Stone, Deborah M; Luo, Feijun; Lippy, Caroline; McIntosh, Wendy LiKamWa
The impact of types of social connectedness-family, other adult, and school-on suicide ideation and attempts among all youth, the relative impact of each type, and effect modification by sexual orientation was assessed. Data were from the 2007-2009 Milwaukee Youth Risk Behavior Surveys. Multivariable logistic regression analyses calculated the risk of suicide ideation and attempts by sexual orientation, types of social connectedness, and their interaction. Among all youth, each type of connectedness modeled singly conferred protective effects for suicide ideation. Family and other adult connectedness protected against suicide attempts. When modeled simultaneously, family connectedness protected against ideation and attempts. Sexual orientation modified the association between other adult connectedness and suicide ideation. Findings suggest that family connectedness confers the most consistent protection among all youth and sexual orientation does not generally modify the association between connectedness and suicidal behavior. © Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.
Wells, David A; Jones, Darryl N; Bulger, David; Brown, Culum
Sexual coercion by males is generally understood to have three forms: forced copulation, harassment and intimidation. We studied Australian brush-turkeys, Alectura lathami, to determine whether some male behaviours towards females at incubation mounds could be classified as aggressive, whether males were attempting sexual coercion and, if so, whether the coercion was successful. We found that some male behaviours towards females were significantly more likely to be followed by the cessation of female mound activity, and hence could be classified as aggressive, while others were significantly more likely to be followed by the commencement of female mound activity, and hence could be classified as enticing. Copulation was preceded by higher rates of male enticement and by higher rates of certain types of male aggression. It therefore seemed that males were attempting sexual coercion. There was little evidence, however, that this combination of coercion and enticement was successful in obtaining copulations. While forced copulation did occur, it was infrequent, and no evidence could be found for intimidation. We conclude that harassment is the primary form of sexual coercion by male brush-turkeys. Although sexual coercion is understood to be a sub-optimal tactic, brush-turkey sexual coercion was employed as a primary tactic by dominant males who owned incubation mounds. One possible explanation for this apparent paradox is that aggression is the default solution for social conflicts in this species, and hence can be interpreted as a behavioural syndrome. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Rector, Robert E.; Johnson, Kirk A.; Noyes, Lauren R.
Although teen sexual activity has declined in recent years, the overall rate is still high. The problems associated with teen sexual activity are well known. Less widely known are the psychological and emotional problems associated with this activity. The present study examines the linkage between teenage sexual activity and emotional health. The…
Full Text Available Artists, creative writers, and musicians have long been interested in the complex motives that spark passionate love, sexual desire, and sexual behavior. Recently, scholars from a variety of disciplines have begun to investigate two questions: “Why do men and women choose to engage in sexual liaisons?” “Why do they avoid such encounters?” Theories abound. Many theorists have complained that there exists a paucity of scales designed to measure the plethora of motives that prompt people to seek out or to avoid sexual activities. In fact, this observation is incorrect. Many such scales of documented reliability and validity do exist. The reason that few scholars are familiar with these scales is that they were developed by psychometricians from a variety of disciplines and are scattered about in an assortment of journals, college libraries, and researchers’ desk drawers, thus making them difficult to identify and locate. This paper will attempt to provide a compendium of all known sexual motives scales, hoping that this will encourage scholars to take a multidisciplinary approach in developing typologies of sexual motives and/or in conducting their own research into the nature of sexual motives.
Ni Lochlainn, Mary; Kenny, Rose Anne
Sexuality is an important component of emotional and physical intimacy that men and women experience throughout their lives. Research suggesting that a high proportion of men and women remain sexually active well into later life refutes the prevailing myth that aging and sexual dysfunction are inexorably linked. Age-related physiological changes do not render a meaningful sexual relationship impossible or even necessarily difficult. Many of these physiological changes are modifiable. There are various therapeutic options available to patients to achieve maximum sexual capacity in old age. This article reviews the prevalence of sexual activity among older adults, the problems these adults encounter with sexual activity, and the role of the health care professional in addressing these problems. The physiological sex-related changes that occur as part of the normal aging process in men and women are reviewed, as well as the effect of age-related physical and psychological illness on sexual function. The attitudes and perceptions of the media and general public toward sexual activity and aging are summarized. An understanding of the sexual changes that accompany the aging process may help general practitioners and other doctors to give practical and useful advice on sexuality as well as refute the misconception that aging equates to celibacy. A thorough awareness of this aspect of older people's quality of life can raise meaningful expectations for aging patients. Copyright © 2013 American Medical Directors Association, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Staruch, Monika; Kucharczyk, Aleksandra; Zawadzka, Katarzyna; Wielgos, Miroslaw; Szymusik, Iwona
Pregnancy is usually associated with significant regression in genito-genital intercourse frequency, sexual desire and satisfaction. The aim of the study was to determine women's sexual habits during the third trimester of gestation and to compare their sexual activity before the current pregnancy and during previous pregnancies in case of multiparas. The study material consisted of women in the third trimester of pregnancy, recruited from the Outpatient Clinic of the 1st Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of Warsaw between January 2013 and February 2014, who filled out a self-prepared questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of three parts: demographic data, sexual activity prior to current pregnancy and during gestation, including sexual positions and sources of knowledge regarding the subject. The survey involved 25 questions and was distributed among 220 patients, out of which 165 were returned and 149 properly filled out and analyzed. The average age of the respondents was 29.6 ± 4.85 years; the majority (78.8%) were in an uncomplicated pregnancy. The decrease in sexual activity was evident in all age groups--the majority usually had sex 1 to 3 times a month in contrast to 1-2 times a week prior to conceiving. Sexual activity decreased significantly with increasing age. The main reasons for abandoning sexual activity included: decreased libido (35.5%), the doctor's suggestion (29%) and fears concerning child's health (29%). During pregnancy the frequency of vaginal intercourse significantly decreased (100% prior to vs. 86.6% during pregnancy; p < 0.001); as did oral sex (44.3% vs. 29.5%; p = 0.043) and anal sex (12% vs. 5.4%; p = 0.02). 54% of the respondents declared reduced satisfaction with sexual life during pregnancy in comparison with the previous period; almost half (43.5%) felt less attractive while pregnant. The same claim was related to libido--it decreased in 58.8% of respondents. Multiparas tended to have sexual
Paget, L-M; Chan Chee, C; Sauvage, C; Saboni, L; Beltzer, N; Velter, A
Since the 1990s, several studies have found higher rates of suicide attempts in homosexuals and bisexuals than in heterosexuals. The current challenge is to identify risk factors for targeting prevention. The aim of this paper was to determine, for the first time in France, the prevalence of suicide attempts over a 12-month period and associated factors in a population of men and women who self-identified as homosexuals or bisexuals. A convenience sample cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2011 using an anonymous self-administered questionnaire made available in the gay press, and Internet sites targeting the gay or lesbian community. Among the persons completing the questionnaire, 10,100 men and 2963 women residing in France answered the questions on suicide attempts. The factors associated with suicide attempts during the previous 12 months were identified by logistic regression. Lifetime prevalence for suicide attempts was 16% in men and 18% in women; 12-month prevalence was 1.6% in men and 1.9% in women. Factors independently associated with suicide attempts in the past 12 months in men and women were lack of occupational activity, victim of sexual abuse, termination of a long-term relationship, excessive alcohol consumption in the past 12 months, depression, and in addition, in men, living in a small locality, victim of verbal or physical aggression and use of anxiolytics. According to our results, the fight against homophobia is an important element for the prevention of suicide attempts among homosexual and bisexual men. Indeed, in addition to traditional risk factors for suicide attempt, a significant association was also found with homophobic aggression in the past year. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Ullman, Sarah E.; Najdowski, Cynthia J.
Relations between (a) serious suicidal ideation and attempts and (b) demographics, trauma history, assault characteristics, post-assault outcomes, and psychosocial variables were examined among female adult sexual assault survivors. Younger, minority, and bisexual survivors reported greater ideation. More traumas, drug use, and assault disclosure…
Full Text Available Aim. The purpose of this research was to explore the subject of sexual activity in the Polish population, with special focus on age and gender differences, and sexual infidelity. Sexual activity is one of the basic factors in initiating and maintaining relationships. On the one hand, sexual activity enables us to meet natural needs and maintain an intimate relationship with another human being; on the other, it may allow us to overcome loneliness and social isolation by providing the opportunity to express feelings of closeness and unity. Material and method. The research was conducted on a representative group of 3,200 Poles aged between 15–49, with the support of a well-known Polish research company – TNS OBOP. Face-to-face and Pencil and Paper (PAPI interviews were carried out. Results. The results focus on two main issues: the age and motives of sexual initiation among teenagers (with a significant percentage starting their sexual activity at the age of 15, and the quality of the sexual lives of adults (average number of sexual partners, sexual infidelity and sexual satisfaction. Conclusion. There is dependence between the type of relationship and the performance or non-performance of sexual activity, as well as the quality of the relationship. Among both adolescents and adults, remaining in a stable relationship (partnership or marriage promotes loyalty. The performance of sexual goals turns out to be an important mechanism regulating the interpersonal aspects of a relationship, influencing their perception and evaluation.
Stone, Deborah M; Luo, Feijun; Ouyang, Lijing; Lippy, Caroline; Hertz, Marci F; Crosby, Alex E
We examined the associations between 2 measures of sexual orientation and 4 suicide risk outcomes (SROs) from pooled local Youth Risk Behavior Surveys. We aggregated data from 5 local Youth Risk Behavior Surveys from 2001 to 2009. We defined sexual minority youths (SMYs) by sexual identity (lesbian, gay, bisexual) and sex of sexual contacts (same- or both-sex contacts). Survey logistic regression analyses controlled for a wide range of suicide risk factors and sample design effects. Compared with non-SMYs, all SMYs had increased odds of suicide ideation; bisexual youths, gay males, and both-sex contact females had greater odds of suicide planning; all SMYs, except same-sex contact males, had increased odds of suicide attempts; and lesbians, bisexuals, and both-sex contact youths had increased odds of medically serious attempts. Unsure males had increased odds of suicide ideation compared with heterosexual males. Not having sexual contact was protective of most SROs among females and of medically serious attempts among males. Regardless of sexual orientation measure used, most SMY subgroups had increased odds of all SROs. However, many factors are associated with SROs.
Daray, Federico M; Rojas, Sasha M; Bridges, Ana J; Badour, Christal L; Grendas, Leandro; Rodante, Demián; Puppo, Soledad; Rebok, Federico
Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a causal agent in many negative adulthood outcomes, including the risk for life-threatening behaviors such as suicide ideation and suicide attempts. Traumatic events such as CSA may pose risk in the healthy development of cognitive and emotional functioning during childhood. In fact, high impulsivity, a risk factor for suicidal behavior, is characteristic of CSA victims. The current study aims to understand the relations among CSA, impulsivity, and frequency of lifetime suicide attempts among a female patient sample admitted for suicidal behavior. Participants included 177 female patients between the ages of 18 and 63 years admitted at two hospitals in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Number of previous suicide attempts and CSA were assessed via structured interviews, while impulsivity was assessed with the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11). A model of structural equations was employed to evaluate the role of impulsivity in the relation between CSA and suicide attempts. CSA (β=.18, pimpulsivity (β=.24, psuicide attempts. However, impulsivity was not significantly associated with CSA (β=.09, p>.05). CSA and impulsivity are independently associated with lifetime suicide attempts among female patients with recent suicidal behavior. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Chernyshkova Е. V.
Full Text Available The article deals with the analysis of the principal factors influencing sexual activity of elderly persons. Data of foreign study and sociologic research carried out in Saratov region (2010 were used as the base for the analysis. It was revealed that the primary determinants of sexual activity in old age are the following: state of health, presence or absence of a partner, active lifestyle
Socio‑demographic and obstetric features, menstrual and breastfeeding ... looseness and discharge, loss of sexual desire and bleeding or ..... Abnormal vaginal discharge. 12 .... Borda MR, Winfrey W, McKaig C. Return to sexual activity and ...
Easton, Scott D; Renner, Lynette M; O'Leary, Patrick
Men who were sexually abused during childhood are at risk for a variety of long-term mental health problems, including suicidality. However, little is known about which factors are related to recent suicide attempts for this vulnerable, under-researched population. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between abuse severity, mental health, masculine norms and recent suicide attempts among men with histories of child sexual abuse (CSA). We analyzed survey data gathered from a purposive sample of 487 men who were sexually abused during childhood. The age of the sample ranged from 19 to 84 years (μ = 50.4 years). Recent suicide attempts served as the dependent variable in the study. Self-reported measures of sexual abuse severity, child physical abuse, mental health, masculine norms, and demographic information (age, race) represented the independent variables. The results from logistic regression modeling found that five variables - duration of the sexual abuse, use of force during the sexual abuse, high conformity to masculine norms, level of depressive symptoms, and suicidal ideation - increased the odds of a suicide attempt in the past 12 months. To improve mental health services for men with histories of CSA, mental health practitioners should incorporate sexual abuse severity, current mental health, and adherence to masculine norms into assessment and treatment planning. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Zheng, Lijun; Su, Yanchen
This study examined patterns of asexuality in Chinese asexual people in terms of sexual activities, sexual/romantic attraction, and sexual desire. The sample included 227 (64 men and 163 women) asexual participants and 57 (26 men and 31 women) uncertain asexual participants recruited from social networks for asexual people. The control group included 217 (115 men and 102 women) heterosexual participants recruited from general social networks. Participants scoring 40 or higher on the Asexuality Identification Scale were classified as asexual. Asexual participants reported having less frequent masturbation, sexual intercourse experience, and sexual and romantic attraction compared to heterosexual participants. Lower sexual attraction among asexuals indicated that "people who experience little or no sexual attraction" would be a more appropriate definition of asexuality. The pattern of uncertain asexual participants' sexual/romantic attraction and sexual desire was intermediate between heterosexual and asexual participants. Asexual participants scored significantly lower on dyadic sexual desire and slightly lower on solitary sexual desire than heterosexual participants. There were significant differences in sexual activities and solitary sexual desire among romantic orientation categories. Homoromantic participants showed higher dyadic sexual desire and were more likely to engage in masturbation, indicating the heterogeneity among asexual people. The findings indicated that Chinese asexual people showed similar patterns of asexuality as in Western nations. Specifically, asexual people have little or no sexual attraction, non-partner-orientated sexual desire, and are heterogeneous in sexual activities and sexual desire. This implies similar mechanisms underlying the etiology of asexuality across cultures.
Hottes, Travis Salway; Bogaert, Laura; Rhodes, Anne E; Brennan, David J; Gesink, Dionne
Previous reviews have demonstrated a higher risk of suicide attempts for lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) persons (sexual minorities), compared with heterosexual groups, but these were restricted to general population studies, thereby excluding individuals sampled through LGB community venues. Each sampling strategy, however, has particular methodological strengths and limitations. For instance, general population probability studies have defined sampling frames but are prone to information bias associated with underreporting of LGB identities. By contrast, LGB community surveys may support disclosure of sexuality but overrepresent individuals with strong LGB community attachment. To reassess the burden of suicide-related behavior among LGB adults, directly comparing estimates derived from population- versus LGB community-based samples. In 2014, we searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycInfo, CINAHL, and Scopus databases for articles addressing suicide-related behavior (ideation, attempts) among sexual minorities. We selected quantitative studies of sexual minority adults conducted in nonclinical settings in the United States, Canada, Europe, Australia, and New Zealand. Random effects meta-analysis and meta-regression assessed for a difference in prevalence of suicide-related behavior by sample type, adjusted for study or sample-level variables, including context (year, country), methods (medium, response rate), and subgroup characteristics (age, gender, sexual minority construct). We examined residual heterogeneity by using τ(2). We pooled 30 cross-sectional studies, including 21,201 sexual minority adults, generating the following lifetime prevalence estimates of suicide attempts: 4% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 3%, 5%) for heterosexual respondents to population surveys, 11% (95% CI = 8%, 15%) for LGB respondents to population surveys, and 20% (95% CI = 18%, 22%) for LGB respondents to community surveys (Figure 1). The difference in LGB estimates by sample
Wagner, Joschka [CERN; Bruce, Roderik [CERN; Garcia Morales, Hector [CERN; Höfle, Wolfgang [CERN; Kotzian, Gerd [CERN; Kwee-Hinzmann, Regina [CERN; Langner, Andy [CERN; Mereghetti, Alessio [CERN; Quaranta, Elena [CERN; Redaelli, Stefano [CERN; Rossi, Adriana [CERN; Salvachua, Belen [CERN; Stancari, Giulio [Fermilab; Tomás, Rogelio [CERN; Valentino, Gianluca [CERN; Valuch, Daniel [CERN
The beam halo population is a non-negligible factor for the performance of the LHC collimation system and the machine protection. In particular this could become crucial for aiming at stored beam energies of 700 MJ in the High Luminosity (HL-LHC) project, in order to avoid beam dumps caused by orbit jitter and to ensure safety during a crab cavity failure. Therefore several techniques to safely deplete the halo, i.e. active halo control, are under development. In a first attempt a novel way for safe halo depletion was tested with particle narrow-band excitation employing the LHC Transverse Damper (ADT). At an energy of 450 GeV a bunch selective beam tail scraping without affecting the core distribution was attempted. This paper presents the first measurement results, as well as a simple simulation to model the underlying dynamics.
Sümer, Zeynep Hatipoğlu
The purpose of this study is to examine the role of gender, religiosity, sexual activity, and sexual knowledge in predicting attitudes toward controversial aspects of sexuality among Turkish university students. Participants were 162 female and 135 male undergraduate students who were recruited on a volunteer basis from an urban state university in Turkey. The SKAT-A Attitude Scale along with background information form, sexual activities inventory, and sexual knowledge scale were administered to the participants. Simultaneous multiple regression analyses revealed that religiosity, particularly attendance to religious services was the most significant predictor in explaining university students' attitudes toward masturbation, abortion, homosexuality, pornography, and sexual coercion.
... to ascertain their socio.demographic and obstetric features, sexual activity, time to coital resumption, reasons for resumption and non.resumption of intercourse, sexual problems encountered and contraceptive usage. Statistical analysis was performed using the SPSS version 16 for windows (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA).
Smith, G.W.; Rice, L.G. III.
The identification of special nuclear material (SNM) diversion is necessary if SNM inventory control is to be maintained at nuclear facilities. (Special nuclear materials are defined for this purpose as either 235 U of 239 Pu.) Direct SNM identification by the detection of natural decay or fission radiation is inadequate if the SNM is concealed by appropriate shielding. The active neutron interrogation technique described combines direct SNM identification by delayed fission neutron (DFN) detection with implied SNM detection by the identification of materials capable of shielding SNM from direct detection. This technique is being developed for application in an unattended material/equipment portal through which items such as electronic instruments, packages, tool boxes, etc., will pass. The volume of this portal will be 41-cm wide, 53-cm high and 76-cm deep. The objective of this technique is to identify an attempted diversion of at least 20 grams of SNM with a measurement time of 30 seconds
Power, Emmet; Coughlan, Helen; Clarke, Mary; Kelleher, Ian; Lynch, Fionnuala; Connor, Dearbhla; Fitzpatrick, Carol; Harley, Michelle; Cannon, Mary
This study aimed to examine whether or not sexual minority youth constitute an at-risk group for nonsuicidal self-injury, suicidal ideation or suicide attempts during their emerging adult years. Using data from the Challenging Times Study, a population-based study of psychopathology and suicide in Ireland, analyses were conducted to test the associations between sexual minority status and the odds of any lifetime experience of nonsuicidal self-injury, suicidal thoughts or suicide attempts among Irish youth aged 19-24 years. Sexual minority youth had 6.6-fold (95% CI 1.7-24.7) increased risk of nonsuicidal self-injury, a 5.0-fold (95% CI 1.3-18.3) increased risk of suicidal ideation, a 7.7-fold (95% CI 1.8-32.0) increased risk of suicide intent and a 6.8-fold (95% CI 1.6-27.6) increased risk of a suicide attempt during their lifetime compared to their heterosexual peers. This study shows that emerging adulthood is a period of risk for suicide and nonsuicidal self-injurious behaviour among sexual minority youth. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Full Text Available To evaluate the effect of the fetal head station at attempted operative vaginal delivery (aOVD, and specifically midpelvic or low aOVD, on female and male sexual function and symptoms of postpartum depression (PPD at 6 months.Prospective population-based cohort study.1,941 women with singleton term fetuses in vertex presentation with midpelvic or low aOVD between 2008 and 2013 in a tertiary care university hospital.Symptoms of female sexual dysfunction using the Pelvic Organ Prolapse/Urinary Incontinence/Sexual Function Short Form Questionnaire (PISQ-12, symptoms of PPD using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS score, symptoms of male sexual dysfunction using the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-15 and perineal pain were assessed 6 months after aOVD. We measured the association between midpelvic or low aOVD and symptoms of female and male sexual function and symptoms of PPD at 6 months using multiple regression and adjusting for demographics, and risk factors of sexual dysfunction, symptoms of PPD and perineal pain with adjusted odds ratios (aORs and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI.The study included 907 women (46.7% who responded to the questionnaire; 18.4% (167/907 had midpelvic aOVD, and 81.6% (740/907 low. Most women (873/907 [96.3%] of those with partners reported sexual activity at 6 months. No significant difference was observed for PISQ-12, EPDS, IIEF-15 scores and perineal pain between mid and low pelvic groups. Compared with low pelvic aOVD, midpelvic aOVD was not significantly associated with either female or male sexual dysfunction (p = 0.89 and p = 0.76, respectively, or maternal symptoms of PPD (p = 0.83. Perineal pain significantly increased the risk of male and female sexual dysfunction and maternal symptoms of PPD at 6 months (p = 0.02, p = 0.006, and p = 0.02, respectively.Midpelvic compared with low pelvic aOVD was not associated with an increase in sexual dysfunction, nor with symptoms of PPD at 6
Rosellini, Anthony J; Street, Amy E; Ursano, Robert J; Chiu, Wai Tat; Heeringa, Steven G; Monahan, John; Naifeh, James A; Petukhova, Maria V; Reis, Ben Y; Sampson, Nancy A; Bliese, Paul D; Stein, Murray B; Zaslavsky, Alan M; Kessler, Ronald C
To examine associations of administratively recorded sexual assault victimization during military service with subsequent mental health and negative career outcomes among US Army women controlling for nonrandom victimization exposure. We used data from the Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Servicemembers to apply propensity score methods to match all 4238 female Regular Army soldiers with administratively recorded sexual assault victimization during 2004 to 2009 to 5 controls per case with similar composite victimization risk. We examined associations of this victimization measure with administratively recorded mental health treatment, suicide attempt, and Army career outcomes over the subsequent 12 months by using survival analysis for dichotomous outcomes and conditional generalized linear models for continuous outcomes. Women with administratively recorded sexual assault had significantly elevated odds ratios (ORs) of subsequent mental health treatment (any, OR = 2.5; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.4, 2.6; specialty, OR = 3.1; 95% CI = 2.9, 3.3; inpatient, OR = 2.8; 95% CI = 2.5, 3.1), posttraumatic stress disorder treatment (any, OR = 6.3; 95% CI = 5.7, 6.9; specialty, OR = 7.7; 95% CI = 6.8, 8.6; inpatient, OR = 6.8; 95% CI = 5.4, 8.6), suicide attempt (OR = 3.0; 95% CI = 2.5, 3.6), demotion (OR = 2.1; 95% CI = 1.9, 2.3), and attrition (OR = 1.2; 95% CI = 1.1, 1.2). Sexual assault victimization is associated with considerable suffering and likely decreased force readiness.
Nelson, S.G.; Andersen, A.C.; Momeni, M.H.; Yeo, R.R.
Attempts to lessen the potential environmental hazards of aquatic vegetation control by use of weed eating exotic fish which have been sterilized is discussed. It was found that the gonads of Tilapia are very resistant to radiation and this method is thus not practical
Kaestle, Christine E.; Evans, Larissa M.
Objective: We examine how sexual activity relates to sexual well-being within the context of sexual attitudes, sexual agency, and sexual desire. Participants/Methods: We surveyed 471 college women in 2012-2014 who had ever had sex. Results: Sexual agency and sexual desire consistently predicted well-being, regardless of recent sexual activity.…
Teixeira-Filho, Fernando Silva; Rondini, Carina Alexandra
Esta pesquisa, que teve como população-alvo adolescentes com idade entre 12 e 20 anos, residentes em três municípios do interior Paulista, buscou conhecer as associações entre orientação sexual e ideações e tentativas de suicídio. Corroborando com as pesquisas internacionais, evidenciou-se que os não heterossexuais têm mais chances de pensarem e tentarem suicídio, comparativamente aos heterossexuais. Todavia, encontrou-se que, dentre o grupo de adolescentes que se assumiram não heterossexuais...
Prerost, Frank J.
Assessed male (N=60) and female (N=60) responses to pictorial humorous sexual material in relationship to degree of sexual expression and personal satisfaction with sexual behavior. Results showed persons with active and satisfying sexual expression enjoyed sexually explicit cartoons and showed less preference for aggressive themes. (LLL)
Peixoto, Maria Manuela; Nobre, Pedro
Despite the existence of conceptual models of sexual dysfunction based on cognitive theory, few studies have tested the role of vulnerability factors such as sexual beliefs as moderators of the activation of cognitive schemas in response to negative sexual events. To test the moderator role of dysfunctional sexual beliefs in the association between the frequency of negative sexual episodes and the activation of incompetence schemas in gay and heterosexual men. Five-hundred seventy-five men (287 gay, 288 heterosexual) who completed an online survey on cognitive-affective dimensions and sexual functioning were selected from a larger database. Hierarchical regression analyses were conducted to test the hypothesis that dysfunctional sexual beliefs moderate the association between the frequency of unsuccessful sexual episodes and the activation of incompetence schemas. Participants completed the Sexual Dysfunctional Beliefs Questionnaire and the Questionnaire of Cognitive Schemas Activated in Sexual Context. Findings indicated that men's ability for always being ready for sex, to satisfy the partner, and to maintain an erection until ending sexual activity constitute "macho" beliefs that moderate the activation of incompetence schemas when unsuccessful sexual events occur in gay and heterosexual men. In addition, activation of incompetence schemas in response to negative sexual events in gay men was moderated by the endorsement of conservative attitudes toward moderate sexuality. The main findings suggested that psychological interventions targeting dysfunctional sexual beliefs could help de-catastrophize the consequences of negative sexual events and facilitate sexual functioning. Despite being a web-based study, it represents the first attempt to test the moderator role of dysfunctional sexual beliefs in the association between the frequency of unsuccessful sexual episodes and the activation of incompetence schemas in gay and heterosexual men. Overall, findings
Background: Menopause represents the end of women reproductive career and it is at this time they begin to manifest morbidities such as urinary incontinence. Aim: To document proximate determinants of sexual activity and urological morbidities of menopausal women. Subjects and Methods: This was a community survey ...
factors, quality of information at their disposal as well as economic factors. Studies have shown a wide range of opinion of women on the interpretation of menopause, associated morbidities and possible intervention to cope with the state.[4,5] Sexual activity during menopause has been reported with conflicting results.
Gow, Neil A R
The genome sequence of the 'asexual' human pathogenic fungus Aspergillus fumigatus suggests it has the capability to undergo mating and meiosis. That this organism engages in clandestine sexual activity is also suggested by observations of two equally distributed complementary mating types in nature, the expression of mating type genes and evidence of recent genome recombination events.
Unwelcome sexual advances, proposition or pressure for sexual activity, offensive flirtations, leering, whistling, making sexually suggestive gestures, sexual jokes, unwanted sexual looks, unwanted letters, telephone call, or materials of a sexual nature, unwanted physical contact, actual or attempting rape or sexual assault, this and more of this conduct if took place in the workplace would amount to a sexual harassment. The sexual harassment at work has become a serious issue of our time. I...
Masters, N Tatiana; Casey, Erin; Wells, Elizabeth A; Morrison, Diane M
Whereas gendered sexual scripts are hegemonic at the cultural level, research suggests they may be less so at dyadic and individual levels. Understanding "disjunctures" between sexual scripts at different levels holds promise for illuminating mechanisms through which sexual scripts can change. Through interviews with 44 heterosexually active men and women aged 18 to 25, the ways young people grappled with culture-level scripts for sexuality and relationships were delineated. Findings suggest that, although most participants' culture-level gender scripts for behavior in sexual relationships were congruent with descriptions of traditional masculine and feminine sexuality, there was heterogeneity in how or whether these scripts were incorporated into individual relationships. Specifically, three styles of working with sexual scripts were found: conforming, in which personal gender scripts for sexual behavior overlapped with traditional scripts; exception-finding, in which interviewees accepted culture-level gender scripts as a reality, but created exceptions to gender rules for themselves; and transforming, in which participants either attempted to remake culture-level gender scripts or interpreted their own nontraditional styles as equally normative. Changing sexual scripts can potentially contribute to decreased gender inequity in the sexual realm and to increased opportunities for sexual satisfaction, safety, and well-being, particularly for women, but for men as well.
Lonsdale, Markus Nowak; Holm, Søren; Biering-Sørensen, Fin
The relationship between cardiovascular regulation and brain activation was investigated during attempted foot lifting in paraplegic subjects and during rhythmic handgrip exercise at one-third of maximum voluntary contraction force. Brain areas of interest were the primary sensory-motor area...... activation tasks, heart rate and mean arterial pressure increased. PET activation responses (P analysis...
Koniak-Griffin, Deborah; Lesser, Janna; Uman, Gwen; Nyamathi, Adeline
The sexual behaviors and attitudes toward condom use of adolescent mothers (N = 572) from ethnic minority groups were examined. Constructs from social cognitive theory (SCT), the theory of reasoned action (TRA), and the theory of planned behavior (TPB; e.g., intentions to use condoms, self-efficacy, outcome expectancies) were measured with questionnaires. Measures of AIDS and condom-use knowledge and selected psychosocial, behavioral, and demographic variables were included. Many adolescents reported early onset of sexual activity, multiple lifetime sexual partners, substance use, and childhood sexual or physical abuse. Only 18% stated a condom was used at last intercourse. Using hierarchical regression analysis, 13% of the variance for factors associated with unprotected sex was accounted for by TRA constructs. Other variables contributed an additional 17% of the variance. Unprotected sex was associated with behavioral intentions to use condoms, pregnancy, having a steady partner, more frequent church service attendance, and ever having anal sex. Findings support the urgent need for broad-based HIV prevention efforts for adolescent mothers that build on theoretical concepts and address the realities of their lives. Copyright 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Sorbring, Emma; Hallberg, Jonas; Bohlin, Margareta; Skoog, Therése
Parental attitudes towards young people's sexuality in traditional (i.e. non-online media) settings have been associated with young people's sexual activities. In this study, we explored the association between key parent and youth characteristics and parental attitudes towards young people's online sexual activities. We also examined the…
Junguo Zhang, PhD candidate
Full Text Available Background: Sexual frequency is associated with the quality of life. China’s internal migrants that are sexually active are more likely to participate in sexual behavior. However, less work has been undertaken to assess the sexual frequency and its predictors in migrants. Aim: This study seeks to explore which factors were related to sexual frequency in migrants and how the association varies with different levels of sexual frequency. Methods: A total of 10,834 men and 4,928 women aged 20–49 years from 5 cities in China were enrolled by multi-stage sampling during August 2013–August 2015. Outcomes: Sexual frequency among migrants was determined by asking: How many times have you had sexual intercourse with a man/woman in the past 30 days? Results: In this study, sexual frequency with an average age of 38.28 years was 5.06 (95% CI 5.01–5.11 time per month. Negative binomial showed that male gender, younger age, earlier age of sexual debut, masturbation, more knowledge of sexual and reproductive health, longer time together with a spouse, and higher school education and incomes were predictors of increased sexual frequency in migrants. Communicating with sexual partners frequently had the largest effect on sexual frequency compared with occasional communicating (β = 0.2419, incidence rate ratio = 1.27, 95% CI 1.23–1.31. In the quantile regression, months of cohabitation (β = 0.0999, 95% CI 0.08–0.12, frequent sexual communication (β = 0.4534, 95% CI 0.39–0.52, and masturbation (β = 0.2168, 95% CI 0.14–0.30 were positively related to lower levels of sexual frequency. Interestingly, migrants who had low and high sexual frequency would be affected in opposite directions by the knowledge of sexual and reproductive health. Clinical Translation: Clinicians can more understand the relationship between sexual frequency and its factors that can as the symptom basis of sexually-related diseases. Conclusions: The present findings
Anthonio Alisancharles Batista de Almeida
Full Text Available Objective: to identify complaints of sexual function related to climacteric symptoms among women in climacteric age. Methods: this is an descritive study. A sample of 330 women aged from 35 to 65 years old, with three previous Pap tests. We used a semi-structured questionnaire developed by the researchers. A descriptive statistical analysis was performed having the central tendency of proportion and measure the average as a parameter. Results: it was evidenced that 50.0% were between 35-45 years, 73.0% were sexually active, 59.4% had decreased libido, and 58.5% reported dyspareunia. Conclusion: it is necessary that the health services and professionals are aware of the influence of climacteric on women’s health to develop strategies aimed at quality of life.
Nobre, Pedro J; Pinto-Gouveia, José
The present study investigated the differences in emotional response to automatic thoughts presented during sexual activity between sexually functional and dysfunctional men and women. A total of 376 participants (160 women and 120 men without sexual problems and 47 women and 49 men with a DSM-IV-TR diagnosis of sexual dysfunction) completed the Sexual Modes Questionnaire (SMQ male and female versions; P. J. Nobre & J. Pinto-Gouveia, 2000) and measures of sexual functioning: The International Index of Sexual Function (IIEF; R. C. Rosen et al., 1997), and The Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI; R. C. Rosen et al., 2000). The SMQ is a combined measure constituted by three interdependent subscales: Automatic Thought subscale (AT), Emotional Response subscale (ER), and Sexual Response subscale (SR). Emotions were assessed by the ER subscale, where participants endorsed emotional reactions (worry, sadness, disillusion, fear, guilt, shame, anger, hurt, pleasure, satisfaction) to a list of automatic thoughts (AT subscale) that may occur during sexual activity. Results showed that both men and women with sexual dysfunction had significantly less positive emotional reactions to automatic thoughts during sexual activity. Sexually dysfunctional men had significantly more emotions of sadness, disillusion, and fear, and less pleasure and satisfaction, compared to men without sexual problems. Women with sexual dysfunction had significantly less pleasure and satisfaction, and more sadness, disillusion, guilt, and anger. Findings were congruent with recent studies indicating that emotions related to depressed affect (sadness, disillusion, lack of pleasure) as opposed to negative emotions (mostly related to anxiety) were stronger correlates of sexual dysfunction.
The aim of this paper is to identify the social and economic variables associated with MSP among ... rate of AIDS pandemic in sub-Saharan Africa, ... which address the spread of HIV through ... sexual networks observed in the southern African.
Rendina, H. Jonathon; Ventuneac, Ana; Moody, Raymond L.; Grov, Christian
Emerging research supports the notion that sexual compulsivity (SC) and hypersexual disorder (HD) among gay and bisexual men (GBM) might be conceptualized as comprising three groups—Neither SC nor HD; SC only, and Both SC and HD—that capture distinct levels of severity across the SC/HD continuum. We examined data from 370 highly sexually active GBM to assess how the three groups compare across a range of risk factors for HIV infection. Comparisons focused on psychosexual measures—temptation for condomless anal sex (CAS), self-efficacy for avoiding CAS, sexual excitation and inhibition—as well as reports of actual sexual behavior. Nearly half (48.9 %) of this highly sexually active sample was classified as Neither SC nor HD, 30 % as SC Only, and 21.1 % as Both SC and HD. While we found no significant differences between the three groups on reported number of male partners, anal sex acts, or anal sex acts with serodiscordant partners, the Both SC and HD group reported higher numbers of CAS acts and CAS acts with serodiscordant partners and also had a higher proportion of their anal sex acts without condoms compared to the SC Only group. Our findings support the validity of a three-group classification system of SC/HD severity in differentiating psychosexual and HIV-related sexual risk behavior outcomes in a sample of GBM who report similarly high levels of sexual activity. Notwithstanding the need for sex positive HIV prevention programs, interventions that attempt to help Both SC and HD men deal with distress and address their psychosexual needs specifically may derive HIV prevention benefits. PMID:25750052
Hidaka, Y; Operario, D
To investigate the rates of attempted suicide and its association with psychological distress, experiences of bullying and verbal harassment, and demographic characteristics among Japanese homosexual, bisexual or other men questioning their sexual orientation. A cross-sectional design using Japanese participants recruited through the internet. Of the 1025 respondents, 154 (15%) of the men reported a history of attempted suicide, 716 (70%) showed high levels of anxiety and 133 (13%) showed high levels of depression. 851 (83%) experienced school bullying and 615 (60%) were verbally harassed because of being perceived by others as homosexual. Independent correlates of attempted suicide were psychological distress, history of being verbally harassed, history of sex with a woman, history of meeting a male through the internet, disclosing sexual orientation to six or more friends and not having a university degree. Mental health services and prevention programmes are needed to deal with the psychological consequences of social stigma for Japanese men who are homosexual, bisexual or questioning their sexual orientation.
Hidaka, Y; Operario, D
Objective To investigate the rates of attempted suicide and its association with psychological distress, experiences of bullying and verbal harassment, and demographic characteristics among Japanese homosexual, bisexual or other men questioning their sexual orientation. Design A cross‐sectional design using Japanese participants recruited through the internet. Results Of the 1025 respondents, 154 (15%) of the men reported a history of attempted suicide, 716 (70%) showed high levels of anxiety and 133 (13%) showed high levels of depression. 851 (83%) experienced school bullying and 615 (60%) were verbally harassed because of being perceived by others as homosexual. Independent correlates of attempted suicide were psychological distress, history of being verbally harassed, history of sex with a woman, history of meeting a male through the internet, disclosing sexual orientation to six or more friends and not having a university degree. Conclusions Mental health services and prevention programmes are needed to deal with the psychological consequences of social stigma for Japanese men who are homosexual, bisexual or questioning their sexual orientation. PMID:17053285
Sexual activity among 534 Nigerian female secondary school students was studied using self-administered questionnaire. Prevalence of sexual intercourse was 25.7%. There was no significant difference between the junior (48.2%) and senior (51.8%) students (p > 0.05). Seventeen (12.4%) students had initiated sexual ...
Khalid Al Rubaie
Full Text Available A 54-year-old healthy male presented complaining of sudden loss of vision in the right eye. Initial visual acuity was counting fingers. The patient’s acute vision loss developed after sexual activity. Color fundus photos and fluorescein angiography were performed showing a large subinternal limiting membrane hemorrhage in the macular area. A 23-gauge sutureless pars plana vitrectomy with brilliant blue assisted internal limiting membrane peeling was performed with best-corrected visual acuity recovery to 20/50 at 6 months of followup.
Bonfils, Kelsey A; Firmin, Ruth L; Salyers, Michelle P; Wright, Eric R
Limited research has focused on sexuality for those diagnosed with a severe mental illness. We aimed to extend existing work by exploring relationships between mastery (perception of control of one's life and future), sexual self-esteem (perceptions of one's capacity to engage in healthy sexual behavior), sexual attitudes (permissive ideas about sexuality), and perceived importance of relationships/sexuality and number of sexual partners. A secondary analysis of survey data from adult participants living with a severe mental illness (N = 401) in the Indiana Mental Health Services and HIV-Risk Study (Perry & Wright, 2006) was conducted. Analysis of covariance (controlling for marital status) compared those with 0 partners, 1 partner, or multiple partners over the past 3 months on the dependent variables of mastery, sexual self-esteem, sexual attitudes, and perceived importance. Participants with more permissive attitudes, greater perceived importance, and higher mastery were more likely to be sexually active with multiple partners. Self-esteem did not differentiate groups. Given the key role of sexual satisfaction in quality of life and the high rates of sexual risk behavior in this population, it is important that clinicians systematically assess mastery, perceived importance, and attitudes about sexuality when working with consumers diagnosed with a severe mental illness. Individually tailoring existing interventions on the basis of consumers' levels of mastery, related to self-efficacy for implementing changes in life, could improve long-term outcomes for these programs. Future research should examine other constructs that may account for more variance in sexual activity, such as perceptions of risk, intentions for sexual safety, or romantic relationship functioning. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Wright, Hayley; Jenks, Rebecca A
the relationship between cognition and sexual activity in healthy older adults is under-researched. A limited amount of research in this area has shown that sexual activity is associated with better cognition in older men. The current study explores the possible mediating factors in this association in men and women, and attempts to provide an explanation in terms of physiological influences on cognitive function. using newly available data from Wave 6 of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing, the current study explored associations between sexual activity and cognition in adults aged 50-89 (n = 6,833). Two different tests of cognitive function were analysed: number sequencing, which broadly relates to executive function, and word recall, which broadly relates to memory. after adjusting for age, education, wealth, physical activity, depression, cohabiting, self-rated health, loneliness and quality of life, there were significant associations between sexual activity and number sequencing and recall in men. However, in women there was a significant association between sexual activity and recall, but not number sequencing. possible mediators of these associations (e.g. neurotransmitters) are discussed. The cross-sectional nature of the analysis is limiting, but provides a promising avenue for future explorations and longitudinal studies. The findings have implications for the promotion of sexual counselling in healthcare settings, where maintaining a healthy sex life in older age could be instrumental in improving cognitive function and well-being. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society.
Wallwiener, Stephanie; Müller, Mitho; Doster, Anne; Kuon, Ruben Jeremias; Plewniok, Katharina; Feller, Sandra; Wallwiener, Markus; Reck, Corinna; Matthies, Lina Maria; Wallwiener, Christian
Reduced sexual activity and dysfunctional problems are highly prevalent in the perinatal period, and there is a lack of data regarding the degree of normality during pregnancy. Several risk factors have been independently associated with a greater extent of Female Sexual Dysfunction (FSD). Therefore, this study aimed to assess the prevalence of sexual inactivity and sexual dysfunctions in German women during the perinatal period and the verification of potential risk factors. Questionnaires were administered to 315 women prenatally (TI 3rd trimester) and postpartum (TII 1 week, TIII 4 months), including the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI), the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), and the Questionnaire of Partnership (PFB). The frequency of sexual inactivity was 24% (TI), 40.5% (TII), and 19.9% (TIII). Overall, 26.5-34.8% of women were at risk of sexual dysfunction (FSFI score Sexual desire disorder was the most prevalent form of Female sexual dysfunction. Furthermore, especially breastfeeding and low partnership quality were revealed as significant risk factors for sexual dysfunctional problems postpartum. Depressive symptoms having a cesarean section and high maternal education were correlated with dysfunctional problems in several subdomains. Findings indicated that women at risk of FSD differed significantly in aspects of partnership quality, breastfeeding, mode of delivery, maternal education, and depressive symptoms. Aspects of perinatal sexuality should be routinely implemented in the counseling of couples in prenatal classes.
Shulman, Shmuel; Seiffge-Krenke, Inge; Walsh, Sophie D
Past research has consistently shown that romantic experiences during adolescence affect the nature and quality of romantic relationships during emerging adulthood. However, less is known about the role of adolescent sexual experiences in future sexual and romantic relationships. The current study examined the impact of different forms of sexual activity at age 16 (within a romantic relationship or casual encounters) on the nature and quality of sexual experiences in romantic relationships at age 23. One hundred and forty four (59.7% females) 16 year olds reported on their sexual activity within a romantic relationship or sexual encounters. In addition they reported on the quality of relationships they were involved in and their tendency to suppress emotions (included as an aspect of personality). At age 23 they reported on their romantic and sexual experiences during the past 2 years (number of short lived relationships, numbers of friends with benefits, casual sex encounters) and the quality of their romantic relationships (the duration of their longest relationship, partner support and feelings of certainty in the relationships). Findings showed that the tendency to suppress emotions was associated with lower likelihood to engage in casual sex at age 23. However, greater sexual experience in casual encounters during adolescence was consistently longitudinally associated with different forms of casual sexual encounters and short romantic involvements above and beyond the contribution of personality. In contrast, sexual activity within a romantic relationship predicted only a few indices of the quality of romantic involvement at age 23. The distinctive role of casual sexual activity and sexual activity within a romantic relationship for future sexual and romantic activities is discussed.
McNulty, James K.
Despite indirect evidence linking narcissism to sexual aggression, studies directly examining this relationship have yielded inconsistent results. Likely contributing to such inconsistencies, prior research has used global measures of narcissism not sensitive to whether the components of narcissism are activated in sexual versus non-sexual domains. The current research avoided such problems by using a measure of sexual narcissism to predict sexual aggression. In a sample of 299 men and women, Study 1 validated the Sexual Narcissism Scale, a new sexuality research instrument with four subscales—Sexual Exploitation, Sexual Entitlement, Low Sexual Empathy, and Sexual Skill. Then, in a sample of 378 men, Study 2 demonstrated that sexual narcissism was associated with reports of the frequency of sexual aggression, three specific types of sexual aggression (unwanted sexual contact, sexual coercion, and attempted/completed rape), and the likelihood of future sexual aggression. Notably, global narcissism was unrelated to all indices of sexual aggression when sexual narcissism was controlled. That sexual narcissism outperformed global assessments of narcissism to account for variance in sexual aggression suggests that future research may benefit by examining whether sexual narcissism and other sexual-situation-specific measurements of personality can similarly provide a more valid test of the association between personality and other sexual behaviors and outcomes (e.g., contraceptive use, infidelity, sexual satisfaction). PMID:19130204
Widman, Laura; McNulty, James K
Despite indirect evidence linking narcissism to sexual aggression, studies directly examining this relationship have yielded inconsistent results. Likely contributing to such inconsistencies, prior research has used global measures of narcissism not sensitive to whether the components of narcissism are activated in sexual versus non-sexual domains. The current research avoided such problems by using a measure of sexual narcissism to predict sexual aggression. In a sample of 299 men and women, Study 1 validated the Sexual Narcissism Scale, a new sexuality research instrument with four subscales-Sexual Exploitation, Sexual Entitlement, Low Sexual Empathy, and Sexual Skill. Then, in a sample of 378 men, Study 2 demonstrated that sexual narcissism was associated with reports of the frequency of sexual aggression, three specific types of sexual aggression (unwanted sexual contact, sexual coercion, and attempted/completed rape), and the likelihood of future sexual aggression. Notably, global narcissism was unrelated to all indices of sexual aggression when sexual narcissism was controlled. That sexual narcissism outperformed global assessments of narcissism to account for variance in sexual aggression suggests that future research may benefit by examining whether sexual narcissism and other sexual-situation-specific measurements of personality can similarly provide a more valid test of the association between personality and other sexual behaviors and outcomes (e.g., contraceptive use, infidelity, sexual satisfaction).
Kim, Dong-Sik; Kim, Hyun-Sun
This study examined the association between early initiation of problem behaviors (alcohol drinking, cigarette smoking, and sexual intercourse) and suicidal behaviors (suicidal ideation and suicide attempts), and explored the effect of concurrent participation in these problem behaviors on suicidal behaviors among Korean adolescent males and females. Data were obtained from the 2006 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Survey, a nationally representative sample of middle and high school students (32,417 males and 31,467 females) in grades seven through twelve. Bivariate and multivariate logistic analyses were conducted. Several important covariates, such as age, family living structure, household economic status, academic performance, current alcohol drinking, current cigarette smoking, current butane gas or glue sniffing, perceived body weight, unhealthy weight control behaviors, subjective sleep evaluation, and depressed mood were included in the analyses. Both male and female preteen initiators of each problem behavior were at greater risk for suicidal behaviors than non-initiators, even after controlling for covariates. More numerous concurrent problematic behaviors were correlated with greater likelihood of seriously considering or attempting suicide among both males and females. This pattern was more clearly observed in preteen than in teen initiators although the former and latter were engaged in the same frequency of problem behavior. Early initiation of alcohol drinking, cigarette smoking, and sexual intercourse, particularly among preteens, represented an important predictor of later suicidal ideation and suicide attempts in both genders. Thus, early preventive intervention programs should be developed and may reduce the potential risks for subsequent suicidal behaviors.
Keith, Judith B.; And Others
Examined sexual activity and contraception among urban, low-income African-American adolescent female clients who were not sexually active (n=50), sexually active/noncontracepting (n=20), or sexually active/contracepting (n=72). Not sexually active group was younger, more career motivated, had father at home, was more influenced by family values,…
Grimm, Donata; Eulenburg, Christine; Brummer, Oliver; Schliedermann, Anna-Katharina; Trillsch, Fabian; Prieske, Katharina; Gieseking, Friederike; Selka, Enzia; Mahner, Sven; Woelber, Linn
Sexual activity (SA) and sexual function (SF) are central outcome measures in women affected by preinvasive (vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia, VIN) and invasive (vulvar cancer, VC) vulvar lesions. Data on sexuality after treatment are scarce. Validated questionnaires including the female sexual
In South Africa, new HIV infections are concentrated among persons aged 15–24 years. The university population falls within this age group and are prone to higher-risk behaviours that place them at risk of acquiring HIV. In a study to assess this risk among sexually active students, we classified higher-risk sexual ...
Patel Ankur S.
Full Text Available PURPOSE: We assessed the relationships between bladder symptoms, demographic, and medical history variables and sexual dysfunction in women with overactive bladder (OAB disorder. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventy-eight women diagnosed with OAB completed self-administered questionnaires related to overall heath status, bladder function, and sexual function. Data were compiled for questionnaire responses, and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to determine predictors of sexual dysfunction. RESULTS: Bothersome bladder symptoms were reported by superscript three 60% of the sample. Sixty-percent of the sample was sexually active in the past month. Difficulty with sexual arousal, orgasm, and sexual enjoyment were reported by about 25% of the women. Sexual partner status was the best predictor of sexual arousal, orgasm, and sexual enjoyment. Menopausal status emerged as an important predictor of arousal and sexual enjoyment. CONCLUSION: The majority of women with symptoms of OAB viewed these symptoms as bothersome. However, the extent of symptom bother did not predict aspects of female sexual dysfunction (FSD. Instead, menopausal and partner status emerged as the best predictors of FSD in our sample.
Bjerggaard, Mette; Charles, Morten; Kristensen, Ellids
sexual distress. Around half of men and women were excluded from the SD analysis, mainly because of reporting lack of sexual intercourse during the last 4 weeks. Among those included, 54% of men and 12% of women were found to have SD. CONCLUSIONS: Sexual inactivity is highly prevalent among middle-aged......INTRODUCTION: Type 2 diabetes negatively impacts sexual health. Only limited information is available regarding sexual health among sexually inactive patients with type 2 diabetes. AIM: The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of sexual concerns among sexually active and sexually...... inactive men and women with type 2 diabetes and of sexual dysfunction (SD) among sexually active. METHODS: Data from the Anglo-Danish-Dutch Study of Intensive Treatment in People with Screen-Detected Diabetes in Primary Care-Denmark study was used. A total of 1,170 Danish patients with screen-detected type...
Santos, Ana Cristina
This article analyzes how both the Portuguese state and civil society have addressed the AIDS issue, focusing on participation by the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transsexual community (LGBT) in the struggle against AIDS. The article begins by describing the situation of LGBT individuals in Portugal during the 1990s, when the Portuguese LGBT movement emerged and grew, and then characterizes the evolution of HIV/AIDS in Portugal, analyzing the relationship between civil society and sexuality in general and the situation of the epidemic in the country in particular, considering key facts, nongovernmental organizations, and state initiatives. Special attention is given to the role played by LGBT organizations in the struggle against HIV. Finally, the article reflects on the future of the struggle against both AIDS and discrimination in the 21st century, considering recent events in the country and the guidelines recommended by international policies.
Whitbeck, Les B.; Yoder, Kevin A.; Hoyt, Dan R.; Conger, Rand D.
Examines predictors of early sexual intercourse for a sample of 457 adolescents in grades 8 through 10, from two-parent and single-mother families. Significant decreases were noted in the effect of mother monitoring by 10th grade. The primary predictors of early intercourse were age, opportunity (steady relationship), sexually permissive attitude,…
Lacefield, Katharine; Negy, Charles
The present study examined 100 lesbian and gay college students and 100 heterosexual students to determine whether group differences exist in frequency of a range of non-erotic cognitive distractions during sexual activity. Non-erotic cognitive distraction is a descriptive term for both self-evaluative cognitions related to physical performance and body image concerns, as well as additional cognitive distractions (e.g., contracting an STI or emotional concerns) during sexual activity. Participants were matched on gender (96 males and 104 females), age, and ethnicity, and completed questionnaires assessing frequency of non-erotic cognitive distractions during sexual activity, as well as measures of additional variables (trait and body image anxiety, attitudes toward sexual minorities, self-esteem, and religiosity). Results indicated that sexual minorities experienced significantly more cognitive distractions related to body image, physical performance, and STIs during sexual activity than heterosexuals. Regarding gender, men reported more distractions related to STIs than women. Interaction effects were observed between sexual orientation and gender for body image-, disease-, and external/emotional-based distractions. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Ahmed Fouad Kotb
Full Text Available Introduction: Sexual activity can affect prostate cancer pathogenesis in a variety of ways; including the proposed high androgen status, risk of sexually transmitted infections and the potential effect of retained carcinogens within the prostatic cells. Methods: PubMed review of all publications concerning sexual activity and the risk of prostate cancer was done by two researchers. Results: Few publications could be detected and data were classified as a prostate cancer risk in association with either heterosexual or homosexual activities. Conclusion: Frequent ejaculation seems to be protective from the development of prostate cancer. Multiple sexual partners may be protective from prostate cancer, excluding the risk of sexually transmitted infections. Homosexual men are at a greater risk for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.
De Coster, Stacy; Estes, Sarah Beth; Mueller, Charles W.
In criminology, routine activities of potential victims can be used to predict victimization. Application to organizational sexual harassment data shows that organizational features (proximity in job location, supervisor or work group guardianship) and individual characteristics (target attractiveness) can predict sexual harassment victimization,…
Contraceptive use was predicted by educational status, sexual activity, baby's age and menstruation. Most women attending maternal and child health clinics resumed sexual intercourse within 2 months of delivery, but only two-thirds used modern contraceptive methods. Contraceptive counseling should commence early, ...
Gierc, Madelaine; Locke, Sean; Jung, Mary; Brawley, Lawrence
Working mothers are less physically active than working women without children and mothers who do not work. The purpose of this study was to examine concurrent self-regulatory efficacy and barriers to physical activity in a sample of working mothers. Women completed a mixed-methods survey which included measures of physical activity, concurrent self-regulatory efficacy, and barriers. Sufficiently active women experienced significantly greater concurrent self-regulatory efficacy and significantly less barrier limitation and frequency. No significant group differences were found for age, domestic duties performed, and children's extracurricular activities. Thematic analysis of barriers revealed six themes of common and unique factors, including limited time and family activities. © The Author(s) 2014.
Kim, Geum Hee; Ahn, Hyeong Sik; Kim, Hyun Jung
Despite abundant theoretical evidence of higher rates of suicide among lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) youths, little is known about the relationship between suicide and types of sexual intercourse experience in youths. This study examines the association between the type of intercourse experience and suicide risk outcomes (SROs: suicidal ideation, plans for suicide, suicidal attempts) from the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey. We analyzed cross-sectional data from 146,621 students aged 12-17 years for the years 2012 and 2013. We defined lesbian, gay, or bisexual youth as youths who engaged in a type of sexual intercourse (same-sex or both-sex intercourse). A chi-square test and logistic regression analysis were used to evaluate the association between intercourse experience and SROs. The results showed that the prevalence of suicidal ideation was higher among youths with same-sex intercourse experience (45.9% for females, 33.7% for males) than among youths with opposite-sex intercourse experience (42.2% for females, 23.8% for males) and those with no experience in intercourse (21.0% for females, 12.7% for males). After adjusting for revealed risk factors that were associated with suicide risks, among males, suicide risks based on intercourse experience seemed to increase in the following order: no experience in sexual intercourse, opposite-sex, same-sex, and then both-sexes sexual intercourse experience. Same- and both-sexes intercourse related SROs are strongly linked to violence (being physically assaulted, threatened, or bullied) and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including HIV infection. Those having no sexual intercourse experience showed the least probability of suicide risks among youths. The SROs of youths with same-sex or both-sex intercourse experience had strong associations with gender (males), violence, and STDs. Therefore, school educators must continue to advocate for and to implement LGB inclusive policies and programs in order to
Geum Hee Kim
Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite abundant theoretical evidence of higher rates of suicide among lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB youths, little is known about the relationship between suicide and types of sexual intercourse experience in youths. This study examines the association between the type of intercourse experience and suicide risk outcomes (SROs: suicidal ideation, plans for suicide, suicidal attempts from the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey. Methods We analyzed cross-sectional data from 146,621 students aged 12–17 years for the years 2012 and 2013. We defined lesbian, gay, or bisexual youth as youths who engaged in a type of sexual intercourse (same-sex or both-sex intercourse. A chi-square test and logistic regression analysis were used to evaluate the association between intercourse experience and SROs. Results The results showed that the prevalence of suicidal ideation was higher among youths with same-sex intercourse experience (45.9% for females, 33.7% for males than among youths with opposite-sex intercourse experience (42.2% for females, 23.8% for males and those with no experience in intercourse (21.0% for females, 12.7% for males. After adjusting for revealed risk factors that were associated with suicide risks, among males, suicide risks based on intercourse experience seemed to increase in the following order: no experience in sexual intercourse, opposite-sex, same-sex, and then both-sexes sexual intercourse experience. Same- and both-sexes intercourse related SROs are strongly linked to violence (being physically assaulted, threatened, or bullied and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs, including HIV infection. Those having no sexual intercourse experience showed the least probability of suicide risks among youths. Conclusion The SROs of youths with same-sex or both-sex intercourse experience had strong associations with gender (males, violence, and STDs. Therefore, school educators must continue to advocate for and
quid pro quo harassment . Three component measures of sexual harassment are derived from Q30: crude/offensive behavior...in 2010 was lower than in 2006 and 1995 (5% vs. 7% and 8%, respectively). Sexual coercion is defined as classic quid pro quo instances of specific...Unwanted sexual attention includes unwanted attempts to establish a sexual relationship. Sexual coercion includes classic quid pro quo ,
Although many studies examine purported risks associated with sexual activities, few examine potential physical and mental health benefits, and even fewer incorporate the scientifically essential differentiation of specific sexual behaviors. This review provides an overview of studies examining potential health benefits of various sexual activities, with a focus on the effects of different sexual activities. Review of peer-reviewed literature. Findings on the associations between distinct sexual activities and various indices of psychological and physical function. A wide range of better psychological and physiological health indices are associated specifically with penile-vaginal intercourse. Other sexual activities have weaker, no, or (in the cases of masturbation and anal intercourse) inverse associations with health indices. Condom use appears to impair some benefits of penile-vaginal intercourse. Only a few of the research designs allow for causal inferences. The health benefits associated with specifically penile-vaginal intercourse should inform a new evidence-based approach to sexual medicine, sex education, and a broad range of medical and psychological consultations.
Espuña Pons, Montserrat
The integration of sexual health into the health care services is important. In women attending urogynecological clinics, the urinary function, anorectal function, and anatomical defects are more often evaluated than those related to sexual activity and function. A group of experts in urogynecology, sexuality, and patient reported outcome development, met in a roundtable with the final objective of reviewing what is currently available and what is needed to accurately evaluate sexual function in women with pelvic floor dysfunction. An article was prepared for each of the issued presented during the roundtable and combined into this supplement. This article is a summary of all articles included in this supplement. The pathophysiology of sexual dysfunction as related to pelvic floor disorders has not been well established. Sexuality questionnaires and scales play an integral role in the diagnosis and treatment of female sexual dysfunction. The Pelvic Organ Prolapse/Urinary Incontinence Sexual Questionnaire (PISQ) is the only validated female sexual function questionnaire specifically developed to assess sexual function in women with urinary incontinence and/or pelvic organ prolapse; however, the PISQ does not screen for sexual activity. The effects of treatments for pelvic floor problems on sexual function have received little attention. There is a need for a validated sexual function measure that evaluates not only the impact of pelvic floor dysfunction on sexual function but also the impact on sexual activity.
Peixoto, Maria Manuela; Nobre, Pedro
Empirical research suggests that emotional response during sexual activity discriminates between sexually functional and dysfunctional heterosexual men and women, with clinics presenting lower positive and higher negative affect. However, there is no evidence about the role of emotions in gay men and lesbian women with sexual problems. The present study analyzed affective states during sexual activity in homosexual and heterosexual men and women, with and without sexual problems. Participants in this study were 156 men and 168 women. A 2 (group) × 2 (sexual orientation) multivariate analysis of variance was performed. Participants completed a web-survey assessing sexual functioning and the Positive Affect-Negative Affect Scale. Findings indicated a main effect of group, with groups with sexual problems reporting significantly more negative and lower positive affect compared with men and women without sexual problems, regardless of sexual orientation. However, findings have also shown an interaction effect in the male sample with gay men, contrary to heterosexual men, reporting similar affective responses regardless of having a sexual dysfunction or not. Overall, findings emphasize the role of affective responses during sexual activity in men and women with sexual problems, suggesting the importance of addressing emotional responses in assessment and treatment of sexual problems in individuals with different sexual orientations.
A case is presented in which the staff of a long-term care facility discovers that the husband of a resident with dementia is engaged in sexual activity with her. The case illustrates a dilemma for long-term care facilities that create a home-like environment with a goal of maximizing residents' autonomy while ensuring their safety. An approach to assessing capacity to consent to intimate sexual activity is described, followed by guidelines that nursing homes can implement to support residents who wish to engage in sexual activity. Recommendations are also offered for supporting long-term care staff and family members of residents who are interested in intimate sexual activity. © 2017 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
Patrícia Uchôa Leitão Cabral
Full Text Available Objective To investigate the relationship between physical activity level and sexual function in middle-aged women. Methods A cross-sectional study with a sample of 370 middle-aged women (40-65 years old, treated at public health care facilities in a Brazilian city. A questionnaire was used containing enquiries on sociodemographic, clinical and behavioral characteristics: the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ, short form, and the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI. Results The average age of the women studied was 49.8 years (± 8.1, 67% of whom exhibited sexual dysfunction (FSFI ≤ 26.55. Sedentary women had a higher prevalence (78.9% of sexual dysfunction when compared to active (57.6% and moderately active (66.7% females (p = 0.002. Physically active women obtained higher score in all FSFI domains (desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction and pain and total FSFI score (20.9, indicating better sexual function than their moderately active (18.8 and sedentary (15.6 counterparts (p <0.05. Conclusion Physical activity appears to influence sexual function positively in middle-aged women.
Rahmani, Azam; Merghati-Khoei, Effat; Moghaddam-Banaem, Lida; Hajizadeh, Ebrahim; Montazeri, Ali
Premarital sexual relationships could harm youth's health in terms of sexually transmitted infections or increased risk of unprotected sexual behaviors. Sexual abstinence has been recommended to prevent young adolescents from adverse outcomes of premarital sexual relationships. The aim of this study was to explore the viewpoints of sexually active single women about premarital sexual relationships in the Iranian context. In this qualitative study, we recruited 41 young women aged 18 to 35 years. Data were collected using focus group discussions and individual interviews. We employed conventional content analysis to analyze the data. Multiple data collection methods, maximum variation sampling, and peer checks were applied to enhance the reliability of the findings. Eight themes emerged from the data analysis: 'acceptance of sexual contact in the context of opposite-sex relationships, 'sexual activity as a guarantee for keeping the boyfriend in the relationship', 'premarital sexual relationship as an undeniable personal right', 'having successful marriage in spite of premarital sexual relationships', 'virginity as an old fashioned phenomenon', 'love as a license for premarital sexual behaviors', 'goal-oriented relationship as a license for premarital sexual behaviors', and 'experiencing premarital sexual relationships in order to gain perfection'. Results of this study could be applied to designing interventions, such as promotion of preventive beliefs or educational programs regarding premarital sexual relationships in conservative societies. These interventions could start within families and continue at schools and universities.
Stefani, Laura; Galanti, Giorgio; Padulo, Johnny; Bragazzi, Nicola L.; Maffulli, Nicola
Sexual activity before competition has been considered as a possible cause for reduced performance since ancient Greece and Rome. Recently, the hypothesis that optimal sport performance could be influenced by a variety of factors including sexual activity before competition has been investigated. However, few scientific data are available, with the exception of anecdotal reports of individual experiences. The present systematic review focused on the current scientific evidence on the effects of sexual activity on sport performance regardless of sport type. Data were obtained following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, using PubMed/MEDLINE, ISI/Web of Science, the Cochrane Collaboration Database, Cochrane Library, Evidence Database (PEDro), Evidence Based Medicine (EBM) Search review, National Guidelines, ProQuest, and Scopus, all searched from inception further, to broaden the search, no time filter nor language restriction have been applied. Also, the gray literature was mined using Google Scholar. Only relevant scientific articles reporting outcomes of athletic performance after sexual activity were considered. The impact of sexual activity before a sport competition is still unclear, but most studies generally seem to exclude a direct impact of sexual activity on athletic aerobic and strength performance. The most important aspect seems to be the interval from the time of the sports competition that affects negatively the performance if it is shorter than 2 h. There are possible negative effects from some possible concurrent wrong behaviors such as smoking or alcohol abuse. There are no investigations about the effect of masturbation in this context. There is a need to clarify the effects of sexual activity on competition performance. The present evidence suggests that sexual activity the day before competition does not exert any negative impact on performance, even though high-quality, randomized
A cross-sectional study on attitudes toward gender equality, sexual behavior, positive sexual experiences, and communication about sex among sexually active and non-sexually active adolescents in Bolivia and Ecuador
De Meyer, Sara; Jaruseviciene, Lina; Zaborskis, Apolinaras; Decat, Peter; Vega, Bernardo; Cordova, Kathya; Temmerman, Marleen; Degomme, Olivier; Michielsen, Kristien
Background It is widely agreed upon that gender is a key aspect of sexuality however, questions remain on how gender exactly influences adolescents’ sexual health. Objective The aim of this research was to study correlations between gender equality attitudes and sexual behavior, sexual experiences and communication about sex among sexually active and non-sexually active adolescents in 2 Latin American countries. Design In 2011, a cross-sectional study was carried out among 5,913 adolescents aged 14–18 in 20 secondary schools in Cochabamba (Bolivia) and 6 secondary schools in Cuenca (Ecuador). Models were built using logistic regressions to assess the predictive value of attitudes toward gender equality on adolescents’ sexual behavior, on experiences and on communication. Results The analysis shows that sexually active adolescents who consider gender equality as important report higher current use of contraceptives within the couple. They are more likely to describe their last sexual intercourse as a positive experience and consider it easier to talk with their partner about sexuality than sexually experienced adolescents who are less positively inclined toward gender equality. These correlations remained consistent whether the respondent was a boy or a girl. Non-sexually active adolescents, who consider gender equality to be important, are more likely to think that sexual intercourse is a positive experience. They consider it less necessary to have sexual intercourse to maintain a relationship and find it easier to communicate with their girlfriend or boyfriend than sexually non-active adolescents who consider gender equality to be less important. Comparable results were found for boys and girls. Conclusions Our results suggest that gender equality attitudes have a positive impact on adolescents’ sexual and reproductive health (SRH) and wellbeing. Further research is necessary to better understand the relationship between gender attitudes and specific SRH
A cross-sectional study on attitudes toward gender equality, sexual behavior, positive sexual experiences, and communication about sex among sexually active and non-sexually active adolescents in Bolivia and Ecuador.
De Meyer, Sara; Jaruseviciene, Lina; Zaborskis, Apolinaras; Decat, Peter; Vega, Bernardo; Cordova, Kathya; Temmerman, Marleen; Degomme, Olivier; Michielsen, Kristien
It is widely agreed upon that gender is a key aspect of sexuality however, questions remain on how gender exactly influences adolescents' sexual health. The aim of this research was to study correlations between gender equality attitudes and sexual behavior, sexual experiences and communication about sex among sexually active and non-sexually active adolescents in 2 Latin American countries. In 2011, a cross-sectional study was carried out among 5,913 adolescents aged 14-18 in 20 secondary schools in Cochabamba (Bolivia) and 6 secondary schools in Cuenca (Ecuador). Models were built using logistic regressions to assess the predictive value of attitudes toward gender equality on adolescents' sexual behavior, on experiences and on communication. The analysis shows that sexually active adolescents who consider gender equality as important report higher current use of contraceptives within the couple. They are more likely to describe their last sexual intercourse as a positive experience and consider it easier to talk with their partner about sexuality than sexually experienced adolescents who are less positively inclined toward gender equality. These correlations remained consistent whether the respondent was a boy or a girl. Non-sexually active adolescents, who consider gender equality to be important, are more likely to think that sexual intercourse is a positive experience. They consider it less necessary to have sexual intercourse to maintain a relationship and find it easier to communicate with their girlfriend or boyfriend than sexually non-active adolescents who consider gender equality to be less important. Comparable results were found for boys and girls. Our results suggest that gender equality attitudes have a positive impact on adolescents' sexual and reproductive health (SRH) and wellbeing. Further research is necessary to better understand the relationship between gender attitudes and specific SRH outcomes such as unwanted teenage pregnancies and sexual
A cross-sectional study on attitudes toward gender equality, sexual behavior, positive sexual experiences, and communication about sex among sexually active and non-sexually active adolescents in Bolivia and Ecuador
Sara De Meyer
Full Text Available Background: It is widely agreed upon that gender is a key aspect of sexuality however, questions remain on how gender exactly influences adolescents’ sexual health. Objective: The aim of this research was to study correlations between gender equality attitudes and sexual behavior, sexual experiences and communication about sex among sexually active and non-sexually active adolescents in 2 Latin American countries. Design: In 2011, a cross-sectional study was carried out among 5,913 adolescents aged 14–18 in 20 secondary schools in Cochabamba (Bolivia and 6 secondary schools in Cuenca (Ecuador. Models were built using logistic regressions to assess the predictive value of attitudes toward gender equality on adolescents’ sexual behavior, on experiences and on communication. Results: The analysis shows that sexually active adolescents who consider gender equality as important report higher current use of contraceptives within the couple. They are more likely to describe their last sexual intercourse as a positive experience and consider it easier to talk with their partner about sexuality than sexually experienced adolescents who are less positively inclined toward gender equality. These correlations remained consistent whether the respondent was a boy or a girl. Non-sexually active adolescents, who consider gender equality to be important, are more likely to think that sexual intercourse is a positive experience. They consider it less necessary to have sexual intercourse to maintain a relationship and find it easier to communicate with their girlfriend or boyfriend than sexually non-active adolescents who consider gender equality to be less important. Comparable results were found for boys and girls. Conclusions: Our results suggest that gender equality attitudes have a positive impact on adolescents’ sexual and reproductive health (SRH and wellbeing. Further research is necessary to better understand the relationship between gender
Nelson, Deborah B; Lepore, Stephen J; Mastrogiannis, Dimitrios S
Unintended pregnancy (UP) is a significant public health problem. The consistent use of effective contraception is the primary method to prevent UP. We examined the role of childhood sexual and physical violence and current interpersonal violence on the risk of unintended pregnancy among young, urban, sexually active women. In particular, we were interested in examining the role of childhood violence and interpersonal violence while recognizing the psychological correlates of experiencing violence (i.e., high depressive symptoms and low self-esteem) and consistent use of contraception. For this assessment, 315 sexually active women living in Philadelphia PA were recruited from family planning clinics in 2013. A self-administered, computer-assisted interview was used to collect data on method of contraception use in the past month, consistency of use, experiences with violence, levels of depressive symptoms, self-esteem and sexual self-efficacy, substance use and health services utilization. Fifty percent of young sexually active women reported inconsistent or no contraception use in the past month. Inconsistent users were significantly more likely to report at least one prior episode of childhood sexual violence and were significantly less likely to have received a prescription for contraception from a health care provider. Inconsistent contraception users also reported significantly higher levels of depressive symptoms and significantly lower levels of self-esteem. The relation between childhood sexual violence and UP remained unchanged in the multivariate models adjusting for self-esteem or depressive symptoms. These findings highlight the long-term consequences of childhood sexual violence, independent of current depressive symptoms and low self-esteem, on consistent use of contraception.
Deborah B. Nelson
Full Text Available Unintended pregnancy (UP is a significant public health problem. The consistent use of effective contraception is the primary method to prevent UP. We examined the role of childhood sexual and physical violence and current interpersonal violence on the risk of unintended pregnancy among young, urban, sexually active women. In particular, we were interested in examining the role of childhood violence and interpersonal violence while recognizing the psychological correlates of experiencing violence (i.e., high depressive symptoms and low self-esteem and consistent use of contraception. For this assessment, 315 sexually active women living in Philadelphia PA were recruited from family planning clinics in 2013. A self-administered, computer-assisted interview was used to collect data on method of contraception use in the past month, consistency of use, experiences with violence, levels of depressive symptoms, self-esteem and sexual self-efficacy, substance use and health services utilization. Fifty percent of young sexually active women reported inconsistent or no contraception use in the past month. Inconsistent users were significantly more likely to report at least one prior episode of childhood sexual violence and were significantly less likely to have received a prescription for contraception from a health care provider. Inconsistent contraception users also reported significantly higher levels of depressive symptoms and significantly lower levels of self-esteem. The relation between childhood sexual violence and UP remained unchanged in the multivariate models adjusting for self-esteem or depressive symptoms. These findings highlight the long-term consequences of childhood sexual violence, independent of current depressive symptoms and low self-esteem, on consistent use of contraception.
Shashi Kumar, R; Das, R C; Prabhu, H R A; Bhat, P S; Prakash, Jyoti; Seema, P; Basannar, D R
Adolescence is a period when the individual is vulnerable and exposure to sexually implicit/explicit programs on television and internet can influence their sexual behaviour and make them more permissive towards premarital sex, which is known to influence their academic performance. This can be modified by parental discussion on these matters with their children. There have been only few studies from India that have explored such issues therefore this study aimed to explore the impact of television, internet and parental discussion on sexual activity and academic performance. This study was conducted in two co-education schools using a self reporting questionnaire administered to students of class IX-XII. This study evaluated the relation of academic performance, exposure to media such as television & internet to sexual activity & academic performance of the students and the role of parental discussion on these. The study sample size was 586. There is no significant association between the number of hours of watching television per day and academic performance as measured by marks in examinations. Significant positive association was found among boys between sexual contact and average score in academics & unsupervised use of internet. In both genders a significant positive association was found between those watching English serials, movies and increased chances of indulging in sexual activity while a negative relation with those watching Cartoons. There is no significant difference in occurrence of sexual contact in those who discussed sexual matters with parents and those who did not. This being first of it's kind of study from India and a cross sectional study, further prospective and detailed studies are warranted to delineate the interaction of media, parental discussion, academic performance and sexual activity.
Robinson, R B; Frank, D I
This study examined self-esteem in relation to sexual behaviors which often result in teen pregnancy. A sample of 141 male and 172 female adolescents of racial diversity was surveyed to elicit levels of self-esteem, sexual activity, pregnancy and fatherhood status. The Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory was used as well to elicit qualitative data about self-esteem, demographics, and sexual activity. Analysis revealed no differences in the self-esteem of males vs. females. Further, sexual activity or virginity was not related to self-esteem in either males or females. Pregnant teens did not have different levels of self-esteem from the nonpregnant. However, males who had fathered a child had lower self-esteem than did nonfathers. The findings support a multifocused approach to sex education for pregnancy prevention and also emphasize a need to include males in both pregnancy prevention efforts as well as in further research on teen pregnancy.
Baumeister, Roy F; Mendoza, Juan Pablo
Sexual economics theory assumes that heterosexual communities can be analyzed as marketplaces in which men offer women resources such as love, respect, money, and commitment in exchange for sex. In response to economic, political, and other disadvantages, women collectively restrict their sexuality to maintain a low supply relative to male demand, thereby ensuring a high price. Hence, we tested the hypothesis that sexual norms and practices would be more restrictive in countries marked by gender inequality than in countries where the genders were more equal. An international online sex survey (N>317,000) yielded four measures of sexual activity, and 37 nations' means on all four measures were correlated with independent (World Economic Forum) ratings of gender equality. Consistent with predictions, relatively high gender equality was associated with more casual sex, more sex partners per capita, younger ages for first sex, and greater tolerance/approval of premarital sex.
Lyons, Anthony; Heywood, Wendy; Fileborn, Bianca; Minichiello, Victor; Barrett, Catherine; Brown, Graham; Hinchliff, Sharron; Malta, Sue; Crameri, Pauline
Rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are rising among older Australians. We conducted a large survey of older people's knowledge of STIs and safer sexual practices. A total of 2,137 Australians aged 60 years and older completed the survey, which included 15 questions assessing knowledge of STIs and safer sexual practices. We examined both levels of knowledge and factors associated with an overall knowledge score. In total, 1,652 respondents reported having sex in the past five years and answered all knowledge questions. This group had good general knowledge but poorer knowledge in areas such as the protection offered by condoms and potential transmission modes for specific STIs. Women had better knowledge than men. Men in their 60s, men with higher education levels, and men who thought they were at risk of STIs reported better knowledge than other men. Knowledge was also better among men and women who had been tested for STIs or reported 'other' sources of knowledge on STIs. Many older Australians lack knowledge of STIs and safer sexual practices. Implications for public health: To reverse current trends toward increasing STI diagnoses in this population, policies and education campaigns aimed at improving knowledge levels may need to be considered. © 2017 The Authors.
Zhao, Jessie; Lau, May; Vermette, David; Liang, David; Flores, Glenn
Asian American adolescents have been reported to have the lowest amount of communication with health care providers regarding sexual health topics (sexual activity, contraception, sexually transmitted infections, and pregnancy prevention). This study identified Asian American adolescents' attitudes/beliefs regarding how health care providers can…
Hiršl-Hećej, V.; Štulhofer, A.
The paper analyzes socio-cultural and psychosocial factors affecting sexual activities and related risk-taking behaviors in Croatian high-school students. It attempts to determine the correlates of sexual activity, early sexual initiation, the number of sexual partners, and the use of contraceptives and condoms. Due to the gender-specific trajectories of sexual socialization and initiation, all the analyses were carried out separately for female and male students. The results p...
Kamila B. Czajkowska
Full Text Available Introduction: Despite the aging of the population, there is limited data available about sexual life and behaviours among of postmenopausal and late postmenopausal women. Aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of sexual dysfunction, behaviours, and preferences in the Polish population in 2015. Material and methods: This observational survey study involved 538 women, of whom 220 were over 50 years old. The main focus was on the differences and changes between older age groups, mainly 50-59 years and over 60 years. Results : For 80.9% of the women above 50 years old, sex played at least a moderately important role in life. Sex was definitely important and very important for 40.45% of them. Most women over 50 years old (65.5% were sexually active. Regardless of age, the respondents were more likely to have sexual intercourse several times a month. Less than half of the women over 50 years old (42.7% realised their sexual fantasies. Women in the group of 50-59 years old statistically less often than younger women declared that the frequency of intercourse they had was too small. There was a statistical tendency showing that women up to 49 years old declared more sexual problems than older women. Women over 50 years old reported fewer problems in comparison to younger women, e.g. less often they claimed that sex is not pleasurable (p = 0.064. Conclusions : The prevalence of sexual activity declines with age, yet a substantial number of woman engage in vaginal intercourse, oral sex, and masturbation even past the seventh decade of life.
Abe, Akemi; Masaki, Naoko; Fukuizumi, Maiko; Hashimoto, Shuji
health was low for the 20 s and 30 s and gradually increased from the 40 s to the 70 s and older. The social activities score (1.93; N=1,539) tended to be higher in the 40 s and older. Here we created and attempted to validate a checklist that promotes healthy habits nd found that subjects were able to use it to examine their living habits.
Bostock, Deborah J; Daley, James G
From a stratified random sample, 2,018 active-duty United States Air Force women completed a telephone survey dealing with sexual assault and harassment. The lifetime prevalence of rape among Air Force women (28%) was more than twice as high as the prevalence in a national sample (13%). Nearly half of the military sample had been the victims of rape, molestation, or attempted sexual assault. The majority of both initial rapes (75%) and most recent rapes (56%) involved assault by civilians when the victims were civilians. Family members perpetrated 29% of initial rapes and 33% of most recent rapes. Regarding military status of the perpetrator, 14% of first-time victims were raped by a military member, 26% of multiple-time victims were raped by a military member, 31.8% of military women were sexually harassed by a military supervisor or boss, and 26.7% of military women were sexually harassed by a military coworker.
Full Text Available The recently adopted Russian federal legislation provides for imposition of the so-called ‘administrative’ sanctions for dissemination of any information regarding issues related to ‘social equality’ of diverse sexual orientations or gender identities ‘among minors’ for certain purposes (listed in the relevant provision. Under the new laws, such conduct qualifies as an administrative offence. In parallel with the aforementioned amendments, Art. 127 of the Family Code of Russian Federation was modified to prohibit adoptions by married same-sex couples and unmarried citizens of any state where homosexual marriage is permitted.The present article is written in the attempt to explore whether the recent Russian legislation is compatible with international standards of human rights protection deriving from the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and the European Convention on Human Rights and the relevant jurisprudence of international bodies. Is there any possibility to justify the restrictive laws under international law, bearing in mind the support of this legislative trend by the majority of the Russian population?
Brady, Sonya S; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie L
We examined the social and emotional consequences among adolescents of refraining from sexual activity (oral or vaginal sex) and whether these consequences differed over time and by gender and sexual experience. Adolescents (N=612; 58% female) recruited from 2 schools were assessed at 4 time points separated by 6-month intervals, beginning in fall of ninth grade. The percentage of adolescents who reported only positive consequences (e.g., they felt responsible, friends were proud) dramatically decreased over time, whereas the percentage that reported negative consequences (e.g., they felt left out, partners became angry) steadily increased. Adolescent girls and sexually experienced adolescents were more likely to report both positive and negative consequences than were adolescent boys and sexually inexperienced adolescents. Adolescents who began the study with sexual experience were more likely to report positive consequences of refraining from sexual activity by the end of the study than those who initiated sexual activity later. Sexual education programs should address how adolescents can cope with or prevent negative consequences of refraining from sexual activity, so that decisions to abstain are rewarding and decisions to engage in sexual activity are motivated by maturity and readiness.
Rahmani, Azam; Merghati-Khoei, Effat; Moghaddam-Banaem, Lida; Hajizadeh, Ebrahim; Montazeri, Ali
Background: Premarital sexual relationships could harm youth’s health in terms of sexually transmitted infections or increased risk of unprotected sexual behaviors. Sexual abstinence has been recommended to prevent young adolescents from adverse outcomes of premarital sexual relationships. Objectives: The aim of this study was to explore the viewpoints of sexually active single women about premarital sexual relationships in the Iranian context. Patients and Methods: In this qualitative study, we recruited 41 young women aged 18 to 35 years. Data were collected using focus group discussions and individual interviews. We employed conventional content analysis to analyze the data. Multiple data collection methods, maximum variation sampling, and peer checks were applied to enhance the reliability of the findings. Results: Eight themes emerged from the data analysis: ‘acceptance of sexual contact in the context of opposite-sex relationships, ‘sexual activity as a guarantee for keeping the boyfriend in the relationship’, ‘premarital sexual relationship as an undeniable personal right’, ‘having successful marriage in spite of premarital sexual relationships’, ‘virginity as an old fashioned phenomenon’, ‘love as a license for premarital sexual behaviors’, ‘goal-oriented relationship as a license for premarital sexual behaviors’, and ‘experiencing premarital sexual relationships in order to gain perfection’. Conclusions: Results of this study could be applied to designing interventions, such as promotion of preventive beliefs or educational programs regarding premarital sexual relationships in conservative societies. These interventions could start within families and continue at schools and universities. PMID:27162757
Tavares, Inês M.; Laan, Ellen T. M.; Nobre, Pedro J.
Cognitive-affective factors contribute to female sexual dysfunctions, defined as clinically significant difficulties in the ability to respond sexually or to experience sexual pleasure. Automatic thoughts and affect presented during sexual activity are acknowledged as maintenance factors for these
Garcia Luis I
Full Text Available Abstract Background The prostate is a key gland in the sexual physiology of male mammals. Its sensitivity to steroid hormones is widely known, but its response to prolactin is still poorly known. Previous studies have shown a correlation between sexual behaviour, prolactin release and prostate physiology. Thus, here we used the sexual behaviour of male rats as a model for studying this correlation. Hence, we developed experimental paradigms to determine the influence of prolactin on sexual behaviour and prostate organization of male rats. Methods In addition to sexual behaviour recordings, we developed the ELISA procedure to quantify the serum level of prolactin, and the hematoxilin-eosin technique for analysis of the histological organization of the prostate. Also, different experimental manipulations were carried out; they included pituitary grafts, and haloperidol and ovine prolactin treatments. Data were analyzed with a One way ANOVA followed by post hoc Dunnet test if required. Results Data showed that male prolactin has a basal level with two peaks at the light-dark-light transitions. Consecutive ejaculations increased serum prolactin after the first ejaculation, which reached the highest level after the second, and started to decrease after the third ejaculation. These normal levels of prolactin did not induce any change at the prostate tissue. However, treatments for constant elevations of serum prolactin decreased sexual potency and increased the weight of the gland, the alveoli area and the epithelial cell height. Treatments for transient elevation of serum prolactin did not affect the sexual behaviour of males, but triggered these significant effects mainly at the ventral prostate. Conclusion The prostate is a sexual gland that responds to prolactin. Mating-induced prolactin release is required during sexual encounters to activate the epithelial cells in the gland. Here we saw a precise mechanism controlling the release of prolactin
Wang, Tze-Fang; Lu, Chwen-Hwa; Chen, I-Ju; Yu, Shu
We examined sexual activity and predictive factors among older people in Taipei, Taiwan. We aimed to characterize the older population engaged in sexual activity and determine influencing factors, exploring aspects of sexuality that may influence elders' health and quality of life (QOL). Studies of sexual attitudes and behaviour have found that sexual difficulties are common among mature adults worldwide, influenced in men and women by physical health, ageing, psychosocial and cultural factors. We conducted a community-based retrospective study involving a random sample of 412 men and 204 women over age 65. A questionnaire on demographics and social situations was administered, along with a Sexuality Knowledge and Attitudes Scale; 34 questions evaluated sexual knowledge and 18 evaluated sexual attitudes. Two-hundred and twenty participants were sexually active (35.7%), 185 mainly with spouses (84.1%); frequency was 21.4 (SD 16.9) times per year (range: 1-120). Multiple logistic regressions identified five significant predictors of sexual activity: gender, age, being with spouse, sexual knowledge and sexual attitudes. Sexual activity was significantly associated with higher education levels, lower stress and more self-reported daily activities. Our results agreed with Western studies linking sexual activity with better health and higher QOL in older adults. Older peoples' stress and daily activity levels are recognized quality-of-life measures; lower stress and more daily activities among sexually active older people suggests a connection between sexual activity and higher QOL. Increasing knowledge and improving attitudes about sexuality may help older people build healthier relationships and enhance health and QOL. Relevance to clinical practice. If healthcare professionals possess greater understanding of older peoples' sexuality, healthcare systems may find ways to increase sexual knowledge and foster healthier attitudes and relationships to improve older peoples
Background: Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a chronic and disabling disease resulting in disabilities in young and middle-aged persons. In this study, researchers explored the effect of yoga techniques on physical activities and sexual function among some Iranian women with MS. Materials and Methods: In this study, 60 Iranian ...
Contraceptive use was predicted by educational status, sexual activity, baby's age and .... request', ‗initiation by self', ‗cultural demand' and. ‗feeling it was ..... 2009;19(2):81-7. 14. Lwanga SK and Lemeshow S. Sample size determination.
Ciairano, S; Bonino, S; Kliewer, W; Miceli, R; Jackson, S
Associations among dating, sexual activity, gender and adjustment were investigated in 2,2 73 Italian adolescents (54% female, ages 14 to 19 years) attending public high schools. After controlling for age and type of school attended, both being in a dating relationship and being male were associated
Tolver, Mette A; Rosenberg, Jacob
during sexual activity was a risk factor for postoperative pain during sexual activity. METHODS: A prospective questionnaire study before and 6 months after hernia repair was conducted. Men (age 18-85 years) undergoing laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair were included. RESULTS: In total, 160 men were......BACKGROUND: Sexual life may be impaired by pain during sexual activity in patients with inguinal hernia. On the other hand, inguinal hernia repair has also been reported to cause sexual dysfunction in terms of pain during sexual activity and ejaculation. The primary aim of this study...... was to estimate the prevalence of pain during sexual activity before and after laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair, and the secondary, to describe pain location, frequency of pain during sexual activity, and to which degree sexual life was affected by the pain. Furthermore, to examine whether preoperative pain...
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine energy expenditure in kilocalories (kcal during sexual activity in young healthy couples in their natural environment and compare it to a session of endurance exercise. METHODS: The study population consisted of twenty one heterosexual couples (age: 22.6 ± 2.8 years old from the Montreal region. Free living energy expenditure during sexual activity and the endurance exercise was measured using the portable mini SenseWear armband. Perceived energy expenditure, perception of effort, fatigue and pleasure were also assessed after sexual activity. All participants completed a 30 min endurance exercise session on a treadmill at a moderate intensity. RESULTS: Mean energy expenditure during sexual activity was 101 kCal or 4.2 kCal/min in men and 69.1 kCal or 3.1 kCal/min in women. In addition, mean intensity was 6.0 METS in men and 5.6 METS in women, which represents a moderate intensity. Moreover, the energy expenditure and intensity during the 30 min exercise session in men was 276 kCal or 9.2 kCal/min and 8.5 METS, respectively and in women 213 kCal or 7.1 kCal/min and 8.4 METS, respectively. Interestingly, the highest range value achieved by men for absolute energy expenditure can potentially be higher than that of the mean energy expenditure of the 30 min exercise session (i.e. 306.1 vs. 276 kCal, respectively whereas this was not observed in women. Finally, perceived energy expenditure during sexual activity was similar in men (100 kCal and in women (76.2 kCal when compared to measured energy expenditure. CONCLUSION: The present study indicates that energy expenditure during sexual activity appears to be approximately 85 kCal or 3.6 kCal/min and seems to be performed at a moderate intensity (5.8 METS in young healthy men and women. These results suggest that sexual activity may potentially be considered, at times, as a significant exercise.
Lee, Maria; Kim, Yun Hwan; Jeon, Myung Jae
We aim to examine changes in sexual activity and function among younger breast cancer survivors who were sexually active before diagnosis and to investigate risk factors for negative impacts on them. An observational cohort study enrolled 304 premenopausal and sexually active women diagnosed with early stage breast cancer. Questionnaires were completed, and sexual activity was measured at two time points: after surgery, to assess sexual activity and function before diagnosis, and then at least 12 months after the completion of chemotherapy or endocrine therapy. For each domain of the Female Sexual Function Index, a score below 3 was classified as indicative of a sexual problem. Each sexual problem was considered to be dysfunctional if it was associated with distress. The median age at the last survey was 46.0 years (range: 23-57). Of the participants, 35 (11.5%) became sexually inactive after treatment. Among the 269 women who remained sexually active, 31.6% were currently experiencing sexual dysfunction, which was significantly higher compared with the frequency before diagnosis. In the multivariate logistic regression model, chemo-related menopause, thyroid dysfunction, and depression were independent risk factors for sexual inactivity. Chemo-related menopause was a significant risk factor for sexual dysfunction. Chemo-related menopause was significantly associated with both sexual inactivity and dysfunction after treatment. Thyroid dysfunction and depression were risk factors for sexual inactivity in younger breast cancer survivors. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Brinkley, Dawn Y; Ackerman, Robert A; Ehrenreich, Samuel E; Underwood, Marion K
This research examined adolescents' written text messages with sexual content to investigate how sexting relates to sexual activity and borderline personality features. Participants (N = 181, 85 girls) completed a measure of borderline personality features prior to 10 th grade and were subsequently given smartphones configured to capture the content of their text messages. Four days of text messaging were micro-coded for content related to sex. Following 12 th grade, participants reported on their sexual activity and again completed a measure of borderline personality features. Results showed that engaging in sexting at age 16 was associated with reporting an early sexual debut, having sexual intercourse experience, having multiple sex partners, and engaging in drug use in combination with sexual activity two years later. Girls engaging in sex talk were more likely to have had sexual intercourse by age 18. Text messaging about hypothetical sex in grade 10 also predicted borderline personality features at age 18. These findings suggest that sending text messages with sexual content poses risks for adolescents. Programs to prevent risky sexual activity and to promote psychological health could be enhanced by teaching adolescents to use digital communication responsibly.
Brinkley, Dawn Y.; Ackerman, Robert A.; Ehrenreich, Samuel E.; Underwood, Marion K.
This research examined adolescents’ written text messages with sexual content to investigate how sexting relates to sexual activity and borderline personality features. Participants (N = 181, 85 girls) completed a measure of borderline personality features prior to 10th grade and were subsequently given smartphones configured to capture the content of their text messages. Four days of text messaging were micro-coded for content related to sex. Following 12th grade, participants reported on their sexual activity and again completed a measure of borderline personality features. Results showed that engaging in sexting at age 16 was associated with reporting an early sexual debut, having sexual intercourse experience, having multiple sex partners, and engaging in drug use in combination with sexual activity two years later. Girls engaging in sex talk were more likely to have had sexual intercourse by age 18. Text messaging about hypothetical sex in grade 10 also predicted borderline personality features at age 18. These findings suggest that sending text messages with sexual content poses risks for adolescents. Programs to prevent risky sexual activity and to promote psychological health could be enhanced by teaching adolescents to use digital communication responsibly. PMID:28824224
Risk-taking behaviours such as smoking, alcohol and drug use were shown to increase the likelihood of being sexually active when entering university, as did indicators of depression and suicidal ideation. The results indicate that religion plays an important role in influencing sexual behaviour, highlighting the important ...
Bay-Cheng, Laina Y.
The protection of children from harm is commonly accepted as the cardinal duty of parents. In the USA, where young people's sexuality is often regarded with anxiety, attempts to restrict adolescent sexual behaviour are seen as ethically justified and even required of "good" parents. Running counter to popular anxiety surrounding young…
Cale, Jesse; Smallbone, Stephen; Rayment-McHugh, Sue; Dowling, Chris
The current study examines offending trajectories of adolescent sexual offenders (ASOs). Until recently, classification frameworks have not been designed to account for the heterogeneity of offending patterns in adolescence, how these are associated with the unfolding of sexual and non-sexual criminal activity, and whether and to what extent they are related to the characteristics of sex offenses in adolescence. The current study takes a longitudinal view of offending in adolescence by examining retrospective longitudinal data of 217 ASOs referred for treatment to a clinical service between 2001 and 2009 in Australia. General offending trajectories in adolescence were examined using semi-parametric group-based modeling, and compared according to non-violent non-sexual, violent-non-sexual, and sex offending criminal activity parameters (e.g., participation, onset, frequency, specialization/versatility) and the characteristics of the referral sexual offense. The results show distinct differences in the unfolding of sexual and non-sexual criminal activity along different offending trajectories of ASOs, and further, that these trajectories were differentially associated with the characteristics of the sexual offenses they committed. © The Author(s) 2015.
Normal sexual functioning comprises of sexual activity together with transition through the phases from arousal to relaxation with no problem. Delivery has different effects on body organs, especially, on genitalia the disorder of which can cause sexual dysfunctions. In this study, an attempt is made to compare postpartum ...
Laios, K; Tsoucalas, G; Kontaxaki, Μ-Ι; Karamanou, Μ; Sgantzos, Μ; Androutsos, G
The ancient Greek physicians have not failed in their studies to indicate the beneficial role of sexual activity in human health. They acknowledged that sex helps to maintain mental balance. Very interesting is their observation that sex may help mental patients to recover. Nevertheless they stressed emphatically that sex is beneficial only when there is a measure in it, so they believed that sexual abstinence or excessive sexual activity affect negatively the mental and physical health of man. Ancient Greek physicians reached this conclusion by empirical observation. They tried to justify the mental imbalance, as the potential physical problems, which probably will be listed today in the psychosomatic manifestations, of people with long-term sexual abstinence or hyperactivity, based on the theory of humors which was the main methodological tool of ancient Greek medicine. Their fundamental idea was that the four humors of the body (blood, phlegm, yellow and black bile) should be in balance. Therefore they believed that the loss and the exchange of bodily fluids during sex help body's humors to maintain their equilibrium which in turn will form the basis for the physical and mental health. Although in ancient medical texts the irrationality presented by people in the aforementioned conditions was not attributed in any of the major mental illnesses recognized in antiquity, as mania, melancholy and phrenitis, our belief is that their behavior is more suited to the characteristics of melancholy, while according to modern medicine it should be classified in the depressive disorders. We have come to this conclusion, because common characteristics of people who either did not have sexual life or was overactive, was sadness, lack of interest and hope, as well as paranoid thinking that can reach up to suicide. Regarding the psychosomatic problems, which could occur in these people, they were determined by the ancient Greek physicians in the following; continuous headaches
Hevesi, Krisztina; Mészáros, Veronika; Kövi, Zsuzsanna; Márki, Gabriella; Szabó, Marianna
The Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) is a widely used measurement tool to assess female sexual function along the six dimensions of desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction, and pain. However, the structure of the questionnaire is not clear, and several studies have found high correlations among the dimensions, indicating that a common underlying "sexual function" factor might be present. To investigate whether female sexual function is best understood as a multidimensional construct or, alternatively, whether a common underlying factor explains most of the variance in FSFI scores, and to investigate the possible effect of the common practice of including sexually inactive women in studies using the FSFI. The sample consisted of 508 women: 202 university students, 177 patients with endometriosis, and 129 patients with polycystic ovary syndrome. Participants completed the FSFI, and confirmatory factor analyses were used to test the underlying structure of this instrument in the total sample and in samples including sexually active women only. The FSFI is a multidimensional self-report questionnaire composed of 19 items. Strong positive correlations were found among five of the six original factors on the FSFI. Confirmatory factor analyses showed that in the total sample items loaded mainly on the general sexual function factor and very little variance was explained by the specific factors. However, when only sexually active women were included in the analyses, a clear factor structure emerged, with items loading on their six specific factors, and most of the variance in FSFI scores was explained by the specific factors, rather than the general factor. University students reported higher scores, indicating better functioning compared with the patient samples. The reliable and valid assessment of female sexual function can contribute to better understanding, prevention, and treatment of different sexual difficulties and dysfunctions. This study provides a
Trenholm, Christopher; Devaney, Barbara; Fortson, Kenneth; Clark, Melissa; Bridgespan, Lisa Quay; Wheeler, Justin
This paper examines the impacts of four abstinence-only education programs on adolescent sexual activity and risks of pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Based on an experimental design, the impact analysis uses survey data collected in 2005 and early 2006 from more than 2,000 teens who had been randomly assigned to either a…
Thomas, Holly N; Hess, Rachel; Thurston, Rebecca C
Sexual activity is an important component of quality of life for women across their lifespan. Prior studies show a decline in sexual activity with age, but these studies often fail to consider the role of sexual satisfaction. The aim of this study is to give updated prevalence estimates of sexual activity among women and to elucidate factors associated with sexual activity and sexual satisfaction. We report a cross-sectional analysis of the second wave of a nationally representative sample of US adults aged 28 to 84 years, the Survey of Midlife Development in the United States. The survey used self-administered questionnaires to assess demographic data, self-rated physical and mental health, medical problems and medication use, relationship factors, and sexual activity and satisfaction. Of 2,116 women who answered the questions regarding sexuality, 1,345 (61.8%) women were sexually active in the previous 6 months. The proportion of women who were sexually active decreased with advancing age. Women who were married or cohabitating had approximately 8 times higher odds of being sexually active (odds ratio = 7.91, 95% CI, 4.16-15.04; P aged 60 years and older who were married or cohabitating, most (59.0%) were sexually active. Among women who were sexually active, higher relationship satisfaction (P sexual satisfaction, but age was not (P = .79). A considerable proportion of midlife and older women remain sexually active if they have a partner available. Psychosocial factors (relationship satisfaction, communication with romantic partner, and importance of sex) matter more to sexual satisfaction than aging among midlife and older women. © 2015 Annals of Family Medicine, Inc.
Full Text Available Background: Low contraceptive use amongst unmarried sexually active young men and women presents an ethical dilemma in Indonesia, particularly in realising reproductive rights as a fundamental human right. This study aims to address the difficulties in extending access to family planning for unmarried sexually active youths. Methods: A review of the laws relating to the provision of family planning was combined with a secondary data analysis of the 2012 Indonesian Demographic Health Survey throughout 6 provinces on the island of Java. The sample population included 5,150 unmarried adolescents, aged 15 to 24 years. The 2012 Indonesian Demographic Health Survey was the first and only survey that included unmarried young women in Indonesia. The association between subjects who had 'ever had sex' and three groups of predictors (demographic characteristics, peer influences, and knowledge of contraceptive methods were examined using multivariate logistic regressions. Results:Results of the study found that subjects who were unmarried but had engaged in sexual activity were more likely to be those aged 19 to 21 years (OR = 2.36 and 22 to 24 years (OR = 6.81, of low education status (OR = 2.1, with a boyfriend or girlfriend (OR = 2.38, and those who approved of pre-marital sex (OR = 8.5. Conclusions: Results from this research suggest that new interpretations of the Law 52/2009 regarding family planning and Law 36/2009 that prohibits health services to unmarried sexually active youths are required in order to address the issues faced by Indonesia's youth
Sant'Anna, Maria José Carvalho; Catunda, Júlia Kerr; Carvalho, Kepler Alencar Mendes; Coates, Veronica; Omar, Hatim A.
Pregnancy during adolescence represents a challenge to society as a whole. Its incidence is increasing and brings about social and medical consequences to both the teen mothers and their children. The purpose of this study was to evaluate pregnant teenager involvement in sexual activity and the social context. The group studied comprised 152 pregnant teenagers attending the Department of Pediatrics, Santa Casa de Sao Paulo (SCSP) General Hospital. All information was analyzed. The age at firs...
Full Text Available The soluble form of the urokinase receptor, suPAR, has been suggested as a novel biomarker of low-grade inflammation. Activation of the immune system has been proposed to contribute to the development of depression and suicidal behavior. In order to identify depressed and suicidal individuals who could benefit from an anti-inflammatory treatment, a reliable biomarker of low-grade inflammation is vital. This study evaluates plasma suPAR levels as a biomarker of low-grade inflammation in patients with major depressive disorder and in patients who recently attempted suicide. The plasma suPAR and an established biomarker, C reactive protein (CRP of suicide attempters (n = 54, depressed patients (n = 19 and healthy controls (n = 19 was analyzed with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. The biomarker attributes of sensitivity and sensibility were evaluated using ROC curve analysis. Both the depressed patients and suicide attempters had increased plasma suPAR. The levels of suPAR discriminated better between controls and suicide attempters than did CRP. In the future, plasma suPAR might be a superior prognosticator regarding outcome of treatment applying conventional antidepressants in conjunction with anti-inflammatory drugs.
Killinger, Kim A; Boura, Judith A; Diokno, Ananias C
Sexuality is an important, yet often overlooked, aspect of successful aging. The current article explores potential relationships between sexual activity in older adults and marital status, health, mobility, urinary incontinence, and caffeine and alcohol use, as well as sexual desire and erectile function in women and men, respectively. A survey was mailed to community-dwelling older adults 60 and older. Of 242 respondents (79% ages 60 to 74, 53% male), 159 (65.7%) were sexually active. A higher proportion of sexually active adults were married (p = 0.0005), had better health (p = 0.0003), and drank alcohol (p = 0.007). A lower proportion of sexually active adults had urinary incontinence (p = 0.006). Similar proportions of men and women were sexually active (62.8% and 68.2%, respectively; p = 0.38). Sexually active women had better sexual desire scores (p Sexually active men had better mobility (p = 0.012) and erectile function (p sexually active men had incontinence (p sexual health in older adults. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.
Sexually active young people are at high risk of unwanted pregnancies and sexually transmitted diseases. Consistent condom use is critically important for preventing both. This study examined sexual activity and pattern of condom use among in-school youths in Sagamu. Multi-staged sampling method was used to choose ...
Dino Roberto Soares De Lorenzi
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar os fatores relacionados à freqüência da atividade sexual entre mulheres pós-menopáusicas. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal de 206 mulheres pós-menopáusicas entre 45 e 60 anos atendidas em um serviço universitário da região Sul do Brasil entre junho e outubro de 2002. A atividade sexual foi avaliada pelo número de relações sexuais no último mês e a sintomatologia climatérica pelo Índice de Kupperman. Na análise estatística, fez-se regressão linear múltipla. RESULTADOS: Das mulheres pesquisadas, 176 (85% eram sexualmente ativas. Cerca de 60,6% relataram diminuição da atividade sexual após a menopausa, o que atribuíram principalmente à impotência sexual do parceiro (41,7%. Aproximadamente 25,7% negaram satisfação com o intercurso sexual. Na análise por regressão linear múltipla, associaram-se à atividade sexual a idade (pOBJECTIVE: To identify factors related to the frequency of sexual activity of postmenopausal women METHODS: A cross-section study of 206 postmenopausal women between 45 and 60 years of age was made at a university health care service in the South of Brazil between June and October 2002. Evaluations were made of sexual activity according to the number of sexual intercourses in the previous month and the climacteric symptoms using the Kupperman index. Statistical analysis was performed with multiple linear regression analysis. RESULTS: Of those surveyed 176 (85% women were sexually active. Although 60.6% reported a decrease in sexual activity after menopause, mostly attributing it to the husband's sexual impotence (41.7%. Approximately 25.7% stated they had no satisfaction with sexual intercourse. By means of multiple linear regression analysis the following aspects were associated to sexual activity: age (p<0.1, degree of sexual satisfaction (p=0.01, and climacteric symptomatology (p=0.02. As age increased the climacteric symptoms were more intense and sexual activity was less
The harmonization of optimum cooking time of rubbers containing in a tyre is became possible. This occurrence is the result of the knowledge about the respective function of each element containing in the rubber. Many kind of rubbers are been studied. The obtained results demonstrate the realization of the harmonization of optimum cooking time in different rubbers at some conditions by modifying either a kind of vulcanization accelerator or a quantity of vulcanization activator. So, accelerator or activator modifies need of energy during cooking. In this paper, we are estimated activation energy for all new rubbers obtained
Schuster, M A; Bell, R M; Kanouse, D E
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to determine whether high school-aged virgins engage in sexual practices that can transmit sexually transmitted diseases, including the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). METHODS: Data were collected from an anonymous self-administered survey of 2026 urban students in 9th through 12th grades. RESULTS: Forty-seven percent of adolescents were virgins (42% of male adolescents and 53% of female adolescents). Of those who were virgins, 29% and 31% reported that, during the prior year, they had engaged in heterosexual masturbation of a partner and masturbation by a partner, respectively. The corresponding rates for heterosexual fellatio with ejaculation, cunnilingus, and anal intercourse were 9%, 10%, and 1%. Homosexual sexual activities were rare. Condom use for fellatio was also rare. Level of risk of virgins' sexual activities was associated with illicit substance use and other non-sexual risk behaviors, even after demographic variables had been controlled. CONCLUSIONS: Few high school-aged virgins engaged in anal intercourse, but many engaged in other genital sexual activities. Some of these activities can transmit disease, and all can indicate a need for counseling about sexual decision making, risk, and prevention. PMID:8916522
Schuster, M A; Bell, R M; Kanouse, D E
The purpose of this study was to determine whether high school-aged virgins engage in sexual practices that can transmit sexually transmitted diseases, including the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Data were collected from an anonymous self-administered survey of 2026 urban students in 9th through 12th grades. Forty-seven percent of adolescents were virgins (42% of male adolescents and 53% of female adolescents). Of those who were virgins, 29% and 31% reported that, during the prior year, they had engaged in heterosexual masturbation of a partner and masturbation by a partner, respectively. The corresponding rates for heterosexual fellatio with ejaculation, cunnilingus, and anal intercourse were 9%, 10%, and 1%. Homosexual sexual activities were rare. Condom use for fellatio was also rare. Level of risk of virgins' sexual activities was associated with illicit substance use and other non-sexual risk behaviors, even after demographic variables had been controlled. Few high school-aged virgins engaged in anal intercourse, but many engaged in other genital sexual activities. Some of these activities can transmit disease, and all can indicate a need for counseling about sexual decision making, risk, and prevention.
Fukui, Hirokazu; Sugiman, Toshio
Activities that could possibly grow into learning activities for developing safety culture were explored by intensive fieldwork in a nuclear power plant depending on Engestroem's activity theory. As a first step to achieve this goal, workers' small attempts that might contribute to nurturing a safety culture were investigated. Eight kinds of activity were observed and interpreted as having the possibility to facilitate small recognition and small practice, i.e., activities including (1) workgroup as community, (2) other workgroups and other departments as community, (3) meeting drawing remarks as mediating artifacts, (4) study session and Off-the-Job-Training as mediating artifact, (5) award as mediating artifact, (6) extended leave as mediating artifact, (7) check sheet as mediating artifact, and (8) skill-transfer system as mediating artifact. (author)
Muhammad, Noor Azimah; Shamsuddin, Khadijah; Sulaiman, Zaharah; Amin, Rahmah Mohd; Omar, Khairani
One of the popular approaches of preventing youth sexual activity in Malaysia is using religion to promote premarital sexual abstinence. Despite this intervention, youth continue to practise premarital sex. Thus, the purpose of this exploratory mixed methods study was to understand the role of religion on sexual activity among college students in Klang Valley, Malaysia. A self-administered questionnaire survey to determine the relationship between religiosity and youth sexual activity was carried out on 1026 students recruited from 12 randomly selected colleges. Concurrently, face-to-face interviews were conducted on 15 students to explore how religiosity had influenced their decision on sexual activity. The survey data were analysed using logistic regression, while the qualitative data from the interviews were examined using thematic analysis with separate analysis for each gender. Both quantitative and qualitative results were then compared and integrated. Religious activity significantly reduced the risk of continuing sexual activity among female students (AOR = 0.67, CI = 0.47, 0.95, p = 0.02) but not male students. There was no significant relationship of religious affiliation and intrinsic religiosity (inner faith) to sexual activity by gender. Having faith in religion and strong sexual desire were the main themes that explained participants' sexual behaviour. Engaging in religious activity might be effective at preventing female students from being sexually active. However, when sexual urges and desires are beyond control, religiosity might not be effective.
Fitzpatrick, R; Hart, G; Boulton, M; McLean, J; Dawson, J
Three hundred and fifty six homosexually active men were recruited in 1988 for a study by interview of sexual behaviour. Thirty two per cent had homosexual passive anal sex in the previous month and 60% in the year before interview. Anal sex and unprotected anal sex were more common with regular than non-regular partners. Heterosexual sex was reported by 4% of men in the last month and 10% for the last year. Sixteen per cent of heterosexually active men reported anal sex with a female partner...
Haara, Frode Olav
From a system theoretically grounded point of view, a hierarchy of primary and secondary impact factors influencing the mathematics teacher's choice to use practical activities in mathematics teaching is suggested initially in the article. A study, based on qualitative responses from mathematics teachers, then gives grounds for suggesting that a…
Chan, Heng Choon Oliver; Heide, Kathleen M; Beauregard, Eric
Despite the great interest in the study of sexual homicide, little is known about the processes involved in an individual's becoming motivated to sexually kill, deciding to sexually kill, and acting on that desire, intention, and opportunity. To date, no comprehensive model of sexual murdering from the offending perspective has been proposed in the criminological literature. This article incorporates the works of Akers and Cohen and Felson regarding their social learning theory and routine activities theory, respectively, to construct an integrated conceptual offending framework in sexual homicide. This integrated model produces a stronger and more comprehensive explanation of sexual murder than any single theory currently available.
Christensen, Birgitte Schütt; Grønbaek, Morten; Osler, Merete
Studies have shown a high prevalence of sexual dysfunctions among individuals with a variety of health problems.......Studies have shown a high prevalence of sexual dysfunctions among individuals with a variety of health problems....
Dewitte, Marieke; Mayer, Axel
Current models of sexual responding emphasize the role of contextual and relational factors in shaping sexual behavior. The present study used a prospective diary design to examine the temporal sequence and variability of the link between sexual and relationship variables in a sample of couples.
Farhat Ali Khan
Full Text Available In this study cefixime and azithromycin nanoparticles were prepared by antisolvent precipitation with syringe pump (APSP and evaporator precipitation nanosuspension (EPN methods. The nanoparticles were characterized by XRD, FTIR, SEM, and TGA. X-ray diffraction pattern of cefixime samples showed the amorphous form, while azithromycin samples showed crystalline form. The FTIR spectra of parental drugs and synthesized nanoparticles have no major structural changes detected. The SEM images showed that nanoparticles of both drugs have submicron sized and nanosized particles. TGA analyses showed that above 30°C the decomposition of cefixime samples starts and their weight gradually decreases up to 600°C, while, in case of azithromycin, 30°C to 250°C, very small changes occur in weight; from above 250°C decomposition of the sample took place to a greater extent. The antibacterial activities of raw drugs and prepared samples of nanoparticles were determined against Staphylococcus aureus, Shigella, E. coli, and Salmonella typhi by agar well diffusion method. Every time the nanoparticles samples showed better results than parental drugs. The dissolution rates of raw drugs and prepared nanoparticles were also determined. The results were always better for the synthesized nanoparticles than parental drug.
Masters, N. Tatiana; Casey, Erin; Wells, Elizabeth A.; Morrison, Diane M.
While gendered sexual scripts are hegemonic at the cultural level, research suggests they may be less so at dyadic and individual levels. Understanding “disjunctures” between sexual scripts at different levels holds promise for illuminating mechanisms through which sexual scripts can change. Through interviews with 44 heterosexually active men and women aged 18-25, we delineated ways young people grappled with culture-level scripts for sexuality and relationships. Findings suggest that althou...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Military conscripts may experience a change in their attitude towards sex at times when sexual urges are at their peak during their physical growth. This study examines the experience, understanding, knowledge and attitudes regarding sexual activity of the military conscripts. Methods Data was obtained from a cross-sectional survey of 1127 young adult military conscripts, and were evaluated in Southern Taiwan from January to July 2009, their demographic data, sexual knowledge, attitudes and activities were assessed. Results Nearly 43% of the participants had performed penetrative vaginal intercourse at least once; 34% of the participants performed heterosexual oral sex at least once; almost 7% of participants had had homosexual intercourse, and 7.5% of participants had experienced homosexual oral sex in the past year. The mean sexual knowledge score based on 30 questions was 23.2 ± 4.0. The higher the educational level of the participants, the greater sexual knowledge they had obtained. Conclusion This study found that 43% of unmarried young recruits had experienced premarital sexual activity. However, their sexual knowledge was insufficient and should be strengthened by sex education from an earlier age. College aged and adult learners also have sex education needs, especially with regard to integrating sexuality and life, being able to relate responsibly as sexual beings to others, the use of contraception, and about sexually transmitted disease. Keywords Young recruits, Sexual behavior, Sexual knowledge, Sex education
Full Text Available Unwelcome sexual advances, proposition or pressure for sexual activity, offensive flirtations, leering, whistling, making sexually suggestive gestures, sexual jokes, unwanted sexual looks, unwanted letters, telephone call, or materials of a sexual nature, unwanted physical contact, actual or attempting rape or sexual assault, this and more of this conduct if took place in the workplace would amount to a sexual harassment. The sexual harassment at work has become a serious issue of our time. It is an unjustified interference of integrity, dignity and well-being of workers, causing problems from headaches to depression, loss of confidence, panic attacks and perhaps suicide as the only way appearing to be the sole possible relief from the unremitting and frightening behavior. This article presents information concerning the sexual harassment at workplace, covering topics such as, the definitions for sexual harassment in both international and national context, a short history of sexual harassment, types of sexual harassment, effect of sexual harassment, measure to combat and prevent sexual harassment. It offers a short overview in sexual harassment legislation of some industrialized EU Member States and the legal remedies available against sexual harassment. The main purpose of this article is to provide a better understanding and prevention concerning the issue of sexual harassment in workplace.
Vandenbosch, Laura; Beyens, Ine; Vangeel, Laurens; Eggermont, Steven
Online communication is associated with offline romantic and sexual activity among college students. Yet, it is unknown whether online communication is associated with the initiation of romantic and sexual activity among adolescents. This two-wave panel study investigated whether chatting, visiting dating websites, and visiting erotic contact websites predicted adolescents' initiation of romantic and sexual activity. We analyzed two-wave panel data from 1163 Belgian adolescents who participated in the MORES Study. We investigated the longitudinal impact of online communication on the initiation of romantic relationships and sexual intercourse using logistic regression analyses. The odds ratios of initiating a romantic relationship among romantically inexperienced adolescents who frequently used chat rooms, dating websites, or erotic contact websites were two to three times larger than those of non-users. Among sexually inexperienced adolescents who frequently used chat rooms, dating websites, or erotic contact websites, the odds ratios of initiating sexual intercourse were two to five times larger than that among non-users, even after a number of other relevant factors were introduced. This is the first study to demonstrate that online communication predicts the initiation of offline sexual and romantic activity as early as adolescence. Practitioners and parents need to consider the role of online communication in adolescents' developing sexuality. • Adolescents increasingly communicate online with peers. • Online communication predicts romantic and sexual activity among college students. What is New: • Online communication predicts adolescents' offline romantic activity over time. • Online communication predicts adolescents' offline sexual activity over time.
Yang, Shuyan; Yan, Elsie
This study examines sexual activity and associated psychosocial factors in older Chinese people. Sexuality continues to play a pivotal role in our lives even as we grow old. There is, however, very limited research on the topic in older populations. Cross-sectional survey. A representative sample of 688 older Chinese people (>60 years old) were individually interviewed on their demographic characteristics; their interest in, knowledge of and perceived control over sexual activities; and their engagement in sexual activity. The results show that 51·32% of men and 41·26% of women reported engaging in some form of sexual activity. Sexual intercourse and caressing were commonly reported. A multiple regression analysis also showed that a higher level of sexual activity was associated with being younger, living with a spouse, having a strong interest in sex, having sufficient knowledge of elder sexuality and a high perceived control over sex. Distinct predictive factors in each gender were observed. A high level of perceived control was associated with a higher level of sexual activity in males but not females. A series of binary logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine the demographic and psychosocial correlates of sexual activity. With the exception of the use of objects (sex toys), sexual activities were consistently associated with being younger; living with a spouse; and having high levels of interest, knowledge and perceived control. A sizable amount of older Chinese people engage in varying degrees of sexual activity, and most are still interested in sex. Frontline health professionals need to be aware of the growing needs for sex education in older persons, particular attention should be paid to discuss the limitations brought about by various chronic conditions associated with ageing and their relevance to elder sexuality. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
[The association of bullying with suicide ideation, plan, and attempt among adolescents with GLB or unsure sexual identity, heterosexual identity with same-sex attraction or behavior, or heterosexual identity without same-sex attraction or behavior].
Montoro, Richard; Thombs, Brett; Igartua, Karine J
Context Bullying is a known risk factor for suicidality, and suicide is the second leading cause of death for adolescents. Both are increased in sexual minority youth (SMY). As SMY are comprised of youth who self-identify as gay, lesbian, bisexual (GLB) or who have same-sex attractions or behaviors, our previous finding that different subgroups have different risks for suicidality is understandable. Given that the difference was along sexual identity lines (GLB vs heterosexual SMY), the analysis of bullying data in the same subgroups was felt to be important.Objective To compare the association of bullying and suicide among heterosexual students without same-sex attractions or behaviors, heterosexual students with same-sex attractions and behaviors, and students with gay, lesbian or bisexual (GLB) or unsure sexual identities.Design The 2004 Quebec Youth Risk Behavior Survey (QYRBS) questionnaire was based on the 2001 Center for Disease Control Youth Risk Behavior Survey, and included items assessing the three dimensions of sexual orientation (identity, attraction and behavior), health risk behaviors, experiences of harassment, and suicidal ideation, plans and attempts.Methods A total of 1852 students 14-18 years of age from 14 public and private high schools in Montréal Québec were surveyed anonymously during the 2004-2005 academic year.Main outcome measure Self reports of suicidal ideation, suicidal plan and suicide attempts in the last 12 months.Results In all, 117 students (6.3%) had a non-heterosexual identity (GLB or unsure) and 115 students (6.3%) had a heterosexual identity with same-sex attraction or behavior. Bullying occurred in 24% of heterosexual students without same-sex attraction or behavior, 32% of heterosexual students with same-sex attraction or behavior, and 48% of non-heterosexually identified students. In multivariable analysis, the common risk factors of age, gender, depressed mood, drug use, fighting, physical and sexual abuse, and
Ramirez-Valles, J; Zimmerman, M A; Newcomb, M D
Sexual activity among high-school-aged youths has steadily increased since the 1970s, emerging as a significant public health concern. Yet, patterns of youth sexual risk behavior are shaped by social class, race, and gender. Based on sociological theories of financial deprivation and collective socialization, we develop and test a model of the relationships among neighborhood poverty; family structure and social class position; parental involvement; prosocial activities; race; and gender as they predict youth sexual risk behavior. We employ structural equation modeling to test this model on a cross-sectional sample of 370 sexually active high-school students from a midwestern city; 57 percent (n = 209) are males and 86 percent are African American. We find that family structure indirectly predicts sexual risk behavior through neighborhood poverty, parental involvement, and prosocial activities. In addition, family class position indirectly predicts sexual risk behavior through neighborhood poverty and prosocial activities. We address implications for theory and health promotion.
Foy, Capri G; Newman, Jill C; Berlowitz, Dan R; Russell, Laurie P; Kimmel, Paul L; Wadley, Virginia G; Thomas, Holly N; Lerner, Alan J; Riley, William T
Sexual function, an important component of quality of life, is gaining increased research and clinical attention in older women with hypertension. To assess the association between systolic blood pressure (SBP) and other variables, and sexual activity and sexual dysfunction in hypertensive women. Baseline analysis of 635 women participants of a larger randomized clinical trial of 9361 men and women. Self-reported sexual activity (yes/no), and sexual function using the Female Sexual Function Inventory (FSFI). 452 participants (71.2%) reported having no sexual activity during the previous 4 weeks. The mean (SD) FSFI score for sexually active participants was 25.3 (6.0), and 52.6% of the sample reported a FSFI score ≤26.55 designating sexual dysfunction. In logistic regression models, SBP was not significantly associated with sexual activity (AOR = 1.002; P > .05). Older age (AOR = 0.95, P sexually active, as was living alone versus living with others (AOR = 0.56, P sexually active (AOR = 1.39; P sexually active participants, SBP was not associated with sexual dysfunction (AOR = 1.01; P > .05). Higher depressive symptoms from the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) was associated with higher odds of sexual dysfunction (AOR = 1.24, P sexually active in participants with chronic kidney disease (AOR = 0.33, P sexually active in a sample of middle-aged and older women with hypertension. Increased depressive symptoms and increased physical comorbidities were significantly associated with increased odds of sexual dysfunction. SBP was not significantly associated with sexual activity or sexual dysfunction. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Using the Add Health data (N = 9,530 dyads), this study explores sexual socialization in the family using the theory of reasoned action by assessing how mothers' opinions are associated with their childrens' sexual behavior. Findings suggest that the more sexually liberal teens think their mothers are, the more likely the teens are to have higher…
Cuellar, Jeanette; Curry, Theodore R.
Representative data show that drug abuse, delinquency, and suicide attempts are major concerns among adolescent Hispanic females. Although comorbidity research indicates that such problems tend to be related to each other, this research largely neglects Hispanic females. Using data from presentence investigations on 141 Hispanic girls sentenced to…
Zhao, Yue; Montoro, Richard; Igartua, Karine; Thombs, Brett D.
Objective: To compare risk of suicide ideation and attempts in adolescents with 1) gay, lesbian, or bisexual (GLB) identity, 2) "unsure" identity, or 3) heterosexual identity with same-sex attraction/fantasy or behavior, to heterosexual identity without same-sex attraction/fantasy or behavior. Method: A total of 1,856 students 14 years…
Eckstrand, Kristen L.; Choukas-Bradley, Sophia; Mohanty, Arpita; Cross, Marissa; Allen, Nicholas B.; Silk, Jennifer S.; Jones, Neil P.; Forbes, Erika E.
Adolescent sexual risk behavior can lead to serious health consequences, yet few investigations have addressed its neurodevelopmental mechanisms. Social neurocircuitry is postulated to underlie the development of risky sexual behavior, and response to social reward may be especially relevant. Typically developing adolescents (N=47; 18M, 29F; 16.3±1.4 years; 42.5% sexual intercourse experience) completed a social reward fMRI task and reported their sexual risk behaviors (e.g., lifetime sexual partners) on the Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS). Neural response and functional connectivity to social reward were compared for adolescents with higher- and lower-risk sexual behavior. Adolescents with higher-risk sexual behaviors demonstrated increased activation in the right precuneus and the right temporoparietal junction during receipt of social reward. Adolescents with higher-risk sexual behaviors also demonstrated greater functional connectivity between the precuneus and the temporoparietal junction bilaterally, dorsal medial prefrontal cortex, and left anterior insula/ventrolateral prefrontal cortex. The greater activation and functional connectivity in self-referential, social reward, and affective processing regions among higher sexual risk adolescents underscores the importance of social influence underlying sexual risk behaviors. Furthermore, results suggest an orientation towards and sensitivity to social rewards among youth engaging in higher-risk sexual behavior, perhaps as a consequence of or vulnerability to such behavior. PMID:28755632
Kristen L. Eckstrand
Full Text Available Adolescent sexual risk behavior can lead to serious health consequences, yet few investigations have addressed its neurodevelopmental mechanisms. Social neurocircuitry is postulated to underlie the development of risky sexual behavior, and response to social reward may be especially relevant. Typically developing adolescents (N = 47; 18M, 29F; 16.3 ± 1.4 years; 42.5% sexual intercourse experience completed a social reward fMRI task and reported their sexual risk behaviors (e.g., lifetime sexual partners on the Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS. Neural response and functional connectivity to social reward were compared for adolescents with higher- and lower-risk sexual behavior. Adolescents with higher-risk sexual behaviors demonstrated increased activation in the right precuneus and the right temporoparietal junction during receipt of social reward. Adolescents with higher-risk sexual behaviors also demonstrated greater functional connectivity between the precuneus and the temporoparietal junction bilaterally, dorsal medial prefrontal cortex, and left anterior insula/ventrolateral prefrontal cortex. The greater activation and functional connectivity in self-referential, social reward, and affective processing regions among higher sexual risk adolescents underscores the importance of social influence underlying sexual risk behaviors. Furthermore, results suggest an orientation towards and sensitivity to social rewards among youth engaging in higher-risk sexual behavior, perhaps as a consequence of or vulnerability to such behavior.
Eckstrand, Kristen L; Choukas-Bradley, Sophia; Mohanty, Arpita; Cross, Marissa; Allen, Nicholas B; Silk, Jennifer S; Jones, Neil P; Forbes, Erika E
Adolescent sexual risk behavior can lead to serious health consequences, yet few investigations have addressed its neurodevelopmental mechanisms. Social neurocircuitry is postulated to underlie the development of risky sexual behavior, and response to social reward may be especially relevant. Typically developing adolescents (N=47; 18M, 29F; 16.3±1.4years; 42.5% sexual intercourse experience) completed a social reward fMRI task and reported their sexual risk behaviors (e.g., lifetime sexual partners) on the Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS). Neural response and functional connectivity to social reward were compared for adolescents with higher- and lower-risk sexual behavior. Adolescents with higher-risk sexual behaviors demonstrated increased activation in the right precuneus and the right temporoparietal junction during receipt of social reward. Adolescents with higher-risk sexual behaviors also demonstrated greater functional connectivity between the precuneus and the temporoparietal junction bilaterally, dorsal medial prefrontal cortex, and left anterior insula/ventrolateral prefrontal cortex. The greater activation and functional connectivity in self-referential, social reward, and affective processing regions among higher sexual risk adolescents underscores the importance of social influence underlying sexual risk behaviors. Furthermore, results suggest an orientation towards and sensitivity to social rewards among youth engaging in higher-risk sexual behavior, perhaps as a consequence of or vulnerability to such behavior. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Paiva, Carlos Eduardo; Rezende, Fabiana Faria; Paiva, Bianca Sakamoto Ribeiro; Mauad, Edmundo Carvalho; Zucca-Matthes, Gustavo; Carneseca, Estela Cristina; Syrjänen, Kari Juhani; Schover, Leslie R
Sexual dysfunction is a common and distressing consequence of breast cancer (BC) treatment. In the present study, we investigated the sexual functioning of BC patients and its association with women's personal characteristics and cancer treatments. In this cross-sectional study, sexual function was assessed using the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). The health-related quality of life (HRQOL) was measured using the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) QLQ-C30 and its breast module BR-23. Of the 235 participants approached, 216 participants were included in the study. Of these, 63 patients reported no sexual activity in the last month and thus were analyzed only in relation to the sexual desire domain of FSFI. A total of 154 (71.3 %) patients were classified with hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD). From those patients reporting sexual activity in the last month, 63.3 % (97 out of 153) were classified with sexual dysfunction. Using hierarchical logistic regression, the variance explained (change in R 2 ) by the addition of body mass index (BMI) and mild to moderate physical activity in the prediction models of sexual dysfunction and HSDD were 6.8 and 7.2 %, respectively. Age, BMI, and physical activity were independently associated with sexual dysfunction and HSDD. Additionally, BC patients with sexual dysfunction reported lower scores on global HRQOL, role functioning, and fatigue. Based on our findings, BC survivors should be encouraged to practice regular physical activity and to lose weight in order to avoid sexual dysfunction. However, future clinical trials are needed to confirm these findings.
Penhollow, Tina M.; Young, Michael; Denny, George
Background: Relatively little is known about the sexual behaviors of older people, and the relationship between quality of life and sexuality has not been fully explored. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of sociological, cultural, and psychological factors to further explain variance beyond biological changes that…
Potthast, Nadine; Neuner, Frank; Catani, Claudia
A growing body of research attempts to clarify the underlying mechanisms of the association between emotional maltreatment and alcohol dependence (AD). In a preceding study, we found considerable support for a specific priming effect in subjects with AD and emotional abuse experiences receiving alcohol rehabilitation treatment. We concluded that maltreatment related cues can automatically activate an associative memory network comprising cues eliciting craving as well as alcohol-related responses. Generalizability of the results to other treatment settings remains unclear because of considerable differences in German treatment settings as well as insufficiently clarified influences of selection effects. As replication studies in other settings are necessary, the current study aimed to replicate the specific priming effect in a qualified detoxification sample. 22 AD subjects (n = 10 with emotional abuse vs. n = 12 without emotional abuse) participated in a priming experiment. Comparison data from 34 healthy control subjects were derived from the prior study. Contrary to our hypothesis, we did not find a specific priming effect. We could not replicate the result of an automatic network activation by maltreatment related words in a sample of subjects with AD and emotional abuse experiences receiving qualified detoxification treatment. This discrepancy might be attributed to reasons related to treatment settings as well as to methodological limitations. Future work is required to determine the generalizability of the specific priming effect before valid conclusions regarding automatic activation can be drawn.
Vandenbosch, L.; Beyens, I.; Vangeel, L.; Eggermont, S.
Online communication is associated with offline romantic and sexual activity among college students. Yet, it is unknown whether online communication is associated with the initiation of romantic and sexual activity among adolescents. This two-wave panel study investigated whether chatting, visiting
Wiegerink, D.J.; Stam, H.J.; Gorter, J.W.; Cohen-Kettenis, P.T.; Roebroeck, M.E.
Objectives: To describe the development of romantic relationships and sexual activity of young adults with cerebral palsy (CP), to investigate whether this development is associated with demographic and physical characteristics, and to compare the sexual activity of this group with an
Full Text Available Abstract Background To explore any association between the timing of the initiation of sexual activity and sexual behaviors and risks among university students in China. Methods Data were derived from a cross-sectional study on sexual behavior among university students conducted in Ningbo municipality, China, at the end of 2003. Students completed a self-administered, structured questionnaire. Of 1981 sexually active male students, 1908 (96.3% completed the item for timing of the initiation of sexual activity and were included in bivariate trend analyses and multiple logistic regression analyses to compare the association between this timing and sexual behavior and risks. Results Male early sexual initiators had a significantly higher risk profile, including a significantly higher proportion reporting non-regular partners (i.e., casual or commercial partners, multiple partners, diagnosis with a sexually transmitted disease (STD, partner history of pregnancy, partner history of induced abortion, and less condom and oral contraceptive use, compared with late initiators. Multivariate analyses confirmed the increased likelihood of these risks in early initiators versus late initiators, other than partner type during the last year. Conclusion Our results showed that, compared to late initiators, people who initiated sexual activity early engaged in more risky behaviors that could lead to elevated risks of unwanted pregnancies and STDs or human immunodeficiency virus infection. Sex-education strategies should be focused on an earlier age, should include advice on delaying the age of first sexual activity, and should target young people who continue to take sexual risks.
Olsson, Ann; Robertson, Eva; Björklund, Anders; Nissen, Eva
Becoming a parent is overwhelming for most men and women and alters the sexual relationship for many couples. To describe fathers' experience about sexual life after childbirth within the first 6 months after childbirth. A descriptive design, using content analysis with a qualitative approach, based on focus group discussions and one-to-one interviews. Eight first-time and two subsequent fathers participated. Three subthemes were identified: Struggling between stereotypes and personal perceptions of male sexuality during transition to fatherhood; new frames for negotiating sex; a need to feel safe and at ease in the new family situation. The overarching theme emerged as 'transition to fatherhood brings sexual life to a crossroads' and guided us to a deeper understanding of the difficulties men experience during the transition to fatherhood. To get sexual life working, a number of issues had to be resolved, such as getting involved in the care of the baby and the household and getting in tune with their partners in regard to sexual desire. The men needed to be reassured and prepared for this new situation by health care professionals. New fathers in our study put the baby in focus in early parenthood and were prepared to postpone sex until both parties were ready, although they needed reassurance to feel at ease with the new family situation. The fathers' perceptions of sexual life extended to include all kinds of closeness and touching, and it deviated from the stereotype of male sexuality. This is important information for health care providers and midwives to be aware of for their encounters with men (and women) during the transition to fatherhood, and parenthood and can contribute to caring science with a gender perspective on adjustment of sexual life after childbirth. © 2010 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences © 2010 Nordic College of Caring Science.
Shashikumar, R; Das, R C; Prabhu, H R A; Srivastava, K; Bhat, P S; Prakash, J; Seema, P
Adolescents constitute about 20% of our population and increasingly more of them are initiating sexual activity at an early age. Several behaviors associated with adolescence like masturbation, expression of masculinity/femininity, lifestyle habits like attending late night parties, and consumption of alcohol have been variously implicated in initiating sexual activities. Sexual abuse can also lead to premature sexualization. In view of few worthwhile studies from India that have dealt with these issues this study was undertaken. To elicit information from two co-education schools adolescent boys and girls on matters related to pubescence, sexual experiences, and sexual health. Study subjects involved students from class IX to XII in two co-education schools. Consent of parents was taken to administer the questionnaire to their wards. A total of 586 out of 1580 students completed a self-reporting questionnaire on matters related to sexuality. Statistical Analysis EpiInfo6 Software was used. Significant association was found among those holding the view that having sex proves their masculinity, being sexually abused, masturbation among boys, and sexual activity. A significantly large number of boys and girls are unaware of role of alcohol on sexual activity and that pregnancy can be caused by single intercourse. This was probably the first such comparative study from India. Mechanisms need to be evaluated to help adolescents understand their sexual attitudes and situations that are likely to provoke sexual activity. Therefore, not only more detailed and longitudinal studies are needed to understand these relations in a better perspective, but also a well-planned educational program for adolescents is a need of the hour.
Shashikumar, R.; Das, R. C.; Prabhu, H. R. A.; Srivastava, K.; Bhat, P. S.; Prakash, J.; Seema, P.
Context: Adolescents constitute about 20% of our population and increasingly more of them are initiating sexual activity at an early age. Several behaviors associated with adolescence like masturbation, expression of masculinity/femininity, lifestyle habits like attending late night parties, and consumption of alcohol have been variously implicated in initiating sexual activities. Sexual abuse can also lead to premature sexualization. In view of few worthwhile studies from India that have dealt with these issues this study was undertaken. Aims: To elicit information from two co-education schools adolescent boys and girls on matters related to pubescence, sexual experiences, and sexual health. Settings and Design: Study subjects involved students from class IX to XII in two co-education schools. Consent of parents was taken to administer the questionnaire to their wards. Materials and Methods: A total of 586 out of 1580 students completed a self-reporting questionnaire on matters related to sexuality. Statistical Analysis EpiInfo6 Software was used. Results: Significant association was found among those holding the view that having sex proves their masculinity, being sexually abused, masturbation among boys, and sexual activity. A significantly large number of boys and girls are unaware of role of alcohol on sexual activity and that pregnancy can be caused by single intercourse. Conclusions: This was probably the first such comparative study from India. Mechanisms need to be evaluated to help adolescents understand their sexual attitudes and situations that are likely to provoke sexual activity. Therefore, not only more detailed and longitudinal studies are needed to understand these relations in a better perspective, but also a well-planned educational program for adolescents is a need of the hour. PMID:22988320
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Chirinos Jesús L.
Full Text Available To document knowledge and attitudes regarding sexuality and sexual practices of male adolescent high school students in Lima, Peru, a self-administered, anonymous survey was completed by 991 male adolescents aged 12-19 as part of a School-Based Sex Education Intervention model. Questions concerned sociodemographic information; family characteristics; personal activities; knowledge and attitudes regarding sexuality; sexual experience; and contraceptive use. Knowledge related to sexuality was limited. Males tended to mainly discuss sexuality with their male peers (49.8%. Attitudes towards sexual activity and condom use were largely positive, although some males expressed ambivalent feelings towards the latter. Of the sample, 43% had ever had sex; age at first sexual intercourse was 13 years. While 88% of the sample would use condoms, 74% also gave reasons for not using them. Sexual activity was related to age, ever having repeated a grade, living with only one parent or in a mixed family, activities such as going to parties, use of alcohol, tobacco, and drugs, and viewing pornographic videos or magazines. Many male adolescents were at risk of causing an unintended pregnancy or acquiring an STD.
Freak-Poli, Rosanne; Kirkman, Maggie; De Castro Lima, Gustavo; Direk, Nese; Franco, Oscar H; Tiemeier, Henning
Despite a common misconception, older adults engage in sexual behavior. However, there is limited sexual behavior research in older adults, which is often restricted to small samples, to cohorts recruiting adults from 45 years old, and to questions regarding only sexual intercourse. To assess the cross-sectional prevalence of and characteristics associated with sexual activity and physical tenderness in community-dwelling older adults. From the Rotterdam Study, sexual activity and physical tenderness were assessed in 2,374 dementia-free, community-dwelling men and women at least 65 years old from 2009 through 2012 in the Netherlands. Analyses were stratified by sex and partner status. Sexual activity and physical tenderness (eg, fondling or kissing) in the last 6 months. Potential associated characteristics included measurements of demographics, socioeconomic position, health behavior, and health status. The vast majority of partnered participants (men, n = 858; women, n = 724) had experienced physical tenderness in the previous 6 months (83.7% of men and 82.9% of women) and nearly half had engaged in sexual activity (49.5% and 40.4% respectively). Very few unpartnered women (n = 675) had engaged in sexual activity (1.3%) or physical tenderness (5.2%), whereas prevalence rates were slightly higher for unpartnered men (n = 117; 13.7% or 17.1%). Engaging in sexual behavior was generally associated with younger age, greater social support, healthier behaviors, and better physical and psychological health. Findings show that older adults engage in sexual activity. It is important not to assume that an older person is not interested in sexual pleasure or that an older person is unhappy with not having a sexual partner. Offering an opportunity for open discussion of sexuality and medical assistance without imposing is a difficult balance. We encourage health care professionals to proactively address sexuality and extend knowledge about safe sex and sexual function
Maria José Carvalho Sant'Anna
Full Text Available Pregnancy during adolescence represents a challenge to society as a whole. Its incidence is increasing and brings about social and medical consequences to both the teen mothers and their children. The purpose of this study was to evaluate pregnant teenager involvement in sexual activity and the social context. The group studied comprised 152 pregnant teenagers attending the Department of Pediatrics, Santa Casa de Sao Paulo (SCSP General Hospital. All information was analyzed. The age at first intercourse was 14.2 years and the average period between first intercourse and pregnancy was 1.4 years. Most pregnancies (75% were neither planned nor wanted, however, most teen mothers (64.3% did not use any contraceptive method. Of the pregnant teenagers, 68.1% came from unstructured families where in 71% of the teen pregnancy cases, there was a role model (mother, sister, or cousin who already experienced teen pregnancy. The average number of school years attended by the analyzed pregnant teenagers was 8.1 years, however, there was a high dropout rate of 40.1%. The age at first intercourse was low and concurs with the high incidence of unstructured families. The average number of school years attended was high, which would theoretically reflect a greater knowledge with regard to human reproduction, pointing to the multicausality of teen pregnancy and the role played by the family. Conclusions: We confirmed that teen pregnancy presents multicausal etiology; sexual initiation of pregnant teenagers was quite early with high dropout rates, which indicated that prevention methodology should be based on early detection of risk factors for elaboration of appropriate prevention proposals.
Bradley, K C; Meisel, R L
Dopamine transmission in the nucleus accumbens can be activated by drugs, stress, or motivated behaviors, and repeated exposure to these stimuli can sensitize this dopamine response. The objectives of this study were to determine whether female sexual behavior activates nucleus accumbens neurons and whether past sexual experience cross-sensitizes neuronal responses in the nucleus accumbens to amphetamine. Using immunocytochemical labeling, c-Fos expression in different subregions (shell vs core at the rostral, middle, and caudal levels) of the nucleus accumbens was examined in female hamsters that had varying amounts of sexual experience. Female hamsters, given either 6 weeks of sexual experience or remaining sexually naive, were tested for sexual behavior by exposure to adult male hamsters. Previous sexual experience increased c-Fos labeling in the rostral and caudal levels but not in the middle levels of the nucleus accumbens. Testing for sexual behavior increased labeling in the core, but not the shell, of the nucleus accumbens. To validate that female sexual behavior can sensitize neurons in the mesolimbic dopamine pathway, the locomotor responses of sexually experienced and sexually naive females to an amphetamine injection were then compared. Amphetamine increased general locomotor activity in all females. However, sexually experienced animals responded sooner to amphetamine than did sexually naive animals. These data indicate that female sexual behavior can activate neurons in the nucleus accumbens and that sexual experience can cross-sensitize neuronal responses to amphetamine. In addition, these results provide additional evidence for functional differences between the shell and core of the nucleus accumbens and across its anteroposterior axis.
Georgiadis, [No Value; Holstege, G; Georgiadis, Janniko R.
Penile sensory information is essential for reproduction, but almost nothing is known about how sexually salient inputs from the penis are processed in the brain. We used positron emission tomography to measure regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) during various stages of male sexual performance.
O'Sullivan, Lucia F.
New digital technologies are highly responsive to many of the developmental needs of adolescents, including their need for intimate connection and social identity. This chapter explores adolescents' use of web-based sexual information, texting and "sexting," online dating sites, role-playing games, and sexually explicit media, and…
Bor, Serhat; Valytova, Elen; Yildirim, Esra; Vardar, Rukiye
Background The role of sexual activity on gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is an under-recognized concern of patients, and one rarely assessed by physicians. Objective The objective of this article is to determine the influence of sexual activity on the intraesophageal acid exposure and acid reflux events in GERD patients. Methods Twenty-one patients with the diagnosis of GERD were prospectively enrolled. Intraesophageal pH monitoring was recorded for 48 hours with a Bravo capsule. All patients were instructed to have sexual intercourse or abstain in a random order two hours after the same refluxogenic dinner within two consecutive nights. Patients were requested to have sex in the standard “missionary position” and women were warned to avoid abdominal compression. The patients completed a diary reporting the time of the sexual intercourse and GERD symptoms. The percentage of reflux time and acid reflux events were compared in two ways: within 30 and 60 minutes prior to and after sexual intercourse on the day of sexual intercourse and in the same time frame of the day without sexual intercourse. Results Fifteen of 21 GERD patients were analyzed. The percentage of reflux time and number of acid reflux events did not show a significant difference within the 30- and 60-minute periods prior to and after sexual intercourse on the day of sexual intercourse and on the day without sexual intercourse, as well. Conclusion Sexual activity does not predispose to increased intraesophageal acid exposure and acid reflux events. Larger studies are needed to confirm our findings in patients who define reflux symptoms during sexual intercourse. PMID:25452843
Shane M. Pearce, MD
Conclusions: Men on AS experienced a gradual decline in sexual function during the first 24 months of enrollment. Older age, PSA × time, and diabetes were all independent predictors of diminished sexual function over time. Anxiety, AUA‐SI, the number of cores and the number of biopsies were not predictors of reduced sexual function in men in AS. Pearce SM, Wang CHE, Victorson DE, Helfand BT, Novakovic KR, Brendler CB, and Albaugh JA. A longitudinal study of predictors of sexual dysfunction in men on active surveillance for prostate cancer. Sex Med 2015;3:156–164.
Lederer, Alyssa M.
Values clarification is an important tool that helps individuals to clarify their beliefs about sexuality-related issues. This lesson plan provides instructions for a 1-hour values clarification activity for a large undergraduate human sexuality course that serves as an introduction to course content and tone, stimulates students' initial thinking…
Coping With Problem of Low Sexual Activities among the Aged: The Moderator Variables. ... Lwati: A Journal of Contemporary Research ... from 446 literate aged respondents through the administration of copies of researchers” developed instrument called “Coping with Sexual Problems Questionnaire of the Aged” on them.
Cornil, C A; Dalla, C; Papadopoulou-Daifoti, Z; Baillien, M; Dejace, C; Ball, G F; Balthazart, J
In Japanese quail, as in rats, the expression of male sexual behavior over relatively long time periods (days to weeks) is dependent on the local production of estradiol in the preoptic area via the aromatization of testosterone. On a short-term basis (minutes to hours), central actions of dopamine as well as locally produced estrogens modulate behavioral expression. In rats, a view of and sexual interaction with a female increase dopamine release in the preoptic area. In quail, in vitro brain aromatase activity (AA) is rapidly modulated by calcium-dependent phosphorylations that are likely to occur in vivo as a result of changes in neurotransmitter activity. Furthermore, an acute estradiol injection rapidly stimulates copulation in quail, whereas a single injection of the aromatase inhibitor vorozole rapidly inhibits this behavior. We hypothesized that brain aromatase and dopaminergic activities are regulated in quail in association with the expression of male sexual behavior. Visual access as well as sexual interactions with a female produced a significant decrease in brain AA, which was maximal after 5 min. This expression of sexual behavior also resulted in a significant decrease in dopaminergic as well as serotonergic activity after 1 min, which returned to basal levels after 5 min. These results demonstrate for the first time that AA is rapidly modulated in vivo in parallel with changes in dopamine activity. Sexual interactions with the female decreased aromatase and dopamine activities. These data challenge established views about the causal relationships among dopamine, estrogen action, and male sexual behavior.
Shilo, Guy; Mor, Zohar
In Israel, as in other industrialized countries, the age of sexual debut among adolescents has declined, and the rate of sexually transmitted infections (STI) has risen, but the motivations and attitudes of Israeli adolescents toward carrying condoms have yet to be studied. The aims of this study were to establish the associations (if any) between demographic characteristics and the knowledge held by Jewish Israeli adolescents about HIV transmission, their attitudes toward condom use and sexual experience, and to explore their recommendations to increase condom use. The method used was an analysis of sexual experience and practices, attitudes toward condom carrying and condom use among a national representative sample of Jewish adolescents aged 15-18. Two dichotomized measures were assessed: (i) sexual experience (defined as having had previous consensual oral/vaginal/anal sex); and (ii) the practice of carrying a condom on a regular basis. Of all 410 participants, 14.6% carried condoms, 18.3% had sexual experience, and 70.7% of those used condoms. Those who thought condoms to be protective against HIV, and those who thought they are difficult to wear, were more likely to have sexual experience. The perception of condom use as important, and the perception that condoms are difficult to wear, were predictors of condom carrying. The participants' knowledge of the risk of HIV in vaginal intercourse was deficient. Participants did not consider school sex education to be effective in promoting condom use, and recommended the use of graphic, deterrent personal accounts told by youths to encourage wider use of condoms. Health educators should consider the barriers cited by adolescents and the deterrent techniques they recommend when planning interventions to encourage condom use. © 2015 International Society for Sexual Medicine.
Valadares, Ana Lúcia Ribeiro; Santos Machado, Vanessa S; da Costa-Paiva, Lúcia S; de Souza, Maria Helena; Osis, Maria José; Pinto-Neto, Aarão M
This study aims to evaluate the prevalence of sexual activity, factors associated with being sexually active, and sexual self-perception in women 50 years or older living in a Brazilian city. This population-based study applied a questionnaire to a random sample of 622 Brazilian women 50 years or older, representative of a population of 131,800 women, to obtain data on sexual activity and women's perception of their sexual life as part of a broader study that dealt with women's health. Associations between sexual activity, women's perception of their sexual life, and demographic, behavioral, and medical characteristics were determined. Overall, 36.7% of the participants reported being sexually active. Of these, 53.5% classified their sexual life as very good or good. Multiple regression analysis showed that the main factors associated with the absence of sexual activity were not having a partner (prevalence ratio [PR], 0.16; 95% CI, 0.12-0.23; P aging (PR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.94-0.96; P sexually active was associated with the practice of physical activity (PR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.02-1.41; P = 0.032). A woman's classification of her sexual life as very poor, poor, or fair was associated with current or past use of natural remedies to treat menopausal symptoms (PR, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.06-1.81; P = 0.020). The main factors associated with the absence of sexual activity are not having a sexual partner, aging, and smoking, whereas weekly physical activity is associated with being sexually active. A poorer classification of a woman's sexual life is associated with her having used natural remedies to treat menopausal symptoms.
Casey, Erin A; Querna, Katherine; Masters, N Tatiana; Beadnell, Blair; Wells, Elizabeth A; Morrison, Diane M; Hoppe, Marilyn J
Intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization is linked to sexual risk exposure among women. However, less is known about the intersection of IPV perpetration and sexual risk behavior among men. This study used data from a diverse, community sample of 334 heterosexually active young men, aged 18 to 25, across the United States to examine whether and how men with distinct IPV-related behavior patterns differed in sexual risk-related behavior and attitudes. Participants were recruited and surveyed online, and grouped conceptually based on the types of IPV perpetration behavior(s) used in a current or recent romantic relationship. Groups were then compared on relevant sexual risk variables. Men reporting both physical abuse and sexual coercion against intimate partners reported significantly higher numbers of lifetime partners, higher rates of nonmonogamy, greater endorsement of nonmonogamy, and less frequent condom use relative to nonabusive men or those reporting controlling behavior only. This group also had higher sexually transmitted infection (STI) exposure compared to men who used controlling behavior only and men who used sexual coercion only. Findings suggest that interventions with men who use physical and sexual violence need to account for not only the physical and psychological harm of this behavior but also the sexual risk to which men may expose their partners.
Döring, Nicola; Daneback, Kristian; Shaughnessy, Krystelle; Grov, Christian; Byers, E Sandra
The purpose of this study was to compare male and female college students in four countries (Canada, Germany, Sweden, and the U.S.) on their lifetime experiences (prevalence) and frequency of recent experiences with six types of online sexual activities (OSA): sexual information, sexual entertainment, sexual contacts, sexual minority communities, sexual products, and sex work. Participants (N = 2690; M age, 24.65 years; 53.4 % women, 46.6 % men) were recruited from a university in each of the countries to complete an online survey that included background and demographic questions, and questions about OSA. Most participants reported experience with accessing sexual information (89.8 %) and sexual entertainment (76.5 %) online. Almost half (48.5 %) reported browsing for sexual products, and a substantial minority reported having engaged in cybersex (30.8 %). Very few participants (1.1 %) paid for online sexual services or received payment (0.5 %). In general, participants showed relatively infrequent experience with all types of OSA within the last 3 months. Men showed both higher prevalence and frequency of use of sexually stimulating material online than did women. However, this gender gap was smaller than in previous studies. Country and gender by country effects were (with one exception) either very small or non-existent, suggesting that, overall, students in the four countries were similar in their OSA experiences. Results are discussed in light of an emerging global net generation and globalized sexual culture.
Eun, Sung Jong; Kong, Gwang Woo; Kim, Hyung Joong; Seo, Jeong Jin; Kang, Heoung Keun; Cho, Ki Hyun; Yoon, Ka Hyun; Kim, Kyung Yo
To identify the brain centers associated with visually evoked sexual arousal in the human brain, and to investigate the neural mechanism for sexual arousal using functional MRI (fMRI). A total of 20 sexually potent volunteers consisting of 10 males (mean age: 24) and 10 females (mean age: 23) underwent fMRI on a 1.5T MR scanner (GE Signa Horizon). The fMRI data were obtained from 7 slices (10 mm slice thickness) parallel to the AC-PC (anterior commissure and posterior commissure) line, giving a total of 511 MR images. The sexual stimulation consisted of a 1-minute rest with black screen, followed by a 4-minute stimulation by an erotic video film, and concluded with a 2-minute rest. The brain activation maps and their quantification were analyzed by the statistical parametric mapping (SPM 99) program. The brain activation regions associated with visual sexual arousal in the limbic system are the posterior cingulate gyrus, parahippocampal gyrus, hypothalamus, medial cingulate gyrus, thalamus, amygdala, anterior cingulate gyrus, insula, hippocampus, caudate nucleus, globus pallidus and putamen. Especially, the parahippocampal gyrus, cingulate gyrus, thalamus and hypothalamus were highly activated in comparison with other areas. The overall activities of the limbic lobe, diencephalon, and basal ganglia were 11.8%, 10.5%, and 3.4%, respectively. In the correlation test between brain activity and sexual arousal, the hypothalamus and thalamus showed positive correlation, but the other brain areas showed no correlation. The fMRI is useful to quantitatively evaluate the cerebral activation associated with visually evoked, sexual arousal in the human brain. This result may be helpful by providing clinically valuable information on sexual disorder in humans as well as by increasing the understanding of the neuroanatomical correlates of sexual arousal
Eun, Sung Jong; Kong, Gwang Woo; Kim, Hyung Joong; Seo, Jeong Jin; Kang, Heoung Keun; Cho, Ki Hyun; Yoon, Ka Hyun [School of Medicine, Chonnam National Univ., Kwangju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kyung Yo [Wonkwang Univ., Iksan (Korea, Republic of)
To identify the brain centers associated with visually evoked sexual arousal in the human brain, and to investigate the neural mechanism for sexual arousal using functional MRI (fMRI). A total of 20 sexually potent volunteers consisting of 10 males (mean age: 24) and 10 females (mean age: 23) underwent fMRI on a 1.5T MR scanner (GE Signa Horizon). The fMRI data were obtained from 7 slices (10 mm slice thickness) parallel to the AC-PC (anterior commissure and posterior commissure) line, giving a total of 511 MR images. The sexual stimulation consisted of a 1-minute rest with black screen, followed by a 4-minute stimulation by an erotic video film, and concluded with a 2-minute rest. The brain activation maps and their quantification were analyzed by the statistical parametric mapping (SPM 99) program. The brain activation regions associated with visual sexual arousal in the limbic system are the posterior cingulate gyrus, parahippocampal gyrus, hypothalamus, medial cingulate gyrus, thalamus, amygdala, anterior cingulate gyrus, insula, hippocampus, caudate nucleus, globus pallidus and putamen. Especially, the parahippocampal gyrus, cingulate gyrus, thalamus and hypothalamus were highly activated in comparison with other areas. The overall activities of the limbic lobe, diencephalon, and basal ganglia were 11.8%, 10.5%, and 3.4%, respectively. In the correlation test between brain activity and sexual arousal, the hypothalamus and thalamus showed positive correlation, but the other brain areas showed no correlation. The fMRI is useful to quantitatively evaluate the cerebral activation associated with visually evoked, sexual arousal in the human brain. This result may be helpful by providing clinically valuable information on sexual disorder in humans as well as by increasing the understanding of the neuroanatomical correlates of sexual arousal.
Full Text Available Abstract Background An increasing awareness of the need to address sexual and orgasm experiences as part of life quality and an understanding of the great individual differences between women play roles in women's health and medical care across the specialities. Information is lacking as to how negative attitude toward self (NATS and performance impairment (PI are associated with sexual activity of middle-aged women. We examined the associations of sexual experience, orgasm experience, and lack of sexual desire with perceived health and potential explanatory variables of NATS and PI. Methods Questionnaire was mailed to 2 population-based random samples of menopausal or soon-to-be menopausal women (n = 5510, 70% response stratified according to age (42–46 and 52–56 years. In multivariate analyses of the associations with the outcome variables, perceived health, NATS, and PI were used as covariates in 6 models in which exercise, menstrual symptoms, and illness indicators were taken into account as well. Results Sexual activity variables were associated with perceived health. When present, NATS formed associations with sexual and orgasm experiences, whereas strenuous exercise formed associations with orgasm among 42–46-year-old women alone. Strenuous exercise was not associated with orgasm experience among older women. Conclusion NATS and PI are closely tied to orgasm experiences and the meaning of the roles needs to be exposed. Sexual activity deserves to be addressed more actively in patient contact at least with perimenopausal women.
Langille, Donald B; Hughes, Jean; Murphy, Gail Tomblin; Rigby, Janet A
Little is known about associations of adolescents' socio-economic status (SES) and their sexual activity and risk behaviours. This study examined these associations in Nova Scotia adolescents aged 15-19. Students at four high schools in northern Nova Scotia completed surveys examining relationships of family SES factors and: 1) sexual activity (having had vaginal or anal intercourse, intercourse before age 15 (early intercourse)); and 2) risk behaviours (use of contraception/condoms, number of partners and unplanned intercourse after substance use). Of students present when the survey was administered, 2,135 (91%) responded. Almost half (49%) had had vaginal intercourse, and 7% anal intercourse. In univariate analysis for young women, non-intact family structure and lower parental education were associated with having vaginal, anal and early intercourse. Female risk behaviours showed no significant univariate associations with SES. Young men had univariate associations of family structure, lower maternal education and paternal unemployment with early intercourse, and lower paternal education with anal intercourse. Condom use was higher for young men with employed fathers; those living with both parents less often had >1 sexual partner. In multivariate analysis, most SES associations with females' sexual activities held, while most for males did not, and few associations of SES and risk behaviours were seen for females. Indicators of lower SES are associated with sexual activity in young women. Sexual risk behaviours are not often associated with SES in females, though they are more so in males. These findings have implications for sexual health promotion and health services.
Eddy H. de Bruyn
Full Text Available In this paper, we investigated the sexual activity levels of several subtypes of middle adolescents (age 14–15 years. The subtype profiles were based on dominance-popularity status and a range of behaviors associated with dominance and popularity. In addition, gender differences in behavioral profiles were examined among dominant-popular, sexually active young adolescents. Results showed that socially dominant and popular young adolescent boys who exhibited a highly aggressive profile were more sexually active than their low-status and non-aggressive male peers; dominant-popular girls who were very attractive and gossips were more sexually active than their female peers. The results are discussed from an evolutionary psychological framework.
Friedman, Carly K; Ayres, Melanie
Engagement in activism is related to several aspects of social development in adolescence and emerging adulthood. Therefore, it is important to examine the correlates of different forms of activism, such as feminist collective action, among all youth. However, previous research has not investigated young sexual-minority women's engagement with feminist collective action. This study examined predictors of college-aged heterosexual and sexual-minority women's commitment to and participation in feminist activism. Sexual orientation, number of years in college, social support, experiences with discrimination, and gender identity were tested as predictors of commitment to and participation in feminist activism with a sample of 280 college-aged women (173 heterosexuals and 107 sexual minorities). Similar predictors were related to both commitment to and participation in feminist activism. However, for sexual-minority women, but not heterosexual women, the number of years in college was correlated with participation in feminist activism. Young sexual-minority women reported more participation in feminist activism than did heterosexual women, even after controlling for social support, discrimination, and gender identity.
Choi, Y J; Lee, W H; Rha, K H; Xin, Z C; Choi, Y D; Choi, H K
This study examined the masturbatory experiences and other sexual activities of young Korean males in military service. The actual status of masturbation and its relationship to sexual activity questionnaire. A total of 1,212 young males among military personnel in Korea were interviewed with sexuality questionnaires on masturbation, sexual intercourse and personal characteristics. We divided these subjects into four groups according to the age of initiation of masturbation and analyzed the relationship between masturbation and other sexual activities. The mean age of subjects was 22.03 +/- 1.22 (19-27) years. The percentage of men who reported ever having masturbated was 98.1% (1189/1212) and the average age of initiation of masturbation was 14.26 +/- 1.66 years. So we divided 1,212 males into four groups on the basis of the average age below and above one standard deviation. Overall, 67.7% (821/1212) had experienced sexual intercourse, and significantly, the earlier the initiation age of masturbation, the higher the coitus rate in each group (p masturbation were closely linked to the initiation age of masturbation, respectively (p masturbation was earlier. Coital incidence in this study was 67.7% for young males in Korean military service, and 21.5% of them had their first sexual intercourse with prostitutes. Prostitution still plays an important role in the sexual lives of males in Korea. The incidence of STD was over 10% and homosexual manifestation was seen in 1.07% of subjects. Thus a proper and sound sex education at school during childhood is needed in Korea. A large scale survey of sexual behavior in various populations is essential for the improvement of correct sexual concepts.
Meltem Ayhan Oral
Full Text Available Background: Patients with macromastia sometimes claim that their sexual life is negatively affected from the hypertrophic breasts. The intention of this prospective study is to evaluate the effects of breast reduction surgery on sexual satisfaction, marital adjustment, and the psychological condition of patients. Materials and Methods: The experimental group (n = 25 consisted of patients who had undergone surgery for macromastia, while the control group (n = 23 consisted of matched patients with similar demographic features. Using questionnaires, the respondents from the experimental group were evaluated for their body image perception, self-esteem, anxiety and depression status, sexual satisfaction, and marital adjustment both before surgery and 12 months after surgery. The same questionnaires were administered to the patients in the control group. Results: A comparison of the pre- and postoperative scores from the questionnaires revealed that the women in the experimental group observed an improvement in their body image perception and self-esteem and a decrease in their levels of anxiety and depression. There was no significant change between the pre- and post-operative scores of the experimental group in the sexual satisfaction index. Between the experimental group and the control group, a statistically significant difference was seen only for preoperative anxiety levels. Conclusion: Reduction mammoplasty had a favorable effect on the self-esteem, body image perception, depression, and anxiety but had no impact on sexual satisfaction of the patients. Level of evidence: Level II, Evidence obtained from well-designed controlled trials without randomization.
Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia A.; Krauss, Melissa J.; Spitznagel, Edward L.; Schootman, Mario; Cottler, Linda B.; Bierut, Laura Jean
To investigate factors associated with favorable pregnancy attitudes among teenage girls. Participants were sexually active teenage girls aged 15–18 years old (n = 965) who took part in the 2002 or 2006–2010 National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG). Multinomial multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the likelihood of being pleased with a teenage pregnancy. Sixteen percent of sexually active teenage girls (n = 164) would be pleased (11 % a little pleased, 5 % very pleased) if they...
Quiñones, Victoria; Jurska, Justyna; Fener, Eileen; Miranda, Regina
Research suggests that being unable to generate solutions to problems in times of distress may contribute to suicidal thoughts and behavior, and that depression is associated with problem-solving deficits. This study examined active and passive problem solving as moderators of the association between depressive symptoms and future suicidal ideation among suicide attempters and nonattempters. Young adults (n = 324, 73% female, mean age = 19, standard deviation = 2.22) with (n = 78) and without (n = 246) a suicide attempt history completed a problem-solving task, self-report measures of hopelessness, depression, and suicidal ideation at baseline, and a self-report measure of suicidal ideation at 6-month follow-up. Passive problem solving was higher among suicide attempters but did not moderate the association between depressive symptoms and future suicidal ideation. Among attempters, active problem solving buffered against depressive symptoms in predicting future suicidal ideation. Suicide prevention should foster active problem solving, especially among suicide attempters. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Taniguchi, H; Kawa, G; Yoshida, K; Takayasu, K; Kinoshita, H; Matsuda, T
The relationship between volume of the seminal vesicles and the frequency of sex and sexual function in middle-aged men is not clear. This study included 81 patients who were diagnosed with localized prostate cancer. Volume of the seminal vesicles was examined using a volume analyser from computed tomography. Sexual function was subjectively evaluated using the Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite and Erection Hardness Score. The frequency of sex was surveyed using our original questionnaire. The mean ± SD age of the patients was 67.7 ± 5.3 years. There was no relationship between the volume of seminal vesicles and age of the patients. Volume of the seminal vesicles in patients who answered that they had sexual activity at least once a year was significantly larger than in those who answered no sexual activity for several years (P middle-aged men, volume of the seminal vesicles was significantly larger in those who had a sexual frequency once every 3 months than in those who had a sexual frequency once every 6 months or once a year (P middle-aged men is correlated with sexual activity. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Habel, Melissa A; Dittus, Patricia J; De Rosa, Christine J; Chung, Emily Q; Kerndt, Peter R
Previous studies suggest that student athletes may be less likely than nonathletes to engage in sexual behavior. However, few have explored sexual risk behavior among athletes in early adolescence. In 2005, a sample of 10,487 students in 26 Los Angeles public middle and high schools completed a self-administered survey that asked about their demographic characteristics, sports participation, sexual behaviors and expectations, and parental relationships. Chi-square analyses compared reported levels of daily participation in sports, experience with intercourse, experience with oral sex and condom use at last intercourse by selected characteristics. Predictors of sexual experience and condom use were assessed in multivariate logistic regression analyses. One-third of students reported daily participation in sports. This group had higher odds of ever having had intercourse and ever having had oral sex than their peers who did not play a sport daily (odds ratios, 1.2 and 1.1, respectively). The increases in risk were greater for middle school sports participants than for their high school counterparts (1.5 and 1.6, respectively). Among sexually experienced students, daily sports participants also had elevated odds of reporting condom use at last intercourse (1.4). Students as young as middle school age who participate in sports daily may have an elevated risk for STDs and pregnancy. Health professionals should counsel middle school athletes about sexual risk reduction, given that young students may find it particularly difficult to obtain contraceptives, STD testing and prevention counseling. Copyright © 2010 by the Guttmacher Institute.
Full Text Available Trata-se de pesquisa quantitativa que teve como objetivo investigar a iniciação sexual de adolescentes do sexo masculino em Concórdia, Santa Catarina. Participaram da mesma 340 adolescentes do sexo masculino, com idades entre 14 e 19 anos, que freqüentavam o ensino médio em seis instituições de ensino do município de Concórdia, que aceitaram participar e que trouxeram o Termo de Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido assinado pelos pais ou responsáveis. Destes, 69,7% afirmaram ter relações sexuais, sendo que a média de idade da primeira relação foi de 14,4 anos, menor que a média nacional de 15 anos. A primeira relação sexual ocorreu com uma ficante para 45,1% e 64,2% afirmaram que o principal motivo para a mesma foi vontade/tesão. A maioria (74,2% qualificou a experiência como boa ou muito boa. O uso da camisinha foi apontado como método utilizado na primeira relação sexual por 73,8% dos adolescentes e como método usado em todas as relações por 72,5%. Alguns adolescentes relataram não conversar sobre sexualidade, mas a maioria aponta os amigos como principal fonte de informações sobre sexo. Frente ao exposto, fica claro que apesar de terem sua primeira relação sexual cada vez mais precocemente, o diálogo sobre prevenção tem surtido efeito, o que é reforçado pelo uso expressivo do preservativo entre os adolescentes.This quantitative study aimed to investigate the onset of sexual activity in male adolescents from Concordia, Santa Catarina, Brazil. The studied sample consisted of a total of 340 14-19-year-old male adolescents attending secondary school in six local educational institutions, who accepted to answer the questionnaire and whose parents signed the Free and Informed Consent. From these, 69,7% affirmed that they already had sexual relations; the mean age at the first relation was 14,4, lower than national average of 15 years. The first sexual relation occurred with a date in the case of 45,1% and 64
Thoma, Brian C
Young men who have sex with men (YMSM) are at disproportionate risk for HIV infection. Parental monitoring is protective against adolescent sexual risk behavior among heterosexual adolescents, yet it is unclear whether these findings generalize to YMSM. YMSM experience unique family dynamics during adolescence, including coming out to parents and parental rejection of sexual orientation. The present study examined how theoretically derived parental monitoring constructs were associated with sexual activity and sexual risk behaviors among YMSM. YMSM aged 14-18 years completed a cross-sectional online survey (n = 646). Factor analysis was completed to determine factor structure of monitoring measure. Sexual behaviors were predicted from monitoring constructs and covariates within regression models. Parental knowledge and adolescent disclosure, parental solicitation, parental control, and adolescent secret-keeping emerged as four distinct monitoring constructs among YMSM. Higher knowledge and disclosure (b = -.32, p = .022), higher control (b = -.28, p = .006), lower solicitation (b = .31, p = .008), and lower secret-keeping (b = .25, p = .015) were associated with lower odds of sexual activity with males in the past 6 months. Higher knowledge and disclosure (b = -.12, p = .016), higher control (b = -.08, p = .039), and lower secret-keeping (b = .11, p = .005) were associated with having fewer recent sexual partners. Monitoring constructs were unassociated with condomless anal intercourse instances among sexually active YMSM. YMSM disclosure is closely tied with parental knowledge, and parents should foster relationships and home environments where YMSM are comfortable disclosing information freely. Effective parental monitoring could limit YMSM's opportunities for sexual activity, but monitoring is not sufficient to protect against HIV-related sexual risk behaviors among sexually active YMSM. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and
Christensen, M. Candace
This study explores the experiences of male college students who participated in a theatre-based, peer-education, sexual assault prevention presentation. The program was established through the use of Pedagogy of the Oppressed and Theatre of the Oppressed, as well as multicultural feminist theory and approaches. These models emphasize subverting…
Elliott, Kathleen O.
This paper examines the work of a gay-straight alliance and the ways in which members use elements of queer theory to understand their own and others' identities, both to make sense of their experiences and to support their activist efforts. The analysis identifies queer perspectives on gender and sexual identity as useful tools for supporting…
Objective. To determine the prevalence and co-factors associated with the practice of dual protection against sexually transmitted infections (STis) and unwanted pregnancy in a cross-sectional sample of South African women. Design. Secondary analysis of cross-sectional household survey data. Methods. Statistical ...
Background: Erectile dysfunction (ED) has made the initiations of therapy and continued therapy increasingly problematic in the management of the hypertensive male. There are reports suggesting beneficial effects of angiotensin II antagonists on sexual function. The effects of losartan on ED in Nigerian hypertensive men ...
Linder, Chris; Myers, Jess S.
Institutional betrayal, feelings of treason that occur when an institution fails to prevent or respond appropriately to wrongdoings committed within the context of an institution, contributes to exacerbated trauma for survivors of sexual violence (Smith & Freyd, 2014). Through a qualitative research study, we examine experiences of 10 sexual…
Williams, Lela Rankin; Russell, Stephen T
Typically, "non-romantic" sexual relationships are assumed to be casual; however, the emotional and social distinctions between romantic and non-romantic contexts are not well understood, particularly in adolescence. Data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) was used to compare shared emotional (e.g., telling partner that they love her/him) and social (e.g., going out in a group) activities within romantic and non-romantic sexual relationships. Adolescents who reported exclusively romantic sexual relationships (n = 1,891) shared more emotional, but not social, activities with their partners than adolescents who were in non-romantic sexual relationships (n = 315; small effect size, r = .07-.13), akin to adolescents who experienced both relationship types (n = 519; small-to-medium effect size, r = .18-.38). Girls shared more emotional and social activities with their partners than boys when in romantic relationships (small effect size, r = .06-.10); there were no significant gender differences within non-romantic sexual relationships. Findings suggest that gendered scripts remain for sexual relationships that are romantic but not for those that are non-romantic. Notably, for the majority of adolescents, non-romantic relationships still held many emotional and social dimensions typical of romantic relationships and differences between relationship types were small. Although non-romantic relationships were less intimate than romantic sexual relationships, there was remarkable heterogeneity within this relationship type. Caution is advised when working with adolescents engaged in "casual" sexual relationships. Understanding the complexity of adolescent sexual relationships is critical for the advancement of effective sex education programming.
Holden, C A; McLachlan, R I; Cumming, R; Wittert, G; Handelsman, D J; de Kretser, D M; Pitts, M
With limited information regarding fertility and sexual activity in the older population, men's behaviour, attitudes and concerns were explored in a representative population of middle-aged and older men using the Men in Australia, Telephone Survey (MATeS). A stratified random national sample of 5990 men participated in a standardized computer-assisted telephone interview. Equal numbers in the age strata 40-49, 50-59, 60-69 and >or=70 years were surveyed with findings census-standardized to the national population. Broad aspects of men's health and well-being, including reproductive health, were explored. The majority of men were sexually active in the last 12 months (age-standardized proportion, 78.3%) with approximately 37% of men aged >or=70 years still continuing sexual activity. Overall, 12.2% of men had never fathered children, of whom most (7.7%) had chosen not to have children. Questioning on failed attempts to produce a pregnancy suggested an involuntary infertility rate of 7.6%. The age-standardized vasectomy rate was 25.1%, with 5.6% of vasectomized men having no children. Although 9.2% of vasectomized men regretted sterilization, only 1.4% had undergone vasectomy reversal. Continuing sexual activity, fertility and contraception needs in middle-aged and older men suggests that education and service delivery must be more appropriately directed to an ageing population.
Wetherill, Reagan R; Fromme, Kim
The current study examined one's sense of personal invincibility as a contributing factor to high school athletes' more frequent behavioral risks compared to those of non-athletes. Perceived risk was assessed as a mediator of sports participation and alcohol use, and sports participation and sexual activity among high school athletes. Prior to leaving home, college-bound high school graduates (n = 2,247) completed web-based surveys assessing alcohol use, sexual activity, sports participation, and perceived risk. The mediational models were analyzed using generalized linear modeling and the procedures of Baron and Kenny (1986). Relative to non-athletes, athletes reported greater alcohol use, more sexual partners, and lower perceived risk. Perceived risk mediated the association between sports participation and alcohol use for both young men and women. Perceived risk also mediated the association between sports participation and number of sexual partners for women and partially mediated this association for men. Perceived risk partially mediated the association between sports participation and episodes of unsafe sexual activity in both men and women. These findings suggest a potential cognitive mechanism which may account for differences in alcohol use and sexual activity between athletes and non-athletes during late adolescence.
Abecia, J A; Chemineau, P; Flores, J A; Keller, M; Duarte, G; Forcada, F; Delgadillo, J A
Sexual activity in sheep is under photoperiodic control, which is the main environmental factor responsible for the seasonality of reproduction. However, other natural environmental factors such as presence of conspecifics can slightly influence the timing of onset and offset of the breeding season. In goats, we have found that the continuous presence of bucks that were rendered sexually active out of season by previous exposure to long days, prevented goats from displaying seasonal anestrus, which suggests that the relative contribution of photoperiod in controlling seasonal anestrus should be reevaluated in small ruminant species. The aim of this study was to assess whether the presence of sexually active rams that had been stimulated by artificial photoperiod and melatonin implants, reduces seasonal anestrus in sheep, by prolonging ovulatory activity in spring. Ewes were assigned to one of two groups (n = 16 and 15), which were housed in two separate barns, and kept in contact, either with the treated or the control rams between March and July. Vasectomized rams were either exposed to 2 months of long days followed by the insertion of three subcutaneous melatonin implants (treated rams, n = 8), or exposed to natural light conditions (control rams, n = 2). Estrus was monitored daily, and weekly plasma progesterone analyses indicated ovulatory activity. Ewes that were exposed to treated rams exhibited a higher proportion of monthly estrus than ewes exposed to the control rams (P ewes (one ewe was not considered because of the presence of persistent CL) exposed to stimulated rams exhibited estrous behavior in a cyclic manner. In contrast, all ewes exposed to control rams stopped estrous activity for a period of time during the study, such that this group exhibited a significantly longer anestrous season (mean ± standard error of the mean 89 ± 9 days) than did the ewes housed with treated rams (26 ± 10 days; P ewes housed with treated rams, 13 of
Sérgio Araujo Martins Teixeira
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar fatores associados à atividade sexual desprotegida em adolescentes femininas menores de 15 anos. MÉTODOS: Estudo observacional de corte transversal com adolescentes femininas menores de 15 anos e sexualmente ativas, atendidas em um ambulatório público de ginecologia. Os instrumentos de coleta de dados foram: entrevista semiestruturada para dados pessoais e de sexualidade, e exame clínico-laboratorial para diagnóstico de doenças sexualmente transmissíveis. Os dados foram analisados por meio de testes de frequência, de associação de variáveis com p OBJECTIVE: To identify factors associated with unprotected sexual activity in female adolescents younger than 15 years. METHODS: Observational cross-sectional trial with female teenagers less than 15 years-old and sexually active, attended at a public gynecology clinic. Instruments for data collection were: semi-structured interviews for personal data and about sexuality as well as clinical examination and laboratory tests for diagnosis of sexually transmitted diseases. Data were analyzed by testing of frequency, association of variables with p <0.05 and multiple correspondence analysis. RESULTS: One hundred adolescents between 11 and 14 years of age sexually active were interviewed and examined, 71% declared themselves black, one-third were behind in school, 80% began sexual activity before 13 years of age , 58% reported having been victims of violence in the intrafamily environment and 13% had suffered sexual abuse, 77% did not use condoms regularly and 22% had STDs. Unprotected sexual activity occurred more frequently with the first sexual intercourse before 13 years of age, commercial sexual exploitaion, multiple sexual partners, intrafamily violence and school delay, in addition to be black, to unexpected pregnancy and have STDs. CONCLUSION: The multiple violence suffered by teenagers, including structural, intrafamily and sexual, contribute to increase their
Tavares, Inês M; Laan, Ellen T M; Nobre, Pedro J
Cognitive-affective factors contribute to female sexual dysfunctions, defined as clinically significant difficulties in the ability to respond sexually or to experience sexual pleasure. Automatic thoughts and affect presented during sexual activity are acknowledged as maintenance factors for these difficulties. However, there is a lack of studies on the influence of these cognitive-affective dimensions regarding female orgasm. To assess the role of automatic thoughts and affect during sexual activity in predicting female orgasm occurrence and to investigate the mediator role of these variables in the relation between sexual activity and orgasm occurrence. Nine hundred twenty-six sexually active heterosexual premenopausal women reported on frequency of sexual activities and frequency of orgasm occurrence, cognitive factors, and social desirability. Participants completed the Sexual Modes Questionnaire-Automatic Thoughts Subscale, the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, and the Socially Desirable Response Set. Multiple linear regressions and mediation analyses were performed, controlling for the effect of covariates such as social desirability, sociodemographic and medical characteristics, and relationship factors. The main outcome measurement was orgasm frequency as predicted and mediated by automatic thoughts and affect experienced during sexual activities. The presence of failure thoughts and lack of erotic thoughts during sexual activity significantly and negatively predicted female orgasm, whereas positive affect experienced during sexual activity significantly and positively predicted female orgasm. Moreover, negative automatic thoughts and positive affect during sexual activity were found to mediate the relation between sexual activity and female orgasm occurrence. These data suggest that the cognitive aspects of sexual involvement are critical to enhancing female orgasm experience and can aid the development of strategies that contemplate the central role
Christensen, Birgitte S; Grønbaek, Morten; Pedersen, Bo V; Graugaard, Christian; Frisch, Morten
Studies have linked obesity, a sedentary lifestyle, and tobacco smoking to erectile dysfunction, but the evidence linking unhealthy lifestyle factors to other sexual dysfunctions or to sexual inactivity is conflicting. To examine associations between unhealthy lifestyle factors and sexual inactivity with a partner and four specific sexual dysfunctions in each sex. We used nationally representative survey data from 5,552 Danish men and women aged 16-97 years in 2005. Cross-sectional associations of lifestyle factors with sexual inactivity and sexual dysfunctions were estimated by logistic regression-derived, confounder-adjusted odds ratios (ORs). We calculated ORs for sexual inactivity with a partner and for sexual dysfunction and sexual difficulties overall in both sexes, for erectile dysfunction, anorgasmia, premature ejaculation, and dyspareunia in men, and for lubrication insufficiency, anorgasmia, dyspareunia, and vaginismus in women. Obesity (body mass index [BMI]≥30 kg/m(2) ) or a substantially increased waist circumference (men ≥102 cm; women ≥88 cm), physical inactivity, and, among women, tobacco smoking were each significantly associated with sexual inactivity in the last year. Among sexually active men, both underweight (BMI 21 alcoholic beverages/week), tobacco smoking, and use of hard drugs were each significantly positively associated with one or more sexual dysfunctions (ORs between 1.71 and 22.0). Among sexually active women, the only significant positive association between an unhealthy lifestyle factor and sexual dysfunction was between hashish use and anorgasmia (OR 2.85). In both sexes, several unhealthy lifestyle factors were associated with sexual inactivity with a partner in the last year. Additionally, among sexually active participants, men with unhealthy lifestyles were significantly more likely to experience sexual dysfunctions. Considering the importance of a good sex life, our findings may be useful in attempts to promote healthier
Varshney, V.P.; Pande, J.K.; Sanwal, P.C.
Thyroid activity at sexual maturity in the male and female Black Bengal goats was investigated. No change could be recorded at the attainment of sexual maturity in either of the sexes. The cyclic female goats also failed to reflect any change in the thyroid activity during any phase of the oestrous cycle. Again the male goats also failed to reflect any differences in the thyroid activity from the females, either during their immature, or during their mature life. The observations presented thus reflect that the thyroid activity in goats is not influenced by the attainments of sexual maturity or by the sex, in this species. The thyroid gland activity was assessed by using the in vitro technique of triiodothyronine- 125 I uptake by resin. (author)
Diane Santa Maria
Full Text Available While HIV disproportionately impacts homeless individuals, little is known about the prevalence of HIV risk behaviors in the southwest and how age factors and HIV risk perceptions influence sexual risk behaviors. We conducted a secondary data analysis (n = 460 on sexually active homeless adults from a cross-sectional study of participants (n = 610 recruited from homeless service locations, such as shelters and drop-in centers, in an understudied region of the southwest. Covariate-adjusted logistic regressions were used to assess the impact of age at homelessness onset, current age, age at first sex, and HIV risk perceptions on having condomless sex, new sexual partner(s, and multiple sexual partners (≥4 sexual partners in the past 12 months. Individuals who first experienced homelessness by age 24 were significantly more likely to report condomless sex and multiple sexual partners in the past year than those who had a later onset of their first episode of homelessness. Individuals who were currently 24 years or younger were more likely to have had condomless sex, new sexual partners, and multiple sexual partners in the past 12 months than those who were 25 years or older. Those who had low perceived HIV risk had lower odds of all three sexual risk behaviors. Social service and healthcare providers should consider a younger age at homelessness onset when targeting HIV prevention services to youth experiencing homelessness.
Singh, Surender; Nair, Vinod; Gupta, Yogendra K.
Objectives: To study the effect of acute and repeated dose administration of lyophilized aqueous extract of the dried fruits of Tribulus terrestris (LAET) on sexual function in sexually sluggish male albino rats. Materials and Methods: Aphrodisiac activity of the test drug was evaluated in terms of exhibited sexual behavior. In order to assess the effect of chronic T. terrestris exposure on the hypothalamus--pituitary--gonadal axis, testosterone level estimation and sperm count were carried out. Twenty-eight-day oral toxicity studies were carried out to evaluate the long-term effects of the LAET administration on different body systems. Results: A dose-dependent improvement in sexual behavior was observed with the LAET treatment as characterized by an increase in mount frequency, intromission frequency, and penile erection index, as well as a decrease in mount latency, intromission latency, and ejaculatory latency. The enhancement of sexual behavior was more prominent on chronic administration of LAET. Chronic administration of LAET produced a significant increase in serum testosterone levels with no significant effect on the sperm count. No overt body system dysfunctions were observed in 28-day oral toxicity study. Conclusions: Findings of the present study validate the traditional use of T. terrestris as a sexual enhancer in the management of sexual dysfunction in males. PMID:22368416
Oei, Nicole Y L; Rombouts, Serge Arb; Soeter, Roelof P; van Gerven, Joop M; Both, Stephanie
Dopaminergic medication influences conscious processing of rewarding stimuli, and is associated with impulsive-compulsive behaviors, such as hypersexuality. Previous studies have shown that subconscious subliminal presentation of sexual stimuli activates brain areas known to be part of the 'reward system'. In this study, it was hypothesized that dopamine modulates activation in key areas of the reward system, such as the nucleus accumbens, during subconscious processing of sexual stimuli. Young healthy males (n=53) were randomly assigned to two experimental groups or a control group, and were administered a dopamine antagonist (haloperidol), a dopamine agonist (levodopa), or placebo. Brain activation was assessed during a backward-masking task with subliminally presented sexual stimuli. Results showed that levodopa significantly enhanced the activation in the nucleus accumbens and dorsal anterior cingulate when subliminal sexual stimuli were shown, whereas haloperidol decreased activations in those areas. Dopamine thus enhances activations in regions thought to regulate 'wanting' in response to potentially rewarding sexual stimuli that are not consciously perceived. This running start of the reward system might explain the pull of rewards in individuals with compulsive reward-seeking behaviors such as hypersexuality and patients who receive dopaminergic medication.
Ahmed, Abul-Fotouh; Alshahrani, Saad; Morgan, Anthony; Gabr, Ahmed H; Abdel-Razik, Mohamed; Daoud, Abdallah
To evaluate the frequency of sex-enhancing medications (S-EM) use and to investigate the demographics and sexual characteristics of the S-EM users amongst a Saudi Arabian male population. A cross-sectional sample of 1176 Saudi Arabian men was recruited using a web-based survey between 1 January and 1 April 2015. The survey included multiple open and closed questions to assess the frequency of S-EM use; and demographics, clinical, and sexual characteristics of S-EM users, as well as their perceptions of S-EM. Amongst the participants, 1008 were sexually active and included in the data analysis. Of the sexually active participants, 402 (39.9%) reported S-EM use in the form of herbal or phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors at some time in their lives. Comparing S-EM users with S-EM non-users, the S-EM users had a number of demographic and sexual characteristics including: higher education level, higher income, smoking, more than one sexual partner, longer sexual activity duration, higher frequency of sexual intercourse, and lower sexual satisfaction level. Most of the S-EM users (82.1%) bought S-EM without a medical prescription and 62.5% had used them recreationally. In all, 52% of respondents used S-EM to treat ED and 69% of those who used it recreationally reported enhancement of erection with S-EM usage. Demographic and sexual characteristics of S-EM users and the attitude of the users towards the S-EM were identified amongst a Saudi Arabian male population.
Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate the frequency of sex-enhancing medications (S-EM use and to investigate the demographics and sexual characteristics of the S-EM users amongst a Saudi Arabian male population. Subjects and methods: A cross-sectional sample of 1176 Saudi Arabian men was recruited using a web-based survey between 1 January and 1 April 2015. The survey included multiple open and closed questions to assess the frequency of S-EM use; and demographics, clinical, and sexual characteristics of S-EM users, as well as their perceptions of S-EM. Results: Amongst the participants, 1008 were sexually active and included in the data analysis. Of the sexually active participants, 402 (39.9% reported S-EM use in the form of herbal or phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors at some time in their lives. Comparing S-EM users with S-EM non-users, the S-EM users had a number of demographic and sexual characteristics including: higher education level, higher income, smoking, more than one sexual partner, longer sexual activity duration, higher frequency of sexual intercourse, and lower sexual satisfaction level. Most of the S-EM users (82.1% bought S-EM without a medical prescription and 62.5% had used them recreationally. In all, 52% of respondents used S-EM to treat ED and 69% of those who used it recreationally reported enhancement of erection with S-EM usage. Conclusions: Demographic and sexual characteristics of S-EM users and the attitude of the users towards the S-EM were identified amongst a Saudi Arabian male population. Keywords: Characteristics, Phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors, Sex-enhancing medication use
Yoon, Jongmin; Lee, Seung-Hee; Joo, Eun-Jin; Na, Ki-Jeong; Park, Shi-Ryong
Various selection pressures induce the degree and direction of sexual size dimorphism in animals. Selection favors either larger males for contests over mates or resources, or smaller males are favored for maneuverability; whereas larger females are favored for higher fecundity, or smaller females for earlier maturation for reproduction. In the genus of Larus (seagulls), adult males are generally known to be larger in size than adult females. However, the ontogeny of sexual size dimorphism is not well understood, compared to that in adults. The present study investigates the ontogeny of sexual size dimorphism in Saunders's gulls (Larus saundersi) in captivity. We artificially incubated fresh eggs collected in Incheon, South Korea, and measured body size, locomotor activity, and foraging skill in post-hatching chicks in captivity. Our results indicated that the sexual differences in size and locomotor activity occurred with the post-hatching development. Also, larger males exhibited greater foraging skills for food acquisition than smaller females at 200 days of age. Future studies should assess how the adaptive significance of the sexual size dimorphism in juveniles is linked with sexual divergence in survival rates, intrasexual contests, or parental effort in sexes.
Momtaz, Yadollah Abolfathi; Hamid, Tengku Aizan; Ibrahim, Rahimah; Akahbar, Siti Aisyah Nor
Sexuality as an important part of life has not been well studied in Malaysia, particularly among older adults. The main aim of this study was to investigate the racial and socioeconomic differences in sexual activity among older married Malaysians. Data for this study consisting of 1036 older married adults aged 60 years and older were obtained from the nationwide community-based cross-sectional survey entitled "Determinants of Wellness among Older Malaysian: A Health Promotion Perspective", conducted in 2010. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 21 for Windows. The results showed that 57.3% (95% CI: 54.3-60.3) of the respondents (61.6% of men and 50.6% of women) had engaged in sexual intercourse during the last 12 months. The adjusted multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that ethnicity and educational attainment were independently and significantly associated with sexual activity, after controlling for the possible confounding effects of chronic medical conditions and demographic characteristics. The findings from this study do support the notion that sexuality is a lifelong need and cultural teachings and formal education may have important role in maintaining the quality of sexuality in later life. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Rahman, Azriani Abdul; Rahman, Razlina Abdul; Ismail, Shaiful Bahari; Ibrahim, Mohd Ismail; Ali, Siti Hawa; Salleh, Halim; Wan Muda, Wan Abdul Manan
The objective of this cross-sectional study was to determine the factors associated with the attitudes toward premarital sexual activities among school-going adolescents in Kelantan, Malaysia. It was conducted among 1032 secondary school students using a self-administered validated questionnaire. Multiple logistic regression revealed that the risk factors for having permissive attitudes toward practice of premarital sexual activities were male students (odds ratio [OR] = 1.83; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.34-2.48), being less religious (OR = 2.02; 95% CI = 1.49-2.73), and younger age group of students (13 to 14 years old; OR = 1.42; 95% CI = 1.05-1.92). Having good knowledge on sexual and reproductive health was a protective factor against permissive sexual attitude (OR = 0.27; 95% CI = 0.20-0.36). In conclusion, male and young adolescents were at risk of having permissive attitudes toward sexual behaviors, but good knowledge on sexual and reproductive health and being more religious may protect them from it. © 2012 APJPH.
Balfour, Margaret E; Yu, Lei; Coolen, Lique M
The mesolimbic system plays an important role in the regulation of both pathological behaviors such as drug addiction and normal motivated behaviors such as sexual behavior. The present study investigated the mechanism by which this system is endogenously activated during sexual behavior. Specifically, the effects of sexual experience and sex-related environmental cues on the activation of several components of the mesolimbic system were studied. The mesolimbic system consists of a dopaminergic projection from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) to the nucleus accumbens (NAc). Previous studies suggest that these neurons are under tonic inhibition by local GABA interneurons, which are in turn modulated by mu opioid receptor (MOR) ligands. To test the hypothesis that opioids are acting in the VTA during sexual behavior, visualization of MOR internalization in VTA was used as a marker for ligand-induced activation of the receptor. Significant increases in MOR internalization were observed following copulation or exposure to sex-related environmental cues. The next goal was to determine if sexual behavior activates dopamine neurons in the VTA, using tyrosine hydroxylase as a marker for dopaminergic neurons and Fos-immunoreactivity as a marker for neuronal activation. Significant increases in the percentage of activated dopaminergic neurons were observed following copulation or exposure to sex-related environmental cues. In addition, mating and sex-related cues activated a large population of nondopaminergic neurons in VTA as well as neurons in both the NAc Core and Shell. Taken together, our results provide functional neuroanatomical evidence that the mesolimbic system is activated by both sexual behavior and exposure to sex-related environmental cues.
Marcell, Arik V.; Matson, Pam; Ellen, Jonathan M.; Ford, Carol A.
Introduction Few sexually active male adolescents receive sexual/reproductive health (SRH) services. We examine whether the association between adolescents’ sexual behavior status and physical examination over time can help us understand why. Methods We conducted longitudinal cohort analysis of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health with 9239 adolescents who completed the baseline school (1994/95) and Wave 2 (1996) follow-up surveys approximately 1.5 years later (retention rate=71%). We fit logistic regression models with random effects to estimate individual odds of reporting a physical examination in the past 12 months at follow-up, as compared to baseline, stratified by sexual behavior status and gender, and adjusting for sociodemographic and healthcare access factors. Results 34.5% males and 38.2% females reported experiencing vaginal intercourse by follow-up, and 22.4% males and 24.7% females reported first experiencing intercourse during the study. Among sexually active adolescents, about half reported annual exams and one-fifth no exams. Among females, baseline to follow-up exam reports significantly increased in: sex initiators (adjusted Odds Ratio [95% confidence interval]=2.09 [1.66–2.64]); those reporting sex at both times (2.16 [1.51–3.09]); and those reporting no sex either time (2.47 [2.00–3.04]). Among males, baseline to follow-up exam reports significantly increased in those reporting no sex either time (1.57 [1.26–1.96]) and showed increasing trends in sex initiators (1.27 [0.92–1.76]). Discussion A majority of sexually active adolescents report annual physical exams over time. Providers should not miss opportunities to deliver evidence-based SRH to sexually active adolescents. Future efforts are needed to increase all adolescents’ access to SRH services. PMID:21700156
Beisert, Maria; Szymañska-Pytlińska, Marta; Kapczuk, Karina; Chodeckal, Aleksandra; Walczyk-Matyja, Katarzyna; Kędzia, Witold
The aim of the study was to assess sexual activity of women with Mayer-Pokitansky-K0ster-Hauser syndrome (MRKHS) in relation to age-matched con trots. The hypotheses on differences betwedn them in regard to various types of sexual activity and its characteristics were verified. 31 patients with MRKHS and 31 healthy women were examined. Psychosexual biography by M. Beisert was used to gain information on autoerotic and dyadic behavior: Phi-coefficient and U Mann-Whitney test were performed. Women with the MRKHS started autoerotic be ha vior at a similar age (U=58, 00; ns), practiced masturbation with the same frequency (in adolescence--U=350,00; ns and adulthood--U=137.50; ns) and manifested a similar level of sexual arousal (U=326,50; ns) as the age-matched controls. They declared experiencing vaginal (Phi=0.507; psexual activity at a higher age than the controls (petting U=182,00; pSexual development of patients with the MRKHS and healthy women is partly similar Differences in dyadic sexual activity are not limited to vaginal intercourse thus are probably determined by biological conditions and their psychological implications.
Linder, Chris; Myers, Jess S.; Riggle, Colleen; Lacy, Marvette
Using Internet-related ethnography (Postill & Pink, 2012), we examined the role of social media in campus sexual violence activism. Based on observations of online activist communities and interviews with 23 activists, we highlight raising awareness, community building, and interrupting power dynamics as activism strategies enhanced by social…
López, Pilar; Gabirot, Marianne; Martín, José
Many animals use chemical signals in sexual selection, but it is not clear how these sexual traits might have evolved to signal honestly male condition. It is possible that there is a trade-off between maintaining the immune system and the elaboration of ornaments. We experimentally challenged the immune system of male Iberian wall lizards, Podarcis hispanica, with a bacterial antigen (lipopolysaccharide), without pathogenic effects, to explore whether the immune activation affected chemical ornaments. Immune activation resulted in decreased proportions of a major chemical in femoral secretions (cholesta-5,7-dien-3-ol = provitamin D3) known to be selected in scent of males by females and which active form (vitamin D) has a variety of important effects on immune system function. This result suggests the existence of a potential trade-off between physiological regulation of the immune system and the allocation of essential nutrients (vitamins) to sexual chemical ornaments in male lizards.
Hernández-González, Marisela; Guevara, Miguel Angel; Agmo, Anders
The neurobiological bases of human sexual behavior are only partly understood. The etiology of most human sexual dysfunctions is not understood at all. Nevertheless, substantial progress has been made in the treatment of some male sexual disorders. The prime example should be erectile deficiency, where several efficient and safe treatments are available. Pharmacological treatment for premature ejaculation is also available, although it is still in an early stage. Disorders of sexual desire have attracted much attention when women are affected but far less so when men are concerned. Whereas animal models appropriate for testing treatments for problems with erection and premature ejaculation are available, it is questionable whether such models of the desire disorders have predictive validity. There seems to be many factors involved both in reduced and enhanced sexual desire, most of which are unknown. In this review we present some data suggesting that an electroencephalographic analysis of brain activity during exposure to sexually relevant stimuli in male rats and men and during execution of sexual behaviors in male rats may provide useful information. The effects of a commonly used drug, ethanol, on the electroencephalogram recorded during sexual events in rats and men are also described. Although this approach to the analysis of the central nervous activity associated with sexual desire, arousal and behavior is still in its infancy, the data obtained so far show a remarkable similarity between men and rats. This suggests that animal studies of electroencephalographic responses to drugs in sexual contexts may be useful for predicting effects in the human male. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Suicide is the leading cause of death among South Korean adolescents. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between suicidal thoughts (ST) and suicidal attempts (SA) with the level of physical activity (PA) among South Korean adolescents. Based on data from the eighth Korea Youth Risk Behaviors Web-Based Survey, 74,186 South Korean adolescents were evaluated in terms of their relationship between meeting guidelines for vigorous PA (VPA), moderate PA (MPA), and low PA (LPA) and in respect of ST and SA status. The adjusted odds ratio in adolescents who thought about suicide increased significantly with PA levels (1.02 in males, 1.21 in females with VPA, 1.10 in males, 1.18 in females with MPA, and 1.16 in males, 1.20 in females with LPA) compared to participants who did not think about suicide. In addition, the AOR in adolescents who attempted suicide increased significantly with PA levels (1.16 in males, 1.36 in females with VPA, 1.13 in males, 1.15 in females with MPA, and 1.26 in males, 1.15 in females with LPA) compared to participants who did not attempt suicide. These results show that VPA, MPA, and LPA are positively associated with ST and SA prevention in South Korean adolescents. Therefore, to prevent suicide of South Korean adolescents, we support public health program including PA participation. Key PointsSouth Korean male adolescents, compared to female adolescents, showed relatively high values for physical activity-related variables such as vigorous, moderate, and low PA.Regardless of gender, more physical activity participation is positively associated with prevention of suicidal thought and attempts of South Korean adolescents.To prevent suicide of South Korean adolescents, we support public health program including meeting guidelines for vigorous, moderate, and low physical activity.
Dickenson, Janna A; Huebner, David M
There is considerable debate over whether adolescent sexual activity is maladaptive and associated with worse mental health outcomes versus a positive developmental milestone that is associated with better mental health outcomes. Although these perspectives are often pitted against one another, the current study employed a more integrative perspective: adolescent sexual activity may be maladaptive in certain contexts, but healthy in other contexts. We investigated whether family support and gender moderated the relation between sexual activity and mental health outcomes in a diverse sample of 519 lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) youth. Specifically, we examined whether youth who engaged in more sexual activity would have fewer depressive symptoms in the context of a more supportive family environment, but more depressive symptoms in the context of a less supportive family environment and whether this effect was stronger for sexual minority girls. Consistent with the sexual health perspective, we found that among girls with more family support, those who engaged in more frequent same-sex sexual contact had lower levels of depressive symptoms. Unexpectedly, we found that among boys with more family support, those who engaged in more frequent same-sex sexual contact had higher levels of depressive symptoms. In contrast, girls and boys with less family support showed no relation between sexual activity and depressive symptoms. Overall, results suggest that context is critical when determining whether same-sex sexual contact among LGB youth should be considered maladaptive or beneficial.
Wersinger, S R; Rissman, E F
Estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) is believed to be a critical part of the regulatory processes involved in normal reproduction and sexual behavior. However, in this study we show the ERalpha is not required for display of masculine sexual behavior. Male and female, ERalpha knock-out (ERalphaKO) and wild-type mice were gonadectomized and implanted with testosterone. Sexual behavior and social preferences were tested after injection of the dopamine agonist, apomorphine (APO), or vehicle. All wild-type mice showed normal masculine behavior, including mounts and pelvic thrusts in females, and ejaculation in males. In agreement with past reports, ERalphaKO mice, given vehicle, failed to show mating behavior. Yet, ERalphaKO males given APO showed masculine copulatory behavior and chemoinvestigatory behavior directed at females. ERalphaKO females, treated with APO, mounted and thrusted when tested with receptive females. HPLC revealed that wild-type and ERalphaKO mice had equivalent catecholamine content in brain regions associated with masculine sexual behavior. These data show that the ERalpha is not essential during development or adulthood for the expression of masculine sexual behavior in mice. Moreover, dopamine can activate sexual behavior via a mechanism that either acts on an ER other than ERalpha or via an estrogen-independent pathway.
Full Text Available Background: Cyproterone acetate (CPA is a steroidal anti-androgenic medication used in the field of psychiatry for the treatment of paraphilic disorders, hypersexuality, and inappropriate sexual behaviour which may be present in patients with disorders such as mild and major neurocognitive disorders. In the forensic psychiatric population, it is prescribed for these indications especially for patients with a history of committing a sexual offence or who are at moderate to high risk of recidivism. Objectives: To investigate the use of CPA in a forensic psychiatric cohort of male sex offenders and its associations with sexual activity and sexual functioning. Methods: Seventy-six forensic psychiatric patients from Weskoppies Hospital in Pretoria, South Africa, participated in the study which measured their sexual functioning. A specifically designed questionnaire was used to capture relevant background information. The use of CPA was studied. The Changes in Sexual Functioning Questionnaire, Male Clinical Version (CSFQ-M-C was used to measure sexual functioning of participants. The CSFQ-M-C scores, and those of all its subscales, of participants on CPA were compared to those not on the drug. Relevant statistical analyses were performed. Results: Thirteen out of the 76 participants were being treated with CPA (17.11%. In total, 53.85% of the participants on CPA and 65.08% not on CPA had scores indicating the presence of sexual dysfunction. The total CSFQ-M-C scores for participants on CPA (mean = 40.54; median = 42 were not statistically significantly lower than those not on the drug (mean = 41.22; median = 41. More notable is that the use of CPA in this population was associated with lower levels of desire, frequency of and pleasure from sexual activity. There was an association between having intellectual disability and being treated with CPA. Conclusion: That all the participants were being treated with psychotropic medication could account for
Van Rossem, Ronan; Berten, Hans; Van Tuyckom, Charlotte
The behavior of adolescents puts them at an increased risk for HIV and other STIs, and their knowledge about HIV/AIDS is often inadequate. An understanding of how AIDS knowledge and sexual activity co-vary among Flemish secondary school students and of how education type, specifically, affects these students is limited. This study addresses the question of whether the effects of education type on HIV/AIDS knowledge and sexual activity are independent of the socio-demographic characteristics of the students. Data from the Flemish Educational Assessment survey, which collected data from a large representative sample of third- and fifth-grade high school students (N = 11,872), were used. Data were analyzed using multilevel logistic and Poisson regression techniques. There is an indication that type of education affects both an adolescent's sexual activity and his/her AIDS knowledge; these effects prove robust for differences in socio-economic backgrounds. Students in lower status education types are more likely to be sexually active and to have poorer AIDS knowledge. The relationship between AIDS knowledge and sexual activity is, however, more complex. Although students in education types with poorer AIDS knowledge are more sexually active, within each of these groups the sexually active have better AIDS knowledge than the non-sexually active. There is also evidence of active information seeking by sexually active students, which leads to improved AIDS knowledge. These findings are consistent with the literature on the role of the educational system in the reproduction of social inequalities. Students from lower status education types are at increased sexual risk compared to those from higher status types. There is also evidence of active information seeking by sexually active students, which leads to improved AIDS knowledge.
Western discourses about young people and sexuality centre around the concept of risk. Anxieties have been fuelled by the increasing popularity of social media and practices such as 'sexting' and watching 'sexually explicit' materials online. Research has shown however that such risk discourses mainly serve to moralise about, pathologise and police particular behaviours and children. In order to counter such paternalism, researchers advocated a reconceptualisation of youth not as passive victims, but as active agents who actively negotiate sexual experiences and discourses. In this paper, which is based on ethnographic fieldwork among young people in The Netherlands, I argue that we need a reconceptualisation not only of youth, but also of their sexual practices, especially their online sexual practices. Mobilising an interdisciplinary interaction between critical socio-cultural studies of risk, feminist theory and adventure studies, I propose to reconceptualise these practices as 'adventures' rather than 'risky behaviour'. This opens up possibilities for a more reasoned analysis that acknowledges: (1) the distinction between risks and outcomes of an activity; (2) the constructive potential of risk; and (3) the subjective, dynamic character of risk and pleasure.
Abecia, José A; Chemineau, Philippe; Gómez, Andrea; Palacios, Carlos; Keller, Matthieu; Delgadillo, José A
This study was aimed to determine whether the presence of sexually stimulated rams by photoperiodic and melatonin treatments can advance the resumption of post-partum sexual activity in Mediterranean ewes lambing in January and weaned at the end of the breeding season at 41°N, in March. Rams were exposed to two months of long days (16 h light/day) and given three melatonin implants at the end of the long days (sexually-activated rams; SAR). Control rams (CR) were exposed to the natural photoperiod. Thirty-six ewes weaned on 25 February were assigned to one of two groups. From 1 March to 30 June, one group was housed with four SAR males (SAR-treated; n = 18), and the other group (CR-treated; n = 18) was housed with four unstimulated rams. Ovulation was assessed once per week based on plasma progesterone concentrations. Estrus was monitored daily by marks left on ewes by rams' harnesses. SAR-treated ewes had a shorter ( p ewes (61 ± 17 days vs. 102 ± 47 days; mean date of first estrus after weaning on April 26 and June 6, respectively). The proportion of the ewes ovulating in April or May was higher ( p ewes resumed estrous activity sooner than CR-treated ewes such that, in April, May, and June, the proportion of females that exhibited estrus was higher ( p ewes in spring. The practical implications of this work could be important in ewes adapted for intensive production and accelerated lambing systems.
Ybarra, Michele L.; Mitchell, Kimberly J.
Objective To examine the relation between “sexting,” (sending and sharing sexual photos online via text messaging and in-person) with sexual risk behaviors and psychosocial challenge in adolescence. Methods Data were collected online between 2010 and 2011 with 3,715 randomly selected 13- to 18-year-old youth across the United States. Results Seven percent of youth reported sending or showing someone sexual pictures of themselves, where they were nude or nearly nude, online, via text messaging, or in-person, during the past year. Although females and older youth were more likely to share sexual photos than males and younger youth, the profile of psychosocial challenge and sexual behavior was similar for all youth. After adjusting for demographic characteristics, sharing sexual photos was associated with all types of sexual behaviors assessed (e.g., oral sex, vaginal sex) as well as some of the risky sexual behaviors examined—particularly having concurrent sexual partners and having more past-year sexual partners. Adolescents who shared sexual photos also were more likely to use substances and less likely to have high self-esteem than their demographically similar peers. Conclusions While the media has portrayed “sexting” as a problem caused by new technology, health professionals may be more effective by approaching it as an aspect of adolescent sexual development and exploration and, in some cases, risk-taking and psychosocial challenge. PMID:25266148
Ybarra, Michele L; Mitchell, Kimberly J
To examine the relation between "sexting" (sending and sharing sexual photos online, via text messaging, and in person) with sexual risk behaviors and psychosocial challenge in adolescence. Data were collected online between 2010 and 2011 with 3,715 randomly selected 13- to 18-year-old youth across the United States. Seven percent of youth reported sending or showing someone sexual pictures of themselves, in which they were nude or nearly nude, online, via text messaging, or in person, during the past year. Although females and older youth were more likely to share sexual photos than males and younger youth, the profile of psychosocial challenge and sexual behavior was similar for all youth. After adjusting for demographic characteristics, sharing sexual photos was associated with all types of sexual behaviors assessed (e.g., oral sex, vaginal sex) as well as some of the risky sexual behaviors examined-particularly having concurrent sexual partners and having more past-year sexual partners. Adolescents who shared sexual photos also were more likely to use substances and less likely to have high self-esteem than their demographically similar peers. Although the media has portrayed sexting as a problem caused by new technology, health professionals may be more effective by approaching it as an aspect of adolescent sexual development and exploration and, in some cases, risk-taking and psychosocial challenge. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
In 2015, the birth rate among U.S. adolescents and young adults (aged 15-19 years) reached a historic low at 22.3 per 1,000 women. Despite positive trends, the United States continues to have the highest adolescent pregnancy rate among industrialized countries with data. Racial and ethnic disparities in adolescent pregnancy rates continue to exist, as do state-based differences in pregnancy, birth, and abortion rates. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists supports access for adolescents to all contraceptive methods approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. In the absence of contraindications, patient choice should be the principal factor in prescribing one method of contraception over another. Dual method use-the use of condoms in combination with more effective contraceptive methods to protect against sexually transmitted infections and unwanted pregnancy-is the ideal contraceptive practice for adolescents. Just as adolescents should have access to the full range of contraceptives, including long-acting reversible contraceptive methods, they should be able to decline and discontinue any method on their own, without barriers. A reproductive justice framework for contraceptive counseling and access is essential to providing equitable health care, accessing and having coverage for contraceptive methods, and resisting potential coercion by health care providers. Successful programs that resulted in measurable changes in adolescent contraceptive practices and sexual behavior have been described, but not implemented uniformly nor supported by policy improvements. More research is needed to determine which programs are most effective and which programs do not work. Continued efforts are integral to further advance positive trends.
Bocher, M; Chisin, R; Parag, Y; Freedman, N; Meir Weil, Y; Lester, H; Mishani, E; Bonne, O
This study attempted to use PET and 15O-H2O to measure changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) during sexual arousal evoked in 10 young heterosexual males while they watched a pornographic video clip, featuring heterosexual intercourse. This condition was compared with other mental setups evoked by noisy, nature, and talkshow audiovisual clips. Immediately after each clip, the participants answered three questions pertaining to what extent they thought about sex, felt aroused, and sensed an erection. They scored their answers using a 1 to 10 scale. SPM was used for data analysis. Sexual arousal was mainly associated with activation of bilateral, predominantly right, inferoposterior extrastriate cortices, of the right inferolateral prefrontal cortex and of the midbrain. The significance of those findings is discussed in the light of current theories concerning selective attention, "mind reading" and mirroring, reinforcement of pleasurable stimuli, and penile erection.
Rao, T.S. Sathyanarana; Nagaraj, Anil Kumar M.
Sex is a motive force bringing a man and a woman into intimate contact. Sexuality is a central aspect of being human throughout life and encompasses sex, gender identities and roles, sexual orientation, eroticism, pleasure, intimacy, and reproduction. Sexuality is experienced and expressed in thoughts, fantasies, desires, beliefs, attitudes, values, behaviors, practices, roles and relationships. Though generally, women are sexually active during adolescence, they reach their peak orgasmic fre...
Lobão, T N; Campos, G B; Selis, N N; Amorim, A T; Souza, S G; Mafra, S S; Pereira, L S; Dos Santos, D B; Figueiredo, T B; Marques, L M; Timenetsky, J
Ureaplasma urealyticum and U. parvum have been associated with genital infections. The purpose of this study was to detect the presence of ureaplasmas and other sexually transmitted infections in sexually active women from Brazil and relate these data to demographic and sexual health, and cytokines IL-6 and IL-1β. Samples of cervical swab of 302 women were examined at the Family Health Units in Vitória da Conquista. The frequency of detection by conventional PCR was 76·2% for Mollicutes. In qPCR, the frequency found was 16·6% for U. urealyticum and 60·6% U. parvum and the bacterial load of these microorganisms was not significantly associated with signs and symptoms of genital infection. The frequency found for Trichomonas vaginalis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Gardnerella vaginalis and Chlamydia trachomatis was 3·0%, 21·5%, 42·4% and 1·7%, respectively. Higher levels of IL-1β were associated with control women colonized by U. urealyticum and U. parvum. Increased levels of IL-6 were associated with women who exhibited U. parvum. Sexually active women, with more than one sexual partner in the last 3 months, living in a rural area were associated with increased odds of certain U. parvum serovar infection.
Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia A; Krauss, Melissa J; Spitznagel, Edward L; Schootman, Mario; Cottler, Linda B; Bierut, Laura Jean
To investigate factors associated with favorable pregnancy attitudes among teenage girls. Participants were sexually active teenage girls aged 15-18 years old (n = 965) who took part in the 2002 or 2006-2010 National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG). Multinomial multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the likelihood of being pleased with a teenage pregnancy. Sixteen percent of sexually active teenage girls (n = 164) would be pleased (11 % a little pleased, 5 % very pleased) if they became pregnant. In a multivariable model, participants who had not yet discussed sexual health topics (i.e., how to say no to sexual intercourse or birth control) or had only discussed birth control with a parent were more likely to be very pleased with a teenage pregnancy than participants who had discussed both topics with a parent. Prior pregnancy, racial/ethnic group status, older age, and having parents with a high school education or less also increased the odds of being pleased with a teenage pregnancy. Being pleased with a teenage pregnancy was correlated with a lack of discussion of sexual health topics with parents, prior pregnancy, and sociodemographic factors (having less educated parents, racial/ethnic group status). Pregnancy prevention efforts can be improved by acknowledging the structural and cultural factors that shape teenage pregnancy attitudes.
Weinbender, Miriam L. M.; Rossignol, Annette MacKay
Evaluated Adventist lifestyle as a modification of popular American culture which reduces the risk of early sexual activity in adolescents and thus also reduces the risk for both STDs and teen pregnancy. Data analysis demonstrated a wide variety of behaviors were associated with premature sexual activity, including previously reported high-risk…
Ellis, Bruce J.; Bates, John E.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Fergusson, David M.; Horwood, L. John; Pettit, Gregory S.; Woodward, Lianne
Longitudinal studies in two countries investigated impact of father absence on girls' early sexual activity (ESA) and teenage pregnancy. Findings indicated that greater exposure to father absence strongly related to elevated ESA and adolescent pregnancy risk. Elevated risk was not explained (U.S. sample) or only partly explained (New Zealand…
DeAmicis, Lyn A.; And Others
Pregnant adolescent students were less likely than nulligravid students to employ or plan to use contraceptives. They more often expressed a desire for a pregnancy and described their boyfriends as happy about the pregnancy. Nulligravid youngsters described their parents as more disapproving of their premarital sexual activity. (Author/RH)
van den Bergh, Roderick C. N.; Korfage, Ida J.; Roobol, Monique J.; Bangma, Chris H.; de Koning, Harry J.; Steyerberg, Ewout W.; Essink-Bot, Marie-Louise
OBJECTIVE To compare sexual function of men with localized prostate cancer (PCa) on active surveillance (AS) with similar patients who received radical therapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS Two groups of men with screening-detected localized PCa were compared. The first were men on AS within the prospective
Alstead, Mark; Campsmith, Michael; Halley, Carolyn Swope; Hartfield, Karen; Goldblum, Gary; Wood, Robert W.
Describes the development, implementation, and evaluation of an HIV prevention program promoting condom use among sexually active adolescents. It mobilized target communities to guide program development and implementation; created a mass media campaign to promote correct condom use; and recruited public agencies and organizations to distribute…
McGinn, Marion; Arnedillo-Sánchez, Inmaculada
This paper explores the use of a three dimensional virtual world (3-DVW) to delivery assertiveness training to young adolescents. The case study aims to understand how a sense of presence in VWs facilitates and affect the performance of students role-playing activities to enhance their ability to resist sexual coercion. The results indicate that a…
Nogueira Avelar e Silva, R.; Wijtzes, A.; van de Bongardt, D.; van de Looij-Jansen, P.; Bannink, R.; Raat, H.
Objectives: To assess the prospective associations of physical activity behaviors and screen time with early sexual intercourse initiation (i.e., before 15 years) in a large sample of adolescents. Methods: We used two waves of data from the Rotterdam Youth Monitor, a longitudinal study conducted in
Avelar e Silva, R.N. (Raquel Nogueira); A.I. Wijtzes (Anne); Van De Bongardt, D. (Daphne); P.M. van de Looij-Jansen (Petra); R. Bannink (Rienke); H. Raat (Hein)
textabstractObjectives: To assess the prospective associations of physical activity behaviors and screen time with early sexual intercourse initiation (i.e., before 15 years) in a large sample of adolescents. Methods: We used two waves of data from the Rotterdam Youth Monitor, a longitudinal study
Brewster, Karin L.; And Others
Analysis of aggregate- and individual-level data for a national sample of white women suggest that adolescent nonmarital sexual activity and contraceptive use are shaped by the local opportunity structure and normative environment. Social disintegration, socioeconomic status, and availability of employment opportunities for women emerged as…
However, the extent to which knowledge of one's HIV status contributes to behavioural change among people living with HIV (PLHIV) has not been comprehensively documented. Drawing on an analysis of 37 in-depth interviews and five focus group discussions with PLHIV, this paper examines the nature of sexual activity ...
Georgiadis, Janniko R
BACKGROUND: We like to think about sexual activity as something fixed, basic and primal. However, this does not seem to fully capture reality. Even when we relish sex, we may be capable of mentalizing, talking, voluntarily postponing orgasm, and much more. This might indicate that the central
Herold, J M; Valenzuela, M S; Morris, L
The Santiago Young Adult Reproductive Health Survey was conducted in 1988 to examine the sexual behavior of and contraceptive use among young adults in Chile. The survey was based on multistage household probability samples of 865 women and 800 men aged 15-24 who were living in Santiago in 1988. Findings show that 35 percent of females and 65 percent of males had had premarital intercourse. Among those who had done so, the median age at first experience was 18.4 years for women and 16.4 years for men. Only 20 percent of females and 19 percent of males used contraceptives at first premarital intercourse. Use of contraceptives increased with age at the time of that event. Fertility data reveal that 70 percent of first births were premaritally conceived, and more than one-third of these were born prior to union. The high rates of premarital and unintended pregnancy among young women and the low prevalence of effective contraceptive use indicate a need for greater emphasis on sex education and family planning services directed at adolescents and unmarried young adults in Santiago.
Full Text Available Suicide is the leading cause of death among South Korean adolescents. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between suicidal thoughts (ST and suicidal attempts (SA with the level of physical activity (PA among South Korean adolescents. Based on data from the eighth Korea Youth Risk Behaviors Web-Based Survey, 74,186 South Korean adolescents were evaluated in terms of their relationship between meeting guidelines for vigorous PA (VPA, moderate PA (MPA, and low PA (LPA and in respect of ST and SA status. The adjusted odds ratio in adolescents who thought about suicide increased significantly with PA levels (1.02 in males, 1.21 in females with VPA, 1.10 in males, 1.18 in females with MPA, and 1.16 in males, 1.20 in females with LPA compared to participants who did not think about suicide. In addition, the AOR in adolescents who attempted suicide increased significantly with PA levels (1.16 in males, 1.36 in females with VPA, 1.13 in males, 1.15 in females with MPA, and 1.26 in males, 1.15 in females with LPA compared to participants who did not attempt suicide. These results show that VPA, MPA, and LPA are positively associated with ST and SA prevention in South Korean adolescents. Therefore, to prevent suicide of South Korean adolescents, we support public health program including PA participation.
Rebecca Pellett Madan
Full Text Available Genital secretions collected from adult women exhibit in vitro activity against herpes simplex virus (HSV and Escherichia coli (E. coli, but prior studies have not investigated this endogenous antimicrobial activity or its mediators in adolescent females.Anti-HSV and anti-E.coli activity were quantified from cervicovaginal lavage (CVL specimens collected from 20 sexually active adolescent females (15-18 years. Soluble immune mediators that may influence this activity were measured in CVL, and concentrations of Lactobacillus jensenii and crispatus were quantified by PCR from vaginal swabs. Results for adolescents were compared to those obtained from 54 healthy, premenopausal adult women. Relative to specimens collected from adults, CVL collected from adolescent subjects had significantly reduced activity against E. coli and diminished concentrations of protein, IgG, and IgA but significantly increased anti-HSV activity and concentrations of interleukin (IL-1α, IL-6 and IL-1 receptor antagonist. Vaginal swabs collected from adolescent subjects had comparable concentrations of L. crispatus but significantly reduced concentrations of L. jensenii, relative to adult swabs.Biomarkers of genital mucosal innate immunity may differ substantially between sexually active adolescents and adult women. These findings warrant further study and may have significant implications for prevention of sexually transmitted infections in adolescent females.
Wong, Samuel Yeung Shan; Leung, Jason Chi Shun; Woo, Jean
Few studies on sexuality and its correlates in adults have been conducted in Asia; most studies in Asia have focused instead on erectile dysfunction in men rather than sexuality or sexual activities. This study was conducted to evaluate the prevalence and factors associated with sexual activity and erectile dysfunction in elderly Chinese men aged 65 years and above. Sexual activity and sexual functions were assessed using the International Index of Erectile Function-5. Depressive symptoms were measured by the Chinese version of the Geriatric Depression Scale. Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) were measured by the International Prostatic Symptom Score. Cross-sectional data from a large prospective cohort study of Chinese elderly men were used in this study. A questionnaire that included demographic, lifestyle, and medical risk factors and physical examination were administered to 1566 Chinese men aged between 65 to 92 years in Hong Kong. Only 30.7% of men were sexually active in the previous 6 months in this sample and among those who were sexually active, 88% had some form of erectile dysfunction. Being sexually inactive in the previous 6 months was associated with being older (odds ratio [OR] = 1.80; confidence interval [CI]: 1.56-2.09), single (OR = 1.87; CI = 1.19-2.94) and the presence of peripheral arterial disease (OR = 2.43; CI: 1.25-4.71). In multiple multinomial logistic regression, having clinically relevant depressive symptoms (OR = 3.37; CI: 1.31-8.70) and having moderate to severe LUTS (OR = 1.63; CI: 1.01-2.64) were independently associated with increased risk of having erectile dysfunction. We showed that a large proportion of elderly men were not sexually active in Hong Kong. For those who were sexually active, most suffered from some degree of erectile dysfunction. Having clinically relevant depressive symptoms and LUTS were independently associated with increased risk of erectile dysfunction.
Dupéré, Véronique; Lacourse, Eric; Willms, J Douglas; Leventhal, Tama; Tremblay, Richard E
This study examined how the link between neighborhood poverty and the timing of sexual initiation varies as a function of age, gender, and background characteristics. A sample of N = 2,596 predominately White Canadian adolescents from the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth was used. Sexual initiations occurring between 12 and 15 years old were considered. Results showed that younger adolescent females who lived in poor neighborhoods and who had a history of conduct problems were more likely to report early sexual activity. Peer characteristics partly accounted for this susceptibility. Among adolescent males, no direct neighborhood effects were found, but those who had combined risks at multiple levels appeared more vulnerable. The theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.
Goh, Victor H H; Tong, Terry Y Y
The present study sought to evaluate the relative associations of exercise, sleep and other lifestyle habits with aging, sex hormones, percent body fat (%BF) and sexual activities in men living in the community. A better understanding of this complex interrelationship is important in helping the formulation of modalities for a holistic approach to the management of aging men. The results showed that age is a major determinant for many physiological parameters, including sleep, hormonal and metabolic parameters, some lifestyle factors and sexual activities. Testosterone (T), bioavailable testosterone (BioT) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS) concentrations decreased with age, while estradiol (E2), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and %BF increased with age. In addition, there exist intricate associations among hormonal and lifestyle factors, %BF and age. High-intensity exercise and longer duration of sleep were associated with higher concentrations of T and BioT. T was shown to be associated positively with men who were engaged in masturbation. DHEAS was associated with men wanting more sex and with good morning penile rigidity. Older Singaporean men tended to sleep for shorter duration, but exercised more intensely than younger men. Coital and masturbation frequencies decreased with age, and a significantly greater number of younger men were engaged in masturbation. Relationship between the partners is a key determinant of sexuality in men. It appears that T may have a limited, while dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) have a greater role than previously suggest, as a motivational signal for sexual function in men. Both biological and psychosocial factors interact with each other to influence sexual functions in men. Hence, a biopsychosocial approach may be more appropriate for a more lasting resolution to sexual dysfunctions in men.
Hopkins, Christopher D; Tanner, John F; Raymond, Mary Anne
The teen birthrate in the United States is twice that of other industrialized nations. Adolescents in the U.S. are among high-risk groups for HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases. As a result, the Department of Health and Human Services changed its policy on the promotion of abstinence to teenagers from a focus on a risk reduction strategy to a focus on a risk avoidance strategy. In order to create more effective risk avoidance as well as risk reduction campaigns, this study proposes a framework to illustrate the distinction that teens make between spontaneous sexual activity and planned sexual activity, as well as those teens that make a commitment to abstinence versus abstinence by default. Furthermore, this study classifies teens into three behavior segments (abstemious, promiscuous and monogamous) and then assesses specific differences that exist within these groups relative to their attitudes and perceptions concerning abstinence, sexual activity, contraception, fear and norms. This change in focus from a risk reduction to a risk avoidance strategy has important implications for social marketing, public policy and marketing theory.
Diana S. Fleischman
Full Text Available As a consequence of the need to downregulate some maternal immune responses so as to tolerate paternal genetic material following conception, the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle is associated with increased susceptibility to infection. Because meat was one of the primary sources of foodborne pathogens throughout our evolutionary history, Fessler (2001 predicted a decrease in meat intake during the luteal phase; the current research provides the first test of this prediction. Based on the assumption that any such behavioral changes would be hormonally mediated, we also investigated the effects of varying levels of exogenous hormones on meat consumption by examining dietary intake in women using hormonal contraceptives. Lastly, because, from a functional perspective, immunomodulation is unnecessary during anovulatory cycles and in women who are not currently sexually active, luteal phase compensatory behavioral prophylaxis was predicted to be absent in these contexts. Although we find that women who are sexually active eat less meat than those who are not, we do not find support for the core prediction regarding effect of cycle phase on meat consumption, nor do we find support for the ancillary prediction that meat consumption would be influenced by the presence or withdrawal of exogenous hormones. We replicate the finding that periovulatory total food intake is decreased compared to the rest of the cycle and find that sexually active women show a greater periovulatory decrease in food intake than sexually inactive women.
Elizabeth F Closson
Full Text Available The success of global treatment as prevention (TasP efforts for individuals living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA is dependent on successful implementation, and therefore the appropriate contribution of social and behavioral science to these efforts. Understanding the psychosocial context of condomless sex among PLWHA could shed light on effective points of intervention. HPTN 063 was an observational mixed-methods study of sexually active, in-care PLWHA in Thailand, Zambia, and Brazil as a foundation for integrating secondary HIV prevention into HIV treatment. From 2010-2012, 80 qualitative interviews were conducted with PLWHA receiving HIV care and reported recent sexual risk. Thirty men who have sex with women (MSW and 30 women who have sex with men (WSM participated in equal numbers across the sites. Thailand and Brazil also enrolled 20 biologically-born men who have sex with men (MSM. Part of the interview focused on the impact of HIV on sexual practices and relationships. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, translated into English and examined using qualitative descriptive analysis. The mean age was 25 (SD = 3.2. There were numerous similarities in experiences and attitudes between MSM, MSW and WSM across the three settings. Participants had a high degree of HIV transmission risk awareness and practiced some protective sexual behaviors such as reduced sexual activity, increased use of condoms, and external ejaculation. Themes related to risk behavior can be categorized according to struggles for intimacy and fears of isolation, including: fear of infecting a sex partner, guilt about sex, sexual communication difficulty, HIV-stigma, and worry about sexual partnerships. Emphasizing sexual health, intimacy and protective practices as components of nonjudgmental sex-positive secondary HIV prevention interventions is recommended. For in-care PLWHA, this approach has the potential to support TasP. The overlap of themes across groups and countries
Turner, Katy Me; Zienkiewicz, Adam K; Syred, Jonathan; Looker, Katharine J; de Sa, Joia; Brady, Michael; Free, Caroline; Holdsworth, Gillian; Baraitser, Paula
Regular testing for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) is important to maintain sexual health. Self-sampling kits ordered online and delivered in the post may increase access, convenience, and cost-effectiveness. Sexual health economies may target limited resources more effectively by signposting users toward Web-based or face-to-face services according to clinical need. The aim of this paper was to investigate the impact of two interventions on testing activity across a whole sexual health economy: (1) the introduction of open access Web-based STI testing services and (2) a clinic policy of triage and signpost online where users without symptoms who attended clinics for STI testing were supported to access the Web-based service instead. Data on attendances at all specialist public sexual health providers in an inner-London area were collated into a single database. Each record included information on user demographics, service type accessed, and clinical activity provided, including test results. Clinical activity was categorized as a simple STI test (could be done in a clinic or online), a complex visit (requiring face-to-face consultation), or other. Introduction of Web-based services increased total testing activity across the whole sexual health economy by 18.47% (from 36,373 to 43,091 in the same 6-month period-2014-2015 and 2015-2016), suggesting unmet need for testing in the area. Triage and signposting shifted activity out of the clinic onto the Web-based service, with simple STI testing in the clinic decreasing from 16.90% (920/5443) to 12.25% (511/4172) of total activity, P<.001, and complex activity in the clinic increasing from 69.15% (3764/5443) to 74.86% (3123/4172) of total activity, P<.001. This intervention created a new population of online users with different demographic and clinical profiles from those who use Web-based services spontaneously. Some triage and signposted users (29.62%, 375/1266) did not complete the Web-based testing
Full Text Available In a demographic sense, adolescents are a population group which is yet to take part in birth giving. Therefore, their sexual behavior and especially sexual activity at early ages which is not only unfavorable from the aspect of the individual, meaning risk for psycho-physical health, but from the aspect of society as well, as regards population fertility, deserves special attention. This paper shows the results of in-depth research carried out in Belgrade from September 2001 to October 2002 with an aim to establish which factors determine a young person, of sixteen years old or younger, to become sexually active. It was carried out on a sample of 111 adolescent girls between 14 and 20 years old which turned to the Republic Family Planning Center Youth Counseling Clinic of the Institute for Mother and Child Health Care of Serbia. The research showed that sexual experience, realized at an early age was an integral part of development and maturing for the largest number of surveyed girls. In the largest number of cases it was a positive experience, induced by love and experienced with a partner, mainly of the same age, with which they were in a longer, stable relationship. Nevertheless, it could be concluded from the results obtained by the research that the surveyed girls could have more easily and efficiently solved their problems and dilemmas regarding sexuality had they had the possibility to obtain a better insight into their personal feelings and feelings of others at the right time, as well as developed social experience and experience in mastering control of their impulses. With a certain number of surveyed girls that would have meant a delay in their sexual activities to a later age. This also refers to the prevention of other risky behavior such as use of alcohol and drugs, which also have an influence on changing sexual behavior, making it more risky. It is important to stress that the surveyed adolescent girls themselves recognized the
Wiegerink, Diana J H G; Stam, Henk J; Ketelaar, Marjolijn; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T; Roebroeck, Marij E
To study determinants of romantic relationships and sexual activity of young adults with cerebral palsy (CP), focusing on personal and environmental factors. A cohort study was performed with 74 young adults (46 men; 28 women) aged 20-25 years (SD 1.4) with CP (49% unilateral CP, 76% GMFCS level I, 85% MACS level I). All participants were of normal intelligence. Romantic relationships, sexual activity (outcome measures), personal and environmental factors (associated factors) were assessed. Associations were analyzed using logistic regression analyses. More females than males with CP were in a current romantic relationship. Self-esteem, sexual esteem and feelings of competence regarding self-efficacy contributed positively to having current romantic relationships. A negative parenting style contributed negatively. Age and gross motor functioning explained 20% of the variance in experience with intercourse. In addition, sexual esteem and taking initiative contributed significantly to intercourse experience. For young adults with CP personal factors (20-35% explained variances) seem to contribute more than environmental factors (9-12% explained variances) to current romantic relationships and sexual experiences. We advice parents and professionals to focus on self-efficacy, self-esteem and sexual self-esteem in development of young adults with CP. [ • The severity of gross motor functioning contributed somewhat to sexual activities, but not to romantic relationships.• High self-efficacy, self-esteem and sexual self-esteem can facilitate involvement in romantic and sexual relationships for young adults with CP.
Full Text Available Background Young people’s vulnerability to risky or unwanted sex and other unhealthy behaviours is tied to host of individual, family, and community factors and is closely related to economic and educational opportunities. Aims This study aimed to identify factors determining the sexual activity, awareness and use of contraception among college students in Malaysia. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among students aged 17–24 years in four colleges of Malaysia. Data were collected via a self-administered multiple response questionnaire. Data analysis was performed on 552 completed questionnaires. Results The mean age of the participants was 19.7±1.6 years. The majority of the respondents were females, Malays, residing in rented accommodations. Contraceptive awareness, sexual activity and use of contraception increased significantly with age of the respondents and were more in males. Better contraceptive awareness was found in those staying away from parents and those studying in colleges with urban exposure. Almost 40 per cent respondents had indulged in sexual activity but only 37 per cent reported use of contraception. A significantly higher proportion of respondents who did not use contraception were females, those in the age group of 19–20 years old and those who were studying in colleges with rural exposure. Male students were more likely to engage in sexual activity and use contraception compared to females. Conclusion There is a need to impart sexual and reproductive health knowledge during the adolescent period so that young people can make informed choices and be motivated to use of contraceptives effectively.
Beckman, Nils; Waern, Margda; Östling, Svante; Sundh, Valter; Skoog, Ingmar
Knowledge about determinants of sexual activity in older adults in the general population is limited. Human senescence has been delayed by a decade, and people are reaching old age in better health. The aim of this study was to investigate determinants of sexual activity in four birth cohorts of non-demented 70-year-olds examined in 1971-1977 and 1992-2001. The main outcome measure was sexual activity (defined as intercourse) during the past year. The study is based on cross-sectional data from four population samples of 70-year-olds from Gothenburg, Sweden (N = 1,407) systematically sampled from the Swedish population register. In the time periods 1971-1972 and 2000-2001, sexual activity among men increased from 47% to 66%, and in women from 12% to 34%. Sexual activity was related to positive attitude toward sexuality, sexual debut before age 20, having a very happy relationship, having a physically and mentally healthy partner, self-reported good global health, interviewer-rated good mental health, being married/cohabiting, satisfaction with sleep, and drinking alcohol more than three times a week. Having an older partner, diabetes mellitus, coronary heart disease, higher physical health-sum score, and depression were related to less sexual activity. Interaction effects for birth cohort, with stronger positive associations in 1971-1972, were found for positive attitude toward sexuality, strong desire at age 20-30, premarital sexuality, having a younger partner, self-reported good global health, interviewer-rated good global mental health, overweight, and satisfaction with sleep. Having an older partner and depression showed stronger negative associations in the 1970s. Physical health-sum score showed a stronger negative association in 1992-2001. We found that determinants of sexual activity in older people are numerous and varied, and change over time. It is thus important that health professionals and others take a holistic approach when dealing with sexual
Sexually transmitted infections associated with vulvovaginal symptoms in adolescents denying sexual activity Infecciones de transmisión sexual asociadas a síntomas vulvovaginales en adolescentes que niegan vida sexual activa
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify clinical, laboratory and ultrasonographic evidence of a probable sexually transmitted infection associated with vulvovaginal symptoms in adolescents denying sexual activity. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The medical records of female adolescents, aged 10-18 years were reviewed. These women received first-time medical care for vulvovaginitis, between 1995 and 1999 at Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez, (Children's Hospital. Comparisons between groups were performed, as appropriate, by the unpaired Student's t-test, the Z test or the chi-square test; statistically significant differences were set at a two-tailed pOBJETIVO: Identificar datos clínicos, de laboratorio y ultrasonográficos que permitan el diagnóstico de una infección de transmisión sexual asociada a síntomas vulvovaginales en las pacientes adolescentes que niegan vida sexual activa. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se revisaron los expedientes de las adolescentes de 10 a 18 años de edad que requirieron atención médica de primera vez por vulvovaginitis entre 1995 y 1999 en el Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez. Las comparaciones entre grupos se llevaron a cabo con la prueba t de Student, la prueba de Z, o la de ji-cuadrada. Se utilizó un valor de p<0.05 para establecer diferencias estadísticamente significativas. Se calcularon razones de momios con intervalos de confianza de 95%. RESULTADOS: De 258 adolescentes, en 53 (20.5% se identificó un microrganismo de transmisión sexual y 52 de ellas negaron tener vida sexual activa. No hubo diferencias estadísticas entre los dos grupos de adolescentes en cuanto a la edad, los años de estudio, el nivel socioeconómico, la maduración sexual y la presencia de menarquia. El dolor abdominal en los cuadrantes inferiores, la coloración anormal de la secreción vaginal, un cultivo urinario positivo y un estudio ultrasonográfico abdominal compatible con enfermedad pélvica inflamatoria estuvieron asociados con
Thompson, Wesley K.; Charo, Lindsey; Vahia, Ipsit V.; Depp, Colin; Allison, Matthew; Jeste, Dilip V.
Objectives To determine if measures of successful-aging are associated with sexual activity, satisfaction, and function in older post-menopausal women. Design Cross-sectional study using self-report surveys; analyses include chi-square and t-tests and multiple linear regression analyses. Setting Community-dwelling older post-menopausal women in the greater San Diego Region. Participants 1,235 community-dwelling women aged 60-89 years participating at the San Diego site of the Women's Health Initiative. Measurements Demographics and self-report measures of sexual activity, function, and satisfaction and successful aging. Results Sexual activity and functioning (desire, arousal, vaginal tightness, use of lubricants, and ability to climax) were negatively associated with age, as were physical and mental health. In contrast, sexual satisfaction and self-rated successful aging and quality of life remained unchanged across age groups. Successful aging measures were positively associated with sexual measures, especially self-rated quality of life and sexual satisfaction. Conclusions Self-rated successful aging, quality of life, and sexual satisfaction appear to be stable in the face of declines in physical health, some cognitive abilities, and sexual activity and function and are positively associated with each other across ages 60-89 years. PMID:21797827
Mengerink, Bianca B.; van Leijsen, Sanne A. L.; Vierhout, Mark E.; IntHout, Joanna; Mol, Ben W. J.; Milani, Alfredo L.; Roovers, Jan-Paul W. R.; van Eijndhoven, Hugo W. F.; van der Vaart, Carl H.; van Gestel, Iris; Hartog, Francis E.; Heesakkers, John F. A.; Kluivers, Kirsten B.
Introduction: Stress urinary incontinence has a negative impact on sexual function. Aim: To assess the effect of midurethral sling surgery on sexual activity and function in women with stress urinary incontinence. Methods: This is a secondary analysis of the Value of Urodynamics Prior to Stress
Sansosti, Alexandra A.; Bowman, Hilary C.; Hariri, Ahmad R.
Although the initiation of sexual behavior is common among adolescents and young adults, some individuals express this behavior in a manner that significantly increases their risk for negative outcomes including sexually transmitted infections. Based on accumulating evidence, we have hypothesized that increased sexual risk behavior reflects, in part, an imbalance between neural circuits mediating approach and avoidance in particular as manifest by relatively increased ventral striatum (VS) activity and relatively decreased amygdala activity. Here, we test our hypothesis using data from seventy 18- to 22-year-old university students participating in the Duke Neurogenetics Study. We found a significant three-way interaction between amygdala activation, VS activation, and gender predicting changes in the number of sexual partners over time. Although relatively increased VS activation predicted greater increases in sexual partners for both men and women, the effect in men was contingent on the presence of relatively decreased amygdala activation and the effect in women was contingent on the presence of relatively increased amygdala activation. These findings suggest unique gender differences in how complex interactions between neural circuit function contributing to approach and avoidance may be expressed as sexual risk behavior in young adults. As such, our findings have the potential to inform the development of novel, gender-specific strategies that may be more effective at curtailing sexual risk behavior. PMID:26063921
Yoon, Byung-Ho; Lee, Kyung-Hag; Noh, Serae; Ha, Yong-Chan; Lee, Young-Kyun; Koo, Kyung-Hoi
Concerns of patients on sexual activity after total hip arthroplasty have not been well studied in Asian patients. This study aimed to determine the following: (1) what are the concerns of patients related to sexual activity after total hip arthroplasty? (2) what are the changes in sexual activity after total hip replacement in Korean patients? Details of sexual activity and concerns were obtained using a questionnaire designed specifically for the study. The questionnaire was administered to 64 patients in a face-to-face interview at an outpatient clinic. Preoperatively, 53.1% of patients experienced difficulties, primarily due to hip pathology and limitations of motion. The median time to the resumption of sexual activity was 3 months postoperatively, and most patients had no increase in the frequency of sexual activity after the total hip replacement. In 39.1% of patients were seen having difficulties with leg positioning following total hip replacement, and they were likely to change coital positions. The most common concern regarding sexual activity of patients was the fear of dislocation. Furthermore, patients with a higher stress level had lower satisfaction rates. Most patients were unable to obtain information on sexual activity following the total hip arthroplasty, and they did not consult with a physician due to the private nature of the topic. Dislocation was the most common concern of patients during sexual activity following a total hip arthroplasty, and a higher stress level was found to be associated with a lower satisfaction rate. Because most patients were unprepared to consult a physician, the provision of appropriate information before a consultation might be beneficial.
Pearce, Shane M; Wang, Chi-Hsiung E; Victorson, David E; Helfand, Brian T; Novakovic, Kristian R; Brendler, Charles B; Albaugh, Jeffrey A
Aim The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between sexual dysfunction, repeat biopsies and other demographic and clinical factors in men on active surveillance (AS). Methods Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) measures were administered at enrollment and every 6 months to assess quality of life (QOL), psychosocial and urological health outcomes. Using mixed-effects models, we examined the impact of repeat biopsies, total number of cores taken, anxiety, age, and comorbidity on sexual function over the first 24 months of enrolling in AS. Main Outcome Measures PROs included the Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite-26 (EPIC-26) Sexual Function (SF) subscale, the American Urological Association-Symptom Index (AUA-SI), and the Memorial Anxiety Scale for Prostate Cancer (MAX-PC). Results At enrollment (n = 195), mean age was 66.5 ± 6.8 with a mean EPIC-26 SF score of 61.4 ± 30.4. EPIC-26 SF scores steadily decreased to 53.9 ± 30.7 at 24 months (P < 0.01). MAX-PC scores also progressively decreased over time (P = 0.03). Factors associated with lower EPIC-26 scores over time included age, unemployed status, diabetes, coronary artery disease, and hypertension (all P < 0.05). Higher prostate-specific antigen (PSA) was associated with a more rapid decline in EPIC-26 SF over time (P = 0.03). In multivariable analysis, age, diabetes, and PSA × time interaction remained significant predictors of diminished sexual function. Anxiety, number of biopsies, and total cores taken did not predict sexual dysfunction or change over time in our cohort. Conclusions Men on AS experienced a gradual decline in sexual function during the first 24 months of enrollment. Older age, PSA × time, and diabetes were all independent predictors of diminished sexual function over time. Anxiety, AUA-SI, the number of cores and the number of biopsies were not predictors of reduced sexual function in men in AS. PMID:26468379
Christiansen, Erik; Jensen, Børge Frank
The Register for Suicide Attempts (RSA) is a product of the WHO research project "WHO/Euro Multicentre Study on Parasuicide", which, among other things, had the purpose of collecting data on suicide attempts from 13 European countries. Data is collected in order to calculate trends and identify...
Behavioural frequencies and time budgets for male and female Chersina angulata were recorded in spring, September 2004. The daily activity of the population was 10.51 ± 0.42 h (mean ± CI), but individual males and females were in the open for 2.57 ± 1.12 h and 1.58 ± 1.44 h, respectively. Both sexes spent nearly 3.5 h ...
Grov, Christian; Gillespie, Brian Joseph; Royce, Tracy; Lever, Janet
Some researchers have illustrated how the Internet can provide users with an ideal atmosphere to explore sexuality; however, most have stressed the Internet's negative impact on intimate relationships. Notably, much of this research has focused on the small minority of men who compulsively engage in online sexual activities (OSA), overlooking the majority of men and women who use OSA recreationally (either individually or with a partner). Addressing these limitations, data on heterosexual adults in committed relationships were taken from the 2004 "ELLE/msnbc.com Cyber-sex and Romance Survey" (n = 8,376). In quantitative analyses, men were less likely than women to express concerns and more likely to hold favorable attitudes about their partner's OSA. With regard to the impact of OSA on intimate relationships, men and women did not differ in becoming "more open to new things," and finding it easier "to talk about what [they] want sexually." Negative impacts were also identified, with women more likely to indicate they had less sex as a result of a partner's OSA, and men more likely to indicate they were less aroused by real sex as a result of their own OSA. Generally, qualitative results mirrored quantitative ones. Additionally, qualitative data suggested that moderate or light amounts of OSA yield relationship benefits for both female and male users, including increases in the quality and frequency of sex, and increased intimacy with real partners. In addition, men who used the Internet moderately, and men and women who reported being light users, stated that engaging in tandem OSA fostered better sexual communication with partners. Findings underscore the need to explore further the impact that online sexual activities can have on real-life committed relationships.
Alex Guibovich Mesinas
Full Text Available Objective: to know the characteristics of sexual activity in pregnant women without obstetric risk who attend public hospitals in Lima. Material and Methods: exploratory, multicenter, descriptive and cross-sectional study, conducted during the first half of 2014 in 9 public hospitals in Lima. The sample was made up of pregnant women without obstetric risk who attended the outpatient clinic of obstetric departments. A non-probabilistic model is used for convenience. An expert validated survey was conducted on patients who voluntarily agreed to participate and signed the informed consent. The information was analyzed using STATA 21 software. Results: 1991 pregnant women answered the survey, 924 (46.4% were between 15 and 25 years, most were married, and Catholic (81.8% and 1380 (69.3% were born in Lima. Most had several previous pregnancies (46.3%, with term pregnancy and 86.3% informed they had no pre-term infants. 1347 (67.6% had vaginal delivery. The frequency of sexual acts, sexual desire, the response pattern and the fear of exercising sexual intercourse decreased at higher gestational age. Fear of sex acts increased from 12.6% to 76.2% in the third quarter. Most informed of a lack of orgasm during intercourse (42.8%. The position for intercourse went from "him on her" in the first quarter to "sideways" during the third quarter, with statistical significance. Conclusion: sexual activity in pregnant women of Metropolitan Lima tend to decrease in frequency, desire, and response cycle. The "sideways" position was the most often used in the third trimester.
Pascoal, Patrícia; Narciso, Isabel; Pereira, Nuno Monteiro
Cognitive distraction is a core concept in cognitive models of sexual dysfunction. Body appearance cognitive distraction during sexual activity (BACDSA) has been mainly studied among female college samples. However, the relative contribution of different indicators of body dissatisfaction among men and women from community samples, including the contribution of relationship variables to BACDSA, has yet to be examined. The aim of this study was to examine the extent to which aspects of body dissatisfaction and relationship variables predict BACDSA. A total of 669 cohabitating, heterosexual, Portuguese participants (390 women and 279 men) with no sexual problems completed an anonymous online survey. The survey included a sociodemographic questionnaire and a set of questionnaires assessing body- and relationship-related variables. We used a single item measure of the participant's satisfaction with the opinion that they perceive their partner has about the participant's body (PPO); the Global Body Dissatisfaction Subscale of the Body Attitudes Test (GBD); a version of the Contour Drawing Rating Scale; the Global Measure of Relationship Satisfaction; and the Inclusion of Other in Self Scale. Focus on specific body parts during sexual activity (FBP) and relationship length were assessed with an open-ended question. Hierarchical multiple regression indicated that GBD and FBP were the only body dissatisfaction variables that significantly predicted BACDSA in both men and women. The relationship variables significantly increased the amount of variance explained in BACDSA for both men and women. However, PPO was the only significant relationship variable that predicted BACDSA and only in women. Body and relationship variables are significant factors in body appearance cognitive distraction. They require further research and assessment, particularly for clinical intervention. © 2012 International Society for Sexual Medicine.
Gillespie, Brian Joseph; Royce, Tracy; Lever, Janet
Some researchers have illustrated how the Internet can provide users with an ideal atmosphere to explore sexuality; however, most have stressed the Internet’s negative impact on intimate relationships. Notably, much of this research has focused on the small minority of men who compulsively engage in online sexual activities (OSA), overlooking the majority of men and women who use OSA recreationally (either individually or with a partner). Addressing these limitations, data on heterosexual adults in committed relationships were taken from the 2004 “ELLE/msnbc.com Cyber-sex and Romance Survey” (n = 8,376). In quantitative analyses, men were less likely than women to express concerns and more likely to hold favorable attitudes about their partner’s OSA. With regard to the impact of OSA on intimate relationships, men and women did not differ in becoming “more open to new things,” and finding it easier “to talk about what [they] want sexually.” Negative impacts were also identified, with women more likely to indicate they had less sex as a result of a partner’s OSA, and men more likely to indicate they were less aroused by real sex as a result of their own OSA. Generally, qualitative results mirrored quantitative ones. Additionally, qualitative data suggested that moderate or light amounts of OSA yield relationship benefits for both female and male users, including increases in the quality and frequency of sex, and increased intimacy with real partners. In addition, men who used the Internet moderately, and men and women who reported being light users, stated that engaging in tandem OSA fostered better sexual communication with partners. Findings underscore the need to explore further the impact that online sexual activities can have on real-life committed relationships. PMID:20174862
Wéry, Aline; Burnay, Jonathan; Karila, Laurent; Billieux, Joël
The goal of this study was to investigate the psychometric properties of a French version of the short Internet Addiction Test adapted to online sexual activities (s-IAT-sex). The French version of the s-IAT-sex was administered to a sample of 401 men. The participants also completed a questionnaire that screened for sexual addiction (PATHOS). The relationships of s-IAT-sex scores with time spent online for online sexual activities (OSAs) and the types of OSAs favored were also considered. Confirmatory analyses supported a two-factor model of s-IAT-sex, corresponding to the factorial structure found in earlier studies that used the short IAT. The first factor regroups loss of control and time management, whereas the second factor regroups craving and social problems. Internal consistency for each factor was evaluated with Cronbach's α coefficient, resulting in .87 for Factor 1, .76 for Factor 2, and .88 for the global scale. Concurrent validity was supported by relationships with symptoms of sexual addiction, types of OSAs practiced, and time spent online for OSAs. The prevalence of sexual addiction (measured by PATHOS) was 28.1% in the current sample of self-selected male OSA users. The French version of the s-IAT-sex presents good psychometric properties and constitutes a useful tool for researchers and practitioners.
Full Text Available Abstract Health Issue Much attention is devoted to women's reproductive health, but the formative and mature stages of women's sexual lives are often overlooked. We have analyzed cross-sectional data from the Sexual Behaviour module of the 2000/2001 Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS, and reviewed the literature and available indicators of the sexual health of Canadian women. Key Findings Contemporary Canadian adolescents are becoming sexually active at younger ages than in previous generations. The gender gap between young males and females in age at first intercourse has virtually disappeared. The mean age at first intercourse for CCHS respondents aged 15–24 years was between 16 and 17. Canadian-born respondents are significantly younger at first intercourse than those who were born outside of Canada. Few adolescents recognize important risks to their sexual health. Older Canadians are sexually active, and continue to find emotional and physical satisfaction in their sexual relationships. Data Gaps and Recommendations Both health surveys and targeted research must employ a broader understanding of sexuality to measure changes in and determinants of the sexual health of Canadians. There is reluctance to direct questions about sexual issues to younger Canadians, even though increased knowledge of sexual health topics is associated with delayed onset of sexual intercourse. Among adults, sex-positive resources are needed to address aspects of aging, rather than medicalizing age-related sexual dysfunction. Age and gender-appropriate sexual health care, education, and knowledge are important not only for women of reproductive age, but for Canadians at all stages of life.
Guita Grin Debert
Drawing on the interplay between gender, aging, and sexuality, the aim of this article is twofold: (1) to show how Brazilian gerontologists treat gender differences and sexual activity in old age; (2) to analyze the ways discourses regarding the aging body and sexuality are perceived and evaluated by older women and men . I argue that attempts of gerontologists’ to eroticize old age have to contend with the widespread notion that the desire for sex is inevitably lost with age. Thus, in the...
Adams, Sarah; Heckard, Danyeal; Hassell, James; Uphouse, Lynda
Treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, such as fluoxetine, produces sexual side effects with low sexual desire being the most prevalent effect in females. In few studies have preclinical models for such antidepressant-induced sexual dysfunction been fruitful. In the current manuscript, the effects of fluoxetine on multiple measures of female sexual motivation and sexual receptivity were examined. Ovariectomized, Fischer rats were primed with 10 μg estradiol benzoate and 500 μg progesterone. Partner preference, active investigation of the male, and measures of sexual behavior were examined after injection with 15 mg/kg fluoxetine. Factors (pretesting for sexual behavior, size of the test arena, non-contact time with a male) that differ among experiments designed to study antidepressant-induced female rat sexual dysfunction were studied. The male preference ratio was not affected by fluoxetine treatment but active investigation of the male was reduced; lordosis behavior was inhibited and pretesting for sexual receptivity amplified fluoxetine's inhibition; size of the testing arena or non-contact experience with the male had no effect. Regardless of test condition, when given the opportunity to escape from the male, fluoxetine-treated females displayed escape behavior. Measures of male preference and active investigation, but not lordosis behavior, appeared to be affected by fluoxetine's impact on activity. The collective data provided a behavioral profile of fluoxetine-induced sexual dysfunction. These findings reinforce the value of multiple measures when attempting to model antidepressant-induced female sexual dysfunction. PMID:22835821
The term “internet sexuality” (or OSA, online sexual activities) refers to sexual-related content and activities observable on the internet (cf. Adams, Oye, & Parker, 2003; Cooper, McLoughlin, & Campbell, 2000; Leiblum & Döring, 2002). It designates a variety of sexual phenomena (e.g., pornography, sex education, sexual contacts) related to a wide spectrum of online services and applications (e.g., websites, online chat rooms, peer-to-peer networks). If an even broader range of computer networks - such as the Usenet or bulletin board systems - is included in this extensional definition, one speaks of “online sexuality” or “cybersexuality.”
Möller, J; Ahlbom, A; Hulting, J
.9). CONCLUSIONS: The increased risk of myocardial infarction after sexual activity and the further increase in risk among the less physically fit support the hypothesis of causal triggering by sexual activity. However, the absolute risk per hour is very low, and exposure is relatively infrequent. Thus having sex......OBJECTIVE: To investigate sexual activity as a trigger of myocardial infarction and the potential effect modification of physical fitness. DESIGN: A case-crossover study nested in the Stockholm Heart Epidemiology Programme (SHEEP). SETTING: Stockholm County from April 1993 to December 1994...... once a week only increases the annual risk of myocardial infarction slightly. Counselling should focus on encouraging patients to live a physically active life and not on abstaining from sexual activity....
Choi, Edmond P H; Wong, Janet Y H; Lo, Herman H M; Wong, Wendy; Chio, Jasmine H M; Fong, Daniel Y T
The association between using smartphone dating applications (apps) and substance use in conjunction with sexual activities was only examined in homosexual men. This association was poorly understood in heterosexual samples. To explore the association between using dating apps and alcohol, and use of recreational drug in conjunction with sexual activities in college students. 666 students from four universities in Hong Kong were recruited in this cross-sectional study in the year 2015. Outcome measures included the use of dating apps, sexual history, and drug and alcohol use. Multivariable logistic regressions were employed. The use of dating apps for more than 1 year was found to be associated with recreational drug use in conjunction with sexual activities (adjusted odds ratio: 7.23). Other risk factors of recreational drug use in conjunction with sexual activities included being bisexual/homosexual male, a smoker, and having one's first sexual intercourse at the age of less than 16 years. The use of dating apps was not a risk factor for alcohol consumption in conjunction with sexual activities. Risk factors for alcohol consumption in conjunction with sexual activities included being older, having monthly income more than HKD5,000, and a smoker. Furthermore, risk factors for alcohol consumption in conjunction with the last sexual activity included currently being in a dating relationship, a smoker, and having sex with a casual partner. Using dating apps is an emerging risk factor of drug misuse. Interventions for practising safe sex and preventing drug use should be targeted at dating app users.
Prachi Renjhen; Wah Yun Low; Wen Ting Tong
Background Young people’s vulnerability to risky or unwanted sex and other unhealthy behaviours is tied to host of individual, family, and community factors and is closely related to economic and educational opportunities. Aims This study aimed to identify factors determining the sexual activity, awareness and use of contraception among college students in Malaysia. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among students aged 17–24 years in four colleges of Malaysia. Data ...
Ghandour, Lilian A; Mouhanna, Farah; Yasmine, Rola; El Kak, Faysal
Sexual activity accompanied by substance use can impair youth decision-making and enhance risk-taking behaviors. Less is known, however, about the sexual values, perceptions and subsequent sexual practices of youth whose sexual debut occurs while using alcohol/drugs. A cross-sectional anonymous online survey was conducted in April-August 2012 among undergraduate and graduate university students (aged 18 to 30) attending the 4th largest private university in Beirut. Pearson's Chi-square and regression models were run using Stata/IC 10.0. 940 university students had engaged in oral, anal and/or vaginal sex, of whom 10% admitted to having had consumed alcohol or taken drugs at sexual debut, a behavior that was more common in the males, less religious, non-Arabs, students living alone or who had lived abroad. Students who used alcohol/drugs at sexual debut were twice as likely to have: their first oral and vaginal sex with an unfamiliar partner [odds ratio (OR) = 2.6, 95% confidence interval (CI): (1.6, 4.2) and OR = 2.1 (1.2, 3.5), respectively], controlling for sex, nationality, current relationship status, living abroad after the age of 12, and spirituality. Students who had sex the first time while using alcohol/drugs were three times as likely to report having had 11 or more subsequent sexual partners versus one or two [OR = 3.0 (1.5-6.0)]; and almost twice as likely to ever engage in something sexual they did not want to do [OR = 1.7 (1.1, 2.8)]. Perceived peer pressure to have sex by a certain age [OR = 1.8 (1.1, 2.9)], and perceived peer norms to consume alcohol/drugs before sex [OR = 4.8 (2.3, 9.9)] were also strong correlates of having sex for the first time while using alcohol and/or drugs. Findings stress the importance of sexuality education for youth, and the need to begin understanding the true interplay--beyond association--between youth sexual practices and substance use behaviors from a broader public health perspective.
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: Females with Sjögren's Syndrome (SS often experience vaginal dryness and dyspareunia, along with glandular and extraglandular symptoms. We aimed to evaluate sexual function and life quality in women with SS. Methods: Forty-six premenopausal women with SS and 47 age-matched controls were studied. Age, duration of the disease, medications, and comorbid diseases were noted. Participants completed 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36 and Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI. Patients were asked about vaginal discharge and itching in the last month, and if they informed their rheumatologists about any sexual problems. Gynecologic examinations were performed and vaginal smears were taken on each participant. Results: The median total scores of FSFI were significantly lower in the SS group than the controls [17.12 (2.4-27.8 and 27.4 (16.9-36.0, respectively, p < 0.001]. In the SS group, 37 (80.4% and in the control group 18 (38.3% of patients were sexually dissatisfied (p < 0.001. Vaginal dryness and lubricant use were significantly increased in patients with SS compared to controls (p < 0.001. Life quality scores were significantly lower in patients with SS than the controls (p < 0.001. Vaginal dryness was negatively correlated with FSFI total (r = −0.312, p = 0.035 and subscores except desire and arousal. Physical functioning, role physical and role emotional scores were positively correlated with total FSFI scores (r = 0.449, p = 0.002, r = 0.371, p = 0.011, r = 0.299, p = 0.043, respectively. Conclusions: Women with SS experience less satisfaction with sexual activity, which can be affected by age, vaginal dryness, physical pain, and impaired function due to the disease. Therefore, rheumatologists should pay attention to these symptoms and management.
Claret, Laurent; Cox, Eugene H; McFadyen, Lynn; Pidgen, Alwyn; Johnson, Patrick J; Haughie, Scott; Boolell, Mitra; Bruno, Rene
To develop a model to explore the dose-response of sildenafil citrate in patients with female sexual arousal disorder (FSAD) based on telephone sexual activity daily diary (TSADD) data obtained in double-blind, placebo controlled clinical studies. Data were available on 614 patients with FSAD. A parametric model (Weibull distribution) was developed to describe the probability density function of the time between sexual events. Orgasm satisfaction scores and overall sexual satisfaction scores were simultaneously modeled as ordered categorical variables. Simulations were performed to evaluate the expected clinical response in patients with FSAD. The expected time between sexual events was approximately 3.5 days. Satisfaction scores increased with time to achieve a plateau after 3 to 4 weeks on treatment. The expected probability of satisfying orgasm (score of 3 and higher) ranged from 34.7% for placebo to 41.6% for 100 mg sildenafil citrate. Treatment effect (difference from placebo) was 6.9% for 100 mg sildenafil citrate, ranging from 0.6 to 24.7% for testosterone levels of 0.1 to 4.0 pg/ml. The treatment effect in postmenopausal women was larger than in premenopausal women. A modeling and simulation framework to support drug development in FSAD was developed. Sildenafil citrate demonstrated a dose-dependent effect in patients with FSAD.
Martin, A.; Ruchkin, V.; Caminis, A.; Vermeiren, R; Henrich, C.C.; Schwab-Stone, M.
Objective: To examine the association between sexual activity among urban adolescent girls and four global measures of psychosocial adaptation (academic motivation, school achievement, depressive symptoms, and expectations about the future). Method: Data derived from the Social and Health
Guita Grin Debert
Full Text Available Drawing on the interplay between gender, aging, and sexuality, the aim of this article is twofold: (1 to show how Brazilian gerontologists treat gender differences and sexual activity in old age; (2 to analyze the ways discourses regarding the aging body and sexuality are perceived and evaluated by older women and men . I argue that attempts of gerontologists’ to eroticize old age have to contend with the widespread notion that the desire for sex is inevitably lost with age. Thus, in the retiree associations that were studied, men had a tendency to assume they are not ‘old’ because their erectile function was still in good condition, and divorced or widowed women, in senior citizen associations, tend to regard themselves as happy due to having freed themselves from the sexual obligations imposed by marriage. In both cases, the dominant belief that there is a loss of sexual desire in old age was reproduced.
Holder, Mary K; Hadjimarkou, Maria M; Zup, Susan L; Blutstein, Tamara; Benham, Rebecca S; McCarthy, Margaret M; Mong, Jessica A
Methamphetamine (MA) abuse has reached epidemic proportions in the United States. Users of MA report dramatic increases in sexual drive that have been associated with increased engagement in risky sexual behavior leading to higher rates of sexually transmitted diseases and unplanned pregnancies. The ability of MA to enhance sexual drive in females is enigmatic since related psychostimulants like amphetamine and cocaine appear not to affect sexual drive in women, and in rodents models, amphetamine has been reported to be inhibitory to female sexual behavior. Examination of MA's effects on female sexual behavior in an animal model is lacking. Here, using a rodent model, we have demonstrated that MA enhanced female sexual behavior. MA (5mg/kg) or saline vehicle was administered once daily for 3 days to adult ovariectomized rats primed with ovarian steroids. MA treatment significantly increased the number of proceptive events and the lordosis response compared to hormonally primed, saline controls. The effect of MA on the neural circuitry underlying the motivation for sexual behavior was examined using Fos immunoreactivity. In the medial amygdala and the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus, nuclei implicated in motivated behaviors, ovarian hormones and MA independently enhance the neuronal activation, but more striking was the significantly greater activation induced by their combined administration. Increases in dopamine neurotransmission may underlie the MA/hormone mediated increase in neuronal activation. In support of this possibility, ovarian hormones significantly increased tyrosine hydroxylase (the rate limiting enzyme in dopamine synthesis) immunoreactivity in the medial amygdala. Thus our present data suggest that the interactions of MA and ovarian hormones leads to changes in the neural substrate of key nuclei involved in mediating female sexual behaviors, and these changes may underlie MA's ability to enhance these behaviors. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All
Full Text Available According to the last classification of the International Headache Society (IHS, primary headache associated with sexual activity (PHASA begins as dull bilateral pain with sexual stimulation and suddenly condenses with orgasm in the absence of any intracranial disorder. The differential diagnosis includes various pathologies such as reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome, arterial dissection, glaucoma, subarachnoid hemorrhage due to aneurysmal rupture, and pheochromocytoma. PHASA is not subdivided into preorgasmic or orgasmic subforms, but it was accepted as a single entity with variable presentation in this last classification [International Classification of Headache Disorders, 3rd edition, beta version (ICHD-III ]. It is mandatory to exclude possible secondary pathology, even in cases with typical clinical presentation (middle age, male, normal neurological examination. We found an underlying secondary pathology in only one of the three cases (internal carotid artery aneurysm. We considered it appropriate to present three cases to increase the awareness of clinicians in terms of secondary pathology. All three patients received indomethacin for preemptive therapy (50mg, intake 30-60 minute prior to sexual activity with good results.
Ahmad, NoorAni; Awaluddin, S Maria; Ismail, Hasimah; Samad, Rahama; NikAbdRashid, NikRubiah
This study aimed to identify risk and protective factors associated with sexual activity among Malaysian adolescents. Data from the World Health Organization Global School-based Student Health Survey 2012 were analyzed. A total of 23 645 students aged 12 to 17 years responded using self-administered validated questionnaire. The overall prevalence of reported ever-had sex was 8.3%. Logistic regression analysis revealed that ever-had sex was positively significantly associated with ever-used drugs (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 7.71; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 6.51-9.13), and to a lesser extent, ever-smoked (aOR = 1.83; 95% CI = 1.62-2.07) and ever-consumed alcohol (aOR = 1.33; 95% CI = 1.15-2.53). Protective factors against ever-had sex were having a close friend (aOR = 0.63; 95% CI = 0.50-0.81), parental bonding (aOR = 0.72; 95% CI = 0.65-0.81), supportive peers (aOR = 0.77; 95% CI = 0.69-0.86), and parental connectedness (aOR = 0.88; 95% CI = 0.78-0.99). Although the prevalence of sexual activity among school-going adolescents in Malaysia is relatively low, identifying the risk and protective factors is crucial toward developing an integrated multiple approach to preventing sexual-related problems. © 2014 APJPH.
Patrick K House
Full Text Available Cat odors induce rapid, innate and stereotyped defensive behaviors in rats at first exposure, a presumed response to the evolutionary pressures of predation. Bizarrely, rats infected with the brain parasite Toxoplasma gondii approach the cat odors they typically avoid. Since the protozoan Toxoplasma requires the cat to sexually reproduce, this change in host behavior is thought to be a remarkable example of a parasite manipulating a mammalian host for its own benefit. Toxoplasma does not influence host response to non-feline predator odor nor does it alter behavior on olfactory, social, fear or anxiety tests, arguing for specific manipulation in the processing of cat odor. We report that Toxoplasma infection alters neural activity in limbic brain areas necessary for innate defensive behavior in response to cat odor. Moreover, Toxoplasma increases activity in nearby limbic regions of sexual attraction when the rat is exposed to cat urine, compelling evidence that Toxoplasma overwhelms the innate fear response by causing, in its stead, a type of sexual attraction to the normally aversive cat odor.
Pascoal, P M; Raposo, C F; Oliveira, L B
Our aim is to scrutinize the extent to which aspects of body dissatisfaction and relationship variables predict body appearance cognitive distraction during sexual activity (BACDSA) in a sample of men diagnosed with ED. A total of 65 heterosexual Portuguese participants with ED completed a survey that included questions on socio-demographic data as well as body-related and relationship measures. We used the Global Body Dissatisfaction (GBD) Subscale of the Body Attitudes Test; a version of the Contour Drawing Rating Scale; a single item on partner's opinion perceived about one's body appearance; the Global Measure of Relationship Satisfaction; and the Inclusion of Other in Self Scale. Open questions assessed focus on specific body parts during sexual activity and relationship length. Hierarchical multiple regression indicated that only GBD was a significant predictor of BACDSA, contrary to the relationship measures that showed no significant predictive effect (R(2) =0.47). Our results support the important role of individual factors on explanatory models of sexual dysfunctions, suggesting that interventions addressing individual factors that affect BACDSA may be of preference.
House, Patrick K; Vyas, Ajai; Sapolsky, Robert
Cat odors induce rapid, innate and stereotyped defensive behaviors in rats at first exposure, a presumed response to the evolutionary pressures of predation. Bizarrely, rats infected with the brain parasite Toxoplasma gondii approach the cat odors they typically avoid. Since the protozoan Toxoplasma requires the cat to sexually reproduce, this change in host behavior is thought to be a remarkable example of a parasite manipulating a mammalian host for its own benefit. Toxoplasma does not influence host response to non-feline predator odor nor does it alter behavior on olfactory, social, fear or anxiety tests, arguing for specific manipulation in the processing of cat odor. We report that Toxoplasma infection alters neural activity in limbic brain areas necessary for innate defensive behavior in response to cat odor. Moreover, Toxoplasma increases activity in nearby limbic regions of sexual attraction when the rat is exposed to cat urine, compelling evidence that Toxoplasma overwhelms the innate fear response by causing, in its stead, a type of sexual attraction to the normally aversive cat odor.
Rottmann, Nina; Gilså Hansen, Dorte; dePont Christensen, René
Background: A breast cancer (BC) diagnosis can profoundly affect the sex life of patient and partner within a couple. The purpose of the present study is to examine whether individual and partner sexual functioning, affectionate behavior, emotional closeness and depressive symptoms are associated...... with change over time in satisfaction with sex life of sexually active heterosexual couples dealing with BC and to explore whether the associations differ between patients and partners after adjustment for basic sociodemographic characteristics, comorbidity and BC treatment. Material and methods: Women...... vaginal discomfort and more vaginal lubrication were associated with increases in patients’ satisfaction with sex life. Patients’ and partners’ satisfaction increased with higher ratings of their own orgasm ability and of partners’ timing of ejaculation. Patients’ reports of affectionate behavior were...
Frank Aiwansoba Imarhiagbe
Full Text Available Background: Neurologic syndromes like headache may on occasion complicate sexual activity. Though largely benign, the headache may seldom be a symptom of an underlying sinister and life threatening neurologic disorder such as aneurysmal subarachnoid heamorrhage. Method: Relevant published materials on the subject of headache associated with sexual intercourse and their cross references from Pubmed Medline, Cochrane Library, International Headache society, EMBASE and other relevant bibliographic repositories were ferreted since 1980 till date. Result: HAS is mainly a diagnosis of exclusion. The secondary or malignant form has a course that is dictated by its underlying cause. HAS in the primary or benign form is amenable to treatment with drugs including indomethacin, propranolol and calcium channel blockers (nimodipine, verapamil and diltiazem with excellent prognosis. Conclusion: Early evaluation for underlying cause of HAS and institution of appropriate treatment is recommended.
Nicole C Deziel
Full Text Available The growing shale gas ("fracking" industry depends on a mobile workforce, whose influx could have social impacts on host communities. Sexually transmitted infections (STIs can increase through sexual mixing patterns associated with labor migration. No prior studies have quantified the relationship between shale gas activity and rates of three reportable STIs: chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis.We conducted a longitudinal, ecologic study from 2000-2016 in Ohio, situated in a prolific shale gas region in the United States (US. Data on reported cases of chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis by county and year were obtained from the Ohio Department of Health. All 88 counties were classified as none, low, and high shale gas activity in each year, using data from the Ohio Department of Natural Resources. Annual rate ratios (RR and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs were calculated from mixed-effects Poisson regression models evaluating the relationship between shale gas activity and reported annual STI rates while adjusting for secular trends and potential confounders obtained from the US Census.Compared to counties with no shale gas activity, counties with high activity had 21% (RR = 1.21; 95%CI = 1.08-1.36 increased rates of chlamydia and 19% (RR = 1.27; 95%CI 0.98-1.44 increased rates of gonorrhea, respectively. No association was observed for syphilis.This first report of a link between shale gas activity and increased rates of both chlamydia and gonorrhea may inform local policies and community health efforts.
Cristilene Akiko Kimura
Full Text Available Introduction: the making of a stoma may result in adverse effects on the social and psychological dimensions, affecting relationships with family and friends, at work and in sexual activity. Objective: to analyze the perceptions of ostomized women regarding sexual activity as an important dimension of quality of life and in the care process. Methods: cross-sectional, descriptive epidemiological study. A sample of 40 patients enrolled in the Ostomized Patient Program of Health Secretariat of the Federal District – Brazil was assessed through a demographic and clinical questionnaire and personal interviews. Data were analyzed using the software programs Microsoft® Office Excel 2010 and SPSS (Statistical Package of the Social Sciences, SPSS Inc, Chicago, USA for Windows 20.0. Statistical significance was set at 5%. Results: ostomized women face several adaptation and rehabilitation problems that interfere with social relationships and, consequently, with body image and self-esteem, which reflects on the sexual activity. Conclusion: the results show the need for health professionals involved with these patients to have a wider view on the making of the stoma, their sequelae and rehabilitation, to ensure the process of care that will improve the quality of life of ostomized women. Resumo: Introdução: a confecção de um estoma pode resultar em efeito adverso na dimensão social e psicológica, afetando nos relacionamentos familiares, com amigos, no trabalho e na atividade sexual. Objetivo: analisar as percepções das mulheres estomizadas quanto à atividade sexual como dimensão importante na qualidade de vida e no processo de cuidar. Métodos: estudo de base epidemiológica transversal descritivo. Amostra constituída por 40 pacientes cadastradas no Programa de Estomizados da Secretaria de Saúde do Distrito Federal Brasil. Utilizou se questionário sócio-demográfico, clínico, e uma entrevista individual. Os dados foram analisados pelos
Full Text Available This study explored the correlates for consistency of contraceptive use among sexually active female adolescents in Kaohsiung County, Taiwan. Overall, 164 female adolescents who had engaged in sexual behavior within the last 6 months and were not pregnant at the time of the study were selected from two vocational high schools in Kaohsiung County, Taiwan. An anonymous questionnaire was used to measure demographic data, contraceptive attitudes, contraceptive knowledge, contraceptive self-efficacy, perception of peers' use of contraceptives, sexual history, and contraceptive use. The results showed that 45.7% of subjects had sex once or more per week, and that 39.6% of subjects always used contraceptives while 15.2% never used contraceptives. Condoms were the most popular contraceptives (51.2% and the withdrawal method was the second most popular (23.8%. Stepwise logistic regression showed that higher contraceptive attitudes (odds ratio, OR, 1.148 and previous contraceptive education in school (OR, 3.394 increased the probability of consistently using contraceptives, correctly classifying 67.2% of the sample.
Badran, Yaser Ali; El-Kashef, Tarek Ahmed; Abdelaziz, Alsayed Saad; Ali, Mahmoud Mohamad
Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a bacterial infection commonly occurring during pregnancy. The incidence of UTI in pregnant women depends on parity, race, and socioeconomic status and can be as high as 8%. The objective was to determine the association of UTI with genital hygiene practices and sexual activity in pregnant women. From January 2011 to June 2014, a total of 200 pregnant women attending prenatal clinics in Al-Zahra Hospital and King Khalid Hospital in Saudia Arabia Kingdom were selected. Eighty pregnant women, who had positive urine cultures (cases), were compared with the remaining 120 healthy pregnant women matched for age, social, economic and education status, and parity (controls). In the present work, Escherichia coli were the infecting organism in 83% of cases. Factors associated with UTI included sexual intercourse ≥ 3 times/week (odds ratio [OR] =5.62), recent UTI (OR = 3.27), not washing genitals precoitus (OR = 2.16), not washing genitals postcoitus (OR = 2.89), not voiding urine postcoitus (OR = 8.62) and washing genitals from back to front (OR = 2.96) [OR = odds ratio]. Urinary tract infection in pregnant women was primarily caused by bacteria from the stool (E. coli) and that hygiene habits, and sexual behavior may play a role in UTI in pregnant women.
Full Text Available The goal of our research was to determine the presence of bacterial vaginosis in sexually active women in Tuzla Canton area. Diagnosis determination for bacterial vaginosis was conducted on the basis of three out of four internationally accepted criteria according to Amsel and isolation and identification of Gard- nerella vaginalis (G. vaginalis by standard microbiological procedures. Bacterial vaginosis was diagnosed in 20,5 % (41/200 women who asked for gynaecologist’s help due to their personal discomfort, since significantly higher percentage of diagnosed bacterial vaginosis of 48,80% (41/84 was determined in women with personal discomfort typical for this disease. All relevant factors, according to available literature, for genesis of bacterial vaginosis were processed in this research. In respect to the obtained outputs, bacterial vaginosis is significantly more frequent occurrence in women who are not married, since the number of sexual partners, the time of the first sexual intercourse, the use of intrauterine contraceptive device and smoking do not cause the genesis of bacterial vaginosis. According to Nugent, an increased vaginal discharge with unpleasant odour after sexual discourse, its pH>4,5, a positive amino odour test, an occurrence of clue cells in a direct microscopic concoction of vaginal discharge and assessment of the state of vaginal flora for bacterial vaginosis are significantly more frequent occurrences in women with individual discomforts. It was proved that G. vaginalisis a dominant micro organism in 95% of women with clinical signs of vaginosis although it was isolated from vaginal discharge in 40 to 50% of healthy women. In our research, G. vaginalis was isolated in 63,41% of examined women with all signs of bacterial vaginosis, in 36,59% of examined women with one or more clinical signs of bacterial vaginosis and in 2,58% of examined women of control group without clinical signs.
Fairlie, Anne M; Garcia, Tracey A; Lee, Christine M; Lewis, Melissa A
Few studies have examined associations between using alcohol only and using both alcohol and marijuana with sexual behavior on specific occasions. The current study examined alcohol and marijuana use during the most recent sexual experience in association with relationship characteristics, psychological issues, and condom use. Young adult drinkers aged 18-25 who reported not using a condom during sex in the past month were recruited nationally. An analytic subsample (N = 378) was identified based on substance use during the most recent sexual experience [53% female, 70% Caucasian; mean age = 22.42 years (SD = 1.90)]. Using logistic regression, two dummy codes compared the alcohol use only group (n = 197) and the both alcohol and marijuana group (n = 95) to the group who used neither substance (n = 86). Participant sex, drinking frequency, and number of sexual partners were included as covariates. The alcohol only group and the both alcohol and marijuana group had greater odds of being with a casual acquaintance and loss of respect compared to the group who used neither substance. The alcohol only group had greater odds of being with someone they just met and embarrassment compared to the group who used neither substance. No associations were found for condom use or emotional difficulties. Preventative interventions may need to address both alcohol and marijuana to more effectively reduce risky behaviors. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hagen, Whitney B; Hoover, Stephanie M; Morrow, Susan L
Psychosocial benefits of activism include increased empowerment, social connectedness, and resilience. Yet sexual minority women (SMW) and transgender individuals with multiple oppressed statuses and identities are especially prone to oppression-based experiences, even within minority activist communities. This study sought to develop an empirical model to explain the diverse meanings of social justice activism situated in SMW and transgender individuals' social identities, values, and experiences of oppression and privilege. Using a grounded theory design, 20 SMW and transgender individuals participated in initial, follow-up, and feedback interviews. The most frequent demographic identities were queer or bisexual, White, middle-class women with advanced degrees. The results indicated that social justice activism was intensely relational, replete with multiple benefits, yet rife with experiences of oppression from within and outside of activist communities. The empirically derived model shows the complexity of SMW and transgender individuals' experiences, meanings, and benefits of social justice activism.
Garcia, Frederico Duarte; Thibaut, Florence
The potential adverse consequences, personal distress, shame and guilt presented by patients who suffer from sexual addiction require a more in-depth understanding of the phenomenology and psychobiology of this disorder. A bibliographic review was conducted using MEDLINE and EBSCO databases with the following keywords: "sexual addiction," "hypersexuality," "compulsive sexual behavior," "behavioural addiction," "treatment," and "addiction." Several conceptualizations of excessive nonparaphilic sexual disorder have been proposed based on the models of, respectively, obsessive compulsive disorder, impulse control disorder, out of control excessive sexual disorder, and addictive disorder. Despite the lack of robust scientific data, a number of clinical elements, such as the frequent preoccupation with this type of behavior, the time spent in sexual activities, the continuation of this behavior despite its negative consequences, the repeated and unsuccessful efforts made to reduce the behavior, are in favor of an addictive disorder. In addition there is a high comorbidity between excessive sexual behavior and other addictive behaviors. The phenomenology of excessive nonparaphilic sexual disorder favors its conceptualization as an addictive behavior, rather than an obsessive-compulsive, or an impulse control disorder. Moreover, the criteria that are quite close to those of addictive disorders were recently proposed for the future DSM-V in order to improve the characterization of this condition. Finally, controlled studies are warranted in order to establish clear guidelines for treatment of sexual addiction.
Anna Rose Childress
Full Text Available The human brain responds to recognizable signals for sex and for rewarding drugs of abuse by activation of limbic reward circuitry. Does the brain respond in similar way to such reward signals even when they are "unseen", i.e., presented in a way that prevents their conscious recognition? Can the brain response to "unseen" reward cues predict the future affective response to recognizable versions of such cues, revealing a link between affective/motivational processes inside and outside awareness?We exploited the fast temporal resolution of event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to test the brain response to "unseen" (backward-masked cocaine, sexual, aversive and neutral cues of 33 milliseconds duration in male cocaine patients (n = 22. Two days after scanning, the affective valence for visible versions of each cue type was determined using an affective bias (priming task. We demonstrate, for the first time, limbic brain activation by "unseen" drug and sexual cues of only 33 msec duration. Importantly, increased activity in an large interconnected ventral pallidum/amygdala cluster to the "unseen" cocaine cues strongly predicted future positive affect to visible versions of the same cues in subsequent off-magnet testing, pointing both to the functional significance of the rapid brain response, and to shared brain substrates for appetitive motivation within and outside awareness.These findings represent the first evidence that brain reward circuitry responds to drug and sexual cues presented outside awareness. The results underscore the sensitivity of the brain to "unseen" reward signals and may represent the brain's primordial signature for desire. The limbic brain response to reward cues outside awareness may represent a potential vulnerability in disorders (e.g., the addictions for whom poorly-controlled appetitive motivation is a central feature.
Ellis, Walter L
A sample of 498 sexually active first-year students matriculating at a historically Black college in North Carolina was used to determine correlates of risky sexual behaviors. In an Ordinary Least Squares regression, the self-esteem element "I take a positive attitude toward myself" (B = 1.12, p = .05), non-condom use because of partner issues (B = .53, p = .05) and being drunk or high (B = 1.20, p = .001), oral sex (B = 1.74, p = .001), anal sex (B = .61, p = .04), and bisexuality (B = .85, p = .03) all increased the number of these behaviors. Higher scores on the condom usage scale (B = -.38, p = .002) were found to decrease the number of risky sexual behaviors. Illicit drug use was an underpinning of the surprisingly positive relationship between positive self-image and risky sexual behaviors. It was concluded that school-based social workers, mental health care professionals, and community-based prevention providers can play a critical role in the training of peer facilitators, development, and supervision of peer-driven risk-reduction programs to address the complex interplay among self-esteem, sex, and substances.
Legleye, S; Beck, F; Peretti-Watel, P; Chau, N; Firdion, J M
To assess associations among young adults between suicidal ideation in the previous year and adverse childhood events, occupation, education, tobacco use, alcohol abuse, cannabis use in the previous month, illicit drug use, sexual orientation and activity, depression, physical violence in the previous year, and lifetime forced sexual intercourse. A subsample of 4075 French adults aged 18-30 years was drawn from a random national telephone survey in 2005. Major depressive episode and alcohol abuse were assessed using CIDI-SF and AUDIT-C (score above 4). Data were analysed with logistic regressions. Suicidal ideation affected 5.7% of men and 4.9% of women. Among men depression had the highest adjusted odds ratio (ORa=8.06, 5.07-12.79), followed by homosexual intercourse (3.37, 1.62-7.04), absence of sexual activity (2.83, 1.80-4.44); ORa between 1.6 and 2.0 were observed for living alone, daily tobacco smoking, being unemployed, serious health event concerning the father, age 26-30 and bad relationships between parents. Among women, depression had the highest ORa (7.60, 4.70-12.29), followed by lifetime experience of forced sexual intercourse (5.37, 2.89-9.96), having consumed illicit drugs other than cannabis (4.01, 1.48-10.89); ORa between 1.7 and 2.5 were observed for living alone, being unemployed, bad relationship between parents and age 26-30. Cross-sectional survey, sexual orientation inferred from sexual activity. Suicide prevention should integrate the fact that besides depression, unemployment, family history, age, and sexual activity and orientation are specific risk factors among men, whereas illicit drug use, violence and forced sexual intercourse are more important among women. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Park, Young-Min; Lee, Bun-Hee; Um, Tae Hyun; Kim, Sollip
The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that serum levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) are correlated with the loudness dependence of auditory evoked potentials (LDAEP). The question of whether there is a difference in BDNF levels between depressive patients according to their illness severity, history of suicide attempts, and central serotonin activity was also addressed. A sample of 51 patients who met the criteria for major depressive disorder following diagnosis using axis I of the fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders - text revision comprised the study subjects. The patients were stratified into two subgroups based on their illness severity, history of suicide attempts, and their LDAEP values. The LDAEP was evaluated by measuring the auditory event-related potentials, and serum BDNF was measured using blood sampling before beginning medication with serotonergic agents. There was no difference in serum BDNF levels between the two patient subgroups. The subgroup with moderate-to-severe depression (n = 16) was reanalyzed after stratifying it into two subgroups according to LDAEP and BDNF values (dichotomized at the medians into low and high). The high-LDAEP subgroup had higher serum BDNF levels and total Barratt Impulsiveness Scale score than the low-LDAEP subgroup (p = 0.03 and 0.036, respectively). Serum BDNF levels were positively correlated with LDAEP and total Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS) score (r = 0.56, p = 0.025, and r = 0.59, p = 0.016, respectively). The high-BDNF subgroup had a higher LDAEP and total BHS score than the low-BDNF subgroup (p = 0.046 and p = 0.011, respectively). This is the first study to demonstrate a relationship between the BDNF level and LDAEP in Asian depressive patients. Intriguingly, the high-BDNF subgroup (divided according to illness severity) exhibited a more severe psychopathology on some psychometric rating scales, a finding that
Asaba, Akari; Osakada, Takuya; Touhara, Kazushige; Kato, Masahiro; Mogi, Kazutaka; Kikusui, Takefumi
Vocal communication in animals is important for ensuring reproductive success. Male mice emit song-like "ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs)" when they encounter female mice, and females show approach to the USVs. However, it is unclear whether USVs of male mice trigger female behavioral and endocrine responses in reproduction. In this study, we first investigated the relationship between the number of deliveries in breeding pairs for 4months and USVs syllables emitted from those paired males during 3min of sexual encounter with unfamiliar female mice. There was a positive correlation between these two indices, which suggests that breeding pairs in which males could emit USVs more frequently had more offspring. Further, we examined the effect of USVs of male mice on female sexual behavior. Female mice showed more approach behavior towards vocalizing males than devocalized males. Finally, to determine whether USVs of male mice could activate the neural system governing reproductive function in female mice, the activation of kisspeptin neurons, key neurons to drive gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons in the hypothalamus, was examined using dual-label immunocytochemistry with cAMP response element-binding protein phosphorylation (pCREB). In the arcuate nucleus (Arc), the number of kisspeptin neurons expressing pCREB significantly increased after exposure to USVs of male as compared with noise exposure group. In conclusion, our results suggest that USVs of male mice promote fertility in female mice by activating both their approaching behavior and central kisspeptin neurons. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Farrow, J A; Schroeder, E
have little or no knowledge of birth control methods or venereal disease (Deisher, 1980; Schroeder, 1981). Further, these adolescents appear to endorse constricted and conventional values related to sexual activity, abortion, and relationship issues and frequently have a background of sexual abuse and prostitution. These findings form the basis of the current study which attempts to develop an effective coeducational sex education program for this population within a detention facility. This program is specifically designed for a sexually active adolescent group aged 14 to 17.
Attention – four items regarding unwanted attempts to establish a sexual relationship – Sexual Coercion – four items regarding classic quid pro quo ...of Defense (DoD) continues to emphasize sexual assault and sexual harassment response and prevention in the military. This survey note discusses...assault and sexual harassment in the active duty force. This survey note and accompanying briefing (Appendix) provide information on the prevalence
items regarding unwanted attempts to establish a sexual relationship – Sexual Coercion – four items regarding classic quid pro quo instances of special...continues to emphasize sexual assault and sexual harassment response and prevention in the military. This survey note discusses findings from the... harassment in the active duty force. This survey note and accompanying briefing (Appendix) provide information on the prevalence rates of sexual
Broughman, James R; Basak, Ramsankar; Nielsen, Matthew E; Reeve, Bryce B; Usinger, Deborah S; Spearman, Kiayni C; Godley, Paul A; Chen, Ronald C
Men with early-stage prostate cancer have multiple options that have similar oncologic efficacy but vary in terms of their impact on quality of life. In low-risk cancer, active surveillance is the option that best preserves patients' sexual function, but it is unknown if patient preference affects treatment selection. Our objectives were to identify patient characteristics associated with a strong preference to preserve sexual function and to determine whether patient preference and baseline sexual function level are associated with receipt of active surveillance in low-risk cancer. In this population-based cohort of men with localized prostate cancer, baseline patient-reported sexual function was assessed using a validated instrument. Patients were also asked whether preservation of sexual function was very, somewhat, or not important. Prostate cancer disease characteristics and treatments received were abstracted from medical records. A modified Poisson regression model with robust standard errors was used to compute adjusted risk ratio (aRR) estimates. All statistical tests were two-sided. Among 1194 men, 52.6% indicated a strong preference for preserving sexual function. Older men were less likely to have a strong preference (aRR = 0.98 per year, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.97 to 0.99), while men with normal sexual function were more likely (vs poor function, aRR = 1.59, 95% CI = 1.39 to 1.82). Among 568 men with low-risk cancer, there was no clear association between baseline sexual function or strong preference to preserve function with receipt of active surveillance. However, strong preference may differnetially impact those with intermediate baseline function vs poor function (Pinteraction = .02). Treatment choice may not always align with patients' preferences. These findings demonstrate opportunities to improve delivery of patient-centered care in early prostate cancer.
Humeau, Zoe; Elliott, Elise G.; Warren, Joshua L.; Niccolai, Linda M.
Background The growing shale gas (“fracking”) industry depends on a mobile workforce, whose influx could have social impacts on host communities. Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) can increase through sexual mixing patterns associated with labor migration. No prior studies have quantified the relationship between shale gas activity and rates of three reportable STIs: chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis. Methods We conducted a longitudinal, ecologic study from 2000–2016 in Ohio, situated in a prolific shale gas region in the United States (US). Data on reported cases of chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis by county and year were obtained from the Ohio Department of Health. All 88 counties were classified as none, low, and high shale gas activity in each year, using data from the Ohio Department of Natural Resources. Annual rate ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated from mixed-effects Poisson regression models evaluating the relationship between shale gas activity and reported annual STI rates while adjusting for secular trends and potential confounders obtained from the US Census. Results Compared to counties with no shale gas activity, counties with high activity had 21% (RR = 1.21; 95%CI = 1.08–1.36) increased rates of chlamydia and 19% (RR = 1.27; 95%CI 0.98–1.44) increased rates of gonorrhea, respectively. No association was observed for syphilis. Conclusion This first report of a link between shale gas activity and increased rates of both chlamydia and gonorrhea may inform local policies and community health efforts. PMID:29570712
Holbech, Henrik; Kinnberg, Karin Lund; Petersen, Gitte
This document presents the validation report (phase 2) of the Fish Sexual Development Test (FSDT). The Fish Sexual Development Test (FSDT) covers a life-stage where sexual development is particularly sensitive to perturbation caused by endocrine active chemicals. The chemical exposure lasts...... Guideline on the fish sexual development test to the Working Group of the National Coordinators of the Test Guidelines Programme (WNT). The project was included on the Test Guidelines workplan in 2003, and extensive validation of the test method was carried out until 2009. Two validation studies were...... for about 60 days, at the end of which endpoints of ecological relevance like the sex ratio of the exposed fish is calculated and the biomarker endpoint vitellogenin is measured in individual animals. In 2003, Denmark, on behalf of the European Nordic countries, proposed a new project o develop a Test...
Vannier, Sarah A; Rosen, Natalie O
Sexual problems are common during pregnancy, but the proportion of pregnant women who experience sexual distress is unknown. In non-pregnant samples, sexual distress is associated with lower sexual and relationship satisfaction. To identify the proportion of women experiencing sexual distress during pregnancy and to compare the sexual and relationship satisfaction of women who report sexual distress during pregnancy with that of women without distress. Two-hundred sixty-one pregnant women completed a cross-sectional online survey. Women completed validated measurements of sexual functioning (Female Sexual Function Index; score sexual problem), sexual distress (Female Sexual Distress Scale; score ≥ 15 indicates clinically significant distress), sexual satisfaction (Global Measure of Sexual Satisfaction), and relationship satisfaction (Couples Satisfaction Index). Overall, 42% of women met the clinical cutoff for sexual distress. Of sexually active women (n = 230), 26% reported concurrent sexual problems and distress and 14% reported sexual distress in the absence of sexual problems. Sexual distress and/or problems in sexual functioning were linked to lower sexual and relationship satisfaction compared with pregnant women with lower sexual distress and fewer sexual problems. Sexual distress is common during pregnancy and associated with lower sexual and relationship satisfaction. Health care providers should ask pregnant women about feelings of sexual distress. Identifying pregnant women who experience sexual distress and referring them to appropriate resources could help minimize sexual and relationship problems during pregnancy. Vannier SA, Rosen NO. Sexual Distress and Sexual Problems During Pregnancy: Associations With Sexual and Relationship Satisfaction. J Sex Med 2017;14:387-395. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Spokas, Megan; Wenzel, Amy; Brown, Gregory K; Beck, Aaron T
Previous research has identified only a few variables that have been associated with making an impulsive suicide attempt. The aim of the current study was to compare individuals who made an impulsive suicide attempt with those who made a premeditated attempt on both previously examined and novel characteristics. Participants were classified as making an impulsive or premeditated attempt based on the Suicide Intent Scale (Beck et al., 1974a) and were compared on a number of characteristics relevant to suicidality, psychiatric history, and demographics. Individuals who made an impulsive attempt expected that their attempts would be less lethal; yet the actual lethality of both groups' attempts was similar. Those who made an impulsive attempt were less depressed and hopeless than those who made a premeditated attempt. Participants who made an impulsive attempt were less likely to report a history of childhood sexual abuse and more likely to be diagnosed with an alcohol use disorder than those who made a premeditated attempt. Although the sample size was adequate for bivariate statistics, future studies using larger sample sizes will allow for multivariate analyses of characteristics that differentiate individuals who make impulsive and premeditated attempts. Clinicians should not minimize the significance of impulsive attempts, as they are associated with a similar level of lethality as premeditated attempts. Focusing mainly on depression and hopelessness as indicators of suicide risk has the potential to under-identify those who are at risk for making impulsive attempts. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Sato, Takuya; Shinohara, Yasutomo; Kaneko, Daisuke; Nishimura, Ikuko; Matsuyama, Asahi
Wheel running by rodents is thought to reflect voluntary exercise in humans. The present study examined the effect of fermented soymilk (FSM) on voluntary wheel running in rats. FSM was prepared from soymilk (SM) using the bacteria Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides. The rats were fed a normal diet for 3 weeks followed by a 3-week administration of diet containing FSM or SM (5% w/w), and then the diets were switched back to a normal diet for 3 weeks. The voluntary wheel running activity was increased by FSM administration, although no changes were observed by SM administration. This effect was observed 2 weeks after FSM administration and lasted 1 week after deprivation of FSM. Then we evaluated the effect of FSM on sexual behavior in male rats. FSM administration for 10 days significantly increased the number of mounts. The protein expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) increased in the hippocampus by FSM administration and it is suggested that FSM may change norepinephrine or dopamine signaling in the brain. Our study provides the first evidence that FSM increases voluntary wheel running activity and sexual behavior and suggests that TH may be involved in these effects.
Galinsky, Adena M; Waite, Linda J
The pathways linking spousal health to marital quality in later life have been little examined at the population level. We develop a conceptual model that links married older adults' physical health and that of their spouse to positive and negative dimensions of marital quality via psychological well-being of both partners and their sexual activity. We use data from 1,464 older adults in 732 marital dyads in the 2010-2011 wave of the National Social Life Health and Aging Project. We find that own fair or poor physical health is linked to lower positive and higher negative marital quality, spouse's health to positive quality, and that own and spouse's mental health and more frequent sex are associated with higher positive and lower negative marital quality. Further, we find that (a) sexual activity mediates the association between own and partner's physical health and positive marital quality, (b) own mental health mediates the association between one's own physical health and both positive and negative marital quality, and (c) partner's mental health mediates the associations of spouse's physical health with positive marital quality. These results are robust to alternative specifications of the model. The results suggest ways to protect marital quality among older adults who are struggling with physical illness in themselves or their partners.
Grov, Christian; Rendina, H Jonathon; Moody, Raymond L; Ventuneac, Ana; Parsons, Jeffrey T
Researchers have identified harm reduction strategies that gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (GBMSM) use to reduce HIV transmission--including serosorting, status disclosure, and strategic positioning. We report on patterns of these behaviors among 376 highly sexually active (i.e., 9+partners, positioning; however, rates varied based on the participant's HIV status. HIV-positive and HIV-negative men both engaged in sex with men of similar status more often than they engaged in sex with men known to be a different HIV status (i.e., serosorting). However, HIV-negative men disclosed their HIV-status with about half of their partners, whereas HIV-positive participants disclosed with only about one-third. With regard to strategic positioning, HIV-positive participants were the receptive partner about half the time with their HIV-negative partners and with their HIV-positive partners. In contrast, strategic positioning was very common among HIV-negative participants-they rarely bottomed with HIV-positive partners, bottomed about one-third of the time with status-unknown partners, and 42% of the time (on average) with HIV-negative partners. Highly sexually active GBMSM are a critical population in which to both investigate HIV prevention strategies as well as develop effective intervention programs. Providers and clinicians might be well served to include a wide range of behavioral harm reduction strategies in addition to condom use and biomedical approaches to reduce onward HIV transmission.
Rhen, T; Crews, D
Gonadal sex is determined by the temperature experienced during incubation in the leopard gecko (Eublepharis macularius). Furthermore, both factors, incubation temperature and gonadal sex, influence adult sexual and agonistic behavior in this species. Yet it is unclear whether such differences in behavior are irreversibly organized during development or are mediated by differences in hormone levels in adulthood. To address this question, we gonadectomized adult females and males generated from a female-biased (30 degrees C) and a male-biased (32.5 degrees C) incubation temperature and treated them with equivalent levels of various sex steroids. We found that 17beta-estradiol (E(2)) activated sexual receptivity in females but not males, suggesting an organized sex difference in behavioral sensitivity to E(2). There were also organized and activated sex differences in attractivity to stimulus males. Although females were more attractive than males when treated with E(2), both sexes were equally unattractive when treated with dihydrotestosterone (DHT) or testosterone (T). Likewise, sex differences in aggressive and submissive behavior were organized and activated. Attacks on stimulus males were activated by T in males but not in females. In contrast, hormones did not influence flight behavior in males but did affect female submissiveness. Overall, males also evoked more attacks by stimulus males than did females. Nevertheless, females and males treated with androgens evoked more attacks than animals of the same sex that were treated with cholesterol or E(2). Incubation temperature had some weak effects on certain behaviors and no effect on others. This suggests that temperature effects in gonadally intact geckos may be due primarily to differences in circulating levels of hormones in adulthood. We conclude that gonadal sex has both organizational and activational effects on various behaviors in the leopard gecko. Copyright 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel
Wiegerink, D.J.H.G.; Roebroeck, M.E.; van der Slot, W.M.A.; Stam, H.J.; Cohen-Kettenis, P.T.
Aim: The aim of this study was to describe the peer group activities, romantic relationships, and sexual activity and their interrelations of young adults with cerebral palsy (CP). Method: A cross-sectional study was performed in 87 participants (51 males, 36 females; mean age 20y 4mo, SD 1y 3mo
Richters, Juliet; de Visser, Richard O; Badcock, Paul B; Smith, Anthony M A; Rissel, Chris; Simpson, Judy M; Grulich, Andrew E
Background This study describes the prevalence of (solo) masturbation, paying for sex and a range of other sexual practices among Australians. A representative sample of 20094 men and women aged 16-69 years (participation rate among eligible people, 66.2%) were recruited by landline and mobile phone random-digit dialling and computer-assisted telephone interviews in 2012-13. Many respondents (men, 72%; women, 42%) had masturbated in the past year. Half (51%) of the men and 24% of women had masturbated in the past 4 weeks. In the past year, more than two-fifths of respondents (men, 63%; women, 20%) had looked at pornography in any medium. Approximately 15% of men and 21% of women had used a sex toy. Digital-anal stimulation with a partner was practised by 19% of men and 15% of women, and oral-anal stimulation by 7% of men and 4% of women. Sexual role playing or dressing up were engaged in by 7-8%. Online sex, swinging, group sex, BDSM (bondage and discipline, 'sadomasochism' or dominance and submission) and fisting (rectal or vaginal) were each engaged in by less than 3% of the sample. Seventeen per cent of men said they had ever paid for sex; 2% had done so in the past year. Most of the solo practices studied were engaged in by more men than women, but women were more likely to have used a sex toy. Autoerotic activities are both substitutes for partnered sex and additional sources of pleasure for people with sexual partners.
Short duration or weak expression of oestrus are frequently cited as major reasons for poor results when artificial insemination of Bos indicus breeds is attempted. The existing literature on sexual behaviour certainly indicates that oestrus sometimes lasts for only a few hours in Bos indicus, but similar patterns are also reported in Bos taurus animals. The period of sexual receptivity in suckled Hereford or Hereford-dairy cross-breds maintained in small, totally confined groups ranged from 1 to 18 h, with a mean of 4.4 h and a median of 3.5 h. In totally confined Holstein cows the onset of the LH surge always followed the beginning of homosexual activity by 1 or 2 h even when the period of receptivity was very short. Thus, the beginning rather than the end of oestrus should be used for estimating ovulation time. The expression of sexual behaviour is modified by many factors, including environmental conditions, the number of peri-oestrous females in the group and the presence of observers. In Hereford beef, Holstein dairy and probably all other cattle breeds, the variability in duration and intensity of oestrous activity is very large, so generalizations on a typical individual behavioural pattern are not possible. (author). 39 refs, 1 fig., 2 tabs
Duberstein Lindberg, Laura; Singh, Susheela
Public policies promoting abstinence until marriage attempt to influence the sexual behavior of the more than 18 million American women who are currently single. An analysis of these women's behavior is needed to inform policies that are responsive to their sexual and reproductive health needs. Sexual behaviors, risk factors and reproductive health needs were examined among a nationally representative sample of 6,493 women aged 20-44 from the 2002 National Survey of Family Growth. Paired t tests were used to assess differences among single, married and cohabiting women by selected demographic, behavioral and risk measures. Thirty-six percent of women aged 20-44 are single, and nine in 10 single women are sexually experienced. Seventy percent of the latter women are currently sexually active; on average, they had intercourse in seven of the last 12 months. A higher proportion of single women (22%) than of cohabiting (9%) or married women (2%) have had two or more partners in the past year, and half of single women are at risk of unintended pregnancy. Furthermore, single women and cohabiting women are more likely to lack health insurance than are married women (21-25% vs. 12%). Because of the high level of sexual activity among single adult women, providers must address their reproductive health care needs and offer appropriate counseling and services. Government policies aimed at encouraging adult women to have sex only within marriage appear out of touch with the reality of the sexual behavior of single women.
Goldberg, Rachel E
Epidemiological, economic, and social forces have produced high levels of volatility in family and household structure for young people growing up in sub-Saharan Africa in recent decades. However, scholarship on the family to date has not examined the influence of this family instability on young people's well-being. The current study employs unique life history calendar data from Western Kenya to investigate the relationship between instability in caregiving and early initiation of sexual activity. It draws on a body of work on parental union instability in the United States, and examines new dimensions of family change. Analyses reveal a positive association between transitions in primary caregiver and the likelihood of early sexual debut that is rapidly manifested following caregiver change and persists for a short period. The association is strongest at early ages, and there is a cumulative effect of multiple caregiver changes. The results highlight the importance of studying family stability in sub-Saharan Africa, as distinct from family structure, and for attention to dimensions such as age and recency.
The sexual double standard (SDS) is a divergent set of expectations for boys and men, and girls and women for engaging in romantic and sexual behaviour. It prescribes that boys and men should be sexually active, assertive and take sexual initiative, whereas girls and women should be sexually
Full Text Available Although the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV decreased in the last decade worldwide, the number of deaths due to HIV/AIDS and communicable diseases including syphilis, hepatitis, and tuberculosis had dramatically increased in developing countries. Education and behavior are incredibly important factors to prevent these diseases’ spread. This study highlights the range of differences in knowledge, attitude, and behavior of 434 sexually active medical students towards HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted infections (STIs. Because the surveyed population constitutes the forefront of healthcare providers and was originated from different area of the world, this is the first time a study sought to investigate the behavioral attitude of this group of population irrespective of the three levels of their academic and professional knowledge. Several factors including sociodemographic characteristics, sexual behavior, HIV/AIDS, and STIs related patterns play a key role in medical student attitude and behavior towards people infected with HIV/AIDS and STIs. Our findings add consistent value in prior studies which aimed to stop new infections and also imply further investigations on the management of the studied infections by medical students. The present study arouses much interest among participants and provides evidence of reinforcing medical students’ education on HIV/AIDS and STIs.
Okigbo, Chinelo C; Speizer, Ilene S
With age of marriage rising in Kenya, the period between onset of puberty and first marriage has increased, resulting in higher rates of premarital sexual activity and pregnancy. We assessed the determinants of sexual activity and pregnancy among young unmarried women in urban Kenya. Baseline data from five urban areas in Kenya (Nairobi, Mombasa, Kisumu, Machakos, and Kakamega) collected in 2010 by the Measurement, Learning & Evaluation project were used. Women aged 15-24 years, who had never been married, and were not living with a male partner at the time of survey (weighted n = 2020) were included. Using weighted, multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression and logistic regression analyses, we assessed factors associated with three outcome measures: time to first sex, time to first pregnancy, and teenage pregnancy. One-half of our sample had ever had sex; the mean age at first sex among the sexually-experienced was 17.7 (± 2.6) years. About 15% had ever been pregnant; mean age at first pregnancy was 18.3 (± 2.2) years. Approximately 11% had a teenage pregnancy. Three-quarters (76%) of those who had ever been pregnant (weighted n = 306) reported the pregnancy was unwanted at the time. Having secondary education was associated with a later time to first sex and first pregnancy. In addition, religion, religiosity, and employment status were associated with time to first sex while city of residence, household size, characteristics of household head, family planning knowledge and misconceptions, and early sexual debut were significantly associated with time to first pregnancy. Education, city of residence, household wealth, early sexual debut, and contraceptive use at sexual debut were associated with teenage pregnancy for those 20-24 years. Understanding risk and protective factors of youth sexual and reproductive health can inform programs to improve young people's long-term potential by avoiding early and unintended pregnancies.
Chinelo C Okigbo
Full Text Available With age of marriage rising in Kenya, the period between onset of puberty and first marriage has increased, resulting in higher rates of premarital sexual activity and pregnancy. We assessed the determinants of sexual activity and pregnancy among young unmarried women in urban Kenya.Baseline data from five urban areas in Kenya (Nairobi, Mombasa, Kisumu, Machakos, and Kakamega collected in 2010 by the Measurement, Learning & Evaluation project were used. Women aged 15-24 years, who had never been married, and were not living with a male partner at the time of survey (weighted n = 2020 were included. Using weighted, multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression and logistic regression analyses, we assessed factors associated with three outcome measures: time to first sex, time to first pregnancy, and teenage pregnancy.One-half of our sample had ever had sex; the mean age at first sex among the sexually-experienced was 17.7 (± 2.6 years. About 15% had ever been pregnant; mean age at first pregnancy was 18.3 (± 2.2 years. Approximately 11% had a teenage pregnancy. Three-quarters (76% of those who had ever been pregnant (weighted n = 306 reported the pregnancy was unwanted at the time. Having secondary education was associated with a later time to first sex and first pregnancy. In addition, religion, religiosity, and employment status were associated with time to first sex while city of residence, household size, characteristics of household head, family planning knowledge and misconceptions, and early sexual debut were significantly associated with time to first pregnancy. Education, city of residence, household wealth, early sexual debut, and contraceptive use at sexual debut were associated with teenage pregnancy for those 20-24 years.Understanding risk and protective factors of youth sexual and reproductive health can inform programs to improve young people's long-term potential by avoiding early and unintended pregnancies.
Full Text Available Gene-environment interactions are important for understanding alterations in human brain function. The loudness dependence of auditory evoked potential (LDAEP is known to reflect central serotonergic activity. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the 5-HT3A serotonin receptor gene are associated with psychiatric disorders. This study aimed to investigate the effect between 5-HT3A receptor gene polymorphisms and childhood sexual trauma on the LDAEP as an electrophysiological marker in healthy subjects.A total of 206 healthy subjects were recruited and evaluated using the childhood trauma questionnaire (CTQ and hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS. Peak-to-peak N1/P2 was measured at five stimulus intensities, and the LDAEP was calculated as the linear-regression slope. In addition, the rs1062613 SNPs of 5-HT3A (CC, CT, and TT were analyzed in healthy subjects.There was a significant interaction between scores on the CTQ-sexual abuse subscale and 5-HT3A genotype on the LDAEP. Subjects with the CC polymorphism had a significantly higher LDEAP than T carriers in the sexually abused group. In addition, CC genotype subjects in the sexually abused group showed a significantly higher LDAEP compared with CC genotype subjects in the non-sexually abused group.Our findings suggest that people with the CC polymorphism of the 5-HT3A gene have a greater risk of developing mental health problems if they have experienced childhood sexual abuse, possibly due to low central serotonin activity. Conversely, the T polymorphism may be protective against any central serotonergic changes following childhood sexual trauma.
Nowrousian, M; Masloff, S; Pöggeler, S; Kück, U
During sexual development, mycelial cells from most filamentous fungi differentiate into typical fruiting bodies. Here, we describe the isolation and characterization of the Sordaria macrospora developmental mutant per5, which exhibits a sterile phenotype with defects in fruiting body maturation. Cytological investigations revealed that the mutant strain forms only ascus precursors without any mature spores. Using an indexed cosmid library, we were able to complement the mutant to fertility by DNA-mediated transformation. A single cosmid clone, carrying a 3.5-kb region able to complement the mutant phenotype, has been identified. Sequencing of the 3.5-kb region revealed an open reading frame of 2.1 kb interrupted by a 66-bp intron. The predicted polypeptide (674 amino acids) shows significant homology to eukaryotic ATP citrate lyases (ACLs), with 62 to 65% amino acid identity, and the gene was named acl1. The molecular mass of the S. macrospora ACL1 polypeptide is 73 kDa, as was verified by Western blot analysis with a hemagglutinin (HA) epitope-tagged ACL1 polypeptide. Immunological in situ detection of the HA-tagged polypeptide demonstrated that ACL is located within the cytosol. Sequencing of the mutant acl1 gene revealed a 1-nucleotide transition within the coding region, resulting in an amino acid substitution within the predicted polypeptide. Further evidence that ACL1 is essential for fruiting body maturation comes from experiments in which truncated and mutated versions of the acl1 gene were used for transformation. None of these copies was able to reconstitute the fertile phenotype in transformed per5 recipient strains. ACLs are usually involved in the formation of cytosolic acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA), which is used for the biosynthesis of fatty acids and sterols. Protein extracts from the mutant strain showed a drastic reduction in enzymatic activity compared to values obtained from the wild-type strain. Investigation of the time course of ACL
cabo proyectos de investigación en esta área y se desarrollen el marco legal y las guías específicas adaptadas a nuestro ámbito.Objectives: To undertake a critical literature review of published evidence on the effectiveness of contact tracing in sexually transmitted infections, mechanisms of referral, and the criteria for initiating this activity. To describe how these factors vary by causative agent and to characterize the current state of contact tracing in sexually transmitted infections in developed countries. Methods: A systematic literature review was undertaken using online databases and scientific publications, as well as guidelines and documents pertaining to the legal framework within which contact tracing takes place. Results: Contact tracing is specifically recommended for infections caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, syphilis and HIV. The principal approaches to contact tracing reported were patient referral, provider referral or conditional patient referral. In addition, patient-dispensed partner treatment and the use of new technologies were reported. Numerous studies have evaluated the efficacy, effectiveness and social and legal context of contact tracing in different countries and populations. This situation contrasts with that in Spain, where there is a notable absence of guidelines, legal framework and formal studies dealing with contact tracing in sexually transmitted infections. Conclusions: Contact tracing is an increasingly important tool in the public health management of sexually transmitted infections and should be valued as such. This activity should be an integral and effective component of the control and prevention of sexually transmitted infection programmes in all autonomous regions in Spain. Research in this field is required to develop the legal framework and practice guidelines appropriate to the local context.
Oei, Nicole Y L; Both, Stephanie; van Heemst, Diana; van der Grond, Jeroen
Stress is thought to alter motivational processes by increasing dopamine (DA) secretion in the brain's "reward system", and its key region, the nucleus accumbens (NAcc). However, stress studies using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), mainly found evidence for stress-induced decreases in NAcc responsiveness toward reward cues. Results from both animal and human PET studies indicate that the stress hormone cortisol may be crucial in the interaction between stress and dopaminergic actions. In the present study we therefore investigated whether cortisol mediated the effect of stress on DA-related responses to -subliminal-presentation of reward cues using the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), which is known to reliably enhance cortisol levels. Young healthy males (n = 37) were randomly assigned to the TSST or control condition. After stress induction, brain activation was assessed using fMRI during a backward-masking paradigm in which potentially rewarding (sexual), emotionally negative and neutral stimuli were presented subliminally, masked by pictures of inanimate objects. A region of interest analysis showed that stress decreased activation in the NAcc in response to masked sexual cues (voxel-corrected, pcortisol levels were related to stronger NAcc activation, showing that cortisol acted as a suppressor variable in the negative relation between stress and NAcc activation. The present findings indicate that cortisol is crucially involved in the relation between stress and the responsiveness of the reward system. Although generally stress decreases activation in the NAcc in response to rewarding stimuli, high stress-induced cortisol levels suppress this relation, and are associated with stronger NAcc activation. Individuals with a high cortisol response to stress might on one hand be protected against reductions in reward sensitivity, which has been linked to anhedonia and depression, but they may ultimately be more vulnerable to increased reward
Tao, Guoyu; Hoover, Karen W; Leichliter, Jami S; Peterman, Thomas A; Kent, Charlotte K
Using the 2006-2008 National Survey of Family Growth, we estimated a 37.9% annual chlamydia testing rate for sexually active US women aged 15 to 25 years, defined as having ≥ 1 sex partner in the past year. Our results highlight the need for increased testing among sexually active young women.
Anderson, C; Tang, Q; Kinsey, J A
Tad is an active LINE-like retrotransposon isolated from the Adiopodoumé strain of Neurospora crassa. Extensive analysis of other Neurospora strains has revealed no other strain with active Tad, but all strains tested have multiple copies of defective Tad elements. We have examined the ability of Tad to survive during the sexual cycle of Neurospora and find that active Tad is rapidly eliminated. The characteristics of this elimination suggest that the repeat-induced point mutation (RIP) mechanism was responsible. By the use of transformation to switch the mating type of the Adiopodoumé strain we concluded that this strain is not defective in the RIP process. Analysis of defective Tad elements isolated from a variety of strains indicates that the major difference between these elements and active Tad is due to the presence of a large number of G-C to A-T transition mutations. This would be expected if the changes were due primarily to the RIP process. Mapping of a selection of defective Tad elements reveals that they are present on all of the chromosomes; however, many of the elements are not widely shared among strains. This suggests that repeated introduction and elimination of Tad elements has occurred. Mechanisms that might be responsible for this repeated introduction are discussed. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.
Full Text Available Suicide is a global phenomenon in all regions of the world affecting people of all age groups. It has detrimental consequences on patients, their families, and the community as a whole. There have been numerous risk factors described for suicide including mental illness, stressful life situations, loss of social support, and general despair. The association of suicide with Islam has not been extensively studied. The common impression from clinical practice is that being a practicing Muslim reduces the risk of suicide. Another factor associated with suicide is starting a patient on antidepressants. However, this has been questioned recently. This report describes a middle-aged man with depression and multiple social stressors who survived a serious suicide attempt. The discussion will focus on the factors that lead him to want to end his life and the impact of the assumed protective factors such as religious belief and family support on this act of self-harm. Such patients can be on the edge when there is an imbalance between risk factors (such as depression, insomnia, and psychosocial stressors and protective factors (like religious affiliation and family support. All physicians are advised to assess the suicide risk thoroughly in patients with depression regardless of any presumed protective factor.
Ellis, J.; Maiani, L.; Zumino, B.; Gaillard, M.K.
We describe attempts to construct a phenomenologically viable model which embeds a unified theory of strong, weak and electromagnetic interactions in an extended supergravity theory. Following Cremmer and Julia, we assume that the local unitary symmetry which they found for SO(N) supergravity theories is realized dynamically, and that the usual quarks, leptons, gauge bosons and Higgs scalars of the renormalizable gauge theory are composite states which appear point-like on a mass scale below the Planck mass. We argue that this picture leads uniquely to SO(8) (or SO(7)) supergravity with SU(5) as the grand unification gauge group. We find that conventional symmetry breaking schemes according to which particles acquire all allowed invariant masses at each stage of a step by step symmetry breakdown do not yield an acceptable particle spectrum. We argue that the original symmetries of the composite supermultiplet may break dynamically to an effective anomaly free renormalizable sub-theory, with the underlying supersymmetry serving at most to restrict the particle spectrum and to specify the couplings of the effective renormalizable Lagrangian at the Planck mass. Preliminary investigations suggest that this approach may be more promising
Ndziessi, Gilbert; Cohen, Julien; Kouanfack, Charles; Boyer, Sylvie; Moatti, Jean-Paul; Marcellin, Fabienne; Laurent, Christian; Spire, Bruno; Delaporte, Eric; Carrieri, Maria Patrizia
The continued scaling-up of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Sub-Saharan Africa provides an opportunity to further study its impact on sexual behaviors among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). We explored time trend and correlates of sexual activity among PLWHA initiating ART in Cameroon and compared sexual risk behaviors between patients sexually active before and after initiating ART and those resuming sexual activity after ART initiation. Analyses were based on longitudinal data collected within the randomized trial (n=459) conducted in nine rural district hospitals in Cameroon. Sexual activity was defined as reporting at least one sexual partner during the previous 3 months. Inconsistent condom use (ICU) was defined as reporting to have "never," "sometimes," or "nearly always" used condoms at least once with a partner(s) either HIV-negative or of unknown HIV status during the same period. Mc Nemar tests were used to assess time trend, while mixed-effect logistic regressions were conducted to analyze the effect of time since ART initiation on sexual activity. The proportion of sexually active patients significantly increased over time: from 31.8% at baseline to 40.2 and 47.1% after 6 and 12 months of ART, respectively (p=0.001), to 55.9% after 24 months (p=0.02). After adjustment for behavioral and psychosocial factors, time since ART initiation was independently associated with reporting sexual activity (AOR [95% CI]=1.30 [1.17-1.46] per 6-month increase, p=0.001). ICU was more frequent among patients sexually active both before and after ART initiation than among those who resumed sexual activity after ART initiation (82 vs. 59%, pART initiation fosters resumption of sexual activity in patients who are inactive before starting treatment; unsafe sexual behaviors remain less frequent in this population than in patients who are already sexually active before starting ART. Risk reduction programs should be reinforced among PLWHA in the context of ART scaling-up.
Rottmann, Nina; Gilså Hansen, Dorte; dePont Christensen, René; Hagedoorn, Mariët; Frisch, Morten; Nicolaisen, Anne; Kroman, Niels; Flyger, Henrik; Johansen, Christoffer
A breast cancer (BC) diagnosis can profoundly affect the sex life of patient and partner within a couple. The purpose of the present study is to examine whether individual and partner sexual functioning, affectionate behavior, emotional closeness and depressive symptoms are associated with change over time in satisfaction with sex life of sexually active heterosexual couples dealing with BC and to explore whether the associations differ between patients and partners after adjustment for basic sociodemographic characteristics, comorbidity and BC treatment. Women with BC and their male partners participated in a longitudinal study (Time 1, ≤4 months after surgery; Time 2, 5 months later). Participants completed items from the PROMIS ® Sexual Function and Satisfaction measure (version 1.0), two items measuring affectionate behavior, a single item measuring emotional closeness and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale. Registers provided sociodemographic and medical information. Multilevel models were used, which take the interdependency of couples' scores into account. A total of 287 sexually active couples were included in the analyses. Less vaginal discomfort and more vaginal lubrication were associated with increases in patients' satisfaction with sex life. Patients' and partners' satisfaction increased with higher ratings of their own orgasm ability and of partners' timing of ejaculation. Patients' reports of affectionate behavior were positively associated with their partners' satisfaction, and vice versa for partners. Patients' satisfaction increased the more emotional closeness their partner experienced. Partners' depressive symptoms were negatively associated with their satisfaction. Sociodemographic factors and BC treatment were not significantly associated with change in satisfaction. Satisfaction with sex life in sexually active couples dealing with BC needs to be seen as a couple issue. Health professionals should take the partner into
Anil Kumar Mysore Nagaraj
Full Text Available Sexual activity is a multifaceted activity, involving complex interactions between the nervous system, the endocrine system, the vascular system and a variety of structures that are instrumental in sexual excitement, intercourse and satisfaction. Sexual function has three components i.e., desire, arousal and orgasm. Many sexual dysfunctions can be categorized according to the phase of sexual response that is affected. In actual clinical practice however, sexual desire, arousal and orgasmic difficulties more often than not coexist, suggesting an integration of phases. Sexual dysfunction can result from a wide variety of psychological and physiological causes including derangements in the levels of sex hormones and neurotrensmitters. This review deals with the biology of different phases of sexual function as well as implications of hormones and neurotransmitters in sexual dysfunction
Martin, Andres; Ruchkin, Vladislav; Caminis, Argyro; Vermeiren, Robert; Henrich, Christopher C.; Schwab-Stone, Mary
Objective: To examine the association between sexual activity among urban adolescent girls and four global measures of psychosocial adaptation (academic motivation, school achievement, depressive symptoms, and expectations about the future). Method: Data derived from the Social and Health Assessment, a self-report survey administered in 1998 to…
Wiegerink, D.J.H.G.; Stam, H.J.; Ketelaar, M.; Cohen-Kettenis, P.T.; Roebroeck, M.E.
Purpose: To study determinants of romantic relationships and sexual activity of young adults with cerebral palsy (CP), focusing on personal and environmental factors. Method: A cohort study was performed with 74 young adults (46 men; 28 women) aged 20-25 years (SD 1.4) with CP (49% unilateral CP,
... increase arousal? • What can help me have an orgasm? • How can I minimize sexual pain? • How can ... difficulties. What are orgasmic problems? Not having an orgasm during sexual activity may not be a problem. ...
Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis is now one of the most prevalent bacteria found in classic sexually transmissible diseases (STD, and as such, constitutes a serious public health problem. We examined the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis, by polymerase chain reaction (PCR, in 121 sexually active women who sought treatment for STD in the Alfredo da Matta Institute of Dermatology and Venerology and the Institute of Tropical Medicine of Amazonas in Manaus, Brazil. These women were examined by a specific PCR for the chlamydial plasmid, and the nature of the amplicon was determined by restriction analysis and DNA sequencing. The PCR diagnosis revealed a prevalence of 20.7% infected women.
Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis is now one of the most prevalent bacteria found in classic sexually transmissible diseases (STD, and as such, constitutes a serious public health problem. We examined the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis, by polymerase chain reaction (PCR, in 121 sexually active women who sought treatment for STD in the Alfredo da Matta Institute of Dermatology and Venerology and the Institute of Tropical Medicine of Amazonas in Manaus, Brazil. These women were examined by a specific PCR for the chlamydial plasmid, and the nature of the amplicon was determined by restriction analysis and DNA sequencing. The PCR diagnosis revealed a prevalence of 20.7% infected women.
Kristen L. Eckstrand; Sophia Choukas-Bradley; Arpita Mohanty; Marissa Cross; Nicholas B. Allen; Jennifer S. Silk; Neil P. Jones; Erika E. Forbes
Adolescent sexual risk behavior can lead to serious health consequences, yet few investigations have addressed its neurodevelopmental mechanisms. Social neurocircuitry is postulated to underlie the development of risky sexual behavior, and response to social reward may be especially relevant. Typically developing adolescents (N = 47; 18M, 29F; 16.3 ± 1.4 years; 42.5% sexual intercourse experience) completed a social reward fMRI task and reported their sexual risk behaviors (e.g., lifetime sex...
Donalisio, Manuela; Cagno, Valeria; Civra, Andrea; Gibellini, Davide; Musumeci, Giuseppina; Rittà, Massimo; Ghosh, Manik; Lembo, David
Vachellia (Acacia) nilotica and other plants of this genus have been used in traditional medicine of Asian and African countries to treat many disorders, including sexually transmitted diseases, but few studies were performed to validate their anti-microbial and anti-viral activity against sexually transmitted infections. The present study was undertaken to explore whether the ethnomedical use of V.nilotica to treat genital lesions is substantiated by its antiviral activity against the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the herpes simplex virus (HSV) and the human papillomavirus (HPV). The antiviral activity of V.nilotica was tested in vitro by virus-specific inhibition assays using HSV-2 strains, sensible or resistant to acyclovir, HIV-1IIIb strain and HPV-16 pseudovirion (PsV). The potential mode of action of extract against HSV-2 and HPV-16 was further investigated by virus inactivation and time-of-addition assays on cell cultures. V.nilotica chloroform, methanolic and water bark extracts exerted antiviral activity against HSV-2 and HPV-16 PsV infections; among these, methanolic extract showed the best EC50s with values of 4.71 and 1.80µg/ml against HSV-2 and HPV-16, respectively, and it was also active against an acyclovir-resistant HSV-2 strain with an EC50 of 6.71µg/ml. By contrast, no suppression of HIV infection was observed. Investigation of the mechanism of action revealed that the methanolic extract directly inactivated the infectivity of the HPV-16 particles, whereas a partial virus inactivation and interference with virus attachment (EC50 of 2.74µg/ml) were both found to contribute to the anti-HSV-2 activity. These results support the traditional use of V.nilotica applied externally for the treatment of genital lesions. Further work remains to be done in order to identify the bioactive components. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Walaszczyk, Erin J.; Johnson, Nicholas S.; Steibel, Juan Pedro; Li, Weiming
Synchronization of male and female locomotor rhythmicity can play a vital role in ensuring reproductive success. Several physiological and environmental factors alter these locomotor rhythms. As sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus, progress through their life cycle, their locomotor activity rhythm changes multiple times. The goal of this study was to elucidate the activity patterns of adult female sea lamprey during the sexual maturation process and discern the interactions of these patterns with exposure to male pheromones. During these stages, preovulated and ovulated adult females are exposed to sex pheromone compounds, which are released by spermiated males and attract ovulated females to the nest for spawning. The locomotor behavior of adult females was monitored in a natural stream with a passive integrated tag responder system as they matured, and they were exposed to a sex pheromone treatment (spermiated male washings) or a control (prespermiated male washings). Results showed that, dependent on the hour of day, male sex pheromone compounds reduce total activity (p reproductive synchrony of mature adults, thus increasing reproductive success in this species.
This paper represents a case study of how social media activists have harnessed the power of Facebook, Twitter and mobile phone networks to address sexual harassment in Egypt. HarassMap plots reports of sexual harassment on a Google Map and informs victims of support services. Tahrir Bodyguard and Operation Anti-Sexual Harassment (OpAntiSH) protect female protestors who have been vulnerable to sexual aggression at the hands of unruly mobs and by agents of the state. Activists have access to an Android app called 'I'm Getting Arrested' or 'Byt2ebed 3alia' in Egyptian Arabic. The app sends the time and GPS coordinates of an arrest to family, fellow activists, legal counsel and social media outlets. The hope is the initiatives described in this paper could inspire public health ministries and activist NGOs to incorporate crowdsourcing social media applications in the spirit of health in all policies (HiAP). To that end, this paper will begin by defining social media activism from the perspective of the communications discipline. This paper will then demonstrate the significance of sexual harassment as a public health issue, and describe several social media efforts to document incidents and protect victims. The paper will conclude with discussion regarding how these innovations could be integrated into the HiAP approach. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Sérgio Ricardo Campanella de Oliveira
Full Text Available The results of one year of activities of a multidisciplinary staff comprised of five psychiatrists, one urologist, one gynecologist, and seven psychologists, who integrate the Sexuality Project (PRO-SEX of the Institute of Psychiatric, Hospital das Clínicas, College of Medicine, University of São Paulo (FMUSP, are presented. Different sexual disorders were evaluated and treated in 140 patients (116 men and 24 women. In addition, a standard protocol was established for the medical assistance of patients; four research projects have been initiated; and courses were offered to residents in psychiatry, urology, and obstetrics-gynecology, as well as to undergraduate and postgraduate students of FMUSP.The PRO-SEX staff presented their research at one congress and two symposiums, and published four articles. Furthermore, an extensive program was established for 1995 in order to continue the advanced medical study of human sexuality.
Hämmerli, Silvan; Kohl Schwartz, Alexandra Sabrina; Geraedts, Kirsten; Imesch, Patrick; Rauchfuss, Martina; Wölfler, Monika Maria; Haeberlin, Felix; von Orelli, Stefanie; Eberhard, Markus; Imthurn, Bruno; Leeners, Brigitte
Endometriosis-associated pain and dyspareunia influence female sexuality, but little is known about men's experiences in affected couples. To investigate how men partners experience sexuality in partnership with women with endometriosis. A multi-center case-control study was performed between 2010 and 2015 in Switzerland, Germany, and Austria. 236 Partners of endometriosis patients and 236 partners of age-matched control women without endometriosis with a similar ethnic background were asked to answer selected, relevant questions of the Brief Index of Sexual Functioning and the Global Sexual Functioning questionnaire, as well as some investigator-derived questions. We sought to evaluate sexual satisfaction of men partners of endometriosis patients, investigate differences in sexual activities between men partners of women with and without endometriosis, and identify options to improve partnership sexuality in couples affected by endometriosis. Many partners of endometriosis patients reported changes in sexuality (75%). A majority of both groups was (very) satisfied with their sexual relationship (73.8% vs 58.1%, P = .002). Nevertheless, more partners of women diagnosed with endometriosis were not satisfied (P = .002) and their sexual problems more strongly interfered with relationship happiness (P = .001) than in partners of control women. Frequencies of sexual intercourse (P < .001) and all other partnered sexual activities (oral sex, petting) were significantly higher in the control group. The wish for an increased frequency of sexual activity (P = .387) and sexual desire (P = .919) did not differ statistically between both groups. There is a need to evaluate qualitative factors that influence sexual satisfaction in endometriosis patients. This is one of the first studies to investigate male sexuality affected by endometriosis. The meticulous verification of diagnosis and disease stage according to operation reports and histology allows for a high
Shih, Shirley L; Kebodeaux, Chelsea A; Secura, Gina M; Allsworth, Jenifer E; Madden, Tessa; Peipert, Jeffrey F
: To provide protection against sexually transmitted infections and pregnancy, condoms must be used consistently and correctly. However, a significant proportion of couples in the United States fail to do so. Our objective was to determine the demographic and behavioral correlates of inconsistent and incorrect condom use among sexually active, condom-using women. : Analysis of baseline data from a prospective cohort of sexually active, condom-using women in the Contraceptive CHOICE Project (n = 2087) using self-reported demographic and behavioral characteristics. Poisson regression was used to determine the relative risk of inconsistent and incorrect condom use after adjusting for variables significant in the univariate analysis. : Inconsistent and incorrect condom use was reported by 41% (n = 847) and 36% (n = 757) of women, respectively. A greater number of unprotected acts was most strongly associated with reporting 10 or more sex acts in the past 30 days, younger age at first intercourse, less perceived partner willingness to use condoms, and lower condom use self-efficacy. Incorrect condom use was associated with reporting 10 or more sex acts in the past 30 days, greater perceived risk for future STIs, and inconsistent condom use. : Inconsistent and incorrect condom use is common among sexually active women. Targeted educational efforts and prevention strategies should be implemented among women at highest risk for STIs and unintended pregnancies to increase consistent and correct condom use.
Magadi, Monica A; Uchudi, Joseph
This paper examines the effect of orphanhood and HIV status of adults in a household on onset of sexual activity among adolescent girls and boys aged 15-17 years in sub-Saharan Africa. Multilevel logistic regression models were applied to pooled Demographic and Health Surveys data from nineteen countries of sub-Saharan Africa where HIV test data were collected during 2003-2008 from nationally representative samples of men and women of reproductive age. The results highlight increased vulnerability among adolescent boys and girls living in households where an adult is infected with HIV, and adolescent boys who are paternal orphans. On average, adolescent boys and girls living in households where at least one adult is HIV-positive have about 25% higher odds of having initiated sexual activity compared with their counterparts of similar characteristics in households where no adult is HIV-positive. Furthermore, adolescent boys who are paternal orphans have about 25% higher odds of having initiated sexual activity than their non-orphan counterparts of similar individual characteristics. Further analysis reveals that household circumstances relating to living arrangements and poverty are important pathways through which household HIV/AIDS status is linked to adolescent sexual debut. The findings underscore the importance of international efforts in the sub-Saharan Africa region to address the plight of other children in HIV/AIDS-affected households, beyond orphans.
... and frequency of abuse increases.” 76 o Among adolescents, suicide attempters report more sexual abuse than non-attempters ... suicide attempts among junior and senior high school youth. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 25, 358-372. 1011 ...
Wang, Bo; Davidson, Pamela
This paper attempts to understand the sexual behaviors of young, unmarried women living in rural China with a special focus on sexual debut, sexual risk-taking behaviors, and reproductive health consequences. The analysis is based on forty in-depth interviews with young women who had undergone induced abortion as well as information from focus group discussions. Study participants identified pornographic videos and parents' tacit approval and even encouragement as factors instigating their sexual debut. Reasons for unprotected intercourse include spontaneous sexual activity, misconceptions about fertility and the effective use of contraceptives, and the lack of negotiation skills. The results indicate the importance of making reproductive health education more accessible to rural populations in China, a group usually considered to be more traditional and less likely to engage in premarital sex.
Rohde, Gudrun; Berg, Kari Hansen; Haugeberg, Glenn
Sexual activity and enjoyment are considered to be important components of quality of life (QOL) for adults of all ages. However, limited data are available on the effects of health status on sexual activity in women and men older than 50 years. Thus, our aim was to explore the perceived effects of health status on sexual activity in women and men older than 50 years. For this purpose we used data from an age and gender matched control study initially designed to study QOL in patients with low-energy wrist fracture. We investigated patients with wrist fractures older than 50 years (n = 181), as well as age- and gender-matched controls (n = 226), who participated in the QOL study. There were minimal differences between patients and controls, thus the groups were pooled (mean age 67 years (8 SD)). Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) was assessed using SF-36 and 15D, and the global quality of life using the Quality of Life Scale (QOLS). To assess perceived effects of health status on sexual activity we used the question on sexuality from the 15D questionnaires. Group comparisons and logistic regression analyses were conducted. The 15D question on sexuality was not answered by 25% of the participants. Health status having a large negative effect on sexual activity was reported by only 13% of the participants. In the multivariate analyses a large negative effect of health status on sexual activity was associated with higher age (60-69 years: OR = 5.7, 95% CI = 1.62-29.2; 70-79 years: OR = 3.60, 95% CI = 0.94-13.9; ≥80 years: OR = 9.04, 95% CI = 1.29-63.4), male gender (OR = 10.8, 95% CI = 3.01-38.9), weight (OR = 1.03, 95% CI = 1.00-1.07), low SF-36 PCS score (OR = 0.88, 95% CI = 0.37-0.93) and a low SF-36 MCS score (OR = 0.92, 95% CI = 0.88-0.96). Only a small proportion of the participants reported their health status to have a large negative effect on sexual activity. Furthermore, health
Full Text Available Suicide attempt denotes activities directed towards one's own death which do not end in death. The ratio between attempted and realized suicides is expressed by the index called hazard ratio. Risk factors which contribute to suicidal behavior are: various emotional conditions, personality traits, stressful life events, substance misuse etc. The purpose of the study was to explore the frequencies and epidemiological and demographic characteristics of suicide attempts separately in men and women. The study sample involved 56 patients with the diagnosis suicide attempt (Tentamen suicidii treated on the Psychiatric department of the Clinical Center Priština, Gračanica. The data have been analyzed in respect to gender, age, profession/employment, mental disorder diagnosis, motivation (reason and the way of performing a suicide attempt. Results: suicide has been attempted by 42 women (75% and 14 men (25% of the sample. The prevalent age group of our sample (26.8% represents the patients below 20. The most prevalent are also unemployed patients, 33.3% of women and 50% of men. The most prevalent diagnosis is anxiety disorder (61.9% of women and 57.1% of men. The prevailing reason for attempting suicide in women was couple conflict (54.8% and existential problems in men (50%. Fifty one patients of the sample (91.1% have attempted suicide by intoxication with sedative drugs (anxiolytics. The majority of suicide attempts happened during afternoon and evening hours, i.e. in the period 12-24h. Conclusion: women have attempted suicide more frequently than men (ratio 3:1. Unemployment has been the prevailing professional characteristic in both genders. The most prevailing diagnosis is anxiety disorder. The chief motive in women is couple conflict and in men existential difficulties. In both genders the most frequent way of attempting suicide is poisoning, mostly in the period 12-24h.
Starr, Lisa R.; Donenberg, Geri R.; Emerson, Erin
The current study examines longitudinal associations between light and heavy sexual experiences and psychiatric symptoms in African American adolescent girls receiving mental health care. Research supports bidirectional associations between adolescent romantic and sexual behaviors and depression and other mental health problems, but this finding…
options if you want to ostracize somebody. You can send them off to auxiliary security; people disappear into that and that’s a black hole that just eats ...Sexual harassment creates a climate in which sexual assault happens. E.g., [just because] they bought them dinner or drinks or whatever, [some may
Full Text Available In rodents, sexual behavior depends on the adequate detection of sexually relevant stimuli. The olfactory bulb (OB is a region of the adult mammalian brain undergoing constant cell renewal by continuous integration of new granular and periglomerular neurons in the accessory (AOB and main (MOB olfactory bulbs. The proliferation, migration, survival, maturation, and integration of these new cells to the OB depend on the stimulus that the subjects received. We have previously shown that 15 days after females control (paced the sexual interaction an increase in the number of cells is observed in the AOB. No changes are observed in the number of cells when females are not allowed to control the sexual interaction. In the present study we investigated if in male rats sexual behavior increases the number of new cells in the OB. Male rats were divided in five groups: 1 males that did not receive any sexual stimulation, 2 males that were exposed to female odors, 3 males that mated for 1 h and could not pace their sexual interaction, 4 males that paced their sexual interaction and ejaculated 1 time and 5 males that paced their sexual interaction and ejaculated 3 times. All males received three injections of the DNA synthesis marker bromodeoxyuridine at 1h intervals, starting 1h before the beginning of the behavioral test. Fifteen days later, males were sacrificed and the brains were processed to identify new cells and to evaluate if they differentiated into neurons. The number of newborn cells increased in the granular cell layer (also known as the internal cell layer of the AOB in males that ejaculated one or three times controlling (paced the rate of the sexual interaction. Some of these new cells were identified as neurons. In contrast, no significant differences were found in the mitral cell layer (also known as the external cell layer and glomerular cell layer of the AOB. In addition, no significant differences were found between groups in the MOB in
Brotto, Lori; Atallah, Sandrine; Johnson-Agbakwu, Crista; Rosenbaum, Talli; Abdo, Carmita; Byers, E Sandra; Graham, Cynthia; Nobre, Pedro; Wylie, Kevan
Psychological, interpersonal, and sociocultural factors play a significant role in making one vulnerable to developing a sexual concern, in triggering the onset of a sexual difficulty, and in maintaining sexual dysfunction in the long term. To focus on psychological and interpersonal aspects of sexual functioning in women and men after a critical review of the literature from 2010 to the present. This report is part 1 of 2 of our collaborative work during the 2015 International Consultation on Sexual Medicine for Committee 2. Systematic review of the literature with a focus on publications since 2010. Our work as sexual medicine clinicians is essentially transdisciplinary, which involves not only the collaboration of multidisciplinary professionals but also the integration and application of new knowledge and evaluation and subsequent revision of our practices to ensure the highest level of care provided. There is scant literature on gender non-conforming children and adolescents to clarify specific developmental factors that shape the development of gender identity, orientation, and sexuality. Conversely, studies consistently have demonstrated the interdependence of sexual function between partners, with dysfunction in one partner often contributing to problems in sexual functioning and/or sexual satisfaction for the other. We recommend that clinicians explore attachment styles of patients, childhood experiences (including sexual abuse), onset of sexual activity, personality, cognitive schemas, infertility concerns, and sexual expectations. Assessment of depression, anxiety, stress, substance use and post-traumatic stress (and their medical treatments) should be carried out as part of the initial evaluation. Clinicians should attempt to ascertain whether the anxiety and/or depression is a consequence or a cause of the sexual complaint, and treatment should be administered accordingly. Cognitive distraction is a significant contributor to sexual response problems
Fongkaew, Warunee; Fongkaew, Kangwan
This ethnographic study conducted among young women aged 18-21 years in Chiang Mai, northern Thailand, explored the parental control mechanisms imposed by Thai middle-class families on the sexuality of their daughters. It addressed the ways in which young women tactically use the social media in order to negotiate the sexual controls they encountered in everyday life. Taking the teenage girls' point of view, this paper argues that, as active agents, young women achieve a certain level of sexual autonomy and construct their own sexual selves in modern northern Thai society, despite their parents' attempts to prevent this. The paper highlights the ways in which social media are used by Thai girls in order to achieve such a goal. Research findings should inform the development of future programmes on sexual health promotion, parental skills and sexual communication between Thai parents and their children.
Lahoz, Titia; Hvid, Marianne; Wang, August G
BACKGROUND: The Amager Project was initiated as a quasi-experimental study in 2005, based on an active outreach suicide preventive intervention inspired by the Norwegian Baerum Model. A 1-year follow-up study was conducted as a randomized controlled trial showing that this kind of active outreach...... to suicide attempters had a significant preventive effect on the prevalence of suicide attempts and significantly reduced the number of patients repeating a suicide attempt. AIMS: In this 5-year RCT follow-up the aim was to investigate the sustainability of the suicide preventive effect shown in a 1-year...... follow-up study. METHOD: One hundred and thirty-three suicide attempters were included at this 5-year follow-up RCT study at Copenhagen University Hospital, Amager, and randomized to a rapid outreach suicide preventive intervention (OPAC) or TAU. RESULTS: Offering OPAC intervention to patients after...
Ana Cristina Santos
Full Text Available O presente artigo analisa a forma como o Estado português e a sociedade civil têm tratado a questão da AIDS, enfatizando o envolvimento da comunidade lésbica, gay, bissexual e transexual (LGBT no combate ao vírus. Começamos pela descrição da situação dos membros dessa comunidade em Portugal ao longo da década de 90, período da emergência e consolidação do movimento LGBT português. Num segundo momento, caracterizamos a evolução do complexo HIV/AIDS no citado país, analisando a relação entre a sociedade civil e as questões relacionadas com a sexualidade em geral, por um lado, e a situação da epidemia, por outro, considerando fatos, iniciativas estatais e associações existentes. Num terceiro momento, consagramos especial atenção ao papel desempenhado pelas associações LGBT na luta contra o HIV/AIDS. Finalmente, refletimos acerca do futuro da luta contra a epidemia e a discriminação no século XXI, tendo em conta os desenvolvimentos verificados no País e as linhas orientadoras da política de combate à AIDS adotadas por organismos internacionais.This article analyzes how both the Portuguese state and civil society have addressed the AIDS issue, focusing on participation by the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transsexual community (LGBT in the struggle against AIDS. The article begins by describing the situation of LGBT individuals in Portugal during the 1990s, when the Portuguese LGBT movement emerged and grew, and then characterizes the evolution of HIV/AIDS in Portugal, analyzing the relationship between civil society and sexuality in general and the situation of the epidemic in the country in particular, considering key facts, nongovernmental organizations, and state initiatives. Special attention is given to the role played by LGBT organizations in the struggle against HIV. Finally, the article reflects on the future of the struggle against both AIDS and discrimination in the 21st century, considering recent events
Holbech, Henrik; Kinnberg, Karin Lund; Petersen, Gitte
This document presents the validation report (phase 1) of the Fish Sexual Development Test (FSDT). The FSDT covers a life-stage where sexual development is particularly sensitive to perturbation caused by endocrine active chemicals. The chemical exposure lasts for about 60 days, at the end of which...
Sclafane, Jamie Heather; Merves, Marni Loiacono; Rivera, Angelic; Long, Laura; Wilson, Ken; Bauman, Laurie J.
The Turn the Tables Technique (T[cube]) is an activity designed to provide group facilitators who lead HIV/STI prevention and sexual health promotion programs with detailed and current information on teenagers' sexual behaviors and beliefs. This information can be used throughout a program to tailor content. Included is a detailed lesson plan of…
Niehaus, Ashley F; Jackson, Joan; Davies, Stephanie
Childhood sexual trauma has been demonstrated to increase survivors' risk for engaging in unrestricted sexual behaviors and experiencing adolescent sexual assault. The current study used the sexual self-schema construct to examine cognitive representations of sexuality that might drive these behavioral patterns. In Study 1 (N = 774), we attempted to improve the content validity of the Sexual Self Schema Scale for child sexual abuse (CSA) survivors, introducing a fourth sexual self-schema factor titled the "immoral/irresponsible" factor. In Study 2 (N = 1150), the potential differences in sexual self-views, as assessed by the four sexual self-schema factors, between CSA survivors and non-victims were explored. In addition, Study 2 evaluated how these sexual self-schema differences may contribute to participation in unrestricted sexual behaviors and risk for sexual assault in adolescence. Results indicated that a history of CSA impacted the way women viewed themselves as a sexual person on each of the four factors. CSA survivors were found to view themselves as more open and possessing more immoral/irresponsible cognitions about sexuality as compared to women who did not have a CSA history. In addition, the CSA survivors endorsed less embarrassment and passionate/romantic views of their sexual selves. The interaction of CSA severity and the sexual self-schemas explained variance in adolescent sexual assault experiences above and beyond the severity of CSA history and participation in risky sexual behaviors. The findings suggest that sexual self-views may serve to moderate the relationship between CSA and adolescent sexual assault. Implications of these findings and directions for future research are discussed.
Benbow, Susan Mary; Beeston, Derek
Sexuality in later life and its relationship to dementia is a neglected topic: greater understanding of the area has the potential to contribute to the quality of life of people with dementia, their family members, and formal carers. We review current knowledge about sexuality, aging, and dementia. We undertook a review of the recent literature to examine of the following areas: what is known about sexuality and aging, and about attitudes to sexuality and aging; what is known about the relevance of sexuality and aging to people living with dementia and their care; and the management of sexual behaviors causing concern to others. Sexual activity decreases in frequency with increasing age but many older people remain sexually active; there is no age limit to sexual responsiveness; and sexuality is becoming more important to successive cohorts of older people, including people living with dementia and gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgendered elderly people. Attitudes and beliefs toward sexuality and aging are strongly influenced by stereotypes and myths, not only among the general public but also among those working in health and social care. Professional bodies should include sexuality, aging, and dementia in their training curricula. More work is needed on the impact of environmental issues, particularly in group living situations, on older adults' sexuality, and on consent issues. Ethical decision-making frameworks can be useful in practice. Organizations should investigate how to support staff in avoiding a problem-orientated approach and focus on providing holistic person-centered care.
Naher, Habibon; Sarker Noor Jahan
Display and sexual activities of the little cormorant (Phalacrocorax niger) was studied on 19 birds from November 2000 to December 2001. The study was conducted in captivity in the Dhaka Zoo, Mirpur. Displaying behavior commenced in mid February. The male took initiative to select the nest site mostly in trees especially in vertical forked branches. The twigs of peacock flower (Caesalpinia pulcherrima) were used as nesting materials. After the response of the female the bisexual displays started. During this time the male and female always sat together and displayed. Within 1 to 2 days of mutual displays the female ate regurgitated foods from the gular pouch of the male. With this the pair formation occurred permanently. Within 2 to 3 days of pair formation mounting took place. At the end of mounting the male flew away and the female jerked her body and ruffed her feathers. Then the male started to collect nesting materials but both of the male and female placed it together on to the nest, giving more or less a circular cup-like shape. The time required in nest building was 14 to 16 days. (author)
Wéry, Aline; Deleuze, Jory; Canale, Natale; Billieux, Joël
The interest in studying addictive use of online sexual activities (OSA) has grown sharply over the last decade. Despite the burgeoning number of studies conceptualizing the excessive use of OSA as an addictive disorder, few have tested its relations to impulsivity, which is known to constitute a hallmark of addictive behaviors. To address this missing gap in the literature, we tested the relationships between addictive OSA use, impulsivity traits, and affect among a convenience sample of men (N=182; age, M=29.17, SD = 9.34), building upon a theoretically driven model that distinguishes the various facets of impulsivity. Results showed that negative urgency (an impulsivity trait reflecting the tendency to act rashly in negative emotional states) and negative affect interact in predicting addictive OSA use. These results highlight the pivotal role played by negative urgency and negative affect in addictive OSA use, supporting the relevance of psychological interventions that focus on improving emotional regulation (e.g., to reduce negative affect and learn healthier coping strategies) to mitigate excessive use of OSA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Polyploid genomes evolve and follow a series of dynamic transfigurations along with adaptation and speciation. The initial formation of a new polyploid individual within a diploid population usually involves a triploid bridge, a two-step mechanism of cell fusions between ubiquitous (reduced and rare (unreduced gametes. The primary fusion event creates an intermediate triploid individual with unbalanced genome sets, a situation of genomic-shock characterized by gene expression dysregulation, high dosage sensitivity, disturbed cell divisions, and physiological and reproductive attributes drastically altered. This near-sterile neotriploid must produce (even eupolyploids through secondary fusion events to restore genome steadiness, meiotic balance, and fertility required for the demographic establishment of a nascent lineage. Natural conditions locate several difficulties to polyploid establishment, including the production of highly unbalanced and rarely unreduced (euploid gametes, frequency-dependent disadvantages (minority cytotype exclusion, severe fitness loss, and ecological competition with diploid parents. Persistence and adaptation of neopolyploids depend upon genetic and phenotypic novelty coupled to joint selective forces that preserve shock-induced genomic changes (subgenome homeolog partitioning and drive meiotic (reproductive stabilization and ecological diversification. Thus, polyploid establishment through the triploid bridge is a feasible but not ubiquitous process that requires a number of low-probability events and singular circumstances. Yet, frequencies of polyploids suggest that polyploid establishment is a pervasive process. To explain this disparity, and supported in experimental evidence, I propose that situations like hybridization and ploidy-state transitions associated to genomic shock and substantial developmental alterations can transiently activate apomixis as a mechanism to halt genomic instability and cancel factors
Jesús L. Chirinos
Full Text Available To document knowledge and attitudes regarding sexuality and sexual practices of male adolescent high school students in Lima, Peru, a self-administered, anonymous survey was completed by 991 male adolescents aged 12-19 as part of a School-Based Sex Education Intervention model. Questions concerned sociodemographic information; family characteristics; personal activities; knowledge and attitudes regarding sexuality; sexual experience; and contraceptive use. Knowledge related to sexuality was limited. Males tended to mainly discuss sexuality with their male peers (49.8%. Attitudes towards sexual activity and condom use were largely positive, although some males expressed ambivalent feelings towards the latter. Of the sample, 43% had ever had sex; age at first sexual intercourse was 13 years. While 88% of the sample would use condoms, 74% also gave reasons for not using them. Sexual activity was related to age, ever having repeated a grade, living with only one parent or in a mixed family, activities such as going to parties, use of alcohol, tobacco, and drugs, and viewing pornographic videos or magazines. Many male adolescents were at risk of causing an unintended pregnancy or acquiring an STD.Con el objetivo de documentar el nivel de conocimiento y las actitudes con respecto a sexualidad y las prácticas sexuales de los adolescentes varones de colegios secundarios en Lima, Peru, 991 estudiantes varones, entre los 12-19 años, completaron una encuesta autoaplicable y anónima dentro de un Programa de Prevención de Comportamientos Sexuales de Riesgo. Datos de la encuesta: sociodemográficos de la familia; de actividades personales; de conocimiento y actitudes con respecto a la sexualidad; de experiencia sexual y uso de anticonceptivos. El conocimiento sobre sexualidad es limitado. Los varones discuten principalmente sobre sexualidad con sus pares varones (49,8%. Las actitudes hacia la actividad sexual y el uso de condones fueron positivas, pero
... Professions Indian Health Careers Indian Preference Loan Repayment Military Transition Student ... Sexual Assault Sexual assault is a significant problem affecting American Indians and Alaska Natives. Sexual assault ...
Lindau, Stacy Tessler; Abramsohn, Emily; Bueno, Hector; D'Onofrio, Gail; Lichtman, Judith H; Lorenze, Nancy P; Sanghani, Rupa Mehta; Spatz, Erica S; Spertus, John A; Strait, Kelly M; Wroblewski, Kristen; Zhou, Shengfan; Krumholz, Harlan M
Most younger adults who experience an acute myocardial infarction (AMI) are sexually active before the AMI, but little is known about sexual activity or sexual function after the event. To describe patterns of sexual activity and function and identify indicators of the probability of loss of sexual activity in the year after AMI. Data from the prospective, multicenter, longitudinal Variation in Recovery: Role of Gender on Outcomes of Young AMI Patients study (conducted from August 21, 2008, to January 5, 2012) were assessed at baseline, 1 month, and 1 year. Participants were from US (n = 103) and Spanish (n = 24) hospitals and completed baseline and all follow-up interviews. Data analysis for the present study was conducted from October 15, 2014, to June 6, 2016. Characteristics associated with loss of sexual activity were assessed using multinomial logistic regression analyses. Loss of sexual activity after AMI. Of the 2802 patients included in the analysis, 1889 were women (67.4%); median (25th-75th percentile) age was 49 (44-52) years (range, 18-55 years). At all time points, 637 (40.4%) of women and 437 (54.9%) of men were sexually active. Among people who were active at baseline, men were more likely than women to have resumed sexual activity by 1 month (448 [63.9%] vs 661 [54.5%]; P trouble lubricating (273 [22.3%]) among women and erectile difficulties (156 [21.7%]) and lack of interest (137 [18.8%]) among men. Those who had not communicated with a physician about sex in the first month after AMI were more likely to delay resuming sex (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 1.51; 95% CI, 1.11-2.05; P = .008). Higher stress levels (AOR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.01-1.83) and having diabetes (AOR, 1.90; 95% CI, 1.15-3.13) were significant indicators of the probability of loss of sexual activity in the year after the AMI. Impaired sexual activity and incident sexual function problems were prevalent and more common among young women than men in the year after AMI
Aribi, N; Oulhaci, M C; Kilani-Morakchi, S; Sandoz, J C; Kaiser, L; Denis, B; Joly, D
Azadirachtin, a neem compound (Azadirachta indica) with medical and anti-insect properties, is one the most successful botanical pesticides in agricultural use. However, its controversial impact on non-targeted species and its mechanism of action need to be clarified. In addition, Azadirachtin impact on pre- and post-mating traits remains largely undocumented. The current study examined the effects of Azadirachtin on Drosophila melanogaster as a non-target and model species. Azadirachtin was applied topically at its LD 50 (0.63μg) on the day of adult emergence and its effect was evaluated on several traits of reproductive behavior: mate choice, male activity, female sexual receptivity, sperm storage and female sterility. In choice and no choice conditions, only male treatment reduced mating probability. Female treatment impaired mating probability only when males had the choice. Males' mating ability may have been impaired by an effect of the treatment on their mobility. Such an effect was observed in the actimeter, which revealed that treated males were less active than untreated ones, and this effect persisted over 8days. Azadirachtin treatment had, however, no effect on the nycthemeral rhythm of those males. Even when mating occurred, Azadirachtin treatment impaired post-mating responses especially when females or both sexes were treated: remating probability increases and female fertility (presence of larvae) decreases. No impairment was observed on the efficiency of mating, evaluated by the presence of sperm in the spermatheca or the ventral receptacle. Male treatment only had no significant effect on these post-mating responses. These findings provide clear evidence that Azadirachtin alters the reproductive behavior of both sexes in D. melanogaster via mating and post-mating processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mattebo, Magdalena; Tydén, Tanja; Häggström-Nordin, Elisabet; Nilsson, Kent W; Larsson, Margareta
The study investigated the differences between high school boys and girls in: (1) the use of pornography, (2) sexual experiences, (3) experience of sexual abuse, and (4) perceptions of sexuality and pornography. It also examined the possible predictors of experiencing sexual activities, such as sex, sociodemographic factors (high school program, household, and ethnic background), pornography consumption, experience of sexual abuse, perception of sexuality, and perception of pornography. A population-based classroom survey of 16-year-old boys (n = 477) and girls (n = 400) from 53 randomly selected high school classes in 2 towns in mid-Sweden. Almost all boys (96%, n = 453) and 54% of the girls (n = 213) had watched pornography. Regardless of sex, pornography consumers had a positive perception of pornography. There were no differences between pornography-consuming boys and girls regarding fantasies, and they had attempted sexual acts inspired by pornography. A higher proportion of girls (15%) than boys (6%) had experienced sexual abuse. Predictors for being sexually experienced (oral sex, intercourse, and anal sex) included: being a girl, attending a vocational high school program, living with separated parents, having experience of sexual abuse, stating that boys and girls are equally interested in sex, and having a positive perception of pornography (Adj. R = 0.166). Boys had more experience of and a more positive perception of pornography, but there were only a few differences between boys and girls in the pornography-consumer group. Girls were more sexually experienced than boys. A positive perception of pornography predicted being sexually experienced.
Stenager, Elsebeth Nylev; Jensen, Børge; Stenager, Maria
The purposes of the study were (1) to estimate the risk of suicide attempts in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients in Denmark and compare the risk to the background population in the County of Funen, Denmark; (2) to estimate the risk of suicide attempts in MS patients receiving immunomodulating...... therapy compared with untreated patients. The Danish MS Registry, the Danish MS Treatment Registry and the Suicide Attempt Registry are linked and merged together using a person identification number given to all persons residing in Denmark. Among 404 MS patients, 15 patients had attempted suicide...
Durán, Mercedes; Moya, Miguel; Megías, Jesús L
This article describes three studies in which we explored the influence of the sexist ideology attributed to the perpetrator on women's responses to hypothetical acts of sexual assault perpetrated by male intimate partners. In Study 1 (n = 83), college women read three sexual assault scenarios in the context of an intimate relationship. The male partner's sexist ideology (benevolent, hostile, or control) was manipulated within participants. Women showed less active responses when the partner had been described as a benevolent sexist man. This effect was replicated in Study 2 (n = 103), which showed a relationship between women's less active responses and the belief that benevolent sexist men are very attracted to and interested in their partners. Study 3 (n = 130) demonstrated experimentally that women's responses are less active when they are exposed to information that indicates that the perpetrator is both high in benevolent sexism and highly attracted to his victim than when the latter information is not provided. Results suggest that sexist ideology and particularly benevolent sexism-attributed to the perpetrator in this case-is highly important in women's reactions to acts of sexual violence perpetrated by male intimate partners.
This study examined victimisation, substance misuse, relationships, sexual activity, mental health difficulties and suicidal behaviour among adolescents with sexual orientation concerns in comparison to those without such concerns. 1112 Irish students (mean age 14 yrs) in 17 mixed-gender secondary schools completed a self-report questionnaire with standardised scales and measures of psychosocial difficulties. 58 students (5%) reported having concerns regarding their sexual orientation. Compared with their peers, they had higher levels of mental health difficulties and a markedly-increased prevalence of attempted suicide (29% vs. 2%), physical assault (40% vs. 8%), sexual assault (16%vs. 1%) and substance misuse. Almost all those (90%) with sexual orientation concerns reported having had sex compared to just 4% of their peers. These results highlight the significant difficulties associated with sexual orientation concerns in adolescents in Ireland. Early and targeted interventions are essential to address their needs.
Rosario, Margaret; Corliss, Heather L; Everett, Bethany G; Reisner, Sari L; Austin, S Bryn; Buchting, Francisco O; Birkett, Michelle
We examined sexual orientation disparities in cancer-related risk behaviors among adolescents. We pooled data from the 2005 and 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Surveys. We classified youths with any same-sex orientation as sexual minority and the remainder as heterosexual. We compared the groups on risk behaviors and stratified by gender, age ( 14 years), and race/ethnicity. Sexual minorities (7.6% of the sample) reported more risk behaviors than heterosexuals for all 12 behaviors (mean = 5.3 vs 3.8; P sexual orientation disparities in analyses by gender, followed by age, and then race/ethnicity; they persisted in analyses by gender, age, and race/ethnicity, although findings were nuanced. Data on cancer risk, morbidity, and mortality by sexual orientation are needed to track the potential but unknown burden of cancer among sexual minorities.
Karashima, Kazuki; Ohgai, Akira
Japan is a country with a high risk for earthquake disasters. The measures used to promote structures' seismic safety, such as reconstruction, widening narrow roads, and the response capacities to deal with huge earthquakes are important. Techniques to support the examination of countermeasures to huge earthquakes are required. To improve this capability, the authors developed tools to: (1) evaluate fire-spread risk, (2) evaluate the difficulty of emergency response and evacuation, and (3) evaluate capacities of neighborhood communities for disaster mitigation. The usefulness of the tools was clarified by the demonstration experiments of previous studies. The next step was implementation of the tools in community-based activities for disaster mitigation. This study aimed to clarify the usability and problems of implementing the tools in community-based activities. The tools were used at several workshops in actual community-based activities for disaster mitigation for one year. After the last workshop, interviews and a questionnaire were conducted on municipal staff and consultant staff. The results found that the tools visually showed the fire-spread risk, the difficulty of evacuation under current conditions and after improvements, and the effects of each disaster mitigation activity. The users could easily explore the draft plans to promote seismic safety of urban structures and response capabilities. The tools were positively incorporated into some community-based activities for disaster mitigation. Thus, the tools have the possibility of successful use at continuing community-based activities and the possibility of implementing the tools will be promoted.
Calzo, Jerel P; Roberts, Andrea L; Corliss, Heather L; Blood, Emily A; Kroshus, Emily; Austin, S Bryn
Physical activity is an important health determinant. Little is known about sexual orientation differences in physical activity and their psychosocial determinants. The aim of this study is to examine adolescent and young adult hours/week of moderate/vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and team sports participation by sexual orientation and investigate contributions of gender nonconformity and low athletic self-esteem to possible sexual orientation differences. Analysis of data from 5,272 males and 7,507 females from 1999 to 2005 waves of the US Growing Up Today Study (ages 12-22 years). Sexual minorities (i.e., lesbian, gay, bisexual, mostly heterosexual) reported 1.21-2.62 h/week less MVPA (p gender heterosexuals. Gender nonconformity and athletic self-esteem accounted for 46-100 % of sexual orientation MVPA differences. Physical activity contexts should be modified to welcome sexual minority males and females. Targeting intolerance of gender nonconformity and fostering athletic self-esteem may mitigate sexual orientation MVPA disparities.
Calzo, Jerel P.; Roberts, Andrea L.; Corliss, Heather L.; Blood, Emily A.; Kroshus, Emily; Austin, S. Bryn
Background Physical activity is an important health determinant. Little is known about sexual orientation differences in physical activity and their psychosocial determinants. Purpose To examine adolescent and young adult hours/week of moderate/vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and team sports participation by sexual orientation and investigate contributions of gender nonconformity and low athletic self-esteem to possible sexual orientation differences. Methods Analysis of data from 5,272 males and 7,507 females from 1999-2005 waves of the US Growing Up Today Study (ages 12-22 years). Results Sexual minorities (i.e., lesbian, gay, bisexual, mostly heterosexual) reported 1.21-2.62 hours/week less MVPA (p'sgender heterosexuals. Gender nonconformity and athletic self-esteem accounted for 46%-100% of sexual orientation MVPA differences. Conclusions Physical activity contexts should be modified to welcome sexual minority males and females. Targeting intolerance of gender nonconformity and fostering athletic self-esteem may mitigate sexual orientation MVPA disparities. PMID:24347406
Simbayi, Leickness C; Zungu, Nompumelelo; Evans, Meredith; Mehlomakulu, Vuyelwa; Kupamupindi, Takura; Mafoko, Goitseone; Zuma, Khangelani
This paper explores the prevalence and correlates of HIV seropositive status disclosure to sexual partners by people living with HIV (PLHIV) in South Africa. Secondary analysis of the 2012 South African National HIV Prevalence, Incidence and Behaviour Survey was conducted on data obtained from 934 sexually active PLHIV aged 15 years and older who responded to the question about HIV seropositive status disclosure. Overall, a large majority of respondents (77.1 %) reported disclosing their HIV-positive status to all their current sex partners. Multiple regression analysis, after adjustments for sex, marital status and locality type, revealed that those who were living together, going steady, and those who were single were all 60 % [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 0.4, 95 % CIs 0.20-0.78; AOR = 0.4, 95 % CIs 0.24-0.77; and AOR = 0.4, 95 % CIs 0.19-1.00, all ps < 0.05] less likely to disclose their HIV positive status to their partners compared to those who were married. Those who lived in rural formal areas were 70 % less likely to disclose their HIV status to their partners compared to those who stayed in urban formal areas (AOR = 0.3, 95 % CI 0.17-0.69, p < 0.001). Those who had correct HIV knowledge and rejection of myths were 2.0 times more likely to disclose their HIV status to their partners compared to those who did not have correct HIV knowledge and rejection of myths (AOR = 2.0, 95 % CI 1.04-3.68, p < 0.05). In conclusion, intervention programmes which help improve HIV seropositive status disclosure are needed by PLHIV who are not married, live in rural formal areas, and have incorrect HIV knowledge and rejection of myths.
Della Volpe, Angelique; Volker, Schmidt; Krautwald-Junghanns, Maria-Elisabeth
The purpose of this study was to establish a technique for collecting semen from blue-fronted Amazon parrots (Amazona aestiva aestiva) and to evaluate the samples that were collected. The massage method is the most common technique used to collect semen in birds and has been proven successful in several psittacine species; however, collection attempts in larger parrots have been unsatisfactory. Six blue-fronted Amazon parrot males, 3 paired with hens and 3 unpaired, were used in this study. The semen collection technique was revised to allow collection from individual birds by a single person. Semen collection was attempted from the 6 parrots on 52-56 occasions, which totaled 330 single attempts. Nineteen ejaculates were collected, and each bird produced at least 1 ejaculate that contained spermatozoa. Large ranges of sample volume (1-15.4 microL), sperm quality (motility = 2%-60%; live:dead ratio = 2:198 to 185:15), sperm concentration (0.79-3.3 x 10(6) sperm/mL), and contamination rate (0%-100%) were observed. Measured parameters did not appear to be significantly impacted by birds being paired or kept singly. Because of the relatively short acclimation period, the birds appeared to be sexually inactive for the majority of the study. Further research using sexually active birds will be necessary to determine standard spermatological parameters and verify the success of the methodology used here.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies report association of contraceptives with moderate increase in urinary tract infection among sexually active premenopausal women. The aim of our study was to find out whether the use of hormonal contraceptives has any effect on microbiota of the vagina in the contraceptives users in Khairpur Sindh Pakistan. Methods A prospective study in woman population of Khairpur Sindh Pakistan aged 20–30 years and 31–40 years, using Hormonal contraceptives was carried out. High vaginal swab samples (n = 100 were collected from the test populations as well as control group (n = 100 and investigated for vaginal microbial flora using standard microbiological and biochemical techniques. Results Vaginal swabs culturing from hormonal contraceptives users in the age group 20–30 years showed statistically insignificant Candida sp (10% samples, and statistically significant (p Staphylococcus saprophyticus. (18% samples, Streptococcus agalactiae (23% samples, Escherichia coli (28% samples and Lactobacillus fermentum (32% samples. In the age group 31–40 years, statistically significant percentage of samples (p Lactobacillus fermentum (28%, Candida sp (24%, and E. coli, (24% where statistically insignificant samples showed Staphylococcus saprophyticus (13% and Streptococcus agalactiae (11%. Conclusions The use of hormonal contraceptives alters the normal microbiota of vagina in women according to the age. Lactobacillus fermentum appeared as the predominant species followed by E. coli among the age group of 20–30 years and, Lactobacillus fermentum, Candida sp and E. coli as predominant among women of age group 31–40 years when compared to corresponding control groups. An inverse relationship between E. coli and Lactobacillus fermentum was observed in the women aged 20–30 years.
Valdivia, Mario; Silva, Daniel; Sanhueza, Félix; Cova, Félix; Melipillán, Roberto
Suicide mortality rates are increasing among teenagers. To study the prevalence and predictive factors of suicide attempts among Chilean adolescents. A random sample of 195 teenagers aged 16 ± 1 years (53% males) answered an anonymous survey about their demographic features, substance abuse, the Osaka suicidal ideation questionnaire, Smilksten familial Apgar. Beck hopelessness scale, Beck depression scale and Coppersmith self-esteem inventory. Twenty five percent of respondents had attempted suicide at least in one occasion during their lives. These attempts were significantly associated with female gender, absent parents, family dysfunction, drug abuse, smoking, low self-esteem, hopelessness, depression and recent suicidal ideation. A logistic regression analysis accepted female gender, smoking and recent suicidal ideation as significant independent predictors of suicide attempt. Suicide attempted is common among teenagers and its predictors are female sex, smoking and previous suicidal ideation.
Costa, R M; Pestana, José; Costa, David; Wittmann, Marc
Greater vibrotactile sensitivity has been related to better erectile function in men, and vibrotactile and pressure tactile sensitivity have been related to better sexual function in women. Our previous study found that, for both sexes, greater recalled body awareness during last sexual relation correlated with greater recalled desire and arousal. Using the same sample of that study (68 women and 48 men, recruited in the Lisbon area, Portugal), we tested if greater recalled body awareness during last sexual relation correlates with tactile pressure sensitivity, as assessed by von Frey microfilaments. In simple and partial correlations controlling for social desirability and smoking before last sex, the hypothesis was confirmed for women, but not for men. Greater tactile sensitivity might enhance sexual arousal through greater awareness of the body during sex, and/or more frequent and pleasant body sensations during sex might lead to greater tactile sensitivity in nonsexual situations. Pressure sensitivity might be more closely linked to sexual arousal in women than in men.
Romero, Laura; Huerfano, Cesar; Grillo-Ardila, Carlos F
Chancroid is a genital ulcerative disease caused by Haemophilus ducreyi. This microorganism is endemic in Africa, where it can cause up to 10% of genital ulcers. Macrolides may be an effective alternative to treat chancroid and, based on their oral administration and duration of therapy, could be considered as first line therapy. To assess the effectiveness and safety of macrolides for treatment of H ducreyi infection in sexually active adults. We searched the Cochrane STI Group Specialized Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, LILACS, WHO ICTRP, ClinicalTrials.gov and Web of Science to 30 October 2017. We also handsearched conference proceedings and reference lists of retrieved studies. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing macrolides in different regimens or with other therapeutic alternatives for chancroid. Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion, extracted data and assessed risk of bias. We resolved disagreements through consensus. We used the GRADE approach to assess the quality of the evidence. Seven RCTs (875 participants) met our inclusion criteria, of which four were funded by industry. Five studies (664 participants) compared macrolides with ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin, spectinomycin or thiamphenicol. Low quality evidence suggested there was no difference between the groups after treatment in terms of clinical cure (risk ratio (RR) 1.09, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.97 to 1.21; 2 studies, 340 participants with syndromic approach and RR 1.06, 95% CI 0.98 to 1.15; 5 studies, 348 participants with aetiological diagnosis) or improvement (RR 0.89, 95% CI 0.52 to 1.52; 2 studies, 340 participants with syndromic approach and RR 0.80, 95% CI 0.42 to 1.51; 3 studies, 187 participants with aetiological diagnosis). Based on low and very low quality evidence, there was no difference between macrolides and any other antibiotic treatments for microbiological cure (RR 0.93, 95% CI 0.74 to 1.16; 1 study, 45 participants) and minor adverse
Vodstrcil, Lenka A; Twin, Jimmy; Garland, Suzanne M; Fairley, Christopher K; Hocking, Jane S; Law, Matthew G; Plummer, Erica L; Fethers, Katherine A; Chow, Eric P F; Tabrizi, Sepehr N; Bradshaw, Catriona S
To examine the influence of sexual activity on the composition and consistency of the vaginal microbiota over time, and distribution of Gardnerella vaginalis clades in young women. Fifty-two participants from a university cohort were selected. Vaginal swabs were self-collected every 3-months for up to 12 months with 184 specimens analysed. The vaginal microbiota was characterised using Roche 454 V3/4 region 16S rRNA sequencing, and G.vaginalis clade typing by qPCR. A Lactobacillus crispatus dominated vaginal microbiota was associated with Caucasian ethnicity (adjusted relative risk ratio[ARRR] = 7.28, 95%CI:1.37,38.57,p = 0.020). An L.iners (ARRR = 17.51, 95%CI:2.18,140.33,p = 0.007) or G.vaginalis (ARRR = 14.03, 95%CI:1.22,160.69, p = 0.034) dominated microbiota was associated with engaging in penile-vaginal sex. Microbiota dominated by L.crispatus, L.iners or other lactobacilli exhibited greater longitudinal consistency of the bacterial communities present compared to ones dominated by heterogeneous non-lactobacilli (pvaginal sex (RRR = 9.55, 95%CI:1.33,68.38,p = 0.025) or were diagnosed with BV (RRR = 31.5, 95%CI:1.69,586.87,p = 0.021). Sexual activity and ethnicity influenced the composition of the vaginal microbiota of these young, relatively sexually inexperienced women. Women had consistent vaginal microbiota over time if lactobacilli were the dominant spp. present. Penile-vaginal sex did not alter the consistency of microbial communities but increased G.vaginalis clade diversity in young women with and without BV, suggesting sexual transmission of commensal and potentially pathogenic clades.
Easton, A; Kiss, E; Mowery, P
In Hungary, a large proportion of adult morbidity and mortality can be attributed to health risk behaviors that begin in early adolescence. To date, studies examining health risk behaviors among youth have rarely been undertaken in Hungary. In order to expand current research in this area, the Hungarian Metropolitan Institute of State Public Health and Public Health Officer Service and the Office on Smoking and Health at the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention developed and implemented the Budapest Student Health Behavior Survey. The objective of this study was to examine health behavior risk factors among secondary school students in Budapest in 1999. The 1999 Budapest Student Health Behavior Survey is cross-sectional school-based survey A 2-stage cluster sampling design was used to produce a representative sample of secondary students in grades 9-12 in Budapest. Information was collected on unintentional and intentional injuries, alcohol use, and sexual activity. During the 30 days preceding the survey, 28.7% of students had rarely or never worn a seatbelt and 68.1% drunk alcohol. During the 12 months preceding the survey, 14.5% had been threatened or injured with a weapon, 12.9% experienced dating violence, and 13.5% seriously considered suicide. Of the 44.7% of students who had had sexual intercourse, 29.5% had > or = 4 sex partners. Of sexually active students, 50.4% had not used a condom at last sexual intercourse. Many secondary school students in Budapest practice behaviors that place them at risk for serious health problems both in the short and long-term. Programs and policies that adequately address such behaviors among secondary school students are needed to reduce subsequent morbidity and mortality.
Unsafe abortions account for nearly one-third of maternal deaths among young people. Women who have an induced abortion are usually literate and less than 30 years old; usually undergraduates with unintended pregnancies. Many of these pregnancies could have been prevented by contraception. The aim of this study was to determine the correlates of uptake of emergency contraception among university students. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1328 sexually active, never married female university students. Self-administered questionnaire was used to assess knowledge, perception and practice of emergency contraception. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify the predictors of emergency contraception. Majority of the participants were aware of emergency contraception (72.6%), had good knowledge (56.0%), and had the perception that it is effective (74.6%) and easy to use (72.4%). The main sources of information about emergency contraception were friends (32.9%) and the media (20.0%). About 52.0% of the participants had unprotected sex in the preceding six months, while 718 (54.1%) had ever used emergency contraception. The main sources of the commodities were sexual partners (46.2%) and medicine stores (35.4%). The uptake of emergency contraception was predicted by being ≤19 years (AOR = 3.193), rural dwelling (AOR = 4.247), perceptions that it is effective (AOR = 2.229E11) and easy to use (AOR = 6.680E8). Use of contraception among sexually active female Nigerian university students is predicted by the perception about its effectiveness and ease of use. Sexual and reproductive health programmes should focus on improving knowledge and addressing misconception in order to improve perception about emergency contraception. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Kelly Imogen E
Full Text Available Abstract Background Adolescent health is a growing concern. High rates of binge drinking and teenage pregnancies, documented in the UK, are two measures defining poor wellbeing. Improving wellbeing through schools is a priority but information on the impact of wellbeing on alcohol use, and on sexual activity among schoolchildren is limited. Methods A cross-sectional survey using self-completed questionnaires was conducted among 3,641 schoolchildren aged 11-14 years due to participate in a sex and relationships education pilot programme in 15 high schools in North West England. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to examine the relationship between wellbeing and alcohol use, and wellbeing and sexual activity. Results A third of 11 year olds, rising to two-thirds of 14 year olds, had drunk alcohol. Children with positive school wellbeing had lower odds of ever drinking alcohol, drinking often, engaging in any sexual activity, and of having sex. General wellbeing had a smaller effect. The strength of the association between alcohol use and the prevalence of sexual activity in 13-14 year olds, increased incrementally with the higher frequency of alcohol use. Children drinking once a week or more had 12-fold higher odds of any sexual activity, and 10-fold higher odds of having sex. Rare and occasional drinkers had a significantly higher odds compared with non-drinkers. Conclusions The relationship between wellbeing and alcohol use, and wellbeing and sexual activity reinforces the importance of initiatives that enhance positive wellbeing in schoolchildren. The association between alcohol use and sexual activity highlights the need for integrated public health programmes. Policies restricting alcohol use may help reduce sexual exposure among young teenagers.
Widman, Laura; McNulty, James K.
Despite indirect evidence linking narcissism to sexual aggression, studies directly examining this relationship have yielded inconsistent results. Likely contributing to such inconsistencies, prior research has used global measures of narcissism not sensitive to whether the components of narcissism are activated in sexual versus non-sexual domains. The current research avoided such problems by using a measure of sexual narcissism to predict sexual aggression. In a sample of 299 men and women,...
Brand, Sue; Williams, Hilary; Braybrooke, Jeremy
Testicular cancer is the most common cancer in young men, it is frequently diagnosed at key times in relationship formation. In early stage disease the vast majority of tumours will be cured by surgery alone with patients being offered active surveillance rather than adjuvant therapies. To date, research has not evaluated how surveillance alone impacts on sexual function. The aim of this quantitative longitudinal study was to ascertain the sexual function of men with stage one disease at 3 and 12 months post diagnosis and to compare with normative data. Additional data was collected on the information men sought regarding sexual function and media they used to access this. This study shows that men's sexual function is altered at diagnosis and improves by 3 months. At 12 months, whilst not statistically significant, sexual function improves but not to the same level as normative data comparison. Men appear to find verbal information useful at 3 months, however men appear to be seeking written and online information at 12 months. The intricacies of sexual function together with the low number of participants may have been best met with a qualitative approach. However, the information data indicates the importance of further research into the effects of early stage testicular cancer on sexual function. Therefore, further qualitative research is recommended to explore the effects of early stage testicular cancer in relation to sexual function. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
were offensive or embarrassing), unwanted sexual attention (attempts to establish a sexual relationship), and sexual coercion (classic quid pro quo ...are defined legally. The quid pro quo type is the easiest to identify and although frequencies are low, it is the most likely to be challenged. This...SEXISM, SEXUAL HARASSMENT AND SEXUAL ASSAULT: COMPARING DATA FROM 2002 AND 2006 Dr. Richard J. Harris University of Texas at San
Bansode, Falgun Wanganuji; Arya, Kamal Ram; Singh, Rama Kant; Narender, T
Asparagus adscendens Roxb (Liliaceae) has a promising role in modulation of various disorders such as leucorrhea, diarrhea, dysentery, diabetes, senile pruritus, asthma, fatigue antifilarial, antifungal, spermatorrhea, and sexual debility/seminal weakness. To investigate dose-dependent effects of Asparagus adscendens root (AARR) extract on anabolic, reproductive, and sexual behavioral activities with a view to emphasize the pharmacological basis. Rats were divided into five groups: Group I (control), Groups II-IV (AARR treated, 100, 200, and 300 mg/kg body weight, respectively, orally for 30 d) and Group V (standard control treated with sildenafil citrate, 5 mg/kg body weight). On day 31, copulatory and potency tests were carried out and an autopsy was done to study the reproductive function, namely, organ weights, spermatogenesis, daily sperm production rate (DSP), and epididymal sperm counts (ESC). AARR extract (200 and 300 mg/kg doses) caused a significant increase in body (p < 0.02 and p < 0.001) and testes (p < 0.01 and p < 0.001, control versus treated) weights. Reproductive activity showed significant a increase in testicular tubular diameter (p < 0.005-0.001), the number of round/elongated spermatids (p < 0.02-0.001), DSP, and ESC (p < 0.05-0.001). The sexual behavioral parameters including mounting/intromission frequency (13.0 ± 0.32/11.8 ± 0.37 and 18.2 ± 2.12/14.8 ± 1.15 versus 11.2 ± 0.66/8.2 ± 1.16), ejaculation latency (187.4 ± 1.91 and 191.4 ± 1.72 versus 180.0 ± 3.47), and penile erections (13.5 ± 0.3 and 14.5 ± 0.5 versus 8.5 ± 0.2) showed a significant increase at 200 and 300 mg/kg doses (ED50 300 mg/kg), but less than a standard control. In contrast, 100 mg/kg dose caused an increase (p < 0.005) in mounting latency only. These results indicate increased anabolic, reproductive, and sexual activities by AARR treatment. Thus, the data provide
Naylor, G. S.; Buckley, D. E.; Boardman, L. J.; Smith, A. H. W.; Moody, J. P.
1 There is evidence that erythrocyte Na+-K+-ATPase activity and erythrocyte cyclic AMP change on recovery from a depressive illness. Mianserin is a recently introduced antidepressant but its mode of action is unknown. The present study was therefore designed to investigate in vivo the effect of mianserin on erythrocyte Na+-K+-ATPase and cyclic AMP. 2 Biochemical estimations were made on blood from depressed patients before beginning either mianserin or matched placebo treatment, after 1 week, and again after 2 weeks' treatment. 3 Neither the erythrocyte Na+-K+-ATPase, nor the erythrocyte cyclic AMP concentration, changed significantly in either the mianserin- or the placebo-treated group. 4 The study sheds no light on the possible mechanism of action of mianserin. PMID:203308
Zhang, Z.; Schuler, T.; Zupancic, M.; Wietgrefe, S.; Staskus, K. A.; Reimann, K. A.; Reinhart, T. A.; Rogan, M.; Cavert, W.; Miller, C. J.; Veazey, R. S.; Notermans, D.; Little, S.; Danner, S. A.; Richman, D. D.; Havlir, D.; Wong, J.; Jordan, H. L.; Schacker, T. W.; Racz, P.; Tenner-Racz, K.; Letvin, N. L.; Wolinsky, S.; Haase, A. T.
In sexual transmission of simian immunodeficiency virus, and early and later stages of human immunodeficiency virus-type 1 (HIV-1) infection, both viruses were found to replicate predominantly in CD4(+) T cells at the portal of entry and in lymphoid tissues. Infection was propagated not only in
Baker, Sharon A.; And Others
Used clustered sample household survey of 329 males and females aged 14 to 17, and 470 of their parents to examine influence of parental factors on adolescent sexual behavior and contraceptive use. Found parents' reported behavioral norms accounted for 5% of variance in whether adolescents had had intercourse, and for 33% of variance in…
Georgiadis, Janniko R.; Farrell, Michael J.; Boessen, Ruud; Denton, Derek A.; Gavrilescu, Maria; Kortekaas, Rudie; Renken, Remco J.; Hoogduin, Johannes M.; Egan, Gary F.
This study used arterial spin labeling (ASL) fMRI to measure brain perfusion in a group of healthy men under conditions that closely resembled customary sexual behavior. Serial perfusion measures for 30 min during two self-limited periods of partnered penis stimulation, and during post-stimulatory
Aspy, Cheryl B.; Vesely, Sara K.; Oman, Roy F.; Tolma, Eleni; Rodine, Sharon; Marshall, LaDonna; Fluhr, Janene
Background: Two risk behaviors, alcohol consumption and early initiation of sexual intercourse (ISI), can have devastating consequences for youth. The purpose of this study was to determine the association of school connectedness and school-related behaviors (eg, academic performance, skipping school, getting into trouble at school) with these 2…
Rinnab, L; Schrader, A J; Schrader, M; Zengerling, F
Male sexuality in the elderly is an important issue with a growing relevance. In contrast to the assumption of an asexual state when becoming older, recent representative surveys show that the majority of men maintain sexual desires and fantasies into old age. Sexual activity primarily depends on the availability of a partner and on maintaining intimacy and sexuality in the face of changes in the sexual response cycle and increasing comorbidity. This review aims to clarify the normal aging process, the sexual behavior of aging males and the prevalence of sexual dysfunction.
Judit Vidiella Pagés
Full Text Available This article begins with an analysis of some theoretical contributions about the conceptualization of body in contemporary societies. These allow us to set a dialogue with the reflective experiences of a group of teenagers about how they learn masculinitiesi in their lives. Phenomenological and political emphasis on the body carried out by Feminists -with the notion of embodiment- have been essential in giving complexity to embodied issues such as gender, race, age, social class (disabilities, etc. which not only operate in a relation of power in our selves, but also as a locus of resistance and agency. Queer theory and its deconstruction of normative sexuality -with the concept of performativity- will be basic to understand the fundamental role that sexuality has in the construction of subjectivities. The accounts of teens will allow us to explore the paper that physical activities and sport have in their lives as mediators in the construction of their "masculine" subjectivities, many times as an oppressor space of their sexual and gender identity, and open an analysis of the hegemonic body representations that mediate not only physical education in schools, but also sport of competition and elite, and their representations in mass media.
Wilson, Kelly L; Cowart, Clayton J; Rosen, Brittany L; Pulczinski, Jairus C; Solari, Kayce D; Ory, Marcia G; Smith, Matthew Lee
Human papillomavirus (HPV) has been identified as the leading cause of cervical cancer. While HPV risk factors have been well studied, less is known about those with HPV and their perceptions about health ramifications. The purposes of this study were to examine unmarried college student women's (1) HPV diagnosis status and (2) perceived risk of getting cervical cancer in the next 5 years. Data were analyzed from 1106 unmarried, sexually active college women aged 18 to 26. Binary logistic regression compared HPV-related knowledge, vaccination-related perceptions, mandate support, healthcare utilization, sexual behaviors, and personal characteristics. Multinomial logistic regression was performed to assess the degree to which these factors were associated with perceived risk of cervical cancer diagnosis. Relative to those not diagnosed with HPV, participants who had more lifetime sex partners (P HPV. Those with HPV were more likely to support HPV vaccination mandates (P = 0.036) and have fewer friends vaccinated (P = 0.002). Participants who were uninsured (P = 0.011), diagnosed with HPV (P HPV, despite engaging in risky sexual behaviors, acknowledge their cervical cancer risk and may be strong advocates for HPV vaccination mandates to protect youth against this preventable virus.
Cooper, Al; Safir, Marilyn P; Rosenmann, Amir
Concerns about the impact of online sexual activities (OSA) on work-life are drastically increasing. This study examined 3,466 respondents who reported OSA, 18.5% of whom reported engaging in OSA at work. They were compared with the 81.5% who engaged in OSA at home, on average time spent in OSA, workplace policies regarding OSA, and relationship status. Two themes were identified and discussed: opportunity and sexual distress. Our findings indicate that participants are cognizant of issues of opportunity (e.g., the OSA from home group was more likely to indicate their workplace has established policies regarding OSA), and privacy, representing an important aspect of this theme (e.g., participants engaging in OSA at work were found to be twice as likely to have extra-marital affairs, compared with the OSA from home group). Secondly, our data suggests that many participants, especially from the OSA at work group, experience OSA-related distress. Engaging in OSA at the workplace may result in decreased productivity, issues of sexual harassment, and concerns about employee well-being. Clearly stated and consistently enforced policies regulating OSA are likely to mitigate workplace OSA. However, a significant minority of employees may have difficulties curbing OSA. Therefore, more sophisticated strategies to deal with workplace OSA should be established. Additional implications of importance for organizations and mental health professionals who support them are discussed.
Melo, Angélica; Lagos, Nicole; Montenegro, Sonia; Orellana, Juan José; Vásquez, Ana María; Moreno, Sergio; Liempi, Sandra; Guzmán, Pablo; Fonseca-Salamanca, Flery
Human papilloma virus (HPV) and Chlamydia trachomatis are the most prevalent sexually transmitted infections (STIs), among teenagers and young people, with risk factors: active sex life and multiple partners. Chlamydia trachomatis infection may favor HPV infection and this, the development of cervical cancer. Both infections can lead to consequences on sexual and reproductive health. To determine frequency of HPV and C. trachomatis in asymptomatic university women less than 25 years, associating them with number of sexual partners (n°SxP) and time of sexual activity (TSxA). Material andMethods: 151 cervical samples for HPV and C. trachomatis, were processed by conventional and in real time reaction polymerase chain. HPV 21, 8%, C. trachomatis 11, 2% and co-infection (HPV/C.trachomatis), 4.6%. Aimong HPV +, 80, 6% showed high risk HPV. The n°SxP was strongly associated with HPV. Aimong young coinfected HPV/C. trachomatis, 71.4% had 3 or more PSx. Chlamydia trachomatis was more frequent (64,7%) that HPV within range of 3-5 years according to the TSxA, Discussion: A high prevalence of HPV and C. trachomatis was observed. Young women with coinfection HPV/C. trachomatis could be a high-risk group need to monitor their infections. It suggests the implementation of university programs in education, counseling and prevention in sexual health.
Bélanger, Mathieu; Phillips, Emily Wolfe; O'Rielly, Connor; Mallet, Bertin; Aubé, Shane; Doucet, Marylène; Couturier, Jonathan; Mallet, Maxime; Martin, Jessica; Gaudet, Christine; Murphy, Nathalie; Brunet, Jennifer
Physical activity (PA) prescriptions provided by family physicians can promote PA participation among patients, but few physicians regularly write PA prescriptions. The objective of this study was to describe family physicians' experiences of trying to implement written PA prescriptions into their practice. Longitudinal qualitative study where participants were interviewed four times during a 12-month period. After the first interview, they were provided with PA prescription pads. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. Family medicine clinics in New Brunswick, Canada. Family physicians (n=11) with no prior experience writing PA prescriptions, but who expressed interest in changing their practice to implement written PA prescriptions. Initially, participants exhibited confidence in their ability to write PA prescriptions in the future and intended to write prescriptions. However, data from the follow-up interviews indicated that the rate of implementation was lower than anticipated by participants and prescriptions were not part of their regular practice. Two themes emerged as factors explaining the gap between their intentions and behaviours: (1) uncertainty about the effectiveness of written PA prescription, and (2) practical concerns (eg, changing well-established habits, time constraints, systemic institutional barriers). It may be effective to increase awareness among family physicians about the effectiveness of writing PA prescriptions and address barriers related to how their practice is organised in order to promote written PA prescription rates. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Clodfelter, Tammatha A.; Turner, Michael G.; Hartman, Jennifer L.; Kuhns, Joseph B.
Sexual harassment of college students may lead to more serious forms of sexual assault. Few studies have investigated sexual harassment predictors framed within competing theoretical perspectives. In this study, the literature is extended by examining (a) three types of sexual harassment on a college campus, (b) the nature of reporting, and (c)…
Currier, Glenn W.
Full Text Available Introduction: Our goal was to explore whether emergency department (ED patients would disclose their sexual orientation in a research evaluation and to examine demographic and clinical characteristics of patients by self-identified sexual orientation. Methods: Participants (n=177 presented for psychiatric treatment at three urban EDs in New York City, Rochester, NY, and Philadelphia, PA. Participants were interviewed in the context of a larger study of a standardized suicide risk assessment. We assessed participants’ willingness to answer questions regarding sexual orientation along three dimensions: a self-description of sexual orientation, a self-description of sexual attraction, and the gender of any prior sexual partners. Results: No participants (0/177 refused to respond to the categorical question about sexual orientation, 168/177 (94.9% agreed to provide information about prior sexual partners, and 100/109 (91.7% provided information about current sexual attraction toward either gender. Of all 177 participants, 154 (87.0% self-identified as heterosexual, 11 (6.2% as bisexual, 10 (5.6% as gay or lesbian, and 2 (1.1% indicated they were not sure. As compared with heterosexual patients, lesbian, gay and bisexual (LGB patients were significantly younger and more likely to be non-white, but did not differ significantly in terms of education, income, employment, or religious affiliation or participation. Further, LGB participants did not differ from self-identified heterosexual participants for lifetime suicide attempt rate or lifetime history of any mood, substance-related, psychotic spectrum, or other Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV Axis I disorder. Of self-identified heterosexual participants 5.6% (5/89 reported sexual attraction as other than ‘only opposite sex,’ and 10.3% (15/142 of sexually active ‘heterosexual’ participants reported previous same-gender sexual partners. Conclusion
Kim, Gwang-Won; Jeong, Gwang-Woo
The aging process and menopausal transition are important factors in sexual dysfunction of menopausal women. No neuroimaging study has assessed the age- and menopause-related changes on brain activation areas associated with sexual arousal in menopausal women. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the time course of regional brain activity associated with sexual arousal evoked by visual stimulation in premenopausal and menopausal women, and further to assess the effect of menopause on the brain areas associated with sexual arousal in menopausal women using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Thirty volunteers consisting of 15 premenopausal and 15 menopausal women underwent the fMRI. For the activation condition, volunteers viewed sexually arousing visual stimulation. The brain areas with significantly higher activation in premenopausal women compared with menopausal women included the thalamus, amygdala, and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) using analysis of covariance adjusting for age (psexual arousal. These findings might help elucidate the neural mechanisms associated with sexual dysfunction in menopausal women. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Fraser, Sarah L; Geoffroy, Dominique; Chachamovich, Eduardo; Kirmayer, Laurence J
Inuit in Canada currently suffer from one of the highest rates of suicide in the world. The objective of this study was to explore the prevalence of suicide ideations and attempts among 15-24 year olds living in Nunavik, Québec, and to explore risk and protective factors of suicide attempts as a function of gender. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2004 across Nunavik. Univariate and multivariate logistic regressions were conducted. A total of 22% of young males and 39% of females adults reported past suicidal attempts. Gender differences were observed in relation to associated risk and protective factors as well as degree of exposure to risk factors. Suicide prevention must include alcohol and drug prevention programs and rehabilitation services, interventions to reduce physical and sexual violence and their long-term impacts on Inuit youth, as well as exposure to culturally meaningful activities. © 2014 The American Association of Suicidology.
Levin, Roy; Meston, Cindy
The role of nipple/breast stimulation in influencing sexual arousal in men and women during lovemaking has only been the subject of opinion-based comment rather than evidence-based study. No attempt to question people about such sexual behavior has ever been undertaken. The study was designed to ascertain the effects of nipple/breast manipulation in young men and women on their sexual arousal. A short questionnaire about nipple/breast stimulation during sexual activity was administered to 301 (148 men; 153 women) sexually experienced undergraduates (age range 17-29 years, 95% between 18 and 22). Replies to questions in questionnaire. The major findings in regard to the women were that 81.5% reported that stimulation of their nipples/breasts caused or enhanced their sexual arousal, 78.2% agreed that when sexually aroused such manipulation increased their arousal, 59.1% had asked to have their nipples stimulated during lovemaking, and only 7.2% found that the manipulation decreased their arousal. In regard to the men, 51.7% reported that nipple stimulation caused or enhanced their sexual arousal, 39% agreed that when sexually aroused such manipulation increased their arousal, only 17.1% had asked to have their nipples stimulated, and only 7.5% found that such stimulation decreased their arousal. Manipulation of the nipples/breasts causes or enhances sexual arousal in approximately 82% of young women and 52% of young men with only 7-8% reporting that it decreased their arousal.
Can psychosocial and socio-demographic questions help identify sexual risk among heterosexually-active women of reproductive age? Evidence from Britain’s third National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (Natsal-3
Full Text Available Abstract Background Contraceptive advice and supply (CAS and sexually transmitted infection (STI testing are increasingly provided in primary care. Most risk assessment tools are based on sexual risk behaviours and socio-demographics, for use online or in specialist services. Combining socio-demographic and psychosocial questions (e.g. religious belief and formative experience may generate an acceptable tool for targeting women in primary care who would benefit from intervention. We aimed to identify psychosocial and socio-demographic factors associated with reporting key sexual risk behaviours among women in the British general population. Methods We undertook complex survey analysis of data from 4911 hetero-sexually active women aged 16–44 years, who participated in Britain’s third National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (Natsal-3, a national probability sample survey undertaken 2010–2012. We used multivariable regression to examine associations between the available psychosocial and socio-demographic variables in Natsal-3 and reports of three key sexual behaviours: a 2+ partners in the last year (2PP; b non-use of condoms with 2+ partners in the last year (2PPNC; c non-use of condoms at first sex with most recent sexual partner (FSNC. We adjusted for key socio-demographic factors: age, ethnicity and socio-economic status (measured by housing tenure. Results Weekly binge drinking (6+ units on one occasion, and first sex before age 16 were each positively associated with all three sexual behaviours after adjustment. Current relationship status, reporting drug use (ever, younger age and living in rented accommodation were also associated with 2+ partners and 2 + partners without condoms after adjustment. Currently being a smoker, older age and respondent ethnicity were associated with FSNC after adjustment for all other variables. Current smoking status, treatment for depression (last year, and living at home with both
Garcia Luis I
Full Text Available Abstract Background The prostate is a sexual gland that produces important substances for the potency of sperm to fertilize eggs within the female reproductive tract, and is under complex endocrine control. Taking advantage of the peculiar behavioral pattern of copulating male rats, we developed experimental paradigms to determine the influence of sexual behavior on the level of serum testosterone, prostate androgen receptors, and mRNA for androgen receptors in male rats displaying up to four consecutive ejaculations. Methods The effect of four consecutive ejaculations was investigated by determining levels of (i testosterone in serum by solid phase RIA, (ii androgen receptors at the ventral prostate with Western Blots, and (iii androgen receptors-mRNA with RT-PCR. Data were analyzed with a one-way ANOVA followed by a post hoc application of Dunnett's test if required. Results The constant execution of sexual behavior did not produce any change in the weight of the ventral prostate. Serum testosterone increased after the second ejaculation, and remained elevated even after four ejaculations. The androgen receptor at the ventral prostate was higher after the first to third ejaculations, but returned suddenly to baseline levels after the fourth ejaculation. The level of mRNA increased after the first ejaculation, continued to increase after the second, and reached the highest peak after the third ejaculation; however, it returned suddenly to baseline levels after the fourth ejaculation. Conclusion Four consecutive ejaculations by sexually experienced male rats had important effects on the physiological responses of the ventral prostate. Fast responses were induced as a result of sexual behavior that involved an increase and decrease in androgen receptors after one and four ejaculations, respectively. However, a progressive response was observed in the elevation of mRNA for androgen receptors, which also showed a fast decrease after four
Brauer, Marieke; van Lunsen, Rik H W; Laan, Ellen T M; Burger, Matthé P M
Lichen sclerosus (LS) of the vulva can profoundly affect sexual interaction because of painful fissures and narrowing of the vaginal introitus. Successful surgical treatment is usually defined as restoration of (pain-free) penetrative sexual activity. To evaluate the impact of surgery on (dyadic) sexual functioning and pleasure and psychological well-being. Nineteen women with anogenital LS participated in audiotaped, qualitative, individual interviews after surgery to re-enable sexual intercourse. Physical, sexual, and psychological experiences were analyzed using the constant comparative method. Vulvar surgery resulted in a decrease of sexual pain in 13 of 19 patients (68%). Of these 13 patients, 4 were completely free of pain and the other 9 patients expressed a shift from preoperative sexual pain to postoperative sexual discomfort. These women reported improved sexual functioning, increased sexual activity and intimacy with the partner, and reinstated feelings of being an adequate woman and sexual partner. In 1 of the 19 patients (5%), surgery did not result in decreased sexual pain, yet she continued to have intercourse. Five of the 19 patients (26%) stopped having intercourse because of pain; one woman had secondary vaginismus and another woman, in retrospect, had premorbid generalized unprovoked vulvodynia. Four of these women were unable to communicate with their partner about sexual matters and to change their sexual repertoire (satisfactorily) once they had ceased intercourse (attempts). Eighteen women (95%) reported a decrease of LS symptoms in daily life. Vulvar surgery seems an effective treatment for most women with LS who experience sexual pain owing to anatomic or epithelial changes and who wish to resume intercourse. To assess whether women might benefit from such surgery and/or whether (additional) sexual counseling is indicated, preoperative sexological couple-based consultation is needed. This consultation should exclude comorbid vaginismus and
Atividade sexual e doenças sexualmente transmissíveis em escolares do 2º grau de Rio Branco-Acre, Brasil La actividad sexual y las enfermedades sexualmente trasmisibles en estudiantes de segundo grado (estudios secundarios de Rio Branco-Acre, Brasil Sexual activity and sexually transmissible diseases of high school students in Rio Branco-Acre, Brasil
Luiz Carlos Souza do Nascimento
Full Text Available Este estudo foi realizado junto a 2.684 alunos do Segundo Grau de Rio Branco¾Acre, Brasil, para verificar aspectos da atividade sexual e a ocorrência de DST/AIDS. Dos alunos pesquisados, 48,9% tiveram relações sexuais, sendo que para o sexo masculino o início mais freqüente foi aos 13 anos, representando 34,3% e para o feminino foi aos 16 anos, com 31,6%. Da ocorrência de DST/AIDS mencionadas 58,4% foi para a Hepatite B, 39,4% para a Monilíase e 2,2% para a Gonorréia. Dos que tiveram relações sexuais 47,6% foi com o/a namorado/a, 25,8% com o/a vizinho/a e 10,5% com a empregada doméstica. Como conclusão, 52,3% dos alunos das escolas particulares, 50,0% da federal, 45,7% das estaduais e 41,8% da municipal, tiveram relação sexual.Este estudio se realizó con 2.684 estudiantes de secundaria de Rio Branco-Acre, Brasil, para verificar los aspectos de la actividad sexual y la incidencia de ETS/SIDA. De los estudiantes investigados 48,9% tuvieron relaciones sexuales. De ellos el 34,3% pertenecen al sexo masculino y empezaron a los 13 años de edad. 31,6% son del sexo femenino e iniciaron su vida sexual a los 16 años. De la incidencia referida de ETS/SIDA el 58,4% fue para Hepatitis B, el 39,4% para Candidiasis y el 2,2% para Gonorrea. De los que tuvieron relaciones sexuales, el 47,6% fue con el novio (¾a; el 25,8% con el vecino (-a y el 10,5% con la empleada domestica de la casa. Por lo tanto, se concluye que el 52,3% de los alunnos de las escuelas privadas, el 50,0% de la federal, el 45,7% de las estatales y el 41,8% de las municipales (provinciales tuvieron relación sexual.This study was realized with 2.684 students of the high school in Rio Branco¾Acre, Brazil, to verify aspects of the sexual activity and the occurrence of DST/AIDS. From the researched students, 48,9% had sexual intercourses, and the largest frequency was 34,3% for male sex, with the beginning at 13 years old, and for female sex 31,6%, with the beginning at 16
The human sexual response to sexually arousing stimuli is a motivational incentive-based cycle comprising subjective experience and physiologic changes. Clinical and empirical data support a circular model of overlapping phases of variable order. Brain imaging data of sexual arousal identify areas of cerebral activation and inhibition reflecting a complex network of cognitive, motivational, emotional, and autonomic components. Psychologic and biologic factors influence the brain's appraisal and processing of sexual stimuli to allow or disallow subsequent arousal. The sexual and non-sexual outcomes influence motivation to future sexual intimacy. Variability is marked both between individuals and within a person's sexual life, influenced by multiple factors, including stage of life cycle, mental health, and relationship happiness. Neurologic disease can interrupt the cycle at many points: by limiting motivation, reducing ability to attend to and feel sexual stimuli, and accomplishing the movements needed to stimulate and experience intercourse. Impairments to genital congestion, penile erection, and orgasm may also occur. Disease-associated changes to the interpersonal relationship and self-image plus frequently comorbid depression will tend to lessen motivation and temper the brain's appraisal of sexual stimuli, so precluding arousal. Therapy begins by explaining the sexual response cycle, clarifying the points of interruption in the patient's own cycle so as to guide treatment. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Owonikoko, Kola M; Bello-Ajao, Hajarah T; Fawole, Adegboyega A; Adeniji, Adetunji O
Abortion complications constitute 13% of maternal deaths worldwide and 40% of maternal deaths in Nigeria, while 80% of patients with abortion complications are adolescents. Assessing the adolescents' knowledge and attitude and the determinants of their sexual activities and contraceptive usage. This was a cross-sectional study conducted among high school students of Ogbomoso - a semi-urban settlement. Stratified multistage randomization was used to select one high school from each of five local government areas of the study site. Students were interviewed with pretested questionnaire to sought information on demographic status, family type, knowledge of sexuality, and contraceptive usages. The age range of the respondents was 10-19 years with mean±SD age 13.7±1.9 years. Among them, 6.5% were sexually active. Of the respondents, 56.8% scored good knowledge about sexuality and contraception and 57.5% respondents had good attitude to contraception. Age (p=0.004) and father's education (p=0.001) were factors associated with knowledge about sexuality and contraception, while mothers' occupation (p=0.02) and fathers' occupation (p=0.001) and education (p=0.04) were significantly associated with positive attitude toward contraception. This study revealed that a significant percentage of the studied adolescents had poor knowledge and attitude toward contraception, and many of the sexually active respondents had inaccurate knowledge on the use of contraceptives and where it could be obtained.
Sychareun, Vanphanom; Phengsavanh, Alongkone; Hansana, Visanou; Chaleunvong, Kongmany; Kounnavong, Sengchan; Sawhney, Monika; Durham, Jo
Research indicates that adolescents in low-income countries have an early sexual debut and engage in risky sexual behaviours. Few studies in low-income countries however, have explored the factors that influence young people's sexual behaviours. This study examined individual, family and peer-level factors associated with premarital sexual behaviours in the Lao People's Democratic Republic (PDR). A cross-sectional survey was undertaken with unmarried youth aged 18 to 24 years (N = 1200) in Vientiane Capital City. Logistic regression models, controlling for confounding variables, were employed to test for the contribution of factors influencing premarital sexual activity. Most respondents held positive attitudes towards premarital sex, with males having more liberal attitudes than females (mean score of 2.68 vs. 2.32, p peer influence. For females, predictors were father's level of education, parent-youth sexual communication, peer influence and liberal sexual attitudes. The results highlight the role of parent-youth interaction and peer influence. The results suggest the need for a range of strategies at the individual, peer and family level, as well as a gender-specific focus.
Suicide has been considered a large public health concern in recent years because suicide mortality has been increasing rapidly. This study was done to investigate the prevalence and risk factors of a suicide attempt among adolescents in South Korea. The data of the 2006 Youth Health Risk Behavior web-based Survey collected by the Korean Center for Disease Control was analyzed using logistic regression for this study. The prevalence of a suicide attempt was 5.2% in South Korea. The risk factors of a suicide attempt were suicidal ideation (odds 31.83), depression (odds 7.98), drug use (odds 4.67), currently smoking (odds 3.19), feeling unhappiness (odds 2.77), stress (odds 2.60), currently drinking alcohol (odds 2.39), sexual activity (odds 2.33), living with neither parent (odds 2.24), initial alcohol drinking by age 9 (odds 1.80), health status (odds 2.15), skipped breakfast (odds 1.75), disease (odds 1.65), and school records (odds 1.22). Suicide screening and prevention programs should be developed, considering these risk factors. Suicide prevention programs should be applied to the at risk population prior to a suicide attempt.
Goldstein, Irwin; Kim, Noel N.; Clayton, Anita H
The objective of the International Society for the Study of Women's Sexual Health expert consensus panel was to develop a concise, clinically relevant, evidence-based review of the epidemiology, physiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD), a sexual...... dysfunction affecting approximately 10% of adult women. Etiologic factors include conditions or drugs that decrease brain dopamine, melanocortin, oxytocin, and norepinephrine levels and augment brain serotonin, endocannabinoid, prolactin, and opioid levels. Symptoms include lack or loss of motivation...... to participate in sexual activity due to absent or decreased spontaneous desire, sexual desire in response to erotic cues or stimulation, or ability to maintain desire or interest through sexual activity for at least 6 months, with accompanying distress. Treatment follows a biopsychosocial model and is guided...
Wegner, Rhiana; Abbey, Antonia; Pierce, Jennifer; Pegram, Sheri E.; Woerner, Jacqueline
Perpetrators use rape supportive attitudes and sexual assault incident characteristics to justify forcing sex on their victims. Perpetrators who can justify their behaviors are at increased risk for future perpetration. This study examined the relationships between rape supportive attitudes, sexual assault incident characteristics, and the post-assault justifications of 183 men sampled from the community who self-reported committing at least one act of sexual aggression. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses indicated that rape supportive attitudes, expectations for having sex, misperceptions of sexual intent, victims’ alcohol consumption, attempts to be alone with her, and the number of consensual sexual activities prior to the unwanted sex were significant predictors of perpetrators’ post-assault use of justifications. Greater use of justifications was a significant predictor of sexual aggression over a 1-year follow-up interval. These findings demonstrate the need for further research exploring when and why perpetrators use post-assault justifications and whether they are amenable to change. PMID:26056162
... and changes in sexual function are common. These physiological changes can include: A need for more stimulation ... page: Sexuality in later life. National Institute on Aging. https://www.nia.nih.gov/health/publication/sexuality- ...
The subject matter of this diploma thesis "Sexual Education" is sexual education in the Czech Republic, specifically dedicated to the study of the integration of sexual education into the educational process in schools and families.
Zaazaa, Adham; Bella, Anthony J; Shamloul, Rany
This article attempts to review the most current and the well-established facts concerning drug addiction and sexual dysfunction. Surprisingly, even though alcohol is prevalent in many societies with many myths surrounding its sexual-enhancing effects, current scientific research cannot provide a solid conclusion on its effect on sexual function. Unfortunately, the same concept applies to tobacco smoking; however, most of the current knowledge tends to support the notion that it, indeed, can negatively affect sexual function. Similar ambiguities also prevail with substances of abuse. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Miyazawa, Mitsuo; Usami, Atsushi; Tanaka, Takio; Tsuji, Kaoru; Takehara, Manami; Hori, Yuki
This study was conducted to determine the composition of essential oil from buds of male and female Eurya japonica flowers and to determine the aroma-active compounds of this plant by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), sensory evaluation, and odor activity values (OAV). The oils contained eighty-five compounds. We identified for the first time forty-four compounds in E. japonica. Through sensory evaluation, nineteen aroma-active compounds were identified by gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O). Because the chemical composition can affect the interaction between plants and herbivorous insects, our results suggest that essential oils from male and female flower buds of E. japonica differently affect herbivores. Sexual differences in essential oils deserve further investigations in this plant-insect system.
Different pathological states occurring during adolescence, such as anorexia, bulimia and suicidal attempts are seen as possible manifestations of psychological defence mechanisms against the anxiety-provoking bodily changes of puberty and the necessary psychological transformations inherent to adolescence and sexual maturation. The changes of object of desire and some sexual risk behaviours are illustrated by clinical vignettes. Music is suggested to play a role in the mobilisation of emotions, bodily sensations and in the construction of an imaginary world and thus to be a factor--a part from biological and psycho-social ones--influencing the sexual behaviour of adolescents. Some communication techniques are suggested enabling access to adolescents on sexual matters - a domain of increasing public health importance.
Khanna, R; Price, J
India was the context for this discussion of female sexuality, rigid social norms, women's strategies for resistance, the evolution of norms from colonial India, prostitution, myths, and self-help women's activities. Sexuality is a changing set of ideas, and women have contributed to the redefinition. The biological view without consideration of the sociocultural and historical influences proscribes what is deviant and may be used to reinforce patriarchy and colonialism. Management and control of sexuality has been influenced by class, religion, caste, and ethnicity. During the colonial period, women's sexuality and treatment was challenged by the missionaries. The abolishment of "sati" as a traditional practice was used by the British to expand their rule and control over a wider regional area. Attempts were also made to regulate prostitution as means of protecting the health of the British army. The law requiring registration, examination, and commitment for treatment of prostitutes was not adhered to by the women involved. The notion of mothers as irresponsible came into being about 1900, and encouraged abandonment of traditional child- rearing ways for the Western standard of health and hygiene, and lifestyle. In Bengal, motherhood and mother qoddesses became the symbol of the liberation movement. The maternal role could be strengthened through education. The notion of mother and nationhood was supported by the women's movement in Great Britain and the US through positive eugenics ideas of quality race, which supported the ruling elite of British and Indians. Thus, the high class women were to be protected from early marriage, and encouraged to produce children fit to govern; the poor were to be protected from prostitution and overpopulation. Post colonial ideas about sexuality reflected a number of influences both from within and outside India. Health was a focus, and program targets were those who were outside the norm: women with too many children
Mariana Rhein Felippe, ScM
Conclusion: Women with UI were more likely to be sexual abstinent than continent women. Furthermore, women with UI showed less sexual desire, sexual comfort, and sexual satisfaction than their counterparts despite having a similar frequency of sexual activity.
Recent research suggesting that a high proportion of men and women remain sexually active well into later life refutes the prevailing myth that aging and sexual dysfunction are inexorably linked. Age-related physiological changes do not render a meaningful sexual relationship impossible or even necessarily difficult. In men, greater physical stimulation is required to attain and maintain erections, and orgasms are less intense. In women, menopause terminates fertility and produces changes ste...
Juszczak, Dariusz; Korzeniewski, Krzysztof; Czupryńska, Katarzyna; Furs, Maciej
The relationship between alcohol consumption and sexual crime appears to be unquestionable. However, the mechanisms that lead to violence and aggression under the influence of alcohol are not entirely understood in this group of offenders. The aim of this paper was to attempt answering the question: what are the features characterizing sexual offenders declaring alcohol abuse. The research material consisted of 180 forensic psychiatric- sexology assessments issued by experts from Outpatient Psychiatric Clinic in 10 Military Hospital Clinic in Bydgoszcz between 2004 to 2012. A specially designed questionnaire titled "Charter of Diagnosis of Factors Determining Criminal Sexual Activity" has been used. Relevant statistical dependences were observed. The obtained results show that, a alcohol abuse has a sexual criminogenic effect especially in the coincidence that there are sustainable personality abnormalities and organic CNS damage. The conducted study prove that the sexual perpetrators who abuse alcohol have a poor level of social functioning and brought up in dysfunction families having alcoholic problems. © 2015 MEDPRESS.
McNulty, James K; Widman, Laura
There is theoretical reason to believe narcissism is associated with a number of sexual behaviors and outcomes that affect both sexual and relationship satisfaction. Nevertheless, research on the association between personality and behavior demonstrates that personality traits, such as narcissism, only predict behavior in domains that activate the components of the personality system. Given that global assessments of narcissism do not capture the extent to which the components of narcissism are activated in the sexual domain, we examined the extent to which the facets of a domain-specific measure of sexual narcissism accounted for the trajectories of own and partner sexual and marital satisfaction over the first five years of 120 new marriages. Three of the four facets of sexual narcissism (sexual exploitation, sexual entitlement, and low sexual empathy) were negatively associated with both trajectories. The fourth facet (sexual skill) was positively associated with both trajectories. Notably, sexual satisfaction mediated the effect of every facet of sexual narcissism on marital satisfaction. A global assessment of narcissism was not associated with either trajectory of satisfaction. These findings highlight (1) the importance of narcissistic tendencies for sexual processes, (2) the benefits of using domain-specific measures of personality in research on sexual behavior, and (3) the importance of examining the implications of the specific facets of personality constructs.
McNulty, James K.; Widman, Laura
There is theoretical reason to believe narcissism is associated with a number of sexual behaviors and outcomes that affect both sexual and relationship satisfaction. Nevertheless, research on the association between personality and behavior demonstrates that personality traits, such as narcissism, only predict behavior in domains that activate the components of the personality system. Given that global assessments of narcissism do not capture the extent to which the components of narcissism are activated in the sexual domain, we examined the extent to which the facets of a domain-specific measure of sexual narcissism accounted for the trajectories of own and partner sexual and marital satisfaction over the first five years of 120 new marriages. Three of the four facets of sexual narcissism (sexual exploitation, sexual entitlement, and low sexual empathy) were negatively associated with both trajectories. The fourth facet (sexual skill) was positively associated with both trajectories. Notably, sexual satisfaction mediated the effect of every facet of sexual narcissism on marital satisfaction. A global assessment of narcissism was not associated with either trajectory of satisfaction. These findings highlight (1) the importance of narcissistic tendencies for sexual processes, (2) the benefits of using domain-specific measures of personality in research on sexual behavior, and (3) the importance of examining the implications of the specific facets of personality constructs. PMID:23297145
Annual variations in sexual activity (oestrus and ovulation) and in the endocrine balances which govern follicular maturation and ovulation (the ovarian hormones progesterone and oestradiol-17β, and the pituitary hormones FSH, LH and PRL) were studied in the Peulh ewes of Niger. It was found that two types of disturbances in ovarian function limited the fertility of ewes in semi-arid environment: (a) persistent corpora lutea which occurred in 14% of animals and affected 2.2% of oestrous cycles in the course of the year. Their appearance coincided with increasing humidity (in June and July) or daily temperature (December to April); and (b) seasonal anoestrus, observed in 67% of animals from December to April, and coinciding with maximum daily temperatures. These ovarian anomalies were associated with a weak endogenous rhythm of LH secretion without any change in feedback from the ovarian steroids progesterone and oestradiol-17β on the hypothalamic-pituitary axis. A study of seasonal variations in levels of the gonadotrophic hormones indicated that there may be a weaker than usual dependence between the ovary and the pituitary during periods of anomalous sexual activity in Peulh ewes. The results presented suggest that both types of ovarian dysfunction observed in certain Peulh ewes may reflect poorer adaptation to the semi-arid climate. (author). 54 refs, 8 figs, 3 tabs
Træen, Bente; Thuen, Frode
The purpose of this paper is to describe the prevalence of self-reported types of extradyadic romantic and sexual activity among adult Norwegians and to explore the role of infidelity in breaking up a permanent relationship. The results are based on 1,001 web interviews with persons ranging in age from 18 to 67 years. The majority of respondents reported having engaged in some kind of extradyadic romantic and/or sexual activity. Forty-five percent of the women and 39% of the men claimed they had experienced a previous breakup from a marriage or cohabiting relationship. Among those aged 50 years or older, the most important reasons for breaking up a previous relationship were infidelity (38%) and lost love (38%). More men (44%) than women (33%) reported infidelity. Respondents younger than 50 years were more motivated by boredom. Among respondents below the age of 50 years, the most frequently reported reasons for considering termination of a present relationship were quarreling (37%), poor sex life (29%), and "other" reasons (25%). Accordingly, infidelity was not identified as an essential factor for considering a breakup from the present relationship. © 2012 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology © 2012 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.
This article examines the ways in which gatekeepers shape the field of teen sexuality by controlling access to sexual images. I question who decides whether an image is "appropriate" for young adults and how such judgements shape the wider cultural field. The ways in which gatekeepers have attempted to shield teens from certain sexual images…
Tracey J. Shors
Full Text Available Sexual violence against women often leads to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD, a mental illness characterized by intrusive thoughts and memories about the traumatic event (Shors and Millon, 2016. These mental processes are obviously generated by the brain but often felt in the body. MAP Training My Brain™ is a novel clinical intervention that combines mental training of the brain with physical training of the body (Curlik and Shors, 2013; Shors et al., 2014. Each training session begins with 20-min of sitting meditation, followed by 10-min of slow-walking meditation, and ending with 30-min of aerobic exercise at 60–80% of the maximum heart rate (see maptrainmybrain.com. In previous studies, the combination of mental and physical (MAP training together significantly reduced symptoms of depression and ruminative thoughts, while reducing anxiety (Shors et al., 2014, 2017; Alderman et al., 2016. We also documented positive changes in brain activity during cognitive control and whole-body oxygen consumption in various populations. In the present pilot study, we asked whether the combination of meditation and aerobic exercise during MAP Training would reduce trauma-related thoughts, ruminations, and memories in women and if so, whether the combination would be more effective than either activity alone. To test this hypothesis, interventions were provided to a group of women (n = 105, many of whom had a history of sexual violence (n = 32. Groups were trained with (1 MAP Training, (2 meditation alone, (3 aerobic exercise alone, or (4 not trained. Individuals in training groups completed two sessions a week for at least 6 weeks. MAP Training My Brain™ significantly reduced post-traumatic cognitions and ruminative thoughts in women with a history of sexual violence, whereas meditation alone, and exercise alone did not. MAP Training significantly enhanced a measure of self-worth, whereas meditation and exercise alone did not. Similar positive
Shors, Tracey J; Chang, Han Y M; Millon, Emma M
Sexual violence against women often leads to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), a mental illness characterized by intrusive thoughts and memories about the traumatic event (Shors and Millon, 2016). These mental processes are obviously generated by the brain but often felt in the body. MAP Training My Brain ™ is a novel clinical intervention that combines mental training of the brain with physical training of the body (Curlik and Shors, 2013; Shors et al., 2014). Each training session begins with 20-min of sitting meditation, followed by 10-min of slow-walking meditation, and ending with 30-min of aerobic exercise at 60-80% of the maximum heart rate (see maptrainmybrain.com). In previous studies, the combination of mental and physical (MAP) training together significantly reduced symptoms of depression and ruminative thoughts, while reducing anxiety (Shors et al., 2014, 2017; Alderman et al., 2016). We also documented positive changes in brain activity during cognitive control and whole-body oxygen consumption in various populations. In the present pilot study, we asked whether the combination of meditation and aerobic exercise during MAP Training would reduce trauma-related thoughts, ruminations, and memories in women and if so, whether the combination would be more effective than either activity alone. To test this hypothesis, interventions were provided to a group of women ( n = 105), many of whom had a history of sexual violence ( n = 32). Groups were trained with (1) MAP Training, (2) meditation alone, (3) aerobic exercise alone, or (4) not trained. Individuals in training groups completed two sessions a week for at least 6 weeks. MAP Training My Brain ™ significantly reduced post-traumatic cognitions and ruminative thoughts in women with a history of sexual violence, whereas meditation alone, and exercise alone did not. MAP Training significantly enhanced a measure of self-worth, whereas meditation and exercise alone did not. Similar positive effects
behavioral and psychological results by itself, early trauma may also lead to biological effects. Especially traumas during neuron plasticity phase may lead hypersensitivity of neuroendocrine stress response. Early life stresses are shown to lead changes in corticotrophin releasing factor system in preclinical and clinical phase studies. In the treatment of sexual abuse, emotional process related with trauma should be focused on. This process may be conducted with play therapy. Development of higher level defense mechanism, increasing ego capacity, orientation to social activity and personal activity according to skills is aimed. For the elimination of guiltiness related with stigmatization, the child should be told that it is not herhis fault to incorporate into sexual interaction and the culprit is abuser. It is fairly important for medical staff, school and family to have sufficient information about sexual abuse for prevention and early recognition.
Nelson, Deborah B; Zhao, Huaqing; Corrado, Rachel; Mastrogiannnis, Dimitrios M; Lepore, Stephen J
Ineffective contraceptive use among young sexually active women is extremely prevalent and poses a significant risk for unintended pregnancy (UP). Ineffective contraception involves the use of the withdrawal method or the inconsistent use of other types of contraception (i.e., condoms and birth control pills). This investigation examined violence exposure and psychological factors related to ineffective contraceptive use among young sexually active women. Young, nonpregnant sexually active women (n = 315) were recruited from an urban family planning clinic in 2013 to participate in a longitudinal study. Tablet-based surveys measured childhood violence, community-level violence, intimate partner violence, depressive symptoms, and self-esteem. Follow-up surveys measured type and consistency of contraception used 9 months later. Multivariate logistic regression models assessed violence and psychological risk factors as main effects and moderators related to ineffective compared with effective use of contraception. The multivariate logistic regression model showed that childhood sexual violence and low self-esteem were significantly related to ineffective use of contraception (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 2.69, confidence interval [95% CI]: 1.18-6.17, and aOR = 0.51, 95% CI: 0.28-0.93; respectively), although self-esteem did not moderate the relationship between childhood sexual violence and ineffective use of contraception (aOR = 0.38, 95% CI: 0.08-1.84). Depressive symptoms were not related to ineffective use of contraception in the multivariate model. Interventions to reduce UP should recognize the long-term effects of childhood sexual violence and address the role of low self-esteem on the ability of young sexually active women to effectively and consistently use contraception to prevent UP.
Sgrò, P; Di Luigi, L
The relationships between sport and sexuality in males are of great social and clinical interest, because of sports and motor activities that highly promote social and sexual relationships. Even if few literature exist, two main questions should be taken into account: whether and how physical exercise and sport positively or negatively influence sexual health and behavior and/or whether and how sexual behavior may affect a sub-sequent sport performance. Physical exercise and sport per se can influence, positively or negatively, the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis function and, consequently, the individual's reproductive and/or sexual health. This depends on individual factors such as genetic and epigenetic ones and on different variables involved in the practice of sport activities (type of sport, intensity and duration of training, doping and drug use and abuse, nutrition, supplements, psychological stress, allostatic load, etc.). If well conducted, motor and sport activities could have beneficial effects on sexual health in males. Among different lifestyle changes, influencing sexual health, regular physical activity is fundamental to antagonize the onset of erectile dysfunction (ED). However, competitive sport can lead both reproductive and/or sexual tract damages and dysfunctions, transient (genital pain, hypoesthesia of the genitalia, hypogonadism, DE, altered sexual drive, etc.) or permanent (hypogonadism, DE, etc.), by acting directly (traumas of the external genitalia, saddle-related disorders in cyclists, etc.) or indirectly (exercise-related hypogonadism, drug abuse, doping, stress, etc.). Sexual activities shortly performed before a sport competition could differently influence sport performance. Due to the few existing data, it is advisable to avoid an absolute pre-competition sexual abstinence.
Mesher, D; Soldan, K; Howell-Jones, R; Panwar, K; Manyenga, P; Jit, M; Beddows, S; Gill, O N
Reduction in the prevalence of vaccine type HPV infection in young women is an early indication of the impact of the HPV immunisation programme and a necessary outcome if the subsequent impact on cervical cancer is to be realised. Residual vulva-vaginal swab (VVS) specimens from young women aged 16-24 years undergoing chlamydia screening in community sexual health services (formerly known as family planning clinics), general practice (GP), and youth clinics in 2010-2012 were submitted from 10 laboratories in seven regions around England. These specimens were linked to demographic and sexual behaviour data reported with the chlamydia test, anonymised, and tested for type-specific HPV DNA using a multiplex PCR and Luminex-based genotyping test. Estimated immunisation coverage was calculated and findings were compared to a baseline survey conducted prior to the introduction of HPV immunisation in 2008. A total of 4664 eligible specimens were collected and 4178 had a valid test result. The post-immunisation prevalence of HPV 16/18 infection was lowest in this youngest age group (16-18 years) and increased with age. This increase with age was a reversal of the pattern seen prior to immunisation and was inversely associated with estimates of age-specific immunisation coverage (65% for 16-18 year olds). The prevalence of HPV 16/18 infection in the post-immunisation survey was 6.5% amongst 16-18 year olds, compared to 19.1% in the similar survey conducted prior to the introduction of HPV immunisation. These findings are the first indication that the national HPV immunisation programme is successfully preventing HPV 16/18 infection in sexually active young women in England. The reductions seen suggest, for the estimated coverage, high vaccine effectiveness and some herd-protection benefits. Continued surveillance is needed to determine the effects of immunisation on non-vaccine HPV types. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Træen, Bente; Carvalheira, Ana; Kvalem, Ingela Lundin
with their bodies than men, particularly in sexual contexts, older women appear to be less vulnerable to body-related dissatisfaction than younger women. Despite the age-specific dynamics of sexual satisfaction and sexual well-being, which parallel age-related decrease in the frequency of sexual activity, research...... findings from different countries show that substantial proportions of aging men and women are satisfied with their sex life. There is some limited evidence that this proportion may be increasing across cohorts. Gender differences in factors that influence sexual satisfaction among older adults appear...... marginal. Conclusion: Older age can affect sexual satisfaction on individual, interpersonal, and culture-related levels. Future research in older adults' sexuality should focus on sexual well-being in women who are without partners, sexual satisfaction among aging lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender...
A definition of time intervals separating two states of systems of elementary particles and observers is attempted. The definition is founded on the notion of instant state of the system and uses no information connected with the use of a clock. Applying the definition to a classical clock and to a sample of unstable particles, results are obtained in agreement with experiment. However, if the system contains 'few' elementary particles, the properties of the time interval present some different features. (author)
Bell, Suzanne; Reissing, Elke D
The aim of this study was to use the dual control model of sexual response (DCM) to investigate variation in sexual well-being among women 50 years of age and older. Data from 185 women 50 years of age and older (M = 59.46, SD = 6.96) were used to examine the relationships between sexual excitation (SE) and sexual inhibition (SI) and their lower-order factors to indicators of sexual well-being (i.e., sexual functioning, satisfaction, distress, frequency of sexual activity, and breadth of sexual behavior). Possible moderating factors were also explored. Independently, SE and SI were associated with the majority of the indicators of sexual well-being, and the directions of associations were consistent with the tenets of the DCM. SE and SI lower-order factors were significant predictors of sexual function, satisfaction, and frequency of sexual activity. Sexual distress was predicted more strongly by SI factors and breadth of sexual behavior by one SE lower-order factor (arousability). Partner physical and mental health and participant's own mental health were identified as moderating variables of these associations. Findings of this study are discussed considering the contribution of the DCM to understanding the role of diversity in older women's sexual well-being.
Kindrick, Clint; Gathright, Molly; Cisler, Josh M; Messias, Erick
We used the 2011 Arkansas Youth Risk Behavior Survey to estimate the prevalence of risky sexual behavior and sexual assault and to measure its association with teen suicidality. In Arkansas, 50.3% of students reported ever having sexual intercourse, 26% onset at 14 or younger, 36 % having had more than one partner, and 10.2% having been physically forced to have sex. "Being forced to have sex" was a risk factor for depression and all components of the suicide continuum. Additionally, early onset of sexual activity and having more than one partner increased the risk for depression, suicidal ideation, plan, and attempt. Suicide is a grievous and preventable tragedy, sadly standing among the leading causes of death for teens.' In this series, we examine risk factors for suicidality among Arkansas high school students; in this installment, we examine sexual behavior. A previous study utilizing the Rhode Island Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) found an association between having forced sexual intercourse and suicide. Furthermore, an association between psychiatric disorders and risky sexual behaviors, including both early onset and number of partners was found in a birth cohort study revealed. We hypothesize that Arkansas' teens reporting risky sexual behavior and sexual assault are at higher risk of depression and suicidality as well.
Rojas-Guyler, Liliana; King, Keith A.
This study investigated sexuality topics discussed by parents, sources of sexuality education, sexual risk behaviors, and attitudes about who should educate children about sexuality among a sample of 204 adult Latinas. Nearly half of sexually active women (having ever had sex) reported condom use and 36.7% reported discussing sexual history with…
Questions asked ranged from sexual activity in the preceding 6 months, menopausal status, if they thought they had sexual dysfunction to their willingness to discuss an FSD with a sexual health physician if they had access to one. Results: Over 50% (n=28) of the respondents had an idea about what FSD was before the ...
enhance the validity of their answers. The development of this new approach to measuring sexual assault and sex-based MEO violations was completed...include the buttocks, inner thigh, breast, groin, anus, vagina, penis and testicles. Top-Line Results from the RAND Military Workplace Study 41 12
Choi, Namkee G; DiNitto, Diana M; Marti, C Nathan; Segal, Steven P
Using the 2012-2013 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions data, we examined the associations of ten types of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) with (1) lifetime suicide attempts and (2) number and age of attempts among U.S. adults aged 18+. In a case-control design, suicide attempters (5.14% of the full sample) were matched with never attempters (matched sample N=3912) on nine mental and substance use disorders. ACE rates were higher among attempters (3.30 [SE=0.07]) than their matched controls (2.19 [SE=0.06]). Results from multivariable logistic regression analyses showed that sexual abuse and parental/other family member's mental illness were associated with increased odds of having attempted suicide among both genders, and emotional neglect was also a factor for men. Population attributable risk fractions for sexual abuse were 25.75% for women and 8.56% for men. Sexual abuse and a higher number of ACEs were also related to repeated suicide attempts. A higher number of ACEs was associated with a younger first attempt age. Gay/bisexual orientation in men and the lack of college education in both genders were significant covariates. In conclusion, this study underscores that ACEs are significantly associated with lifetime suicide attempts even when mental and substance use disorders are controlled. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kim, Hyung Joong; Jeong, Gwang Woo; Eun, Sung Jong; Cho, Seong Hoon; Seo, Jeong Jin; Kang, Heoung Keun; Park, Kwang Sung
The present study utilized 3.0 Tesla functional MR imaging to identify and quantify the activated brain regions associated with visually evoked sexual arousal, and also to discriminate the gender differences between the cortical activation patterns in response to sexual stimuli. A total of 24 healthy, right-handed volunteers, 14 males (mean age: 24) and 10 females (mean age: 23), with normal heterosexual function underwent functional MRI on a 3.0T MR scanner (Forte, Isole technique, Korea). The sexual stimulation consisted of a 1-minute rest with black screen, followed by a 3- minute stimulation by an erotic video film, and concluded with a 1-minute rest. The fMRI data was obtained from 20 slices (5 mm slice thickness, no gap) parallel to the AC-PC (anterior commissure and posterior commissure) line on the sagittal plane, giving a total of 2,100 images. The brain activation maps and the resulting quantification were analyzed by the statistical parametric mapping program, SPM 99. The mean-activated images were obtained from each individual activation map using one sampled t-test. The FALBA program, which is a new algorithm based on the pixel differentiation method, was used to identify and quantify the brain activation and lateralization indices with respect to the functional and anatomical terms. In both male and female volunteers, significant brain activation showed in the limbic areas of the parahippocampal gyrus, septal area, cingulate gyrus and thalamus. It is interesting to note that the septal areas gave a relatively lower activation ratio with high brain activities. On the contrary, the putamen, insula cortex, and corpus callosum gave a higher activation ratio with low brain activities. In particular, brain activation in the septal area, which was not reported in the previous fMRI studies under 1.5 Tesla, represents a distinct finding of this study using 3.0T MR scanner. The overall lateralization index of activation shows left predominance (LI= 35.3%) in
Kim, Hyung Joong; Jeong, Gwang Woo; Eun, Sung Jong; Cho, Seong Hoon; Seo, Jeong Jin; Kang, Heoung Keun; Park, Kwang Sung [School of Medicine, Chonnam National Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)
The present study utilized 3.0 Tesla functional MR imaging to identify and quantify the activated brain regions associated with visually evoked sexual arousal, and also to discriminate the gender differences between the cortical activation patterns in response to sexual stimuli. A total of 24 healthy, right-handed volunteers, 14 males (mean age: 24) and 10 females (mean age: 23), with normal heterosexual function underwent functional MRI on a 3.0T MR scanner (Forte, Isole technique, Korea). The sexual stimulation consisted of a 1-minute rest with black screen, followed by a 3- minute stimulation by an erotic video film, and concluded with a 1-minute rest. The fMRI data was obtained from 20 slices (5 mm slice thickness, no gap) parallel to the AC-PC (anterior commissure and posterior commissure) line on the sagittal plane, giving a total of 2,100 images. The brain activation maps and the resulting quantification were analyzed by the statistical parametric mapping program, SPM 99. The mean-activated images were obtained from each individual activation map using one sampled t-test. The FALBA program, which is a new algorithm based on the pixel differentiation method, was used to identify and quantify the brain activation and lateralization indices with respect to the functional and anatomical terms. In both male and female volunteers, significant brain activation showed in the limbic areas of the parahippocampal gyrus, septal area, cingulate gyrus and thalamus. It is interesting to note that the septal areas gave a relatively lower activation ratio with high brain activities. On the contrary, the putamen, insula cortex, and corpus callosum gave a higher activation ratio with low brain activities. In particular, brain activation in the septal area, which was not reported in the previous fMRI studies under 1.5 Tesla, represents a distinct finding of this study using 3.0T MR scanner. The overall lateralization index of activation shows left predominance (LI= 35.3%) in
Klausen, Susanne M
This article examines the struggle over abortion law reform that preceded the enactment in 1975 of the first statutory law on abortion in South Africa. The ruling National Party government produced legislation intended to eliminate access to doctors willing to procure abortions in an attempt to prevent young, unmarried white women from engaging in premarital (hetero) sexual activity. It was also aimed at strictly regulating the medical profession’s actions with regards to abortion. The production of the abortion legislation was directly influenced by international struggles for accessible abortion and, more broadly, sexual liberation. The regime believed South Africa was being infiltrated by Western "immorality" and the abortion law was an attempt to buttress racist heteropatriarchal apartheid culture. Examining the abortion controversy highlights the global circulation of ideas about reproduction in the twentieth century and foregrounds a neglected dimension of the history of sexual regulation in apartheid South Africa: the disciplining and regulation of white female reproductive sexuality.
Monica Orsi Gameiro
Full Text Available Objective The aim of this study was to assess pelvic floor muscle (PFM strength in different body positions in nulliparous healthy women and its correlation with sexual activity. Materials and Methods Fifty healthy nulliparous women with mean age of 23 years were prospectively studied. Subjective evaluation of PFM was assessed by transvaginal digital palpation (TDP of anterior and posterior areas regarding the vaginal introitus. A perineometer with inflatable vaginal probe was used to assess the PFM strength in four different positions: supine with extended lower limbs (P1; bent-knee supine (P2; sitting (P3; standing (P4. Results Physical activity, 3 times per week, was reported by 58% of volunteers. Sexual activity was observed in 80% of women and 82% of them presented orgasm. The average body mass index (BMI was 21.76 kg/m2, considered as normal according World Health Organization (WHO. We observed that 68% of volunteers were conscious about the PFM contraction. TDP showed concordance of 76% when anterior and posterior areas were compared (p = 0.00014. There was not correlation between PFM strength and orgasm in subjective evaluation. The PFM strength was significantly higher in standing position when compared with the other positions (p < 0.000. No statistical difference was observed between orgasm and PFM strength when objective evaluations were performed. Conclusions There was concordance between anterior and posterior areas in 76% of cases when subjective PFM strength was assessed. In objective evaluation, higher PFM strength was observed when volunteers were standing. No statistical correlation was observed between PFM strength and orgasm in nulliparous healthy women.
This paper examines how young people's friendships influence safer sexual practices. Through a thematic discourse analysis, interviews with Sydney-based young people (aged 18-25 years) and Australian-based sexual health websites for young people are considered. Interview data illustrate how friendships can support young people's sexual experiences, concerns and safeties beyond the practice of 'safe sex' (condom use). This is evident in friends' practices of sex and relationship advice, open dialogue, trust and sharing experiential knowledge, as well as friend-based sex. Meanwhile, friendship discourse from selected Australian sexual health websites fails to engage with the support offered by friendship, or its value to a sexual health agenda. Foucault's account of friendship as a space of self-invention is considered in light of these data, along with his argument that friendship poses a threat to formal systems of knowing and regulating sex. Whether sexual or not, many close friendships are sexually intimate given the knowledge, support and influence these offer to one's sexual practices and relations. This paper argues that greater attention to friendship among sexual health promoters and researchers would improve professional engagements with young people's contemporary sexual cultures, and better inform their attempts to engage young people through social media.
Hoyt, Les Leanne
Older women (N=50) were asked a series of questions about reference groups, sex roles, sexuality, sexual desire at different stages in the life cycle, appropriateness of certain types of sexual behavior, adjustment to aging, life satisfaction, organizational activities, and male/female interaction. Quantitative and qualitative data provided the…
PARTICIPATORY ACTIVITIES DIRECTED TO PROMOTING THE RESPONSIBLE SEXUAL EDUCATION IN STUDENTS OF TENTH GRADE / ACTIVIDADES PARTICIPATIVAS DIRIGIDAS A POTENCIAR LA EDUCACIÓN SEXUAL RESPONSABLE EN ESTUDIANTES DE DÉCIMO GRADO
Juan Manuel Rosales Yero
Full Text Available Participatory activities aimed at promoting responsible sex education in college students’ aim to teaching careers enhanced by the use of participatory techniques in subjects changes in behaviour from the translation of knowledge affects and values in the area mentioned. The need for the proposal is given by the behaviour manifested by students in relationships, pregnancy, sexually transmitted infections, family planning and contraception. His contribution lies in proposing alternative activities, workshops, meetings and teens club organized by logical procedures, using the methods of sex education and teaching principles allow the objective is achieved through motivation, learning and changes in the forms of action. During the research process theoretical methods were applied as analysis and synthesis, historical and logical induction and deduction and empirical methods such as observation, survey and educational testing. The results in the reduction of school dropout due to pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections and AIDS as well as the creation of value potential liability prepare them for life.
Degauquier, C; Absil, A-S; Psalti, I; Meuris, S; Jurysta, F
Numerous authors on sexual behaviors have studied the link between the persistence of a sexually active life and progressive aging. The knowledge of sexual health in the elderly has shown that biological sexual aging is extremely diverse and heterogeneous in men as well as in women, and contradicts the stereotype of age that would inevitably alter the sexual biological response in each human. Sexual diseases (lubrication, dyspareunia, erectile dysfunction, inability to achieve orgasm) and diseases of aging that impact sexual function have a growing incidence but don't never touch 100% of individuals. There is a decline in sexual interest correlated with the life-span, but the negative effects of age on desire are related to health problems. Moreover, sexual desire is more correlated with personal attitudes toward sexuality than with biological factors and diseases. Several predictors account for the pursuit of an active sexuality (including the presence of a partner, good health, having good sexual self-esteem, enjoyable past experience, an attitude that values the importance of sex in couple relationship), but the most decisive factor to successfully face the specific markers of aging is the ability to adapt to a more sensory sexuality, less focused on performance and coitus.
UK resuscitation guidelines suggest that parents and carers should be allowed to be present during a resuscitation attempt in hospital but no guidance is available regarding family presence when resuscitation takes place out of hospital. A new research study has suggested that relatives who were offered the opportunity to witness resuscitation were less likely to develop symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder than those who were not given the chance. This article summarises the results of this study and provides an expert commentary on its conclusions.
Sood, Ankit; Chaudhari, Karina; Vaidya, Vidita A
Stress enhances the risk for psychiatric disorders such as anxiety and depression. Stress responses vary across sex and may underlie the heightened vulnerability to psychopathology in females. Here, we examined the influence of acute immobilization stress (AIS) and a two-day short-term forced swim stress (FS) on neural activation in multiple cortical and subcortical brain regions, implicated as targets of stress and in the regulation of neuroendocrine stress responses, in male and female rats using Fos as a neural activity marker. AIS evoked a sex-dependent pattern of neural activation within the cingulate and infralimbic subdivisions of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), lateral septum (LS), habenula, and hippocampal subfields. The degree of neural activation in the mPFC, LS, and habenula was higher in males. Female rats exhibited reduced Fos positive cell numbers in the dentate gyrus hippocampal subfield, an effect not observed in males. We addressed whether the sexually dimorphic neural activation pattern noted following AIS was also observed with the short-term stress of FS. In the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus and the amygdala, FS similar to AIS resulted in robust increases in neural activation in both sexes. The pattern of neural activation evoked by FS was distinct across sexes, with a heightened neural activation noted in the prelimbic mPFC subdivision and hippocampal subfields in females and differed from the pattern noted with AIS. This indicates that the sex differences in neural activation patterns observed within stress-responsive brain regions are dependent on the nature of stressor experience.
Ademolu Kehinde O.
Full Text Available The variegated grasshopper Zonocerus variegatus is a polyphagous insect, feeding on numerous food and cash crops. The present study aimed to investigate the sexual variations in the destructive capability of the adult insects and the composition of leaves damaged by them, as well as in the levels of midgut microbial flora and digestive enzymes (cellulase, amylase and α-glucosidase. The results showed that females consumed and caused more damage to cassava leaves than their male congeners. The leaves damaged by males contained more nutrients than those damaged by females. The gut microbial flora and enzyme assay showed that females had significantly larger colony forming units and a non-significant difference in enzyme activities. It can thus be concluded that adult females are more destructive than males.
Hallfors, Denise; Vevea, Jack L; Iritani, Bonita; Cho, HyunSan; Khatapoush, Shereen; Saxe, Leonard
Society increasingly holds schools responsible for the effectiveness of health promotion activities, such as drug abuse prevention efforts funded through the federal Safe and Drug-Free Schools program. Consequently, school districts use student surveys as a method for assessing trends and evaluating effects of programs on behavior. Because cost and practical concerns often preclude consistent population-based school survey sampling, risk indicators can provide an essential tool in analyzing needs assessment and program evaluation data. In this paper, three risk measures associated with substance use were selected from among commonly used school surveys. These measures--truancy, grade point average, and recent sexual intercourse--were compared, using meta-analysis techniques, to assess the reliability of risk measures across different survey instruments, different communities, and different points in time. Truancy was judged superior, because of its strong predictive value, particularly among younger students, and because rates can be compared to school records to assess sampling validity over time.
Full Text Available Objective: The youths' sexual behaviors are counted as the main priorities of the public health due to the high prevalence of unwanted pregnancies, illegal abortions, and sexually transmitted infections. This research was carried out to explain the youths' contraceptive knowledge and practice in premarital sexual relationships. Methods: This qualitative research was carried out on 30 single boys and girls aged 18–24, living in Isfahan, Iran, who had already started sexual activities. Data collection was done with semi-structured interviews. The data were analyzed by using conventional content analysis. Results: Two main categories were extracted including inadequate awareness regarding contraception (with subcategories “unreliable information sources” and “gender inequality in familiarity with contraceptive methods” and inappropriate contraceptive practice (with sub-categories “use of unreliable contraceptive methods” and “gender inequality in applying contraceptive methods”. Conclusion: Sexual health education programs should equip the youths with adequate knowledge on contraception and use of reliable contraceptive methods. Furthermore, attempts should be made along with tackling gender inequality is very significant for youths' sexual and reproductive health security.
McNulty, James K; Widman, Laura
There is theoretical reason to believe that narcissism is associated with infidelity. Yet, studies that have examined this association have yielded inconsistent results. Given that these inconsistencies may have emerged because prior studies used global assessments of narcissism that do not capture the extent to which the components of narcissism are activated in the sexual domain, the current research drew from two longitudinal studies of 123 married couples to examine the extent to which sexual narcissism predicted marital infidelity. Consistent with the idea that narcissism predicts sexual behavior when activated in the sexual domain, own sexual narcissism was positively associated with infidelity, controlling for own marital and sexual satisfaction, own globally-assessed narcissism, partner globally-assessed narcissism, and partner sexual narcissism. Helping to explain why this association emerged, further analyses demonstrated that it was driven by all four facets of sexual narcissism-sexual exploitation, grandiose sense of sexual skill, sexual entitlement (Study 1 only), and lack of sexual empathy (husbands only). Additionally, although partner sexual narcissism was unrelated to infidelity on average, partners' grandiose sense of sexual skill and partners' sexual entitlement (Study 2 only) were positively associated with infidelity, and partners' lack of sexual empathy was negatively associated with infidelity (Study 2 only). These findings highlight the benefits of using domain-specific measures of sexual narcissism in research on sexual behavior and the benefits of using domain-specific measures of personality more generally.
McNulty, James K.; Widman, Laura
There is theoretical reason to believe that narcissism is associated with infidelity. Yet, studies that have examined this association have yielded inconsistent results. Given that these inconsistencies may have emerged because prior studies used global assessments of narcissism that do not capture the extent to which the components of narcissism are activated in the sexual domain, the current research drew from two longitudinal studies of 123 married couples to examine the extent to which sexual narcissism predicted marital infidelity. Consistent with the idea that narcissism predicts sexual behavior when activated in the sexual domain, own sexual narcissism was positively associated with infidelity, controlling for own marital and sexual satisfaction, own globally-assessed narcissism, partner globally-assessed narcissism, and partner sexual narcissism. Helping to explain why this association emerged, further analyses demonstrated that it was driven by all four facets of sexual narcissism—sexual exploitation, grandiose sense of sexual skill, sexual entitlement (Study 1 only), and lack of sexual empathy (husbands only). Additionally, although partner sexual narcissism was unrelated to infidelity on average, partners’ grandiose sense of sexual skill and partners’ sexual entitlement (Study 2 only) were positively associated with infidelity, and partners’ lack of sexual empathy was negatively associated with infidelity (Study 2 only). These findings highlight the benefits of using domain-specific measures of sexual narcissism in research on sexual behavior and the benefits of using domain-specific measures of personality more generally. PMID:24696386
Amos, Natalie; McCabe, Marita
Limited research exists on the implications of feeling sexually attractive for various aspects of sexuality and sexual relationships. This article examined associations between self-perceived sexual attractiveness and sexual esteem, sexual satisfaction and amount of sexual experience, among both men and women who identified as heterosexual (n = 1017), gay or lesbian (n = 1225) or bisexual (n = 651). Results of the study demonstrated that positive self-perceptions of sexual attractiveness predicted greater sexual esteem, greater sexual satisfaction, a higher frequency of sexual activity with others and a larger number of sexual partners among both men and women who identified as heterosexual, gay, lesbian or bisexual. The findings suggest that feeling sexually attractive may have implications for how an individual experiences their sexuality and sexual relationships regardless of their gender or sexual orientation. The importance of considering an individual's self-perceptions of sexual attractiveness when they present with concerns related to their sexual experiences or relationships, and the potential benefits of educational and therapeutic interventions designed to enhance self-perceptions of sexual attractiveness are discussed. © 2015 International Union of Psychological Science.
Beloate, Lauren N; Omrani, Azar; Adan, Roger A; Webb, Ian C; Coolen, Lique M
Experience with sexual behavior causes cross-sensitization of amphetamine reward, an effect dependent on a period of sexual reward abstinence. We previously showed that ΔFosB in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) is a key mediator of this cross-sensitization, potentially via dopamine receptor activation. However, the role of mesolimbic dopamine for sexual behavior or cross-sensitization between natural and drug reward is unknown. This was tested using inhibitory designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs in ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine cells. rAAV5/hSvn-DIO-hm4D-mCherry was injected into the VTA of TH::Cre adult male rats. Males received clozapine N-oxide (CNO) or vehicle injections before each of 5 consecutive days of mating or handling. Following an abstinence period of 7 d, males were tested for amphetamine conditioned place preference (CPP). Next, males were injected with CNO or vehicle before mating or handling for analysis of mating-induced cFos, sex experience-induced ΔFosB, and reduction of VTA dopamine soma size. Results showed that CNO did not affect mating behavior. Instead, CNO prevented sexual experience-induced cross-sensitization of amphetamine CPP, ΔFosB in the NAc and medial prefrontal cortex, and decreases in VTA dopamine soma size. Expression of hm4D-mCherry was specific to VTA dopamine cells and CNO blocked excitation and mating-induced cFos expression in VTA dopamine cells. These findings provide direct evidence that VTA dopamine activation is not required for initiation or performance of sexual behavior. Instead, VTA dopamine directly contributes to increased vulnerability for drug use following loss of natural reward by causing neuroplasticity in the mesolimbic pathway during the natural reward experience. Drugs of abuse act on the neural pathways that mediate natural reward learning and memory. Exposure to natural reward behaviors can alter subsequent drug-related reward. Specifically, experience with sexual behavior
Ybarra, Michele L; Strasburger, Victor C; Mitchell, Kimberly J
Emerging research suggests sexual media affects sexual behavior, but most studies are based on regional samples and few include measures of newer mediums. Furthermore, little is known about how sexual media relates to sexual violence victimization. Data are from 1058 youth 14 to 21 years of age in the national, online Growing up with Media study. Forty-seven percent reported that many or almost all/all of at least one type of media they consumed depicted sexual situations. Exposure to sexual media in television and movies, and music was greater than online and in games. All other things equal, more frequent exposure to sexual media was related to ever having had sex, coercive sex victimization, and attempted/completed rape but not risky sexual behavior. Longer standing mediums such as television and movies appear to be associated with greater amounts of sexual media consumption than newer ones, such as the Internet. A nuanced view of how sexual media content may and may not be affecting today's youth is needed. © The Author(s) 2014.
Müldner-Nieckowski, Łukasz; Klasa, Katarzyna; Sobański, Jerzy A; Rutkowski, Krzysztof; Dembińska, Edyta
Education in human sexual physiology and pathology, as well as own sexual health of medical doctors determines in a large proportion the ability to talk with patients about their sexual disorders. Therefore the authors considered important to collect and assess data regarding sexual health and development of Medical Faculty students. Analysis of selected aspects of psychosexual development and sex life of IVth grade medical students. We applied the self-report Questionnaire of Satisfaction with Sexual Life (KSS2), an instrument created to assess sexual problems in patients treated with group psychotherapy. Medical students filled the questionnaire when attending the courses of Psychopathology of neurotic disorders or Psychotherapy. Analysis of the collected data revealed a relatively high differentiation of the studied group in regard of satisfaction and experiences with sexual life, attitudes towards masturbation, relationships and sexual activity. Regarding some aspects, significant differences between women and men occurred. A set of factors were identified, some of them may negatively influence medical doctor's competencies in the domain of sexual health. These are not having sexual debut or even lack of any erotic experiences and lack of sexual satisfaction. The results indicate a significant prevalence of factors, which may impede students education as well as taking into consideration the sexual issues during the medical interview. Assessment of influence of students' and doctors' own sexuality on their competencies in diagnostics and treatment requires further studies.
Lalor, Kevin; McElvaney, Rosaleen
This paper reviews the literature on the nature and incidence of child sexual abuse, explores the link between child sexual abuse and later sexual exploitation, and reviews the literature on prevention strategies and effective interventions in child sexual abuse services. Our understanding of the international epidemiology of child sexual abuse is considerably greater than it was just 10 years ago, and studies from around the world are examined. Childhood sexual abuse can involve a wide number of psychological sequelae, including low self-esteem, anxiety, and depression. Numerous studies have noted that child sexual abuse victims are vulnerable to later sexual revictimization, as well as the link between child sexual abuse and later engagement in high-risk sexual behaviour. Survivors of child sexual abuse are more likely to have multiple sex partners, become pregnant as teenagers, and experience sexual assault as adults. Various models which attempt to account for this inter-relationship are presented; most invoke mediating variables such as low self-esteem, drug/alcohol use, PTSD and distorted sexual development. Prevention strategies for child sexual abuse are examined including media campaigns, school-based prevention programmes, and therapy with abusers. The results of a number of meta-analyses are examined. However, researchers have identified significant methodological limitations in the extant research literature that impede the making of recommendations for implementing existing therapeutic programmes unreservedly.
Klein, William; Geaghan, Thomas; MacDonald, Tara
Objective: The authors' goal was to show how risk perceptions regarding unplanned sexual activity following alcohol use are prospectively related to subsequent alcohol consumption. Participants: Undergraduate students (N = 380) completed questionnaires at 2 time points during their freshman year. Methods: In the middle of the academic year (T1),…
Martinez, Gladys M.; Abma, Joyce C.
Monitoring sexual activity and contraceptive use among U.S. adolescents is important for understanding differences in their risk of pregnancy. In 2013, the U.S. birth rate for teenagers aged 15-19 dropped 57% from its peak in 1991, paralleling a decline in the teen "pregnancy" rate. But these rates are still higher than those in other…
Ezeokoli, Rita; Ofole, Ndidi M.
This study examined the joint and relative contribution of sexual activities, alcohol consumption, smoking and aggression to the prediction of health risk of students in rural communities in Ogun State. Descriptive research design of correlational type was adopted. Multi-stage sampling Technique was used to draw 300 respondents from an…
Full Text Available In this article, by means of the Conversation Analytical perspective (Sacks, Schegloff, & Jefferson, 1974, we analyze phone calls initiated by female callers to a toll free, government-run health helpline that offers information about transmission, symptoms and prevention of diseases, and referrals to health centers. The paper aims at analyzing how the participants (callers and call takers refer to the beneficiary of the requested information. Some callers, despite being informed that all calls are anonymous, avoid revealing that they themselves are the beneficiary of the information, and thus attribute to third parties the need for the information, a phenomenon we call here ‘third party referencing’. Other callers refer to the beneficiary of the information as ‘women’, ‘people’, ‘someone’ etc., a phenomenon we call here as ‘generalization’. When making use of third party referencing or of generalizations to talk about the beneficiary of the information, callers exempt themselves of the responsibility for something that might be seen as ‘morally questionable’ (Bergmann, 1992, e.g., having unprotected sexual intercourse. An analysis of how such negotiation unfolds becomes particularly relevant for the context investigated here, as the existence of an actual beneficiary for the information reveals itself as decisive for referrals to health centers to happen.
McGinley, Meredith; Rospenda, Kathleen M.; Liu, Li; Richman, Judith A.
Collegiate extracurricular activities, despite their benefits, may place students at an increased risk for experiencing harassment. This study utilizes multiple waves of data from an online longitudinal survey to examine how participation in college activities (intramural sports, fraternities/sororities, school clubs) relates to experiences of sexual and generalized harassment and outcomes (psychological distress, heavy alcohol use) among undergraduates (N = 1852, 58.6% female, 57.4% White) in the Midwestern United States. Activity participation was related to harassment, but the pattern depended on the activity, harassment type, and sex. Fraternity/sorority involvement was associated with generalized harassment, whereas school club involvement was linked to both generalized and sexual harassment. Female intramural athletes were at an increased risk to experience both harassment types. In addition to direct relations, activity participation was indirectly linked to future psychological distress (depression, anxiety) and heavy alcohol use via harassment. Implications for intervention with this college student population are discussed. PMID:27771523
... to want to participate in social activities. Many women report difficulty trusting others after the assault, so it can be difficult to develop new relationships. Performance at work and school can also be affected. Sexual problems ...
Rosana Pinheiro Lunelli
Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: O retorno à atividade sexual após síndrome coronária aguda (SCA, apesar da importância clínica e social, é assunto pouco abordado pela equipe de saúde, e que tem recebido pouca ênfase durante a internação. A disfunção erétil tem sido uma queixa freqüente entre pacientes cardiopatas, aliada a dúvidas sobre a segurança no retorno à atividade sexual após evento cardiovascular. OBJETIVO: Descrever o conhecimento dos pacientes quanto ao infarto agudo do miocárdio (IAM e às orientações recebidas para o retorno à atividade sexual. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal realizado entre junho e julho de 2005. Foram incluídos pacientes que se encontravam no sexto dia pós-IAM. Foi aplicado um instrumento relacionado ao conhecimento sobre o IAM, à freqüência e às expectativas de retorno à atividade sexual no período pós-alta hospitalar. RESULTADOS: Foram incluídos 96 pacientes, dos quais 70% eram do sexo masculino, com média de idade de 59 ± 12 anos, e 80% eram vítimas de primeiro infarto agudo do miocárdio. Desses pacientes, 96% desconheciam as manifestações clínicas e as possíveis limitações provocadas pelo IAM, 63% relataram ter vida sexual ativa antes do evento, 60% tinham dúvidas quanto ao retorno à atividade sexual após a alta, e apenas 4% dos pacientes receberam orientações pelos profissionais de saúde durante o período de internação. CONCLUSÃO: Nossos achados indicam que as orientações dispensadas pela equipe aos pacientes durante a internação são subótimas, no que tange tanto ao IAM quanto ao retorno à atividade sexual. A atualização da equipe de saúde, principalmente dos enfermeiros que despendem mais tempo com os pacientes, são estratégias que podem melhorar esses resultados.BACKGROUND: Despite its clinical and social relevance, resumption of sexual activity after an acute coronary syndrome (ACS is a subject that is poorly addressed by healthcare providers and one that is given
Stephenson, Kyle R; Meston, Cindy M
Recent research has highlighted a complex association between female sexual function and subjective distress regarding sexual activity. These findings are difficult to explain given limited knowledge as to the mechanisms through which impaired sexual function causes distress. The current study assessed whether a number of specific consequences of impaired sexual function, including decreased physical pleasure, disruption of sexual activity, and negative partner responses, mediated the association between sexual function and distress. Eighty-seven women in sexually active relationships reporting impairments in sexual function completed validated self-report measures and daily online assessments of sexual experiences. Participants completed the Sexual Satisfaction Scale for Women, the Female Sexual Function Index, and the Measure of Sexual Consequences. Results suggested that decreased physical pleasure and disruption of sexual activity, but not partner responses, statistically mediated the association between sexual function and distress. Sexual consequences represent potential maintaining factors of sexual dysfunction that are highly distressing to women. Results are discussed in the context of theoretical models of sexual dysfunction and related treatments. © 2014 International Society for Sexual Medicine.
Laan, Ellen; Both, Stephanie
According to incentive motivation theory, sexual desire is the result of the interplay between a sensitive sexual response system and stimuli that activate the system. From this notion it follows that sexual desire is not a cause but a consequence of sexual arousal. The effects of hormones, somatic
Risk assessment can be an effective pedagogical strategy for sexuality education. Objectives: After learning about the modes of transmission and prevention strategies of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), students engaged in this teaching technique will define sexual intercourse and sexual activity, assess the level of STI risk associated…
Pai, Hsiang-Chu; Lee, Sheuan; Chang, Ting
People begin to become aware of their sexual drive and erotic feelings as young adolescents. Such activity often has been overlooked in Taiwan, a traditional society, because sexuality is viewed as a private issue. The purpose of this study was to explore the sexual self-concept and intended sexual behavior of young adolescent girls in Taiwan. Participants included 372 girls, 12 to 14 years old, from junior high schools in Taiwan who completed two questionnaires on sexual experience and sexually related items: the Sexual Self-Concept Inventory, the Parental Approval of Sexual Behavior Scale, and the Friends' Approval of Sexual Behavior Scale, which were combined into one scale, with separate scores. Girls' self-reports showed low (negative) sexual self-concept, high perceived parental disapproval, and somewhat high perceived friends' disapproval of sexual activities. Sexual self-concept is associated with perceived parental and peer approval of sexual activities, and it is associated with sexual experience and intended sexual activities as well. A young adolescent girl who has a high score on the perceived sexual arousability factor of the Sexual Self-Concept Inventory is more likely to report the strongest intention toward sexual behavior. Sexual self-concept may play a key role in girls' intended sexual activities, including engaging in low-level sexual activities (e.g., kissing and breast fondling) that occur before intercourse, even when associated with intercourse intention. The research suggests that addressing sexual self-concept needs to be a priority to prevent young girls from engaging in sexual intercourse.
Speizer, Ilene S; Mandal, Mahua; Xiong, Khou; Hattori, Aiko; Makina-Zimalirana, Ndinda; Kumalo, Faith; Taylor, Stephen; Ndlovu, Muzi S; Madibane, Mathata; Beke, Andy
In South Africa, adolescents and young adults (ages 15-24) are at risk of HIV, sexually transmitted infections, and unintended pregnancies. Recently, the Department of Basic Education has revised its sexuality education content and teaching strategies (using scripted lessons plans) as part of its life orientation curriculum. This paper presents the methodology and baseline results from the evaluation of the scripted lesson plans and supporting activities. A rigorous cluster-level randomized design with random assignment of schools as clusters is used for the evaluation. Baseline results from grade 8 female and male learners and grade 10 female learners demonstrate that learners are at risk of HIV and early and unintended pregnancies. Multivariable analyses demonstrate that household-level food insecurity and living with an HIV-positive person are associated with sexual experience and pregnancy experience. Implications are discussed for strengthening the current life orientation program for future scale-up by the government of South Africa.
Full Text Available Early life events induce alterations in neural function in adulthood. Although rearing in an enriched environment (EE has a great impact on behavioral development, the effects of enriched rearing on sociosexual behavior remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of rearing in an EE on male copulatory behavior and its underlying neurobiological mechanisms in Wistar-Imamichi rats. Three-week-old, recently weaned rats were continuously subjected to a standard environment (SE or an EE comprised of a large cage with several objects, such as toys, tunnels, ladders, and a running wheel. After 6 weeks, rats reared in an EE (EE rats showed decreased sexual activity compared with rats reared in a SE (SE rats. This included a lower number of ejaculations and longer latencies in three consecutive copulatory tests. In addition, EE rats showed decreased emotional responsiveness and less locomotor behavior in an open field. In a runway test, on the other hand, sexual motivation toward receptive females in EE males was comparable to that of SE males. Furthermore, following exposure to a female, increases in serotonin levels in the nucleus accumbens and the striatum were significantly suppressed in EE males, whereas dopaminergic responses were similar between the groups. Female-exposure-induced increases in the levels of plasma corticosterone and testosterone were also suppressed in EE rats compared to SE rats. These data suggest that rearing in an EE decreases male copulatory behavior, and serotonin and hormonal regulating systems may regulate the differences in sociosexual interactions that result from distinct rearing environments.
Saengsuwan, Jiamjit; Boonyaleepan, Suwanna; Tiamkao, Somsak
The aim of this study was to find out how people with epilepsy in NE Thailand feel about their levels of stress, sleep, diet, exercise habits, and sex lives using a cross-sectional design. Two hundred and three people with epilepsy (PWE) were randomly recruited from a university epilepsy clinic in Khon Kaen and then completed an interview and a questionnaire. A total of 27.6% of the patients believed that diet had an influence on their epilepsy (of those who reported changes, 41.1% stopped consuming alcohol, while 32.1% stopped drinking caffeinated beverages). A total of 47.2% of the patients exercised at least three times per week, while 52.8% exercised two times or less a week. Daytime sleeping was prevalent, with 43.3% saying that they slept during the day frequently or every day. There were 44.3% of the patients who believed that their sex lives changed after the onset of epilepsy, with decreased sexual arousal being most commonly mentioned. A total of 76.4% of the patients said that they had medium or high levels of stress, and epilepsy was listed as the most common reason for their stress (50.2%). Focusing on the problem was the most common method to reduce stress (80.3%). The findings illuminate the need to increase attention towards improving and promoting self-management of epilepsy. As a whole, diet, exercise, sleep, stress reduction, and sex therapy can be valuable tools to improve the quality of life of people with epilepsy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hsieh, Huei-Mei; Chung, Mei-Chu; Chen, Pao-Yang; Hsu, Fei-Man; Liao, Wen-Wei; Sung, Ai-Ning; Lin, Chun-Ru; Wang, Chung-Ju Rachel; Kao, Yu-Hsin; Fang, Mei-Jane; Lai, Chi-Yung; Huang, Chieh-Chen; Chou, Jyh-Ching; Chou, Wen-Neng; Chang, Bill Chia-Han; Ju, Yu-Ming
Termitomyces mushrooms are mutualistically associated with fungus-growing termites, which are widely considered to cultivate a monogenotypic Termitomyces symbiont within a colony. Termitomyces cultures isolated directly from termite colonies are heterokaryotic, likely through mating between compatible homokaryons. After pairing homokaryons carrying different haplotypes at marker gene loci MIP and RCB from a Termitomyces fruiting body associated with Odontotermes formosanus, we observed nuclear fusion and division, which greatly resembled meiosis, during eac