Sample records for sexual abuse suspicion

  1. Child Sexual Abuse Suspicions: Treatment Considerations during Investigation (United States)

    Kuehnle, Kathryn; Connell, Mary


    This article addresses what, if any, psychotherapeutic interventions should be provided to meet the emotional and clinical needs of alleged child victims of sexual abuse while they await judicial determinations from the family, dependency, or criminal courts. The discussion emphasizes that to minimize iatrogenic outcomes, professionals involved in…

  2. Sexual abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iztok Takač


    Conclusions: Effective and efficient treatment of victims of sexual abuse requires a systematic approach to the patient, starting with a thorough history, and continuing with a clinical investigation, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of the consequences of sexual abuse. The complete management must include sampling of any potential biological traces from the body of the victim. The key to success is a coordinated cooperation with investigators and forensics.

  3. How Childcare Providers Interpret "Reasonable Suspicion" of Child Abuse (United States)

    Levi, Benjamin H.; Crowell, Kathryn; Walsh, Kerryann; Dellasega, Cheryl


    Background: Childcare providers are often "first responders" for suspected child abuse, and how they understand the concept of "reasonable suspicion" will influence their decisions regarding which warning signs warrant reporting. Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate how childcare providers interpret the…

  4. Childhood Sexual Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evrim Aktepe


    Full Text Available Sexual abuse is defined as use of child or adolescent by the adults for satisfying of sexual urges and needs with forcing, threatening or tricking. Sexual abuse can be in the form of sexual abuse without touch, sexual touch, interfemoral intercourse, sexual penetration, and sexual exploitation. The prevalence of sexual abuse is reported as 10-40%. It is seen in female four times more than in males. Abusers are frequently male, only 5-15% of them are female. The abuse by females is usually towards male child. Thirty-fifty percent of abuse cases among child and adolescent are outside the family including strangers or familiar person. Some features of abusers are introvert personality, pedophilic and antisocial personality. Most of the abusers have a history of sexual abuse or aggression during childhood. Sexual intercourse between two people who are not allowed to marry by law is called as incest. Family pattern of incest is defined globally as disorganized and dysfunctional. The most commonly reported familial pattern is rigid and patriarchal family pattern with a harsh father using force quite frequently. The clinical features and impacts of the sexual abuse on the child varies according to the relation between abusers and the child, form of abuse, duration of abuse, presence of physical assault, developmental phase, child age and psychological development before the abuse. Sexual abuse history may result in psychiatric disorders including anxiety, depression, substance dependence, suicide act, borderline personality disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder. Abuse negatively affects interpersonal relationships and self esteem of abused individuals. Several studies reported close association between risky sexual behaviors in adulthood and a history of of sexual abuse during childhood. Four traumatic dynamics including traumatic sexuality with abuse, feeling of betrayal, weakness, and stigmatization exist in childhood abuse. Trauma can cause

  5. Battling the Passions: The Birth of a Conceptual Understanding of Suspicion for Child Abuse and Neglect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rochelle Einboden


    Full Text Available Legal obligations for reporting child abuse and neglect have positioned suspicion as a trigger for nursing responses. Suspicion dwells between emotion and thought, and is fraught with uncertainty. Given the importance of suspicion to initiating child protection, suspicion requires critical examination. Spinoza’s ideas of the imagination, and his distinctive inclusion of emotions in understanding human knowledge, provide a framework to explore the human experience of suspicion. These theoretical dimensions of suspicion are illustrated using a recent newspaper article of a missing child in Sydney, Australia. This process reveals the ontological vulnerability of the human mind to construct knowledge that is heavily influenced by our emotionality, our close social connections and our social values. Attending to these vulnerabilities generates new possibilities for understanding and using human suspicions of child abuse and neglect more effectively and creatively in nursing practice.

  6. Prior childhood sexual abuse in mothers of sexually abused children. (United States)

    Oates, R K; Tebbutt, J; Swanston, H; Lynch, D L; O'Toole, B I


    To see if mothers who were sexually abused in their own childhood are at increased risk of their children being sexually abused and to see if prior sexual abuse in mothers affects their parenting abilities. Sixty-seven mothers whose children had been sexually abused by others and 65 control mothers were asked about sexual abuse in their own childhood. The sexually abused children of mothers who had been sexually abused in their own childhood were compared with the sexually abused children of mothers who had not suffered child sexual abuse as children. Comparisons were made on self-esteem, depression and behavior in the children. Thirty-four percent of mothers of sexually abused children gave a history of sexual abuse in their own childhoods, compared with 12% of control mothers. Assessment of the sexually abused children for self-esteem, depression and behavior at the time of diagnosis, after 18 months and after 5 years showed no difference in any of these measures at any of the three time intervals between those whose mothers had suffered child sexual abuse and those whose mothers had not been abused. In this study, sexual abuse in a mother's own childhood was related to an increased risk of sexual abuse occurring in the next generation, although prior maternal sexual abuse did not effect outcome in children who were sexually abused.

  7. Sexually Abused Boys. (United States)

    Reinhart, Michael A.


    Reports of male victims (N=189) of child sexual abuse were retrospectively reviewed. Comparison to an age- and race-matched group of female victims revealed similarities in patterns of disclosure and perpetrator characteristics. (Author/DB)

  8. Child Sexual Abuse (United States)

    ... Showing private parts ("flashing"), forcing children to watch pornography, verbal pressure for sex, and exploiting children as prostitutes or for pornography can be sexual abuse as well. Researchers estimate ...

  9. Child sexual abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalid, N.


    Background: Child sexual abuse with significant impact on victim's physical, mental and social health has now been recognized as existing on an appreciable scale worldwide. Diversity of opinions exist about the concept, types, prevalence and repercussions along with a paucity of systematic and scientific work in the developing world including Pakistan. Objective: This paper aims at reviewing the literature for clarification of concept, update of estimates and correlates, and to identify lines for future research. Data sources: The literature was search through BMJ-Medline for international data, supplemented by local data through CPSP-MEDLIP service. The search term child sexual abuse with associated sub-heads were used. No constraint of time period, publication type or source applied except english Language version Comparative findings: Wide variations identified in conceptual boundaries with consequent impact on prevalence estimates. Agreement found for its existence as an international problem with rates ranging from 7% - 36% for women and 3% - 29% for men. Female abused 1.5-3 times more than male with exponential high rates in age group 3-6 years and 8-11 years. In 2/3 cases the perpetrator identified belonged to nuclear or extended family. Significant association exists with early onset of psychiatric ailments like substance abuse, eating disorders, personality disorders, dissociative disorders and depression. Conclusion and Suggestion: The need for extensive research studies in immense in developing countries like Pakistan where environmental circumstances suggest its presence at rates higher than the identified elsewhere. In addition to facilitate awareness and perhaps to clarify the concept as well as the prevalence of child sexual abuse researchers need to select methodologies and instruments with international comparison in mind. (author)

  10. [Recognizing signs of sexual abuse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teunissen, T.A.; Wong, S.H.; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.


    Sexual abuse is very common. In the Netherlands 42% of women and 13% of men aged over 25 years have experienced unacceptable sexual behaviour. Most victims do not seek professional help nor do they report the abuse to the police, and most of the victims who do seek medical help do not mention the

  11. Fighting Child Sexual Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pesanayi Gwirayi


    Full Text Available This study investigated secondary school pupils’ views on strategies that can be used to prevent child sexual abuse (CSA. A survey design was adopted as the operational framework for data gathering. Data were collected from three secondary schools, all in the Gweru district of Zimbabwe. The sample comprised 268 secondary pupils (50% female; M age = 15.42, SD = 1.376. Each participant was asked to write down three main strategies that can be used to fight CSA on a given questionnaire. The responses were then analyzed using the thematic content analysis technique. The study revealed that most pupils believed that CSA can be prevented through teaching them about it and also reporting to the police. Another significant finding was that pupils’ responses tended to vary with gender and level of education. Whereas female respondents suggested that CSA can be fought by avoiding strangers, saying no to sexual advances, and having reliable friends, their male counterparts suggested teaching the community about CSA, forming new clubs, and enacting life imprisonment for perpetrators, among other suggestions. In terms of level of education, Form 2 participants suggested avoiding strangers, staying home at night, whereas their Form 4 counterparts suggested lessons for Guidance and Counseling, saying no to sexual advances, and having reliable friends. These findings unequivocally demonstrate the need to vigorously engage secondary school pupils in activities aimed at fighting CSA to safeguard their inalienable human rights.

  12. Child Sexual Abuse at Preschools--A Research Review of a Complex Issue for Preschool Professionals (United States)

    Bergström, Helena; Eidevald, Christian; Westberg-Broström, Anna


    The objective of this research review is to synthesize research published between 2000 and 2015 regarding child sexual abuse, preschool and preschool teachers. The review identifies themes relevant for the preschool teacher profession: child sexual abuse at preschools, suspicions and consequences for the preschool sector, preventing techniques and…

  13. Adapting the Elder Abuse Suspicion Index© for Use in Long-Term Care: A Mixed-Methods Approach. (United States)

    Ballard, Stephanie A; Yaffe, Mark J; August, Linda; Cetin-Sahin, Deniz; Wilchesky, Machelle


    Currently available elder abuse screening and identification tools have limitations for use in long-term care (LTC). This mixed-methods study sought to explore the appropriateness of using the Elder Abuse Suspicion Index© (a suspicion tool originally created for use with older adults in the ambulatory setting with Mini-Mental State Examination scores ≥ 24) with similarly cognitively functioning persons residing in LTC. Results were informed by a literature review, Internet-based consultations with elder abuse experts across Canada ( n = 19), and data obtained from two purposively selected focus groups ( n = 7 local elder abuse experts; n = 7 experienced front-line LTC clinicians). Analyses resulted in the development of a nine-question tool, the EASI-ltc, designed to raise suspicion of EA in cognitively intact older adults residing in LTC (with little or no cognitive impairment). Notable modifications to the original Elder Abuse Suspicion Index © (EASI) included three new questions to further address neglect and psychological abuse, and a context-specific preamble to orient responders.

  14. Investigating sexual violence and abuse


    Synnott, John


    This special issue brings together emerging research concerning the issue of Sexual Violence and Abuse from around the world. The importance of pulling together research that explores the central topic of sexual violence and abuse is more pressing than ever and having a collection of work using different methodological approaches to unique samples previously unexplored contributes significantly to our understanding towards this type of offence.

  15. Childhood Sexual Abuse and Suicide (United States)

    ... and frequency of abuse increases.” 76 o Among adolescents, suicide attempters report more sexual abuse than non-attempters ... suicide attempts among junior and senior high school youth. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 25, 358-372. 1011 ...

  16. Child sexual abuse: consequences and implications. (United States)

    Hornor, Gail


    Sexual abuse is a problem of epidemic proportions in the United States. Given the sheer numbers of sexually abused children, it is vital for pediatric nurse practitioners to understand both short-term and long-term consequences of sexual abuse. Understanding consequences of sexual abuse can assist the pediatric nurse practitioner in anticipating the physical and mental health needs of patients and also may assist in the identification of sexual abuse victims. Sexual abuse typically does not occur in isolation. Implications for practice will be discussed. Copyright © 2010 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Child Sexual Abuse (United States)

    ... can help abused children regain a sense of self-esteem, cope with feelings of guilt about the abuse, and begin the process of overcoming ... find Facts for Families © helpful and would like to make good mental health a reality, consider donating to the Campaign for ...

  18. Overview: Clinical Identification of Sexually Abused Children. (United States)

    Corwin, David L.; Olafson, Erna


    This introduction to the special issue on clinical identification of sexually abused children reviews the history of the study of child sexual abuse and describes the 14 papers included in the special issue. (JDD)


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abused patients scored higher on depression rating scales than non sexually ... between sexual abuse and depresSIon, suicidal symptoms and alcohol nse is .... psychiatric symptoms, including negative cognitions, suicidal. Not present.

  20. Child Sexual Abuse in Zimbabwe. (United States)

    Mantula, Fennie; Saloojee, Haroon


    Although child sexual abuse is a significant public health problem globally, its incidence, prevention, and management is less well described in resource-poor settings. In poorer settings prevention initiatives assume even more importance since resources for managing abused children are severely limited. This article examines the current status of policy and practice related to the prevention of child sexual abuse in Zimbabwe. It identifies implementation challenges and highlights opportunities that could be embraced to reduce CSA in Zimbabwe, based on evidence synthesized from recent work. Although Zimbabwe has a well-established legal and regulatory framework to protect children from child sexual abuse, implementation of existing policies is weak. Financial, human, and material resource constraints are frequently cited to explain limited prevention activity. Effective strategies for the prevention of child sexual abuse should focus on implementing existing legislation, targeting schoolchildren, and getting community involvement. A dedicated budget would help entrench these strategies, but gains can be achieved even in the absence of this.

  1. Sexual abuse in children -- what to know (United States)

    ... look at pornography Masturbating in front of a child Signs of Sexual Abuse in Children Suspect sexual abuse when children: Tell ... update 04-03-18. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Child Sexual Abuse Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., Inc. ...

  2. sexual abuse of children as a form of power abuse and abuse of the

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article investigates the relationship between sexual abuse, power and the body from a Catholic ... Some researchers recognize that power also plays a role in sexual abuse, but this abuse of ..... Gender, power, and organizational culture.

  3. child sexual abuse in zimbabwe

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    This paper bemoans the current scourge of child- sexual abuse as well as the recent .... What we must bear in mind is that these are the. 'reported cases' ..... Plato was trying to advance a theory of motivation for human action and he explains ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satya Wydya Yenny


    Full Text Available AbstrakInfeksi Neisseria gonorrhoeae pada anak akibat sexual abuse sangat jarang dilaporkan.Dilaporkan satu kasus infeksi Neisseria gonorrhoeae pada seorang anak perempuan usia 6 tahun setelah mengalami sexual abuse satu minggu yang lalu.Diagnosis ditegakkan berdasarkan anamnesis, pemeriksaan klinis dan pemeriksaan laboratorium. Anamnesis adanya keputihan sejak 5 hari sebelum berobat. Pada pemeriksaan fisis tampak cairan berwarna krem menempel pada celana dalam, cukup banyak, serta sedikit kemerahan dan duh genital pada vulva. Hasil pemeriksaan mikroskopis ditemukan diplokokus Gram negatif dan kultur didapatkan Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Berdasarkan hasil tes sensitivitas, pasien diterapi dengan ceftriaxon 125 mg i.m, dosis tunggal dan memberikan kesembuhan.Infeksi ini membutuhkan penatalaksanaan yang komprehensif karena mempunyai dampak psikologis baik bagi anak maupun keluarga seumur hidupKata kunci : Neisseria gonorrhoeae, sexual abuse, anakAbstractNeisseria gonorrhoe infection in childhood caused by sexual abuse is considered rare reported.A young girl 6 years old suffering gonococcal infection was reported. The diagnostic procedure were base on clinically and laboratory findings. The source of transmission was sexual abuse by an adult man. Physical examination revealed purulent discharge, cream in colour that stains the underwear with minimal vaginal discharge and vulval erythema. Laboratory examination showed Gram-negative diplococcic and isolation of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. This patient had been treated with ceftriaxon 125mg given intramuscularly in a single dose. Result of the treatment was good.The psychological sequelae of sexual abuse and the turmoil in the family produced by suspicions and allegations are largely unknown, but are probably life long.Keywords: Neisseria gonorrhoeae, sexual abuse, childLAPORAN

  5. Concealment of Child Sexual Abuse in Sports (United States)

    Hartill, Mike


    When the sexual abuse of children is revealed, it is often found that other nonabusing adults were aware of the abuse but failed to act. During the past twenty years or so, the concealment of child sexual abuse (CSA) within organizations has emerged as a key challenge for child protection work. Recent events at Pennsylvania State University (PSU)…

  6. Sexual Abuse of Children as a Form of Power Abuse and Abuse of the Body


    Reynaert, Machteld


    This article investigates the relationship between sexual abuse, power and the body from a Catholic theological viewpoint. The article starts with the relationship between sexual abuse and power. It is argued that sexual abuse is always a form of power abuse. A second step examines the relation between sexual abuse and the body. We may not ignore the theme of the body when we speak about sexual abuse as a form of power abuse. The article also explores whether the body is a theme in recent (th...

  7. Sexual Abuse Trauma Among Chinese Survivors. (United States)

    Luo, Tsun-yin Echo


    This study conducted interviews with 19 survivors of sexual abuse and three social workers in Taiwan. It found sexual stigmatization and feelings of disempowerment and betrayal as the most pervasive trauma complex among the abuse survivors. Effects of cultural attitudes toward sexual victimization of women and Chinese patriarchal familialism are…

  8. Play Therapy Behaviors of Sexually Abused Children. (United States)

    Homeyer, Linda E.; Landreth, Garry L.

    The purpose of this study was to identify play therapy behaviors of sexually abused children. Surveys were sent to members of the Association for Play Therapy, of which 249 respondents, who worked with 16 or more sexually abused children, were used. Results indicate that there are identifiable and highly interrelated PTBs of sexually abused…

  9. Child Sexual Abuse: A School Leadership Issue (United States)

    Mitchell, Mark W.


    Child Sexual Abuse is a growing epidemic. In the United States, 1 in 6 boys and 1 in 4 girls will be sexually abused before reaching adulthood. From a legal standpoint, inappropriate sexual relations between a faculty/staff member and a student are a growing national concern. In 1991, the Supreme Court heard the Franklin v. Gwinnett County Public…

  10. Early Prevention Toward Sexual Abuse on Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ira Paramastri


    Full Text Available Child sexual abuse is a worldwide problem. Although most studies on the longterm consequences of child sexual abuse have focused on women, sexual abuse of both boys and girls is common. Peer sexual abuse in schools was an often overlooked problem that contributes to a hostile school environment: one major study found that 85% of girls and 76% of boys reported experiencing some form of sexual abuse in school. 85% of child sexual abuse is committed by relatives, close family friend or an adult that the child knows and trusts. The childhood sexual abuse variables taken into account are commonly age of onset, duration, abuse forms and relationship between the child and the perpetrator. The objective of this study was to gather information or opinion about sexual abuse concept, methods and media of the elementary students, parents, teachers and experts. A qualitative study, involving one to one interviews, was conducted with 7 experts, focus group discussion with 40 elementary students, and with 40 parents in Yogyakarta district about child sexual abuse issues. Data were analysed according to Miles and Huberman’s data reduction, data display and conclusion verification process. These findings strongly indicate that boys and girls are vulnerable to this form of childhood sexual abuse ; the similarity in the likelihood for multiple behavioral, mental and social outcomes among men and women suggest the need to identify and treat all adults affected by child sexual abuse. Themes related to the child sexual abuse were: paperwork design, good facilitator, guidelines for students, parents and teachers. Students prefer media that can help them understand concept with komik paperwork as media for early prevention. Parents, teachers and experts prefer that this prevention program can run as soon. With careful paperwork design and evaluation of prevention program, the success of program implementation can be enhanced.

  11. [Gonococcal vulvovaginitis in prepubertal girls: sexual abuse or accidental transmission?]. (United States)

    Daval-Cote, M; Liberas, S; Tristan, A; Vandenesch, F; Gillet, Y


    Vulvovaginitis is the most frequent gynecologic pathology among prepubertal females. An infectious cause is found in 30% of cases and is highly associated with the presence of vaginal discharge upon examination. Neisseria gonorrhoeae may be one of the causative agents. Since N. gonorrhoeae is a common sexually transmitted disease, sexual abuse should be considered in the pediatric setting. We report the case of a 5-year-old girl with N. gonorrhoeae vulvovaginitis. Her previous history, multiple interviews with the patient and her parents, and clinical examination showed no evidence or signs of sexual abuse. Both parents presented gonorrhea, urethritis for the father and vaginitis for the mother. The discrepancy between pediatric evaluation and the presence of a bacterium associated with sexually transmitted disease led us to consider other means of contamination. Previous studies have shown that other routes of transmission are possible but are often neglected. Hence, contamination can be transmitted by the hands or mostly through passive means (towels, rectal thermometer, etc.). Many epidemics have been noted in group settings with young girls with no evidence of sexual transmission. Therefore, we concluded that this patient's infection was likely an accidental transmission within her family. The acknowledgement of these transmission routes is very important in order to avoid misguided suspicion of sexual abuse and the possible traumatic family and psychosocial consequences. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  12. Child sexual abuse in Zaria, North

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof Ezechukwu


    Feb 7, 2012 ... psychological trauma of sexual abuse, which manifests as major stress and ... to have been sexually active in their adolescence, which highlights some ... presentation in the clinic was 14 days, however three cases presented ...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    from sexual exploitation and sexual abuse (ST/SGB/2003/13) (UN, Secretary .... In addition, in most situations, UN personnel have enjoyed immunity from local .... 9 Official UN statistics show a higher incidence of allegations reported against.

  14. Evaluation of genital condyloma accuminata seen during pediatric age as for sexual abuse: Case report

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    Semih Petekkaya


    Full Text Available Anogenital wart is the most frequently seen during sexually transmitted disease in sexually active adults caused by Human Papillomavirus. The transmission with sexual contact has been defined for anogenital warts which emerge during childhood, however other routes of infection are also considered. We presented a case of a female child who had two genital warts. There is no history or suspicion of sexual abuse and the girl was infected by her mother. In the cases of condyloma accuminata seen in childhood, taking history and physical examination for sexual abuse of the child should be done by the clinician in a detailed way. Opinions should be achieved from forensic experts about the case and the legal authorities should be notified of the suspicion.

  15. Review: Childhood and Adolescent Sexual Abuse: Incidence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sexual abuse in children and adolescents is a silent epidemic because despite the fact that close to 20% of children and adolescents (1 out 5) are affected, less than 10% of the cases get reported to law enforcement agents or medical practitioners. Sexual abuse is associated with physical injuries such as bruises and ...

  16. Educator Sexual Abuse: Two Case Reports (United States)

    Burgess, Ann Wolbert; Welner, Michael; Willis, Danny G.


    Sexual abuse by educators has become an increasingly noted type of sexual abuse, especially among adolescents, for two reasons. First, there is a potential for these cases to be silent and prolonged and second, when disclosed, the forensic implications usually include both criminal and/or civil sanctions. For forensic case evaluations,…

  17. Neurodevelopmental Biology Associated with Childhood Sexual Abuse (United States)

    De Bellis, Michael D.; Spratt, Eve G.; Hooper, Stephen R.


    Child maltreatment appears to be the single most preventable cause of mental illness and behavioral dysfunction in the United States. Few published studies examine the developmental and the psychobiological consequences of sexual abuse. There are multiple mechanisms through which sexual abuse can cause post-traumatic stress disorder, activate…

  18. Child sexual abuse and family outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Rinke; Bijleveld, C.C.J.H.


    This study aimed to examine the association between different characteristics of sexual abuse and adverse family outcomes in later life. Through archived court files, a large sample of Dutch men and women who have been sexually abused as a child could be identified. Outcome variables were assessed

  19. Violence, sexual abuse and health in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Curtis, Tine; Larsen, Finn B; Helweg-Larsen, Karin


    The purposes of the study were to analyse the lifetime prevalence of violence and sexual abuse among the Inuit in Greenland and to study the associations between health and having been the victim of violence or sexual abuse. Associations were studied with specific attention to possible differences...... between women and men. Further, response rates were analysed specifically in order to understand consequences of including questions on violence and sexual abuse in the questionnaire survey. The analyses were based on material from a cross-sectional health interview survey conducted during 1993......-94 with participation from a random sample of the Inuit population in Greenland (N = 1393). The prevalence of ever having been a victim of violence was 47% among women and 48% among men. Women had more often than men been sexually abused (25% and 6%) (p sexually abused in childhood (8...

  20. Violence, sexual abuse and health in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Curtis, Tine; Larsen, Finn B; Helweg-Larsen, Karin


    The purposes of the study were to analyse the lifetime prevalence of violence and sexual abuse among the Inuit in Greenland and to study the associations between health and having been the victim of violence or sexual abuse. Associations were studied with specific attention to possible differences...... between women and men. Further, response rates were analysed specifically in order to understand consequences of including questions on violence and sexual abuse in the questionnaire survey. The analyses were based on material from a cross-sectional health interview survey conducted during 1993......-94 with participation from a random sample of the Inuit population in Greenland (N = 1393). The prevalence of ever having been a victim of violence was 47% among women and 48% among men. Women had more often than men been sexually abused (25% and 6%) (p abused in childhood (8...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    sexual exploitation of children by peacekeepers is particularly insidious. ... sexual exploitation and abuse should involve an understanding of the social .... The charges of sexual misconduct, and the consequent media exposure, have ..... awareness programmes such as video tapes, lectures and training manuals, designed.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KEY TERMS: Sexual abuse, social work, social exchange theory, Botswana. ... The problem of sexual abuse of children by teachers in the education system is not .... to leave an abusive relationship when the costs of the relationship outweigh ...

  3. Skeletal injuries associated with sexual abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Karl; Chapman, Stephen; Hall, Christine M.


    Background: Sexual abuse is often associated with physical abuse, the most common injuries being bruising and other soft-tissue injuries, but fractures occur in 5% of sexually abused children. The fractures described to date have formed part of the spectrum of injuries in these children and have not been specifically related to the abusive act. Objective: To describe concurrent sexual abuse and fractures. Materials and methods: Three children with pelvic or femoral shaft injuries in association with sexual abuse. Results: A 3-year-old girl with extensive soft-tissue injuries to the arms, legs and perineum also sustained fractures of both pubic rami and the sacral side of the right sacro-iliac joint. A 5-month-old girl with an introital tear was shown to have an undisplaced left femoral shaft fracture. A 5-year-old girl presented with an acute abdomen and pneumoperitoneum due to a ruptured rectum following sexual abuse. She had old healed fractures of both pubic rami with disruption of the symphysis pubis. Conclusions: Although the finding of a perineal injury in a young child may be significant enough for the diagnosis of abuse, additional skeletal injuries revealed by radiography will assist in confirmation of that diagnosis and may be more common than hitherto suspected. (orig.)

  4. Skeletal injuries associated with sexual abuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Karl; Chapman, Stephen [Department of Radiology, Birmingham Children' s Hospital, Steelhouse Lane, B4 6NH, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Hall, Christine M. [Department of Radiology, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London (United Kingdom)


    Background: Sexual abuse is often associated with physical abuse, the most common injuries being bruising and other soft-tissue injuries, but fractures occur in 5% of sexually abused children. The fractures described to date have formed part of the spectrum of injuries in these children and have not been specifically related to the abusive act. Objective: To describe concurrent sexual abuse and fractures. Materials and methods: Three children with pelvic or femoral shaft injuries in association with sexual abuse. Results: A 3-year-old girl with extensive soft-tissue injuries to the arms, legs and perineum also sustained fractures of both pubic rami and the sacral side of the right sacro-iliac joint. A 5-month-old girl with an introital tear was shown to have an undisplaced left femoral shaft fracture. A 5-year-old girl presented with an acute abdomen and pneumoperitoneum due to a ruptured rectum following sexual abuse. She had old healed fractures of both pubic rami with disruption of the symphysis pubis. Conclusions: Although the finding of a perineal injury in a young child may be significant enough for the diagnosis of abuse, additional skeletal injuries revealed by radiography will assist in confirmation of that diagnosis and may be more common than hitherto suspected. (orig.)

  5. Sexual abuse of children: an update. (United States)

    Finkel, K C


    An increasing number of studies in the past decade have shown that sexual abuse of children is disturbingly common. The author reviews some of the more recent knowledge about the problem, with particular reference to medical implications. The incidence and distribution of the problem and the relative importance of the medical examination are reviewed, and the diagnostic significance of clinical presentations such as vulvovaginitis, recurrent urinary tract infection and masturbation is evaluated. The agents responsible for sexually transmitted diseases in abused children are reviewed. Many crucial psychosocial issues are raised in the evaluation and management of sexual abuse. The author discusses some aspects of abuse that are hard to confront, such as the possible pleasure of the child and the nonoffending role of the mother in cases of incest. Information from sources other than the medical literature on the characteristics of abusers, therapy and prevention is reviewed. The medical implications of the Badgley Report are also discussed. PMID:3801988

  6. Detection of elder abuse: Exploring the potential use of the Elder Abuse Suspicion Index© by law enforcement in the field. (United States)

    Kurkurina, Elina; Lange, Brittany C L; Lama, Sonam D; Burk-Leaver, Erin; Yaffe, Mark J; Monin, Joan K; Humphries, Debbie


    There are no known instruments to aid law enforcement officers in the assessment of elder abuse (EA), despite officers' contact with older adults. This study aimed to identify: 1) officers' perceptions and knowledge of EA, 2) barriers in detecting EA in the field, 3) characteristics officers value in a detection tool, and to explore 4) the potential for officers to use the Elder Abuse Suspicion Index (EASI)©. Data was collected from 69 Connecticut officers who confirmed that barriers to effectively detecting EA included a lack of EA detection instruments, as well as a lack of training on warning signs and risk factors. Officers indicated that the important elements of a desirable tool for helping to detect EA included ease of use, clear instructions, and information on follow-up resources. Approximately 80% of respondents could see themselves using the EASI © in the field, and a modified version has been developed for this purpose.

  7. Sexual abuse and the problem of embodiment. (United States)

    Young, L


    In this paper, trauma, sexual abuse, and some of the potential resulting long-term effects, are explored in terms of the problem of embodiment and the formation of personal identity and psychological integrity. That is, what effect does severe sexual abuse have on an individual's, particularly a child's, sense of living in his or her body and, by extension, living in the world? First, trauma and dissociation are analyzed and linked to the development and maintenance of a "posttraumatic" sense of personal identity. Then, several disorders associated with sexual abuse--dissociation, multiple personality disorder, eating disorders, somatization disorder, self-mutilation, suicide, and suicide attempts--are examined in terms of their phenomenological coherence and relation to the problem of embodiment. This conceptual framework may be of use to clinicians and researchers assessing and treating the survivors of sexual abuse.

  8. School Nurses Avoid Addressing Child Sexual Abuse (United States)

    Engh Kraft, Lisbet; Rahm, GullBritt; Eriksson, Ulla-Britt


    Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a global public health problem with major consequences for the individual child and society. An earlier Swedish study showed that the school nurses did not initially talk about nor mention CSA as one form of child abuse. For the child to receive adequate support, the disclosure is a precondition and is dependent on an…

  9. Typological and Integrative Models of Sexual Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demidova L.Y.,


    Full Text Available We discuss the basic typological and integrative theoretical models that explain the occurrence of child sexual abuse and the differences detected among the perpetrators of crimes against sexual integrity of minors. A comprehensive review of the theoretical concepts of sexual abuse in our country, in fact has not been carried out, and in this paper for the first time we made such an attempt. It is shown that the existing notions of sexual abuse largely overlap each other, but each of the models somehow takes into account the factors not explicitly addressed in other concepts. Systematic consideration of the theoretical models of sexual abuse can generalize and systematize the available data on the mechanisms of pedophile behavior. This review provides an opportunity to develop a new benchmark in the study of sexual abuse, get closer to building the most accurate and comprehensive model. In turn, this may contribute to solving the questions about the factors, dynamics, and the prevention of criminal sexual conduct against children

  10. Predicting Resilience in Sexually Abused Adolescents (United States)

    Williams, Javonda; Nelson-Gardell, Debra


    This research examined factors that predicted resilience in sexually abused adolescents. Using Bronfenbrenner's Process-Person-Context-Time (PPCT) ecological model, this study considered the proximal and distal factors that would contribute to adolescents' reactions to sexual victimization. This correlational study used hierarchical regression…

  11. [Intra and extra-familiar sexual abuse]. (United States)

    Taveira, Francisco; Frazão, Sofia; Dias, Ricardo; Matos, Eduarda; Magalhães, Teresa


    The sexual abuse of a child or young person constitutes a major social and public health problem and there is recent evidence that intra-familial (IF) sexual abuses are more serious in their consequences than extra-familial (EF). However, there are no studies on this phenomenon in Portugal. Thus, the aim of the present study is to contribute to a better characterization of these types of abuses and to identify possible differences between IF and EF cases. A retrospective study was preformed based on medico-legal reports related to victims below the age of 18, suspected of being sexually abused (n = 764), corresponding to 67% of the total of observed sexual crimes. Results revealed that 34.9% of the abuses are IF and they show statistically significant differences when compared to EF cases. These are due to the following factors found in IF situations: a) lower victim age; b) closeness between victim and abuser; c) abusers with a higher rate of previous sexual abuse; d) sexual practices of reduced physical intrusion; e) decreased physical violence but increased emotional violence; f) greater delay between last abuse and the forensic exam; g) reduced number of injuries or biological evidence (none in the great majority of the cases). Results point out the existence of several characteristics in IF abuse that have been identified as factors that influence the severity of the abuse consequences. Among them are: a) lower victim age; b) greater proximity to the abuser; c) increased amount of emotional violence. These factors account for the reduced visibility of this kind of cases and therefore explain their delayed disclosure and diagnosis. The association of this fact with the reduced intrusiveness of this sort of practice and the consequent decrease in number of injuries and other evidence leads to a marked reduction of the number of cases where evidence of the abuse can be found by physical examination alone. The above aspects underlie the need of using different

  12. Cultural Issues in Disclosures of Child Sexual Abuse (United States)

    Fontes, Lisa Aronson; Plummer, Carol


    Cultural norms affect the likelihood that child sexual abuse will be discovered by an adult or disclosed by a child. Cultural norms also affect whether abused children's families will report child sexual abuse to authorities. This article explores the ways ethnic and religious culture affect child sexual abuse disclosure and reporting, both in the…

  13. Oral health in children investigated by Social services on suspicion of child abuse and neglect. (United States)

    Kvist, T; Annerbäck, E-M; Dahllöf, G


    Child abuse and neglect (CAN) are likely to have negative consequences on health; however, for oral health, studies on associated outcomes are sparse. The purpose of this study was to assess oral health and oral health behaviors in relation to suspected CAN among children being investigated by the Swedish Social Services. The material comprised data from the Social Services and dental records; the sample, 86 children and 172 matched controls. The children in the study group had a higher prevalence of dental caries than the control group; in addition, levels of non-attendance and dental avoidance were high, as was parental failure to promote good oral health. We found four factors that, taken together, indicated a high probability of being investigated because of suspected CAN: prevalence of dental caries in primary teeth, fillings in permanent teeth, dental health service avoidance, and referral to specialist pediatric dentistry clinics. If all four factors were present, the cumulative probability of being investigated was 0.918. In conclusion, there is a high prevalence of dental caries, irregular attendance, and a need for referral a pediatric dental clinic among Swedish children under investigation due to suspected CAN. Social context is an important factor in assessing the risk of developing dental caries, the inclination to follow treatment plans, and the prerequisites for cooperation during treatment. Routinely requesting dental records during an investigation would provide important information for social workers on parental skills and abilities to fulfill the basic needs of children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Health Professionals' Responses to Disclosure of Child Sexual Abuse History: Female Child Sexual Abuse Survivors' Experiences (United States)

    McGregor, Kim; Julich, Shirley; Glover, Marewa; Gautam, Jeny


    This study reports on a postal questionnaire, conducted in 2004, with female survivors of historic child sexual abuse. The questionnaire explored their experiences of health professionals' responsiveness to disclosure of child sexual abuse history. Of 61 participants, aged between 22 and 65, 69% had disclosed to health professionals. Those who had…

  15. Child Sexual Abuse and Exploitation: Guest Editor’s Introduction


    Michael Salter


    One of the most unnerving aspects of child sexual abuse is that it is constantly manifesting in unexpected ways. The current Royal Commission into Institutional Responses to Child Sexual Abuse has collected testimony of abuse in churches, schools, out-of-home care, hospitals and religious communities, demonstrating the breadth of institutional arrangements whose structures and cultures have facilitated child sexual abuse. Cases of serious and prolonged sexual abuse in family contexts have bee...

  16. Signs of Childhood Sexual Abuse (United States)

    ... Your Kids Cyber SafeCyber safety is important for kids. Parents should monitor their child’s internet and mobile device use.Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs)Read Article >>Sex and SexualitySexually Transmitted Infections (STIs)Learn about sexually ...

  17. Negligent Hiring and Retaining of Sexually Abusive Teachers. (United States)

    Regotti, Terri L.


    Explores negligent hiring, supervision, and retention of teachers who sexually abuse students. Examines the issue of defamation and suggests school policy that will work toward eradication of sexual abuse of students by teachers. (33 references) (MLF)

  18. Knowledge, attitudes and practices of parents on child sexual abuse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    preventable harm and trauma of sexual abuse in rural communities of Tanzania. .... about preventing child sexual abuse was measured by 10 Likert's scale-type ..... Bensley, L., van Eenwyk, J. & Simmons K. (2000) Self-reported childhood ...

  19. 'Unrecognized victims': Sexual abuse against male street children in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bernt Lindtjorn

    Conclusions- Sexual abuse against male children around Merkato area is rampant, but received less or no attention ..... abusers and started protecting myself from such abuse. Figure 1: .... Then I ran away fast with determination and without.

  20. Sexual Anxiety and Eroticism Predict the Development of Sexual Problems in Youth With a History of Sexual Abuse


    Simon, Valerie A.; Feiring, Candice


    Youth with confirmed histories of sexual abuse (N = 118) were followed longitudinally to examine associations between their initial sexual reactions to abuse and subsequent sexual functioning. Participants were interviewed at abuse discovery (ages 8 through 15) and again 1 and 6 years later. Eroticism and sexual anxiety emerged as distinct indices of abuse-specific sexual reactions and predicted subsequent sexual functioning. Eroticism was associated with indicators of heightened sexuality, i...

  1. Child Sexual Abuse and Adolescent Prostitution: A Comparative Analysis. (United States)

    Seng, Magnus J.


    Explored relationship between sexual abuse and adolescent prostitution by comparing 70 sexually abused children with 35 prostitution-involved children on 22 variables. Findings suggest that relationship is not direct, but involves runaway behavior as intervening variable. Concludes that it is not so much sexual abuse that leads to prostitution, as…

  2. Child Sexual Abuse Myths: Attitudes, Beliefs, and Individual Differences (United States)

    Cromer, Lisa DeMarni; Goldsmith, Rachel E.


    Child sexual abuse myths comprise incorrect beliefs regarding sexual abuse, victims, and perpetrators. Relations among myth acceptance, responses to disclosure, legal decisions, and victims' subsequent psychological and health outcomes underscore the importance of understanding child sexual abuse myths. Despite accurate knowledge regarding child…

  3. Healing from Childhood Sexual Abuse: A Theoretical Model (United States)

    Draucker, Claire Burke; Martsolf, Donna S.; Roller, Cynthia; Knapik, Gregory; Ross, Ratchneewan; Stidham, Andrea Warner


    Childhood sexual abuse is a prevalent social and health care problem. The processes by which individuals heal from childhood sexual abuse are not clearly understood. The purpose of this study was to develop a theoretical model to describe how adults heal from childhood sexual abuse. Community recruitment for an ongoing broader project on sexual…

  4. The Relationship Between Sexual Abuse and Risky Sexual Behavior Among Adolescent Boys: A Meta-Analysis (United States)

    Homma, Yuko; Wang, Naren; Saewyc, Elizabeth; Kishor, Nand


    Purpose Childhood and adolescent sexual abuse has been shown to lead to increased odds of sexual behaviors that lead to sexually transmitted infections and early pregnancy involvement. Research, meta-analyses, and interventions, however, have focused primarily on girls and young women who have experienced abuse, yet some adolescent boys are also sexually abused. We performed a meta-analysis of the existing studies to assess the magnitudes of the link between a history of sexual abuse and each of three risky sexual behaviors among adolescent boys in North America. Methods The three outcomes were a) unprotected sexual intercourse, b) multiple sexual partners, and c) pregnancy involvement. Weighted mean effect sizes were computed from 10 independent samples, from nine studies published between 1990 and 2011. Results Sexually abused boys were significantly more likely than non-abused boys to report all three risky sexual behaviors. Weighted mean odds ratios were 1.91 for unprotected intercourse, 2.91 for multiple sexual partners, and 4.81 for pregnancy involvement. Conclusions Our results indicate that childhood and adolescent sexual abuse can substantially Influence sexual behavior in adolescence among male survivors. To improve sexual health for all adolescents, even young men, we should strengthen sexual abuse prevention initiatives, raise awareness about male sexual abuse survivors’ existence and sexual health issues, improve sexual health promotion for abused young men, and screen all people, regardless of gender, for a history of sexual abuse. PMID:22727072

  5. Sexual abuse evaluation in urological practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beck, Jacobus Johannes Hendrikus


    The primary aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence of sexual abuse in a urological outpatient clinic. Can differences been made in urological population, i.e. general urological clinic, a university urological clinic and a tertiary university pelvic floor clinic? Do urologists inquire

  6. Rural Child Sexual Abuse Prevention and Treatment. (United States)

    Ray, JoAnn; Murty, Susan A.


    Reviews literature on rural child sexual abuse and treatment. Surveys providers in rural Washington treatment programs. Responses describe agency characteristics, services, delivery problems, and suggested solutions. Reports providers' perceptions of service quality and interagency cooperation. Cites as problems heavy caseloads, lack of staff, and…

  7. Educators' Experience of Managing Sexually Abused Learners ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using availability-sampling methods, four educators from a local primary school were interviewed and the data systematically analysed in accordance with Morrisette's (1999) seven–step procedural model. The present study confirmed the finding of Skinner (1999) and Mzamo (2003) that managing cases of sexually abused ...

  8. Psychological Symptoms in Sexually Abused Girls. (United States)

    Cohen, Judith A.; Mannarino, Anthony P.


    The report examined psychological symptoms exhibited by 24 girls (ages 6-12) evaluated within six months of being sexually abused. Results showed a marked discrepancy between child and parent reports of symptoms with children not reporting as many symptoms of depression, anxiety, or low self-esteem as parents. (Author/DB)

  9. Sexual Abuse and the Problem of Embodiment. (United States)

    Young, Leslie


    Potential long-term effects of the trauma of severe sexual abuse on a child's sense of living in his/her body and in the world are explored. Trauma and dissociation are analyzed and linked to a posttraumatic sense of personal identity. Then dissociation, multiple personality disorder, eating disorders, somatization disorder, self-mutilation, and…


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jacob Mugumbate

    that social workers in Zimbabwe have a role to play at all the three levels of intervention. KEY TERMS: Child sexual abuse (CSA), social work, prevention,. Meili's model. ..... network/2013/mar/19/world-social-work-day-fair-global- · economy1.

  11. Containing the Secret of Child Sexual Abuse (United States)

    McElvaney, Rosaleen; Greene, Sheila; Hogan, Diane


    This study reports a grounded theory study of the process of how children tell of their experiences of child sexual abuse from the perspectives of young people and their parents. Individual interviews were conducted with 22 young people aged 8 to 18, and 14 parents. A theoretical model was developed that conceptualises the process of disclosure as…

  12. [Child sexual abuse: an irremediable hurt?]. (United States)

    Di Giacomo, Ester; Alamia, Alberto; Cicolari, Federica; Cimolai, Valentina; Clerici, Massimo


    The aim of this review was to provide the state of art of child sexual abuse and its psychophysical consequences. We assessed the evidence-based literature derived from PubMed, Embase, Medline, PsychINFO databases, including a thorough analysis of what has been published in the last 5 years, not neglecting previous publications essential to the argument for their scientific validity (methodological accuracy, recruited survey). Child sexual abuse is ubiquitous both regarding victims' gender and socio-economic conditions. The important consequences linked to what they suffered--either immediately or with adolescent or adult onset--are mediated by age and family support to trauma reprocessing as well as by the frequency of repetition of the abuse or familiarity with the abuser. These factors appear to be of primary importance--both at a physical and psychic level--and may be expressed in multiple manifestations, hence it is of utmost importance to pay timely attention to possible alarm signals revealing suspected abuse suffered by any underage person. Special emphasis is addressed towards some of the consequences for which child sexual abuse is considered to be a primary cause (e.g. post-traumatic stress disorder) and the perpetuation of such abuse, both short-term as well as long-term. Poor training, regarding this field, of various professionals (pediatricians, teachers, etc.) who each day work with minors, as well as the paucity of available treatment options point to an urgent need for prevention (including in-depth diagnosis/therapy) and early intervention.

  13. The Relationship of Childhood Sexual Abuse to Teenage Pregnancy. (United States)

    Roosa, Mark W.; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Reinholtz, Cindy; Angelini, Patricia Jo


    Examined the sexual history of 2,003 young women to determine whether childhood sexual abuse contributed to a greater risk for teenage pregnancy. Results indicate that sexual abuse alone was not related to the incidence of teenage pregnancy, but sexual precocity was related to much higher incidences of teenage pregnancy. (RJM)

  14. Revictimization of Victims Sexually Abused by Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata H. Kowalczyk


    Full Text Available Victims experiencing the sexual abuse are surviving not only physical injustice but above all deep traumas, which very often in different forms, are keeping them company through the entire life. Quite often at establishing different results a sex is underestimated for the perpetrator. Therefore knowing the problem of sexual abuses from a perspective of close as well as distant results is very important in the event that a woman was a perpetrator of these acts – mother, minder. In the present article based on analysis of literature, a problem of results of the sexual abuse was presented at victims which experienced these behaviours on the part of women. In order to draw up discussing the survived specificity by victims was both of sex of the trauma connected with the sexual application as well as close and distant consequences of these events in the form prime victimisation and revictimisation for figure being noticeable in the adult life of psychosexual disorders and social shortages. Amongst the consequence isolated traumatic factors are deserving the particular attention about dynamic character which are provoking the appearance of many symptoms characteristic of children which experienced the sexual violence. Recalled factors it: traumatic sexualisation of child, the betrayal, the stigmatization and the helplessness. The specificity of these factors results from the fact that they will leave distant “tracks” in the psyche and they can undergo the additional reinforcement if a woman is a perpetrator of the sexual violence. It results from frequent attitudes of “denying” towards the sexual violence applied by women. In the study they pointed also at one of possible consequences of the revictimisation process copying patterns of behaviour connected with the sexual exploitation of children in their more late life by victims is which. This process resulting from the alternating identification of the perpetrator and the victim is starting


    Ulibarri, Monica D.; Ulloa, Emilio C.; Salazar, Marissa


    This study examined self-reported sexually abusive experiences in childhood and adulthood as correlates of current drug use, alcohol abuse, and depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Participants were 204 Latina women 18–34 years old. Results indicated significant relationships between history of sexual abuse (regardless of age of occurrence), depression symptoms, PTSD symptoms, alcohol abuse, and drug use. When examined separately, childhood sexual abuse was associated with symptoms of depression, PTSD, and substance use but not alcohol abuse behaviors. Experiencing sexual abuse in adulthood was associated with symptoms of depression, alcohol abuse behaviors, and substance use but not PTSD symptoms. Structural equation modeling showed that substance use partially mediated the relationship between sexual abuse and mental health outcomes. These findings suggest mental health and substance use services should incorporate treatment for trauma, which may be the root of comorbid mental health and substance use issues. PMID:25635897

  16. Persistent Complications of Child Sexual Abuse: Sexually Compulsive Behaviors, Attachment, and Emotions. (United States)

    Meyer, Dixie; Cohn, Aaron; Robinson, Brittany; Muse, Fatima; Hughes, Rachel


    Child sexual abuse has the potential to cause distress for the victim across the lifespan. Romantic relationships may be particularly difficult for victims of child sexual abuse. This retrospective study examined differences in adult romantic attachment, sexually compulsive behaviors, and emotion regulation by history of child sexual abuse in a large, nonclinical sample. Those with a history of child sexual abuse reported more attachment anxiety in romantic relationships and engaged in more sexually compulsive behaviors. Overall, males displayed more sexually compulsive behaviors than females regardless of history of sexual abuse. Males with a history of sexual abuse displayed the greatest number of sexually compulsive behaviors. Surprisingly, no differences were observed in emotion regulation or attachment avoidant behaviors by history of child sexual abuse. Future research should seek to replicate current findings and examine emotion regulation difficulties experienced as a result of trauma.

  17. Predictors of Clinical Outcomes in Sexually Abused Adolescents. (United States)

    Tocker, Lotem; Ben-Amitay, Galit; Horesh-Reinman, Netta; Lask, Michal; Toren, Paz


    This cross-sectional, case control study examines the association between child sexual abuse and interpersonal and intrapersonal outcomes among 54 adolescents, examining specific clinical measures (depression, anxiety, dissociation, and posttraumatic stress disorder, attachment patterns, self-esteem, self-disclosure, and family environment characteristics). The research results point to a correlation between sexual abuse and higher levels of the clinical measures. In addition, a correlation was found between sexual abuse and level of avoidant attachment, self-esteem, and family environment characteristics. Stepwise hierarchical regressions were conducted to examine how adolescent attributes predicted depression, anxiety, and dissociation beyond the prediction based on sexual abuse. A combination of self-esteem, anxiety attachment, and family cohesiveness made sexual abuse insignificant when predicting levels of depression, anxiety, and dissociation. This study contributes to characterizing the emotional, personal, and family attributes of adolescents who experienced sexual abuse. It also raises questions about the clinical outcomes usually associated with sexual abuse.

  18. Meanings intrafamilial sexual abuse for female adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Hilario Maranhão


    Full Text Available This article came from the monographic study “Resilience and Sexual Violence: a study of adolescents victimized by sexual abuse assistance” (MARANHÃO, 2008, in which was investigated the building resilience in victimized adolescents. Resilience is characterized as overcoming adversity, setting up as something procedural, promoted by the interaction of personal and collective protection, in particular context of risk or social vulnerability. We made the trimming about the meanings and feelings of sexual victimization within the family from the perception of adolescents between 12 and 16 years of age that received care in a Specialized Reference Social Assistance in 2010. The research is qualitative, having as theoretical-methodological referential the Historic-Cultural Theory. Data collection was used by semi-structured interview. We realize that the profile of the victims are set up by females, the beginning of sexual abuse occurred between childhood and preadolescence. The profile of perpetrators are men, adults, acting the role of the stepfather, father and uncle. Despite an abject sense, adolescents could not break the cycle of violence. Friends, extended family, and the work of professionals emerged as support for the redefinition of the abusive relationships.

  19. Perception of sexual abuse in school children


    Elizalde Bravo, Roger; Dávila Noriega, Nebel; Bulnes Bedón, Mario; Sarria Joya, César


    This study explorer the problem of the sexual abuse in 391 scholars of sex both, proceeding of centers state educative of primary level, of socioeconomic stratum short and of wich ages to fluctuate between the 7 or 14 ages. Initialy be constructed a questionary of 32 items and chip sociodemographic for to determínate the characterístics of the sample. Be to find different significative in function to sex the boys to considerate ages of rísk or abuse sex between 3 or 5 ages, and the girls the ...

  20. Child Sexual Abuse and the Media


    Lee, J.


    This is the first book to explore child sexual abuse within global religious and media organisations. Termed here the dual narrative, there is, on the one hand, the view that everyone is a potential paedophile, and, on the other, the notion of a witch-hunt falsely accusing people. Beginning with a re-examination of historic claims of satanic ritual abuse, the author moves on to investigate global celebrity culture, the global religious context as well as an analysis of technology. The interna...

  1. The Relationship between Childhood Sexual Abuse and Adult Male Sexual Dysfunction. (United States)

    Sarwer, David B.; And Others


    A study of 359 men who sought sexual dysfunction treatment found that childhood sexual abuse did not predict sexual dysfunction in the men. Unemployment was the only significant predictor of male sexual dysfunction. Differences between the sexual abuse experiences of the male victims compared to female victims (n=73) are discussed. (Author/CR)

  2. Information processing of sexual abuse in elders. (United States)

    Burgess, Ann W; Clements, Paul T


    Sexual abuse is considered to be a pandemic contemporary public health issue, with significant physical and psychosocial consequences for its victims. However, the incidence of elder sexual assault is difficult to estimate with any degree of confidence. A convenience sample of 284 case records were reviewed for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) symptoms. The purpose of this paper is to present the limited data noted on record review on four PTSD symptoms of startle, physiological upset, anger, and numbness. A treatment model for information processing of intrapsychic trauma is presented to describe domain disruption within a nursing diagnosis of rape trauma syndrome and provide guidance for sensitive assessment and intervention.

  3. Child sexual abuse in Zaria, Northwestern Nigeria | Bugaje ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Child sexual abuse has been reported from all corners of the globe, ... Although the trauma of abuse heals with time, it leaves long term psychological and ... sexual abuse, from August 2008 to October 2009, at a primary health centre in ... Eleven cases (55%) attended school, while three (15%) were hawkers.

  4. Childhood and Adult Sexual Abuse, Rumination on Sadness, and Dysphoria (United States)

    Conway, Michael; Mendelson, Morris; Giannopoulos, Constantina; Csank, Patricia A. R.; Holm, Susan L.


    Objective: The study addressed the hypothesis that adults reporting sexual abuse are more likely to exhibit a general tendency to ruminate on sadness. The relations between reported abuse, rumination on sadness, and dysphoria were also examined. Method: Undergraduate students (101 women and 100 men) reported on childhood and adult sexual abuse and…

  5. Online Child Sexual Abuse: The French Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Chawki


    Full Text Available Online child sexual abuse is an increasingly visible problem in society today. The introduction, growth and utilization of information and telecommunication technologies (ICTs have been accompanied by an increase in illegal activities. With respect to cyberspace the Internet is an attractive environment to sex offenders. In addition to giving them greater access to minors, extending their reach from a limited geographical area to victims all around the world, it allows criminals to alter or conceal their identities. Sexual predators, stalkers, child pornographers and child traffickers can use various concealment techniques to make it more difficult for investigators to identify them and find evidence. Others physically hide removable media and incriminating evidence in rented storage space, impeding an investigator’s job to find the truth. France has given the protection of children from sexual exploitation and abuse a high priority. Traditional laws have been amended to address the challenges of information technology, violence and to bring at the same time the country into line with international conventions on the rights of children. Accordingly this current article will analyze some of the techniques used by offenders to abuse children online, including recent legal and administrative developments in France concerning online children protection.

  6. Sexual abuse experienced by married Egyptian women. (United States)

    Elnashar, A M; El-Dien Ibrahim, M; Eldesoky, M M; Aly, O M; El-Sayd Mohamed Hassan, M


    To assess the prevalence of sexual abuse (SA) and associated factors among married women in Lower Egypt. A cross-sectional clinic- and hospital-based survey was designed for married women aged between 16 and 49 years. The study was conducted with 936 women from the Dakahlia Governorate, which is considered representative of Lower Egypt. Data were collected by personal interview using a questionnaire. The response rate was 93.6%. The most commonly reported frequency of sexual intercourse was 2 to 4 times per week. More than one-third of the women (36.2%) thought this was too frequent, and 11.5% reported being sexually abused in addition to other sexual problems. The educational level of the women; the presence of genital mutilation; parity, especially for those who had more than 5 deliveries; number of gynecologic visits; and history of gynecologic interventions were significantly or highly significantly associated with SA. The husbands' educational level and age were highly significantly correlated with their wives reporting SA, particularly when the men were illiterate or were smokers or drug users. The study's findings demonstrate an immediate need for the prevention of SA in Lower Egypt.

  7. Factors associated with child sexual abuse in Tanzania: a qualitative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Tanzania Journal of Health Research ... Methods: Key informant interviews were conducted among adults including parents of the ... factors for child sexual abuse, the type of perpetrators and the context into which these abuses take place.

  8. Against the Odds: The Impact of Woman Abuse on Maternal Response to Disclosure of Child Sexual Abuse (United States)

    Alaggia, Ramona; Turton, Jennifer V.


    Although the co-occurrence of woman abuse and child sexual abuse is high little research exists exploring the impact of woman abuse on maternal response to child sexual abuse (CSA). Findings from two qualitative studies indicate the form of woman abuse to have differential impact on maternal response. Mothers who were abused in non-physical ways,…

  9. A Model Linking Diverse Women's Child Sexual Abuse History with Sexual Risk Taking (United States)

    Watson, Laurel B.; Matheny, Kenneth B.; Gagne, Phill; Brack, Greg; Ancis, Julie R.


    The purpose of our study was to examine the role that child sexual abuse may play in body surveillance and sexual risk behaviors among undergraduate women. First, a measured variable path analysis was conducted, which assessed the relations among a history of child sexual abuse, body surveillance, and sexual risk behaviors. Furthermore, body…

  10. Childhood sexual abuse history and role reversal in parenting. (United States)

    Alexander, P C; Teti, L; Anderson, C L


    This study explored the main and interactive effects of sexual abuse history and relationship satisfaction on self-reported parenting, controlling for histories of physical abuse and parental alcoholism. The community sample consisted of 90 mothers of 5- to 8-year-old children. The sample was limited to those mothers currently in an intimate relationship, 19 of whom reported a history of childhood sexual abuse. Participants completed the Child Behavior Checklist, the Parenting Stress Inventory, the Family Cohesion Index, and questions assessing parent-child role reversal, history of abuse and parental alcoholism, and current relationship satisfaction. Results of analyses and multivariate analyses of covariance suggested that sexual abuse survivors with an unsatisfactory intimate relationship were more likely than either sexual abuse survivors with a satisfactory relationship or nonabused women to endorse items on a questionnaire of role reversal (defined as emotional overdependence upon one's child). Role reversal was not significantly predicted by histories of physical abuse or parental alcoholism or child's gender. While parenting stress was inversely predicted by the significant main effect of relationship satisfaction, neither parenting stress nor child behavior problems were predicted by the main effect of sexual abuse history or by the interaction between sexual abuse history and relationship satisfaction. These results suggest the unique relevance of sexual abuse history and relationship satisfaction in the prediction of a specific type of parent-child role reversal--namely, a mother's emotional overdependence upon her child.

  11. Predictors of sexual assertiveness: the role of sexual desire, arousal, attitudes, and partner abuse. (United States)

    Santos-Iglesias, Pablo; Sierra, Juan Carlos; Vallejo-Medina, Pablo


    This study was conducted to test interpersonal, attitudinal, and sexual predictors of sexual assertiveness in a Spanish sample of 1,619 men and 1,755 women aged 18-87 years. Participants completed measures of sexual assertiveness, solitary and dyadic sexual desire, sexual arousal, erectile function, sexual attitudes, and frequency of partner abuse. In men, higher sexual assertiveness was predicted by less non-physical abuse, more positive attitudes toward sexual fantasies and erotophilia, higher dyadic desire, and higher sexual arousal. In women, higher sexual assertiveness was predicted by less non-physical abuse, less solitary sexual desire and higher dyadic sexual desire, arousal, erotophilia, and positive attitudes towards sexual fantasies. Results were discussed in the light of prevention and educational programs that include training in sexual assertiveness skills.

  12. Child sexual abuse, links to later sexual exploitation/high-risk sexual behavior, and prevention/treatment programs. (United States)

    Lalor, Kevin; McElvaney, Rosaleen


    This paper reviews the literature on the nature and incidence of child sexual abuse, explores the link between child sexual abuse and later sexual exploitation, and reviews the literature on prevention strategies and effective interventions in child sexual abuse services. Our understanding of the international epidemiology of child sexual abuse is considerably greater than it was just 10 years ago, and studies from around the world are examined. Childhood sexual abuse can involve a wide number of psychological sequelae, including low self-esteem, anxiety, and depression. Numerous studies have noted that child sexual abuse victims are vulnerable to later sexual revictimization, as well as the link between child sexual abuse and later engagement in high-risk sexual behaviour. Survivors of child sexual abuse are more likely to have multiple sex partners, become pregnant as teenagers, and experience sexual assault as adults. Various models which attempt to account for this inter-relationship are presented; most invoke mediating variables such as low self-esteem, drug/alcohol use, PTSD and distorted sexual development. Prevention strategies for child sexual abuse are examined including media campaigns, school-based prevention programmes, and therapy with abusers. The results of a number of meta-analyses are examined. However, researchers have identified significant methodological limitations in the extant research literature that impede the making of recommendations for implementing existing therapeutic programmes unreservedly.

  13. Music therapy with sexually abused children. (United States)

    Robarts, Jacqueline


    Music is part of everyday life, and is generally regarded as therapeutic. There is increasing interdisciplinary interest in innate human musicality and the link between music and the emotions. Innate musicality is evident in the dynamic forms of emotional expression that both regulate and cultivate the foundations of meaning in human communication (intersubjectivity). This article discusses music therapy, drawing from interdisciplinary perspectives, and illustrated by case material of individual music therapy with a sexually abused child. Where the growth of mind and meaning is devastated at its core by early relational trauma, music, when used with clinical perception, may reach and work constructively with damaged children in an evolving, musically mediated therapeutic relationship.

  14. A prospective investigation of the impact of childhood sexual abuse on the development of sexuality. (United States)

    Noll, Jennie G; Trickett, Penelope K; Putnam, Frank W


    The sexual attitudes and activities of 77 sexually abused and 89 comparison women (mean age = 20.41, SD = 3.38) were assessed 10 years after disclosure in a longitudinal, prospective study of the long-term effects of childhood sexual abuse. Abused participants were more preoccupied with sex, younger at first voluntary intercourse, more likely to have been teen mothers, and endorsed lower birth controlefficacy than comparison participants. When psychological functioning earlier in development was examined, sexual preoccupation was predicted by anxiety, sexual aversion was predicted by childhood sexual behavior problems, and sexual ambivalence (simultaneous sexual preoccupation and sexual aversion) was predicted by pathological dissociation. Findings also indicate that biological father abuse may be associated with greater sexual aversion and sexual ambivalence.

  15. Multifaceted Glance on Childhood Sexual Abuse and Incest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslihan Okan Ibiloglu


    Full Text Available An experience of domestic violence can lead to permanent physical, mental, and psychological harms, whether the child is a direct victim or a witness. Although having no standard definition, it is generally agreed that childhood sexual abuse and incest are underreported. The majority of sexual abuse happens in childhood, with incest being the most common form. Incest is a sexual activity or assault between family members or close relatives and can be defined as the sexual abuse of the child, as well. On the other hand, pedophilic disorder is defined as having recurrent, intense sexual urges or behaviors involving sexual activity with a preadolescent child, over a period of at least 6 months. In this article, clinical, social, and legal effects from the sexual abuse of results are investigated. Results of our research will be hopefully helpful in informing social policy and guiding mental health practice.

  16. Clinical Characteristics Related to Severity of Sexual Abuse: A Study of Seriously Mentally Ill Youth. (United States)

    McClellan, Jon; And Others


    Variables associated with sexual abuse were examined among youth, ages 5 through 18, with severe mental illness. Review of 499 patient records revealed abuse as an isolated event in 62 cases, intermittent abuse in 61 cases, and chronic abuse in 150. Sexual abuse was associated with inappropriate sexual behaviors, substance abuse, and posttraumatic…

  17. Impact of parental sex education on child sexual abuse among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Aug 10, 2015 ... reduce shame, stigma, and self-blame for youth who have experienced sexual abuse6. ... tional level of parents, sex education and child sexual abuse among ..... Jean R. Changes in self-esteem during the middle school ...

  18. Sexual abuse of children in residential care : an international review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmerman, Margaretha; Schreuder, Pauline


    This paper reports the results of an international review of academic literature on sexual abuse in residential child and youth care, 1945-2011. The review focusses on questions related to the nature and scope of sexual abuse, on personal and institutional factors providing either protection or

  19. Evaluation of an Innovative Tool for Child Sexual Abuse Education (United States)

    Davis, Deborah Winders; Pressley-McGruder, Gloria; Jones, V. Faye; Potter, Deborah; Rowland, Michael; Currie, Melissa; Gale, Bruce


    Child sexual abuse poses a serious threat to public health and is often unreported, unrecognized, and untreated. Prevention, early recognition, and treatment are critically important to reduce long-term effects. Little data are available on effective methods of preventing child sexual abuse. The current research demonstrates a unique approach to…

  20. The Medical Analysis of Child Sexual Abuse Images (United States)

    Cooper, Sharon W.


    Analysis of child sexual abuse images, commonly referred to as pornography, requires a familiarity with the sexual maturation rating of children and an understanding of growth and development parameters. This article explains barriers that exist in working in this area of child abuse, the differences between subjective and objective analyses,…

  1. Mother-Child Communication about Sexual Abuse Prevention (United States)

    Walsh, Kerryann; Brandon, Leisa; Chirio, Lisa


    Two hundred and twelve Australian mothers completed an online survey examining features of mother-child communication about child sexual abuse prevention. Two-thirds (67.5%) of respondents had discussed child sexual abuse prevention with their children, with proportions varying according to age range (highest for mothers with children aged 5-12…

  2. Knowledge, attitudes and practices of parents on child sexual abuse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The role of parents in preventing child sexual abuse in the community in low-and-middle income countries has not been adequately emphasized. The objective of this study was to assess parents' knowledge, attitudes and practices on child sexual abuse and its prevention in Shinyanga district, Tanzania in ...

  3. The Child Sexual Abuse Epidemic in Addis Ababa: Some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The psychological trauma and physical complaints presented by victims include symptoms of anxiety and depression. Conclusion: It was found out that child sexual abuse cases presented to the legal office was not properly managed. Female children appear to be more prone to sexual abuse than their male counterparts.

  4. Sexual abuse predicts functional somatic symptoms : An adolescent population study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonvanie, Irma J.; van Gils, Anne; Janssens, Karin A. M.; Rosmalen, Judith G. M.

    The main aim of this study was to investigate the effect of childhood sexual abuse on medically not well explained or functional somatic symptoms (FSSs) in adolescents. We hypothesized that sexual abuse predicts higher levels of FSSs and that anxiety and depression contribute to this relationship.

  5. Application of Attachment Theory to the Study of Sexual Abuse. (United States)

    Alexander, Pamela C.


    Attachment theory provides useful conceptual framework for understanding familial antecedents and long-term consequences of sexual abuse. Themes associated with insecure parent-child attachment (rejection, role reversal/parentification, and fear/unresolved trauma) are frequently found in dynamics of families characterized by sexual abuse, and…

  6. An expressive art group intervention for sexually abused adolescent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: South Africa has a high prevalence of sexual abuse of children and adolescents. Among the numerous adverse consequences of sexual abuse is the difficulty survivors may experience in developing positive self-esteem and maintaining positive relationships. In a low resource setting, an expressive art group ...

  7. Child sexual abuse in Zimbabwe: prevention strategies for social ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The sexual abuse of children crosses cultural and economic divides. Sexual abuse can lead to long-lasting, even life-long consequences and is a serious problem on individuals, families and societies. Social workers by nature of their work, intervene at the individual, family and societal level. This paper will explore the ...

  8. Pathways to Adolescent Substance Use among Sexually Abused Girls. (United States)

    Bailey, Jennifer A.; McCloskey, Laura Ann


    This study examined the link between childhood sexual abuse and adolescent substance use among girls, and evaluated depressive self-concept and behavioral under-control (BUC) as pathways to substance use for sexually abused girls. Participants (n = 150) were drawn from a longitudinal study of the impact of domestic violence on the lives of women…

  9. Child Sexual Abuse and Exploitation: Guest Editor’s Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Salter


    Full Text Available One of the most unnerving aspects of child sexual abuse is that it is constantly manifesting in unexpected ways. The current Royal Commission into Institutional Responses to Child Sexual Abuse has collected testimony of abuse in churches, schools, out-of-home care, hospitals and religious communities, demonstrating the breadth of institutional arrangements whose structures and cultures have facilitated child sexual abuse. Cases of serious and prolonged sexual abuse in family contexts have been excluded from the terms of reference of the Royal Commission but nonetheless continue to surface in media reports. In 2013, twelve children were permanently removed from an extended family living in rural NSW in what has been described as one of the worst cases of child abuse in Australia, involving intergenerational incest going back at least three generations (Auebach 2014. Another recent high-profile case involved the use of the Internet to facilitate the sexual exploitation of an adopted child by his parents in Queensland (Ralston 2013. These cases challenge the received wisdom that child sexual abuse is characterised by the victimisation of one child by one opportunistic offender. Such incidents suggest instead that child sexual abuse takes varied and systemic forms, and can operate to perpetuate and entrench toxic cultures and power structures.   This special issue on Child Sexual Abuse and Exploitation is a timely contribution to ongoing efforts to understand the multiplicity of child sexual abuse. It is an interdisciplinary collection of insights drawn from criminology, sociology, psychiatry, psychology and psychoanalysis, and includes papers from academic researchers alongside academic practitioners whose writing is grounded in their work with affected individuals and communities. A key aim of the special issue is to contextualise the diversity of child sexual abuse socially, politically and historically, recognising the dynamic and iterative

  10. Emotional and Sexual Correlates of Child Sexual Abuse as a Function of Self-Definition Status. (United States)

    Vaillancourt-Morel, Marie-Pier; Godbout, Natacha; Bédard, Maryline Germain; Charest, Émilie; Briere, John; Sabourin, Stéphane


    Among individuals defined as having been sexually abused based on legal criteria, some will self-report having been abused and some will not. Yet, the empirical correlates of self-definition status are not well studied. Different definitions of abuse may lead to varying prevalence rates and contradictory findings regarding psychological outcomes. The present study examined whether, among legally defined sexual abuse survivors, identifying oneself as having experienced childhood sexual abuse (CSA) was associated with more severe abuse, negative emotional reactions toward the abuse, and current sexual reactions. A convenience sample of 1,021 French-speaking Canadians completed self-report questionnaires online. The prevalence of legally defined CSA was 21.3% in women and 19.6% in men, as compared to 7.1% in women and 3.8% in men for self-defined CSA. Among legally defined sexual abuse survivors, those who identified themselves as CSA survivors had been abused more frequently, were more likely to report a male aggressor, and more often described abuse by a parental figure than those who did not self-identify as abused. Further, self-defined CSA was associated with more negative postabuse reactions and sexual avoidance, whereas those not identifying as sexually abused were more likely to report sexual compulsion. © The Author(s) 2016.

  11. "Talking about child sexual abuse would have helped me": Young people who sexually abused reflect on preventing harmful sexual behavior. (United States)

    McKibbin, Gemma; Humphreys, Cathy; Hamilton, Bridget


    Harmful sexual behavior carried out by children and young people accounts for about half of all child sexual abuse perpetration. The aim of this study was to draw on the insights of young people who had been sexually abusive to enhance the current prevention agenda. The study involved semi-structured interviews with 14 young people and six treatment-providing workers. Sampling was purposive and the young people had previously completed a treatment program for harmful sexual behaviour in Victoria, Australia. The young people were approached as experts based on their previous experience of engaging in harmful sexual behavior. At the same time, their past abusive behavior was not condoned or minimised. Constructivist Grounded Theory was used to analyse the qualitative data. Opportunities for preventing harmful sexual behavior were the focus of the interviews with young people and workers. The research identified three opportunities for prevention, which involved acting on behalf of children and young people to: reform their sexuality education; redress their victimization experiences; and help their management of pornography. These opportunities could inform the design of initiatives to enhance the prevention agenda. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Childhood Experiences of Sexual Abuse and Later Parenting Practices among Non-Offending Mothers of Sexually Abused and Comparison Girls (United States)

    Kim, Kihyun; Trickett, Penelope K.; Putnam, Frank W.


    Objective: The primary goal of this study was to explore the relationship between childhood sexual abuse and parenting practices among non-offending mothers of sexually abused girls. Guided by a developmental-ecological perspective of parenting, several models with different potential pathways starting from the mothers' childhood experiences of…

  13. Prevalence of childhood sexual abuse among Mexican adolescents. (United States)

    Pineda-Lucatero, A G; Trujillo-Hernández, B; Millán-Guerrero, R O; Vásquez, C


    To determine the characteristics and prevalence of previous child sexual abuse among a group of Mexican junior high school students. A total of 1067 adolescents of both genders were selected to fill out a survey about child sexual abuse. The prevalence of child sexual abuse was 18.7% (n = 200). It was more frequent in girls (58%) than in boys (42%). Sexual abuse involved physical contact in 75% of those cases reporting abuse. The aggressors were neighbours (50.3%), relatives (36.8%) and strangers (13.9%). Abuse was committed through deception in 90% of the cases and involved physical mistreatment in 10% of the cases. Of the victims, 14.4% had spoken about the problem and 3.7% had taken legal action. And 9.6% of those surveyed stated that they required psychological counselling. In the population studied, the prevalency of child sexual abuse was greater than that reported in Mexico City (4.3-8.4%), although it was similar to that found in the Spanish child population (15-23%). The risk of sexual abuse is greater for girls and the principal aggressors are male neighbours, family friends and relatives; the abuse is committed in the home of the aggressor or the victim and very few cases are reported to the authorities.

  14. Veterinary Forensic Pathology of Animal Sexual Abuse. (United States)

    Stern, A W; Smith-Blackmore, M


    Animal sexual abuse (ASA) involves harm inflicted on animals for the purposes of human sexual gratification and includes such terms as bestiality, zoophilia, zoosadism, animal sexual assault, and others. The prevalence of ASA is not known, although it may be more common than is currently perceived. Veterinarians have the skills required to identify and document cases of ASA. This article reviews the terminology, legal definitions and forms of ASA, and its social and psychological context. An investigative approach is outlined, including an alternate light source examination; collection of swabs for DNA analysis; sampling vaginal washes, rectal washes, and toenails for trace evidence and biologic analyses; radiographic studies; and a complete forensic necropsy, including histopathology. Gross lesions identified in ASA victims include injuries to the anus, rectum, penis, scrotum, nipples, and vagina; the presence of foreign bodies; and abrasions, bruising, and other evidence of nonaccidental injury. Specialized procedures, including examination using alternate light sources and screening tests to identify human seminal fluid within samples from ASA victims, are of potential value but have not been validated for use in animals. © The Author(s) 2016.

  15. Imprisoning men in violence: Masculinity and sexual abuse: a view ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article explores sexual violence in male prisons in South Africa. It focuses on the social meanings and identities that surround sexual violence, particularly the ideas of manhood that shape both the perpetration of sexual abuses and how it is dealt with – or not. The dominant inmate culture endorses prison rape and ...

  16. A Prospective Investigation of the Impact of Childhood Sexual Abuse on the Development of Sexuality


    Noll, Jennie G.; Trickett, Penelope K.; Putnam, Frank W.


    The sexual attitudes and activities of 77 sexually abused and 89 comparison women (mean age = 20.41, SD = 3.38) were assessed 10 years after disclosure in a longitudinal, prospective study of the long-term effects of childhood sexual abuse. Abused participants were more preoccupied with sex, younger at first voluntary intercourse, more likely to have been teen mothers, and endorsed lower birth control efficacy than comparison participants. When psychological functioning earlier in development...

  17. Sexual Abuse of Older Nursing Home Residents: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenche Malmedal


    Full Text Available Despite an increasing literature related to elder abuse, sexual abuse of older persons in general and of vulnerable adults living in nursing homes in particular is still sparsely described. The purpose of this study was to assess the state of knowledge on the subject of sexual abuse against older nursing home residents through a literature review. Systematic searches in reference databases including Cinahl, Medline, OVID Nursing Database, ISI Web of Science, PsycINFO, Cochrane Library, and SveMed + were conducted. Through several phases of selection of the articles, using strict inclusion and exclusion criteria, six articles were chosen for a deeper examination. Findings from the review show that sexual abuse occurs in nursing homes and that both older women and men are victims of sexual abuse. Perpetrators appear mainly to be staff and other residents and mainly to be men, but also women abuse both older men and older women. Findings from the literature review show that there is a need for knowledge and further research on the topic of sexual abuse against older residents in nursing homes. Furthermore, there is a need for good policies and reporting systems, as an important step in seriously addressing sexual abuse against older persons.

  18. A Meta-Analysis of Disparities in Childhood Sexual Abuse, Parental Physical Abuse, and Peer Victimization Among Sexual Minority and Sexual Nonminority Individuals (United States)

    Marshal, Michael P.; Guadamuz, Thomas E.; Wei, Chongyi; Wong, Carolyn F.; Saewyc, Elizabeth; Stall, Ron


    Objectives. We compared the likelihood of childhood sexual abuse (under age 18), parental physical abuse, and peer victimization based on sexual orientation. Methods. We conducted a meta-analysis of adolescent school-based studies that compared the likelihood of childhood abuse among sexual minorities vs sexual nonminorities. Results. Sexual minority individuals were on average 3.8, 1.2, 1.7, and 2.4 times more likely to experience sexual abuse, parental physical abuse, or assault at school or to miss school through fear, respectively. Moderation analysis showed that disparities between sexual minority and sexual nonminority individuals were larger for (1) males than females for sexual abuse, (2) females than males for assault at school, and (3) bisexual than gay and lesbian for both parental physical abuse and missing school through fear. Disparities did not change between the 1990s and the 2000s. Conclusions. The higher rates of abuse experienced by sexual minority youths may be one of the driving mechanisms underlying higher rates of mental health problems, substance use, risky sexual behavior, and HIV reported by sexual minority adults. PMID:21680921

  19. A meta-analysis of disparities in childhood sexual abuse, parental physical abuse, and peer victimization among sexual minority and sexual nonminority individuals. (United States)

    Friedman, Mark S; Marshal, Michael P; Guadamuz, Thomas E; Wei, Chongyi; Wong, Carolyn F; Saewyc, Elizabeth; Stall, Ron


    We compared the likelihood of childhood sexual abuse (under age 18), parental physical abuse, and peer victimization based on sexual orientation. We conducted a meta-analysis of adolescent school-based studies that compared the likelihood of childhood abuse among sexual minorities vs sexual nonminorities. Sexual minority individuals were on average 3.8, 1.2, 1.7, and 2.4 times more likely to experience sexual abuse, parental physical abuse, or assault at school or to miss school through fear, respectively. Moderation analysis showed that disparities between sexual minority and sexual nonminority individuals were larger for (1) males than females for sexual abuse, (2) females than males for assault at school, and (3) bisexual than gay and lesbian for both parental physical abuse and missing school through fear. Disparities did not change between the 1990s and the 2000s. The higher rates of abuse experienced by sexual minority youths may be one of the driving mechanisms underlying higher rates of mental health problems, substance use, risky sexual behavior, and HIV reported by sexual minority adults.

  20. Factors associated with child sexual abuse confirmation at forensic examinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Welington dos Santos Silva

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study is identify potential factors associated with child sexual abuse confirmation at forensic examinations. The forensic files of children under 12 years of age reporting sexual abuse at the Nina Rodrigues Institute of Forensic Medicine in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil between January 2008 and December 2009 were reviewed. A multivariate analysis was conducted to identify factors associated with finding evidence of sexual abuse in forensic examinations. The proportion of cases confirmed by the forensic physician based on material evidence was 10.4%. Adjusted analysis showed that the variables place of birth, type of abuse reported, family relationship between the child and the perpetrator, and the interval between the reported abuse and the forensic examination were not independently associated with finding forensic evidence of sexual abuse. A report of penetration was associated with a five-fold greater likelihood of confirmation, while the victim being 10-11 years of age was associated with a two-fold of abuse confirmation than younger children. These findings should be taken into consideration when drawing up guidelines for the multidisciplinary evaluation of children suspected of being victims of sexual abuse and in deciding whether to refer the child for forensic examination.

  1. Parental stress response to sexual abuse and ritualistic abuse of children in day-care centers. (United States)

    Kelley, S J


    The purpose of this study was to examine the stress responses of parents to the sexual and ritualistic abuse of their children in day-care centers. Sixty-five mothers and 46 fathers of children sexually abused in day-care centers completed the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R), a measure of psychological distress. These scores were compared with a carefully matched comparison group of parents of 67 nonabused children. Parents of abused children also completed the Impact of Event Scale (IES), a measure which indexes symptoms that characterize posttraumatic stress disorder. Parents of sexually abused children reported significantly more psychological distress than parents of nonabused children, with parents of ritually abused children displaying the most severe psychological distress. Parents of abused children reported symptom profiles on the SCL-90-R and IES consistent with posttraumatic stress disorder.

  2. Sexual Dysfunctions: Relationship to Childhood Sexual Abuse and Early Family Experiences in a Nonclinical Sample. (United States)

    Kinzl, Johann F.; And Others


    This study evaluated 202 female university students for early familial experience and childhood sexual abuse (CSA) in relation to adult sexual disorders: (1) victims of multiple CSA more frequently reported sexual desire disorders; and (2) single-incident victims and nonvictims reported no significantly different rates of sexual dysfunction.…

  3. Evaluation of family drawings of physically and sexually abused children. (United States)

    Piperno, Francesca; Di Biasi, Stefania; Levi, Gabriel


    The aim of this study is to analyse the family drawings of two groups of physically and/or sexually abused children as compared to the drawings of non-abused children of a matched control group. The drawings by 12 physically abused, 12 sexually abused and 12 non-abused children, all aged between 5 years-old and 10 years-old, were assessed and compared. Family drawings were analysed using a specific Screening Inventory (FDI-Family Drawing Inventory). This Inventory takes into consideration such qualitative and quantitative variables as the quality of drawing, the children's perception of their family members and their own perception of themselves within the family system. The results have shown significant differences between the abused minors and the control group. Abused children are more likely to draw distorted bodies, the human figure is usually represented devoid of details, their drawings generally show clear signals of trauma and the majority of the abused children are likely to exclude their primary caregiver from the drawings. The "drawings of the family" of physically and/or sexually abused children significantly evidence a greater emotional distress then the drawings of the non-abused children of the matched control group.

  4. Insomnia, Nightmare Frequency, and Nightmare Distress in Victims of Sexual Abuse: The Role of Perceived Social Support and Abuse Characteristics (United States)

    Steine, Iris M.; Krystal, John H.; Nordhus, Inger H.; Bjorvatn, Bjorn; Harvey, Allison G.; Eid, Jarle; Gronli, Janne; Milde, Anne M.; Pallesen, Stale


    In this study of victims of sexual abuse, the aim was to investigate the role of perceived social support and abuse characteristics in self-reported insomnia, nightmare frequency, and nightmare distress. Four hundred sixty Norwegian victims of sexual abuse completed a questionnaire assessing perceived social support, abuse characteristics,…

  5. Prevalence and pattern of sexual abuse among children attending ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Dec 2, 2012 ... Child sexual abuse is defined in various ways, making it challenging to ... elementary schools (aged 6-12 years) and adolescent ... children registered at both clinics (CHOP and consultant clinic). ..... American Psychological.

  6. Counselling Strategies for Dealing with Sexual Abuse among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    First Lady

    online support group and resource centre for African-American sexual abuse survivors .... Younger children do well with developmental play groups, while older children and youth can ... indirect, avoidance); aggressive behaviour. ―I win, you ...

  7. Factors associated with child sexual abuse in Tanzania: a qualitative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors associated with child sexual abuse in Tanzania: a qualitative study. Mangi J. Ezekiel, Felix Kisanga, Idda H. Mosha, Amani Anaeli, Switbert R. Kamazima, Rose Mpembeni, Eustace P. Muhondwa ...

  8. prevalence of emotional, physical and sexual abuse of women

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    expended providing treatment for these injuries. 5 Afr Med J2001; 91: ... that violent practices are deployed by men against women in attempts to maintain ... child abuse, or sexual harassment; social support; and experiences with police and ...

  9. 8. Perceptions ofchild sexual abuse among convicted prisoners in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Methods: This was a qualitative study that was carried out among inmates ... study showed that the child sexual abuse is common in Zambia. .... Guba was used to ensure trustworthiness of the. 11 study. The criteria of credibility, transferability,.

  10. Magnitude and patterns of child sexual abuse: A retrospective cross ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    retrospective cross-sectional study among male pediatric patients at ... HIV on the first presentation of the incident to the emergency unit. ..... sexual abuse a qualitative interview study with ... exposure prophylaxis programme Malawi Med J.

  11. Rescue for sexually abused girls in Costa Rica. (United States)

    Treguear, T; Peters, L


    In San Jose, Costa Rica, the nongovernmental organization PROCAL has established two rescue homes for sexually abused girls 10-15 years of age. One of these homes is devoted to the care of pregnant girls. In almost all cases, the perpetrator was a male relative. Since girls are taught they must obey older male relatives, they are powerless to stop the abuse. When girls become pregnant as a result of sexual abuse, they face social ostracism and are blamed for their participation in sexual activity. PROCAL counsels the girls that they are victims of their own lack of power and provides them with skills and education they need to return to society and start a new life. The stories of two young girls who became pregnant as a result of sexual abuse and were helped by PROCAL are presented.

  12. [Child sexual abuse. Epidemiology, clinical diagnostics, therapy, and prevention]. (United States)

    Fegert, J M; Hoffmann, U; Spröber, N; Liebhardt, H


    The article provides an overview of the research on sexual abuse and the current political developments in Germany. First, the terminology of sexual child abuse is discussed, followed by the presentation of epidemiological data. The section on diagnostics and therapy shows that--because of mostly nonspecific indicators--the diagnosis of child sexual abuse is very difficult to define. Child sexual abuse is discussed as a traumatic experience for children and adolescents with different psychiatric and physical diseases. Current studies have shown that especially cognitive behavioral therapeutic-oriented approaches are effective in curing posttraumatic stress disorders. Based on the new German Child Protection Act, the focus lies on the clarification of confidentiality for medical professionals and their right to consulting services for child protection. In conclusion, guidelines and minimum standards for a child prevention and protection model are presented as well as institutional recommendations addressed to all institutions (also clinical) that take care of or treat children and adolescents.

  13. Mothers who were sexually abused during childhood are more likely to have a child victim of sexual violence


    Luis Eduardo Wearick-Silva; Saulo G. Tractenberg; Mateus L. Levandowski; Thiago W. Viola; Joelza M. A. Pires; Rodrigo Grassi-Oliveira


    Introduction: Recurrent exposure to childhood sexual abuse (CSA) seems to be higher among victims of sexual abuse. In this sense, experiences related to sexual violence can perpetuate within the family context itself in various ways. Here, we investigate the association between being exposed to CSA and having a child victim of sexual abuse. Method: We used a sample with 123 mothers, who were divided into 2 groups: one consisting of 41 mothers of sexually abused children and another consi...

  14. Obesity and sexual abuse in American Indians and Alaska Natives. (United States)

    Levine, James A; McCrady-Spitzer, Shelly K; Bighorse, William


    Mainstream American culture frequently minimizes the prevalence and significance of sexual abuse. Unfortunately, this denial of extensive victimization of women is also present in many underserved populations. In June 2007, Amnesty International released its report on sexual abuse in indigenous women, which states that, "One in three Native American or Alaska Native women will be raped at some point in their lives. Most do not seek justice because they know they will be met with inaction or indifference." This report highlighted an infrequently discussed issue namely, very high levels of sexual abuse in Native American and Alaska Native women. The relationship between sexual abuse and obesity has been delineated in several studies; overall about one quarter to one half of women with high levels of obesity have been sexually abused and it has been postulated that weight-gain serves as an adaptive response for many survivors of sexual abuse. It is also well known in Native American and Alaskan Native women that there is a high prevalence of obesity (about 40% greater than the population average) and that this obesity is associated with a many-fold greater risk of diabetes and increased risks of hypertension, cancer and cardiovascular disease. The link between the concomitantly high rates of sexual abuse and obesity in this population may or may not be partial causality but the issue is nonetheless important. If approaches are to succeed in reversing the trend of increasing levels of obesity in Native American and Alaskan Native women, the high prevalence of sexual abuse will need to be specifically and comprehensively addressed.

  15. Alleged child sexual abuse : The expert witness and the court


    Gumpert, Clara Hellner


    Background During the past decades, the evaluation of alleged sexual abuse has manifested itself as a major challenge for professionals working within the field of child maltreatment. A new role for psychologists and psychiatrists has been to give expert opinions regarding the credibility and reliability of child witnesses in legal proceedings. Although some aspects of evaluating suspected sexual abuse cases are close to traditional clinical work, other aspects necessitate ...

  16. Forensic Impact of the Child Sexual Abuse Medical Examination. (United States)

    Myers, John E. B.


    This commentary on an article (EC 619 279) about research issues at the interface of medicine and law concerning medical evaluation for child sexual abuse focuses on empirically testable questions: (1) the medical history--its accuracy, interviewing issues, and elicitation and preservation of verbal evidence of abuse; and, (2) expert testimony.…

  17. Sexual Abuse among Female Secondary School Students in Jos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Female sexual abuse is one of the most stressful life events and is associated with many adverse consequences including physical and mental health problems, substance abuse and criminality Methods: This study was a cross sectional study that was conducted among female secondary school students in ...

  18. 6. The Psychological Impact of Child Sexual Abuse on Primary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    school functioning, emotional reactions to the abuse were found to have ... feelings toward the perpetrator were negative or the ... When the child discloses sexual abuse, the parent's reaction .... divorced (n= 2, 5.88%) and single (n= 2, 5.88%).

  19. Child Sexual Abuse in Minna, Niger State Nigeria | Abdulkadir ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Child sexual abuse is a widespread form of child abuse that has remained the most under-reported. In our communities, much remains unknown of this act which often leaves victims traumatised with unsavoury memory that tends to affect their psychosocial development. The study evaluted the ...

  20. Teachers That Sexually Abuse Students: An Administrative and Legal Guide. (United States)

    Rubin, Stephen; Biggs, John S.

    This book examines sexual abuse and provides a plan of action for educators in schools. Following a historical perspective and a report on the extent of the problem in chapters 1 and 2, chapter 3 presents case studies of abuse involving adult males and female students, adult males and male students, and adult females and male students. Chapter 4,…

  1. Human immunodeficiency virus infection and child sexual abuse

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Child sexual abuse (CSA) has not previously been regarded as important in the overall ... episode of abuse is unknown," but because of greater risk of mucosal trauma, the risk is .... Children and adolescents started on HIV PEP should receive sufficient ... A clear message should be proclaimed by all political and community ...

  2. The Amsterdam Sexual Abuse Case (ASAC)-study in day care centers: longitudinal effects of sexual abuse on infants and very young children and their parents, and the consequences of the persistence of abusive images on the internet. (United States)

    Lindauer, Ramón J L; Brilleslijper-Kater, Sonja N; Diehle, Julia; Verlinden, Eva; Teeuw, Arianne H; Middeldorp, Christel M; Tuinebreijer, Wilco; Bosschaart, Thekla F; van Duin, Esther; Verhoeff, Arnoud


    Little research has been done on the signs of child sexual abuse (CSA) in infants and very young children, or on the consequences that such abuse - including the persistence of the abusive pornographic images on the internet - might have for the children and their parents. The effects of CSA can be severe, and a variety of risk- and protective factors, may influence those effects. CSA may affect the psychosocial-, emotional-, cognitive-, and physical development of children, their relationships with their parent(s), and the relations between parents. In the so called 'the Amsterdam sexual abuse case' (ASAC), infants and very young children were victimized by a day-care employee and most of the victims were boys. Research involving the children and their parents would enable recognition of the signs of CSA in very young children and understanding the consequences the abuse might have on the long term. The proposed research project consists of three components: (I) An initial assessment to identify physical- or psychological signs of CSA in infants and very young children who are thought to have been sexually abused (n = 130); (II) A cross-sequential longitudinal study of children who have experienced sexual abuse, or for whom there are strong suspicions; (III) A qualitative study in which interviews are conducted with parents (n = 25) and with therapists treating children from the ASAC. Parents will be interviewed on the perceived condition of their child and family situation, their experiences with the service responses to the abuse, the effects of legal proceedings and media attention, and the impact of knowing that pornographic material has been disseminated on the internet. Therapists will be interviewed on their clinical experiences in treating children and parents. The assessments will extend over a period of several years. The outcome measures will be symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), dissociative symptoms, age-inappropriate sexual behaviors

  3. Childhood attachment, childhood sexual abuse, and onset of masturbation among adult sexual offenders. (United States)

    Smallbone, Stephen W; McCabe, Billee-Anne


    Written autobiographies of 48 incarcerated adult male sexual offenders (22 rapists, 13 intrafamilial child molesters, and 13 extrafamilial child molesters) were used to generate retrospective self-report measures of their childhood maternal and paternal attachment, childhood sexual abuse experiences, and onset of masturbation. Contrary to expectation, the offenders as a combined group more often reported secure than they did insecure childhood maternal and paternal attachment. There were no differences between the three offender subgroups with respect to maternal attachment; however the rapists and the intrafamilial child molesters were more likely to report insecure paternal attachment than were the extrafamilial child molesters. There were no differences between these offender subgroups in the frequency with which childhood sexual abuse was reported. However, offenders with insecure paternal attachment were more likely to report having been sexually abused than were those with secure paternal attachment. Sexually abused offenders in turn reported earlier onset of masturbation than did those who were not sexually abused. These results are consistent with contemporary attachment models linking insecure childhood attachment to childhood sexual abuse, and with traditional conditioning models linking childhood sexual abuse, early masturbation, and sexual offending.

  4. Simulating Memory Impairment for Child Sexual Abuse. (United States)

    Newton, Jeremy W; Hobbs, Sue D


    The current study investigated effects of simulated memory impairment on recall of child sexual abuse (CSA) information. A total of 144 adults were tested for memory of a written CSA scenario in which they role-played as the victim. There were four experimental groups and two testing sessions. During Session 1, participants read a CSA story and recalled it truthfully (Genuine group), omitted CSA information (Omission group), exaggerated CSA information (Commission group), or did not recall the story at all (No Rehearsal group). One week later, at Session 2, all participants were told to recount the scenario truthfully, and their memory was then tested using free recall and cued recall questions. The Session 1 manipulation affected memory accuracy during Session 2. Specifically, compared with the Genuine group's performance, the Omission, Commission, or No Rehearsal groups' performance was characterized by increased omission and commission errors and decreased reporting of correct details. Victim blame ratings (i.e., victim responsibility and provocativeness) and participant gender predicted increased error and decreased accuracy, whereas perpetrator blame ratings predicted decreased error and increased accuracy. Findings are discussed in relation to factors that may affect memory for CSA information. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Perceptions of Childhood Sexual Abuse Survivors: Development and Initial Validation of a New Scale to Measure Stereotypes of Adult Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse (United States)

    Zafar, Sadia; Ross, Erin C.


    The Childhood Sexual Abuse Stereotypes Scale was developed to assess stereotypes of adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse. Scale items were derived from two studies that elicited cultural and personal beliefs about, and emotions experienced towards adult childhood sexual abuse survivors among university undergraduates. Two scales, Emotions and…

  6. Childhood Sexual Abuse in Adolescents Adjudicated for Sexual Offenses: Mental Health Consequences and Sexual Offending Behaviors. (United States)

    Morais, Hugo B; Alexander, Apryl A; Fix, Rebecca L; Burkhart, Barry R


    Most studies on the mental health consequences of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) focus predominantly on CSA survivors who do not commit sexual offenses. The current study examined the effects of CSA on 498 male adolescents adjudicated for sexual offenses who represent the small portion of CSA survivors who engage in sexual offenses. The prevalence of internalizing symptoms, parental attachment difficulties, specific sexual offending behaviors, and risk for sexually offending were compared among participants with and without a history of CSA. Results indicated that participants with a history of CSA were more likely to be diagnosed with major depression and posttraumatic stress disorder than those who did not report a history of CSA. A history of CSA was also positively correlated with risk for sexually offending and with specific offense patterns and consensual sexual behaviors. No significant differences emerged on parental attachment difficulties. These results highlight that adolescents adjudicated for sexual offenses with a history of CSA present with differences in sexual and psychological functioning as well as markedly different offending patterns when compared with those without a CSA history. Clinical implications and future directions are discussed.

  7. Maltreatment and sexual abuse at home concerning schooling adolscents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuranis Ibeth Henríquez Santoya


    Full Text Available ResumenEl presente estudio consistió en determinar la presencia del maltrato infantil y abuso sexual en el hogar en adolescentes escolarizados con edades comprendidas entre 14 y 16 años, matriculados a 2010 en colegios públicos de la de la ciudad de Santa Marta. Los participantes fueron 229 jóvenes. Las variables medidas fueron la edad, el tipo de maltrato y el género. Los resultados indican que la tendencia al maltrato psicológico fue de 29.3%, de maltrato físico 13.3% y de abuso sexual de 32.3%. Con relación al género se halló que las mujeres han sido objeto en mayor porcentaje de maltrato físico y abuso sexual que los hombres y éstos han sido objeto de mayor maltrato psicológico que las mujeres; respecto a la edad los jóvenes de 14 años presentaron mayor porcentaje de maltrato y abuso que en los otros rangos etarios. Se concluye que tres (3 de cada 10 estudiantes ha sido objeto de abuso sexual, tres ha sido objeto de maltrato psicológico y uno de maltrato físico. (DUAZARY 2011 No. 2, 262 - 269AbstractThe present study was to determine the presence of child maltreatment and sexual abuse at home, concerning schooling adolescents, aged between 14 and 16 years enrolled in public schools belonging to the city of Santa Marta. Participants were 229 young persons. The variables were age, abuse and gender. The results point out: 29.3% for psychological abuse, 32.3% for sexual abuse, and 13.3% for physical abuse. Concerning the gender it was detected that women have been at a higher rate aim of physical mistreatment and sexual abuse than men, but on the other hand men are aim of psychological abuse. With regard to age, young people of 14 years, revealed a higher percentage of maltreatment than the elder ones. We conclude that three of each schooling boy has been object of sexual abuse; three of them have been injured of psychological mistreatment and one of physical abuse.Keywords: abuse; sexual abuse; maltreatment; gender; adolescents

  8. See No Evil: Sexual Abuse of Children by Teachers. (United States)

    Shoop, Robert J.


    Sexual abuse of students by teachers is a serious problem. A 1998 "Education Week" nationwide study identified 244 cases of inappropriate sexual behavior during one six-month period. Overly affectionate behavior, inappropriate noneducation-related contact, and harassing behaviors are warning signs. Administrators should craft policies, pay…

  9. Sexually Abused Male Adolescents: How Vulnerable Are They? (United States)

    Chandy, Joseph M.; Blum, Robert Wm.; Resnick, Michael D.


    Examined the suicidal involvement, disordered eating behaviors, sexual risk taking, delinquent behaviors, substance use, and school performance of male teenagers (N=370) with a reported history of sexual abuse. Results show that, except for school performance, this group had higher rates of adverse correlates in the above areas than did a control…

  10. Sexual Harassment and Abuse of Adolescent Schoolgirls in South India (United States)

    Leach, Fiona; Sitaram, Shashikala


    This article reports on a small exploratory study of adolescent girls' experiences of sexual harassment and abuse while attending secondary school in Karnataka State, South India. In South Asia, public discussion of sexual matters, especially relating to children, is largely taboo, and the study uncovers a hidden aspect of schooling, which…

  11. Childhood Sexual Abuse as a Predictor of Adult Female Sexual Dysfunction: A Study of Couples Seeking Sex Therapy. (United States)

    Sarwer, David B.; Durlak, Joseph A.


    A study of 359 married women who sought sex therapy with their spouses found a connection between adult female sexual dysfunction and childhood sexual abuse. Abuse involving sexual penetration was specifically associated with adult sexual dysfunction. Future research on additional variables that contribute to sexual dysfunction is urged. (CR)

  12. Female Sexual-Offenders: Personality Pathology as a Mediator of the Relationship between Childhood Sexual Abuse History and Sexual Abuse Perpetration against Others (United States)

    Christopher, Kelly; Lutz-Zois, Catherine J.; Reinhardt, Amanda R.


    Objective: The goal was to examine, in an all female sample, possible mechanisms for the relationship between a history of childhood sexual abuse and the likelihood of perpetrating sexual abuse as an adult. It was hypothesized that Borderline and Antisocial Personality Disorder tendencies would mediate the relationship between these two forms of…

  13. Sexual self-schemas of female child sexual abuse survivors: relationships with risky sexual behavior and sexual assault in adolescence. (United States)

    Niehaus, Ashley F; Jackson, Joan; Davies, Stephanie


    Childhood sexual trauma has been demonstrated to increase survivors' risk for engaging in unrestricted sexual behaviors and experiencing adolescent sexual assault. The current study used the sexual self-schema construct to examine cognitive representations of sexuality that might drive these behavioral patterns. In Study 1 (N = 774), we attempted to improve the content validity of the Sexual Self Schema Scale for child sexual abuse (CSA) survivors, introducing a fourth sexual self-schema factor titled the "immoral/irresponsible" factor. In Study 2 (N = 1150), the potential differences in sexual self-views, as assessed by the four sexual self-schema factors, between CSA survivors and non-victims were explored. In addition, Study 2 evaluated how these sexual self-schema differences may contribute to participation in unrestricted sexual behaviors and risk for sexual assault in adolescence. Results indicated that a history of CSA impacted the way women viewed themselves as a sexual person on each of the four factors. CSA survivors were found to view themselves as more open and possessing more immoral/irresponsible cognitions about sexuality as compared to women who did not have a CSA history. In addition, the CSA survivors endorsed less embarrassment and passionate/romantic views of their sexual selves. The interaction of CSA severity and the sexual self-schemas explained variance in adolescent sexual assault experiences above and beyond the severity of CSA history and participation in risky sexual behaviors. The findings suggest that sexual self-views may serve to moderate the relationship between CSA and adolescent sexual assault. Implications of these findings and directions for future research are discussed.

  14. The International Epidemiology of Child Sexual Abuse: A Continuation of Finkelhor (1994) (United States)

    Pereda, Noemi; Guilera, Georgina; Forns, Maria; Gomez-Benito, Juana


    Objective: The purpose of this paper was to compare the prevalence rates of child sexual abuse reported by [Finkelhor, D. (1994). "The international epidemiology of child sexual abuse." "Child Abuse & Neglect," 18 (5), 409-417] with those found in recent publications in order to confirm the widespread prevalence of child sexual abuse. Methods:…

  15. Child Sexual Abuse Survivors with Dissociative Amnesia: What's the Difference? (United States)

    Wolf, Molly R.; Nochajski, Thomas H.


    Although the issue of dissociative amnesia in adult survivors of child sexual abuse has been contentious, many research studies have shown that there is a subset of child sexual abuse survivors who have forgotten their abuse and later remembered it. Child sexual abuse survivors with dissociative amnesia histories have different formative and…

  16. Sexual dysfunction risk and quality of life among women with a history of sexual abuse. (United States)

    Carreiro, Andrea V; Micelli, Ligia P; Sousa, Maria H; Bahamondes, Luis; Fernandes, Arlete


    To assess scores for sexual dysfunction risk and quality of life in a cohort of women in Brazil who had a history of sexual abuse. The present study was a secondary analysis of a cross-sectional study conducted between February 1, 2011 and May 31, 2012. Women aged 18-49years attending a family planning clinic at the University of Campinas, Brazil, who were in a heterosexual relationship and reported engaging in sexual intercourse in the 4weeks prior to the study were enrolled. Participants were asked to complete the World Health Organization Quality of Life Questionnaire, Abbreviated Version, and the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) questionnaire. Data were grouped based on a history of sexual abuse. An FSFI score of no higher than 26.55 was considered the cut off for sexual dysfunction. The prevalence of FSFI-defined sexual dysfunction was higher in participants with a history of sexual abuse (Phistory of sexual abuse had significantly lower scores across all quality of life domains. Increased risk of sexual dysfunction among women with a history of sexual abuse suggests potential problems in the sex lives of individuals in this population. Healthcare professionals should be alert to this diagnosis. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Three Types of Memory for Childhood Sexual Abuse: Relationships to Characteristics of Abuse and Psychological Symptoms (United States)

    Crowley, M. Sue


    Data from a clinical sample (N = 88) reporting childhood sexual abuse was compared by types of memory, abuse characteristics, and psychological symptoms. Three types of memory were identified from a questionnaire ("Always" n = 27 [31%], "Recovered" n = 41 [46%], and "Both" n = 20 [23%]). When compared with narrative…

  18. The Enough Abuse Campaign: Building the Movement to Prevent Child Sexual Abuse in Massachusetts (United States)

    Schober, Daniel J.; Fawcett, Stephen B.; Bernier, Jetta


    This case study describes the Enough Abuse Campaign, a multidisciplinary, statewide effort to prevent child sexual abuse in Massachusetts. The study uses the Institute of Medicine's Framework for Collaborative Community Action on Health to provide a systematic description of the campaign's process of implementation, which includes: (a) developing…

  19. Psychological Sequelae of Childhood Sexual Abuse: Abuse-Related Characteristics, Coping Strategies, and Attributional Style (United States)

    Steel, Jennifer; Sanna, Lawrence; Hammond, Barbara; Whipple, James; Cross, Herbert


    Objective: The aim of this study was to test a model predicting the contribution of abuse-related characteristics and mediating variables such as coping and attributional style in the development of psychological sequelae in adults reporting a history of child sexual abuse (CSA). Methodology: Two hundred and eighty-five males and females from…

  20. A child sexual abuse research project: a brief endnote. (United States)

    Roberts, Susan; Vanstone, Maurice


    There is a dearth of research on sexual abuse perpetrated by educators. Although the problem is receiving increasing attention, little emphasis has been placed on abuse directed at younger schoolchildren and on offenders' accounts of this form of abuse. Here, we attempt to address this gap in knowledge by exploring the narratives of five convicted, imprisoned male child sexual abusers, each of whom worked with children in educational settings in the United Kingdom. We draw on four themes that emerged from detailed interviews with offenders, namely: the power of reputation, authority and control, the "front of invulnerability," and disclosure of abuse. We conclude by considering the implications of our work for policy and practice.

  1. Evaluation of a child sexual abuse prevention program. (United States)

    Chasan-Taber, L; Tabachnick, J


    A half-million children are believed to be sexually abused each year in the United States. In 1995, the American Medical Association declared sexual assault "a silent violent epidemic." The majority of efforts to stop child sexual abuse have focused on punishing abusers and treating victims and their families; prevention programs are uncommon and rely on educating children to report sexual abuse. This case study describes the evaluation of the first public health campaign designed to target adults for prevention. A baseline assessment of attitudes, awareness, knowledge, and policies was conducted in Vermont to identify facilitators and barriers to adult prevention of child sexual abuse. These included predisposing factors (50% of Vermont residents did not know the characteristics of an abuser), enabling factors (60% of Vermont residents did not know where to refer someone who may have sexual behavior problems), and reinforcing factors (when focus group participants knew an abuser, they were less likely to take action). This process guided the intervention, which included a broad-based media campaign targeting adults; a one-to-one communications strategy that provided information to agencies working with families at risk and a toll-free helpline for adults in an abuse situation; and a systems change strategy designed to educate decision-makers and leaders. Program evaluation measures included a random-digit dial survey, focus groups, a survey of Vermont decision-makers, and other data sets. The successes and limitations of these interventions, both as strategies in themselves and as data sources for evaluation, are discussed.

  2. [Migraine type childhood headache aggravated by sexual abuse: case report]. (United States)

    Kaleağasi, Hakan; Ozge, Aynur; Toros, Fevziye; Kar, Hakan


    Although the vast majority of chronic headache is idiopathic in origin, child abuse can be a very rare cause of paroxysmal headaches in children. The aim of this report was to present a case of migraine headache aggravated after sexual abuse, which did not respond to treatment. An 11-year-old girl admitted to the outpatient department of the Neurology Clinic with headache complaint for the past two years. Neurological examination, neuroimaging and laboratory tests were normal. According to the International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD)-II criteria, the headache was diagnosed as migraine without aura and treatment as prophylaxis was planned. Her headache did not respond to treatment, so she was consulted with the Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and diagnosed as major depressive disorder. During one of the psychological interviews, she confessed that she had been sexually abused by her mother's boyfriend for two years. After this confession and punishment of the abuser, her headache improved dramatically. The prevalence of physical, sexual, and emotional abuse during childhood has been estimated between 13% and 27%, and these children may suffer chronic pain, headache or depression. Sexual abuse has been strongly associated with the migraine-depression phenotype when abuse first occurred before the age of 12 years. Despite the high prevalence of abuse, many physicians do not routinely ask about abuse history. In conclusion, child abuse must be kept in mind in intractable childhood headache. A multidisciplinary approach with the Departments of Forensic Sciences and Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and detailed psychiatric evaluation should be useful in these cases.

  3. Child Sexual Abuse Fact Sheet for Parents, Teachers, and Other Caregivers (United States)

    National Child Traumatic Stress Network, 2009


    Child sexual abuse is any interaction between a child and an adult (or another child) in which the child is used for the sexual stimulation of the perpetrator or an observer. Children of all ages, races, ethnicities, and economic backgrounds are vulnerable to sexual abuse. Children who have been sexually abused may display a range of emotional and…

  4. The Relationship between Childhood Sexual Abuse and Sexual Dysfunction in Jamaican Adults (United States)

    Swaby, Antoneal N.; Morgan, Kai A. D.


    This study examined the associations between early traumatic sexualization and later sexual dysfunction in a sample of 100 Jamaican adults while identifying the linkages between age, frequency of abuse, and gender on sexual functioning. Participants were selected via purposive and convenience sampling and divided equally into comparison and…

  5. Anismus as a marker of sexual abuse. Consequences of abuse on anorectal motility. (United States)

    Leroi, A M; Berkelmans, I; Denis, P; Hémond, M; Devroede, G


    Anorectal manometry was performed in 40 women, who consulted for functional disorders of the lower gastrointestinal tract and had been sexually abused. Anismus, defined as a rise in anal pressure during straining, was observed in 39 of 40 abused women, but in only six of 20 healthy control women (P anismus, as well as the group of healthy controls. A decreased amplitude of anal voluntary contraction and an increased threshold volume in perception of rectal distension were observed in both abused and nonabused patients. A decreased amplitude of rectoanal inhibitory reflex, little rise in rectal pressure upon straining, frequent absence of initial contraction during rectal distension, and increased resting pressure at the lower part of the anal canal were observed in abused but not in nonabused patients, suggesting that these abnormalities, in association with anismus, suggest a pattern of motor activity in the anal canal that could be indicative of sexual abuse.

  6. Abuse (United States)

    ... physical injury, leave marks, or cause pain. Sexual abuse is any type of sexual contact between an adult and anyone younger than 18; between a significantly older child and a younger child; or if one person ...

  7. Characteristics of Sexually Abused Children and Their Nonoffending Mothers Followed by Child Welfare Services: The Role of a Maternal History of Child Sexual Abuse. (United States)

    Baril, Karine; Tourigny, Marc; Paillé, Pierre; Pauzé, Robert


    Considering the importance of mother's support in the adaptation of a sexually abused child, it is relevant to determine if the mothers and children involved in an intergenerational cycle of child sexual victimization differ from dyads in which only the child has been abused. The purpose of this study was to compare mother-child dyads with sexually abused children according to whether the mother had herself been victim of child sexual abuse. The sample included 87 dyads with sexually abused children aged 3-18 years old and their mothers (44 reporting maternal and child abuse), followed by social welfare services of the province of Quebec (Canada). The two groups of mothers were compared on their past family abuse experiences and past family relations, their mental health history, their current psychological distress, their parenting behaviors, and their current levels of family functioning. Children were compared on their adaptation. Multivariate analyses indicated that mothers reporting child sexual abuse were more likely to report more other maltreatments in their childhood and greater prevalence of lifetime history of alcohol abuse disorders, dysthymia, and panic disorder compared with mothers who had not experienced CSA. Compared to children whose mothers had not experienced CSA, those whose mothers had experienced CSA showed higher rates of problems behaviors and were more likely to report having been sexually abused by a trusted person. These results highlight the specific clinical needs for the assessment and treatment for sexually abused children whose mothers experienced child sexual abuse.

  8. The Diagnostic Utility of the Child Sexual Behavior Inventory for Sexual Abuse: A Systematic Review. (United States)

    Vrolijk-Bosschaart, Thekla F; Verlinden, Eva; Langendam, Miranda W; De Smet, Vivienne; Teeuw, Arianne H; Brilleslijper-Kater, Sonja N; Benninga, Marc A; Lindauer, Ramón J L


    Children with alleged child sexual abuse (CSA) need to be assessed systematically. The use of validated instruments during the assessment, like the Child Sexual Behavior Inventory (CSBI), could add diagnostic value. We aim to assess the diagnostic utility of the CSBI to differentiate between sexually abused and non-abused children. We conducted a systematic review. We searched the electronic databases MEDLINE and PsychInfo for studies comparing CSBI scores in sexually abused children and non-abused children (2-12 years old). Two independent reviewers extracted data and assessed the methodological quality. We included 7 (out of 1048) articles. The CSBI total scores were significantly higher in CSA-victims compared with non-abused children (in case-control settings). However, in children with suspected CSA, the results were ambiguous. One study reported significant differences. Another study reported weak diagnostic ability for the CSBI-3 in children with suspected CSA (a sensitivity and specificity of 0.50, with a positive predictive value of 0.28, and a negative predictive value of 0.72). Research on the diagnostic utility of the CSBI for suspected CSA is limited and shows disappointing results. Until more research is done, the CSBI should not be used on its own to differentiate between sexually abused and non-abused children.

  9. Interdisciplinary action of nurses to children with suspected sexual abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia Leão Ciuffo


    Full Text Available Objective. Understanding the role of nurses as members of interdisciplinary teams in the care of children with suspected sexual abuse. Methodology. This is a qualitative research based on the sociological phenomenology of Alfred Schutz. In 2008 were interviewed eleven nurses who worked in reference institutions for the care of child victims of sexual abuse in Rio de Janeiro. Results. The category called 'Interacting with other professionals in child care' emerged from the analysis of performance of professionals. The intersubjective relations between the nurses and the interdisciplinary team will enable to understand the intent of care from the perspective of social, emotional and psychological needs of children and their families. Conclusion. Interdisciplinarity favored the development of actions based on acceptance, listening and agreements on possible solutions in the care of children with suspected sexual abuse.

  10. Base Rates, Multiple Indicators, and Comprehensive Forensic Evaluations: Why Sexualized Behavior Still Counts in Assessments of Child Sexual Abuse Allegations (United States)

    Everson, Mark D.; Faller, Kathleen Coulborn


    Developmentally inappropriate sexual behavior has long been viewed as a possible indicator of child sexual abuse. In recent years, however, the utility of sexualized behavior in forensic assessments of alleged child sexual abuse has been seriously challenged. This article addresses a number of the concerns that have been raised about the…

  11. Child Sexual Abuse and Women's Sexual Health: The Contribution of CSA Severity and Exposure to Multiple Forms of Childhood Victimization (United States)

    Lacelle, Celine; Hebert, Martine; Lavoie, Francine; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E.


    Research studies have provided increasing evidence for the potential adverse impact of child sexual abuse on women's sexual health. The present study examined the association between child sexual abuse and sexual health while controlling for various forms of childhood victimization. Self-report questionnaires were administered to 889 young women…

  12. Childhood sexual abuse and attachment: An intergenerational perspective


    Kwako, Laura E.; Noll, Jennie G.; Putnam, Frank W.; Trickett, Penelope K.


    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is a recognized risk factor for various negative outcomes in adult survivors and their offspring. We used the Dynamic-Maturational Model of attachment theory as a framework for exploring the impact of maternal CSA on children’s attachment relationships in the context of a longitudinal sample of adult survivors of CSA and non-abused comparison mothers and their children. Results indicated that children of CSA survivors were more likely to have extreme strategies of...

  13. Abuse Characteristics and Individual Differences Related to Disclosing Childhood Sexual, Physical, and Emotional Abuse and Witnessed Domestic Violence. (United States)

    Bottoms, Bette L; Peter-Hagene, Liana C; Epstein, Michelle A; Wiley, Tisha R A; Reynolds, Carrie E; Rudnicki, Aaron G


    Many adult survivors of childhood abuse hide their victimization, avoiding disclosure that could identify perpetrators, end the abuse, and bring help to the victim. We surveyed 1,679 women undergraduates to understand disclosure of childhood sexual, physical, and emotional abuse, and, for the first time, witnessed domestic violence, which many consider to be emotionally abusive. A substantial minority of victims failed to ever disclose their sexual abuse (23%), physical abuse (34%), emotional abuse (20%), and witnessed domestic violence (29%). Overall, abuse-specific factors were better predictors of disclosure than individual-level characteristics. Disclosure of sexual abuse was related to experiencing more frequent abuse (by the same and by multiple perpetrators), being more worried about injury and more upset at the time of the abuse, and self-labeling as a victim of abuse. Disclosure of physical abuse was related to experiencing more frequent abuse (by the same and multiple perpetrators), being less emotionally close to the perpetrator, being older when the abuse ended, being more worried and upset, and self-labeling as a victim. Disclosure of emotional abuse was associated with being older when the abuse ended, and being more worried and upset. Disclosure was unrelated to victim demographic characteristics or defensive reactions (dissociative proneness, fantasy proneness, repressive coping style, and temporary forgetting), except that among physical and emotional abuse victims, repressors were less likely to disclose than non-repressors. Disclosure of witnessing domestic violence was not significantly related to any factors measured. © The Author(s) 2014.

  14. [Menstruation disorders more frequent in women with a history of sexual abuse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, C.W.; Labots-Vogelesang, S.M.; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.


    OBJECTIVE: To determine the relationship between menstruation disorders and prior sexual abuse. DESIGN: Questionnaire investigation. METHOD: A questionnaire was developed consisting of 50 questions about menstruation disorders, premenstrual syndrome and sexual abuse. The questionnaire was mailed to

  15. Teen birth rates in sexually abused and neglected females. (United States)

    Noll, Jennie G; Shenk, Chad E


    Prospectively track teen childbirths in maltreated and nonmaltreated females and test the hypothesis that child maltreatment is an independent predictor of subsequent teen childbirth over and above demographic characteristics and other risk factors. Nulliparous adolescent females (N = 435) aged 14 to 17 years were assessed annually through age 19 years. Maltreated females were referred by Child Protective Services agencies for having experienced substantiated sexual abuse, physical abuse, or neglect within the preceding 12 months. Comparison females were matched on race, family income, age and family constellation. Teen childbirth was assessed via self-report during annual interviews. Births were confirmed using hospital delivery records. Seventy participants gave birth during the study, 54 in the maltreated group and 16 in the comparison group. Maltreated females were twice as likely to experience teen childbirth after controlling for demographic confounds and known risk factors (odds ratio = 2.17, P = 0.01). Birth rates were highest for sexually abused and neglected females. Sexual abuse and neglect were both independent predictors of teen childbirth after controlling for demographic confounds, other risk factors and alternative forms of maltreatment occurring earlier in development. Results provide evidence that sexual abuse and neglect are unique predictors of subsequent teen childbirth. Partnerships between protective service providers and teen childbirth prevention strategists hold the best promise for further reducing the US teen birth rate. Additional research illuminating the pathways to teen childbirth for differing forms of maltreatment is needed so that tailored interventions can be realized.

  16. Picture Book on Raising Children's Awareness Against Sexual Abuse


    Christy, Evelyn; Handojo, Priska Febrinia


    One of the common problems leading to the sexual abuse is that the child is not aware about it. This project aims to raise children's awareness against sexual abuse through picture book. This picture book use realistic fiction as the genre of my picture book. The purpose is to make the children familiar with the story and can relate it to their life. This picture book uses the narrative theory as the framework of the story. The narrative story is consist of abstract, orientation, complication...

  17. Endemic Sexual Violence and Abuse: Contexts and Dispositions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Nicole Rayment-McHugh


    Full Text Available Endemic sexual violence and abuse has been observed in a number of specific circumstances, most notably conflict zones, remote and marginalised communities, and religious and state institutions. In this article we examine several documented examples and argue that a similar set of causal processes are at work in all of these otherwise apparently disparate circumstances. Rather than construing the problem as ‘organised’ sexual abuse, we present the problem in terms of the breakdown (or disorganisation of usual individual, situational and ecological constraints.

  18. Factors influencing children to self-disclose sexual abuse. (United States)

    Paine, Mary L; Hansen, David J


    Self-disclosure by victims of child sexual abuse (CSA) is critical to initiate legal and therapeutic intervention. Unfortunately, research indicates that lengthy delays in disclosure and even nondisclosure are common. A comprehensive review of the clinical and research literature on CSA and an overview of related bodies of literature was conducted. Areas addressed include the context of sexual abuse as it relates to disclosure, the context and elements of children's disclosures, motivational factors inhibiting disclosure, and models of the disclosure process. Ancillary and analogue research on secrecy and disclosure are also reviewed. Implications for future research and practice are discussed.

  19. Childhood sexual abuse and attachment: An intergenerational perspective. (United States)

    Kwako, Laura E; Noll, Jennie G; Putnam, Frank W; Trickett, Penelope K


    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is a recognized risk factor for various negative outcomes in adult survivors and their offspring. We used the Dynamic-Maturational Model of attachment theory as a framework for exploring the impact of maternal CSA on children's attachment relationships in the context of a longitudinal sample of adult survivors of CSA and non-abused comparison mothers and their children. Results indicated that children of CSA survivors were more likely to have extreme strategies of attachment than the children of non-abused mothers. However, because both groups were at socioeconomic risk, both were typified by anxious attachment. Explanations for findings and implications for children's development are explored.

  20. Etiological correlates of vaginismus: sexual and physical abuse, sexual knowledge, sexual self-schema, and relationship adjustment. (United States)

    Reissing, Elke D; Binik, Yitzchak M; Khalifé, Samir; Cohen, Deborah; Amsel, Rhonda


    This study investigated the role of sexual and physical abuse, sexual self-schema, sexual functioning, sexual knowledge, relationship adjustment, and psychological distress in 87 women matched on age, relationship status, and parity and assigned to 3 groups--vaginismus, dyspareunia/vulvar vestibulitis syndrome (VVS), and no pain. More women with vaginismus reported a history of childhood sexual interference, and women in both the vaginismus and VVS groups reported lower levels of sexual functioning and a less positive sexual self-schema. Lack of support for traditionally held hypotheses concerning etiological correlates of vaginismus and the relationship between vaginismus and dyspareunia are discussed.

  1. Childhood Sexual Abuse, Stigmatization, Internalizing Symptoms, and the Development of Sexual Difficulties and Dating Aggression (United States)

    Feiring, Candice; Simon, Valerie A.; Cleland, Charles M.


    Potential pathways from childhood sexual abuse (CSA) to subsequent romantic intimacy problems were examined in a prospective longitudinal study of 160 ethnically diverse youth with confirmed CSA histories. Participants were interviewed at the time of abuse discovery, when they were 8-15 years of age, and again 1-6 years later. Stigmatization…

  2. Child Sexual Abuse and the Law in India: A commentary


    Belur, J. S.


    Child Sexual Abuse (CSA) has only recently been publicly acknowledged as a problem in India. A welcome development has been the enactment of a special law—Protection of Children against Sexual Offences (POCSO) 2012—criminalising a range of acts including child rape, harassment, and exploitation for pornography. The law mandates setting up of Special Courts to facilitate speedy trials in CSA cases. The paper highlights the intended benefits and the unintended consequences that might arise from...

  3. The Role of the Medical Provider in the Evaluation of Sexually Abused Children and Adolescents (United States)

    Newton, Alice Whittier; Vandeven, Andrea Marie


    It was only 30 years ago that the medical community began to develop an increased awareness of child sexual abuse, and the role of the medical provider in the evaluation of sexually abused children has evolved significantly. As clinicians worldwide develop a greater understanding of the impact of the sexual abuse evaluation on the child, the roles…

  4. Prevalence of and Risk Factors for Male Sexual Abuse: The Case of South Korea (United States)

    Han, In Young; Lee, Yongwoo; Yoo, Seo Koo; Hong, Jun Sung


    This study examined the prevalence of and risk factors for sexual abuse of boys in South Korea by asking a national sample of 1,043 adult males whether they had experienced sexual abuse during childhood. The results indicate that 13.5% experienced at least one of the nine types of child sexual abuse assessed. In addition, the majority of the…

  5. Child Abuse, Early Maladaptive Schemas, and Risky Sexual Behavior in College Women (United States)

    Roemmele, Melissa; Messman-Moore, Terri L.


    Previous research suggests that individuals abused as children are more likely to engage in risky sexual behavior during adulthood. The present study examined early maladaptive schemas as mediators of the child abuse-risky sexual behavior relationship among 653 college women. Self-report surveys assessed three forms of child abuse: Sexual,…

  6. Do Parents Blame or Doubt Their Child More when Sexually Abused by Adolescents versus Adults? (United States)

    Walsh, Wendy A.; Cross, Theodore P.; Jones, Lisa M.


    Although the importance of parental support for child sexual abuse victims is well documented, the nature of parental support for victims sexually abused by adolescents is less understood. In this exploratory study, we examine whether parents differ in their levels of blame or doubt for their child when sexually abused by adolescents versus…

  7. Sh-h-h-h: Representations of Perpetrators of Sexual Child Abuse in Picturebooks (United States)

    Lampert, Jo


    Children's picturebooks dealing with the topic of child sexual abuse first appeared in the early 1980s with the aim of addressing the need for age-appropriate texts to teach sexual abuse prevention concepts and to provide support for young children who may be at risk of or have already experienced sexual abuse. Despite the apparent potential of…

  8. Parenting in Females Exposed to Intimate Partner Violence and Childhood Sexual Abuse (United States)

    Jaffe, Anna E.; Cranston, Christopher C.; Shadlow, Joanna O.


    Child sexual abuse and intimate partner violence may have a significant impact on parenting. The current study expands on existing research by examining the effects of child sexual abuse and intimate partner violence on parenting styles and parenting self-efficacy. In women from a parenting intervention program (n = 20), child sexual abuse was…

  9. The Relationship between a History of Childhood Sexual Abuse and Gender Role Attitudes (United States)

    Unger, Jo Ann; Norton, G. Ron; De Luca, Rayleen V.


    This study explored the relationship between childhood sexual abuse and gender role attitudes. Female university students rated themselves and their parents on gender role attitudes and history of childhood sexual abuse. Traditional participant gender role attitude and social isolation were associated with reporting being sexually abused as a…

  10. The Impact of Clergy-Perpetrated Sexual Abuse: The Role of Gender, Development, and Posttraumatic Stress (United States)

    Fogler, Jason M.; Shipherd, Jillian C.; Clarke, Stephanie; Jensen, Jennifer; Rowe, Erin


    The literature on clergy-perpetrated sexual abuse suggests that there are two modal populations of survivors: boys and adult women. We review what is known about trauma and post-traumatic stress disorder following sexual abuse and explore the different treatment needs for these two survivor groups. For children, clergy-perpetrated sexual abuse can…

  11. Sexual Abuse and Eating Disorders: A Test of a Conceptual Model. (United States)

    Tripp, Margaret M.; Petrie, Trent A.


    Tested a model that hypothesized an indirect relationship between sexual abuse and eating disorders, with the effects of sexual abuse being mediated through bodily shame and body disparagement. Surveys of female undergraduate students indicated that 60 percent had been sexually abused, 8 percent had diagnosable eating disorders, and 72.7 percent…

  12. Shame and Guilt in Men Exposed to Childhood Sexual Abuse: A Qualitative Investigation (United States)

    Dorahy, Martin J.; Clearwater, Ken


    This study examined the experiences of shame and guilt in adult males sexually abused as children. Seven participants attending a service for male sexual abuse completed measures of shame, guilt, dissociation, and childhood trauma history and subsequently participated in a focus group. All participants experienced childhood sexual abuse in the…

  13. Parents' Views about Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Education: A Systematic Review (United States)

    Hunt, Robyn; Walsh, Kerryann


    This paper presents the results of a systematic review of literature on the topic of parents' views about child sexual abuse prevention education. It describes: i) what parents know about child sexual abuse prevention education; ii) what child sexual abuse prevention messages parents provide to their children and what topics they discuss; iii)…

  14. Childhood experiences of incarcerated male child sexual abusers. (United States)

    Garrett, Linda H


    While numerous efforts have been made to understand the impact of child sexual abuse, little has been done to examine the childhood experiences of those who abuse children. Child sexual abusers have been studied from quantitative perspectives using behavioral checklists, parental-bonding surveys, and sexual history questionnaires. The purpose of this study was to explore incarcerated child sexual abusers' recollections of their childhood experiences using the descriptive existential lens of phenomenology. Eight incarcerated male child sexual abusers described their childhood from existential perspectives of lived space, lived other, lived body, and lived time via face-to-face semi-structured interviews. Analysis was accomplished through the qualitative, descriptive method of Max van Manen. Rich descriptions of the participants' insights into their daily childhood life experiences that shaped their self-concepts and contributed to their adult behaviors were gathered. Four major themes were identified: (1) failure to root, (2) what you see is what you learn, (3) stupid is as stupid does, and (4) life's moments. Data from this study suggest that the experiences of childhood significantly contribute to an adult self-concept that can be distorted by the lack of a secure home space, maladaptive relationships, internalization of inappropriate behavior, and a lack of significant family development. This study explores the psychosocial and behavioral consequences of early childhood experiences. The findings support the need for family and psychological mental health nurse practitioners to be more aware of early home environments; improve their assessment of children's developing self-concept and the potential for abusive relationships.

  15. Trauma Symptoms, Sexual Behaviors, and Substance Abuse: Correlates of Childhood Sexual Abuse and HIV Risks among Men Who Have Sex with Men (United States)

    Kalichman, Seth C.; Gore-Felton, Cheryl; Benotsch, Eric; Cage, Marjorie; Rompa, David


    Childhood sexual abuse is associated with high-risk sexual behavior in men who have sex with men. This study examined psychological and behavioral correlates of HIV risk behavior associated with childhood sexual abuse in a sample of men who have sex with men. Men attending a large gay pride event (N = 647) completed anonymous surveys that assessed…

  16. Credibility assessment in child sexual abuse investigations: A descriptive analysis. (United States)

    Melkman, Eran P; Hershkowitz, Irit; Zur, Ronit


    A major challenge in cases of child sexual abuse (CSA) is determining the credibility of children's reports. Consequently cases may be misclassified as false or deemed 'no judgment possible'. Based on a large national sample of reports of CSA made in Israel in 2014, the study examines child and event characteristics contributing to the probability that reports of abuse would be judged credible. National data files of all children aged 3-14, who were referred for investigation following suspected victimization of sexual abuse, and had disclosed sexual abuse, were analyzed. Cases were classified as either 'credible' or 'no judgment possible'. The probability of reaching a 'credible' judgment was examined in relation to characteristics of the child (age, gender, cognitive delay, marital status of the parents,) and of the abusive event (abuse severity, frequency, perpetrator-victim relationship, perpetrator's use of grooming, and perpetrator's use of coercion), controlling for investigator's identity at the cluster level of the analysis. Of 1563 cases analyzed, 57.9% were assessed as credible. The most powerful predictors of a credible judgment were older age and absence of a cognitive delay. Reports of children to married parents, who experienced a single abusive event that involved perpetrator's use of grooming, were also more likely to be judged as credible. Rates of credible judgments found are lower than expected suggesting under-identification of truthful reports of CSA. In particular, those cases of severe and multiple abuse involving younger and cognitively delayed children are the ones with the lowest chances of being assessed as credible. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Improving the Career Resilience of a Survivor of Sexual Abuse (United States)

    Maree, Jacobus G.; Venter, Cobus J.


    This study examined whether life design counselling can enhance the career resilience of a sexual abuse survivor. One participant was selected through purposive sampling. Five life design sessions occurred over a period of three months. Various (postmodern) qualitative and quantitative techniques were used to gather data while data analysis was…

  18. A Case Study of Sexual Abuse of a Minor

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    as it is commonly perpetrated by close ones including family relations. Victims are left ... The case brings to the fore the problem of child sexual abuse in Nigeria and its attendant sequelae. .... matter was brought to the public domain, she was.

  19. 5. Characteristics of Child Sexual Abuse in Zambia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    The Child Sexual Abuse Centre at the Paediatric Centre of Excellence,. University ... As a result of its effects, CSA is a psychiatric emergency. .... Primary. 91. 47.4. Preschool. 29. 15.1. Not in School. 6. 3.1. Never been to School. 24. 12.5.

  20. Transition to adulthood of child sexual abuse victims

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, R.; Alink, L.; Bijleveld, C.; Finkenauer, C.; Hendriks, J.


    There is extensive evidence that childhood sexual abuse (CSA) can have deleterious consequences for adult psychological and physical functioning. The extent to which CSA hampers victims in the fulfillment of adult roles such as marriage, employment, and parenting is less clear. In this review, we

  1. Magazine Coverage of Child Sexual Abuse, 1992-2004 (United States)

    Cheit, Ross E.; Shavit, Yael; Reiss-Davis, Zachary


    This article analyzes trends in the coverage of child sexual abuse in popular magazines since the early 1990s. The article employs systematic analysis to identify and analyze articles in four popular magazines. Articles are analyzed by subject, length, and publication. The results affirm established theories of newsworthiness related to the…

  2. Psychopathological correlates of child sexual abuse: The case of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Specifically, females with experience of sexual abuse were found to be more susceptible to develop depression, panic anxiety, and post-traumatic stress disorders than unabused females. Thus, parents, and teachers should give the necessary care and protection to female children. Primary bio-psychosocial care services ...

  3. Barriers to Successful Treatment Completion in Child Sexual Abuse Survivors (United States)

    McPherson, Paul; Scribano, Philip; Stevens, Jack


    Child sexual abuse (CSA) often requires psychological treatment to address the symptoms of victim trauma. Barriers to entry and completion of counseling services can compromise long-term well-being. An integrated medical and mental health evaluation and treatment model of a child advocacy center (CAC) has the potential to reduce barriers to mental…

  4. Child sexual abuse and possible health consequences among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a global public health concern especially in developed countries and where legal measures take unprecedented time. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of different forms of CSA, and the perceived health consequences among secondary school students in ...

  5. Early Indicators of Pathological Dissociation in Sexually Abused Children. (United States)

    McElroy, Linda Provus


    This paper reviews factors in the professional neglect of multiple personality disorder (MPD) and sexual abuse in childhood, as well as recent diagnostic developments in childhood dissociative disorders. The identification of subtle dissociative symptomatology in children is illustrated, and two case examples are presented. (Author)

  6. Sexual Abuse, Violence And Hiv Risk Among Adolescents In South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the study is to investigate sexual abuse, violence and HIV risk among a sample of South African adolescents. The sample included 400 male and 400 female 16 or 17 year-olds; 400 were from rural and 400 from urban areas, and almost all from African descent. Participants were chosen by multi-stage cluster and ...

  7. Utilising forgiveness to help sexually abused adolescents break free ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Guilt and shame can be traumatic, self-conscious experiences which have an impact on sexually abused adolescents' physical, psychological, social, emotional, moral and religious development. It can determine the adolescents' behaviour, their views of themselves and their interpersonal relationships. Guilt and shame ...

  8. Knowledge and Perception of Child Sexual Abuse in Urban Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study reports some baseline findings from a community-based project on the incidence of child sexual abuse (CSA) in two Nigerian urban centres. The study focused on low income, non-elite, occupational groups. Data were generated through in-depth interviews (IDIs), focus group discussions (FGDs), and survey ...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The problem of sexual abuse of children by teachers in the education system is not .... From the chosen 10 classes, 10 participants were selected using simple random sampling. ... idea, there is a danger that the complex power dynamics are overlooked. .... thus become rebellious and belligerent towards teachers or display ...

  10. Assisting children born of sexual exploitation and abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Rumble


    Full Text Available The UN Secretary-General has issued a strategy tosupport victims of sexual exploitation and abuse by UNstaff. It includes a controversial proposal to introduceDNA sampling for all UN staff. Unless this suggestionis adopted, an important opportunity to implementa truly survivor-centred approach may be lost.

  11. Evaluation of a Sexual Abuse Prevention Education for Chinese Preschoolers (United States)

    Zhang, Wenjing; Chen, Jingqi; Feng, Yanan; Li, Jingyi; Liu, Chengfeng; Zhao, Xiaoxia


    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility of a sexual abuse prevention education in a sample of Chinese preschool children in Beijing, China. Method: One hundred and fifty preschool children were randomly assigned to either the intervention group (N = 78) or the wait-list control group (N = 72). Children were posttested on…

  12. Assessing Sexual Abuse/Attack Histories with Bariatric Surgery Patients (United States)

    Mahony, David


    This study assessed sexual abuse/attack histories in 537 bariatric surgery patients using the PsyBari. The prevalence rates found were lower (15.5%, 19.3% of women, 5.2% of men) than other studies that used bariatric surgery patients but consistent with studies that used nonbariatric obese subjects. Furthermore, bariatric surgery patients who…

  13. Outcomes of Child Sexual Abuse as Predictors of Later Sexual Victimization (United States)

    Reese-Weber, Marla; Smith, Dana M.


    The association between a history of child sexual abuse (CSA) and specific negative outcomes (attachment, feelings of power, and self-esteem) was explored as was the relationship between those negative outcomes and sexual victimization during the first semester of college. Two groups of freshman college women (67 who had experienced CSA and 55 who…

  14. Treatment of childhood sexual abuse: an updated review. (United States)

    Cummings, Marissa; Berkowitz, Steven J; Scribano, Philip V


    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) involves multiple complex factors that make the evaluation of therapeutic interventions especially complicated. PTSD prevalence rates of CSA are approximately 37 % -53 %. Several other psychiatric sequelae of CSA exist. CSA appears to disrupt brain and body physiology. One co-located service delivery model reported a 52 % linkage rate of CSA survivors with mental health treatment. This article reviews current literature on the treatment of CSA, including psychosocial interventions, pharmacotherapy, and early preventative interventions. It also provides an update on the short- and long-term sequelae of CSA and implications for future research directions. A literature search of papers published in the last 3 years was conducted using the keywords treatment, sexual abuse, childhood, epigenetics, resilience and review, and searching the following databases: PsycInfo, PubMed, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, and Centers for Disease Control.

  15. [Prevention of intrafamilial childhood sexual abuse]. (United States)

    Kazimierczak, Małgorzata; Sipiński, Adam


    At work we took up the matter of sexual harassment of children in the family. We presented the history of incest contacts, reasons, conditions causing incest, the perpetrator, his methods and kinds of his actions.We took into consideration description of victims, physical and psychological symptoms of sexual harassment and its effects. We paid attention to effective methods of prevention of incest behavior, diagnostic actions taken in order to confirm any offence and therapy of victims emphasizing role of health service staff.

  16. A prospective examination of whether childhood sexual abuse predicts subsequent sexual offending. (United States)

    Widom, Cathy Spatz; Massey, Christina


    Childhood sexual abuse has been assumed to increase the risk for sexual offending. However, despite methodological limitations of prior research, public policies and clinical practice have been based on this assumption. To empirically examine the commonly held belief that sexually abused children grow up to become sexual offenders and specialize in sex crimes. This prospective cohort study and archival records check included cases and control individuals originally from a metropolitan county in the Midwest. Children with substantiated cases of physical and sexual abuse and neglect (aged 0-11 years) were matched with children without such histories on the basis of age, sex, race/ethnicity, and approximate family social class (908 cases and 667 control individuals). Both groups were followed up into adulthood (mean age, 51 years). The court cases were from 1967 to 1971; the follow-up extended to 2013. Criminal history information was collected from federal and state law enforcement agency records at 3 points in time and from state sex offender registries. Overall, individuals with histories of childhood abuse and neglect were at increased risk for being arrested for a sex crime compared with control individuals (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 2.17; 95% CI, 1.38-3.40), controlling for age, sex, and race/ethnicity. Specifically, individuals with histories of physical abuse (AOR, 2.06; 95% CI, 1.02-4.16) and neglect (AOR, 2.21; 95% CI, 1.39-3.51) were at significantly increased risk for arrest for sex offenses, whereas for sexual abuse, the AOR (2.13; 95% CI, 0.83-5.47) did not reach significance. Physically abused and neglected males (not females) were at increased risk and physically abused males also had a higher mean number of sex crime arrests compared with control individuals. The results did not provide support for sex crime specialization. The widespread belief that sexually abused children are uniquely at risk to become sex offenders was not supported by

  17. Intimate relations and sexual abuse in Danish Sport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Støckel, Jan Toftegaard

    of sexual abuse prevalence in a national sample of athletes from recreational, regional competitive level, national and international elite level. Results from the total sample (N=1660) revealed that 5% (N=83) of athletes reported being manipulated or coerced into sexual contact at some time in their lives......, and in five cases the offender was reported to be a coach. Significant gender differences were found as 6.3% of female athletes reported lifetime sexual abuse as opposed to 3% among male athletes. Almost one in three athletes reported to have experienced an intimate relationship with a coach...... reporting to have had experienced an intimate relationship with a coach as an adult had a more positive response regarding the relationship than athletes experiencing the same at 13-17 years of age. Elite athletes had a more critical response to coach-athlete relationships than at other sport levels...

  18. [Impact of childhood sexual abuse on the sexual and affective relationships of adult women]. (United States)

    López, Sílvia; Faro, Concepció; Lopetegui, Lourdes; Pujol-Ribera, Enriqueta; Monteagudo, Mònica; Cobo, Jesús; Fernández, María Isabel

    To analyse perceived sexual satisfaction, sexual dysfunction, satisfaction with affective relationships and confidence and communication in existing relationships, related to a past history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and type suffered, among women treated as part of the Catalonian Sexual and Reproductive Health Care Programme (PASSIR). Multicentric, descriptive, cross-sectional study. A total of 1,013 women over the age of 18 years, who underwent psychological therapy at any of the 24 PASSIR centres, were enrolled. A structured, anonymised, self-administered Sex History Questionnaire adapted from Wyatt (1985) & Dubé et al. (2005), and the Female Sexual Function Index (Rosen, 2000), were used. Statistical analysis was descriptive, bivariate and multivariate. Women who suffered childhood sexual abuse had a significantly higher prevalence of sexual dysfunction, with lower perceived sexual satisfaction. CSA with penetration or attempted penetration was associated with greater arousal difficulties and greater rejection. Women who experienced CSA were less confident and experienced greater communication difficulties with their partner. It is necessary to identify potential childhood sexual abuse among women who seek therapy due to relationship problems. It is also necessary to continue research into protective factors and therapeutic interventions to alleviate the consequences of CSA in adult life. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. The childcare panopticon: guidelines for preventing child sexual abuse and wrongful allegations of child sexual abuse in Danish childcare institutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leander, Else-Marie Buch; Larsen, Per Lindsø; Munk, Karen


    This article presents the first research study of guidelines in Danish childcare institutions for protecting children against sexual abuse (CSA), and staff against wrongful allegations of CSA. Worldwide, it represents one of few empirical studies of the unintended consequences of contemporary soc...

  20. Associations between mental health, substance use, and sexual abuse experiences among Latinas. (United States)

    Ulibarri, Monica D; Ulloa, Emilio C; Salazar, Marissa


    This study examined self-reported sexually abusive experiences in childhood and adulthood as correlates of current drug use, alcohol abuse, and depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Participants were 204 Latina women 18-34 years old. Results indicated significant relationships between history of sexual abuse (regardless of age of occurrence), depression symptoms, PTSD symptoms, alcohol abuse, and drug use. When examined separately, childhood sexual abuse was associated with symptoms of depression, PTSD, and substance use but not alcohol abuse behaviors. Experiencing sexual abuse in adulthood was associated with symptoms of depression, alcohol abuse behaviors, and substance use but not PTSD symptoms. Structural equation modeling showed that substance use partially mediated the relationship between sexual abuse and mental health outcomes. These findings suggest mental health and substance use services should incorporate treatment for trauma, which may be the root of comorbid mental health and substance use issues.

  1. Is sexual abuse a part of war? A 4-year retrospective study on cases of sexual abuse at the Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary W. Kuria


    Full Text Available The harmful effects of sexual abuse are long lasting. Sexual abuse when associated with violence is likely to impact negatively on the life of the victim. Anecdotal reports indicate that there was an increase in the number of cases of sexual violence following the 2007 post election conflict and violence in Kenya. Although such increases in sexual abuse are common during war or conflict periods the above reports have not been confirmed through research evidence. The purpose of the current study is to establish the trend in numbers of reported cases of sexual abuse at Kenyatta National Hospital over a 4-year period (2006-2009. Data on sexually abused persons for the year 2006-2009 was retrieved from the hospitals record. A researcher designed questionnaire was used to collect relevant data from the completed Post Rape Care (PRC form. The PRC-Ministry of Health no. 363 (MOH363 form is mandatorily completed by the physician attending the sexually abused patient. There was an increase in the number of cases of sexual abuse reported in 2007 election year in Kenya, with a statistically significant increase in the sexually abused male cases. Sexual crime is more prevalent when there is war or conflict.

  2. Sexual knowledge and emotional reaction as indicators of sexual abuse in young children: Theory and research challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brilleslijper-Kater, S.N.; Friedrich, W.N.; Corwin, D.L.


    Age inappropriate sexual behavior is strongly associated with sexual abuse but is also correlated with other factors that often co-occur in the lives of vulnerable children, including physical abuse, domestic violence, excessive life stress, and inappropriate exposure to family sexuality. In

  3. Mothers who were sexually abused during childhood are more likely to have a child victim of sexual violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Eduardo Wearick-Silva


    Full Text Available Introduction: Recurrent exposure to childhood sexual abuse (CSA seems to be higher among victims of sexual abuse. In this sense, experiences related to sexual violence can perpetuate within the family context itself in various ways. Here, we investigate the association between being exposed to CSA and having a child victim of sexual abuse. Method: We used a sample with 123 mothers, who were divided into 2 groups: one consisting of 41 mothers of sexually abused children and another consisting of 82 mothers of non-sexually abused children. History of exposure to CSA was evaluated by means of the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire - Short Form (CTQ and we used a logistic regression model to estimate the prediction values regarding having or not a child exposed to sexual violence. Results: Mothers of sexually abused children had significantly higher scores on CTQ, especially on the sexual abuse subscale (SA. According to our logistic regression model, higher scores on the CTQ significantly predicted the status of being a mother of children exposed to sexual violence in our sample (Wald = 7.074; p = 0.008; Exp(B = 1.681. Years of formal education reduced the likelihood of having a child victim of sexual violence (Wald = 18.994; p = 0.001; Exp(B = 0.497. Conclusion: Our findings highlight the importance of a possible intergenerational effect of sexual abuse. Family intervention and prevention against childhood maltreatment should take this issue in account.

  4. Sexual Function in Women with a History of Intrafamilial Childhood Sexual Abuse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Ellids; Lau, Marianne Engelbrecht


    % dyspareunia. The occurrence of sexual problems was significantly correlated to childhood physical violence, current psychological distress, flashbacks in sexual situations and discomfort with physical endearment. The prevalence of sexual pain disorders were also positively correlated to “no adult support......This study investigated sexual function in women with a history of severe intrafamilial childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and the correlation between sexual problems and the severity of CSA, adult support during childhood and current psychiatric symptoms. The sample consisted of 158 women who...... subsequently began specialized group psychotherapy for CSA sequellae. Clinical interview and questionnaires (Present Sexual Function, Sexual and Body Satisfaction, Symptom Check List 90-R) were used for data collection in a cross sectional study design. Non-parametric analysis, linear and logistic regression...

  5. Childhood Sexual Abuse, Adult Psychiatric Morbidity, and Criminal Outcomes in Women Assessed by Medium Secure Forensic Service (United States)

    Dolan, Mairead; Whitworth, Helen


    There is little literature on childhood sexual abuse in women seen by forensic services. A cohort of 225 cases of women seen by forensic services in a medium secure unit in the UK were examined, and childhood sexual abuse and non-childhood sexual abuse cases were compared. Over half the sample had a history of childhood sexual abuse, and 5.6% of…

  6. Child sexual abuse within the family

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seidelin, Mette


    In this chapter, it will be argued that, even though the legislation from 1930 represents a legally shift in the perception of the younger party under the age of 18 (from accomplice to victim), in practice, norms about gender, age and sexuality continued to play an important role in the police...... system after 1933. Dichotomous stereotypes, such as the “decent girl” (with no sexual experiences) vs. the “immoral adolescent” (sexually experienced girl) and the “seduced adult” (who could not resist the temptation from the immoral adolescent) vs. the “child molester” (who had assaulted an innocent...... child), were, in this respect, shared and used by police authorities and families in the construction of the victim and offender and in attributing the moral responsibility for the crime ¬– despite the fact, that the younger party under the age of 18 couldn’t get punished...

  7. Sexual abuse during childhood and adolescence as predictors of HIV-related sexual risk during adulthood among female sexual partners of injection drug users. (United States)

    Klein, H; Chao, B S


    This study explores the relationship of sexual abuse during childhood and adolescence with HIV-related sexual risk behaviors during adulthood among female sexual partners of injection drug users. It analyzed data that was gathered between 1990 and 1993, which included a sample of 2794 women from the US, Mexico, and Puerto Rico. 6 HIV-related sexual risk behaviors that occurred during the month prior to interview were examined; namely, number of sexual partners, number of drug-injecting sexual partners, number of sexual intercourse while high on alcohol and/or other drugs, number of times trading sex for drugs and/or money, proportion of all sexual acts involving protection, and overall HIV-related sexual risk. The results showed that more than one-third of the women (36.3%) experienced some form of sexual abuse during childhood, whereas 34.4% reported that they had been abused sexually during adolescence; 1 in 5 women (18.4%) stated being abused during both periods. The results further indicate that there is a strong link between sexual abuse victimization early in life and involvement later in life in HIV-related sexual risk behaviors. It was found out that certain forms of sexual abuse, such as forced exposure and touching of one's sexual parts were more strongly related than other forms of sexual abuse to subsequent involvement in HIV-related sexual behaviors.

  8. Suicide attempts among men with histories of child sexual abuse: examining abuse severity, mental health, and masculine norms. (United States)

    Easton, Scott D; Renner, Lynette M; O'Leary, Patrick


    Men who were sexually abused during childhood are at risk for a variety of long-term mental health problems, including suicidality. However, little is known about which factors are related to recent suicide attempts for this vulnerable, under-researched population. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between abuse severity, mental health, masculine norms and recent suicide attempts among men with histories of child sexual abuse (CSA). We analyzed survey data gathered from a purposive sample of 487 men who were sexually abused during childhood. The age of the sample ranged from 19 to 84 years (μ = 50.4 years). Recent suicide attempts served as the dependent variable in the study. Self-reported measures of sexual abuse severity, child physical abuse, mental health, masculine norms, and demographic information (age, race) represented the independent variables. The results from logistic regression modeling found that five variables - duration of the sexual abuse, use of force during the sexual abuse, high conformity to masculine norms, level of depressive symptoms, and suicidal ideation - increased the odds of a suicide attempt in the past 12 months. To improve mental health services for men with histories of CSA, mental health practitioners should incorporate sexual abuse severity, current mental health, and adherence to masculine norms into assessment and treatment planning. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluations of children who have disclosed sexual abuse via facilitated communication. (United States)

    Botash, A S; Babuts, D; Mitchell, N; O'Hara, M; Lynch, L; Manuel, J


    To review the findings of interdisciplinary team evaluations of children who disclosed sexual abuse via facilitated communication. Case series. Tertiary care hospital outpatient child sexual abuse program in central New York. Between January 1990 and March 1993, 13 children who disclosed sexual abuse via facilitated communication and were referred to a university hospital child abuse referral and evaluation center. The range of previously determined developmental diagnosis included mental retardation, speech delay, and autism. None. Medical records were reviewed for (1) disclosure, (2) physical evidence, (3) child's behavioral and medical history, (4) disclosures by siblings, (5) perpetrator's confession, (6) child protective services determinations, and (7) court findings. Four children had evidence of sexual abuse: two had physical findings consistent with sexual abuse, one also disclosed the allegation verbally, and one perpetrator confessed. These results neither support nor refute validation of facilitated communication. However, many children had other evidence of sexual abuse, suggesting that each child's case should be evaluated without bias.

  10. Sexual Abuse as a Precursor to Prostitution and Victimization among Adolescent and Adult Homeless Women. (United States)

    Simons, Ronald L.; Whitbeck, Les B.


    Studied 40 adolescent runaways and 95 homeless women to examine impact of early sexual abuse on prostitution and victimization. Findings suggest that early sexual abuse increases probability of involvement in prostitution irrespective of influence of running away, substance abuse, and other deviant acts; only indirectly affects chances of…

  11. Socio-Praxis Preferences in Teacher Preparation for Child Sexual Abuse and Its Mandatory Reporting (United States)

    Goldman, Juliette D. G.; Grimbeek, Peter


    Child abuse and neglect, particularly child sexual abuse, is a pastoral care issue that deeply concerns all education professionals. The literature strongly supports specific training for pre-service teachers about child sexual abuse and its mandatory reporting, although few studies identify how such training should be academically structured.…

  12. Hiding behind the Cloth: Child Sexual Abuse and the Catholic Church (United States)

    Dale, Kathryn A.; Alpert, Judith L.


    The existence of child sexual abuse within the Catholic Church has shocked many. In this article, the authors review the history of child sexual abuse in the church, the recent events that brought this tragedy into societal consciousness, and the efforts by the church to conceal the abuse. Two sources of empirical literature, the general…

  13. Teacher Education to Meet the Challenges Posed by Child Sexual Abuse (United States)

    Mathews, Ben


    The phenomenon of child sexual abuse has significant implications for teachers' pre-service training and professional development. Teachers have a pedagogical role in dealing with abused children, and a legal and professional duty to report suspected child sexual abuse. Teachers require support and training to develop the specialised knowledge and…

  14. Sexual Abuse of Individuals with Disabilities: Prevention Strategies for Clinical Practice (United States)

    McEachern, Adriana G.


    Sexual abuse of individuals with disabilities occurs in alarming proportions, although the prevalence and incidence of such abuse is difficult to determine. Although all states maintain statistics on child sexual abuse, the rate of victimization for individuals with disabilities is not specific. This paper reviews several studies conducted on…

  15. News Coverage of Child Sexual Abuse and Prevention, 2007-2009 (United States)

    Mejia, Pamela; Cheyne, Andrew; Dorfman, Lori


    News media coverage of child sexual abuse can help policymakers and the public understand what must be done to prevent future abuse, but coverage tends to focus on extreme cases. This article presents an analysis of newspaper coverage from 2007 to 2009 to describe how the daily news presents and frames day-to-day stories about child sexual abuse.…

  16. The impacts of institutional child sexual abuse: A rapid review of the evidence. (United States)

    Blakemore, Tamara; Herbert, James Leslie; Arney, Fiona; Parkinson, Samantha


    While awareness of institutional child sexual abuse has grown in recent years, there remains limited understanding of its occurrence and outcomes as a distinct form of abuse. Drawing on research commissioned by the Australian Royal Commission into Institutional Responses to Child Sexual Abuse, this article presents a rapid review of available evidence on the impacts of institutional abuse on victim/survivors. Literature searches identified 75 sources spanning international peer reviewed work and reports to Government that document or quantify the impacts of mostly historical child sexual abuse occurring in religious, educational, sporting and residential or out-of-home care settings. Consistent with child sexual abuse in other contexts, institutional child sexual abuse is found to be associated with numerous, pervasive and connected impacts upon the psychological, physical, social, educative and economic wellbeing of victims/survivors. Further, institutional child sexual abuse is associated with vicarious trauma at the individual, family and community level, and with impacts to the spiritual wellbeing of victims/survivors of abuse that occurs in religious settings. The identified literature suggests the trauma of institutional child sexual abuse may be exacerbated by the interplay of abuse dynamics in institutional settings, which may reduce or impede circumstances supporting disclosure, belief, support and protection from future harm. Acknowledging the limitations of the present study and the available evidence, this narrative synthesis provides insights into the complex impacts of institutional child sexual abuse. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Sexual Abuse and Eating Disorders in a Community Sample of Mexican American Women (United States)

    Cachelin, Fary M.; Schug, Robert A.; Juarez, Laura C.; Monreal, Teresa K.


    The purpose of this study was to examine the association between sexual abuse and eating disorders in a voluntary community sample of Mexican American women. Eighty eating disorder cases were compared to 110 healthy controls on presence of sexual abuse and on characteristics of the abuse. The Structured Clinical Interview for the "Diagnostic and…

  18. Maladaptive Schemas as Mediators in the Relationship Between Child Sexual Abuse and Displaced Aggression. (United States)

    Estévez, Ana; Ozerinjauregi, Nagore; Herrero-Fernández, David


    Child sexual abuse is one of the most serious forms of abuse due to the psychological consequences that persist even into adulthood. Expressions of anger among child sexual abuse survivors remain common even years after the event. While child sexual abuse has been extensively studied, the expression of displaced aggression has been studied less. Some factors, such as the maladaptive early schemas, might account for this deficiency. The objective of this study was to analyze the relationships between child sexual abuse, displaced aggression, and these schemas according to gender and determine if these early schemas mediate the relationship between child sexual abuse and displaced aggression. A total of 168 Spanish subjects who were victims of child sexual abuse completed measures of childhood trauma, displaced aggression, and early maladaptive schemas. The results depict the relationship between child sexual abuse, displaced aggression, and early maladaptive schemas. Women scored higher than men in child sexual abuse, emotional abuse, disconnection or rejection and impaired autonomy. Mediational analysis found a significant mediation effect of disconnection or rejection on the relationship between child sexual abuse and displaced aggression; however, impaired autonomy did not mediate significantly.

  19. [Child sexual abuse: clinical perspectives and ethico-legal dilemmas]. (United States)

    Franco, Alvaro; Ramírez, Luis


    In the review of the current literature, the main causing factors of the related conditions with child sexual abuse are the ethical dilemmas and legal implications. A review was conducted on the classic literature on this topic. In this articlesome difficult paradigmatic cases are presented in which the hypothetical dilemmas were solved. The main characteristics of child sexual abuse enable us to have a better argument to address these situations. Taking into account the literature reviewed and predictable courses of action, it is concluded that it is important to take into account each individual each case and its circumstances, and that prudence and clinical objectivity, as well as knowledge of the law, become essential requirements for proper action. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  20. Children's knowledge of sexual abuse prevention in El Salvador. (United States)

    Hurtado, Alicia; Katz, Craig L; Ciro, Dianne; Guttfreund, Daniel; Nosike, Digna


    Child sexual abuse (CSA) remains a global health problem that must be addressed. In a country with limited resources such as El Salvador, we sought an alternative way to disseminate CSA prevention information to elementary school children. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a child sexual abuse (CSA) prevention exhibit at a children's museum. We asked 189 children to answer a questionnaire about CSA prevention before entering a museum exhibit on the subject and then asked 59 different children to answer the questionnaire after visiting the exhibit. Children's knowledge scores on CSA prevention significantly improved after visiting the exhibit (P School of Medicine at Mount Sinai. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Attributions of Blame in a Hypothetical Child Sexual Abuse Case: Roles of Behavior Problems and Frequency of Abuse. (United States)

    Theimer, Kate; Hansen, David J


    Youth who are blamed for their sexual abuse may experience increased negative outcomes, such as amplified self-blame. Similarly, blaming nonoffending parents can impede their ability to support their child following disclosure. Understanding the factors that influence how people perceive victim, caregiver, and perpetrator responsibility is imperative for the protection and treatment of families who have experienced sexual abuse. Little research has explored victim and abuse characteristics that influence the perception of sexual abuse. As such, the purpose of this study was to examine the roles of behavior problems and frequency of abuse in the attribution of blame in a hypothetical sexual abuse case. In addition, the relationship between several respondent characteristics and assignment of responsibility were explored as secondary aims. The study used a two (behavior problems: three suspensions in one school semester vs. no mention of behavior problems) by two (one abuse occurrence vs. five abuse occurrences) between-subjects design. Seven hundred forty-two participants read one of the four child sexual abuse (CSA) vignettes and completed measures related to responsibility. ANOVAs revealed those who read a vignette where the youth experienced multiple abuse incidents rated the victim as more responsible regardless of whether or not the youth was described as having behavior problems. Results indicate that respondents may have attributed more blame to the victim due to the belief that she could have done something to stop the abuse after the first incident. The abuse frequency manipulation when combined with the behavior manipulation appeared to relate to how respondents perceived the victim's parents. Males and younger respondents attributed more blame to the victim; however, sexual abuse or assault history did not associate with victim responsibility ratings. Clinical and research implications were discussed.

  2. Brief Report: The Sexual and Physical Abuse Histories of Offenders with Intellectual Disability (United States)

    Lindsay, W.; Steptoe, L.; Haut, F.


    Background: Some studies have found higher rates of childhood sexual abuse in sex offenders while others have failed to find such relationships. Method: This study reviews the sexual and physical abuse histories of 156 male sex offenders with intellectual disability (ID), 126 non-sexual male offenders with ID and 27 female offenders with ID.…

  3. Preventing Sexual Abuse of Children in the Twenty-First Century: Preparing for Challenges and Opportunities (United States)

    Wurtele, Sandy K.


    Child sexual abuse is a widespread social problem that negatively affects victims, families, communities, and society. This article briefly describes the scope and consequences of child sexual abuse and briefly critiques child-focused personal safety educational programs designed to prevent sexual victimization. The final section offers…

  4. Review of 125 Children 6 Years of Age and under Who Were Sexually Abused. (United States)

    Mian, Marcellina; And Others


    The authors present a chart review of 125 children referred in 1981-1983 because of sexual abuse. Among findings were that 60 percent were victims of intrafamilial abuse. Of the preschoolers, 72.5 percent were victims of intrafamilial abuse. At school age there was a reversal with 73 percent of 6-year-olds being abused by extrafamilial offenders.…

  5. Child Sexual Abuse, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, and Substance Use: Predictors of Revictimization in Adult Sexual Assault Survivors (United States)

    Ullman, Sarah E.; Najdowski, Cynthia J.; Filipas, Henrietta H.


    This study examined the unique effects of child sexual abuse simultaneously with post-traumatic stress disorder symptom clusters, problem drinking, and illicit drug use in relation to sexual revictimization in a community sample of female adult sexual assault victims. Participants (N = 555) completed two surveys a year apart. Child sexual abuse…

  6. Disclosure of child sexual abuse: mother's reactions


    Santos, Samara Silva dos; Dell'Aglio, Débora Dalbosco


    A literatura tem indicado que mães de crianças vítimas de abuso sexual, ao tomarem conhecimento da situação de abuso de suas filhas, podem apresentar uma variedade de manifestações, que podem incluir ansiedade, depressão e estresse pós-traumático. Além disso, a reação frente à revelação pode ser de apoio e proteção ou, ainda, de evitação, indiferença ou ambivalência. Este estudo teve como objetivo investigar como mães de meninas abusadas sexualmente reagiram quando tomaram conhecimento do abu...

  7. Attenuation of cortisol across development for victims of sexual abuse. (United States)

    Trickett, Penelope K; Noll, Jennie G; Susman, Elizabeth J; Shenk, Chad E; Putnam, Frank W


    Inconsistencies exist in literature examining hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity in children and adults who have experienced childhood abuse. Hence, the extent and manner to which childhood abuse may disrupt HPA axis development is largely unknown. To address these inconsistencies, the developmental course of nonstress cortisol in a long-term longitudinal study was assessed at six time points from childhood through adolescence and into young adulthood to determine whether childhood abuse results in disrupted cortisol activity. Nonstress, morning cortisol was measured in 84 females with confirmed familial sexual abuse and 89 nonabused, comparison females. Although dynamically controlling for co-occurring depression and anxiety, hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) showed that relative to comparison females, the linear trend for abused females was significantly less steep when cortisol was examined across development from age 6 to age 30, t (1, 180) = -2.55, p cortisol activity starting in adolescence with significantly lower levels of cortisol by early adulthood, F (1, 162) = 4.78, p cortisol activity was initially significantly higher, t (1, 425) = 2.18, p cortisol hyposecretion subsequent to a period of heightened secretion.

  8. Sexual abuse and substance abuse increase risk of suicidal behavior in Malaysian youth. (United States)

    Chan, Lai Fong; Maniam, T; Saini, Suriati Mohamed; Shah, Shamsul Azhar; Loh, Sit Fong; Sinniah, Aishvarya; Idris, Zawaha Haji; Che Rus, Sulaiman; Hassan Nudin, Siti Sa'adiah; Tan, Susan Mooi Koon


    The aim of this study was to determine the association between sexual abuse, substance abuse and socio-demographic factors with suicidal ideation (SI), plans (SP) and deliberate self-harm (DSH) and propose steps to prevent youth suicidal behavior. This was a cross-sectional study of 6786 adolescents aged 17-18 years, selected randomly from all Malaysian adolescents to undergo compulsory youth camps located in Selangor, Malaysia (2008-2009). Participants were assessed using self-administered questionnaires developed to reflect the local cultural setting. However, only 4581 subjects were analyzed after excluding incomplete data. The rates of SI, SP and DSH were 7.6%, 3.2% and 6.3%, respectively. The multivariable-adjusted odds ratio showed that sexual abuse was associated with SI 1.99 (95% CI: 1.56-2.55), SP 1.57 (95% CI: 1.09-2.27) and DSH 2.26 (95% CI: 1.75-2.94); illicit drug use was associated with SI 4.05 (95% CI: 2.14-7.67), SP 2.62 (95% CI: 1.05-6.53) and DSH 2.06, (95% CI: 1.05-4.04); for alcohol use DSH was 1.34 (95% CI: 1.00-1.79). Being female was associated with all suicidal behaviors: SI 2.51 (95% CI: 1.91-3.30), SP 2.07 (95% CI: 1.39-3.08) and DSH 1.59 (95% CI: 1.19-2.11). Given the well-founded concern of increasing risk of suicidal behavior among youth, preventive efforts should adopt a more comprehensive approach in dealing with sexual abuse and substance abuse, and their sequelae, especially in girls. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  9. Attributions of Responsibility in a Child Sexual Abuse (CSA) Vignette among Respondents with CSA Histories: The Role of Abuse Similarity to a Hypothetical Victim (United States)

    Harding, Hilary G.; Zinzow, Heidi M.; Burns, Erin E.; Jackson, Joan L.


    Previous research suggests that similarity to a victim may influence attributions of responsibility in hypothetical child sexual abuse scenarios. One aspect of similarity receiving mixed support in the literature is respondent child sexual abuse history. Using a sample of 1,345 college women, the present study examined child sexual abuse history,…

  10. Prevalencia y Consecuencias del Abuso Sexual al Menor en Espana (Prevalence and Consequences of Child Sexual Abuse in Spain). (United States)

    Lopez, Felix; And Others


    The prevalence and effects of child sexual abuse in Spain were studied, using interview and survey responses from 1,821 individuals. Results indicated a high prevalence of sexual abuse prior to age 17 (15 percent of males and 22 percent of females) and a number of short-term and long-term effects, including a tendency toward mental health…

  11. "She Got Spoilt": Perceptions of Victims of Child Sexual Abuse in Ghana. (United States)

    Böhm, Bettina


    International research has commented on social stigma as a key reason for nondisclosure of child sexual abuse. However, the actual components of this social stigma frequently remain unexplored. The present study deals with perceptions of consequences of child sexual abuse among professionals and laypeople in Ghana (N = 44), employing a bystander perspective. As a qualitative study using a grounded theory framework, it considers these consequences in light of their underlying beliefs about child and adolescent development, particularly in relation to gender-based expectations placed on girls and boys. Consequences of child sexual abuse could be divided into sexual health consequences, beliefs about "destroyed innocence" and beliefs about a "destroyed future," which were strongly related to the sexual nature of the violence perpetrated. These perceived consequences of child sexual abuse hold implications for what surviving child sexual abuse means on a social level. Implications for practice are discussed on the basis of the data analysis.

  12. Sexual revictimization in a clinical sample of women reporting childhood sexual abuse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lau, Marianne; Kristensen, Ellids


    BACKGROUND: Child and adolescent sexual abuse (CSA) increases the risk for adult sexual assault (ASA), and psychological vulnerability as well as aspects of CSA and upbringing might influence the risk. AIMS: The aims of this study were to investigate whether women who reported both CSA and ASA: 1......: The results showed an increased psychological vulnerability among women with ASA, but whether the results are cause or effect of sexual revictimization or can be generalized to other clinical samples are not clear. Interventions targeting the increased risk of ASA should be developed, implemented and tested...

  13. Does the impact of child sexual abuse differ from maltreated but non-sexually abused children? A prospective examination of the impact of child sexual abuse on internalizing and externalizing behavior problems. (United States)

    Lewis, Terri; McElroy, Erika; Harlaar, Nicole; Runyan, Desmond


    Child sexual abuse (CSA) continues to be a significant problem with significant short and long term consequences. However, extant literature is limited by the reliance on retrospective recall of adult samples, single-time assessments, and lack of longitudinal data during the childhood and adolescent years. The purpose of this study was to compare internalizing and externalizing behavior problems of those with a history of sexual abuse to those with a history of maltreatment, but not sexual abuse. We examined whether gender moderated problems over time. Data were drawn from the Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect (LONGSCAN) at ages 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, and 16 (N=977). The Child Behavior Checklist was used to assess internalizing and externalizing problems. Maltreatment history and types were obtained from official Child Protective Services (CPS) records. Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) were used to assess behavior problems over time by maltreatment group. Findings indicated significantly more problems in the CSA group than the maltreated group without CSA over time. Internalizing problems were higher for sexually abused boys compared to girls. For sexually abused girls internalizing problems, but not externalizing problems increased with age relative to boys. This pattern was similar among maltreated but not sexually abused youth. Further efforts are needed to examine the psychological effects of maltreatment, particularly CSA longitudinally as well as better understand possible gender differences in order to best guide treatment efforts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Testing a multiple mediator model of the effect of childhood sexual abuse on adolescent sexual victimization. (United States)

    Bramsen, Rikke H; Lasgaard, Mathias; Koss, Mary P; Shevlin, Mark; Elklit, Ask; Banner, Jytte


    The present study modeled the direct relationship between child sexual abuse (CSA) and adolescent peer-to-peer sexual victimization (APSV) and the mediated effect via variables representing the number of sexual partners, sexual risk behavior, and signaling sexual boundaries. A cross-sectional study on the effect of CSA on APSV was conducted, utilizing a multiple mediator model. Mediated and direct effects in the model were estimated employing Mplus using bootstrapped percentile based confidence intervals to test for significance of mediated effects. The study employed 327 Danish female adolescents with a mean age of 14.9 years (SD = 0.5). The estimates from the mediational model indicated full mediation of the effect of CSA on APSV via number of sexual partners and sexual risk behavior. The current study suggests that the link between CSA and APSV was mediated by sexual behaviors specifically pertaining to situations of social peer interaction, rather than directly on prior experiences of sexual victimization. The present study identifies a modifiable target area for intervention to reduce adolescent sexual revictimization. © 2013 American Orthopsychiatric Association.

  15. The Impact of Child Sexual Abuse Discovery on Caregivers and Families: A Qualitative Study. (United States)

    Fong, Hiu-Fai; Bennett, Colleen E; Mondestin, Valerie; Scribano, Philip V; Mollen, Cynthia; Wood, Joanne N


    In this qualitative study with nonoffending caregivers of suspected child sexual abuse victims, we aimed to explore the perceived impact of sexual abuse discovery on caregivers and their families, and caregivers' attitudes about mental health services for themselves. We conducted semistructured, in-person interviews with 22 nonoffending caregivers of suspected sexual abuse victims <13 years old seen at a child advocacy center in Philadelphia. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, coded, and analyzed using modified grounded theory. Recruitment continued until thematic saturation was reached. We found that caregivers experienced significant emotional and psychological distress, characterized by anger, depressed mood, and guilt, after learning that their child may have been sexually abused. We identified four specific sources of caregiver distress: concerns about their child, negative beliefs about their parenting abilities, family members' actions and behaviors, and memories of their own past maltreatment experiences. Some caregivers described worsening family relationships after discovery of their child's sexual abuse, while others reported increased family cohesion. Finally, we found that most caregivers in this study believed that mental health services for themselves were necessary or beneficial to help them cope with the impact of their child's sexual abuse. These results highlight the need for professionals working with families affected by sexual abuse to assess the emotional and psychological needs of nonoffending caregivers and offer mental health services. Helping caregivers link to mental health services, tailored to their unique needs after sexual abuse discovery, may be an acceptable strategy to improve caregiver and child outcomes after sexual abuse.

  16. Biofeedback for anismus in 15 sexually abused women. (United States)

    Leroi, A M; Duval, V; Roussignol, C; Berkelmans, I; Peninque, P; Denis, P


    This work aimed to see whether (1) biofeedback is useful and (2) whether it needs to be combined with psychotherapy in sexually abused patients with anismus. Fifteen women aged 41.2 +/- 4.1 years who had experienced sexual abuse in childhood (9 cases) or adulthood (6 cases) and complained of symptoms of irritable bowel disease were studied. Anismus was recorded during anorectal manometry in all cases. Patients were free to choose biofeedback and/or group psychotherapy and/or individual psychotherapy. When necessary, psychoactive drugs were prescribed after a psychiatric evaluation. Initially all the patients chose biofeedback and none accepted psychotherapy. Eight patients accepted psychotherapy after several weeks of biofeedback. Thirteen patients completed the study: 5 treated by biofeedback alone, 5 with biofeedback and group therapy, and 3 with biofeedback and individual psychotherapy. Eight women recovered completely from their symptoms, only two of whom had had biofeedback without psychotherapy. Biofeedback alone was not always sufficient to cure abused patients, but was chose initially by all the patients. It could initially be a middle path between somatic treatment and psychotherapy, at a time when patients are not yet ready to undertake the latter.

  17. Childhood Sexual Abuse and Age at Initiation of Injection Drug Use (United States)

    Ompad, Danielle C.; Ikeda, Robin M.; Shah, Nina; Fuller, Crystal M.; Bailey, Susan; Morse, Edward; Kerndt, Peter; Maslow, Carey; Wu, Yingfeng; Vlahov, David; Garfein, Richard; Strathdee, Steffanie A.


    Objectives. We examined the relation between childhood sexual abuse and injection drug use initiation among young adult injection drug users. Methods. We used mixed effect linear models to compare age at first injection among 2143 young injection drug users by first sexual abuse age categories. Results. The participants were predominantly male (63.3%) and White (52.8%). Mean age and age at first injection were 23.7 and 19.6 years, respectively; 307 participants (14.3%) reported childhood sexual abuse. After adjustment for gender, race/ethnicity, noninjection drug use before first injection drug use, and recruitment site, childhood sexual abuse was independently associated with younger age at first injection. Conclusions. Childhood sexual abuse was associated with earlier initiation of injection drug use. These data emphasize the need to integrate substance abuse prevention with postvictimization services for children and adolescents. PMID:15798133

  18. Violência e abuso sexual na família Violence and sexual abuse within the family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Fátima Araújo


    Full Text Available Trata-se de relato de experiência de supervisão e atendimento de famílias que sofreram violência intrafamiliar, encaminhadas para atendimento psicológico após denúncia ou suspeita de abuso sexual infantil cometido por parentes próximos. O texto examina essa experiência à luz de reflexões surgidas nessa prática, diante dos conflitos, impasses e dificuldades vividos por profissionais e famílias envolvidos no problema. A abordagem de intervenção aqui proposta tem três características principais: 1 baseia-se no enfoque psicossocial 2 propõe o atendimento familiar conjunto, envolvendo toda a família, inclusive o agressor; e, 3introduz a perspectiva de gênero, fator historicamente preponderante na construção de relações de violência e dominação-exploração dentro da família.This article reports on the experience of supervising and providing care to families who have experienced intra-family violence and who were referred to psychological care following suspicion or denouncement of child sexual abuse committed by close relatives. It reviews this experience in the light of reflections arising from the practice in view of the conflicts, impasses and difficulties faced by professionals and families concerned. The type of intervention proposed here has three major characteristics: 1 it is based on a psychosocial approach 2 it proposes a family group treatment including the assailant and 3 it introduces the gender perspective, a historically prevailing factor in the construction of violence and domination/exploitation relationships within the family.

  19. Changes in the sexual self-schema of women with a history of childhood sexual abuse following expressive writing treatment. (United States)

    Pulverman, Carey S; Boyd, Ryan L; Stanton, Amelia M; Meston, Cindy M


    Sexual self-schemas are cognitive generalizations about the sexual self that influence the processing of sexually pertinent information and guide sexual behavior. Until recently sexual self-schemas were exclusively assessed with self-report instruments. Recent research using the meaning extraction method, an inductive method of topic modeling, identified 7 unique themes of sexual self-schemas: family and development, virginity, abuse, relationship, sexual activity, attraction, and existentialism from essays of 239 women (Stanton, Boyd, Pulverman, & Meston, 2015). In the current study, these themes were used to examine changes in theme prominence after an expressive writing treatment. Women (n = 138) with a history of childhood sexual abuse completed a 5-session expressive writing treatment, and essays on sexual self-schemas written at pretreatment and posttreatment were examined for changes in themes. Women showed a reduction in the prominence of the abuse, family and development, virginity, and attraction themes, and an increase in the existentialism theme. This study supports the validity of the 7 themes identified by Stanton and colleagues (2015) and suggests that expressive writing may aid women with a history of sexual abuse to process their abuse history such that it becomes a less salient aspect of their sexual self-schemas. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Knowledge and perceptions of parents regarding child sexual abuse in Botswana and Swaziland. (United States)

    Mathoma, Anikie M; Maripe-Perera, Dorcas B; Khumalo, Lindiwe P; Mbayi, Bagele L; Seloilwe, Esther S


    This study sought to explore the phenomenon of child sexual abuse by investigating the knowledge and perceptions of parents regarding this problem in Botswana and Swaziland. Although there are no published studies on child sexual abuse in Botswana and Swaziland, literature elsewhere has indicated that child abuse and prostitution prevail in Southern African Development Community countries and that children still continue to be rape victims within and outside the family structure [Muwanigwa, V. (1996). Child Abuse Demands More Preventive Measures. Harare: Zimbabwe. (Southern Africa News Features Southern African Research and Documentation Center)]. In Botswana in 1998, there were 300 cases of child abuse reported, of which 33 were sexual abuse cases. The same year in Swaziland, >50% of child abuse cases were sexual abuse related. In addition, the same year in Swaziland, >50% of sexual abuse case patients reporting for counseling were children younger than 21 years. Respondents of the study included 8 men (1 from Swaziland and 7 from Botswana) and 10 women (3 from Swaziland and 7 from Botswana) who were parents aged between 26 and 70 years; they were determined by way of purposive sampling. A focused interview guide with open-ended questions was used to collect data, and measures to ensure trustworthiness and ethical considerations were adhered to. Analysis of data was facilitated by categorization of themes and concepts and coding systems. The results of the study showed that the respondents acknowledged the prevalence of child sexual abuse in Botswana and Swaziland and further demonstrated their knowledge of the predisposing factors, perpetrators of the problem, and effects of sexual abuse on children. They placed major emphases on community involvement in fighting against the problem; appropriate education of children, parents, families, and community members about child sexual abuse; and improvement on the laws that protect children against sexual abuse to

  1. Parenting in females exposed to intimate partner violence and childhood sexual abuse. (United States)

    Jaffe, Anna E; Cranston, Christopher C; Shadlow, Joanna O


    Child sexual abuse and intimate partner violence may have a significant impact on parenting. The current study expands on existing research by examining the effects of child sexual abuse and intimate partner violence on parenting styles and parenting self-efficacy. In women from a parenting intervention program (n = 20), child sexual abuse was related to lower parenting self-efficacy and more permissive parenting. In women at a domestic violence shelter (n = 45), child sexual abuse was related to current sexual coercion of the partner, and authoritative parenting was related to higher parenting self-efficacy. These results indicate that having a history of child sexual abuse should be taken into consideration when dealing with mothers in violent relationships.

  2. The Relationship of Exposure to Childhood Sexual Abuse to Other Forms of Abuse, Neglect, and Household Dysfunction during Childhood. (United States)

    Dong, Maxia; Anda, Robert F.; Dube, Shanta R.; Giles, Wayne H.; Felitti, Vincent J.


    This retrospective cohort study assessed the relationship of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) to other categories of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), such as childhood abuse, neglect, and parental separation/divorce. Adults reporting CSA experienced a 1.6- to 3.4-fold greater likelihood of experience each category of ACE. The ACE score was also…

  3. Abuse-Specific Self-Schemas and Self-Functioning: A Prospective Study of Sexually Abused Youth (United States)

    Feiring, Candice; Cleland, Charles M.; Simon, Valerie A.


    Potential pathways from childhood sexual abuse (CSA) to negative self-schemas to subsequent dissociative symptoms and low global self-esteem were examined in a prospective longitudinal study of 160 ethnically diverse youth with confirmed CSA histories. Participants were interviewed at the time of abuse discovery, when they were 8 to 15 years of…

  4. Associations between Child Sexual Abuse and Negative Sexual Experiences and Revictimization among Women: Does Measuring Severity Matter? (United States)

    Loeb, Tamra B.; Gaines, Tommi; Wyatt, Gail E.; Zhang, Muyu; Liu, Honghu


    Women with histories of child sexual abuse (CSA) are more likely than those without such experiences to report a variety of negative sexual outcomes. This study examines the explanatory power of a CSA summed composite versus dichotomous (presence/absence) measurement in predicting a comprehensive negative sexual behavior outcome. Study…

  5. Alcohol myopia and sexual abdication among women: examining the moderating effect of child sexual abuse. (United States)

    Staples, Jennifer M; George, William H; Stappenbeck, Cynthia A; Davis, Kelly Cue; Norris, Jeanette; Heiman, Julia R


    HIV and other STIs are major public health concerns for women, and risky sexual behaviors increase the risk of transmission. Risky sexual behaviors include sexual abdication, that is, willingness to let a partner decide how far to go sexually. Alcohol intoxication is a risk factor for risky sexual behavior, and the Inhibition Conflict Model of Alcohol Myopia may help explain this relationship. This model suggests that in order for intoxication to influence behavior there must be high conflict, meaning the strength of the instigatory cues and inhibitory cues are both high. Recent research indicates that the degree to which cues are experienced as high in instigation or inhibition is subject to individual difference factors. One individual difference factor associated with alcohol-related sexual risk taking is child sexual abuse (CSA) history. The current study examined the influence of acute alcohol intoxication, CSA, and inhibition conflict on sexual abdication with 131 women (mean age 25) randomized into a 2 (alcohol, control)×2 (high conflict, low conflict) experimental design. Regression analyses yielded a significant 3-way interaction, F (1,122)=8.15, R(2)=.14, psexual decision making among women with CSA. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Suspicion of the battered child’s syndrome – apaediatrician’s nightmare?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Czerżyńska


    Full Text Available Child abuse may occur across all cultural, social and ethnic groups. Children may be abused by adults, adolescents, their own peers, and institutional workers alike. Whenever a suspicion arises concerning violence or other kind of abuse being possibly inflicted on a child, immediate thorough medical investigation is absolutely essential, and the child’s behaviour, appearance and development evaluated. Multispecialist diagnostics may be necessary, including the available imaging modalities. Abuse symptoms include abnormal patterns of child’s and parents’ behaviour, explanations concerning the injuries that are inconsistent with the actual clinical picture, delay in seeking medical attention, parents ignoring or downplaying the child’s injuries, seemingly strained relations between parents and the child. Parental attitudes that may be indicative of child abuse tend to be a result of alcohol dependence, drug addiction, or a deviation. At times, aggression or particular strictness towards the child may be observed. Whenever sexual or physical abuse is suspected, the child should immediately be referred to a hospital for further observation and accessory investigations. Relevant institutions should also be contacted and collaborated with. Child abuse seems to be on the rise, with more cases each year. Simultaneously, various social measures are undertaken aimed at ensuring assistance to the victims, and counteracting violence and abuse. It should be remembered that the treating doctor is obliged to report a suspicion of abuse taking place to the relevant authorities immediately upon taking its suspicion.

  7. Predicting the child-rearing practices of mothers sexually abused in childhood. (United States)

    Ruscio, A M


    Although empirical investigations have established a relationship between childhood sexual abuse and numerous long-term consequences, surprisingly little research has addressed the possible effects of childhood victimization on the later child-rearing practices of adult survivors. The present study examined hypothesized predictors of three parenting styles among adult survivors of sexual abuse as compared with adult children of alcoholic parents. Forty-five clinical outpatients completed a questionnaire battery assessing experiences of childhood abuse, current economic and social resources, and parenting attitudes and practices. The child-rearing practices of participants were compared with those reported by a community sample of 717 mothers. Additional analyses examined the extent to which sexual abuse and its adult sequelae predicted the parenting behaviors reported by the present sample. Both sexual abuse survivors and children of alcoholics reported significantly higher rates of permissive parenting practices than mothers in the community sample. Multiple regression analyses further revealed unique relationships between sexual abuse and parenting, over and above the variance explained by physical abuse, current socioeconomic status, and the experience of growing up in an alcoholic home. Mothers' sexual abuse severity, social support satisfaction, and dysfunctional parenting attitudes moderated several of these relationships. The present findings suggest that sexual abuse and its adult sequelae may have negative consequences for the parenting practices of survivors, particularly for survivors' ability to provide their children with appropriate structure, consistent discipline, and clear behavioral expectations. Implications for the psychosocial development of survivors' children are discussed.

  8. Prevalence of sexual abuse among children with conduct disorder: a systematic review. (United States)

    Maniglio, Roberto


    Many clinicians and researchers have speculated that child sexual abuse and conduct disorder co-occur frequently, yet no systematic reviews of literature have specifically addressed both these conditions. To estimate the prevalence of sexual abuse among children with conduct disorder, the pertinent literature was systematically reviewed. Ten databases were searched, supplemented with hand search of reference lists from retrieved papers. Blind assessments of study eligibility and quality were conducted by two independent researchers. Disagreements were resolved by consensus. Twenty-three studies meeting minimum quality criteria that were enough to insure objectivity and not to invalidate results and including 7,256 participants with either conduct disorder or child sexual abuse were examined. The prevalence of child sexual abuse among participants with conduct disorder was 27 %; however, such figure might be underestimated due to selection, sampling, and recall biases; poor assessment methods; and narrow definitions of abuse in included studies. Participants with conduct disorder, compared with healthy individuals, reported higher rates of child sexual abuse. However, compared with other psychiatric populations, they reported similar or lower rates. There was also some evidence suggesting that children with conduct disorder might be more likely to report child physical abuse. Female participants with conduct disorder, compared with males, were significantly more likely to report child sexual abuse. Youths with conduct disorder are at risk of being (or having been) sexually abused, although such risk seems to be neither more specific to nor stronger for these individuals, compared with people with other psychiatric disorders.

  9. Exploring sexuality profiles of adolescents who have engaged in sexual abuse and their link to delinquency and offense characteristics. (United States)

    Spearson Goulet, Jo-Annie; Tardif, Monique


    Very few studies have taken a specific interest in the various sexual dimensions, beyond delinquent sexual behavior, of adolescents who have engaged in sexual abuse (AESA). Those that went beyond delinquent sexual behavior have report mixed results, suggesting they are a heterogeneous group. The current study used cluster analysis to examine the sexuality profiles of AESA, which included information on several sexual dimensions (atypical and normative fantasies and experiences, drive, body image, pornography, first masturbation, onset of sexual interest and first exposure to sex). Participants (N = 136) are adolescents who have engaged in sexual abuse involving physical contact, for which at least one parent also participated in the study. They were recruited from six specialized treatment centers and three youth centers in Quebec (Canada). Cluster analyses were performed to identify specific sexual profiles. Results suggest three clusters of AESA: 1- Discordant sexuality pertaining to adolescents who show mostly normative sexual interests, 2- Constrictive sexuality, characterizing adolescents who seem to be less invested/interested in their sexuality and 3- Overinvested sexuality for adolescents showing an exacerbated sexuality, including atypical sexual interest. Additional analyses (ANOVAs and Chi-square tests) reveal that five delinquency and offense characteristics were significantly more likely to be present in the Overinvested than the Constrictive cluster: non-sexual offenses, three or more victims, peer victims and alcohol and drug consumption. Advancing our knowledge on this topic can provide relevant data for clinicians to better target interventions. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and Quality of Life in Sexually Abused Australian Children (United States)

    Gospodarevskaya, Elena


    The study used publicly available data on post-traumatic stress disorder in a sample of the Australian population with a history of sexual abuse to demonstrate how this evidence can inform economic analyses. The 2007 Australian Mental Health Survey revealed that 8.3% of 993 adolescents experienced childhood sexual abuse, of which 40.2% were…

  11. Impact Evaluation of a Cognitive Behavioral Group Therapy Model in Brazilian Sexually Abused Girls (United States)

    Habigzang, Luisa Fernanda; Damasio, Bruno Figueiredo; Koller, Silvia Helena


    This study evaluated the impact of a cognitive behavioral group therapy model in Brazilian girls who had experienced sexual abuse. The effect of the waiting period before treatment and the enduring effectiveness of the treatment after six and 12 months were also evaluated. Forty-nine female sexual abuse victims between the ages of 9 and 16…

  12. Two Tragic Forms of Child Sexual Abuse: Are They Often Overlooked? (United States)

    Lemmey, Dorothy E.; Tice, Pamela Paradis


    The persistence and pervasiveness of two forms of child sexual abuse in particular, pornography and prostitution, undoubtedly lie in the perpetuation of societal norms that unwittingly support such tragic behaviors. Argues that the overall problem of child sexual abuse must be reconceptualized, and in-depth, long-term investigations of both child…

  13. The Economic Consequences of Child Sexual Abuse for Adult Lesbian Women. (United States)

    Hyman, Batya


    This study extends investigation of the long-term consequences of child sexual abuse into the workplace and considers the economic effects on Lesbian women as determined by the National Lesbian Health Care Survey. It considers the effects of child sexual abuse on four spheres of a woman's life: her physical health, mental health, educational…

  14. Pilot Evaluation of a Sexual Abuse Prevention Program for Taiwanese Children (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Chuen; Fortson, Beverly L.; Tseng, Kai-Wen


    The purpose of the current study was to develop and evaluate the efficacy of a school-based child sexual abuse prevention program for Taiwanese children. Forty-six Taiwanese children age 6 to 13 were divided into one of two groups based on their school grade and then randomly assigned to a skills-based child sexual abuse prevention program who…

  15. Group Play Therapy with Sexually Abused Preschool Children: Group Behaviors and Interventions (United States)

    Jones, Karyn Dayle


    Group play therapy is a common treatment modality for children who have been sexually abused. Sexually abused preschoolers exhibit different group play therapy behaviors than do nonabused children. Group workers need to be aware of these differences and know the appropriate group interventions. This article describes group play therapy with…

  16. Children's Response to a Sexual Abuse Prevention Program: A Study of the Spiderman Comic. (United States)

    Garbarino, James


    Children (N=73) in grades two, four, and six were interviewed concerning their comprehension and response to a special comic book on child sexual abuse. Although the comic made some children anxious, one child spoke up about having been sexually abused and how the comic would have helped him. (DB)

  17. Prevention of Child Sexual Abuse Victimization: A Meta Analysis of School Programs. (United States)

    Rispens, Jan; Aleman, Andre; Goudena, Paul P.


    Meta-analysis of 16 evaluation studies of school programs aimed at the prevention of child sexual abuse victimization found significant and considerable mean postintervention and follow-up effect sizes, indicating that the programs were effective in teaching children sexual abuse concepts and self-protection skills. Program duration and content…

  18. Can the Punishment Fit the Crime When Suspects Confess Child Sexual Abuse? (United States)

    Faller, Kathleen Coulborn; Birdsall, William C.; Vandervort, Frank; Henry, James


    Objective: To determine significant predictors of severity of sentencing of sex offenders of minors in a jurisdiction which obtains many confessions. Method: Data were abstracted from 323 criminal court case records of sexually abused minors over 11 years in a county which places a high priority on sexual abuse prosecution. The sample used in this…

  19. Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Education: A review of School Policy and Curriculum Provision in Australia (United States)

    Walsh, Kerryann; Berthelsen, Donna; Nicholson, Jan M.; Brandon, Leisa; Stevens, Judyann; Rachele, Jerome N.


    The past four decades have seen increasing public and professional awareness of child sexual abuse. Congruent with public health approaches to prevention, efforts to eliminate child sexual abuse have inspired the emergence of prevention initiatives which can be provided to all children as part of their standard school curriculum. However,…

  20. Prevalence and nature of child sexual abuse in the Netherlands : Ethnic differences?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okur, P.; van der Knaap, L.M.; Bogaerts, S.


    In most epidemiological prevalence studies of child sexual abuse, the role of ethnicity remains unclear. This study examined the prevalence and nature of child sexual abuse in four non-Western ethnic minority groups and compared them with a native Dutch group. A sample of 3,426 young adults (aged

  1. Conceptualization of the Complex Outcomes of Sexual Abuse: A Signal Detection Analysis (United States)

    Pechtel, Pia; Evans, Ian M.; Podd, John V.


    Eighty-five New Zealand based practitioners experienced in treating adults with a history of child sexual abuse participated in an online judgment study of child sexual abuse outcomes using signal detection theory methodology. Participants' level of sensitivity was assessed independent of their degree of response bias when discriminating (a) known…

  2. The Pennsylvania State University Child Sexual Abuse Scandal: An Analysis of Institutional Factors Affecting Response (United States)

    Holland, Alice R.


    The outcomes of The Pennsylvania State University (Penn State) child sexual abuse scandal have left many scholars and individuals questioning the university's collective identity. The goal of this research was to uncover the dominant themes that describe a problematic institutional response to the child sexual abuse incidents in order to provide…

  3. Utilizing Online Training for Child Sexual Abuse Prevention: Benefits and Limitations (United States)

    Paranal, Rechelle; Thomas, Kiona Washington; Derrick, Christina


    The prevalence of child sexual abuse demands innovative approaches to prevent further victimization. The online environment provides new opportunities to expand existing child sexual abuse prevention trainings that target adult gatekeepers and allow for large scale interventions that are fiscally viable. This article discusses the benefits and…

  4. Exploratory Factor Analysis and Psychometric Evaluation of the Teacher Reporting Attitude Scale for Child Sexual Abuse (United States)

    Walsh, Kerryann; Rassafiani, Mehdi; Mathews, Ben; Farrell, Ann; Butler, Des


    This paper presents an evaluation of an instrument to measure teachers' attitudes toward reporting child sexual abuse and discusses the instrument's merit for research into reporting practice. Based on responses from 444 Australian teachers, the Teachers' Reporting Attitude Scale for Child Sexual Abuse was evaluated using exploratory factor…

  5. Differences in Perceptions of Child Sexual Abuse Based on Perpetrator Age and Respondent Gender (United States)

    Giglio, Jessie J.; Wolfteich, Paula M.; Gabrenya, William K.; Sohn, Mary L.


    Child sexual abuse changes the lives of countless children. Child sexual abuse victims experience short and long term negative outcomes that affect their daily functioning. In this study, undergraduate students' perceptions of CSA were obtained using vignettes with an adult or child perpetrator and a general questionnaire. Results indicated…

  6. Is Anybody Listening? The Literature on the Dialogical Process of Child Sexual Abuse Disclosure Reviewed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reitsema, Anne Margit; Grietens, Hans

    We conducted an exploratory review of the current literature on child sexual abuse disclosure in everyday contexts. The aim of this study was to provide an overview of relevant publications on the process of child sexual abuse disclosure, in order to generate new directions for future research and

  7. Understanding Child Sexual Abuse by Catholic Priests from a Situational Perspective (United States)

    Terry, Karen J.; Freilich, Joshua D.


    Most sexual offense research focuses on offender motivation and individual risk factors rather than the criminal events themselves. This article provides an analysis of data from two studies on child sexual abuse by Catholic priests to help understand the opportunities clergy had or created to abuse youth. Findings show that situational factors…

  8. Historical Child Sexual Abuse in England and Wales: The Role of Historians (United States)

    Bingham, Adrian; Delap, Lucy; Jackson, Louise; Settle, Louise


    This article reflects on methodological and ethical issues that have shaped a collaborative project which aims to chart social, legal and political responses to child sexual abuse in England and Wales across the twentieth century. The etymological problem of searching for child sexual abuse in the historical archive is discussed, given that the…

  9. Australian Undergraduate Primary School Student-Teachers' Responses to Child Sexual Abuse and Its Mandatory Reporting (United States)

    Goldman, Juliette D. G.


    This study aims to understand how primary school teachers, as mandatory reporters of child sexual abuse, are responding to child sexual abuse and its mandatory reporting, even though many teachers do not receive a compulsory course in Child Protection and its legal requirements in their pre-service university training. A cohort of 81 Australian…

  10. Adult Disclosure of Sexual Abuse: A Primary Cause of Psychological Distress? (United States)

    McNulty, Craig; Wardle, Jane


    This paper surveys research evidence relating to the disclosure of childhood sexual abuse by adults and argues that, for some adults, the disclosure of sexual abuse may be a primary cause of psychological distress, resulting in the dissolution of social support systems and increasing the individual's vulnerability to psychiatric disorder.…

  11. Victim Oriented Tort Law in Action: An Empirical Examination of Catholic Church Sexual Abuse Cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijck, Gijs


    Catholic Church sexual abuse cases have received worldwide attention, with lawsuits and nationwide investigations reported in various countries. This study examines a procedure—a hybrid between tort litigation and a victim compensation fund—that not only allowed sexual abuse victims to seek monetary

  12. Autonomy and intimacy in the family as risk factors for sexual abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Repič


    Full Text Available The study examined the level of two risk factors (autonomy and intimacy for healthy functional family among sexually abused and sexually non-abused individuals. Autonomy and intimacy were measured with Family-of-Origin Scale (FOS; Hovestadt, Anderson, Piercy, Cochran, & Fine, 1985. 261 participants (194 girls and 67 boys completed the FOS, average age was 25 years (SD = 7. Among all participants 18% were sexually abused (N = 46, approximately every fifth (5.7 girl and every seventh (6.7 boy. There were 78% girls and 22% boys among sexually abused participants. Families of sexually abused participants in comparison with the families of sexually non-abused showed many statistically significant differences in elements of autonomy (clarity of expressing emotions, responsibility, respect for others, openness to others, and acceptance of separation and loss and intimacy (encouraging expression of a range of feelings, creating a warm atmosphere in the home, dealing with conflict resolution without undue stress, promoting empathy among family members, trust and developing trust. In general the sexually abused group had a statistically significantly lower level of autonomy and intimacy in comparison with sexually non-abused group.

  13. Silencing the Patient: Freud, Sexual Abuse, and "The Etiology of Hysteria." (United States)

    McOmber, James B.


    States that, in "The Etiology of Hysteria," Sigmund Freud's "seduction theory" asserted that child sexual abuse was the single cause of adult hysteria. Argues that Freud's failure to persuade his audience can be attributed not only to their denial of sexual abuse but also to his failure to clarify how pschyoanalysis could…

  14. Emotions and Suicidal Ideation among Depressed Women with Childhood Sexual Abuse Histories (United States)

    You, Sungeun; Talbot, Nancy L.; He, Hua; Conner, Kenneth R.


    Depressed women with sexual abuse histories have a heightened risk of suicidal ideation (SI), which may be only in part attributable to psychiatric symptoms of depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Emotions and SI were studied among 106 women with histories of childhood sexual abuse enrolled in treatment trials for major depression.…

  15. Increasing the Usability of Cognitive Processing Therapy for Survivors of Child Sexual Abuse (United States)

    House, Amy S.


    There is an ongoing need for empirically based treatments for child sexual abuse (CSA) that are time-efficient and cost-effective. This article describes a modification of cognitive processing therapy for child sexual abuse (CPT-SA) that increases the therapy's usability by reducing the number of individual therapy sessions required. The…

  16. Commentary: Ethical Considerations in Testing Victims of Sexual Abuse for HIV Infection. (United States)

    Fost, Norman


    Ethical issues in screening of victims of sexual abuse for infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are raised in response to Gellert (EC 222 881). It is concluded that widescale HIV testing of child victims of sexual abuse is not justified by the available information. (DB)

  17. Examining the Relationship between Childhood Sexual Abuse and Borderline Personality Disorder: Does Social Support Matter? (United States)

    Elzy, Meredith B.


    The relationship between childhood sexual abuse and borderline personality disorder is a prominent issue in the etiological research on borderline personality disorder. This study further explored the relationship between childhood sexual abuse and the development of borderline personality features while evaluating the moderating role of a primary…

  18. Developing a Scale of Perception of Sexual Abuse in Youth Sports (SPSAYS) (United States)

    Baker, Thomas A., III.; Byon, Kevin K.


    A scale was developed to measure perceptions of sexual abuse in youth sports by assessing (a) the perceived prevalence of sexual abuse committed by pedophilic youth sport coaches, (b) the perceived likelihood that a coach is a pedophile, (c) perceptions on how youth sport organizations should manage the risk of pedophilia, and (d) media influence…

  19. Sexual Abuse Prevention Mobile Application (SAP_MobAPP) for Primary School Children in Korea. (United States)

    Moon, Kyoung Ja; Park, Kyung Min; Sung, Yunsick


    This study aimed to develop and evaluate the effects of a sexual abuse prevention mobile application, SAP_MobAPP, for primary school children. Forty-five subjects were trained for 40 minutes once a week. The experimental group received education that utilized the SAP_MobAPP. Control group A received Web based sexual abuse prevention education, while control group B received textbook based sexual abuse prevention education. Effectiveness was verified through a survey on child sexual abuse recognition and avoidance skills administered before and after training. The SAP_MobAPP program improved recognition (awareness) and the child's skills to avoid child sexual abuse situations, and the effects were long-lasting. However, differences between groups were not statistically significant. This study developed a sexual abuse prevention application and verified its effectiveness. Awareness and skills to avoid child sexual abuse after app education increased immediately after training and four weeks later. The SAP_MobAPP could be used for sexual abuse prevention education in schools.

  20. Self-Mutilating Behavior of Sexually Abused Female Adults in Turkey. (United States)

    Baral, Isin; Kora, Kaan; Yuksel, Sahika; Sezgin, Ufuk


    Self-mutilating behavior (SMB), suicide, and eating disorders are examined in adult females (N=42) in relation to childhood sexual abuse. A statistically significant relationship was found between SMB and suicide attempts. Findings support the contention that SMB and sexual abuse are closely related to eating disorders. (Author/EMK)

  1. Social and Emotional Outcomes of Child Sexual Abuse: A Clinical Sample in Turkey (United States)

    Ozbaran, Burcu; Erermis, Serpil; Bukusoglu, Nagehan; Bildik, Tezan; Tamar, Muge; Ercan, Eyyup Sabri; Aydin, Cahide; Cetin, Saniye Korkmaz


    Childhood sexual abuse is a traumatic life event that may cause psychiatric disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder and depression. During 2003-2004, 20 sexually abused children were referred to the Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Clinic of Ege University in Izmir, Turkey. Two years later, the psychological adjustment of these children (M…

  2. A case of sexual abuse by a traditional faith healer: are there potential preventions? (United States)

    Chan, Lai Fong; Tan, Susan Mooi Koon; Ang, Jin Kiat; Kamal Nor, Norazlin; Sharip, Shalisah


    Adolescent sexual abuse is not an uncommon phenomenon in Malaysia. It is a traumatic experience that complicates the psychosocial development of young people on the threshold of adulthood. This case report highlights the psychosocial sequelae of adolescent sexual abuse by a traditional healer and discusses management issues in the context of unique cultural and belief systems.

  3. Family Trauma and Dysfunction in Sexually Abused Female Adolescent Psychiatric Control Groups. (United States)

    Wherry, Jeffrey N.; And Others


    Differences in family trauma, stressors, and dysfunction among adolescent psychiatric inpatients grouped by sexual abuse self-reports were investigated. Family trauma/dysfunction was determined from a composite score derived from the Traumatic Antecedents Scale. The results indicated that sexually abused adolescents reported more family…

  4. A Case of Sexual Abuse by a Traditional Faith Healer: Are There Potential Preventions? (United States)

    Chan, Lai Fong; Tan, Susan Mooi Koon; Ang, Jin Kiat; Kamal Nor, Norazlin; Sharip, Shalisah


    Adolescent sexual abuse is not an uncommon phenomenon in Malaysia. It is a traumatic experience that complicates the psychosocial development of young people on the threshold of adulthood. This case report highlights the psychosocial sequelae of adolescent sexual abuse by a traditional healer and discusses management issues in the context of…

  5. Encopresis and Sexual Abuse in a Sample of Boys in Residential Treatment. (United States)

    Morrow, Jan; And Others


    This study of 23 boys (ages 6 to 14) in a residential psychiatric treatment program found nine of the boys were encopretic (27 times the incidence of encopresis in the general population of boys 10-12). Seven of the nine boys had histories of sexual abuse by males, suggesting that encopresis may be a marker of sexual abuse. (DB)

  6. Psychopathology in a Large Cohort of Sexually Abused Children Followed up to 43 Years (United States)

    Cutajar, Margaret C.; Mullen, Paul E.; Ogloff, James R. P.; Thomas, Stuart D.; Wells, David L.; Spataro, Josie


    Objective: To determine the rate and risk of clinical and personality disorders diagnosed in childhood and adulthood in those known to have been sexually abused during childhood. Methods: Forensic medical records of 2,759 sexually abused children assessed between 1964 and 1995 were linked with a public psychiatric database between 12 and 43 years…


    Sam-Soto, Selene; Sámano, Reyna; Flores-Ramos, Mónica; Rodríguez-Bosch, Mario; García-Salazar, Danae; Hernández-Mohar, Gabriela; García-Espinosa, Verónica


    the purpose of the present study was to describe some perinatal outcomes in two groups of pregnant adolescents: one group with history of sexual abuse and one group without sexual abuse antecedent. we designed an observational, retrolective study. Participants were primigravid adolescents between 10 to 16 years, with a singleton pregnancy, and at least three prenatal medical evaluations. Participants were grouped according to sexual abuse antecedent: 55 adolescents had sexual abuse antecedent, and 110 participants had not sexual abuse antecedent. We obtained the clinical data from medical records: socio-demographic characteristics, sexually transmitted infections, illicit drugs use, pre-gestational body mass index, gestational weight gain, and newborn weight. The data were analyzed using association tests and mean comparisons. the adolescents with sexual abuse history had higher prevalence of human papilloma virus infection. The newborns weight of mothers without sexual abuse antecedent was about 200 grams higher than the newborns of mothers with sexual abuse antecedent (p = 0.002); while the length of the first group was 2 centimeters longer than the length of the newborns on the second group (p = 0.001). Gestational weight increase was 5 kilograms lower in adolescents with sexual abuse antecedent compared to adolescent without the antecedent (p = 0.005). Illicit drug use was similar in the two groups and it was associated to low newborn weight. the sexual abuse antecedent in pregnant adolescents was associated to higher frequency of human papilloma virus infections, lower newborn weight, and lower gestational weight increase on pregnant adolescents. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  8. Sexual Functioning After Childhood Abuse: The Influence of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and Trauma Exposure. (United States)

    Bornefeld-Ettmann, Pia; Steil, Regina; Lieberz, Klara A; Bohus, Martin; Rausch, Sophie; Herzog, Julia; Priebe, Kathlen; Fydrich, Thomas; Müller-Engelmann, Meike


    Impairments in sexual functioning and sexual satisfaction are very common in women who have experienced childhood sexual abuse (CSA). A growing body of literature suggests a high prevalence of sexual distress in patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, the influence of sexual trauma exposure per se and the influence of PTSD symptoms on impairments in sexual functioning remain unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of sexual trauma exposure and PTSD on sexual functioning and sexual satisfaction by comparing 3 groups of women. Women with PTSD after CSA (N = 32), women with a history of CSA and/or physical abuse but without PTSD (trauma controls [TC]; N = 32), and healthy women (N = 32) were compared with regards to self-reported sexual functioning and sexual satisfaction. Trauma exposure was assessed with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, and PTSD was assessed with the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition. Sexual functioning was assessed with the Sexual Experience and Behavior Questionnaire, and sexual satisfaction was assessed with the questionnaire Resources in Sexuality and Relationship. PTSD patients had significantly lower sexual functioning in some aspects of sexual experience (sexual aversion, sexual pain, and sexual satisfaction) but did not significantly differ in sexual arousal and orgasm from the other 2 groups. TC and healthy women did not significantly differ from each other on the measures of sexual functioning or sexual satisfaction. Results suggest that the development of PTSD has a greater impact on sexual functioning than does the experience of a traumatic event. This emphasizes the importance to address possible sexual distress and sexual satisfaction in women with PTSD by administering specific diagnostic instruments and by integrating specific interventions targeting sexual problems into a trauma-specific treatment. The study

  9. Sexual harassment and abuse in sport: the role of the team doctor. (United States)

    Marks, Saul; Mountjoy, Margo; Marcus, Madalyn


    Sexual harassment and abuse occur in all sports and at all levels with an increased risk at the elite level. The physical and psychological consequences of sexual harassment and abuse are significant for the athlete, their team and for the health and integrity of sport in general. The sports medicine health professional has an integral role to play in the prevention of sexual harassment and abuse in sport. This paper provides sport healthcare professionals with a practical guide on prevention strategies and advice on the recognition and management of suspected abuse.

  10. From Freud to Feminism: Gendered Constructions of Blame Across Theories of Child Sexual Abuse. (United States)

    Azzopardi, Corry; Alaggia, Ramona; Fallon, Barbara


    Most theories of child sexual abuse are, to some degree, gendered, with nonoffending mothers bearing the burden of blame, ideologically and legally, for the transgressions of predominantly male offenders. This article explores the social construction of blame for child sexual abuse via critical analyses of evolving theoretical perspectives on maternal culpability for the inception and maintenance of abuse dynamics. Drawing on selected conceptual and research knowledge that supports and refutes anecdotal claims, this synthesis of the literature culminates in the proposal of an evidence-informed, feminist-grounded, multitheoretical child sexual abuse framework that disrupts dominant mother-blaming discourse and guides socially just and ethically responsive policy, practice, and research.

  11. A multi-dimensional model of groupwork for adolescent girls who have been sexually abused. (United States)

    Lindon, J; Nourse, C A


    This paper describes a treatment approach for sexually abused adolescent girls using a group work model. The model incorporates three treatment modalities: a skills component, a psychotherapeutic component, and an educative component. The group ran for 16 sessions over a 6-month period and each girl was assessed prior to joining the group. The girls were again assessed at the end of treatment and a 6-months follow-up; all of them showed improvement on self-statements (outcome) and on behavioral measures assessed by others (follow-up). Girls who had been sexually abused demonstrated difficulties in many areas of their lives following abuse. These problems related to their feelings of guilt and helplessness in relation to both themselves and their abuser. Sexually abused children often have poor knowledge of sexual matters and demonstrate confusion over their own body image. Using a multidimensional model the problems following abuse can be addressed.

  12. Alcohol and drug problems and sexual and physical abuse at three ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background Alcohol is the most important substance of abuse in South Africa. There are, however, reports of an increase in the use of other drugs among adolescents. The aim of this study was to assess the use of alcohol and other drugs of abuse and their association with physical or sexual abuse in three urban high ...

  13. Externalizing Behavior among Adopted Boys with Preadoptive Histories of Child Sexual Abuse (United States)

    Nalavany, Blace Arthur; Ryan, Scott D.; Hinterlong, Jim


    This study examined the severity of externalizing symptomology among adopted boys with preadoptive histories of child sexual abuse, physical abuse, neglect/abandonment, or no abuse. The study was based on data collected across a three-year period from parents who adopted children from Florida's child welfare system. The sample consisted of 1,136…

  14. Coping Strategies and Depression Among College Students Following Child Sexual Abuse in Turkey. (United States)

    Yılmaz Irmak, Türkan; Aksel, Şeyda; Thompson, Dennis


    The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between type of coping style and depression in college students with child sexual abuse experience. A total of 1,055 college students completed self-report measures to assess depressive symptoms, coping strategies, and child sexual abuse history. This study was conducted with a subset of 125 college students who reported that they had been sexually abused in childhood. They were divided into depressive and nondepressive groups according to their depressive symptoms. Data was collected with the Childhood Sexual Abuse Measurement, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Coping Styles of Stress Scale. Family characteristics were measured with a demographic questionnaire. Analyses involved multiple regression to test for predictive effects. Among college students with child sexual abuse histories, parental education level and both problem-focused and emotion-focused strategies significantly explained depression scores.

  15. Male Survivors of Sexual Abuse: Becoming Gender-Sensitive and Trauma-Informed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Elkins


    Full Text Available While there is a wide body of literature examining the behavioral, emotional, and social consequences associated with being sexually abused, comparatively few studies have focused on males. Sexual abuse victimization among males remains largely under-reported, under-treated, and under-recognized by researchers, practitioners, and the public. Researchers trying to clarify why sexual abuse in males has been overlooked point to prevailing cultural norms, myths, assumptions, stigma, and biases about masculinity. Consequently, there is often an assumption that males are not negatively affected by sexual abuse. Drawing extensively from the literature, this article provides a critical review of: (1 the nature, experience and impact of sexual abuse victimization for males; and (2 the multidimensional processes that promote and inhibit resilient outcomes. It concludes with a discussion of trauma-informed and gender-responsive recommendations and future directions for social work practice, policy, and research.

  16. Neural Correlates of Memories of Childhood Sexual Abuse in Women With and Without Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (United States)

    Bremner, J. Douglas; Narayan, Meena; Staib, Lawrence H.; Southwick, Steven M.; McGlashan, Thomas; Charney, Dennis S.


    Objective Childhood sexual abuse is very common in our society, but little is known about the long-term effects of abuse on brain function. The purpose of this study was to measure neural correlates of memories of childhood abuse in sexually abused women with and without the diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Method Twenty-two women with a history of childhood sexual abuse underwent injection of [15O]H2O, followed by positron emission tomography imaging of the brain while they listened to neutral and traumatic (personalized childhood sexual abuse events) scripts. Brain blood flow during exposure to traumatic and neutral scripts was compared for sexually abused women with and without PTSD. Results Memories of childhood sexual abuse were associated with greater increases in blood flow in portions of anterior prefrontal cortex (superior and middle frontal gyri—areas 6 and 9), posterior cingulate (area 31), and motor cortex in sexually abused women with PTSD than in sexually abused women without PTSD. Abuse memories were associated with alterations in blood flow in medial prefrontal cortex, with decreased blood flow in subcallosal gyrus (area 25), and a failure of activation in anterior cingulate (area 32). There was also decreased blood flow in right hippocampus, fusiform/inferior temporal gyrus, supramarginal gyrus, and visual association cortex in women with PTSD relative to women without PTSD. Conclusions These findings implicate dysfunction of medial prefrontal cortex (subcallosal gyrus and anterior cingulate), hippocampus, and visual association cortex in pathological memories of childhood abuse in women with PTSD. Increased activation in posterior cingulate and motor cortex was seen in women with PTSD. Dysfunction in these brain areas may underlie PTSD symptoms provoked by traumatic reminders in subjects with PTSD. PMID:10553744

  17. Child Sexual Abuse and HIV-Related Substance Use and Sexual Risk Across the Life Course Among Males and Females. (United States)

    Scheidell, Joy D; Kumar, Pritika C; Campion, Taylor; Quinn, Kelly; Beharie, Nisha; McGorray, Susan P; Khan, Maria R


    Child sexual abuse is associated with substance use and sexual risk behaviors during adolescence and adulthood, but no known studies have documented associations across the life course in a nationally representative U.S. We used the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health to measure associations between child sexual abuse and substance use and sexual risk behaviors during adolescence, young adulthood, and adulthood among males and females (n = 11,820). Approximately 10% of females and 7% of males reported child sexual abuse. Associations with substance use were strongest during adolescence and lessened over time. Increased odds of sexual risk among those with a history of child sexual abuse remained consistent through the life course. Significant gender differences existed for some associations (e.g., adulthood multiple partners: males adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.73, 95%CI:1.18, 2.53; females AOR = 1.11, 95%CI:0.79, 1.56). Trauma-informed prevention interventions should address child sexual abuse among both males and females to prevent substance use and sexual risk behavior throughout the life course.

  18. The Amsterdam Sexual Abuse Case (ASAC)-study in day care centers: longitudinal effects of sexual abuse on infants and very young children and their parents, and the consequences of the persistence of abusive images on the internet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindauer, Ramón J. L.; Brilleslijper-Kater, Sonja N.; Diehle, Julia; Verlinden, Eva; Teeuw, Arianne H.; Middeldorp, Christel M.; Tuinebreijer, Wilco; Bosschaart, Thekla F.; van Duin, Esther; Verhoeff, Arnoud


    BackgroundLittle research has been done on the signs of child sexual abuse (CSA) in infants and very young children, or on the consequences that such abuse ¿ including the persistence of the abusive pornographic images on the internet ¿ might have for the children and their parents. The effects of

  19. The Amsterdam Sexual Abuse Case (ASAC)-study in day care centers: longitudinal effects of sexual abuse on infants and very young children and their parents, and the consequences of the persistence of abusive images on the internet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindauer, R.J.L.; Brilleslijper-Kater, S.N.; Diehle, J.; Verlinden, E.; Teeuw, A.H.; Middeldorp, C.M.; Tuinebreijer, W.; Bosschaart, T.F.; van Duin, E.; Verhoeff, A.


    Background: Little research has been done on the signs of child sexual abuse (CSA) in infants and very young children, or on the consequences that such abuse ¿ including the persistence of the abusive pornographic images on the internet ¿ might have for the children and their parents. The effects of

  20. The Amsterdam Sexual Abuse Case (ASAC)-study in day care centers: longitudinal effects of sexual abuse on infants and very young children and their parents, and the consequences of the persistence of abusive images on the internet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindauer, R.J.L.; Brilleslijper-Kater, S.N.; Diehle, J.; Verlinden, E.; Teeuw, A.H.; Middeldorp, C.M.; Tuinebreijer, W.; Bosschaart, T.F.; van Duin, E.; Verhoeff, A.


    Background: Little research has been done on the signs of child sexual abuse (CSA) in infants and very young children, or on the consequences that such abuse - including the persistence of the abusive pornographic images on the internet - might have for the children and their parents. The effects of

  1. Reliability and Validity of a Measure of Sexual and Physical Abuse Histories among Women with Serious Mental Illness. (United States)

    Meyer, Ilan H.; And Others


    Structured clinical interviews concerning childhood histories of physical and sexual abuse with 70 mentally ill women at 2 times found test-retest reliability of .63 for physical abuse and .82 for sexual abuse. Validity, assessed as consistency with an independent clinical assessment, showed 75% agreement for physical abuse and 93% agreement for…

  2. "Keep Telling until Someone Listens": Understanding Prevention Concepts in Children's Picture Books Dealing with Child Sexual Abuse (United States)

    Lampert, Jo; Walsh, Kerryann


    Children's picture books dealing with the topic of child sexual abuse appeared in the 1980s with the aim of addressing the need for age-appropriate texts to teach sexual abuse prevention concepts and to provide support for young children who may be at risk of or have already experienced sexual abuse. Despite the apparent potential of children's…

  3. Forensic, Cultural, and Systems Issues in Child Sexual Abuse Cases--Part 2: Research and Practitioner Issues (United States)

    Tishelman, Amy C.; Geffner, Robert


    This article introduces the second issue of the special double issue focusing on forensic, cultural, and systems issues in child sexual abuse cases. We briefly review the articles, which include a discussion of child sexual abuse myths, an empirical analysis of extended child sexual abuse evaluations, an article on the role of the medical provider…

  4. Reported child sexual abuse in Bahrain: 2000-2009. (United States)

    Al-Mahroos, Fadheela; Al-Amer, Eshraq


    Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a common problem with severe short and long-term consequences to the abused child, the family and to society. The aim of this study was to evaluate the extent of CSA, and demographic and other characteristics of the abused and their families. Retrospective and descriptive study based on a review of medical records of CSA cases from 2000-2009 at Sulmaniya Medical Complex, the main secondary and tertiary medical care facility in Bahrain. The review included demographic data, child and family characteristics, manifestations and interventions. The 440 children diagnosed with CSA had a mean age of 8 years (range, 9 months to 17 years); 222 were males (50.5%) and 218 were females (49.5%). There was a steady increase in cases from 31 per year in 2000 to 77 cases in 2009. Children disclosed abuse in 26% of cases, while health sector professionals recognized 53% of the cases. Genital touching and fondling (62.5%) were the most common form of CSA, followed by sodomy in 39%. Gonorrhea was documented in 2% of the cases and pregnancy in 4% of the females. The illiteracy rate among the fathers and mothers was 9% and 12%, respectively, which is higher than the rate among the adult general population. Children came from all socio-economic classes. There was referral to police in 56%, public prosecution in 31% of the cases, but only 8% reached the court. During ten years there has been a 2.5% increase in reported cases of CSA. Improving the skill of professionals in identifying CSA indicators and a mandatory reporting law might be needed to improve the rate of recognition and referral of CSA cases. Further general population-based surveys are needed to determine more accurately the scope of CSA and the risk and protective factors in the family and community.

  5. Adult Sexual Experiences as a Mediator Between Child Abuse and Current Secretory Immunoglobulin A Levels. (United States)

    Waldron, Jonathan C; Scarpa, Angela; Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen; Coe, Christopher L


    The current study investigated whether a history of child abuse is a predictor of adult immune status, with unwanted adult sexual experiences as a proximal mediator. Participants included 89 young adult women (M(age) = 19.24) who were classified as having experienced no child abuse, child physical abuse, or child sexual abuse, based upon self-reported victimization history before 14 years of age. Participants also reported on unwanted sexual experiences in young adulthood and provided four saliva samples, which were collected over two consecutive days to determine secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA). Age and negative life events were considered as covariates. The results indicated that adult sexual victimization partially mediated the relationship between child abuse (physical and sexual) and sIgA. Specifically, child abuse experiences predicted more adult sexual victimization experiences, which in turn predicted lower sIgA levels. These findings support long-term health effects of victimization, and suggest that the influence of child abuse on sIgA may be perpetuated through adult victimization. Prevention efforts should aim to empower child maltreatment survivors with skills to prevent adult re-victimization. By thwarting future unwanted sexual experiences in adulthood, individuals will be better protected from the health impairments associated with early abuse experiences. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. Genitalia in human figure drawings: childrearing practices and child sexual abuse. (United States)

    Hibbard, R A; Hartman, G


    To replicate and explore the associations of drawing genitalia on a human figure, child-rearing practices, and a history of alleged sexual abuse, we designed a cross-sectional study of 109 alleged child sexual abuse victims, ages 3 through 8 years, and a group of 109 comparison children matched for age, sex, race, and socioeconomic status but with no history of abuse. A standardized format was used to collect drawings, administer the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, and gather background data on medical, developmental, and child-rearing issues. Seven alleged sexual abuse victims and one comparison child spontaneously drew genitalia (p = 0.02, one-tailed Fisher Exact Test, estimated relative risk 7.96). No differences in drawing maturity (Draw-A-Man score) were identified, although Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test scores were higher in comparison children (82.1 vs. 91.0, p less than 0.01). Neither drawing genitalia nor history of alleged sexual abuse were significantly associated with histories of medical problems, enuresis, encopresis, urinary tract infection, or child-rearing practices related to sleeping, nudity, bathing, sexual abuse education, or exposure to sexually explicit materials. The similar patterns of child-rearing practices in both samples should make professionals cautious in attributing allegations of abuse to specific child-rearing practices. This study confirms our previous report that the presence of genitalia spontaneously drawn on a child's drawing of a human figure is associated with alleged sexual abuse.

  7. Elevated Risk of Posttraumatic Stress in Sexual Minority Youths: Mediation by Childhood Abuse and Gender Nonconformity (United States)

    Rosario, Margaret; Corliss, Heather L.; Koenen, Karestan C.; Austin, S. Bryn


    Objectives. We examined whether lifetime risk of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was elevated in sexual minority versus heterosexual youths, whether childhood abuse accounted for disparities in PTSD, and whether childhood gender nonconformity explained sexual-orientation disparities in abuse and subsequent PTSD. Methods. We used data from a population-based study (n = 9369, mean age = 22.7 years) to estimate risk ratios for PTSD. We calculated the percentage of PTSD disparities by sexual orientation accounted for by childhood abuse and gender nonconformity, and the percentage of abuse disparities by sexual orientation accounted for by gender nonconformity. Results. Sexual minorities had between 1.6 and 3.9 times greater risk of probable PTSD than heterosexuals. Child abuse victimization disparities accounted for one third to one half of PTSD disparities by sexual orientation. Higher prevalence of gender nonconformity before age 11 years partly accounted for higher prevalence of abuse exposure before age 11 years and PTSD by early adulthood in sexual minorities (range = 5.2%–33.2%). Conclusions. Clinicians, teachers, and others who work with youths should consider abuse prevention and treatment measures for gender-nonconforming children and sexual minority youths. PMID:22698034

  8. Prevalence of workplace abuse and sexual harassment among female faculty and staff. (United States)

    Marsh, Jaimee; Patel, Sonya; Gelaye, Bizu; Goshu, Miruts; Worku, Alemayehu; Williams, Michelle A; Berhane, Yemane


    To determine the one year prevalence of workplace abuse and sexual harassment and to determine the extent of their associations with symptoms of depression. A total of 387 female faculty and staff from colleges in Awassa, Ethiopia completed a self-administered questionnaire which collected information about relationships, mood and feelings, thoughts and satisfaction concerning the workplace, and experiences with sexual harassment. Symptoms of depression were evaluated using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). Logistic regression procedures were employed to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). The 12 mo prevalence of either workplace abuse or sexual harassment was 86.3%; with 39.5% reporting workplace abuse only, 4.1% of them reporting sexual harassment only, and 42.6% reporting experiences of both sexual harassment and workplace abuse. Overall, the mean depression score for this cohort was 3.7 (standard deviation 4.2, range 0-19), and 9.3% of the cohort were identified as having moderate or moderately severe depression. The proportion of participants with depression were statistically significantly elevated in relation to reported experience of workplace abuse and sexual harassment (p=0.001). Compared with women reporting no experience with workplace abuse or sexual harassment, those who reported experiencing both workplace abuse and sexual harassment had an 8.00 fold increased risk of depression (OR=8.00, 95% CI:1.05-60.85). Inferences from this analysis are limited by our relatively small sample size as reflected by the wide 95% CI. Workplace abuse and sexual harassment are highly prevalent, and are positively correlated with symptoms of depression among college female faculty and staff in Awassa, Ethiopia. Future policies should include a combination of education, health, and public policy initiatives that clearly outline the problem and consequences of workplace abuse and sexual harassment in educational settings.

  9. Preventing child sexual abuse: parents' perceptions and practices in urban Nigeria. (United States)

    Ige, Olusimbo K; Fawole, Olufunmilayo I


    This study examined parents' perceptions of child sexual abuse as well as prevention practices in an urban community in southwest Nigeria. Questionnaires were collected from 387 parents and caregivers of children younger than 15 years of age. Results showed that many parents felt CSA was a common problem in the community, and most parents disagreed with common child sexual abuse myths. In addition, almost all parents ( >90%) reported communicating with their child(ren) about stranger danger. However, about 47% felt their children could not be abused, and over a quarter (27.1%) often left their children alone and unsupervised. There were no significant variations in the perceptions of child sexual abuse and communication practices. The implications of findings for child sexual abuse prevention are discussed.

  10. Impact of Traumatic Events on Posttraumatic Stress Disorder among Danish Survivors of Sexual Abuse in Childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elklit, Ask; Christiansen, Dorte Mølgaard; Palic, Sabina


    Childhood sexual abuse can be extremely traumatic and lead to lifelong symptomatology. The present study examined the impact of several demographic, abuse, and psychosocial variables on posttraumatic stress disorder severity among a consecutive sample of treatment-seeking, adult child sexual abuse...... survivors (N = 480). The child sexual abuse sample was characterized by severe trauma exposure, insecure attachment, and significant traumatization, with an estimated 77% suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder, more than twice the level of the comparison group. Regression analyses revealed risk...... factors associated with the development of posttraumatic stress disorder in which the strongest predictors being additional traumas, negative affectivity, and somatization. The findings add to existing research confirming the stressful nature of child sexual abuse and the variables that contribute...

  11. Impact of traumatic events on posttraumatic stress disorder among Danish survivors of sexual abuse in childhood. (United States)

    Elklit, Ask; Christiansen, Dorte M; Palic, Sabina; Karsberg, Sidsel; Eriksen, Sara Bek


    Childhood sexual abuse can be extremely traumatic and lead to lifelong symptomatology. The present study examined the impact of several demographic, abuse, and psychosocial variables on posttraumatic stress disorder severity among a consecutive sample of treatment-seeking, adult child sexual abuse survivors (N = 480). The child sexual abuse sample was characterized by severe trauma exposure, insecure attachment, and significant traumatization, with an estimated 77% suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder, more than twice the level of the comparison group. Regression analyses revealed risk factors associated with the development of posttraumatic stress disorder in which the strongest predictors being additional traumas, negative affectivity, and somatization. The findings add to existing research confirming the stressful nature of child sexual abuse and the variables that contribute to the development and severity of posttraumatic stress disorder.

  12. Child sexual abuse among adolescents in southeast Nigeria: A concealed public health behavioral issue (United States)

    C, Manyike Pius; M, Chinawa Josephat; Elias, Aniwada; I, Odutola Odetunde; Awoere, Chinawa T.


    Background and Objective: Child sexual abuse among adolescents is an often overlooked issue in pediatrics, yet it is a major cause of low self esteem and stigmatization in adolescents. The objective of this study was to determine the socioeconomic determinant and pattern of child sexual abuse among adolescent attending secondary schools in South East Nigeria. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study that was carried out among children in three secondary schools in Enugu and Ebonyi states of Nigeria. Five hundred and six adolescents who met inclusion criteria were consecutively recruited into our prospective study between June and October, 2014. Results: One hundred and ninety nine (40 %) of the respondents had been abused and the commonest form of abuse was to look at pornographic pictures, drawings, films, videotapes or magazine 93(18.4%). Fifty eight (11.5%) adolescents stated that they were abused once with age at first exposure being 7-12 years 57 (11.4%). When grouped together, family members and relatives are perpetrators of child sexual abuse. There was significant difference in sex abuse between males and females (p=0.014) while there were no significant difference for age (p=0.157) and social class (p=0.233). Conclusion: Overall prevalence and one time prevalence rates of sexual abuse among adolescents in south east Nigeria was 40% and 11.5% respectively with male perpetrators. There is no link between socioeconomic class, age and child sexual abuse among adolescents. PMID:26430412

  13. Forced migration and sexual abuse: experience of Congolese adolescent girls in Kigeme refugee camp, Rwanda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Innocent Iyakaremye


    Full Text Available Background This study deals with the link between forced migration and sexual abuse, with a special focus on adolescent girls. Existing literature associates forced migration with sexual abuse and identifies adolescent girls as the most vulnerable. However, little is known about the situation of sexual abuse among Congolese refugees in Rwanda since their arrival in 2012 due to the conflict between Congolese government forces and the M23 rebel group. This study was initiated to explore the situation of sexual abuse of Congolese adolescent girls in Kigeme camp and to suggest remedial strategies. Participants and procedure Qualitative data were collected through individual interviews and focus group discussions (FGDs with adolescent girls. Interviews also involved parents, boys, camp authorities, and neighbouring citizens. Results The findings show that rape, unwanted physical touching, sexual exploitation, commercial sex, early marriage and girl trafficking are the main forms of sexual abuse. These are facilitated by the miserable life in the camp, shortcomings in the camp layout and security system, and adolescent developmental stage. They negatively impact girls’ reproductive health, social integration and mental health. Conclusions Existing strategies to address sexual abuse in the camp have had positive but insufficient results, and thus need to be improved and reinforced. Improvement is suggested in the areas of the abuse reporting system, the camp layout and security system, involvement of men and youth, and the consolidation of anti-GBV (gender-based violence clubs.

  14. Gendered pathways from child sexual abuse to sexual aggression victimization and perpetration in adolescence and young adulthood. (United States)

    Krahé, Barbara; Berger, Anja


    This study aimed to examine the pathways from child sexual abuse to sexual assault victimization and perpetration in adolescence and early adulthood, considering risky sexual behavior and lowered sexual self-esteem as mediator variables. In a two-wave longitudinal study with 2251 college students in Germany, male and female participants provided reports of sexual aggression victimization and perpetration since age 14 (T1) and again a year later (T2), covering the last 12 months. In addition, child sexual abuse (CSA; before the age of 14), risky sexual behavior, and sexual self-esteem were assessed at T1, and risky sexual behavior and sexual-self-esteem were assessed again at T2. Experience of CSA was significantly associated with greater likelihood of sexual aggression victimization and perpetration, lower sexual self-esteem, and more risky sexual behavior in both gender groups at T1 and was directly related to victimization at T2 among male participants. In both gender groups, CSA indirectly contributed to a higher probability of sexual victimization at T2 via its impact on victimization T1. In males, the indirect path from CSA to T2 perpetration via T1 perpetration was also significant. Through its negative impact on sexual self-esteem, CSA indirectly increased the probability of sexual victimization among women and the probability of sexual aggression perpetration among men. Risky sexual behavior mediated the pathway from CSA to sexual victimization at T2 for men and women and the pathway from CSA to sexual aggression perpetration for women. The findings contribute to the understanding of gendered effects of CSA on revictimization and the victim-to-perpetrator cycle. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Child sexual abuse is largely hidden from the adult society. An epidemiological study of adolescents' disclosures. (United States)

    Priebe, Gisela; Svedin, Carl Göran


    The aim of this study was to investigate disclosure rates and disclosure patterns and to examine predictors of non-disclosure in a sample of male and female adolescents with self-reported experiences of sexual abuse. A sample of 4,339 high school seniors (2,324 girls, 2,015 boys) was examined with a questionnaire concerning sexual experiences in this study with a focus on disclosure of sexual abuse (non-contact, contact or penetrating abuse, and including peer abuse). Of the sample, 1,505 girls (65%) and 457 boys (23%) reported experience of sexual abuse. The disclosure rate was 81% (girls) and 69% (boys). Girls and boys disclosed most often to a friend of their own age. Few had disclosed to professionals. Even fewer said that the incident had been reported to the authorities. Logistic regression showed that it was less likely for girls to disclose if they had experienced contact sexual abuse with or without penetration, abuse by a family member, only a single abuse occasion or if they had perceived their parents as non-caring. Boys were less likely to disclose if they studied a vocational program, lived with both parents or had perceived their parents as either caring and overprotective or non-caring and not overprotective. Disclosing sexual abuse is a complex process. Much is hidden from the adult society, especially from professionals and the legal system. Since peers are the most common receivers of abuse information, programs for supporting peers ought to be developed. Differences in disclosure patterns for girls and boys indicate that a gender perspective is helpful when developing guidelines for professionals. Professionals, especially in the school system, need to be more aware of the finding that few sexually abused children seek help from professionals or other adults and that support offers should be directly addressed not only to the vulnerable young persons themselves but also to peers who wish to help a friend.

  16. Abuse of power in relationships and sexual health. (United States)

    Gesink, Dionne; Whiskeyjack, Lana; Suntjens, Terri; Mihic, Alanna; McGilvery, Priscilla


    STI rates are high for First Nations in Canada and the United States. Our objective was to understand the context, issues, and beliefs around high STI rates from a nêhiyaw (Cree) perspective. Twenty-two in-depth interviews were conducted with 25 community participants between March 1, 2011 and May 15, 2011. Interviews were conducted by community researchers and grounded in the Cree values of relationship, sharing, personal agency and relational accountability. A diverse purposive snowball sample of community members were asked why they thought STI rates were high for the community. The remainder of the interview was unstructured, and supported by the interviewer through probes and sharing in a conversational style. Modified grounded theory was used to analyze the narratives and develop a theory. The main finding from the interviews was that abuse of power in relationships causes physical, mental, emotional and spiritual wounds that disrupt the medicine wheel. Wounded individuals seek medicine to stop suffering and find healing. Many numb suffering by accessing temporary medicines (sex, drugs and alcohol) or permanent medicines (suicide). These medicines increase the risk of STIs. Some seek healing by participating in ceremony and restoring relationships with self, others, Spirit/religion, traditional knowledge and traditional teachings. These medicines decrease the risk of STIs. Younger female participants explained how casual relationships are safer than committed monogamous relationships. Resolving abuse of power in relationships should lead to improvements in STI rates and sexual health. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Childhood sexual abuse in adult patients with borderline personality disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preethi Menon


    Full Text Available Background: Researchers have found elevated rates of childhood sexual abuse (CSA in borderline personality disorder (BPD patients. They have also implicated the role of CSA later in BPD. However, there has been a scarcity of studies regarding this in Indian population. Objectives: To profile the occurrence of CSA and its parameters in BPD patients and to document symptomatology of BPD associated with CSA. Materials and Methods: Thirty-six consecutive patients with BPD were administered with a two-staged semi-structured interview by different interviewers with the first stage for collecting sociodemographic details and confirming BPD diagnosis and the second stage for collecting information about CSA. Results: Of 36 BPD patients, 16 (44.44% reported a history of definite CSA. The majority of CSA associated with BPD were having characteristics of onset at 7–12 years, <10 occasions of abuse, perpetrator being a close relative or a close acquaintance and genital type of CSA. Identity disturbances (P = 0.0354, recurrent suicidal/self-harm behavior (P = 0.0177, and stress-related paranoid/dissociative symptoms (P = 0.0177 were significantly associated with the presence of CSA while unstable interpersonal relationships (P = 0.001 were significantly associated with the absence of CSA. Conclusion: Significant proportion of BPD patients reported CSA. The specific symptom profile of BPD patients can be used to predict the presence of CSA in these patients, which has a direct implication in the treatment of these patients.

  18. Gender differences in pathways from child physical and sexual abuse to adolescent risky sexual behavior among high-risk youth. (United States)

    Yoon, Susan; Voith, Laura A; Kobulsky, Julia M


    This study investigated gender differences in the roles of internalizing and externalizing symptoms and substance use as pathways linking child physical and sexual abuse to risky sexual behavior among youth at risk of maltreatment. Path analysis was performed with 862 adolescents drawn from Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect. Four waves of data collected in the United States were used: childhood physical and sexual abuse experiences (from ages 0-12) were assessed by Child Protective Services reports, internalizing and externalizing symptoms were measured at age 14, substance use was measured at age 16, and risky sexual behavior was measured at age 18. Physical abuse was directly associated with risky sexual behavior in boys but not girls. For girls, physical abuse had a significant indirect effect on risky sexual behavior via externalizing symptoms. Gender-focused preventive intervention strategies may be effective in reducing risky sexual behavior among at-risk adolescents. Copyright © 2018 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Conflict Resolution Styles as Mediators of Female Child Sexual Abuse Experience and Heterosexual Couple Relationship Satisfaction and Stability in Adulthood. (United States)

    Knapp, Ashlee E; Knapp, Darin J; Brown, Cameron C; Larson, Jeffry H


    Trauma from female incestuous child sexual abuse may result in negative psychological consequences affecting adult relationships. This study explored relational consequences of incestuous child sexual abuse, focusing on conflict resolution styles, relationship satisfaction, and relationship stability. Using the RELATionship Evaluation dataset, 457 heterosexual couples in which female partners experienced incestuous child sexual abuse were compared to a group of 1,827 couples with no sexual abuse history. Analyses tested differences in the frequencies of reported conflict resolution styles for incestuous child sexual abuse and non-incestuous child sexual abuse groups, the mediating effects of conflict resolution styles on the relationship between incestuous child sexual abuse, and self- and partner-reported relationship satisfaction and stability. Significant differences in the reports of types of conflict resolution styles were found for incestuous child sexual abuse versus non-incestuous child sexual abuse groups. Incestuous child sexual abuse and conflict resolution styles were negatively related to relationship satisfaction and stability and there was a significant indirect effect between female incestuous child sexual abuse, female volatility, and relationship instability. Clinical applications for couple relationships are discussed.

  20. Grappling with smoke: investigating and managing organised child sexual abuse: a good practice guide


    Gallagher, Bernard


    There has been, and remains, a great deal of concern among policy makers, practitioners, the media and members of the public concerning organised child sexual abuse (OCSA). \\ud OCSA includes the following types of case:\\ud • Child sexual abuse (CSA) by multiple offenders (a small proportion of these cases may also involve allegations of ritual or satanic CSA) \\ud • Sex offenders who abuse a series of children\\ud • Sex offenders who abuse children with whom they work\\ud The study described in ...

  1. Psychotherapy approaches for adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse: an integrative review of outcomes research. (United States)

    Martsolf, Donna S; Draucker, Claire B


    This review synthesized results of 26 outcomes research studies and two meta-analyses that evaluated abuse-focused psychotherapy techniques for survivors of childhood sexual abuse. Different therapeutic approaches delivered in individual, group, or combination formats were evaluated with pre/post test, quasi-experimental, or randomized control designs. Accumulated research findings suggest that abuse-focused psychotherapy for adults sexually abused as children is generally beneficial in reducing psychiatric distress, depression, and trauma-specific symptoms. No one therapeutic approach was demonstrated to be superior. There was little evidence about the effectiveness of individual versus group therapy or the optimal treatment duration.

  2. Association between Childhood Sexual Abuse and Adult Sexual Victimization in a Representative Sample in Hong Kong Chinese (United States)

    Chan, Ko Ling


    Objective: The current study investigated the prevalence and impact of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) on adult sexual victimization (ASV) in Hong Kong, China. This study also examines correlates of demographic characteristics, depression, suicidal ideation, and self-esteem with ASV. Methods: A total of 5,049 Chinese adult respondents were…

  3. The Effects of Early Sexual Abuse on Adult Risky Sexual Behaviors among Persons with Severe Mental Illness (United States)

    Van Dorn, Richard A.; Mustillo, Sarah; Elbogen, Eric B.; Dorsey, Shannon; Swanson, Jeffrey W.; Swartz, Marvin S.


    Objective: There were two aims: first, to examine the relationship between prior sexual abuse and three types of adult risky sexual behaviors [(1) ever traded sex for drugs or money, (2) had unprotected sex in the past 6 months, and (3) frequency of unprotected sex in the past 6 months] among persons with severe mental illness (SMI), and second,…

  4. Phenomenology of the psychological consequences of sexual abuse in children and adolescents, depending on various factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nutskova E.V.


    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to psychological consequences of sexual abuse in children and adolescents. It presents review of domestic and foreign research of psychological injury in minors. The article gives results of complex psychological and psychiatric examination of 183 juvenile victims of sexual abuse. Psychological effects of sexual abuse in children and adolescents are identified and described on the basis of age, gender, clinical characteristics of the mental state of the victim, as well as the type and duration of the abuse. Intensity and expressiveness of post-traumatic response as well as coverage of personality spheres increase with aging. The data on the gender specificity of the sexual abuse effects suggest that girls more demonstrate internal forms, while external manifestations dominate in boys. The type and duration of sexual abuse determine a wide range of possible psychological consequences. It is noted that the severity of the psychological effects of sexual abuse in victims with mental disorders associated with the trauma is higher than in victims qualified to be mentally sane or having a mental illness, non-associated with psychologically traumatic situations. Psychological consequences exhibited by mentally sane victims show a decrease in their quality of life.

  5. Sexual intercourse, abuse and pregnancy among adolescent women: does sexual orientation make a difference? (United States)

    Saewyc, E M; Bearinger, L H; Blum, R W; Resnick, M D


    Although a limited amount of research has retrospectively explored the childhood and adolescent heterosexual experiences of lesbians, little is known about the prevalence of heterosexual behavior and related risk factors or about pregnancy histories among lesbian and bisexual teenagers. A secondary analysis was conducted using responses from a subsample of 3,816 students who completed the 1987 Minnesota Adolescent Health Survey. Behaviors, risk factors and pregnancy histories were compared among adolescents who identified themselves as lesbian or bisexual, as unsure of their sexual orientation and as heterosexual. Overall, bisexual or lesbian respondents were about as likely as heterosexual women ever to have had intercourse (33% and 29%, respectively), but they had a significantly higher prevalence of pregnancy (12%) and physical or sexual abuse (19-22%) than heterosexual or unsure adolescents. Among sexually experienced respondents, bisexual or lesbian and heterosexual women reported greater use of ineffective contraceptives (12-15% of those who used a method) than unsure adolescents (9%); bisexual or lesbian respondents were the most likely to have frequent intercourse (22%, compared with 15-17% of the other groups). In the sample overall, among those who were sexually experienced and among those who had ever been pregnant, bisexual or lesbian women were the most likely to have engaged in prostitution during the previous year. Providers of reproductive health care and family planning services should not assume that pregnant teenagers are heterosexual or that adolescents who say they are bisexual, lesbian or unsure of their sexual orientation are not in need of family planning counseling. Further research should explore the interactions between adolescent sexual identity development and sexual risk behaviors.

  6. Sexual abuse and risky sexual behaviors among young female hawkers in Burkina Faso: a mixed method study


    Ou?draogo, Saide Yacine Y.A.; Sisawo, Ebrima J.; Huang, Song-Lih


    Background Young street hawkers in Burkina Faso are increasingly exposed to workplace hazards such as physical and sexual abuse, and also unsafe sexual practices. The objectives of this study were to identify the socio-demographic status and work characteristics of young female hawkers, describe their sexual behavior and their experience with regards to sex-related violence at the workplace. Methods The study used a mixed design combining qualitative and quantitative methods. It was carried o...

  7. The Laboratory Diagnosis of Sexually Transmitted Infections in Cases of Sexual Assault and Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max A Chernesky


    Full Text Available Laboratory staff dealing with samples from victims must be aware that such patients have been psychologically traumatized and deserve special care. The help of a sexual assault care team should be sought if available, and appropriate specimens should be collected two to 10 days after an incident, preferably in a single visit. Specimens should be clearly labelled, and the laboratory should be informed. In the laboratory, all procedures need to be clearly documented. There are special requirements for the collection of forensic specimens and associated records, which may later be required for legal proceedings. The laboratory must know what the current legal status is for any test being used in that community. The present article serves as a guideline to more detailed practice standards for the investigation of individual sexually transmitted infections in assault and abuse situations.

  8. Women with a history of childhood sexual abuse. Long-term social and psychiatric aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Ellids; Lau, Marianne


    The socio-demographics and psychiatric diagnoses in a clinical sample of women with a history of mainly intrafamilial childhood sexual abuse (CSA) are described. The women were referred to five psychiatric centres for incest group psychotherapy. Data were gathered using interviews and self......-administered questionnaires. Over a period of 2.5 years, 385 women with mean age of 33 years were referred with a history of CSA. Three hundred and forty of those had experienced intrafamilial CSA. The average age at first abuse was 6.8 years, and it lasted for a mean of 6 years. The women had been abused by a mean of 1.......5 perpetrators. A quarter of the women had been subjected to violence in connection with the sexual abuse. The likelihood of violence having occurred rose significantly if there was more than one perpetrator and/or if penetration had been part of the sexual abuse. Violence was less common if the perpetrator...

  9. Childhood sexual abuse of women in Greenland and its developmental correlates among their children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baviskar, Siddhartha; Christensen, Else


    Objectives. The objective was to study the prevalence of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) among the mothers of children in Greenland and its association with the psychosocial adjustment of their children. Study design. The study was based on a 2007–2008 survey of a national sample of children...... in Greenland designed by researchers at SFI – The Danish National Centre for Social Research in collaboration with the Greenlandic Home Rule. The survey was conducted via telephone interviews with the children’s mothers. Methods. The relationship between the mothers’ childhood sexual abuse and their children...... sexually abused as children. The psychosocial adjustment of the children in the sample overall was good, with few children scoring on the upper end of the scale, indicating maladjustment. A strong inverse relationship between the mothers’ childhood sexual abuse and the children’s adjustment was found after...

  10. The role of child sexual abuse in the etiology of substance-related disorders. (United States)

    Maniglio, Roberto


    To elucidate the role of child sexual abuse in the etiology of substance-related disorders, a systematic review of the several articles on the childhood sexual abuse-related risk for developing substance problems in adolescence or adulthood is provided. Seven databases were searched, supplemented with hand-search of reference lists. Six reviews, including 200 studies, were included. Results indicate that child sexual abuse is a statistically significant, although general and nonspecific, risk factor for substance problems. Other biological and psychosocial variables contribute to substance-related disorders, with sexual abuse conferring additional risk, either as a distal, indirect cause or as a proximal, direct cause. Recommendations for future research are provided.

  11. Framing Child Sexual Abuse: A Longitudinal Content Analysis of Newspaper and Television Coverage, 2002-2012. (United States)

    Weatherred, Jane Long


    The way in which the news media frame child sexual abuse can influence public perception. This content analysis of the child sexual abuse coverage of eight national news organizations in the United States from 2002 to 2012 includes the two dominant events of the Catholic Church and Pennsylvania State University child sexual abuse scandals. Census and systematic stratified sampling techniques were applied to articles obtained from the Lexis/Nexis Academic database, resulting in a sample of 503 articles. Intercoder reliability was ensured by double coding a randomly selected sample. Study findings indicate a shift in the attribution of responsibility of child sexual abuse among news organizations over the past decade from an individual-level problem with individual-level solutions to a societal-level problem with institutional culpability. Nevertheless, individual-level solutions continue to be framed as the best possible solution.

  12. Dissociative Experiences and Disorders among Women Who Identify Themselves as Sexual Abuse Survivors. (United States)

    Anderson, Geri; And Others


    Interviews with 51 female sexual abuse survivors revealed that over half had a diagnosis of multiple personality disorder, and the vast majority had extensive dissociative symptomatology and related features. (Author/JDD)

  13. Trichobezoar in Vagina: Assessment for Child Sexual Abuse and Diagnostic Result of Forensic Science. (United States)

    Bağ, Özlem; Acar, Buğra Han; Öztürk, Şenol; Alşen, Sevay; Ecevit, Çiğdem


    Vaginal discharge and bleeding in children require a through and thoughtful evaluation to diagnose the underlying problem including infections, sexual abuse, and vaginal foreign bodies. We report a 6-year-old girl presenting with bloody vaginal discharge, carefully evaluated for sexual abuse, and finally diagnosed as a vaginal foreign body after vaginoscopy. A rolling hair ball was extracted from the vagina and was diagnosed as trichobezoar pathologically without any endo-ecto-mesodermal residual tissue. The hair ball was genetically detected and diagnosed to belong herself by containing no foreign structure. Child sexual abuse was ruled out by forensic interview at CAC and report of forensic science that reported genetic structure belonging to the child. Medicolegal assessment helped in final diagnosis to exclude child sexual abuse. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  14. Case series of child sexual abuse: Abia State University Teaching Hospital experience. (United States)

    Okoronkwo, N C; Ejike, O


    Child sexual abuse remains a serious infringement on the rights of the child. Though it appears to be viewed less seriously among adolescents, the consequences may be more severe and less obvious for the younger child. Age of the child appears notto be a deterrent. There is paucity of local data in the sub-region on this important social problem. The circumstance surrounding child sexual abuse in our environment needs to be reviewed. This study sets out to evaluate the characteristics of victims of child sexual abuse and to proffer solutions on how to stem the tide of the crime. To examine the characteristics of sexually abused children presenting to the paediatrics department of Abia State UniversityTeaching hospital, Aba. The case records of 10 consecutive cases of sexually abused children that presented to the Children Outpatient Department of Abia State University Teaching Hospital (ABSUTH) Aba, from January to June 2006 were prospectively reviewed and the parents/child/abuser interviewed where possible. All the victims were females aged 3-11 yrs, while all the abusers were males 14-29 yrs. Both parties were of low socio-economic class. 50% of the victims reported the incident. Mental and psychological state of the perpetrators appears to be a factor. Physical injuries to the vulva-vaginal areas were common. This study shows that child sexual abuse may not be uncommon in our environment. The exact prevalence remains unknown.The perpetrators of child sexual abuse should be prosecuted as a deterrent and rehabilitated whenever possible.

  15. Sexual Risk-Taking among High-Risk Urban Women with and without Histories of Childhood Sexual Abuse: Mediating Effects of Contextual Factors (United States)

    Mosack, Katie E.; Randolph, Mary E.; Dickson-Gomez, Julia; Abbott, Maryann; Smith, Ellen; Weeks, Margaret R.


    This study investigated the mechanisms of risk for urban women at high risk for HIV with and without childhood sexual abuse histories. Childhood sexual abuse survivors reported more unprotected intercourse and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The association of STI locus of control with frequency of unprotected sex was fully mediated by…

  16. Prevalence of Child Sexual Abuse in the Nordic Countries: A Literature Review. (United States)

    Kloppen, Kathrine; Haugland, Siren; Svedin, Carl Göran; Mæhle, Magne; Breivik, Kyrre


    This review examined child sexual abuse in the Nordic countries focusing on prevalence rates and victims' age and relationship to the perpetrator. The results show a prevalence of child sexual abuse (broadly defined) between 3-23% for boys and 11-36% for girls. The prevalence rates for contact abuse were 1-12% for boys and 6-30% for girls, while 0.3-6.8% of the boys and 1.1-13.5% of the girls reported penetrating abuse. The findings suggest an increased risk of abuse from early adolescence. In adolescence, peers may constitute the largest group of perpetrators. The results highlight the need for preventive efforts also targeting peer abuse. Future research should include cross-national and repeated studies using comparable methodology.

  17. Prevalence of emotional, physical and sexual abuse among pregnant women in six European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lukasse, Mirjam; Schroll, Anne-Mette; Ryding, Elsa Lena


    in Belgium, Iceland, Denmark, Estonia, Norway, and Sweden between March 2008 and August 2010. POPULATION: A total of 7174 pregnant women. METHODS: A questionnaire including a validated instrument measuring emotional, physical and sexual abuse. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Proportion of women reporting emotional......OBJECTIVES: The primary objective was to investigate the prevalence of a history of abuse among women attending routine antenatal care in six northern European countries. Second, we explored current suffering from reported abuse. DESIGN: A prospective cohort study. SETTING: Routine antenatal care......, physical and sexual abuse. Severe current suffering defined as a Visual Analogue Scale score of ≥6. RESULTS: An overall lifetime prevalence of any abuse was reported by 34.8% of the pregnant women. The ranges across the six countries of lifetime prevalence were 9.7-30.8% for physical abuse, 16...

  18. Caregiver-youth communication about sex in South Africa: the role of maternal child sexual abuse history. (United States)

    Anthony, Elizabeth R; Hipp, Tracy N; Darnell, Doyanne A; Armistead, Lisa; Cook, Sarah L; Skinner, Donald


    Much of the research on child sexual abuse focuses on negative outcomes. This brief report explores a potentially protective parenting behavior among black South African female caregivers with and without a child sexual abuse history. Using cross-sectional baseline data, we hypothesized that caregiver child sexual abuse history would be positively associated with caregiver-youth sex communication and this relationship would be strongest for girls. Youth whose caregiver experienced child sexual abuse were more likely to report communicating with their caregiver about sex than youth whose caregivers did not experience child sexual abuse; however, this relation did not hold for caregiver reported communication. Child sexual abuse survivors' ability and decision to discuss sex with their youth has the potential to protect youth from sexual risk and demonstrates resilience among a group rarely acknowledged for positive parenting practices.

  19. Exposure to Childhood Sexual and Physical Abuse and Adjustment in Early Adulthood (United States)

    Fergusson, David M.; Boden, Joseph M.; Horwood, L. John


    Objective: This research examined linkages between exposure to childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and childhood physical punishment/abuse (CPA) and mental health issues in early adulthood. Method: The investigation analyzed data from a birth cohort of over 1,000 New Zealand young adults studied to the age of 25. Results: Exposure to CSA and CPA was…

  20. An Empirical Case Study of a Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Initiative in Georgia (United States)

    Schober, Daniel J.; Fawcett, Stephen B.; Thigpen, Sally; Curtis, Anna; Wright, Renee


    Objective: This empirical case study describes Prevent Child Abuse Georgia's effort to prevent child sexual abuse (CSA) by educating communities throughout the state on supporting preventive behaviour. The initiative consisted of three major components: (1) dissemination of CSA prevention messages and materials; (2) a statewide helpline that…

  1. Clinical Correlates of Alleged Satanic Abuse and Less Controversial Sexual Molestation. (United States)

    Leavitt, Frank


    This study found that 39 women alleging satanic ritual abuse and 47 women reporting less controversial forms of sexual trauma as children were characterized by high but nondiscriminating levels of psychiatric pathology. Patients alleging satanic ritual abuse reported higher levels of dissociation, in the range often exhibited by patients with…

  2. Predictors of Substance Use and Family Therapy Outcome among Physically and Sexually Abused Runaway Adolescents (United States)

    Slesnick, Natasha; Bartle-Haring, Suzanne; Gangamma, Rashmi


    There is a dearth of research that examines the impact of family systems therapy on problems among sexually and/or physically abused youth. Given this void, differential outcome and predictors of substance use change were evaluated for abused, as compared with nonabused, runaway adolescents who were randomly assigned to family therapy or treatment…

  3. An Exploratory Study of Group Therapy for Sexually Abused Adolescents and Nonoffending Guardians (United States)

    Smith, Amanda P.; Kelly, Adrian B.


    Adolescent survivors of sexual abuse frequently report severe trauma, depression, anxiety, and low self-esteem. While cognitive-behavioral group interventions show promise, interpreting efficacy is problematic due to commonly high attrition. This article reports promising exploratory study findings relating to a 12-week multimodal abuse-specific…

  4. Syphilis as a Sole Indicator of Sexual Abuse: Two Cases with No Intervention. (United States)

    Horowitz, Susan; Chadwick, David L.


    Two cases of suspected sexual abuse of five-year-old children with syphilis are reported. Lack of confirmation of abuse by either child or in parental interviews led to closing of the cases by Child Protection Services and continued residence by the children in their original homes. (DB)

  5. Sexual abuse, residential schooling and probable pathological gambling among Indigenous Peoples. (United States)

    Dion, Jacinthe; Cantinotti, Michael; Ross, Amélie; Collin-Vézina, Delphine


    Sexual abuse leads to short-term and long-lasting pervasive outcomes, including addictions. Among Indigenous Peoples, sexual abuse experienced in the context of residential schooling may have led to unresolved grief that is contributing to social problems, such as pathological (disordered) gambling. The aim of this study is to investigate the link between child sexual abuse, residential schooling and probable pathological gambling. The participants were 358 Indigenous persons (54.2% women) aged between 18 and 87 years, from two communities and two semi-urban centers in Quebec (Canada). Probable pathological gambling was evaluated using the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS), and sexual abuse and residential schooling were assessed with dichotomous questions (yes/no). The results indicate an 8.7% past-year prevalence rate of pathological gambling problems among participants, which is high compared with the general Canadian population. Moreover, 35.4% were sexually abused, while 28.1% reported having been schooled in a residential setting. The results of a logistic regression also indicate that experiences of child sexual abuse and residential schooling are associated with probable pathological gambling among Indigenous Peoples. These findings underscore the importance of using an ecological approach when treating gambling, to address childhood traumas alongside current addiction problems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. [The characteristics of sexual offenders abusing alcohol in view of forensic-psychiatric assessments]. (United States)

    Juszczak, Dariusz; Korzeniewski, Krzysztof; Czupryńska, Katarzyna; Furs, Maciej


    The relationship between alcohol consumption and sexual crime appears to be unquestionable. However, the mechanisms that lead to violence and aggression under the influence of alcohol are not entirely understood in this group of offenders. The aim of this paper was to attempt answering the question: what are the features characterizing sexual offenders declaring alcohol abuse. The research material consisted of 180 forensic psychiatric- sexology assessments issued by experts from Outpatient Psychiatric Clinic in 10 Military Hospital Clinic in Bydgoszcz between 2004 to 2012. A specially designed questionnaire titled "Charter of Diagnosis of Factors Determining Criminal Sexual Activity" has been used. Relevant statistical dependences were observed. The obtained results show that, a alcohol abuse has a sexual criminogenic effect especially in the coincidence that there are sustainable personality abnormalities and organic CNS damage. The conducted study prove that the sexual perpetrators who abuse alcohol have a poor level of social functioning and brought up in dysfunction families having alcoholic problems. © 2015 MEDPRESS.

  7. Nonoffending Guardian Assessment of Hospital-Based Sexual Abuse/Assault Services for Children. (United States)

    Du Mont, Janice; Macdonald, Sheila; Kosa, Daisy; Smith, Tanya


    In circumstances in which child sexual abuse/assault is suspected, pediatric guidelines recommend referral to services such as multidisciplinary hospital-based violence treatment centers, for specialized medical treatment, forensic documentation, and counseling. As little is known about how such services are perceived, the objective of this case report was to measure the satisfaction of nonoffending guardians of child sexual abuse/assault victims who presented for care at Ontario's hospital-based sexual assault treatment centers. Of the 1,136 individuals who reported sexual abuse/assault and were enrolled in a province-wide service evaluation, 58 were 11 years old and younger. Thirty-three guardians completed a survey. Ratings of care were overwhelmingly positive, with 97% of respondents indicating that they would recommend these services. Nonetheless, it is important to evaluate these pediatric sexual assault services frequently to ensure ongoing optimal, family-centered care.

  8. The Mediator Role of Early Maladaptive Schemas Between Childhood Sexual Abuse and Impulsive Symptoms in Female Survivors of CSA. (United States)

    Estévez, Ana; Ozerinjauregi, Nagore; Herrero-Fernández, David; Jauregui, Paula


    Child abuse is a traumatic experience that may have psychological consequences such as dysfunctional beliefs. The aim of this study was to analyze the impulsive behaviors (alcohol abuse, gambling, drug abuse, eating disorders, Internet abuse, videogame abuse, shopping and sex addiction) in sexual abuse survivors and to study the mediating role of early maladaptive schemas in the appearance of impulsive behaviors in adult female victims. The sample consisted of 182 adult women who had suffered childhood sexual abuse (CSA), mostly referred by associations for the treatment of childhood abuse and maltreatment. Sexual abuse was found to be positively related to the domains of Disconnection/Rejection and Impaired Autonomy. Moreover, these domains were significantly related to impulsivity and impulsive behaviors. Finally, the Disconnection/Rejection domain was found to mediate between CSA and eating disorders and alcohol abuse. These results may provide important guidance for clinical intervention. © The Author(s) 2016.

  9. Puberty, sexual milestones and abuse: how are they related in eating disorder patients? (United States)

    Schmidt, U; Evans, K; Tiller, J; Treasure, J


    In order to assess the relationship pubertal development, sexual milestones and childhood sexual abuse in women with eating disorders, 44 patients with restricting anorexia nervosa (RAN), 26 with bulimic anorexia nervosa (BAN), 29 with bulimia nervosa and also with a history of anorexia nervosa (BN/HistAN), and 69 with bulimia nervosa but without a history of anorexia nervosa (BN) completed questionnaires on pubertal and sexual development and unpleasant sexual experiences. Forty-four female college students complete the sexual development questionnaire only. Different eating disorder groups were found to be similar in terms of their pubertal development. All eating disorder groups showed delays in aspects of their psychosexual development (age at first kiss, masturbation, genital fondling and first sexual intercourse) compared with the control group, although to a different degree. The RAN group was delayed on almost all sexual milestones whereas the other groups were delayed on only some. On some variables, most noticeably on first sexual intercourse, restricters also were more delayed than the other eating disorder groups. Similarly, the median number of sexual partners differed significantly between groups (RAN = 1, BAN = 2, BN/HistAN = 4, BN = 4, controls = 5, P masturbation, marriage, children or pregnancy. Of the eating disorder patients 22-31% had been sexually abused during childhood. A history of abuse affected attitudes to masturbation, but did not appear to affect sexual development.

  10. [Childhood sexual abuse: how important is the diagnosis to understand and manage sexual, anorectal and lower urinary tract symptoms]. (United States)

    Cour, F; Robain, G; Claudon, B; Chartier-Kästler, E


    To understand and manage the sequels of childhood sexual abuse on sexual, anorectal and lower urinary tract functions. Review of articles published in the Medline database, selected according to their scientific relevance and published guidelines on this subject together with our own experience. A history of sexual abuse is frequently found when assessing dysfunction or symptoms of the lower urinary tract. In this context, urinary stress incontinence is rarely involved but it can be linked by epidemiological factors. Dysuria with urgency is the most frequent expressed symptom. When associated with anorectal disorders and pelvic pain or a sexual disorder in particular dyspareunia, a sexual abuse should be evoked and specific questions asked to the patient. Although these symptoms are frequently encountered in 12 to 33% of women, and 8 to 16% of men, few practitioners, whatever their speciality ask about them as routine. It is important that the physician diagnose the existence of sexual abuse, in particular when the symptoms mentioned by the patient are not conclusive, in spite of thorough urological assessment. Patients finding the initial examination difficult and painful and the failure of the initial treatment should lead to questions concerning abuse, if neglected by the initial medical inquiry. Clinicians involved in perineal functional pathology are able to acquire standardized modalities of inquiry about child sexual abuse for a better time management and efficacy in the therapeutic approach. The interest of a multidisciplinary diagnostic and therapeutic approach is primordial, associating psychological therapy and if necessary perineal re-education. This can avoid unnecessary tests and out-patient visits. Directing patients towards a multidisciplinary approach is highly advisable. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. The intellectual profile of abused and neglected children in the Philippines: An analysis of SB5 IQ scores of sexually abused, physically abused and neglected children. (United States)

    Bengwasan, Peejay D


    Child abuse and neglect have been associated with cognitive deficits, among other effects on child development. This study explores the prediction that child abuse and neglect has an impact on Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales 5th Edition (SB5) IQ scores, in relation to gender, age and type of abuse experienced. 300 children with experiences of abuse and neglect were included in the study, comprising 100 sexually abused, 100 physically abused and 100 neglected children. Overall, all scores on the SB5 were found to be significantly lower than the minimum average scores on the test. Verbal IQ (VIQ) scores were likewise found to be significantly lower than Nonverbal IQ (NVIQ) scores. Full Scale IQ (FSIQ) scores did not reveal heterogeneity when gender was factored in. Age and type of abuse (with a moderate effect size) on the other hand, showed significant differences among groups. Statistical analyses of SB5 Factor Index Scores revealed that abused children, in general, have significantly higher Visual-Spatial Processing (VS) and Quantitative Reasoning (QR) scores and lower scores in Knowledge (KN). There was a large effect size found in such an analysis. Age (with a large effect size), gender and type of abuse (with moderate effect sizes) give significant variations to this obtained profile. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. [Factors for sexual abuse during childhood and adolescence in students of Morelos, Mexico]. (United States)

    Chavez Ayala, Ruben; Rivera-Rivera, Leonor; Angeles-Llerenas, Angélica; Díaz-Cerón, Eva; Allen-Leigh, Betania; Ponce, Eduardo Lazcano


    To estimate the prevalence and factors associated with sexual abuse in childhood and adolescence. Study conducted in a sample of students in the state of Morelos, Mexico, in 2004-2005. Participants (n=1730) were drawn from a cohort of 13,293 students aged 12 to 24 years. Data were collected by means of a questionnaire comprising parts of validated scales. The variables studied were: sociodemographic (gender, living area, socioeconomic status), family (parental education, parental addictions, violence between parents), individual psychological factors (self-esteem assessed using the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory, depression, alcohol consumption), intrafamily violence (assessed through Strauss Scale) and sexual abuse. Multiple logistic regression assessed the risk factors associated. Odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals were estimated. Of all students studied, 4.7% (n=80) reported attempted sexual abuse and 2.9% (n=50) were victims of consummated sexual abuse. Women had higher prevalence of attempted (6.1%) abuse; 3.6% of females and 1.9% of men were sexually abused. Main perpetrators were boyfriends in women and a stranger in men. Mean age was 12.02 years old among females and 11.71 years old among men. Factors found to be associated with abuse: high parental alcohol consumption (OR = 3.37, 95% CI 1.40;8.07), violence toward the mother (OR = 4.49, 95% CI 1.54;13.10), female gender (OR = 2.47, 95% CI 1.17;5.24), being a victim of great domestic violence (OR = 3.58, 95% CI 1.32;9.67). High self-esteem was a protective factor (OR = 0.27, 95% CI 0.09;0.75). Overall sexual abuse occurs at the age of 12 in both males and females, and it is more frequent among females. Most victims do not report abuse.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Made Apriliani Saniti


    Full Text Available Traumatic experiences may happen anytime in our life. The more terrible the situation, the bigger chance for a person to have post traumatic psychological problem, that is the Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD. Sexual abuse is a kind of traumatic event that caused psychological trauma/stress for the victim. In order to be able to manage patient with PTSD, physician should comprehend properties regarding PTSD, including proper treatment and management. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  14. Examining Physical and Sexual Abuse Histories as Correlates of Suicide Risk Among Firefighters. (United States)

    Hom, Melanie A; Matheny, Natalie L; Stanley, Ian H; Rogers, Megan L; Cougle, Jesse R; Joiner, Thomas E


    Research indicates that physical and sexual abuse are associated with increased suicide risk; however, these associations have not been investigated among firefighters-an occupational group that has been shown to be at elevated suicide risk. This study examined whether physical and sexual abuse histories are associated with (a) career suicide ideation, plans, and attempts; and (b) current suicide risk (controlling for theoretically relevant symptoms) in this occupational group. A sample of 929 U.S. firefighters completed self-report surveys that assessed lifetime history of physical and sexual abuse; career suicide ideation, plans, and attempts; current suicide risk; and theoretically relevant symptoms. Logistic regression analyses revealed that individuals who reported a history of physical abuse were significantly more likely to report career suicide ideation, adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 6.12, plans, AOR = 13.05, and attempts, AOR = 23.81, than those who did not. A similar pattern of findings emerged for individuals who reported a sexual abuse history, AORs = 7.83, 18.35, and 29.58 respectively. Linear regression analyses revealed that physical and sexual abuse histories each significantly predicted current suicide risk, even after controlling for theoretically relevant symptoms and demographics, pr 2 = .07 and .06, respectively. Firefighters with a history of physical and/or sexual abuse may be at increased risk for suicidal thoughts and behaviors. A history of physical and sexual abuse were each significantly correlated with current suicide risk in this population, even after accounting for the effects of theoretically relevant symptoms. Thus, when conceptualizing suicide risk among firefighters, factors not necessarily related to one's firefighter career should be considered. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  15. [Role of physical, psychological and sexual abuse in functional digestive disorders. A case-controls trial.]. (United States)

    Remes-Troche, J M; Cid-Juárez, S; Campos-Ramos, I; Ramos-de la Medina, A; Galmiche, A; Schmulson-Wasserman, M; Roesch-Dietlen, F


    Abuse has been considered a significant factor on the development of functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID), especially for severe and treatment-refractory patients. The aim of our study was to evaluate the presence of all FGID according to Rome II criteria, in a group of women with history of physical, psychological and/or sexual abuse. A cross sectional study was performed in 96 women (37 +/- 12 years of age) with history of physical, psychological and/or sexual abuse (cases); and 96 open population women (36 +/- 14 years of age) (controls). The following evaluations were administered: Rome II questionnaire, a self-administered instrument to evaluate history of physical (beating), psychological(insults, public humiliation) and/or sexual abuse (rape, coercion), and HAD questionnaire. Among 96 women with history of abuse,91 (95%) reported to have suffered psychological abuse, 72 (75%) physical abuse, and 24 (25%)sexual abuse. Women with history of abuse had a higher prevalence of rumination (6% vs. 0%, p= 0.02), functional heartburn (26% vs. 13%, p =0.04), aerofagia (17% vs. 5%, p = 0.019), irritable bowel syndrome (38% vs. 18%, p = 0.002), fecalin continence (16% vs. 4%, p = 0.01), elevator anisyndrome (5% vs. 0%, p = 0.05), and proctalgia fugax (29% vs. 15%, p = 0.02) compared to controls. There was a positive correlation between anxiety (r = 0.5, p = 0.001) and depression scores(r = 0.45, p = 0.001), and the number of FGID. We demonstrated a high prevalence of FGID among women with history of physical,psychological, and/or sexual abuse. In this association,concomitant anxiety and depression play a significant role.

  16. See no evil, hear no evil, speak no evil: why do relatively few male victims of childhood sexual abuse receive help for abuse-related issues in adulthood? (United States)

    Holmes, G R; Offen, L; Waller, G


    This literature review explores the reasons why comparatively few adult males with a history of childhood sexual abuse are seen by professionals for help with difficulties relating to that abuse. Two potential explanations are discounted as myths-that relatively few males are sexually abused, and that abuse has little effect on males. However, it is suggested that society (including professionals and the victims themselves) has given credence to these myths. Male victims are relatively unlikely to disclose their experience of childhood abuse, and (as a coping strategy) they deny the impact of sexual abuse on their lives. Professionals fail to hypothesise that their male clients may have been abused, and do not create the conditions that would enable males to talk about the abuse. Blumer's (1971) model of the social construction of problems is applied to account for these beliefs and behaviours on the part of victims and clinicians. It is argued that the childhood sexual abuse of males has not yet acquired legitimacy as a problem recognised by society, thus lagging behind the abuse of females. In short, the "evil' of childhood sexual abuse in the male population is not being seen or heard by clinicians, and is not being recognised or talked about by victims. Clinical implications are considered.

  17. Verbal abuse, like physical and sexual abuse, in childhood is associated with an earlier onset and more difficult course of bipolar disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, R.M.; Altshuler, L.L.; Kupka, R.W.; McElroy, S.L.; Frye, M.A.; Rowe, M.; Leverich, G.S.; Grunze, H.; Suppes, T.; Keck, P.E.; Nolen, W.A.


    Objectives: Physical or sexual abuse in childhood is known to have an adverse effect on the course of bipolar disorder, but the impact of verbal abuse has not been well elucidated. Methods: We examined the occurrence and frequency (never to frequently) of each type of abuse in childhood in 634 US

  18. Verbal abuse, like physical and sexual abuse, in childhood is associated with an earlier onset and more difficult course of bipolar disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, Robert M.; Altshuler, Lori L.; Kupka, Ralph; McElroy, Susan L.; Frye, Mark A.; Rowe, Michael; Leverich, Gabriele S.; Grunze, Heinz; Suppes, Trisha; Keck, Paul E.; Nolen, Willem A.

    ObjectivesPhysical or sexual abuse in childhood is known to have an adverse effect on the course of bipolar disorder, but the impact of verbal abuse has not been well elucidated. MethodsWe examined the occurrence and frequency (never to frequently) of each type of abuse in childhood in 634 US adult

  19. Association between Childhood Sexual Abuse and Transactional Sex in Youth Aging out of Foster Care (United States)

    Ahrens, Kym R.; Katon, Wayne; McCarty, Carolyn; Richardson, Laura P.; Courtney, Mark E.


    Purpose: To evaluate the association between history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and having transactional sex among adolescents who have been in foster care. Methods: We used an existing dataset of youth transitioning out of foster care. Independent CSA variables included self report of history of sexual molestation and rape when participants…

  20. The Use of Therapeutic Stories in Counseling Child and Adolescent Sexual Abuse Survivors (United States)

    Kress, Victoria E.; Adamson, Nicole A.; Yensel, Jennifer


    Counselors will regularly counsel children and adolescents with histories of sexual abuse and be challenged with providing supportive and empowering interventions that serve to move the client from victim to survivor status. Therapeutic stories are a creative counseling technique that can be used when counseling child and adolescent sexual abuse…

  1. Sexual abuse of the girl-child in urban Nigeria and implications for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The special circumstances in which girl-children (i.e. child labour and residency in overcrowded housing units) find themselves in urban Nigeria expose them to possible risks of physical, psychological and sexual abuse, which in turn increase their vulnerability to early pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases and AIDS.

  2. Childhood Sexual Abuse and Couples' Relationships: Female Survivors' Reports in Therapy Groups. (United States)

    Pistorello, Jacqueline; Follette, Victoria M.


    Analysis of female child sexual abuse (CSA) survivors showed relationship themes. The two most frequent were difficulties with emotional communication or intimacy and polarized positions on control. Whereas these themes were correlated with survivors' CSA characteristics, sexual difficulties were correlated with survivors' level of current…

  3. Residential Treatment for Sexually Abusive Youth: An Assessment of Treatment Outcomes (United States)

    Jones, Christopher D.; Chancey, Roy; Lowe, Laura A.; Risler, Edwin A.


    Objective: This research study assesses the effectiveness of participation in a multimodal/holistic residential treatment program on changing deviant sexual interests and functional impairment among sexually abusive youth. Method: A one-group pretest posttest design was utilized to examine pretest (intake) and posttest (discharge) scores for 58…

  4. Efficacy of a Group Intervention for Adult Women Survivors of Sexual Abuse (United States)

    Hebert, Martine; Bergeron, Manon


    This study evaluates the effects of a group intervention for women sexually abused in childhood or adulthood. The sample consisted of 41 women involved in a group intervention based on a feminist approach offered by help centers for sexual assault victims in Quebec and 11 women in a wait-list comparison group. Results reveal that the group…

  5. Restorative Mediation: The Application of Restorative Justice Practice and Philosophy to Clergy Sexual Abuse Cases (United States)

    Noll, Douglas E.; Harvey, Linda


    This article will present the restorative justice model and examine how the restorative justice philosophy and process can be applied to clergy-perpetrated sexual abuse and religious sexual misconduct to resolve legal claims and allow the process of healing to begin. Restorative justice is a holistic approach to criminal, civil, and church law…

  6. Comparing Female and Male Perpetrators' Modus Operandi: Victims' Reports of Sexual Abuse. (United States)

    Kaufman, Keith L.; And Others


    Investigated similarities and differences in modus operandi of female and male child sexual abusers by comparing victims of female and male perpetrators. Females were more often involved with males in co-offender situations and were more likely to exploit victims. Males were more sexually invasive and more likely to use bribes to obtain victim…

  7. Memory for child sexual abuse information: simulated memory error and individual differences. (United States)

    McWilliams, Kelly; Goodman, Gail S; Lyons, Kristen E; Newton, Jeremy; Avila-Mora, Elizabeth


    Building on the simulated-amnesia work of Christianson and Bylin (Applied Cognitive Psychology, 13, 495-511, 1999), the present research introduces a new paradigm for the scientific study of memory of childhood sexual abuse information. In Session 1, participants mentally took the part of an abuse victim as they read an account of the sexual assault of a 7-year-old. After reading the narrative, participants were randomly assigned to one of four experimental conditions: They (1) rehearsed the story truthfully (truth group), (2) left out the abuse details of the story (omission group), (3) lied about the abuse details to indicate that no abuse had occurred (commission group), or (4) did not recall the story during Session 1 (no-rehearsal group). One week later, participants returned for Session 2 and were asked to truthfully recall the narrative. The results indicated that, relative to truthful recall, untruthful recall or no rehearsal at Session 1 adversely affected memory performance at Session 2. However, untruthful recall resulted in better memory than did no rehearsal. Moreover, gender, PTSD symptoms, depression, adult attachment, and sexual abuse history significantly predicted memory for the childhood sexual abuse scenario. Implications for theory and application are discussed.

  8. Alleged sexual abuse at a day care center: impact on parents. (United States)

    Dyb, Grete; Holen, Are; Steinberg, Alan M; Rodriguez, Ned; Pynoos, Robert S


    This report describes the cascade of stressful events and secondary life changes experienced by parents in a case of alleged sexual abuse at a day care program. The study evaluated parents' Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) symptoms and general psychological responses to the stressful events 4 years after the alleged abuse, and explored predictive factors of parental distress. A total of 39 parents were interviewed about stressful events, life changes, and social support. Current distress reactions, psychological wellbeing, and locus of control were assessed with a battery of standardized measures. Hearing about the sexual abuse, testifying in court, hearing the verdict, and being exposed in media reports were all rated by the parents as distressing events. The majority of the parents experienced secondary life changes after the alleged sexual abuse. Four years after the alleged sexual abuse, one-third of the parents reported a high level of PTSD Intrusive symptoms and one-fourth reported a high level of PTSD Avoidance symptoms. There was a significant positive correlation between a measure of psychological wellbeing and PTSD. Secondary life changes and locus of control significantly predicted PTSD. This study demonstrates that the alleged sexual abuse of children in day care and the resulting events in the legal system and the media constitute significant and chronic stressors in the lives of the children's parents. These findings underscore the need to expand the focus of trauma-related sequelae from the child victim to their parents and family.

  9. Family Resilience Resources in Coping With Child Sexual Abuse in South Africa. (United States)

    Vermeulen, Theresa; Greeff, Abraham P


    The aim of this qualitative study was to identify resources of family resilience that help families cope with child sexual abuse. Data were collected from a purposeful sample of parents representing nine poor families living in the Western Cape Province, South Africa. The narratives of the participants were analyzed thematically. The results indicate that the families, despite adverse situations, utilized internal and external resilience resources. Internal resources were the parents' relationship with their children, their own emotional functioning and attitudes, the children's ability to cope with the abuse, boundaries in the family, insight into their children's emotional needs, and sibling relationships. External family resources were the support of extended family members, friends, and a local community-based nonprofit organization working with child sexual abuse and schools. The empowering role of the identified resources for family resilience should be enhanced in interventions, while future studies could further explore these aspects in families confronted with child sexual abuse.

  10. Sexual Abuse Exposure Alters Early Processing of Emotional Words: Evidence from Event-Related Potentials (United States)

    Grégoire, Laurent; Caparos, Serge; Leblanc, Carole-Anne; Brisson, Benoit; Blanchette, Isabelle


    This study aimed to compare the time course of emotional information processing between trauma-exposed and control participants, using electrophysiological measures. We conceived an emotional Stroop task with two types of words: trauma-related emotional words and neutral words. We assessed the evoked cerebral responses of sexual abuse victims without post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and no abuse participants. We focused particularly on an early wave (C1/P1), the N2pc, and the P3b. Our main result indicated an early effect (55–165 ms) of emotionality, which varied between non-exposed participants and sexual abuse victims. This suggests that potentially traumatic experiences modulate early processing of emotional information. Our findings showing neurobiological alterations in sexual abuse victims (without PTSD) suggest that exposure to highly emotional events has an important impact on neurocognitive function even in the absence of psychopathology. PMID:29379428

  11. Sexual Abuse Exposure Alters Early Processing of Emotional Words: Evidence from Event-Related Potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Grégoire


    Full Text Available This study aimed to compare the time course of emotional information processing between trauma-exposed and control participants, using electrophysiological measures. We conceived an emotional Stroop task with two types of words: trauma-related emotional words and neutral words. We assessed the evoked cerebral responses of sexual abuse victims without post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD and no abuse participants. We focused particularly on an early wave (C1/P1, the N2pc, and the P3b. Our main result indicated an early effect (55–165 ms of emotionality, which varied between non-exposed participants and sexual abuse victims. This suggests that potentially traumatic experiences modulate early processing of emotional information. Our findings showing neurobiological alterations in sexual abuse victims (without PTSD suggest that exposure to highly emotional events has an important impact on neurocognitive function even in the absence of psychopathology.

  12. A plan analysis of pedophile sexual abusers' motivations for treatment: a qualitative pilot study. (United States)

    Drapeau, Martin; Körner, Annett; Granger, Luc; Brunet, Louis; Caspar, Franz


    Many authors have suggested adapting treatment programs to the specific needs of sexual abusers. However, little research has been conducted to understand what these patients seek in therapy or what elements play a key role in keeping them in treatment. In this pilot study, fifteen (N=15) pedophile sexual abusers from La Macaza clinic for sexual abusers were interviewed. Plan analysis was used to investigate the most prevalent components involved in staying in or leaving therapy. Results suggest that many components involved in the plans leading to doing and to avoiding treatment were similar. Differences were found in regards to the outcome of confrontations with the therapists, a tendency to isolate and overcomply, guilt related to the abuse, a need for a stable environment, and a need to be accepted. These results are discussed along with possible ways to improve the patients' involvement in treatment.

  13. Childhood physical and sexual abuse experiences associated with post-traumatic stress disorder among pregnant women. (United States)

    Sanchez, Sixto E; Pineda, Omar; Chaves, Diana Z; Zhong, Qiu-Yue; Gelaye, Bizu; Simon, Gregory E; Rondon, Marta B; Williams, Michelle A


    We sought to evaluate the extent to which childhood physical and/or sexual abuse history is associated with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) during early pregnancy and to explore the extent to which the childhood abuse-PTSD association is mediated through, or modified by, adult experiences of intimate partner violence (IPV). In-person interviews collected information regarding history of childhood abuse and IPV from 2,928 women aged 18-49 years old prior to 16 weeks of gestation. PTSD was assessed using the PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version. Multivariate logistic regressions were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Compared to women with no childhood abuse, the odds of PTSD were increased 4.31-fold for those who reported physical abuse only (95% CI, 2.18-8.49), 5.33-fold for sexual abuse only (95% CI, 2.38-11.98), and 8.03-fold for those who reported physical and sexual abuse (95% CI, 4.10-15.74). Mediation analysis showed 13% of the childhood abuse-PTSD association was mediated by IPV. Furthermore, high odds of PTSD were noted among women with histories of childhood abuse and IPV compared with women who were not exposed to either (OR = 20.20; 95% CI, 8.18-49.85). Childhood abuse is associated with increased odds of PTSD during early pregnancy. The odds of PTSD were particularly elevated among women with a history of childhood abuse and IPV. Efforts should be made to prevent childhood abuse and mitigate its effects on women's mental health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Predictors of HIV-risk sexual behavior: examining lifetime sexual and physical abuse histories in relation to substance use and psychiatric problem severity among ex-offenders. (United States)

    Majer, John M; Rodriguez, Jaclyn; Bloomer, Craig; Jason, Leonard A


    Lifetime histories of sexual and physical abuse have been associated with increased HIV-risk sexual behavior, and some studies have identified other variables associated with these relationships. However, there is a dearth of literature that has critically examined abuse histories and HIV-risk sexual behavior in relation to these other variables. Predictors of HIV-risk sexual behavior were analyzed among a sample of ex-offenders who were completing inpatient substance dependence treatment to identify factors related to increases in HIV-risk sexual behavior beyond that of abuse histories. Hierarchical linear regression was conducted to examine sociodemographic characteristics, recent substance use, and current psychiatric problem severity in addition to lifetime histories of sexual/physical abuse in a cross-sectional design. Gender, substance use, and psychiatric problem severity predicted increases in HIV-risk sexual behavior beyond what was predicted by abuse histories. Proportionately more women than men reported abuse histories. In addition, significantly more unprotected sexual than safer sexual practices were observed, but differences in these practices based on lifetime abuse histories and gender were not significant. Findings suggest recent substance use and current psychiatric problem severity are greater risk factors for HIV-risk sexual behavior than lifetime abuse histories among persons who have substance use disorders.

  15. A critical review of available data on sexual abuse of children in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helweg-Larsen, Karin; Larsen, Helmer Bøving


    Objective To describe different data sources that may illuminate the incidence and character of child sexual abuse (CSA) in Denmark in the late 1990s. Method: Data concerning alleged sexual abuse of children below 15 years of age in the 1990s were retrieved from the Danish National Patient Register...... Register. In the Criminal Register, significant annual differences were found in cases of sexual offence against children below 12 years. The police reports comprised very comprehensive information about the victims and the character of CSA. Based on this information the incidence of police reported CSA...

  16. The Secret of Intrafamilial Child Sexual Abuse: Who Keeps It and How? (United States)

    Tener, Dafna


    This article analyzes how women survivors of intrafamilial child sexual abuse perceive the family members who took part in keeping it secret and their tactics for doing so. Analysis of 20 in-depth interviews with Jewish Israeli women revealed unique ways of guarding the secret. These were attributed to the perpetrator, the mother and the family. Secret-keeping tactics included presenting a normative public identity or an unstable psychological identity, presenting multiple personas, reframing the abuse, concealing any trace of the secret after it was disclosed, as if the abuse had never happened, and making a monument of the abuser. These tactics are discussed in the context of silencing, the interpersonal relations orientation model, and the wider concepts of secrecy in society. Implications for professional practice and for society are considered, and new attitudes toward intrafamilial child sexual abuse secrecy are suggested.

  17. Views of child sexual abuse in two cultural communities: an exploratory study among African Americans and Latinos. (United States)

    Fontes, L A; Cruz, M; Tabachnick, J


    This exploratory study investigates knowledge and ideas about child sexual abuse among African Americans and Latinos through focus group discussions. Participants defined and described child sexual abuse, acknowledged that it occurred in their communities, and expressed their sense that family risk factors, risky institutions, and offender propensities were its root causes. Latino participants identified cultural transitions as another contributor. Responses and conversational style differed somewhat by gender and cultural identity. The authors discuss implications for child sexual abuse prevention, intervention, and research.

  18. Prevalence, Characteristics, and Associations of Sexual Abuse with Sociodemographics and Consensual Sex in a Population-Based Sample of Swedish Adolescents (United States)

    Priebe, Gisela; Svedin, Carl Goran


    The purpose of this study was to investigate lifetime prevalence and characteristics of self-reported child sexual abuse and associations between child sexual abuse, gender, sociodemographic data, and consensual sexual experiences. A questionnaire was completed by 4,339 Swedish high school seniors. Three categories of child sexual abuse were…

  19. Child Sexual Abuse and Negative Affect as Shared Risk Factors for Sexual Aggression and Sexual HIV Risk Behavior in Heterosexual Men. (United States)

    Peterson, Zoё D; Janssen, Erick; Goodrich, David; Fortenberry, J Dennis; Hensel, Devon J; Heiman, Julia R


    Previous research has suggested that sexually aggressive behavior and sexual HIV risk behavior are associated. Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is a well-established risk factor for both types of problematic sexual behavior. Negative affect (i.e., anxiety, depression, and anger) is a less well-studied risk factor, but it has been theorized to relate to both sexual aggression and HIV risk behavior. Thus, this study sought to (1) confirm the relationship between sexual aggression and HIV risk behavior, (2) establish CSA and negative affect as shared risk factors for sexual aggression and HIV risk behavior, and (3) evaluate whether negative affect mediates the relationship between CSA and sexual aggression and between CSA and HIV sexual risk in a sample of heterosexual men. We recruited 18- to 30-year-old heterosexual men (N = 377) from urban sexually transmitted infection clinics. Men completed measures of sexual HIV risk history (number of partners and condom use), sexual aggression history, CSA history, and trait negative affect (anger, anxiety, and depression). Structural equation modeling was used to examine hypothesized direct and indirect relationships. In the final SEM model, sexual aggression history and sexual HIV risk behavior were correlated. CSA was associated with both types of problematic sexual behavior. Anxiety significantly mediated the relationship between CSA and sexual aggression and between CSA and sexual HIV risk behavior (χ 2 [1300] = 2121.79, p Sexual aggression appears to be part of a constellation of sexual risk behaviors; thus, it may be possible to develop prevention programs that target both sexual HIV risk and sexual aggression. CSA is a shared risk factor for sexual aggression and HIV risk behavior through the pathway of anxiety. Thus, anxiety might be one promising target for intervention.

  20. Caregiver perceptions about mental health services after child sexual abuse. (United States)

    Fong, Hiu-fai; Bennett, Colleen E; Mondestin, Valerie; Scribano, Philip V; Mollen, Cynthia; Wood, Joanne N


    The objective of this study was to describe caregiver perceptions about mental health services (MHS) after child sexual abuse (CSA) and to explore factors that affected whether their children linked to services. We conducted semi-structured, in-person interviews with 22 non-offending caregivers of suspected CSA victims<13 years old seen at a child advocacy center in Philadelphia. Purposive sampling was used to recruit caregivers who had (n=12) and had not (n=10) linked their children to MHS. Guided by the Health Belief Model framework, interviews assessed perceptions about: CSA severity, the child's susceptibility for adverse outcomes, the benefits of MHS, and the facilitators and barriers to MHS. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, coded, and analyzed using modified grounded theory. Recruitment ended when thematic saturation was reached. Caregivers expressed strong reactions to CSA and multiple concerns about adverse child outcomes. Most caregivers reported that MHS were generally necessary for children after CSA. Caregivers who had not linked to MHS, however, believed MHS were not necessary for their children, most commonly because they were not exhibiting behavioral symptoms. Caregivers described multiple access barriers to MHS, but caregivers who had not linked reported that they could have overcome these barriers if they believed MHS were necessary for their children. Caregivers who had not linked to services also expressed concerns about MHS being re-traumatizing and stigmatizing. Interventions to increase MHS linkage should focus on improving communication with caregivers about the specific benefits of MHS for their children and proactively addressing caregiver concerns about MHS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Contributions of Child Sexual Abuse, Self-Blame, Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms, and Alcohol Use to Women's Risk for Forcible and Substance-Facilitated Sexual Assault. (United States)

    Mokma, Taylor R; Eshelman, Lee R; Messman-Moore, Terri L


    Child sexual abuse and adult sexual assault have been linked to increased self-blame, posttraumatic stress symptoms, and alcohol use. The current study aims to examine (a) whether these constructs explain women's risk for later adult sexual assault and revictimization, (b) whether such factors differentially confer risk for specific types of adult sexual assault (i.e., substance-facilitated and forcible), and (c) if self-blame confers risk indirectly through other risk factors. Multiple types of self-blame, posttraumatic stress, and alcohol use were examined among 929 female college students as serial mediators of the relationship between child sexual abuse and adult sexual assault and as risk factors for sexual revictimization among child sexual abuse survivors. In the model predicting risk for substance-facilitated adult sexual assault, child sexual abuse indirectly predicted greater risk for substance-facilitated adult sexual assault mediated through two separate paths: global blame-to-posttraumatic-stress and global blame-to-alcohol use. In the model predicting risk for forcible adult sexual assault, child sexual abuse directly predicted greater risk for forcible adult sexual assault, and this relation was mediated by the global blame-to-posttraumatic-stress path. Among child sexual abuse survivors, child sexual abuse specific characterological and behavioral self-blame directly predicted greater risk for forcible and substance-facilitated revictimization, but the pathways were not mediated by posttraumatic stress or alcohol use. Results emphasize the importance of assessing different types of self-blame in predicting posttraumatic stress symptoms as well as examining risk for sexual victimization and revictimization. Findings did not support hypotheses that increased posttraumatic stress would predict increased alcohol use but did indicate that heightened self-blame is consistently associated with heightened posttraumatic stress and that heightened global self

  2. Physiological stress responses predict sexual functioning and satisfaction differently in women who have and have not been sexually abused in childhood


    Meston, Cindy M.; Lorenz, Tierney A.


    Physiological responses to sexual stimuli may contribute to the increased rate of sexual problems seen in women with childhood sexual abuse (CSA) histories. We compared two physiological stress responses as predictors of sexual function and satisfaction, sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activation and cortisol in women with (CSA, N = 136) and without CSA histories (NSA, N = 102). In CSA survivors, cortisol response to sexual stimuli did not significantly predict sexual functioning; however, i...

  3. Psychiatric and physical sequelae of childhood physical and sexual abuse and forced sexual trauma among individuals with serious mental illness. (United States)

    Subica, Andrew M


    Trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) frequently co-occur with serious mental illness, yet the unique mental and physical health influences of childhood physical abuse (CPA), childhood sexual abuse (CSA), and forced sexual trauma on individuals with serious mental illness remain unevaluated. The present study of 172 individuals with serious mental illness investigated the adverse effects of CPA, CSA, and forced sexual trauma on severity of PTSD and depression, and overall mental and physical health functioning. Data analysis consisted of chi-square tests, independent t tests, bivariate odds ratios, and linear regressions. Prevalence of CPA (44.8%), CSA (29.1%), and forced sexual trauma (33.1%) were elevated, and nearly one third of participants (31.4%) reported clinical PTSD. Participants exposed to CSA or forced sexual trauma evidenced bivariate ORs ranging from 4.13 to 7.02 for PTSD, 2.44 to 2.50 for major depression, and 2.14 to 2.31 for serious physical illness/disability. Sexual trauma exposure associated with heightened PTSD and depression, and reduced mental and physical health functioning, with CSA uniquely predicting PTSD, depression, and physical health difficulties. CPA less significantly affected these clinical domains. Sexual traumas have profound negative effects on mental and physical health outcomes among individuals with serious mental illness; increased screening and treatment of sexual traumas is needed. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  4. Predicting risky sexual behavior in emerging adulthood: examination of a moderated mediation model among child sexual abuse and adult sexual assault victims. (United States)

    Littleton, Heather L; Grills, Amie E; Drum, Katherine B


    Although having a sexual victimization history is associated with engaging in sexual risk behavior, the mechanisms whereby sexual victimization increases risk behavior are unclear. This study examined use of sex as an affect regulation strategy as a mediator of the relationship between depressive symptoms and sexual risk behavior among 1,616 sexually active college women as well as examined having a history of child sexual abuse (CSA), adolescent/adult sexual assault (ASA), or both (CSA/ASA) as moderators. Results supported the mediated model as well as moderated mediation, where depressive symptoms were more strongly associated with use of sex as an affect regulation strategy among ASA victims, and sex as an affect regulation strategy was more strongly related to sexual risk behavior for CSA/ASA victims.

  5. "Who can you tell?" Features of Arab culture that influence conceptualization and treatment of childhood sexual abuse. (United States)

    Haboush, Karen L; Alyan, Hala


    The literature on child sexual abuse reflects growing recognition of the manner in which culture impacts the conceptualization, experience, and treatment of such cases. Despite heightened visibility of Arab Americans within the United States, population due to recent media attention, little empirical research exists on the occurrence of child sexual abuse within this population. Arab culture is often characterized by an emphasis on collectivism and familial obligations, and such features may prove to either facilitate or impede assessment and treatment of child sexual abuse, depending on how they are manifested. In terms of reporting child sexual abuse, cultural values pertaining to shame and honor as well as the stigma attached to mental health problems may influence the response to abuse. As such, enhancing the cultural competence of the therapist is key to facilitating effective cultural practice. Empirical research is required to investigate and substantiate these concepts as they relate to child sexual abuse in Arab-American populations.

  6. Gendered experiences of sexual abuse of teenagers and children in Mexico. (United States)

    Frías, Sonia M; Erviti, Joaquina


    The prevalence of sexual abuse during childhood and adolescence in a national representative sample of Mexican youngsters is examined from a gender perspective using data from the 2007 National Survey on Exclusion, Intolerance and Violence in Public Institutions of High School Level Education. Of those surveyed, 1.76% were forced into their first experience of intercourse, and 6.43% had their genitalia touched or their first sexual interaction imposed against their will. In this sample, 6.82% had experienced sexual abuse before the age of 18. Child sexual abuse was most commonly perpetrated by family members and neighbors. Only 20% reported being abused by an unknown person. Males and females had different victimization experiences. Forty percent disclosed information about the abuse to another person, and 7% reported their experiences to law enforcement agencies. Males and females stated different reasons for not disclosing. These findings are discussed within the context of the social construction of the male and female body and sexuality in the Mexican context. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Risk behaviors and sexual abuse among men and woman with visual or hearing impairments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Susana Robles Montijo


    Full Text Available The present study proposed a descriptive analysis of sociodemographic and family variables, as well as risky sexual behaviors and sexual abuse in a sample of young Mexicans with hearing or visual impairments, examining differences based on gender and type of disability of the participants. 128 young persons (64 hearing impaired and 64 visually impaired of whom, 53.2% were male and 86.6% were single, were included in the study. The instruments used were adapted linguistically to be answered by young people with hearing disabilities, and translated into Braille for visually impaired young people. The results show that participants maintain an active sex life with a risk profile that is characterized by the early onset of sexual intercourse, lack of planning their first sexual encounter, underuse of condoms and victimization of some form of sexual abuse. The risk was higher in women and among those with visual disabilities.

  8. The German Dunkelfeld project: a pilot study to prevent child sexual abuse and the use of child abusive images. (United States)

    Beier, Klaus M; Grundmann, Dorit; Kuhle, Laura F; Scherner, Gerold; Konrad, Anna; Amelung, Till


    Sexual interest toward prepubescents and pubescents (pedophilia and hebephilia) constitutes a major risk factor for child sexual abuse (CSA) and viewing of child abusive images, i.e., child pornography offenses (CPO). Most child sexual exploitation involving CSA and CPO are undetected and unprosecuted in the "Dunkelfeld" (German: "dark field"). This study assesses a treatment program to enhance behavioral control and reduce associated dynamic risk factors (DRF) in self-motivated pedophiles/hebephiles in the Dunkelfeld. Between 2005 and 2011, 319 undetected help-seeking pedophiles and hebephiles expressed interest in taking part in an anonymous and confidential 1-year-treatment program using broad cognitive behavioral methodology in the Prevention Project Dunkelfeld. Therapy was assessed using nonrandomized waiting list control design (n=53 treated group [TG]; n=22 untreated control group [CG]). Self-reported pre-/posttreatment DRF changes were assessed and compared with CG. Offending behavior characteristics were also assessed via self-reporting. No pre-/postassessment changes occurred in the control group. Emotional deficits and offense-supportive cognitions decreased in the TG; posttherapy sexual self-regulation increased. Treatment-related changes were distributed unequally across offender groups. None of the offending behavior reported for the TG was identified as such by the legal authorities. However, five of 25 CSA offenders and 29 of 32 CPO offenders reported ongoing behaviors under therapy. Therapy for pedophiles/hebephiles in the Dunkelfeld can alter child sexual offending DRF and reduce-related behaviors. Unidentified, unlawful child sexual exploitative behaviors are more prevalent in this population than in officially reported recidivism. Further research into factors predictive of problematic sexual behaviors in the Dunkelfeld is warranted. © 2014 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  9. Significance, Nature, and Direction of the Association Between Child Sexual Abuse and Conduct Disorder: A Systematic Review. (United States)

    Maniglio, Roberto


    To elucidate the significance, nature, and direction of the potential relationship between child sexual abuse and conduct disorder, all the pertinent studies were reviewed. Ten databases were searched. Blind assessments of study eligibility and quality were performed by two independent researchers. Thirty-six studies including 185,358 participants and meeting minimum quality criteria that were enough to ensure objectivity and to not invalidate results were analyzed. Across the majority of studies, conduct disorder was significantly and directly related to child sexual abuse, especially repeated sexual molestation and abuse involving penetration, even after controlling for various sociodemographic, family, and clinical variables. The association between child sexual abuse and conduct disorder was not confounded by other risk factors, such as gender, socioeconomic status, school achievement, substance problems, physical abuse, parental antisocial behavior or substance problems, parent-child relationships, and family disruption, conflict, or violence. Evidence for a significant interactive effect between child sexual abuse and monoamine oxidase A gene on conduct disorder was scant. Early sexual abuse might predispose to the subsequent onset of conduct disorder which, in turn, may lead to further sexual victimization through association with sexually abusive peers or involvement in dangerous situations or sexual survival strategies. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. Current information on the scope and nature of child sexual abuse. (United States)

    Finkelhor, D


    Approximately 150,000 confirmed cases of child sexual abuse were reported to child welfare authorities in the United States during 1993. This number represents about 15% of the more than one million confirmed cases of all child abuse and neglect. But the true scope of this problem is better reflected in retrospective surveys of adults, and this article summarizes data from 19 of these surveys. Considerable evidence exists to show that at least 20% of American women and 5% to 10% of American men experienced some form of sexual abuse as children. The rates are somewhat lower among people born before World War II, but there is little evidence of a dramatic increase for recent generations. The studies provide little evidence that race or socioeconomic circumstances are major risk factors. They do show elevated risk for children who experienced parental inadequacy, unavailability, conflict, harsh punishment, and emotional deprivation. Adult retrospective studies are also good sources of information about the characteristics of abuse. Most sexual abuse is committed by men (90%) and by persons known to the child (70% to 90%), with family members constituting one-third to one-half of the perpetrators against girls and 10% to 20% of the perpetrators against boys. Family members constitute a higher percentage of the perpetrators in child protective agency cases because the mandate of these agencies generally precludes their involvement in extrafamily abuse. Around 20% to 25% of child sexual abuse cases involve penetration or oral-genital contact. The peak age of vulnerability is between 7 and 13. Studies of the criminal justice processing of sexual abusers suggest that, compared with other violent criminals, slightly fewer are prosecuted, but of those prosecuted, slightly more are convicted. Studies conducted in the 1980s also showed that, once convicted, relatively few sexual abusers receive sentences longer than one year, while 32% to 46% serve no jail time. Overall, there

  11. Abuse (United States)

    ... Kids For Teens For Parents & Teachers Resolving Family Conflicts The Holidays and Alzheimer's Glossary Virtual Library Online ... Types of abuse Signs of abuse Reporting abuse Types of abuse Abuse comes in many forms: Physical: ...

  12. PTSD as a mediator between lifetime sexual abuse and substance use among jail diversion participants. (United States)

    Cusack, Karen J; Herring, Amy H; Steadman, Henry J


    Many of the individuals with serious mental illness involved in the criminal justice system have experienced interpersonal victimization, such as sexual abuse, and have high rates of alcohol and drug use disorders. Little attention has been paid to the prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and its potential role in the substance misuse of offenders with mental illness. The study used a path analytic framework to test the hypothesis that PTSD mediates the relationship between sexual abuse and level of alcohol and drug use among individuals (N=386) with mental illness enrolled in a multisite (N=7) jail diversion project. Sexual abuse was strongly associated with PTSD, which was in turn associated with both heavy drug use and heavy drinking. These findings suggest that PTSD may be an important target for jail diversion programs.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erhamwilda Erhamwilda


    Full Text Available Fulfillment of children's rights has been a concern of Indonesia stated in the ratification of the Convention on the Rights of the Child and Act No. 23 of 2002 on Child Protection. However, violence against children is increasing each year. The most dominant violence emerged in recent years is sexual abuse committed against children aged 5 to 11 years, and the perpetrators of sexual abuse are close with the children. Concern about cases of sexual abuse in early childhood and their impact, should be followed by an effort to develop a variety of approaches and methods of sex education in accordance with religious and cultural values in which children live.   

  14. Play Room as an psychological assessment method in cases of alleged child sexual abuse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagelskjær, Marie


    of Play Room from prevention into clinical assessment, in cases of alleged child sexual abuse. Taking its starting point in the theory of Jean Laplanche, this article will discuss how psychoanalytic concepts such as seduction, translation, asymmetry, absence, and listening to listening can be used......This article presents an example of how psychoanalytic theory can be implemented in practice. The aim is to introduce and discuss the semi-projective material ‘Play Room’ which was originally developed to support prevention of sexual abuse among vulnerable children in Denmark. However, a recent...... study has shown that, when measured with a scale called Ability to Answer, children exposed to sexual abuse talked about the illustrations in Play Room in a significantly different way than did a clinical sample and a normal control group. The finding indicates the potential for expanding the scope...

  15. Laughing through this pain: medical clowning during examination of sexually abused children: an innovative approach. (United States)

    Tener, Dafna; Lev-Wiesel, Rachel; Franco, Nessia Lang; Ofir, Shoshi


    This study examined the role of medical clowns during medical examinations of children who were sexually abused. Three case studies are described, illustrating diverse interactions among the victimized child, the medical clown, and the medical forensical examiner during medical forensic examinations held at the Tene Center for Sexually Abused Children, Poria-Pade Medical Center, Israel. The results indicated that medical clowns play a unique role both in lowering anxiety and fear among children before and during the unpleasant forensic examination as well as in mitigating potential retraumatization of the sexual abuse event resulting from the medical examination. The medical clown was found to assist in creating a pleasant and calm atmosphere, thus improving the child's cooperation during the examination.

  16. Depression and parenting by nonoffending mothers of children who experienced sexual abuse. (United States)

    Santa-Sosa, Eileen J; Steer, Robert A; Deblinger, Esther; Runyon, Melissa K


    Parenting may be one mechanism by which depression in nonoffending mothers impacts child emotional and behavioral adjustment after sexual abuse. This study examined the relationship between self-reported maternal depression and parenting behaviors by nonoffending mothers of children who experienced sexual abuse. The participants were 204 nonoffending biological mother-child pairs recruited from a clinic providing services for children who experienced sexual abuse. The mothers completed pretreatment self-report measures of demographic information, depression, and parenting behaviors. Children (7 to 17 years) completed a measure of mothers' parenting behaviors. Mothers with clinically high levels of self-reported depression employed more inconsistent parenting behavior and provided poorer monitoring/supervision of their children than mothers without clinically high levels of self-reported depression. Implications for clinical practice and future research are discussed.

  17. The impact of child sexual abuse on the course of bipolar disorder: a systematic review. (United States)

    Maniglio, Roberto


    The aim of this review was to elucidate the impact of child sexual abuse on all clinical phenomena that occur after the onset of bipolar disorder, including associated clinical features that are not part of the diagnostic criteria for the disorder. Five databases were searched and supplemented with a hand search of reference lists from retrieved papers. Study quality was assessed using a validated quality assessment tool. Blind assessments of study eligibility and quality were conducted by two independent researchers to reduce bias, minimize errors, and enhance the reliability of findings. Disagreements were resolved by consensus. Eighteen studies that included a total of 2996 adults and youths with bipolar disorder and met the minimum quality criteria necessary to ensure objectivity and not invalidate results were analyzed. Across studies, child sexual abuse was strongly (and perhaps directly) associated with posttraumatic stress disorder; whereas it was less strongly (and perhaps indirectly) related to suicide attempts, alcohol and/or drug abuse or dependence, psychotic symptoms, and an early age of illness onset. In regard to the association between child sexual abuse and other clinical variables concerning the course of bipolar disorder, evidence was scant or conflicting. Child sexual abuse is associated (either directly or indirectly) with some clinical phenomena that represent a more severe form of bipolar disorder. Although such a traumatic experience may directly affect the development of posttraumatic stress disorder, the effects of early sexual abuse on later suicidal behavior, substance abuse, and psychotic symptoms may operate through the mediating influences of certain psychopathological or neurobiological variables. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Pathway to Hope: an indigenous approach to healing child sexual abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane Payne


    Full Text Available Background. The Alaska Native (AN population has endured multiple historical traumatic events. This population has poorer health outcomes on nearly all factors compared with Alaska non-Natives with more than 75% reportedly being physically assaulted in their lifetime, and child sexual abuse nearly 6 times the national average. Objective. This article describes the Pathway to Hope (PTH program, which is an indigenous approach to ending silence and denial related to child sexual abuse and encourages multigenerational healing. Design. PTH was developed by ANs who believe that each community is unique, thus strategies for ending denial and support for healing must be woven from the historical context, cultural strengths of individual communities. Strengths-based solutions built on truth, honesty, compassion and shared responsibility for healing and protecting today’s children have been profound and successful. The PTH curriculum addresses child sexual abuse from a historical perspective; that the higher rates of sexual abuse among certain Tribes, regions and communities is linked in part to years of victimisation, but may also be perpetuated by internalised oppression and lateral violence among Tribal members. Results. Data suggest that community-based dialogue and wisdom of Native elders and spiritual leaders paired with readiness of community service providers are necessary for sustained change. At all levels, this Indigenous model for learning, sharing, helping and healing brings hope for an end to denial and silence about child sexual abuse for Native people. Conclusions. The PTH program utilises the wisdom and values that have sustained Native people for generations. Ending silence and denial about child sexual abuse and building upon strengths have assisted many Indigenous communities begin the journey toward wellness. Through the PTH, communities have taken steps to accept the challenges associated with establishing safety for children

  19. Pornography, Sexual Coercion and Abuse and Sexting in Young People's Intimate Relationships: A European Study. (United States)

    Stanley, Nicky; Barter, Christine; Wood, Marsha; Aghtaie, Nadia; Larkins, Cath; Lanau, Alba; Överlien, Carolina


    New technology has made pornography increasingly accessible to young people, and a growing evidence base has identified a relationship between viewing pornography and violent or abusive behavior in young men. This article reports findings from a large survey of 4,564 young people aged 14 to 17 in five European countries which illuminate the relationship between regular viewing of online pornography, sexual coercion and abuse and the sending and receiving of sexual images and messages, known as "sexting." In addition to the survey, which was completed in schools, 91 interviews were undertaken with young people who had direct experience of interpersonal violence and abuse in their own relationships. Rates for regularly viewing online pornography were very much higher among boys and most had chosen to watch pornography. Boys' perpetration of sexual coercion and abuse was significantly associated with regular viewing of online pornography. Viewing online pornography was also associated with a significantly increased probability of having sent sexual images/messages for boys in nearly all countries. In addition, boys who regularly watched online pornography were significantly more likely to hold negative gender attitudes. The qualitative interviews illustrated that, although sexting is normalized and perceived positively by most young people, it has the potential to reproduce sexist features of pornography such as control and humiliation. Sex and relationships education should aim to promote a critical understanding of pornography among young people that recognizes its abusive and gendered values. © The Author(s) 2016.

  20. The Australian Royal Commission into Institutional Responses to Child Sexual Abuse. (United States)

    Wright, Katie; Swain, Shurlee; McPhillips, Kathleen


    The Royal Commission into Institutional Responses to Child Sexual Abuse is the largest royal commission in Australia's history and one of the largest public inquiries into institutional child abuse internationally. With an investment from the Australian government of half a billion dollars, it examined how institutions with a responsibility for children, both historically and in the present, have responded to allegations of child sexual abuse. Announced in the wake of previous Australian and international inquiries, public scandals and lobbying by survivor groups, its establishment reflected increasing recognition of the often lifelong and intergenerational damage caused by childhood sexual abuse and a strong political commitment to improving child safety and wellbeing in Australia. This article outlines the background, key features and innovations of this landmark public inquiry, focusing in particular on its extensive research program. It considers its international significance and also serves as an introduction to this special edition on the Australian Royal Commission, exploring its implications for better understanding institutional child sexual abuse and its impacts, and for making institutions safer places for children in the future. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. The psychosocial consequences of child sexual abuse in Ethiopia: a case-control comparative analysis. (United States)

    Wondie, Yemataw; Zemene, Workie; Tafesse, Biruk; Reschke, Konrad; Schröder, Harry


    Child sexual abuse (CSA) continues to be a pressing public health concern around the globe. Few existing reports, however, indicate the alarming rate at which the problem is increasing in sub-Saharan Africa. The present study is designed to investigate the psychosocial consequences of sexual abuse among child survivors in Ethiopia who were abused mainly through early marriage, rape, and child prostitution. Data are collected from 318 such CSA survivors-and 318 matched, non-sexually abused, normal controls- using the Children's Impact of Traumatic Events Scale-Revised and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. The results reveal the CSA survivors to be significantly more symptomatic than the control group: They demonstrated a lower degree of social support, a lower degree of empowerment, as well as a higher degree of guilt and increased likelihood of viewing the world as dangerous. Finally, these CSA survivors show a lower degree of positive self-worth than their non-sexually abused counterparts. These findings have important implications for the formulation of appropriate preventions and interventions to be undertaken by various stakeholders ranging from family to policy makers.

  2. Psychological complaints reported by sexually abused children during criminal investigations: Istanbul example. (United States)

    Doğangün, Burak; Gönültaş, Burak M; Uzun-Oğuz, Esin; Oral, Gökhan; Öztürk, Meral


    The present study aims at describing the psychological complaints reported, as a part of the criminal investigation process, by the victims of sexual abuse as a part of the criminal investigation process, without attempting at reaching a medical diagnosis; and it discusses the relation of these reports with variables such as victim's gender, age and relation to the offender, type and duration of abuse, and parental marital status of the victim. Data is obtained from the statements of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) victims under the age of 15, as taken by Istanbul Juvenile Justice Department between the years 2009 and 2012. The sample consists of 175 cases with a total of 202 victim statements. Through the use of content analysis, the main and sub-categories of themes of the statements were determined. By means of the evaluation of the psychological condition of victims, we evaluated them in two categories: psychological complaints including self-harm and risk taking behaviors and psychological complaints with no self-harm and risk taking behaviors. The statistical analyses yield significant relations between the psychological complaints and children's parental marital status. Analysis of initial statements of sexual abuse victims is important as it may greatly contribute to professionals diagnosing and treating psychological complaints of these victims. It is essential that victims of sexual abuse should receive immediate psychological support starting with the criminal investigation process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Sexual abuse, family violence, and female delinquency: findings from a longitudinal study. (United States)

    Herrera, Veronica M; McCloskey, Laura Ann


    The current study examines the effects of three forms of childhood victimization on self-reported delinquency and aggression in adolescent girls. These analyses are based on a longitudinal sample of 141 mother-daughter pairs participating in a study about marital violence and child development. When the children were school aged, mothers and children provided reports describing (a) child exposure to marital violence, (b) escalated physical abuse against the child, and (c) child sexual abuse. Children were followed up into adolescence and re-interviewed. Self-reports of delinquency (violent and nonviolent), running away, and violence against parents were collected. Results indicate that out of the three forms of victimization, child sexual abuse emerged as the strongest predictor of girls' violent and nonviolent criminal behavior. Girls with a history of physical abuse in childhood were most likely to assault their parents. Witnessing marital violence failed to contribute further to delinquency, beyond the adverse association with childhood sexual abuse. Findings highlight a unique avenue for delinquency in girls via childhood sexual exploitation.

  4. [Abuse of minors. Clinical considerations on physical abuse, sexual aggression and emotional deprivation]. (United States)

    Loredo-Abdalá, A; Trejo-Hernández, J; Bustos-Valenzuela, V


    Physicians and other health personnel dealing with the consequences of child abuse ought to have abroad understanding of the magnitude of this serious medical and social phenomenon. The three main patterns of child mistreatment as observed at a pediatric hospital are reviewed, with emphasis on its medical and juridical aspects. Various pathologic entities are to be taken into account for differential diagnoses when child abuse is suspected. Risk factors regarding the victims, the abusers and the psychosocial environment are noted.

  5. Online sexual behaviours among Swedish youth: associations to background factors, behaviours and abuse. (United States)

    Jonsson, Linda S; Bladh, Marie; Priebe, Gisela; Svedin, Carl Göran


    Sexual activity online may result in positive experiences for young people, or lead them to engage in risky behaviours possibly resulting in sexual assault or abuse. The aim of our study was to investigate associations between online sexual behaviours among Swedish youth and background factors as well as aspects of well-being. The behaviours investigated were: having sex online with a contact met online, having sex with an online contact offline, posting sexual pictures online, and selling sex online. We used data from a representative sample of 3,432 Swedish youth who were asked about their lifetime experiences as well as their experiences within the previous year. We hypothesized that more advanced online sexual behaviours were associated with more problematic background factors, worse psychosocial well-being and riskier behaviours in general. Bivariate relationships were evaluated followed by a multiple logistic regression model. Our data suggested that most Swedish youth do not perform any of the assessed online sexual behaviours. Young people who reported online sexual behaviour showed a more problematic background, rated their health as poorer, had a more sexualized life and had experienced more sexual or physical abuse. Professionals who work with young people need to help them better evaluate potential risks online and offer support when needed. Youths who sell sex online are especially at risk and need extra attention, as they might be in greater need of protection and therapeutic support.

  6. "Complex" Posttraumatic Stress Disorder/Disorders of Extreme Stress (CP/DES) in Sexually Abused Children: An Exloratory Study. (United States)

    Hall, Darlene Kordich


    Compares three groups of young sexually abused children on seven "Complex" Posttraumatic Stress Disorder/Disorders of Extreme Stress (CP/DES) indices. As cumulative number of types of trauma increased, the number of CP/DES symptoms rose. Results suggest that CP/DES also characterizes sexually abused children, especially those who have…

  7. The Relationship of Childhood Sexual Abuse to the Marital Attitudes and Readiness for Marriage of Single Young Adult Women (United States)

    Larson, Jeffry H.; LaMont, Craig


    This study investigated the relationship of childhood sexual abuse to marital attitudes and perceived readiness for marriage in single young adult women. A total of 622 women from three universities in the United States completed questionnaires on sexual abuse, attitudes and feelings about marriage, and readiness for marriage. After controlling…

  8. The Effectiveness of Psycho-Educational School-Based Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Training Program on Turkish Elementary Students (United States)

    Cecen-Erogul, Ayse Rezan; Kaf Hasirci, Ozlem


    In Turkey, there is neither systematic nor structured child sexual abuse prevention programs for school-aged children in school settings. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a school-based child sexual abuse prevention program on elementary school (4th grade) students. Quasi-experimental design with pretest,…

  9. Dimensions of Child Sexual Abuse before Age 15 in Three Central American Countries: Honduras, El Salvador, and Guatemala (United States)

    Speizer, Ilene S.; Goodwin, Mary; Whittle, Lisa; Clyde, Maureen; Rogers, Jennifer


    Objective: The prevalence of sexual abuse during childhood or adolescence varies depending on the definitions and age categories used. This study examines the first national, population-based data available on child sexual abuse that occurs before age 15 in three countries: El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras. This study uses comparable…

  10. Sources of Knowledge of Departmental Policy on Child Sexual Abuse and Mandatory Reporting Identified by Primary School Student-Teachers (United States)

    Goldman, Juliette D. G.; Grimbeek, Peter


    The introduction of a Department of Education policy on child sexual abuse and mandatory reporting is significant for school teachers. The mandatory reporting of child sexual abuse by school teachers carries wide-ranging and significant implications for the lives of school-aged children, and for the teachers who must implement the policy's…

  11. Are Child Abusers Sexually Attracted to Submissiveness? Assessment of Sex-Related Cognition With the Implicit Association Test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kanters, Thijs; Hornsveld, Ruud H J; Nunes, Kevin L.; Huijding, Jorg; Zwets, Almar J.; Snowden, Robert J.; Muris, Peter; van Marle, Hjalmar J C


    Child sexual abuse is associated with social anxiety, low self-esteem, and intimacy deficits. This, in combination with the core belief of a dangerous world, might suggest that child abusers are sexually attracted to submissiveness. The Implicit Association Test (IAT) was used to examine this

  12. Cultural Considerations in the Treatment of Mental Illness among Sexually Abused Children and Adolescents: The Case of Bali, Indonesia (United States)

    Lesmana, Cokorda Bagus J.; Suryani, Luh Ketut; Tiliopoulos, Niko


    Childhood and adolescence sexual abuse can have long-lasting and devastating effects on personal and interpersonal growth and development. Sexually abused children tend to exhibit higher rates of poor school performance, aggressive behavior, PTSD (posttraumatic stress disorder), or depressive symptomatology, as well as social and relational…

  13. Comparative study of the prevalence of suicidal behavior and sexual abuse history in delinquent and non-delinquent adolescents. (United States)

    Matsumoto, Toshihiko; Tsutsumi, Atsuro; Izutsu, Takashi; Imamura, Fumi; Chiba, Yasuhiko; Takeshima, Tadashi


    The present study examined the prevalence of suicidal behavior and sexual abuse history in delinquent and non-delinquent adolescents aged 15-17 years. Results showed that delinquent adolescents, particularly girls, more frequently reported histories of suicidal behavior and sexual abuse than non-delinquent adolescents.

  14. Mood as a mediator of the link between child sexual abuse and psychosis. (United States)

    Marwaha, S; Bebbington, P


    The significance of affective changes in psychosis is increasingly acknowledged, as is the role of early traumatic events. In a previous paper, using data from the English Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey 2007 (APMS2007), strong associations between child sexual abuse (CSA) and psychosis were demonstrated, with some evidence of mediation by affect. In the current paper, we subjected the same dataset to formal tests of mediation. For CSA involving sexual intercourse, 38.5% of the link was mediated, 30.0% by depression and 8.5% by anxiety. For all forms of contact abuse, 38.2% was mediated, 29.1% by depression and 9.1% by anxiety.

  15. Examining the associations between sex trade involvement, rape, and symptomatology of sexual abuse trauma. (United States)

    Lutnick, Alexandra; Harris, Jennie; Lorvick, Jennifer; Cheng, Helen; Wenger, Lynn D; Bourgois, Philippe; Kral, Alex H


    The high prevalence of rape and sexual trauma symptomatology among women involved in street-based sex trades is well-established. Because prior research has lacked appropriate, non-sex trade involved comparison groups, it is unknown whether differences exist among similarly situated women who do and do not trade sex. This article explores experiences of childhood and adult rape and symptomatology of sexual abuse trauma among a community-based sample of 322 women who use methamphetamine in San Francisco, California, 61% of whom were involved in the sex trade. Study participants were recruited via respondent-driven sampling and eligible if they were cisgender women, aged 18 or older, current methamphetamine users, and sexually active with at least one cisgender man in the past 6 months. The dependent variable was sexual abuse trauma symptomatology, as measured by the Sexual Abuse Trauma Index (SATI) subscale of the Trauma Symptom Checklist-40 (TSC-40), and the explanatory variable was sex trade involvement. Potential covariates were age, current homelessness, methamphetamine dependence, and experiences of childhood and adult rape. Sixty-one percent of participants had a SATI subscale score suggestive of sexual abuse trauma. The overall prevalence of rape in childhood and adulthood was 52% and 73%, respectively. In bivariate analysis, sex trade involvement and all of the potential covariates except for homelessness and age were associated with a SATI score suggestive of sexual abuse trauma. In multivariate models controlling for significant covariates, there was no longer a statistically significant association between sex trade involvement or childhood rape and an elevated SATI score. Elevated levels of psychological dependence on methamphetamine and experiences of rape as an adult were still associated with a high SATI score. These findings highlight that urban poor women, regardless of sex trade involvement, suffer high levels of rape and related trauma

  16. Child physical and sexual abuse: a comprehensive look at alcohol consumption patterns, consequences, and dependence from the National Alcohol Survey. (United States)

    Lown, E Anne; Nayak, Madhabika B; Korcha, Rachael A; Greenfield, Thomas K


    Previous research has documented a relationship between child sexual abuse and alcohol dependence. This paper extends that work by providing a comprehensive description of past year and lifetime alcohol consumption patterns, consequences, and dependence among women reporting either physical and sexual abuse in a national sample. This study used survey data from 3,680 women who participated in the 2005 U.S. National Alcohol Survey. Information on physical and sexual child abuse and its characteristics were assessed in relation to 8 past year and lifetime alcohol consumption measures. Child physical or sexual abuse was significantly associated with past year and lifetime alcohol consumption measures. In multivariate analyses, controlling for age, marital status, employment status, education, ethnicity, and parental alcoholism or problem drinking, women reporting child sexual abuse vs. no abuse were more likely to report past year heavy episodic drinking (OR(adj) = 1.7; 95% CI 1.0 to 2.9), alcohol dependence (OR(adj) = 7.2; 95% CI 3.2 to 16.5), and alcohol consequences (OR(adj) = 3.6; 95% CI 1.8 to 7.3). Sexual abuse (vs. no abuse) was associated with a greater number of past year drinks (124 vs. 74 drinks, respectively, p = 0.002). Sexual child abuse was also associated with lifetime alcohol-related consequences (OR(adj) = 3.5; 95% CI 2.6 to 4.8) and dependence (OR(adj) = 3.7; 95% CI 2.6 to 5.3). Physical child abuse was associated with 4 of 8 alcohol measures in multivariate models. Both physical and sexual child abuse were associated with getting into fights, health, legal, work, and family alcohol-related consequences. Alcohol-related consequences and dependence were more common for women reporting sexual abuse compared to physical abuse, 2 or more physical abuse perpetrators, nonparental and nonfamily physical abuse perpetrators, and women reporting injury related to the abuse. Both child physical and sexual abuse were associated with many alcohol outcomes in

  17. Genital herpes in children under 11 years and investigations for sexual abuse. (United States)

    Reading, Richard; Hughes, Gwenda; Hill, Julia; Debelle, Geoff


    The implications for sexual abuse investigation of genital herpes in a child are uncertain because of a lack of good quality research evidence. The incidence, presenting features, history of exposure, indicators of child maltreatment and outcomes of child protection investigations in children with genital herpes are described. Ascertainment of all cases of genital herpes in children herpes simplex type 1, eight were tested for other sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and only one had a full STI screen. Three cases had other clinical features suggestive of sexual abuse. Six cases were referred for child protection investigation, but no sexual abuse was substantiated. Genital herpes in children under 11 years is rare. Almost a third of children diagnosed with genital herpes did not have appropriate virological investigation and few were screened for other STIs. Around a quarter of cases were referred to child protection agencies for further investigation, which limits any inferences in this study about mode of transmission in children. Sexual abuse guidance should emphasise the need for thorough assessment and investigation in cases of genital herpes in children.

  18. The Cumulative Burden Borne by Offspring Whose Mothers Were Sexually Abused as Children: Descriptive Results from a Multigenerational Study (United States)

    Noll, Jennie G.; Trickett, Penelope K.; Harris, William W.; Putnam, Frank W.


    This multigenerational study empirically demonstrates the extent to which offspring whose parents experienced childhood abuse are at increased risk of being abused or neglected. Females with substantiated childhood sexual abuse and nonabused comparison females were assessed at six points spanning 18 years in a prospective, longitudinal study.…

  19. Mediators of sexual functioning and marital quality in chronically depressed adults with and without a history of childhood sexual abuse. (United States)

    Dunlop, Boadie W; Hill, Eric; Johnson, Benjamin N; Klein, Daniel N; Gelenberg, Alan J; Rothbaum, Barbara O; Thase, Michael E; Kocsis, James H


    Sexual dysfunction is common among depressed adults. Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and depressive symptomology are among the risk factors for sexual dysfunction, and these factors may interact to predict adult relationship functioning. Several models have been developed postulating interactions between these variables. We tested models of the effects of CSA and elucidate the associations between CSA, sexual dysfunction, depression severity, anxiety, and relationship quality in chronically depressed adults. Baseline data from 808 chronically depressed outpatients enrolled in the Research Evaluating the Value of Augmenting Medication with Psychotherapy study were evaluated using structural equation modeling. The Inventory of Depressive Symptomology, self-report version (IDS-SR) assessed depression severity, and the Mood and Anxiety Symptom Questionnaire Anxious Arousal subscale assessed anxiety. Sexual function was assessed with the Arizona Sexual Experiences Scale (ASEX), and the Quality of Marriage Index (QMI) assessed relationship quality for patients in stable relationships. CSA scores predicted depression severity on the IDS-SR, as well as lower relationship quality and sexual satisfaction. ASEX scores were significantly associated with depression severity but were not correlated with the QMI. Two models were evaluated to elucidate these associations, revealing that (i) depression severity and anxious arousal mediated the relationship between CSA and adult sexual function, (ii) anxious arousal and sexual functioning mediated the association between CSA and depression symptoms, and (iii) when these models were combined, anxious arousal emerged as the most important mediator of CSA on depression which, in turn, mediated associations with adult sexual satisfaction and relationship quality. Although CSA predicts lower relationship and sexual satisfaction among depressed adults, the long-term effects of CSA appear to be mediated by depressive and anxious symptoms. It

  20. The mediating effect of daily stress on the sexual arousal function of women with a history of childhood sexual abuse. (United States)

    Zollman, Gena; Rellini, Alessandra; Desrocher, Danielle


    Psychopathologies such as posttraumatic stress disorder are often proposed as mediators of the sexual arousal dysfunction experienced by women with a history of childhood maltreatment. However, posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms are only part of the difficulties experienced by these women. Other factors to consider include negative affectivity and perceived daily stress. To assess the mediating role of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, negative affectivity, and perceived daily stress, we collected data from 62 women with and without a history of childhood maltreatment (sexual, physical and emotional abuse). A comprehensive assessment of sexual arousal functioning and sexual responses was obtained using self-reported measures and psychophysiological measures of vaginal engorgement and subjective sexual arousal during exposure to sexual visual stimuli. The model assessed the simultaneous mediating effect of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, negative affectivity and perceived daily stress on the relation between childhood maltreatment and sexual variables. Daily stress, showed a significant and stronger mediation effect on sexual arousal functioning as compared to posttraumatic stress disorder and negative affectivity. These findings suggest that daily stress may be an important mechanism to consider when treating sexual arousal functioning in women who have a history of childhood maltreatment.

  1. Escape/Aggression Incidence in Sexually Abused Juvenile Delinquents. (United States)

    Reich, John W.; Gutierres, Sara E.


    Reports a continuation of prior research testing a theoretical model which predicts that juveniles subjected to abuse will not become aggressive but will engage in escape and social avoidance behaviors. Analysis supported the hypothesis. (Author)

  2. Attenuation of cortisol across development for victims of sexual abuse




    Inconsistencies exist in literature examining hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis activity in children and adults who have experienced childhood abuse. Hence, the extent and manner to which childhood abuse may disrupt HPA axis development is largely unknown. To address these inconsistencies, the developmental course of nonstress cortisol in a long-term longitudinal study was assessed at six time points from childhood through adolescence and into young adulthood to determine whether chil...

  3. Correlates of joint child protection and police child sexual abuse investigations: results from the Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect-2008

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    L. Tonmyr


    Full Text Available Introduction: Our study examines the frequency of joint investigations by child protection workers and the police in sexual abuse investigations compared to other maltreatment types and the association of child-, caregiver-, maltreatment- and investigation-related characteristics in joint investigations, focussing specifically on investigations involving sexual abuse. Methods: We analyzed data from the Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect-2008 using logistic regression. Results: The data suggest that sexual abuse (55%, and then physical abuse, neglect and emotional maltreatment, are most often co-investigated. Substantiation of maltreatment, severity of maltreatment, placement in out-of-home care, child welfare court involvement and referral of a family member to specialized services was more likely when the police were involved in an investigation. Conclusion: This study adds to the limited information on correlates of joint child protection agency and police investigations. Further research is needed to determine the effectiveness of these joint investigations.

  4. Condyloma acuminata in a 3-year-old female: Sexual abuse or not?

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    Alia Abbas Rizvi


    Full Text Available Condyloma acuminata (also known as anogenital warts or venereal warts a sexually transmitted disease (STD is usually seen in younger adults. However, genital warts have been reported in all age groups of children including infants. The possibility of sexual abuse is a major concern in the evaluation of children with genital warts. We hereby report a case of genital warts in a three year old female child.

  5. Lessons Learned: Conducting Research With Victims Portrayed in Sexual Abuse Images and Their Parents. (United States)

    Walsh, Wendy A; Wolak, Janis; Lounsbury, Kaitlin; Howley, Susan; Lippert, Tonya; Thompson, Lawrence


    Victims portrayed in sexual abuse images may be resistant to participate in research because of embarrassment or shame due to the sensitive nature and potential permanency of images. No studies we are aware of explore reactions to participating in research after this type of crime. Telephone interviews were conducted with convenience samples of parents (n= 46) and adolescents who were victims of child sexual abuse (n= 11; some of whom were portrayed in sexual abuse images), and online surveys were completed by adult survivors depicted in abuse images (N= 133). The first lesson was that few agencies tracked this type of crime. This lack of tracking raises the question as to what types of data should be collected and tracked as part of an investigation. The second lesson was that few victims at the two participating agencies had been portrayed in sexual abuse images (4%-5%). The third lesson was that once possible cases were identified, we found relatively high percentages of consent to contact and interview completions. This implies that researchers and service providers should not be hesitant about conducting research after an investigation of child sexual abuse. The fourth lesson was that the vast majority of participants reported not being upset by the questions. We hope that the data presented here will encourage agencies to reconsider the types of data being tracked and will encourage researchers to conduct in-depth research with populations that are often difficult to reach to continue improving the professional response to child victimization. © The Author(s) 2016.

  6. Resilience processes in sexually abused adolescent girls: A scoping review of the literature

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    Sadiyya Haffejee


    Full Text Available Childhood sexual abuse is often associated with a number of deleterious psychological and behavioural outcomes for survivors. However, some research suggests that this impact is variable and that some survivors adapt positively. An ability to adapt positively to adversity, under any circumstances, has been termed resilience. Drawing on a socio-ecological understanding of resilience, the aim of this scoping review was to comprehensively map existing empirical studies on resilience processes in sexually abused adolescent girls and to summarise emerging resilience-enabling factors. We also considered the implications of the findings for practice and research. A total of 11 articles met the criteria for inclusion in the review. Findings from these studies suggest that internal factors (meaning making, optimistic future orientation, agency and mastery and contextual factors (supportive family, social and educational environments function interdependently to enable resilience in sexually abused adolescent girls. Practitioners should leverage these complementary and interdependent resilience-enabling mechanisms by encouraging greater involvement of girls in the planning of interventions and by assisting girls in developing meaningful narratives about their abuse experiences. Interventions should also encourage greater involvement from supportive structures, while challenging social and cultural norms that inhibit resilience. Resilience researchers should be cognisant of the paucity of research focusing on resilience processes in sexually abused adolescent girls as well as the absence of innovative, participatory methods of data collection. Significance: The review adds to a body of literature on resilience processes with implications for resilience researchers. The findings have implications for a range of practitioners (psychologists, social workers, teachers etc. who work with sexually abused girls.

  7. Experiences of mothers of sexually abused children in North-West province, post disclosure

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    Gaboipolelwe M. Masilo


    Full Text Available Background: Sexual violence against children is increasing at an alarming rate in South Africa. In 2010 the South African Police Service (SAPS reported 21 538 rape cases of children under 18 years. In the North-West province (NWP 5039 incidents of rape cases were reported in 2009. Mothers often experience emotional pain following child sexual abuse disclosure. It is seldom acknowledged that these mothers experience trauma and need support, post disclosure. The researcher has no known evidence of research conducted on the experiences of these mothers in NWP. Objective: The objective of the study was to explore and describe the experiences of mothers of sexually abused children post disclosure of the abuse. Method: The research design was qualitative, exploratory, descriptive and contextual. Purposive sampling was used to select mothers of sexually abused children aged 23 to 59 years whose children ranged from 0 to 16 years. Permission to conduct the study was sought from the Provincial Department of Health and informed consent was obtained from the mothers. Interviews were conducted with a sample of n = 17 until data saturation. Data were collected through in-depth interviews using a voice recorder and field notes to enhance triangulation. Tesch’s method of open coding was used to analyse data. Results: Findings indicated that mothers experienced emotional pain post sexual abuse. They expressed shock, anger and guilt for not noticing the abuse. They showed significant depression as a result of lack of support by stakeholders. Conclusion: Mothers experienced secondary trauma that poses social and psychological challenges with far-reaching implications.

  8. Risky sexual behaviors, mental health, and history of childhood abuse among adolescents. (United States)

    Tsutsumi, Atsuro; Izutsu, Takashi; Matsumoto, Toshihiko


    Although it seems evident that attention should be paid to risky sexual behaviors and their association with mental health among young people, this topic has not been thoroughly investigated. The present study aims to explore the relationship between sexual risk behaviors and mental health among adolescents. The participants were 251 adolescents in a juvenile detention facility (221 males and 31 females) as the "delinquent" group and 367 high school students (167 males and 200 females) as the "non-delinquent" group. A questionnaire including the Kessler 10, the Impact of Event Scale-Revised, and the Adolescent Dissociative Experience Scale was employed to measure mental health status as well as sexual risk behaviors, suicidal ideation/attempts, and abuse history. Having a history of sexual abuse or of physical abuse was associated with age when one first had sex among males with delinquent behaviors, while same tendency was observed among males without delinquent behaviors. Among the female with delinquent behaviors group, past abuse history was significantly associated with higher number of sex partners. In the non-delinquent group, better mental health among males and, contrarily, worse mental health among females were associated with having more sex partners. The results highlight the importance of addressing abuse history among females and males. Given that poor mental health status in the adolescents was associated with risky sexual behaviors, adolescents are a vulnerable group that requires attention in terms of sexual and reproductive health that integrates mental health and psychosocial components. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Substance Abuse among High-Risk Sexual Offenders: Do Measures of Lifetime History of Substance Abuse Add to the Prediction of Recidivism over Actuarial Risk Assessment Instruments? (United States)

    Looman, Jan; Abracen, Jeffrey


    There has been relatively little research on the degree to which measures of lifetime history of substance abuse add to the prediction of risk based on actuarial measures alone among sexual offenders. This issue is of relevance in that a history of substance abuse is related to relapse to substance using behavior. Furthermore, substance use has…

  10. [Prevalence of elder abuse in Spanish dwelling in community]. (United States)

    Pérez-Rojo, Gema; Izal, María; Montorio, Ignacio; Regato, Pilar; Espinosa, Juan Manuel


    Although elder abuse is not a new phenomenon, it remains hidden. There have been carried out various preliminary studies about the prevalence of elder abuse in different countries. The aim of this study is to estimate the prevalence of suspicion of elder abuse in old persons without cognitive impairment, dwelling in community, who were attended in Primary Health Care or Social Services Centres. We carried out a transverse study in which 340 elders participated. We found a 12.1% prevalence of suspicion of elder abuse. Psychological abuse suspicion was the most frequent type and it was very common the simultaneous presence of different types of abuse (psychological and physical and sexual). The suspicion of elder abuse was more frequent in women and spouses were responsible in a high great frequency. The information obtained allows advancing in the knowledge of elder abuse in Spain, where the research about this issue is poor. However, the prevalence found neither has to be considered as a social alarm nor as a social slackness. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  11. Reviewing the Focus: A Summary and Critique of Child-Focused Sexual Abuse Prevention. (United States)

    Rudolph, Julia; Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J


    Due to the high incidence, and widespread detrimental health consequences, of child sexual abuse (CSA), effective prevention remains at the forefront of public and mental health research, prevention and intervention agendas. To date much of the focus of prevention has been on school-based education programs designed to teach children skills to evade adult sexual advances, and disclose past or ongoing abuse. Evaluation of sexual abuse prevention programs demonstrate their effectiveness in increasing children's knowledge of CSA concepts and protection skills, but little is known about their effects on children's capacity to prevent abuse. Moreover, concerns persist about the unintended side-effects for young children such as anxiety, worry and wariness of touch. This paper summarizes the recent history of CSA prevention and the critique of child-focused protection programs in order to demonstrate the need to compliment or replace these programs by focusing more on protectors in the children's ecology, specifically parents, in order to create safer environments in which abuse is less likely to occur. © The Author(s) 2016.

  12. Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Opportunities: Parenting, Programs, and the Reduction of Risk. (United States)

    Rudolph, Julia; Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J; Shanley, Dianne C; Hawkins, Russell


    To date, child sexual abuse (CSA) prevention has relied largely on child-focused education, teaching children how to identify, avoid, and disclose sexual abuse. The purpose of this article is to explore how prevention opportunities can include parents in new and innovative ways. We propose that parents can play a significant role as protectors of their children via two pathways: (i) directly, through the strong external barriers afforded by parent supervision, monitoring, and involvement; and (ii) indirectly, by promoting their children's self-efficacy, competence, well-being, and self-esteem, which the balance of evidence suggests will help them become less likely targets for abuse and more able to respond appropriately and disclose abuse if it occurs. In this article, we first describe why teaching young children about CSA protective behaviors might not be sufficient for prevention. We then narratively review the existing research on parents and prevention and the parenting and family circumstances that may increase a child's risk of experiencing sexual abuse. Finally, we make a number of recommendations for future approaches to prevention that may better inform and involve parents and other adult protectors in preventing CSA.

  13. Personality Disorders, Coping Strategies, and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Women with Histories of Childhood Sexual Abuse (United States)

    Johnson, Dawn M.; Sheahan, Timothy C.; Chard, Kathleen M.


    Using a treatment-seeking sample of adult female survivors of childhood sexual abuse, the relationships between coping strategies, personality disorders (PD) and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) were explored. A variety of PDs were found to exist in this population, with avoidant, antisocial, dependent PDs having higher frequencies than…

  14. Empowering Adolescent Survivors of Sexual Abuse: Application of a Solution-Focused Ericksonian Counseling Group (United States)

    Kress, Victoria E.; Hoffman, Rachel M.


    This article describes a solution-focused and Ericksonian group counseling model that can be used with adolescent girls who have been sexually abused. An overview of the components of this approach is provided. A postintervention focus group provided additional results and ideas for the future development of the group counseling model.

  15. Arab Parents' Reactions to Child Sexual Abuse: A Review of Clinical Records (United States)

    Abu-Baker, Khawla


    This paper addresses parents' reactions to sexual abuse cases in their families. The study analyzed the clinical records of individual and family therapy sessions with 35 cases of Arab Palestinian clients, citizens of Israel (27 individuals and 8 families). Families were categorized as either functional or dysfunctional. It was concluded that the…

  16. Don't Blame ME, Daddy. False Accusations of Child Sexual Abuse: A Hidden National Tragedy. (United States)

    Tong, Dean

    Noting the increase in false accusations of child sexual abuse where divorce and custody litigation is in progress, this book examines the consequences of such accusations for everyone involved and provides defensive strategies for those falsely accused. The book draws on four case studies, including a personal one, to illustrate the chronology…

  17. Youth Self-Report of Physical and Sexual Abuse: A Latent Class Analysis (United States)

    Nooner, Kate B.; Litrownik, Alan J.; Thompson, Richard; Margolis, Benjamin; English, Diana J.; Knight, Elizabeth D.; Everson, Mark D.; Roesch, Scott


    Objective: To determine if meaningful groups of at-risk pre-adolescent youth could be identified based on their self-report of physical and sexual abuse histories. Methods: Youth participating in a consortium of ongoing longitudinal studies were interviewed using an audio-computer assisted self-interview (A-CASI) when they were approximately 12…

  18. Does Psychotherapy Recover or Invent Child Sexual Abuse Memories? A Case History (United States)

    Milchman, Madelyn Simring


    This case describes bodily experiences that appeared to cue child sexual abuse memories during psychotherapy by a woman who was amnesic for her childhood and suffered from chronic dissociative states. Though corroboration was unavailable, she became increasingly confident about her returning memories. Special efforts were made to avoid making…

  19. Factors Associated with Treatment Completion and Progress among Intrafamilial Sexual Abusers. (United States)

    Chaffin, Mark


    Thirty-six father-daughter/stepdaughter sexual abusers were followed over the course of a two-year outpatient treatment program. Results supported the importance of pretreatment personality assessment and suggested that involvement of the criminal justice system does not interfere with, and may help, therapeutic progress. (Author/DB)

  20. Impact of Child Sexual Abuse Medical Examinations on the Dependency and Criminal Systems. (United States)

    De Jong, Allan R.


    Reviews previous research on the sociolegal impact of medical evaluations for child sexual abuse; offers a recommended menu of research questions, concerning process and outcomes of these evaluations, interviewing techniques, the use of medical evidence in prosecution, and knowledge level of professionals in the criminal and dependency systems.…

  1. The Link between Childhood Sexual Abuse and Myocardial Infarction in a Population-Based Study (United States)

    Fuller-Thomson, Esme; Bejan, Raluca; Hunter, John T.; Grundland, Tamara; Brennenstuhl, Sarah


    Objectives: This study examined the relationship between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and myocardial infarction in men and women, while controlling for social determinants (i.e., socioeconomic status, social support, mental health) and traditional cardiovascular risk factors (i.e., age, race, obesity, smoking, physical inactivity, diabetes…

  2. Practical Ways Psychotherapy Can Support Physical Healthcare Experiences for Male Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse (United States)

    Hovey, Angela; Stalker, Carol A.; Schachter, Candice L.; Teram, Eli; Lasiuk, Gerri


    Many survivors of child sexual abuse who engage in psychotherapy also experience physical health problems. This article summarizes the findings of a multiphased qualitative study about survivors' experiences in healthcare settings. The study informed the development of the "Handbook on Sensitive Practice for Health Care Practitioners: Lessons…

  3. The Effects of Psychotherapy on Behavior Problems of Sexually Abused Deaf Children. (United States)

    Sullivan, Patricia M.; And Others


    This study assessed the effectiveness of a broad-based psychotherapeutic intervention with about half of a group of 72 children sexually abused at a residential school for the deaf. Findings indicated a powerful treatment effect, with boys and girls differing in the specific areas of improvement following therapy. (Author/DB)

  4. Childhood sexual abuse and adult binge drinking among Kanak women in New Caledonia. (United States)

    Hamelin, Christine; Salomon, Christine; Sitta, Rémi; Gueguen, Alice; Cyr, Diane; Lert, France


    The long-term consequences of violence against women are poorly documented within the context of political domination, economic inequalities and rapid social change of indigenous communities. Using data from the first population study on violence against women and their consequences on health in New Caledonia, South Pacific, this article investigates the association between childhood sexual abuse and binge drinking among 441 adult Kanak women. Face-to-face standardised interviews were conducted in 2002-2003, among women aged 18-54 years drawn from the electoral rolls. Childhood sexual abuse before 15 years of age was reported by 11.6% of respondents. Nearly all the perpetrators (96%) were known to the victims (63% being a close relative). The rate of frequent binge drinking amongst the women within the last 12 months was 34%. After controlling for social and demographic factors, an independent association was found between childhood sexual abuse and current binge drinking. This study is the first to analyse the contribution of childhood sexual abuse to the likelihood of later heavy alcohol use in an indigenous population in the South Pacific. The findings call for improving and giving priority to care for children who are victims of violence to prevent long-term health consequences and to develop prevention programs aimed at alcohol-related behaviour in women, while taking into account simultaneous individual and collective factors.

  5. Sex Differences in Childhood Sexual Abuse and Suicide-Related Behaviors (United States)

    Rhodes, Anne E.; Boyle, Michael H.; Tonmyr, Lil; Wekerle, Christine; Goodman, Deborah; Leslie, Bruce; Mironova, Polina; Bethell, Jennifer; Manion, Ian


    Child sexual abuse and suicide-related behaviors are associated, but it remains unclear if the strength of this association differs in boys and girls. In a systematic review of this association in children and youth, we identified 16 relevant studies, all cross-sectional surveys of students. The association is stronger in boys specific to suicide…

  6. Explanations for Child Sexual Abuse Given by Convicted Offenders in Malawi: No Evidence for "HIV Cleansing" (United States)

    Mtibo, Charles; Kennedy, Neil; Umar, Eric


    Objective: A commonly cited, but unproven reason given for the rise in reported cases of child sexual abuse in Sub-Saharan Africa is the "HIV cleansing myth"--the belief that an HIV infected individual can be cured by having sex with a child virgin. The purpose of this study was to explore in Malawi the reasons given by convicted sex…

  7. Psychosocial Needs of Children in Foster Care and the Impact of Sexual Abuse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenbakkers, Annemarie; Ellingsen, Ingunn; van der Steen, Stephanie; Grietens, Hans

    Children in family foster care, especially those who have experienced sexual abuse, require a safe and nurturing environment in which their psychosocial needs are met. However, there is limited knowledge on how youth prioritize various needs and what impact previous experiences have on these needs.

  8. Experience of Sexual Abuse in Childhood and Abortion in Adolescence and Early Adulthood (United States)

    Boden, Joseph M.; Fergusson, David M.; Horwood, L. John


    Objective: The present study examined the associations between the experience of sexual abuse in childhood (CSA) and the number of abortions in adolescence and early adulthood. Method: A 25-year prospective longitudinal study of the health, development, and adjustment of a birth cohort of 1,265 New Zealand children (630 females). Measures included…

  9. Exposure to Childhood Sexual and Physical Abuse and Subsequent Educational Achievement Outcomes (United States)

    Boden, Joseph M.; Horwood, L. John; Fergusson, David M.


    Objective: This paper examined the relationship between exposure to sexual and physical abuse (CSA and CPA) in childhood and later educational achievement outcomes in late adolescence and early adulthood in a birth cohort of over 1,000 children studied to age 25. Method: Retrospective data on CSA and CPA were gathered at ages 18 and 21 and used to…

  10. A quantitative study on gender differences in disclosing child sexual abuse and reasons for nondisclosure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okur, Pinar; van der Knaap, Leontien; Bogaerts, Stefan


    Despite the available literature on disclosure of child sexual abuse (CSA), little is known about how gender affects disclosure. This article aims to quantitatively examine whether gender differences exist in formal (to legal or child protection authorities) and informal (to a family member or

  11. Their Children's First Educators: Parents' Views about Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Education (United States)

    Walsh, Kerryann; Brandon, Leisa


    In this descriptive focus group study, we investigated parents' views about child sexual abuse prevention education at home and in schools. Focus groups were conducted with a sample of 30 Australian adults who identified as the parent or caregiver of a child/children aged 0-5 years. The study explored (1) parents' "knowledge" about child…

  12. Child Sexual Abuse in Early-Childhood Care and Education Settings (United States)

    Briggs, Freda


    When the author was adviser to the Australian Minister for Education for writing the national Safe Schools Framework (2003), meetings were held with early-childhood care and education administrators from all state, Catholic and independent sectors. Their unexpected message was that educators were facing new problems, those of child sexual abuse in…

  13. Preventing Child Sexual Abuse: Parents' Perceptions and Practices in Urban Nigeria (United States)

    Ige, Olusimbo K.; Fawole, Olufunmilayo I.


    This study examined parents' perceptions of child sexual abuse as well as prevention practices in an urban community in southwest Nigeria. Questionnaires were collected from 387 parents and caregivers of children younger than 15 years of age. Results showed that many parents felt CSA was a common problem in the community, and most parents…

  14. Family narratives on fostering a child with a history of sexual abuse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wubs, Susanna; Grietens, Hans; Batstra, Laura


    The impact of a history of sexual abuse on foster families has been studied, although never from a multilevel family perspective. Therefore, in Project Iris narratives are collected on the expertise, needs and experiences of family members in foster families concerning the care for a child with a

  15. Multiple Forensic Interviews during Investigations of Child Sexual Abuse: A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis (United States)

    Block, Stephanie D.; Foster, E. Michael; Pierce, Matthew W.; Berkoff, Molly C.; Runyan, Desmond K.


    In suspected child sexual abuse some professionals recommend multiple child interviews to increase the likelihood of disclosure or more details to improve decision-making and increase convictions. We modeled the yield of a policy of routinely conducting multiple child interviews and increased convictions. Our decision tree reflected the path of a…

  16. Reliability of Professional Judgments in Forensic Child Sexual Abuse Evaluations: Unsettled or Unsettling Science? (United States)

    Everson, Mark D.; Sandoval, Jose Miguel; Berson, Nancy; Crowson, Mary; Robinson, Harriet


    In the absence of photographic or DNA evidence, a credible eyewitness, or perpetrator confession, forensic evaluators in cases of alleged child sexual abuse must rely on psychosocial or "soft" evidence, often requiring substantial professional judgment for case determination. This article offers a three-part rebuttal to Herman's (2009) argument…

  17. Sexual Abuse Images in Cyberspace: Expanding the Ecology of the Child (United States)

    Martin, Jennifer; Alaggia, Ramona


    Cyberspace has added a new dimension to the ecology of children made the subjects of sexual abuse images distributed online. These images cannot be permanently removed and can continue to circulate in cyberspace forever. A review of the current literature suggests that helping professionals are not consistently aware of or do not probe…

  18. Serious Games for Learning: Games-Based Child Sexual Abuse Prevention in Schools (United States)

    Scholes, Laura; Jones, Christian; Stieler-Hunt, Colleen; Rolfe, Ben


    In spite of research demonstrating conceptual weakness in many child sexual abuse (CSA) prevention programmes and outdated modes of delivery, students continue to participate in a diversity of initiatives. Referring to the development of a games-based approach to CSA prevention in Australia, this paper examines empirically based attributes of…

  19. African-American Undergraduates' Perceptions and Attributions of Child Sexual Abuse (United States)

    Hestick, Henrietta; Perrino, Carrol S.


    This study examined perceptions of child sexual abuse and attributions of responsibility in a cross-sectional convenience sample of 384 African-American undergraduates using a scenario manipulating the age of the victim, gender of the victim, and gender of the perpetrator. Multiple interactions of respondent, victim, and perpetrator gender on…

  20. Social Service Professionals' Perceptions of Nonoffending Caregivers in Child Sexual Abuse Cases (United States)

    Wolfteich, Paula M.; Cline, Monica L.


    This study was designed to assess social service workers' perceptions of nonoffending caregivers in cases of child sexual abuse. Attributions of blame were examined by administering questionnaires to staff at local social service agencies. It was hypothesized that social service workers who worked in the field longer, were male, or had less…

  1. Interpreting child sexual abuse: Empathy and offense-supportive cognitions among child sex offenders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hempel, I.S.; Buck, N.M.L.; van Vugt, E.S.; van Marle, H.J.C.


    Researchers have suggested that child sex offenders hold distorted views on social interactions with children. Misinterpreting children’s behavior and intentions could lead to sexually abusive behavior toward children. It is further suggested that the interpretation process is influenced by

  2. Elementary Teachers' Knowledge of Legislative and Policy Duties for Reporting Child Sexual Abuse (United States)

    Walsh, Kerryann; Mathews, Ben; Rassafiani, Mehdi; Farrell, Ann; Butler, Des


    This study examined elementary school teachers' knowledge of their legislative and policy-based reporting duties with respect to child sexual abuse. Data were collected from 470 elementary school teachers from urban and rural government and nongovernment schools in 3 Australian states, which at the time of the study had 3 different legislative…

  3. Pre-Service Special Education Teachers' Professionalism and Preparation in Terms of Child Sexual Abuse (United States)

    Al-Zboon, Eman; Ahmad, Jamal


    This study aimed at examining Jordanian pre-service special education teachers' professionalism and preparation on the topic of child sexual abuse (CSA). Qualitative research data from interviews with 20 pre-service special education teachers were analysed using thematic analysis. The results showed that these participants generally hold avoiding…

  4. Competing Meanings of Childhood and the Social Construction of Child Sexual Abuse in the Caribbean (United States)

    Pasura, Dominic; Jones, Adele D.; Hafner, James A. H.; Maharaj, Priya E.; Nathaniel-DeCaires, Karene; Johnson, Emmanuel Janagan


    This article examines the dynamic interplay between competing meanings of childhood and the social construction of sexual abuse in the Caribbean. Drawing on qualitative data from a study undertaken in six Caribbean countries, the article suggests that Caribbean childhoods are neither wholly global nor local but hybrid creations of the region's…

  5. Contextual Predictive Factors of Child Sexual Abuse: The Role of Parent-Child Interaction (United States)

    Ramirez, Clemencia; Pinzon-Rondon, Angela Maria; Botero, Juan Carlos


    Objectives: To determine the prevalence of child sexual abuse in the Colombian coasts, as well as to assess the role of parent-child interactions on its occurrence and to identify factors from different environmental levels that predict it. Methods: This cross-sectional study explores the results of 1,089 household interviews responded by mothers.…

  6. A Strengths-Based Group Intervention for Women Who Experienced Child Sexual Abuse (United States)

    Walker-Williams, Hayley J.; Fouché, Ansie


    Purpose: This study evaluated the benefits of a ''survivor to thriver'' strengths-based group intervention program to facilitate posttraumatic growth in women survivors of child sexual abuse. Method: A quasi-experimental, one group, pretest, posttest, time-delay design was employed using qualitative methods to evaluate the benefits of the…

  7. Prevalence and Predictors of Dating Violence among Adolescent Female Victims of Child Sexual Abuse (United States)

    Cyr, Mireille; McDuff, Pierre; Wright, John


    The purpose of this study was to advance knowledge of dating violence behaviors among adolescent victims of child sexual abuse (CSA), first, by determining the prevalence of psychological and physical dating violence and the reciprocity of violence, and second, by investigating the influence of certain CSA characteristics to dating violence.…

  8. Reimbursement and Insurance Coverage in Cases of Suspected Sexual Abuse in the Emergency Department. (United States)

    Kupfer, Gary M.; Giardino, Angelo P.


    Emergency department charts of 186 suspected preadolescent victims of sexual abuse (SSA) were compared with 623 patients evaluated for upper limb fracture. Hospital costs of SSA patients were more often and to a greater degree underwritten by the hospital itself because of lower reimbursement and a higher percentage of uninsured and publicly…

  9. Working with childhood sexual abuse: a survey of mental health professionals. (United States)

    Day, Andrew; Thurlow, Katie; Woolliscroft, Jessica


    This study aimed to establish the views of a group of mental health professionals from various disciplines working in mental health service in a British hospital about the needs of clients who had experienced childhood sexual abuse. Staff members were asked to complete an anonymous survey which asked questions relating to knowledge of sexual abuse and its effects, and the needs of clients and staff in working with this client group. A total of 54 people responded to the survey, 42 were female, 11 male. Most (72%) reported having over 10 years experience working in mental health, working in both in-patient and out-patient settings. While respondents were reasonably knowledgeable about childhood sexual abuse, they were not very comfortable, competent or supported in their work with this client group. There were no differences in responses according to the age or gender of respondents, but less experienced staff were more likely to feel supported. Those that had received training and/or supervision felt significantly more capable in working with this client group. The study offers some support for the development of specialist training, consultancy and supervision programs for mental health staff in the area of child sexual abuse.

  10. Her Body Speaks: The Experience of Dance Therapy for Women Survivors of Child Sexual Abuse. (United States)

    Mills, Letty J.; Daniluk, Judith C.


    This qualitative, phenomenological study explores the experiences of dance therapy for 5 women who had been sexually abused as children. Using in-depth, largely unstructured interviews, the women reflect on their dance therapy experiences: and on their perceptions of the role of these experiences in their psychological healing. (Contains 46…

  11. Hostility and childhood sexual abuse as predictors of suicidal behaviour in Borderline Personality Disorder. (United States)

    Ferraz, Liliana; Portella, Maria J; Vállez, Mónica; Gutiérrez, Fernando; Martín-Blanco, Ana; Martín-Santos, Rocío; Subirà, Susana


    Impulsivity is a multidimensional construct and has been previously associated with suicidal behaviour in borderline personality disorder (BPD). This study examined the associations between suicidal behaviour and impulsivity-related personality traits, as well as history of childhood sexual abuse, in 76 patients diagnosed with BPD using both the Structured Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders III (DSM-III) Axis-II diagnoses and the self-personality questionnaire. Impulsivity-related traits were measured using the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11 (BIS-11), the Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory (BDHI) and the Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised (TCI-R). We found that hostility and childhood sexual abuse, but not impulsivity or other temperament traits, significantly predicted the presence, number and severity of previous suicide attempts. Hostility traits and childhood sexual abuse showed an impact on suicide attempts in BPD. Our results support previous findings indicating that high levels of hostility and having suffered sexual abuse during childhood lead to an increased risk for suicidal behaviour in BPD. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Memories of Childhood Sexual Abuse: Narrative Analyses of Types, Experiences, and Processes of Remembering (United States)

    Crowley, M. Sue


    The study explored types of memory for childhood sexual abuse (CSA) in a clinical sample of 30 women and identified factors that led some women (n = 24) to report recovered memories. Questionnaires produced three types of memory: always (n = 6), recovered (n = 14), both (n = 10); however, analysis of narrative data also revealed the use of…

  13. Anorexia nervosa and childhood sexual abuse: Treatment outcomes of intensive enhanced cognitive behavioural therapy. (United States)

    Calugi, Simona; Franchini, Cecilia; Pivari, Silvia; Conti, Maddalena; El Ghoch, Marwan; Dalle Grave, Riccardo


    Sexual abuse has been widely studied as a risk factor in anorexia nervosa, but data on its influence on treatment outcomes are scarce. Hence, we compared short- and long-term outcomes of inpatient enhanced cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT-E) in patients with anorexia nervosa who had and had not suffered sexual abuse. Eighty-one patients were recruited, and body mass index (BMI), Eating Disorder Examination, Brief Symptom Inventory, and Work and Social Adjustment Scale scores were recorded before and after treatment, and at 6- and 12-month follow-ups. Twenty patients (24.7%) reported experiencing childhood sexual abuse before anorexia nervosa onset, while 61 (75.3%) reported none. Both groups displayed similar characteristics before treatment, and similarly large increases in BMI, eating-disorder, general psychopathology, and work and social functioning from baseline to 12-month follow-up. Based on these findings, childhood sexual abuse does not appear to compromise outcomes in patients with anorexia nervosa treated via intensive CBT-E. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. False Attribution of Suggestibility To Explain Recovered Memory of Childhood Sexual Abuse Following Extended Amnesia. (United States)

    Leavitt, Frank


    Suggestibility was measured in 44 adult patients who recovered memories and in 31 comparison patients. Results suggest that patients who recovered memories were significantly less suggestible than average. Control patients with no history of sexual abuse were more at risk for altering memory to suggestive prompts. (Author/PB)

  15. A Comparison of the School Performance of Sexually Abused, Neglected and Non-Maltreated Children. (United States)

    Reyome, Nancy Dodge


    Compared the school performance of sexually abused children and neglected children with the performance of two matched groups of nonmaltreated children, those from lower middle class families and from families receiving public assistance. Analyses of children's behavior ratings and school achievement indicated marked cognitive and behavioral…

  16. Sexual abuse and access to justice for rural women in West Africa ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    More specifically, this project will involve the African Network for Integrated Development (ANID) and its partners taking a participatory research-action approach, and combining qualitative and quantitative methods to produce a knowledge base regarding sexual abuse and the constraints on access to justice in rural areas.

  17. Applicability of "MEGA"[Eighth Note] to Sexually Abusive Youth with Low Intellectual Functioning (United States)

    Miccio-Fonseca, L. C.; Rasmussen, Lucinda A.


    The study explored the predictive validity of "Multiplex Empirically Guided Inventory of Ecological Aggregates for Assessing Sexually Abusive Children and Adolescents (Ages 4 to 19)" ("MEGA"[eighth note]; Miccio-Fonseca, 2006b), a comprehensive developmentally sensitive risk assessment outcome tool. "MEGA"[eighth note] assesses risk for coarse…

  18. Relationships with Mothers and Peers Moderate the Association between Childhood Sexual Abuse and Anxiety Disorders (United States)

    Adams, Ryan E.; Bukowski, William M.


    Objective: The objective of the current study was to assess whether relationships with mothers and peers moderate the association between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and anxiety disorders. That is, positive and supportive experiences were expected to minimize the effects of CSA whereas nonsupportive experiences were expected to magnify them.…

  19. Behavioral and Psychological Assessment of Child Sexual Abuse in Clinical Practice (United States)

    Malhotra, Savita; Biswas, Parthasarathy


    This paper discusses the behavioral and psychological assessment of Child Sexual Abuse (CSA) in clinical practice. Following a brief introduction regarding definition and etiology of CSA and discussion on issues of behavioral/psychological consequences of CSA, the paper reviews the various approaches towards behavioral/psychological assessment in…

  20. Positive and Negative Effects of a Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Program. (United States)

    Taal, Margot; Edelaar, Monique


    Evaluation of a Dutch sexual abuse prevention program, "Right for Security," for elementary school children (ages 8 to 12) found differences in short-term and long-term effects. In the long run, children thought refusing to cooperate with the intruder more feasible and younger children showed less social anxiousness. However, the oldest…