WorldWideScience

Sample records for sexual abuse post-traumatic

  1. DIAGNOSIS AND MANAGEMENT POST TRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER IN SEXUAL ABUSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Made Apriliani Saniti

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic experiences may happen anytime in our life. The more terrible the situation, the bigger chance for a person to have post traumatic psychological problem, that is the Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD. Sexual abuse is a kind of traumatic event that caused psychological trauma/stress for the victim. In order to be able to manage patient with PTSD, physician should comprehend properties regarding PTSD, including proper treatment and management. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  2. Post-Traumatic Cognition Mediates the Relationship between a History of Sexual Abuse and the Post-Traumatic Stress Symptoms in Sexual Assault Victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Kyoung Min; Chung, Young Ki; Shin, Yee Jin; Kim, Miran; Kim, Nam Hee; Kim, Kyoung Ah; Lee, Hanbyul; Chang, Hyoung Yoon

    2017-10-01

    More than half of all sexual assault victims report experiencing sexual victimization more than once. The aim of this paper was to determine the role post-traumatic cognition plays in the relationship between a history of sexual abuse and post-traumatic stress symptoms in sexual assault victims. The relationship between a history of sexual assault and the severity of post-traumatic stress symptoms was investigated retrospectively using data from a sexual assault crisis center in Korea. Data on psychological symptoms were collected in person at the initial assessment and by telephone 1 month later using the Post-traumatic Cognitions Inventory and the Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms Scale: Self-report Version. Of 105 women included in the analysis, 10 (9.5%) reported prior sexual abuse and were classified as sexually revictimized. Revictimized women had more post-traumatic negative cognition at initial assessment (t = -2.98; P = 0.004) and more post-traumatic symptoms at 1 month follow-up (t = -2.39; P = 0.019) than singly victimized women. At 1 month follow-up, the severity of post-traumatic stress symptoms had increased in revictimized women but had decreased slightly in singly victimized women. Negative post-traumatic cognition fully mediated the association between a history of sexual abuse and the severity of post-traumatic stress symptoms. Early detection of sexually revictimized women and tailored service and treatment intervention is needed to better serve this group of victims. Interventions targeted at preventing revictimization or post crime victimization may also help victims recover from the trauma and prevent future abuse. © 2017 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.

  3. Post-Traumatic Cognition Mediates the Relationship between a History of Sexual Abuse and the Post-Traumatic Stress Symptoms in Sexual Assault Victims

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    More than half of all sexual assault victims report experiencing sexual victimization more than once. The aim of this paper was to determine the role post-traumatic cognition plays in the relationship between a history of sexual abuse and post-traumatic stress symptoms in sexual assault victims. The relationship between a history of sexual assault and the severity of post-traumatic stress symptoms was investigated retrospectively using data from a sexual assault crisis center in Korea. Data on psychological symptoms were collected in person at the initial assessment and by telephone 1 month later using the Post-traumatic Cognitions Inventory and the Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms Scale: Self-report Version. Of 105 women included in the analysis, 10 (9.5%) reported prior sexual abuse and were classified as sexually revictimized. Revictimized women had more post-traumatic negative cognition at initial assessment (t = −2.98; P = 0.004) and more post-traumatic symptoms at 1 month follow-up (t = −2.39; P = 0.019) than singly victimized women. At 1 month follow-up, the severity of post-traumatic stress symptoms had increased in revictimized women but had decreased slightly in singly victimized women. Negative post-traumatic cognition fully mediated the association between a history of sexual abuse and the severity of post-traumatic stress symptoms. Early detection of sexually revictimized women and tailored service and treatment intervention is needed to better serve this group of victims. Interventions targeted at preventing revictimization or post crime victimization may also help victims recover from the trauma and prevent future abuse. PMID:28875614

  4. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and Quality of Life in Sexually Abused Australian Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gospodarevskaya, Elena

    2013-01-01

    The study used publicly available data on post-traumatic stress disorder in a sample of the Australian population with a history of sexual abuse to demonstrate how this evidence can inform economic analyses. The 2007 Australian Mental Health Survey revealed that 8.3% of 993 adolescents experienced childhood sexual abuse, of which 40.2% were…

  5. Child Sexual Abuse, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, and Substance Use: Predictors of Revictimization in Adult Sexual Assault Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullman, Sarah E.; Najdowski, Cynthia J.; Filipas, Henrietta H.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the unique effects of child sexual abuse simultaneously with post-traumatic stress disorder symptom clusters, problem drinking, and illicit drug use in relation to sexual revictimization in a community sample of female adult sexual assault victims. Participants (N = 555) completed two surveys a year apart. Child sexual abuse…

  6. Sexual Functioning After Childhood Abuse: The Influence of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and Trauma Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornefeld-Ettmann, Pia; Steil, Regina; Lieberz, Klara A; Bohus, Martin; Rausch, Sophie; Herzog, Julia; Priebe, Kathlen; Fydrich, Thomas; Müller-Engelmann, Meike

    2018-04-01

    Impairments in sexual functioning and sexual satisfaction are very common in women who have experienced childhood sexual abuse (CSA). A growing body of literature suggests a high prevalence of sexual distress in patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, the influence of sexual trauma exposure per se and the influence of PTSD symptoms on impairments in sexual functioning remain unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of sexual trauma exposure and PTSD on sexual functioning and sexual satisfaction by comparing 3 groups of women. Women with PTSD after CSA (N = 32), women with a history of CSA and/or physical abuse but without PTSD (trauma controls [TC]; N = 32), and healthy women (N = 32) were compared with regards to self-reported sexual functioning and sexual satisfaction. Trauma exposure was assessed with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, and PTSD was assessed with the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition. Sexual functioning was assessed with the Sexual Experience and Behavior Questionnaire, and sexual satisfaction was assessed with the questionnaire Resources in Sexuality and Relationship. PTSD patients had significantly lower sexual functioning in some aspects of sexual experience (sexual aversion, sexual pain, and sexual satisfaction) but did not significantly differ in sexual arousal and orgasm from the other 2 groups. TC and healthy women did not significantly differ from each other on the measures of sexual functioning or sexual satisfaction. Results suggest that the development of PTSD has a greater impact on sexual functioning than does the experience of a traumatic event. This emphasizes the importance to address possible sexual distress and sexual satisfaction in women with PTSD by administering specific diagnostic instruments and by integrating specific interventions targeting sexual problems into a trauma-specific treatment. The study

  7. the prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder among sexually ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-10-10

    Oct 10, 2013 ... Background: Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) develops ... like child sexual abuse can develop post-traumatic stress disorder ... MATERIALS AND METHODS ..... abuse and development of behavior problem ranging.

  8. Childhood physical and sexual abuse experiences associated with post-traumatic stress disorder among pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Sixto E; Pineda, Omar; Chaves, Diana Z; Zhong, Qiu-Yue; Gelaye, Bizu; Simon, Gregory E; Rondon, Marta B; Williams, Michelle A

    2017-11-01

    We sought to evaluate the extent to which childhood physical and/or sexual abuse history is associated with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) during early pregnancy and to explore the extent to which the childhood abuse-PTSD association is mediated through, or modified by, adult experiences of intimate partner violence (IPV). In-person interviews collected information regarding history of childhood abuse and IPV from 2,928 women aged 18-49 years old prior to 16 weeks of gestation. PTSD was assessed using the PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version. Multivariate logistic regressions were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Compared to women with no childhood abuse, the odds of PTSD were increased 4.31-fold for those who reported physical abuse only (95% CI, 2.18-8.49), 5.33-fold for sexual abuse only (95% CI, 2.38-11.98), and 8.03-fold for those who reported physical and sexual abuse (95% CI, 4.10-15.74). Mediation analysis showed 13% of the childhood abuse-PTSD association was mediated by IPV. Furthermore, high odds of PTSD were noted among women with histories of childhood abuse and IPV compared with women who were not exposed to either (OR = 20.20; 95% CI, 8.18-49.85). Childhood abuse is associated with increased odds of PTSD during early pregnancy. The odds of PTSD were particularly elevated among women with a history of childhood abuse and IPV. Efforts should be made to prevent childhood abuse and mitigate its effects on women's mental health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The feeling of discomfort during vaginal examination, history of abuse and sexual abuse and post-traumatic stress disorder in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güneş, Gizem; Karaçam, Zekiye

    2017-08-01

    To examine the feeling of discomfort during vaginal examinations, history of abuse and sexual abuse and post-traumatic stress disorder in women to determine the correlation between these variables. Women who have experienced abuse or sexual abuse may feel more discomfort during vaginal examinations and may perceive a sensation similar to what they experienced during sexual abuse. Cross-sectional. This study included 320 women receiving a vaginal examination. The data were collected using a questionnaire composed of items related to descriptive characteristics, vaginal examinations and violence, a visual analogue scale of discomfort, and the Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Scale-civilian version. The mean score for the feeling of discomfort during vaginal examinations was 3·92 ± 3·34; 26·3% of the women described discomfort. Thirty-eight (12%) of the 320 women had experienced emotional violence, 25 (8%) had experienced physical violence, and 25 (8%) had been forced into sexual intercourse by their spouses. Of the women, 64·7% suffered from post-traumatic stress disorder, and physical, emotional and sexual violence were found to increase the possibility of this disorder. Exposure to emotional violence increased the possibility of discomfort during vaginal examinations by 4·5 (OR = 4·482; 95% CI = 1·421-14·134). Post-traumatic stress disorder (OR = 1·038; 95% CI = 1·009-1·066) was found to increase the possibility of discomfort during vaginal examinations; however, as the number of live births increases, women reported a reduction in their discomfort with vaginal examinations. This study revealed a positive correlation between discomfort during vaginal examinations and emotional violence and post-traumatic stress disorder but a negative correlation between discomfort during vaginal examinations and the number of live births. In addition, having a history of abuse and sexual abuse was found to increase post-traumatic stress disorder. Considering

  10. Depression and post-traumatic stress disorder in child victims of sexual abuse: perceived social support as a protection factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Berna; Akbas, Seher; Turla, Ahmet; Dundar, Cihad

    2016-08-01

    Background Social support has been shown to play a protective role against the development of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression in individuals exposed to trauma. Aims The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of perceived social support on depression and PTSD in child victims of sexual abuse and to determine the relationship between them. Method In total 182 victims of sexual abuse aged 6-18 at time of interview were assessed. Clinical interviews, the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI) and the Child Posttraumatic Stress Reaction Index (CPTS-RI) were used to assess children's psychological status, while the Perceived Social Support Scale-Revised (PSSS-R) was used to measure social support. Results Girls had significantly higher median CDI and CPTS-RI scores than boys, while no significant difference was determined between boys and girls in terms of PSSS-R scores. A statistically significant negative correlation was determined between CDI and PSSS-R scores, CPTS-RI scores and PSSS-R scores in girls, while no significant correlation was identified in male victims. Conclusions In conclusion, we think that social support networks for victims of sexual abuse need to be broadened and increased, and that importance should be attached to protective approaches in that context.

  11. Proposed pathways to problematic drinking via post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms, emotion dysregulation, and dissociative tendencies following child/adolescent sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klanecky, Alicia K; McChargue, Dennis E; Tuliao, Antover P

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between early sexual abuse and college problem drinking was examined using an integration of the self-medication and vulnerability-stress models. Baseline survey data from parti-cipants (N = 213; 135 men and 78 college women) completing a mandated, brief alcohol intervention were utilized. Representative of the self-medication model, post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms mediated the early sexual abuse/problem drinking relationship. Two psychological vulnerability factors-emotion dysregulation and dissociative tendencies-were incorporated into self-medication findings via more advanced mediational models. Results highlighted that problem drinking increased as dissociative tendencies increased, and relations between the vulnerability factors and post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms were in an unexpected direction.

  12. Cost-utility analysis of different treatments for post-traumatic stress disorder in sexually abused children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gospodarevskaya Elena

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD is diagnosed in 20% to 53% of sexually abused children and adolescents. Living with PTSD is associated with a loss of health-related quality of life. Based on the best available evidence, the NICE Guideline for PTSD in children and adolescents recommends cognitive behavioural therapy (TF-CBT over non-directive counselling as a more efficacious treatment. Methods A modelled economic evaluation conducted from the Australian mental health care system perspective estimates incremental costs and Quality Adjusted Life Years (QALYs of TF-CBT, TF-CBT combined with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI, and non-directive counselling. The "no treatment" alternative is included as a comparator. The first part of the model consists of a decision tree corresponding to 12 month follow-up outcomes observed in clinical trials. The second part consists of a 30 year Markov model representing the slow process of recovery in non-respondents and the untreated population yielding estimates of long-term quality-adjusted survival and costs. Data from the 2007 Australian Mental Health Survey was used to populate the decision analytic model. Results In the base-case and sensitivity analyses, incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs for all three active treatment alternatives remained less than A$7,000 per QALY gained. The base-case results indicated that non-directive counselling is dominated by TF-CBT and TF-CBT + SSRI, and that efficiency gain can be achieved by allocating more resources toward these therapies. However, this result was sensitive to variation in the clinical effectiveness parameters with non-directive counselling dominating TF-CBT and TF-CBT + SSRI under certain assumptions. The base-case results also suggest that TF-CBT + SSRI is more cost-effective than TF-CBT. Conclusion Even after accounting for uncertainty in parameter estimates, the results of the modelled economic evaluation

  13. Post Traumatic Stress Disorder/PTSD in adolescent victims of sexual abuse: resilience and social support as protection factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martine Hébert

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This analysis examined the contribution of personal, family (maternal and paternal support; sibling support and extra-familiar (peer support; other adults resilience to the prediction of clinical levels of PTSD symptoms in adolescents reporting sexual abuse. Controls were established for abuse-related variables (type of abuse, severity and multiple abuse in a representative sample of high schools students in the province of Quebec. A total of 15.2% of adolescent females and 4.4% adolescent males in high school reported a history of sexual abuse in childhood. Sexually abused adolescent females (27.8% were more likely than adolescent males (14.9% to achieve scores with high clinical levels of PTSD. Hierarchical logistic regression revealed that over and above the characteristics of the sexual abuse experienced, resilience factors (maternal and peer support contributed to the prediction of symptoms of PTSD attaining the clinical threshold. Alternative intervention and prevention practices geared to adolescent victims of sexual assault are discussed.

  14. BDNF and cortisol levels in children with or without post-traumatic stress disorder after sustaining sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simsek, Seref; Uysal, Cem; Kaplan, Ibrahim; Yuksel, Tugba; Aktas, Huseyin

    2015-06-01

    There are studies reporting that cortisol and brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) play a role in the pathophysiology of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, up-to-date no study evaluated the relationship between PTSD and the levels of cortisol and BDNF in children and adolescents who have sustained trauma. The aim of this study was to investigate whether BDNF, cortisol and adrenocorticotropine (ACTH) levels differ between individuals who developed PTSD or not following a sexual trauma. The study included 55 children aged between 6 and 17 years who sustained sexual assault (M/F: 13/42). The patients were divided into two groups, with or without PTSD based on the results of a structured psychiatric interview (K-SADS-PL and CAPS-CA). Of the participants, 49% (n=27) were diagnosed with PTSD. Cortisol, ACTH, and BDNF levels were evaluated using the ELISA method. There were no significant differences between patients with or without PTSD in terms of cortisol, ACTH, BDNF levels. There were no correlations between CAPS-CA scores and cortisol, ACTH, and BDNF levels in patients with or without PTSD. In patients with PTSD, decreased cortisol levels were found with increasing time after trauma, and no significant correlation was found with the cortisol levels in patients without PTSD. Although no significant association was found between biochemical parameters and the presence or severity of PTSD; decreasing cortisol levels with increasing time after trauma in patients with PTSD suggest that cortisol might have played a role in the pathophysiology of this disorder. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Childhood Physical and Sexual Abuse in Caribbean Young Adults and Its Association with Depression, Post-Traumatic Stress, and Skin Bleaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Caryl; Seixas, Azizi A; Harrison, Abigail; Jean-Louis, Girardin; Butler, Mark; Zizi, Ferdinand; Samuels, Alafia

    2016-01-01

    Background The global prevalence of skin depigmentation/skin bleaching among blacks, estimated at 35%, is on the rise and is associated with a host of negative health and medical consequences. Current etiological approaches do not fully capture the emotional and psychological underpinnings of skin bleaching. The current study investigated the potential mediating role of depression, or post-traumatic stress symptoms (avoidance and hyperarousal) on the relationship between childhood physical and sexual abuse (CPSA) and skin bleaching. Methods A total of 1226 university participants (ages 18–30 years and 63.4% female) from three Caribbean countries (Jamaica, Barbados, and Grenada) provided data for the current analysis. They all completed self-reported measures of general demographic information along with the short screening scale for posttraumatic stress disorder (DSM-IV), childhood trauma, and skin bleaching questions. Results The prevalence of skin bleaching in our study was 25.4%. Our findings showed that individuals who bleached their skin were more likely to have been abused as children (21.6% versus 13.5%, pbleaching (Indirect Effect=0.03, p0.05) and depressive (Indirect Effect=0.005, p>0.05) symptoms did not. Conclusion The presence of trauma symptoms and childhood physical and sexual abuse (CPSA) may increase the likelihood of skin bleaching. Findings suggest that further exploration is needed to ascertain if the presence of skin bleaching warrants being also screened for trauma. PMID:27019771

  16. Childhood Physical and Sexual Abuse in Caribbean Young Adults and Its Association with Depression, Post-Traumatic Stress, and Skin Bleaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Caryl; Seixas, Azizi A; Harrison, Abigail; Jean-Louis, Girardin; Butler, Mark; Zizi, Ferdinand; Samuels, Alafia

    2016-01-01

    The global prevalence of skin depigmentation/skin bleaching among blacks, estimated at 35%, is on the rise and is associated with a host of negative health and medical consequences. Current etiological approaches do not fully capture the emotional and psychological underpinnings of skin bleaching. The current study investigated the potential mediating role of depression, or post-traumatic stress symptoms (avoidance and hyperarousal) on the relationship between childhood physical and sexual abuse (CPSA) and skin bleaching. A total of 1226 university participants (ages 18-30 years and 63.4% female) from three Caribbean countries (Jamaica, Barbados, and Grenada) provided data for the current analysis. They all completed self-reported measures of general demographic information along with the short screening scale for posttraumatic stress disorder (DSM-IV), childhood trauma, and skin bleaching questions. The prevalence of skin bleaching in our study was 25.4%. Our findings showed that individuals who bleached their skin were more likely to have been abused as children (21.6% versus 13.5%, p0.05) and depressive (Indirect Effect=0.005, p>0.05) symptoms did not. The presence of trauma symptoms and childhood physical and sexual abuse (CPSA) may increase the likelihood of skin bleaching. Findings suggest that further exploration is needed to ascertain if the presence of skin bleaching warrants being also screened for trauma.

  17. Sexual violence, post-traumatic stress disorder and dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCartney, J R; Severson, K

    1997-01-01

    Little is known of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in older people. No literature exists on this disorder in older women exposed to sexual assault. A case of apparent PTSD in a demented woman raises questions of the anatomy and phenomenology of this disorder. Difficulties in diagnosis in a demented population may cloud the issues or prevent a proper therapeutic outcome.

  18. Substance abuse, memory, and post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipps, Megan E; Raybuck, Jonathan D; Lattal, K Matthew

    2014-07-01

    A large body of literature demonstrates the effects of abused substances on memory. These effects differ depending on the drug, the pattern of delivery (acute or chronic), and the drug state at the time of learning or assessment. Substance use disorders involving these drugs are often comorbid with anxiety disorders, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). When the cognitive effects of these drugs are considered in the context of the treatment of these disorders, it becomes clear that these drugs may play a deleterious role in the development, maintenance, and treatment of PTSD. In this review, we examine the literature evaluating the cognitive effects of three commonly abused drugs: nicotine, cocaine, and alcohol. These three drugs operate through both common and distinct neurobiological mechanisms and alter learning and memory in multiple ways. We consider how the cognitive and affective effects of these drugs interact with the acquisition, consolidation, and extinction of learned fear, and we discuss the potential impediments that substance abuse creates for the treatment of PTSD. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Childhood Physical and Sexual Abuse in Caribbean Young Adults and Its Association with Depression, Post-Traumatic Stress, and Skin Bleaching

    OpenAIRE

    James, Caryl; Seixas, Azizi A; Harrison, Abigail; Jean-Louis, Girardin; Butler, Mark; Zizi, Ferdinand; Samuels, Alafia

    2015-01-01

    Background The global prevalence of skin depigmentation/skin bleaching among blacks, estimated at 35%, is on the rise and is associated with a host of negative health and medical consequences. Current etiological approaches do not fully capture the emotional and psychological underpinnings of skin bleaching. The current study investigated the potential mediating role of depression, or post-traumatic stress symptoms (avoidance and hyperarousal) on the relationship between childhood physical an...

  20. Decreased dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate levels in adolescents with post-traumatic stress disorder after single sexual trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usta, Mirac Baris; Tuncel, Ozgur Korhan; Akbas, Seher; Aydin, Berna; Say, Gokce Nur

    2016-01-01

    Recent evidence shows that the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis can be dysregulated in chronic sexual abuse victims with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We hypothesized that PTSD in adolescents exposed to a single sexual trauma may function as a chronic stressor leading to HPA-axis dysregulation. The objective of this study was to assess dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEA-S) and cortisol levels in female adolescents |with single sexual trauma-related PTSD compared to healthy controls. We assessed 20 female adolescent (age 12-18) single sexual trauma victims with PTSD from the Ondokuz Mayis University Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry between December 2013 and December 2014. PTSD symptoms were assessed using the Child Depression Inventory (CDI) and Child Posttraumatic Stress Reaction Index (CPSRI). Blood cortisol and DHEA-S were measured in 20 female adolescent sexual abuse victims with PTSD and 20 healthy adolescents after 12-h fasting using the chemiluminescence method. Compared to age-matched controls, female adolescent sexual abuse victims with PTSD had significantly lower DHEA-S levels (U = 70.00, Z = - 3.517, p = 0.01, r = 0.55). There was also a significant negative correlation between DHEA-S and CDI scores (Spearman r = - 0.522, p < 0.01). Decreased DHEA-S levels and correlation with depressive symptoms are evidence for a dysregulated HPA-axis in female adolescent single sexual trauma victims with PTSD. Further research is now recommended with large patient groups in order to maximize generalizations.

  1. Neurodevelopmental Biology Associated with Childhood Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bellis, Michael D.; Spratt, Eve G.; Hooper, Stephen R.

    2011-01-01

    Child maltreatment appears to be the single most preventable cause of mental illness and behavioral dysfunction in the United States. Few published studies examine the developmental and the psychobiological consequences of sexual abuse. There are multiple mechanisms through which sexual abuse can cause post-traumatic stress disorder, activate…

  2. Post-traumatic stress disorder associated with sexual assault among women in the WHO World Mental Health Surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scott, K. M.; Koenen, K. C.; King, A.; Petukhova, M. V.; Alonso, J.; Bromet, E. J.; Bruffaerts, R.; Bunting, B.; de Jonge, P.; Haro, J. M.; Karam, E. G.; Lee, S.; Medina-Mora, M. E.; Navarro-Mateu, F.; Sampson, N. A.; Shahly, V.; Stein, D. J.; Torres, Y.; Zaslavsky, A. M.; Kessler, R. C.

    Background. Sexual assault is a global concern with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), one of the common sequelae. Early intervention can help prevent PTSD, making identification of those at high risk for the disorder a priority. Lack of representative sampling of both sexual assault survivors

  3. Sexual abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iztok Takač

    2012-11-01

    Conclusions: Effective and efficient treatment of victims of sexual abuse requires a systematic approach to the patient, starting with a thorough history, and continuing with a clinical investigation, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of the consequences of sexual abuse. The complete management must include sampling of any potential biological traces from the body of the victim. The key to success is a coordinated cooperation with investigators and forensics.

  4. Comprehension of affective prosody in women with post-traumatic stress disorder related to childhood abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazarov, A; Frewen, P; Oremus, C; Schellenberg, E G; McKinnon, M C; Lanius, R

    2015-05-01

    Although deficits in memory and cognitive processing are evident in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), difficulties with social cognition and the impact of such difficulties on interpersonal functioning are poorly understood. Here, we examined the ability of women diagnosed with PTSD related to childhood abuse to discriminate affective prosody, a central component of social cognition. Women with PTSD and healthy controls (HCs) completed two computer-based tasks assessing affective prosody: (i) recognition (categorizing foreign-language excerpts as angry, fearful, sad, or happy) and (ii) discrimination (identifying whether two excerpts played consecutively had the 'same' or 'different' emotion). The association of performance with symptom presentation, trauma history, and interpersonal functioning was also explored. Women with PTSD were slower than HCs at identifying happiness, sadness, and fear, but not anger in the speech excerpts. The presence of dissociative symptoms was related to reduced accuracy on the discrimination task. An increased severity of childhood trauma was associated with reduced accuracy on the discrimination task and with slower identification of emotional prosody. Exposure to childhood trauma is associated with long-term, atypical development in the interpretation of prosodic cues in speech. The findings have implications for the intergenerational transmission of trauma. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Relações entre abuso sexual na infância, transtorno de estresse pós-traumático (TEPT e prejuízos cognitivos Relaciones entre abuso sexual en la infancia, trastorno de estrés post-traumático (TEPT y perjuicios cognitivos Relationships between sexual abuse in childhood, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD and cognitive impairments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeane Lessinger Borges

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teórico aponta as relações entre abuso sexual infantil, transtorno de estresse pós-traumático (TEPT e prejuízos cognitivos. A perspectiva cognitiva dos efeitos do abuso sexual e do TEPT foi adotada nesta revisão. O abuso sexual contra crianças pode ser considerado um fator de risco para o desenvolvimento infantil, devido às severas seqüelas cognitivas, emocionais e comportamentais relacionadas à sua ocorrência, podendo seu impacto envolver efeitos a curto e longo prazos e estender-se até a idade adulta. Os estudos de revisão fortalecem a associação entre eventos traumáticos (abuso sexual, TEPT e alterações, tanto estruturais quanto funcionais, em áreas cerebrais envolvidas nos sistemas neurais de resposta ao estresse. Finalmente, é discutida a necessidade de pesquisas que investiguem os efeitos do estresse e do trauma no neurodesenvolvimento infantil.Este estudio teórico apunta las relaciones entre abuso sexual infantil, trastorno de estrés post-traumático (TEPT y perjuicios cognitivos. La perspectiva cognitiva de los efectos del abuso sexual y del TEPT fue adoptada en esta revisión. El abuso sexual contra niños puede ser considerado un factor de riesgo para el desarrollo infantil, debido a las severas secuelas cognitivas, emocionales y conductuales, que son relacionadas a su ocurrencia, siendo que su impacto puede envolver efectos a corto y a largo plazo, extendiéndose hasta la edad adulta. Los estudios de revisión fortalecen la asociación entre eventos traumáticos (abuso sexual, TEPT y alteraciones, tanto estructurales cuanto funcionales, en áreas cerebrales envueltas en los sistemas neuronales de respuesta al estrés. Finalmente, es discutida la necesidad de investigaciones futuras que investiguen los efectos del estrés y del trauma en el neurodesarrollo infantil.Current theoretical study shows relationships between sexual abuse during childhood, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD and cognitive

  6. The Impact of Clergy-Perpetrated Sexual Abuse: The Role of Gender, Development, and Posttraumatic Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogler, Jason M.; Shipherd, Jillian C.; Clarke, Stephanie; Jensen, Jennifer; Rowe, Erin

    2008-01-01

    The literature on clergy-perpetrated sexual abuse suggests that there are two modal populations of survivors: boys and adult women. We review what is known about trauma and post-traumatic stress disorder following sexual abuse and explore the different treatment needs for these two survivor groups. For children, clergy-perpetrated sexual abuse can…

  7. Abuses, resilience, behavioural problems and post-traumatic stress symptoms among unaccompanied migrant minors: an Italian cross-sectional exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Longobardi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to explore the type and prevalence of pre-/peri-migratory trauma experiences in unaccompanied minors and the prevalence of mental health problems and resilience. The study included 19 unaccompanied migrant minors aged 16–17 years coming from Egypt, Albania, Senegal, Bangladesh, Gambia, Morocco and Mali. The participants completed self-report questionnaires on emotional and behavioural problems, post-traumatic stress symptoms, abuse and resilience. All the unaccompanied migrant minors in our study were physically and psychologically abused at least once in their life and more than half were sexually abused before or during their migration. The most frequent abuses were: being hit with an object, being punished at school and at home with torture and infliction of pain, being forced to do something dangerous, being insulted, undergoing theft or damage of personal objects, being forced to look at sexual photos or videos and being sexually abused. The scores on post-traumatic stress, depression, anxiety and dissociation are above the clinical cut-off point. Mean scores in the scales of resilience are generally in line with normative data. These scores show that despite their traumatic pre-migratory and peri-migratory experiences of abuse and the clinical psychopathological effects, the minors interviewed proved to have good sources of resilience. Immigration policies however should be based not only on admittance to emergency refuge centres but also on assessing the subjects and providing them with psychological support for the traumas experienced in order to achieve a successful integration process in the host society

  8. The severity of childhood abuse and neglect in relationship to Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder among female sex workers in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daalder, A.L.; Bogaerts, S.; Bijleveld, C.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the relationship between childhood abuse and neglect and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in adulthood is examined in a sample of 123 female indoor sex workers in the Netherlands. It was hypothesized that the severity of childhood abuse and neglect is associated with the

  9. Dissociation fully mediates the relationship between childhood sexual and emotional abuse and DSM-5 PTSD in a sample of treatment-seeking adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vang, Maria Louison; Shevlin, Mark; Karatzias, Thanos

    2018-01-01

    emotional abuse on post-traumatic stress severity. The indirect effect model fit the data best. Conclusion: Dissociation fully mediated the relationship between childhood sexual and emotional abuse and post-traumatic stress severity. The results are limited by the use of retrospective self-report measures...

  10. Review: Effect of Sexual Violence in Appearance of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ja'far Mirzaei

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The familial violence is any violent action based on sexual dispute that result in somatic, sexual or psychiatric hurts or pain. One of the familial violence is child and spouse abuse that result in depression, anxiety and PTSD. The aim of this article is study of familial violence phenomena from different psychiatric and social views and the rate of appearance and epidemiology and clinical character of PTSD as the result of sexual rape. This study is based on review of literature and antecedent & internal and external investigations from 1989 to 2004 from internet sites like NC PTSD psychilt – psych Info. Conclusions of different accidental and nonaccidental studies sign the rate of 25 – 30% psychiatric side effects as the result of somatic and sexual abuse and appearance of PTSD-Depression and Anxiety. Because the phenomena of familial and sexual violence has social and psychiatric nature, It is necessary to take health care and educative and preventive methods for prevention of appearance of such injuries in society and support from familial and social network.

  11. Psychopathological correlates of child sexual abuse: The case of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Specifically, females with experience of sexual abuse were found to be more susceptible to develop depression, panic anxiety, and post-traumatic stress disorders than unabused females. Thus, parents, and teachers should give the necessary care and protection to female children. Primary bio-psychosocial care services ...

  12. The Clinical Correlates of Reported Childhood Sexual Abuse: An Association between Age at Trauma Onset and Severity of Depression and PTSD in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoedl, Aline Ferri; Costa, Mariana Cadrobbi Pupo; Mari, Jair J.; Mello, Marcelo Feijo; Tyrka, Audrey R.; Carpenter, Linda L.; Price, Lawrence H.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between the age of self-reported sexual abuse occurrence and the development of post-traumatic stress disorder and/or depressive symptoms in adulthood. Subjects were evaluated for the presence of post-traumatic stress disorder and/or depressive symptoms as well as for a self-reported history of sexual abuse…

  13. Post-traumatic stress disorder, drug abuse and migraine: new findings from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterlin, B Lee; Rosso, Andrea L; Sheftell, Fred D; Libon, David J; Mossey, Jana M; Merikangas, Kathleen R

    2011-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been shown to be associated with migraine and drug abuse. This was an analysis of data from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R) to evaluate the association of PTSD in those with episodic migraine (EM) and chronic daily headache (CDH). Our sample consisted of 5,692 participants. Lifetime and 12-month prevalence rates of PTSD were increased in those with EM and CDH. After adjustments, the lifetime odds ratio (OR) of PTSD was greater in those with EM (OR 3.07 confidence interval [CI]: 2.12, 4.46) compared to those without headache; was greater in men than women with EM (men: OR 6.86; CI: 3.11, 15.11; women: OR 2.77; CI: 1.83, 4.21); and was comparable or greater than the association between migraine with depression or anxiety. The lifetime OR of PTSD was also increased in CDH sufferers. The OR of illicit drug abuse was not increased in those with EM or CDH unless co-occurring with PTSD or depression. The lifetime and 12-month OR of PTSD is increased in those with migraine or CDH, and is greater in men than women with migraine. The lifetime and 12-month OR of illicit drug abuse is not increased in those with migraine or CDH unless co-occurring with PTSD or depression.

  14. Information processing of sexual abuse in elders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Ann W; Clements, Paul T

    2006-01-01

    Sexual abuse is considered to be a pandemic contemporary public health issue, with significant physical and psychosocial consequences for its victims. However, the incidence of elder sexual assault is difficult to estimate with any degree of confidence. A convenience sample of 284 case records were reviewed for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) symptoms. The purpose of this paper is to present the limited data noted on record review on four PTSD symptoms of startle, physiological upset, anger, and numbness. A treatment model for information processing of intrapsychic trauma is presented to describe domain disruption within a nursing diagnosis of rape trauma syndrome and provide guidance for sensitive assessment and intervention.

  15. Tonic immobility during sexual assault - a common reaction predicting post-traumatic stress disorder and severe depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, Anna; Söndergaard, Hans Peter; Helström, Lotti

    2017-08-01

    Active resistance is considered to be the 'normal' reaction during rape. However, studies have indicated that similar to animals, humans exposed to extreme threat may react with a state of involuntary, temporary motor inhibition known as tonic immobility. The aim of the present study was to assess the occurrence of tonic immobility during rape and subsequent post-traumatic stress disorder and severe depression. Tonic immobility at the time of the assault was assessed using the Tonic Immobility Scale in 298 women who had visited the Emergency clinic for raped women within 1 month of a sexual assault. Information about the assault and the victim characteristics were taken from the structured clinical data files. After 6 months, 189 women were assessed regarding the development of post-traumatic stress disorder and depression. Of the 298 women, 70% reported significant tonic immobility and 48% reported extreme tonic immobility during the assault. Tonic immobility was associated with the development of post-traumatic stress disorder (OR 2.75; 95% CI 1.50-5.03, p = 0.001) and severe depression (OR 3.42; 95% CI 1.51-7.72, p = 0.003) at 6 months. Further, previous trauma history (OR 2.36; 95% CI 1.48-3.77, p stress disorder and severe depression. Knowledge of this reaction in sexual assault victims is important in legal matters and for healthcare follow up. © 2017 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  16. Childhood Sexual Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evrim Aktepe

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Sexual abuse is defined as use of child or adolescent by the adults for satisfying of sexual urges and needs with forcing, threatening or tricking. Sexual abuse can be in the form of sexual abuse without touch, sexual touch, interfemoral intercourse, sexual penetration, and sexual exploitation. The prevalence of sexual abuse is reported as 10-40%. It is seen in female four times more than in males. Abusers are frequently male, only 5-15% of them are female. The abuse by females is usually towards male child. Thirty-fifty percent of abuse cases among child and adolescent are outside the family including strangers or familiar person. Some features of abusers are introvert personality, pedophilic and antisocial personality. Most of the abusers have a history of sexual abuse or aggression during childhood. Sexual intercourse between two people who are not allowed to marry by law is called as incest. Family pattern of incest is defined globally as disorganized and dysfunctional. The most commonly reported familial pattern is rigid and patriarchal family pattern with a harsh father using force quite frequently. The clinical features and impacts of the sexual abuse on the child varies according to the relation between abusers and the child, form of abuse, duration of abuse, presence of physical assault, developmental phase, child age and psychological development before the abuse. Sexual abuse history may result in psychiatric disorders including anxiety, depression, substance dependence, suicide act, borderline personality disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder. Abuse negatively affects interpersonal relationships and self esteem of abused individuals. Several studies reported close association between risky sexual behaviors in adulthood and a history of of sexual abuse during childhood. Four traumatic dynamics including traumatic sexuality with abuse, feeling of betrayal, weakness, and stigmatization exist in childhood abuse. Trauma can cause

  17. [Common physiological basis for post-traumatic stress disorder and dependence to drugs of abuse: Implications for new therapeutic approaches].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gisquet-Verrier, Pascale; Tolédano, Daniel; Le Dorze, Claire

    2017-06-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and addiction to drugs of abuse are two common diseases, showing high comorbidity rates. This review presents a number of evidence showing similarities between these two pathologies, especially the hyper-responsiveness to environmental cues inducing a reactivation of the target memory leading either to re-experiencing (PTSD), or drug craving. Accordingly, PTSD and addiction to drug of abuse might by considered as memory pathologies, underlined by the same physiological process. We propose that these two pathologies rely on an uncoupling of the monoaminergic systems. According to this hypothesis, exposure to extreme conditions, either negative (trauma) or positive (drugs) induced a loss of the reciprocal control that one system usually exerts on the other monoaminergic system, resulting to an uncoupling between the noradrenergic and the serotonergic systems. Results obtained in our laboratory, using animal models of these pathologies, demonstrate that after a trauma, such as after repeated drug injections, rats developed both a behavioral sensitization (increases of the locomotion in response to a stimulation of the monoaminergic systems) and a pharmacological sensitization (increases of noradrenergic release within the prefrontal cortex). These results support our hypothesis and led us to propose new and innovative therapeutic approaches consisting either to induce a re-coupling of the monoaminergic systems, or to modify the pathological memories by using an emotional memory remodeling. Extremely encouraging results have already been obtained in rats and in humans, opening new and promising therapeutic avenues. Copyright © 2016 Société française de pharmacologie et de thérapeutique. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Avoidance symptoms and delayed verbal memory are associated with post-traumatic stress symptoms in female victims of sexual violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Kyoung Min; Chang, Hyoung Yoon; Cho, Sun-Mi; Kim, Nam Hee; Kim, Kyoung Ah; Chung, Young Ki

    2015-09-15

    Victimization by sexual violence is strongly associated with the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). While several psychological and cognitive factors are known to be associated with PTSD prognosis, multivariable analysis is scarce. This study examined factors affecting the severity of PTSD symptoms in early stage of traumatic experience of sexual violence, including initial post-traumatic symptoms and cognitive characteristics. Participants were recruited from the center for women and children victims of violence in a university hospital. Thirty-four sexual assault victims were assessed at the baseline and the second visit one to five months after the baseline. At the baseline, an array of posttraumatic symptoms and cognitive functions were measured: at follow-up, PTSD symptoms were determined by Clinician Administered PTSD Scale. Stepwise multiple regression showed that avoidance symptoms (β = 0.551, P PTSD symptoms one to five month later. The regression model, factoring in avoidance and delayed verbal memory, showed a 34.9% explanatory power regarding the PTSD symptom severity. This study suggests that avoidance symptoms and verbal memory at the early stage of trauma are associated with later PTSD symptoms. It is also suggested that early intervention targeting avoidance symptoms may be beneficial in decreasing PTSD symptoms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Prior childhood sexual abuse in mothers of sexually abused children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oates, R K; Tebbutt, J; Swanston, H; Lynch, D L; O'Toole, B I

    1998-11-01

    To see if mothers who were sexually abused in their own childhood are at increased risk of their children being sexually abused and to see if prior sexual abuse in mothers affects their parenting abilities. Sixty-seven mothers whose children had been sexually abused by others and 65 control mothers were asked about sexual abuse in their own childhood. The sexually abused children of mothers who had been sexually abused in their own childhood were compared with the sexually abused children of mothers who had not suffered child sexual abuse as children. Comparisons were made on self-esteem, depression and behavior in the children. Thirty-four percent of mothers of sexually abused children gave a history of sexual abuse in their own childhoods, compared with 12% of control mothers. Assessment of the sexually abused children for self-esteem, depression and behavior at the time of diagnosis, after 18 months and after 5 years showed no difference in any of these measures at any of the three time intervals between those whose mothers had suffered child sexual abuse and those whose mothers had not been abused. In this study, sexual abuse in a mother's own childhood was related to an increased risk of sexual abuse occurring in the next generation, although prior maternal sexual abuse did not effect outcome in children who were sexually abused.

  20. Salivary cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate in adolescent rape victims with post traumatic stress disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bicanic, Iva A. E.; Postma, Riemke M.; Sinnema, Gerben; de Roos, Carlijn; Olff, Miranda; van Wesel, Floryt; van de Putte, Elise M.

    2013-01-01

    In chronic sexual abuse victims with post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis can be dysregulated. In single rape victims, PTSD symptoms are hypothesized to function as a chronic stressor leading to similar HPA-axis dysregulation. The objective of the

  1. Sexually Abused Boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhart, Michael A.

    1987-01-01

    Reports of male victims (N=189) of child sexual abuse were retrospectively reviewed. Comparison to an age- and race-matched group of female victims revealed similarities in patterns of disclosure and perpetrator characteristics. (Author/DB)

  2. Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Showing private parts ("flashing"), forcing children to watch pornography, verbal pressure for sex, and exploiting children as prostitutes or for pornography can be sexual abuse as well. Researchers estimate ...

  3. [Child sexual abuse: an irremediable hurt?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Giacomo, Ester; Alamia, Alberto; Cicolari, Federica; Cimolai, Valentina; Clerici, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this review was to provide the state of art of child sexual abuse and its psychophysical consequences. We assessed the evidence-based literature derived from PubMed, Embase, Medline, PsychINFO databases, including a thorough analysis of what has been published in the last 5 years, not neglecting previous publications essential to the argument for their scientific validity (methodological accuracy, recruited survey). Child sexual abuse is ubiquitous both regarding victims' gender and socio-economic conditions. The important consequences linked to what they suffered--either immediately or with adolescent or adult onset--are mediated by age and family support to trauma reprocessing as well as by the frequency of repetition of the abuse or familiarity with the abuser. These factors appear to be of primary importance--both at a physical and psychic level--and may be expressed in multiple manifestations, hence it is of utmost importance to pay timely attention to possible alarm signals revealing suspected abuse suffered by any underage person. Special emphasis is addressed towards some of the consequences for which child sexual abuse is considered to be a primary cause (e.g. post-traumatic stress disorder) and the perpetuation of such abuse, both short-term as well as long-term. Poor training, regarding this field, of various professionals (pediatricians, teachers, etc.) who each day work with minors, as well as the paucity of available treatment options point to an urgent need for prevention (including in-depth diagnosis/therapy) and early intervention.

  4. Concurrent Treatment of Substance Abuse, Child Neglect, Bipolar Disorder, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, and Domestic Violence: A Case Examination Involving Family Behavior Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donohue, Brad C.; Romero, Valerie; Herdzik, Karen; Lapota, Holly; Al, Ruwida Abdel; Allen, Daniel N.; Azrin, Nathan H.; Van Hasselt, Vincent B.

    2012-01-01

    High rates of co-occurrence between substance abuse and child neglect have been well documented and especially difficult to treat. As a first step in developing a comprehensive evidence-based treatment for use in this population, the present case examination underscores Family Behavior Therapy (FBT) in the treatment of a mother who evidenced Substance Dependence, child neglect, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, Bipolar I Disorder, and domestic violence. Utilizing psychometrically validated self-report inventories and objective urinalysis, treatment was found to result in the cessation of substance use, lower risk of child maltreatment, improved parenting attitudes and practices, and reduced instances of violence in the home. The importance of utilizing validity scales in the assessment of referrals from child welfare settings is discussed, and future directions are reported in light of the results. PMID:23457426

  5. Post-traumatic Stress Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Javidi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Unexpected extreme sudden traumatic stressor may cause post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD. Important traumatic events include war, violent personal assault (e.g., sexual assault, and physical attack, being taken hostage or kidnapped, confinement as a prisoner of war, torture, terrorist attack, severe car accidents, and natural disasters. In childhood age sexual abuse or witnessing serious injuries or unexpected death of a beloved one are among important traumatic events. PTSD can be categorized into two types of acute and chronic PTSD: if symptoms persist for less than three months, it is termed “acute PTSD,” otherwise, it is called “chronic PTSD.” 60.7% of men and 51.2% of women would experience at least one potentially traumatic event in their lifetime. The lifetime prevalence of PTSD is significantly higher in women than men. Lifetime prevalence of PTSD varies from 0.3% in China to 6.1% in New Zealand. The prevalence of PTSD in crime victims are between 19% and 75%; rates as high as 80% have been reported following rape. The prevalence of PTSD among direct victims of disasters was reported to be 30%–40%; the rate in rescue workers was 10%–20%. The prevalence of PTSD among police, fire, and emergency service workers ranged from 6%–32%. An overall prevalence rate of 4% for the general population, the rate in rescue/recovery occupations ranged from 5% to 32%, with the highest rate reported in search and rescue personnel (25%, firefighters (21%, and workers with no prior training for facing disaster. War is one of the most intense stressors known to man. Armed forces have a higher prevalence of depression, anxiety disorders, alcohol abuse and PTSD. High-risk children who have been abused or experienced natural disasters may have an even higher prevalence of PTSD than adults. Female gender, previous psychiatric problem, intensity and nature of exposure to the traumatic event, and lack of social support are known risk factors for

  6. Correlates of improvement in substance abuse among dually diagnosed veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder in specialized intensive VA treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coker, Kendell L; Stefanovics, Elina; Rosenheck, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Substantial rates of substance use comorbidity have been observed among veterans with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), highlighting the need to identify patient and program characteristics associated with improved outcomes for substance abuse. Data were drawn from 12,270 dually diagnosed veterans who sought treatment from specialized intensive Veterans Health Administration PTSD programs between 1993 and 2011. The magnitude of the improvement in Addiction Severity Index (ASI) alcohol and drug use composite scores from baseline was moderate, with effect sizes (ES) of -.269 and -.287, respectively. Multivariate analyses revealed that treatment in longer-term programs, being prescribed psychiatric medication, and planned participation in reunions were all associated with slightly improved outcomes. Reductions in substance use measures were associated with robust improvements in PTSD symptoms and violent behavior. These findings suggest not only synergistic treatment effects linking improvement in PTSD symptoms with substance use disorders among dually diagnosed veterans with PTSD, but also to reductions in violent behavior. Furthermore, the findings indicate that proper discharge planning in addition to intensity and duration of treatment for dually diagnosed veterans with severe PTSD may result in better outcomes. Further dissemination of evidence-based substance abuse treatment may benefit this population. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Treatment effects on insular and anterior cingulate cortex activation during classic and emotional Stroop interference in child abuse-related complex post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomaes, K; Dorrepaal, E; Draijer, N; de Ruiter, M B; Elzinga, B M; van Balkom, A J; Smit, J H; Veltman, D J

    2012-11-01

    Functional neuroimaging studies have shown increased Stroop interference coupled with altered anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and insula activation in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). These brain areas are associated with error detection and emotional arousal. There is some evidence that treatment can normalize these activation patterns. At baseline, we compared classic and emotional Stroop performance and blood oxygenation level-dependent responses (functional magnetic resonance imaging) of 29 child abuse-related complex PTSD patients with 22 non-trauma-exposed healthy controls. In 16 of these patients, we studied treatment effects of psycho-educational and cognitive behavioural stabilizing group treatment (experimental treatment; EXP) added to treatment as usual (TAU) versus TAU only, and correlations with clinical improvement. At baseline, complex PTSD patients showed a trend for increased left anterior insula and dorsal ACC activation in the classic Stroop task. Only EXP patients showed decreased dorsal ACC and left anterior insula activation after treatment. In the emotional Stroop contrasts, clinical improvement was associated with decreased dorsal ACC activation and decreased left anterior insula activation. We found further evidence that successful treatment in child abuse-related complex PTSD is associated with functional changes in the ACC and insula, which may be due to improved selective attention and lower emotional arousal, indicating greater cognitive control over PTSD symptoms.

  8. The association between in-service sexual harassment and post-traumatic stress disorder among Department of Veterans Affairs disability applicants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdoch, Maureen; Polusny, Melissa A; Hodges, James; Cowper, Diane

    2006-02-01

    The goal was to describe the association between post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and in-service sexual harassment in a nationally representative sample of Department of Veterans Affairs PTSD disability applicants. The study was a cross-sectional survey. Of 4,918 eligible veterans, 3,337 (68%) returned surveys. Nonresponse bias appeared to be minimal. After adjustment for other reported traumas, women's reported in-service sexual harassment severity was significantly associated with PTSD symptom severity (p men and for in-service sexual assault among the women. Men showed no association between in-service sexual harassment and PTSD (p = 0.33), although power was low for this test. Sexual harassment significantly contributed to female veterans' PTSD symptoms; its contribution to men's symptoms was unclear. We discuss mechanisms through which sexual harassment might affect PTSD symptom severity, including the possibility that sexual harassment sometimes meets the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, definition of a criterion A stressor.

  9. Child sexual abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalid, N.

    2001-01-01

    Background: Child sexual abuse with significant impact on victim's physical, mental and social health has now been recognized as existing on an appreciable scale worldwide. Diversity of opinions exist about the concept, types, prevalence and repercussions along with a paucity of systematic and scientific work in the developing world including Pakistan. Objective: This paper aims at reviewing the literature for clarification of concept, update of estimates and correlates, and to identify lines for future research. Data sources: The literature was search through BMJ-Medline for international data, supplemented by local data through CPSP-MEDLIP service. The search term child sexual abuse with associated sub-heads were used. No constraint of time period, publication type or source applied except english Language version Comparative findings: Wide variations identified in conceptual boundaries with consequent impact on prevalence estimates. Agreement found for its existence as an international problem with rates ranging from 7% - 36% for women and 3% - 29% for men. Female abused 1.5-3 times more than male with exponential high rates in age group 3-6 years and 8-11 years. In 2/3 cases the perpetrator identified belonged to nuclear or extended family. Significant association exists with early onset of psychiatric ailments like substance abuse, eating disorders, personality disorders, dissociative disorders and depression. Conclusion and Suggestion: The need for extensive research studies in immense in developing countries like Pakistan where environmental circumstances suggest its presence at rates higher than the identified elsewhere. In addition to facilitate awareness and perhaps to clarify the concept as well as the prevalence of child sexual abuse researchers need to select methodologies and instruments with international comparison in mind. (author)

  10. Implementation of integrated therapies for comorbid post-traumatic stress disorder and substance use disorders in community substance abuse treatment programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killeen, Therese K; Back, Sudie E; Brady, Kathleen T

    2015-05-01

    The high prevalence of trauma and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in individuals with substance use disorders (SUDs) presents a number of treatment challenges for community treatment providers and programs in the USA. Although several evidence-based, integrated therapies for the treatment of comorbid PTSD/SUD have been developed, rates of utilisation of such practices remain low in community treatment programs. The goal of this article was to review the extant literature on common barriers that prevent adoption and implementation of integrated treatments for PTSD/SUD among substance abuse community treatment programs. Organisational, provider-level and patient-level factors that drive practice decisions were discussed, including organisational philosophy of care policies, funding and resources, as well as provider and patient knowledge and attitudes related to implementation of new integrated treatments for comorbid PTSD and SUD. Understanding and addressing these community treatment challenges may facilitate use of evidence-based integrated treatments for comorbid PTSD and SUD. © 2015 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  11. Relações entre abuso sexual na infância, transtorno de estresse pós-traumático (TEPT) e prejuízos cognitivos Relaciones entre abuso sexual en la infancia, trastorno de estrés post-traumático (TEPT) y perjuicios cognitivos Relationships between sexual abuse in childhood, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and cognitive impairments

    OpenAIRE

    Jeane Lessinger Borges; Débora Dalbosco Dell'Aglio

    2008-01-01

    Este estudo teórico aponta as relações entre abuso sexual infantil, transtorno de estresse pós-traumático (TEPT) e prejuízos cognitivos. A perspectiva cognitiva dos efeitos do abuso sexual e do TEPT foi adotada nesta revisão. O abuso sexual contra crianças pode ser considerado um fator de risco para o desenvolvimento infantil, devido às severas seqüelas cognitivas, emocionais e comportamentais relacionadas à sua ocorrência, podendo seu impacto envolver efeitos a curto e longo prazos e estende...

  12. [Recognizing signs of sexual abuse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teunissen, T.A.; Wong, S.H.; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.

    2016-01-01

    Sexual abuse is very common. In the Netherlands 42% of women and 13% of men aged over 25 years have experienced unacceptable sexual behaviour. Most victims do not seek professional help nor do they report the abuse to the police, and most of the victims who do seek medical help do not mention the

  13. Pharmacotherapy for post-traumatic stress disorder- a systematic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a prevalent ... j (n:J:J Medical Research Council Unit on Anxiety and Stress Disorders, .... of the drugs used. ...... in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder related to childhood abuse in women.

  14. Fighting Child Sexual Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pesanayi Gwirayi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated secondary school pupils’ views on strategies that can be used to prevent child sexual abuse (CSA. A survey design was adopted as the operational framework for data gathering. Data were collected from three secondary schools, all in the Gweru district of Zimbabwe. The sample comprised 268 secondary pupils (50% female; M age = 15.42, SD = 1.376. Each participant was asked to write down three main strategies that can be used to fight CSA on a given questionnaire. The responses were then analyzed using the thematic content analysis technique. The study revealed that most pupils believed that CSA can be prevented through teaching them about it and also reporting to the police. Another significant finding was that pupils’ responses tended to vary with gender and level of education. Whereas female respondents suggested that CSA can be fought by avoiding strangers, saying no to sexual advances, and having reliable friends, their male counterparts suggested teaching the community about CSA, forming new clubs, and enacting life imprisonment for perpetrators, among other suggestions. In terms of level of education, Form 2 participants suggested avoiding strangers, staying home at night, whereas their Form 4 counterparts suggested lessons for Guidance and Counseling, saying no to sexual advances, and having reliable friends. These findings unequivocally demonstrate the need to vigorously engage secondary school pupils in activities aimed at fighting CSA to safeguard their inalienable human rights.

  15. Sexual Abuse Exposure Alters Early Processing of Emotional Words: Evidence from Event-Related Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grégoire, Laurent; Caparos, Serge; Leblanc, Carole-Anne; Brisson, Benoit; Blanchette, Isabelle

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the time course of emotional information processing between trauma-exposed and control participants, using electrophysiological measures. We conceived an emotional Stroop task with two types of words: trauma-related emotional words and neutral words. We assessed the evoked cerebral responses of sexual abuse victims without post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and no abuse participants. We focused particularly on an early wave (C1/P1), the N2pc, and the P3b. Our main result indicated an early effect (55–165 ms) of emotionality, which varied between non-exposed participants and sexual abuse victims. This suggests that potentially traumatic experiences modulate early processing of emotional information. Our findings showing neurobiological alterations in sexual abuse victims (without PTSD) suggest that exposure to highly emotional events has an important impact on neurocognitive function even in the absence of psychopathology. PMID:29379428

  16. Sexual Abuse Exposure Alters Early Processing of Emotional Words: Evidence from Event-Related Potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Grégoire

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to compare the time course of emotional information processing between trauma-exposed and control participants, using electrophysiological measures. We conceived an emotional Stroop task with two types of words: trauma-related emotional words and neutral words. We assessed the evoked cerebral responses of sexual abuse victims without post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD and no abuse participants. We focused particularly on an early wave (C1/P1, the N2pc, and the P3b. Our main result indicated an early effect (55–165 ms of emotionality, which varied between non-exposed participants and sexual abuse victims. This suggests that potentially traumatic experiences modulate early processing of emotional information. Our findings showing neurobiological alterations in sexual abuse victims (without PTSD suggest that exposure to highly emotional events has an important impact on neurocognitive function even in the absence of psychopathology.

  17. Treatment effects on insular and anterior cingulate cortex activation during classic and emotional Stroop interference in child abuse-related complex post-traumatic stress disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomaes, K.; Dorrepaal, E.; Draijer, P.J.; de Ruiter, M.B.; Elzinga, B.M.; van Balkom, A.J.L.M.; Smit, J.H.; Veltman, D.J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Functional neuroimaging studies have shown increased Stroop interference coupled with altered anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and insula activation in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). These brain areas are associated with error detection and emotional arousal. There is some evidence

  18. Treatment effects on insular and anterior cingulate cortex activation during classic and emotional Stroop interference in child abuse-related complex post-traumatic stress disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomaes, K.; Dorrepaal, E.; Draijer, N.; de Ruiter, M. B.; Elzinga, B. M.; van Balkom, A. J.; Smit, J. H.; Veltman, D. J.

    2012-01-01

    Functional neuroimaging studies have shown increased Stroop interference coupled with altered anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and insula activation in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). These brain areas are associated with error detection and emotional arousal. There is some evidence that

  19. Post-traumatic syringomyelia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freund, M.; Sartor, K.; Aschoff, A.; Spahn, B.

    1999-01-01

    The improvement of preclinical emergency medicine, better surgical and conservative therapies, and the development of intensive care units and specialized centers have improved the survival rate for patients with serious spinal cord injuries. Therefore, more sequelae of chronic spinal cord injuries such as post-traumatic spinal cord cavitations also occur. The first such case was described by Bastian in 1867. Generally, these cavitations were diagnosed from 2 months up to 32 years after the trauma. The overall prevalence of post-traumatic syringomyelia (PTS) is not known; however, with the increasing use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), its diagnosis has increased, ranging from 2.3% of paraplegic and tetraplegic patients in 1976 and 3.2% in 1985, to nearly 50% in a selected group of patients in 1991 and 1993. In 1995, a 4.45% incidence was reported. In our clinic we are currently treating 440 cases of syringomyelia, 140 of which are PTS. Several observations suggest more than one potential mechanism for the evolution of a post-traumatic cyst or PTS. Various factors, such as hemorrhage or, in particular, ischemia within the spinal cord, blockage of the cerebrosinal fluid (CSF) pathways around the cord or localized meningeal fibrosis either alone or in combination with other factors, may be involved. Clinically, sensory disturbances, loss of motor function, pain, and modification of the deep tendon reflexes are observed in most patients. On MRI, PTS is seen as a longitudinal, cystic cavity within the spinal cord, giving a hypointense signal on T 1 -weighted images and a hyperintense signal on T 2 -weighted images. For treatment planning it is mandatory to identify the lower and upper end of the PTS on the MRI. (orig.) [de

  20. Investigating sexual violence and abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Synnott, John

    2017-01-01

    This special issue brings together emerging research concerning the issue of Sexual Violence and Abuse from around the world. The importance of pulling together research that explores the central topic of sexual violence and abuse is more pressing than ever and having a collection of work using different methodological approaches to unique samples previously unexplored contributes significantly to our understanding towards this type of offence.

  1. Childhood Sexual Abuse and Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and frequency of abuse increases.” 76 o Among adolescents, suicide attempters report more sexual abuse than non-attempters ... suicide attempts among junior and senior high school youth. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 25, 358-372. 1011 ...

  2. [Post-traumatic tics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alegre, S; Chacón, J; Redondo, L; Navarro-Busto, C; Solana, B

    1996-10-01

    Secondary tics are those in which an aetiology justifying them can be found, as compared to idiopathic tics, which make up the majority, and the Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (SGT), which is, at the moment, of unknown origin. Of the possible aetiologies described as causing tics, craneo-encephalic trauma has been mentioned on very few occasions. We present a case of post-traumatic tics (verbal and neck) in a young man of 24, and review the published cases which can be considered to be of post-traumatic tics. We have found six cases of tics secondary to traumas, all craneo-encephalic, like ours (the one under study). The time interval between the blow and the appearance of the tic or tics varied between 2 weeks and 3 months. The absence of significant lesions seen in the complementary investigations make it impossible for us to discover the site of the lesion caused by the trauma. However, the presence in some cases of other tics before the trauma, and of family histories of tics, supports the idea of a genetic basis or predisposition to suffer this disorder.

  3. Post-traumatic hemobilia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlahos, L.; Kalovidouris, A.; Gouliamos, A.; Kailidou, E.

    1991-01-01

    Four patients with post-traumatic hemobilia were evaluated with arteriography over a 2-year period. In two patients hemobilia was of iatrogenic origin; in particular, one case appeared after a cholecystectomy, and the other was due to placement of a biliary stent with an endoscope. In the other two patients hemobilia was the result of a gun injury. Arteriography of the hepatic arterial system demonstrated two false aneurysms, extravasation of contrast medium through the biliary system in one patient and arterioportal fistula in another patient. It is concluded that arteriography of the hepatic arterial system is the method of choice for the evaluation and the possible treatment of patients with hemobilia. (author). 20 refs.; 4 figs

  4. Post-traumatic hemobilia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vlahos, L.; Kalovidouris, A.; Gouliamos, A.; Kailidou, E. (Athens Univ. (Greece))

    Four patients with post-traumatic hemobilia were evaluated with arteriography over a 2-year period. In two patients hemobilia was of iatrogenic origin; in particular, one case appeared after a cholecystectomy, and the other was due to placement of a biliary stent with an endoscope. In the other two patients hemobilia was the result of a gun injury. Arteriography of the hepatic arterial system demonstrated two false aneurysms, extravasation of contrast medium through the biliary system in one patient and arterioportal fistula in another patient. It is concluded that arteriography of the hepatic arterial system is the method of choice for the evaluation and the possible treatment of patients with hemobilia. (author). 20 refs.; 4 figs.

  5. Child sexual abuse: consequences and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornor, Gail

    2010-01-01

    Sexual abuse is a problem of epidemic proportions in the United States. Given the sheer numbers of sexually abused children, it is vital for pediatric nurse practitioners to understand both short-term and long-term consequences of sexual abuse. Understanding consequences of sexual abuse can assist the pediatric nurse practitioner in anticipating the physical and mental health needs of patients and also may assist in the identification of sexual abuse victims. Sexual abuse typically does not occur in isolation. Implications for practice will be discussed. Copyright © 2010 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Post-traumatic pseudomyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    London, Richard; Wick, Bruce; Kirschen, David

    2003-02-01

    Many clinicians have noted that patients demonstrate a myopic refractive change following Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI). This apparent myopic shift disappears with cycloplegia, yet stubbornly reappears as soon as the pharmaceutical effect wears off. We propose that this shift is secondary to an irritative lesion that affects the parasympathetic innervation, resulting in ciliary body contracture. The dilemma for the clinician is whether to provide the immediate relief of clear distance vision by prescribing additional minus lenses, or to work toward attempting to re-establish the baseline refractive error. The natural history of post-traumatic pseudomyopia in our experience involves one of the following three courses: (1) a transient condition that will occasionally resolve; (2) the typical case, a recalcitrant condition that will resolve under cycloplegic intervention, but immediately return as the cycloplegic wears off; or (3) a less-common subgroup of patients who continue to show an increase in myopia over time. Our description of these cases demonstrates management strategies (including atropinization) to relax accommodative spasm, traditional vision therapy techniques aimed at loosening the accommodative system, and refractive corrections. Pseudomyopia is one of many ocular and behavioral sequelae following TBI. By understanding the natural course and potential management options for post-traumatic pseudomyopia, the clinician will be better prepared to deal with these challenging cases. Flexibility is required, since options that work with one patient may prove ineffective with another. Counseling the patient as to potential outcomes given the natural history of this condition helps establish more-realistic expectations by the patients being treated.

  7. Phenomenology of the psychological consequences of sexual abuse in children and adolescents, depending on various factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nutskova E.V.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to psychological consequences of sexual abuse in children and adolescents. It presents review of domestic and foreign research of psychological injury in minors. The article gives results of complex psychological and psychiatric examination of 183 juvenile victims of sexual abuse. Psychological effects of sexual abuse in children and adolescents are identified and described on the basis of age, gender, clinical characteristics of the mental state of the victim, as well as the type and duration of the abuse. Intensity and expressiveness of post-traumatic response as well as coverage of personality spheres increase with aging. The data on the gender specificity of the sexual abuse effects suggest that girls more demonstrate internal forms, while external manifestations dominate in boys. The type and duration of sexual abuse determine a wide range of possible psychological consequences. It is noted that the severity of the psychological effects of sexual abuse in victims with mental disorders associated with the trauma is higher than in victims qualified to be mentally sane or having a mental illness, non-associated with psychologically traumatic situations. Psychological consequences exhibited by mentally sane victims show a decrease in their quality of life.

  8. Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can help abused children regain a sense of self-esteem, cope with feelings of guilt about the abuse, and begin the process of overcoming ... find Facts for Families © helpful and would like to make good mental health a reality, consider donating to the Campaign for ...

  9. Overview: Clinical Identification of Sexually Abused Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corwin, David L.; Olafson, Erna

    1993-01-01

    This introduction to the special issue on clinical identification of sexually abused children reviews the history of the study of child sexual abuse and describes the 14 papers included in the special issue. (JDD)

  10. SEXUAL ABUSE IN ADOLESCENTS - DATA FROM A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abused patients scored higher on depression rating scales than non sexually ... between sexual abuse and depresSIon, suicidal symptoms and alcohol nse is .... psychiatric symptoms, including negative cognitions, suicidal. Not present.

  11. Child Sexual Abuse in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantula, Fennie; Saloojee, Haroon

    2016-01-01

    Although child sexual abuse is a significant public health problem globally, its incidence, prevention, and management is less well described in resource-poor settings. In poorer settings prevention initiatives assume even more importance since resources for managing abused children are severely limited. This article examines the current status of policy and practice related to the prevention of child sexual abuse in Zimbabwe. It identifies implementation challenges and highlights opportunities that could be embraced to reduce CSA in Zimbabwe, based on evidence synthesized from recent work. Although Zimbabwe has a well-established legal and regulatory framework to protect children from child sexual abuse, implementation of existing policies is weak. Financial, human, and material resource constraints are frequently cited to explain limited prevention activity. Effective strategies for the prevention of child sexual abuse should focus on implementing existing legislation, targeting schoolchildren, and getting community involvement. A dedicated budget would help entrench these strategies, but gains can be achieved even in the absence of this.

  12. Sexual abuse in children -- what to know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... look at pornography Masturbating in front of a child Signs of Sexual Abuse in Children Suspect sexual abuse when children: Tell ... update 04-03-18. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Child Sexual Abuse Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., Inc. ...

  13. sexual abuse of children as a form of power abuse and abuse of the

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article investigates the relationship between sexual abuse, power and the body from a Catholic ... Some researchers recognize that power also plays a role in sexual abuse, but this abuse of ..... Gender, power, and organizational culture.

  14. child sexual abuse in zimbabwe

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    J MUGUMBATE

    This paper bemoans the current scourge of child- sexual abuse as well as the recent .... What we must bear in mind is that these are the. 'reported cases' ..... Plato was trying to advance a theory of motivation for human action and he explains ...

  15. Post-traumatic Stress Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Seedat

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD is among the most prevalentanxiety disorders, both in terms of lifetime and 12-month prevalencerates documented in epidemiological studies worldwide.

  16. Comorbid Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and Opioid Dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Rikinkumar S; Elmaadawi, Ahmed; Nasr, Suhayl; Haskin, John

    2017-09-03

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is predominant amongst individuals addicted to opioids and obscures the course of illness and the treatment outcome. We report the case of a patient with major depressive disorder and opioid dependence, who experienced post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms during a recent visit to the inpatient unit. The similarity of symptoms between post-traumatic stress disorder and opioid dependence is so high that, sometimes, it is a challenge to differentiate between these conditions. Since opioid withdrawal symptoms mimic hyper vigilance, this results in an exaggeration of the response of patients with post-traumatic stress disorder. This comorbidity is associated with worse health outcomes, as its pathophysiology involves a common neurobiological circuit. Opioid substitution therapy and psychotherapeutic medications in combination with evidence-based cognitive behavioral therapy devised for individuals with comorbid post-traumatic stress disorder and opioid dependence may improve treatment outcomes in this population. Therefore, we conclude that the screening for post-traumatic stress disorder in the opioid-abusing population is crucial. To understand the underlying mechanisms for this comorbidity and to improve the treatment response, further research should be encouraged.

  17. Concealment of Child Sexual Abuse in Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartill, Mike

    2013-01-01

    When the sexual abuse of children is revealed, it is often found that other nonabusing adults were aware of the abuse but failed to act. During the past twenty years or so, the concealment of child sexual abuse (CSA) within organizations has emerged as a key challenge for child protection work. Recent events at Pennsylvania State University (PSU)…

  18. Sexual Abuse of Children as a Form of Power Abuse and Abuse of the Body

    OpenAIRE

    Reynaert, Machteld

    2015-01-01

    This article investigates the relationship between sexual abuse, power and the body from a Catholic theological viewpoint. The article starts with the relationship between sexual abuse and power. It is argued that sexual abuse is always a form of power abuse. A second step examines the relation between sexual abuse and the body. We may not ignore the theme of the body when we speak about sexual abuse as a form of power abuse. The article also explores whether the body is a theme in recent (th...

  19. Childhood Sexual Victimization, Educational Attainment, and the Returns to Schooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robst, John

    2010-01-01

    Numerous studies show that survivors of childhood sexual abuse suffer as adults from depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, alcohol and drug abuse, and other mental illnesses. As such, the effect of experiencing traumatic events during childhood including sexual abuse can have lasting implications. The purpose of this paper is to examine…

  20. Psychotrauma and effective treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder in soldiers and peacekeepers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quarcoo David

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Psychotrauma occurs as a result to a traumatic event, which may involve witnessing someone's actual death or personally experiencing serious physical injury, assault, rape and sexual abuse, being held as a hostage, or a threat to physical or psychological integrity. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD is an anxiety disorder and was defined in the past as railway spine, traumatic war neurosis, stress syndrome, shell shock, battle fatigue, combat fatigue, or post-traumatic stress syndrome (PTSS. If untreated, post-traumatic stress disorder can impair relationships of those affected and strain their families and society. Deployed soldiers are especially at a high risk to be affected by PTSD but often receive inadequate treatment. Reviews to date have focused only on a single type of treatment or groups of soldiers from only one country. The aim of the current review was to evaluate characteristics of therapeutic methods used internationally to treat male soldiers' PTSD after peacekeeping operations in South Eastern Europe and the Gulf wars. This systematic literature review returned results pertaining to the symptoms, diagnosis, timing and effectiveness of treatment. Sample groups and controls were relatively small and, therefore, the results lack generalizability. Further research is needed to understand the influence and unique psychological requirements of each specific military operation on the internationally deployed soldiers.

  1. Sexual Abuse Trauma Among Chinese Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Tsun-yin Echo

    1998-01-01

    This study conducted interviews with 19 survivors of sexual abuse and three social workers in Taiwan. It found sexual stigmatization and feelings of disempowerment and betrayal as the most pervasive trauma complex among the abuse survivors. Effects of cultural attitudes toward sexual victimization of women and Chinese patriarchal familialism are…

  2. Play Therapy Behaviors of Sexually Abused Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homeyer, Linda E.; Landreth, Garry L.

    The purpose of this study was to identify play therapy behaviors of sexually abused children. Surveys were sent to members of the Association for Play Therapy, of which 249 respondents, who worked with 16 or more sexually abused children, were used. Results indicate that there are identifiable and highly interrelated PTBs of sexually abused…

  3. Child Sexual Abuse: A School Leadership Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Mark W.

    2010-01-01

    Child Sexual Abuse is a growing epidemic. In the United States, 1 in 6 boys and 1 in 4 girls will be sexually abused before reaching adulthood. From a legal standpoint, inappropriate sexual relations between a faculty/staff member and a student are a growing national concern. In 1991, the Supreme Court heard the Franklin v. Gwinnett County Public…

  4. Early Prevention Toward Sexual Abuse on Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ira Paramastri

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Child sexual abuse is a worldwide problem. Although most studies on the longterm consequences of child sexual abuse have focused on women, sexual abuse of both boys and girls is common. Peer sexual abuse in schools was an often overlooked problem that contributes to a hostile school environment: one major study found that 85% of girls and 76% of boys reported experiencing some form of sexual abuse in school. 85% of child sexual abuse is committed by relatives, close family friend or an adult that the child knows and trusts. The childhood sexual abuse variables taken into account are commonly age of onset, duration, abuse forms and relationship between the child and the perpetrator. The objective of this study was to gather information or opinion about sexual abuse concept, methods and media of the elementary students, parents, teachers and experts. A qualitative study, involving one to one interviews, was conducted with 7 experts, focus group discussion with 40 elementary students, and with 40 parents in Yogyakarta district about child sexual abuse issues. Data were analysed according to Miles and Huberman’s data reduction, data display and conclusion verification process. These findings strongly indicate that boys and girls are vulnerable to this form of childhood sexual abuse ; the similarity in the likelihood for multiple behavioral, mental and social outcomes among men and women suggest the need to identify and treat all adults affected by child sexual abuse. Themes related to the child sexual abuse were: paperwork design, good facilitator, guidelines for students, parents and teachers. Students prefer media that can help them understand concept with komik paperwork as media for early prevention. Parents, teachers and experts prefer that this prevention program can run as soon. With careful paperwork design and evaluation of prevention program, the success of program implementation can be enhanced.

  5. Children and adolescents treated for post-traumatic stress disorder ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Children and adolescents can develop post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after exposure to a range of traumatic events, including domestic, political or community ... isolation (39%), fear or anxiety (37%), problematic family relationships (29%), emotional (27%) and physical (23%) abuse, and lack of social support (23%).

  6. Disclosure and Psychological Well-Being of Sexually Abused Adolescents in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Kindy Yuk-Ip

    2015-01-01

    The role of disclosure on psychological well-being of adolescents with child sexual abuse experience was investigated in a subsample of 74 disclosers among 800 adolescents recruited in the community in Hong Kong. The results supported that CSA experiences have differential impact on adolescents' psychological well-being. Family characteristics of the disclosers accounted for only a small amount of the variance in an array of psychological well-being measures. CSA characteristics were robust predictors of disclosers' sexual eroticism and externalizing behavioral symptoms. Disclosers' cognitive appraisal of CSA experience and quality of parental attachment were strong predictors of their self-esteem and internalizing behavioral problems. After controlling for the aforementioned factors, negative disclosure experience still significantly predicted lower self-esteem, higher sexual anxiety, more internalizing behavior, and more severe post-traumatic stress disorder responses. Research to understand the factors that generate negative disclosure experiences is needed for developing effective intervention strategies to mitigate the negative consequences of disclosure.

  7. Child sexual abuse in Zaria, North

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof Ezechukwu

    2012-02-07

    Feb 7, 2012 ... psychological trauma of sexual abuse, which manifests as major stress and ... to have been sexually active in their adolescence, which highlights some ... presentation in the clinic was 14 days, however three cases presented ...

  8. SEXUAL EXPLOITATION AND ABUSE BY UN PEACEKEEPERS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Allaiac

    from sexual exploitation and sexual abuse (ST/SGB/2003/13) (UN, Secretary .... In addition, in most situations, UN personnel have enjoyed immunity from local .... 9 Official UN statistics show a higher incidence of allegations reported against.

  9. Imaging Neuroinflammation in Post Traumatic Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    Post traumatic stress disorder ( PTSD ) is a complex...several central nervous system conditions including post - traumatic stress disorder ( PTSD ) and traumatic brain injury (TBI). Microglia represent over...trials. We have subsequently identified a better agent for interrogating TSPO in post - traumatic stress disorder ( PTSD ) subjects, 18-F PBR111, a

  10. Review: Childhood and Adolescent Sexual Abuse: Incidence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sexual abuse in children and adolescents is a silent epidemic because despite the fact that close to 20% of children and adolescents (1 out 5) are affected, less than 10% of the cases get reported to law enforcement agents or medical practitioners. Sexual abuse is associated with physical injuries such as bruises and ...

  11. Educator Sexual Abuse: Two Case Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Ann Wolbert; Welner, Michael; Willis, Danny G.

    2010-01-01

    Sexual abuse by educators has become an increasingly noted type of sexual abuse, especially among adolescents, for two reasons. First, there is a potential for these cases to be silent and prolonged and second, when disclosed, the forensic implications usually include both criminal and/or civil sanctions. For forensic case evaluations,…

  12. Child sexual abuse and family outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Rinke; Bijleveld, C.C.J.H.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the association between different characteristics of sexual abuse and adverse family outcomes in later life. Through archived court files, a large sample of Dutch men and women who have been sexually abused as a child could be identified. Outcome variables were assessed

  13. Violence, sexual abuse and health in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Curtis, Tine; Larsen, Finn B; Helweg-Larsen, Karin

    2002-01-01

    The purposes of the study were to analyse the lifetime prevalence of violence and sexual abuse among the Inuit in Greenland and to study the associations between health and having been the victim of violence or sexual abuse. Associations were studied with specific attention to possible differences...... between women and men. Further, response rates were analysed specifically in order to understand consequences of including questions on violence and sexual abuse in the questionnaire survey. The analyses were based on material from a cross-sectional health interview survey conducted during 1993......-94 with participation from a random sample of the Inuit population in Greenland (N = 1393). The prevalence of ever having been a victim of violence was 47% among women and 48% among men. Women had more often than men been sexually abused (25% and 6%) (p sexually abused in childhood (8...

  14. Subthreshold Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eylem Ozten

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Post-traumatic stress disorder is a very broad category among mental disorders. Since its inclusion in DSM-III, the diagnostic criteria of post-traumatic stress disorder has undergone a number of changes. The diagnosis and treatment of people who have some symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder without meeting full criteria still remains controversial. Although subthreshold post-traumatic stress disorder has been debated since it was first defined, the presence of subthreshold post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms has found to raise the risk for suicidal ideation significantly. This article overviews the definitions of trauma related disorders in history of psychiatry and highlights the need to define subthreshold post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms that were reported to be associated with impairment, comorbidity, and suicidal ideation. Clinical differences between subthreshold and full post-traumatic stress disorder will also be discussed.

  15. Violence, sexual abuse and health in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Curtis, Tine; Larsen, Finn B; Helweg-Larsen, Karin

    2002-01-01

    The purposes of the study were to analyse the lifetime prevalence of violence and sexual abuse among the Inuit in Greenland and to study the associations between health and having been the victim of violence or sexual abuse. Associations were studied with specific attention to possible differences...... between women and men. Further, response rates were analysed specifically in order to understand consequences of including questions on violence and sexual abuse in the questionnaire survey. The analyses were based on material from a cross-sectional health interview survey conducted during 1993......-94 with participation from a random sample of the Inuit population in Greenland (N = 1393). The prevalence of ever having been a victim of violence was 47% among women and 48% among men. Women had more often than men been sexually abused (25% and 6%) (p abused in childhood (8...

  16. SEXUAL EXPLOITATION AND ABUSE BY UN PEACEKEEPERS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Allaiac

    sexual exploitation of children by peacekeepers is particularly insidious. ... sexual exploitation and abuse should involve an understanding of the social .... The charges of sexual misconduct, and the consequent media exposure, have ..... awareness programmes such as video tapes, lectures and training manuals, designed.

  17. SEXUAL ABUSE OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOLS: THE NEED FOR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KEY TERMS: Sexual abuse, social work, social exchange theory, Botswana. ... The problem of sexual abuse of children by teachers in the education system is not .... to leave an abusive relationship when the costs of the relationship outweigh ...

  18. Skeletal injuries associated with sexual abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Karl; Chapman, Stephen; Hall, Christine M.

    2004-01-01

    Background: Sexual abuse is often associated with physical abuse, the most common injuries being bruising and other soft-tissue injuries, but fractures occur in 5% of sexually abused children. The fractures described to date have formed part of the spectrum of injuries in these children and have not been specifically related to the abusive act. Objective: To describe concurrent sexual abuse and fractures. Materials and methods: Three children with pelvic or femoral shaft injuries in association with sexual abuse. Results: A 3-year-old girl with extensive soft-tissue injuries to the arms, legs and perineum also sustained fractures of both pubic rami and the sacral side of the right sacro-iliac joint. A 5-month-old girl with an introital tear was shown to have an undisplaced left femoral shaft fracture. A 5-year-old girl presented with an acute abdomen and pneumoperitoneum due to a ruptured rectum following sexual abuse. She had old healed fractures of both pubic rami with disruption of the symphysis pubis. Conclusions: Although the finding of a perineal injury in a young child may be significant enough for the diagnosis of abuse, additional skeletal injuries revealed by radiography will assist in confirmation of that diagnosis and may be more common than hitherto suspected. (orig.)

  19. Skeletal injuries associated with sexual abuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Karl; Chapman, Stephen [Department of Radiology, Birmingham Children' s Hospital, Steelhouse Lane, B4 6NH, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Hall, Christine M. [Department of Radiology, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London (United Kingdom)

    2004-08-01

    Background: Sexual abuse is often associated with physical abuse, the most common injuries being bruising and other soft-tissue injuries, but fractures occur in 5% of sexually abused children. The fractures described to date have formed part of the spectrum of injuries in these children and have not been specifically related to the abusive act. Objective: To describe concurrent sexual abuse and fractures. Materials and methods: Three children with pelvic or femoral shaft injuries in association with sexual abuse. Results: A 3-year-old girl with extensive soft-tissue injuries to the arms, legs and perineum also sustained fractures of both pubic rami and the sacral side of the right sacro-iliac joint. A 5-month-old girl with an introital tear was shown to have an undisplaced left femoral shaft fracture. A 5-year-old girl presented with an acute abdomen and pneumoperitoneum due to a ruptured rectum following sexual abuse. She had old healed fractures of both pubic rami with disruption of the symphysis pubis. Conclusions: Although the finding of a perineal injury in a young child may be significant enough for the diagnosis of abuse, additional skeletal injuries revealed by radiography will assist in confirmation of that diagnosis and may be more common than hitherto suspected. (orig.)

  20. Sexual abuse of children: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkel, K C

    1987-01-01

    An increasing number of studies in the past decade have shown that sexual abuse of children is disturbingly common. The author reviews some of the more recent knowledge about the problem, with particular reference to medical implications. The incidence and distribution of the problem and the relative importance of the medical examination are reviewed, and the diagnostic significance of clinical presentations such as vulvovaginitis, recurrent urinary tract infection and masturbation is evaluated. The agents responsible for sexually transmitted diseases in abused children are reviewed. Many crucial psychosocial issues are raised in the evaluation and management of sexual abuse. The author discusses some aspects of abuse that are hard to confront, such as the possible pleasure of the child and the nonoffending role of the mother in cases of incest. Information from sources other than the medical literature on the characteristics of abusers, therapy and prevention is reviewed. The medical implications of the Badgley Report are also discussed. PMID:3801988

  1. Sexual abuse and the problem of embodiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, L

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, trauma, sexual abuse, and some of the potential resulting long-term effects, are explored in terms of the problem of embodiment and the formation of personal identity and psychological integrity. That is, what effect does severe sexual abuse have on an individual's, particularly a child's, sense of living in his or her body and, by extension, living in the world? First, trauma and dissociation are analyzed and linked to the development and maintenance of a "posttraumatic" sense of personal identity. Then, several disorders associated with sexual abuse--dissociation, multiple personality disorder, eating disorders, somatization disorder, self-mutilation, suicide, and suicide attempts--are examined in terms of their phenomenological coherence and relation to the problem of embodiment. This conceptual framework may be of use to clinicians and researchers assessing and treating the survivors of sexual abuse.

  2. [Post-traumatic stress disorder after childbirth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korábová, I; Masopustová, Z

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to introduce the issue of post-traumatic stress disorder after childbirth to health care professionals. The text focuses on the diagnostic definition of post-traumatic stress disorder after childbirth, symptoms, physiological background, prevalence, course, risk factors and consequences of post-traumatic stress disorder after childbirth for a woman, her child and her partner. Options for interventions and therapy are outlined as well.

  3. Catecholamines in Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    CONTRACT NUMBER Catecholamines in post - traumatic stress disorder 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-08-1-0327 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d...emotionally arousing experiences are typically vivid and persistent. The recurrent, intrusive memories of traumatic events in post - traumatic stress disorder ...AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-08-1-0327 TITLE: Catecholamines in post - traumatic stress

  4. Integrating Art into Group Treatment for Adults with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder from Childhood Sexual Abuse: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Carol-Lynne J.

    2015-01-01

    Current research supports the use of exposure-based treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and integrated treatments show potential for enhanced symptom reduction. This pilot study developed a manualized group treatment integrating art interventions with exposure, grounding, and narrative therapy for five adults with PTSD who were…

  5. School Nurses Avoid Addressing Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engh Kraft, Lisbet; Rahm, GullBritt; Eriksson, Ulla-Britt

    2017-01-01

    Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a global public health problem with major consequences for the individual child and society. An earlier Swedish study showed that the school nurses did not initially talk about nor mention CSA as one form of child abuse. For the child to receive adequate support, the disclosure is a precondition and is dependent on an…

  6. Psychological and Physical Health of Nonoffending Parents After Disclosure of Sexual Abuse of Their Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyr, Mireille; Frappier, Jean-Yves; Hébert, Martine; Tourigny, Marc; McDuff, Pierre; Turcotte, Marie-Ève

    2016-10-01

    Disclosure of child sexual abuse can be traumatic for nonoffending parents. Research has shown its impact on mothers' mental health, which includes heightened psychological distress, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder. Very little is known, however, about its impact on their physical health or on fathers' health. The self-perceived mental and physical health of nonoffending parents after child sexual abuse disclosure was compared to determine gender-related differences in this regard. Interviews were conducted with 109 mothers and 43 fathers of 6- to 13-year-old sexually abused children. Bivariate analyses revealed that a fair proportion of parents reported psychological and physical problems after disclosure. However, proportionally more mothers than fathers reported psychological distress, depression, and use of professional services. Fathers were more likely to resort to health services instead of social services and to use medication for depression. Study findings provide leads for health and social service providers for the development of intervention protocols and referral procedures sensitive to gender issues, and they shed new light on specific needs of nonoffending parents.

  7. Typological and Integrative Models of Sexual Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demidova L.Y.,

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the basic typological and integrative theoretical models that explain the occurrence of child sexual abuse and the differences detected among the perpetrators of crimes against sexual integrity of minors. A comprehensive review of the theoretical concepts of sexual abuse in our country, in fact has not been carried out, and in this paper for the first time we made such an attempt. It is shown that the existing notions of sexual abuse largely overlap each other, but each of the models somehow takes into account the factors not explicitly addressed in other concepts. Systematic consideration of the theoretical models of sexual abuse can generalize and systematize the available data on the mechanisms of pedophile behavior. This review provides an opportunity to develop a new benchmark in the study of sexual abuse, get closer to building the most accurate and comprehensive model. In turn, this may contribute to solving the questions about the factors, dynamics, and the prevention of criminal sexual conduct against children

  8. Effects of expressive writing on sexual dysfunction, depression, and PTSD in women with a history of childhood sexual abuse: Results from a randomized clinical trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meston, Cindy M.; Lorenz, Tierney A.; Stephenson, Kyle R.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Women with a history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) have high rates of depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, and sexual problems in adulthood. Aim We tested an expressive writing based intervention for its effects on psychopathology, sexual function, satisfaction and distress in women who have a history of CSA. Main Outcome measures Validated self-report measures of psychopathology and sexual function were conducted at post-treatment, 2 weeks, one month, and six months. Methods Seventy women with CSA histories completed five 30-minute sessions of expressive writing, either with a trauma focus or a sexual schema focus. Results Women in both writing interventions exhibited improved symptoms of depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Women who were instructed to write about the impact of the abuse on their sexual schema were significantly more likely to recover from sexual dysfunction. Conclusions Expressive writing may improve depressive and PTSD symptoms in women with CSA histories. Sexual schema-focused expressive writing in particular appears to improve sexual problems, especially for depressed women with CSA histories. Both treatments are accessible, cost-effective, and acceptable to patients. PMID:23875721

  9. Predicting Resilience in Sexually Abused Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Javonda; Nelson-Gardell, Debra

    2012-01-01

    This research examined factors that predicted resilience in sexually abused adolescents. Using Bronfenbrenner's Process-Person-Context-Time (PPCT) ecological model, this study considered the proximal and distal factors that would contribute to adolescents' reactions to sexual victimization. This correlational study used hierarchical regression…

  10. [Intra and extra-familiar sexual abuse].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taveira, Francisco; Frazão, Sofia; Dias, Ricardo; Matos, Eduarda; Magalhães, Teresa

    2009-01-01

    The sexual abuse of a child or young person constitutes a major social and public health problem and there is recent evidence that intra-familial (IF) sexual abuses are more serious in their consequences than extra-familial (EF). However, there are no studies on this phenomenon in Portugal. Thus, the aim of the present study is to contribute to a better characterization of these types of abuses and to identify possible differences between IF and EF cases. A retrospective study was preformed based on medico-legal reports related to victims below the age of 18, suspected of being sexually abused (n = 764), corresponding to 67% of the total of observed sexual crimes. Results revealed that 34.9% of the abuses are IF and they show statistically significant differences when compared to EF cases. These are due to the following factors found in IF situations: a) lower victim age; b) closeness between victim and abuser; c) abusers with a higher rate of previous sexual abuse; d) sexual practices of reduced physical intrusion; e) decreased physical violence but increased emotional violence; f) greater delay between last abuse and the forensic exam; g) reduced number of injuries or biological evidence (none in the great majority of the cases). Results point out the existence of several characteristics in IF abuse that have been identified as factors that influence the severity of the abuse consequences. Among them are: a) lower victim age; b) greater proximity to the abuser; c) increased amount of emotional violence. These factors account for the reduced visibility of this kind of cases and therefore explain their delayed disclosure and diagnosis. The association of this fact with the reduced intrusiveness of this sort of practice and the consequent decrease in number of injuries and other evidence leads to a marked reduction of the number of cases where evidence of the abuse can be found by physical examination alone. The above aspects underlie the need of using different

  11. Cultural Issues in Disclosures of Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontes, Lisa Aronson; Plummer, Carol

    2010-01-01

    Cultural norms affect the likelihood that child sexual abuse will be discovered by an adult or disclosed by a child. Cultural norms also affect whether abused children's families will report child sexual abuse to authorities. This article explores the ways ethnic and religious culture affect child sexual abuse disclosure and reporting, both in the…

  12. Health Professionals' Responses to Disclosure of Child Sexual Abuse History: Female Child Sexual Abuse Survivors' Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, Kim; Julich, Shirley; Glover, Marewa; Gautam, Jeny

    2010-01-01

    This study reports on a postal questionnaire, conducted in 2004, with female survivors of historic child sexual abuse. The questionnaire explored their experiences of health professionals' responsiveness to disclosure of child sexual abuse history. Of 61 participants, aged between 22 and 65, 69% had disclosed to health professionals. Those who had…

  13. Child Sexual Abuse and Exploitation: Guest Editor’s Introduction

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Salter

    2015-01-01

    One of the most unnerving aspects of child sexual abuse is that it is constantly manifesting in unexpected ways. The current Royal Commission into Institutional Responses to Child Sexual Abuse has collected testimony of abuse in churches, schools, out-of-home care, hospitals and religious communities, demonstrating the breadth of institutional arrangements whose structures and cultures have facilitated child sexual abuse. Cases of serious and prolonged sexual abuse in family contexts have bee...

  14. Signs of Childhood Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Kids Cyber SafeCyber safety is important for kids. Parents should monitor their child’s internet and mobile device use.Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs)Read Article >>Sex and SexualitySexually Transmitted Infections (STIs)Learn about sexually ...

  15. Sexual Revictimization and PTSD: An Exploratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arata, Catalina M.

    1999-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between adult/adolescent sexual revictimization and the development of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in women with histories of child sexual abuse (N=41). Results show that women with repeated victimization were significantly more likely to have a lifetime diagnosis of PTSD, and the majority of repeated…

  16. Negligent Hiring and Retaining of Sexually Abusive Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regotti, Terri L.

    1992-01-01

    Explores negligent hiring, supervision, and retention of teachers who sexually abuse students. Examines the issue of defamation and suggests school policy that will work toward eradication of sexual abuse of students by teachers. (33 references) (MLF)

  17. Knowledge, attitudes and practices of parents on child sexual abuse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    preventable harm and trauma of sexual abuse in rural communities of Tanzania. .... about preventing child sexual abuse was measured by 10 Likert's scale-type ..... Bensley, L., van Eenwyk, J. & Simmons K. (2000) Self-reported childhood ...

  18. Sexual abuse and psychiatric disorder in England: results from the 2007 Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonas, S; Bebbington, P; McManus, S; Meltzer, H; Jenkins, R; Kuipers, E; Cooper, C; King, M; Brugha, T

    2011-04-01

    Evidence is accumulating that child sexual abuse (CSA) is associated with many psychiatric disorders in adulthood. This paper uses the detailed information available from the 2007 Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey of England (APMS 2007) to quantify links between CSA and a range of psychiatric conditions. The prevalence of psychiatric disorder was established in a random sample of the English household population (n=7403), which also provided sociodemographic and experiential information. We analyzed six types of common mental disorder, alcohol abuse and drug abuse, and people who screened positively for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and eating disorders. All were strongly and highly significantly associated with CSA, particularly if non-consensual sexual intercourse was involved, for which odds ratios (ORs) ranged from 3.7 to 12.1. These disorders were also related to adult sexual abuse (ASA), although the likelihood of reverse causality is then increased. Revictimization in adulthood was common, and increased the association of CSA with disorder. For several disorders, the relative odds were higher in females but formal tests for moderation by gender were significant only for common mental disorders and only in relation to non-consensual sexual intercourse. The population attributable fraction (PAF) was higher in females in all cases. The detailed and high-quality data in APMS 2007 provided important confirmation both of the strength of association of CSA with psychiatric disorder and of its relative non-specificity. Our results have major implications at the public health level and the individual level, in particular the need for better recognition and treatment of the sequelae of CSA.

  19. 'Unrecognized victims': Sexual abuse against male street children in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bernt Lindtjorn

    Conclusions- Sexual abuse against male children around Merkato area is rampant, but received less or no attention ..... abusers and started protecting myself from such abuse. Figure 1: .... Then I ran away fast with determination and without.

  20. Sexual Anxiety and Eroticism Predict the Development of Sexual Problems in Youth With a History of Sexual Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Simon, Valerie A.; Feiring, Candice

    2008-01-01

    Youth with confirmed histories of sexual abuse (N = 118) were followed longitudinally to examine associations between their initial sexual reactions to abuse and subsequent sexual functioning. Participants were interviewed at abuse discovery (ages 8 through 15) and again 1 and 6 years later. Eroticism and sexual anxiety emerged as distinct indices of abuse-specific sexual reactions and predicted subsequent sexual functioning. Eroticism was associated with indicators of heightened sexuality, i...

  1. Child Sexual Abuse and Adolescent Prostitution: A Comparative Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seng, Magnus J.

    1989-01-01

    Explored relationship between sexual abuse and adolescent prostitution by comparing 70 sexually abused children with 35 prostitution-involved children on 22 variables. Findings suggest that relationship is not direct, but involves runaway behavior as intervening variable. Concludes that it is not so much sexual abuse that leads to prostitution, as…

  2. Child Sexual Abuse Myths: Attitudes, Beliefs, and Individual Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromer, Lisa DeMarni; Goldsmith, Rachel E.

    2010-01-01

    Child sexual abuse myths comprise incorrect beliefs regarding sexual abuse, victims, and perpetrators. Relations among myth acceptance, responses to disclosure, legal decisions, and victims' subsequent psychological and health outcomes underscore the importance of understanding child sexual abuse myths. Despite accurate knowledge regarding child…

  3. Healing from Childhood Sexual Abuse: A Theoretical Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draucker, Claire Burke; Martsolf, Donna S.; Roller, Cynthia; Knapik, Gregory; Ross, Ratchneewan; Stidham, Andrea Warner

    2011-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse is a prevalent social and health care problem. The processes by which individuals heal from childhood sexual abuse are not clearly understood. The purpose of this study was to develop a theoretical model to describe how adults heal from childhood sexual abuse. Community recruitment for an ongoing broader project on sexual…

  4. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PDQ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... stress (PTS) is a lot like post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) but not as severe. Patients have a ... PTS) are a lot like symptoms of other stress-related disorders. PTS has many of the same symptoms as ...

  5. Readiness to reconcile and post-traumatic distress in German survivors of wartime rapes in 1945.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichhorn, S; Stammel, N; Glaesmer, H; Klauer, T; Freyberger, H J; Knaevelsrud, C; Kuwert, P

    2015-05-01

    Sexual violence and wartime rapes are prevalent crimes in violent conflicts all over the world. Processes of reconciliation are growing challenges in post-conflict settings. Despite this, so far few studies have examined the psychological consequences and their mediating factors. Our study aimed at investigating the degree of longtime readiness to reconcile and its associations with post-traumatic distress within a sample of German women who experienced wartime rapes in 1945. A total of 23 wartime rape survivors were compared to age- and gender-matched controls with WWII-related non-sexual traumatic experiences. Readiness to reconcile was assessed with the Readiness to Reconcile Inventory (RRI-13). The German version of the Post-traumatic Diagnostic Scale (PDS) was used to assess post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptomatology. Readiness to reconcile in wartime rape survivors was higher in those women who reported less post-traumatic distress, whereas the subscale "openness to interaction" showed the strongest association with post-traumatic symptomatology. Moreover, wartime rape survivors reported fewer feelings of revenge than women who experienced other traumatization in WWII. Our results are in line with previous research, indicating that readiness to reconcile impacts healing processes in the context of conflict-related traumatic experiences. Based on the long-lasting post-traumatic symptomatology we observed that our findings highlight the need for psychological treatment of wartime rape survivors worldwide, whereas future research should continue focusing on reconciliation within the therapeutic process.

  6. The Relationship Between Sexual Abuse and Risky Sexual Behavior Among Adolescent Boys: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homma, Yuko; Wang, Naren; Saewyc, Elizabeth; Kishor, Nand

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Childhood and adolescent sexual abuse has been shown to lead to increased odds of sexual behaviors that lead to sexually transmitted infections and early pregnancy involvement. Research, meta-analyses, and interventions, however, have focused primarily on girls and young women who have experienced abuse, yet some adolescent boys are also sexually abused. We performed a meta-analysis of the existing studies to assess the magnitudes of the link between a history of sexual abuse and each of three risky sexual behaviors among adolescent boys in North America. Methods The three outcomes were a) unprotected sexual intercourse, b) multiple sexual partners, and c) pregnancy involvement. Weighted mean effect sizes were computed from 10 independent samples, from nine studies published between 1990 and 2011. Results Sexually abused boys were significantly more likely than non-abused boys to report all three risky sexual behaviors. Weighted mean odds ratios were 1.91 for unprotected intercourse, 2.91 for multiple sexual partners, and 4.81 for pregnancy involvement. Conclusions Our results indicate that childhood and adolescent sexual abuse can substantially Influence sexual behavior in adolescence among male survivors. To improve sexual health for all adolescents, even young men, we should strengthen sexual abuse prevention initiatives, raise awareness about male sexual abuse survivors’ existence and sexual health issues, improve sexual health promotion for abused young men, and screen all people, regardless of gender, for a history of sexual abuse. PMID:22727072

  7. Comorbidade entre transtorno de estresse pós-traumático e abuso e dependência de álcool e drogas: uma revisão da literatura Comorbidity of post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD with alcohol and drug abuse and dependency: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloisa de Souza Dantas

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTO: Pesquisas revelam uma alta comorbidade entre o transtorno de estresse pós-traumático (TEPT e o abuso e dependência de álcool e drogas (ADAD. OBJETIVOS: Descrever a natureza da associação entre TEPT e ADAD, as diferenças entre os gêneros feminino e masculino, bem como os principais tratamentos utilizados. MÉTODOS: Pesquisa bibliográfica entre os anos de 1995 e 2007 no PubMed, utilizando os termos "trauma" AND "alcohol", "trauma" AND "substance abuse", "trauma" AND "dependence", "trauma" AND "drugs", "posttraumatic stress" AND "alcohol", posttraumatic stress" AND "substance abuse", "posttraumatic stress" AND "dependence", "posttraumatic stress" AND "drugs". RESULTADOS: As seguintes hipóteses foram identificadas: 1 o abuso de substâncias aumenta os riscos para a ocorrência de TEPT em virtude de estilos de vida que expõem mais o sujeito à ocorrência de traumas e pelo fato de as drogas potencializarem as seqüelas do trauma; 2 o TEPT levaria ao aumento do uso de álcool e drogas acompanhado de possível abuso com o objetivo de aliviar sintomas decorrentes do transtorno. Conclusões: A identificação precoce da comorbidade entre o TEPT e o ADAD é fundamental para o bom prognóstico do paciente, bem como o atendimento adequado às vítimas de situações traumáticas para que sejam minimizadas as chances da ocorrência do TEPT.BACKGROUND: The literature reveals high comorbidity rates between post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD and substance abuse and dependence (SAD. OBJECTIVES: This paper seeks to describe the relationship between the two disorders; the gender differences; and the primary treatments used to reduce PTSD as well as SAD symptoms. METHODS: A review of the literature between 1995 and 2007. A PubMed search was used to find articles with the key words: "trauma" AND "alcohol", "trauma" AND "substance abuse", "trauma" AND "dependence", "trauma" AND "drugs", "post traumatic stress" AND "alcohol", post traumatic

  8. Sexual abuse evaluation in urological practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beck, Jacobus Johannes Hendrikus

    2013-01-01

    The primary aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence of sexual abuse in a urological outpatient clinic. Can differences been made in urological population, i.e. general urological clinic, a university urological clinic and a tertiary university pelvic floor clinic? Do urologists inquire

  9. Rural Child Sexual Abuse Prevention and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, JoAnn; Murty, Susan A.

    1990-01-01

    Reviews literature on rural child sexual abuse and treatment. Surveys providers in rural Washington treatment programs. Responses describe agency characteristics, services, delivery problems, and suggested solutions. Reports providers' perceptions of service quality and interagency cooperation. Cites as problems heavy caseloads, lack of staff, and…

  10. Educators' Experience of Managing Sexually Abused Learners ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using availability-sampling methods, four educators from a local primary school were interviewed and the data systematically analysed in accordance with Morrisette's (1999) seven–step procedural model. The present study confirmed the finding of Skinner (1999) and Mzamo (2003) that managing cases of sexually abused ...

  11. Psychological Symptoms in Sexually Abused Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Judith A.; Mannarino, Anthony P.

    1988-01-01

    The report examined psychological symptoms exhibited by 24 girls (ages 6-12) evaluated within six months of being sexually abused. Results showed a marked discrepancy between child and parent reports of symptoms with children not reporting as many symptoms of depression, anxiety, or low self-esteem as parents. (Author/DB)

  12. Sexual Abuse and the Problem of Embodiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Leslie

    1992-01-01

    Potential long-term effects of the trauma of severe sexual abuse on a child's sense of living in his/her body and in the world are explored. Trauma and dissociation are analyzed and linked to a posttraumatic sense of personal identity. Then dissociation, multiple personality disorder, eating disorders, somatization disorder, self-mutilation, and…

  13. CHILD SEXUAL ABUSE IN ZIMBABWE: PREVENTION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jacob Mugumbate

    that social workers in Zimbabwe have a role to play at all the three levels of intervention. KEY TERMS: Child sexual abuse (CSA), social work, prevention,. Meili's model. ..... network/2013/mar/19/world-social-work-day-fair-global- · economy1.

  14. Containing the Secret of Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElvaney, Rosaleen; Greene, Sheila; Hogan, Diane

    2012-01-01

    This study reports a grounded theory study of the process of how children tell of their experiences of child sexual abuse from the perspectives of young people and their parents. Individual interviews were conducted with 22 young people aged 8 to 18, and 14 parents. A theoretical model was developed that conceptualises the process of disclosure as…

  15. Response to Individualized Homeopathic Treatment for Depression in Climacteric Women with History of Domestic Violence, Marital Dissatisfaction or Sexual Abuse: Results from the HOMDEP-MENOP Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macías-Cortés, Emma Del Carmen; Llanes-González, Lidia; Aguilar-Faisal, Leopoldo; Asbun-Bojalil, Juan

    2018-06-05

     Although individualized homeopathic treatment is effective for depression in climacteric women, there is a lack of well-designed studies of its efficacy for depression in battered women or in post-traumatic stress disorder. The aim of this study was to assess the association between individualized homeopathic treatment or fluoxetine and response to depression treatment in climacteric women with high levels of domestic violence, sexual abuse or marital dissatisfaction.  One hundred and thirty-three Mexican climacteric women with moderate-to-severe depression enrolled in the HOMDEP-MENOP Study (a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, double-dummy, three-arm trial, with a 6-week follow-up study) were evaluated. Domestic violence, marital dissatisfaction and sexual abuse were assessed at baseline. Response to depression treatment was defined by a decrease of 50% or more from baseline score of Hamilton scale. Association between domestic violence, sexual abuse, and marital dissatisfaction and response to depression treatment was analyzed with bivariate analysis in the three groups. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated.  Homeopathy versus placebo had a statistically significant association with response to depression treatment after adjusting for sexual abuse (OR [95% CI]: 11.07 [3.22 to 37.96]), domestic violence (OR [95% CI]: 10.30 [3.24 to 32.76]) and marital dissatisfaction (OR [95% CI]: 8.61 [2.85 to 25.99]).  Individualized homeopathic treatment is associated with response to depression treatment in climacteric women with high levels of domestic violence, sexual abuse or marital dissatisfaction. Further studies should be conducted to evaluate its efficacy specifically for post-traumatic stress disorder in battered women. CLINICALTRIALS. NCT01635218,:  URL: http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01635218?term=depression+homeopathy&rank=1. The Faculty of Homeopathy.

  16. The Relationship of Childhood Sexual Abuse to Teenage Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roosa, Mark W.; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Reinholtz, Cindy; Angelini, Patricia Jo

    1997-01-01

    Examined the sexual history of 2,003 young women to determine whether childhood sexual abuse contributed to a greater risk for teenage pregnancy. Results indicate that sexual abuse alone was not related to the incidence of teenage pregnancy, but sexual precocity was related to much higher incidences of teenage pregnancy. (RJM)

  17. Revictimization of Victims Sexually Abused by Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata H. Kowalczyk

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Victims experiencing the sexual abuse are surviving not only physical injustice but above all deep traumas, which very often in different forms, are keeping them company through the entire life. Quite often at establishing different results a sex is underestimated for the perpetrator. Therefore knowing the problem of sexual abuses from a perspective of close as well as distant results is very important in the event that a woman was a perpetrator of these acts – mother, minder. In the present article based on analysis of literature, a problem of results of the sexual abuse was presented at victims which experienced these behaviours on the part of women. In order to draw up discussing the survived specificity by victims was both of sex of the trauma connected with the sexual application as well as close and distant consequences of these events in the form prime victimisation and revictimisation for figure being noticeable in the adult life of psychosexual disorders and social shortages. Amongst the consequence isolated traumatic factors are deserving the particular attention about dynamic character which are provoking the appearance of many symptoms characteristic of children which experienced the sexual violence. Recalled factors it: traumatic sexualisation of child, the betrayal, the stigmatization and the helplessness. The specificity of these factors results from the fact that they will leave distant “tracks” in the psyche and they can undergo the additional reinforcement if a woman is a perpetrator of the sexual violence. It results from frequent attitudes of “denying” towards the sexual violence applied by women. In the study they pointed also at one of possible consequences of the revictimisation process copying patterns of behaviour connected with the sexual exploitation of children in their more late life by victims is which. This process resulting from the alternating identification of the perpetrator and the victim is starting

  18. PREVENTION AND OUTCOMES FOR VICTIMS OF CHILDHOOD SEXUAL ABUSE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulibarri, Monica D.; Ulloa, Emilio C.; Salazar, Marissa

    2015-01-01

    This study examined self-reported sexually abusive experiences in childhood and adulthood as correlates of current drug use, alcohol abuse, and depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Participants were 204 Latina women 18–34 years old. Results indicated significant relationships between history of sexual abuse (regardless of age of occurrence), depression symptoms, PTSD symptoms, alcohol abuse, and drug use. When examined separately, childhood sexual abuse was associated with symptoms of depression, PTSD, and substance use but not alcohol abuse behaviors. Experiencing sexual abuse in adulthood was associated with symptoms of depression, alcohol abuse behaviors, and substance use but not PTSD symptoms. Structural equation modeling showed that substance use partially mediated the relationship between sexual abuse and mental health outcomes. These findings suggest mental health and substance use services should incorporate treatment for trauma, which may be the root of comorbid mental health and substance use issues. PMID:25635897

  19. Persistent Complications of Child Sexual Abuse: Sexually Compulsive Behaviors, Attachment, and Emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Dixie; Cohn, Aaron; Robinson, Brittany; Muse, Fatima; Hughes, Rachel

    2017-01-01

    Child sexual abuse has the potential to cause distress for the victim across the lifespan. Romantic relationships may be particularly difficult for victims of child sexual abuse. This retrospective study examined differences in adult romantic attachment, sexually compulsive behaviors, and emotion regulation by history of child sexual abuse in a large, nonclinical sample. Those with a history of child sexual abuse reported more attachment anxiety in romantic relationships and engaged in more sexually compulsive behaviors. Overall, males displayed more sexually compulsive behaviors than females regardless of history of sexual abuse. Males with a history of sexual abuse displayed the greatest number of sexually compulsive behaviors. Surprisingly, no differences were observed in emotion regulation or attachment avoidant behaviors by history of child sexual abuse. Future research should seek to replicate current findings and examine emotion regulation difficulties experienced as a result of trauma.

  20. Predictors of Clinical Outcomes in Sexually Abused Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tocker, Lotem; Ben-Amitay, Galit; Horesh-Reinman, Netta; Lask, Michal; Toren, Paz

    2017-01-01

    This cross-sectional, case control study examines the association between child sexual abuse and interpersonal and intrapersonal outcomes among 54 adolescents, examining specific clinical measures (depression, anxiety, dissociation, and posttraumatic stress disorder, attachment patterns, self-esteem, self-disclosure, and family environment characteristics). The research results point to a correlation between sexual abuse and higher levels of the clinical measures. In addition, a correlation was found between sexual abuse and level of avoidant attachment, self-esteem, and family environment characteristics. Stepwise hierarchical regressions were conducted to examine how adolescent attributes predicted depression, anxiety, and dissociation beyond the prediction based on sexual abuse. A combination of self-esteem, anxiety attachment, and family cohesiveness made sexual abuse insignificant when predicting levels of depression, anxiety, and dissociation. This study contributes to characterizing the emotional, personal, and family attributes of adolescents who experienced sexual abuse. It also raises questions about the clinical outcomes usually associated with sexual abuse.

  1. Post-traumatic stress disorder in the perinatal period: A concept analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignato, Julie; Georges, Jane M; Bush, Ruth A; Connelly, Cynthia D

    2017-12-01

    To report an analysis of the concept of perinatal post-traumatic stress disorder. Prevalence of perinatal post-traumatic stress disorder is rising in the USA, with 9% of the U.S. perinatal population diagnosed with the disorder and an additional 18% being at risk for the condition. Left untreated, adverse maternal-child outcomes result in increased morbidity, mortality and healthcare costs. Concept analysis via Walker and Avant's approach. The databases Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Medline, Academic Search Premier and PsychINFO were searched for articles, written in English, published between 2006-2015, containing the terms perinatal and post-traumatic stress disorder. Perinatal post-traumatic stress disorder owns unique attributes, antecedents and outcomes when compared to post-traumatic stress disorder in other contexts, and may be defined as a disorder arising after a traumatic experience, diagnosed any time from conception to 6 months postpartum, lasting longer than 1 month, leading to specific negative maternal symptoms and poor maternal-infant outcomes. Attributes include a diagnostic time frame (conception to 6 months postpartum), harmful prior or current trauma and specific diagnostic symptomatology defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition. Antecedents were identified as trauma (perinatal complications and abuse), postpartum depression and previous psychiatric history. Consequences comprised adverse maternal-infant outcomes. Further research on perinatal post-traumatic stress disorder antecedents, attributes and outcomes in ethnically diverse populations may provide clinicians a more comprehensive framework for identifying and treating perinatal post-traumatic stress disorder. Nurses are encouraged to increase their awareness of perinatal post-traumatic stress disorder for early assessment and intervention, and prevention of adverse maternal-infant outcomes. © 2017 John Wiley

  2. Meanings intrafamilial sexual abuse for female adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Hilario Maranhão

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article came from the monographic study “Resilience and Sexual Violence: a study of adolescents victimized by sexual abuse assistance” (MARANHÃO, 2008, in which was investigated the building resilience in victimized adolescents. Resilience is characterized as overcoming adversity, setting up as something procedural, promoted by the interaction of personal and collective protection, in particular context of risk or social vulnerability. We made the trimming about the meanings and feelings of sexual victimization within the family from the perception of adolescents between 12 and 16 years of age that received care in a Specialized Reference Social Assistance in 2010. The research is qualitative, having as theoretical-methodological referential the Historic-Cultural Theory. Data collection was used by semi-structured interview. We realize that the profile of the victims are set up by females, the beginning of sexual abuse occurred between childhood and preadolescence. The profile of perpetrators are men, adults, acting the role of the stepfather, father and uncle. Despite an abject sense, adolescents could not break the cycle of violence. Friends, extended family, and the work of professionals emerged as support for the redefinition of the abusive relationships.

  3. Perception of sexual abuse in school children

    OpenAIRE

    Elizalde Bravo, Roger; Dávila Noriega, Nebel; Bulnes Bedón, Mario; Sarria Joya, César

    2014-01-01

    This study explorer the problem of the sexual abuse in 391 scholars of sex both, proceeding of centers state educative of primary level, of socioeconomic stratum short and of wich ages to fluctuate between the 7 or 14 ages. Initialy be constructed a questionary of 32 items and chip sociodemographic for to determínate the characterístics of the sample. Be to find different significative in function to sex the boys to considerate ages of rísk or abuse sex between 3 or 5 ages, and the girls the ...

  4. Child Sexual Abuse and the Media

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, J.

    2016-01-01

    This is the first book to explore child sexual abuse within global religious and media organisations. Termed here the dual narrative, there is, on the one hand, the view that everyone is a potential paedophile, and, on the other, the notion of a witch-hunt falsely accusing people. Beginning with a re-examination of historic claims of satanic ritual abuse, the author moves on to investigate global celebrity culture, the global religious context as well as an analysis of technology. The interna...

  5. Determinants of the development of post-traumatic stress disorder, in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, Marc; Vandeleur, Caroline L; Castelao, Enrique; Rothen, Stéphane; Glaus, Jennifer; Vollenweider, Peter; Preisig, Martin

    2014-03-01

    To assess (1) the lifetime prevalence of exposure both to trauma and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD); (2) the risk of PTSD by type of trauma; and (3) the determinants of the development of PTSD in the community. The Diagnostic Interview for Genetic Studies was administered to a random sample of an urban area (N = 3,691). (1) The lifetime prevalence estimates of exposure to trauma and PTSD were 21.0 and 5.0%; respectively, with a twice as high prevalence of PTSD in women compared to men despite a similar likelihood of exposure in the two sexes; (2) Sexual abuse was the trauma involving the highest risk of PTSD; (3) The risk of PTSD was most strongly associated with sexual abuse followed by preexisting bipolar disorder, alcohol dependence, antisocial personality, childhood separation anxiety disorder, being victim of crime, witnessing violence, Neuroticism and Problem-focused coping strategies. After adjustment for these characteristics, female sex was no longer found to be significantly associated with the risk of PTSD. The risk for the development of PTSD after exposure to traumatic events is associated with several factors including the type of exposure, preexisting psychopathology, personality features and coping strategies which independently contribute to the vulnerability to PTSD.

  6. [Prevalence of violent events and post-traumatic stress disorder in the Mexican population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Mora Icaza, Maria Elena; Borges-Guimaraes, Guilherme; Lara, Carmen; Ramos-Lira, Luciana; Zambrano, Joaquín; Fleiz-Bautista, Clara

    2005-01-01

    To report the rate of exposure to different violent events, their demographic correlates, the prevalence of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), and the impact on quality of life. The National Survey of Psychiatric Epidemiology is representative of the Mexican urban population aged 18 to 65. The survey was undertaken in 2001 and 2002 using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI- 15) computerized version. The statistical analyses take into account the multistage, stratified, and weighted sample design. Kaplan-Meier and logistic regressions were performed. Sixty-eight percent of the population has been exposed to at least one stressful life event. Exposure varies by sex (rape, harassment, and sexual abuse are more frequent in women; accidents and being a victim of burglary among men) and by age (more frequent in children, adolescents, young adult women, and the elderly). By sex, 2.3% of women and 0.49% of men present PTSD. Rape, harassment, kidnapping, and sexual abuse are the events most associated with PTSD. The results suggest the need to increase treatment coverage to attend the consequences of violence, taking into consideration the important gender and age variations.

  7. The Relationship between Childhood Sexual Abuse and Adult Male Sexual Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarwer, David B.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    A study of 359 men who sought sexual dysfunction treatment found that childhood sexual abuse did not predict sexual dysfunction in the men. Unemployment was the only significant predictor of male sexual dysfunction. Differences between the sexual abuse experiences of the male victims compared to female victims (n=73) are discussed. (Author/CR)

  8. Child sexual abuse in Zaria, Northwestern Nigeria | Bugaje ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Child sexual abuse has been reported from all corners of the globe, ... Although the trauma of abuse heals with time, it leaves long term psychological and ... sexual abuse, from August 2008 to October 2009, at a primary health centre in ... Eleven cases (55%) attended school, while three (15%) were hawkers.

  9. Childhood and Adult Sexual Abuse, Rumination on Sadness, and Dysphoria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Michael; Mendelson, Morris; Giannopoulos, Constantina; Csank, Patricia A. R.; Holm, Susan L.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The study addressed the hypothesis that adults reporting sexual abuse are more likely to exhibit a general tendency to ruminate on sadness. The relations between reported abuse, rumination on sadness, and dysphoria were also examined. Method: Undergraduate students (101 women and 100 men) reported on childhood and adult sexual abuse and…

  10. Online Child Sexual Abuse: The French Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Chawki

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Online child sexual abuse is an increasingly visible problem in society today. The introduction, growth and utilization of information and telecommunication technologies (ICTs have been accompanied by an increase in illegal activities. With respect to cyberspace the Internet is an attractive environment to sex offenders. In addition to giving them greater access to minors, extending their reach from a limited geographical area to victims all around the world, it allows criminals to alter or conceal their identities. Sexual predators, stalkers, child pornographers and child traffickers can use various concealment techniques to make it more difficult for investigators to identify them and find evidence. Others physically hide removable media and incriminating evidence in rented storage space, impeding an investigator’s job to find the truth. France has given the protection of children from sexual exploitation and abuse a high priority. Traditional laws have been amended to address the challenges of information technology, violence and to bring at the same time the country into line with international conventions on the rights of children. Accordingly this current article will analyze some of the techniques used by offenders to abuse children online, including recent legal and administrative developments in France concerning online children protection.

  11. Management of rigid post-traumatic kyphosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, S S; Hwa, S Y; Lin, L C; Pai, W M; Chen, P Q; Au, M K

    1996-10-01

    Rigid post-traumatic kyphosis after fracture of the thoracolumbar and lumbar spine represents a failure of initial management of the injury. Kyphosis moves the center of gravity anterior. The kyphosis and instability may result in pain, deformity, and increased neurologic deficits. Management for symptomatic post-traumatic kyphosis always has presented a challenge to orthopedic surgeons. To evaluate the surgical results of one stage posterior correction for rigid symptomatic post-traumatic kyphosis of the thoracolumbar and lumbar spine. The management for post-traumatic kyphosis remains controversial. Anterior, posterior, or combined anterior and posterior procedures have been advocated by different authors and show various degrees of success. One vertebra immediately above and below the level of the deformity was instrumented posteriorly by a transpedicular system (internal fixator AO). Posterior decompression was performed by excision of the spinal process and bilateral laminectomy. With the deformed vertebra through the pedicle, the vertebral body carefully is removed around the pedicle level, approximating a wedge shape. The extent to which the deformed vertebral body should be removed is determined by the attempted correction. Correction of the deformity is achieved by manipulation of the operating table and compression of the adjacent Schanz screws above and below the lesion. Thirteen patients with post-traumatic kyphosis with symptoms of fatigue and pain caused by slow progression of kyphotic deformities received posterior decompression, correction, and stabilization as a definitive treatment. The precorrection kyphosis ranged from 30-60 degrees, with a mean of 40 degrees +/- 10.8 degrees. After correction, kyphosis was reduced to an average of 1.5 degrees +/- 3.8 degrees, with a range from -5 degrees to 5 degrees. The average angle of correction was 38.8 degrees +/- 10.4 degrees, with a range from 25 degrees to 60 degrees. Significant difference was found

  12. Sexual abuse experienced by married Egyptian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elnashar, A M; El-Dien Ibrahim, M; Eldesoky, M M; Aly, O M; El-Sayd Mohamed Hassan, M

    2007-12-01

    To assess the prevalence of sexual abuse (SA) and associated factors among married women in Lower Egypt. A cross-sectional clinic- and hospital-based survey was designed for married women aged between 16 and 49 years. The study was conducted with 936 women from the Dakahlia Governorate, which is considered representative of Lower Egypt. Data were collected by personal interview using a questionnaire. The response rate was 93.6%. The most commonly reported frequency of sexual intercourse was 2 to 4 times per week. More than one-third of the women (36.2%) thought this was too frequent, and 11.5% reported being sexually abused in addition to other sexual problems. The educational level of the women; the presence of genital mutilation; parity, especially for those who had more than 5 deliveries; number of gynecologic visits; and history of gynecologic interventions were significantly or highly significantly associated with SA. The husbands' educational level and age were highly significantly correlated with their wives reporting SA, particularly when the men were illiterate or were smokers or drug users. The study's findings demonstrate an immediate need for the prevention of SA in Lower Egypt.

  13. Factors associated with child sexual abuse in Tanzania: a qualitative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Tanzania Journal of Health Research ... Methods: Key informant interviews were conducted among adults including parents of the ... factors for child sexual abuse, the type of perpetrators and the context into which these abuses take place.

  14. Post-traumatic stress disorder in U.S. soldiers with post-traumatic headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Jacqueline F; Erickson, Jay C

    2013-01-01

    To determine the impact of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on headache characteristics and headache prognosis in U.S. soldiers with post-traumatic headache. PTSD and post-concussive headache are common conditions among U.S. Army personnel returning from deployment. The impact of comorbid PTSD on the characteristics and outcomes of post-traumatic headache has not been determined in U.S. Army soldiers. A retrospective cohort study was conducted among 270 consecutive U.S. Army soldiers diagnosed with post-traumatic headache at a single Army neurology clinic. All subjects were screened for PTSD at baseline using the PTSD symptom checklist. Headache frequency and characteristics were determined for post-traumatic headache subjects with and without PTSD at baseline. Headache measures were reassessed 3 months after the baseline visit, and were compared between groups with and without PTSD. Of 270 soldiers with post-traumatic headache, 105 (39%) met screening criteria for PTSD. There was no significant difference between subjects with PTSD and those without PTSD with regard to headache frequency (17.2 vs 15.7 headache days per month; P = .15) or chronic daily headache (58.1% vs 52.1%; P = .34). Comorbid PTSD was associated with higher headache-related disability as measured by the Migraine Disability Assessment Score. Three months after the baseline neurology clinic visit, the number of subjects with at least 50% reduction in headache frequency was similar among post-traumatic headache cases with and without PTSD (25.9% vs 26.8%). PTSD is prevalent among U.S. Army soldiers with post-traumatic headache. Comorbid PTSD is not associated with more frequent headaches or chronic daily headache in soldiers evaluated at a military neurology clinic for chronic post-traumatic headache. Comorbid PTSD does not adversely affect short-term headache outcomes, although prospective controlled trials are needed to better assess this relationship. © 2013 American Headache

  15. [Epidemioclinical and legal aspects and cost management of sexual abuse among minors in Dakar, Senegal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisse, C T; Niang, M M; Sy, A K; Faye, E H O; Moreau, J-C

    2015-11-01

    Specify epidemioclinical and legal aspects of sexual abuse among minors and evaluate the cost of care in Dakar. This is a retrospective multicenter cross-sectional study on sexual abuse among minors over a period of four years from 1st January 2006 to 31st December 2009. Four maternities were targeted: the Social Hygiene Institute of Medina, health center Roi-Baudouin Guédiawaye, the Pikine hospital and health center Youssou-Mbargane-Diop of Rufisque. During the study period, 252 child victims of sexual abuse were supported at four health facilities on a total of 272 sexual abuses of all ages, a frequency of 92.64%. The epidemiological profile of our patients was a child of 11 years old on average, female (100%) and living in the suburbs of Dakar (68.1%). Children were often abused during working hours (31.7%), outside the family environment and often by someone known to the victim (72.6%). Genito-genital contact was the most common mode of sexual contact (80.9%) with vaginal penetration in 61% of cases. Almost all of the victims (92.1%) came to consult, accompanied by their parents, between the 1st and 4th day after the sexual abuse (70%). The examination usually revealed a hymenal trauma (59.9%) of which nearly half (49%) consisted of old lesions. 56.9% of victims had a post-traumatic stress disorder and 31.1%, mutism. We recorded six (6) pregnancies, 2% of our sample. A case of HIV infection was recorded on a sample taken 72hours after sexual abuse. Control of three months HIV serology was requested in 7.1% of cases and only 20% of children had received antiretroviral prophylaxis. Antibiotic prophylaxis had been performed in 13.7% of cases using doxycycline as drug of choice (75%). Only 29% of our patients had received emergency contraception progestin and psychological care concerned only 22% of children. On the legal aspects, 46% of our patients had filed a complaint. Prosecutions were 38%, 45% of which were convicted and 21% were acquitted. The rate of

  16. Against the Odds: The Impact of Woman Abuse on Maternal Response to Disclosure of Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaggia, Ramona; Turton, Jennifer V.

    2005-01-01

    Although the co-occurrence of woman abuse and child sexual abuse is high little research exists exploring the impact of woman abuse on maternal response to child sexual abuse (CSA). Findings from two qualitative studies indicate the form of woman abuse to have differential impact on maternal response. Mothers who were abused in non-physical ways,…

  17. Whiplash and post-traumatic stress disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaspers, JPC

    1998-01-01

    Purpose : This study examined the comorbidity of whiplash and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following motor vehicle accidents. A treatment strategy in cases with both disorders is proposed. Method: A review of the literature on psychological consequences of motor vehicle accidents and on

  18. Whiplash and post-traumatic stress disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaspers, JPC

    Purpose : This study examined the comorbidity of whiplash and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following motor vehicle accidents. A treatment strategy in cases with both disorders is proposed. Method: A review of the literature on psychological consequences of motor vehicle accidents and on

  19. A Model Linking Diverse Women's Child Sexual Abuse History with Sexual Risk Taking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Laurel B.; Matheny, Kenneth B.; Gagne, Phill; Brack, Greg; Ancis, Julie R.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to examine the role that child sexual abuse may play in body surveillance and sexual risk behaviors among undergraduate women. First, a measured variable path analysis was conducted, which assessed the relations among a history of child sexual abuse, body surveillance, and sexual risk behaviors. Furthermore, body…

  20. Post traumatic stress disorder among former child soldiers attending ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Post traumatic stress disorder among former child soldiers attending a rehabilitative service ... school in northern Uganda with a case of mass psychotic behavior. ... Methods: Data on post-traumatic stress disorder, depressed mood, physical ...

  1. Childhood sexual abuse history and role reversal in parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, P C; Teti, L; Anderson, C L

    2000-06-01

    This study explored the main and interactive effects of sexual abuse history and relationship satisfaction on self-reported parenting, controlling for histories of physical abuse and parental alcoholism. The community sample consisted of 90 mothers of 5- to 8-year-old children. The sample was limited to those mothers currently in an intimate relationship, 19 of whom reported a history of childhood sexual abuse. Participants completed the Child Behavior Checklist, the Parenting Stress Inventory, the Family Cohesion Index, and questions assessing parent-child role reversal, history of abuse and parental alcoholism, and current relationship satisfaction. Results of analyses and multivariate analyses of covariance suggested that sexual abuse survivors with an unsatisfactory intimate relationship were more likely than either sexual abuse survivors with a satisfactory relationship or nonabused women to endorse items on a questionnaire of role reversal (defined as emotional overdependence upon one's child). Role reversal was not significantly predicted by histories of physical abuse or parental alcoholism or child's gender. While parenting stress was inversely predicted by the significant main effect of relationship satisfaction, neither parenting stress nor child behavior problems were predicted by the main effect of sexual abuse history or by the interaction between sexual abuse history and relationship satisfaction. These results suggest the unique relevance of sexual abuse history and relationship satisfaction in the prediction of a specific type of parent-child role reversal--namely, a mother's emotional overdependence upon her child.

  2. Trauma Symptoms in Abused Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvaneh Mohammadkhani

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: There are many traumatic events (including natural disasters, physical, psychological and sexual abuse that may befall children and there is clear evidence that such experiences can produce a plethora of negative psychological effects. Children’s exposure to such traumas has been associated with a wide variety of negative mental health outcomes, including anxiety and depression, post-traumatic stress and dissociation and anger and aggression. It seems that the impacts of traumatic events are significantly related to type and intensity of trauma. Materials & Method: Through a systematized clustral sampling 3042 male and female students from junior high school who were participated in a survey study for investigating point prevalence of child abuse, completed Trauma Symptoms Checklist for Children-Alternate Version (TSCC-A and Child Abuse Self-report Scale (CASRS. After recognition of abused children, they were compared based on trauma symptoms. TSCC-A is a self-report measure of post-traumatic distress and related psychological symptomatology in male and female children aged 8-16 years. It is useful in the evaluation of children who have experienced traumatic events, including physical and sexual assault, victimization by peers, major losses, the witnessing of violence done to others and natural disasters. TSCC-A makes no reference to sexual issues. CASRS is a self-report scale to assess child abuse and neglect with 38 items and four subscales (psychological abuse, neglect, physical and sexual abuse. Results: Considering the type of traumatic experiences, the results showed that abused children significantly received higher scores in scales and subscales of TSCC-A than nonabused group. They specially reported more symptoms (depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress, anger and dissociation comparing normal children. Conclusion: It is concluded that the type and rate of traumatic event is related to intensity of symptomatology.

  3. Predictors of sexual assertiveness: the role of sexual desire, arousal, attitudes, and partner abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Iglesias, Pablo; Sierra, Juan Carlos; Vallejo-Medina, Pablo

    2013-08-01

    This study was conducted to test interpersonal, attitudinal, and sexual predictors of sexual assertiveness in a Spanish sample of 1,619 men and 1,755 women aged 18-87 years. Participants completed measures of sexual assertiveness, solitary and dyadic sexual desire, sexual arousal, erectile function, sexual attitudes, and frequency of partner abuse. In men, higher sexual assertiveness was predicted by less non-physical abuse, more positive attitudes toward sexual fantasies and erotophilia, higher dyadic desire, and higher sexual arousal. In women, higher sexual assertiveness was predicted by less non-physical abuse, less solitary sexual desire and higher dyadic sexual desire, arousal, erotophilia, and positive attitudes towards sexual fantasies. Results were discussed in the light of prevention and educational programs that include training in sexual assertiveness skills.

  4. Child sexual abuse, links to later sexual exploitation/high-risk sexual behavior, and prevention/treatment programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalor, Kevin; McElvaney, Rosaleen

    2010-10-01

    This paper reviews the literature on the nature and incidence of child sexual abuse, explores the link between child sexual abuse and later sexual exploitation, and reviews the literature on prevention strategies and effective interventions in child sexual abuse services. Our understanding of the international epidemiology of child sexual abuse is considerably greater than it was just 10 years ago, and studies from around the world are examined. Childhood sexual abuse can involve a wide number of psychological sequelae, including low self-esteem, anxiety, and depression. Numerous studies have noted that child sexual abuse victims are vulnerable to later sexual revictimization, as well as the link between child sexual abuse and later engagement in high-risk sexual behaviour. Survivors of child sexual abuse are more likely to have multiple sex partners, become pregnant as teenagers, and experience sexual assault as adults. Various models which attempt to account for this inter-relationship are presented; most invoke mediating variables such as low self-esteem, drug/alcohol use, PTSD and distorted sexual development. Prevention strategies for child sexual abuse are examined including media campaigns, school-based prevention programmes, and therapy with abusers. The results of a number of meta-analyses are examined. However, researchers have identified significant methodological limitations in the extant research literature that impede the making of recommendations for implementing existing therapeutic programmes unreservedly.

  5. Music therapy with sexually abused children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robarts, Jacqueline

    2006-04-01

    Music is part of everyday life, and is generally regarded as therapeutic. There is increasing interdisciplinary interest in innate human musicality and the link between music and the emotions. Innate musicality is evident in the dynamic forms of emotional expression that both regulate and cultivate the foundations of meaning in human communication (intersubjectivity). This article discusses music therapy, drawing from interdisciplinary perspectives, and illustrated by case material of individual music therapy with a sexually abused child. Where the growth of mind and meaning is devastated at its core by early relational trauma, music, when used with clinical perception, may reach and work constructively with damaged children in an evolving, musically mediated therapeutic relationship.

  6. A prospective investigation of the impact of childhood sexual abuse on the development of sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noll, Jennie G; Trickett, Penelope K; Putnam, Frank W

    2003-06-01

    The sexual attitudes and activities of 77 sexually abused and 89 comparison women (mean age = 20.41, SD = 3.38) were assessed 10 years after disclosure in a longitudinal, prospective study of the long-term effects of childhood sexual abuse. Abused participants were more preoccupied with sex, younger at first voluntary intercourse, more likely to have been teen mothers, and endorsed lower birth controlefficacy than comparison participants. When psychological functioning earlier in development was examined, sexual preoccupation was predicted by anxiety, sexual aversion was predicted by childhood sexual behavior problems, and sexual ambivalence (simultaneous sexual preoccupation and sexual aversion) was predicted by pathological dissociation. Findings also indicate that biological father abuse may be associated with greater sexual aversion and sexual ambivalence.

  7. Multifaceted Glance on Childhood Sexual Abuse and Incest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslihan Okan Ibiloglu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available An experience of domestic violence can lead to permanent physical, mental, and psychological harms, whether the child is a direct victim or a witness. Although having no standard definition, it is generally agreed that childhood sexual abuse and incest are underreported. The majority of sexual abuse happens in childhood, with incest being the most common form. Incest is a sexual activity or assault between family members or close relatives and can be defined as the sexual abuse of the child, as well. On the other hand, pedophilic disorder is defined as having recurrent, intense sexual urges or behaviors involving sexual activity with a preadolescent child, over a period of at least 6 months. In this article, clinical, social, and legal effects from the sexual abuse of results are investigated. Results of our research will be hopefully helpful in informing social policy and guiding mental health practice.

  8. Clinical Characteristics Related to Severity of Sexual Abuse: A Study of Seriously Mentally Ill Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClellan, Jon; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Variables associated with sexual abuse were examined among youth, ages 5 through 18, with severe mental illness. Review of 499 patient records revealed abuse as an isolated event in 62 cases, intermittent abuse in 61 cases, and chronic abuse in 150. Sexual abuse was associated with inappropriate sexual behaviors, substance abuse, and posttraumatic…

  9. Impact of parental sex education on child sexual abuse among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-08-10

    Aug 10, 2015 ... reduce shame, stigma, and self-blame for youth who have experienced sexual abuse6. ... tional level of parents, sex education and child sexual abuse among ..... Jean R. Changes in self-esteem during the middle school ...

  10. Sexual abuse of children in residential care : an international review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmerman, Margaretha; Schreuder, Pauline

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the results of an international review of academic literature on sexual abuse in residential child and youth care, 1945-2011. The review focusses on questions related to the nature and scope of sexual abuse, on personal and institutional factors providing either protection or

  11. Evaluation of an Innovative Tool for Child Sexual Abuse Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Deborah Winders; Pressley-McGruder, Gloria; Jones, V. Faye; Potter, Deborah; Rowland, Michael; Currie, Melissa; Gale, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Child sexual abuse poses a serious threat to public health and is often unreported, unrecognized, and untreated. Prevention, early recognition, and treatment are critically important to reduce long-term effects. Little data are available on effective methods of preventing child sexual abuse. The current research demonstrates a unique approach to…

  12. The Medical Analysis of Child Sexual Abuse Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Sharon W.

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of child sexual abuse images, commonly referred to as pornography, requires a familiarity with the sexual maturation rating of children and an understanding of growth and development parameters. This article explains barriers that exist in working in this area of child abuse, the differences between subjective and objective analyses,…

  13. Mother-Child Communication about Sexual Abuse Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kerryann; Brandon, Leisa; Chirio, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Two hundred and twelve Australian mothers completed an online survey examining features of mother-child communication about child sexual abuse prevention. Two-thirds (67.5%) of respondents had discussed child sexual abuse prevention with their children, with proportions varying according to age range (highest for mothers with children aged 5-12…

  14. Knowledge, attitudes and practices of parents on child sexual abuse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The role of parents in preventing child sexual abuse in the community in low-and-middle income countries has not been adequately emphasized. The objective of this study was to assess parents' knowledge, attitudes and practices on child sexual abuse and its prevention in Shinyanga district, Tanzania in ...

  15. The Child Sexual Abuse Epidemic in Addis Ababa: Some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The psychological trauma and physical complaints presented by victims include symptoms of anxiety and depression. Conclusion: It was found out that child sexual abuse cases presented to the legal office was not properly managed. Female children appear to be more prone to sexual abuse than their male counterparts.

  16. Sexual abuse predicts functional somatic symptoms : An adolescent population study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonvanie, Irma J.; van Gils, Anne; Janssens, Karin A. M.; Rosmalen, Judith G. M.

    The main aim of this study was to investigate the effect of childhood sexual abuse on medically not well explained or functional somatic symptoms (FSSs) in adolescents. We hypothesized that sexual abuse predicts higher levels of FSSs and that anxiety and depression contribute to this relationship.

  17. Application of Attachment Theory to the Study of Sexual Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Pamela C.

    1992-01-01

    Attachment theory provides useful conceptual framework for understanding familial antecedents and long-term consequences of sexual abuse. Themes associated with insecure parent-child attachment (rejection, role reversal/parentification, and fear/unresolved trauma) are frequently found in dynamics of families characterized by sexual abuse, and…

  18. An expressive art group intervention for sexually abused adolescent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: South Africa has a high prevalence of sexual abuse of children and adolescents. Among the numerous adverse consequences of sexual abuse is the difficulty survivors may experience in developing positive self-esteem and maintaining positive relationships. In a low resource setting, an expressive art group ...

  19. Child sexual abuse in Zimbabwe: prevention strategies for social ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The sexual abuse of children crosses cultural and economic divides. Sexual abuse can lead to long-lasting, even life-long consequences and is a serious problem on individuals, families and societies. Social workers by nature of their work, intervene at the individual, family and societal level. This paper will explore the ...

  20. Pathways to Adolescent Substance Use among Sexually Abused Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Jennifer A.; McCloskey, Laura Ann

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the link between childhood sexual abuse and adolescent substance use among girls, and evaluated depressive self-concept and behavioral under-control (BUC) as pathways to substance use for sexually abused girls. Participants (n = 150) were drawn from a longitudinal study of the impact of domestic violence on the lives of women…

  1. Child Sexual Abuse and Exploitation: Guest Editor’s Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Salter

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the most unnerving aspects of child sexual abuse is that it is constantly manifesting in unexpected ways. The current Royal Commission into Institutional Responses to Child Sexual Abuse has collected testimony of abuse in churches, schools, out-of-home care, hospitals and religious communities, demonstrating the breadth of institutional arrangements whose structures and cultures have facilitated child sexual abuse. Cases of serious and prolonged sexual abuse in family contexts have been excluded from the terms of reference of the Royal Commission but nonetheless continue to surface in media reports. In 2013, twelve children were permanently removed from an extended family living in rural NSW in what has been described as one of the worst cases of child abuse in Australia, involving intergenerational incest going back at least three generations (Auebach 2014. Another recent high-profile case involved the use of the Internet to facilitate the sexual exploitation of an adopted child by his parents in Queensland (Ralston 2013. These cases challenge the received wisdom that child sexual abuse is characterised by the victimisation of one child by one opportunistic offender. Such incidents suggest instead that child sexual abuse takes varied and systemic forms, and can operate to perpetuate and entrench toxic cultures and power structures.   This special issue on Child Sexual Abuse and Exploitation is a timely contribution to ongoing efforts to understand the multiplicity of child sexual abuse. It is an interdisciplinary collection of insights drawn from criminology, sociology, psychiatry, psychology and psychoanalysis, and includes papers from academic researchers alongside academic practitioners whose writing is grounded in their work with affected individuals and communities. A key aim of the special issue is to contextualise the diversity of child sexual abuse socially, politically and historically, recognising the dynamic and iterative

  2. Emotional and Sexual Correlates of Child Sexual Abuse as a Function of Self-Definition Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaillancourt-Morel, Marie-Pier; Godbout, Natacha; Bédard, Maryline Germain; Charest, Émilie; Briere, John; Sabourin, Stéphane

    2016-08-01

    Among individuals defined as having been sexually abused based on legal criteria, some will self-report having been abused and some will not. Yet, the empirical correlates of self-definition status are not well studied. Different definitions of abuse may lead to varying prevalence rates and contradictory findings regarding psychological outcomes. The present study examined whether, among legally defined sexual abuse survivors, identifying oneself as having experienced childhood sexual abuse (CSA) was associated with more severe abuse, negative emotional reactions toward the abuse, and current sexual reactions. A convenience sample of 1,021 French-speaking Canadians completed self-report questionnaires online. The prevalence of legally defined CSA was 21.3% in women and 19.6% in men, as compared to 7.1% in women and 3.8% in men for self-defined CSA. Among legally defined sexual abuse survivors, those who identified themselves as CSA survivors had been abused more frequently, were more likely to report a male aggressor, and more often described abuse by a parental figure than those who did not self-identify as abused. Further, self-defined CSA was associated with more negative postabuse reactions and sexual avoidance, whereas those not identifying as sexually abused were more likely to report sexual compulsion. © The Author(s) 2016.

  3. "Talking about child sexual abuse would have helped me": Young people who sexually abused reflect on preventing harmful sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKibbin, Gemma; Humphreys, Cathy; Hamilton, Bridget

    2017-08-01

    Harmful sexual behavior carried out by children and young people accounts for about half of all child sexual abuse perpetration. The aim of this study was to draw on the insights of young people who had been sexually abusive to enhance the current prevention agenda. The study involved semi-structured interviews with 14 young people and six treatment-providing workers. Sampling was purposive and the young people had previously completed a treatment program for harmful sexual behaviour in Victoria, Australia. The young people were approached as experts based on their previous experience of engaging in harmful sexual behavior. At the same time, their past abusive behavior was not condoned or minimised. Constructivist Grounded Theory was used to analyse the qualitative data. Opportunities for preventing harmful sexual behavior were the focus of the interviews with young people and workers. The research identified three opportunities for prevention, which involved acting on behalf of children and young people to: reform their sexuality education; redress their victimization experiences; and help their management of pornography. These opportunities could inform the design of initiatives to enhance the prevention agenda. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Childhood Experiences of Sexual Abuse and Later Parenting Practices among Non-Offending Mothers of Sexually Abused and Comparison Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kihyun; Trickett, Penelope K.; Putnam, Frank W.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The primary goal of this study was to explore the relationship between childhood sexual abuse and parenting practices among non-offending mothers of sexually abused girls. Guided by a developmental-ecological perspective of parenting, several models with different potential pathways starting from the mothers' childhood experiences of…

  5. Risk for post-traumatic stress disorder associated with different forms of interpersonal violence in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminer, Debra; Grimsrud, Anna; Myer, Landon; Stein, Dan J; Williams, David R

    2008-11-01

    The South African population is exposed to multiple forms of violence. Using nationally representative data from 4351 South African adults, this study examined the relative risk for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) associated with political, domestic, criminal, sexual and other (miscellaneous) forms of assault in the South African population. Violence exposure was assessed using the 'worst event' list from the WHO's Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) and a separate questionnaire assessing experiences of human rights abuses, and lifetime PTSD was assessed according to the APA's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders criteria using the CIDI. Findings indicated that over a third of the South African population has been exposed to some form of violence. The most common forms of violence experienced by men were criminal and miscellaneous assaults, while physical abuse by an intimate partner, childhood physical abuse and criminal assaults were most common for women. Among men, political detention and torture were the forms of violence most strongly associated with a lifetime diagnosis of PTSD, while rape had the strongest association with PTSD among women. At a population level, criminal assault and childhood abuse were associated with the greatest number of PTSD cases among men, while intimate partner violence was associated with the greatest number of PTSD cases among women. Recommendations for mental health service provision in South Africa and for future research on the relative risk for PTSD are offered.

  6. Prevalence of childhood sexual abuse among Mexican adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda-Lucatero, A G; Trujillo-Hernández, B; Millán-Guerrero, R O; Vásquez, C

    2009-03-01

    To determine the characteristics and prevalence of previous child sexual abuse among a group of Mexican junior high school students. A total of 1067 adolescents of both genders were selected to fill out a survey about child sexual abuse. The prevalence of child sexual abuse was 18.7% (n = 200). It was more frequent in girls (58%) than in boys (42%). Sexual abuse involved physical contact in 75% of those cases reporting abuse. The aggressors were neighbours (50.3%), relatives (36.8%) and strangers (13.9%). Abuse was committed through deception in 90% of the cases and involved physical mistreatment in 10% of the cases. Of the victims, 14.4% had spoken about the problem and 3.7% had taken legal action. And 9.6% of those surveyed stated that they required psychological counselling. In the population studied, the prevalency of child sexual abuse was greater than that reported in Mexico City (4.3-8.4%), although it was similar to that found in the Spanish child population (15-23%). The risk of sexual abuse is greater for girls and the principal aggressors are male neighbours, family friends and relatives; the abuse is committed in the home of the aggressor or the victim and very few cases are reported to the authorities.

  7. Diagnosis and management of post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinage, Bradley D

    2003-12-15

    Although post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a debilitating anxiety disorder that may cause significant distress and increased use of health resources, the condition often goes undiagnosed. The lifetime prevalence of PTSD in the United States is 8 to 9 percent, and approximately 25 to 30 percent of victims of significant trauma develop PTSD. The emotional and physical symptoms of PTSD occur in three clusters: re-experiencing the trauma, marked avoidance of usual activities, and increased symptoms of arousal. Before a diagnosis of PTSD can be made, the patient's symptoms must significantly disrupt normal activities and last for more than one month. Approximately 80 percent of patients with PTSD have at least one comorbid psychiatric disorder. The most common comorbid disorders include depression, alcohol and drug abuse, and other anxiety disorders. Treatment relies on a multidimensional approach, including supportive patient education, cognitive behavior therapy, and psychopharmacology. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are the mainstay of pharmacologic treatment.

  8. Veterinary Forensic Pathology of Animal Sexual Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, A W; Smith-Blackmore, M

    2016-09-01

    Animal sexual abuse (ASA) involves harm inflicted on animals for the purposes of human sexual gratification and includes such terms as bestiality, zoophilia, zoosadism, animal sexual assault, and others. The prevalence of ASA is not known, although it may be more common than is currently perceived. Veterinarians have the skills required to identify and document cases of ASA. This article reviews the terminology, legal definitions and forms of ASA, and its social and psychological context. An investigative approach is outlined, including an alternate light source examination; collection of swabs for DNA analysis; sampling vaginal washes, rectal washes, and toenails for trace evidence and biologic analyses; radiographic studies; and a complete forensic necropsy, including histopathology. Gross lesions identified in ASA victims include injuries to the anus, rectum, penis, scrotum, nipples, and vagina; the presence of foreign bodies; and abrasions, bruising, and other evidence of nonaccidental injury. Specialized procedures, including examination using alternate light sources and screening tests to identify human seminal fluid within samples from ASA victims, are of potential value but have not been validated for use in animals. © The Author(s) 2016.

  9. Delayed recall of childhood sexual abuse memories and the awakening rise and diurnal pattern of cortisol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeets, Tom; Geraerts, Elke; Jelicic, Marko; Merckelbach, Harald

    2007-08-30

    Traumatic stress associated with childhood sexual abuse (CSA) may result in chronic alterations of stress-sensitive neurochemical systems (e.g., the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and sympathetic-adrenal medullary activity). Some authors have suggested that these alterations might help explain why some individuals, after a period of inability to remember, demonstrate delayed recall of CSA memories (i.e., "recovered" memories). The present study is the first study that explored morning cortisol responses and circadian cortisol profiles among women with recovered (n=7), repressed (n=8), or continuous (n=6) memories of CSA and women without a history of CSA (n=9). Although there were group differences in current depression and post-traumatic stress symptoms, we found no differences in cortisol awakening response or daytime profile between women reporting recovered, repressed, or continuous memories of CSA as compared to women without a history of CSA. Implications for neurobiological models intended to explain the delayed recall of CSA are discussed.

  10. Imprisoning men in violence: Masculinity and sexual abuse: a view ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article explores sexual violence in male prisons in South Africa. It focuses on the social meanings and identities that surround sexual violence, particularly the ideas of manhood that shape both the perpetration of sexual abuses and how it is dealt with – or not. The dominant inmate culture endorses prison rape and ...

  11. A Prospective Investigation of the Impact of Childhood Sexual Abuse on the Development of Sexuality

    OpenAIRE

    Noll, Jennie G.; Trickett, Penelope K.; Putnam, Frank W.

    2003-01-01

    The sexual attitudes and activities of 77 sexually abused and 89 comparison women (mean age = 20.41, SD = 3.38) were assessed 10 years after disclosure in a longitudinal, prospective study of the long-term effects of childhood sexual abuse. Abused participants were more preoccupied with sex, younger at first voluntary intercourse, more likely to have been teen mothers, and endorsed lower birth control efficacy than comparison participants. When psychological functioning earlier in development...

  12. Sexual Abuse of Older Nursing Home Residents: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenche Malmedal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite an increasing literature related to elder abuse, sexual abuse of older persons in general and of vulnerable adults living in nursing homes in particular is still sparsely described. The purpose of this study was to assess the state of knowledge on the subject of sexual abuse against older nursing home residents through a literature review. Systematic searches in reference databases including Cinahl, Medline, OVID Nursing Database, ISI Web of Science, PsycINFO, Cochrane Library, and SveMed + were conducted. Through several phases of selection of the articles, using strict inclusion and exclusion criteria, six articles were chosen for a deeper examination. Findings from the review show that sexual abuse occurs in nursing homes and that both older women and men are victims of sexual abuse. Perpetrators appear mainly to be staff and other residents and mainly to be men, but also women abuse both older men and older women. Findings from the literature review show that there is a need for knowledge and further research on the topic of sexual abuse against older residents in nursing homes. Furthermore, there is a need for good policies and reporting systems, as an important step in seriously addressing sexual abuse against older persons.

  13. A Meta-Analysis of Disparities in Childhood Sexual Abuse, Parental Physical Abuse, and Peer Victimization Among Sexual Minority and Sexual Nonminority Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshal, Michael P.; Guadamuz, Thomas E.; Wei, Chongyi; Wong, Carolyn F.; Saewyc, Elizabeth; Stall, Ron

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We compared the likelihood of childhood sexual abuse (under age 18), parental physical abuse, and peer victimization based on sexual orientation. Methods. We conducted a meta-analysis of adolescent school-based studies that compared the likelihood of childhood abuse among sexual minorities vs sexual nonminorities. Results. Sexual minority individuals were on average 3.8, 1.2, 1.7, and 2.4 times more likely to experience sexual abuse, parental physical abuse, or assault at school or to miss school through fear, respectively. Moderation analysis showed that disparities between sexual minority and sexual nonminority individuals were larger for (1) males than females for sexual abuse, (2) females than males for assault at school, and (3) bisexual than gay and lesbian for both parental physical abuse and missing school through fear. Disparities did not change between the 1990s and the 2000s. Conclusions. The higher rates of abuse experienced by sexual minority youths may be one of the driving mechanisms underlying higher rates of mental health problems, substance use, risky sexual behavior, and HIV reported by sexual minority adults. PMID:21680921

  14. A meta-analysis of disparities in childhood sexual abuse, parental physical abuse, and peer victimization among sexual minority and sexual nonminority individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Mark S; Marshal, Michael P; Guadamuz, Thomas E; Wei, Chongyi; Wong, Carolyn F; Saewyc, Elizabeth; Stall, Ron

    2011-08-01

    We compared the likelihood of childhood sexual abuse (under age 18), parental physical abuse, and peer victimization based on sexual orientation. We conducted a meta-analysis of adolescent school-based studies that compared the likelihood of childhood abuse among sexual minorities vs sexual nonminorities. Sexual minority individuals were on average 3.8, 1.2, 1.7, and 2.4 times more likely to experience sexual abuse, parental physical abuse, or assault at school or to miss school through fear, respectively. Moderation analysis showed that disparities between sexual minority and sexual nonminority individuals were larger for (1) males than females for sexual abuse, (2) females than males for assault at school, and (3) bisexual than gay and lesbian for both parental physical abuse and missing school through fear. Disparities did not change between the 1990s and the 2000s. The higher rates of abuse experienced by sexual minority youths may be one of the driving mechanisms underlying higher rates of mental health problems, substance use, risky sexual behavior, and HIV reported by sexual minority adults.

  15. Post-traumatic Stress Disorder and Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burg, Matthew M; Soufer, Robert

    2016-10-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a disabling condition that develops consequent to trauma exposure such as natural disasters, sexual assault, automobile accidents, and combat that independently increases risk for early incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cardiovascular (CV) mortality by over 50 % and incident hypertension risk by over 30 %. While the majority of research on PTSD and CVD has concerned initially healthy civilian and military veteran samples, emerging research is also demonstrating that PTSD consequent to the trauma of an acute cardiac event significantly increases risk for early recurrence and mortality and that patient experiences in the clinical pathway that are related to the emergency department environment may provide an opportunity to prevent PTSD onset and thus improve outcomes. Future directions for clinical and implementation science concern broad PTSD and trauma screening in the context of primary care medical environments and the testing of PTSD treatments with CVD-related surrogates and endpoints.

  16. Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Post Partum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, W.; Marth, C.; Bergant, A. M.

    2012-01-01

    Traumatic birth experiences may lead to serious psychological impairment. Recent studies show that a considerable number of women can develop post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), in some cases in a subsyndromal form. Until now, the possibility that postpartum psychological symptoms might be a continuum of a pre-existing disorder in pregnancy has rarely been considered. This study therefore aimed to evaluate the proportion of women who develop post-traumatic stress disorder as a result of childbirth. Materials and Methods: 56 multiparous women were recruited for the study. The diagnosis of PTSD was made according to the criteria for psychological disorders in the DSM-IV (Diagnostics and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders). The data were collected in structured interviews in the 30th to 38th week of gestation and in the 6th week post partum. Results: Of the 56 women participating, 52 (93 %) completed the survey. Uncontrolled results showed that 21.15 % of the multiparous women met the full diagnostic PTSD criteria in the 6th week post partum. After the exclusion of all cases already characterised by all criteria or a subsyndromal form of PTSD caused by previous traumatisation, the PTSD rate was below 8 % at 6 weeks postpartum (= incidence rate of PTSD post partum). Conclusions: The present study is the first prospective longitudinal study to demonstrate the occurrence of full criteria PTSD in multiparous women as a result of childbirth after having excluded pre-existing PTSD. The results of our study show a high prevalence rate of PTSD during pregnancy. A number of women report all aspects of post-traumatic stress disorder as a result of childbirth. PMID:25253905

  17. Factors associated with child sexual abuse confirmation at forensic examinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Welington dos Santos Silva

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study is identify potential factors associated with child sexual abuse confirmation at forensic examinations. The forensic files of children under 12 years of age reporting sexual abuse at the Nina Rodrigues Institute of Forensic Medicine in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil between January 2008 and December 2009 were reviewed. A multivariate analysis was conducted to identify factors associated with finding evidence of sexual abuse in forensic examinations. The proportion of cases confirmed by the forensic physician based on material evidence was 10.4%. Adjusted analysis showed that the variables place of birth, type of abuse reported, family relationship between the child and the perpetrator, and the interval between the reported abuse and the forensic examination were not independently associated with finding forensic evidence of sexual abuse. A report of penetration was associated with a five-fold greater likelihood of confirmation, while the victim being 10-11 years of age was associated with a two-fold of abuse confirmation than younger children. These findings should be taken into consideration when drawing up guidelines for the multidisciplinary evaluation of children suspected of being victims of sexual abuse and in deciding whether to refer the child for forensic examination.

  18. Post-traumatic contrast enhancing brain lesion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dae Jung; Kim, Hyun Sook; Jeong, Min Sun; Kim, Deok Ryeong; Cho, Young Kwon; Choi, Yun Sun

    2014-01-01

    Only a few studies have been reported on the MR contrast enhancement and the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) findings of the post-traumatic lesion of the brain. We report a case of the venous ischemia in the left frontal lobe observed in the MRI obtained one day after the incidence of trauma. Considering the presented slight increase in the ADC, the vasogenic edema was thought to be the major mechanism of the venous ischemia and excitotoxic injury. In spite of a slight increase in the ADC, the hyperintensity in the diffusion weighted imaging and contrast-enhanced areas eventually changed into hemorrhagic lesions.

  19. Post-traumatic contrast enhancing brain lesion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dae Jung; Kim, Hyun Sook; Jeong, Min Sun; Kim, Deok Ryeong; Cho, Young Kwon; Choi, Yun Sun [Eulji Hospital, Eulji University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Only a few studies have been reported on the MR contrast enhancement and the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) findings of the post-traumatic lesion of the brain. We report a case of the venous ischemia in the left frontal lobe observed in the MRI obtained one day after the incidence of trauma. Considering the presented slight increase in the ADC, the vasogenic edema was thought to be the major mechanism of the venous ischemia and excitotoxic injury. In spite of a slight increase in the ADC, the hyperintensity in the diffusion weighted imaging and contrast-enhanced areas eventually changed into hemorrhagic lesions.

  20. Post-traumatic hypopituitarism and fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masel, Brent E; Zgaljardic, Dennis J; Forman, Jack

    2017-10-01

    Post-traumatic hypopituitarism (PTH) associated with chronic cognitive, psychiatric, and/or behavioural sequelae is common following moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). More specifically, due to a cascade of hormonal deficiencies secondary to PTH, individuals with TBI may experience debilitating fatigue that can negatively impact functional recovery, as it can limit participation in brain injury rehabilitation services and lead to an increase in maladaptive lifestyle practices. While the mechanisms underlying fatigue and TBI are not entirely understood, the current review will address the specific anatomy and physiology of the pituitary gland, as well as the association between pituitary dysfunction and fatigue in individuals with TBI.

  1. Parental stress response to sexual abuse and ritualistic abuse of children in day-care centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, S J

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the stress responses of parents to the sexual and ritualistic abuse of their children in day-care centers. Sixty-five mothers and 46 fathers of children sexually abused in day-care centers completed the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R), a measure of psychological distress. These scores were compared with a carefully matched comparison group of parents of 67 nonabused children. Parents of abused children also completed the Impact of Event Scale (IES), a measure which indexes symptoms that characterize posttraumatic stress disorder. Parents of sexually abused children reported significantly more psychological distress than parents of nonabused children, with parents of ritually abused children displaying the most severe psychological distress. Parents of abused children reported symptom profiles on the SCL-90-R and IES consistent with posttraumatic stress disorder.

  2. The longitudinal course of post-traumatic stress after childbirth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söderquist, Johan; Wijma, Barbro; Wijma, Klaas

    2006-06-01

    Post-traumatic stress was assessed in early and late pregnancy, and 1, 4, 7, and 11 months postpartum by means of questionnaires among 1224 women. Thirty-seven women (3%) had post-traumatic stress (meeting criteria B, C, and D for PTSD) at least once within 1-11 months postpartum. In pregnancy, depression, severe fear of childbirth, 'pre'-traumatic stress, previous counseling related to pregnancy/childbirth, and self-reported previous psychological problems were associated with an increased risk of having post-traumatic stress within 1-11 months postpartum. Sum-scores of post-traumatic stress did not decrease over time among women who at least once had post-traumatic stress (criteria B, C, and D) within 1-11 months postpartum. Women with post-traumatic stress also showed a decrease in perceived social support over time postpartum.

  3. Sexual Dysfunctions: Relationship to Childhood Sexual Abuse and Early Family Experiences in a Nonclinical Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinzl, Johann F.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This study evaluated 202 female university students for early familial experience and childhood sexual abuse (CSA) in relation to adult sexual disorders: (1) victims of multiple CSA more frequently reported sexual desire disorders; and (2) single-incident victims and nonvictims reported no significantly different rates of sexual dysfunction.…

  4. Systems Biology Approach to Understanding Post-traumatic Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-14

    Post - traumatic stress disorder ( PTSD ) is a psychological disorder a???ecting individuals that have experienced life-changing... post - traumatic stress disorder 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W911NF-10-2-0111 & USAMRMC 09284002 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S...challenges As stated in the Introduction, post - traumatic stress disorder is the only psychological disorder for which the onset of the

  5. Mission Connect Mild TBI Translational Research Consortium, Post Traumatic Hypopituitarism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    10 Aug 2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Mission Connect MTBI Translational Research Consortium 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Post traumatic hypopituitarism 5b...distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The purpose of this project is to identify the incidence of post traumatic hypopituitarism ...June 21, 2010; however, none have reached the six month milestone for blood testing 15. SUBJECT TERMS post traumatic hypopituitarism 16. SECURITY

  6. Evaluation of family drawings of physically and sexually abused children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piperno, Francesca; Di Biasi, Stefania; Levi, Gabriel

    2007-09-01

    The aim of this study is to analyse the family drawings of two groups of physically and/or sexually abused children as compared to the drawings of non-abused children of a matched control group. The drawings by 12 physically abused, 12 sexually abused and 12 non-abused children, all aged between 5 years-old and 10 years-old, were assessed and compared. Family drawings were analysed using a specific Screening Inventory (FDI-Family Drawing Inventory). This Inventory takes into consideration such qualitative and quantitative variables as the quality of drawing, the children's perception of their family members and their own perception of themselves within the family system. The results have shown significant differences between the abused minors and the control group. Abused children are more likely to draw distorted bodies, the human figure is usually represented devoid of details, their drawings generally show clear signals of trauma and the majority of the abused children are likely to exclude their primary caregiver from the drawings. The "drawings of the family" of physically and/or sexually abused children significantly evidence a greater emotional distress then the drawings of the non-abused children of the matched control group.

  7. Insomnia, Nightmare Frequency, and Nightmare Distress in Victims of Sexual Abuse: The Role of Perceived Social Support and Abuse Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steine, Iris M.; Krystal, John H.; Nordhus, Inger H.; Bjorvatn, Bjorn; Harvey, Allison G.; Eid, Jarle; Gronli, Janne; Milde, Anne M.; Pallesen, Stale

    2012-01-01

    In this study of victims of sexual abuse, the aim was to investigate the role of perceived social support and abuse characteristics in self-reported insomnia, nightmare frequency, and nightmare distress. Four hundred sixty Norwegian victims of sexual abuse completed a questionnaire assessing perceived social support, abuse characteristics,…

  8. Prevalence and pattern of sexual abuse among children attending ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    owner

    2012-12-02

    Dec 2, 2012 ... Child sexual abuse is defined in various ways, making it challenging to ... elementary schools (aged 6-12 years) and adolescent ... children registered at both clinics (CHOP and consultant clinic). ..... American Psychological.

  9. Counselling Strategies for Dealing with Sexual Abuse among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    First Lady

    online support group and resource centre for African-American sexual abuse survivors .... Younger children do well with developmental play groups, while older children and youth can ... indirect, avoidance); aggressive behaviour. ―I win, you ...

  10. Factors associated with child sexual abuse in Tanzania: a qualitative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors associated with child sexual abuse in Tanzania: a qualitative study. Mangi J. Ezekiel, Felix Kisanga, Idda H. Mosha, Amani Anaeli, Switbert R. Kamazima, Rose Mpembeni, Eustace P. Muhondwa ...

  11. prevalence of emotional, physical and sexual abuse of women

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    expended providing treatment for these injuries. 5 Afr Med J2001; 91: ... that violent practices are deployed by men against women in attempts to maintain ... child abuse, or sexual harassment; social support; and experiences with police and ...

  12. 8. Perceptions ofchild sexual abuse among convicted prisoners in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Esem

    Methods: This was a qualitative study that was carried out among inmates ... study showed that the child sexual abuse is common in Zambia. .... Guba was used to ensure trustworthiness of the. 11 study. The criteria of credibility, transferability,.

  13. Magnitude and patterns of child sexual abuse: A retrospective cross ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    retrospective cross-sectional study among male pediatric patients at ... HIV on the first presentation of the incident to the emergency unit. ..... sexual abuse a qualitative interview study with ... exposure prophylaxis programme Malawi Med J.

  14. Rescue for sexually abused girls in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treguear, T; Peters, L

    1995-01-01

    In San Jose, Costa Rica, the nongovernmental organization PROCAL has established two rescue homes for sexually abused girls 10-15 years of age. One of these homes is devoted to the care of pregnant girls. In almost all cases, the perpetrator was a male relative. Since girls are taught they must obey older male relatives, they are powerless to stop the abuse. When girls become pregnant as a result of sexual abuse, they face social ostracism and are blamed for their participation in sexual activity. PROCAL counsels the girls that they are victims of their own lack of power and provides them with skills and education they need to return to society and start a new life. The stories of two young girls who became pregnant as a result of sexual abuse and were helped by PROCAL are presented.

  15. [Child sexual abuse. Epidemiology, clinical diagnostics, therapy, and prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fegert, J M; Hoffmann, U; Spröber, N; Liebhardt, H

    2013-02-01

    The article provides an overview of the research on sexual abuse and the current political developments in Germany. First, the terminology of sexual child abuse is discussed, followed by the presentation of epidemiological data. The section on diagnostics and therapy shows that--because of mostly nonspecific indicators--the diagnosis of child sexual abuse is very difficult to define. Child sexual abuse is discussed as a traumatic experience for children and adolescents with different psychiatric and physical diseases. Current studies have shown that especially cognitive behavioral therapeutic-oriented approaches are effective in curing posttraumatic stress disorders. Based on the new German Child Protection Act, the focus lies on the clarification of confidentiality for medical professionals and their right to consulting services for child protection. In conclusion, guidelines and minimum standards for a child prevention and protection model are presented as well as institutional recommendations addressed to all institutions (also clinical) that take care of or treat children and adolescents.

  16. Mothers who were sexually abused during childhood are more likely to have a child victim of sexual violence

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Eduardo Wearick-Silva; Saulo G. Tractenberg; Mateus L. Levandowski; Thiago W. Viola; Joelza M. A. Pires; Rodrigo Grassi-Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Recurrent exposure to childhood sexual abuse (CSA) seems to be higher among victims of sexual abuse. In this sense, experiences related to sexual violence can perpetuate within the family context itself in various ways. Here, we investigate the association between being exposed to CSA and having a child victim of sexual abuse. Method: We used a sample with 123 mothers, who were divided into 2 groups: one consisting of 41 mothers of sexually abused children and another consi...

  17. Post traumatic tetanus and role magnesium sulphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sikendr, R.I.; Samad, B.U.; Memon, M.I.

    2009-01-01

    Tetanus is a life threatening disease. Reported mortality for tetanus is 15-39%. Conventional treatment includes heavy sedation and artificial ventilation. Complications resulting from long term heavy sedation and artificial ventilation contribute to 60% of the total mortality caused by tetanus. In this study magnesium sulphate was used to reduce the need for sedation and artificial ventilation. Objectives of this prospective study were to determine the role of magnesium sulphate in post traumatic tetanus. The study was carried out in surgical Intensive Care at Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences (PIMS), Islamabad from Jan 2004 to Dec 2007. Forty-four patients presented during this period and 33 patients were included in the study. All patients had tracheostomy done within 48 hours. Every patient was started Magnesium Sulphate therapy for control of spasms after sending baseline investigations. Patients were given ventilatory support when needed. All data was entered in well structured proforma. SPSS-10 was used to analyse data. Thirty-three patients were included in the study and all patients were given magnesium sulphate. Out of these, 45.5% cases were grade 4 tetanus, 73.6% and 63.3% cases did not require artificial ventilation and additional sedation respectively, 51.1% patients remained free of complications of tetanus. Overall mortality was 30.3%. Use of Magnesium Sulphate is safe and reduces the need for sedation and artificial ventilation in high grade tetanus thus contributing to survival benefit in adult post-traumatic tetanus cases. (author)

  18. Computed tomography in post-traumatic epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samejima, Hirotsugu; Yoshii, Nobuo; Sakiyama, Takashi; Seiki, Yoshikatsu; Mizokami, Tohru

    1980-01-01

    Eighty-three post-traumatic patients were investigated by CT scan and EEG examination. Forty-one of them has clinical seizure and/or showed spike (or spike and wave) on EEG. The other 42 cases did not suffer from seizures, but from some neurological symptoms or displayed some EEG abnormality after the head injury. All these cases were divided into five groups according to the CT findings: A: normal CT scan; B: partial or unilateral enlargement of lateral ventricle; C: patchy low density in cerebral structures (porencephalic appearance); D: superficial localized low density (cortical atrophy); and E: others. Those cases which had had a longer duration of unconsciousness after the injury were more in groups B, C and D. Groups C and D had a relatively good correlation with the depressed fracture. Group D composed 44.3% of all the cases. Clinical seizure was most frequently observed in group C. It should be emphasized that the CT scan is very important in the follow-up studies of post-traumatic epilepsy. (author)

  19. Obesity and sexual abuse in American Indians and Alaska Natives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, James A; McCrady-Spitzer, Shelly K; Bighorse, William

    2016-08-01

    Mainstream American culture frequently minimizes the prevalence and significance of sexual abuse. Unfortunately, this denial of extensive victimization of women is also present in many underserved populations. In June 2007, Amnesty International released its report on sexual abuse in indigenous women, which states that, "One in three Native American or Alaska Native women will be raped at some point in their lives. Most do not seek justice because they know they will be met with inaction or indifference." This report highlighted an infrequently discussed issue namely, very high levels of sexual abuse in Native American and Alaska Native women. The relationship between sexual abuse and obesity has been delineated in several studies; overall about one quarter to one half of women with high levels of obesity have been sexually abused and it has been postulated that weight-gain serves as an adaptive response for many survivors of sexual abuse. It is also well known in Native American and Alaskan Native women that there is a high prevalence of obesity (about 40% greater than the population average) and that this obesity is associated with a many-fold greater risk of diabetes and increased risks of hypertension, cancer and cardiovascular disease. The link between the concomitantly high rates of sexual abuse and obesity in this population may or may not be partial causality but the issue is nonetheless important. If approaches are to succeed in reversing the trend of increasing levels of obesity in Native American and Alaskan Native women, the high prevalence of sexual abuse will need to be specifically and comprehensively addressed.

  20. Alleged child sexual abuse : The expert witness and the court

    OpenAIRE

    Gumpert, Clara Hellner

    2001-01-01

    Background During the past decades, the evaluation of alleged sexual abuse has manifested itself as a major challenge for professionals working within the field of child maltreatment. A new role for psychologists and psychiatrists has been to give expert opinions regarding the credibility and reliability of child witnesses in legal proceedings. Although some aspects of evaluating suspected sexual abuse cases are close to traditional clinical work, other aspects necessitate ...

  1. Emotions and emotion regulation in survivors of childhood sexual abuse: the importance of "disgust" in traumatic stress and psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, Eimear; Karatzias, Thanos; Summers, Andy; Power, Mick

    2014-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) has the potential to compromise socio-emotional development of the survivor resulting in increased vulnerability to difficulties regulating emotions. In turn, emotion regulation is thought to play a key part in a number of psychological disorders which CSA survivors are at increased risk of developing. A better understanding of the basic emotions experienced in this population and emotion regulation strategies will inform current treatment. This paper examines the relationships between type of emotions experienced, emotion regulation strategies, and psychological trauma symptoms in a sample of survivors of CSA. A consecutive case series of CSA survivors (n=109) completed the Basic Emotions Scale (BES)-Weekly, General, and Coping versions; the Regulation of Emotions Questionnaire; the Post-traumatic Stress Checklist-Civilian Version (PCL-C); and the Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation Outcome Measure. Significantly higher levels of disgust than other levels of emotions were reported on the weekly version of the BES. In addition, significantly higher levels of disgust and lower levels of happiness were reported on the BES-General subscale. Regression analyses revealed that sadness, fear, disgust, and external dysfunctional coping strategies predicted global post-traumatic stress disorder and re-experiencing symptomatology measured by the PCL-C. Global distress, as measured by CORE, was predicted by the emotions of sadness, disgust, and low happiness, as well as dysfunctional regulatory strategies. In addition, preliminary exploratory factor analyses supported the structure of all three versions of the BES, with disgust explaining the largest percentage of variance, followed by happiness. The findings highlight the utility of profiling basic emotions in understanding the strong associations between emotional phenomena, particularly the emotion of disgust and psychopathology in CSA survivors.

  2. Forensic Impact of the Child Sexual Abuse Medical Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, John E. B.

    1998-01-01

    This commentary on an article (EC 619 279) about research issues at the interface of medicine and law concerning medical evaluation for child sexual abuse focuses on empirically testable questions: (1) the medical history--its accuracy, interviewing issues, and elicitation and preservation of verbal evidence of abuse; and, (2) expert testimony.…

  3. Sexual Abuse among Female Secondary School Students in Jos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Female sexual abuse is one of the most stressful life events and is associated with many adverse consequences including physical and mental health problems, substance abuse and criminality Methods: This study was a cross sectional study that was conducted among female secondary school students in ...

  4. 6. The Psychological Impact of Child Sexual Abuse on Primary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    46987.2

    school functioning, emotional reactions to the abuse were found to have ... feelings toward the perpetrator were negative or the ... When the child discloses sexual abuse, the parent's reaction .... divorced (n= 2, 5.88%) and single (n= 2, 5.88%).

  5. Child Sexual Abuse in Minna, Niger State Nigeria | Abdulkadir ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Child sexual abuse is a widespread form of child abuse that has remained the most under-reported. In our communities, much remains unknown of this act which often leaves victims traumatised with unsavoury memory that tends to affect their psychosocial development. The study evaluted the ...

  6. Teachers That Sexually Abuse Students: An Administrative and Legal Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Stephen; Biggs, John S.

    This book examines sexual abuse and provides a plan of action for educators in schools. Following a historical perspective and a report on the extent of the problem in chapters 1 and 2, chapter 3 presents case studies of abuse involving adult males and female students, adult males and male students, and adult females and male students. Chapter 4,…

  7. Human immunodeficiency virus infection and child sexual abuse

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Child sexual abuse (CSA) has not previously been regarded as important in the overall ... episode of abuse is unknown," but because of greater risk of mucosal trauma, the risk is .... Children and adolescents started on HIV PEP should receive sufficient ... A clear message should be proclaimed by all political and community ...

  8. Childhood attachment, childhood sexual abuse, and onset of masturbation among adult sexual offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smallbone, Stephen W; McCabe, Billee-Anne

    2003-01-01

    Written autobiographies of 48 incarcerated adult male sexual offenders (22 rapists, 13 intrafamilial child molesters, and 13 extrafamilial child molesters) were used to generate retrospective self-report measures of their childhood maternal and paternal attachment, childhood sexual abuse experiences, and onset of masturbation. Contrary to expectation, the offenders as a combined group more often reported secure than they did insecure childhood maternal and paternal attachment. There were no differences between the three offender subgroups with respect to maternal attachment; however the rapists and the intrafamilial child molesters were more likely to report insecure paternal attachment than were the extrafamilial child molesters. There were no differences between these offender subgroups in the frequency with which childhood sexual abuse was reported. However, offenders with insecure paternal attachment were more likely to report having been sexually abused than were those with secure paternal attachment. Sexually abused offenders in turn reported earlier onset of masturbation than did those who were not sexually abused. These results are consistent with contemporary attachment models linking insecure childhood attachment to childhood sexual abuse, and with traditional conditioning models linking childhood sexual abuse, early masturbation, and sexual offending.

  9. Family Functioning and Children’s Post-Traumatic Stress Symptoms in a Referred Sample Exposed to Interparental Violence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Telman, M.D.; Overbeek, M.M.; de Schipper, J.C.; Lamers-Winkelman, F.; Finkenauer, C.; Schuengel, C.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the association between interparental violence (IPV), child abuse and neglect, other traumatic experiences, and children’s post-traumatic stress (PTS) symptoms and explored the moderating role of family functioning in the aftermath of IPV. One hundred and twenty IPV-exposed

  10. Simulating Memory Impairment for Child Sexual Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Jeremy W; Hobbs, Sue D

    2015-08-01

    The current study investigated effects of simulated memory impairment on recall of child sexual abuse (CSA) information. A total of 144 adults were tested for memory of a written CSA scenario in which they role-played as the victim. There were four experimental groups and two testing sessions. During Session 1, participants read a CSA story and recalled it truthfully (Genuine group), omitted CSA information (Omission group), exaggerated CSA information (Commission group), or did not recall the story at all (No Rehearsal group). One week later, at Session 2, all participants were told to recount the scenario truthfully, and their memory was then tested using free recall and cued recall questions. The Session 1 manipulation affected memory accuracy during Session 2. Specifically, compared with the Genuine group's performance, the Omission, Commission, or No Rehearsal groups' performance was characterized by increased omission and commission errors and decreased reporting of correct details. Victim blame ratings (i.e., victim responsibility and provocativeness) and participant gender predicted increased error and decreased accuracy, whereas perpetrator blame ratings predicted decreased error and increased accuracy. Findings are discussed in relation to factors that may affect memory for CSA information. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Perceptions of Childhood Sexual Abuse Survivors: Development and Initial Validation of a New Scale to Measure Stereotypes of Adult Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafar, Sadia; Ross, Erin C.

    2013-01-01

    The Childhood Sexual Abuse Stereotypes Scale was developed to assess stereotypes of adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse. Scale items were derived from two studies that elicited cultural and personal beliefs about, and emotions experienced towards adult childhood sexual abuse survivors among university undergraduates. Two scales, Emotions and…

  12. Childhood Sexual Abuse in Adolescents Adjudicated for Sexual Offenses: Mental Health Consequences and Sexual Offending Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais, Hugo B; Alexander, Apryl A; Fix, Rebecca L; Burkhart, Barry R

    2018-02-01

    Most studies on the mental health consequences of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) focus predominantly on CSA survivors who do not commit sexual offenses. The current study examined the effects of CSA on 498 male adolescents adjudicated for sexual offenses who represent the small portion of CSA survivors who engage in sexual offenses. The prevalence of internalizing symptoms, parental attachment difficulties, specific sexual offending behaviors, and risk for sexually offending were compared among participants with and without a history of CSA. Results indicated that participants with a history of CSA were more likely to be diagnosed with major depression and posttraumatic stress disorder than those who did not report a history of CSA. A history of CSA was also positively correlated with risk for sexually offending and with specific offense patterns and consensual sexual behaviors. No significant differences emerged on parental attachment difficulties. These results highlight that adolescents adjudicated for sexual offenses with a history of CSA present with differences in sexual and psychological functioning as well as markedly different offending patterns when compared with those without a CSA history. Clinical implications and future directions are discussed.

  13. Maltreatment and sexual abuse at home concerning schooling adolscents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuranis Ibeth Henríquez Santoya

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEl presente estudio consistió en determinar la presencia del maltrato infantil y abuso sexual en el hogar en adolescentes escolarizados con edades comprendidas entre 14 y 16 años, matriculados a 2010 en colegios públicos de la de la ciudad de Santa Marta. Los participantes fueron 229 jóvenes. Las variables medidas fueron la edad, el tipo de maltrato y el género. Los resultados indican que la tendencia al maltrato psicológico fue de 29.3%, de maltrato físico 13.3% y de abuso sexual de 32.3%. Con relación al género se halló que las mujeres han sido objeto en mayor porcentaje de maltrato físico y abuso sexual que los hombres y éstos han sido objeto de mayor maltrato psicológico que las mujeres; respecto a la edad los jóvenes de 14 años presentaron mayor porcentaje de maltrato y abuso que en los otros rangos etarios. Se concluye que tres (3 de cada 10 estudiantes ha sido objeto de abuso sexual, tres ha sido objeto de maltrato psicológico y uno de maltrato físico. (DUAZARY 2011 No. 2, 262 - 269AbstractThe present study was to determine the presence of child maltreatment and sexual abuse at home, concerning schooling adolescents, aged between 14 and 16 years enrolled in public schools belonging to the city of Santa Marta. Participants were 229 young persons. The variables were age, abuse and gender. The results point out: 29.3% for psychological abuse, 32.3% for sexual abuse, and 13.3% for physical abuse. Concerning the gender it was detected that women have been at a higher rate aim of physical mistreatment and sexual abuse than men, but on the other hand men are aim of psychological abuse. With regard to age, young people of 14 years, revealed a higher percentage of maltreatment than the elder ones. We conclude that three of each schooling boy has been object of sexual abuse; three of them have been injured of psychological mistreatment and one of physical abuse.Keywords: abuse; sexual abuse; maltreatment; gender; adolescents

  14. See No Evil: Sexual Abuse of Children by Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoop, Robert J.

    1999-01-01

    Sexual abuse of students by teachers is a serious problem. A 1998 "Education Week" nationwide study identified 244 cases of inappropriate sexual behavior during one six-month period. Overly affectionate behavior, inappropriate noneducation-related contact, and harassing behaviors are warning signs. Administrators should craft policies, pay…

  15. Sexually Abused Male Adolescents: How Vulnerable Are They?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandy, Joseph M.; Blum, Robert Wm.; Resnick, Michael D.

    1997-01-01

    Examined the suicidal involvement, disordered eating behaviors, sexual risk taking, delinquent behaviors, substance use, and school performance of male teenagers (N=370) with a reported history of sexual abuse. Results show that, except for school performance, this group had higher rates of adverse correlates in the above areas than did a control…

  16. Sexual Harassment and Abuse of Adolescent Schoolgirls in South India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Fiona; Sitaram, Shashikala

    2007-01-01

    This article reports on a small exploratory study of adolescent girls' experiences of sexual harassment and abuse while attending secondary school in Karnataka State, South India. In South Asia, public discussion of sexual matters, especially relating to children, is largely taboo, and the study uncovers a hidden aspect of schooling, which…

  17. Childhood Sexual Abuse as a Predictor of Adult Female Sexual Dysfunction: A Study of Couples Seeking Sex Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarwer, David B.; Durlak, Joseph A.

    1996-01-01

    A study of 359 married women who sought sex therapy with their spouses found a connection between adult female sexual dysfunction and childhood sexual abuse. Abuse involving sexual penetration was specifically associated with adult sexual dysfunction. Future research on additional variables that contribute to sexual dysfunction is urged. (CR)

  18. Female Sexual-Offenders: Personality Pathology as a Mediator of the Relationship between Childhood Sexual Abuse History and Sexual Abuse Perpetration against Others

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher, Kelly; Lutz-Zois, Catherine J.; Reinhardt, Amanda R.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The goal was to examine, in an all female sample, possible mechanisms for the relationship between a history of childhood sexual abuse and the likelihood of perpetrating sexual abuse as an adult. It was hypothesized that Borderline and Antisocial Personality Disorder tendencies would mediate the relationship between these two forms of…

  19. Sexual self-schemas of female child sexual abuse survivors: relationships with risky sexual behavior and sexual assault in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niehaus, Ashley F; Jackson, Joan; Davies, Stephanie

    2010-12-01

    Childhood sexual trauma has been demonstrated to increase survivors' risk for engaging in unrestricted sexual behaviors and experiencing adolescent sexual assault. The current study used the sexual self-schema construct to examine cognitive representations of sexuality that might drive these behavioral patterns. In Study 1 (N = 774), we attempted to improve the content validity of the Sexual Self Schema Scale for child sexual abuse (CSA) survivors, introducing a fourth sexual self-schema factor titled the "immoral/irresponsible" factor. In Study 2 (N = 1150), the potential differences in sexual self-views, as assessed by the four sexual self-schema factors, between CSA survivors and non-victims were explored. In addition, Study 2 evaluated how these sexual self-schema differences may contribute to participation in unrestricted sexual behaviors and risk for sexual assault in adolescence. Results indicated that a history of CSA impacted the way women viewed themselves as a sexual person on each of the four factors. CSA survivors were found to view themselves as more open and possessing more immoral/irresponsible cognitions about sexuality as compared to women who did not have a CSA history. In addition, the CSA survivors endorsed less embarrassment and passionate/romantic views of their sexual selves. The interaction of CSA severity and the sexual self-schemas explained variance in adolescent sexual assault experiences above and beyond the severity of CSA history and participation in risky sexual behaviors. The findings suggest that sexual self-views may serve to moderate the relationship between CSA and adolescent sexual assault. Implications of these findings and directions for future research are discussed.

  20. The International Epidemiology of Child Sexual Abuse: A Continuation of Finkelhor (1994)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereda, Noemi; Guilera, Georgina; Forns, Maria; Gomez-Benito, Juana

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this paper was to compare the prevalence rates of child sexual abuse reported by [Finkelhor, D. (1994). "The international epidemiology of child sexual abuse." "Child Abuse & Neglect," 18 (5), 409-417] with those found in recent publications in order to confirm the widespread prevalence of child sexual abuse. Methods:…

  1. Child Sexual Abuse Survivors with Dissociative Amnesia: What's the Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Molly R.; Nochajski, Thomas H.

    2013-01-01

    Although the issue of dissociative amnesia in adult survivors of child sexual abuse has been contentious, many research studies have shown that there is a subset of child sexual abuse survivors who have forgotten their abuse and later remembered it. Child sexual abuse survivors with dissociative amnesia histories have different formative and…

  2. Sexual dysfunction risk and quality of life among women with a history of sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreiro, Andrea V; Micelli, Ligia P; Sousa, Maria H; Bahamondes, Luis; Fernandes, Arlete

    2016-09-01

    To assess scores for sexual dysfunction risk and quality of life in a cohort of women in Brazil who had a history of sexual abuse. The present study was a secondary analysis of a cross-sectional study conducted between February 1, 2011 and May 31, 2012. Women aged 18-49years attending a family planning clinic at the University of Campinas, Brazil, who were in a heterosexual relationship and reported engaging in sexual intercourse in the 4weeks prior to the study were enrolled. Participants were asked to complete the World Health Organization Quality of Life Questionnaire, Abbreviated Version, and the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) questionnaire. Data were grouped based on a history of sexual abuse. An FSFI score of no higher than 26.55 was considered the cut off for sexual dysfunction. The prevalence of FSFI-defined sexual dysfunction was higher in participants with a history of sexual abuse (Phistory of sexual abuse had significantly lower scores across all quality of life domains. Increased risk of sexual dysfunction among women with a history of sexual abuse suggests potential problems in the sex lives of individuals in this population. Healthcare professionals should be alert to this diagnosis. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Three Types of Memory for Childhood Sexual Abuse: Relationships to Characteristics of Abuse and Psychological Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, M. Sue

    2008-01-01

    Data from a clinical sample (N = 88) reporting childhood sexual abuse was compared by types of memory, abuse characteristics, and psychological symptoms. Three types of memory were identified from a questionnaire ("Always" n = 27 [31%], "Recovered" n = 41 [46%], and "Both" n = 20 [23%]). When compared with narrative…

  4. The Enough Abuse Campaign: Building the Movement to Prevent Child Sexual Abuse in Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schober, Daniel J.; Fawcett, Stephen B.; Bernier, Jetta

    2012-01-01

    This case study describes the Enough Abuse Campaign, a multidisciplinary, statewide effort to prevent child sexual abuse in Massachusetts. The study uses the Institute of Medicine's Framework for Collaborative Community Action on Health to provide a systematic description of the campaign's process of implementation, which includes: (a) developing…

  5. Psychological Sequelae of Childhood Sexual Abuse: Abuse-Related Characteristics, Coping Strategies, and Attributional Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steel, Jennifer; Sanna, Lawrence; Hammond, Barbara; Whipple, James; Cross, Herbert

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to test a model predicting the contribution of abuse-related characteristics and mediating variables such as coping and attributional style in the development of psychological sequelae in adults reporting a history of child sexual abuse (CSA). Methodology: Two hundred and eighty-five males and females from…

  6. Post-traumatic cervical pneumorrhachis--a rare entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Maneet; Sreenivas, Mukkamala; Beniwal, Rajveer Singh

    2011-02-01

    Pneumorrhachis(PR) is a rare phenomenon and post traumatic PR even more so. Presentation can vary from asymptomatic to significant neurological deficit and so the management has to be individualised. We present a case of post-traumatic cervical PR.

  7. CAM and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Hankey

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the form of the Transcendental Meditation program CAM offers a method of eliminating deep-rooted stress, the efficacy of which has been demonstrated in several related studies. Any discussion of CAM and post-traumatic stress disorder should include a study of its application to Vietnam War Veterans in which improvements were observed on all variables, and several participants were able to return to work after several years of being unable to hold a job. The intervention has been studied for its impact on brain and autonomic nervous system function. It has been found to be highly effective against other stress-related conditions such as hypertension, and to improve brain coherence—a measure of effective brain function. It should be considered a possible ‘new and improved mode of treatment’ for PTSD, and further studies of its application made.

  8. A child sexual abuse research project: a brief endnote.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Susan; Vanstone, Maurice

    2014-01-01

    There is a dearth of research on sexual abuse perpetrated by educators. Although the problem is receiving increasing attention, little emphasis has been placed on abuse directed at younger schoolchildren and on offenders' accounts of this form of abuse. Here, we attempt to address this gap in knowledge by exploring the narratives of five convicted, imprisoned male child sexual abusers, each of whom worked with children in educational settings in the United Kingdom. We draw on four themes that emerged from detailed interviews with offenders, namely: the power of reputation, authority and control, the "front of invulnerability," and disclosure of abuse. We conclude by considering the implications of our work for policy and practice.

  9. Evaluation of a child sexual abuse prevention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chasan-Taber, L; Tabachnick, J

    1999-10-01

    A half-million children are believed to be sexually abused each year in the United States. In 1995, the American Medical Association declared sexual assault "a silent violent epidemic." The majority of efforts to stop child sexual abuse have focused on punishing abusers and treating victims and their families; prevention programs are uncommon and rely on educating children to report sexual abuse. This case study describes the evaluation of the first public health campaign designed to target adults for prevention. A baseline assessment of attitudes, awareness, knowledge, and policies was conducted in Vermont to identify facilitators and barriers to adult prevention of child sexual abuse. These included predisposing factors (50% of Vermont residents did not know the characteristics of an abuser), enabling factors (60% of Vermont residents did not know where to refer someone who may have sexual behavior problems), and reinforcing factors (when focus group participants knew an abuser, they were less likely to take action). This process guided the intervention, which included a broad-based media campaign targeting adults; a one-to-one communications strategy that provided information to agencies working with families at risk and a toll-free helpline for adults in an abuse situation; and a systems change strategy designed to educate decision-makers and leaders. Program evaluation measures included a random-digit dial survey, focus groups, a survey of Vermont decision-makers, and other data sets. The successes and limitations of these interventions, both as strategies in themselves and as data sources for evaluation, are discussed.

  10. INFEKSI NEISSERIA GONORRHOEAE AKIBAT SEXUAL ABUSE PADA SEORANG ANAK PEREMPUAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satya Wydya Yenny

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakInfeksi Neisseria gonorrhoeae pada anak akibat sexual abuse sangat jarang dilaporkan.Dilaporkan satu kasus infeksi Neisseria gonorrhoeae pada seorang anak perempuan usia 6 tahun setelah mengalami sexual abuse satu minggu yang lalu.Diagnosis ditegakkan berdasarkan anamnesis, pemeriksaan klinis dan pemeriksaan laboratorium. Anamnesis adanya keputihan sejak 5 hari sebelum berobat. Pada pemeriksaan fisis tampak cairan berwarna krem menempel pada celana dalam, cukup banyak, serta sedikit kemerahan dan duh genital pada vulva. Hasil pemeriksaan mikroskopis ditemukan diplokokus Gram negatif dan kultur didapatkan Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Berdasarkan hasil tes sensitivitas, pasien diterapi dengan ceftriaxon 125 mg i.m, dosis tunggal dan memberikan kesembuhan.Infeksi ini membutuhkan penatalaksanaan yang komprehensif karena mempunyai dampak psikologis baik bagi anak maupun keluarga seumur hidupKata kunci : Neisseria gonorrhoeae, sexual abuse, anakAbstractNeisseria gonorrhoe infection in childhood caused by sexual abuse is considered rare reported.A young girl 6 years old suffering gonococcal infection was reported. The diagnostic procedure were base on clinically and laboratory findings. The source of transmission was sexual abuse by an adult man. Physical examination revealed purulent discharge, cream in colour that stains the underwear with minimal vaginal discharge and vulval erythema. Laboratory examination showed Gram-negative diplococcic and isolation of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. This patient had been treated with ceftriaxon 125mg given intramuscularly in a single dose. Result of the treatment was good.The psychological sequelae of sexual abuse and the turmoil in the family produced by suspicions and allegations are largely unknown, but are probably life long.Keywords: Neisseria gonorrhoeae, sexual abuse, childLAPORAN

  11. [Migraine type childhood headache aggravated by sexual abuse: case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaleağasi, Hakan; Ozge, Aynur; Toros, Fevziye; Kar, Hakan

    2009-04-01

    Although the vast majority of chronic headache is idiopathic in origin, child abuse can be a very rare cause of paroxysmal headaches in children. The aim of this report was to present a case of migraine headache aggravated after sexual abuse, which did not respond to treatment. An 11-year-old girl admitted to the outpatient department of the Neurology Clinic with headache complaint for the past two years. Neurological examination, neuroimaging and laboratory tests were normal. According to the International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD)-II criteria, the headache was diagnosed as migraine without aura and treatment as prophylaxis was planned. Her headache did not respond to treatment, so she was consulted with the Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and diagnosed as major depressive disorder. During one of the psychological interviews, she confessed that she had been sexually abused by her mother's boyfriend for two years. After this confession and punishment of the abuser, her headache improved dramatically. The prevalence of physical, sexual, and emotional abuse during childhood has been estimated between 13% and 27%, and these children may suffer chronic pain, headache or depression. Sexual abuse has been strongly associated with the migraine-depression phenotype when abuse first occurred before the age of 12 years. Despite the high prevalence of abuse, many physicians do not routinely ask about abuse history. In conclusion, child abuse must be kept in mind in intractable childhood headache. A multidisciplinary approach with the Departments of Forensic Sciences and Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and detailed psychiatric evaluation should be useful in these cases.

  12. Childhood Abuse and Aggression in Adolescent Girls Involved in Child Welfare: The Role of Depression and Posttraumatic Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auslander, Wendy; Sterzing, Paul; Threlfall, Jennifer; Gerke, Donald; Edmond, Tonya

    This study investigated the relationship between histories of childhood abuse and aggressive behaviors among adolescent girls involved in child welfare, and determined whether symptoms of post-traumatic stress and depression mediated this relationship. Participants were 237 girls ages 12-19 years. Overall, results indicated 89 % of the adolescents endorsed at least one aggressive behavior towards others. Specifically, 72.0 % engaged in physical aggression, 78.5 % engaged in non-physical aggression, and 51.5 % endorsed relational aggression. Greater severity of emotional and physical abuse were significantly associated with a higher frequency of aggressive behaviors. Sexual abuse was not significantly related to aggression. Post-traumatic stress and depression fully mediated the relationship between emotional abuse and aggression, controlling for race, service use, and living situation. The linkages between physical abuse and aggression were not mediated by either post-traumatic stress or depression. Findings suggest that among adolescent girls with histories of emotional abuse, post-traumatic stress and depression represent potential modifiable risk factors to target for reducing aggression.

  13. Feasibility of brief intensive exposure therapy for PTSD patients with childhood sexual abuse: a brief clinical report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lotte Hendriks

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite the strong empirical support for the effectiveness of exposure-based treatments in ameliorating post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD, improvement of treatment is wanted given relatively high dropout rates and challenges of treating patients with high comorbidity and treatment-interfering stressors. The purpose of the current paper is to introduce an intensive exposure treatment program, illustrated by four case descriptions of PTSD patients, who suffered multiple (sexual traumas in childhood, had high levels of comorbidity and psychosocial stressors, and failed to improve during “regular” trauma-focused treatment programs. The program consisted of psychoeducation, prolonged imaginal exposure, exposure in vivo, exposure by drawings combined with narrative reconstructing, and writing assignments about central trauma-related cognitions. The treatment included 5 working days with individual sessions (in total 30 h of treatment provided by a team of four therapists. The PTSD symptoms of all patients decreased substantially and the effect sizes were large (Cohen's d resp. 1.5 [pre–post], 2.4 [pre-FU1 month], and 2.3 [pre-FU3 months]. Also, none of the patients showed symptom worsening or dropped out. The evaluation of these four pilot cases suggests that it is possible to intensify exposure treatment, even for multiple traumatized PTSD patients with high comorbidity. We concluded that the first results of this new, intensive exposure program for PTSD patients with childhood sexual abuse are promising.

  14. Child Sexual Abuse Fact Sheet for Parents, Teachers, and Other Caregivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Child Traumatic Stress Network, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Child sexual abuse is any interaction between a child and an adult (or another child) in which the child is used for the sexual stimulation of the perpetrator or an observer. Children of all ages, races, ethnicities, and economic backgrounds are vulnerable to sexual abuse. Children who have been sexually abused may display a range of emotional and…

  15. The Relationship between Childhood Sexual Abuse and Sexual Dysfunction in Jamaican Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaby, Antoneal N.; Morgan, Kai A. D.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the associations between early traumatic sexualization and later sexual dysfunction in a sample of 100 Jamaican adults while identifying the linkages between age, frequency of abuse, and gender on sexual functioning. Participants were selected via purposive and convenience sampling and divided equally into comparison and…

  16. Post-traumatic growth among the UK veterans following treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Dominic; Palmer, E; Lock, R; Busuttil, W

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this paper was to examine levels of post-traumatic growth (PTG) in a sample of the UK veterans who had received treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The study followed-up 149 UK veterans after they had completed standardised treatment for PTSD provided by Combat Stress. Data had previously been collected on a range of mental health outcomes before treatment, and then repeated 6 months after the end of treatment. For the current study, participants completed the post-traumatic growth inventory (PTGI) measure. Analysis was conducted to explore levels of PTG and whether there were any relationships between pretreatment and post-treatment ratings of mental health and PTG. The mean score on the PTGI was 32.6. Evidence of a treatment effect on levels of PTG was observed. There appeared to be a relationship between improvements in symptoms of PTSD and depression and higher levels of PTG. This study observed the presence of PTG following exposure to traumatic events within a sample of the UK veterans following their treatment for PTSD. PTG scores were moderately low in comparison to similar studies in the USA. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  17. Anismus as a marker of sexual abuse. Consequences of abuse on anorectal motility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroi, A M; Berkelmans, I; Denis, P; Hémond, M; Devroede, G

    1995-07-01

    Anorectal manometry was performed in 40 women, who consulted for functional disorders of the lower gastrointestinal tract and had been sexually abused. Anismus, defined as a rise in anal pressure during straining, was observed in 39 of 40 abused women, but in only six of 20 healthy control women (P anismus, as well as the group of healthy controls. A decreased amplitude of anal voluntary contraction and an increased threshold volume in perception of rectal distension were observed in both abused and nonabused patients. A decreased amplitude of rectoanal inhibitory reflex, little rise in rectal pressure upon straining, frequent absence of initial contraction during rectal distension, and increased resting pressure at the lower part of the anal canal were observed in abused but not in nonabused patients, suggesting that these abnormalities, in association with anismus, suggest a pattern of motor activity in the anal canal that could be indicative of sexual abuse.

  18. Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... physical injury, leave marks, or cause pain. Sexual abuse is any type of sexual contact between an adult and anyone younger than 18; between a significantly older child and a younger child; or if one person ...

  19. Characteristics of Sexually Abused Children and Their Nonoffending Mothers Followed by Child Welfare Services: The Role of a Maternal History of Child Sexual Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baril, Karine; Tourigny, Marc; Paillé, Pierre; Pauzé, Robert

    2016-07-01

    Considering the importance of mother's support in the adaptation of a sexually abused child, it is relevant to determine if the mothers and children involved in an intergenerational cycle of child sexual victimization differ from dyads in which only the child has been abused. The purpose of this study was to compare mother-child dyads with sexually abused children according to whether the mother had herself been victim of child sexual abuse. The sample included 87 dyads with sexually abused children aged 3-18 years old and their mothers (44 reporting maternal and child abuse), followed by social welfare services of the province of Quebec (Canada). The two groups of mothers were compared on their past family abuse experiences and past family relations, their mental health history, their current psychological distress, their parenting behaviors, and their current levels of family functioning. Children were compared on their adaptation. Multivariate analyses indicated that mothers reporting child sexual abuse were more likely to report more other maltreatments in their childhood and greater prevalence of lifetime history of alcohol abuse disorders, dysthymia, and panic disorder compared with mothers who had not experienced CSA. Compared to children whose mothers had not experienced CSA, those whose mothers had experienced CSA showed higher rates of problems behaviors and were more likely to report having been sexually abused by a trusted person. These results highlight the specific clinical needs for the assessment and treatment for sexually abused children whose mothers experienced child sexual abuse.

  20. The Diagnostic Utility of the Child Sexual Behavior Inventory for Sexual Abuse: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrolijk-Bosschaart, Thekla F; Verlinden, Eva; Langendam, Miranda W; De Smet, Vivienne; Teeuw, Arianne H; Brilleslijper-Kater, Sonja N; Benninga, Marc A; Lindauer, Ramón J L

    2018-06-11

    Children with alleged child sexual abuse (CSA) need to be assessed systematically. The use of validated instruments during the assessment, like the Child Sexual Behavior Inventory (CSBI), could add diagnostic value. We aim to assess the diagnostic utility of the CSBI to differentiate between sexually abused and non-abused children. We conducted a systematic review. We searched the electronic databases MEDLINE and PsychInfo for studies comparing CSBI scores in sexually abused children and non-abused children (2-12 years old). Two independent reviewers extracted data and assessed the methodological quality. We included 7 (out of 1048) articles. The CSBI total scores were significantly higher in CSA-victims compared with non-abused children (in case-control settings). However, in children with suspected CSA, the results were ambiguous. One study reported significant differences. Another study reported weak diagnostic ability for the CSBI-3 in children with suspected CSA (a sensitivity and specificity of 0.50, with a positive predictive value of 0.28, and a negative predictive value of 0.72). Research on the diagnostic utility of the CSBI for suspected CSA is limited and shows disappointing results. Until more research is done, the CSBI should not be used on its own to differentiate between sexually abused and non-abused children.

  1. Interdisciplinary action of nurses to children with suspected sexual abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia Leão Ciuffo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Understanding the role of nurses as members of interdisciplinary teams in the care of children with suspected sexual abuse. Methodology. This is a qualitative research based on the sociological phenomenology of Alfred Schutz. In 2008 were interviewed eleven nurses who worked in reference institutions for the care of child victims of sexual abuse in Rio de Janeiro. Results. The category called 'Interacting with other professionals in child care' emerged from the analysis of performance of professionals. The intersubjective relations between the nurses and the interdisciplinary team will enable to understand the intent of care from the perspective of social, emotional and psychological needs of children and their families. Conclusion. Interdisciplinarity favored the development of actions based on acceptance, listening and agreements on possible solutions in the care of children with suspected sexual abuse.

  2. Base Rates, Multiple Indicators, and Comprehensive Forensic Evaluations: Why Sexualized Behavior Still Counts in Assessments of Child Sexual Abuse Allegations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everson, Mark D.; Faller, Kathleen Coulborn

    2012-01-01

    Developmentally inappropriate sexual behavior has long been viewed as a possible indicator of child sexual abuse. In recent years, however, the utility of sexualized behavior in forensic assessments of alleged child sexual abuse has been seriously challenged. This article addresses a number of the concerns that have been raised about the…

  3. Child Sexual Abuse and Women's Sexual Health: The Contribution of CSA Severity and Exposure to Multiple Forms of Childhood Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacelle, Celine; Hebert, Martine; Lavoie, Francine; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2012-01-01

    Research studies have provided increasing evidence for the potential adverse impact of child sexual abuse on women's sexual health. The present study examined the association between child sexual abuse and sexual health while controlling for various forms of childhood victimization. Self-report questionnaires were administered to 889 young women…

  4. Childhood sexual abuse and attachment: An intergenerational perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Kwako, Laura E.; Noll, Jennie G.; Putnam, Frank W.; Trickett, Penelope K.

    2010-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is a recognized risk factor for various negative outcomes in adult survivors and their offspring. We used the Dynamic-Maturational Model of attachment theory as a framework for exploring the impact of maternal CSA on children’s attachment relationships in the context of a longitudinal sample of adult survivors of CSA and non-abused comparison mothers and their children. Results indicated that children of CSA survivors were more likely to have extreme strategies of...

  5. Abuse Characteristics and Individual Differences Related to Disclosing Childhood Sexual, Physical, and Emotional Abuse and Witnessed Domestic Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottoms, Bette L; Peter-Hagene, Liana C; Epstein, Michelle A; Wiley, Tisha R A; Reynolds, Carrie E; Rudnicki, Aaron G

    2016-04-01

    Many adult survivors of childhood abuse hide their victimization, avoiding disclosure that could identify perpetrators, end the abuse, and bring help to the victim. We surveyed 1,679 women undergraduates to understand disclosure of childhood sexual, physical, and emotional abuse, and, for the first time, witnessed domestic violence, which many consider to be emotionally abusive. A substantial minority of victims failed to ever disclose their sexual abuse (23%), physical abuse (34%), emotional abuse (20%), and witnessed domestic violence (29%). Overall, abuse-specific factors were better predictors of disclosure than individual-level characteristics. Disclosure of sexual abuse was related to experiencing more frequent abuse (by the same and by multiple perpetrators), being more worried about injury and more upset at the time of the abuse, and self-labeling as a victim of abuse. Disclosure of physical abuse was related to experiencing more frequent abuse (by the same and multiple perpetrators), being less emotionally close to the perpetrator, being older when the abuse ended, being more worried and upset, and self-labeling as a victim. Disclosure of emotional abuse was associated with being older when the abuse ended, and being more worried and upset. Disclosure was unrelated to victim demographic characteristics or defensive reactions (dissociative proneness, fantasy proneness, repressive coping style, and temporary forgetting), except that among physical and emotional abuse victims, repressors were less likely to disclose than non-repressors. Disclosure of witnessing domestic violence was not significantly related to any factors measured. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. [Menstruation disorders more frequent in women with a history of sexual abuse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, C.W.; Labots-Vogelesang, S.M.; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the relationship between menstruation disorders and prior sexual abuse. DESIGN: Questionnaire investigation. METHOD: A questionnaire was developed consisting of 50 questions about menstruation disorders, premenstrual syndrome and sexual abuse. The questionnaire was mailed to

  7. Teen birth rates in sexually abused and neglected females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noll, Jennie G; Shenk, Chad E

    2013-04-01

    Prospectively track teen childbirths in maltreated and nonmaltreated females and test the hypothesis that child maltreatment is an independent predictor of subsequent teen childbirth over and above demographic characteristics and other risk factors. Nulliparous adolescent females (N = 435) aged 14 to 17 years were assessed annually through age 19 years. Maltreated females were referred by Child Protective Services agencies for having experienced substantiated sexual abuse, physical abuse, or neglect within the preceding 12 months. Comparison females were matched on race, family income, age and family constellation. Teen childbirth was assessed via self-report during annual interviews. Births were confirmed using hospital delivery records. Seventy participants gave birth during the study, 54 in the maltreated group and 16 in the comparison group. Maltreated females were twice as likely to experience teen childbirth after controlling for demographic confounds and known risk factors (odds ratio = 2.17, P = 0.01). Birth rates were highest for sexually abused and neglected females. Sexual abuse and neglect were both independent predictors of teen childbirth after controlling for demographic confounds, other risk factors and alternative forms of maltreatment occurring earlier in development. Results provide evidence that sexual abuse and neglect are unique predictors of subsequent teen childbirth. Partnerships between protective service providers and teen childbirth prevention strategists hold the best promise for further reducing the US teen birth rate. Additional research illuminating the pathways to teen childbirth for differing forms of maltreatment is needed so that tailored interventions can be realized.

  8. Picture Book on Raising Children's Awareness Against Sexual Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Christy, Evelyn; Handojo, Priska Febrinia

    2015-01-01

    One of the common problems leading to the sexual abuse is that the child is not aware about it. This project aims to raise children's awareness against sexual abuse through picture book. This picture book use realistic fiction as the genre of my picture book. The purpose is to make the children familiar with the story and can relate it to their life. This picture book uses the narrative theory as the framework of the story. The narrative story is consist of abstract, orientation, complication...

  9. Endemic Sexual Violence and Abuse: Contexts and Dispositions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Nicole Rayment-McHugh

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Endemic sexual violence and abuse has been observed in a number of specific circumstances, most notably conflict zones, remote and marginalised communities, and religious and state institutions. In this article we examine several documented examples and argue that a similar set of causal processes are at work in all of these otherwise apparently disparate circumstances. Rather than construing the problem as ‘organised’ sexual abuse, we present the problem in terms of the breakdown (or disorganisation of usual individual, situational and ecological constraints.

  10. Factors influencing children to self-disclose sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paine, Mary L; Hansen, David J

    2002-03-01

    Self-disclosure by victims of child sexual abuse (CSA) is critical to initiate legal and therapeutic intervention. Unfortunately, research indicates that lengthy delays in disclosure and even nondisclosure are common. A comprehensive review of the clinical and research literature on CSA and an overview of related bodies of literature was conducted. Areas addressed include the context of sexual abuse as it relates to disclosure, the context and elements of children's disclosures, motivational factors inhibiting disclosure, and models of the disclosure process. Ancillary and analogue research on secrecy and disclosure are also reviewed. Implications for future research and practice are discussed.

  11. Post-traumatic hepatic pseudoaneurysms in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sidhu, M.K. [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Children`s Hospital Oakland, CA (United States); Shaw, D.W.W. [Department of Radiology, Children`s Hospital and Medical Center, Seattle, Washington (United States); Daly, C.P. [Department of Radiology, University of Washington Hospital and Medical Center, Seattle, Washington (United States); Waldhausen, J.H. [Department of Surgery, Children`s Hospital and Medical Center, Seattle, Washington (United States); Coldwell, D. [Department of Radiology, Denver General Hospital, Denver, Colorado (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Background. Post-traumatic hepatic artery pseudoaneurysms are rarely seen in children. Materials and methods. We retrospectively reviewed the radiologic studies and medical records of three patients treated at our institution and reviewed the literature. The patients (ages 5-13 years) presented immediately to 2 months after blunt (two patients) and penetrating (one patient) trauma. The hepatic pseudoaneurysms were discovered during work-up for fever (one patient), gastrointestinal bleeding and hyperbilirubinemia (one patient), or widened mediastinum (one patient) on chest radiograph. In two patients, the diagnosis was initially suspected by computed tomography (CT) examination and confirmed by angiography. In the third patient, the diagnosis was made initially by angiography. All three pseudoaneurysms were treated with transcatheter embolization. Results. All three embolizations were initially technically successful. However, there was recurrence in one case, in which embolization distal to the neck of the pseudoaneurysms was not technically possible. With conservative management, however, the residual lesion demonstrated spontaneous occlusion by ultrasound (US) at 6 months. Conclusion. This uncommon complication of liver trauma in children can have a delayed presentation, can be clinically unsuspected, and can follow blunt or penetrating trauma. Endovascular embolotherapy is the treatment of choice. (orig.) With 3 figs., 22 refs.

  12. Post-traumatic hepatic pseudoaneurysms in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidhu, M.K.; Shaw, D.W.W.; Daly, C.P.; Waldhausen, J.H.; Coldwell, D.

    1999-01-01

    Background. Post-traumatic hepatic artery pseudoaneurysms are rarely seen in children. Materials and methods. We retrospectively reviewed the radiologic studies and medical records of three patients treated at our institution and reviewed the literature. The patients (ages 5-13 years) presented immediately to 2 months after blunt (two patients) and penetrating (one patient) trauma. The hepatic pseudoaneurysms were discovered during work-up for fever (one patient), gastrointestinal bleeding and hyperbilirubinemia (one patient), or widened mediastinum (one patient) on chest radiograph. In two patients, the diagnosis was initially suspected by computed tomography (CT) examination and confirmed by angiography. In the third patient, the diagnosis was made initially by angiography. All three pseudoaneurysms were treated with transcatheter embolization. Results. All three embolizations were initially technically successful. However, there was recurrence in one case, in which embolization distal to the neck of the pseudoaneurysms was not technically possible. With conservative management, however, the residual lesion demonstrated spontaneous occlusion by ultrasound (US) at 6 months. Conclusion. This uncommon complication of liver trauma in children can have a delayed presentation, can be clinically unsuspected, and can follow blunt or penetrating trauma. Endovascular embolotherapy is the treatment of choice. (orig.)

  13. Childhood sexual abuse and attachment: An intergenerational perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwako, Laura E; Noll, Jennie G; Putnam, Frank W; Trickett, Penelope K

    2010-07-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is a recognized risk factor for various negative outcomes in adult survivors and their offspring. We used the Dynamic-Maturational Model of attachment theory as a framework for exploring the impact of maternal CSA on children's attachment relationships in the context of a longitudinal sample of adult survivors of CSA and non-abused comparison mothers and their children. Results indicated that children of CSA survivors were more likely to have extreme strategies of attachment than the children of non-abused mothers. However, because both groups were at socioeconomic risk, both were typified by anxious attachment. Explanations for findings and implications for children's development are explored.

  14. Childhood trauma among individuals with co-morbid substance use and post traumatic stress disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrugia, Philippa L; Mills, Katherine L; Barrett, Emma; Back, Sudie E; Teesson, Maree; Baker, Amanda; Sannibale, Claudia; Hopwood, Sally; Rosenfeld, Julia; Merz, Sabine; Brady, Kathleen T

    2011-01-01

    Background Little is known about the impact of childhood trauma (CT) on the clinical profile of individuals with co-occurring substance use disorder (SUD) and post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Aims To compare the clinical characteristics of individuals with SUD+PTSD who have a history of CT with SUD+PTSD individuals who have experienced trauma during adulthood only. Method Data were collected on 103 individuals as part of a randomised controlled trial examining the efficacy of an integrated psychosocial treatment for SUD+PTSD. Participants were recruited from substance use treatment services, community referrals and advertising. Data were collected on demographic characteristics, substance use and treatment histories, lifetime trauma exposure, and current physical and mental health functioning. Results The vast majority (77%) of the sample had experienced at least one trauma before the age of 16, with 55% of those endorsing childhood sexual abuse. As expected individuals with a CT history, as compared to without, evidenced significantly longer duration of PTSD. Those with a CT history also had more extensive lifetime trauma exposure, an earlier age of first intoxication, and reported more severe substance use (e.g., a greater number of drug classes used in their lifetime, higher severity of dependence scores and greater number of drug treatment episodes). Conclusion Individuals with co-morbid SUD+PTSD who have experienced CT present with a more severe and chronic clinical profile in relation to a number of trauma and substance use characteristics, when compared to individuals with adulthood only trauma histories. It is therefore important for SUD+PTSD treatment planning that CT be carefully assessed. PMID:21984884

  15. Etiological correlates of vaginismus: sexual and physical abuse, sexual knowledge, sexual self-schema, and relationship adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reissing, Elke D; Binik, Yitzchak M; Khalifé, Samir; Cohen, Deborah; Amsel, Rhonda

    2003-01-01

    This study investigated the role of sexual and physical abuse, sexual self-schema, sexual functioning, sexual knowledge, relationship adjustment, and psychological distress in 87 women matched on age, relationship status, and parity and assigned to 3 groups--vaginismus, dyspareunia/vulvar vestibulitis syndrome (VVS), and no pain. More women with vaginismus reported a history of childhood sexual interference, and women in both the vaginismus and VVS groups reported lower levels of sexual functioning and a less positive sexual self-schema. Lack of support for traditionally held hypotheses concerning etiological correlates of vaginismus and the relationship between vaginismus and dyspareunia are discussed.

  16. Childhood Sexual Abuse, Stigmatization, Internalizing Symptoms, and the Development of Sexual Difficulties and Dating Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feiring, Candice; Simon, Valerie A.; Cleland, Charles M.

    2009-01-01

    Potential pathways from childhood sexual abuse (CSA) to subsequent romantic intimacy problems were examined in a prospective longitudinal study of 160 ethnically diverse youth with confirmed CSA histories. Participants were interviewed at the time of abuse discovery, when they were 8-15 years of age, and again 1-6 years later. Stigmatization…

  17. Child Sexual Abuse and the Law in India: A commentary

    OpenAIRE

    Belur, J. S.

    2015-01-01

    Child Sexual Abuse (CSA) has only recently been publicly acknowledged as a problem in India. A welcome development has been the enactment of a special law—Protection of Children against Sexual Offences (POCSO) 2012—criminalising a range of acts including child rape, harassment, and exploitation for pornography. The law mandates setting up of Special Courts to facilitate speedy trials in CSA cases. The paper highlights the intended benefits and the unintended consequences that might arise from...

  18. Pharmacotherapy as prophylactic treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roque, Autumn Pearl

    2015-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder has a lifetime prevalence of almost 9% in the United States. The diagnosis is associated with increased rates of comorbid substance abuse and increased rates of depression. Providers are taught how to diagnose and treat PTSD, but little discussion is devoted to how to prevent the disorder. Behavioral research in animal studies has provided some evidence for the use of medications in decreasing the fear response and the reconsolidation of memories. A heightened fear response and the re-experience of traumatic memory are key components for diagnosis. The purpose of this literature review is to examine the evidence for pharmacotherapy as prophylactic treatment in acute stress/trauma in order to prevent the development of post-traumatic stress disorder. The body of the review includes discussions on medications, medications as adjunct to script-driven imagery, and special considerations for military, first responders, and women. This article concludes with implications for practice and recommendations for future research. The key words used for the literature search were "prophylactic treatment of PTSD," "pharmacotherapy and trauma," "pharmacological prevention of PTSD," "beta blockers and the prevention of PTSD," "acute stress and prevention of PTSD," "propranolol and PTSD," "secondary prevention of PTSD," and "medications used to prevent PTSD." Findings were categorized by medications and medications as adjunct to script-driven imagery. The literature suggests that hydrocortisone, propranolol, and morphine may decrease symptoms and diagnosis of post-traumatic stress disorder.

  19. The Role of the Medical Provider in the Evaluation of Sexually Abused Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Alice Whittier; Vandeven, Andrea Marie

    2010-01-01

    It was only 30 years ago that the medical community began to develop an increased awareness of child sexual abuse, and the role of the medical provider in the evaluation of sexually abused children has evolved significantly. As clinicians worldwide develop a greater understanding of the impact of the sexual abuse evaluation on the child, the roles…

  20. Prevalence of and Risk Factors for Male Sexual Abuse: The Case of South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, In Young; Lee, Yongwoo; Yoo, Seo Koo; Hong, Jun Sung

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence of and risk factors for sexual abuse of boys in South Korea by asking a national sample of 1,043 adult males whether they had experienced sexual abuse during childhood. The results indicate that 13.5% experienced at least one of the nine types of child sexual abuse assessed. In addition, the majority of the…

  1. Child Abuse, Early Maladaptive Schemas, and Risky Sexual Behavior in College Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roemmele, Melissa; Messman-Moore, Terri L.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research suggests that individuals abused as children are more likely to engage in risky sexual behavior during adulthood. The present study examined early maladaptive schemas as mediators of the child abuse-risky sexual behavior relationship among 653 college women. Self-report surveys assessed three forms of child abuse: Sexual,…

  2. Do Parents Blame or Doubt Their Child More when Sexually Abused by Adolescents versus Adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Wendy A.; Cross, Theodore P.; Jones, Lisa M.

    2012-01-01

    Although the importance of parental support for child sexual abuse victims is well documented, the nature of parental support for victims sexually abused by adolescents is less understood. In this exploratory study, we examine whether parents differ in their levels of blame or doubt for their child when sexually abused by adolescents versus…

  3. Sh-h-h-h: Representations of Perpetrators of Sexual Child Abuse in Picturebooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampert, Jo

    2012-01-01

    Children's picturebooks dealing with the topic of child sexual abuse first appeared in the early 1980s with the aim of addressing the need for age-appropriate texts to teach sexual abuse prevention concepts and to provide support for young children who may be at risk of or have already experienced sexual abuse. Despite the apparent potential of…

  4. Parenting in Females Exposed to Intimate Partner Violence and Childhood Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, Anna E.; Cranston, Christopher C.; Shadlow, Joanna O.

    2012-01-01

    Child sexual abuse and intimate partner violence may have a significant impact on parenting. The current study expands on existing research by examining the effects of child sexual abuse and intimate partner violence on parenting styles and parenting self-efficacy. In women from a parenting intervention program (n = 20), child sexual abuse was…

  5. The Relationship between a History of Childhood Sexual Abuse and Gender Role Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, Jo Ann; Norton, G. Ron; De Luca, Rayleen V.

    2009-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between childhood sexual abuse and gender role attitudes. Female university students rated themselves and their parents on gender role attitudes and history of childhood sexual abuse. Traditional participant gender role attitude and social isolation were associated with reporting being sexually abused as a…

  6. Sexual Abuse and Eating Disorders: A Test of a Conceptual Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripp, Margaret M.; Petrie, Trent A.

    2001-01-01

    Tested a model that hypothesized an indirect relationship between sexual abuse and eating disorders, with the effects of sexual abuse being mediated through bodily shame and body disparagement. Surveys of female undergraduate students indicated that 60 percent had been sexually abused, 8 percent had diagnosable eating disorders, and 72.7 percent…

  7. Shame and Guilt in Men Exposed to Childhood Sexual Abuse: A Qualitative Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorahy, Martin J.; Clearwater, Ken

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the experiences of shame and guilt in adult males sexually abused as children. Seven participants attending a service for male sexual abuse completed measures of shame, guilt, dissociation, and childhood trauma history and subsequently participated in a focus group. All participants experienced childhood sexual abuse in the…

  8. Parents' Views about Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Education: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Robyn; Walsh, Kerryann

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a systematic review of literature on the topic of parents' views about child sexual abuse prevention education. It describes: i) what parents know about child sexual abuse prevention education; ii) what child sexual abuse prevention messages parents provide to their children and what topics they discuss; iii)…

  9. Childhood experiences of incarcerated male child sexual abusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Linda H

    2010-10-01

    While numerous efforts have been made to understand the impact of child sexual abuse, little has been done to examine the childhood experiences of those who abuse children. Child sexual abusers have been studied from quantitative perspectives using behavioral checklists, parental-bonding surveys, and sexual history questionnaires. The purpose of this study was to explore incarcerated child sexual abusers' recollections of their childhood experiences using the descriptive existential lens of phenomenology. Eight incarcerated male child sexual abusers described their childhood from existential perspectives of lived space, lived other, lived body, and lived time via face-to-face semi-structured interviews. Analysis was accomplished through the qualitative, descriptive method of Max van Manen. Rich descriptions of the participants' insights into their daily childhood life experiences that shaped their self-concepts and contributed to their adult behaviors were gathered. Four major themes were identified: (1) failure to root, (2) what you see is what you learn, (3) stupid is as stupid does, and (4) life's moments. Data from this study suggest that the experiences of childhood significantly contribute to an adult self-concept that can be distorted by the lack of a secure home space, maladaptive relationships, internalization of inappropriate behavior, and a lack of significant family development. This study explores the psychosocial and behavioral consequences of early childhood experiences. The findings support the need for family and psychological mental health nurse practitioners to be more aware of early home environments; improve their assessment of children's developing self-concept and the potential for abusive relationships.

  10. [Gonococcal vulvovaginitis in prepubertal girls: sexual abuse or accidental transmission?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daval-Cote, M; Liberas, S; Tristan, A; Vandenesch, F; Gillet, Y

    2013-01-01

    Vulvovaginitis is the most frequent gynecologic pathology among prepubertal females. An infectious cause is found in 30% of cases and is highly associated with the presence of vaginal discharge upon examination. Neisseria gonorrhoeae may be one of the causative agents. Since N. gonorrhoeae is a common sexually transmitted disease, sexual abuse should be considered in the pediatric setting. We report the case of a 5-year-old girl with N. gonorrhoeae vulvovaginitis. Her previous history, multiple interviews with the patient and her parents, and clinical examination showed no evidence or signs of sexual abuse. Both parents presented gonorrhea, urethritis for the father and vaginitis for the mother. The discrepancy between pediatric evaluation and the presence of a bacterium associated with sexually transmitted disease led us to consider other means of contamination. Previous studies have shown that other routes of transmission are possible but are often neglected. Hence, contamination can be transmitted by the hands or mostly through passive means (towels, rectal thermometer, etc.). Many epidemics have been noted in group settings with young girls with no evidence of sexual transmission. Therefore, we concluded that this patient's infection was likely an accidental transmission within her family. The acknowledgement of these transmission routes is very important in order to avoid misguided suspicion of sexual abuse and the possible traumatic family and psychosocial consequences. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  11. Update on the management of post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Duncan; Cooper, John

    2015-04-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder occurs in people exposed to life-threatening trauma. GPs may be seeing more patients with post-traumatic stress disorder as military personnel return from overseas deployments. The condition can present in various ways. To reduce the likelihood of missed or delayed diagnosis GPs can screen at-risk populations. A comprehensive assessment is recommended. Specialist referral may be required, particularly if there are other mental health problems. Trauma-focused psychological therapies should be offered as the first line of treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder. Usually 8-12 sessions are needed for a therapeutic effect. If drug treatment is needed, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are the first line. Other drugs used in post-traumatic stress disorder include antipsychotics, anticonvulsants and prazosin.

  12. Update on the management of post-traumatic stress disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Duncan; Cooper, John

    2015-01-01

    Summary Post-traumatic stress disorder occurs in people exposed to life-threatening trauma. GPs may be seeing more patients with post-traumatic stress disorder as military personnel return from overseas deployments. The condition can present in various ways. To reduce the likelihood of missed or delayed diagnosis GPs can screen at-risk populations. A comprehensive assessment is recommended. Specialist referral may be required, particularly if there are other mental health problems. Trauma-focused psychological therapies should be offered as the first line of treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder. Usually 8–12 sessions are needed for a therapeutic effect. If drug treatment is needed, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are the first line. Other drugs used in post-traumatic stress disorder include antipsychotics, anticonvulsants and prazosin. PMID:26648617

  13. post traumatic stress disorder among motor vehicle accident

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2004-07-07

    Jul 7, 2004 ... of Psychiatry, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi and Director, Africa Mental Health ..... meeting of the Asssociation for Advancement of Behaviour ... and post traumatic stress disorder in the community: the 1996.

  14. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... National Center for PTSD (Department of Veterans Affairs) Statistics and Research How Common Is PTSD? (National Center for PTSD) Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) (National Institute of Mental Health) Clinical ...

  15. Trauma Symptoms, Sexual Behaviors, and Substance Abuse: Correlates of Childhood Sexual Abuse and HIV Risks among Men Who Have Sex with Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalichman, Seth C.; Gore-Felton, Cheryl; Benotsch, Eric; Cage, Marjorie; Rompa, David

    2004-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse is associated with high-risk sexual behavior in men who have sex with men. This study examined psychological and behavioral correlates of HIV risk behavior associated with childhood sexual abuse in a sample of men who have sex with men. Men attending a large gay pride event (N = 647) completed anonymous surveys that assessed…

  16. Children and adolescents treated for post-traumatic stress disorder at the Free State Psychiatric Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F J W Calitz

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. Children and adolescents can develop post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD after exposure to a range of traumatic events, including domestic, political or community violence, violent crime, physical and sexual abuse, hijacking, witnessing a violent crime and motor vehicle accidents. This is particularly critical given the substantial challenge that PTSD poses to the healthy physical, cognitive and emotional development of children and adolescents. Methods. The clinical records of 1 229 children (age 2 - 11 years and adolescents (age 12 - 18 years treated at the Child Mental Health Unit of the Free State Psychiatric Complex (FSPC were screened for the diagnosis of PTSD and analysed for the purpose of this study. Results. Forty-nine (4.0% of the children and adolescents treated at the unit were diagnosed with PTSD, of whom most were female (63.3%. Approximately 22% of the participants had comorbid major depressive disorder. The main traumatic event in both groups was witnessing the death of a close relative (32.7%, followed by sexual assault (25%, rape (25% and physical attack (10.2%. Associated stressors identified included problems at school (55.1%, isolation (39%, fear or anxiety (37%, problematic family relationships (29%, emotional (27% and physical (23% abuse, and lack of social support (23%. Most of the participants (59.2% received psychotherapy. Conclusions. Children and adolescents referred to the FSPC are also exposed to traumatic events which lead to the development of PTSD. The Free State is a sprawling province with remote areas where specialist services and facilities are limited. It is therefore recommended that preventive programmes, training opportunities and consultation services are implemented to identify and treat children and adolescents with PTSD. Schools with limited access to psychological services and large classrooms, impeding the diagnosis and treatment of PTSD specifically, face similar challenges

  17. Credibility assessment in child sexual abuse investigations: A descriptive analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melkman, Eran P; Hershkowitz, Irit; Zur, Ronit

    2017-05-01

    A major challenge in cases of child sexual abuse (CSA) is determining the credibility of children's reports. Consequently cases may be misclassified as false or deemed 'no judgment possible'. Based on a large national sample of reports of CSA made in Israel in 2014, the study examines child and event characteristics contributing to the probability that reports of abuse would be judged credible. National data files of all children aged 3-14, who were referred for investigation following suspected victimization of sexual abuse, and had disclosed sexual abuse, were analyzed. Cases were classified as either 'credible' or 'no judgment possible'. The probability of reaching a 'credible' judgment was examined in relation to characteristics of the child (age, gender, cognitive delay, marital status of the parents,) and of the abusive event (abuse severity, frequency, perpetrator-victim relationship, perpetrator's use of grooming, and perpetrator's use of coercion), controlling for investigator's identity at the cluster level of the analysis. Of 1563 cases analyzed, 57.9% were assessed as credible. The most powerful predictors of a credible judgment were older age and absence of a cognitive delay. Reports of children to married parents, who experienced a single abusive event that involved perpetrator's use of grooming, were also more likely to be judged as credible. Rates of credible judgments found are lower than expected suggesting under-identification of truthful reports of CSA. In particular, those cases of severe and multiple abuse involving younger and cognitively delayed children are the ones with the lowest chances of being assessed as credible. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of Estradiol on Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Directed By: T. John Wu, Ph.D. Associate Professor, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a complex...Preventing post-traumatic stress disorder after mass exposure to violence . Biosecur Bioterror 2005;3:154-63; discussion 64-5. 16. Baker DG...John Wu* Affiliations: *Program in Neuroscience and § Program in Molecular and Cellular Biology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology Uniformed

  19. Post-traumatic stress disorder due to childbirth: the aftermath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Cheryl Tatano

    2004-01-01

    Childbirth qualifies as an extreme traumatic stressor that can result in post-traumatic stress disorder. The reported prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder after childbirth ranges from 1.5% to 6%. The aim of this phenomenologic study was to describe the essence of mothers' experiences of post-traumatic stress disorder after childbirth. The qualitative research design used for this study was descriptive phenomenology. The main recruitment approach was via the Internet through the help of Trauma and Birth Stress, a charitable trust in New Zealand. Purposive sampling was used and resulted in 38 mothers participating from the countries of New Zealand, the United States, Australia, and the United Kingdom. The participants were asked to describe their experiences with post-traumatic stress disorder after childbirth. Their stories were analyzed using Colaizzi's method of data analysis. Mothers with post-traumatic stress disorder attributable to childbirth struggle to survive each day while battling terrifying nightmares and flashbacks of the birth, anger, anxiety, depression, and painful isolation from the world of motherhood. This glimpse into the lives of mothers with post-traumatic stress disorder attributable to childbirth provides an impetus to increase research efforts in this neglected area.

  20. Improving the Career Resilience of a Survivor of Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maree, Jacobus G.; Venter, Cobus J.

    2018-01-01

    This study examined whether life design counselling can enhance the career resilience of a sexual abuse survivor. One participant was selected through purposive sampling. Five life design sessions occurred over a period of three months. Various (postmodern) qualitative and quantitative techniques were used to gather data while data analysis was…

  1. A Case Study of Sexual Abuse of a Minor

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    as it is commonly perpetrated by close ones including family relations. Victims are left ... The case brings to the fore the problem of child sexual abuse in Nigeria and its attendant sequelae. .... matter was brought to the public domain, she was.

  2. 5. Characteristics of Child Sexual Abuse in Zambia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    46987.2

    The Child Sexual Abuse Centre at the Paediatric Centre of Excellence,. University ... As a result of its effects, CSA is a psychiatric emergency. .... Primary. 91. 47.4. Preschool. 29. 15.1. Not in School. 6. 3.1. Never been to School. 24. 12.5.

  3. Transition to adulthood of child sexual abuse victims

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, R.; Alink, L.; Bijleveld, C.; Finkenauer, C.; Hendriks, J.

    2015-01-01

    There is extensive evidence that childhood sexual abuse (CSA) can have deleterious consequences for adult psychological and physical functioning. The extent to which CSA hampers victims in the fulfillment of adult roles such as marriage, employment, and parenting is less clear. In this review, we

  4. Child Sexual Abuse Suspicions: Treatment Considerations during Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehnle, Kathryn; Connell, Mary

    2010-01-01

    This article addresses what, if any, psychotherapeutic interventions should be provided to meet the emotional and clinical needs of alleged child victims of sexual abuse while they await judicial determinations from the family, dependency, or criminal courts. The discussion emphasizes that to minimize iatrogenic outcomes, professionals involved in…

  5. Magazine Coverage of Child Sexual Abuse, 1992-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheit, Ross E.; Shavit, Yael; Reiss-Davis, Zachary

    2010-01-01

    This article analyzes trends in the coverage of child sexual abuse in popular magazines since the early 1990s. The article employs systematic analysis to identify and analyze articles in four popular magazines. Articles are analyzed by subject, length, and publication. The results affirm established theories of newsworthiness related to the…

  6. Barriers to Successful Treatment Completion in Child Sexual Abuse Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Paul; Scribano, Philip; Stevens, Jack

    2012-01-01

    Child sexual abuse (CSA) often requires psychological treatment to address the symptoms of victim trauma. Barriers to entry and completion of counseling services can compromise long-term well-being. An integrated medical and mental health evaluation and treatment model of a child advocacy center (CAC) has the potential to reduce barriers to mental…

  7. Child sexual abuse and possible health consequences among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a global public health concern especially in developed countries and where legal measures take unprecedented time. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of different forms of CSA, and the perceived health consequences among secondary school students in ...

  8. Early Indicators of Pathological Dissociation in Sexually Abused Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElroy, Linda Provus

    1992-01-01

    This paper reviews factors in the professional neglect of multiple personality disorder (MPD) and sexual abuse in childhood, as well as recent diagnostic developments in childhood dissociative disorders. The identification of subtle dissociative symptomatology in children is illustrated, and two case examples are presented. (Author)

  9. Sexual Abuse, Violence And Hiv Risk Among Adolescents In South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the study is to investigate sexual abuse, violence and HIV risk among a sample of South African adolescents. The sample included 400 male and 400 female 16 or 17 year-olds; 400 were from rural and 400 from urban areas, and almost all from African descent. Participants were chosen by multi-stage cluster and ...

  10. Utilising forgiveness to help sexually abused adolescents break free ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Guilt and shame can be traumatic, self-conscious experiences which have an impact on sexually abused adolescents' physical, psychological, social, emotional, moral and religious development. It can determine the adolescents' behaviour, their views of themselves and their interpersonal relationships. Guilt and shame ...

  11. Knowledge and Perception of Child Sexual Abuse in Urban Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study reports some baseline findings from a community-based project on the incidence of child sexual abuse (CSA) in two Nigerian urban centres. The study focused on low income, non-elite, occupational groups. Data were generated through in-depth interviews (IDIs), focus group discussions (FGDs), and survey ...

  12. SEXUAL ABUSE OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOLS: THE NEED FOR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The problem of sexual abuse of children by teachers in the education system is not .... From the chosen 10 classes, 10 participants were selected using simple random sampling. ... idea, there is a danger that the complex power dynamics are overlooked. .... thus become rebellious and belligerent towards teachers or display ...

  13. Assisting children born of sexual exploitation and abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Rumble

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The UN Secretary-General has issued a strategy tosupport victims of sexual exploitation and abuse by UNstaff. It includes a controversial proposal to introduceDNA sampling for all UN staff. Unless this suggestionis adopted, an important opportunity to implementa truly survivor-centred approach may be lost.

  14. Evaluation of a Sexual Abuse Prevention Education for Chinese Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenjing; Chen, Jingqi; Feng, Yanan; Li, Jingyi; Liu, Chengfeng; Zhao, Xiaoxia

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility of a sexual abuse prevention education in a sample of Chinese preschool children in Beijing, China. Method: One hundred and fifty preschool children were randomly assigned to either the intervention group (N = 78) or the wait-list control group (N = 72). Children were posttested on…

  15. Assessing Sexual Abuse/Attack Histories with Bariatric Surgery Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahony, David

    2010-01-01

    This study assessed sexual abuse/attack histories in 537 bariatric surgery patients using the PsyBari. The prevalence rates found were lower (15.5%, 19.3% of women, 5.2% of men) than other studies that used bariatric surgery patients but consistent with studies that used nonbariatric obese subjects. Furthermore, bariatric surgery patients who…

  16. Outcomes of Child Sexual Abuse as Predictors of Later Sexual Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese-Weber, Marla; Smith, Dana M.

    2011-01-01

    The association between a history of child sexual abuse (CSA) and specific negative outcomes (attachment, feelings of power, and self-esteem) was explored as was the relationship between those negative outcomes and sexual victimization during the first semester of college. Two groups of freshman college women (67 who had experienced CSA and 55 who…

  17. Treatment of childhood sexual abuse: an updated review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Marissa; Berkowitz, Steven J; Scribano, Philip V

    2012-12-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) involves multiple complex factors that make the evaluation of therapeutic interventions especially complicated. PTSD prevalence rates of CSA are approximately 37 % -53 %. Several other psychiatric sequelae of CSA exist. CSA appears to disrupt brain and body physiology. One co-located service delivery model reported a 52 % linkage rate of CSA survivors with mental health treatment. This article reviews current literature on the treatment of CSA, including psychosocial interventions, pharmacotherapy, and early preventative interventions. It also provides an update on the short- and long-term sequelae of CSA and implications for future research directions. A literature search of papers published in the last 3 years was conducted using the keywords treatment, sexual abuse, childhood, epigenetics, resilience and review, and searching the following databases: PsycInfo, PubMed, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, and Centers for Disease Control.

  18. [Prevention of intrafamilial childhood sexual abuse].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazimierczak, Małgorzata; Sipiński, Adam

    2004-01-01

    At work we took up the matter of sexual harassment of children in the family. We presented the history of incest contacts, reasons, conditions causing incest, the perpetrator, his methods and kinds of his actions.We took into consideration description of victims, physical and psychological symptoms of sexual harassment and its effects. We paid attention to effective methods of prevention of incest behavior, diagnostic actions taken in order to confirm any offence and therapy of victims emphasizing role of health service staff.

  19. Validation of the UCLA Child Post traumatic stress disorder-reaction index in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cohen Judith A

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sexual violence against children is a major global health and human rights problem. In order to address this issue there needs to be a better understanding of the issue and the consequences. One major challenge in accomplishing this goal has been a lack of validated child mental health assessments in low-resource countries where the prevalence of sexual violence is high. This paper presents results from a validation study of a trauma-focused mental health assessment tool - the UCLA Post-traumatic Stress Disorder - Reaction Index (PTSD-RI in Zambia. Methods The PTSD-RI was adapted through the addition of locally relevant items and validated using local responses to three cross-cultural criterion validity questions. Reliability of the symptoms scale was assessed using Cronbach alpha analyses. Discriminant validity was assessed comparing mean scale scores of cases and non-cases. Concurrent validity was assessed comparing mean scale scores to a traumatic experience index. Sensitivity and specificity analyses were run using receiver operating curves. Results Analysis of data from 352 youth attending a clinic specializing in sexual abuse showed that this adapted PTSD-RI demonstrated good reliability, with Cronbach alpha scores greater than .90 on all the evaluated scales. The symptom scales were able to statistically significantly discriminate between locally identified cases and non-cases, and higher symptom scale scores were associated with increased numbers of trauma exposures which is an indication of concurrent validity. Sensitivity and specificity analyses resulted in an adequate area under the curve, indicating that this tool was appropriate for case definition. Conclusions This study has shown that validating mental health assessment tools in a low-resource country is feasible, and that by taking the time to adapt a measure to the local context, a useful and valid Zambian version of the PTSD-RI was developed to detect

  20. A prospective examination of whether childhood sexual abuse predicts subsequent sexual offending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widom, Cathy Spatz; Massey, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse has been assumed to increase the risk for sexual offending. However, despite methodological limitations of prior research, public policies and clinical practice have been based on this assumption. To empirically examine the commonly held belief that sexually abused children grow up to become sexual offenders and specialize in sex crimes. This prospective cohort study and archival records check included cases and control individuals originally from a metropolitan county in the Midwest. Children with substantiated cases of physical and sexual abuse and neglect (aged 0-11 years) were matched with children without such histories on the basis of age, sex, race/ethnicity, and approximate family social class (908 cases and 667 control individuals). Both groups were followed up into adulthood (mean age, 51 years). The court cases were from 1967 to 1971; the follow-up extended to 2013. Criminal history information was collected from federal and state law enforcement agency records at 3 points in time and from state sex offender registries. Overall, individuals with histories of childhood abuse and neglect were at increased risk for being arrested for a sex crime compared with control individuals (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 2.17; 95% CI, 1.38-3.40), controlling for age, sex, and race/ethnicity. Specifically, individuals with histories of physical abuse (AOR, 2.06; 95% CI, 1.02-4.16) and neglect (AOR, 2.21; 95% CI, 1.39-3.51) were at significantly increased risk for arrest for sex offenses, whereas for sexual abuse, the AOR (2.13; 95% CI, 0.83-5.47) did not reach significance. Physically abused and neglected males (not females) were at increased risk and physically abused males also had a higher mean number of sex crime arrests compared with control individuals. The results did not provide support for sex crime specialization. The widespread belief that sexually abused children are uniquely at risk to become sex offenders was not supported by

  1. Intimate relations and sexual abuse in Danish Sport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Støckel, Jan Toftegaard

    of sexual abuse prevalence in a national sample of athletes from recreational, regional competitive level, national and international elite level. Results from the total sample (N=1660) revealed that 5% (N=83) of athletes reported being manipulated or coerced into sexual contact at some time in their lives......, and in five cases the offender was reported to be a coach. Significant gender differences were found as 6.3% of female athletes reported lifetime sexual abuse as opposed to 3% among male athletes. Almost one in three athletes reported to have experienced an intimate relationship with a coach...... reporting to have had experienced an intimate relationship with a coach as an adult had a more positive response regarding the relationship than athletes experiencing the same at 13-17 years of age. Elite athletes had a more critical response to coach-athlete relationships than at other sport levels...

  2. Post-traumatic Stress in Children and Adolescents Exposed to Family Violence: I. Overview and Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolin, Gayla; Vickerman, Katrina A.

    2010-01-01

    Exposure to child physical abuse and parents’ domestic violence can subject youth to pervasive traumatic stress and lead to Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). The often repeating and ongoing nature of family violence exposure may result in youth exhibiting problems in multiple domains of functioning and meeting criteria for multiple disorders in addition to PTSD. These characteristics as well as unique factors related to children’s developmental level and symptom presentation complicate a PTSD diagnosis. This paper describes evolving conceptualizations in the burgeoning field of trauma related to family violence exposure, and reviews considerations that inform assessment and treatment planning for this population. PMID:20107623

  3. SPECT Imaging to Evaluate Post Traumatic Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    Verbeem, and D.M. Kuhn, Gene expression profile of activated microglia under conditions associated with dopamine neuronal damage. FASEB J., 2005: p. 05...specific. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior, 1995. 50(4): p. 551. 39. Drugan, R.C., P.V. Holmes, and A.P. Stringer, Sexual dimorphism of stress...childhood sexual abuse and posttraumatic stress disorder. Am J Psychiatry, 2003. 160(5): p. 924-32. 22 48. Sapolsky, R.M., Atrophy of the hippocampus

  4. POST TRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDERS (PTSD WITH SEVERE DEPRESSION SYMPTOMS WITH ACUTE PSYCHOTIC IN PATIENT WITH HISTORY AS A PEDOPHILE VICTIMS AND DOMESTIC VIOLENCE IN 22 YEARS OLD MAN : A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Ketut Agus Indra Adhiputra

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Post traumatic stress disorders (PTSD is a disorder that is fairly common in thecommunity. Every event in the life will have its own meaning in later, especially eventsthat occur in childhood. Data in the U.S. showed 60% men and 50% women have atraumatic experience, which develops into PTSD approximately 6.7% of the entirepopulation. While data from the Indonesian National Commission of Women, since 20072010there has been 91311 cases of sexual violence against women, as well as cases ofchild sexual abuse reported to reach 250 cases. Presenting symptoms can range fromanxiety disorders, depression, until psychotic. The severity of symptoms depends on eachself-defense mechanism thus the PTSD symptoms are very diverse.

  5. [Impact of childhood sexual abuse on the sexual and affective relationships of adult women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Sílvia; Faro, Concepció; Lopetegui, Lourdes; Pujol-Ribera, Enriqueta; Monteagudo, Mònica; Cobo, Jesús; Fernández, María Isabel

    To analyse perceived sexual satisfaction, sexual dysfunction, satisfaction with affective relationships and confidence and communication in existing relationships, related to a past history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and type suffered, among women treated as part of the Catalonian Sexual and Reproductive Health Care Programme (PASSIR). Multicentric, descriptive, cross-sectional study. A total of 1,013 women over the age of 18 years, who underwent psychological therapy at any of the 24 PASSIR centres, were enrolled. A structured, anonymised, self-administered Sex History Questionnaire adapted from Wyatt (1985) & Dubé et al. (2005), and the Female Sexual Function Index (Rosen, 2000), were used. Statistical analysis was descriptive, bivariate and multivariate. Women who suffered childhood sexual abuse had a significantly higher prevalence of sexual dysfunction, with lower perceived sexual satisfaction. CSA with penetration or attempted penetration was associated with greater arousal difficulties and greater rejection. Women who experienced CSA were less confident and experienced greater communication difficulties with their partner. It is necessary to identify potential childhood sexual abuse among women who seek therapy due to relationship problems. It is also necessary to continue research into protective factors and therapeutic interventions to alleviate the consequences of CSA in adult life. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. The childcare panopticon: guidelines for preventing child sexual abuse and wrongful allegations of child sexual abuse in Danish childcare institutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leander, Else-Marie Buch; Larsen, Per Lindsø; Munk, Karen

    2018-01-01

    This article presents the first research study of guidelines in Danish childcare institutions for protecting children against sexual abuse (CSA), and staff against wrongful allegations of CSA. Worldwide, it represents one of few empirical studies of the unintended consequences of contemporary soc...

  7. Is it Trauma- or Fantasy-based? Comparing dissociative identity disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, simulators, and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vissia, E M; Giesen, M E; Chalavi, S; Nijenhuis, E R S; Draijer, N; Brand, B L; Reinders, A A T S

    2016-08-01

    The Trauma Model of dissociative identity disorder (DID) posits that DID is etiologically related to chronic neglect and physical and/or sexual abuse in childhood. In contrast, the Fantasy Model posits that DID can be simulated and is mediated by high suggestibility, fantasy proneness, and sociocultural influences. To date, these two models have not been jointly tested in individuals with DID in an empirical manner. This study included matched groups [patients (n = 33) and controls (n = 32)] that were compared on psychological Trauma and Fantasy measures: diagnosed genuine DID (DID-G, n = 17), DID-simulating healthy controls (DID-S, n = 16), individuals with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD, n = 16), and healthy controls (HC, n = 16). Additionally, personality-state-dependent measures were obtained for DID-G and DID-S; both neutral personality states (NPS) and trauma-related personality states (TPS) were tested. For Trauma measures, the DID-G group had the highest scores, with TPS higher than NPS, followed by the PTSD, DID-S, and HC groups. The DID-G group was not more fantasy-prone or suggestible and did not generate more false memories. Malingering measures were inconclusive. Evidence consistently supported the Trauma Model of DID and challenges the core hypothesis of the Fantasy Model. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Animal-Assisted Therapy for Post-traumatic Stress Disorder: Lessons from "Case Reports" in Media Stories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altschuler, Eric L

    2018-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) can follow war trauma, sexual abuse, other traumas, and even be experienced by commanders for the PTSD of their subordinates. Medications and counseling are sometimes not effective, so new treatments are needed. Some years ago, I suggested that animal-assisted therapy (AAT) (pet therapy) might be beneficial for PTSD. A large randomized controlled trial is underway of canine-assisted therapy for PTSD. Randomized controlled trials are most useful in assessing the efficacy of a medical intervention as these trials control for known and unknown biases. However, due to their very nature and rigorous requirements, knowledge gained from randomized controlled trials may need to be supplemented from other kinds of studies. Here, I note that media reports of AAT for PTSD may effectively function as case reports and suggest further studies: For PTSD, these demonstrate that (1) AAT can be dramatically effective in improving PTSD symptoms; (2) there is the potential for benefit from AAT by multiple different animals besides canines for PTSD; and (3) AAT may have a role in preventing suicide in patients with PTSD. © Association of Military Surgeons of the United States 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Associations between mental health, substance use, and sexual abuse experiences among Latinas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulibarri, Monica D; Ulloa, Emilio C; Salazar, Marissa

    2015-01-01

    This study examined self-reported sexually abusive experiences in childhood and adulthood as correlates of current drug use, alcohol abuse, and depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Participants were 204 Latina women 18-34 years old. Results indicated significant relationships between history of sexual abuse (regardless of age of occurrence), depression symptoms, PTSD symptoms, alcohol abuse, and drug use. When examined separately, childhood sexual abuse was associated with symptoms of depression, PTSD, and substance use but not alcohol abuse behaviors. Experiencing sexual abuse in adulthood was associated with symptoms of depression, alcohol abuse behaviors, and substance use but not PTSD symptoms. Structural equation modeling showed that substance use partially mediated the relationship between sexual abuse and mental health outcomes. These findings suggest mental health and substance use services should incorporate treatment for trauma, which may be the root of comorbid mental health and substance use issues.

  10. Is sexual abuse a part of war? A 4-year retrospective study on cases of sexual abuse at the Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary W. Kuria

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The harmful effects of sexual abuse are long lasting. Sexual abuse when associated with violence is likely to impact negatively on the life of the victim. Anecdotal reports indicate that there was an increase in the number of cases of sexual violence following the 2007 post election conflict and violence in Kenya. Although such increases in sexual abuse are common during war or conflict periods the above reports have not been confirmed through research evidence. The purpose of the current study is to establish the trend in numbers of reported cases of sexual abuse at Kenyatta National Hospital over a 4-year period (2006-2009. Data on sexually abused persons for the year 2006-2009 was retrieved from the hospitals record. A researcher designed questionnaire was used to collect relevant data from the completed Post Rape Care (PRC form. The PRC-Ministry of Health no. 363 (MOH363 form is mandatorily completed by the physician attending the sexually abused patient. There was an increase in the number of cases of sexual abuse reported in 2007 election year in Kenya, with a statistically significant increase in the sexually abused male cases. Sexual crime is more prevalent when there is war or conflict.

  11. Exposure to violence among women with unwanted pregnancies and the association with post-traumatic stress disorder, symptoms of anxiety and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinglöf, Soile; Högberg, Ulf; Lundell, Inger Wallin; Svanberg, Agneta Skoog

    2015-06-01

    The objective was to examine lifetime exposure to violence, physical and sexual, among women seeking termination of pregnancy (TOP) and its association with socio-demographic factors, PTSD, symptoms of anxiety and depression. The design of the study was a Swedish multi-centre study targeting women requesting TOP. All women requesting TOP with a gestational length less than 12 pregnancy weeks were approached for participation in the study. The questionnaire comprised the following research instruments: Screen Questionnaire-Post traumatic Stress Disorder (SQ-PTSD) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). The response rate was 57% and the final sample was 1514 women. Descriptive and analytic statistics were applied. Lifetime exposure to violence was common among women seeking abortion. Exposure to violence was associated with low education, single marital status, smoking and high alcohol consumption. Exposure to violence was associated with the occurrence of signs of PTSD and symptoms of anxiety and depression. Among those having PTSD, all had been exposed to sexual violence and almost all had been exposed to physical violence, while for those with symptoms of anxiety and depression almost half had been exposed to either physical or sexual violence. Exposure to physical and sexual abuse was common among women requesting TOP, and was strongly associated with the occurrence of PTSD, symptoms of anxiety and depression. This underscores the importance for health professionals to recognize and offer support to those women exposed to violence. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Sexual knowledge and emotional reaction as indicators of sexual abuse in young children: Theory and research challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brilleslijper-Kater, S.N.; Friedrich, W.N.; Corwin, D.L.

    2004-01-01

    Age inappropriate sexual behavior is strongly associated with sexual abuse but is also correlated with other factors that often co-occur in the lives of vulnerable children, including physical abuse, domestic violence, excessive life stress, and inappropriate exposure to family sexuality. In

  13. Mothers who were sexually abused during childhood are more likely to have a child victim of sexual violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Eduardo Wearick-Silva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Recurrent exposure to childhood sexual abuse (CSA seems to be higher among victims of sexual abuse. In this sense, experiences related to sexual violence can perpetuate within the family context itself in various ways. Here, we investigate the association between being exposed to CSA and having a child victim of sexual abuse. Method: We used a sample with 123 mothers, who were divided into 2 groups: one consisting of 41 mothers of sexually abused children and another consisting of 82 mothers of non-sexually abused children. History of exposure to CSA was evaluated by means of the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire - Short Form (CTQ and we used a logistic regression model to estimate the prediction values regarding having or not a child exposed to sexual violence. Results: Mothers of sexually abused children had significantly higher scores on CTQ, especially on the sexual abuse subscale (SA. According to our logistic regression model, higher scores on the CTQ significantly predicted the status of being a mother of children exposed to sexual violence in our sample (Wald = 7.074; p = 0.008; Exp(B = 1.681. Years of formal education reduced the likelihood of having a child victim of sexual violence (Wald = 18.994; p = 0.001; Exp(B = 0.497. Conclusion: Our findings highlight the importance of a possible intergenerational effect of sexual abuse. Family intervention and prevention against childhood maltreatment should take this issue in account.

  14. Sexual Function in Women with a History of Intrafamilial Childhood Sexual Abuse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Ellids; Lau, Marianne Engelbrecht

    2011-01-01

    % dyspareunia. The occurrence of sexual problems was significantly correlated to childhood physical violence, current psychological distress, flashbacks in sexual situations and discomfort with physical endearment. The prevalence of sexual pain disorders were also positively correlated to “no adult support......This study investigated sexual function in women with a history of severe intrafamilial childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and the correlation between sexual problems and the severity of CSA, adult support during childhood and current psychiatric symptoms. The sample consisted of 158 women who...... subsequently began specialized group psychotherapy for CSA sequellae. Clinical interview and questionnaires (Present Sexual Function, Sexual and Body Satisfaction, Symptom Check List 90-R) were used for data collection in a cross sectional study design. Non-parametric analysis, linear and logistic regression...

  15. Childhood Sexual Abuse, Adult Psychiatric Morbidity, and Criminal Outcomes in Women Assessed by Medium Secure Forensic Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, Mairead; Whitworth, Helen

    2013-01-01

    There is little literature on childhood sexual abuse in women seen by forensic services. A cohort of 225 cases of women seen by forensic services in a medium secure unit in the UK were examined, and childhood sexual abuse and non-childhood sexual abuse cases were compared. Over half the sample had a history of childhood sexual abuse, and 5.6% of…

  16. Child sexual abuse within the family

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seidelin, Mette

    2017-01-01

    In this chapter, it will be argued that, even though the legislation from 1930 represents a legally shift in the perception of the younger party under the age of 18 (from accomplice to victim), in practice, norms about gender, age and sexuality continued to play an important role in the police...... system after 1933. Dichotomous stereotypes, such as the “decent girl” (with no sexual experiences) vs. the “immoral adolescent” (sexually experienced girl) and the “seduced adult” (who could not resist the temptation from the immoral adolescent) vs. the “child molester” (who had assaulted an innocent...... child), were, in this respect, shared and used by police authorities and families in the construction of the victim and offender and in attributing the moral responsibility for the crime ¬– despite the fact, that the younger party under the age of 18 couldn’t get punished...

  17. Sleep Disorders in Patients with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Solh, Ali A; Riaz, Usman; Roberts, Jasmine

    2018-04-20

    A growing body of evidence supports a bidirectional relationship between post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and sleep disturbances. Fragmented sleep induced by sleep-related breathing disorders, insomnia, and nightmares impacts recovery and treatment outcomes and worsens PTSD symptoms. Despite recent attention, management of these disorders has been unrewarding in the setting of PTSD. This review summarizes the evidence for empirically supported treatments of these sleep ailments as it relates to PTSD including psychotherapeutic and pharmacologic interventions. Recent advances in positive airway pressure technology have made treatment of OSA more acceptable however adherence to CPAP represents a significant challenge. The presence of concomitant insomnia, which engenders psychiatric and medical conditions including depression, suicide, alcohol and substance abuse, can be managed with cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). Hypnotic agents are considered an alternative therapy but concerns about adverse events and lack of high level evidence supporting their efficacy in PTSD have limited their use to resistant cases or as adjunct to behavioral therapy when the response is less than desirable. Intrusion of nightmares can complicate PTSD treatment and exert serious strain on social, occupational and marital relations. Image rehearsal therapy has shown significant reduction in nightmares intensity and frequency. The success of noradrenergic blocking agents has not been consistent among studies with half reporting treatment failure. An integrated stepped care approach that includes components of both behavioral and pharmacologic interventions customized to patients sleep maladaptive behaviors may offer a solution to delivering accessible, effective, and efficient services for individuals with PTSD. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Sexual abuse during childhood and adolescence as predictors of HIV-related sexual risk during adulthood among female sexual partners of injection drug users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, H; Chao, B S

    1995-03-01

    This study explores the relationship of sexual abuse during childhood and adolescence with HIV-related sexual risk behaviors during adulthood among female sexual partners of injection drug users. It analyzed data that was gathered between 1990 and 1993, which included a sample of 2794 women from the US, Mexico, and Puerto Rico. 6 HIV-related sexual risk behaviors that occurred during the month prior to interview were examined; namely, number of sexual partners, number of drug-injecting sexual partners, number of sexual intercourse while high on alcohol and/or other drugs, number of times trading sex for drugs and/or money, proportion of all sexual acts involving protection, and overall HIV-related sexual risk. The results showed that more than one-third of the women (36.3%) experienced some form of sexual abuse during childhood, whereas 34.4% reported that they had been abused sexually during adolescence; 1 in 5 women (18.4%) stated being abused during both periods. The results further indicate that there is a strong link between sexual abuse victimization early in life and involvement later in life in HIV-related sexual risk behaviors. It was found out that certain forms of sexual abuse, such as forced exposure and touching of one's sexual parts were more strongly related than other forms of sexual abuse to subsequent involvement in HIV-related sexual behaviors.

  19. Suicide attempts among men with histories of child sexual abuse: examining abuse severity, mental health, and masculine norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easton, Scott D; Renner, Lynette M; O'Leary, Patrick

    2013-06-01

    Men who were sexually abused during childhood are at risk for a variety of long-term mental health problems, including suicidality. However, little is known about which factors are related to recent suicide attempts for this vulnerable, under-researched population. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between abuse severity, mental health, masculine norms and recent suicide attempts among men with histories of child sexual abuse (CSA). We analyzed survey data gathered from a purposive sample of 487 men who were sexually abused during childhood. The age of the sample ranged from 19 to 84 years (μ = 50.4 years). Recent suicide attempts served as the dependent variable in the study. Self-reported measures of sexual abuse severity, child physical abuse, mental health, masculine norms, and demographic information (age, race) represented the independent variables. The results from logistic regression modeling found that five variables - duration of the sexual abuse, use of force during the sexual abuse, high conformity to masculine norms, level of depressive symptoms, and suicidal ideation - increased the odds of a suicide attempt in the past 12 months. To improve mental health services for men with histories of CSA, mental health practitioners should incorporate sexual abuse severity, current mental health, and adherence to masculine norms into assessment and treatment planning. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. VA Health Care: VA Spends Millions on Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Research and Incorporates Research Outcomes into Guidelines and Policy for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    post - traumatic stress disorder ( PTSD ) and...Veterans Affairs (VA) Intramural Post - Traumatic Stress Disorder ( PTSD ) Research Funding and VA’s Medical and Prosthetic Research Appropriation...Table 6: Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Research Centers and Programs That Conduct or Support Post - Traumatic Stress Disorder ( PTSD ) Research

  1. Fiscal and Operational Impacts of Standardizing US Military Resiliency Programs to Minimize Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    symptoms—which can often lead to substance abuse . Negative thoughts—another result of PTSD—can lead to irrita- bility, depression, and suicide .2...separate programs aimed at decreasing the rates of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and suicide . The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the current...experience PTSD also are susceptible to other de- structive behaviors such as self-medication—the use of drugs and/or al- cohol to alleviate PTSD

  2. Post-traumatic stress disorder and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmondson, Donald; von Känel, Roland

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, a first in a Series of two, we look at the evidence for an association of post-traumatic stress disorder with incident cardiovascular disease risk and the mechanisms that might cause this association, as well as the prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder due to cardiovascular disease events and its associated prognostic risk. We discuss research done after the publication of previous relevant systematic reviews, and survey currently funded research from the two most active funders in the field: the National Institutes of Health and the US Veterans Administration. We conclude that post-traumatic stress disorder is a risk factor for incident cardiovascular disease, and a common psychiatric consequence of cardiovascular disease events that might worsen the prognosis of the cardiovascular disease. There are many candidate mechanisms for the link between post-traumatic stress disorder and cardiovascular disease, and several ongoing studies could soon point to the most important behavioural and physiological mechanisms to target in early phase intervention development. Similarly, targets are emerging for individual and environmental interventions that might offset the risk of post-traumatic stress disorder after cardiovascular disease events. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Anxiety, Depression and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder after Earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapa, Prakash; Acharya, Lumeshor; Bhatta, Bhup Dev; Paneru, Suman Bhatta; Khattri, Jai Bahadur; Chakraborty, Prashant Kumar; Sharma, Rajasee

    2018-03-13

    Prevalence of anxiety, depression and post traumatic stress disorder is high after earthquake. The aim of the study is to study the prevalence and comorbidity of commonly occurring psychological symptoms in people exposed to Nepal mega earthquake in 2015 after a year of the event. A community based, cross sectional, descriptive study was carried out in Bhumlichaur area of Gorkha district, Nepal after around 14 months of the first major earthquake. We used self-reporting questionnaire 20, Post-traumatic stress disorder 8 and hospital anxiety and depression scale to screen for presence of symptoms of anxiety and depression or post-traumatic stress disorder in this population. The risk of having these disorders according to different socio-demographic variable was assessed by calculating odds ratio. All calculations were done using predictive and analytical software (PASW) version 16.0. A total of 198 participants were included in the final data analysis. The mean age of study participants was 35.13 years (SD=18.04). Borderline anxiety symptoms were found in 104 (52.5%) while significant anxiety symptoms were found in 40 (20%) of respondents. Borderline depressive symptoms were seen in 40 (20%) while significant depressive symptoms were seen in 16 (8%) of subjects. Around 27% (n= 53) of respondents were classified as having post-traumatic stress disorder. The prevalence of anxiety and depressive symptoms and post-traumatic stress disorder seems to be high even after one year in people exposed to earthquake.

  4. Evaluations of children who have disclosed sexual abuse via facilitated communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botash, A S; Babuts, D; Mitchell, N; O'Hara, M; Lynch, L; Manuel, J

    1994-12-01

    To review the findings of interdisciplinary team evaluations of children who disclosed sexual abuse via facilitated communication. Case series. Tertiary care hospital outpatient child sexual abuse program in central New York. Between January 1990 and March 1993, 13 children who disclosed sexual abuse via facilitated communication and were referred to a university hospital child abuse referral and evaluation center. The range of previously determined developmental diagnosis included mental retardation, speech delay, and autism. None. Medical records were reviewed for (1) disclosure, (2) physical evidence, (3) child's behavioral and medical history, (4) disclosures by siblings, (5) perpetrator's confession, (6) child protective services determinations, and (7) court findings. Four children had evidence of sexual abuse: two had physical findings consistent with sexual abuse, one also disclosed the allegation verbally, and one perpetrator confessed. These results neither support nor refute validation of facilitated communication. However, many children had other evidence of sexual abuse, suggesting that each child's case should be evaluated without bias.

  5. Sexual Abuse as a Precursor to Prostitution and Victimization among Adolescent and Adult Homeless Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Ronald L.; Whitbeck, Les B.

    1991-01-01

    Studied 40 adolescent runaways and 95 homeless women to examine impact of early sexual abuse on prostitution and victimization. Findings suggest that early sexual abuse increases probability of involvement in prostitution irrespective of influence of running away, substance abuse, and other deviant acts; only indirectly affects chances of…

  6. Socio-Praxis Preferences in Teacher Preparation for Child Sexual Abuse and Its Mandatory Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Juliette D. G.; Grimbeek, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Child abuse and neglect, particularly child sexual abuse, is a pastoral care issue that deeply concerns all education professionals. The literature strongly supports specific training for pre-service teachers about child sexual abuse and its mandatory reporting, although few studies identify how such training should be academically structured.…

  7. Hiding behind the Cloth: Child Sexual Abuse and the Catholic Church

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Kathryn A.; Alpert, Judith L.

    2007-01-01

    The existence of child sexual abuse within the Catholic Church has shocked many. In this article, the authors review the history of child sexual abuse in the church, the recent events that brought this tragedy into societal consciousness, and the efforts by the church to conceal the abuse. Two sources of empirical literature, the general…

  8. Teacher Education to Meet the Challenges Posed by Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Ben

    2011-01-01

    The phenomenon of child sexual abuse has significant implications for teachers' pre-service training and professional development. Teachers have a pedagogical role in dealing with abused children, and a legal and professional duty to report suspected child sexual abuse. Teachers require support and training to develop the specialised knowledge and…

  9. Sexual Abuse of Individuals with Disabilities: Prevention Strategies for Clinical Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEachern, Adriana G.

    2012-01-01

    Sexual abuse of individuals with disabilities occurs in alarming proportions, although the prevalence and incidence of such abuse is difficult to determine. Although all states maintain statistics on child sexual abuse, the rate of victimization for individuals with disabilities is not specific. This paper reviews several studies conducted on…

  10. News Coverage of Child Sexual Abuse and Prevention, 2007-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejia, Pamela; Cheyne, Andrew; Dorfman, Lori

    2012-01-01

    News media coverage of child sexual abuse can help policymakers and the public understand what must be done to prevent future abuse, but coverage tends to focus on extreme cases. This article presents an analysis of newspaper coverage from 2007 to 2009 to describe how the daily news presents and frames day-to-day stories about child sexual abuse.…

  11. The impacts of institutional child sexual abuse: A rapid review of the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakemore, Tamara; Herbert, James Leslie; Arney, Fiona; Parkinson, Samantha

    2017-12-01

    While awareness of institutional child sexual abuse has grown in recent years, there remains limited understanding of its occurrence and outcomes as a distinct form of abuse. Drawing on research commissioned by the Australian Royal Commission into Institutional Responses to Child Sexual Abuse, this article presents a rapid review of available evidence on the impacts of institutional abuse on victim/survivors. Literature searches identified 75 sources spanning international peer reviewed work and reports to Government that document or quantify the impacts of mostly historical child sexual abuse occurring in religious, educational, sporting and residential or out-of-home care settings. Consistent with child sexual abuse in other contexts, institutional child sexual abuse is found to be associated with numerous, pervasive and connected impacts upon the psychological, physical, social, educative and economic wellbeing of victims/survivors. Further, institutional child sexual abuse is associated with vicarious trauma at the individual, family and community level, and with impacts to the spiritual wellbeing of victims/survivors of abuse that occurs in religious settings. The identified literature suggests the trauma of institutional child sexual abuse may be exacerbated by the interplay of abuse dynamics in institutional settings, which may reduce or impede circumstances supporting disclosure, belief, support and protection from future harm. Acknowledging the limitations of the present study and the available evidence, this narrative synthesis provides insights into the complex impacts of institutional child sexual abuse. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Sexual Abuse and Eating Disorders in a Community Sample of Mexican American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cachelin, Fary M.; Schug, Robert A.; Juarez, Laura C.; Monreal, Teresa K.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the association between sexual abuse and eating disorders in a voluntary community sample of Mexican American women. Eighty eating disorder cases were compared to 110 healthy controls on presence of sexual abuse and on characteristics of the abuse. The Structured Clinical Interview for the "Diagnostic and…

  13. Maladaptive Schemas as Mediators in the Relationship Between Child Sexual Abuse and Displaced Aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estévez, Ana; Ozerinjauregi, Nagore; Herrero-Fernández, David

    2016-01-01

    Child sexual abuse is one of the most serious forms of abuse due to the psychological consequences that persist even into adulthood. Expressions of anger among child sexual abuse survivors remain common even years after the event. While child sexual abuse has been extensively studied, the expression of displaced aggression has been studied less. Some factors, such as the maladaptive early schemas, might account for this deficiency. The objective of this study was to analyze the relationships between child sexual abuse, displaced aggression, and these schemas according to gender and determine if these early schemas mediate the relationship between child sexual abuse and displaced aggression. A total of 168 Spanish subjects who were victims of child sexual abuse completed measures of childhood trauma, displaced aggression, and early maladaptive schemas. The results depict the relationship between child sexual abuse, displaced aggression, and early maladaptive schemas. Women scored higher than men in child sexual abuse, emotional abuse, disconnection or rejection and impaired autonomy. Mediational analysis found a significant mediation effect of disconnection or rejection on the relationship between child sexual abuse and displaced aggression; however, impaired autonomy did not mediate significantly.

  14. [Child sexual abuse: clinical perspectives and ethico-legal dilemmas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Alvaro; Ramírez, Luis

    2016-01-01

    In the review of the current literature, the main causing factors of the related conditions with child sexual abuse are the ethical dilemmas and legal implications. A review was conducted on the classic literature on this topic. In this articlesome difficult paradigmatic cases are presented in which the hypothetical dilemmas were solved. The main characteristics of child sexual abuse enable us to have a better argument to address these situations. Taking into account the literature reviewed and predictable courses of action, it is concluded that it is important to take into account each individual each case and its circumstances, and that prudence and clinical objectivity, as well as knowledge of the law, become essential requirements for proper action. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  15. Children's knowledge of sexual abuse prevention in El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado, Alicia; Katz, Craig L; Ciro, Dianne; Guttfreund, Daniel; Nosike, Digna

    2014-01-01

    Child sexual abuse (CSA) remains a global health problem that must be addressed. In a country with limited resources such as El Salvador, we sought an alternative way to disseminate CSA prevention information to elementary school children. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a child sexual abuse (CSA) prevention exhibit at a children's museum. We asked 189 children to answer a questionnaire about CSA prevention before entering a museum exhibit on the subject and then asked 59 different children to answer the questionnaire after visiting the exhibit. Children's knowledge scores on CSA prevention significantly improved after visiting the exhibit (P School of Medicine at Mount Sinai. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Terrorism, post-traumatic stress, coping strategies, and spiritual outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisenhelder, Janice Bell; Marcum, John P

    2009-03-01

    This mail survey measured post-traumatic stress symptoms, spiritual and non-spiritual coping strategies, and positive spiritual outcomes following the tragedies of 9/11/01 in a national, random sample of 1,056 Presbyterians. Respondents reported mild to moderate degrees of re-experiencing and hyper-arousal symptoms of post-traumatic stress, unrelated to location or knowing someone involved. People experiencing high stress used greater frequency and variety of both spiritual and non-spiritual types of coping strategies. Positive spiritual outcomes were remarkably related to positive spiritual coping strategies, in contrast to no association with negative coping. This study illustrates the significant degree of post-traumatic stress experienced with vicarious exposure and a wide spectrum of coping strategies used following the major terrorist attacks.

  17. Psychogenetics of post-traumatic stress disorder: a short review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Rady

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Ahmed Rady, Adel Elsheshai, Osama Elkholy, Heba Abou el WafaDepartment of Psychiatry, Alexandria University, Alexandria, EgyptAbstract: Post-traumatic stress disorder is a commonly overlooked psychiatric disorder due to the heterogeneity of symptoms that may simulate many other psychiatric disorders. Such heterogeneity of manifestations may be explained by the multifaceted nature of the different neurotransmitters, endocrinologic axis, and their genetic basis, that are implicated in the etiology. Although this disorder has been studied from many different perspectives, its etiology is still enigmatic. This minireview demonstrates, in brief, that different susceptibility genes are associated with post traumatic stress disorder.Keywords: trauma, post traumatic stress disorder, psychogenetic, stress response, neurobiology

  18. Post-Traumatic Pseudocyst of the Spleen: Sclerotherapy with Ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voelk, Markus; Rogler, Gerhard; Strotzer, Michael; Lock, Guntram; Manke, Christoph; Feuerbach, Stefan

    1999-01-01

    We report a case of successful percutaneous treatment of a chronic post-traumatic splenic pseudocyst using alcohol as the sclerosing agent. A 26-year-old man presented with a symptomatic cystic mass located in the spleen. Aspiration of 300 ml of fluid was only temporarily effective, and therefore a drainage catheter was placed 3 days later. After histopathologic and microbiologic exclusion of a malignant or infectious origin, local sclerotherapy with alcohol was performed because of recurrence after percutaneous drainage. This therapy was repeated six times within 2 weeks. Two weeks later, the remaining volume was determined to be 16 ml. Six months after treatment the cyst was no longer visible. To our knowledge this is the first case of a chronic post-traumatic splenic cyst treated with alcohol. Percutaneous sclerotherapy of a symptomatic post-traumatic splenic pseudocyst may be an alternative to surgical treatment

  19. Attributions of Blame in a Hypothetical Child Sexual Abuse Case: Roles of Behavior Problems and Frequency of Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theimer, Kate; Hansen, David J

    2017-06-01

    Youth who are blamed for their sexual abuse may experience increased negative outcomes, such as amplified self-blame. Similarly, blaming nonoffending parents can impede their ability to support their child following disclosure. Understanding the factors that influence how people perceive victim, caregiver, and perpetrator responsibility is imperative for the protection and treatment of families who have experienced sexual abuse. Little research has explored victim and abuse characteristics that influence the perception of sexual abuse. As such, the purpose of this study was to examine the roles of behavior problems and frequency of abuse in the attribution of blame in a hypothetical sexual abuse case. In addition, the relationship between several respondent characteristics and assignment of responsibility were explored as secondary aims. The study used a two (behavior problems: three suspensions in one school semester vs. no mention of behavior problems) by two (one abuse occurrence vs. five abuse occurrences) between-subjects design. Seven hundred forty-two participants read one of the four child sexual abuse (CSA) vignettes and completed measures related to responsibility. ANOVAs revealed those who read a vignette where the youth experienced multiple abuse incidents rated the victim as more responsible regardless of whether or not the youth was described as having behavior problems. Results indicate that respondents may have attributed more blame to the victim due to the belief that she could have done something to stop the abuse after the first incident. The abuse frequency manipulation when combined with the behavior manipulation appeared to relate to how respondents perceived the victim's parents. Males and younger respondents attributed more blame to the victim; however, sexual abuse or assault history did not associate with victim responsibility ratings. Clinical and research implications were discussed.

  20. Brief Report: The Sexual and Physical Abuse Histories of Offenders with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, W.; Steptoe, L.; Haut, F.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Some studies have found higher rates of childhood sexual abuse in sex offenders while others have failed to find such relationships. Method: This study reviews the sexual and physical abuse histories of 156 male sex offenders with intellectual disability (ID), 126 non-sexual male offenders with ID and 27 female offenders with ID.…

  1. Preventing Sexual Abuse of Children in the Twenty-First Century: Preparing for Challenges and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurtele, Sandy K.

    2009-01-01

    Child sexual abuse is a widespread social problem that negatively affects victims, families, communities, and society. This article briefly describes the scope and consequences of child sexual abuse and briefly critiques child-focused personal safety educational programs designed to prevent sexual victimization. The final section offers…

  2. Review of 125 Children 6 Years of Age and under Who Were Sexually Abused.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mian, Marcellina; And Others

    1986-01-01

    The authors present a chart review of 125 children referred in 1981-1983 because of sexual abuse. Among findings were that 60 percent were victims of intrafamilial abuse. Of the preschoolers, 72.5 percent were victims of intrafamilial abuse. At school age there was a reversal with 73 percent of 6-year-olds being abused by extrafamilial offenders.…

  3. Disclosure of child sexual abuse: mother's reactions

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Samara Silva dos; Dell'Aglio, Débora Dalbosco

    2009-01-01

    A literatura tem indicado que mães de crianças vítimas de abuso sexual, ao tomarem conhecimento da situação de abuso de suas filhas, podem apresentar uma variedade de manifestações, que podem incluir ansiedade, depressão e estresse pós-traumático. Além disso, a reação frente à revelação pode ser de apoio e proteção ou, ainda, de evitação, indiferença ou ambivalência. Este estudo teve como objetivo investigar como mães de meninas abusadas sexualmente reagiram quando tomaram conhecimento do abu...

  4. Attenuation of cortisol across development for victims of sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trickett, Penelope K; Noll, Jennie G; Susman, Elizabeth J; Shenk, Chad E; Putnam, Frank W

    2010-01-01

    Inconsistencies exist in literature examining hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity in children and adults who have experienced childhood abuse. Hence, the extent and manner to which childhood abuse may disrupt HPA axis development is largely unknown. To address these inconsistencies, the developmental course of nonstress cortisol in a long-term longitudinal study was assessed at six time points from childhood through adolescence and into young adulthood to determine whether childhood abuse results in disrupted cortisol activity. Nonstress, morning cortisol was measured in 84 females with confirmed familial sexual abuse and 89 nonabused, comparison females. Although dynamically controlling for co-occurring depression and anxiety, hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) showed that relative to comparison females, the linear trend for abused females was significantly less steep when cortisol was examined across development from age 6 to age 30, t (1, 180) = -2.55, p cortisol activity starting in adolescence with significantly lower levels of cortisol by early adulthood, F (1, 162) = 4.78, p cortisol activity was initially significantly higher, t (1, 425) = 2.18, p cortisol hyposecretion subsequent to a period of heightened secretion.

  5. [Morel-Lavallée syndrome and post-traumatic nodular fat necrosis: Two post-traumatic complications mimicking cellulitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulin, C; Barthélémy, I; Emering, C; D'Incan, M

    Dermal and subcutaneous inflammation following direct trauma is initially evocative of soft-tissue infection. However, two differential diagnoses must be considered: Morel-Lavallée syndrome and post-traumatic nodular fat necrosis. Case 1: a 51-year-old woman fell off her motorbike and had dermabrasions on her right and left tibial ridges that rapidly developed into dermo-hypodermitis of the entire limb. There was no improvement after 3 weeks of antibiotics. The patient was apyretic. She had a soft, non-inflammatory tumefaction on the inner aspect of her left knee. Ultrasound revealed subcutaneous collection in both legs. The surgeons confirmed a diagnosis of Morel-Lavallée syndrome and drained the two collections. Progress was good and the patient healed without major consequences. Case 2: following a fall on her stairs, a 40-year-old woman presented dermabrasions and haematomas on her left leg. Antibiotic therapy failed to prevent the progression of dermo-hypodermitis. The patient remained apyretic and there was no inflammatory syndrome. A CT scan showed thickening of a subcutaneous fat and fluid collection, resulting in diagnosis of post-traumatic nodular fat necrosis. Management was surgical and the outcome was good. These two cases show two post-traumatic cutaneous complications: Morel-Lavallée syndrome and post-traumatic nodular fat necrosis. Morel-Lavallée syndrome occurs after tangential trauma next to richly vascularized tissue. Post-traumatic nodular fat necrosis is defined as necrosis of adipocytes. In both cases, diagnosis is confirmed by imagery (Ultrasonography, tomography). Our two case reports show that inflammatory presentation of both Morel-Lavallée syndrome and post-traumatic nodular fat necrosis can lead to diagnostic and therapeutic errors while a surgical procedure is necessary since tissue necrosis can occur. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Sexual abuse and substance abuse increase risk of suicidal behavior in Malaysian youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Lai Fong; Maniam, T; Saini, Suriati Mohamed; Shah, Shamsul Azhar; Loh, Sit Fong; Sinniah, Aishvarya; Idris, Zawaha Haji; Che Rus, Sulaiman; Hassan Nudin, Siti Sa'adiah; Tan, Susan Mooi Koon

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the association between sexual abuse, substance abuse and socio-demographic factors with suicidal ideation (SI), plans (SP) and deliberate self-harm (DSH) and propose steps to prevent youth suicidal behavior. This was a cross-sectional study of 6786 adolescents aged 17-18 years, selected randomly from all Malaysian adolescents to undergo compulsory youth camps located in Selangor, Malaysia (2008-2009). Participants were assessed using self-administered questionnaires developed to reflect the local cultural setting. However, only 4581 subjects were analyzed after excluding incomplete data. The rates of SI, SP and DSH were 7.6%, 3.2% and 6.3%, respectively. The multivariable-adjusted odds ratio showed that sexual abuse was associated with SI 1.99 (95% CI: 1.56-2.55), SP 1.57 (95% CI: 1.09-2.27) and DSH 2.26 (95% CI: 1.75-2.94); illicit drug use was associated with SI 4.05 (95% CI: 2.14-7.67), SP 2.62 (95% CI: 1.05-6.53) and DSH 2.06, (95% CI: 1.05-4.04); for alcohol use DSH was 1.34 (95% CI: 1.00-1.79). Being female was associated with all suicidal behaviors: SI 2.51 (95% CI: 1.91-3.30), SP 2.07 (95% CI: 1.39-3.08) and DSH 1.59 (95% CI: 1.19-2.11). Given the well-founded concern of increasing risk of suicidal behavior among youth, preventive efforts should adopt a more comprehensive approach in dealing with sexual abuse and substance abuse, and their sequelae, especially in girls. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  7. Attributions of Responsibility in a Child Sexual Abuse (CSA) Vignette among Respondents with CSA Histories: The Role of Abuse Similarity to a Hypothetical Victim

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Hilary G.; Zinzow, Heidi M.; Burns, Erin E.; Jackson, Joan L.

    2010-01-01

    Previous research suggests that similarity to a victim may influence attributions of responsibility in hypothetical child sexual abuse scenarios. One aspect of similarity receiving mixed support in the literature is respondent child sexual abuse history. Using a sample of 1,345 college women, the present study examined child sexual abuse history,…

  8. Prevalencia y Consecuencias del Abuso Sexual al Menor en Espana (Prevalence and Consequences of Child Sexual Abuse in Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Felix; And Others

    1995-01-01

    The prevalence and effects of child sexual abuse in Spain were studied, using interview and survey responses from 1,821 individuals. Results indicated a high prevalence of sexual abuse prior to age 17 (15 percent of males and 22 percent of females) and a number of short-term and long-term effects, including a tendency toward mental health…

  9. "She Got Spoilt": Perceptions of Victims of Child Sexual Abuse in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhm, Bettina

    2017-10-01

    International research has commented on social stigma as a key reason for nondisclosure of child sexual abuse. However, the actual components of this social stigma frequently remain unexplored. The present study deals with perceptions of consequences of child sexual abuse among professionals and laypeople in Ghana (N = 44), employing a bystander perspective. As a qualitative study using a grounded theory framework, it considers these consequences in light of their underlying beliefs about child and adolescent development, particularly in relation to gender-based expectations placed on girls and boys. Consequences of child sexual abuse could be divided into sexual health consequences, beliefs about "destroyed innocence" and beliefs about a "destroyed future," which were strongly related to the sexual nature of the violence perpetrated. These perceived consequences of child sexual abuse hold implications for what surviving child sexual abuse means on a social level. Implications for practice are discussed on the basis of the data analysis.

  10. Sexual revictimization in a clinical sample of women reporting childhood sexual abuse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lau, Marianne; Kristensen, Ellids

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Child and adolescent sexual abuse (CSA) increases the risk for adult sexual assault (ASA), and psychological vulnerability as well as aspects of CSA and upbringing might influence the risk. AIMS: The aims of this study were to investigate whether women who reported both CSA and ASA: 1......: The results showed an increased psychological vulnerability among women with ASA, but whether the results are cause or effect of sexual revictimization or can be generalized to other clinical samples are not clear. Interventions targeting the increased risk of ASA should be developed, implemented and tested...

  11. Does the impact of child sexual abuse differ from maltreated but non-sexually abused children? A prospective examination of the impact of child sexual abuse on internalizing and externalizing behavior problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Terri; McElroy, Erika; Harlaar, Nicole; Runyan, Desmond

    2016-01-01

    Child sexual abuse (CSA) continues to be a significant problem with significant short and long term consequences. However, extant literature is limited by the reliance on retrospective recall of adult samples, single-time assessments, and lack of longitudinal data during the childhood and adolescent years. The purpose of this study was to compare internalizing and externalizing behavior problems of those with a history of sexual abuse to those with a history of maltreatment, but not sexual abuse. We examined whether gender moderated problems over time. Data were drawn from the Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect (LONGSCAN) at ages 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, and 16 (N=977). The Child Behavior Checklist was used to assess internalizing and externalizing problems. Maltreatment history and types were obtained from official Child Protective Services (CPS) records. Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) were used to assess behavior problems over time by maltreatment group. Findings indicated significantly more problems in the CSA group than the maltreated group without CSA over time. Internalizing problems were higher for sexually abused boys compared to girls. For sexually abused girls internalizing problems, but not externalizing problems increased with age relative to boys. This pattern was similar among maltreated but not sexually abused youth. Further efforts are needed to examine the psychological effects of maltreatment, particularly CSA longitudinally as well as better understand possible gender differences in order to best guide treatment efforts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Diagnosing and treating post-traumatic stress disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhmann, Cæcilie Böck; Andersen, Henrik Steen

    2017-01-01

    The post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) diagnosis has undergone large developments. With the changes in DSM-5 and the proposed changes in ICD-11, the two systems move in different directions. Treatment for PTSD is developing, but the evidence for the effect is lacking behind. Trauma...

  13. Occurrence of delayed-onset post-traumatic stress disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Utzon-Frank, Nicolai; Breinegaard, Nina; Bertelsen, Mette

    2014-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) develops according to consensus criteria within the first 1-6 months after a horrifying traumatic event, but it is alleged that PTSD may develop later. The objective was to review the evidence addressing occurrence of PTSD with onset >6 months after a traumatic...

  14. Positron emission CT on post-traumatic epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukiyama, Takashi; Tsubokawa, Takashi; Doi, Nobuyasu; Sato, Kohten; Iio, Masaaki.

    1983-01-01

    Six patients suffering from post-traumatic epilepsy were checked by encephalography (EEG), X-ray CT and cerebral positron emission computed tomography (PECT) using 11 C-carbon dioxide ( 11 CO 2 ) and 11 C-glucoses as indicators of the local cerebral circulation and local cerebral glucose utilization, in order to assess the diagnostic value of PECT in post-traumatic epilepsy. In those patients (4 cases) who had focal electrical abnormalities or X-ray CT lesions, PECT clearly revealed localized regions of decreased cerebral circulation and glucose utilization. A focal hypometabolic zone also appeared in the post-traumatic epilepsy (1 case) which had a normal X-ray CT. One case, who had been treated for several years by medication but showed no EEG change and no abnormality on X-ray CT, revealed a normal circulation and metabolism by RECT. This case did not require any further medication for epilepsy. It is concluded that positron emission CT represents a useful diagnostic method for post-traumatic epilepsy which does not demonstrate any abnormality on X-ray CT. (author)

  15. Post traumatic stress disorder: undiagnosed cases in a tertiary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a common, debilitating anxiety disorder characterized by emotional and physical symptoms that may occur after exposure to a severely traumatic event. Since it occurs commonly as a comorbid diagnosis with other mood- and anxiety disorders, we postulated that this ...

  16. Post traumatic stress disorder symptoms in a psychiatric population ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is a diagnostic category used to describe symptoms arising from emotionally traumatic experience(s). Research suggests that PTSD may be under- diagnosed when trauma is not the presenting problem or when not the focus of clinical intervention. There is a dearth of South ...

  17. The relationshp between rape experience and post-traumatic stress ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to find out the relationship between rape experience and of Post-traumatic Stress Disorder among victims. One hundred and thirty-two female participants made up of seventy-two from Nasarawa State University and sixty from the general public in Keffi town of Nasarawa State participated in the ...

  18. Depressive and post-traumatic stress symptoms following ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Depressive and post-traumatic stress symptoms following termination of pregnancy in South African women: A longitudinal study measuring the effects of ... The relationship between demographic characteristics, resilience and symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression before, 1 month after and 3 ...

  19. POST-TRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER: CASE REPORT C. M. ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2000-04-04

    Apr 4, 2000 ... poor mental health when examined at six months and at one year ... the reader the symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder .... interpersonal and social problems related to PTSD. ... of phobic avoidance and withdrawal associated with ... Cairns E. and Wilson R. The impact of political violence on mild.

  20. Management of Patients with Post- Traumatic Exposed Bones at Moi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The global frequency for open long bone fracture is at least 11.5 cases per 100,000 persons per year. Precise published research information regarding the characteristics and the management of patients with post- traumatic exposed bones for Africa, Kenya and Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital- Eldoret is ...

  1. Haemodialysis for post-traumatic acute renal failure – factors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Post-traumatic acute renal failure requiring renal replacement therapy in an intensive care unit (ICU) is associated with high mortality. Objective. To assess indicators of improved survival. Methods. This was a retrospective cohort study of 64 consecutive trauma patients (penetrating and blunt trauma and burns) ...

  2. CASE REPORT CASE CASE Post-traumatic cholesteatoma … a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CASE REPORT. CASE. 46. SA JOURNAL OF RADIOLOGY • July 2008. CASE. Abstract. Temporal bone fractures and their acute complications have been well described in radiology and ENT journals; this is in contrast to ... post-traumatic cholesteatomas and made postulations on their origin. Since then, there have been ...

  3. Spontaneous resolution of post-traumatic chronic subdural hematoma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Here, we present a case of spontaneously resolved post-traumatic bilateral chronic subdural hematoma within a period of one month in a 55-year-old male and we discuss the probable mechanisms of pathophysiology in the spontaneous resolution of chronic subdural hematoma. Keywords: Antiaggregation therapy, chronic ...

  4. A Virtual Agent for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tielman, M.L.

    2018-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a mental disorder with a high impact on quality of life, and despite the existence of treatment, barriers still stop many people from receiving the care they need. An e-mental health system for home use might remove some of these barriers, as it provides a

  5. Post-traumatic Stress Disorder by Gender and Veteran Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehavot, Keren; Katon, Jodie G; Chen, Jessica A; Fortney, John C; Simpson, Tracy L

    2018-01-01

    Population-based data on the prevalence, correlates, and treatment utilization of post-traumatic stress disorder by gender and veteran status are limited. With changes in post-traumatic stress disorder diagnostic criteria in 2013, current information from a uniform data source is needed. This was a secondary analysis of the 2012-2013 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions-III, which consisted of in-person interviews that were conducted with a representative sample of U.S. adults. The Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule-DSM-5 Version was used to assess past-year and lifetime post-traumatic stress disorder among veterans (n=3,119) and civilians (n=32,982). Data were analyzed from January to March 2017. Adjusting for age and race/ethnicity, women veterans reported the highest rates of lifetime and past-year post-traumatic stress disorder (13.4%, 95% CI=8.8%, 17.9%, and 11.7%, 95% CI=7.1%, 16.4%) compared with women civilians (8.0%, 95% CI=7.4%, 8.6%, and 6.0%, 95% CI=5.5%, 6.6%); men veterans (7.7%, 95% CI=6.5%, 8.8%, and 6.7%, 95% CI=5.7%, 7.8%); and men civilians (3.4%, 95% CI=3.0%, 3.9%, and 2.6%, 95% CI=2.2%, 2.9%). Traumatic event exposure, correlates of lifetime post-traumatic stress disorder, and treatment seeking varied across subgroups. Men and women veterans were more likely than civilians to use a variety of treatment sources, with men civilians being least likely to seek treatment and men veterans exhibiting the longest delay in seeking treatment. Post-traumatic stress disorder is a common mental health disorder that varies by gender and veteran status. Women veterans' high rates of post-traumatic stress disorder highlight a critical target for prevention and intervention, whereas understanding treatment barriers for men veterans and civilians is necessary. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Testing a multiple mediator model of the effect of childhood sexual abuse on adolescent sexual victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramsen, Rikke H; Lasgaard, Mathias; Koss, Mary P; Shevlin, Mark; Elklit, Ask; Banner, Jytte

    2013-01-01

    The present study modeled the direct relationship between child sexual abuse (CSA) and adolescent peer-to-peer sexual victimization (APSV) and the mediated effect via variables representing the number of sexual partners, sexual risk behavior, and signaling sexual boundaries. A cross-sectional study on the effect of CSA on APSV was conducted, utilizing a multiple mediator model. Mediated and direct effects in the model were estimated employing Mplus using bootstrapped percentile based confidence intervals to test for significance of mediated effects. The study employed 327 Danish female adolescents with a mean age of 14.9 years (SD = 0.5). The estimates from the mediational model indicated full mediation of the effect of CSA on APSV via number of sexual partners and sexual risk behavior. The current study suggests that the link between CSA and APSV was mediated by sexual behaviors specifically pertaining to situations of social peer interaction, rather than directly on prior experiences of sexual victimization. The present study identifies a modifiable target area for intervention to reduce adolescent sexual revictimization. © 2013 American Orthopsychiatric Association.

  7. The Impact of Child Sexual Abuse Discovery on Caregivers and Families: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Hiu-Fai; Bennett, Colleen E; Mondestin, Valerie; Scribano, Philip V; Mollen, Cynthia; Wood, Joanne N

    2017-06-01

    In this qualitative study with nonoffending caregivers of suspected child sexual abuse victims, we aimed to explore the perceived impact of sexual abuse discovery on caregivers and their families, and caregivers' attitudes about mental health services for themselves. We conducted semistructured, in-person interviews with 22 nonoffending caregivers of suspected sexual abuse victims <13 years old seen at a child advocacy center in Philadelphia. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, coded, and analyzed using modified grounded theory. Recruitment continued until thematic saturation was reached. We found that caregivers experienced significant emotional and psychological distress, characterized by anger, depressed mood, and guilt, after learning that their child may have been sexually abused. We identified four specific sources of caregiver distress: concerns about their child, negative beliefs about their parenting abilities, family members' actions and behaviors, and memories of their own past maltreatment experiences. Some caregivers described worsening family relationships after discovery of their child's sexual abuse, while others reported increased family cohesion. Finally, we found that most caregivers in this study believed that mental health services for themselves were necessary or beneficial to help them cope with the impact of their child's sexual abuse. These results highlight the need for professionals working with families affected by sexual abuse to assess the emotional and psychological needs of nonoffending caregivers and offer mental health services. Helping caregivers link to mental health services, tailored to their unique needs after sexual abuse discovery, may be an acceptable strategy to improve caregiver and child outcomes after sexual abuse.

  8. Biofeedback for anismus in 15 sexually abused women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroi, A M; Duval, V; Roussignol, C; Berkelmans, I; Peninque, P; Denis, P

    1996-01-01

    This work aimed to see whether (1) biofeedback is useful and (2) whether it needs to be combined with psychotherapy in sexually abused patients with anismus. Fifteen women aged 41.2 +/- 4.1 years who had experienced sexual abuse in childhood (9 cases) or adulthood (6 cases) and complained of symptoms of irritable bowel disease were studied. Anismus was recorded during anorectal manometry in all cases. Patients were free to choose biofeedback and/or group psychotherapy and/or individual psychotherapy. When necessary, psychoactive drugs were prescribed after a psychiatric evaluation. Initially all the patients chose biofeedback and none accepted psychotherapy. Eight patients accepted psychotherapy after several weeks of biofeedback. Thirteen patients completed the study: 5 treated by biofeedback alone, 5 with biofeedback and group therapy, and 3 with biofeedback and individual psychotherapy. Eight women recovered completely from their symptoms, only two of whom had had biofeedback without psychotherapy. Biofeedback alone was not always sufficient to cure abused patients, but was chose initially by all the patients. It could initially be a middle path between somatic treatment and psychotherapy, at a time when patients are not yet ready to undertake the latter.

  9. Symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder among battered women in Lebanon: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadra, Christelle; Wehbe, Nancy; Lachance Fiola, Jacinthe; Skaff, Wadih; Nehmé, Mona

    2015-01-01

    Intimate partner violence against women is common in Lebanon and can lead to major health problems. However, the incidence of symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in battered women has not been extensively explored in the Lebanese cultural context. The objectives of this study were as follows: (a) to determine the prevalence of PTSD symptoms among women in Lebanon who have been physically abused by their partners, (b) to assess whether the rate of PTSD symptoms varied according to sociodemographic variables, and (c) to reveal other attributes that might be risk factors for developing symptoms of PTSD. Of the 95 physically abused women who met inclusion criteria, 85 completed a questionnaire including sociodemographic questions, the physical abuse subscale of the Composite Abuse Scale (CAS), and the PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version (PCL-C). Results showed a high prevalence of PTSD symptoms (97%), positively correlated with physical violence (r = .719). Lower education level and recent abuse were correlated with symptom severity, as were the number of problematic habitual behaviors in the abusive partner and the use of psychotherapy. Increased involvement of health care professionals in the detection of women at risk, with referral to appropriate resources, is suggested to improve prevention and management efforts. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. Childhood Sexual Abuse and Age at Initiation of Injection Drug Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ompad, Danielle C.; Ikeda, Robin M.; Shah, Nina; Fuller, Crystal M.; Bailey, Susan; Morse, Edward; Kerndt, Peter; Maslow, Carey; Wu, Yingfeng; Vlahov, David; Garfein, Richard; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

    2005-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the relation between childhood sexual abuse and injection drug use initiation among young adult injection drug users. Methods. We used mixed effect linear models to compare age at first injection among 2143 young injection drug users by first sexual abuse age categories. Results. The participants were predominantly male (63.3%) and White (52.8%). Mean age and age at first injection were 23.7 and 19.6 years, respectively; 307 participants (14.3%) reported childhood sexual abuse. After adjustment for gender, race/ethnicity, noninjection drug use before first injection drug use, and recruitment site, childhood sexual abuse was independently associated with younger age at first injection. Conclusions. Childhood sexual abuse was associated with earlier initiation of injection drug use. These data emphasize the need to integrate substance abuse prevention with postvictimization services for children and adolescents. PMID:15798133

  11. Post-traumatic stress reactions among Rwandan children and adolescents in the early aftermath of genocide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neugebauer, Richard; Fisher, Prudence W; Turner, J Blake; Yamabe, Saori; Sarsfield, Julia A; Stehling-Ariza, Tasha

    2009-08-01

    Epidemiological investigations of post-traumatic stress reactions in Sub-Saharan Africa, where atrocious violence against civilians is endemic, are rare. This article is the first complete report of the key community-based findings of a 1995 psychiatric epidemiological survey of young survivors of the 1994 Rwandan Genocide. The National Trauma Survey (NTS) of Rwandans aged 8-19 measured traumatic exposures using an inventory of possible war time experiences and post-traumatic stress reactions with a checklist of symptoms of Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Individuals meeting assessed PTSD diagnostic criteria are classified as cases of 'probable PTSD'. The NTS interviewed youth residing in the community and others institutionalized in unaccompanied children's centres; the former (n = 1547) are the subject of the present report. Instrument change midway into the study divides respondents into two samples. Among respondents, over 90% witnessed killings and had their lives threatened; 35% lost immediate family members; 30% witnessed rape or sexual mutilation; 15% hid under corpses. In Sample 1, 95% of respondents reported one or more re-experiencing symptom, 95% reported three or more avoidance/blunting symptoms and 63% reported two or more arousal symptoms; in Sample 2, these figures were 96%, 95% and 56%, respectively. The overall rate of 'probable PTSD' was 62% and 54% in Samples 1 and 2, respectively, and exhibited a dose-response relationship with exposure. Among the most heavily exposed individuals the rate was 100%. Rates of 'probable PTSD' were higher among females than among males. Results for age were inconsistent. In industrialized societies, most survivors of traumatizing violence experience symptoms only transiently. In the Rwanda survey, symptom levels and rates of 'probable PTSD' were exceptionally elevated, suggesting that at the limits of catastrophic man-made violence, psychological resilience among youth is all but extinguished.

  12. Ketamine as a Rapid Treatment for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    Post - traumatic stress disorder ( PTSD ) is a debilitating anxiety disorder characterized by intrusive re-experiences of the traumatic events...08-1-0602 TITLE: Ketamine as a Rapid Treatment for Post - Traumatic Stress Disorder PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dennis Charney...dissociative effects of ketamine but not have any sustained anxiolytic and antidepressant effects. Forty individuals diagnosed with post - traumatic

  13. 21st Century Combat Post-Traumatic Stress: An Effective and Resilient Military Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-30

    post traumatic stress disorder ( PTSD ). Although it mentions...it. But what about the invisible wounds service members receive? Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (which will be referred to as PTSD throughout the... PTSD - Post Traumatic Stress Disorder RAND - Research and Development RCTs - Randomized Clinical Trial SUD - Substance

  14. The Effect of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder on Military Leadership: An Historical Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-19

    Post Traumatic Stress Disorder ( PTSD ) on military leadership. For over twenty years, the United States Army has used the Be...Introduction Multiple deployment cycles to Iraq and Afghanistan combat zones and the increase in Post - Traumatic Stress Disorder ( PTSD ) have resulted...Approved for Public Release; Distribution is Unlimited The Effect of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder on Military Leadership: An

  15. Reintegration of National Guard Soldiers with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Post - Traumatic Stress Disorder ( PTSD ). An alarming number of soldiers returning from our current wars in Iraq...veterans have been diagnosed with the invisible wounds of Post - Traumatic Stress Disorder ( PTSD ). An alarming number of soldiers returning from our current...returning veterans have been diagnosed with the invisible wounds of Post - Traumatic Stress Disorder ( PTSD ). These veterans’ coping skills have

  16. Changes in the sexual self-schema of women with a history of childhood sexual abuse following expressive writing treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulverman, Carey S; Boyd, Ryan L; Stanton, Amelia M; Meston, Cindy M

    2017-03-01

    Sexual self-schemas are cognitive generalizations about the sexual self that influence the processing of sexually pertinent information and guide sexual behavior. Until recently sexual self-schemas were exclusively assessed with self-report instruments. Recent research using the meaning extraction method, an inductive method of topic modeling, identified 7 unique themes of sexual self-schemas: family and development, virginity, abuse, relationship, sexual activity, attraction, and existentialism from essays of 239 women (Stanton, Boyd, Pulverman, & Meston, 2015). In the current study, these themes were used to examine changes in theme prominence after an expressive writing treatment. Women (n = 138) with a history of childhood sexual abuse completed a 5-session expressive writing treatment, and essays on sexual self-schemas written at pretreatment and posttreatment were examined for changes in themes. Women showed a reduction in the prominence of the abuse, family and development, virginity, and attraction themes, and an increase in the existentialism theme. This study supports the validity of the 7 themes identified by Stanton and colleagues (2015) and suggests that expressive writing may aid women with a history of sexual abuse to process their abuse history such that it becomes a less salient aspect of their sexual self-schemas. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Knowledge and perceptions of parents regarding child sexual abuse in Botswana and Swaziland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathoma, Anikie M; Maripe-Perera, Dorcas B; Khumalo, Lindiwe P; Mbayi, Bagele L; Seloilwe, Esther S

    2006-02-01

    This study sought to explore the phenomenon of child sexual abuse by investigating the knowledge and perceptions of parents regarding this problem in Botswana and Swaziland. Although there are no published studies on child sexual abuse in Botswana and Swaziland, literature elsewhere has indicated that child abuse and prostitution prevail in Southern African Development Community countries and that children still continue to be rape victims within and outside the family structure [Muwanigwa, V. (1996). Child Abuse Demands More Preventive Measures. Harare: Zimbabwe. (Southern Africa News Features Southern African Research and Documentation Center)]. In Botswana in 1998, there were 300 cases of child abuse reported, of which 33 were sexual abuse cases. The same year in Swaziland, >50% of child abuse cases were sexual abuse related. In addition, the same year in Swaziland, >50% of sexual abuse case patients reporting for counseling were children younger than 21 years. Respondents of the study included 8 men (1 from Swaziland and 7 from Botswana) and 10 women (3 from Swaziland and 7 from Botswana) who were parents aged between 26 and 70 years; they were determined by way of purposive sampling. A focused interview guide with open-ended questions was used to collect data, and measures to ensure trustworthiness and ethical considerations were adhered to. Analysis of data was facilitated by categorization of themes and concepts and coding systems. The results of the study showed that the respondents acknowledged the prevalence of child sexual abuse in Botswana and Swaziland and further demonstrated their knowledge of the predisposing factors, perpetrators of the problem, and effects of sexual abuse on children. They placed major emphases on community involvement in fighting against the problem; appropriate education of children, parents, families, and community members about child sexual abuse; and improvement on the laws that protect children against sexual abuse to

  18. Parenting in females exposed to intimate partner violence and childhood sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, Anna E; Cranston, Christopher C; Shadlow, Joanna O

    2012-01-01

    Child sexual abuse and intimate partner violence may have a significant impact on parenting. The current study expands on existing research by examining the effects of child sexual abuse and intimate partner violence on parenting styles and parenting self-efficacy. In women from a parenting intervention program (n = 20), child sexual abuse was related to lower parenting self-efficacy and more permissive parenting. In women at a domestic violence shelter (n = 45), child sexual abuse was related to current sexual coercion of the partner, and authoritative parenting was related to higher parenting self-efficacy. These results indicate that having a history of child sexual abuse should be taken into consideration when dealing with mothers in violent relationships.

  19. Amygdala habituation to emotional faces in adolescents with internalizing disorders, adolescents with childhood sexual abuse related PTSD and healthy adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca G. van den Bulk

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Adolescents with internalizing disorders and adolescents with childhood sexual abuse related post-traumatic stress disorder (CSA-related PTSD show a large overlap in symptomatology. In addition, brain research indicated hyper-responsiveness and sustained activation instead of habituation of amygdala activation to emotional faces in both groups. Little is known, however, about whether the same patterns of amygdala habituation are present in these two groups. The current study examined habituation patterns of amygdala activity to emotional faces (fearful, happy and neutral in adolescents with a DSM-IV depressive and/or anxiety disorder (N = 25, adolescents with CSA-related PTSD (N = 19 and healthy controls (N = 26. Behaviourally, the adolescents from the internalizing and CSA-related PTSD group reported more anxiety to fearful and neutral faces than adolescents from the control group and adolescents from the CSA-related PTSD group reacted slower compared to the internalizing group. At the whole brain level, there was a significant interaction between time and group within the left amygdala. Follow-up ROI analysis showed elevated initial activity in the amygdala and rapid habituation in the CSA-related PTSD group compared to the internalizing group. These findings suggest that habituation patterns of amygdala activation provide additional information on problems with emotional face processing. Furthermore, the results suggest there are differences in the underlying neurobiological mechanisms related to emotional face processing for adolescents with internalizing disorders and adolescents with CSA-related PTSD. Possibly CSA-related PTSD is characterized by a stronger primary emotional response driven by the amygdala.

  20. Amygdala habituation to emotional faces in adolescents with internalizing disorders, adolescents with childhood sexual abuse related PTSD and healthy adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bulk, Bianca G; Somerville, Leah H; van Hoof, Marie-José; van Lang, Natasja D J; van der Wee, Nic J A; Crone, Eveline A; Vermeiren, Robert R J M

    2016-10-01

    Adolescents with internalizing disorders and adolescents with childhood sexual abuse related post-traumatic stress disorder (CSA-related PTSD) show a large overlap in symptomatology. In addition, brain research indicated hyper-responsiveness and sustained activation instead of habituation of amygdala activation to emotional faces in both groups. Little is known, however, about whether the same patterns of amygdala habituation are present in these two groups. The current study examined habituation patterns of amygdala activity to emotional faces (fearful, happy and neutral) in adolescents with a DSM-IV depressive and/or anxiety disorder (N=25), adolescents with CSA-related PTSD (N=19) and healthy controls (N=26). Behaviourally, the adolescents from the internalizing and CSA-related PTSD group reported more anxiety to fearful and neutral faces than adolescents from the control group and adolescents from the CSA-related PTSD group reacted slower compared to the internalizing group. At the whole brain level, there was a significant interaction between time and group within the left amygdala. Follow-up ROI analysis showed elevated initial activity in the amygdala and rapid habituation in the CSA-related PTSD group compared to the internalizing group. These findings suggest that habituation patterns of amygdala activation provide additional information on problems with emotional face processing. Furthermore, the results suggest there are differences in the underlying neurobiological mechanisms related to emotional face processing for adolescents with internalizing disorders and adolescents with CSA-related PTSD. Possibly CSA-related PTSD is characterized by a stronger primary emotional response driven by the amygdala. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. The Relationship of Exposure to Childhood Sexual Abuse to Other Forms of Abuse, Neglect, and Household Dysfunction during Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Maxia; Anda, Robert F.; Dube, Shanta R.; Giles, Wayne H.; Felitti, Vincent J.

    2003-01-01

    This retrospective cohort study assessed the relationship of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) to other categories of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), such as childhood abuse, neglect, and parental separation/divorce. Adults reporting CSA experienced a 1.6- to 3.4-fold greater likelihood of experience each category of ACE. The ACE score was also…

  2. Abuse-Specific Self-Schemas and Self-Functioning: A Prospective Study of Sexually Abused Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feiring, Candice; Cleland, Charles M.; Simon, Valerie A.

    2010-01-01

    Potential pathways from childhood sexual abuse (CSA) to negative self-schemas to subsequent dissociative symptoms and low global self-esteem were examined in a prospective longitudinal study of 160 ethnically diverse youth with confirmed CSA histories. Participants were interviewed at the time of abuse discovery, when they were 8 to 15 years of…

  3. Associations between Child Sexual Abuse and Negative Sexual Experiences and Revictimization among Women: Does Measuring Severity Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeb, Tamra B.; Gaines, Tommi; Wyatt, Gail E.; Zhang, Muyu; Liu, Honghu

    2011-01-01

    Women with histories of child sexual abuse (CSA) are more likely than those without such experiences to report a variety of negative sexual outcomes. This study examines the explanatory power of a CSA summed composite versus dichotomous (presence/absence) measurement in predicting a comprehensive negative sexual behavior outcome. Study…

  4. Alcohol myopia and sexual abdication among women: examining the moderating effect of child sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staples, Jennifer M; George, William H; Stappenbeck, Cynthia A; Davis, Kelly Cue; Norris, Jeanette; Heiman, Julia R

    2015-02-01

    HIV and other STIs are major public health concerns for women, and risky sexual behaviors increase the risk of transmission. Risky sexual behaviors include sexual abdication, that is, willingness to let a partner decide how far to go sexually. Alcohol intoxication is a risk factor for risky sexual behavior, and the Inhibition Conflict Model of Alcohol Myopia may help explain this relationship. This model suggests that in order for intoxication to influence behavior there must be high conflict, meaning the strength of the instigatory cues and inhibitory cues are both high. Recent research indicates that the degree to which cues are experienced as high in instigation or inhibition is subject to individual difference factors. One individual difference factor associated with alcohol-related sexual risk taking is child sexual abuse (CSA) history. The current study examined the influence of acute alcohol intoxication, CSA, and inhibition conflict on sexual abdication with 131 women (mean age 25) randomized into a 2 (alcohol, control)×2 (high conflict, low conflict) experimental design. Regression analyses yielded a significant 3-way interaction, F (1,122)=8.15, R(2)=.14, psexual decision making among women with CSA. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Predicting the child-rearing practices of mothers sexually abused in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruscio, A M

    2001-03-01

    Although empirical investigations have established a relationship between childhood sexual abuse and numerous long-term consequences, surprisingly little research has addressed the possible effects of childhood victimization on the later child-rearing practices of adult survivors. The present study examined hypothesized predictors of three parenting styles among adult survivors of sexual abuse as compared with adult children of alcoholic parents. Forty-five clinical outpatients completed a questionnaire battery assessing experiences of childhood abuse, current economic and social resources, and parenting attitudes and practices. The child-rearing practices of participants were compared with those reported by a community sample of 717 mothers. Additional analyses examined the extent to which sexual abuse and its adult sequelae predicted the parenting behaviors reported by the present sample. Both sexual abuse survivors and children of alcoholics reported significantly higher rates of permissive parenting practices than mothers in the community sample. Multiple regression analyses further revealed unique relationships between sexual abuse and parenting, over and above the variance explained by physical abuse, current socioeconomic status, and the experience of growing up in an alcoholic home. Mothers' sexual abuse severity, social support satisfaction, and dysfunctional parenting attitudes moderated several of these relationships. The present findings suggest that sexual abuse and its adult sequelae may have negative consequences for the parenting practices of survivors, particularly for survivors' ability to provide their children with appropriate structure, consistent discipline, and clear behavioral expectations. Implications for the psychosocial development of survivors' children are discussed.

  6. Prevalence of sexual abuse among children with conduct disorder: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniglio, Roberto

    2014-09-01

    Many clinicians and researchers have speculated that child sexual abuse and conduct disorder co-occur frequently, yet no systematic reviews of literature have specifically addressed both these conditions. To estimate the prevalence of sexual abuse among children with conduct disorder, the pertinent literature was systematically reviewed. Ten databases were searched, supplemented with hand search of reference lists from retrieved papers. Blind assessments of study eligibility and quality were conducted by two independent researchers. Disagreements were resolved by consensus. Twenty-three studies meeting minimum quality criteria that were enough to insure objectivity and not to invalidate results and including 7,256 participants with either conduct disorder or child sexual abuse were examined. The prevalence of child sexual abuse among participants with conduct disorder was 27 %; however, such figure might be underestimated due to selection, sampling, and recall biases; poor assessment methods; and narrow definitions of abuse in included studies. Participants with conduct disorder, compared with healthy individuals, reported higher rates of child sexual abuse. However, compared with other psychiatric populations, they reported similar or lower rates. There was also some evidence suggesting that children with conduct disorder might be more likely to report child physical abuse. Female participants with conduct disorder, compared with males, were significantly more likely to report child sexual abuse. Youths with conduct disorder are at risk of being (or having been) sexually abused, although such risk seems to be neither more specific to nor stronger for these individuals, compared with people with other psychiatric disorders.

  7. Exploring sexuality profiles of adolescents who have engaged in sexual abuse and their link to delinquency and offense characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spearson Goulet, Jo-Annie; Tardif, Monique

    2018-06-05

    Very few studies have taken a specific interest in the various sexual dimensions, beyond delinquent sexual behavior, of adolescents who have engaged in sexual abuse (AESA). Those that went beyond delinquent sexual behavior have report mixed results, suggesting they are a heterogeneous group. The current study used cluster analysis to examine the sexuality profiles of AESA, which included information on several sexual dimensions (atypical and normative fantasies and experiences, drive, body image, pornography, first masturbation, onset of sexual interest and first exposure to sex). Participants (N = 136) are adolescents who have engaged in sexual abuse involving physical contact, for which at least one parent also participated in the study. They were recruited from six specialized treatment centers and three youth centers in Quebec (Canada). Cluster analyses were performed to identify specific sexual profiles. Results suggest three clusters of AESA: 1- Discordant sexuality pertaining to adolescents who show mostly normative sexual interests, 2- Constrictive sexuality, characterizing adolescents who seem to be less invested/interested in their sexuality and 3- Overinvested sexuality for adolescents showing an exacerbated sexuality, including atypical sexual interest. Additional analyses (ANOVAs and Chi-square tests) reveal that five delinquency and offense characteristics were significantly more likely to be present in the Overinvested than the Constrictive cluster: non-sexual offenses, three or more victims, peer victims and alcohol and drug consumption. Advancing our knowledge on this topic can provide relevant data for clinicians to better target interventions. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Impact Evaluation of a Cognitive Behavioral Group Therapy Model in Brazilian Sexually Abused Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habigzang, Luisa Fernanda; Damasio, Bruno Figueiredo; Koller, Silvia Helena

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the impact of a cognitive behavioral group therapy model in Brazilian girls who had experienced sexual abuse. The effect of the waiting period before treatment and the enduring effectiveness of the treatment after six and 12 months were also evaluated. Forty-nine female sexual abuse victims between the ages of 9 and 16…

  9. Two Tragic Forms of Child Sexual Abuse: Are They Often Overlooked?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemmey, Dorothy E.; Tice, Pamela Paradis

    2002-01-01

    The persistence and pervasiveness of two forms of child sexual abuse in particular, pornography and prostitution, undoubtedly lie in the perpetuation of societal norms that unwittingly support such tragic behaviors. Argues that the overall problem of child sexual abuse must be reconceptualized, and in-depth, long-term investigations of both child…

  10. The Economic Consequences of Child Sexual Abuse for Adult Lesbian Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyman, Batya

    2000-01-01

    This study extends investigation of the long-term consequences of child sexual abuse into the workplace and considers the economic effects on Lesbian women as determined by the National Lesbian Health Care Survey. It considers the effects of child sexual abuse on four spheres of a woman's life: her physical health, mental health, educational…

  11. Pilot Evaluation of a Sexual Abuse Prevention Program for Taiwanese Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Chuen; Fortson, Beverly L.; Tseng, Kai-Wen

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to develop and evaluate the efficacy of a school-based child sexual abuse prevention program for Taiwanese children. Forty-six Taiwanese children age 6 to 13 were divided into one of two groups based on their school grade and then randomly assigned to a skills-based child sexual abuse prevention program who…

  12. Group Play Therapy with Sexually Abused Preschool Children: Group Behaviors and Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Karyn Dayle

    2002-01-01

    Group play therapy is a common treatment modality for children who have been sexually abused. Sexually abused preschoolers exhibit different group play therapy behaviors than do nonabused children. Group workers need to be aware of these differences and know the appropriate group interventions. This article describes group play therapy with…

  13. Children's Response to a Sexual Abuse Prevention Program: A Study of the Spiderman Comic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbarino, James

    1987-01-01

    Children (N=73) in grades two, four, and six were interviewed concerning their comprehension and response to a special comic book on child sexual abuse. Although the comic made some children anxious, one child spoke up about having been sexually abused and how the comic would have helped him. (DB)

  14. Prevention of Child Sexual Abuse Victimization: A Meta Analysis of School Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rispens, Jan; Aleman, Andre; Goudena, Paul P.

    1997-01-01

    Meta-analysis of 16 evaluation studies of school programs aimed at the prevention of child sexual abuse victimization found significant and considerable mean postintervention and follow-up effect sizes, indicating that the programs were effective in teaching children sexual abuse concepts and self-protection skills. Program duration and content…

  15. Can the Punishment Fit the Crime When Suspects Confess Child Sexual Abuse?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faller, Kathleen Coulborn; Birdsall, William C.; Vandervort, Frank; Henry, James

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To determine significant predictors of severity of sentencing of sex offenders of minors in a jurisdiction which obtains many confessions. Method: Data were abstracted from 323 criminal court case records of sexually abused minors over 11 years in a county which places a high priority on sexual abuse prosecution. The sample used in this…

  16. Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Education: A review of School Policy and Curriculum Provision in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kerryann; Berthelsen, Donna; Nicholson, Jan M.; Brandon, Leisa; Stevens, Judyann; Rachele, Jerome N.

    2013-01-01

    The past four decades have seen increasing public and professional awareness of child sexual abuse. Congruent with public health approaches to prevention, efforts to eliminate child sexual abuse have inspired the emergence of prevention initiatives which can be provided to all children as part of their standard school curriculum. However,…

  17. Prevalence and nature of child sexual abuse in the Netherlands : Ethnic differences?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okur, P.; van der Knaap, L.M.; Bogaerts, S.

    2015-01-01

    In most epidemiological prevalence studies of child sexual abuse, the role of ethnicity remains unclear. This study examined the prevalence and nature of child sexual abuse in four non-Western ethnic minority groups and compared them with a native Dutch group. A sample of 3,426 young adults (aged

  18. Conceptualization of the Complex Outcomes of Sexual Abuse: A Signal Detection Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pechtel, Pia; Evans, Ian M.; Podd, John V.

    2011-01-01

    Eighty-five New Zealand based practitioners experienced in treating adults with a history of child sexual abuse participated in an online judgment study of child sexual abuse outcomes using signal detection theory methodology. Participants' level of sensitivity was assessed independent of their degree of response bias when discriminating (a) known…

  19. Child Sexual Abuse at Preschools--A Research Review of a Complex Issue for Preschool Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergström, Helena; Eidevald, Christian; Westberg-Broström, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this research review is to synthesize research published between 2000 and 2015 regarding child sexual abuse, preschool and preschool teachers. The review identifies themes relevant for the preschool teacher profession: child sexual abuse at preschools, suspicions and consequences for the preschool sector, preventing techniques and…

  20. The Pennsylvania State University Child Sexual Abuse Scandal: An Analysis of Institutional Factors Affecting Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Alice R.

    2015-01-01

    The outcomes of The Pennsylvania State University (Penn State) child sexual abuse scandal have left many scholars and individuals questioning the university's collective identity. The goal of this research was to uncover the dominant themes that describe a problematic institutional response to the child sexual abuse incidents in order to provide…

  1. Utilizing Online Training for Child Sexual Abuse Prevention: Benefits and Limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paranal, Rechelle; Thomas, Kiona Washington; Derrick, Christina

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of child sexual abuse demands innovative approaches to prevent further victimization. The online environment provides new opportunities to expand existing child sexual abuse prevention trainings that target adult gatekeepers and allow for large scale interventions that are fiscally viable. This article discusses the benefits and…

  2. Exploratory Factor Analysis and Psychometric Evaluation of the Teacher Reporting Attitude Scale for Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kerryann; Rassafiani, Mehdi; Mathews, Ben; Farrell, Ann; Butler, Des

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an evaluation of an instrument to measure teachers' attitudes toward reporting child sexual abuse and discusses the instrument's merit for research into reporting practice. Based on responses from 444 Australian teachers, the Teachers' Reporting Attitude Scale for Child Sexual Abuse was evaluated using exploratory factor…

  3. Differences in Perceptions of Child Sexual Abuse Based on Perpetrator Age and Respondent Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giglio, Jessie J.; Wolfteich, Paula M.; Gabrenya, William K.; Sohn, Mary L.

    2011-01-01

    Child sexual abuse changes the lives of countless children. Child sexual abuse victims experience short and long term negative outcomes that affect their daily functioning. In this study, undergraduate students' perceptions of CSA were obtained using vignettes with an adult or child perpetrator and a general questionnaire. Results indicated…

  4. Is Anybody Listening? The Literature on the Dialogical Process of Child Sexual Abuse Disclosure Reviewed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reitsema, Anne Margit; Grietens, Hans

    We conducted an exploratory review of the current literature on child sexual abuse disclosure in everyday contexts. The aim of this study was to provide an overview of relevant publications on the process of child sexual abuse disclosure, in order to generate new directions for future research and

  5. Understanding Child Sexual Abuse by Catholic Priests from a Situational Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Karen J.; Freilich, Joshua D.

    2012-01-01

    Most sexual offense research focuses on offender motivation and individual risk factors rather than the criminal events themselves. This article provides an analysis of data from two studies on child sexual abuse by Catholic priests to help understand the opportunities clergy had or created to abuse youth. Findings show that situational factors…

  6. Historical Child Sexual Abuse in England and Wales: The Role of Historians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingham, Adrian; Delap, Lucy; Jackson, Louise; Settle, Louise

    2016-01-01

    This article reflects on methodological and ethical issues that have shaped a collaborative project which aims to chart social, legal and political responses to child sexual abuse in England and Wales across the twentieth century. The etymological problem of searching for child sexual abuse in the historical archive is discussed, given that the…

  7. Australian Undergraduate Primary School Student-Teachers' Responses to Child Sexual Abuse and Its Mandatory Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Juliette D. G.

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to understand how primary school teachers, as mandatory reporters of child sexual abuse, are responding to child sexual abuse and its mandatory reporting, even though many teachers do not receive a compulsory course in Child Protection and its legal requirements in their pre-service university training. A cohort of 81 Australian…

  8. Adult Disclosure of Sexual Abuse: A Primary Cause of Psychological Distress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNulty, Craig; Wardle, Jane

    1994-01-01

    This paper surveys research evidence relating to the disclosure of childhood sexual abuse by adults and argues that, for some adults, the disclosure of sexual abuse may be a primary cause of psychological distress, resulting in the dissolution of social support systems and increasing the individual's vulnerability to psychiatric disorder.…

  9. Victim Oriented Tort Law in Action: An Empirical Examination of Catholic Church Sexual Abuse Cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijck, Gijs

    2018-01-01

    Catholic Church sexual abuse cases have received worldwide attention, with lawsuits and nationwide investigations reported in various countries. This study examines a procedure—a hybrid between tort litigation and a victim compensation fund—that not only allowed sexual abuse victims to seek monetary

  10. Autonomy and intimacy in the family as risk factors for sexual abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Repič

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the level of two risk factors (autonomy and intimacy for healthy functional family among sexually abused and sexually non-abused individuals. Autonomy and intimacy were measured with Family-of-Origin Scale (FOS; Hovestadt, Anderson, Piercy, Cochran, & Fine, 1985. 261 participants (194 girls and 67 boys completed the FOS, average age was 25 years (SD = 7. Among all participants 18% were sexually abused (N = 46, approximately every fifth (5.7 girl and every seventh (6.7 boy. There were 78% girls and 22% boys among sexually abused participants. Families of sexually abused participants in comparison with the families of sexually non-abused showed many statistically significant differences in elements of autonomy (clarity of expressing emotions, responsibility, respect for others, openness to others, and acceptance of separation and loss and intimacy (encouraging expression of a range of feelings, creating a warm atmosphere in the home, dealing with conflict resolution without undue stress, promoting empathy among family members, trust and developing trust. In general the sexually abused group had a statistically significantly lower level of autonomy and intimacy in comparison with sexually non-abused group.

  11. Silencing the Patient: Freud, Sexual Abuse, and "The Etiology of Hysteria."

    Science.gov (United States)

    McOmber, James B.

    1996-01-01

    States that, in "The Etiology of Hysteria," Sigmund Freud's "seduction theory" asserted that child sexual abuse was the single cause of adult hysteria. Argues that Freud's failure to persuade his audience can be attributed not only to their denial of sexual abuse but also to his failure to clarify how pschyoanalysis could…

  12. Emotions and Suicidal Ideation among Depressed Women with Childhood Sexual Abuse Histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Sungeun; Talbot, Nancy L.; He, Hua; Conner, Kenneth R.

    2012-01-01

    Depressed women with sexual abuse histories have a heightened risk of suicidal ideation (SI), which may be only in part attributable to psychiatric symptoms of depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Emotions and SI were studied among 106 women with histories of childhood sexual abuse enrolled in treatment trials for major depression.…

  13. Increasing the Usability of Cognitive Processing Therapy for Survivors of Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, Amy S.

    2006-01-01

    There is an ongoing need for empirically based treatments for child sexual abuse (CSA) that are time-efficient and cost-effective. This article describes a modification of cognitive processing therapy for child sexual abuse (CPT-SA) that increases the therapy's usability by reducing the number of individual therapy sessions required. The…

  14. Commentary: Ethical Considerations in Testing Victims of Sexual Abuse for HIV Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fost, Norman

    1990-01-01

    Ethical issues in screening of victims of sexual abuse for infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are raised in response to Gellert (EC 222 881). It is concluded that widescale HIV testing of child victims of sexual abuse is not justified by the available information. (DB)

  15. Examining the Relationship between Childhood Sexual Abuse and Borderline Personality Disorder: Does Social Support Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elzy, Meredith B.

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between childhood sexual abuse and borderline personality disorder is a prominent issue in the etiological research on borderline personality disorder. This study further explored the relationship between childhood sexual abuse and the development of borderline personality features while evaluating the moderating role of a primary…

  16. Developing a Scale of Perception of Sexual Abuse in Youth Sports (SPSAYS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Thomas A., III.; Byon, Kevin K.

    2014-01-01

    A scale was developed to measure perceptions of sexual abuse in youth sports by assessing (a) the perceived prevalence of sexual abuse committed by pedophilic youth sport coaches, (b) the perceived likelihood that a coach is a pedophile, (c) perceptions on how youth sport organizations should manage the risk of pedophilia, and (d) media influence…

  17. Sexual Abuse Prevention Mobile Application (SAP_MobAPP) for Primary School Children in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Kyoung Ja; Park, Kyung Min; Sung, Yunsick

    2017-07-01

    This study aimed to develop and evaluate the effects of a sexual abuse prevention mobile application, SAP_MobAPP, for primary school children. Forty-five subjects were trained for 40 minutes once a week. The experimental group received education that utilized the SAP_MobAPP. Control group A received Web based sexual abuse prevention education, while control group B received textbook based sexual abuse prevention education. Effectiveness was verified through a survey on child sexual abuse recognition and avoidance skills administered before and after training. The SAP_MobAPP program improved recognition (awareness) and the child's skills to avoid child sexual abuse situations, and the effects were long-lasting. However, differences between groups were not statistically significant. This study developed a sexual abuse prevention application and verified its effectiveness. Awareness and skills to avoid child sexual abuse after app education increased immediately after training and four weeks later. The SAP_MobAPP could be used for sexual abuse prevention education in schools.

  18. Self-Mutilating Behavior of Sexually Abused Female Adults in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baral, Isin; Kora, Kaan; Yuksel, Sahika; Sezgin, Ufuk

    1998-01-01

    Self-mutilating behavior (SMB), suicide, and eating disorders are examined in adult females (N=42) in relation to childhood sexual abuse. A statistically significant relationship was found between SMB and suicide attempts. Findings support the contention that SMB and sexual abuse are closely related to eating disorders. (Author/EMK)

  19. Social and Emotional Outcomes of Child Sexual Abuse: A Clinical Sample in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozbaran, Burcu; Erermis, Serpil; Bukusoglu, Nagehan; Bildik, Tezan; Tamar, Muge; Ercan, Eyyup Sabri; Aydin, Cahide; Cetin, Saniye Korkmaz

    2009-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse is a traumatic life event that may cause psychiatric disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder and depression. During 2003-2004, 20 sexually abused children were referred to the Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Clinic of Ege University in Izmir, Turkey. Two years later, the psychological adjustment of these children (M…

  20. A case of sexual abuse by a traditional faith healer: are there potential preventions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Lai Fong; Tan, Susan Mooi Koon; Ang, Jin Kiat; Kamal Nor, Norazlin; Sharip, Shalisah

    2012-01-01

    Adolescent sexual abuse is not an uncommon phenomenon in Malaysia. It is a traumatic experience that complicates the psychosocial development of young people on the threshold of adulthood. This case report highlights the psychosocial sequelae of adolescent sexual abuse by a traditional healer and discusses management issues in the context of unique cultural and belief systems.

  1. Family Trauma and Dysfunction in Sexually Abused Female Adolescent Psychiatric Control Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wherry, Jeffrey N.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Differences in family trauma, stressors, and dysfunction among adolescent psychiatric inpatients grouped by sexual abuse self-reports were investigated. Family trauma/dysfunction was determined from a composite score derived from the Traumatic Antecedents Scale. The results indicated that sexually abused adolescents reported more family…

  2. A Case of Sexual Abuse by a Traditional Faith Healer: Are There Potential Preventions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Lai Fong; Tan, Susan Mooi Koon; Ang, Jin Kiat; Kamal Nor, Norazlin; Sharip, Shalisah

    2012-01-01

    Adolescent sexual abuse is not an uncommon phenomenon in Malaysia. It is a traumatic experience that complicates the psychosocial development of young people on the threshold of adulthood. This case report highlights the psychosocial sequelae of adolescent sexual abuse by a traditional healer and discusses management issues in the context of…

  3. Encopresis and Sexual Abuse in a Sample of Boys in Residential Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Jan; And Others

    1997-01-01

    This study of 23 boys (ages 6 to 14) in a residential psychiatric treatment program found nine of the boys were encopretic (27 times the incidence of encopresis in the general population of boys 10-12). Seven of the nine boys had histories of sexual abuse by males, suggesting that encopresis may be a marker of sexual abuse. (DB)

  4. Psychopathology in a Large Cohort of Sexually Abused Children Followed up to 43 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutajar, Margaret C.; Mullen, Paul E.; Ogloff, James R. P.; Thomas, Stuart D.; Wells, David L.; Spataro, Josie

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To determine the rate and risk of clinical and personality disorders diagnosed in childhood and adulthood in those known to have been sexually abused during childhood. Methods: Forensic medical records of 2,759 sexually abused children assessed between 1964 and 1995 were linked with a public psychiatric database between 12 and 43 years…

  5. [WEIGHT GAIN DURING PREGNANCY AND PERINATAL OUTCOMES IN PREGNANT ADOLESCENTS WITH A HISTORY OF SEXUAL ABUSE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sam-Soto, Selene; Sámano, Reyna; Flores-Ramos, Mónica; Rodríguez-Bosch, Mario; García-Salazar, Danae; Hernández-Mohar, Gabriela; García-Espinosa, Verónica

    2015-09-01

    the purpose of the present study was to describe some perinatal outcomes in two groups of pregnant adolescents: one group with history of sexual abuse and one group without sexual abuse antecedent. we designed an observational, retrolective study. Participants were primigravid adolescents between 10 to 16 years, with a singleton pregnancy, and at least three prenatal medical evaluations. Participants were grouped according to sexual abuse antecedent: 55 adolescents had sexual abuse antecedent, and 110 participants had not sexual abuse antecedent. We obtained the clinical data from medical records: socio-demographic characteristics, sexually transmitted infections, illicit drugs use, pre-gestational body mass index, gestational weight gain, and newborn weight. The data were analyzed using association tests and mean comparisons. the adolescents with sexual abuse history had higher prevalence of human papilloma virus infection. The newborns weight of mothers without sexual abuse antecedent was about 200 grams higher than the newborns of mothers with sexual abuse antecedent (p = 0.002); while the length of the first group was 2 centimeters longer than the length of the newborns on the second group (p = 0.001). Gestational weight increase was 5 kilograms lower in adolescents with sexual abuse antecedent compared to adolescent without the antecedent (p = 0.005). Illicit drug use was similar in the two groups and it was associated to low newborn weight. the sexual abuse antecedent in pregnant adolescents was associated to higher frequency of human papilloma virus infections, lower newborn weight, and lower gestational weight increase on pregnant adolescents. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  6. Sexual harassment and abuse in sport: the role of the team doctor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Saul; Mountjoy, Margo; Marcus, Madalyn

    2012-10-01

    Sexual harassment and abuse occur in all sports and at all levels with an increased risk at the elite level. The physical and psychological consequences of sexual harassment and abuse are significant for the athlete, their team and for the health and integrity of sport in general. The sports medicine health professional has an integral role to play in the prevention of sexual harassment and abuse in sport. This paper provides sport healthcare professionals with a practical guide on prevention strategies and advice on the recognition and management of suspected abuse.

  7. From Freud to Feminism: Gendered Constructions of Blame Across Theories of Child Sexual Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzopardi, Corry; Alaggia, Ramona; Fallon, Barbara

    2018-04-01

    Most theories of child sexual abuse are, to some degree, gendered, with nonoffending mothers bearing the burden of blame, ideologically and legally, for the transgressions of predominantly male offenders. This article explores the social construction of blame for child sexual abuse via critical analyses of evolving theoretical perspectives on maternal culpability for the inception and maintenance of abuse dynamics. Drawing on selected conceptual and research knowledge that supports and refutes anecdotal claims, this synthesis of the literature culminates in the proposal of an evidence-informed, feminist-grounded, multitheoretical child sexual abuse framework that disrupts dominant mother-blaming discourse and guides socially just and ethically responsive policy, practice, and research.

  8. Factors associated with post-traumatic stress disorder and depression amongst internally displaced persons in northern Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oyok Thomas

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The 20 year war in northern Uganda between the Lord's Resistance Army and the Ugandan government has resulted in the displacement of up to 2 million people within Uganda. The purpose of the study was to measure rates of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD and depression amongst these internally displaced persons (IDPs, and investigate associated demographic and trauma exposure risk factors. Methods A cross-sectional multi-staged, random cluster survey with 1210 adult IDPs was conducted in November 2006 in Gulu and Amuru districts of northern Uganda. Levels of exposure to traumatic events and PTSD were measured using the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (original version, and levels of depression were measured using the Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25. Multivariate logistic regression was used to analyse the association of demographic and trauma exposure variables on the outcomes of PTSD and depression. Results Over half (54% of the respondents met symptom criteria for PTSD, and over two thirds (67% of respondents met symptom criteria for depression. Over half (58% of respondents had experienced 8 or more of the 16 trauma events covered in the questionnaire. Factors strongly linked with PTSD and depression included gender, marital status, distance of displacement, experiencing ill health without medical care, experiencing rape or sexual abuse, experiencing lack of food or water, and experiencing higher rates of trauma exposure. Conclusion This study provides evidence of exposure to traumatic events and deprivation of essential goods and services suffered by IDPs, and the resultant effect this has upon their mental health. Protection and social and psychological assistance are urgently required to help IDPs in northern Uganda re-build their lives.

  9. Post-Traumatic Narcolepsy Associated with Thalamic/Hypothalamic Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kikyoung Yi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The hypothalamus is an important structure that regulates sleep via hypocretin neurotransmission. Central nervous system disorders such as tumors and vascular legions involving the hypothalamus can cause secondary narcolepsy. In addition, brain trauma can contribute to post-traumatic narcolepsy despite lack of any definite brain lesion. Here, we present a case of a 37-year-old man suffering from a hypothalamus-to-thalamus hemorrhage after a traffic accident. After this trauma, he suffered from excessive daytime sleepiness and was diagnosed with post-traumatic narcolepsy by polysomnography and multiple sleep latency tests. He was positive for human leukocyte antigen (HLA-DQB1*03:01 and HLA-DQB1*06:01 antigens.

  10. Functional Neuro-Imaging and Post-Traumatic Olfactory Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Richard J.; Sheehan, William; Thurber, Steven; Roberts, Mary Ann

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate via a research literature survey the anterior neurological significance of decreased olfactory functioning following traumatic brain injuries. Materials and Methods: A computer literature review was performed to locate all functional neuro-imaging studies on patients with post-traumatic anosmia and other olfactory deficits. Results: A convergence of findings from nine functional neuro-imaging studies indicating evidence for reduced metabolic activity at rest or relative hypo-perfusion during olfactory activations. Hypo-activation of the prefrontal regions was apparent in all nine post-traumatic samples, with three samples yielding evidence of reduced activity in the temporal regions as well. Conclusions: The practical ramifications include the reasonable hypothesis that a total anosmic head trauma patient likely has frontal lobe involvement. PMID:21716782

  11. Anticonvulsants to treat post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hee Ryung; Woo, Young Sup; Bahk, Won-Myong

    2014-09-01

    We reviewed the existing literature on the efficacy of anticonvulsants in treating post-traumatic stress disorder. We performed a literature search using PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane database on 30 September 2013. Randomized,controlled studies that investigated the efficacy of anticonvulsants for post-traumatic stress disorder were included in this review. Studies with retrospective designs, case reports and case series were excluded. A total of seven studies met the inclusion criteria for this review. Three studies used topiramate with negative findings regarding its efficacy. Two studies used divalproex, both of which failed to show superiority over placebo. One study used lamotrigine, with favourable results, and one study used tiagabine, with negative results. Future long-term studies with larger sample sizes are needed to investigate the clinical utility of anticonvulsants for posttraumatic stress disorder treatment.

  12. Post-traumatic stress disorder in intensive care unit patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caiuby, Andrea Vannini Santesso; Andreoli, Paola Bruno de Araújo; Andreoli, Sergio Baxter

    2010-03-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder has been detected in patients after treatment in intensive care unit. The main goal of this study is to review the psychological aspects and therapeutic interventions on those patients after their treatment on intensive care unit. Thirty eight articles have been included. The prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder has varied from 17% up to 30% and the incidence from 14% to 24%. The risk factors were: previous anxiety historic, depression or panic, having delusional traumatic memories (derived from psychic formations as dreams and delirium), belief effects, depressive behavior, stressing experiences and mechanical ventilation. High doses of opiates, symptoms caused by sedation or analgesia reduction and the use of lorazepam were related with the increase of delirium and delusional memory. The disorder sintomatology can be reduced with hydrocortisone administration, with daily sedation interruption. No other effectiveness psychological intervention study was found.

  13. A multi-dimensional model of groupwork for adolescent girls who have been sexually abused.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindon, J; Nourse, C A

    1994-04-01

    This paper describes a treatment approach for sexually abused adolescent girls using a group work model. The model incorporates three treatment modalities: a skills component, a psychotherapeutic component, and an educative component. The group ran for 16 sessions over a 6-month period and each girl was assessed prior to joining the group. The girls were again assessed at the end of treatment and a 6-months follow-up; all of them showed improvement on self-statements (outcome) and on behavioral measures assessed by others (follow-up). Girls who had been sexually abused demonstrated difficulties in many areas of their lives following abuse. These problems related to their feelings of guilt and helplessness in relation to both themselves and their abuser. Sexually abused children often have poor knowledge of sexual matters and demonstrate confusion over their own body image. Using a multidimensional model the problems following abuse can be addressed.

  14. Exposure to war traumatic experiences, post-traumatic stress disorder and post-traumatic growth among nurses in Gaza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamia, N A; Thabet, A A M; Vostanis, P

    2015-12-01

    What is known on the subject? This study builds on existing research on war-related factors that may affect health-care staff by particularly focusing on trauma exposure in both professional and everyday life, as well as on correlates of later positive psychological changes. What this paper adds to existing knowledge? It shows that one in five nursing staff working in Gaza experienced post-traumatic stress symptoms within the clinical range, 2 years after an incursion on Gaza and after being exposed to substantial trauma during this period. Participants appeared to develop a variety of post-traumatic growth responses following trauma exposure. Although nurses experienced traumatic events both as civilians and in their health-care capacity, personal exposure was strongly associated with PTSD symptoms. What are the implications for practice? Support to nursing and other health-care professionals in war situations should entail different levels, remain available well after an acute conflict, and take into consideration both personal and practice-related traumatic events. Mental health nursing practitioners can play a pivotal role in this. To establish the association between war traumatic experiences, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and post-traumatic growth among nurses in the Gaza Strip, 2 years after an incursion on Gaza, and during a period of ongoing trauma exposure. This study builds on existing evidence by considering exposure to personal and work-related traumatic events, and on factors associated with later positive psychological adaptation. The sample consisted of 274 randomly selected nurses in Gaza who completed the Gaza Traumatic Events Checklist, PTSD Checklist, and Posttraumatic Growth Inventory. Of the nurses, 19.7% reported full PTSD. There was a significant relationship between traumatic events and PTSD scores; as well as between community-related traumatic events and post-traumatic growth. Participants reported a range of traumatic

  15. Alcohol and drug problems and sexual and physical abuse at three ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background Alcohol is the most important substance of abuse in South Africa. There are, however, reports of an increase in the use of other drugs among adolescents. The aim of this study was to assess the use of alcohol and other drugs of abuse and their association with physical or sexual abuse in three urban high ...

  16. Externalizing Behavior among Adopted Boys with Preadoptive Histories of Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalavany, Blace Arthur; Ryan, Scott D.; Hinterlong, Jim

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the severity of externalizing symptomology among adopted boys with preadoptive histories of child sexual abuse, physical abuse, neglect/abandonment, or no abuse. The study was based on data collected across a three-year period from parents who adopted children from Florida's child welfare system. The sample consisted of 1,136…

  17. Diagnosing and treating post-traumatic stress disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhmann, Cæcilie Böck; Andersen, Henrik Steen

    2017-01-01

    The post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) diagnosis has undergone large developments. With the changes in DSM-5 and the proposed changes in ICD-11, the two systems move in different directions. Treatment for PTSD is developing, but the evidence for the effect is lacking behind. Trauma-focused cog......-focused cognitive behavioural therapy and eye movement desensitization and reprocessing remain first choice. Pharmacotherapy is secondary. There is evidence for the effect of paroxetine, venlafaxine and fluoxetine and less so for sertraline....

  18. Chronic post-traumatic headache after mild head injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldgaard, Dorte; Forchhammer, Hysse; Teasdale, Tom

    2014-01-01

    to or above the cut-off score for having post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) according to the HTQ. In terms of demographics and headache, the groups were comparable except the CPTH group were more often without affiliation to the labour market ( P work capacity and high...... ( P role function ( P = 0.012) and social function ( P = 0.012) than the control group. Surprisingly, 31% of the CPTH group had a score equal...

  19. Information Processing Bias in Post-traumatic Stress Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Weber, Darren L

    2008-01-01

    This review considers theory and evidence for abnormal information processing in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Cognitive studies have indicated sensitivity in PTSD for traumatic information, more so than general emotional information. These findings were supported by neuroimaging studies that identify increased brain activity during traumatic cognition, especially in affective networks (including the amygdala, orbitofrontal and anterior cingulate cortex). In theory, it is proposed th...

  20. Prolonged Exposure Therapy For Post Traumatic Stress Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Levent SÜTÇÝGÝL; Selçuk ASLAN

    2012-01-01

    Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is a psychiatric illness that usually develops after an event that threatens one’s life and body integrity and it affects quality of life and impairs social functioning significantly. Many studies have shown therapeutic effect of cognitive behavioral therapies on posttraumatic stress disorder, so that these therapies take part in the first step of treatment guides. Exposure is a practice that is generally used to reduce pathological fear and related ...

  1. Cognitive processes in post-traumatic stress disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Yıldırımlı, Gamze; Tosun, Ahmet

    2012-01-01

    Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) consists of a pattern of symptoms that include cognitive, affective, sensory and behavioral systems. In PTSD, the individual experiences disturbing emotions and sensations such as anxiety, panic, depression, anger, tension, high startle response and hyper-vigilance as a result of re-experiencing traumatic memories, flashbacks, attention difficulties, memory loss, nightmares and intrusive thoughts. To get rid of these emotions, he avoids all stimuli that r...

  2. Biomarkers of Risk for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    post - traumatic stress disorder ( PTSD ),” Principal Investigator, 4/07-4/10, $276,422. 12. R01 MH0687670-01 “DEX/CRH Response... Stress Disorder ( PTSD ) PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Audrey R. Tyrka, M.D., Ph.D. CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Butler Hospital... Stress Disorder ( PTSD ) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-07-1-0269 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Audrey R.

  3. Coping Strategies and Depression Among College Students Following Child Sexual Abuse in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz Irmak, Türkan; Aksel, Şeyda; Thompson, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between type of coping style and depression in college students with child sexual abuse experience. A total of 1,055 college students completed self-report measures to assess depressive symptoms, coping strategies, and child sexual abuse history. This study was conducted with a subset of 125 college students who reported that they had been sexually abused in childhood. They were divided into depressive and nondepressive groups according to their depressive symptoms. Data was collected with the Childhood Sexual Abuse Measurement, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Coping Styles of Stress Scale. Family characteristics were measured with a demographic questionnaire. Analyses involved multiple regression to test for predictive effects. Among college students with child sexual abuse histories, parental education level and both problem-focused and emotion-focused strategies significantly explained depression scores.

  4. Male Survivors of Sexual Abuse: Becoming Gender-Sensitive and Trauma-Informed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Elkins

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available While there is a wide body of literature examining the behavioral, emotional, and social consequences associated with being sexually abused, comparatively few studies have focused on males. Sexual abuse victimization among males remains largely under-reported, under-treated, and under-recognized by researchers, practitioners, and the public. Researchers trying to clarify why sexual abuse in males has been overlooked point to prevailing cultural norms, myths, assumptions, stigma, and biases about masculinity. Consequently, there is often an assumption that males are not negatively affected by sexual abuse. Drawing extensively from the literature, this article provides a critical review of: (1 the nature, experience and impact of sexual abuse victimization for males; and (2 the multidimensional processes that promote and inhibit resilient outcomes. It concludes with a discussion of trauma-informed and gender-responsive recommendations and future directions for social work practice, policy, and research.

  5. Post-traumatic stress disorder: medicine and politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Dan J; Seedat, Soraya; Iversen, Amy; Wessely, Simon

    2007-01-13

    Regrettably, exposure to trauma is common worldwide, and can have serious adverse psychological results. The introduction of the notion of post-traumatic stress disorder has led to increasing medicalisation of the problem. This awareness has helped popular acceptance of the reality of post-traumatic psychiatric sequelae, which has boosted research into the pathogenesis of the disorder, leading to improved pharmacological and psychological management. The subjective experience of trauma and subsequent expression of symptoms vary considerably over space and time, and we emphasise that not all psychological distress or psychiatric disorders after trauma should be termed post-traumatic stress disorder. There are limits to the medicalisation of distress and there is value in focusing on adaptive coping during and after traumas. Striking a balance between a focus on heroism and resilience versus victimhood and pathological change is a crucial and constant issue after trauma for both clinicians and society. In this Review we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of medicalising trauma response, using examples from South Africa, the Armed Services, and post-disaster, to draw attention to our argument.

  6. Neural Correlates of Memories of Childhood Sexual Abuse in Women With and Without Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremner, J. Douglas; Narayan, Meena; Staib, Lawrence H.; Southwick, Steven M.; McGlashan, Thomas; Charney, Dennis S.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Childhood sexual abuse is very common in our society, but little is known about the long-term effects of abuse on brain function. The purpose of this study was to measure neural correlates of memories of childhood abuse in sexually abused women with and without the diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Method Twenty-two women with a history of childhood sexual abuse underwent injection of [15O]H2O, followed by positron emission tomography imaging of the brain while they listened to neutral and traumatic (personalized childhood sexual abuse events) scripts. Brain blood flow during exposure to traumatic and neutral scripts was compared for sexually abused women with and without PTSD. Results Memories of childhood sexual abuse were associated with greater increases in blood flow in portions of anterior prefrontal cortex (superior and middle frontal gyri—areas 6 and 9), posterior cingulate (area 31), and motor cortex in sexually abused women with PTSD than in sexually abused women without PTSD. Abuse memories were associated with alterations in blood flow in medial prefrontal cortex, with decreased blood flow in subcallosal gyrus (area 25), and a failure of activation in anterior cingulate (area 32). There was also decreased blood flow in right hippocampus, fusiform/inferior temporal gyrus, supramarginal gyrus, and visual association cortex in women with PTSD relative to women without PTSD. Conclusions These findings implicate dysfunction of medial prefrontal cortex (subcallosal gyrus and anterior cingulate), hippocampus, and visual association cortex in pathological memories of childhood abuse in women with PTSD. Increased activation in posterior cingulate and motor cortex was seen in women with PTSD. Dysfunction in these brain areas may underlie PTSD symptoms provoked by traumatic reminders in subjects with PTSD. PMID:10553744

  7. Child Sexual Abuse and HIV-Related Substance Use and Sexual Risk Across the Life Course Among Males and Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheidell, Joy D; Kumar, Pritika C; Campion, Taylor; Quinn, Kelly; Beharie, Nisha; McGorray, Susan P; Khan, Maria R

    2017-07-01

    Child sexual abuse is associated with substance use and sexual risk behaviors during adolescence and adulthood, but no known studies have documented associations across the life course in a nationally representative U.S. We used the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health to measure associations between child sexual abuse and substance use and sexual risk behaviors during adolescence, young adulthood, and adulthood among males and females (n = 11,820). Approximately 10% of females and 7% of males reported child sexual abuse. Associations with substance use were strongest during adolescence and lessened over time. Increased odds of sexual risk among those with a history of child sexual abuse remained consistent through the life course. Significant gender differences existed for some associations (e.g., adulthood multiple partners: males adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.73, 95%CI:1.18, 2.53; females AOR = 1.11, 95%CI:0.79, 1.56). Trauma-informed prevention interventions should address child sexual abuse among both males and females to prevent substance use and sexual risk behavior throughout the life course.

  8. The Amsterdam Sexual Abuse Case (ASAC)-study in day care centers: longitudinal effects of sexual abuse on infants and very young children and their parents, and the consequences of the persistence of abusive images on the internet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindauer, Ramón J. L.; Brilleslijper-Kater, Sonja N.; Diehle, Julia; Verlinden, Eva; Teeuw, Arianne H.; Middeldorp, Christel M.; Tuinebreijer, Wilco; Bosschaart, Thekla F.; van Duin, Esther; Verhoeff, Arnoud

    2014-01-01

    BackgroundLittle research has been done on the signs of child sexual abuse (CSA) in infants and very young children, or on the consequences that such abuse ¿ including the persistence of the abusive pornographic images on the internet ¿ might have for the children and their parents. The effects of

  9. The Amsterdam Sexual Abuse Case (ASAC)-study in day care centers: longitudinal effects of sexual abuse on infants and very young children and their parents, and the consequences of the persistence of abusive images on the internet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindauer, R.J.L.; Brilleslijper-Kater, S.N.; Diehle, J.; Verlinden, E.; Teeuw, A.H.; Middeldorp, C.M.; Tuinebreijer, W.; Bosschaart, T.F.; van Duin, E.; Verhoeff, A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Little research has been done on the signs of child sexual abuse (CSA) in infants and very young children, or on the consequences that such abuse ¿ including the persistence of the abusive pornographic images on the internet ¿ might have for the children and their parents. The effects of

  10. The Amsterdam Sexual Abuse Case (ASAC)-study in day care centers: longitudinal effects of sexual abuse on infants and very young children and their parents, and the consequences of the persistence of abusive images on the internet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindauer, R.J.L.; Brilleslijper-Kater, S.N.; Diehle, J.; Verlinden, E.; Teeuw, A.H.; Middeldorp, C.M.; Tuinebreijer, W.; Bosschaart, T.F.; van Duin, E.; Verhoeff, A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Little research has been done on the signs of child sexual abuse (CSA) in infants and very young children, or on the consequences that such abuse - including the persistence of the abusive pornographic images on the internet - might have for the children and their parents. The effects of

  11. Exploring mental health adjustment of children post sexual assault in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Shanaaz; Abrahams, Naeemah; Jewkes, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    Large numbers of children are affected by child sexual abuse in South Africa. This study aimed to assess psychological adjustment of children post sexual assault. In-depth, semistructured interviews were conducted with caretakers, and structured interviews using mental health assessment screening tools were given to children at three intervals over a five-month period after presentation at a sexual assault center. Almost half of the children met clinical criteria for anxiety, and two-thirds met criteria for full symptom post-traumatic stress disorder two to four weeks post disclosure. With standard care, we observed some recovery; 43.3% of children still met full symptom post-traumatic stress disorder nearly six months post disclosure. Our findings indicate that current practice in South Africa does not promote adequate recovery for children.

  12. Reliability and Validity of a Measure of Sexual and Physical Abuse Histories among Women with Serious Mental Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Ilan H.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Structured clinical interviews concerning childhood histories of physical and sexual abuse with 70 mentally ill women at 2 times found test-retest reliability of .63 for physical abuse and .82 for sexual abuse. Validity, assessed as consistency with an independent clinical assessment, showed 75% agreement for physical abuse and 93% agreement for…

  13. POST-TRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER: A FREQUENT WORK-RELATED ILLNESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuele Cannizzaro

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD is an anxiety disorder that results from exposure to a traumatic event, and is characterized by hypermnesia of the traumatic event with frequent re-experiencing of the tragic occurrence, hyperarousal, and avoidance behaviour. Depression, anxiety, sleep dysfunction and substance abuse are also commonly reported. PTSD is highly prevalent both in the general population and in certain occupations that are particularly exposed to life-threatening situations, physically and psychological demanding activities, and physical assault, such as rescue workers, firefighters and paramedics. Recent advances in the comprehension of the epidemiology, physiopathology and clinical presentation of PTSD could push toward increased identification of this common psychiatric disorder with significant reflections on the chances of successful treatment.

  14. Post-traumatic stress disorder and its treatment in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najjar, Fedra; Weller, Ronald A; Weisbrot, Jessica; Weller, Elizabeth B

    2008-04-01

    This article reviews current concepts of and treatments for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in children and adolescents. We discuss the DSM-IV-TR diagnostic criteria and their applicability to children and adolescents. We also review the history of PTSD and the development of its diagnostic criteria. We present the concept of complex trauma and trauma's effect on the developing child and describe a new diagnosis labeled developmental trauma disorder that would better describe children and adolescents who have been exposed to abuse and neglect. Finally, we summarize psychotherapeutic and psychopharmacologic approaches to treating PTSD in children and adolescents. More research is needed on the diagnosis and treatment of PTSD in children and adolescents.

  15. "Keep Telling until Someone Listens": Understanding Prevention Concepts in Children's Picture Books Dealing with Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampert, Jo; Walsh, Kerryann

    2010-01-01

    Children's picture books dealing with the topic of child sexual abuse appeared in the 1980s with the aim of addressing the need for age-appropriate texts to teach sexual abuse prevention concepts and to provide support for young children who may be at risk of or have already experienced sexual abuse. Despite the apparent potential of children's…

  16. Forensic, Cultural, and Systems Issues in Child Sexual Abuse Cases--Part 2: Research and Practitioner Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tishelman, Amy C.; Geffner, Robert

    2010-01-01

    This article introduces the second issue of the special double issue focusing on forensic, cultural, and systems issues in child sexual abuse cases. We briefly review the articles, which include a discussion of child sexual abuse myths, an empirical analysis of extended child sexual abuse evaluations, an article on the role of the medical provider…

  17. Reported child sexual abuse in Bahrain: 2000-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mahroos, Fadheela; Al-Amer, Eshraq

    2011-01-01

    Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a common problem with severe short and long-term consequences to the abused child, the family and to society. The aim of this study was to evaluate the extent of CSA, and demographic and other characteristics of the abused and their families. Retrospective and descriptive study based on a review of medical records of CSA cases from 2000-2009 at Sulmaniya Medical Complex, the main secondary and tertiary medical care facility in Bahrain. The review included demographic data, child and family characteristics, manifestations and interventions. The 440 children diagnosed with CSA had a mean age of 8 years (range, 9 months to 17 years); 222 were males (50.5%) and 218 were females (49.5%). There was a steady increase in cases from 31 per year in 2000 to 77 cases in 2009. Children disclosed abuse in 26% of cases, while health sector professionals recognized 53% of the cases. Genital touching and fondling (62.5%) were the most common form of CSA, followed by sodomy in 39%. Gonorrhea was documented in 2% of the cases and pregnancy in 4% of the females. The illiteracy rate among the fathers and mothers was 9% and 12%, respectively, which is higher than the rate among the adult general population. Children came from all socio-economic classes. There was referral to police in 56%, public prosecution in 31% of the cases, but only 8% reached the court. During ten years there has been a 2.5% increase in reported cases of CSA. Improving the skill of professionals in identifying CSA indicators and a mandatory reporting law might be needed to improve the rate of recognition and referral of CSA cases. Further general population-based surveys are needed to determine more accurately the scope of CSA and the risk and protective factors in the family and community.

  18. Cumulative trauma and partner conflict predict post-traumatic stress disorder in postpartum African-American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauff, Nancy J; Fry-McComish, Judith; Chiodo, Lisa M

    2017-08-01

    To describe relationships between cumulative trauma, partner conflict and post-traumatic stress in African-American postpartum women. Cumulative trauma exposure estimates for women in the USA range from 51-69%. During pregnancy, most trauma research has focused on physical injury to the mother. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with trauma and more prevalent in African-American women than women of other groups. Knowledge about both the rate and impact of cumulative trauma on pregnancy may contribute to our understanding of women seeking prenatal care, and disparities in infant morbidity and mortality. This retrospective, correlational, cross-sectional study took place on postpartum units of two Detroit hospitals. Participants were 150 African-American women aged between 18-45 who had given birth. Mothers completed the Cumulative Trauma Scale, Conflict Tactics Scale, Clinician Administered Post-traumatic Stress Scale, Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and a Demographic Data form. Descriptive statistics, correlations and multiple regressions were used for data analysis. All participants reported at least one traumatic event in their lifetime. Cumulative trauma and partner conflict predicted PTSD, with the trauma of a life-threatening event for a loved one reported by 60% of the sample. Nearly, one-fourth of the women screened were at risk for PTSD. Increased cumulative trauma, increased partner conflict and lower level of education were related to higher rates of PTSD symptoms. Both cumulative trauma and partner conflict in the past year predict PTSD. Reasoning was used most often for partner conflict resolution. The results of this study offer additional knowledge regarding relationships between cumulative trauma, partner conflict and PTSD in African-American women. Healthcare providers need to be sensitive to patient life-threatening events, personal failures, abuse and other types of trauma. Current evidence supports the need to assess for

  19. Adult Sexual Experiences as a Mediator Between Child Abuse and Current Secretory Immunoglobulin A Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldron, Jonathan C; Scarpa, Angela; Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen; Coe, Christopher L

    2016-03-01

    The current study investigated whether a history of child abuse is a predictor of adult immune status, with unwanted adult sexual experiences as a proximal mediator. Participants included 89 young adult women (M(age) = 19.24) who were classified as having experienced no child abuse, child physical abuse, or child sexual abuse, based upon self-reported victimization history before 14 years of age. Participants also reported on unwanted sexual experiences in young adulthood and provided four saliva samples, which were collected over two consecutive days to determine secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA). Age and negative life events were considered as covariates. The results indicated that adult sexual victimization partially mediated the relationship between child abuse (physical and sexual) and sIgA. Specifically, child abuse experiences predicted more adult sexual victimization experiences, which in turn predicted lower sIgA levels. These findings support long-term health effects of victimization, and suggest that the influence of child abuse on sIgA may be perpetuated through adult victimization. Prevention efforts should aim to empower child maltreatment survivors with skills to prevent adult re-victimization. By thwarting future unwanted sexual experiences in adulthood, individuals will be better protected from the health impairments associated with early abuse experiences. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. Genitalia in human figure drawings: childrearing practices and child sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibbard, R A; Hartman, G

    1990-05-01

    To replicate and explore the associations of drawing genitalia on a human figure, child-rearing practices, and a history of alleged sexual abuse, we designed a cross-sectional study of 109 alleged child sexual abuse victims, ages 3 through 8 years, and a group of 109 comparison children matched for age, sex, race, and socioeconomic status but with no history of abuse. A standardized format was used to collect drawings, administer the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, and gather background data on medical, developmental, and child-rearing issues. Seven alleged sexual abuse victims and one comparison child spontaneously drew genitalia (p = 0.02, one-tailed Fisher Exact Test, estimated relative risk 7.96). No differences in drawing maturity (Draw-A-Man score) were identified, although Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test scores were higher in comparison children (82.1 vs. 91.0, p less than 0.01). Neither drawing genitalia nor history of alleged sexual abuse were significantly associated with histories of medical problems, enuresis, encopresis, urinary tract infection, or child-rearing practices related to sleeping, nudity, bathing, sexual abuse education, or exposure to sexually explicit materials. The similar patterns of child-rearing practices in both samples should make professionals cautious in attributing allegations of abuse to specific child-rearing practices. This study confirms our previous report that the presence of genitalia spontaneously drawn on a child's drawing of a human figure is associated with alleged sexual abuse.

  1. Client-centred therapy, post-traumatic stress disorder and post-traumatic growth: theoretical perspectives and practical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Stephen

    2004-03-01

    In practice it is not unusual for client-centred therapists to work with people who have experienced traumatic events. However, client-centred therapy is not usually considered within texts on traumatic stress and questions have been raised over the appropriateness of client-centred therapy with trauma survivors. The present study shows how, although he was writing well before the introduction of the term 'post-traumatic stress disorder', Carl Rogers provided a theory of therapy and personality that contains an account of threat-related psychological processes largely consistent with contemporary trauma theory. Rogers' theory provides the conceptual underpinnings to the client-centred and experiential ways of working with traumatized people. Furthermore, Rogers' theory provides an understanding of post-traumatic growth processes, and encourages therapists to adopt a more positive psychological perspective to their understanding of how people adjust to traumatic events.

  2. The role of post-traumatic stress and post-traumatic growth on online information use in breast cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casellas-Grau, A; Sumalla, E C; Lleras, M; Vives, J; Sirgo, A; León, C; Rodríguez, A; Campos, G; Valverde, Y; Borràs, J M; Ochoa, C

    2018-05-08

    Changes perceived as both positive (e.g., post-traumatic growth [PTG]) and negative (e.g. post-traumatic stress symptoms [PTSS]) have been associated with intensive internet use among breast cancer survivors. In this multi-center study, we analyzed the role of PTG and PTSS on the amount of time spent looking for online cancer information, its content, and its psychological impact. PTSS and PTG were assessed in 182 breast cancer survivors using the Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist and Post-traumatic Growth Inventory questionnaires. Subjects also completed a questionnaire about their behavior when looking for online illness-related information (i.e., time spent, type of contents, and psychological impact). PTSS positively correlated with the amount of time spent looking for cancer-related information, including both medical and psychosocial content. By contrast, PTG showed no relationships with the amount of time, but with a predominant search for cancer-related psychosocial information. The psychological impact of online information was associated with participants' levels of PTG and/or PTSS. Whereas PTG was related to a decrease of women's hope, PTSS was linked to the perception of being less conscious or inadequately informed about the illness, thereby increasing feelings of distress. PTSS and PTG show relationships with the amount of time spent online, the type of information accessed online, and the psychological impact of internet use. Health professionals should prescribe online information according to the psychological response to cancer. There is a need for professional-led online resources to provide patients with timely information as well as support sites to facilitate psychological adjustment. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  3. Elevated Risk of Posttraumatic Stress in Sexual Minority Youths: Mediation by Childhood Abuse and Gender Nonconformity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosario, Margaret; Corliss, Heather L.; Koenen, Karestan C.; Austin, S. Bryn

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We examined whether lifetime risk of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was elevated in sexual minority versus heterosexual youths, whether childhood abuse accounted for disparities in PTSD, and whether childhood gender nonconformity explained sexual-orientation disparities in abuse and subsequent PTSD. Methods. We used data from a population-based study (n = 9369, mean age = 22.7 years) to estimate risk ratios for PTSD. We calculated the percentage of PTSD disparities by sexual orientation accounted for by childhood abuse and gender nonconformity, and the percentage of abuse disparities by sexual orientation accounted for by gender nonconformity. Results. Sexual minorities had between 1.6 and 3.9 times greater risk of probable PTSD than heterosexuals. Child abuse victimization disparities accounted for one third to one half of PTSD disparities by sexual orientation. Higher prevalence of gender nonconformity before age 11 years partly accounted for higher prevalence of abuse exposure before age 11 years and PTSD by early adulthood in sexual minorities (range = 5.2%–33.2%). Conclusions. Clinicians, teachers, and others who work with youths should consider abuse prevention and treatment measures for gender-nonconforming children and sexual minority youths. PMID:22698034

  4. Childhood abuse is associated with increased hair cortisol levels among urban pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreier, Hannah M C; Enlow, Michelle Bosquet; Ritz, Thomas; Gennings, Chris; Wright, Rosalind J

    2015-12-01

    Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity is known to be altered following events such as childhood abuse. However, despite potential adverse consequences for the offspring of women who have experienced abuse, very little is known about altered HPA axis activity during pregnancy. During pregnancy, 180 women from diverse racial/ethnic backgrounds reported on their exposure to emotional, physical and/or sexual abuse before the age of 11, and general post-traumatic stress symptoms (ie, not limited to childhood years or abuse experiences). Around delivery, they provided hair samples for the assessment of cortisol levels during pregnancy. Hair cortisol was assessed for each pregnancy trimester. The effect of childhood abuse on hair cortisol was assessed using mixed-effects analyses of covariance models allowing for within-subject correlated observations, and were first performed in the entire sample and subsequently stratified by race/ethnicity. Controlling for post-traumatic stress symptoms, hair cortisol levels varied by history of child abuse, F(2,166)=3.66, p=0.028. Childhood physical and/or sexual abuse was associated with greater hair cortisol levels, t(166)=2.65, p=0.009, compared with no history of abuse. Because childhood rates of abuse and hair cortisol levels varied by race/ethnicity, analyses were stratified by race/ethnicity. The associations between history of abuse and cortisol levels were only significant among black women, F(2,23)=5.37, p=0.012. Childhood abuse, especially physical and/or sexual abuse, is associated with differences in cortisol production during pregnancy, particularly among black women. Future research should investigate how these differences impact physical and mental health outcomes among offspring of affected women. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  5. The relationship between post traumatic stress disorder and post traumatic growth: gender differences in PTG and PTSD subgroups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yuchang; Xu, Jiuping; Liu, Dongyue

    2014-12-01

    This study investigated the post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and post traumatic growth (PTG) in 2,300 earthquake survivors 1 year after the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between PTSD and PTG and also tested for the gender differences in PTSD and PTG subgroups. A stratification random sampling strategy and questionnaires were used to collect the data. The PTSD was assessed using the PTSD Check list-Civilian and the PTG was assessed using the Post traumatic growth inventory. 2,300 individuals were involved in the initial survey with 2,080 completing the final questionnaire, a response rate of 90.4%. One-way ANOVA analyses were performed to investigate the gender differences in the PTSD and PTG subgroups. One year following the earthquake, 40.1 and 51.1% of survivors reported PTSD and PTG, respectively. A bivariate correlation analysis indicated that there was a positive association between PTG and PTSD. The PTG and PTSD variance analysis conducted on female and male subgroups suggested that women were more affected than men. Given the relatively high PTG prevalence, it was concluded that researchers need to pay more attention to the positive outcomes of an earthquake rather than just focusing on the negative effects. The surveys and analyses indicated that psychological intervention and care for the earthquake disaster survivors should focus more on females and older people, who tend to be more adversely affected.

  6. Prevalence of workplace abuse and sexual harassment among female faculty and staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Jaimee; Patel, Sonya; Gelaye, Bizu; Goshu, Miruts; Worku, Alemayehu; Williams, Michelle A; Berhane, Yemane

    2009-01-01

    To determine the one year prevalence of workplace abuse and sexual harassment and to determine the extent of their associations with symptoms of depression. A total of 387 female faculty and staff from colleges in Awassa, Ethiopia completed a self-administered questionnaire which collected information about relationships, mood and feelings, thoughts and satisfaction concerning the workplace, and experiences with sexual harassment. Symptoms of depression were evaluated using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). Logistic regression procedures were employed to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). The 12 mo prevalence of either workplace abuse or sexual harassment was 86.3%; with 39.5% reporting workplace abuse only, 4.1% of them reporting sexual harassment only, and 42.6% reporting experiences of both sexual harassment and workplace abuse. Overall, the mean depression score for this cohort was 3.7 (standard deviation 4.2, range 0-19), and 9.3% of the cohort were identified as having moderate or moderately severe depression. The proportion of participants with depression were statistically significantly elevated in relation to reported experience of workplace abuse and sexual harassment (p=0.001). Compared with women reporting no experience with workplace abuse or sexual harassment, those who reported experiencing both workplace abuse and sexual harassment had an 8.00 fold increased risk of depression (OR=8.00, 95% CI:1.05-60.85). Inferences from this analysis are limited by our relatively small sample size as reflected by the wide 95% CI. Workplace abuse and sexual harassment are highly prevalent, and are positively correlated with symptoms of depression among college female faculty and staff in Awassa, Ethiopia. Future policies should include a combination of education, health, and public policy initiatives that clearly outline the problem and consequences of workplace abuse and sexual harassment in educational settings.

  7. Effects of poly-victimization on self-esteem and post-traumatic stress symptoms in Spanish adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, Laia; Paretilla, Clàudia; Kirchner, Teresa; Forns, Maria

    2012-11-01

    This study aims to provide evidence concerning the effects of experiencing multiple forms of victimization (poly-victimization) on self-esteem and post-traumatic stress symptoms in Spanish adolescents. A total of 722 adolescents were recruited from seven secondary schools in Catalonia, Spain. The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, the Youth Self Report and the Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire were employed to assess self-esteem, post-traumatic stress symptoms and victimization, respectively. Participants were divided into three groups (non-victim, victim and poly-victim groups) according to the total number of different kinds of victimization experienced. Results showed that 88.4 % of adolescents had been exposed to at least one kind of victimization. Poly-victimization was associated with a higher number of post-traumatic stress symptoms in both boys and girls. Also, self-liking was significantly lower in the poly-victim group, whereas self-competence was equivalent across the three victimization groups. Girls were approximately twice as likely to report child maltreatment (OR = 1.92) and sexual victimization (OR = 2.41) as boys. In conclusion, the present study adds evidence on the importance of taking account of the full burden of victimizations suffered when studying victimization correlates. Also, it highlights the importance of prevention policies to focus particularly on preserving adolescents' sense of social worth.

  8. Preventing child sexual abuse: parents' perceptions and practices in urban Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ige, Olusimbo K; Fawole, Olufunmilayo I

    2011-11-01

    This study examined parents' perceptions of child sexual abuse as well as prevention practices in an urban community in southwest Nigeria. Questionnaires were collected from 387 parents and caregivers of children younger than 15 years of age. Results showed that many parents felt CSA was a common problem in the community, and most parents disagreed with common child sexual abuse myths. In addition, almost all parents ( >90%) reported communicating with their child(ren) about stranger danger. However, about 47% felt their children could not be abused, and over a quarter (27.1%) often left their children alone and unsupervised. There were no significant variations in the perceptions of child sexual abuse and communication practices. The implications of findings for child sexual abuse prevention are discussed.

  9. Impact of Traumatic Events on Posttraumatic Stress Disorder among Danish Survivors of Sexual Abuse in Childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elklit, Ask; Christiansen, Dorte Mølgaard; Palic, Sabina

    2014-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse can be extremely traumatic and lead to lifelong symptomatology. The present study examined the impact of several demographic, abuse, and psychosocial variables on posttraumatic stress disorder severity among a consecutive sample of treatment-seeking, adult child sexual abuse...... survivors (N = 480). The child sexual abuse sample was characterized by severe trauma exposure, insecure attachment, and significant traumatization, with an estimated 77% suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder, more than twice the level of the comparison group. Regression analyses revealed risk...... factors associated with the development of posttraumatic stress disorder in which the strongest predictors being additional traumas, negative affectivity, and somatization. The findings add to existing research confirming the stressful nature of child sexual abuse and the variables that contribute...

  10. Impact of traumatic events on posttraumatic stress disorder among Danish survivors of sexual abuse in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elklit, Ask; Christiansen, Dorte M; Palic, Sabina; Karsberg, Sidsel; Eriksen, Sara Bek

    2014-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse can be extremely traumatic and lead to lifelong symptomatology. The present study examined the impact of several demographic, abuse, and psychosocial variables on posttraumatic stress disorder severity among a consecutive sample of treatment-seeking, adult child sexual abuse survivors (N = 480). The child sexual abuse sample was characterized by severe trauma exposure, insecure attachment, and significant traumatization, with an estimated 77% suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder, more than twice the level of the comparison group. Regression analyses revealed risk factors associated with the development of posttraumatic stress disorder in which the strongest predictors being additional traumas, negative affectivity, and somatization. The findings add to existing research confirming the stressful nature of child sexual abuse and the variables that contribute to the development and severity of posttraumatic stress disorder.

  11. Child sexual abuse among adolescents in southeast Nigeria: A concealed public health behavioral issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    C, Manyike Pius; M, Chinawa Josephat; Elias, Aniwada; I, Odutola Odetunde; Awoere, Chinawa T.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective: Child sexual abuse among adolescents is an often overlooked issue in pediatrics, yet it is a major cause of low self esteem and stigmatization in adolescents. The objective of this study was to determine the socioeconomic determinant and pattern of child sexual abuse among adolescent attending secondary schools in South East Nigeria. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study that was carried out among children in three secondary schools in Enugu and Ebonyi states of Nigeria. Five hundred and six adolescents who met inclusion criteria were consecutively recruited into our prospective study between June and October, 2014. Results: One hundred and ninety nine (40 %) of the respondents had been abused and the commonest form of abuse was to look at pornographic pictures, drawings, films, videotapes or magazine 93(18.4%). Fifty eight (11.5%) adolescents stated that they were abused once with age at first exposure being 7-12 years 57 (11.4%). When grouped together, family members and relatives are perpetrators of child sexual abuse. There was significant difference in sex abuse between males and females (p=0.014) while there were no significant difference for age (p=0.157) and social class (p=0.233). Conclusion: Overall prevalence and one time prevalence rates of sexual abuse among adolescents in south east Nigeria was 40% and 11.5% respectively with male perpetrators. There is no link between socioeconomic class, age and child sexual abuse among adolescents. PMID:26430412

  12. Forced migration and sexual abuse: experience of Congolese adolescent girls in Kigeme refugee camp, Rwanda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Innocent Iyakaremye

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background This study deals with the link between forced migration and sexual abuse, with a special focus on adolescent girls. Existing literature associates forced migration with sexual abuse and identifies adolescent girls as the most vulnerable. However, little is known about the situation of sexual abuse among Congolese refugees in Rwanda since their arrival in 2012 due to the conflict between Congolese government forces and the M23 rebel group. This study was initiated to explore the situation of sexual abuse of Congolese adolescent girls in Kigeme camp and to suggest remedial strategies. Participants and procedure Qualitative data were collected through individual interviews and focus group discussions (FGDs with adolescent girls. Interviews also involved parents, boys, camp authorities, and neighbouring citizens. Results The findings show that rape, unwanted physical touching, sexual exploitation, commercial sex, early marriage and girl trafficking are the main forms of sexual abuse. These are facilitated by the miserable life in the camp, shortcomings in the camp layout and security system, and adolescent developmental stage. They negatively impact girls’ reproductive health, social integration and mental health. Conclusions Existing strategies to address sexual abuse in the camp have had positive but insufficient results, and thus need to be improved and reinforced. Improvement is suggested in the areas of the abuse reporting system, the camp layout and security system, involvement of men and youth, and the consolidation of anti-GBV (gender-based violence clubs.

  13. Challenges in treating post-traumatic stress disorder and attachment trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Jon G

    2003-06-01

    Treating women suffering from trauma poses significant challenges. The diagnostic prototype of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is based on single-event trauma, such as sexual assault in adulthood. Several effective cognitive- behavioral treatments for such traumas have been developed, although many treated patients continue to experience residual symptoms. Even more problematic is the complex developmental psychopathology stemming from a lifetime history of multiple traumas, often beginning with maltreatment in early attachment relationships. A history of attachment trauma undermines the development of capacities to regulate emotional distress and thereby complicates the treatment of acute trauma in adulthood. Such complex trauma requires a multifaceted treatment approach that must balance processing of traumatic memories with strategies to contain the intense emotions this processing evokes. Moreover, conducting such treatment places therapists at risk for secondary trauma such that trauma therapists also must process this stressful experience and implement strategies to regulate their own distress.

  14. Post-traumatic stress is associated with verbal learning, memory, and psychomotor speed in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Leah H; Pyra, Maria; Cook, Judith A; Weber, Kathleen M; Cohen, Mardge H; Martin, Eileen; Valcour, Victor; Milam, Joel; Anastos, Kathryn; Young, Mary A; Alden, Christine; Gustafson, Deborah R; Maki, Pauline M

    2016-04-01

    The prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is higher among HIV-infected (HIV+) women compared with HIV-uninfected (HIV-) women, and deficits in episodic memory are a common feature of both PTSD and HIV infection. We investigated the association between a probable PTSD diagnosis using the PTSD Checklist-Civilian (PCL-C) version and verbal learning and memory using the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test in 1004 HIV+ and 496 at-risk HIV- women. HIV infection was not associated with a probable PTSD diagnosis (17% HIV+, 16% HIV-; p = 0.49) but was associated with lower verbal learning (p memory scores (p memory (p < 0.01) and psychomotor speed (p < 0.001). The particular pattern of cognitive correlates of probable PTSD varied depending on exposure to sexual abuse and/or violence, with exposure to either being associated with a greater number of cognitive domains and a worse cognitive profile. A statistical interaction between HIV serostatus and PTSD was observed on the fine motor skills domain (p = 0.03). Among women with probable PTSD, HIV- women performed worse than HIV+ women on fine motor skills (p = 0.01), but among women without probable PTSD, there was no significant difference in performance between the groups (p = 0.59). These findings underscore the importance of considering mental health factors as correlates to cognitive deficits in women with HIV.

  15. Gendered pathways from child sexual abuse to sexual aggression victimization and perpetration in adolescence and young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krahé, Barbara; Berger, Anja

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the pathways from child sexual abuse to sexual assault victimization and perpetration in adolescence and early adulthood, considering risky sexual behavior and lowered sexual self-esteem as mediator variables. In a two-wave longitudinal study with 2251 college students in Germany, male and female participants provided reports of sexual aggression victimization and perpetration since age 14 (T1) and again a year later (T2), covering the last 12 months. In addition, child sexual abuse (CSA; before the age of 14), risky sexual behavior, and sexual self-esteem were assessed at T1, and risky sexual behavior and sexual-self-esteem were assessed again at T2. Experience of CSA was significantly associated with greater likelihood of sexual aggression victimization and perpetration, lower sexual self-esteem, and more risky sexual behavior in both gender groups at T1 and was directly related to victimization at T2 among male participants. In both gender groups, CSA indirectly contributed to a higher probability of sexual victimization at T2 via its impact on victimization T1. In males, the indirect path from CSA to T2 perpetration via T1 perpetration was also significant. Through its negative impact on sexual self-esteem, CSA indirectly increased the probability of sexual victimization among women and the probability of sexual aggression perpetration among men. Risky sexual behavior mediated the pathway from CSA to sexual victimization at T2 for men and women and the pathway from CSA to sexual aggression perpetration for women. The findings contribute to the understanding of gendered effects of CSA on revictimization and the victim-to-perpetrator cycle. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Child sexual abuse is largely hidden from the adult society. An epidemiological study of adolescents' disclosures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priebe, Gisela; Svedin, Carl Göran

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate disclosure rates and disclosure patterns and to examine predictors of non-disclosure in a sample of male and female adolescents with self-reported experiences of sexual abuse. A sample of 4,339 high school seniors (2,324 girls, 2,015 boys) was examined with a questionnaire concerning sexual experiences in this study with a focus on disclosure of sexual abuse (non-contact, contact or penetrating abuse, and including peer abuse). Of the sample, 1,505 girls (65%) and 457 boys (23%) reported experience of sexual abuse. The disclosure rate was 81% (girls) and 69% (boys). Girls and boys disclosed most often to a friend of their own age. Few had disclosed to professionals. Even fewer said that the incident had been reported to the authorities. Logistic regression showed that it was less likely for girls to disclose if they had experienced contact sexual abuse with or without penetration, abuse by a family member, only a single abuse occasion or if they had perceived their parents as non-caring. Boys were less likely to disclose if they studied a vocational program, lived with both parents or had perceived their parents as either caring and overprotective or non-caring and not overprotective. Disclosing sexual abuse is a complex process. Much is hidden from the adult society, especially from professionals and the legal system. Since peers are the most common receivers of abuse information, programs for supporting peers ought to be developed. Differences in disclosure patterns for girls and boys indicate that a gender perspective is helpful when developing guidelines for professionals. Professionals, especially in the school system, need to be more aware of the finding that few sexually abused children seek help from professionals or other adults and that support offers should be directly addressed not only to the vulnerable young persons themselves but also to peers who wish to help a friend.

  17. Abuse of power in relationships and sexual health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesink, Dionne; Whiskeyjack, Lana; Suntjens, Terri; Mihic, Alanna; McGilvery, Priscilla

    2016-08-01

    STI rates are high for First Nations in Canada and the United States. Our objective was to understand the context, issues, and beliefs around high STI rates from a nêhiyaw (Cree) perspective. Twenty-two in-depth interviews were conducted with 25 community participants between March 1, 2011 and May 15, 2011. Interviews were conducted by community researchers and grounded in the Cree values of relationship, sharing, personal agency and relational accountability. A diverse purposive snowball sample of community members were asked why they thought STI rates were high for the community. The remainder of the interview was unstructured, and supported by the interviewer through probes and sharing in a conversational style. Modified grounded theory was used to analyze the narratives and develop a theory. The main finding from the interviews was that abuse of power in relationships causes physical, mental, emotional and spiritual wounds that disrupt the medicine wheel. Wounded individuals seek medicine to stop suffering and find healing. Many numb suffering by accessing temporary medicines (sex, drugs and alcohol) or permanent medicines (suicide). These medicines increase the risk of STIs. Some seek healing by participating in ceremony and restoring relationships with self, others, Spirit/religion, traditional knowledge and traditional teachings. These medicines decrease the risk of STIs. Younger female participants explained how casual relationships are safer than committed monogamous relationships. Resolving abuse of power in relationships should lead to improvements in STI rates and sexual health. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Childhood sexual abuse in adult patients with borderline personality disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preethi Menon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Researchers have found elevated rates of childhood sexual abuse (CSA in borderline personality disorder (BPD patients. They have also implicated the role of CSA later in BPD. However, there has been a scarcity of studies regarding this in Indian population. Objectives: To profile the occurrence of CSA and its parameters in BPD patients and to document symptomatology of BPD associated with CSA. Materials and Methods: Thirty-six consecutive patients with BPD were administered with a two-staged semi-structured interview by different interviewers with the first stage for collecting sociodemographic details and confirming BPD diagnosis and the second stage for collecting information about CSA. Results: Of 36 BPD patients, 16 (44.44% reported a history of definite CSA. The majority of CSA associated with BPD were having characteristics of onset at 7–12 years, <10 occasions of abuse, perpetrator being a close relative or a close acquaintance and genital type of CSA. Identity disturbances (P = 0.0354, recurrent suicidal/self-harm behavior (P = 0.0177, and stress-related paranoid/dissociative symptoms (P = 0.0177 were significantly associated with the presence of CSA while unstable interpersonal relationships (P = 0.001 were significantly associated with the absence of CSA. Conclusion: Significant proportion of BPD patients reported CSA. The specific symptom profile of BPD patients can be used to predict the presence of CSA in these patients, which has a direct implication in the treatment of these patients.

  19. Gender differences in pathways from child physical and sexual abuse to adolescent risky sexual behavior among high-risk youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Susan; Voith, Laura A; Kobulsky, Julia M

    2018-04-01

    This study investigated gender differences in the roles of internalizing and externalizing symptoms and substance use as pathways linking child physical and sexual abuse to risky sexual behavior among youth at risk of maltreatment. Path analysis was performed with 862 adolescents drawn from Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect. Four waves of data collected in the United States were used: childhood physical and sexual abuse experiences (from ages 0-12) were assessed by Child Protective Services reports, internalizing and externalizing symptoms were measured at age 14, substance use was measured at age 16, and risky sexual behavior was measured at age 18. Physical abuse was directly associated with risky sexual behavior in boys but not girls. For girls, physical abuse had a significant indirect effect on risky sexual behavior via externalizing symptoms. Gender-focused preventive intervention strategies may be effective in reducing risky sexual behavior among at-risk adolescents. Copyright © 2018 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Conflict Resolution Styles as Mediators of Female Child Sexual Abuse Experience and Heterosexual Couple Relationship Satisfaction and Stability in Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Ashlee E; Knapp, Darin J; Brown, Cameron C; Larson, Jeffry H

    2017-01-01

    Trauma from female incestuous child sexual abuse may result in negative psychological consequences affecting adult relationships. This study explored relational consequences of incestuous child sexual abuse, focusing on conflict resolution styles, relationship satisfaction, and relationship stability. Using the RELATionship Evaluation dataset, 457 heterosexual couples in which female partners experienced incestuous child sexual abuse were compared to a group of 1,827 couples with no sexual abuse history. Analyses tested differences in the frequencies of reported conflict resolution styles for incestuous child sexual abuse and non-incestuous child sexual abuse groups, the mediating effects of conflict resolution styles on the relationship between incestuous child sexual abuse, and self- and partner-reported relationship satisfaction and stability. Significant differences in the reports of types of conflict resolution styles were found for incestuous child sexual abuse versus non-incestuous child sexual abuse groups. Incestuous child sexual abuse and conflict resolution styles were negatively related to relationship satisfaction and stability and there was a significant indirect effect between female incestuous child sexual abuse, female volatility, and relationship instability. Clinical applications for couple relationships are discussed.