, cortical state, locomotion, sensory processing, widefield imaging

  4. Mediators of sexual functioning and marital quality in chronically depressed adults with and without a history of childhood sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlop, Boadie W; Hill, Eric; Johnson, Benjamin N; Klein, Daniel N; Gelenberg, Alan J; Rothbaum, Barbara O; Thase, Michael E; Kocsis, James H

    2015-03-01

    Sexual dysfunction is common among depressed adults. Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and depressive symptomology are among the risk factors for sexual dysfunction, and these factors may interact to predict adult relationship functioning. Several models have been developed postulating interactions between these variables. We tested models of the effects of CSA and elucidate the associations between CSA, sexual dysfunction, depression severity, anxiety, and relationship quality in chronically depressed adults. Baseline data from 808 chronically depressed outpatients enrolled in the Research Evaluating the Value of Augmenting Medication with Psychotherapy study were evaluated using structural equation modeling. The Inventory of Depressive Symptomology, self-report version (IDS-SR) assessed depression severity, and the Mood and Anxiety Symptom Questionnaire Anxious Arousal subscale assessed anxiety. Sexual function was assessed with the Arizona Sexual Experiences Scale (ASEX), and the Quality of Marriage Index (QMI) assessed relationship quality for patients in stable relationships. CSA scores predicted depression severity on the IDS-SR, as well as lower relationship quality and sexual satisfaction. ASEX scores were significantly associated with depression severity but were not correlated with the QMI. Two models were evaluated to elucidate these associations, revealing that (i) depression severity and anxious arousal mediated the relationship between CSA and adult sexual function, (ii) anxious arousal and sexual functioning mediated the association between CSA and depression symptoms, and (iii) when these models were combined, anxious arousal emerged as the most important mediator of CSA on depression which, in turn, mediated associations with adult sexual satisfaction and relationship quality. Although CSA predicts lower relationship and sexual satisfaction among depressed adults, the long-term effects of CSA appear to be mediated by depressive and anxious symptoms. It

  5. Female Sexual Dysfunctions and Urogynecological Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emillio Sacco

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Female sexual dysfunctions are a highly prevalent and often-underestimated health problem and include disorders of sexual desire, arousal, orgasm and sexual pain, associated with self-distress. Pathophysiology of female sexual dysfunctions is complex and still poorly understood, although it has been related to several biological, medical and psychological factors. Amongst women, urogynecological disorders such as urinary incontinence, overactive bladder syndrome, bladder pain syndrome and pelvic organ prolapse, have been found to be associated with sexual dysfunctions, although the biological and psychological bases of these associations are poorly investigated. Data on sexual function impact of these conditions come from several cross-sectional or community-based, epidemiological studies based on self-administered validated psychometric tools. This review focuses on the most relevant available evidence on the impact of urogynecological disorders and related surgical treatments on female sexual function.

  6. Recent advances in female sexual dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, A R

    2000-06-01

    Female sexuality has received little scientific study. Recently, increased interest in this field has generated new research in the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and pharmacotherapy of female sexual dysfunction (FSD). A new FSD classification system has been proposed. Although sexual difficulties are highly prevalent among women, the degree of associated distress is unknown. Risk factors for FSD are probably both psychologic and physiologic. Aging or menopause is associated with lubrication difficulties, which can be treated with hormone replacement. Hysterectomy seems more likely to result in improvement rather then deterioration of sexual functioning. Depression may be a predictor of sexual dysfunction after hysterectomy. Vasoactive agents are currently being evaluated as treatment for female sexual arousal disorder. The most important advance in the study of female sexual function is the recent surge of interest in this relatively unexplored field.

  7. Higher motivation - greater control? The effect of arousal on judgement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riemer, Hila; Viswanathan, Madhu

    2013-01-01

    This research examines control over the effect of arousal, a dimension of affect, on judgement. Past research shows that high processing motivation enhances control over the effects of affect on judgement. Isolating and studying arousal as opposed to valence, the other dimension of affect, and its effect on judgement, we identify boundary conditions for past findings. Drawing from the literature on processes by which arousal influences judgement, we demonstrate that the role of motivation is contingent upon the type of judgement task (i.e., memory- versus stimulus-based judgement). In stimulus-based judgement, individuals exert greater control over the effect of arousal on judgement under low compared to high motivation. In contrast, in memory-based judgement individuals exert greater control over the effect of arousal under high compared to low motivation. Theoretical implications and avenues for future research are discussed.

  8. Sexual function and behavior in social phobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodinger, Liron; Hermesh, Haggai; Aizenberg, Dov; Valevski, Avi; Marom, Sofi; Shiloh, Roni; Gothelf, Doron; Zemishlany, Zvi; Weizman, Abraham

    2002-10-01

    Social phobia is a type of performance and interpersonal anxiety disorder and as such may be associated with sexual dysfunction and avoidance. The aim of the present study was to evaluate sexual function and behavior in patients with social phobia compared with mentally healthy subjects. Eighty subjects participated in the study: 40 consecutive, drug-free outpatients with social phobia (DSM-IV) attending an anxiety disorders clinic between November 1997 and April 1999 and 40 mentally normal controls. The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders and the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale were used to quantitatively and qualitatively assess sexual function and behavior. Men with social phobia reported mainly moderate impairment in arousal, orgasm, sexual enjoyment, and subjective satisfaction domains. Women with social phobia reported severe impairment in desire, arousal, sexual activity, and subjective satisfaction. In addition, compared with controls, men with social phobia reported significantly more frequent paid sex (p social phobia reported a significant paucity of sexual partners (p social phobia exhibit a wide range of sexual dysfunctions. Men have mainly performance problems, and women have a more pervasive disorder. Patients of both genders show difficulties in sexual interaction. It is important that clinicians be aware of this aspect of social phobia and initiate open discussions of sexual problems with patients.

  9. Long-term video surveillance and automated analyses reveal arousal patterns in groups of hibernating bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayman, David T.S.; Cryan, Paul; Fricker, Paul D.; Dannemiller, Nicholas G.

    2017-01-01

    Understanding natural behaviours is essential to determining how animals deal with new threats (e.g. emerging diseases). However, natural behaviours of animals with cryptic lifestyles, like hibernating bats, are often poorly characterized. White-nose syndrome (WNS) is an unprecedented disease threatening multiple species of hibernating bats, and pathogen-induced changes to host behaviour may contribute to mortality. To better understand the behaviours of hibernating bats and how they might relate to WNS, we developed new ways of studying hibernation across entire seasons.We used thermal-imaging video surveillance cameras to observe little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus) and Indiana bats (M. sodalis) in two caves over multiple winters. We developed new, sharable software to test for autocorrelation and periodicity of arousal signals in recorded video.We processed 740 days (17,760 hr) of video at a rate of >1,000 hr of video imagery in less than 1 hr using a desktop computer with sufficient resolution to detect increases in arousals during midwinter in both species and clear signals of daily arousal periodicity in infected M. sodalis.Our unexpected finding of periodic synchronous group arousals in hibernating bats demonstrate the potential for video methods and suggest some bats may have innate behavioural strategies for coping with WNS. Surveillance video and accessible analysis software make it now practical to investigate long-term behaviours of hibernating bats and other hard-to-study animals.

  10. Sexual self-concept and intended sexual behavior of young adolescent Taiwanese girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Hsiang-Chu; Lee, Sheuan; Chang, Ting

    2010-01-01

    People begin to become aware of their sexual drive and erotic feelings as young adolescents. Such activity often has been overlooked in Taiwan, a traditional society, because sexuality is viewed as a private issue. The purpose of this study was to explore the sexual self-concept and intended sexual behavior of young adolescent girls in Taiwan. Participants included 372 girls, 12 to 14 years old, from junior high schools in Taiwan who completed two questionnaires on sexual experience and sexually related items: the Sexual Self-Concept Inventory, the Parental Approval of Sexual Behavior Scale, and the Friends' Approval of Sexual Behavior Scale, which were combined into one scale, with separate scores. Girls' self-reports showed low (negative) sexual self-concept, high perceived parental disapproval, and somewhat high perceived friends' disapproval of sexual activities. Sexual self-concept is associated with perceived parental and peer approval of sexual activities, and it is associated with sexual experience and intended sexual activities as well. A young adolescent girl who has a high score on the perceived sexual arousability factor of the Sexual Self-Concept Inventory is more likely to report the strongest intention toward sexual behavior. Sexual self-concept may play a key role in girls' intended sexual activities, including engaging in low-level sexual activities (e.g., kissing and breast fondling) that occur before intercourse, even when associated with intercourse intention. The research suggests that addressing sexual self-concept needs to be a priority to prevent young girls from engaging in sexual intercourse.

  11. The Effects of False Physiological Feedback on Sexual Arousal in Sexually Dysfunctional and Functional Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    hydrochloride . In a single-blind study, subjects received either saline or epinephrine injections before viewing erotic films. No differences in...frequency of erectile disorder among heroin users is 28% - 43%, and 40% - 50% among methadone users (Segraves, Madsen, Carter, & Davis, 1985)-both...label trial comparing phentolamine hydrochloride 50 mg with phenoxybenzamine 10 mg orally. Eighty-five patients were asked to take each drug at least 3

  12. The influence of atypical antipsychotic drugs on sexual function

    OpenAIRE

    Just, Marek J

    2015-01-01

    Marek J Just Department of General and Endocrine Surgery, Piekary Medical Centre, Piekary Slaskie, Poland Abstract: Human sexuality is contingent upon many biological and psychological factors. Such factors include sexual drive (libido), physiological arousal (lubrication/erection), orgasm, and ejaculation, as well as maintaining normal menstrual cycle. The assessment of sexual dysfunction can be difficult due to the intimate nature of the problem and patients’ unwillingness to di...

  13. Sexual function of pregnant women in the third trimester | Erbil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    35th and 36th and higher gestational weeks of pregnancy were as follows: sexual desire scores, 2.50, 2.77 and 2.40; sexual arousal scores, 2.26, 2.72 and 1.69; lubrication scores, 2.61, 3.42 and 1.97; orgasm scores, 2.51, 2.85 and 1.78; sexual ...

  14. Animal Models for the Study of Female Sexual Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marson, Lesley; Giamberardino, Maria Adele; Costantini, Raffaele; Czakanski, Peter; Wesselmann, Ursula

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Significant progress has been made in elucidating the physiological and pharmacological mechanisms of female sexual function through preclinical animal research. The continued development of animal models is vital for the understanding and treatment of the many diverse disorders that occur in women. Aim To provide an updated review of the experimental models evaluating female sexual function that may be useful for clinical translation. Methods Review of English written, peer-reviewed literature, primarily from 2000 to 2012, that described studies on female sexual behavior related to motivation, arousal, physiological monitoring of genital function and urogenital pain. Main Outcomes Measures Analysis of supporting evidence for the suitability of the animal model to provide measurable indices related to desire, arousal, reward, orgasm, and pelvic pain. Results The development of female animal models has provided important insights in the peripheral and central processes regulating sexual function. Behavioral models of sexual desire, motivation, and reward are well developed. Central arousal and orgasmic responses are less well understood, compared with the physiological changes associated with genital arousal. Models of nociception are useful for replicating symptoms and identifying the neurobiological pathways involved. While in some cases translation to women correlates with the findings in animals, the requirement of circulating hormones for sexual receptivity in rodents and the multifactorial nature of women’s sexual function requires better designed studies and careful analysis. The current models have studied sexual dysfunction or pelvic pain in isolation; combining these aspects would help to elucidate interactions of the pathophysiology of pain and sexual dysfunction. Conclusions Basic research in animals has been vital for understanding the anatomy, neurobiology, and physiological mechanisms underlying sexual function and urogenital pain

  15. Does male circumcision affect sexual function, sensitivity, or satisfaction?--a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Brian J; Krieger, John N

    2013-11-01

    Circumcision of males is commonly carried out worldwide for reasons of health, medical need, esthetics, tradition, or religion. Whether circumcision impairs or improves male sexual function or pleasure is controversial. The study aims to conduct a systematic review of the scientific literature. A systematic review of published articles retrieved using keyword searches of the PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases was performed. The main outcome measure is the assessment of findings in publications reporting original data relevant to the search terms and rating of quality of each study based on established criteria. Searches identified 2,675 publications describing the effects of male circumcision on aspects of male sexual function, sensitivity, sensation, or satisfaction. Of these, 36 met our inclusion criteria of containing original data. Those studies reported a total of 40,473 men, including 19,542 uncircumcised and 20,931 circumcised. Rated by the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network grading system, 2 were 1++ (high quality randomized controlled trials) and 34 were case-control or cohort studies (11 high quality: 2++; 10 well-conducted: 2+; 13 low quality: 2-). The 1++, 2++, and 2+ studies uniformly found that circumcision had no overall adverse effect on penile sensitivity, sexual arousal, sexual sensation, erectile function, premature ejaculation, ejaculatory latency, orgasm difficulties, sexual satisfaction, pleasure, or pain during penetration. Support for these conclusions was provided by a meta-analysis. Impairment in one or more parameters was reported in 10 of the 13 studies rated as 2-. These lower-quality studies contained flaws in study design (11), selection of cases and/or controls (5), statistical analysis (4), and/or data interpretation (6); five had multiple problems. The highest-quality studies suggest that medical male circumcision has no adverse effect on sexual function, sensitivity, sexual sensation, or satisfaction. © 2013

  16. Short message service reminder intervention doubles sexually transmitted infection/HIV re-testing rates among men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourne, C; Knight, V; Guy, R; Wand, H; Lu, H; McNulty, A

    2011-04-01

    To evaluate the impact of a short message service (SMS) reminder system on HIV/sexually transmitted infection (STI) re-testing rates among men who have sex with men (MSM). The SMS reminder programme started in late 2008 at a large Australian sexual health clinic. SMS reminders were recommended 3-6 monthly for MSM considered high-risk based on self-reported sexual behaviour. The evaluation compared HIV negative MSM who had a HIV/STI test between 1 January and 31 August 2010 and received a SMS reminder (SMS group) with those tested in the same time period (comparison group) and pre-SMS period (pre-SMS group, 1 January 2008 and 31 August 2008) who did not receive the SMS. HIV/STI re-testing rates were measured within 9 months for each group. Baseline characteristics were compared between study groups and multivariate logistic regression used to assess the association between SMS and re-testing and control for any imbalances in the study groups. There were 714 HIV negative MSM in the SMS group, 1084 in the comparison group and 1753 in the pre-SMS group. In the SMS group, 64% were re-tested within 9 months compared to 30% in the comparison group (preminders increased HIV/STI re-testing among HIV negative MSM. SMS offers a cheap, efficient system to increase HIV/STI re-testing in a busy clinical setting.

  17. Fruit flies may face a nutrient-dependent life-history trade-off between secondary sexual trait quality, survival and developmental rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Lindsey J; Simpson, Stephen J; Polak, Michal

    2018-01-01

    Optimal life-history strategies are those that best allocate finite environmental resources to competing traits. We used the geometric framework for nutrition to evaluate life-history strategies followed by Drosophila melanogaster by measuring the condition-dependent performance of life-history traits, including the morphology of male secondary sexual characters, sex combs. We found that depending on their rearing environment flies faced different forms of trait trade-offs and accordingly followed different life-history strategies. High-energy, high-carbohydrate, low-protein diets supported development of the largest and most symmetrical sex combs, however, consistent with handicap models of sexual selection these foods were associated with reduced fly survival and developmental rate. Expressing the highest quality sex combs may have required secondary sexual trait quality to be traded-off with developmental rate, and our results indicated that flies unable to slow development died. As larval nutritional environments are predominantly determined by female oviposition substrate choice, we tested where mated female flies laid the most eggs. Mothers chose high-energy, high-protein foods associated with rapid larval development. Mothers avoided high-carbohydrate foods associated with maximal sex comb expression, showing they may avoid producing fewer 'sexy' sons in favour of producing offspring that develop rapidly. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Appraisal and control of sexual and non-sexual intrusive thoughts in university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D A; Purdon, C; Byers, E S

    2000-05-01

    This study examined differences in the appraisal and thought control strategies associated with the perceived control of unwanted sexual and non-sexual intrusive thoughts. Eleven appraisal dimensions, subjective physiological arousal and 10 thought control strategies were measured in 171 university students who were administered the Revised Obsessive Intrusions Inventory-Sex Version, a self-report measure of unwanted intrusive thoughts. Thought-action fusion (TAF) likelihood was a significant unique predictor of the perceived controllability of respondents' most upsetting sexual and non-sexual intrusive thought. Moreover greater subjective physiological arousal was a significant predictor of reduced control over sexual intrusions, whereas worry that one might act on an intrusive thought and greater effort to control the intrusion were significant unique predictors of the control of non-sexual intrusive thoughts. Various thought control strategies were more often used in response to non-sexual than sexual cognitions. The results are discussed in terms of the differential role of various appraisal processes in the control of unwanted sexual and non-sexual thoughts.

  19. Activation of stress signaling molecules in bat brain during arousal from hibernation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Moonyong; Choi, Inho; Park, Kyoungsook

    2002-08-01

    Induction of glucose-regulated proteins (GRPs) is a ubiquitous intracellular response to stresses such as hypoxia, glucose starvation and acidosis. The induction of GRPs offers some protection against these stresses in vitro, but the specific role of GRPs in vivo remains unclear. Hibernating bats present a good in vivo model to address this question. The bats must overcome local high oxygen demand in tissue by severe metabolic stress during arousal thermogenesis. We used brain tissue of a temperate bat Rhinolopus ferrumequinum to investigate GRP induction by high metabolic oxygen demand and to identify associated signaling molecules. We found that during 30 min of arousal, oxygen consumption increased from nearly zero to 11.9/kg/h, which was about 8.7-fold higher than its active resting metabolic rate. During this time, body temperature rose from 7 degrees C to 35 degrees C, and levels of TNF-alpha and lactate in brain tissue increased 2-2.5-fold, indicating a high risk of oxygen shortage. Concomitantly, levels of GRP75, GRP78 and GRP94 increased 1.5-1.7-fold. At the same time, c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK) activity increased 6.4-fold, and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) activity decreased to a similar degree (6.1-fold). p38 MAPK activity was very low and remained unchanged during arousal. In addition, survival signaling molecules protein kinase B (Akt) and protein kinase C (PKC) were activated 3- and 5-fold, respectively, during arousal. Taken together, our results showed that bat brain undergoes high oxygen demand during arousal from hibernation. Up-regulation of GRP proteins and activation of JNK, PKCgamma and Akt may be critical for neuroprotection and the survival of bats during the repeated process.

  20. Emotion and language: Valence and arousal affect word recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brysbaert, Marc; Warriner, Amy Beth

    2014-01-01

    Emotion influences most aspects of cognition and behavior, but emotional factors are conspicuously absent from current models of word recognition. The influence of emotion on word recognition has mostly been reported in prior studies on the automatic vigilance for negative stimuli, but the precise nature of this relationship is unclear. Various models of automatic vigilance have claimed that the effect of valence on response times is categorical, an inverted-U, or interactive with arousal. The present study used a sample of 12,658 words, and included many lexical and semantic control factors, to determine the precise nature of the effects of arousal and valence on word recognition. Converging empirical patterns observed in word-level and trial-level data from lexical decision and naming indicate that valence and arousal exert independent monotonic effects: Negative words are recognized more slowly than positive words, and arousing words are recognized more slowly than calming words. Valence explained about 2% of the variance in word recognition latencies, whereas the effect of arousal was smaller. Valence and arousal do not interact, but both interact with word frequency, such that valence and arousal exert larger effects among low-frequency words than among high-frequency words. These results necessitate a new model of affective word processing whereby the degree of negativity monotonically and independently predicts the speed of responding. This research also demonstrates that incorporating emotional factors, especially valence, improves the performance of models of word recognition. PMID:24490848

  1. Barratt Impulsivity and Neural Regulation of Physiological Arousal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Zhang

    Full Text Available Theories of personality have posited an increased arousal response to external stimulation in impulsive individuals. However, there is a dearth of studies addressing the neural basis of this association.We recorded skin conductance in 26 individuals who were assessed with Barratt Impulsivity Scale (BIS-11 and performed a stop signal task during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Imaging data were processed and modeled with Statistical Parametric Mapping. We used linear regressions to examine correlations between impulsivity and skin conductance response (SCR to salient events, identify the neural substrates of arousal regulation, and examine the relationship between the regulatory mechanism and impulsivity.Across subjects, higher impulsivity is associated with greater SCR to stop trials. Activity of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC negatively correlated to and Granger caused skin conductance time course. Furthermore, higher impulsivity is associated with a lesser strength of Granger causality of vmPFC activity on skin conductance, consistent with diminished control of physiological arousal to external stimulation. When men (n = 14 and women (n = 12 were examined separately, however, there was evidence suggesting association between impulsivity and vmPFC regulation of arousal only in women.Together, these findings confirmed the link between Barratt impulsivity and heightened arousal to salient stimuli in both genders and suggested the neural bases of altered regulation of arousal in impulsive women. More research is needed to explore the neural processes of arousal regulation in impulsive individuals and in clinical conditions that implicate poor impulse control.

  2. Barratt Impulsivity and Neural Regulation of Physiological Arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sheng; Hu, Sien; Hu, Jianping; Wu, Po-Lun; Chao, Herta H; Li, Chiang-shan R

    2015-01-01

    Theories of personality have posited an increased arousal response to external stimulation in impulsive individuals. However, there is a dearth of studies addressing the neural basis of this association. We recorded skin conductance in 26 individuals who were assessed with Barratt Impulsivity Scale (BIS-11) and performed a stop signal task during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Imaging data were processed and modeled with Statistical Parametric Mapping. We used linear regressions to examine correlations between impulsivity and skin conductance response (SCR) to salient events, identify the neural substrates of arousal regulation, and examine the relationship between the regulatory mechanism and impulsivity. Across subjects, higher impulsivity is associated with greater SCR to stop trials. Activity of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) negatively correlated to and Granger caused skin conductance time course. Furthermore, higher impulsivity is associated with a lesser strength of Granger causality of vmPFC activity on skin conductance, consistent with diminished control of physiological arousal to external stimulation. When men (n = 14) and women (n = 12) were examined separately, however, there was evidence suggesting association between impulsivity and vmPFC regulation of arousal only in women. Together, these findings confirmed the link between Barratt impulsivity and heightened arousal to salient stimuli in both genders and suggested the neural bases of altered regulation of arousal in impulsive women. More research is needed to explore the neural processes of arousal regulation in impulsive individuals and in clinical conditions that implicate poor impulse control.

  3. Frequency of EEG arousals from nocturnal sleep in normal subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, R; Douglas, N J

    1995-06-01

    Brief arousals are clinically important and increasingly scored during polysomnography. However, the frequency of arousals during routine polysomnography in the normal population is unknown. We performed overnight polysomnography in the 55 of 59 control subjects from a family practice list who were approached and agreed to undergo polysomnography. Awakenings were scored according to the criteria of Rechtschaffen and Kales and briefer arousals according to three different criteria, including the American Sleep Disorders Association (ASDA) definition. There was a mean of 4 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1-15) Rechtschaffen and Kales awakenings per hour, whereas the ASDA definition gave 21 (95% CI, 7-56) per hour slept. Arousal frequencies increased significantly (p < 0.001) with age in our subjects, who ranged from the late teens to early 70s. The high upper limit of the frequency of brief arousals was not altered by exclusion of patients who snored or had witnessed apneas or daytime sleepiness. It is important that those scoring arousals on routine polysomnography recognize that high arousal frequencies occur in the normal population on 1-night polysomnography.

  4. Current approach to sexual disfunctions in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulkadir Tepeler

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Even though sexual problems and sexual dysfunction are commonly observed in the society, a significant majority of the problems are not reported to the doctors, and due to this fact, remain unaddressed. In our country, the studies about sexual dysfunction are limited in number but in recent years there has been an increase in these studies. The ratio of sexual dysfunction is higher in women than the ratio in men (43%; 31%. However, there are few treatment modality about women sexual dysfunction. Most commonly observed sexual dysfunctions in women are loss of sexual interest/desire, sexual arousal dysfunctions, orgasm dysfunctions, dyspareunia, vaginismus and sexual anxiety. In DSM-IV-TR, sexual dysfunction is treated by taking stress and interfamily relation problems into consideration. According to WHO’s definition, sexual health refers the combination of physical, emotional, intellectual and social sexual existense with the techniques that would increase personality communication and love. Sexual problems damage this combination, and cause pyschological and social problems. J Clin Exp Invest 2010; 1(3: 235-240

  5. Arousal and exposure duration affect forward step initiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniëlle eBouman

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Emotion influences parameters of goal-directed whole-body movements in several ways. For instance, previous research has shown that approaching (moving toward pleasant stimuli is easier compared to approaching unpleasant stimuli. However, some studies found that when emotional pictures are viewed for a longer time, approaching unpleasant stimuli may in fact be facilitated. The effect of viewing duration may modulate whole-body approach movement in previous research but this has not been investigated before. In the current study, participants initiated a step forward after viewing neutral, high-arousal pleasant and high-arousal unpleasant stimuli. The viewing duration of the stimuli was set to 7 different durations, varying from 100 to 4000ms. Valence and arousal scores were collected for all stimuli.The results indicate that both viewing duration and the arousal of the stimuli influence kinematic parameters in forward gait initiation. Specifically, longer viewing duration, compared to shorter viewing duration, (a diminished the step length and peak velocity in both neutral and emotional stimuli, (b increased reaction time in neutral stimuli and, (c decreased reaction time in pleasant and unpleasant stimuli. Strikingly, no differences were found between high-arousal pleasant and high-arousal unpleasant stimuli. In other words, the valence of the stimuli did not influence kinematic parameters of forward step initiation. In contrast, the arousal level (neutral: low; pleasant and unpleasant: high explained the variance found in the results. The kinematics of forward gait initiation seemed to be reflected in the subjective arousal scores, but not the valence scores. So it seems arousal affects forward gait initiation parameters more strongly than valence. In addition, longer viewing duration seemed to cause diminished alertness, affecting GI parameters. These results shed new light on the prevailing theoretical interpretations regarding approach

  6. Addiction and arousal: the hypocretin connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutrel, Benjamin; de Lecea, Luis

    2015-01-01

    The hypocretins, also known as orexins, are two neuropeptides now commonly described as critical components to maintain and regulate the stability of arousal. Several lines of evidence have raised the hypothesis that hypocretin-producing neurons are part of the circuitries that mediate the hypothalamic response to acute stress. Intracerebral administration of hypocretin leads to a dose related reinstatement of drug and food seeking behaviors. Furthermore, stress-induced reinstatement can be blocked with hypocretin receptor 1 antagonism. These results, together with recent data showing that hypocretin is critically involved in cocaine sensitization through the recruitment of NMDA receptors in the ventral tegmental area, strongly suggest that activation of hypocretin neurons play a critical role in the development of the addiction process. The activity of hypocretin neurons may affect addictive behavior by contributing to brain sensitization or by modulating the brain reward system. Hypocretinergic cells, in coordination with brain stress systems may lead to a vulnerable state that facilitates the resumption of drug seeking behavior. Hence, the hypocretinergic system is a new drug target that may be used to prevent relapse of drug seeking. PMID:18262574

  7. Expressive Dissonance: When Emotional Inconsistency Arouses Dissonance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey Pelt

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the two studies was to explore a new dissonance paradigm–expressive dissonance–based on the inconsistency between what people feel and what people express behaviorally. Expressive dissonance was aroused by asking participants to watch a film with a high emotional content, either positive (joy or negative (sadness. In the no-dissonance condition, they received the instruction to naturally watch the film. In the expressive dissonance condition, they received the instruction to facially express emotions that were the opposite of what they felt. We expected that the expressive dissonance situation would: 1 require cognitive resources leading to a decrease in cognitive performance (studies 1 and 2; 2 be accompanied by emotional regulation strategies (study 1; 3 be accompanied by an increase in dissonance-related affects (study 2. Although our results (studies 1 and 2 corroborated those obtained previously in terms of performance, they also showed that participants in the expressive dissonance situation use emotional regulation strategies: exaggeration and suppression (study 1, and that they felt self-directed negative affects (study 2, just like the participants in a cognitive dissonance situation. These first results allowed us to establish a theoretical bridge between the theories of emotions–particularly those related to the emotional regulation processes–and to widen the scope of relevance of the dissonance theory.

  8. Independent effects of relevance and arousal on deductive reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caparos, Serge; Blanchette, Isabelle

    2017-08-01

    Emotional content can have either a deleterious or a beneficial impact on logicality. Using standard deductive-reasoning tasks, we tested the hypothesis that the interplay of two factors - personal relevance and arousal - determines the nature of the effect of emotional content on logicality. Arousal was assessed using measures of skin conductance. Personal relevance was manipulated by asking participants to reason about semantic contents linked to an emotional event that they had experienced or not. Findings showed that (1) personal relevance exerts a positive effect on logicality while arousal exerts a negative effect, and that (2) these effects are independent of each other.

  9. Sexual Assault

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Professions Indian Health Careers Indian Preference Loan Repayment Military Transition Student ... Sexual Assault Sexual assault is a significant problem affecting American Indians and Alaska Natives. Sexual assault ...

  10. Sexual behavior and autism spectrum disorders: an update and discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellaher, Denise C

    2015-04-01

    In the last few years, we have gained a deeper understanding about sexuality among individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Greater interest in this subject and improvements in the empirical study of ASD populations are driving this enlightenment. The data is dispelling antiquated notions that ASD individuals are asexual, sexually unknowledgeable and inexperienced, and/or disinterested in relationships. We still have a ways to go in examining paraphilic or deviant arousal sexual behaviors among ASD individuals. This manuscript provides an update on sexuality research in ASD in the last few years. This is accompanied by a discussion of the paraphilic type sexual behaviors observed among some ASD individuals.

  11. Predictors of men's sexual response to erotic film stimuli: the role of affect and self-reported thoughts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Cátia; Laja, Pedro; Carvalho, Joana; Quinta Gomes, Ana; Vilarinho, Sandra; Janssen, Erick; Nobre, Pedro J

    2014-11-01

    Both emotions and cognitions seem to play a role in determining sexual arousal. However, no studies to date have tested the effects of self-reported thoughts on subjective sexual arousal and genital response using psychophysiological methods. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of self-reported thoughts and affect during exposure to erotic material in predicting subjective and genital responses in sexually healthy men. Twenty-seven men were presented with two explicit films, and genital responses, subjective sexual arousal, self-reported thoughts, and positive and negative affect were assessed. Men's genital responses, subjective sexual arousal, affective responses, and self-reported thoughts during exposure to sexual stimulus were measured. Regression analyses revealed that genital responses were predicted by self-reported thoughts (explaining 20% of the variance) but not by affect during exposure to erotic films. On the other hand, subjective sexual arousal was significantly predicted by both positive and negative affect (explaining 18% of the variance) and self-reported thoughts (explaining 37% of the variance). Follow-up analyses using the single predictors showed that "sexual arousal thoughts" were the only significant predictor of subjective response (β = 0.64; P < 0.01) and that "distracting/disengaging thoughts" were the best predictor of genital response (β = -0.51; P < 0.05). The findings of this study suggest that both affect and sexual arousal thoughts play an important role in men's subjective sexual response, whereas genital response seems to be better predicted by distracting thoughts. © 2014 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  12. Role of Sexuality in Body Integrity Identity Disorder (BIID) : A Cross-Sectional Internet-Based Survey Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, Rianne M; van der Wal, Sija J; Vulink, Nienke C; Denys, D.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Body integrity identity disorder (BIID)-a strong desire for amputation or paralysis-is often accompanied by feelings and cognitions of sexual arousal, although this sexual component has been largely neglected in the recent literature. AIM: To examine the presence of BIID-related sexual

  13. "Girl, You Better Go Get You a Condom": Popular Culture and Teen Sexuality as Resources for Critical Multicultural Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashcraft, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    Teens encounter a barrage of messages about sexuality in popular culture--messages that shape their identities and schooling experiences in profound ways. Meanwhile, teen sexuality, pregnancy, and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) increasingly arouse public panic. To date, however, schools do little to help teens make sense of their…

  14. A case-control study of men with non-gonococcal urethritis at Auckland Sexual Health Service: rates of detection of Mycoplasma genitalium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, Jackie; Azariah, Sunita; Reid, Murray

    2010-03-01

    Previous studies have identified Mycoplasma genitalium as a cause of urethritis in men. As there is no New Zealand data, a case-control study was conducted to determine whether this organism is a significant cause of urethritis in men presenting to Auckland Sexual Health Service. Enrollment for the study commenced in March 2006 and finished in February 2008. Inclusion criteria for cases of non-gonococcal urethritis were onset of urethritis symptoms within one month confirmed by urethral Gram staining showing >or=10 polymorphonuclear leucocytes per high-powered field. Controls were men presenting during the same time period for asymptomatic sexual health screening. All participants were tested for Neisseria gonorrhoeae, M. genitalium, and Chlamydia trachomatis. Information regarding symptoms, sexual behaviour and treatment was collected using a standard questionnaire. We recruited 209 cases and 199 controls with a participation rate of 96%. The prevalence of C. trachomatis and M. genitalium in non-gonococcal urethritis cases was 33.5% and 10% respectively. Co-infection with these organisms was uncommon (1.9%). C. trachomatis and M. genitalium were diagnosed in 4% and 2% of controls, respectively, and both infections were detected significantly less often than in the cases (P urethritis was a significant predictor of current symptoms (P urethritis in men presenting to our service.

  15. Evaluating sexual nursing care intervention for reducing sexual dysfunction in Indonesian cervical cancer survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yati Afiyanti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aims to describe the factors affecting successful nursing care intervention on sexuality. Methods: A one-group pre- and post-test design was used. Fifty-three cervical cancer survivors and their spouses were administered with nursing care intervention on sexuality in three sessions and evaluated after 6 weeks. Results: Sexual intervention reduced dyspareunia symptoms, improved vaginal lubrication, improved sexual satisfaction, and enhanced sexual arousal, sexual desire, and orgasm among cancer survivors and their spouses. The other influencing factors also simultaneously contributed to the success of nursing care intervention. Conclusions: Nursing care intervention on sexuality could be a part of supportive nursing care and an important aspect in standard nursing care for cancer patients in Indonesia.

  16. Management of sexual problems: the approach of mindfulness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilarinho, Sandra

    2017-11-01

    During the last 10 years mindfulness has been progressively integrated into protocols for the management of sexual problems. The purpose of this study is to systematize potential benefits of mindfulness in sexual well-being (considering mind, emotion, and body), and to shortly review current applications and effectiveness of mindfulness-based interventions to the treatment of sexual problems. The majority of evidence available focuses on women's sexual desire and arousal problems, although there are also preliminary findings for the effectiveness of mindfulness-based interventions in enhancing other components of the sexual response. Relationship issues, sexual pain, sexual abuse, and sexual distress have also revealed to benefit from mindfulness-based interventions. The practice of mindfulness is a promising clinical approach with encouraging results for women's sexual problems. Further empirical research with different populations and greater methodological rigour is still needed to clarify the effectiveness of mindfulness as a specific component and the mechanisms contributing to therapeutic change.

  17. Sexual behavior in pregnancy: comparing between sexual education group and nonsexual education group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wannakosit, Salakjit; Phupong, Vorapong

    2010-10-01

    Sexuality usually decreases during pregnancy. To evaluate sexual behavior during pregnancy, comparing two groups. One had sexual education and the other had none. After randomizing two groups of pregnant women, they completed self-administered questionnaires regarding attitudes and sexual behavior before and during pregnancy. Sexual education was provided in one group and a second self-administered questionnaire was completed 12 weeks later. Responses were summarized using descriptive statistics. Comparison of change of sexual behavior between two groups was analyzed using chi-square and student t-tests. The change in frequency of coitus during pregnancy was compared between the sexual education group and the noneducation group. There was no statistically difference in changes of sexual behavior between the two groups. There was a reduction in frequency of coitus (90.6% vs. 94.9%, P>0.05) between the nonsexual education group and the sexual education group and no statistically significant change in mean reduction of sexual desire (8.9 vs. 4.4, P>0.05), sexual arousal (14.3 vs. 13.1, P>0.05), satisfaction from coitus (15.4 vs. 7.2, P>0.05), and orgasm from coitus (12.3 vs. 12.3, P>0.05). The change of sexual behavior during pregnancy in the sexual education group was not different from that in the nonsexual education group. © 2010 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  18. Preattentive processing, poststimulus elaboration, and memory for emotionally arousing stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migita, Mai; Otani, Hajime; Libkuman, Terry M; Sheffert, Sonya M

    2011-01-01

    Christianson (1992) proposed two mechanisms to explain emotionally enhanced memory: preattentive processing and poststimulus elaboration. Experiment 1 examined these processes by instructing participants to perform (1) a concurrent distractor task, (2) a continuous distractor task, or (3) both while viewing the negatively arousing, positively arousing, and neutral pictures. Recall of negatively arousing pictures showed a small decline in one of the distractor conditions, indicating that elaboration plays a minor role in remembering these pictures. Experiment 2 partially replicated Experiment 1 with an intentional learning instruction to investigate whether participants in Experiment 1 were anticipating a recall test. For all three picture types, recall declined in the continuous distractor task condition, indicating that elaboration played a role, even when the pictures were negatively arousing. Overall, these results were consistent with the notion that remembering negatively valenced stimuli is largely based on preattentive processing with a minor role played by poststimulus elaboration.

  19. [Construct validity of a Portuguese version of the Female Sexual Function Index].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacagnella, Rodolfo de Carvalho; Martinez, Edson Zangiacomi; Vieira, Elisabeth Meloni

    2009-11-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the construct validity of a version of the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). The version was inserted into a multidimensional questionnaire and applied face-to-face to 235 sterilized women. Non-response rate was 1.7%. The sample proved to be highly homogeneous, with low income and education. Cronbach's alpha of 0.948 indicated high internal consistency. Factor analysis showed that the instrument was measuring four factors: desire/arousal, lubrication, orgasm/satisfaction, and pain. This may reflect characteristics of the instrument itself, female sexual response, or even the sample's cultural peculiarities, which can affect understanding of the questions or concepts with which the instrument deals. This study emphasizes the need for further research in the general population to determine the psychometric properties of the FSFI, such as its factor composition and definition of appropriate cut-off points for the Brazilian population.

  20. [A Matter of Nerves - Applied Neurophysiology of Female Sexuality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischof, Karoline

    2015-06-17

    Sexual problems are often attributed to psychological or physical deficits that are difficult to modify, or to a poor lover. In contrast, the neurophysiological interaction between body and brain can be understood as fundamental for the genital and emotional experience of sexuality. Neuropsychological discoveries and clinical observations show that elevated muscle tension, superficial breathing and reduced body movement, as employed by many individuals during sexual arousal, will limit the perception of arousal and the degree of sexual pleasure. In contrast, deep breathing and variations in movement and muscle tension support it. Through the use of self awareness exercises and physical learning steps, patients can integrate their sexuality and increases its resistance to psychological, medical and relational interferences.

  1. Arousal rather than basic emotions influence long-term recognition memory in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Marchewka

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Emotion can influence various cognitive processes, however its impact on memory has been traditionally studied over relatively short retention periods and in line with dimensional models of affect. The present study aimed to investigate emotional effects on long-term recognition memory according to a combined framework of affective dimensions and basic emotions. Images selected from the Nencki Affective Picture System were rated on the scale of affective dimensions and basic emotions. After six months, subjects took part in a surprise recognition test during an fMRI session. The more negative the pictures the better they were remembered, but also the more false recognitions they provoked. Similar effects were found for the arousal dimension. Recognition success was greater for pictures with lower intensity of happiness and with higher intensity of surprise, sadness, fear, and disgust. Consecutive fMRI analyses showed a significant activation for remembered (recognized vs. forgotten (not recognized images in anterior cingulate and bilateral anterior insula as well as in bilateral caudate nuclei and right thalamus. Further, arousal was found to be the only subjective rating significantly modulating brain activation. Higher subjective arousal evoked higher activation associated with memory recognition in the right caudate and the left cingulate gyrus. Notably, no significant modulation was observed for other subjective ratings, including basic emotion intensities. These results emphasize the crucial role of arousal for long-term recognition memory and support the hypothesis that the memorized material, over time, becomes stored in a distributed cortical network including the core salience network and basal ganglia.

  2. Women’s sexual desire: challenging narratives of “Dysfunction”

    OpenAIRE

    Graham, Cynthia A.; Boynton, Petra M.; Gould, Kate

    2017-01-01

    Recent changes in the classification of female sexual dysfunction in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) and the US Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA) approval of the first drug to treat low sexual desire in women (flibanserin) have highlighted the intense focus on sexual desire problems in women. We first discuss the rationale for the DSM changes and outline the DSM-5 criteria for Female Sexual Interest/Arousal Disorder. We provide an overvi...

  3. Age differences in liking and recall of arousing television commercials

    OpenAIRE

    van der Goot, M.; van Reijmersdal, E.; Eisend, M.; Langner, T.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines age differences in liking of arousing television commercials and recall of the advertised brands and products. Based on the activation theory of information exposure, sensation seeking theory and the limited capacity model of mediated message processing, we expect that the effects of arousing commercials on liking and recall are moderated by age. An experiment (N = 66) indeed demonstrated that older adults showed more liking of calm commercials and better recall of the bra...

  4. The effect of flow limitation on the cardiorespiratory response to arousal from sleep under controlled conditions of chemostimulation in healthy older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, Elizabeth A; Nicholas, Christian L; Kleiman, Jan; Spear, Owen; Morrell, Mary J; Trinder, John

    2012-12-01

    The influence of flow limitation on the magnitude of the cardiorespiratory response to arousal from sleep is of interest in older people, because they experience considerable flow limitation and frequent arousals from sleep. We studied older flow-limiting subjects, testing the hypothesis that the cardiorespiratory activation response would be larger when arousal occurred during flow limitation, compared to no flow limitation, and chemical stimuli were controlled. In 11 older adults [mean ± standard deviation (SD) age: 68 ± 5 years] ventilation was stabilized using continuous positive airway pressure, and flow limitation was induced by dialling down the pressure. Partial pressure of end-tidal carbon dioxide (PetCO(2)) was maintained by titration of the inspired CO(2) and hyperoxia was maintained using 40% O(2) balanced with nitrogen. Flow limitation at the time of arousal did not augment cardiovascular activation response (heart rate P = 0.7; systolic blood pressure P = 0.6; diastolic blood pressure P = 0.3), whereas ventilation was greater following arousals during flow limitation compared to no flow limitation (P sleep is not influenced by flow limitation at the time of arousal, when chemical stimuli are controlled in older adults. This finding may contribute to the decreased cardiovascular burden associated with sleep-disordered breathing reported in older adults, although our data do not exclude the possibility that flow limitation in the presence of mild hypoxic hypercapnia could increase the cardiovascular response to arousal. © 2012 European Sleep Research Society.

  5. Enhancing emotional experiences to dance through music: the role of valence and arousal in the cross-modal bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Julia F; Gaigg, Sebastian B; Gomila, Antoni; Oke, Peter; Calvo-Merino, Beatriz

    2014-01-01

    It is well established that emotional responses to stimuli presented to one perceptive modality (e.g., visual) are modulated by the concurrent presentation of affective information to another modality (e.g., auditory)-an effect known as the cross-modal bias. However, the affective mechanisms mediating this effect are still not fully understood. It remains unclear what role different dimensions of stimulus valence and arousal play in mediating the effect, and to what extent cross-modal influences impact not only our perception and conscious affective experiences, but also our psychophysiological emotional response. We addressed these issues by measuring participants' subjective emotion ratings and their Galvanic Skin Responses (GSR) in a cross-modal affect perception paradigm employing videos of ballet dance movements and instrumental classical music as the stimuli. We chose these stimuli to explore the cross-modal bias in a context of stimuli (ballet dance movements) that most participants would have relatively little prior experience with. Results showed (i) that the cross-modal bias was more pronounced for sad than for happy movements, whereas it was equivalent when contrasting high vs. low arousal movements; and (ii) that movement valence did not modulate participants' GSR, while movement arousal did, such that GSR was potentiated in the case of low arousal movements with sad music and when high arousal movements were paired with happy music. Results are discussed in the context of the affective dimension of neuroentrainment and with regards to implications for the art community.

  6. Enhancing emotional experiences to dance through music: the role of valence and arousal in the cross-modal bias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia F. Christensen

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available It is well established that emotional responses to stimuli presented to one perceptive modality (e.g. visual are modulated by the concurrent presentation of affective information to another modality (e.g. auditory – an effect known as the cross-modal bias. However, the affective mechanisms mediating this effect are still not fully understood. It remains unclear what role different dimensions of stimulus valence and arousal play in mediating the effect, and to what extent cross-modal influences impact not only our perception and conscious affective experiences, but also our psychophysiological emotional response. We addressed these issues by measuring participants’ subjective emotion ratings and their Galvanic Skin Responses in a cross-modal affect perception paradigm employing videos of ballet dance movements and instrumental classical music as the stimuli. We chose these stimuli to explore the cross-modal bias in a context of stimuli (ballet dance movements that most participants would have relatively little prior experience with. Results showed (i that the cross-modal bias was more pronounced for sad than for happy movements, whereas it was equivalent when contrasting high vs. low arousal movements, and (ii that movement valence did not modulate participants’ GSR, while movement arousal did such that GSR was potentiated in the case of low arousal movements with sad music and when high arousal movements were paired with happy music. Results are discussed in the context of the cross-modal affect perception literature and with regards to implications for the art community.

  7. Valence, arousal and cognitive control: A voluntary task switching study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelle eDemanet

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study focused on the interplay between arousal, valence and cognitive control. To this end, we investigated how arousal and valence associated with affective stimuli influenced cognitive flexibility when switching between tasks voluntarily. Three hypotheses were tested. First, a valence hypothesis that states that the positive valence of affective stimuli will facilitate both global and task-switching performance because of increased cognitive flexibility. Second, an arousal hypothesis that states that arousal, and not valence, will specifically impair task-switching performance by strengthening the previously executed task-set. Third, an attention hypothesis that states that both cognitive and emotional control ask for limited attentional resources, and predicts that arousal will impair both global and task-switching performance. The results showed that arousal affected task-switching but not global performance, possibly by phasic modulations of the noradrenergic system that reinforces the previously executed task. In addition, positive valence only affected global performance but not task-switching performance, possibly by phasic modulations of dopamine that stimulates the general ability to perform in a multitasking environment.

  8. Effects of Relaxing and Arousing Music during Imagery Training on Dart-Throwing Performance, Physiological Arousal Indices, and Competitive State Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuan, Garry; Morris, Tony; Kueh, Yee Cheng; Terry, Peter C

    2018-01-01

    Music that is carefully selected to match the requirements of activities and the characteristics of individuals has been shown to produce significant impacts on performance enhancement (Priest et al., 2004). There is also evidence that music can enhance imagery (Grocke and Wigram, 2007), although few studies have investigated the effects of music on imagery in the context of sport skills. In the present study, the effects of relaxing and arousing music during imagery on dart-throwing performance, physiological arousal indices, and competitive state anxiety, were investigated among 63 novice dart throwers. Participants had moderate-to-high imagery ability and were randomly assigned to unfamiliar relaxing music (URM), unfamiliar arousing music (UAM), or no music (NM) groups. Performance was assessed by 40 dart throws at a concentric circles dartboard before and after 12 imagery sessions over 4 weeks. Measures of galvanic skin response (GSR), peripheral temperature (PT), and heart rate (HR) were taken during imagery sessions 1 and 12, and the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 Revised (CSAI-2R) was administered prior to the pre- and post-intervention performance task. Dart-throwing gain scores were significantly higher for URM than for UAM and NM, with no significant difference between UAM and NM (URM = 37.24 ± 5.66, UAM = 17.57 ± 5.30, and NM = 13.19 ± 6.14, F 2,62 = 5.03, p = 0.01, η 2 = 0.14). GSR, PT, and HR reflected lower arousal for URM than for UAM or NM. Significant decreases in somatic anxiety were evident for URM and UAM but not NM. Significant decreases in cognitive anxiety were evident for URM and NM but not UAM. Significant increases in self-confidence were evident for URM but not UAM or NM. Performance improved in all three conditions but URM was associated with the largest performance gain, the lowest physiological indices of arousal, and the most positive CSAI-2R profiles. Listening to relaxing music during imagery may have benefits for

  9. Effects of Relaxing and Arousing Music during Imagery Training on Dart-Throwing Performance, Physiological Arousal Indices, and Competitive State Anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garry Kuan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Music that is carefully selected to match the requirements of activities and the characteristics of individuals has been shown to produce significant impacts on performance enhancement (Priest et al., 2004. There is also evidence that music can enhance imagery (Grocke and Wigram, 2007, although few studies have investigated the effects of music on imagery in the context of sport skills. In the present study, the effects of relaxing and arousing music during imagery on dart-throwing performance, physiological arousal indices, and competitive state anxiety, were investigated among 63 novice dart throwers. Participants had moderate-to-high imagery ability and were randomly assigned to unfamiliar relaxing music (URM, unfamiliar arousing music (UAM, or no music (NM groups. Performance was assessed by 40 dart throws at a concentric circles dartboard before and after 12 imagery sessions over 4 weeks. Measures of galvanic skin response (GSR, peripheral temperature (PT, and heart rate (HR were taken during imagery sessions 1 and 12, and the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 Revised (CSAI-2R was administered prior to the pre- and post-intervention performance task. Dart-throwing gain scores were significantly higher for URM than for UAM and NM, with no significant difference between UAM and NM (URM = 37.24 ± 5.66, UAM = 17.57 ± 5.30, and NM = 13.19 ± 6.14, F2,62 = 5.03, p = 0.01, η2 = 0.14. GSR, PT, and HR reflected lower arousal for URM than for UAM or NM. Significant decreases in somatic anxiety were evident for URM and UAM but not NM. Significant decreases in cognitive anxiety were evident for URM and NM but not UAM. Significant increases in self-confidence were evident for URM but not UAM or NM. Performance improved in all three conditions but URM was associated with the largest performance gain, the lowest physiological indices of arousal, and the most positive CSAI-2R profiles. Listening to relaxing music during imagery may have benefits for

  10. Erotic subset for the Nencki Affective Picture System (NAPS ERO): cross-sexual comparison study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierzba, Małgorzata; Riegel, Monika; Pucz, Anna; Leśniewska, Zuzanna; Dragan, Wojciech Ł; Gola, Mateusz; Jednoróg, Katarzyna; Marchewka, Artur

    2015-01-01

    Research on the processing of sexual stimuli has proved that such material has high priority in human cognition. Yet, although sex differences in response to sexual stimuli were extensively discussed in the literature, sexual orientation was given relatively little consideration, and material suitable for relevant research is difficult to come by. With this in mind, we present a collection of 200 erotic images, accompanied by their self-report ratings of emotional valence and arousal by homo- and heterosexual males and females (n = 80, divided into four equal-sized subsamples). The collection complements the Nencki Affective Picture System (NAPS) and is intended to be used as stimulus material in experimental research. The erotic images are divided into five categories, depending on their content: opposite-sex couple (50), male couple (50), female couple (50), male (25) and female (25). Additional 100 control images from the NAPS depicting people in a non-erotic context were also used in the study. We showed that recipient sex and sexual orientation strongly influenced the evaluation of erotic content. Thus, comparisons of valence and arousal ratings in different subject groups will help researchers select stimuli set for the purpose of various experimental designs. To facilitate the use of the dataset, we provide an on-line tool, which allows the user to browse the images interactively and select proper stimuli on the basis of several parameters. The NAPS ERO image collection together with the data are available to the scientific community for non-commercial use at http://naps.nencki.gov.pl.

  11. Erotic subset for the Nencki Affective Picture System (NAPS ERO: cross-sexual comparison study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata eWierzba

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Research on the processing of sexual stimuli has proved that such material has high priority in human cognition. Yet, although sex differences in response to sexual stimuli were extensively discussed in the literature, sexual orientation was given relatively little consideration, and material suitable for relevant research is difficult to come by. With this in mind, we present a collection of 200 erotic images, accompanied by their self-report ratings of emotional valence and arousal by homo- and heterosexual males and females (n = 80, divided into four equal-sized subsamples. The collection complements the Nencki Affective Picture System (NAPS and is intended to be used as stimulus material in experimental research. The erotic images are divided into five categories, depending on their content: opposite-sex couple (50, male couple (50, female couple (50, male (25 and female (25. Additional 100 control images from the NAPS depicting people in a non-erotic context were also used in the study. We showed that recipient sex and sexual orientation strongly influenced the evaluation of erotic content. Thus, comparisons of valence and arousal ratings in different subject groups will help researchers select stimuli set for the purpose of various experimental designs. To facilitate the use of the dataset, we provide an on-line tool, which allows the user to browse the images interactively and select proper stimuli on the basis of several parameters. The NAPS ERO image collection together with the data are available to the scientific community for non-commercial use at http://naps.nencki.gov.pl.

  12. Visuospatial Working Memory Capacity Predicts Physiological Arousal in a Narrative Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithson, Lisa; Nicoladis, Elena

    2016-06-01

    Physiological arousal that occurs during narrative production is thought to reflect emotional processing and cognitive effort (Bar-Haim et al. in Dev Psychobiol 44:238-249, 2004). The purpose of this study was to determine whether individual differences in visuospatial working memory and/or verbal working memory capacity predict physiological arousal in a narrative task. Visuospatial working memory was a significant predictor of skin conductance level (SCL); verbal working memory was not. When visuospatial working memory interference was imposed, visuospatial working memory was no longer a significant predictor of SCL. Visuospatial interference also resulted in a significant reduction in SCL. Furthermore, listener ratings of narrative quality were contingent upon the visuospatial working memory resources of the narrator. Potential implications for educators and clinical practitioners are discussed.

  13. Age differences in emotional reactions: arousal and age-relevance count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streubel, Berit; Kunzmann, Ute

    2011-12-01

    Recent findings suggest positivity effects in older adults' attention and memory, but few studies have examined such effects on the level of emotional reactivity. In this study, 52 young and 52 older adults rated 172 pictures of the International Affective Picture System, differing in arousal and age-relevance, in terms of valence and discrete emotions. Age differences in the ratio of pleasantness reactions to pleasant pictures vs. unpleasantness reactions to unpleasant pictures as well as age differences in absolute levels of unpleasantness and pleasantness reactions suggest that positivity effects in older adults' subjective emotional reactions are reduced under high arousal. There is also evidence that positivity effects may be restricted to stimuli with low relevance in old age.

  14. Preservation of sexual function in young prostate cancer patients after radiation therapy: a positive factor in choice of a treatment modality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolaou, Nicos; Bruner, Deborah Watkins; Hanks, G.E.; Hanlon, Alex

    1996-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: To assess the effect of definitive radiation therapy (RT) without androgen deprivation, on the sexual function and quality of life of young prostate cancer patients as compared to age matched controls, using the Sexual Adjustment Questionnaire (SAQ), in order to assist future patients in making informed choices when deciding between surgery and radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: Forty five patients between 50 and 65 years of age at time of diagnosis (mean age 60 years), were treated with RT at Fox Chase Cancer Center (FCCC) from 1/1/89 to 12/31/93 for biopsy proven, T1-T3 clinically localized prostatic adenocarcinoma. Mean age at time of present assessment was 63 years. Their pre- and post-treatment sexual function and quality of life were assessed and compared to 47 age matched controls (mean age 60 years) using a modified version of the SAQ. Results: Mean and median follow up of the RT group was 31 months. Potency rate was 85% ((40(47))) in controls and pre-treatment potency rate was 91% ((41(45))) in RT group. Post-treatment overall potency rate in RT group was 67% ((30(45))). Preservation of potency in initially potent patients treated with RT, was 73% ((30(41))). The RT group was significantly inferior to the control group regarding sexual arousal, function and frequency of sexual activity but not in sexual desire and enjoyment or the importance placed on sexual activity. Conclusion: (1) Sexual potency is preserved in 73% of young sexually active men treated with RT for prostate cancer which is at least as good as the best reports after never sparing prostatectomy and far superior to the 0-10% rates of sexual potency preservation after non-nerve sparing prostatectomy. (2) The 27% of patients who lose sexual potency after RT, generally retain sexual desire and enjoyment indicating a favorable situation for rehabilitation. (3) The 27% loss of sexual potency may be artificially high without a known correction factor for those who would

  15. Ultrasonic vocalizations of adult male Foxp2-mutant mice: behavioral contexts of arousal and emotion.

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    Gaub, S; Fisher, S E; Ehret, G

    2016-02-01

    Adult mouse ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) occur in multiple behavioral and stimulus contexts associated with various levels of arousal, emotion and social interaction. Here, in three experiments of increasing stimulus intensity (water; female urine; male interacting with adult female), we tested the hypothesis that USVs of adult males express the strength of arousal and emotion via different USV parameters (18 parameters analyzed). Furthermore, we analyzed two mouse lines with heterozygous Foxp2 mutations (R552H missense, S321X nonsense), known to produce severe speech and language disorders in humans. These experiments allowed us to test whether intact Foxp2 function is necessary for developing full adult USV repertoires, and whether mutations of this gene influence instinctive vocal expressions based on arousal and emotion. The results suggest that USV calling rate characterizes the arousal level, while sound pressure and spectrotemporal call complexity (overtones/harmonics, type of frequency jumps) may provide indices of levels of positive emotion. The presence of Foxp2 mutations did not qualitatively affect the USVs; all USV types that were found in wild-type animals also occurred in heterozygous mutants. However, mice with Foxp2 mutations displayed quantitative differences in USVs as compared to wild-types, and these changes were context dependent. Compared to wild-type animals, heterozygous mutants emitted mainly longer and louder USVs at higher minimum frequencies with a higher occurrence rate of overtones/harmonics and complex frequency jump types. We discuss possible hypotheses about Foxp2 influence on emotional vocal expressions, which can be investigated in future experiments using selective knockdown of Foxp2 in specific brain circuits. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  16. Multilevel analysis of facial expressions of emotion and script: self-report (arousal and valence) and psychophysiological correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balconi, Michela; Vanutelli, Maria Elide; Finocchiaro, Roberta

    2014-09-26

    The paper explored emotion comprehension in children with regard to facial expression of emotion. The effect of valence and arousal evaluation, of context and of psychophysiological measures was monitored. Indeed subjective evaluation of valence (positive vs. negative) and arousal (high vs. low), and contextual (facial expression vs. facial expression and script) variables were supposed to modulate the psychophysiological responses. Self-report measures (in terms of correct recognition, arousal and valence attribution) and psychophysiological correlates (facial electromyography, EMG, skin conductance response, SCR, and heart rate, HR) were observed when children (N = 26; mean age = 8.75 y; range 6-11 y) looked at six facial expressions of emotions (happiness, anger, fear, sadness, surprise, and disgust) and six emotional scripts (contextualized facial expressions). The competencies about the recognition, the evaluation on valence and arousal was tested in concomitance with psychophysiological variations. Specifically, we tested for the congruence of these multiple measures. Log-linear analysis and repeated measure ANOVAs showed different representations across the subjects, as a function of emotion. Specifically, children' recognition and attribution were well developed for some emotions (such as anger, fear, surprise and happiness), whereas some other emotions (mainly disgust and sadness) were less clearly represented. SCR, HR and EMG measures were modulated by the evaluation based on valence and arousal, with increased psychophysiological values mainly in response to anger, fear and happiness. As shown by multiple regression analysis, a significant consonance was found between self-report measures and psychophysiological behavior, mainly for emotions rated as more arousing and negative in valence. The multilevel measures were discussed at light of dimensional attribution model.

  17. Brain processing of visual sexual stimuli in healthy men: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouras, Harold; Stoléru, Serge; Bittoun, Jacques; Glutron, Dominique; Pélégrini-Issac, Mélanie; Paradis, Anne-Lise; Burnod, Yves

    2003-10-01

    The brain plays a central role in sexual motivation. To identify cerebral areas whose activation was correlated with sexual desire, eight healthy male volunteers were studied with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Visual stimuli were sexually stimulating photographs (S condition) and emotionally neutral photographs (N condition). Subjective responses pertaining to sexual desire were recorded after each condition. To image the entire brain, separate runs focused on the upper and the lower parts of the brain. Statistical Parametric Mapping was used for data analysis. Subjective ratings confirmed that sexual pictures effectively induced sexual arousal. In the S condition compared to the N condition, a group analysis conducted on the upper part of the brain demonstrated an increased signal in the parietal lobes (superior parietal lobules, left intraparietal sulcus, left inferior parietal lobule, and right postcentral gyrus), the right parietooccipital sulcus, the left superior occipital gyrus, and the precentral gyri. In addition, a decreased signal was recorded in the right posterior cingulate gyrus and the left precuneus. In individual analyses conducted on the lower part of the brain, an increased signal was found in the right and/or left middle occipital gyrus in seven subjects, and in the right and/or left fusiform gyrus in six subjects. In conclusion, fMRI allows to identify brain responses to visual sexual stimuli. Among activated regions in the S condition, parietal areas are known to be involved in attentional processes directed toward motivationally relevant stimuli, while frontal premotor areas have been implicated in motor preparation and motor imagery. Further work is needed to identify those specific features of the neural responses that distinguish sexual desire from other emotional and motivational states.

  18. Quality of life and sexual health after sex reassignment surgery in transsexual men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierckx, Katrien; Van Caenegem, Eva; Elaut, Els; Dedecker, David; Van de Peer, Fleur; Toye, Kaatje; Weyers, Steven; Hoebeke, Piet; Monstrey, Stan; De Cuypere, Griet; T'Sjoen, Guy

    2011-12-01

    Although sexual health after genital surgery is an important outcome factor for many transsexual persons, little attention has been attributed to this subject. To provide data on quality of life and sexual health after sex reassignment surgery (SRS) in transsexual men. A single-center, cross-sectional study in 49 transsexual men (mean age 37 years) after long-term testosterone therapy and on average 8 years after SRS. Ninety-four percent of the participants had phalloplasty. Self-reported physical and mental health using the Dutch version of the Short Form-36 Health Survey; sexual functioning before and after SRS using a newly constructed specific questionnaire. Compared with a Dutch reference population of community-dwelling men, transsexual men scored well on self-perceived physical and mental health. The majority reported having been sexually active before hormone treatment, with more than a quarter having been vaginally penetrated frequently before starting hormone therapy. There was a tendency toward less vaginal involvement during hormone therapy and before SRS. Most participants reported an increase in frequency of masturbation, sexual arousal, and ability to achieve orgasm after testosterone treatment and SRS. Almost all participants were able to achieve orgasm during masturbation and sexual intercourse, and the majority reported a change in orgasmic feelings toward a more powerful and shorter orgasm. Surgical satisfaction was high, despite a relatively high complication rate. Results of the current study indicate transsexual men generally have a good quality of life and experience satisfactory sexual function after SRS. © 2011 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  19. The pars intermedia: an anatomic basis for a coordinated vascular response to female genital arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Cheryl; Cold, Christopher J; Yang, Claire C

    2013-06-01

    The pars intermedia is an area of the vulva that has been inconsistently described in the literature. We conducted anatomic studies to better describe the tissues and vascular structures of the pars intermedia and proposed a functional rationale of the pars intermedia in the female sexual response. Nine cadaveric vulvectomy specimens were used. Each was serially sectioned and stained with hematoxylin and eosin and Masson's trichrome. Histologic ultrastructural description of the pars intermedia. The pars intermedia contains veins traveling longitudinally in the angle of the clitoris, supported by collagen-rich stromal tissues. These veins drain the different vascular compartments of the vulva, including the clitoris, the bulbs, and labia minora; also, the interconnecting veins link the different vascular compartments. The pars intermedia is not composed of erectile tissue, distinguishing it from the erectile tissues of the corpora cavernosa of the clitoris as well as the corpus spongiosum of the clitoral (vestibular) bulbs. The venous communications of the pars intermedia, linking the erectile tissues with the other vascular compartments of the vulva, appear to provide the anatomic basis for a coordinated vascular response during female sexual arousal. © 2012 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  20. A unifying computational framework for stability and flexibility of arousal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christin eKosse

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Arousal and consciousness flexibly adjust to salient cues, but remain stable despite noise and disturbance. Diverse, highly interconnected neural networks govern the underlying transitions of behavioural state; these networks are robust but very complex. Frameworks from systems engineering provide powerful tools for understanding functional logic behind component complexity. From a general systems viewpoint, a minimum of three communicating control modules may enable flexibility and stability to coexist. Comparators would subtract current arousal from desired arousal, producing an error signal. Regulators would compute control signals from this error. Generators would convert control signals into arousal, which is fed back to comparators, to make the system noise-proof through self-correction. Can specific neurons correspond to these control elements? To explore this, here we consider the brain-wide orexin/hypocretin network, which is experimentally established to be vital for flexible and stable arousal. We discuss whether orexin neurons may act as comparators, and their target neurons as regulators and generators. Experiments are proposed for testing such predictions, based on computational simulations showing that comparators, regulators, and generators have distinct temporal signatures of activity. If some regulators integrate orexin-communicated errors, robust arousal control may be achieved via integral feedback (a basic engineering strategy for tracking a set-point despite noise. An integral feedback view also suggests functional roles for specific molecular aspects, such as differing life-spans of orexin peptides. The proposed framework offers a unifying logic for molecular, cellular, and network details of arousal systems, and provides insight into behavioral state transitions, complex behaviour, and bases for disease.

  1. Examining the sexual function and related attitudes among aged women: A cross- sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safieh Jamali

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sexual function and its subsequent satisfaction are among the most important aspects of women’s life. However, this instinct could be influenced by some factors such as diseases, drug using, aging, and hormonal and physiologic changes associated with menopause, and sexual behavior. Objective: The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence rates of sexual dysfunction, and related attitudes among aged women in Jahrom, Iran. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 746 postmenopausal women aged between 50 and 89 years old who had referred to obstetric and gynecologic clinic in Jahrom, from April to October 2014. Female Sexual Function Index questionnaire was used order to assess the sexual function. The cases were classified into three categories according to the attitude scores: negative (17-32, medium (33-38, and positive (39-48. One-way ANOVA test was used to determine the relationship between FSFI and attitude scores. Results: The participants’ mean±SD age was 60.10±6.89 years and the total mean score of FSFI was 19.31±8.5. In addition, 81.5% of the women had sexual dysfunction (FSFI 26.55. Almost 62.1% the women displayed a negative attitude towards sexuality and only 18.8% women had positive attitude. Feeling of dyspareunia (p= 0.02, lubrication (p< 0.0001, orgasm (p= 0.002 and satisfaction (p= 0.002 were significantly different between three categories of attitudes regarding sexuality, respectively Conclusion: Our data showed that sexual disorders were highly prevalent among postmenopausal women. The most affected problems were arousal, dyspareunia, and lubrication. More than half of the women had negative attitude towards sexual function consequently this could affect their sexual function. So, it seems screening of sexual dysfunction for finding the causes in women should be the main sexual health program. Also, it would be important to emphasis the role of physicians and experts on

  2. Confirmatory factor analysis of the female sexual function index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opperman, Emily A; Benson, Lindsay E; Milhausen, Robin R

    2013-01-01

    The Female Sexual Functioning Index (Rosen et al., 2000 ) was designed to assess the key dimensions of female sexual functioning using six domains: desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction, and pain. A full-scale score was proposed to represent women's overall sexual function. The fifth revision to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) is currently underway and includes a proposal to combine desire and arousal problems. The objective of this article was to evaluate and compare four models of the Female Sexual Functioning Index: (a) single-factor model, (b) six-factor model, (c) second-order factor model, and (4) five-factor model combining the desire and arousal subscales. Cross-sectional and observational data from 85 women were used to conduct a confirmatory factor analysis on the Female Sexual Functioning Index. Local and global goodness-of-fit measures, the chi-square test of differences, squared multiple correlations, and regression weights were used. The single-factor model fit was not acceptable. The original six-factor model was confirmed, and good model fit was found for the second-order and five-factor models. Delta chi-square tests of differences supported best fit for the six-factor model validating usage of the six domains. However, when revisions are made to the DSM-5, the Female Sexual Functioning Index can adapt to reflect these changes and remain a valid assessment tool for women's sexual functioning, as the five-factor structure was also supported.

  3. Comparison of patient-reported acute urinary and sexual toxicity scores in a 6- versus 2-fraction course of high-dose-rate prostate brachytherapy monotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragab, Omar; Park, Sang-June; Zhang, Mingle; Wang, Jason; Velez, Maria; Demanes, David J.; Banerjee, Robyn; Patel, Shyamal; Kamrave, Mitchell

    2018-01-01

    To identify differences in acute urinary and sexual toxicity between a 6-fraction and 2-fraction high-dose-rate brachytherapy monotherapy regimen and correlate dosimetric constraints to short-term toxicity. A single institution retrospective study of 116 men with prostate cancer treated with HDR monotherapy from 2010 to 2015 was conducted. Eighty-one men had 7.25 Gy × 6-fractions and 35 men had 13.5 Gy × 2-fractions. Patients had two CT-planned implants spaced 1–2 weeks apart. Patient baseline characteristics, International Prostate Symptom Scores (IPSS) and Sexual Health Inventory for Men (SHIM) scores were collected pre-treatment and 3, 6 and 12 months post-implantation. Mixed effect modelling was undertaken to compare baseline, 1–6 month and 7–12 month scores between groups. Poisson regression analysis was performed to correlate dosimetric constraints with acute toxicity. There was no difference between baseline and post-implantation IPSS scores between 6-fraction and 2-fraction groups. SHIM scores for men treated with 6-fractions had a steeper decline at 1–6 months, but resolved at 7–12 months. Pre-treatment alpha-blocker use correlated with worse short-term acute urinary toxicity. Worsened SHIM score correlated with increasing age, diabetes mellitus and androgen-deprivation therapy. In a dosimetric analysis of outcomes, prostate V150 dose and bladder wall (D01.cc, D1cc, D2cc) dose correlated with increased IPSS score. No increased acute genitourinary or sexual dysfunction has been observed in men when transitioning from 6-fraction to 2-fraction HDR monotherapy. A dosimetric correlation was found between the V150 and bladder wall doses for acute urinary toxicity. Future research should continue to standardize and validate dose constraints for prostate HDR monotherapy patients.

  4. Sympathetic arousal, but not disturbed executive functioning, mediates the impairment of cognitive flexibility under stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marko, Martin; Riečanský, Igor

    2018-05-01

    Cognitive flexibility emerges from an interplay of multiple cognitive systems, of which lexical-semantic and executive are thought to be the most important. Yet this has not been addressed by previous studies demonstrating that such forms of flexible thought deteriorate under stress. Motivated by these shortcomings, the present study evaluated several candidate mechanisms implied to mediate the impairing effects of stress on flexible thinking. Fifty-seven healthy adults were randomly assigned to psychosocial stress or control condition while assessed for performance on cognitive flexibility, working memory capacity, semantic fluency, and self-reported cognitive interference. Stress response was indicated by changes in skin conductance, hearth rate, and state anxiety. Our analyses showed that acute stress impaired cognitive flexibility via a concomitant increase in sympathetic arousal, while this mediator was positively associated with semantic fluency. Stress also decreased working memory capacity, which was partially mediated by elevated cognitive interference, but neither of these two measures were associated with cognitive flexibility or sympathetic arousal. Following these findings, we conclude that acute stress impairs cognitive flexibility via sympathetic arousal that modulates lexical-semantic and associative processes. In particular, the results indicate that stress-level of sympathetic activation may restrict the accessibility and integration of remote associates and bias the response competition towards prepotent and dominant ideas. Importantly, our results indicate that stress-induced impairments of cognitive flexibility and executive functions are mediated by distinct neurocognitive mechanisms. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Subjective emotional over-arousal to neutral social scenes in paranoid schizophrenia.

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    Haralanova, Evelina; Haralanov, Svetlozar; Beraldi, Anna; Möller, Hans-Jürgen; Hennig-Fast, Kristina

    2012-02-01

    From the clinical practice and some experimental studies, it is apparent that paranoid schizophrenia patients tend to assign emotional salience to neutral social stimuli. This aberrant cognitive bias has been conceptualized to result from increased emotional arousal, but direct empirical data are scarce. The aim of the present study was to quantify the subjective emotional arousal (SEA) evoked by emotionally non-salient (neutral) compared to emotionally salient (negative) social stimuli in schizophrenia patients and healthy controls. Thirty male inpatients with paranoid schizophrenia psychosis and 30 demographically matched healthy controls rated their level of SEA in response to neutral and negative social scenes from the International Affective Picture System and the Munich Affective Picture System. Schizophrenia patients compared to healthy controls had an increased overall SEA level. This relatively higher SEA was evoked only by the neutral but not by the negative social scenes. To our knowledge, the present study is the first designed to directly demonstrate subjective emotional over-arousal to neutral social scenes in paranoid schizophrenia. This finding might explain previous clinical and experimental data and could be viewed as the missing link between the primary neurobiological and secondary psychological mechanisms of paranoid psychotic-symptom formation. Furthermore, despite being very short and easy to perform, the task we used appeared to be sensitive enough to reveal emotional dysregulation, in terms of emotional disinhibition/hyperactivation in paranoid schizophrenia patients. Thus, it could have further research and clinical applications, including as a neurobehavioral probe for imaging studies.

  6. Effects of emotional valence and arousal on the voice perception network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotz, Sonja A.; Belin, Pascal

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Several theories conceptualise emotions along two main dimensions: valence (a continuum from negative to positive) and arousal (a continuum that varies from low to high). These dimensions are typically treated as independent in many neuroimaging experiments, yet recent behavioural findings suggest that they are actually interdependent. This result has impact on neuroimaging design, analysis and theoretical development. We were interested in determining the extent of this interdependence both behaviourally and neuroanatomically, as well as teasing apart any activation that is specific to each dimension. While we found extensive overlap in activation for each dimension in traditional emotion areas (bilateral insulae, orbitofrontal cortex, amygdalae), we also found activation specific to each dimension with characteristic relationships between modulations of these dimensions and BOLD signal change. Increases in arousal ratings were related to increased activations predominantly in voice-sensitive cortices after variance explained by valence had been removed. In contrast, emotions of extreme valence were related to increased activations in bilateral voice-sensitive cortices, hippocampi, anterior and midcingulum and medial orbito- and superior frontal regions after variance explained by arousal had been accounted for. Our results therefore do not support a complete segregation of brain structures underpinning the processing of affective dimensions. PMID:28449127

  7. Affective picture modulation: valence, arousal, attention allocation and motivational significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Jorge; Carvalho, Sandra; Galdo-Alvarez, Santiago; Alves, Jorge; Sampaio, Adriana; Gonçalves, Oscar F

    2012-03-01

    The present study analyses the modulatory effects of affective pictures in the early posterior negativity (EPN), the late positive potential (LPP) and the human startle response on both the peripheral (eye blink EMG) and central neurophysiological levels (Probe P3), during passive affective pictures viewing. The affective pictures categories were balanced in terms of valence (pleasant; unpleasant) and arousal (high; low). The data shows that EPN may be sensitive to specific stimulus characteristics (affective relevant pictures versus neutral pictures) associated with early stages of attentional processing. In later stages, the heightened attentional resource allocation as well as the motivated significance of the affective stimuli was found to elicit enhanced amplitudes of slow wave processes thought to be related to enhanced encoding, namely LPP,. Although pleasant low arousing pictures were effective in engaging the resources involved in the slow wave processes, the highly arousing affective stimuli (pleasant and unpleasant) were found to produce the largest enhancement of the LPP, suggesting that high arousing stimuli may are associated with increased motivational significance. Additionally the response to high arousing stimuli may be suggestive of increased motivational attention, given the heightened attentional allocation, as expressed in the P3 probe, especially for the pleasant pictures. The hedonic valence may then serve as a mediator of the attentional inhibition to the affective priming, potentiating or inhibiting a shift towards defensive activation, as measured by the startle reflex. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Emotional Arousal and Multiple Memory Systems in the Mammalian Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark G. Packard

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Emotional arousal induced by stress and/or anxiety can exert complex effects on learning and memory processes in mammals. Recent studies have begun to link study of the influence of emotional arousal on memory with earlier research indicating that memory is organized in multiple systems in the brain that differ in terms of the type of memory they mediate. Specifically, these studies have examined whether emotional arousal may have a differential effect on the cognitive and stimulus-response habit memory processes subserved by the hippocampus and dorsal striatum, respectively. Evidence indicates that stress or the peripheral injection of anxiogenic drugs can bias animals and humans towards the use of striatal-dependent habit memory in dual-solution tasks in which both hippocampal and stritatal-based strategies can provide an adequate solution. A bias towards the use of habit memory can also be produced by intra-basolateral amygdala administration of anxiogenic drugs, consistent with the well documented role of efferent projections of this brain region in mediating the modulatory influence of emotional arousal on memory. In some learning situations, the bias towards the use of habit memory produced by emotional arousal appears to result from an impairing effect on hippocampus-dependent cognitive memory. Further research examining the neural mechanisms linking emotion and the relative use of multiple memory systems should prove useful in view of the potential role for maladaptive habitual behaviors in various human psychopathologies.

  9. The sound of arousal in music is context-dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumstein, Daniel T; Bryant, Gregory A; Kaye, Peter

    2012-10-23

    Humans, and many non-human animals, produce and respond to harsh, unpredictable, nonlinear sounds when alarmed, possibly because these are produced when acoustic production systems (vocal cords and syrinxes) are overblown in stressful, dangerous situations. Humans can simulate nonlinearities in music and soundtracks through the use of technological manipulations. Recent work found that film soundtracks from different genres differentially contain such sounds. We designed two experiments to determine specifically how simulated nonlinearities in soundtracks influence perceptions of arousal and valence. Subjects were presented with emotionally neutral musical exemplars that had neither noise nor abrupt frequency transitions, or versions of these musical exemplars that had noise or abrupt frequency upshifts or downshifts experimentally added. In a second experiment, these acoustic exemplars were paired with benign videos. Judgements of both arousal and valence were altered by the addition of these simulated nonlinearities in the first, music-only, experiment. In the second, multi-modal, experiment, valence (but not arousal) decreased with the addition of noise or frequency downshifts. Thus, the presence of a video image suppressed the ability of simulated nonlinearities to modify arousal. This is the first study examining how nonlinear simulations in music affect emotional judgements. These results demonstrate that the perception of potentially fearful or arousing sounds is influenced by the perceptual context and that the addition of a visual modality can antagonistically suppress the response to an acoustic stimulus.

  10. Effects of hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, and thyroid autoimmunity on female sexual function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppo, A; Franceschi, E; Atzeni, F; Taberlet, A; Mariotti, S

    2011-06-01

    Thyroid hormones affect male and female sexual functions, but data in hypo- and hyperthyroid women are scanty. To investigate sexual function in hypo- and hyperthyroid women before and immediately after restoration of euthyroidism and in women with euthyroid Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT). Fifty-six women with thyroid diseases (age 19-50 yr; 22 with hyperthyroidism, 17 with hypothyroidism, and 17 with euthyroid HT) and 30 age-matched healthy women. Hypoactive sexual desire, disorders of sexual arousal, vaginal lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction, and sexual pain (SPD) were assessed by Female Sexual Function Index. Serum TSH, free T4 (FT4) and thyroid autoantibodies (anti-thyroglobulin, anti-thyroperoxidase, and TSH-receptor antibodies) were assessed at the diagnosis; FT4 and TSH were repeated after treatment to confirm normalization of thyroid function. All sexual domains scores were significantly reduced (p ranging hyperthyroid women. Correction of hypothyroidism was associated to normalization of desire, satisfaction, and pain, while arousal and orgasm remained unchanged. In hyperthyroid women therapy normalized sexual desire, arousal/lubrication, satisfaction, and pain, while orgasm remained significantly impaired. Interestingly, euthyroid HT women displayed a significant decrease in sexual desire (phyperthyroidism markedly impair female sexual function. A rapid improvement is observed with the restoration of euthyroidism, although a longer period of time may be needed for full normalization. Preliminary data suggest that thyroid autoimmunity may selectively impair sexual desire, independently from thyroid function.

  11. A study of possible associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms in the estrogen receptor 2 gene and female sexual desire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunst, Annika; Jern, Patrick; Westberg, Lars; Johansson, Ada; Salo, Benny; Burri, Andrea; Spector, Tim; Eriksson, Elias; Sandnabba, N Kenneth; Santtila, Pekka

    2015-03-01

    Female sexual desire and arousal problems have been shown to have a heritable component of moderate size. Previous molecular genetic studies on sexual desire have mainly focused on genes associated with neurotransmitters such as dopamine and serotonin. Nevertheless, there is reason to believe that hormones with more specific functions concerning sexuality could have an impact on sexual desire and arousal. The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible effects of 17 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located in estrogen receptor genes on female sexual desire and subjective and genital arousal (lubrication). Based on previous research, we hypothesized that ESR1 and ESR2 are relevant genes that contribute to female sexual desire and arousal. The desire, arousal, and lubrication subdomains of the Female Sexual Function Index self-report questionnaire were used. The present study involved 2,448 female twins and their sisters aged 18-49 who had submitted saliva samples for genotyping. The participants were a subset from a large-scale, population-based sample. We found nominally significant main effects on sexual desire for three ESR2 -linked SNPs when controlled for anxiety, suggesting that individuals homozygous for the G allele of the rs1271572 SNP, and the A allele of the rs4986938 and rs928554 SNPs had lower levels of sexual desire. The rs4986938 SNP also had a nominally significant effect on lubrication. No effects for any of the SNPs on subjective arousal could be detected. The number of nominally significant results for SNPs in the ESR2 gene before correcting for multiple testing suggests that further studies on the possible influence of this gene on interindividual variation in female sexual functioning are warranted. In contrast, no support for an involvement of ESR1 was obtained. Our results should be interpreted with caution until replicated in independent, large samples. © 2014 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  12. Individual-Based Compulsive Sexual Behavior Scale: Its Development and Importance in Examining Compulsive Sexual Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efrati, Yaniv; Mikulincer, Mario

    2018-04-03

    Compulsive sexual behavior comprises individual-based (e.g., sexual fantasies, compulsive sexual thoughts, masturbation) and partnered (e.g., interpersonal sexual conquests, repeated infidelity) facets. Most instruments for assessing compulsive sexual behavior, however, focus less on the individual-based facet and specifically on fantasies and compulsive thoughts. In the current research, we developed and validated an individual-based compulsive sexual behavior scale (I-CSB). In Study 1 (N = 492), the factorial structure of the I-CSB was examined. In Study 2 (N = 406), we assessed I-CSB's convergent validity. In Study 3 (N = 112), we examined whether the I-CSB differentiates between individuals who suffer from compulsive sexual behavior and those who do not. Results revealed a four-factor structure for individual-based compulsive sexual behavior that is associated with an intense inner conflict regarding sexuality (high arousal contrasting with high sexual anxiety), and that accounts for approximately 75% of the differences between people with compulsive sexual behavior and controls. Results are discussed in light of the need for a broader understanding of compulsive sexual behavior.

  13. Frequência de disfunção sexual em mulheres com doenças reumáticas Frequency of sexual dysfunction in women with rheumatic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarissa de Castro Ferreira

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Pesquisar a prevalência de disfunção sexual em mulheres com as seguintes doenças reumáticas: lúpus eritematoso sistêmico, artrite reumatoide, esclerose sistêmica, síndrome antifosfolípide e fibromialgia acompanhados no Ambulatório de Reumatologia do Hospital Universitário de Brasília e do Hospital das Clínicas da Universidade de São Paulo. MÉTODOS: Utilizou-se o índice de função sexual feminina (Female Sexual Function Index - FSfi, questionário que contém 19 itens que avaliam 6 domínios: desejo sexual, excitação sexual, lubrificação vaginal, orgasmo, satisfação sexual e dor. RESULTADOS: Foram avaliadas 163 pacientes. A média de idade foi de 40,4 anos. A prevalência de disfunção sexual foi de 18,4%, porém 24,2% das pacientes não apresentaram atividade sexual nas últimas 4 semanas. Entre os subgrupos, as pacientes com fibromialgia e esclerose sistêmica foram as com maior índice de disfunção sexual (33%. Se excluirmos as pacientes sem atividade sexual, a taxa de disfunção sobe para 24,2%. CONCLUSÃO: A prevalência de disfunção sexual encontrada neste estudo foi menor em relação à literatura. Entretanto, 24,2% das pacientes entrevistadas negaram atividade sexual nas últimas 4 semanas, o que pode ter contribuído para o baixo índice de disfunção sexual.OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of sexual dysfunction in women followed up at the Rheumatology Outpatient Clinic of the Hospital Universitário de Brasília and of the Hospital das Clínicas da Universidade de São Paulo with the following rheumatic diseases: systemic lupus erythematosus; rheumatoid arthritis; systemic sclerosis; antiphospholipid antibody syndrome; and fibromyalgia. METHODS: The Female Sexual Function Index (FSfi, obtained by applying a 19-item questionnaire that assesses six domains (sexual desire, arousal, vaginal lubrication, orgasm, sexual satisfaction and pain, was used. RESULTS: This study assessed 163 patients. The

  14. Sexual dysfunction, depression, and the impact of antidepressants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Sidney H; Rizvi, Sakina

    2009-04-01

    Sexual dysfunction is a common symptom of depression. Although decreased libido is most often reported, difficulties with arousal, resulting in vaginal dryness in women and erectile dysfunction in men, and absent or delayed orgasm are also prevalent. Sexual dysfunction is also a frequent adverse effect of treatment with most antidepressants and is one of the predominant reasons for premature drug discontinuation. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are the most widely prescribed antidepressants and have significant effects on arousal and orgasm compared with antidepressants that target norepinephrine, dopamine, and melatonin systems. The availability of an antidepressant that does not cause or exacerbate sexual dysfunction represents an advance in pharmacotherapy for mood disorders and should reduce treatment noncompliance and decrease the need for switching antidepressants or adding antidotes. The purpose of this review was to provide an update on the prevalence, psychobiology, and relative adverse effect burden of sexual dysfunction associated with different antidepressants.

  15. [Adolescent sexuality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calero, Juan del Rey

    2010-01-01

    The social Adolescent features are insecurity, narcissism, eroticism, more impetuosity than reason. 1/3 of adolescents have risk behaviour for health. The pregnancy rate in adolescent are 9/1,000 (11,720, the abort about 50 %). The total abort (2009) were 114,480. Increase the rate of 8,4 (1990) to 14,6/ 1,000 (2009). The sexual education fails. The consulting about contraceptives get pregnancy of the OR 3,2, condom OR 2,7. The adolescent are influenced in his matter: oeer have 70-75 % of influence, mother 30-40 %, father 15 %, for yhe environment and education Cyberspace access to information: 33 % exposed to unwanted sexual materials, 1 in 7 solicited sexual online. The argument have 4 central topic: Morality and Responsibility, Desire (responsibility vs gratification), Danger (fear related to pregnancy and STD/VIH), and Victimization. The prevention of STD: so called safe sex, delayed, and abstinence, Prevention HPV vaccine. The information is not enough, are necessary personal integral formation in values as self control, abstinence, mutual respect, responsibility, reasonable decisions.

  16. Preliminary support for a generalized arousal model of political conservatism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tritt, Shona M; Inzlicht, Michael; Peterson, Jordan B

    2013-01-01

    It is widely held that negative emotions such as threat, anxiety, and disgust represent the core psychological factors that enhance conservative political beliefs. We put forward an alternative hypothesis: that conservatism is fundamentally motivated by arousal, and that, in this context, the effect of negative emotion is due to engaging intensely arousing states. Here we show that study participants agreed more with right but not left-wing political speeches after being exposed to positive as well as negative emotion-inducing film-clips. No such effect emerged for neutral-content videos. A follow-up study replicated and extended this effect. These results are consistent with the idea that emotional arousal, in general, and not negative valence, specifically, may underlie political conservatism.

  17. Preliminary Support for a Generalized Arousal Model of Political Conservatism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tritt, Shona M.; Inzlicht, Michael; Peterson, Jordan B.

    2013-01-01

    It is widely held that negative emotions such as threat, anxiety, and disgust represent the core psychological factors that enhance conservative political beliefs. We put forward an alternative hypothesis: that conservatism is fundamentally motivated by arousal, and that, in this context, the effect of negative emotion is due to engaging intensely arousing states. Here we show that study participants agreed more with right but not left-wing political speeches after being exposed to positive as well as negative emotion-inducing film-clips. No such effect emerged for neutral-content videos. A follow-up study replicated and extended this effect. These results are consistent with the idea that emotional arousal, in general, and not negative valence, specifically, may underlie political conservatism. PMID:24376687

  18. Sexual Experiences of Chinese Patients Living With an Ostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaomei; Chen, Yongyi; Tang, Xinhui; Chen, Yupan; Liu, Yangyu; Guo, Wei; Liu, Aizhong

    The purpose of this study was to examine the sexual experience of Chinese patients with ostomy and associated factors. A prospective descriptive study using self-report questionnaires. Seventy-five Chinese participants who underwent ostomy surgery in a large cancer specialist hospital in the Hunan province between 2008 and 2013. Data were collected face-to-face by the investigators in an outpatient setting from 75 participants who completed the Arizona Sexual Experience Inventory Scale (ASEX). The t test was used to compare variances between sexual function and dysfunction subgroups. A multiple linear regression model was used to analyze factors influencing sexual life after ostomy surgery. The mean ASEX score was 20.56 (5.378) years, which is higher than the standard for sexual dysfunction. The main subsection of sexual dysfunction included sexual arousal, orgasm ability, vaginal lubrication/penile erection, and sexual satisfaction. Significant differences in the ASEX score were observed in subgroups of age, gender, educational level, family relations, operation modes, stoma type, operation time, complications, supporters, self-care ability, and sexual life guidance. Multiple stepwise regression analysis indicated that family relations, operation modes, ostomy type, complications, and sexual life guidance affected sexual experience. The findings of this study demonstrate that patients with ostomy experience sexual dysfunction and many factors influence their quality of sexual life. WOC nurses and other healthcare providers should consider providing sexual health education for both the patient and spouse to improve the self-care capacity and quality of sexual life following ostomy surgery.

  19. Individual Differences in the Effects of Mood on Sexuality: The Revised Mood and Sexuality Questionnaire (MSQ-R)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Erick; Macapagal, Kathryn R.; Mustanski, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Previous research using the Mood and Sexuality Questionnaire (MSQ) has revealed substantial variability in how negative mood impacts sexual response and behavior. However, the MSQ does not address differences between desire for solo or partnered sexual activity, examine the effects of sexual activity on mood, or assess the effects of positive mood. This paper presents the development and factor structure of the Revised Mood and Sexuality Questionnaire (MSQ-R). An exploratory factor analysis in a sample of heterosexual men, homosexual men, and heterosexual women (N = 1983) produced 8 factors. Considerable variability was found in how moods influence sexual desire and arousal, in the effects of mood on sexual behavior, and in the reciprocal effects of sexual activity on mood. Among other findings, heterosexual women were less likely than heterosexual and homosexual men to experience increased sexual desire and arousal when anxious or stressed, whereas homosexual men and heterosexual women were less likely than heterosexual men to experience increased desire when sad or depressed. Heterosexual men and women were more likely than homosexual men to report increased desire when in a positive mood. Intercorrelations and correlations with various sexual behaviors varied by group. Limitations and implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:22963331

  20. False physiological feedback and persuasion: effect of fear arousal vs. fear reduction on attitude change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrick, C; Giesen, M; Borden, R

    1975-06-01

    Two experiments tested the hypothesis that increases in false physiological feedback of fear arousal will enhance persuasion and that reduction in the arousal feedback is unnecessary for increased persuasion to occur. Prior research has usually found a positive relation between level of arousal and persuasion, but support for the drive reduction hypothesis is tenuous. However, Harris and Jellison (1971) claimed support for such a hypothesis. They manipulated subjects' fear arousal cognitively via false physiological feedback while the subjects listened to a persuasive communication. The present experiments used a similar procedure in an attempt to test an "arousal only" against an "arousal reduction" hypothesis. Subjects listened to a persuasive speech while receiving false feedback via a meter concerning their fear arousal. In Experiment I half of the subjects received high arousal and half received moderate arousal information. Within each of these conditions half of the subjects had their arousal reduced, and the other half did not. In Experiment II subjects received either low arousal, high arousal, or high then low arousal feedback while listening. The results of the two studies generally provided support for the "arousal only" hypothesis. An interpretation in terms of Bem's attribution theory was tentatively suggested.

  1. Female sexual dysfunction: a focus on flibanserin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lodise NM

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Nicole M Lodise Department of Pharmacy Practice, Albany College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Albany, NY, USA Abstract: Flibanserin is the first US Food and Drug Administration (FDA-approved option for sexual dysfunction, specifically low sexual desire. Until recently, there were no FDA-approved medication options to assist the ~40% of women affected by female sexual dysfunction (FSD. Often, patients report feeling uncomfortable discussing sexual health, identifying a strong need for health care professionals (HCPs to proactively reach out to patients to identify concerns and initiate a discussion about sexual health and the available treatment options. Within the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (DMS-5, the criteria of female sexual interest/arousal disorder (FSIAD are outlined, encompassing one of the most common sexual concerns, formerly in its own category defined as hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD or low sexual desire. HSDD is the absence or deficiency of sexual interest and/or desire leading to significant distress and interpersonal difficulties. HCPs offer an important service in assessing their patients and providing information about treatment considerations while ensuring patient comfort with this topic. This article provides an overview of the types and potential causes associated with FSD and the role of flibanserin in practice as a treatment option. Despite a need for additional study in diverse populations, flibanserin has demonstrated efficacy with increased female sexual function index (FSFI total and desire domain scores in clinical studies indicating benefit in sexual desire. Common patient or provider-administered assessment tools to assist in identifying affected patients and patient counseling strategies are reviewed. Keywords: female sexual dysfunction, low sexual desire, hypoactive sexual desire disorder, pharmacotherapy, flibanserin

  2. Sexual Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and changes in sexual function are common. These physiological changes can include: A need for more stimulation ... page: Sexuality in later life. National Institute on Aging. https://www.nia.nih.gov/health/publication/sexuality- ...

  3. Sexual Education

    OpenAIRE

    Býmová, Pavlína

    2008-01-01

    The subject matter of this diploma thesis "Sexual Education" is sexual education in the Czech Republic, specifically dedicated to the study of the integration of sexual education into the educational process in schools and families.

  4. The role of salivary cortisol and DHEA-S in response to sexual, humorous, and anxiety-inducing stimuli

    OpenAIRE

    Hamilton, Lisa Dawn; Meston, Cindy M.

    2010-01-01

    Stress and anxiety are commonly thought to be detrimental to sexual function. Several studies in both the human and animal literature, however, have found that inducing anxiety can enhance sexual function in women. The mechanisms that explain a negative relationship between physical and psychological stress and sexual functioning are well documented, but little is known about how stress or anxiety might have a facilitatory effect on sexual arousal. As an initial step in exploring the relation...

  5. Extinction of aversive classically conditioned human sexual response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brom, Mirte; Laan, Ellen; Everaerd, Walter; Spinhoven, Philip; Both, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Research has shown that acquired subjective likes and dislikes are quite resistant to extinction. Moreover, studies on female sexual response demonstrated that diminished genital arousal and positive affect toward erotic stimuli due to aversive classical conditioning did not extinguish during an

  6. EXERCISE IMPROVES SEXUAL FUNCTION IN WOMEN TAKING ANTIDEPRESSANTS: RESULTS FROM A RANDOMIZED CROSSOVER TRIAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Tierney Ahrold; Meston, Cindy May

    2014-01-01

    Background In laboratory studies, exercise immediately before sexual stimuli improved sexual arousal of women taking antidepressants [1]. We evaluated if exercise improves sexual desire, orgasm, and global sexual functioning in women experiencing antidepressant-induced sexual side effects. Methods Fifty-two women who were reporting antidepressant sexual side effects were followed for 3 weeks of sexual activity only. They were randomized to complete either three weeks of exercise immediately before sexual activity (3×/week) or 3 weeks of exercise separate from sexual activity (3×/week). At the end of the first exercise arm, participants crossed to the other. We measured sexual functioning, sexual satisfaction, depression, and physical health. Results Exercise immediately prior to sexual activity significantly improved sexual desire and, for women with sexual dysfunction at baseline, global sexual function. Scheduling regular sexual activity significantly improved orgasm function; exercise did not increase this benefit. Neither regular sexual activity nor exercise significantly changed sexual satisfaction. Conclusions Scheduling regular sexual activity and exercise may be an effective tool for the behavioral management of sexual side effects of antidepressants. PMID:24754044

  7. Spina bifida and sexuality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Linstow, Michael Ernst; Biering-Sørensen, Ida; Liebach, Annette

    2014-01-01

    , neurological examination, personal interview, Functional Independence Measure (FIMTM), Medical Outcome Study Short Form 36 (SF-36) on quality of life, and questions on sexual function and related topics. Study cohort: Fifty-three participants (27 women, 26 men) with spina bifida (mean age 27.1, range 18......OBJECTIVE: To evaluate sexual function amongst adult individuals with spina bifida and to register their subjective satisfaction with their sexual life and relationships. SETTING: Department for Spinal Cord Injuries, East Denmark. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Cohort study. Medical record information......-35) years. Response rate 74%. RESULTS: Fifty-one percent of subjects regarded their sexual life as a failure or dysfunctional. However, 45% reported being satisfied with their sexual life. Participants with partners were more satisfied with their sexual life than those without partners. Faecal...

  8. Fifty Shades Flipped: Effects of Reading Erotica Depicting a Sexually Dominant Woman Compared to a Sexually Dominant Man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Emily Ann; Thai, Michael; Barlow, Fiona Kate

    2017-01-01

    The present study examined the effects of reading submission- and dominance-themed erotica on attitudes toward women and rape, ideal partner preferences, and subjective sexual arousal. Heterosexual male (n = 241) and female (n = 240) participants read one of three erotic stories depicting male dominance, female dominance, or no dominance, or a fourth nonerotic control story. First, we found that after reading about a sexually dominant man, women reported increased benevolent sexism compared to men, and men reported increased rape myth acceptance compared to women. Second, men and women showed a similar level of preference for partner dominance after reading about a sexually dominant woman. This was in contrast to the typical pattern revealed in all other conditions, whereby women were more likely to favor dominant partners relative to men. Finally, we found no evidence to support the hypothesis that the story describing male dominance would be the most arousing. Rather, all three erotic stories were equally sexually arousing compared to the control condition, and men and women did not differ in the extent to which the erotic stories aroused them. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  9. Evidence-based treatments for low sexual desire in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brotto, Lori A

    2017-04-01

    Low sexual desire is the most common sexual complaint in women, with multinational studies finding that at least a third of women experience low sexual desire. No single etiology for the development of Female Sexual Interest/Arousal Disorder, the diagnosis laid out by the 5th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, has been established. There has been considerable interest in pharmacological approaches to improving low desire, and agents targeting a range of neurotransmitters have been examined. To date, only flibanserin, a centrally acting medication targeting the serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine systems, has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Despite statistically significant effects on sexual desire, sexual distress, and sexually satisfying events, side-effects are significant, and flibanserin is completely contraindicated with alcohol. As such, there has been renewed interest in advancing the science of psychological approaches to low desire, including cognitive behavioral and mindfulness therapies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Physiology of Women's Sexual Function: Basic Knowledge and New Findings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salonia, Andrea; Giraldi, Annamaria; Chivers, Meredith L

    2010-01-01

    Introduction.  Data concerning the physiology of female sexual functioning are still obtained from animal studies, but an increasing amount of novel evidence comes from human studies. Aim.  To gain knowledge of psychological and biologic physiology of women's sexual functioning, mainly addressing...... and responses is of paramount importance. A biopsychological paradigm was considered when reviewing currently available data, thus considering aspects of: (i) sexual differentiation of the brain, which is critical for sex differentiation in behavior; (ii) central neurobiology of sexual function, highlighting...... arousal in women in both procreation/reproduction and recreation/pleasure. The interaction between physiological and psychological states of women's sexual response, nonspecific sexual response, interoceptive awareness, and flexibility of sexual interests have also been addressed. Conclusion.  Further...

  11. Sexuality and quality of life in women with a prior diagnosis of breast cancer after risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Paige E; Saunders, Christobel; Bulsara, Max K; Tan, Jason Jit-Sun; Salfinger, Stuart G; Green, Helena; Cohen, Paul A

    2016-12-01

    To investigate the prevalence of sexual dysfunction in women with a history of breast cancer following risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy (RRSO). A secondary objective was to examine the effect of a prior diagnosis of breast cancer, and other factors, on sexuality and quality of life (QoL) outcomes. Cross-sectional study of 119 women who underwent RRSO between 2009 and 2014. Data were collected via a questionnaire comprising demographic information and validated measures of sexual function, sexual distress, relationship satisfaction, body image, psychological stress, menopause symptoms and general quality of life. Sixty out of 119 participants who underwent RRSO had a history of breast cancer. Eighty percent of women with breast cancer had female sexual dysfunction (FSD) and 82% had hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) after RRSO. Bilateral mastectomy was associated with higher rates of HSDD (p = 0.028) and higher body image self-consciousness (BISC) during sexual activity (p = 0.011). Breast reconstruction was associated with higher relationship satisfaction (RAS) scores (p = 0.004). Compared to Tamoxifen, aromatase inhibitors (AI) were significantly associated with reduced lubrication (p = 0.041), arousal (p = 0.004), orgasm (p = 0.002) and greater dyspareunia (p = 0.027). Prior diagnosis of breast cancer was not associated with the prevalence of FSD (p = 0.532). High rates of FSD and HSDD occur in women with breast cancer following RRSO. Low relationship satisfaction, bodily pain, bilateral mastectomy and the use of aromatase inhibitors were associated with poorer sexual function. Women had similar sexual outcomes and QoL after RRSO, regardless of breast cancer history. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. An Interpersonal Investigation of Sexual Self-Schemas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Kyle; Rehman, Uzma S; Fallis, Erin E; Goodnight, Jackson A

    2016-02-01

    A sexual self-schema is a cognitive generalization about sexual aspects of the self. In the current study, we examined how an individual's sexual self-schema influenced the processing of self and partner related sexual information. Specifically, we investigated how sexual self-schemas related to own and partner sexual satisfaction and how they influenced perceptions of partner sexual satisfaction. Participants were 117 heterosexual couples in committed, long-term relationships. Both partners completed measures assessing their sexual self-schemas, their own sexual satisfaction, and perceptions of partner sexual satisfaction. Consistent with our predictions, own sexual schema was associated with own sexual satisfaction. For men, more positive sexual self-schemas were associated with greater sexual satisfaction, and for women, more negative sexual self-schemas were associated with lower sexual satisfaction. For both men and women, there was no significant association between own sexual self-schema and partner sexual satisfaction. Sexual self-schemas directly and indirectly influenced an individual's perception of the partner's sexual satisfaction, such that men and women with more positive sexual self-schemas rated their partners as more sexually satisfied, after controlling for the partner's self-reported level of sexual satisfaction. Our findings demonstrated that sexual self-schemas are relevant to own sexual satisfaction as well as the processing of interpersonally relevant sexual information, specifically one's perceptions of partner sexual satisfaction.

  13. Research in Human Sexuality Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, Joan; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Medical students' attitudes towards concepts in sexuality before and after a five-day sexuality course were tested at the University of Miami School of Medicine and evaluated with Osgood's Semantic Differential. Concepts rated were "my sexuality,""masturbation,""homosexuality," and "my role in understanding…

  14. Age differences in liking and recall of arousing television commercials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Goot, M.; van Reijmersdal, E.; Eisend, M.; Langner, T.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines age differences in liking of arousing television commercials and recall of the advertised brands and products. Based on the activation theory of information exposure, sensation seeking theory and the limited capacity model of mediated message processing, we expect that the

  15. A Model of Anxious Arousal for Public Speaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Amber N.; Sawyer, Chris R.; Behnke, Ralph R.

    2009-01-01

    With the goal of identifying the characteristics or traits students bring to the classroom that predispose them to panic when faced with the threat of presenting in front of an audience, this study introduced a subtype of public-speaking state anxiety--anxious arousal. Specifically, this study examined the extent to which trait anxiety and…

  16. EEG arousal prediction via hypoxemia indicator in patients with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is a sleep breathing disorder characterized by recurrent airflow obstruction caused by a total or partial collapse of the upper airway. OSAS is a common affliction suffered by millions. The arousal index (ArI) is the best predictor of daytime somnolence for patients with OSAS, ...

  17. Driving with music : Effects on arousal and performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Unal, Ayca Berfu; de Waard, Dick; Epstude, Kai; Steg, Linda

    2013-01-01

    In the current study, we aimed at exploring the influence of music on driving performance, arousal and mental effort while carrying out a monotonous car-following task in a low-complexity traffic setting. Participants (N = 47) were randomly assigned to loud and moderate volume music groups, and

  18. Emotional Valence and Arousal Effects on Memory and Hemispheric Asymmetries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mneimne, Malek; Powers, Alice S.; Walton, Kate E.; Kosson, David S.; Fonda, Samantha; Simonetti, Jessica

    2010-01-01

    This study examined predictions based upon the right hemisphere (RH) model, the valence-arousal model, and a recently proposed integrated model (Killgore & Yurgelun-Todd, 2007) of emotion processing by testing immediate recall and recognition memory for positive, negative, and neutral verbal stimuli among 35 right-handed women. Building upon…

  19. Exposure to arousal-inducing sounds facilitates visual search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asutay, Erkin; Västfjäll, Daniel

    2017-09-04

    Exposure to affective stimuli could enhance perception and facilitate attention via increasing alertness, vigilance, and by decreasing attentional thresholds. However, evidence on the impact of affective sounds on perception and attention is scant. Here, a novel aspect of affective facilitation of attention is studied: whether arousal induced by task-irrelevant auditory stimuli could modulate attention in a visual search. In two experiments, participants performed a visual search task with and without auditory-cues that preceded the search. Participants were faster in locating high-salient targets compared to low-salient targets. Critically, search times and search slopes decreased with increasing auditory-induced arousal while searching for low-salient targets. Taken together, these findings suggest that arousal induced by sounds can facilitate attention in a subsequent visual search. This novel finding provides support for the alerting function of the auditory system by showing an auditory-phasic alerting effect in visual attention. The results also indicate that stimulus arousal modulates the alerting effect. Attention and perception are our everyday tools to navigate our surrounding world and the current findings showing that affective sounds could influence visual attention provide evidence that we make use of affective information during perceptual processing.

  20. Tracking arousal state and mind wandering with pupillometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unsworth, Nash; Robison, Matthew K

    2018-04-13

    In four experiments, the association between arousal state and different mind-wandering states was examined. Participants performed a sustained attention task while pupil responses were continuously recorded. Periodically during the task, participants were presented with thought probes to determine if they were on task or mind wandering. Across the four experiments, the results suggested that in situations that promoted on-task behaviors and focused external attention, mind wandering was associated with lowered arousal, as seen by smaller tonic pupil diameters and smaller phasic pupillary responses. However, in situations that promoted a more internal focus of attention, there were no differences between on-task states and mind wandering in tonic pupil diameter (although differences emerged for phasic pupillary responses), suggesting similar arousal levels. Furthermore, across the four experiments, mind blanking and mind wandering dissociated in terms of whether the situation promoted focused external attention or focused internal attention. These results are broadly consistent with the notion that mind wandering is a heterogeneous construct, with different forms of mind wandering being associated with different arousal states, and suggest that a combination of behavioral and pupillary measures can be used to track these various states.

  1. Arousal, exploration and the locus coeruleus-norepinephrine system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jepma, Marieke

    2011-01-01

    The studies described in this thesis address a range of topics related to arousal, exploration, temporal attention, and the locus coeruleus-norepinephrine (LC-NE) system. Chapters 2 and 3 report two studies that investigated a recent theory about the role of the LC-NE system in the regulation of the

  2. Paroxysmal arousal in epilepsy associated with cingulate hyperperfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetrugno, R; Mascalchi, M; Vella, A; Della Nave, R; Provini, F; Plazzi, G; Volterrani, D; Bertelli, P; Vattimo, A; Lugaresi, E; Montagna, P

    2005-01-25

    A patient with nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy characterized by paroxysmal motor attacks during sleep had brief paroxysmal arousals (PAs), complex episodes of nocturnal paroxysmal dystonia, and epileptic nocturnal wandering since childhood. Ictal SPECT during an episode of PA demonstrated increased blood flow in the right anterior cingulate gyrus and cerebellar cortex with hypoperfusion in the right temporal and frontal associative cortices.

  3. Disconnection of the Ascending Arousal System in Traumatic Coma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edlow, Brian L.; Haynes, Robin L.; Takahashi, Emi; Klein, Joshua P.; Cummings, Peter; Benner, Thomas; Greer, David M.; Greenberg, Steven M.; Wu, Ona; Kinney, Hannah C.; Folkerth, Rebecca D.

    2013-01-01

    Traumatic coma is associated with disruption of axonal pathways throughout the brain but the specific pathways involved in humans are incompletely understood. In this study, we used high angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI) to map the connectivity of axonal pathways that mediate the 2 critical components of consciousness – arousal and awareness – in the postmortem brain of a 62-year-old woman with acute traumatic coma and in 2 control brains. HARDI tractography guided tissue sampling in the neuropathological analysis. HARDI tractography demonstrated complete disruption of white matter pathways connecting brainstem arousal nuclei to the basal forebrain and thalamic intralaminar and reticular nuclei. In contrast, hemispheric arousal pathways connecting the thalamus and basal forebrain to the cerebral cortex were only partially disrupted, as were the cortical “awareness pathways.” Neuropathologic examination, which utilized β-amyloid precursor protein and fractin immunomarkers, revealed axonal injury in the white matter of the brainstem and cerebral hemispheres that corresponded to sites of HARDI tract disruption. Axonal injury was also present within the grey matter of the hypothalamus, thalamus, basal forebrain, and cerebral cortex. We propose that traumatic coma may be a subcortical disconnection syndrome related to the disconnection of specific brainstem arousal nuclei from the thalamus and basal forebrain. PMID:23656993

  4. Arousal Modulation in Females with Fragile X or Turner Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Jane; Mazzocco, Michele M. M.; Murphy, Melissa M.; Hoehn-Saric, Rudolf

    2008-01-01

    The present study was carried out to examine physiological arousal modulation (heart activity and skin conductance), across baseline and cognitive tasks, in females with fragile X or Turner syndrome and a comparison group of females with neither syndrome. Relative to the comparison group, for whom a greater increase in skin conductance was…

  5. Memory recall in arousing situations - an emotional von Restorff effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiswede, Daniel; Rüsseler, Jascha; Hasselbach, Simone; Münte, Thomas F

    2006-07-24

    Previous research has demonstrated a relationship between memory recall and P300 amplitude in list learning tasks, but the variables mediating this P300-recall relationship are not well understood. In the present study, subjects were required to recall items from lists consisting of 12 words, which were presented in front of pictures taken from the IAPS collection. One word per list is made distinct either by font color or by a highly arousing background IAPS picture. This isolation procedure was first used by von Restorff. Brain potentials were recorded during list presentation. Recall performance was enhanced for color but not for emotional isolates. Event-related brain potentials (ERP) showed a more positive P300-component for recalled non-isolated words and color-isolated words, compared to the respective non-remembered words, but not for words isolated by arousing background. Our findings indicate that it is crucial to take emotional mediator variables into account, when using the P300 to predict later recall. Highly arousing environments might force the cognitive system to interrupt rehearsal processes in working memory, which might benefit transfer into other, more stable memory systems. The impact of attention-capturing properties of arousing background stimuli is also discussed.

  6. Cognitive Processing of Fear-Arousing Message Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Jerold L.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Investigates two models (the Elaboration Likelihood Model and the Heuristic-Systematic Model) of the cognitive processing of fear-arousing messages in undergraduate students. Finds in three of the four conditions (low fear, high fear, high trait anxiety) that cognitive processing appears to be antagonistic. Finds some evidence of concurrent…

  7. Sexual Function and Marital Satisfaction in Female with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firoozeh Raeisi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Considering the high prevalence of sexual dysfunction in females with OCD and its impact on marital satisfaction, the purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between sexual function and marital satisfaction in a group of female OCD patients. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 36 females with OCD, referred to the clinic of Roozbeh Psychiatric Hospital (related to Tehran University of Medical Sciences and 3 private offices in Tehran, were selected by random sampling and completed questionnaires including: demographic FSFI, BDI-II, MOCI, OCI-R and researcher-developed marital satisfaction questionnaire. Results: 80.6% of women reported sexual dysfunction. The results of studying sexual function questionnaire subscales was as following: 50 % low sexual desire, 58.3 % low sexual arousal, 36.1 % decreased lubrication, 44 % orgasmic disorder, 52.8 % sexual pain disorder and 41.7 % sexual dissatisfaction. Furthermore, statistically significant correlation was found between sexual dysfunction (total score and arousal, lubrication, pain and satisfaction subscales and marital dissatisfaction. Studying the relation between obession(MOCI questionnaire and marital satisfaction revealed that the correlation between washing subscale of MOCI and marital dissatisfaction was also significant while there were not any significant correlation between obsession (OCJ-R, MOCI and sexual function (FSFI. Conclusion: High prevalence of sexual dysfunction in OCD patients, significant relationship between obsession and marital satisfaction, and sexual function and marital satisfaction could demonstrate relationship between sexual function, OCD and marital satisfaction.

  8. Sexual Excitability and Dysfunctional Coping Determine Cybersex Addiction in Homosexual Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laier, Christian; Pekal, Jaro; Brand, Matthias

    2015-10-01

    Cybersex addiction (CA) has been mostly investigated in heterosexual males. Recent findings have demonstrated an association between CA severity and indicators of sexual excitability, and that coping by sexual behaviors mediated the relationship between sexual excitability and CA symptoms. The aim of this study was to test this mediation in a sample of homosexual males. Seventy-one homosexual males were surveyed online. Questionnaires assessed symptoms of CA, sensitivity to sexual excitation, pornography use motivation, problematic sexual behavior, psychological symptoms, and sexual behaviors in real life and online. Moreover, participants viewed pornographic videos and indicated their sexual arousal before and after the video presentation. Results showed strong correlations between CA symptoms and indicators of sexual arousal and sexual excitability, coping by sexual behaviors, and psychological symptoms. CA was not associated with offline sexual behaviors and weekly cybersex use time. Coping by sexual behaviors partially mediated the relationship between sexual excitability and CA. The results are comparable with those reported for heterosexual males and females in previous studies and are discussed against the background of theoretical assumptions of CA, which highlight the role of positive and negative reinforcement due to cybersex use.

  9. The effects of sedative music, arousal music, and silence on electrocardiography signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dousty, Mehdy; Daneshvar, Sabalan; Haghjoo, Majid

    2011-01-01

    Research indicates that music can affect heart rate, blood pressure, and skin conductance. Music can stimulate central emotions in the brain and release biochemical materials that change the physiologic state. We sought to compare changes in the electrical function of the heart in response to music. Subjects were asked to listen to 2 types of music, namely, sedative and arousal music, in conjunction with two 30-second periods of complete silence. The experiment was conducted in 4 segments: the first and third parts were silence, and the second and fourth parts were music. First, the response to each type of music was compared with that to the preceding period of silence. Next, the responses to both types of music were compared. Finally, the response to music regardless of the type was compared with that to silence. The amplitude of polarization and depolarization changed in response to different kinds of music. The electrical function of the heart in response to music, irrespective of the music type, differed from that in response to silence. The 2 types of music impacted the electrical function of the heart in different ways: the arousal music influenced T-wave maximum amplitude, whereas no such change was recorded in response to the sedative music. The bandwidth of the polarization and depolarization of the heart rate and R-wave amplitude increased in response to music by comparison with silence. In addition, the heart did not seem to try to synchronize with music. The mean R-wave amplitude in sedative music is higher than the arousal music, so our heart works differently when different types of music are heard. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Motivational intensity modulates the effects of positive emotions on set shifting after controlling physiological arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ya; Siu, Angela F Y

    2015-12-01

    Recent research on the construct of emotion suggests the integration of a motivational dimension into the traditional two-dimension (subjective valence and physiological arousal) model. The motivational intensity of an emotional state should be taken into account while investigating the emotion-cognition relationship. This study examined how positive emotional states varying in motivational intensity influenced set shifting, after controlling the potential confounding impacts of physiological arousal. In Experiment 1, 155 volunteers performed a set-shifting task after being randomly assigned to five states: high- vs. low-motivating positive affect (interest vs. serenity), high- vs. low-motivating negative affect (disgust vs. anxiety), and neutral state. Eighty-five volunteers participated in Experiment 2, which further examined the effects of higher vs. lower degree of interest. Both experiments measured and compared participants' physiological arousal (blood pressure and pulse rate) under the normal and experimental conditions as the covariate. Results showed no difference in switching performance between the neutral and serenity groups. As compared with the neutral state, the high-motivating positive affect significantly increased set-switching reaction time costs, but reduced error rate costs; the higher the motivational intensity, the greater the time-costs impairment. This indicates a role of the high-motivating positive affect in regulating the balance between the flexible and stable cognitive control. Motivational intensity also modulated the effects of negative emotional states, i.e., disgust caused a larger increase in time costs than anxiety. Further exploration into neurobiological mechanisms that may mediate the emotional effects on set shifting is warranted. © 2015 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Approach and withdrawal tendencies during written word processing: effects of task, emotional valence and emotional arousal

    OpenAIRE

    Citron, Francesca Maria Marina; Abugaber, David; Herbert, Cornelia

    2016-01-01

    The affective dimensions of emotional valence and emotional arousal affect processing of verbal and pictorial stimuli. Traditional emotional theories assume a linear relationship between these dimensions, with valence determining the direction of a behaviour (approach vs. withdrawal) and arousal its intensity or strength. In contrast, according to the valence-arousal conflict theory, both dimensions are interactively related: positive valence and low aro