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Sample records for sexdens rubropilosa forel

  1. Lipid and energy contents in the bodies of queens of Atta sexdens rubropilosa Forel (Hymenoptera, Formicidae: pre-and post-nuptial flight

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    Ricardo Toshio Fujihara

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The nuptial flight allows males and females to meet and copulate and both need energy to perform this activity. Before leaving the nest, males and females are well nourished and ready to mate. However, little is known about the lipid and energy contents in females before the nuptial flight (virgins and after it (mated females. In this work we measured lipid concentrations in relation to body weight in these individuals. Our results showed that 16.82% of the bodies of young virgin females one month before mating flight are composed of lipids, contrasting with the 32.62% lipid content in mated females who had not excavated their nest yet, and 32.88% in those who had. The energy content measured for virgin females was 2942.63 J, contrasting with 6110.01 J for queens before excavating the nest and 5677.51 J after excavation. Based on our results, we conclude that the body mass, and therefore the lipid and energy contents in the bodies of Atta sexdens rubropilosa queens double during the last month before the nuptial flight. This energy resource is fundamental to the activities required during the nuptial flight, digging the nest and the founding of the colony.

  2. EFEITO DE FORMULAÇÕES GRANULADAS DE DIFERENTES PRODUTOS QUÍMICOS E À BASE DE FOLHAS E DE SEMENTES DE GERGELIM, Sesamum indicum, NO CONTROLE DE FORMIGUEIROS DE Atta sexdens rubropilosa Forel, 1908 (HYMENOPTERA: FORMICIDAE

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    Alberto Dorval

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a eficiência de diferentes iscas formicidas comercializadas e de outras fabricadas artesanalmente à base de gergelim, Sesamum indicum, no controle de formigueiros de saúva-limão, Atta sexdens rubropilosa Forel, 1908. O experimento foi realizado em reflorestamento de Eucalyptus camaldulensis com dez anos de idade e dois de rebrota. Foram empregados dez tratamentos, incluindo a testemunha, tendo como ingredientes ativos: clorpirifós, sulfluramida, fipronil, farinha de folhas de gergelim (15%, farinha de sementes de gergelim (10%, 20% e 30%. A verificação da mortalidade dos formigueiros foram realizadas aos 30, 60, 90 e 150 dias após o tratamento. As iscas mais eficientes foram à base de sulfluramida e fipronil, seguida da formulação à base de farinha de folhas de gergelim (15%. As iscas à base de sulfluramida e de fipronil atingiram o controle máximo na avaliação dos 30 dias enquanto as iscas à base de folhas de gergelim (15% apresentou controle satisfatório só a partir da terceira avaliação, isto é, aos 90 dias. Contudo, os resultados obtidos com a isca à base de folhas de gergelim (15% são encorajadores, mostrando que estudos posteriores deverão ser realizados.

  3. Efeito de formulações granuladas de diferentes produtos químicos e à base de folhas e de sementes de gergelim, Sesamum indicum, no controle de formigueiros de Atta sexdens rubropilosa Forel, 1908 (Hymenoptera: Formicidae.

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    Otávio Peres Filho

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a eficiência de diferentes iscas formicidas comercializadas e de outras fabricadas artesanalmente à base de gergelim, Sesamum indicum, no controle de formigueiros de saúva-limão, Atta sexdens rubropilosa Forel, 1908. O experimento foi realizado em reflorestamento de Eucalyptus camaldulensis com dez anos de idade e dois de rebrota. Foram empregados dez tratamentos, incluindo a testemunha, tendo como ingredientes ativos: clorpirifós, sulfluramida, fipronil, farinha de folhas de gergelim (15%, farinha de sementes de gergelim (10%, 20% e 30%. A verificação da mortalidade dos formigueiros foram realizadas aos 30, 60, 90 e 150 dias após o tratamento. As iscas mais eficientes foram à base de sulfluramida e fipronil, seguida da formulação à base de farinha de folhas de gergelim (15%. As iscas à base de sulfluramida e de fipronil atingiram o controle máximo na avaliação dos 30 dias enquanto as iscas à base de folhas de gergelim (15% apresentou controle satisfatório só a partir da terceira avaliação, isto é, aos 90 dias. Contudo, os resultados obtidos com a isca à base de folhas de gergelim (15% são encorajadores, mostrando que estudos posteriores deverão ser realizados.

  4. Desenvolvimento in vitro do fungo simbionte de Atta sexdens rubropilosa Forel, 1908 (Hymenoptera: Formicidae em meio de cultura com diferentes extratos vegetais Development in vitro of the symbiotic fungus of Atta sexdens rubropilosa Forel, 1908 (Hymenoptera: Formicidae in culture medium with different plant extracts

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    Marcelo Dias de Souza

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o desenvolvimento in vitro de Leucoagaricus gongylophorus, fungo simbionte de Atta sexdens rubropilosa, em meio de cultura acrescido com extratos de 24 espécies vegetais. O fungo foi inoculado no meio BDA, acrescido com os extratos vegetais, além de quatro controles, em placas de Petri. As placas foram mantidas em câmaras climatizadas à temperatura de 25±1°C no escuro, por um período de 42 dias. O crescimento do fungo foi avaliado semanalmente através do diâmetro da colônia. Os resultados mostraram que o fungo simbionte dessas formigas apresenta um crescimento diferenciado em relação aos extratos fornecidos nas placas, sendo que o meio acrescido com os extratos de arica (Physocalymma scaberrimum, cerejeira (Amburana acreana, cedro (Cedrela fissilis, timbó (Magonia pubescens, leucena (Leucaena leucocephala e mogno (Swietenia macrophylla prejudicaram o desenvolvimento. No entanto, os extratos de genipapo (Genipa americana, seringueira (Heveaa brasiliensis, ingá (Inga edulis e cambará (Vochysia divergens apresentaram melhores condições de desenvolvimento para o fungo simbionte.The objective of this study was to evaluate the in vitro development of Leucoagaricus gongylophorus, the symbiotic fungus of Atta sexdens rubropilosa in culture medium added with extracts of 24 plant species. The fungus was inoculated in PDA added with vegetables extracts and four controls, in Petri dishes. The dishes were maintained in climate chambers at temperature of 25±1°C in the dark, to period of 42 days. The fungal growth was evaluated weekly by diameter of the colony. The results showed that the symbiotic fungus of these ants has differentiated growth when compared to the extracts provided in the dishes, and the medium supplemented with extracts of aricá (Physocalymma scaberrimum, cerejeira (Amburana acreana, cedro (Cedrela fissilis, timbó (Magonia pubescens, leucena (Leucaena leucocephala e mogno (Swietenia

  5. Population genetics of Atta sexdens rubropilosa (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

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    Belizario Cantagalli, Liriana; Aparecida Mangolin, Claudete; Colla Ruvolo Takasusuki, Maria Claudia

    2013-01-01

    The genetic variability of Atta sexdens rubropilosa leaf-cutting ants collected from five Brazilian localities was evaluated with PCR-RAPD technique. we used 15 primers producing 148 fragments of which 123 (83.11 %) contained polymorphisms. the estimated Shannon index was 0.3836 ± 0.2335 showing that these ants possess high genetic diversity. the G S T value was 0.2372 and Φ p t = 0.184, indicating that the analyzed populations are moderately differentiated and 82 % of the variation obtained occur within populations. although mantel's test had shown correlation between genetic distances and geographic was observed that Ivatuba and Itambe (33.8 km) have the small geographical distance and the largest genetic distance. the lower genetic distance was estimated for Maringa and Ivatuba but this localities have a small geographic distance (42.3 km), indicating that there are no barriers for mating among reproducers in these populations. the high degree of polymorphism (83.11 %) and the ability to cross among the populations in the studied regions indicate that this species of leaf-cutting ant is well adapted to the region; therefore, integrated control programs can be developed.

  6. POPULATION GENETICS OF Atta sexdens rubropilosa (HYMENOPTERA: FORMICIDAE

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    Liriana Belizário Cantagalli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The genetic variability of Atta sexdens rubropilosa leaf-cutting ants collected from five brazilian localities was evaluated with PCR-RAPD technique. We used 15 primers producing 148 fragments of which 123 (83,11 % contained polymorphisms. The estimated Shannon index was 0.3836 ± 0.2335 showing that these ants possess high genetic diversity. The GST value was 0,2372 and PT = 0,184, indicating that the analyzed populations are moderately differentiated and 82 % of the variation obtained occur within populations. Although Mantel’s test had shown correlation between genetic distances and geographic was observed that Ivatuba and Itambé (33,8 km have the small geographical distance and the largest genetic distance. The lower genetic distance was estimated for Maringá and Ivatuba but this localities have a small geographic distance (42,3 km, indicating that there are no barriers for mating among reproducers in these populations. The high degree of polymorphism (83,11 % and the ability to cross among the populations in the studied regions indicate that this species of leaf-cutting ant is well adapted to the region; therefore, integrated control programs can be developed.

  7. Eficiência de isca formicida aplicada sobre o monte de terra solta de ninhos de Atta sexdens rubropilosa (Hymenoptera: Formicidae

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    Zanetti Ronald

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a eficiência de uma isca granulada à base de sulfluramida (0,3% aplicada em olheiros situados sobre o monte de terra solta, em comparação com o sistema convencional de aplicação nos olheiros fora desses montes, no combate a Atta sexdens rubropilosa Forel, 1908 (Hymenoptera: Formicidae. Os tratamentos consistiram da aplicação de uma isca granulada à base de sulfluramida (0,3%, a 8 g/m² do formigueiro aparente, em olheiros situados sobre ou fora do monte de terra solta. Foram utilizados 192 formigueiros de A. sexdens rubropilosa, distribuídos nesses dois tratamentos. Foram avaliadas a porcentagem de carregamento e de devolução dessa isca, aos dois dias após sua aplicação, e a eficiência do combate, aos 150 dias após, por sondagem (uma a cada metro quadrado de fomigueiro. A porcentagem de carregamento da isca granulada foi maior quando aplicada fora do monte de terra solta (100,00% do que sobre ele (89,58%, porém a eficiência de controle foi semelhante, com 89,58% para o primeiro e 90,27% para o segundo tratamento, respectivamente. Por isto, em razão do menor custo e facilidade, recomenda-se aplicar esta isca sobre os montes de terra solta de formigueiros de A. sexdens rubropilosa.

  8. Determinação do território de forrageamento e avaliação do uso de micro porta-iscas para as saúvas Atta sexdens rubropilosa Forel, 1908 e Atta laevigata Fr. Smith, 1858 (Hymenoptera, Formicidae)

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    Ramos, Vânia Maria [UNESP

    2002-01-01

    O presente trabalho foi realizado em área de reflorestamento de Eucalyptus spp., localizada na Fazenda Santa Catarina, município de Botucatu, SP, com a finalidade de conhecer o território de forrageamento das saúvas Atta sexdens rubropilosa e Atta laevigata, e investigar a eficiência do método de controle dessas formigas através da aplicação de micro porta-iscas (mipis), distribuídos de forma regular em florestas implantadas com Eucalyptus spp. Utilizando-se a técnica de identificação de olhe...

  9. Mortality of Atta sexdens rubropilosa (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) workers in contact with colony waste from different plant sources.

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    Lacerda, F G; Della Lucia, T M C; Pereira, O L; Peternelli, L A; Tótola, M R

    2010-02-01

    The objective of this work was to study the effect of colony waste on the mortality of workers of Atta sexdens rubropilosa Forel colonies fed with different plant substrates. Eight nests were used; two colonies each were fed with Acalypha wilkesiana Müller.Arg, Ligustrum japonicum Thunb, Eucalyptus urophylla S.T. Blake or a mixture of the three substrates in equal proportions. Irrespective of diet, being kept with waste led to higher mortality. However, workers that were kept in contact with waste produced by colonies fed Acalypha had higher average survival rate and later death when compared with workers from the other treatments. Workers from the Eucalyptus-fed colonies had the lowest survival rate and 50% of them died within four days of exposure to Eucalyptus waste. Trichoderma viride Pers. ex Gray, a fungus garden antagonist, and the entomopathogen Aspergillus flavus Link. ex Gray were present in the colonies supplied with all plants. The largest fungus diversity was verified in the waste of colonies fed Acalypha and the mixture of Acalypha, Ligustrum and Eucalyptus. Therefore, antibiotic properties of Acalypha did not reduce contaminant diversity but apparently minimized effects of pathogenic microorganisms present in the waste such as Asp. flavus. This may explain the highest survival rate of workers in this treatment.

  10. Extratos botânicos e seus efeitos em Atta sexdens rubropilosa (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

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    Morais, Wagner Calixto de Castro

    2012-01-01

    Este estudo foi desenvolvido a fim de se conhecer os efeitos de extratos de três espécies vegetais sobre colônias da formiga-cortadeira Atta sexdens rubropilosa (saúva-limão). Foram usadas folhas das espécies Ageratum conyzoides (mentrasto), Coriandrum sativum (coentro) e Mentha piperita (hortelã). As atividades foram realizadas no campus da Universidade Federal de Viçosa, na cidade de Viçosa-MG. Primeiramente, foram avaliados os efeitos do extrato hexânico dessas plantas na fisiologia das op...

  11. Microbial Communities in Different Tissues of Atta sexdens rubropilosa Leaf-cutting Ants.

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    Vieira, Alexsandro S; Ramalho, Manuela O; Martins, Cintia; Martins, Vanderlei G; Bueno, Odair C

    2017-10-01

    Bacterial endosymbionts are common in all insects, and symbiosis has played an integral role in ant evolution. Atta sexdens rubropilosa leaf-cutting ants cultivate their symbiotic fungus using fresh leaves. They need to defend themselves and their brood against diseases, but they also need to defend their obligate fungus gardens, their primary food source, from infection, parasitism, and usurpation by competitors. This study aimed to characterize the microbial communities in whole workers and different tissues of A. sexdens rubropilosa queens using Ion Torrent NGS. Our results showed that the microbial community in the midgut differs in abundance and diversity from the communities in the postpharyngeal gland of the queen and in whole workers. The main microbial orders in whole workers were Lactobacillales, Clostridiales, Enterobacteriales, Actinomycetales, Burkholderiales, and Bacillales. In the tissues of the queens, the main orders were Burkholderiales, Clostridiales, Syntrophobacterales, Lactobacillales, Bacillales, and Actinomycetales (midgut) and Entomoplasmatales, unclassified γ-proteobacteria, and Actinomycetales (postpharyngeal glands). The high abundance of Entomoplasmatales in the postpharyngeal glands (77%) of the queens was an unprecedented finding. We discuss the role of microbial communities in different tissues and castes. Bacteria are likely to play a role in nutrition and immune defense as well as helping antimicrobial defense in this ant species.

  12. Atratividade de Atta sexdens rubropilosa por plantas de eucalipto atacadas previamente ou não por Thyrinteina arnobia Atta sexdens rubropilosa attractiveness to eucalyptus plants previously attacked or not by Thyrinteina arnobia

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    Hamilton Gomes de Oliveira

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available O sistema de defesa induzido das plantas é ativado após a ocorrência do dano provocado por um herbívoro. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar se plantas de eucalipto (Eucalyptus grandis atacadas previamente por lagartas de Thyrinteina arnobia tornam-se resistentes ao corte de operárias de Atta sexdens rubropilosa. Não houve diferença significativa no tempo gasto por operárias dessa formiga em iniciar o corte em plantas atacadas ou não. Porém, houve diferença significativa no tamanho de fragmentos cortados. Concluiu-se que plantas previamente atacadas tornam-se menos atrativas para A. sexdens rubropilosa devido à ativação do seu sistema de defesa induzido.The induced defense system of plants is activated after the occurrence of damage by a herbivore. The objective of this work was to evaluate whether plants of Eucalyptus grandis previously attacked by larvae of Thyrinteina arnobia become resistant to cutting by the leaf-cutting ant Atta sexdens rubropilosa. There was no significant difference in the lapse of time spent by the workers of this ant before they started cutting plants previously attacked or not. There was significant reduction in the size of leaf fragments cut by the ants. It was concluded that plants previously attacked were less attractive to the leaf cutter due to the activation of their induced defense system.

  13. Aflatoxins produced by Aspergillus nomius ASR3, a pathogen isolated from the leaf-cutter ant Atta sexdens rubropilosa

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    Eduardo Afonso da Silva-Junior

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Aspergillus spp. cause economic impacts due to aflatoxins production. Although the toxicity of aflatoxins is already known, little information about their ecological roles is available. Here we investigated the compounds produced by Aspergillus nomius ASR3 directly from a dead leaf-cutter queen ant Atta sexdens rubropilosa and the fungal axenic culture. Chemical analyses were carried out by high-resolution mass spectrometry and tandem mass spectrometry techniques. Aflatoxins B1 and G1 were detected in both the axenic culture and in the dead leaf-cutter queen ant. The presence of these mycotoxins in the dead leaf-cutter queen ant suggests that these compounds can be related to the insect pathogenicity of A. nomius against A. sexdens rubropilosa.

  14. Determinação do fator de conversão em colônias de Atta sexdens rubropilosa (Hymenoptera: Formicidae e sua relação com a qualidade do material vegetal cortado Determination of the conversion factor in colonies of Atta sexdens rubropilosa (Hymenoptera: Formicidae and its relationship with the quality of harvested leaf substrate

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    Leandro Sousa-Sou

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available As formigas cortadeiras (Atta e Acromyrmex são consideradas importantes pragas na agricultura e silvicultura, mas pouco se sabe sobre os reais danos dessas espécies. Uma forma bastante difundida de avaliação do dano é por meio do cálculo da taxa de conversão, dividindo-se o peso do material cortado pelo peso de lixo produzido pelas colônias. Foi levantada a hipótese de que a qualidade do substrato cortado pode influenciar no forrageamento das operárias, alterando a taxa de conversão e dificultando as estimativas de dano. A taxa de conversão de oito colônias de Atta sexdens rubropilosa Forel (Hymenoptera: Formicidae foi calculada com duas espécies vegetais com diferentes concentrações de lignina e celulose, para testar essa hipótese. Colônias mantidas com folhas de baixa qualidade (razão lignina/celulose elevada tiveram maior forrageamento e produziram mais lixo. Entretanto, a taxa de conversão das colônias foi semelhante com essas duas plantas (média = 1,54. Esse valor está dentro da variação encontrada para outras espécies no campo (1,5-1,8, indicando um fator semelhante de conversão entre os gêneros Atta e Acromyrmex. O consumo médio de material vegetal, em termos de pesos seco e fresco, de uma colônia de A. sexdens rubropilosa com 4.500 operárias, foi estimado em 520 e 1.100 g/ano, respectivamente.Leaf-cutting ants (Atta and Acromyrmex are important pests in agriculture and forestry, although few data exist on the actual damage caused by these species. A model used to evaluate damage by leaf-cutting ants are estimates of the conversion factor, which is the ratio between the weight of material cut by the ants and the refuse produced by the colonies. The hypothesis that substrate quality influences foraging by workers, modifying the conversion factor and impairing damage estimates was put forward. To test this hypothesis, the conversion factor was calculated for eight colonies of Atta sexdens rubropilosa Forel

  15. Ocurrence of the antibiotic producing bacterium Burkholderia sp. in colonies of the leaf-cutting ant Atta sexdens rubropilosa.

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    Santos, Adão Valmir; Dillon, Rod J; Dillon, Viv M; Reynolds, Stuart E; Samuels, Richard I

    2004-10-15

    Fungus garden material from recently established Atta sexdens rubropilosa colonies (6-12 months old) was sampled to detect antibiotic producing microorganisms that inhibited the growth of pathogens of insects and of the fungus gardens but did not affect their mutualistic fungus. A bacterium with activity against the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana was isolated from 56% of the gardens tested (n=57) and identified from its biochemical profile and from 16S and 23S ribosomal DNA sequences as a member of the genus Burkholderia. The ant-associated Burkholderia isolates secreted a potent, anti-fungal agent that inhibited germination of conidia of the entomopathogenic fungi B. bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae, of the saprophytic Verticillium lecanii, and also of a specialist fungus garden Escovopsis weberi. Growth of the ant's mutualist fungus was unaffected.

  16. Queen influence on workers behavior of the leaf-cutting ant Atta sexdens rubropilosa (Forel, 1908

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    L. Sousa-Souto

    Full Text Available In an ant colony, the queen is the single reproducer and can interact with her workers via pheromones and cuticular compounds. However, in most species queen importance is not restricted to reproduction: in the initial development of the colony, her presence might play a more important role. In this work, we studied the effects of queen absence on workers behavior displayed in the foraging arena. Ant’s mortality and refuse accumulation was also measured daily. The results showed that queen absence did not alter either workers behavior or foraging efficiency. However, we observed increased ant mortality accompanied by a decrease in refuse dumping outside the nest. These results corroborate the hypothesis that environmental factors are more important than intrinsical factors in the allocation of external tasks. Probably, the queen could only influence internal activities of the colony.

  17. Influência do ambiente no desenvolvimento de colônias iniciais de formigas cortadeiras (Atta sexdens rubropilosa

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    Roberto da Silva Camargo

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Anualmente, as colônias maduras de Atta spp. produzem formigas aladas, machos e fêmeas, que abandonam a colônia na qual foram produzidas para formarem novas colônias e, dessa forma, continuarem a perpetuação da espécie. A fundação de colônias de Atta spp. sempre envolve grande esforço da rainha, única responsável pelo cultivo do fungo e pelos cuidados consigo mesma e com sua prole. Nesse período de fundação ocorre o consumo de grande parte de suas reservas. O presente estudo investigou como o ambiente influencia o desenvolvimento das colônias recém-fundadas de Atta sexdens rubropilosa. Para tanto, foram comparadas colônias de campo coletadas cinco meses após a revoada e colônias mantidas em laboratório desde o voo nupcial. Foram analisados o peso e o tamanho da população (número de operárias, de larvas, de pupas e de ovos, o tamanho das operárias, o volume e peso do jardim de fungo e o esforço para a fundação dos ninhos (teor de lipídeos e peso das rainhas. Comparadas às colônias de campo, as colônias de laboratório apresentaram maiores valores no tamanho e no peso da população, no volume e no peso do jardim de fungo. As medidas das operárias, por classe de tamanho, não variaram entre as colônias de campo e de laboratório. O esforço da fundação dos ninhos foi maior nas colônias de campo, cujas rainhas apresentaram menor porcentagem de lipídeos e menor peso em relação às colônias de laboratório. Esses resultados demonstram que o ambiente exerce forte influência no desenvolvimento das colônias durante a fase de fundação, bem como sobre o status fisiológico das rainhas, sendo, portanto, a sobrevivência, o desenvolvimento e o sucesso da colônia reflexos das condições do ambiente e do esforço da rainha.

  18. Reproductive ecology of phorid parasitoids in relation to the head size of leaf-cutting ants Atta sexdens Forel.

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    Farder-Gomes, C F; Oliveira, M A; Gonçalves, P L; Gontijo, L M; Zanuncio, J C; Bragança, M A L; Pires, E M

    2017-08-01

    The leaf-cutting ant Atta sexdens Forel (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) is one of the most damaging agricultural pests in the Neotropics. Management strategies predominantly rely on the use of general insecticides. What is needed are more species-specific and environmentally friendly options. Parasitioids such as phorid flies (Diptera: Phoridae) may be one such option, but a greater understanding of the ecology of the flies and their ant hosts is essential to devise biological control strategies. Here we report parasitism rates, ant host size, parasitoid abundance per host and resultant sex ratios of two phorid species Apocephalus attophilus Borgmeier and Eibesfeldtphora tonhascai Brown parasitizing A.sexdens. The two species achieved parasitism rates of 1.48 and 1.46%, respectively and the pupal period was 14.7 ± 1.1 days and 22.1 ± 2.8 days, respectively. There was no significant difference between the head capsule width of ants parasitized by either A. attophilus or E. tonhascai. Likewise, there was no significant effect between the head capsule width of parasitized and unparasitized ants for both species. A significant positive correlation was found between the head capsule width of the parasitized ants and the number of adult parasitoids A. attophilus emerged. Ants parasitized by E. tonhascai survived significantly longer than those parasitized by A. attophilus. There was no significant effect of ant head width on the sex ratio of the offspring of either parasitoid species and no significant difference in the sex ratio (male: female) of their offspring. In summary, these data addressed here are important steps when considering natural enemies for biological control. Studying survival of the parasitized ants, parasitoid offspring sex ratio and host size preference allows for a better understanding of ant natural biological control in the field and can help in rearing of A. attophilus and E. tonhascai in laboratory.

  19. Seleção de isolados de Metarhizium anisopliae e Beauveria bassiana patogênicos a soldados de Atta bisphaerica e Atta sexdens rubropilosa em condições de laboratório Selection of Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana isolates pathogenic to Atta bisphaerica and Atta sexdens rubropilosa soldiers under laboratory conditions

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    Alzimiro Marcelo Conteiro Castilho

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available As formigas do gênero Atta são pragas importantes de diversas culturas agrícolas, pastagens e reflorestamentos. Os fungos entomopatogênicos estão entre os fatores naturais de mortalidade dessas formigas e por isso apresentam potencial para serem usados no controle biológico dessa praga. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo selecionar isolados de Metarhizium anisopliae e Beauveria bassiana patogênicos a soldados de Atta bisphaerica e Atta sexdens rubropilosa em condições de laboratório. Para a avaliação da patogenicidade, foram utilizados oito isolados de M. anisopliae e seis de B. bassiana. O experimento foi conduzido em DIC, sendo a parcela composta por um grupo de 10 soldados por espécie de formiga, sendo utilizadas três repetições por tratamento. Para cada isolado, três grupos de soldados foram pulverizados com suspensão de 1,0 x 10(8 conídios ml-1 e mantidos em câmara úmida (25±1°C, 80±1% de UR e no escuro sem alimentação, sendo a mortalidade verificada diariamente. Dos 14 isolados testados, quatro de M. anisopliae e quatro de B. bassiana foram patogênicos aos soldados de ambas as espécies de formigas. A virulência foi avaliada para os isolados que causaram mortalidade igual ou maior a 50%. Para cada isolado, suspensões contendo 1,0 x 10(6 a 1,0 x 10(11 conídios ml-1 foram pulverizadas sobre três grupos de 10 soldados e igualmente acondicionados como no teste de patogenicidade. A porcentagem de mortalidade foi calculada a cada 24 horas para determinação do TL50. O isolado ENA04 de M. anisopliae foi mais patogênico, causando mais de 80% de mortalidade nos primeiros três dias após a inoculação, apresentou maior capacidade de esporular nos cadáveres dos soldados e foi o mais virulento para os soldados de A. bisphaerica, com um TL50 de 1,15 dias. Todos os isolados patogênicos aos soldados de A. sexdens rubropilosa foram igualmente virulentos.The ants of the genus Atta are important pests of several

  20. ANÁLISE DE CRESCIMENTO, INCIDÊNCIA DE Rhizoctonia sp. E EFEITO ANTIXENOSE PARA A FORMIGA-CORTADEIRA Atta sexdens rubropilosa F. EM CLONES DE Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla TRATADOS COM GIBERELINA1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Santos Matos

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO A competitividade do setor florestal brasileiro, fruto das condições climáticas e tecnologia empregada, faz que o país ocupe posição de destaque no cenário mundial. Apesar do elevado crescimento brasileiro no setor florestal, é necessário o desenvolvimento de pesquisas que proporcionem aumento de produtividade. Este estudo objetivou avaliar o efeito fisiológico da aplicação de diferentes concentrações de giberelina (GA3 no acúmulo de biomassa do híbrido de Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla "E. urograndis GG 100" e, também, verificar o efeito da aplicação de hormônio sobre a incidência de Rhizoctonia sp. e sobre efeito antixenose (não preferência ao corte de folhas pela formiga-cortadeira Atta sexdens rubropilosa. O experimento foi conduzido em bancada a pleno sol, seguindo o delineamento inteiramente casualizado com cinco tratamentos e seis repetições. Mudas clonadas de E. urograndis GG 100, com 120 dias de idade, cultivadas sob bancada a pleno sol em vasos de 12 L, com substrato à base de subsolo, areia e esterco foram tratados com 50 mL de GA3, nas seguintes concentrações: 0; 50; 100; 150; e 200 mg L-1. Aos 40 dias após a imposição dos tratamentos, as análises foram realizadas. A aplicação de giberelina intensificou o crescimento vegetativo das plantas de eucalipto e promoveu o maior acúmulo de biomassa no mesmo período de tempo de plantas não tratadas. As mudas tratadas com giberelina apresentaram vigoroso crescimento vegetativo, principalmente na concentração de 150 mg L-1. Adicionalmente, as mesmas plantas exibiram maior preferência por formigas-cortadeiras e menor área foliar lesionada pelo fungo Rhizoctonia sp.

  1. Efeito de formulações granuladas de diferentes produtos químicos e à base de folhas e de sementes de gergelim, Sesamum indicum, no controle de formigueiros de Atta sexdens...

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    Otávio Filho Peres

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Different baits insecticides commercialized and others artisanly produced with sesame, Sesamum indicum, were evaluated in the control of lemon leaf cutter anthills, Atta sexdens rubropilosa Forel, 1908. The experiment was held in one tem years old Eucalyptus camaldulensis plantation and two of sprout. It was tested ten treatments, including the standard, with the following active ingredients: chlorpyrifos, sulfluramid, fipronil, flour of sesame leaves (15%, flour of sesame seeds (10%, 20% and 30%. The mortality verification of the anthills was held at the 30, 60, 90 and 150 days after the treatment. The most efficient baits were sulfluramid and fipronil, followed by the formulation of flour of sesame leaves (15%. The baits of sulfluramid and of fipronil reached the maximum control in the evaluation of the 30th day, whereas the baits of sesame leaves (15% presented satisfactory control starting from the third evaluation at the 90th day. The results obtained with the bait of sesame leaves (15% were promising encouraging new studies to be held.

  2. Survey of Attini (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) in Eucalyptus plantations in the region of Paraopeba, Minas Gerais, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Araújo, Márcio S.; Delia Lucia, Terezinha M.C.; Mayhé-Nunes, Antonio J.

    1997-01-01

    This Work was conducted in Eucalyptus stands at the Itapoã farm of the Mannesmann Fi-El Florestal Ltda. in Paraopeba, MG. The species of fungus growing-ants and leaf-cutting ants found in regrowth areas and in harvesting phase plantings were: Acromyrmex balzani Emery, 1890; Acromyrmex laticeps nigrosetosus Forel 1908; Acromyrmex subterraneus subterraneus Forel, 1893; Atta laevigala (F. Smith, 1858); Alta sexdens rubropilosa Forel, 1908; Mycocepurus goeldii Forel, 1893; Sericomyrmex sp.; Trach...

  3. Ultramorphology of the metapleural gland in three species of Atta (Hymenoptera, Formicidae

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    Gusmão Luciana G. de

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Differences among the metapleural glands of four female castes of Atta bisphaerica Forel, 1908, A. capiguara Gonçalves, 1944 and A. sexdens rubropilosa Forel, 1908 were examined by scanning electron microscope. There were no differences in gland size between the same castes of these species, although the opening gland in A. sexdens rubropilosa had been twice as large as A. bisphaerica. The relative size and functional significance of the metapleural gland among different castes is discussed and similarities between these and the other Formicidae till now studied is presented.

  4. Foreløbige retsmidler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik

    2008-01-01

    Artiklen behandler foreløbige retsmidler ved EF-domstolen, fx mod Danmarks fortsatte byggeri af Storebæltsbroen i strid med fællesskabsretlige udbudsregler eller mod ikrafttrædelsen af en forbundslov om tyske motorvejsafgifter i strid med kravet om ligebehandling af inden- og udenlandske vognmænd...

  5. Indledning til Filologiske Forelæsninger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tortzen, Gorm

    2007-01-01

    Artiklen introducerer en udgivelsesrække af noter, som en dansk student, Axel Svendsen, i slutningen af 1800-tallet nedskrev under filologiske forelæsninger på Københavns Universitet. Forelæsningsnoterne giver et enestående indblik i den klassiske filologis stade og undervisningsmetoder. Udgivels...

  6. Does Diatomaceous Earth Control Leaf-Cutter Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in the Eucalyptus Plantations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira-Filho, Pedro J; Wilcken, Carlos F; Neves, Daniela A; Pogetto, Mario H F A D; Carmo, Janaina B; Guerreiro, Julio C; Serrão, José E; Zanuncio, José C

    2015-06-01

    Genus Atta includes some of the most important Formicidae leaf cutter ants which cause extensive damage to the eucalyptus plantations. Atta sexdens rubropilosa Forel, one of the chief pests in Brazilian reforestation, can restrict and reduce forest productivity by its intense and constant leaf-cutting activities on plants at all stages. Therefore, the demand for new products to control A. sexdens rubropilosa indicates the study of the utilization of the dry powder formulation of diatomaceous earth (DE) against this pest in the eucalyptus cultivars. The study was conducted using 120 colonies of A. sexdens rubropilosa in Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex. Maiden x Eucalyptus urophylla Blake (Myrtaceae) (urograndis) stand. The randomized block experimental design was used with six treatments (1, 10, 25, and 50 g/m2 of DE, 6.0 g/m2 sulfluramid bait per square meter of loose soil, and the control) with five replications, each with four colonies of this ant. Diatomaceous earth was applied to the active A. sexdens rubropilosa ant holes, and the sulfluramid bait was applied in bulk in a localized manner. The control efficacy of A. sexdens rubropilosa with DE was low, showing values similar to that of the control, and, for this reason, it cannot be used to control this ant. The bait with sulfluramid showed higher efficacy than those of the other treatments. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Taxonomia e características metabólicas de leveduras isoladas de bitus de Atta sexdens rubropilosa

    OpenAIRE

    Arcuri, Silvio Lovato [UNESP

    2013-01-01

    As formigas cortadeiras (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: tribo Attini) mantêm um mutualismo com o fungo Leucoagaricus gongylophorus, utilizado como alimento por esses insetos. Nos jardins de fungo, as formigas abrigam o fungo mutualista, pupas, larvas, além de uma microbiota composta por bactérias, leveduras e outros fungos. Uma grande quantidade de machos (bitus) e fêmeas aladas (içás) é produzida anualmente em ninhos adultos de formigas do gênero Atta. Esses indivíduos deixam os ninhos para acasal...

  8. Effect of the presence of brood and fungus on the nest architecture and digging activity of Acromyrmex subterraneus Forel (Hymenoptera, Formicidae

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    Carlos Magno dos Santos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study investigated the stimuli that trigger digging behavior in Acromyrmex subterraneus during nest building. The hypothesis was that the presence of the fungus garden and/or brood triggers the excavation of tunnels and chambers. For the experiment, the excavation rate of individually marked workers kept in plastic cylinders filled with soil was recorded. Four treatments were applied: (1 30 medium-sized workers, 5 g fungus garden and 30 brood items (larvae and pupae; (2 30 medium-sized workers and 5 g fungus garden; (3 30 medium-sized workers and 30 brood items; (4 30 medium-sized workers without fungus and brood. After 24 h, morphological parameters of nest structure (length and width of the chambers and tunnels in cm and the volume of excavated soil were recorded. In contrast to the expected findings, no change in morphological structure, rate of excavation by workers, or volume of excavated soil was observed between treatments, except for tunnel width, which was greater, when no brood or fungus garden was present. Thus, the results do not support the hypothesis that the fungus garden and/or brood are local stimuli for nest excavation or that they mold the internal architecture of the nest. Although this hypothesis was confirmed for Acromyrmex lundii and Atta sexdens rubropilosa, the same does not apply to A. subterraneus. The digging behavior of workers is probably the result of adaptation during nest building in different habitats.

  9. Esforço de escavação e teor de lipídios em rainhas da formiga cortadeira Atta sexdens rubropilosa

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    Roberto da Silva Camargo

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available As formigas cortadeiras, importantes pragas agrícolas, anualmente realizam a fundação de novas colônias. Para o início de novas colônias, é preciso a escavação de túneis e de câmaras no solo, sendo que, para isso, as rainhas recém fecundadas gastam muita energia, no entanto a quantificação dessa energia gasta é desconhecida. Nossa hipótese é que a reserva lipídica, armazenada no corpo da rainha, seja utilizada durante a escavação do ninho. Testamos essa hipótese comparando o aumento do esforço de escavação das rainhas, as quais foram experimentalmente estimuladas a escavar uma, duas ou três vezes consecutivas, em relação ao controle, ou seja, em relação às rainhas que não escavaram. Foram quantificados a massa corporal e o teor de lipídios das rainhas. Os resultados mostraram que, ao contrário de nossas expectativas iniciais, massa e teor de lípideos não foram afetadas pelo aumento do esforço de escavação do ninho. Conclui-se que a escavação pelas rainhas não afetou os percentuais de lipídios em seu corpo, consequentemente, o conteúdo de energia. Provavelmente, os recursos energéticos para a escavação não se originam de fontes lipídicas, mas de outros, provavelmente carboidratos.

  10. The Forel-Ule scale revisited spectrally: preparation protocol, transmission measurements and chromaticity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Novoa, S.; Wernand, M.R.; van der Woerd, H.J.

    2013-01-01

    The Forel-Ule colour comparator scale has been applied globally and intensively by oceanographers and limnologists since the 19th century, providing one of the oldest oceanographic data sets. Present and future Forel-Ule classifications of global oceanic, coastal and continental waters can

  11. Levantamento de Attini (Hymenoptera, Formicidae em povoamento de Eucalyptus na região de Paraopeba, Minas Gerais, Brasil Survey of Attini (Hymenoptera, Formicidae in Eucalyptus plantations in the region of Paraopeba, Minas Gerais, Brasil

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    Márcio S. Araújo

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available This Work was conducted in Eucalyptus stands at the Itapoã farm of the Mannesmann Fi-El Florestal Ltda. in Paraopeba, MG. The species of fungus growing-ants and leaf-cutting ants found in regrowth areas and in harvesting phase plantings were: Acromyrmex balzani Emery, 1890; Acromyrmex laticeps nigrosetosus Forel 1908; Acromyrmex subterraneus subterraneus Forel, 1893; Atta laevigala (F. Smith, 1858; Alta sexdens rubropilosa Forel, 1908; Mycocepurus goeldii Forel, 1893; Sericomyrmex sp.; Trachymyrmex fuscus Emery, 1894 and three morphospecies of Trachymyrmex Forel, 1893. Taxa belonging to the genus Atta Fabricius, 1804 represented 39.14 and 41.22% of the total number of nests found in the regrowth area and in the harvesting phase plantings, respectively. For Acromyrmex Mayr, 1865 these values were 14.34 and 13.16%; for Trachymyrmex, 40.59 and 30.89%; for Mycocepurus Forel, 1893, 5.34 and 12.50% and Sericomyrmex Mayr, 1865, 0.59 and 2.23% in the regrowth area and in the harvesting phase plantations, respectively.

  12. Foliar Substrate Affects Cuticular Hydrocarbon Profiles and Intraspecific Aggression in the Leafcutter Ant Atta sexdens

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    Lohan Valadares

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs are traditionally considered to be one of the most important chemical cues used in the nestmate recognition process of social hymenopterans. However, it has been suggested that in the leafcutter ant genus Atta, it is not the CHCs, but the alarm pheromone that is involved in the nestmate recognition process. In this study we used a laboratory population of Atta sexdens to explore the association between their CHC profile variation and intraspecific aggression. In the first part of the experiment, four colonies were divided into two groups with distinct diets to stimulate differentiation of their CHC profiles. In the second part of the experiment, all colonies received the same diet to examine resemblance of chemical profiles. At the end of each part of the experiment we extracted the CHCs from workers. The results demonstrated that colonies that shared the same food resource had similar cuticular hydrocarbon profiles. Furthermore, colonies were significantly more aggressive towards conspecifics that used a different foliar substrate and consequently had greater differences in their cuticular chemical composition. This study suggests that the CHC profiles of A. sexdens can be affected by the foliar substrates used, and that the CHCs are used in the nestmate recognition process of this species.

  13. Energetic cost of digging behavior in workers of the leaf-cutting ant Atta sexdens (Fabricius

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    Roberto da Silva Camargo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Energetic cost of digging behavior in workers of the leaf-cutting ant Atta sexdens (Fabricius. During nest excavation, leaf-cutting ant workers undergo reduction in their body reserve, particularly carbohydrates. In order to estimate the energetic cost of digging, groups of 30 workers of the leaf-cutting ant Atta sexdens were sealed in a hermetic chamber for 24, 48 and 72 hours, with and without soil for digging, and had the CO2 concentration measured using respirometric chambers as well as volume of soil excavated (g. As expected, the worker groups that carried out soil excavation expelled more carbon dioxide than the groups that did not excavate. Therefore, a worker with body mass of 9.65 ± 1.50 mg dug in average 0.85 ± 0.27 g of soil for 24 hours, consuming ca. 0.58 ± 0.23 J. In this study, we calculate that the energetic cost of excavation per worker per day in the experimental set-up was ca. 0.58 J.

  14. The modern Forel-Ule scale: a 'do-it-yourself' colour comparator for water monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Novoa, S.; Wernand, M.R.; van der Woerd, H.J.

    2014-01-01

    The colour comparator Forel-Ule scale has been used to estimate the colour of natural waters since the 19th century, resulting in one of thelongest oceanographic data series. This colour index has been proven by previous research to be related to water quality indicators suchas chlorophyll and

  15. Camponotus ustus Forel and two similar new species from Puerto Rico (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.R. Snelling; J.A. Torres

    1998-01-01

    Although Camponotus ustus Forel, originally described from St. Thomas, now a part of the American Virgina Islands, has been long considered common in Puerto Rico, we found that such specimens are misidentified and actually represent two distinct species, both previously undescribed. These are described herein as C. kaura and C. taino. Based on the types and additional...

  16. ANÁLISE DE CRESCIMENTO, INCIDÊNCIA DE Rhizoctonia sp. E EFEITO ANTIXENOSE PARA A FORMIGA-CORTADEIRA Atta sexdens rubropilosa F. EM CLONES DE Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla TRATADOS COM GIBERELINA1

    OpenAIRE

    Fabio Santos Matos; Débora Zacarias da Silva; Brenda Rodrigues de Souza; Dahís Ramalho Moura; Vinícius de Araújo Lopes; Daniel Diego Costa Carvalho; Marcio da Silva Araujo

    2015-01-01

    RESUMO A competitividade do setor florestal brasileiro, fruto das condições climáticas e tecnologia empregada, faz que o país ocupe posição de destaque no cenário mundial. Apesar do elevado crescimento brasileiro no setor florestal, é necessário o desenvolvimento de pesquisas que proporcionem aumento de produtividade. Este estudo objetivou avaliar o efeito fisiológico da aplicação de diferentes concentrações de giberelina (GA3) no acúmulo de biomassa do híbrido de Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyp...

  17. Emigration of a colony of the leaf-cutting ant Acromyrmex heyeri Forel (Hymenoptera, Formicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariane Aparecida Nickele

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Emigration of a colony of the leaf-cutting ant Acromyrmex heyeri Forel (Hymenoptera, Formicidae. Colony migration is a poorly studied phenomenon in leaf-cutting ants. Here we report on the emigration of a colony of the leaf-cutting ant A. heyeri in Brazil. The colony emigrated to a new location 47.4 m away from the original nest site, possibly because it had undergone considerable stress due to competitive interactions with a colony of Acromyrmex crassispinus.

  18. Essential Oils of Hyptis pectinata Chemotypes: Isolation, Binary Mixtures and Acute Toxicity on Leaf-Cutting Ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feitosa-Alcantara, Rosana B; Bacci, Leandro; Blank, Arie F; Alves, Péricles B; Silva, Indira Morgana de A; Soares, Caroline A; Sampaio, Taís S; Nogueira, Paulo Cesar de L; Arrigoni-Blank, Maria de Fátima

    2017-04-12

    Leaf-cutting ants are pests of great economic importance due to the damage they cause to agricultural and forest crops. The use of organosynthetic insecticides is the main form of control of these insects. In order to develop safer technology, the objective of this work was to evaluate the formicidal activity of the essential oils of two Hyptis pectinata genotypes (chemotypes) and their major compounds on the leaf-cutting ants Acromyrmex balzani Emery and Atta sexdens rubropilosa Forel. Bioassays of exposure pathways (contact and fumigation) and binary mixtures of the major compounds were performed. The major compounds identified in the essential oils of H. pectinata were β-caryophyllene, caryophyllene oxide and calamusenone. The essential oils of H. pectinata were toxic to the ants in both exposure pathways. Essential oils were more toxic than their major compounds alone. The chemotype calamusenone was more toxic to A. balzani in both exposure pathways. A. sexdens rubropilosa was more susceptible to the essential oil of the chemotype β-caryophyllene in both exposure pathways. In general, the binary mixtures of the major compounds resulted in additive effect of toxicity. The essential oils of H. pectinata is a raw material of great potential for the development of new insecticides.

  19. SHORT COMMUNICATION: BROOD PRODUCTION AND MORTALITY RATE OF YOUNG SAÚVA QUEENS (ATTA SEXDENS LINNAEUS, 1758 (HYMENOPTERA: FORMICIDAE REARED IN ARTIFICIAL COLONIES WITH MIXED SUBSTRATUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.O. Augustin

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of plaster as a substratum for colonies of leaf-cutting ants in laboratory is widespread. Because Atta Fabricius, 1804 species excavate the soil in order to found new colonies in nature, we wanted to test whether mixing plaster with soil (Latossolo Vermelho would influence the number of eggs, larvae, pupae and workers in A. sexdens Linnaeus, 1758 colonies. Here we report results that possibly indicate the plaster substratum as the most suitable for rearing young A. sexdens colonies in laboratory.

  20. New host and locality record for Triaenophorus crassus forel (Cestoda: pseudophyllidea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzmann, J.R.; Hesselholt, M.N.

    1957-01-01

    The adult form of Triaenophorus crassus Forel, 1868 (= T. robustus Olsson, 1893; = T. tricuspidatus morpha megadentatus Wardle, 1932) occurs as an intestinal parasite in the pike, Esox lucius L., a holarctic species of wide distribution. Preliminary life-history stages include procercoid development in copepods of the genus Cyclops followed by plerocercoid development in the musculature of a variety of coregonid and salmonid fishes. The unsightly appearance of even moderate plerocercoid infections is often sufficient to render fish unacceptable for human consumption. In the prairie provinces of Canada the incidence and intensity of T. crassus infections in the commercially important whitefishes constitute a serious economic problem.

  1. The Modern Forel-Ule scale: a ‘Do-it-yourself’ colour comparator for water monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Novoa, S.; Wernand, M.R.; van der Woerd, H.J.

    2014-01-01

    The colour comparator Forel-Ule scale has been used to estimate the colour of natural waters since the 19th century, resulting in one of the longest oceanographic data series. This colour index has been proven by previous research to be related to water quality indicators such as chlorophyll and

  2. Spectral analysis of the Forel-Ule Ocean colour comparator scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernand, M. R.; van der Woerd, H. J.

    2010-04-01

    François Alphonse Forel (1890) and Willi Ule (1892) composed a colour comparator scale, with tints varying from indigo-blue to coca-cola brown, to quantify the colour of natural waters, like seas, lakes and rivers. For each measurement, the observer compares the colour of the water above a submersed white disc (Secchi disc) with the hand-held scale of pre-defined colours. The scale can be well reproduced from a simple recipe for twenty-one coloured chemical solutions and because the ease of its use, the Forel-Ule (FU) scale has been applied globally and intensively by oceanographers and limnologists from the year 1890. Indeed, the archived FU data belong to the oldest oceanographic data sets and do contain information on the changes in geobiophysical properties of natural waters during the last century. In this article we describe the optical properties of the FU-scale and its ability to cover the colours of natural waters, as observed by the human eye. The recipe of the scale and its reproduction is described. The spectral transmission of the tubes, with belonging chromaticity coordinates, is presented. The FU scale, in all its simplicity, is found to be an adequate ocean colour comparator scale. The scale is well characterized, is stable and observations are reproducible. This supports the idea that the large historic data base of FU measurements is coherent and well calibrated. Moreover, the scale can be coupled to contemporary multi-spectral observations with hand-held and satellite-based spectrometers.

  3. Vegetation Changes in a Native Forest Produced by Atta vollenweideri Forel 1893 (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) Nests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabattini, J A; Sabattini, R A; Cian, J C; Sabattini, I A

    2018-02-01

    Herbivory is an important factor to generate spatial mosaics with variations in a plant community composition and organization. The objective of this work was to determine the impact of Atta vollenweideri Forel 1893 nests on herbaceous and shrub vegetation in a degraded native forest of the Espinal ecoregion. The study was carried out in the Protected Area and Multiple Use Nature Reserve called Estancia "El Carayá" (Entre Ríos, Argentina). Ten A. vollenweideri nests were selected by simple random sampling through internal roads, and two transects were drawn from the center of the nest (0 m) up to 60 m away in opposite directions. The line intercept method was used to quantify the percentage of vegetation cover of herbaceous and shrub species, while the floristic composition was estimated by the Canfield method. Afterwards, a nonparametric test between positions and a conglomerate analysis to evaluated distance were applied. Grass species, legumes, and sedges fell in the adjacent areas to nests, highlighting the bare soil at the crest and base of the nests. Fifteen plant species were identified, and two families correspond to monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous species. In conclusion, the nests of A. vollenweideri affect the community of herbaceous and shrub vegetation of the studied degraded native forest of the Espinal ecoregion since these ants perform a high selection of herbaceous species considered as pioneers of plant successions.

  4. [Spatial distribution of nests of Acromyrmex crassispinus (Forel) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Pinus taeda plantations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickele, Mariane A; Oliveira, Edilson B de; Reis Filho, Wilson; Iede, Edson T; Ribeiro, Rodrigo D

    2010-01-01

    The spatial distribution of insects is essential to perform control strategies, to improve sample techniques and to estimate economic losses. We aimed to determine the spatial distribution of nests of Acromyrmex crassispinus (Forel) in Pinus taeda plantations. The experiments were carried out in P. taeda plantations with different ages (treatments: recently-planted, three and six-year old plants). The study took place in Rio Negrinho and in Três Barras, SC. Three plots of one hectare were delimited in each treatment, and plots were divided in 64 sample units. The analysis of the dispersion index [variance/mean relationship (I), index of Morisita (Iδ) and k exponent of negative binomial distribution] showed that the majority of the samplings presented random distribution. Among the three distributions of probabilities studied: Poisson, positive binomial and negative binomial, the Poisson distribution was the best model to fit the spatial distribution of A. crassispinus nests in all samplings. The result was a random distribution in the plantings of different ages.

  5. Dealing with water deficit in Atta ant colonies: large ants scout for water while small ants transport it

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Carlos Da-Silva

    2012-07-01

    Leafcutter ants (Atta sexdens rubropilosa (Forel 1908 have an elaborate social organization, complete with caste divisions. Activities carried out by specialist groups contribute to the overall success and survival of the colony when it is confronted with environmental challenges such as dehydration. Ants detect variations in humidity inside the nest and react by activating several types of behavior that enhance water uptake and decrease water loss, but it is not clear whether or not a single caste collects water regardless of the cost of bringing this resource back to the colony. Accordingly, we investigated water collection activities in three colonies of Atta sexdens rubropilosa experimentally exposed to water stress. Specifically, we analyzed whether or not the same ant caste foraged for water, regardless of the absolute energetic cost (distance of transporting this resource back to the colony. Our experimental design offered water sources at 0 m, 1 m and 10 m from the nest. We studied the body size of ants near the water sources from the initial offer of water (time  =  0 to 120 min, and tested for specialization. We observed a reduction in the average size and variance of ants that corroborated the specialization hypothesis. Although the temporal course of specialization changed with distance, the final outcome was similar among distances. Thus, we conclude that, for this species, a specialist (our use of the word “specialist” does not mean exclusive task force is responsible for collecting water, regardless of the cost of transporting water back to the colony.

  6. Gene Expression Profile Analysis is Directly Affected by the Selected Reference Gene: The Case of Leaf-Cutting Atta Sexdens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalynka G. do Livramento

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Although several ant species are important targets for the development of molecular control strategies, only a few studies focus on identifying and validating reference genes for quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR data normalization. We provide here an extensive study to identify and validate suitable reference genes for gene expression analysis in the ant Atta sexdens, a threatening agricultural pest in South America. The optimal number of reference genes varies according to each sample and the result generated by RefFinder differed about which is the most suitable reference gene. Results suggest that the RPS16, NADH and SDHB genes were the best reference genes in the sample pool according to stability values. The SNF7 gene expression pattern was stable in all evaluated sample set. In contrast, when using less stable reference genes for normalization a large variability in SNF7 gene expression was recorded. There is no universal reference gene suitable for all conditions under analysis, since these genes can also participate in different cellular functions, thus requiring a systematic validation of possible reference genes for each specific condition. The choice of reference genes on SNF7 gene normalization confirmed that unstable reference genes might drastically change the expression profile analysis of target candidate genes.

  7. Classifying Natural Waters with the Forel-Ule Colour Index System: Results, Applications, Correlations and Crowdsourcing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garaba, Shungudzemwoyo P; Friedrichs, Anna; Voß, Daniela; Zielinski, Oliver

    2015-12-18

    Societal awareness of changes in the environment and climate has grown rapidly, and there is a need to engage citizens in gathering relevant scientific information to monitor environmental changes due to recognition that citizens are a potential source of critical information. The apparent colour of natural waters is one aspect of our aquatic environment that is easy to detect and an essential complementary optical water quality indicator. Here we present the results and explore the utility of the Forel-Ule colour index (FUI) scale as a proxy for different properties of natural waters. A FUI scale is used to distinguish the apparent colours of different natural surface water masses. Correlation analysis was completed in an effort to determine the constituents of natural waters related to FUI. Strong correlations with turbidity, Secchi-disk depth, and coloured dissolved organic material suggest the FUI is a good indicator of changes related to other constituents of water. The increase in the number of tools capable of determining the FUI colours, (i) ocean colour remote sensing products; (ii) a handheld scale; and (iii) a mobile device app, make it a versatile relative measure of water quality. It has the potential to provide higher spatial and temporal resolution of data for a modernized classification of optical water quality. This FUI colour system has been favoured by several scientists in the last century because it is affordable and easy to use and provides indicative information about the colour of water and the water constituents producing that colour. It is therefore within the scope of a growing interest in the application and usefulness of basic measurement methodologies with the potential to provide timely benchmark information about the environment to the public, scientists and policymakers.

  8. Interação entre Atta sexdens e espécie arbórea Copaifera langsdorfii Desf. em remanescente florestal de cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danival José de Souza

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A espécie arbórea Copaifera langsdorfii Desf. é muito explorada para extração do seu óleo e para utilização em recuperação de áreas degradadas e de matas ciliares. A comunidade vegetal pode ser beneficiada pela interação entre insetos e plantas sendo a mirmecocoria – dispersão de sementes por formigas – um desses exemplos de interação. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as interações entre a espécie arbórea C. langsdorffii Desf. e a espécie de formiga Atta sexdens em área de remanescente florestal de cerrado sensu stricto. As sementes forrageadas por formigas e não forrageadas encontradas no chão foram coletadas para análise de testes de germinação e IVG (índice de velocidade de germinação. A terra solta dos ninhos de Atta sexdens também foi coletada para avaliação e comparação com locais de dispersão natural. Os resultados dos testes indicaram germinação e IVG significativamente maiores em sementes forrageadas pelas formigas Atta sexdens e os locais mais favoráveis à germinação foram longe de áreas antropogênicas ao longo das trilhas de forrageamento.

  9. Spatial distribution and fruiting phenology of Protium heptaphyllum (Burseraceae) determine the design of the underground foraging system of Atta sexdens L. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, P S D; Leal, I R; Wirth, R; Tabarelli, M

    2012-08-01

    Leaf-cutting ants have long been recognized to forage via complex trail systems but the nature and the ecological drivers of the different foraging strategies adopted remain a key topic. Here, we described the spatiotemporal use of belowground foraging galleries by Atta sexdens L. in the Brazilian Atlantic forest, and examined the adaptive advantages of this foraging strategy. Protium heptaphyllum adult trees (DBH > 10 cm), seed/seedling clumps and ant gallery entrances were mapped across two 1-ha plots during two consecutive fruiting seasons (2002 and 2004). We recorded 75 ca. 40 cm deep gallery entrances beneath 26 P. heptaphyllum trees at nest distances ranging from 14 to 57 m. Furthermore, gallery abundance and galleries associated with seed/seedling clumps correlated positively with P. heptaphyllum density. Our results indicate that A. sexdens was able to set a permanent system of underground galleries targeting P. heptaphyllum trees and their seeds on the ground. Such network of galleries was spatially arranged according to both the spatial distribution and abundance of P. heptaphyllum trees in a way that most gallery entrances were disposed beneath or in close periphery of P. heptaphyllum crowns. Our findings suggest that underground trail systems shaped by fruit resources represent a foraging strategy clearly more common than existing literature on the subject would suggest. In addition, it reinforces the notion that the spatiotemporal availability of resources combined with predation risk largely influence trail configurations as well as overall foraging strategies adopted by leaf-cutting ants.

  10. Et spørgsmål om kompetence: Artikel 267 TEUF præjudiciel forelæggelse af FUSP-karakter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butler, Graham

    2017-01-01

    Kan Den Europæiske Unions Domstol (’Domstolen’) udøve kompetence og pålægge den nationale ret en fortolkning af EU retten i en sag, der henvises til Domstolen fra en national domstol i henhold til artikel 267 TEUF ang. præjudiciel forelæggelse, når emnet drejer sig om den fælles udenrigs- og sikk...

  11. Central American ants of the genus Megalomyrmex Forel (Hymenoptera: Formicidae): six new species and keys to workers and males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudinot, Brendon E; Sumnicht, Theodore P; Adams, Rachelle M M

    2013-11-04

    Megalomyrmex Forel is a distinctive lineage of Neotropical ants, some of which are specialized parasites or predators of the fungus-growing ants Attini. Here we review and key the Central American fauna. Six new species are described from both female castes: M. brandaoi sp. n., M. fungiraptor sp. n., M. longinoi sp. n., M. milenae sp. n., M. megadrifti sp. n. and M. osadrifti sp. n. A worker-based key to all Central American species is presented, and all species are illustrated. Megalomyrmex drifti Kempf is redescribed and the first descriptions of queens for M. miri Brandão and M. foreli Emery are provided. New biological information, several new geographic records, and a discussion of the species-group schema of Brandão (1990) are presented. The male sex of Megalomyrmex is diagnosed at the genus-level and keyed to species for the Central American fauna, where known. The male of each species treated in the key is diagnosed, described, or redescribed. Males are known for fourteen out of twenty total Central American Megalomyrmex species. A distinct but unassociated male is described and keyed (M. male 01). The males of M. miri Brandão and M. wettereri Brandão are described for the first time, and the distinctness of these two species is confirmed. One potential synapomorphy of Megalomyrmex present in males and workers is the presence of a carina which posteriorly delimits the basalmost region of the petiolar dorsum. 

  12. The Metapleural Secretion of Acromyrmex laticeps (Forel does not have Fungicide Effect on the Entomopathogenic Fungus Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Junqueira

    2014-12-01

    Resumo. A glândula metapleural (GMP é uma estrutura exógena, encontrada apenas nos formicídeos, sendo mais desenvolvida nas fêmeas e operárias, enquanto nos machos ou está atrofiada ou não existe. Tem sido sugerido várias possíveis funções para a secreção produzida por esta glândula, sendo a hipótese de efeito protetor contra entomopatógenos a mais estudada. Para testar esta hipótese, foi aplicada uma suspensão de conídios (1,30 x 106 de Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. nas GMP e na porção ântero-superior do metatórax (ASM de fêmeas aladas de Acromyrmex laticeps (Forel, enquanto nos machos a suspensão foi aplicada apenas na porção ASM, pois estes não apresentam o átrio característico da GMP. Os resultados obtidos indicaram que a secreção metapleural das fêmeas desta espécie não possui efeito fungicida sobre B. bassiana, e que tanto os machos como as fêmeas alados são sensíveis a este fungo entomopatogênico.

  13. PREFERÊNCIA DE CORTE DE Eucalyptus spp. POR Acromyrmex laticeps nigrosetosus FOREL, 1908 (HYMENOPTERA: FORMICIDAE EM CONDIÇÕES DE LABORATÓRIO

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    Alberto Luiz Marsaro Júnior

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a preferência de corte das operárias de Acromyrmex laticeps nigrosetosus Forel, 1908, em três espécies e um clone de eucalipto. Plantas de Eucalyptus urophylla S.T. Blake, 1977, Eucalyptus cloeziana F. Muell., 1878, Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh., 1832, e o Clone 129 foram oferecidas, simultaneamente, para três colônias de Acromyrmex laticeps nigrosetosus Forel, 1908. O bioensaio finalizou 6 horas após o seu início ou até que uma das colônias cortasse todas as folhas de um dos eucaliptos oferecidos. As colônias cortaram e carregaram, em média, 0,453g ± 0,064 de Eucalyptus camaldulensis; 0,384g ± 0,052 do Clone 129; 0,341g ± 0,054 de Eucalyptus urophylla e 0,102 ± 0,027 de Eucalyptus cloeziana, sendo essa última a espécie menos preferida para o corte. Por outro lado, não houve diferença significativa entre a quantidade de folhas cortadas nos outros eucaliptos.

  14. Limonoids from Cipadessa fruticosa and Cedrela fissilis and their insecticidal activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leite, Ana C.; Fernandes, Joao B.; Vieira, Paulo C.; Silva, M. Fatima das G. Fernandes da; Bueno, Fabiana C.; Oliveira, Cintia G.; Bueno, Odair C.; Pagnocca, Fernando C.; Hebling, M. Jose A.; Bacci Junior, Mauricio

    2005-01-01

    The chemical investigation of the fruits of Cipadessa fruticosa (Meliaceae) afforded the new limonoid cipadesin B and the known swietemahonolide. From the roots of Cedrela fissilis (Meliaceae) were isolated the limonoid 3β-acetoxycarapin, new as natural product, along with the triterpenes oleanolic and oleanonic acid. These compounds and other six mexicanolide limonoids previously isolated from C. fruticosa showed insecticidal activity against the leaf-cutting ants Atta sexdens rubropilosa. (author)

  15. Isolation of xanthyletin, an inhibitor of ants' symbiotic fungus, by high-speed counter-current chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazal, Cristiane de Melo; Domingues, Vanessa de Cássia; Batalhão, Jaqueline Raquel; Bueno, Odair Corrêa; Filho, Edson Rodrigues; da Silva, Maria Fátima G Fernandes; Vieira, Paulo Cezar; Fernandes, João Batista

    2009-05-08

    Xanthyletin, an inhibitor of symbiotic fungus (Leucoagaricus gongylophorus) of leaf-cutting ant (Atta sexdens rubropilosa), as well as suberosin, seselin and xanthoxyletin were isolated from Citrus sinensis grafted on Citrus limonia. A two-phase solvent system composed of hexane/ethanol/acetonitrile/water (10:8:1:1, v/v) was used for the high-speed counter-current chromatographic isolation of xanthyletin with high yield and over 99% purity as determined by liquid and gas chromatography with mass spectrometry detection. Identifications were performed by UV spectra, IR spectra, (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR.

  16. Activities of extracts and compounds from Spiranthera odoratissima St. Hil. (Rutaceae) in leaf-cutting ants and their symbiotic fungus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terezan, Ana Paula; Fernandes, Joao B.; Silva, M. Fatima das Gracas Fernandes da; Vieira, Paulo C. [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCAR), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Rossi, Raquel Andrade; Almeida, Roberta N.A.; Freitas, Tais Garcia; Bueno, Odair C.; Pagnocca, Fernando C. [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Rio Claro, SP (Brazil). Centro de Estudos de Insetos Sociais; Pirani, Jose R., E-mail: djbf@power.ufscar.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Biociencias. Dept. de Botanica

    2010-07-01

    The study of the Spiranthera odoratissima St. Hil (Rutaceae) branches extracts led to the isolation of the furoquinoline (dictamine, gamma-fagarine and skimmianine) and 2-arylquinoli-4-one (1-methyl-2-phenylquinoline-4-one) alkaloids and limonoids (limonexic acid and limonin). The compounds 1-methyl-2-phenylquinoline-4-one and limonexic acid were isolated for the first time from the Spiranthera. These furoquinoline and 2-arylquinoli-4-one alkaloids and limonoids showed insecticidal and/or fungicidal activity in the nest of the Atta sexdens rubropilosa. (author)

  17. Evaluation of the Toxicity of Virola sebifera Crude Extracts, Fractions and Isolated Compounds on the Nest of Leaf-Cutting Ants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keylla Utherdyany Bicalho

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The phytochemical study of Virola sebifera leaves led to the isolation of three lignans: (+-sesamin, (−-hinokinin, and (−-kusunokinin and three flavonoids: quercetin-3-O-α-L-rhamnoside, quercetin-3-O-β-D-glucoside, and quercetin-3-methoxy-7-O-β-D-glucoside by using techniques as high-speed counter-current chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography. The crude extracts, fractions, and isolated compounds were evaluated for their insecticidal and fungicidal potential against Atta sexdens rubropilosa and its symbiotic fungus Leucoagaricus gongylophorus. The bioassay results showed a high insecticidal activity for the methanol crude extract of the leaves of V. sebifera and its n-hexane, dichloromethane and ethyl acetate fractions. The fungicidal bioassay revealed high toxicity of the lignans against L. gongylophorus.

  18. Leaf-cutting ants toxicity of limonexic acid and degraded limonoids from Raulinoa echinata: X-ray structure of epoxy-fraxinellone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biavatti, Maique W.; Westerlon, Rosangela [Universidade do Vale do Itajai, SC (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias Farmaceuticas]. E-mail: maique@univali.br; Vieira, Paulo C.; Silva, M. Fatima G.F. da; Fernandes, Joao B. [Sao Carlos Univ., SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Penaflor, M. Fernanda G.V.; Bueno, Odair C. [UNESP, Rio Claro, SP (Brazil). Centro de Estudos de Insetos Sociais; Ellena, Javier [Sao Paulo Univ., Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    2005-11-15

    Phytochemical survey of roots extracts of the South Brazilian endemic plant Raulinoa echinata Cowan, Rutaceae led to the isolation of known degraded limonoids: fraxinellone, fraxinellonone and epoxy-fraxinellone. The latter was previously isolated also from the stems, but the relative configuration could not be solved by NMR experiments. This paper deals with the X-ray diffraction analysis of epoxy-fraxinellone and its toxicity to leaf-cutting ants, describes the isolation of fraxinellonone and fraxinellone for the first time in Raulinoa. Epoxy-fraxinellone showed no toxicity to the leaf-cutting ants (Atta sexdens rubropilosa). The limonoid limonexic acid, isolated from stems, presented high toxicity to the leaf-cutting ants, diminishing considerably their longevity. (author)

  19. Development and validation of a RP-HPLC method to determine the xanthyletin content in biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane de Melo Cazal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Xanthyletin is used as an inhibitor of the symbiotic fungus (Leucoagaricus gongylophorus of the leaf-cutting ant (Atta sexdens rubropilosa, one of the most significant agricultural plague insects. The incorporation of this compound into nanoparticles is a promising approach to effectively control leaf-cutting ants. This study presents the development and validation of a specific analytical method using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC for quantification of the xanthyletin content in biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles. The analytical methodology developed was specific, linear, accurate, precise, and robust. The absolute recovery of xanthyletin in colloidal suspensions was nearly 100%. The HPLC method proved reliable for the quantification of xanthyletin content in nanoparticle formulations.

  20. MERIS-based ocean colour classification with the discrete Forel-Ule scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wernand, M.R.; Hommersom, A.; van der Woerd, H.J.

    2013-01-01

    Multispectral information from satellite borne ocean colour sensors is at present used to characterize natural waters via the retrieval of concentrations of the three dominant optical constituents; pigments of phytoplankton, non-algal particles and coloured dissolved organic matter. A limitation of

  1. Dispersal strategies in the highly polygynous ant Crematogaster (Orthocrema) pygmaea Forel (Formicidae: Myrmicinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidi, Rachid; de Biseau, Jean-Christophe; Bourguignon, Thomas; Martins Segundo, Glauco Bezerra; Fontenelle, Matheus Torres Marinho Bezerril; Quinet, Yves

    2017-01-01

    In ants, dispersal strategies and morphology of female sexuals are generally linked to the mode of colony founding. In species using long-range dispersal tactics, queen/worker dimorphism is generally high and young queens are able to initiate new colonies by themselves, using their metabolic reserves. By contrast, in species using short-range dispersal strategies, queen/worker dimorphism is generally low and, due to their limited metabolic reserves, queens have lost the capacity to raise their brood alone and to found their colony independently. Moreover, polygyny is also often associated with short-range dispersal strategies, although the relationship between the number of queens and the dispersal strategy in ants is not clear-cut. Here, dispersal strategies were investigated in C. pygmaea, a highly polygynous and polydomous ant species from northeastern Brazil. Field observations and laboratory experiments show that this ant exhibits a suite of traits that are more commonly associated with long-range dispersal and independent colony foundation: functional wings in both males and females, high queen/worker dimorphism, strong weight loss in mature queens, nuptial flights and, in the lab, ability of young queens to found new colonies in haplometrotic conditions. On the other hand, this species shows a high degree of polygyny with a strong seasonal component, and, at least under laboratory conditions, mature queens seem able to develop propagules if they are accompanied by at least 10 workers. These features strongly suggest that (1) some of the gynes do not engage in a long-range dispersal but become new queens in their mother colony and (2) that budding events are possible in this species. We therefore speculate that C. pygmaea has a dual dispersal strategy probably related to environmental conditions: some gynes engage in long-range dispersal followed by independent colony foundation at the beginning of rainy season, while others mate in the parental colony and are re-adopted leading to high polygyny. During the rainy season, budding events can lead to colony extension and increased polydomy. Polydomy is commonly thought to improve resource discovery and exploitation through decentralized foraging behavior, a significant advantage during the rainy season when food ressources (mainly floral/extrafloral nectaries and hemipteran honeydew) are more abundant and when colony needs for food supplies are highest.

  2. Udviklingen i frivilligt arbejde 2004-2012: Foreløbige analyser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fridberg, Torben; Skov Henriksen, Lars; Qvist, Hans-Peter

    at belyse ændringer i den danske befolknings frivillige indsats siden 2004, hvor den første omfattende undersøgelse blev gennemført i regi af det internationale Johns Hopkins University Comparative Nonprofit Sector Project (Koch-Nielsen m.fl., 2005). Den aktuelle undersøgelse har været gennemført som et...... followup-studie af Johns Hopkins undersøgelsen med de definitioner af frivilligt arbejde og klassifikationer af organisationsområder, der var gældende for denne undersøgelse. Undersøgelsen er således gennemført med identiske metoder med henblik på at sikre en så stor grad af sammenlignelighed mellem de......, og som har tilstrækkelige danskkundskaber til at interviewet kunne gennemføres på dansk, deltog i denne del af undersøgelsen. SFI-Survey har stået for dataindsamlingen i begge tilfælde. Spørgeskemaet, der ligger til grund for undersøgelsens analyser, kan se på forskernetværket CiFri’s hjemmeside: www...

  3. Universets – foreløbigt – mindste planet er fundet!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rørbæk, Rasmus; Philippsen, Bente

    2013-01-01

    Et internationalt forskerhold har analyseret målinger fra Kepler-satellitten og fundet den mindste planet, man endnu har registreret i Universet. ’Stellar Astrophysics Centre’ på Aarhus Universitet har deltaget i arbejdet med at finde og karakterisere den lille planet, der er på størrelse med vores...

  4. First cytogenetic characterization of a species of the arboreal ant genus Azteca Forel, 1978 (Dolichoderinae, Formicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danon Cardoso

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present, for the first time, a detailed karyotype characterization of a species of the genus Azteca (Dolichoderinae, Formicidae. Cerebral ganglia from Azteca trigona Emery, 1893 were excised and submitted to colchicine hypotonic solution and chromosomal preparations were analyzed through conventional staining with Giemsa, C-banding, silver nitrate staining (AgNO3 and sequential base-specific fluorochromes. The analysis shows that A. trigona has a diploid number of 28 chromosomes. The karyotype consists of five metacentric pairs, seven acrocentric pairs and two pseudo-acrocentric pairs, which represents a karyotype formula 2K= 10M + 14A + 4AM and a diploid number of the arms 2AN = 38. The analysis of heterochromatin distribution revealed a positive block on distal region of the short arm of fourth metacentric pair, which was coincident with Ag-NOR band and CMA3 fluorochrome staining, meaning that rDNA sequences are interspaced by GC-rich base pairs sequences. The C-banding also marked short arms of other chromosomes, indicating centric fissions followed by heterochromatin growth. The karyotype analysis of A. trigona allowed the identification of cytogenetic markers that will be helpful in a difficult taxonomic group as Azteca and discussion about evolutionary aspects of the genome organization.

  5. Wasmannia Forel(Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Myrmicinae) in Argentina: systematics and distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ant genus Wasmannia is endemic to the Neotropics, with 10 species occurring within the presumptive native range for the genus from Mexico to Argentina. Only the little fire ant, Wasmannia auropunctata is widely distributed being present from central-eastern Argentina to Bermuda, and has become i...

  6. Foreløbige resultater af screening for abdominalt aortaaneurisme i Viborg Amt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholt, J S; Fasting, H; Henneberg, E W

    1997-01-01

    The incidence of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) and ruptured AAA is increasing. One to three percent of deaths among 65-80 year-old males are caused by AAA. Sixty-six to ninety-five percent of ruptured AAA are lethal, while elective resection has a 3-6% operative mortality. Most AAA's are asymp...

  7. Nest Digging by Leaf-Cutting Ants: Effect of Group Size and Functional Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto da Silva Camargo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Leaf-cutting ant workers dig underground chambers, for housing their symbiotic fungus, interconnected by a vast quantity of tunnels whose function is to permit the entrance of food (leaves, gaseous exchanges, and movement of workers, offspring, and the queen. Digging is a task executed by a group of workers, but little is known about the group effect and group-constructed functional structures. Thus, we analyzed the structures formed by worker groups (5, 10, 20, and 40 individuals of the leaf-cutting ant, Atta sexdens rubropilosa, for 2 days of excavation. The digging arena was the same for the 4 groups, with each group corresponding to a different density. Our results verified a pattern of tunneling by the workers, but no chamber was constructed. The group effect is well known, since the 40-worker group dug significantly more than the groups of 5, 10, and 20. These groups did not differ statistically from each other. Analysis of load/worker verified that workers of the smallest group carried the greatest load. Our paper demonstrates the group effect on the digging of nests, namely, that excavation is proportional to group size, but without emergence of a functional structure such as a chamber.

  8. Avaliação de sauveiros externos em eucaliptais de Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris Cristiane Magistrali

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Existe uma grande dificuldade em aperfeiçoar as técnicas de manejo de formigas cortadeiras, sobretudo no que diz respeito aos sauveiros externos localizados próximos a plantios florestais. Por causa disso, o presente trabalho teve por objetivo caracterizar aspectos como tamanho e distância de sauveiros externos em plantações de eucaliptos. A avaliação foi realizada em aceiros externos de três fazendas localizadas nos municípios de João Pinheiro e Buritizeiro, em Minas Gerais, seis meses após ser realizado o combate convencional às formigas cortadeiras. Foram encontrados nove sauveiros externos, com área média de terra solta de 62,5 ± 11,1 m2, localizados a uma distância média de 33,94 ± 8,68 metros entre a margem do plantio e o local do formigueiro. Constatou-se que tais características podem ser úteis no ajuste da largura da faixa de segurança de combate, a qual deve ser igual a 50 m. O gênero Trachymyrmex e as espécies Atta laevigata e Atta sexdens rubropilosa foram registrados como ocorrências novas no município de Buritizeiro, e o gênero Acromyrmex como uma nova ocorrência nos dois municípios.

  9. Two castes sizes of leafcutter ants in task partitioning in foraging activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Arruda de Toledo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Task partitioning in eusocial animals is most likely an evolutionary adaptation that optimizes the efficiency of the colony to grow and reproduce. It was investigated indirect task partitioning in two castes sizes; this involves task partitioning in which the material transported is not transferred directly from one individual to another, but where it is dropped by one ant to be picked up by another. In two separate approaches, it was confirmed previous results pertaining to leaf caching activities among Atta colombica with task partitioning activities involving leaf dropping among Atta sexdens rubropilosa , in which there is a correlation between the size of an individual ant and the leaf fragment it transports. It was also suggested that this correlation exists only in individual ants that cut and transport (CaT the same fragment to the nest. When task partitioning occurs and individual ants transporting (T leaf fragments cut by other ants, the correlation becomes looser or disappears. We also observed that CaT ants are smaller than T ants.

  10. Conteúdo energético das operárias da formiga cortadeira, Atta sexdens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto da Silva Camargo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available O conhecimento do conteúdo energético das operárias é essencial para mensurar a disponibilidade energética, responsável pela manutenção e execução de atividades essenciais para o crescimento da colônia de formigas. Mas pouco se conhece sobre o conteúdo energético das operárias e quanto estará disponível para realizar atividades de, por exemplo, escavar do ninho. O presente estudo determinou o teor de lipídeo e o conteúdo energético das operárias de formigas cortadeiras inativas, antes e pós atividade de escavação. Por meio da determinação do teor de lipídeos, pode-se calcular o conteúdo energético das operárias em repouso (paradas e compará-las com as que escavaram. O teor de lipídeo e conteúdo energético das operárias foram em média 9,1±0,8% e 111,31±54,71J, respectivamente, entretanto, as séries experimentais não diferiram significativamente. Adicionalmente, a taxa do fluxo catabólico, embasado na massa corporal das operárias foi de 14,76±10,11µW. Conclui-se que o recurso energético para a escavação do ninho não é proveniente de reserva de lipídeos corporal e, dessa forma, o conteúdo energético das operárias não alterou antes e pós-atividade de escavação.

  11. Reconhecimento da prole por operárias companheiras e não companheiras de ninho em Acromyrmex laticeps nigrosetosus Forel, 1908 (Hymenoptera, Formicidae Brood recognition by workers of Acromyrmex laticeps nigrosetosus Forel, 1908 (Hymenoptera, Formicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danival José de Souza

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se a capacidade de discriminação de formas jovens de Acromyrmex laticeps nigrosetosus por operárias adultas da mesma subespécie. Eram oferecidas, na área de forrageamento, larvas e pupas companheiras e não companheiras de ninho, sendo quantificado o comportamento frente a essas formas jovens. Foram utilizadas colônias oriundas do município de Paraopeba, MG, Brasil, mantidas em condições de laboratório. Os resultados evidenciaram que essa subespécie não é capaz de discriminar formas jovens companheiras e não companheiras de ninho, ou seja, transportaram indiscriminadamente as formas jovens oferecidas para o interior do ninho. Também não se observou diferença significativa para o tempo de resposta de aceitação de prole companheira e não companheira de ninho.This study investigated the behavioral response (acception or rejection of Acromyrmex laticeps nigrosetosus to their brood and to brood from different colonies of this subespecies. The four colonies used in the bioassays came from Paraopeba, MG, Brazil. Workers accepted either brood from their colonies or from different colonies. There was no significant difference on the time for brood acceptance (transport to the interior of the nest among nestmates and non-nestmates.

  12. Spatio-Temporal Dynamics of Foraging Networks in the Grass-Cutting Ant Atta bisphaerica Forel, 1908 (Formicidae, Attini).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Juliane F S; Brugger, Mariana S; Menezes, Regys B; Camargo, Roberto S; Forti, Luiz Carlos; Fourcassié, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Foraging networks are a key element for ant colonies because they facilitate the flow of resources from the environment to the nest and they allow the sharing of information among individuals. Here we report the results of an 8-month survey, extending from November 2009 to June 2010, of the foraging networks of four mature colonies of Atta bisphaerica, a species of grass-cutting ant which is considered as a pest in Brazil. We found that the distribution of foraging effort was strongly influenced by the landscape features around the nests, in particular by the permanently wet parts of the pasture in which the nests were located. The foraging networks consisted of underground tunnels which opened on average at 21.5m from the nests and of above-ground physical trails that reached on average 4.70m in length. The use of the foraging networks was highly dynamic, with few sections of the networks used for long periods of time. Three different phases, which could be linked to the seasonal change in the local rainfall regime, could be identified in the construction and use of the foraging networks. The first phase corresponded to the beginning of the rainy season and was characterized by a low foraging activity, as well as a low excavation and physical trail construction effort. The second phase, which began in February and extended up to the end of the humid season at the end of March, was characterized by an intense excavation and trail construction effort, resulting in an expansion of the foraging networks. Finally, in the third phase, which corresponded to the beginning of the dry season, the excavation and trail construction effort leveled off or decreased while foraging activity kept increasing. Our hypothesis is that ants could benefit from the underground tunnels and physical trails built during the humid season to maintain their foraging activity at a high level.

  13. Spatio-Temporal Dynamics of Foraging Networks in the Grass-Cutting Ant Atta bisphaerica Forel, 1908 (Formicidae, Attini.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane F S Lopes

    Full Text Available Foraging networks are a key element for ant colonies because they facilitate the flow of resources from the environment to the nest and they allow the sharing of information among individuals. Here we report the results of an 8-month survey, extending from November 2009 to June 2010, of the foraging networks of four mature colonies of Atta bisphaerica, a species of grass-cutting ant which is considered as a pest in Brazil. We found that the distribution of foraging effort was strongly influenced by the landscape features around the nests, in particular by the permanently wet parts of the pasture in which the nests were located. The foraging networks consisted of underground tunnels which opened on average at 21.5m from the nests and of above-ground physical trails that reached on average 4.70m in length. The use of the foraging networks was highly dynamic, with few sections of the networks used for long periods of time. Three different phases, which could be linked to the seasonal change in the local rainfall regime, could be identified in the construction and use of the foraging networks. The first phase corresponded to the beginning of the rainy season and was characterized by a low foraging activity, as well as a low excavation and physical trail construction effort. The second phase, which began in February and extended up to the end of the humid season at the end of March, was characterized by an intense excavation and trail construction effort, resulting in an expansion of the foraging networks. Finally, in the third phase, which corresponded to the beginning of the dry season, the excavation and trail construction effort leveled off or decreased while foraging activity kept increasing. Our hypothesis is that ants could benefit from the underground tunnels and physical trails built during the humid season to maintain their foraging activity at a high level.

  14. Bridging the Gap – foreløbige perspektiver vedrørende læreruddannelsen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Lars Emmerik Damgaard; Bjerg, Helle

    dels forklarer misforståelser mellem dem, og dels peger på, at underviserne i nogen grad savner en meta-didaktisk teori om teori-praksisrelationer til at hjælpe de studerende med at håndtere de forskellige former for samspil mellem teori og praksis. 4) Med inspiration fra Thomas Højrups teori om...

  15. Behavioural and chemical studies of discrimination processes in the leaf-cutting ant Acromyrmex laticeps nigrosetosus (Forel, 1908

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    D. J. Souza

    Full Text Available Leaf-cutting ants live in symbiosis with a basidiomycete fungus that is exploited as a source of nutrients for ant larvae. Tests of brood transport revealed that Acromyrmex laticeps nigrosetosus workers did not discriminate a concolonial brood from an alien brood. The same result was observed with tests of fungus transport. Adult workers showed no aggressive behaviour to workers from other alien colonies (non-nestmates. There was no qualitative variation in the chemical profiles of larvae, pupae and adult workers from the different colonies. However, quantitative differences were observed between the different colonies. Hypotheses about the lack of intraspecific aggression in this subspecies of ants are discussed.

  16. Følgeforskning i Projekt LOMA-lokal mad. Deltrapport 1. Kvantitativ del. Foreløbige resultater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruge, Dorte; Puck, Morten Rasmus; Hansen, Thomas Illum

    Resultater fra følgeforskning i LOMA, Lokal Mad – en innovativ model for læring og næring til skoleelever (LOMA)’s LOMA15-intervention indikerer, at de deltagende elever har udviklet komponenter i en mad- og sundhedsrelateret handlekompetence i form af viden, færdighed, motivation, trivsel......, samarbejdsevne og erfaring med virkelighedsnære situationer. I nærværende interventionsstudie indgår data fra elevernes svar på survey ved baseline- og endline-deltagelse i LOMA15. Specielt for resultater i forhold til øget viden om grøntsager og råvarer er der en positiv udvikling fra baseline til endline. Der...

  17. ESCO i danske kommuner: En opsamling af motiver, overvejelser og foreløbige erfaringer med ESCO i kommunale bygninger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Ole; Nielsen, Susanne Balslev; Hansen, Jesper Rohr

    Rapporten har til formål at give overblik over de hidtidige erfaringer med brug af ESCO i danske kommuner. ESCO er i dansk sammenhæng en ny samarbejdsform, som i de seneste år er blevet aktualiseret af ønsket om energioptimering af eksisterende bygninger. ESCO, som den benyttes herhjemme, adskill...

  18. Espécies de formigas que interagem com as sementes de Mabea fistulifera Mart. (Euphorbiaceae Interaction between ant species and seeds of Mabea fistulifera Mart. (Euphorbiaceae

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    Ethel Fernandes de Oliveira Peternelli

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available As formigas, quando atraídas por um apêndice nutritivo, produzido na semente de certas plantas, podem exercer o papel de agente predador ou dispersor das sementes. No processo de dispersão, grande número desses insetos pode interagir com sementes de determinada planta. O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar as espécies de formigas em contato com sementes de Mabea fistulifera Mart. - uma espécie arbórea e colonizadora em áreas antrópicas no Brasil - e o tipo de interação desses insetos com as sementes, bem como determinar as espécies dispersoras. Foram realizadas coletas manuais de formigas em fragmentos de vegetação com alta densidade de M. fistulifera, no município de Viçosa, MG, no momento de sua visitação às sementes. As formigas capturadas foram triadas e identificadas por espécie. Além disso, durante as coletas foram feitas observações quanto ao tipo de comportamento das formigas que se associaram às sementes e ao cálculo da taxa de remoção destas, verificando-se que 16 espécies tiveram contato com estas. Acromyrmex subterraneus subterraneus, Atta sexdens rubropilosa, Ectatomma edentatum, Pachycondyla sp.1 e Pheidole sp. 2 foram, de fato, dispersoras, já que transportaram efetivamente as sementes. Ac. subterraneus subterraneus, Camponotus rufipes, Ectatomma permagnum, Megalomyrmex sp.1, Pachycondyla sp. 1, Pachycondyla sp. 2, Pheidole sp. 4, Pheidole sp. 5 e Pogonomyrmex sp. são, pela primeira vez, relatadas interagindo com sementes. A taxa de remoção das sementes de M. fistulifera pelas formigas foi de 85 a 97%.Ants, when attracted by nutritious corpuscles produced by seeds of certain plant species, can act as predators or dispersing agents. During seed dispersal, a great number of ant species can interact with seeds of a particular plant species. The purpose of this study was to identify the ant species that interact with seeds of Mabea fistulifera Mart., a pioneer tree species in anthropic disturbed

  19. The Postpharyngeal Gland: Specialized Organ for Lipid Nutrition in Leaf-Cutting Ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decio, Pâmela; Vieira, Alexsandro Santana; Dias, Nathalia Baptista; Palma, Mario Sergio; Bueno, Odair Correa

    2016-01-01

    There are several hypotheses about the possible functions of the postpharyngeal gland (PPG) in ants. The proposed functions include roles as cephalic or gastric caeca and diverticulum of the digestive tract, mixing of hydrocarbons, nestmate recognition, feeding larvae, and the accumulation of lipids inside this gland, whose origin is contradictory. The current study aimed to investigate the functions of these glands by examining the protein expression profile of the PPGs of Atta sexdens rubropilosa (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Mated females received lipid supplementation and their glands were extracted and analyzed using a proteomic approach. The protocol used combined two-dimensional electrophoresis and shotgun strategies, followed by mass spectrometry. We also detected lipid β-oxidation by immunofluorescent marking of acyl-CoA dehydrogenase. Supplying ants with lipids elicited responses in the glandular cells of the PPG; these included increased expression of proteins related to defense mechanisms and signal transduction and reorganization of the cytoskeleton due to cell expansion. In addition, some proteins in PPG were overexpressed, especially those involved in lipid and energy metabolism. Part of the lipids may be reduced, used for the synthesis of fatty alcohol, transported to the hemolymph, or may be used as substrate for the synthesis of acetyl-CoA, which is oxidized to form molecules that drive oxidative phosphorylation and produce energy for cellular metabolic processes. These findings suggest that this organ is specialized for lipid nutrition of adult leaf-cutting ants and characterized like a of diverticulum foregut, with the ability to absorb, store, metabolize, and mobilize lipids to the hemolymph. However, we do not rule out that the PPG may have other functions in other species of ants.

  20. Ants can learn to forage on one-way trails.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Leite Ribeiro

    Full Text Available The trails formed by many ant species between nest and food source are two-way roads on which outgoing and returning workers meet and touch each other all along. The way to get back home, after grasping a food load, is to take the same route on which they have arrived from the nest. In many species such trails are chemically marked by pheromones providing orientation cues for the ants to find their way. Other species rely on their vision and use landmarks as cues. We have developed a method to stop foraging ants from shuttling on two-way trails. The only way to forage is to take two separate roads, as they cannot go back on their steps after arriving at the food or at the nest. The condition qualifies as a problem because all their orientation cues -- chemical, visual or any other -- are disrupted, as all of them cannot but lead the ants back to the route on which they arrived. We have found that workers of the leaf-cutting ant Atta sexdens rubropilosa can solve the problem. They could not only find the alternative way, but also used the unidirectional traffic system to forage effectively. We suggest that their ability is an evolutionary consequence of the need to deal with environmental irregularities that cannot be negotiated by means of excessively stereotyped behavior, and that it is but an example of a widespread phenomenon. We also suggest that our method can be adapted to other species, invertebrate and vertebrate, in the study of orientation, memory, perception, learning and communication.

  1. Er konsum av melk og egg assosiert med risiko for kreft? Foreløpige resultater fra en prospektiv undersøkelse

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    Grethe Albrektsen

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available  SAMMENDRAGSammenhenger mellom kreftinsidens og konsum av egg og melk er studert i en prospektiv undersøkelse avca. 50 000 personer i alderen 30-69 år. Kostholdsdataene ble samlet inn i forbindelse med andre runde avhjerte- og karundersøkelsene som ble gjennomført av Statens helseundersøkelser i Finnmark, Sogn ogFjordane og Oppland i perioden 1977-83. Gjennomsnittlig oppfølgingstid var 11,8 år. Omlag 2000 personerfikk en kreftdiagnose i løpet av oppfølgingsperioden. Insidensrate-ratioer er beregnet i en log-lineærPoissonregresjon basert på personår under risiko. Vi fant ingen sammenheng mellom total kreftinsidens ogkonsum av melk (glass pr. dag eller egg (antall pr. uke, men for spesifikke krefttyper observerte vi enkelteassosiasjoner. Det arbeides nå med mer detaljerte analyser og med internasjonal publisering av resultatene.Albrektsen G, Heuch I, Jacobsen BK, Kvåle G. Is milk and egg consumption associated with cancerrisk? Preliminary results from a prospective study. Nor J Epidemiol 1997; 7 (2: 205-208.ENGLISH SUMMARYAssociations between cancer incidence and consumption of milk and eggs were examined in a prospectivestudy of about 50,000 persons aged 30-69 years. The mean follow-up period was 11.8 years. About 2000persons were diagnosed with cancer during follow-up. Incidence rate ratios were calculated in a log-linearPoisson regression model of person-years at risk. No relations were found between overall cancer incidenceand consumption of milk (glasses per day or eggs (number per week, but some associations were observedfor specific sites. The analysis of the data is in progress and the results presented are preliminary.

  2. CUTTING PREFERENCE OF Eucalyptus spp. BY THE LEAF-CUTTING ANT Acromyrmex laticeps nigrosetosus FOREL, 1908 (HYMENOPTERA: FORMICIDAE UNDER LABORATORY CONDITIONS

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    Alberto Luiz Marsaro Júnior

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate the cutting preference of Acromyrmex laticeps nigrosetosus workers among three species and a Clone of eucalypt. The seedlings of Eucalyptus spp. were offered simultaneously to three colonies of this leaf-cutting ant under laboratory conditions. The assay ended six hours after initial offering or until the workers of a colony cut all leaves of a certain eucalyptus species. On the average, colonies cut and carried 0.453g ± 0.064 of Eucalyptus camaldulensis; 0.384g ± 0.052 of Clone 129; 0.341g ± 0.054 of Eucalyptus urophylla and 0.102g ± 0.027 of Eucalyptus cloeziana. This last species was the least preferred for cutting and carrying. On the other hand, there was no significant difference among the amount of leaves cut from the other eucalypts.

  3. Implications of stridulation behavior in the red and black imported fire ants, Solenopsis invicta Buren and Solenopsis richteri Forel, and their hybrid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquess, Jake

    Stridulation elicits a variety of behavioral responses in the Formicidae: distress, alarm and recruitment of nestmates. The intent of my research is to broaden the understanding of stridulation by investigating the morphology, multiple behaviors in which stridulation has been observed, and the behavioral response to the playback of these stridulatory signals in two closely related species, Solenopsis invicta, S. richteri, and their hybrid. A SEM examination of head width and the stridulatory organs of imported fire ant workers found the number of ridges on the "file" ( pars striden) to be positively correlated with body size. The increase in ridge number in relation to body size suggests that the number of pulses in each pulse train of the stridulation signal should increase as body size increases. Stridulation was not correlated with excavation behavior, but grinding, an incidental sound resulting from soil excavation, is a reliable indicator of excavation behavior. Absence of stridulation upon initial discovery of the food source and low amount of stridulation observed with ten or less ants present at the food source indicates that stridulation does not serve as an initial short range recruitment signal to nearby nestmates. Furthermore, over 90% of the total stridulation observed was recorded with 30 or more ants present at the food source. Finally, the time between calls decreased and the number of stridulations increased as more ants arrived at the food source. Stridulation in dyadic encounters between ants occurs almost exclusively during non-nestmate conspecitic interactions. Restrained ants or "defenders" accounted for 92.9% of the total stridulation observed compared to just 3.4% for "attackers." Restraint between the head and thorax or "neck" evoked the highest level of stridulation in majors. Stridulation during non-nestmate interactions is size specific, as trials involving majors had nearly twice as much stridulation (88.3%), than trials with mediums (48.3%) and minors (41.7%). Major workers of both Solenopsis invicta and S. richteri appear to respond to stridulation signals by increasing their rate of movement. However, it is unclear if they are able to perceive the direction and relative amplitude of the signal.

  4. Impacto da queima da palhada da cana-de-açúcar no ritmo diário de forrageamento de Atta bisphaerica Forel (Hymenoptera, Formicidae Impact of burned sugarcane foliage on foraging dial rhythm of Atta bisphaerica Forel (Hymenoptera, Formicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Silva Araújo

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi conduzido de julho de 2001 a junho de 2002 em uma plantação de cana-de-açúcar em Oratórios, Minas Gerais, Brasil, objetivando investigar o impacto de uma queima controlada de baixa intensidade (235,26 kcal.s-1.m-1 da palhada seca de cana-de-açúcar sobre a atividade forrageadora de A. bisphaerica. Durante todo o período do estudo, uma correlação negativa entre o fluxo de operárias transportadoras de carga vegetal para o ninho com temperatura e com umidade relativa do ar foi observada. Meses com menores quantidades de dias com chuvas apresentaram maior fluxo de operárias transportadoras de cargas. A atividade forrageadora foi reiniciada somente 15 dias depois da queima da palhada, com padrão de forrageamento similar ao observado em colônia localizada em área não queimada. Entretanto, por dia, estimou-se que 518,0 g e 670,0 g de folhas frescas de vegetal não entraram para o interior dos ninhos durante esses 15 dias. Isso, de alguma maneira, deve ter comprometido o desenvolvimento dessas colônias.This work was conducted from July 2001 to June 2002 in a sugarcane plantation in Oratórios, Minas Gerais, Brazil, with the objective of studying the impact of low intensity controlled fire (235.26 kcal.s-1.m-1 of sugarcane dry foliage on the foraging activity of A. bisphaerica. During the entire period the present study, a negative correlation between ant flow in the trail and temperature and air humidity was observed. Days without rain also increased ant workers' flow. Foraging activity was reassumed in the trail only 15 days after burning and showed a pattern similar to that of a colony located at an unburned area. However, an estimated of 518.0 to 670.0 g of freshly cut vegetation per day did not enter the nest during the recovery period. This certainly could reflect in losses for colony development.

  5. Revision of the Crematogaster ranavalonae-group in Asia, with description of two new species (Hymenoptera, Formicidae

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    Shingo Hosoishi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Asian members of the Crematogaster ranavalonae-group are revised and twelve species, including two new species, C. hashimi sp. n. and C. imperfecta sp. n. are recognized. The members are distinguished from the other Asian Crematogaster in having smooth, shiny bodies with short appressed setae on the surface. Crematogaster sikkimensis Forel, 1904 is raised to the species level, and the following new synonyms are established: C. aberrans Forel, 1892 = C. aberrans assmuthi Forel, 1913, syn. n. = C. aberrans inglebyi Forel, 1902, syn. n. = C. soror Forel, 1902, syn. n.; C. ebenina Forel, 1902 = C. ebenina corax Forel, 1902, syn. n. A key to the species based on the worker caste is provided.

  6. Atratividade da isca granulada de polpa de fruto do jatobá para saúva-limão, no campo Attractiveness of the granulated bait of jatobá's fruit pulp to the leaf- cutting ant, in the field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lucia França Teixeira

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available A atratividade da polpa do fruto de jatobá para saúva-limão foi avaliada tendo como parâmetro comparativo a polpa cítrica desidratada, utilizada como veículo por diversas marcas comerciais. O experimento foi conduzido em quatro formigueiros de saúva-limão em canteiros gramados com espécies arbóreas. As iscas de jatobá e de polpa cítrica desidratada, ambas sem princípio ativo, foram confeccionadas em grânulos com formato e diâmetro semelhantes aos das iscas granuladas comerciais. As iscas de jatobá foram mais atrativas para as operárias de saúva-limão, que fizeram o primeiro contato aos 17s, em contraste com os 29s gastos para o primeiro contato com as iscas de polpa cítrica. As iscas de jatobá também começaram a ser carregadas mais cedo, aos 26s, sendo que as iscas de polpa cítrica foram carregadas 48s mais tarde. A grande aceitação do jatobá foi reforçada pelo menor tempo para o encerramento dos testes, 5min 39s, contrastando com os 11min 17s necessários para o encerramento do teste com a polpa cítrica. A polpa do fruto do jatobá foi mais atrativa para saúva-limão do que a polpa cítrica desidratada.Attractiveness of the leaf-cutting ant, Atta sexdens rubropilosa to jatobá's fruit pulp was evaluated, having the dehydrated citrus pulp as comparative parameter, used as vehicle by several commercial brands. The experiment was conducted on four nests of leaf-cutting ants on lawns with arboreal species. Jatobá baits and dehydrated citric pulp both without active principle were made into granules with form and diameter similar to the commercial granulated baits. Jatobá baits were more attractive to the laborers of leaf-cutting ants which made the first contact after 17s, contrasting with 29s before the first contact with citric pulp baits. Jatobá baits were also carried earlier, after 26s, while citric pulp baits were carried 48s later. The great acceptance of jatobá baits was strengthened by the short time to

  7. Acrylamid i fødevarer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granby, Kit; Frandsen, H.; Kaack, K.

    2004-01-01

    Foreløbige resultater af et forskningssamarbejde mellem blandt andre DFVF, Fødevareindustrien og Levnedsmiddelcentret viser muligheder for at reducere acrylamidindholdet i fremstillingsprocesser og under forbrugertilberedning....

  8. A revision of the ant genus Mystrium in the Malagasy region with description of six new species and remarks on Amblyopone and Stigmatomma (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, Amblyoponinae

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    Masashi Yoshimura

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The genus Mystrium is revised for the Malagasy region. Six species, Mystrium barrybressleri sp. n., M. labyrinth sp. n., M. eques sp. n., M. mirror sp. n., M. shadow sp. n., and M. janovitzi sp. n. are described as new. Two existing names, Mystrium fallax Forel and M. stadelmanni Forel, are synonymized with M. voeltzkowi Forel and M. mysticum Roger, respectively. All recognized species, including species outside of the Malagasy region, are assigned to one of the three newly proposed species groups. The associations between existing names and males are reexamined, and males of eight of the ten Malagasy species are described or redescribed. The taxonomic history of Mystrium highlights the importance of using unique identifiers when designating type specimens and the use of deposited vouchers in phylogenetic and ecological studies. Keys to species for workers, queens, and males are provided. Furthermore, a neotype for M. mysticum is designated, as well as lectotypes for M. camillae Emery, M. rogeri Forel, M. fallax Forel, M. oberthueri Forel, M. stadelmanni Forel, and M. voeltzkowi Forel. Stigmatomma gingivale (Brown is reassigned to Amblyopone as comb. rev. and Amblyopone awa Xu & Chu, A. kangba Xu & Chu, A. meiliana Xu & Chu, and A. zomae Xu & Chu are transferred to the genus Stigmatomma as comb. n.

  9. Musik går direkte i kroppen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Erik Christensen, som er musikforsker, indkredser på kort form her, hvad neurovidenskaben foreløbigt kan sige om effekten af at musicere og lytte til musik......Erik Christensen, som er musikforsker, indkredser på kort form her, hvad neurovidenskaben foreløbigt kan sige om effekten af at musicere og lytte til musik...

  10. Revision of the ant genus Melophorus (Hymenoptera, Formicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heterick, Brian E.; Castalanelli, Mark; Shattuck, Steve O.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The fauna of the purely Australian formicine ant genus Melophorus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) is revised. This project involved integrated morphological and molecular taxonomy using one mitochondrial gene (COI) and four nuclear genes (AA, H3, LR and Wg). Seven major clades were identified and are here designated as the M. aeneovirens, M. anderseni, M. biroi, M. fulvihirtus, M. ludius, M. majeri and M. potteri species-groups. Within these clades, smaller complexes of similar species were also identified and designated species-complexes. The M. ludius species-group was identified purely on molecular grounds, as the morphology of its members is indistinguishable from typical members of the M. biroi species-complex within the M. biroi species-group. Most species-complexes sampled were also found to be monophyletic. Sequencing generally supported monophyly in taxa sampled but some species of the M. fieldi complex and M. biroi were not monophyletic and the implications arising from this are discussed in this monograph. Based on morphology, ninety-three species are recognized, 73 described as new. A further new species (here called 'Species K' [TERC Collection]) is noted in the taxonomic list, but is not described in this work. One species is removed from Melophorus: M. scipio Forel is here placed provisionally in Prolasius. Six species and five subspecies pass into synonymy. Of the full species, M. constans Santschi, M. iridescens (Emery) and M. insularis Wheeler are synonymized under M. aeneovirens (Lowne), M. pillipes Santschi is synonymized under M. turneri Forel, M. marius Forel is synonymized under M. biroi Forel, and M. omniparens Forel is synonymized under M. wheeleri Forel. Of the subspecies, M. iridescens fraudatrix and M. iridescens froggatti Forel are synonymized under M. aeneovirens (Lowne), M. turneri aesopus Forel and M. turneri candidus Santschi are synonymized under M. turneri Forel and M. fieldi propinqua Viehmeyer is synonymized under M. biroi

  11. Diploid male production in a leaf-cutting ant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Armitage, S.; Boomsma, J.; Baer, Boris

    2010-01-01

    assumed to have reduced fitness compared with their haploid brothers. 2. While studying the reproductive biology of a leaf-cutting ant, Atta sexdens, in Gamboa, Republic of Panama, we detected the presence of a larger male morph. Using microsatellite markers we were able to confirm that the large male...... would be reduced compared with haploid males if they were able to copulate. 5. We conclude that diploid male production is likely to affect the fitness of A. sexdens queens with a matched mating, as these males are produced at the cost of workers and, if the colony survives to reach mature size, also...

  12. Notat vedr. By- og Landskabsstyrelsens anmodning om en foreløbig vurdering af mulige konsekvenser på udpegningsgrundlaget for Natura 2000 område nr. 162 ved etablering af sommerhuse på Agersø og Orø (Notat til Skov- og Naturstyrelsen)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wind, Peter

    2008-01-01

      By- og Landskabsstyrelsen har med brev af den 30. maj 2008 anmodet Danmarks Miljøundersøgelser om at foretage en screening af mulige konsekvenser på udpegningsgrundlaget som anført ovenfor på baggrund af eksisterende data og viden.   I notatet gør DMU rede for mulige konsekvenser for udpegnings......  By- og Landskabsstyrelsen har med brev af den 30. maj 2008 anmodet Danmarks Miljøundersøgelser om at foretage en screening af mulige konsekvenser på udpegningsgrundlaget som anført ovenfor på baggrund af eksisterende data og viden.   I notatet gør DMU rede for mulige konsekvenser...

  13. SNS ønsker DMUs deltagelse i et møde samt vores foreløbige kommentarer til mulighederne for dyrkning af GM-græsser. Forespørgsel fra DLF-Trifolium vedr mulighederne for godkendelse af genmodificerede græsser til dyrkning. Modtaget 26-01-2006, deadline 02-02-2006, svar 02-02-2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjellsson, Gøsta; Strandberg, Morten Tune; Damgaard, Christian

    2006-01-01

    for sameksistens med ikke-GM-jordbrug Spredning: Pollenspredning og hybridisering: GM-rajgræs kan krydse med alm. rajgræs og danne hybrider med andre Lolium- og Festuca-arter. Genspredningen er ikke i sig selv en risiko (men spredningen af GM-egenskaberne kan have uønskede konsekvenser) GM-contaminering af...... græsningsarealer på økologiske bedrifter Frøspredning og Spiring fra frøbank: Etablering af potentielt uønskede individer/bestande af GM-græs, der kan være udgangspunkt for videre spredning (som ovenfor dog ikke i sig selv en risiko) GM-contaminering ved omlægning fra konventionel til økologisk drift Vegetativ...

  14. Dynamics of Lived Experience and Participant Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    Professor Daniel Stern presenting at University College Lillebelt, Odense, 2008, about communication, now-moments and narrative Identity - Forelæsning v. konference -Værdifuldt at bevare Daniel Sterns værdifulde bidrag for eftertiden...

  15. Dynamics of Lived Experience and Participant Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Rene Vorgod

    2008-01-01

    Professor Daniel Stern presenting at University College Lillebelt, Odense, 2008, about communication, now-moments and narrative Identity - Forelæsning v. konference -Værdifuldt at bevare Daniel Sterns værdifulde bidrag for eftertiden......Professor Daniel Stern presenting at University College Lillebelt, Odense, 2008, about communication, now-moments and narrative Identity - Forelæsning v. konference -Værdifuldt at bevare Daniel Sterns værdifulde bidrag for eftertiden...

  16. Interim asessment of the research PPPs in the European economic recovery plan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mollinedo, Joaquin; Pegman, Geoff; Bessey, Eberhard

    Rapport om den foreløbige evaluering af de tre igangværende PPP'er (private public partnerships) der er etableret under den europæiske ekonomiske genopretningsplan.......Rapport om den foreløbige evaluering af de tre igangværende PPP'er (private public partnerships) der er etableret under den europæiske ekonomiske genopretningsplan....

  17. Den Danske Løsning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langsted, Lars Bo

    1999-01-01

    Artiklen rummer en (foreløbig) kommentar til den såkaldte Hafnia-dom, hvor Den Danske Bank og revisorerne blev fundet erstatningsansvarlige for et misvisende prospekt i forbindelse med en fondsbørsemission.......Artiklen rummer en (foreløbig) kommentar til den såkaldte Hafnia-dom, hvor Den Danske Bank og revisorerne blev fundet erstatningsansvarlige for et misvisende prospekt i forbindelse med en fondsbørsemission....

  18. Occurrence of Killer Yeasts in Leaf-Cutting Ant Nests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carreiro, S.C.; Pagnocca, F.C.; Bacci Jr., M.; Bueno, O.C.; Hebling, M.J.A.; Middelhoven, W.J.

    2002-01-01

    Killer activity was screened in 99 yeast strains isolated from the nests of the leaf-cutting ant Atta sexdens against 6 standard sensitive strains, as well as against each other. Among this yeast community killer activity was widespread since 77 strains (78 %) were able to kill or inhibit the growth

  19. Revision of the Malagasy ponerine ants of the genus Leptogenys Roger (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakotonirina, Jean Claude; Fisher, Brian L

    2014-07-15

    Leptogenys is the most diverse ponerine ant genus in the world; it is widespread throughout tropical and subtropical regions and there are over 200 extant species described. Most species have ergatoid queens, and many have falcate, bowed mandibles and are specialists on isopod prey. Here, the Malagasy Leptogenys are revised with 60 species recognized, of which 40 are newly described, 18 redescribed, and two subspecies raised to species rank and redescribed. Included in the revision are a key to species based on the worker caste, geographic distributions, descriptions of intraspecific variation, and notes on natural history. The following species are redescribed: L. acutirostris Santschi, L. alluaudi Emery, L. angusta (Forel), L. antongilensis Emery, L. arcirostris Santschi, L. coerulescens Emery, L. falcigera Roger, L. gracilis Emery, L. grandidieri Forel, L. incisa Forel, L. maxillosa (F. Smith), L. oswaldi Forel, L. pavesii Emery, L. ridens Forel, L. saussurei (Forel), L. stuhlmanni Mayr, L. truncatirostris Forel, and L. voeltzkowi Forel. The following are raised to species and redescribed: L. imerinensis Forel stat. rev., stat. n.; and L. suarensis Emery stat. rev., stat. n. The following are described as new: L. alamando sp. n., L. alatapia sp. n., L. ambo sp. n., L. andritantely sp. n., L. anjara sp. n., L. avaratra sp. n., L. avo sp. n., L. barimaso sp. n., L. bezanozano sp. n., L. borivava sp. n., L. chrislaini sp. n., L. comajojo sp. n., L. diana sp. n., L. edsoni sp. n., L. fasika sp. n., L. fiandry sp. n., L. fotsivava sp. n., L. johary sp. n., L. lavavava sp. n., L. lohahela sp. n., L. lucida sp. n., L. malama sp. n., L. mangabe sp. n., L. manja sp. n., L. manongarivo sp. n., L. mayotte sp. n., L. namana sp. n., L. namoroka sp. n., L. pilaka sp. n., L. rabebe sp. n., L. rabesoni sp. n., L. ralipra sp. n., L. sahamalaza sp. n., L. tatsimo sp. n., L. toeraniva sp. n., L. tsingy sp. n., L. variabilis sp. n., L.vatovavy sp. n., L. vitsy sp. n., and L. zohy

  20. Revision of the fungus-farming ant genus Sericomyrmex Mayr (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, Myrmicinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Ješovnik

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The genus Sericomyrmex Mayr (Formicidae: Myrmicinae: Attini is a Neotropical group of fungus-farming ants known for its problematic taxonomy, caused by low morphological variability across the species, vague and old species descriptions, and an outdated and incomplete key published in 1916. Recent molecular studies revealed that Sericomyrmex is the product of a rapid recent radiation, with a divergence date of 4.3 million years ago. Here we present a comprehensive taxonomic revision of the genus Sericomyrmex based on morphology and a recently published molecular phylogeny. We discuss and illustrate morphological characters for Sericomyrmex workers, males, queens, and larvae. We report 18 standard morphological measurements and 5 indices for 529 workers, 50 queens, and 39 males, which we employ in morphometric analyses. The revised genus Sericomyrmex comprises eleven species, including three new species, here described as S. maravalhas sp. n., S. radioheadi sp. n., and S. saramama sp. n. We also redescribe S. amabilis Wheeler, S. bondari Borgmeier, S. lutzi Wheeler, S. mayri Forel, S. opacus Mayr, S. parvulus Forel, S. saussurei Emery, and S. scrobifer Forel. The number of recognized species (11 is lower than the previously recognized 19 species and 3 subspecies. The following species and subspecies are synonymized: under S. opacus [=S. aztecus Forel syn. n., S. zacapanus Wheeler syn. n., and S. diego Forel syn. n.]; under S. bondari [=S. beniensis Weber syn. n.]; under S. mayri [=S. luederwaldti Santschi syn. n., S. moreirai Santschi syn. n., S. harekulli Weber syn. n., S. harekulli arawakensis Weber syn. n., S. urichi Forel syn. n.]; under S. saussurei [=S. burchelli Forel syn. n., S. impexus Wheeler syn. n., S. urichi maracas Weber syn. n.]; and under S. parvulus [=S. myersi Weber syn. n.]. We provide a key to Sericomyrmex species for the worker caste and information on the geographic distributions of all species.

  1. Car pour finir, tout retourne á la mer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryborg Jørgensen, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    Læsning af Le Corbusiers Dominikanske Kloster Sainte Marie de La Tourette. Teksten er et foreløbigt delresultat af Thomas Ryborg Jørgensens Phd-afhandling der er under udarbejdelse på Kunstakademiets Arkitektskole, med forventet færdiggørelse 2005......Læsning af Le Corbusiers Dominikanske Kloster Sainte Marie de La Tourette. Teksten er et foreløbigt delresultat af Thomas Ryborg Jørgensens Phd-afhandling der er under udarbejdelse på Kunstakademiets Arkitektskole, med forventet færdiggørelse 2005...

  2. Opgavesamling Biokemi 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjergegaard, Charlotte

    Opgavesamling til bachelorkurset LKEB10077 Biokemi 1. Opgaverne er et supplement til forelæsninger og øvelser og har til formål at støtte op om indlæringen af biokemien. Der er inkluderet ret grundige løsninger til de enkelte opgaver.......Opgavesamling til bachelorkurset LKEB10077 Biokemi 1. Opgaverne er et supplement til forelæsninger og øvelser og har til formål at støtte op om indlæringen af biokemien. Der er inkluderet ret grundige løsninger til de enkelte opgaver....

  3. Essential Oil of Aristolochia trilobata: Synthesis, Routes of Exposure, Acute Toxicity, Binary Mixtures and Behavioral Effects on Leaf-Cutting Ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Bruna Maria S; Melo, Carlisson R; Alves, Péricles B; Santos, Abraão A; Santos, Ane Caroline C; Santana, Alisson da S; Araújo, Ana Paula A; Nascimento, Pedro E S; Blank, Arie F; Bacci, Leandro

    2017-02-25

    Plants of the genus Aristolochia have been frequently reported as important medicinal plants. Despite their high bioactive potential, to date, there are no reports of their effects on leaf-cutting ants. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the insecticidal activity of the essential oil of Aristolochia trilobata and its major components on Atta sexdens and Acromyrmex balzani , two species of leaf-cutting ants. The bioassays were performed regarding routes of exposure, acute toxicity, binary mixtures of the major components and behavioral effects. Twenty-five components were identified in the essential oil of A. trilobata using a gas chromatographic system equipped with a mass spectrometer and a flame ionization detector. The components found in higher proportions were sulcatyl acetate, limonene, p -cymene and linalool. The essential oil of A. trilobata and its individual major components were efficient against A. balzani and A. sexdens workers when applied by fumigation. These components showed fast and efficient insecticidal activity on ants. The components acted synergistically and additively on A. balzani and A. sexdens , respectively, and caused a strong repellency/irritability in the ants. Thus, our results demonstrate the great potential of the essential oil of A. trilobata and its major components for the development of new insecticides.

  4. Nye OECD-retningslinjer for transfer pricing dokumentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossing, Christian Plesner

    2015-01-01

    Formålet med denne artikel er at give et overblik over det foreløbige resultat vedrørende udvikling af nye retningslinjer for transfer pricing dokumentation, der indgår som en del af OECD's samlede ‘Action Plan on Base Erosion and Profit Shifting’ (BEPS). Disse retningslinjer skal, når de formelt...

  5. Lange »krigsballetter«

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Hanne

    2016-01-01

    Artiklen undersøger Den Westfalske Fred (1648) og Tredveårskrigen (den lange krigsballet) i lyset af nutidige langvarige krigsballetter, der foreløbig har karakteriseret det meste af det 21. århundrede. Begge er fragmenterede, brutale, kyniske, og karakteriseret af reseksualiseret voldsanvendelse...

  6. Car pour finir, tout retourne á la mer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryborg Jørgensen, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    Læsning af Le Corbusiers Dominikanske Kloster Sainte Marie de La Tourette. Teksten er et foreløbigt delresultat af Thomas Ryborg Jørgensens Phd-afhandling der er under udarbejdelse på Kunstakademiets Arkitektskole, med forventet færdiggørelse 2005...

  7. Et redskab i formskaben

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Bente Dahl

    på Kristian Holt–Hansens undersøgelser af arbejdsmåder i æstetisk formskaben samt den tese at disse arbejdsmetoder er vel egnede til træning i brugen af hovedanslaget i formskaben. Eksperimentet underbygger tesen, men afslører også at hovedanslaget kan inkludere frembringelsesmetoden. De foreløbige...

  8. Pooh som vi spiser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mark, Edith; Delmar, Charlotte

    2007-01-01

    fortælling sin egen historie, og udarbejder nye historier, som opmuntrer og styrker. Projektet er anderledes og kreativt. Børnene uddannes ikke til kroniske patienter men dannes i stedet til livsdu- elige mennesker. Projektet forventes færdigt i 2008 og rummer kun foreløbige resultater....

  9. Broderskabets blodige bånd

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehlsen, Camilla

    2006-01-01

    Hvad består sammenhold af i det multikulturelle samfund? Er broderskab en saga blot? Asterisk har mødt den franske filosofiprofessor Catherine Chalier, som for nylig forelæste på Danmarks Pædagogiske Universitet om broderskabets svaghed. Chalier efterspørger en højere grad af ansvarlighed mellem ...

  10. Quality in VPL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Ulla Nistrup; Hansen, Kirsten Aagaard; Andersson, Per

    2017-01-01

    Artiklen præsenterer den nordiske model for kvalitet i realkomptencer (validering) og kvalitetsbegrebet i forhold til realkompetencer Forskningsprojektets interaktive tilgang bliver kort introduceret. De foreløbige resultater fra tre casestudier i Danmark, Finland og Sverige bliver præsenteret og...

  11. A Centuries-long History of Participatory Science in Optical Oceanography: from observation to interpretation of natural water colouring.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wernand, Marcel R.; Novoa, S.; van der Woerd, Hans J; Gieskes, Winfried

    2014-01-01

    Participatory science is not, as perhaps is believed, something of the 21st century. In this manuscript we show that over a century ago it were not only scientists who collected oceanographic data but also merchant sailors. A good example of such globally collected data are Forel-Ule observations,

  12. A Centuries-long History of Participatory Science in Optical Oceanography: from observation to interpretation of natural water colouring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wernand, M.; Novoa, S.; van der Woerd, H.; Gieskes, W.

    2014-01-01

    Participatory science is not, as perhaps is believed, something of the 21st century. In this manuscript we show that over a century ago it were not only scientists who collected oceanographic data but also merchant sailors. A good example of such globally collected data are Forel-Ule

  13. Advances in Research on the Venom Chemistry of Imported Fire Ants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workers of the imported fire ants, including red imported fire ants, Solenopsis invicta Buren, black imported fire ants, S. richteri Forel, and their hybrid (S. invicta × S. richteri), are vicious stingers. Since the venomous sting is a significant medical problem to humans, the chemistry of import...

  14. See This Sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Thomas Bjørnsten

    2009-01-01

    Anmeldelse af udstillingen See This Sound på Lentos Kunstmuseum Linz, Østrig, som markerer den foreløbige kulmination på et samarbejde mellem Lentos Kunstmuseum og Ludwig Boltzmann Institute Media.Art.Research. Udover den konkrete udstilling er samarbejdet tænkt som en ambitiøs, tværfaglig...

  15. Distributional records of Strumigenys margaritae (Hymenoptera: formicidae: dacetini)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strumigenys margaritae Forel, 1893 (Tribe Dacetini) is a tiny predatory ant. Native to the New World, S. margaritae is known from northern South America, Central America, Mexico, the West Indies, and the southeastern US from Texas to Florida. To evaluate the geographic range of S. margaritae, we com...

  16. A review of the subgenus Hemioptica Roger of the genus Polyrhachis Fr. Smith with description of a new species (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Formicinae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorow, W.H.O.; Kohout, R.J.

    1995-01-01

    The genus-group taxon Hemioptica Roger is reviewed and treated as a subgenus of Polyrhachis Fr. Smith. Three species are recognised: P. bugnioni Forel, P. scissa (Roger), and P. boltoni spec. nov. Previously included taxa P. abrupta Mayr, P. aculeata Mayr and P. pubescens Mayr are transferred to the

  17. Pseudacteon spp. (Diptera: Phoridae) biological control agents of Solenopsis spp. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Louisiana: statewide distribution and Kneallhazia solenopsae (Microsporidia: Thelohaniidae) prevalence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phorid flies, Pseudacteon spp. (Diptera: Phoridae), have been released in the United States since 1996 as biological control agents for imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren, Solenopsis richteri Forel, and their hybrid (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), management. A statewide survey was conducted in ...

  18. Køreskader og påvirkning af udbyttet i kløvergræs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, Ole; Lindstrøm, Johanne; Jørgensen, Rasmus Nyholm

    2010-01-01

    Kørselsskader koster fra 6 til 21 % udbytte i direkte kørselsskader i køresporene. Resultaterne er foreløbige og opnået i et projekt med det formål at kortlægning kløvergræsudbytter ved varierende trafikintensitet i vækstsæsonen....

  19. Essere un Medico di base

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Henning Salling

    2006-01-01

    Artiklen præsenterer foreløbige resultater fra livshistorisk forskning i alment prkatiserende lægers professionsidentitet og læring i praksis. Med eksempel i medicin skitseres en analysemodel, og et empirisk eksempel fra undersøgelsen gennemgås kortfattet....

  20. Identificação de inibidores de pectinase fúngica para o controle de formigas cortadeiras

    OpenAIRE

    Zavan, Cinthia [UNESP

    2005-01-01

    As formigas cortadeiras Atta sexdens, conhecidas popularmente como saúvas, são consideradas pragas agrícolas, e são controladas principalmente por inseticidas tóxicos, altamente inespecíficos, prejudiciais ao homem e outros animais, além de poluir o solo e a água. Estas formigas extraem seus nutrientes através da degradação da matéria vegetal, realizada por polissacaridases (especialmente pectinases), que estão presentes em seU fluido fecal e são produzidas pelo fungo simbionte Leucoagaricus ...

  1. Klimapolitik

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scavenius, Theresa; Lindberg, Malene Rudolf

    2016-01-01

    FN og verdens ledere tog et afgørende skridt på klimaområdet til COP21-mødet i Paris - men det er fortsat op til de enkelte lande at indføre de globale reduktionsmål for CO2. Danskerne vil have Folketinget til at tage ansvar, viser foreløbige resultater fra dansk undersøgelse......FN og verdens ledere tog et afgørende skridt på klimaområdet til COP21-mødet i Paris - men det er fortsat op til de enkelte lande at indføre de globale reduktionsmål for CO2. Danskerne vil have Folketinget til at tage ansvar, viser foreløbige resultater fra dansk undersøgelse...

  2. Aargang 10 - en dag i Julies liv

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godsk, Mikkel

    2011-01-01

    D. 31.01.2011 - en typisk dag i Julies liv. Vi følger Julie fra morgen til aften, mens hun er til forelæsning, til øvelser, på café, shopper, læser lektier og til fitness. Julie er førsteårsstuderende i nanoscience samt blogger på Årgang 10: aargang10.dk......D. 31.01.2011 - en typisk dag i Julies liv. Vi følger Julie fra morgen til aften, mens hun er til forelæsning, til øvelser, på café, shopper, læser lektier og til fitness. Julie er førsteårsstuderende i nanoscience samt blogger på Årgang 10: aargang10.dk...

  3. Wave Star

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Morten; Frigaard, Peter; Brorsen, Michael

    Nærværende rapport beskriver foreløbige hovedkonklusioner på modelforsøg udført på Aalborg Universitet, Institut for Vand, Jord og Miljøteknik med bølgeenergianlægget Wave Star i perioden 13/9 2004 til 12/11 2004.......Nærværende rapport beskriver foreløbige hovedkonklusioner på modelforsøg udført på Aalborg Universitet, Institut for Vand, Jord og Miljøteknik med bølgeenergianlægget Wave Star i perioden 13/9 2004 til 12/11 2004....

  4. Reformationen 500 år

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Bo Kristian

    2017-01-01

    I dag fejrer vi eller markerer, alt efter temperament, opslaget af Luthers 95 teser mod afladshandel. Er det blot en fortidig begivenhed, eller er der stadig noget vi kan lære af reformationen? Det er et spørgsmål, som vi ikke bliver færdige med foreløbig.......I dag fejrer vi eller markerer, alt efter temperament, opslaget af Luthers 95 teser mod afladshandel. Er det blot en fortidig begivenhed, eller er der stadig noget vi kan lære af reformationen? Det er et spørgsmål, som vi ikke bliver færdige med foreløbig....

  5. Musica Humana og musikterapi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Karin

    2005-01-01

    I pressen har Musica Humanas projekter på flere danske sygehuse jævnligt været omtalt i de seneste to år, særligt i forbindelse med udgivelsen af serien MusiCure’s foreløbig fire Cd’er. Ordet ’musikterapi’ er blevet anvendt til beskrivelse af disse projekters metode. I artiklen redegøres for defi...

  6. Ants of the genus Camponotus Mayr, 1861 (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in the Kaz Mountains, Turkey, with descriptions of sexuals of Camponotus candiotes Emery, 1894 and Camponotus ionius Emery, 1920

    OpenAIRE

    KARAMAN, Celal; AKTAÇ, Nihat; KIRAN, Kadri

    2014-01-01

    The Camponotus fauna of the Kaz Mountains was examined horizontally and vertically, from 175 to 1600 m a.s.l. Materials were collected from 20 different localities and 11 different habitats between 2001 and 2003. In all, 14 species belonging to 3 subgenera (Colobopsis Mayr, Myrmentoma Forel, and Tanaemyrmex Ashmead) were found. The hitherto unknown sexuals of C. candiotes Emery and C. ionius Emery are described for the first time.

  7. Hvorfor standser det internationale samfund ikke krigen i Syrien?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Peter Viggo

    2015-01-01

    har ikke udsigt til at lykkes, fordi eksterne aktører på de globale og regionale niveauer fortsætter med at støtte parternes væbnede kamp. Det har resulteret i et dødvande på slagmarken, som ikke ser ud til at kunne brydes foreløbig. Selvom regimet i kraft af en ændret strategi og støtte fra Iran og...

  8. Om Ludvig Jacobson og hans beskrivelse af det vomeronasal organ i 1813 efter obduktion af husdyr på Den Kgl. Veterinærskole

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, Aage Kristian Olsen; Wang, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    , da zoologi-professor, dr. scient. Flemming Frandsen (født 1944) med hans sædvanlige øje for at inddrage spændende historiske detaljer, kort tid forinden havde forelæst på veterinærstudiet om det vomeronasale organ, der indtil 1895 [2] var kendt som Det Jacobsonske Organ – opkaldt efter dets danske...

  9. Boligsociale indsatser og huslejestøtte: Kortlægning og programevaluering af Landsbyggefondens 2006-10-pulje

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Gunvor; Mikkelsen, Maria Falk; Buchholt Pedersen, Katrine

    Landsbyggefonden har i perioden 2006-10 uddelt en pulje på i alt 2,2 mia. kr. til boligsociale indsatser og huslejestøtte. Denne rapport kortlægger, hvilke boligområder pengene er gået til, og foretager en programevaluering af puljen. Rapporten viser, at de foreløbige indsatser har haft en positi...

  10. Temnothorax pilagens sp. n. - a new slave-making species of the tribe Formicoxenini from North America (Hymenoptera, Formicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, Bernhard; Kleeberg, Isabelle; Feldmeyer, Barbara; Pamminger, Tobias; Jongepier, Evelien; Foitzik, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    A new species of the ant genus Temnothorax Forel, 1890 - Temnothorax pilagens sp. n. is described from eastern North America. T. pilagens sp. n. is an obligate slave-making ant with two known hosts: T. longispinosus (Roger, 1863) and T. ambiguus (Emery, 1895). A differential diagnosis against Temnothorax duloticus (Wesson, 1937), the other dulotic congener from the Nearctic, is presented and a biological characteristics of the new species is given.

  11. Good or bad credits from European sources?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czeskleba-Dupont, Rolf

    statsbudgetter kunne aflastes væsentligt gennem låntagning på EU-plan, hvorigennem grebet i skatteborgernes lommer kunne mindskes. Via kapitalmarkederne kunne opsparing omsættes i investeringer, hvis der forelå enighed om fornuftige projekter som f.eks. på energi- og klimaområdet med massiv støtte til el...

  12. Good or bad credits from European sources?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czeskleba-Dupont, Rolf

    2010-01-01

    statsbudgetter kunne aflastes væsentligt gennem låntagning på EU-plan, hvorigennem grebet i skatteborgernes lommer kunne mindskes. Via kapitalmarkederne kunne opsparing omsættes i investeringer, hvis der forelå enighed om fornuftige projekter som f.eks. på energi- og klimaområdet med massiv støtte til el...

  13. A preliminary checklist of the ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae of Andorra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abel Bernadou

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Within the last decade, checklists of the ant fauna of several European countries have been published or updated. Nevertheless, no ant checklists have hitherto been published for the principality of Andorra, a small landlocked country located in the eastern part of the Pyrenees. This work presents a critical list of the ant species of Andorra based on a review of the literature and on the biological material we collected during several field campaigns conducted in Andorra since the year 2005. Seventy-five species belonging to 21 genera of Formicidae were recorded. Nine species were recorded for the first time in Andorra: Aphaenogaster gibbosa (Latreille, 1798, Camponotus lateralis (Olivier, 1792, Camponotus piceus (Leach, 1825, Formica exsecta Nylander, 1846, Lasius piliferus Seifert, 1992, Tapinoma madeirense Forel, 1895, Temnothorax lichtensteini (Bondroit, 1918, Temnothorax niger (Forel, 1894, Temnothorax nigriceps (Mayr, 1855. The most speciose genera were Formica Linnaeus, 1758 and Temnothorax Forel, 1890 with 14 and 12 species, respectively. The ant fauna of Andorra is mostly dominated by Central European species (some are typical cold climate specialists; however species belonging to the Mediterranean ant fauna were also found. This can be explained by the particular geographic situation of Andorra which is characterized by a high mountain Mediterranean climate.

  14. Síndrome de Horner após cirurgia estereotáxica para doença de Parkinson Horner syndrome after stereotactic Parkinson's surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz A. Rogano

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Apresentamos estudo de dez pacientes com doença de Parkison, que foram submetidos a procedimentos ablativos estereotáxicos percutâneos e que desenvolveram síndrome de Horner ipsilateral imediatamente após a lesão. Sete pacientes foram submetidos a palidotomia, dois a subtalamotomia (campotomia de Forel e talamotomia e um paciente a subtalamotomia. Sete desenvolveram miose e os dez desenvolveram semiptose ipsilateral à lesão. A ocorrência da síndrome de Horner resulta possivelmente de lesão de fibras simpáticas entre o hipotálamo, campo de Forel e tálamo.We present ten patients with Parkinson's disease who underwent stereotactic ablative radiofrequency procedures. Seven patients underwent pallidotomy, two subthalamotomy and VIM, and one subthalamotomy. Seven developed miosis and all semiptosis ipsilateral immediately after the procedure. The occurrence of Horner's syndrome is probably due to the lesion of sympathetic fibers among hypothalamus, Forel's field and thalamus after the stereotactic procedure.

  15. Removal and Burial of Weed Seeds by Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) From the Soil Surface of a Cropped Area in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minkey, D M; Spafford, H

    2016-10-01

    Although granivorous ants are known to collect weed seeds from cropping areas in Australia, the fate of these seeds has not been adequately investigated. Seeds of annual ryegrass (Lolium rigidum Gaud.) and wild radish (Raphanus raphanistrum L.) were placed around the nests of five native ant species (Iridomyrmex greensladei Shattuck, Rhytidoponera metallica Smith, Melophorus turneri Forel, Monomorium rothsteini Forel, and Pheidole hartmeyeri Forel) and tracked continuously over a 24-h period. Removal rates and seed preference of the ant species were evaluated. Ant nests were then excavated to determine the placement of seeds that were taken into each nest. Seed preference, seed removal efficiencies, activity, and seed storage all varied between the ant species. Annual ryegrass seed was collected by three species of ants and was removed from the soil surface more efficiently than wild radish seed. Most ant species stored seed below ground at a depth that is inhibitory to emergence, thereby potentially removing that portion of seed from the seed bank, but some seed was placed at germinable depths. Pheidole hartmeyeri was identified as a likely biological control agent for annual ryegrass seeds and wild radish, while Me. turneri and Mo. rothsteini have potential as biocontrol agents for annual ryegrass, but further research is needed. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Forløbsundersøgelsens data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Dines

    2012-01-01

    Oversigt over BFU's (forløbsundersøgelsen af danske børn født i 1995) foreløbigt fem første dataindsamlinger og forbindelsen til de tilsvarende forløbsundersøglser af anbragte børn født i 1995 (AFU) samt etniske børn født i 1995 (EFU). Der redegøres for respondenttyper og spørgemåde i de enkelte ...

  17. Ocorrência de formigas Acromyrmex Mayr, 1865, em alguns municípios do Brasil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v27i2.1322 Occurrence of ants Acromyrmex Mayr, 1865 in some cities of Brasil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v27i2.1322

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Forti

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Espécies de Acromyrmex Mayr, 1865, foram coletadas em vários municípios do Brasil, nos seguintes estados: de Santa Catarina, Paraná, São Paulo, Minas Gerais, Goiás, Mato Grosso do Sul, Mato Grosso, Rondônia, Amapá, e também no Paraguai e no Uruguai, visando atualizar a ocorrência das mesmas. Os exemplares coletados nas viagens foram identificados no laboratório da Fca/Unesp/Botucatu-SP. Foram registradas, pela primeira vez, as ocorrências de A. rugosus rugosus (F. Smith, 1858 no Paraná, em Rondônia e em Santa Catarina; de A. subterraneus subterraneus (Forel, 1893 no Amapá e na Bahia; de A. diasi (Gonçalves, 1982 no Rio Grande do Sul e no Paraná; de A. coronatus (Fabricius, 1804 no Paraná; de A. balzani (Emery, 1890 no Amapá e de A. subterraneus brunneus (Forel, 1911 em GoiásIt were collected species of Acromyrmex Mayr, 1865 in many brazilian cities from Santa Catarina, Paraná, São Paulo, Minas Gerais, Goiás, Mato Grosso do Sul, Mato Grosso, Rondônia and Amapá states and in Paraguay and Uruguay, with the purpose to bring up-to-date their occurrence. Specimens collected on trips were identified at laboratory of Fca/Unesp/Botucatu-SP. It were recorded, for the first time, the occurrence of A. rugosus rugosus (F. Smith, 1858 in Paraná, Rondônia and Santa Catarina states; A. subterraneus subterraneus (Forel, 1893 in Amapá and Bahia; A. diasi Gonçalves, 1982 in Rio Grande do Sul and Paraná states; A. coronatus (Fabricius, 1804 in Paraná; A. balzani (Emery, 1890 in Amapá and A. subterraneus brunneus (Forel, 1911 in Goiás

  18. Udbredelse af den invasive polychaete Marenzelleria spp. i danske farvande samt effekten på sedimentmiljøet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Kenn L; Banta, Gary Thomas

    Sjælland mangler stadig, men forventes foretaget før mødet. På mødet præsenteres foreløbig data om Marenzellerias udbredelse og sedimentkarakteristika.. [1] Blank M., Laine A.O., Jürss K. and Bastrop R. 2007. Molecular identification key based on PCR/RFLP for three polychaete sibling species of the genus...... Marenzelleria, and the species’ current distribution in the Baltic Sea. Helgol Mar Res (2008) 62: 129-141....

  19. Hatefulle ytringer. Delrapport 2: Forskning på hat og diskriminering

    OpenAIRE

    Eggebø, Helga; Stubberud, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    De siste årene har hatefulle ytringer blitt aktualisert som et viktig demokratisk spørsmål på den offentlige og politiske dagsordenen. Likevel finnes det foreløpig lite forskningsbasert kunnskap om hatefulle ytringer i norsk sammenheng. Denne rapporten har som formål å samle, oppsummere og vurdere forskning som belyser sammenhengen mellom hatefulle ytringer og diskriminering, mobbing og vold på den ene siden, og forskning om konsekvenser for samfunnet og for de gruppene som er utsatt på den a...

  20. Barrierer i lægesamtalen med indvandrerpatienten

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sodemann, Morten; Rønde Kristensen, Trine; Sångren, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    misforståelser af klinisk betydning. Barriers to communication between clinicians and immigrants Clinicians lack cultural competencies and communication skills relevant to clinical decision-making in cases of language and cultural barriers. Life course perspectives and basic understanding of life in exile......Indvandrermedicinsk Klinik på Odense Universitetshospital blev startet i 2008. Baggrund, metoder og kliniske erfaringer er beskrevet i tidligere publikationer [1-4]. På baggrund af de foreløbig 1.276 komplekse patienter, der er blevet behandlet i klinikken, beskrives her hyppige barrierer og...

  1. Nyuddannede skal helst kunne mere end at lave kaffe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mik-Meyer, Nanna

    2014-01-01

    Hvis nyuddannede akademikere i fremtiden skal kunne andet end at lave kaffe, som Henrik Dahl forudser, så skal de kunne læse komplicerede og lange tekster, beherske skriftsproget og meget gerne have gået til en række forelæsninger. ... Fordi underviserne ved mere om det fagområde, som de studeren...... - skal underviseren snarere lægge sig op ad den lyttende ekspertrolle end den mere ligeværdige coach- og sparringspartnerrolle. Hvorfor er det vigtigt, at de studerende lærer at skrive en nogenlunde fejlfri tekst?...

  2. Bernhard von Gudden, neuro-ophthalmology and the Munich School of Neuroanatomy and Psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danek, Adrian

    2006-12-01

    Bernhard von Gudden, psychiatrist to the Royal House of Bavaria (1824-1886), had studied ocular torsion by means of self-observation in the mirror and with the help of after-images for his dissertation of 1848, but later turned to experimental neuroanatomy. Several findings are connected with his name, among them the transverse peduncular tract, part of the accessory optic system. August Forel, Emil Kraepelin and Franz Nissl belonged to his Munich school that took neuroanatomical research as a guiding principle for scientific psychiatry.

  3. The Madagascan endemic myrmicine ants related to Eutetramorium (Hymenoptera: Formicidae): taxonomy of the genera Eutetramorium Emery, Malagidris nom. n., Myrmisaraka gen. n., Royidris gen. n., and Vitsika gen. n.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, Barry; Fisher, Brian L

    2014-04-24

    The monophyletic group of myrmicine ant genera related to Eutetramorium is described and its taxonomy is documented. The group is endemic in Madagascar and contains five genera: Eutetramorium Emery, 1899 (3 species, 1 of which is new); Malagidris nom. n., a replacement name for Brunella Forel, 1917, junior homonym of Brunella Smith, G.W. 1909 (Crustacea) (6 species, 5 of which are new); Myrmisaraka gen. n. (2 species, both new); Royidris gen. n. (15 species, 11 of which are new); Vitsika gen. n. (14 species, all of which are new). Keys to the worker caste are provided for all genera, and provisional keys to known males are given for Malagidris and Vitsika.

  4. Perception of Blended Learning Inventory (PoBLi)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassesen, Berit; Stenalt, Maria Hvid; Rossen, Dorte Sidelmann

    -to-face med online læring (Blended Learning). I et studie fandt Ellis og kolleger (2006), at undervisere, der overvejende havde opfattelsen af, at de studerende lærte ved, at han/hun formidlede viden til dem, havde en simpel, fragmenteret opfattelse af potentialet ved BL. Derimod syntes en mere......) underviseres oplevelse af undervisningsmiljøet Resultater: Spørgeskema og resultaterne af de foreløbige analyser vil blive præsenteret og diskuteret. Perspektiver: PoBLi-projektet vil bidrage til den eksisterende forskning vedrørende rationalet for inddragelse af blended learning-formatet i...

  5. Growth of symbiont fungi of some higher attine ants in mineral medium Crescimento do fungo simbionte de alguns attine superiores em meio mineral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alci Enimar Loeck

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Bioassays were conducted to verify the possibility of culturing the symbiont fungus of some higher attine in mineral medium and finding out the optimum pH value for their satisfactory mycelial growth. Three organic media and one mineral medium were inoculated with isolates from Atta sexdens piriventris and Acromyrmex heyeri. In mineral medium different values of pH (4.0, 5.0, 6.0 and 7.0 were tested with isolates from A. laevigata and A. laticeps. The behavior of isolates (colony diameter was different in the mineral medium. However, even the one which grew the least of all provided enough mycelial for RAPD analysis. The best range of pH for fungal growth in mineral medium was between 4.0 and 5.0Foram conduzidos bioensaios para verificar a possibilidade de cultivar o fungo simbionte de alguns attine superiores em meio mineral e obter um valor de pH ótimo para o seu crescimento micelial. Três meios orgânicos e um meio mineral foram testados, avaliando-se o crescimento (diâmetro da colônia de isolados de fungos de Atta sexdens piriventris e Acromyrmex heyeri. No meio mineral, diferentes valores de pH (4,0, 5,0, 6,0 and 7,0 foram avaliados, por meio do mesmo parâmetro anterior, com isolados de fungos de A. laevigata e A. laticeps. No meio mineral, os isolados testados apresentaram crescimento diferenciado, entretanto mesmo aquele que menos cresceu, forneceu material suficiente para as análises de RAPD. No mesmo meio, verificou-se que a melhor faixa de pH para o crescimento micelial está entre 4,0 e 5,0.

  6. The Aenictus ceylonicus species group (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, Aenictinae from Southeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weeyawat Jaitrong Jaitrong

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The genus Aenictus is a diverse group of army ants in the Old World tropics and subtropics. The Southeast Asian species of the Aenictus ceylonicus group are revised to include twenty-three species (4 named and 19 new species: Aenictus appressipilosus sp. n., A. baliensis sp. n., A. brevipodus sp. n., A. concavus sp. n., A. cylindripetiolus sp. n., A. eguchii sp. n., A. formosensis Forel, 1913 stat. n., A. fuchuanensis Zhou, 2001, A. gonioccipus sp. n., A. itoi sp. n., A. jawadwipa sp. n., A. khaoyaiensis sp. n., A. lifuiae Terayama, 1984, A. longicephalus sp. n., A. maneerati sp. n., A. minipetiolus sp. n., A. pilosus sp. n., A. pinkaewi sp. n., A. sundalandensis sp. n., A. thailandianus Terayama & Kubota, 1993, A. watanasiti sp. n., A. wilaiae sp. n., and A. wiwatwitayai sp. n. Aenictus ceylonicus var. formosensis Forel is removed from synonymy with A. ceylonicus and raised to full species. Lectotype and paralectotypes are designated for A. ceylonicus. Redescriptions of Aenictus ceylonicus (Mayr, 1866 (India and Sri Lanka and A. doryloides Wilson, 1964 (India are provided. The queen of A. cylindripetiolus is described. A key to the Southeast Asian species of the group is given based on the worker caste. Most of the Southeast Asian species of this species group have more or less limited distribution ranges. This may be due to the poor dispersal ability generally seen among the Aenictus species, in which the propagule (reproductive unit is an apterous queen plus accompanying workers.

  7. Prospecção hidrobiológica da Baía de Sepetiba Color and transparence of waters of Sepetiba Bay, in Rio de Janeiro State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lejeune P. H. de Oliveira

    1971-01-01

    Full Text Available Côr das águas de Sepetiba; as pròpriamente marítimas, pela Escala de Forel e as outras côres aparentes totais feitas por comparação com escalas de SÉGUY e com o Dicionário de Côres de MAERZ & PAUL, 1950. Côr Forel nº6 mostrava no litoral cirrípedes como a Tetraclita squamosa, nas rochas; Águas com a cianofícea planctônica Trichodesmium erythraeum tinham côr de "fôlha de bananeira" ou alpine green. O verde esmeralda mais intenso no local 7, com plancto maciço da diatomácea Coscinodiscus; a parte central da Baía com 150 [quilometros quadrados], cheia de larvas de camarão Penaeus schmidti, águas de cõr de ferrugem nas superfícies das águas; os estuários côr caramelo, isabellinus e bistre. Êste levantamento preliminar serve para comparações futuras, pois a Baía de Sepetiba ainda não é poluída. Futuramente haverá um pôrto de minérios com 3.000.000 de toneladas anuais, cais do pôrto, siderúrgicas e outras indústrias que a poluirão. Várias cõres de águas poluídas da Baía de Guanabara, como águas negras, águas côr de asfalto e outras escurecidas não foram encontradas em Sepetiba. Também não foram encntradas "águas vermelhas" com plancto predominante de dinoflagelados do que já vimos na Baía de Guanabara seguidos de mortandadas de peixes. A fig. 3 mostra as curvas de transparência, e a relação entre côr e transparência é dada para as côres totais aparentes. Foi marcado o coeficiente de extinção da luz K, pelo cálculo a partir do Disco de Secchi. Havendo poluições todos êsses dados que apresentamos deverão ser alterados.The apparent total color of sea by comparison with samples tested by "MAERZ & PAUL: A Dictionary of Colors, 1950". We find green colors of Forel Scale: Forel n. 5 in waters with Pheophyceae, Sargassum, and Rhodophyceae; Forel n. 6 waters in stones with the Cirripedia, the barnacle Tetraclita squamosa; the alpine green in waters with Trichodesmium exuthraeum. Emerald

  8. Effect of Mediterranean ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) on California red scale (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) populations in citrus orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekas, A; Tena, A; Aguilar, A; Garcia-Marí, F

    2010-06-01

    We conducted an ant-exclusion experiment in a citrus orchard to evaluate the overall impact of three ant species native in the Mediterranean, Pheidole pallidula (Nylander), Plagiolepis schmitzii Forel, and Lasius grandis (Forel), on populations of Aonidiella aurantii Maskell (California red scale). The ant-exclusion was carried out in four experimental plots from March 2007 to November 2008. Another subset of four plots, adjacent to the ant-excluded plots, was used as control. We measured scale densities and percent parasitism on fruits at harvest in 2007 and 2008. Additionally, we sampled the seasonal trend of the scale on twigs and fruits in both treatments during 2008. California red scale densities in the ant-excluded treatment began to be significantly lower than in the ant-allowed control in May (1 mo after ant activity began), and this difference increased until November. Thus, the effect of the ants on California red scale density seems to be accumulative. At harvest, scale densities on fruits were significantly lower in the ant-excluded treatment. However, percent parasitism on fruits was similar between treatments. Finally, scale densities on the fruits of the ant-allowed plots were positively correlated with the number of ants that climbed to the citrus canopy. These results suggest that increases of scale densities induced by Mediterranean ants depend on the intensity of the ant-activity on citrus canopies.

  9. How much variation can one ant species hold? Species delimitation in the Crematogaster kelleri-group in Madagascar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonnie B Blaimer

    Full Text Available We investigated the species-level taxonomy of the Malagasy Crematogaster (Crematogaster kelleri-group and an additional more distantly related species of the same subgenus. Morphological data from worker, queen and male ants, as well as genetic data from three nuclear genes (long wavelength rhodopsin, arginine kinase and carbomoylphosphate synthase and one mitochondrial marker (cytochrome oxidase I led to the recognition of six species. Within the C. kelleri-group, three new species are described: C. hazolava Blaimer sp. n., C. hafahafa Blaimer sp. n. and C. tavaratra Blaimer sp. n. The previously described taxa C. kelleri Forel and C. madagascariensis André are validated by our analysis. Conversely, our data suggests synonymy of C. adrepens Forel (with C. kelleri and C. gibba Emery (with C. madagascariensis. A more distantly related and phylogenetically isolated species, C. tsisitsilo Blaimer sp. n., is further described. We report high levels of morphological and molecular variation in C. kelleri and illustrate that this variation can be explained partly by geography. Species descriptions, images, distribution maps and identification keys based on worker ants, as well as on queen and male ants where available, are presented for all six species. Our work highlights the elevated species richness of Crematogaster ants throughout Madagascar's humid forests, especially in the far northern tip of the island, and the need to use multiple data sources to ensure clear demarcation of this diversity.

  10. Revision of the Malagasy Camponotus edmondi species group (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, Formicinae): integrating qualitative morphology and multivariate morphometric analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakotonirina, Jean Claude; Csősz, Sándor; Fisher, Brian L.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The Malagasy Camponotus edmondi species group is revised based on both qualitative morphological traits and multivariate analysis of continuous morphometric data. To minimize the effect of the scaling properties of diverse traits due to worker caste polymorphism, and to achieve the desired near-linearity of data, morphometric analyses were done only on minor workers. The majority of traits exhibit broken scaling on head size, dividing Camponotus workers into two discrete subcastes, minors and majors. This broken scaling prevents the application of algorithms that uses linear combination of data to the entire dataset, hence only minor workers were analyzed statistically. The elimination of major workers resulted in linearity and the data meet required assumptions. However, morphometric ratios for the subsets of minor and major workers were used in species descriptions and redefinitions. Prior species hypotheses and the goodness of clusters were tested on raw data by confirmatory linear discriminant analysis. Due to the small sample size available for some species, a factor known to reduce statistical reliability, hypotheses generated by exploratory analyses were tested with extreme care and species delimitations were inferred via the combined evidence of both qualitative (morphology and biology) and quantitative data. Altogether, fifteen species are recognized, of which 11 are new to science: Camponotus alamaina sp. n., Camponotus androy sp. n., Camponotus bevohitra sp. n., Camponotus galoko sp. n., Camponotus matsilo sp. n., Camponotus mifaka sp. n., Camponotus orombe sp. n., Camponotus tafo sp. n., Camponotus tratra sp. n., Camponotus varatra sp. n., and Camponotus zavo sp. n. Four species are redescribed: Camponotus echinoploides Forel, Camponotus edmondi André, Camponotus ethicus Forel, and Camponotus robustus Roger. Camponotus edmondi ernesti Forel, syn. n. is synonymized under Camponotus edmondi. This revision also includes an identification key to

  11. The hyper-diverse ant genus Tetramorium Mayr (Hymenoptera, Formicidae in the Malagasy region ‑ taxonomic revision of the T. naganum, T. plesiarum, T. schaufussii, and T. severini species groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Hita Garcia

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The taxonomy of the Tetramorium naganum, T. plesiarum, T. schaufussii, and T. severini species groups are revised for the Malagasy region. A total of 31 species are treated, of which 22 are newly described and nine redescribed. This increases the richness of the hyper-diverse genus Tetramorium in the Malagasy region to 106 species, which makes it the most species-rich genus in the region. Twenty-nine of the treated species are endemic to Madagascar, one is endemic to the Comoros, and one species is found predominantly in Madagascar but also on the island of Reunion. The T. naganum species group contains five species, which are mainly distributed in the rainforests and montane rainforests of eastern and northern Madagascar: T. alperti sp. n., T. dalek sp. n., T. enkidu sp. n., T. gilgamesh sp. n., and T. naganum Bolton, 1979. The T.plesiarum species group holds five species: T. bressleri sp. n., T. hobbit sp. n., T. gollum sp. n., T. mars sp.n., and T. plesiarum Bolton, 1979. All five are arid-adapted species occurring in the southwest and west of Madagascar. The second-most species-rich group in the region is the T. schaufussii species group with 20 species, most of which inhabit rainforests or montane rainforests of eastern and northern Madagascar. This group includes two species complexes each containing ten species: the T. cognatum complex with the species T. aspis sp. n., T. camelliae sp. n., T. cognatum Bolton, 1979, T. freya sp. n., T. gladius sp. n., T.karthala sp. n., T. myrmidon sp. n., T. proximum Bolton, 1979, T. rumo sp. n., and T. tenuinode sp. n.; and the T. schaufussii complex with the species T. merina sp. n., T. monticola sp. n., T. nassonowii Forel, 1892 stat. n., T. obiwan sp. n., T. pseudogladius sp. n., T. rala sp. n., T. schaufussii Forel, 1891, T. sikorae Forel, 1892 (=T. latior (Santschi, 1926, T. scutum sp. n., T. xanthogaster Santschi, 1911. The last group treated in this study is the T. severini species group, which

  12. The hyper-diverse ant genus Tetramorium Mayr (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) in the Malagasy region taxonomic revision of the T. naganum, T. plesiarum, T. schaufussii, and T. severini species groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hita Garcia, Francisco; Fisher, Brian L

    2014-01-01

    The taxonomy of the Tetramorium naganum, T. plesiarum, T. schaufussii, and T. severini species groups are revised for the Malagasy region. A total of 31 species are treated, of which 22 are newly described and nine redescribed. This increases the richness of the hyper-diverse genus Tetramorium in the Malagasy region to 106 species, which makes it the most species-rich genus in the region. Twenty-nine of the treated species are endemic to Madagascar, one is endemic to the Comoros, and one species is found predominantly in Madagascar but also on the island of Reunion. The T. naganum species group contains five species, which are mainly distributed in the rainforests and montane rainforests of eastern and northern Madagascar: T. alperti sp. n., T. dalek sp. n., T. enkidu sp. n., T. gilgamesh sp. n., and T. naganum Bolton, 1979. The T. plesiarum species group holds five species: T. bressleri sp. n., T. hobbit sp. n., T. gollum sp. n., T. mars sp. n., and T. plesiarum Bolton, 1979. All five are arid-adapted species occurring in the southwest and west of Madagascar. The second-most species-rich group in the region is the T. schaufussii species group with 20 species, most of which inhabit rainforests or montane rainforests of eastern and northern Madagascar. This group includes two species complexes each containing ten species: the T. cognatum complex with the species T. aspis sp. n., T. camelliae sp. n., T. cognatum Bolton, 1979, T. freya sp. n., T. gladius sp. n., T. karthala sp. n., T. myrmidon sp. n., T. proximum Bolton, 1979, T. rumo sp. n., and T. tenuinode sp. n.; and the T. schaufussii complex with the species T. merina sp. n., T. monticola sp. n., T. nassonowii Forel, 1892 stat. n., T. obiwan sp. n., T. pseudogladius sp. n., T. rala sp. n., T. schaufussii Forel, 1891, T. sikorae Forel, 1892 (= T. latior (Santschi, 1926)), T. scutum sp. n., T. xanthogaster Santschi, 1911. The last group treated in this study is the T. severini species group, which contains only

  13. Comparative physical mapping of 18S rDNA in the karyotypes of six leafcutter ant species of the genera Atta and Acromyrmex (Formicidae: Myrmicinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Gisele Amaro; Barros, Luísa Antônia Campos; de Aguiar, Hilton Jeferson Alves Cardoso; das Graças Pompolo, Silvia

    2017-10-01

    Leafcutter ants of the Atta and Acromyrmex genera are important plagues in different cultures. Cytogenetic data on chromosome number, morphology, and chromosomal banding pattern are only available for 17 species of leafcutter ants. Molecular cytogenetic data for the detection of ribosomal genes by the FISH technique are scarce, and only 15 Neotropical ant species have been studied. This study aimed to physically map the 18S ribosomal RNA genes (rDNA) of six leafcutter ants belonging to the genera Atta and Acromyrmex using FISH. The results were compared with data on the fluorochrome CMA 3 currently available for these species. All analyzed species presented the 18S rDNA on one pair of chromosomes. In Acromyrmex subterraneus molestans and Ac. aspersus, FISH signals were observed in the terminal region of the short arm of the largest subtelocentric pair, while in Atta bisphaerica, A. laevigata, and A. sexdens, FISH signals were observed in the interstitial region of the long arm of the fourth metacentric pair. In Acromyrmex striatus, 18S rDNA was located in the interstitial region of the second metacentric pair. The karyotypic formula for Ac. aspersus was 2n = 38 (8m + 10sm + 16st + 4a), representing the first report in this species. The observed 18S rDNA regions in A. laevigata, A. sexdens, A. bisphaerica, Ac. aspersus, and Ac. subterraneus molestans corresponded to the CMA 3 + bands, while in Ac. striatus, several GC-rich bands and one pair of 18S rDNA bands were observed. No differential bands were visible using the DAPI fluorochrome. Karyotype uniformity with previously studied Atta spp. was also observed at the level of molecular cytogenetics using 18S rDNA FISH. A difference in the size of the chromosomal pair carrying the 18S rDNA gene was observed in Ac. striatus (2n = 22) and Atta spp. (2n = 22) highlighting the dissimilarity between these species. The results from the present study contribute to the description of 18S rDNA clusters

  14. Secondary seed dispersal of Ricinus communis Linnaeus (Euphorbiaceae by ants in secondary growth vegetation in Minas Gerais Dispersão secundária de sementes de Ricinus communis Linnaeus (Euphorbiaceae por formigas em vegetação secundária em Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Marcos do Espírito Santo

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, I tested the efficacy of ants as secondary seed dispersers of Ricinus communis in southeastern Brazil. In a natural population of 143 individuals, I determined the ballistic dispersal distance for 62 seeds and 100 additional seeds were experimentally offered to ants in groups of ten seeds along a transect of 50 m. Fifty-three seeds were removed by ants, mainly by the leafcutter Atta sexdens (90.4%. The dispersal distance by ants was high, compared to the global average (4.38 m ± 0.74 m vs. 0.96 m, but was lower than the ballistic distance (7.27 m ± 0.13 m. Ants increased the total dispersal distance (8.66 m ± 0.60 m, but the main benefit for the plant was the directed dispersal, with seed deposition on the enriched soil of ant nests.Este estudo testou a eficiência de formigas como dispersores secundários de Ricinus communis no Brasil. Em uma população natural de 143 indivíduos, a distância de dispersão balística foi determinada para 62 sementes. Além disso, 100 sementes adicionais foram oferecidas a formigas em grupos de 10, ao longo de um transecto de 50 m. Cinqüenta e três sementes foram removidas por formigas, principalmente pela formiga-cortadeira Atta sexdens (90,4%. A distância de dispersão por formigas foi alta se comparada à média global (4,38m ± 0,74 m vs. 0,96 m, porém menor que a distância de dispersão balística (7,27 m ± 0,13 m. As formigas aumentaram a distância de dispersão total (8,66 m ± 0,60 m, mas o principal benefício para a planta foi a dispersão direcionada, com a deposição das sementes no solo enriquecido encontrado nos ninhos das formigas.

  15. CT findings and CT score in acute pancreatitis compared with severity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takada, Tadahiro; Yasuda, Hideki; Uchiyama, Katsuhiro; Hasegawa, Hiroshi; Sikata, Jun-ichi; Nagai, Jun

    1986-01-01

    CT findings in 28 patients with acute pancreatitis were compared with severity of the disease. The pancreatic image, which demonstrates the pancreatic lesion, was studied with respect to 9 items, and fluid collection showing the peripancreatic status with respect to 13 items. 1) According to Forell's classification, the lesion was minor in 8 patients, moderate in 11, and severe in 9. 2) The detection rates of abnormal pancreatic images and fluid collection increased with the advance in the severity of the disease. 3) The mean CT score by severity was 0.88 ± 0.64 for minor pancreatitis, 7.18 ± 4.51 for moderate pancreatitis, and 13.44 ± 4.22 for severe pancreatitis. Significant differences were observed among the groups, suggesting the usefulness of the CT score in evaluating the severity of acute pancreatitis. (author)

  16. LIMNOLOGY, LAKE BASINS, LAKE WATERS

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    Petre GÂŞTESCU

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Limnology is a border discipline between geography, hydrology and biology, and is also closely connected with other sciences, from it borrows research methods. Physical limnology (the geography of lakes, studies lake biotopes, and biological limnology (the biology of lakes, studies lake biocoenoses. The father of limnology is the Swiss scientist F.A. Forel, the author of a three-volume entitled Le Leman: monographie limnologique (1892-1904, which focuses on the geology physics, chemistry and biology of lakes. He was also author of the first textbook of limnology, Handbuch der Seenkunde: allgemeine Limnologie,(1901. Since both the lake biotope and its biohydrocoenosis make up a single whole, the lake and lakes, respectively, represent the most typical systems in nature. They could be called limnosystems (lacustrine ecosystems, a microcosm in itself, as the American biologist St.A. Forbes put it (1887.

  17. Når livet leves som pårørende til en kronisk syg person med Parkinsons Sygdom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hounsgaard, Lise

    Baggrund: Parkinsons Sygdom er en langsom fremadskridende kronisk sygdom der med sygdomsudviklingen påvirker personens evne til at klare sig selv, hvorfor pårørende i stor udstrækning involveres i den uformelle pleje og omsorg i hverdagen. Formål: Ønsket er at skærpe opmærksomheden på de pårørendes...... sygdomme end Parkinson inde på livet i hverdagen. Materiale og metode: En fænomenologisk-hermeneutisk tekstfortolkning blev gennemført. Heri indgår individuelle og fokusgruppeinterview med pårørende til parkinsonpatienter som er bosiddende i Nuuk. Resultater: De foreløbige resultater giver indsigt i...

  18. Exit prostitution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehlsen, Line; Aslaug Kjær, Agnete; Amilon, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Dette statusnotat for projektet ”Exit Prostitution” belyser de foreløbige resultater og tendenser for projektet. Exit Prostitution løb oprindeligt fra april 2012 til udgangen af 2015, men med en nylig forlængelse løber projektet til udgangen af 2016. Projektet befinder sig således i slutningen af...... afprøvet med succes i forhold til hjemløshed både nationalt og internationalt. Målet med anvendelsen af metoden i forhold til målgruppen for Exit Prostitution er, at borgere med prostitutionserfaring, som ønsker at ophøre med salg af seksuelle ydelser eller ønsker at opleve en forbedring af deres...

  19. ABS – Arkitektonisk kvalitet i fremtidens læringsrum på universitetet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Cecilie Breinholm; Harder, Henrik; Knudstrup, Mary-Ann

    betydning for læringssituationen, idet både den sociale kontekst, lovgivning og regler samt curriculum eksempelvis også er af stor betydning for brugen af den pågældende fysiske kontekst. Pilotstudiets dataindsamling udgør dermed ikke tilstrækkeligt grundlag til at kunne angive entydige sammenhænge mellem...... den fysiske kontekst og læringssituationen i den pågældende fysiske kontekst. Dog vil den anvendte metode kunne benyttes i videre forskning på baggrund af ovenstående foreløbige konklusioner, og hvor eksempelvis den sociale kontekst, lovgivning og regler samt curriculum holdes konstant, mens der...

  20. Jagt- og forstyrrelsesfrie kerneområder for vandfugle 1994-97. Danmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, P.; Bøgebjerg, E.; Fox, A. D.

    -rørende svømmeændernes ophold i landet. I denne rapport gives en status for dele af det udførte arbejde i 1994-97, med fokus på optællingerne af vandfugle. Standardiserede optællinger af vandfugle blev udført i hovedparten af de nye eller kommende reservater, og resultaterne indtastedes i databaser. Resultaterne af...... optællingerne præsenteres i summarisk form i rapportens Appendix 1. Da hovedparten af de nye reservater først etableredes med virkning fra 1996-97 er der kun basis for at give et foreløbigt skøn over virkningen af det nye reservatnetværk på forekomsten af vandfuglene i landet. Resultater vedrørende udviklingen...

  1. Vagtordning for el-installationer - en forbrugerservice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skibstrup Eriksen, S.; Ovesen, K.

    information om områdets vagttjeneste. Oplysning om vagttjenesten indføres i telefonbøgerne. Hvor henvender forbrugeren sig ved strømsvigt? Kun et sted - på el-leverandørens telefon. Hvilken service skal forbrugeren have? Vagttjenesten skal altid kunne yde den nødvendige hjælp - enten ved udrykning eller et...... råd pr. telefon. Vagttjenesten skal fungere uden for normal arbejdstid. Hvorledes opbygges vagtordningen? El-leverandøren og områdets el-installatører bør optage et nært samarbejde. I fællesskab opbygges de nærmere regler for vagtplaner, takster og færdiggørelse af foreløbige reparationer....

  2. A new species of the ant genus Bothriomyrmex Emery, 1869 (Hymenoptera: Formicidae from the Caribbean region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Prebus

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Bothriomyrmex enigmaticus sp. nov. is described from the island of Hispañola based on one nest collection. This is the first collection of the genus Bothriomyrmex (Emery, 1869 from the Caribbean region, and the second species to be described from the Americas. While sharing several characters with B. paradoxus (Dubovikoff & Longino, 2004 from Costa Rica and Honduras, B. enigmaticus sp. nov. diverges in several key characters, including palp formula. However, a morphometric comparison to Palearctic species of the tribe Bothriomyrmecini suggests affinities to B. paradoxus, Chronoxenus wroughtoni (Forel, 1895 of the eastern Palearctic, and to a lesser extent an undescribed species of Arnoldius (Dubovikoff, 2005 from Australia and B. corsicus (Santschi,1923 of the western Palearctic.

  3. THE MYRMICINE ANT GENUS ALLOMERUS MAYR (HYMENOPTERA: FORMICIDAE

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    FERNÁNDEZ FERNANDO

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The Neotropical myrmicine ant genus Allomerus Mayr is revised. The genus isapparently monophyletic based on the antennal club confi guration. I recognize 8 species(4 described as new: Allomerus brevipilosus n. sp. (Brazil, A. decemarticulatusMayr (Brazil, French Guiana, A. dentatus n. sp. (Venezuela, A. maietae n. sp.(Brazil, A. octoarticulatus Mayr (=A. tuberculatus Forel n. syn. = A. octoarticulatusvar. demerarae W. M. Wheeler n. syn. = A. novemarticulatus Wheeler & Mann n.syn. [Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, French Guiana, Peru], A. septemarticulatus Mayrstatus rev. (Brazil, A. undecemarticulatus n. sp. (Venezuela and A. vogeli Kempf(Venezuela, Brazil. Better knowledge of the taxonomy of Allomerus is needed tounderstand the apparently sporadic differences in antennal fl agellomere number andspeciation processes that are probably linked to plant cavity colonization.

  4. Association between ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and the vine mealybug (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in table-grape vineyards in Eastern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrà, Aleixandre; Navarro-Campos, Cristina; Calabuig, Altea; Estopà, Luis; Wäckers, Felix L; Pekas, Apostolos; Soto, Antonia

    2017-12-01

    The vine mealybug, Planococcus ficus (Signoret) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) is a key pest of grapevine in the Mediterranean Basin. Some honeydew collecting ant species are known to increase mealybug populations in other grape-growing regions. However, there is scarce information on either the ant species present in Mediterranean vineyards or their impact on mealybugs. We conducted a study in four commercial vineyards in Eastern Spain in order to i) identify the ant species foraging on the vine canopies, ii) study the association among ant activity, vine mealybug abundance and fruit damage, and iii) test a novel method for ant management, distracting ants from guarding vine mealybugs by providing sugar dispensers. We recorded three ant species native to the Mediterranean foraging on the vine canopies: Lasius grandis (Forel), Pheidole pallidula (Nylander) and Plagiolepis schmitzii (Forel). The mean percentage of damaged fruits per vine was positively correlated with the number of vine mealybugs captured in traps placed at the trunk. We detected a positive but weak relationship between ant activity, vine mealybug abundance and fruit damage. The provisioning of sugar dispensers reduced the number of ants foraging on the vines by 23.4% although this reduction was not statistically significant. Vine mealybug abundance was significantly reduced (72%) after sugar provisioning. Our results suggest that the ant species native to vineyards in eastern Spain induce population increases of the vine mealybug. Moreover, the provisioning of sugars can be a valuable tool for ant management and mealybug control. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. A taxonomic revision of South American species of the seed-harvester ant genus Pogonomyrmex (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Robert A

    2015-10-13

    South American species in the seed-harvester ant genus Pogonomyrmex (subfamily Myrmicinae) are interesting biologically because of their numerous queen phenotypes and life histories. This paper provides a taxonomic revision and reviews the natural history for 21 South American species of Pogonomyrmex so that we can better study their rich and interesting ecology, life history, and evolution. Species treated herein comprise all South American species-groups except for the brevibarbis and rastratus-groups. The following taxa are raised to species: pencosensis Forel 1914 and serpens Santschi 1922. The following new synonomies are proposed: bruchi Forel 1913 is synonomized under coarctatus Mayr 1868 and cunicularius carnivora Santschi 1925 under serpens Santschi 1922. The following new species is described: tinogasta. This paper redescribes workers of all species, and I describe queens and diagnose males for the following species: bispinosus (ergatoid queen, male), inermis (queen, male), laticeps (male), lobatus (queen, male), micans (queen), naegelii (ergatoid queen), pencosensis (ergatoid queen), serpens (ergatoid queen), tinogasta (brachypterous queen), and uruguayensis (queen, male). A neotype was designated for the untraceable or possibly lost type of P. bispinosus, and a holotype or lectotype was designated from syntypes for all other previously described taxa in order to provide a single name-bearing specimen and to facilitate future taxonomic studies. Of the 21 species treated herein, five species have ergatoid (wingless) queens (bispinosus, cunicularius, pencosensis, serpens, mayri), two have brachypterous (short-winged) queens (mendozanus, tinogasta), and two have dimorphic queens (winged and ergatoid in naegelii, brachypterous and ergatoid in laticeps). I also provide keys for workers and queens (in English and Spanish), photographs of all castes, distribution maps, and a summary of known biology.

  6. Aktiv Undervisning: Et Flipped Læringsdesign af Kursusmoduler på Videregående Uddannelser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirnes Tulic

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Artiklens formål er at undersøge potentialerne i anvendelse af digitale værktøjer i didaktisk design af kursusmoduler på videregående uddannelser med henblik på at fremme læringen og optimere undervisningstiden. Det antages at den digitale revolution, som i dag har stor indflydelse på vores hverdag, har ændret den måde vi tilgår, skaber, deler og udveksler viden, og som konsekvens er den traditionelle forelæsning ikke længere er velegnet til dybdelæring. Der tages udgangspunkt i et kursusmodul ved ingeniøruddannelsen Arkitektur, Design og Mediateknologi, der omhandler bærende konstruktioner i arkitektur. Kurset er struktureret efter den problem- og projekt-baserede lærings-model og intentionen er at udvikle en ny undervisningsform der tager responsen i betragtning, som er modtaget af undervisere og studerende gennem kvalitative og kvantitative undersøgelser af nuværende forhold på kursusmodulet. Artiklen præsentere en ’flipped learning’ tilgang der anvender onlineundervisnings teknologier i kombination med ’gamification’ principper til at danne et stimulerende online læringsmiljø. Ved anvendelse af online undervisning til teoretiske principper og begreber, er det hensigten at transformere den traditionelle præsentationslektion til aktiv læring i forelæsningslokalet, baseret på dialog i plenum.

  7. Rasgos morfológicos asociados a la viabilidad de pupas en parasitoides del género Pseudacteon (Diptera: Phoridae Morphological traits associated with pupae viability in Pseudacteon (Diptera: Phoridae parasitoids

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    Patricia J. Folgarait

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN. Fóridos del género Pseudacteon Coquillett oviponen en forrajeras del género Solenopsis Westwood y empupan en sus cabezas. Se evaluó la relación entre la viabilidad de los parasitoides, la presencia de cuernos respiratorios y el color en los opérculos de los puparios de cuatro especies de Pseudacteon criados sobre Solenopsis invicta Buren y Solenopsis richteri Forel. La presencia de cuernos respiratorios estuvo asociada a la viabilidad de las pupas para las especies consideradas (p 0,09; excepto cuando Pseudacteon cultellatus Borgmeier se desarrolló sobre hormigas de la reserva y niñeras de S. invicta (p ABSTRACT. Pseudacteon Coquillett phorid flies oviposit on Solenopsis Westwood ants and pupate within the ant's head. We have evaluated the relationship between pupae's viability, presence of respiratory horns and the operculum color in four species of Pseudacteon reared on Solenopsis invicta Buren and Solenopsis richteri Forel ants. The presence of respiratory horns was significantly associated with pupae's viability for all species considered (p 0,09, except (p < 0,01 when Pseudacteon cultellatus Borgmeier had developed on S. invicta nanitic and reserve workers. Pupae with light-colored opercula were more frequent in P. cultellatus, whereas brown opercula were more frequent for the other species that attack bigger ants. Mimetism can be invoked to explain the similarity in opercula color with that of the head of the parasitized ant as a way to avoid recognition by members of the colony. We conclude that the presence of respiratory horns is necessary for pupae survival of most of the pupae and we suggest to use the presence of respiratory horns as an indicator of the efficiency of rearing protocols for this group of parasitoids. We also recommend using forager ants because other casts do not seem to be appropriate hosts.

  8. Identification and expression of capa gene in the fire ant, Solenopsis invicta.

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    Man-Yeon Choi

    Full Text Available Recent genome analyses suggested the absence of a number of neuropeptide genes in ants. One of the apparently missing genes was the capa gene. Capa gene expression in insects is typically associated with the neuroendocrine system of abdominal ganglia; mature CAPA peptides are known to regulate diuresis and visceral muscle contraction. The apparent absence of the capa gene raised questions about possible compensation of these functions. In this study, we re-examined this controversial issue and searched for a potentially unrecognized capa gene in the fire ant, Solenopsis invicta. We employed a combination of data mining and a traditional PCR-based strategy using degenerate primers designed from conserved amino acid sequences of insect capa genes. Our findings demonstrate that ants possess and express a capa gene. As shown by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, processed products of the S. invicta capa gene include three CAPA periviscerokinins and low amounts of a pyrokinin which does not have the C-terminal WFGPRLa motif typical of CAPA pyrokinins in other insects. The capa gene was found with two alternative transcripts in the CNS. Within the ventral nerve cord, two capa neurons were immunostained in abdominal neuromeres 2-5, respectively, and projected into ventrally located abdominal perisympathetic organs (PSOs, which are the major hormone release sites of abdominal ganglia. The ventral location of these PSOs is a characteristic feature and was also found in another ant, Atta sexdens.

  9. Seed dispersal and predation of Buchenavia tomentosa Eichler (Combretaceae in a Cerrado sensu stricto, midwest Brazil

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    J. Farias

    Full Text Available Abstract The ecology of seed dispersal is critical to understand the patterns of distribution and abundance of plant species. We investigated seed dispersal aspects associated with the high abundance of Buchenavia tomentosa in the Serra Azul State Park (PESA. We estimated fruit production and conducted fruit removal experiments. We carried out diurnal and nocturnal observations on frugivory as well as germination tests. Fruiting occurred in the dry season and totaled 1,365,015 ± 762,670 fruits.ha–1. B. tomentosa fruits were utilized by eight animal species. The lowland tapir (Tapirus terrestris was considered the main seed disperser. Leafcutter ants (Atta laevigata and Atta sexdens participated in the seed cleaning and occasionally dispersed seeds. The beetle Amblycerus insuturatus, blue-and-yellow macaw (Ara ararauna and red-and-green macaw (Ara chloropterus were considered pre-dispersal seed predators. The seeds manually cleaned presented higher germination rate (100% and speed index (4.2 seeds.d–1 than that of seeds with pulp. Germination of seeds found in tapirs’feces was 40%, while for the seeds without pulp it was 25%. The high abundance of B. tomentosa in the cerrado of PESA may be due to massive fruit production, low rates of seed predation, and efficient seed dispersal by tapirs, occurring before the rains which promote germination and recruitment of this species.

  10. Why are there few seedlings beneath the myrmecophyte Triplaris americana?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrea-Alcázar, Daniel M.; Simonetti, Javier A.

    2007-07-01

    We compared the relative importance of chemical alellopathy, pruning behaviour of resident ants and other non-related agents to ant-plant mutualism for seedling establishment beneath Triplaris americana L. (Polygonaceae), a myrmecophyte plant. We also included a preliminary analysis of effects of fragmentation on these ecological processes. Seeds and seedlings of Theobroma cacao L. (Sterculiaceae) were used as the target species in all experiments. Leaf-tissue extracts of the myrmecophyte plant did not inhibit germination of cacao seeds. Resident Pseudomyrmex triplarinus Weddell (Pseudomyrmecinae) ants did not remove seeds under the canopy of their host plants. The main seed consumer was the leaf-cutting ant Atta sexdens L. (Myrmicinae). Leaves of cacao seedlings were partially or totally pruned by Pseudomyrmex ants mainly in forest fragments studied. We offer evidence pointing to the possibility that the absence of seedlings beneath Triplaris may result from effects of both ant species. We discuss the benefits of pruning behaviour for the resident ant colony and the effects of ant-ant interactions on seedling establishment beneath this ant-plant system.

  11. A metabolic pathway assembled by enzyme selection may support herbivory of leaf-cutter ants on plant starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacci, Maurício; Bueno, Odair Correa; Rodrigues, André; Pagnocca, Fernando Carlos; Somera, Alexandre Favarin; Silva, Aline

    2013-05-01

    Mutualistic associations shape the evolution in different organism groups. The association between the leaf-cutter ant Atta sexdens and the basidiomycete fungus Leucoagaricus gongylophorus has enabled them to degrade starch from plant material generating glucose, which is a major food source for both mutualists. Starch degradation is promoted by enzymes contained in the fecal fluid that ants deposit on the fungus culture in cut leaves inside the nests. To understand the dynamics of starch degradation in ant nests, we purified and characterized starch degrading enzymes from the ant fecal fluid and from laboratory cultures of L. gongylophorus and found that the ants intestine positively selects fungal α-amylase and a maltase likely produced by the ants, as a negative selection is imposed to fungal maltase and ant α-amylases. Selected enzymes are more resistant to catabolic repression by glucose and proposed to structure a metabolic pathway in which the fungal α-amylase initiates starch catalysis to generate byproducts which are sequentially degraded by the maltase to produce glucose. The pathway is responsible for effective degradation of starch and proposed to represent a major evolutionary innovation enabling efficient starch assimilation from plant material by leaf-cutters. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Protein content of leaf-cutting ant queens before the nuptial flight and during the post-claustral phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edypo Jacob Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Protein content of leaf-cutting ant queens before the nuptial flight and during the post-claustral phase. This study evaluated the crude protein content of queens of Atta sexdens before the nuptial flight and after the claustral phase in laboratory and field colonies. The hypothesis was that protein is used for survival of the queen and for early colony growth during the claustral phase. Additionally, the nest morphology, live biomass and adult population of field colonies were evaluated. Crude protein was determined by digestion of the organic material with sulfuric acid at high temperatures. The mean crude protein content was 123.23 ± 11.20 mg for females before the nuptial flight and 70.44 ± 12.21 mg for laboratory-reared queens after the claustral phase. The post-claustral crude protein content of field-collected queen was 55.90 ± 9.18 mg. With respect to the loss of crude protein as a function of duration of the claustral phase, laboratory-reared queens lost 52.79 mg and field-collected queens lost 67.33 mg compared to females before the nuptial flight. A positive linear correlation was observed between the weight of field-collected queens (256.4 ± 36.3 mg and colony biomass (13.02 ± 9.12 g, but there was no correlation between biomass and nest depth (13.11 ± 3.82 cm. As expected, the present results support the hypothesis that protein is used for survival of the queen and for early colony growth, as demonstrated by the reduction in crude protein content as a function of duration of the claustral phase. To our knowledge, this is the first study to provide data of the dynamics of protein reserves in leaf-cutting ant queens during the claustral phase.

  13. Ethnopharmacological survey among migrants living in the Southeast Atlantic Forest of Diadema, São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Daniel; Domingues, Marcus Vinicius; Rodrigues, Eliana

    2010-10-29

    Understanding how people of diverse cultural backgrounds have traditionally used plants and animals as medicinal substances during displacements is one of the most important objectives of ethnopharmacological studies. An ethnopharmacological survey conducted among migrants living in the Southeast Atlantic Forest remnants (Diadema, São Paulo, Brazil) is presented herein. Ethnographical methods were used to select and interview the migrants, and botanical and zoological techniques were employed to collect the indicated resources. We interviewed five migrants who described knowledge on 12 animals and 85 plants. Only 78 plants were present in Diadema, they belong to 37 taxonomic families; 68 were used exclusively for medicinal purposes, whereas 10 were reported to be toxic and/or presented some restriction of use. These taxa were grouped into 12 therapeutic categories (e.g., gastrointestinal disturbances, inflammatory processes or respiratory problems) based on the 41 individual complaints cited by the migrants. While the twelve animal species were used by the migrants to treat nine complaints; these were divided into six categories, the largest of which related to respiratory problems. None of the animal species and only 57 of the 78 plant species analysed in the present study were previously reported in the pharmacological literature; the popular knowledge concurred with academic findings for 30 of the plants. The seven plants [Impatiens hawkeri W. Bull., Artemisia canphorata Vill., Equisetum arvensis L., Senna pendula (Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.) H.S. Irwin & Barneby, Zea mays L., Fevillea passiflora Vell. and Croton fuscescens Spreng)] and the two animals (Atta sexdens and Periplaneta americana) that showed maintenance of use among migrants during their displacement in Brazilian territory, have not been studied by pharmacologists yet. Thus, they should be highlighted and focused in further pharmacology and phytochemical studies, since the persistence of their uses

  14. Energy substrate used by workers of leaf-cutting ants during nest excavation

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    Roberto S. Camargo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Energy substrate used by workers of leaf-cutting ants during nest excavation. In this study we aimed to ascertain whether leaf-cutting ant workers lose body reserves (fat or sugars as a function of nest excavation. For each treatment, we isolated 10 workers of Atta sexdens into two experimental groups, Control (C- without excavation and Soil (S- with excavation, which were kept for different time intervals (0, 24, 48 or 72 hours, totaling 700 tested workers. We then determined the concentration of soluble carbohydrates and total lipid content in them. The total carbohydrates were determined colorimetrically, based on the reaction between carbohydrates and sulfuric acid-phenol. For determination of lipids, the insects were immersed in organic solvent until they reached a constant weight. Our results showed that carbohydrates are consumed during nest excavation activities. In the experimental groups S24, S48 and S72, there was an average reduction of 5.82 (20.42%, 14.31 (44.96% and 13.27 (43.96% µ.mg-1 in soluble sugar when compared with the experimental groups that did not excavate. Furthermore, the lipids were not used during this activity. With respect to dry mass of the workers, their values were C0 = 8%, C24 = 10.4%, C48 = 9.2%, C72 = 10%, S24 = 9.2%, S48 = 8.7% and S72 = 8.5%. Our results show experimentally that the source of energy for nest excavation is carbohydrates, whereas lipids are conserved for other activities.

  15. Ethnopharmacological survey among migrants living in the Southeast Atlantic Forest of Diadema, São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigues Eliana

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding how people of diverse cultural backgrounds have traditionally used plants and animals as medicinal substances during displacements is one of the most important objectives of ethnopharmacological studies. An ethnopharmacological survey conducted among migrants living in the Southeast Atlantic Forest remnants (Diadema, São Paulo, Brazil is presented herein. Methods Ethnographical methods were used to select and interview the migrants, and botanical and zoological techniques were employed to collect the indicated resources. Results We interviewed five migrants who described knowledge on 12 animals and 85 plants. Only 78 plants were present in Diadema, they belong to 37 taxonomic families; 68 were used exclusively for medicinal purposes, whereas 10 were reported to be toxic and/or presented some restriction of use. These taxa were grouped into 12 therapeutic categories (e.g., gastrointestinal disturbances, inflammatory processes or respiratory problems based on the 41 individual complaints cited by the migrants. While the twelve animal species were used by the migrants to treat nine complaints; these were divided into six categories, the largest of which related to respiratory problems. None of the animal species and only 57 of the 78 plant species analysed in the present study were previously reported in the pharmacological literature; the popular knowledge concurred with academic findings for 30 of the plants. The seven plants [Impatiens hawkeri W. Bull., Artemisia canphorata Vill., Equisetum arvensis L., Senna pendula (Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd. H.S. Irwin & Barneby, Zea mays L., Fevillea passiflora Vell. and Croton fuscescens Spreng] and the two animals (Atta sexdens and Periplaneta americana that showed maintenance of use among migrants during their displacement in Brazilian territory, have not been studied by pharmacologists yet. Conclusions Thus, they should be highlighted and focused in further pharmacology

  16. Are ant assemblages of Brazilian veredas characterised by location or habitat type?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CB Costa-Milanez

    Full Text Available Wetland areas in the Brazilian Cerrado, known as “veredas”, represent ecosystems formed on sandy soils with high concentrations of peat, and are responsible for the recharge of aquiferous reservoirs. They are currently under threat by various human activities, most notably the clearing of vegetation for Eucalyptus plantations. Despite their ecological importance and high conservation value, little is known about the actual effects of human disturbance on the animal community. To assess how habitat within different veredas, and plantations surrounding them affect ant assemblages, we selected four independent vereda locations, two being impacted by Eucalyptus monoculture (one younger and one mature plantation and two controls, where the wetland was surrounded by cerrado vegetation. Ant sampling was conducted in May 2010 (dry season using three complementary methods, namely baits, pitfall traps, and hand collection, in the wetland and in the surrounding habitats. A total of 7,575 ants were sampled, belonging to seven subfamilies, 32 genera and 124 species. Ant species richness and abundance did not differ between vereda locations, but did between the habitats. When impacted by the monoculture, ant species richness and abundance decreased in wetlands, but were less affected in the cerrado habitat. Ant species composition differed between the three habitats and between vereda locations. Eucalyptus plantations had an ant species composition defined by high dominance of Pheidole sp. and Solenopsis invicta, while natural habitats were defined by Camponotus and Crematogaster species. Atta sexdens was strictly confined to native habitats of non-impacted “veredas”. Eucalyptus monocultures require high quantities of water in the early stages, which may have caused a decrease in groundwater level in the wetland, allowing hypogeic ants such as Labidus praedator to colonise this habitat.

  17. Are ant assemblages of Brazilian veredas characterised by location or habitat type?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Milanez, C B; Lourenço-Silva, G; Castro, P T A; Majer, J D; Ribeiro, S P

    2014-02-01

    Wetland areas in the Brazilian Cerrado, known as "veredas", represent ecosystems formed on sandy soils with high concentrations of peat, and are responsible for the recharge of aquiferous reservoirs. They are currently under threat by various human activities, most notably the clearing of vegetation for Eucalyptus plantations. Despite their ecological importance and high conservation value, little is known about the actual effects of human disturbance on the animal community. To assess how habitat within different veredas, and plantations surrounding them affect ant assemblages, we selected four independent vereda locations, two being impacted by Eucalyptus monoculture (one younger and one mature plantation) and two controls, where the wetland was surrounded by cerrado vegetation. Ant sampling was conducted in May 2010 (dry season) using three complementary methods, namely baits, pitfall traps, and hand collection, in the wetland and in the surrounding habitats. A total of 7,575 ants were sampled, belonging to seven subfamilies, 32 genera and 124 species. Ant species richness and abundance did not differ between vereda locations, but did between the habitats. When impacted by the monoculture, ant species richness and abundance decreased in wetlands, but were less affected in the cerrado habitat. Ant species composition differed between the three habitats and between vereda locations. Eucalyptus plantations had an ant species composition defined by high dominance of Pheidole sp. and Solenopsis invicta, while natural habitats were defined by Camponotus and Crematogaster species. Atta sexdens was strictly confined to native habitats of non-impacted "veredas". Eucalyptus monocultures require high quantities of water in the early stages, which may have caused a decrease in groundwater level in the wetland, allowing hypogeic ants such as Labidus praedator to colonise this habitat.

  18. Biological Control of Solenopsis Fire Ants by Pseudacteon Parasitoids: Theory and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lloyd W. Morrison

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pseudacteon parasitoids are potential biocontrol agents of invasive Solenopsis fire ants. Pseudacteon species that parasitize the invasive S. invicta Buren and S. richteri Forel have been introduced to, and naturally dispersed across, the southeastern USA, although there is no evidence yet that Solenopsis host ant populations have decreased. The ability of introduced Pseudacteon species to regulate Solenopsis populations will depend upon the relative importance of top-down effects in the recipient communities. In this paper, I examine the characteristics of the Pseudacteon/Solenopsis parasitoid/host system and evaluate the extent to which research findings are consistent with top-down control. Laboratory and field experiments evaluating Solenopsis population regulation have been equivocal, and overall the available evidence provides little support for strong top-down effects in this system. Competitive exclusion may occur among introduced Pseudacteon species, and future efforts at biological control are likely to be more efficacious if they focus on other types of natural enemies.

  19. CONTROL OF THE BLACK LEAF CUTTING ANT, Acromyrmex crassispinus, WITH POWDERED FORMICIDES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Moreira Link

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Four experiments  were carried out to evaluate the efficiency of some powdered formicides on the control of the black leaf cutting ant, Acromyrmex crassispinus (Forel, 1909 (Hymenoptera: Formicidae, in Santa Maria county, from 1996 until 1998. Powdered formicides containing  Fenthion at 50g a. i./kg, Imidacloprid at  4g a. i./kg, Betacyfluthrin at 2g a. i./kg, Chlorpyrifos at 20g a. i./kg and at 50g a. i./kg, Deltamethrin at  2g a. i./kg, Acephate at 750g a. i./kg and Diazinon at 10g a. i./kg were evaluated on big nests (>80cm of diameter. The big nests of this ant were efficiently controlled with 30g/nest of the commercial formulations of Fenthion, Diazinon and Chlorpyrifos (20g a. i./kg and  50g a. i./kg; with 3g/nest of the formulation of Acephate; with 5g/nest in dry season and 30g/nest in wet season of the powdered formulation of Deltamethrin.

  20. Foraging activity and seasonal food preference of Linepithema micans (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), a species associated with the spread of Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Hemiptera: Margarodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nondillo, Aline; Ferrari, Leonardo; Lerin, Sabrina; Bueno, Odair Correa; Bottona, Marcos

    2014-08-01

    Linepithema micans (Forel) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) is the main ant species responsible for the spread of Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Wille) (Hemiptera: Margarodidae), a soil scale that damages vine plants in southern Brazil. The daily foraging activity of L. micans and its seasonal preference for protein- and carbohydrate-based foods were evaluated. The study was carried out in a greenhouse using seedlings of the Paulsen 1103 rootstock (Vitis berlandieri x Vitis rupestris) planted individually in pots and infested with colonies of L. micans. To determine the daily foraging activity and seasonal preference, a cricket (Gryllus sp.) and a 70% solution of inverted sugar and water were offered once a month for 12 mo. The ants foraging on each food source were counted hourly for 24 h. L. micans foraged from dusk until the end of the next morning, with higher intensity in the spring and summer. Workers of L. micans showed changes in food preference during the year, with a predominance of protein-based food during winter and spring and carbohydrate-based food during autumn. The implications of this behavior for control of the species with the use of toxic baits are discussed.

  1. Control of Linepithema micans (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Hemiptera: Margarodidae) in Vineyards Using Toxic Baits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nondillo, Aline; Andzeiewski, Simone; Bello Fialho, Flávio; Bueno, Odair Correa; Botton, Marcos

    2016-08-01

    Linepithema micans (Forel) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) is the main ant species responsible for dispersal of Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Wille) (Hemiptera: Margarodidae), a root scale that damages grapevines in southern Brazil. The effects of different formulations of toxic baits based on boric acid and hydramethylnon to control L. micans and E. brasiliensis were evaluated. Toxic baits with boric acid (1.0%) mixed in different concentrations of inverted sugar (20%, 30%, and 40%), and hydramethylnon, mixed with sardines (paste), cassava flour and peanut, brown sugar (sucrose), or sardine oil-based gel, were evaluated in a greenhouse and in the field. In the greenhouse experiment, the number of foraging ants was significantly reduced in the pots where the hydramethylnon in sardine paste (Solid S), sardine oil-brown sugar-based gel (GEL SAM), and peanut oil-brown-sugar gel (GEL AM) formulations were applied. The GEL SAM toxic bait effectively reduced the infestation of L. micans, and could be used for indirect control of E. brasiliensis on young grapevines. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. (Bi)literacy i det flersprogede klasserum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Helle; Lundqvist, Ulla; Orluf, Birgit

    I dette og et foregående paper præsenteres programmet Tegn på sprog - tosprogede børn lærer at læse og skrive og de foreløbige resultater heraf. I dette paper sættes særligt fokus på (bi)literacypraksisser i klasserummet og på børns brug af literacy, som det kommer til udtryk gennem deres...... information, der er tilgængelig for dem i de sociale fællesskaber, de indgår i (Kress 1997, 2000, Kenner 2004). For børn, der vokser op i flersprogede omgivelser, vil mødet med skriftsprog omfatte møder med skrift på flere sprog. Dataindsamlingen omfatter i 2008/2009 klasserumsobservationer i de fem 0...... skabes i klasserummet. Derudover diskuteres forståelsen af literacy og literacyunder-visning i lyset af den sproglige diversitet, man finder i mange klasserum....

  3. Autoradiographic distribution of /sup 125/I-galanin binding sites in the rat central nervous system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skofitsch, G.; Sills, M.A.; Jacobowitz, D.M.

    1986-11-01

    Galanin (GAL) binding sites in coronal sections of the rat brain were demonstrated using autoradiographic methods. Scatchard analysis of /sup 125/I-GAL binding to slide-mounted tissue sections revealed saturable binding to a single class of receptors with a Kd of approximately 0.2 nM. /sup 125/I-GAL binding sites were demonstrated throughout the rat central nervous system. Dense binding was observed in the following areas: prefrontal cortex, the anterior nuclei of the olfactory bulb, several nuclei of the amygdaloid complex, the dorsal septal area, dorsal bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, the ventral pallidum, the internal medullary laminae of the thalamus, medial pretectal nucleus, nucleus of the medial optic tract, borderline area of the caudal spinal trigeminal nucleus adjacent to the spinal trigeminal tract, the substantia gelatinosa and the superficial layers of the dorsal spinal cord. Moderate binding was observed in the piriform, periamygdaloid, entorhinal, insular cortex and the subiculum, the nucleus accumbens, medial forebrain bundle, anterior hypothalamic, ventromedial, dorsal premamillary, lateral and periventricular thalamic nuclei, the subzona incerta, Forel's field H1 and H2, periventricular gray matter, medial and superficial gray strata of the superior colliculus, dorsal parts of the central gray, peripeduncular area, the interpeduncular nucleus, substantia nigra zona compacta, ventral tegmental area, the dorsal and ventral parabrachial and parvocellular reticular nuclei. The preponderance of GAL-binding in somatosensory as well as in limbic areas suggests a possible involvement of GAL in a variety of brain functions.

  4. Host specificity and colony impacts of the fire ant pathogen, Solenopsis invicta virus 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Sanford D; Valles, Steven M; Oi, David H

    2013-09-01

    An understanding of host specificity is essential before pathogens can be used as biopesticides or self-sustaining biocontrol agents. In order to define the host range of the recently discovered Solenopsis invicta virus 3 (SINV-3), we exposed laboratory colonies of 19 species of ants in 14 genera and 4 subfamilies to this virus. Despite extreme exposure during these tests, active, replicating infections only occurred in Solenopsis invicta Buren and hybrid (S. invicta×S. richteri) fire ant colonies. The lack of infections in test Solenopsis geminata fire ants from the United States indicates that SINV-3 is restricted to the saevissima complex of South American fire ants, especially since replicating virus was also found in several field-collected samples of the black imported fire ant, Solenopsis richteri Forel. S. invicta colonies infected with SINV-3 declined dramatically with average brood reductions of 85% or more while colonies of other species exposed to virus remained uninfected and healthy. The combination of high virulence and high host specificity suggest that SINV-3 has the potential for use as either a biopesticide or a self-sustaining biocontrol agent. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. New Host Record for Camponotophilus delvarei (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae, a Parasitoid of Microdontine Larvae (Diptera: Syrphidae, Associated with the Ant Camponotus sp. aff. textor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Pérez-Lachaud

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Microdontine syrphid flies are obligate social parasites of ants. Larvae prey on ant brood whereas adults live outside the nests. Knowledge of their interaction with their host is often scarce, as it is information about their natural enemies. Here we report the first case of parasitism of a species of microdontine fly by a myrmecophilous eurytomid wasp. This is also the first host record for Camponotophilus delvarei Gates, a recently described parasitic wasp discovered in Chiapas, Mexico, within the nests of the weaver ant, Camponotus sp. aff. textor Forel. Eleven pupal cases of a microdontine fly were found within a single nest of this ant, five of them being parasitized. Five adult C. delvarei females were reared from a puparium and 29 female and 2 male pupae were obtained from another one. The eurytomid is a gregarious, primary ectoparasitoid of larvae and pupae of Microdontinae, its immature stages developing within the protective puparium of the fly. The species is synovigenic. Adult females likely locate and parasitize their hosts within the ant nest. As some species of Microdontinae are considered endangered, their parasitoids are likewise threatened and in need of accurate and urgent surveys in the future.

  6. M-commerce

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulhøi, John Parm; Jørgensen, Frances

    2009-01-01

    Når små og mellemstore virksomheder (SMVer [F1] ) vover sig ud i nye forretningsmuligheder, som baserer sig på mobile devices via trådløs kommunikation med et forretningsmæssigt formål for øje eller 'Mobile Commerce' (M-commerce), skal de være meget dygtige til både at udnytte forkantsteknologier...... af disse netværk som en central del af nye M-commerce forretningsmodeller for SMVer og at redegøre for de foreløbige resultater fra projektets indledende fase. Projektets formål er at udforske, beskrive og facilitere udviklingen af nye forretningsmodeller for M-commerce i danske SMVer. Data er blevet...... indsamlet gennem dybdeinterview. Artiklen bidrager til teori om M-commerce forretningsmodeller, og i særdeleshed, modeller der karakteriseres af intenst netværkssamarbejde.   [F1] Jeg er ikke overbevist, at vi ikke skulle bruge SMEs, da det er meget mere kendt, også herhjemme....

  7. Det er det, de unge vil have. En analyse af studerendes præferencer i relation til undervisning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosef Bhatti

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Artiklen undersøger de studerendes forventninger til undervisere og undervisning gennem et survey af ca. 200 grunduddannelses- og overbygnings­­studerende og finder, at der er stærkere præferencer for underviserens forelæsning og gennemgang af pensum i forhold til mere inddragende og perspektiverende undervisning. Ligeledes undersøges demografiske, strukturelle samt subjektive karakteristikas evne til at forklare variationer i de studerendes præferencer. Mod forventning finder vi, at de studerendes præferencer til underviser og undervisning kun i meget ringe grad kan forklares ved de undersøgte faktorer.  The paper examines students' expectations regarding teachers and teaching through a survey of approximately 200 BA and MA students. The findings suggest that students generally prefer lectures and presentations of the curriculum given by teachers rather than alternative methods of curriculum delivery. Demographic, structural and subjective characteristics of the students are included in models to explain variations in student preferences. Contra to our expectations, we find that the preferences of the students regarding teachers and teaching methods are only to a very limited extent explained by the included variables.

  8. The influence of insecticides and vegetation in structuring Formica mound ant communities (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Maine lowbush blueberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choate, Beth; Drummond, Francis A

    2013-04-01

    Assessing the influence of new, reduced-risk insecticides on natural enemies within agroecosystems is essential to developing integrated pest management strategies. Three species of mound-building Formica ants are abundant throughout Maine lowbush blueberry fields (Formica exsectoides Forel, F. glacialis Wheeler, and F. ulkei Emery). All three species have been described in the literature as predaceous, with research demonstrating that F. exsectoides preys on major pest insects of lowbush blueberry. The objectives of this study were to determine the impact of common-use and newly introduced insecticides on Formica sp. ant communities in lowbush blueberry fields. Laboratory assays indicated that the commonly applied insecticide phosmet is toxic to F. exsectoides, even after 8 d of field weathering (P insecticides, such as acetamiprid, had little effect on survival of all three species. Abundance of each species in the field varied with lowbush blueberry pesticide-use strategy and amount of nonblueberry vegetation. Both F. exsectoides and F. glacialis were most abundant in organic fields; however, overall F. glacialis was the most abundant in fields of all management types. Field surveys support laboratory results suggesting that phosmet is highly toxic to these species and influences their spatial pattern. Manipulation of the crop to conserve natural enemies in lowbush blueberry is difficult because the crop is not planted; therefore, we must look closely at the incorporation of low toxicity insecticides with natural enemies to efficiently control pest insects.

  9. Unsupervised clustering of gene expression data points at hypoxia as possible trigger for metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    York David

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Classification of large volumes of data produced in a microarray experiment allows for the extraction of important clues as to the nature of a disease. Results Using multi-dimensional unsupervised FOREL (FORmal ELement algorithm we have re-analyzed three public datasets of skeletal muscle gene expression in connection with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes (DM2. Our analysis revealed the major line of variation between expression profiles of normal, insulin resistant, and diabetic skeletal muscle. A cluster of most "metabolically sound" samples occupied one end of this line. The distance along this line coincided with the classic markers of diabetes risk, namely obesity and insulin resistance, but did not follow the accepted clinical diagnosis of DM2 as defined by the presence or absence of hyperglycemia. Genes implicated in this expression pattern are those controlling skeletal muscle fiber type and glycolytic metabolism. Additionally myoglobin and hemoglobin were upregulated and ribosomal genes deregulated in insulin resistant patients. Conclusion Our findings are concordant with the changes seen in skeletal muscle with altitude hypoxia. This suggests that hypoxia and shift to glycolytic metabolism may also drive insulin resistance.

  10. Frugt, grøntsager og sundhed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallund, Jesper; Dragsted, Lars Ove; Halkjær, Jytte

    ved at øge det daglige indtag af frugt og grøntsager. Resultaterne af de nyere publicerede prospektive kohortestudier tyder ikke på, at frugt og grøntsager i sig selv nedsætter risikoen for udvikling af type 2 diabetes. Resultaterne må dog betragtes som foreløbige. Forebyggelse af overvægt, fedme og...... viser dog også, at det kun er ca. 15% af befolkningen over 10 år, der spiser den anbefalede mængde frugt og grønt på i alt 600 g om dagen, mens ca. 1/3 af børn i alderen 4-10 år spiser den anbefalede mængde for denne aldersgruppe på 400 g.I næsten alle undersøgelser er der påvist en omvendt sammenhæng....... Opdateringen understreger dog, at der ikke findes evidens for en negativ effekt af frugt og grøntsager i relation til kræftsygdomme. De nyeste undersøgelser har således givet en større erkendelse af, at der kan være forskellige effekter af frugt og grøntsager på forskellige histologiske undergrupper af de...

  11. [Sigmund Freud and the "Zeitschrift für Hypnotismus"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Terence A

    2005-01-01

    While Freud was always ready to acknowledge the debt that psychoanalysis owed to hypnotism, his engagement in its study and medical application is often seen by historians as little more than a passing phase on the way to psychoanalysis proper. This paper attempts to redress the balance by exploring Freud's association with the most influential German-language journal devoted to hypnotism, the Zeitschrift für Hypnotismus. Freud not only contributed a paper to this periodical but also served on its editorial board for the first three years of its existence. There also appeared in the journal one review and six abstracts of his work. After a condensed bibliographical account of the journal, a summary is given of Freud's intellectual and professional contacts and exchanges with three of the key individuals associated with it: August Forel, Jonas Grossmann and Oskar Vogt. Finally clarification is given of the publication history of the "Dora" case history and the chronology of its rejection for publication by Korbinian Brodmann, editor of the journal when it became the Journal für Psychologie und Neurologie.

  12. Isoenzyme variation in the leaf-cutting ants Acromyrmex heyeri and Acromyrmex striatus (Hymenoptera, formicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diehl Elena

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This is the first study of isoenzyme variability in the leaf-cutting ants (Myrmicinae, Attini Acromyrmex heyeri (Forel, 1899 and A. striatus (Roger, 1863 which are common throughout the southern Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul. We studied the alloenzyme variability of malate dehydrogenase (MDH, alpha-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase (alpha-GPDH and amylase (AMY in 97 colonies of A. heyeri and 103 colonies of A. striatus. Five loci were found for these enzyme systems, one locus (Amy-1 being monomorphic in both species and four loci (Mdh-1, alpha-Gpdh-1, Amy-2, and Amy-4 being polymorphic. For each species there were exclusive alleles for the Mdh-1 and Amy-2 loci and differences were also found in the allele frequencies for the other polymorphic loci. Ontogenetically different gene activity was detected for the MDH and alpha-GPDH systems, with between-caste differences, probably related to flight activity, also being found for alpha-GPDH.

  13. Roadside Survey of Ants on Oahu, Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Reina L; Grace, J Kenneth; Krushelnycky, Paul D; Spafford, Helen

    2018-02-11

    Hawaii is home to over 60 ant species, including five of the six most damaging invasive ants. Although there have been many surveys of ants in Hawaii, the last island-wide hand-collection survey of ants on Oahu was conducted in 1988-1994. In 2012, a timed hand-collection of ants was made at 44 sites in a systematic, roadside survey throughout Oahu. Ants were identified and species distribution in relation to elevation, precipitation and soil type was analyzed. To assess possible convenience sampling bias, 15 additional sites were sampled further from roads to compare with the samples near roads. Twenty-four species of ants were found and mapped; Pheidole megacephala (F.), Ochetellus glaber (Mayr), and Technomyrmex difficilis Forel were the most frequently encountered ants. For six ant species, a logistic regression was performed with elevation, average annual precipitation, and soil order as explanatory variables. O. glaber was found in areas with lower precipitation around Oahu. Paratrechina longicornis (Latrielle) and Tetramorium simillimum (Smith, F.) were found more often in lower elevations and in areas with the Mollisol soil order. Elevation, precipitation, and soil type were not significant sources of variation for P. megacephala, Plagiolepis alluaudi Emery, and T. difficilis . P. megacephala was associated with fewer mean numbers of ants where it occurred. Ant assemblages near and far from roads did not significantly differ. Many species of ants remain established on Oahu, and recent invaders are spreading throughout the island. Mapping ant distributions contributes to continued documentation and understanding of these pests.

  14. Metatranscriptomics and pyrosequencing facilitate discovery of potential viral natural enemies of the invasive Caribbean crazy ant, Nylanderia pubens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valles, Steven M; Oi, David H; Yu, Fahong; Tan, Xin-Xing; Buss, Eileen A

    2012-01-01

    Nylanderia pubens (Forel) is an invasive ant species that in recent years has developed into a serious nuisance problem in the Caribbean and United States. A rapidly expanding range, explosive localized population growth, and control difficulties have elevated this ant to pest status. Professional entomologists and the pest control industry in the United States are urgently trying to understand its biology and develop effective control methods. Currently, no known biological-based control agents are available for use in controlling N. pubens. Metagenomics and pyrosequencing techniques were employed to examine the transcriptome of field-collected N. pubens colonies in an effort to identify virus infections with potential to serve as control agents against this pest ant. Pyrosequencing (454-platform) of a non-normalized N. pubens expression library generated 1,306,177 raw sequence reads comprising 450 Mbp. Assembly resulted in generation of 59,017 non-redundant sequences, including 27,348 contigs and 31,669 singlets. BLAST analysis of these non-redundant sequences identified 51 of potential viral origin. Additional analyses winnowed this list of potential viruses to three that appear to replicate in N. pubens. Pyrosequencing the transcriptome of field-collected samples of N. pubens has identified at least three sequences that are likely of viral origin and, in which, N. pubens serves as host. In addition, the N. pubens transcriptome provides a genetic resource for the scientific community which is especially important at this early stage of developing a knowledgebase for this new pest.

  15. Ants of the Monomorium monomorium species-group (Hymenoptera: Formicidae in the Arabian Peninsula with description of a new species from southwestern Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Sharaf

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available We revise the taxonomy of the myrmicine ants of the Monomorium monomorium species-group for the Arabian Peninsula. Six species are recognized: Monomorium aeyade Collingwood & Agosti, 1996, M. clavicorne André, 1881, M. exiguum Forel, 1894, M. holothir Bolton, 1987, M. mohammedi sp. n., and M. sarawatense Sharaf & Aldawood, 2013. On the basis of the worker caste, we describe Monomorium mohammedi sp. n. from the southwestern region of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA. We designate a neotype for Monomorium aeyade Collingwood & Agosti and redescribe and illustrate the worker caste. Furthermore, we provide a worker-based species identification key, distribution maps for the treated species, and ecological and biological notes, if available. Monomorium holothir is recorded for the first time from the KSA. Also, we propose M. clavicorne var. punica Santschi, 1915a as a junior synonym of M. clavicorne, as well as M. dryhimi Aldawood & Sharaf, 2011 and M. montanum Collingwood & Agosti, 1996 to be treated as junior synonyms of Monomorium exiguum.

  16. De nationale test og deres betydninger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kousholt, Kristine

    2012-01-01

    Denne artikel er del af et relativt nyopstartet og fortløbende forskningsprojekt, som er finansieret af Det Frie Forskningsråd, Kultur og Kommunikation. Projektet handler bl.a. om, hvordan de danske nationale test bliver del af den danske folkeskole, og hvilken betydning det kan have for skolebørn......, at de skal testes ved de nationale test. I denne fremstilling vil jeg først give et indblik i de danske nationale test – en præsentation af såvel testene som af den diskussion, der har præget indførelsen af disse test i Danmark. Dernæst vil jeg præsentere mit forskningsprojekt om de nationale test. Til...... sidst vil jeg præsentere nogle foreløbige analyser/empiriske fund fra forskningsprojektet. Empirien, der indgår i nærværende artikel, består af elevinterviews og observationer i én 6.klasse og to 8.klasser. Der har i interviewene og observationerne været fokus på, hvordan deltagelse ved de nationale...

  17. A review of the Pseudomyrmex ferrugineus and Pseudomyrmex goeldii species groups: acacia-ants and relatives (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Philip S

    2017-02-06

    The Pseudomyrmex ferrugineus group contains the Mesoamerican acacia-ants, an assemblage of species that inhabit and protect swollen-thorn acacias (Vachellia spp.). Recent phylogenetic studies have confirmed the existence of two generalist (dead twig-inhabiting) species that are embedded within the P. ferrugineus group. They are described here as P. evitus sp. nov. (occurring from Mexico to Costa Rica) and P. feralis sp. nov. (Guatemala). The morphological definition of the P. ferrugineus group is revised to incorporate additional variability in the worker and queen castes. The previous diagnosis of the males, based largely on features of the genitalia, requires little revision. Closely related to the P. ferrugineus group is a clade of five predominantly South American species, here designated and diagnosed as the P. goeldii group. The five species, P. goeldii (Forel), P. laevifrons Ward, P. micans sp. nov., P. obtusus sp. nov., and P. parvulus sp. nov., are characterized and illustrated. P. laevifrons and P. micans are closely related and difficult to distinguish, possibly reflecting incomplete isolation. Keys are provided for the identification of the species in both groups.

  18. Postfire Succession of Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) Nesting in Dead Wood of Northern Boreal Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Philippe; Hébert, Christian; Francoeur, André; Sirois, Luc

    2015-10-01

    Dead wood decomposition begins immediately after tree death and involves a large array of invertebrates. Ecological successions are still poorly known for saproxylic organisms, particularly in boreal forests. We investigated the use of dead wood as nesting sites for ants along a 60-yr postfire chronosequence in northeastern coniferous forests. We sampled a total of 1,625 pieces of dead wood, in which 263 ant nests were found. Overall, ant abundance increased during the first 30 yr after wildfire, and then declined. Leptothorax cf. canadensis Provancher, the most abundant species in our study, was absent during the first 2 yr postfire, but increased steadily until 30 yr after fire, whereas Myrmica alaskensis Wheeler, second in abundance, was found at all stages of succession in the chronosequence. Six other species were less frequently found, among which Camponotus herculeanus (Linné), Formica neorufibarbis Emery, and Formica aserva Forel were locally abundant, but more scarcely distributed. Dead wood lying on the ground and showing numerous woodborer holes had a higher probability of being colonized by ants. The C:N ratio was lower for dead wood colonized by ants than for noncolonized dead wood, showing that the continuous occupation of dead wood by ants influences the carbon and nitrogen dynamics of dead wood after wildfire in northern boreal forests. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Natural enemies of Atta vollenweideri (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) leaf-cutter ants negatively affected by synthetic pesticides, chlorpyrifos and fipronil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillade, Andrea C; Folgarait, Patricia J

    2014-02-01

    In southern South America, Ada vollenweideri Forel (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) is a significant pest of several crops and forestry, also considered to reduce the carrying capacity of pastures. The most usual control method used in Latin America is the application of synthetic pesticides, mainly chlorpyrifos and fipronil. However, no studies have assessed the effects of these agrochemicals on natural enemies of ants. We aimed to evaluate the efficiency of these pesticides on leaf-cutter ants' control and to test their effect on phorid fly parasitoids. Chlorpyrifos failed to exert complete control over ant colonies in the field and was gravely detrimental to specific parasitoids, reducing their percentage of parasitism, pupal survivorship, and adult longevity. Fipronil, however, exerted complete control over the treated colonies. Laboratory tests using both pesticides, either on ants from foraging trails or on pupariae, showed that chlorpyrifos and fipronil decreased larval and pupal survivorship, as well as adult longevity of parasitoids, in comparison to controls. In conclusion, these pesticides will likely affect parasitoids with regard to their reproductive capacity, leading to the decreased levels of natural parasitism observed in the field after treatments. We discuss why neither pesticide should be taken into account for integrated pest management programs.

  20. Poneromorph Ants Associated with Parasitoid Wasps of the Genus Kapala Cameron (Hymenoptera: Eucharitidae in French Guiana

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    Jean-Paul Lachaud

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Eucharitid wasps are specific, specialized parasitoids of ants. The genus Kapala Cameron is the most common in the Neotropics but few species are described, and information dealing with their biology, behavior and host associations is scarce. Numerous poneromorph ant colonies were inspected over 4 collection surveys in French Guiana. A diverse fauna of parasites and parasitoids was found, including mermithid nematodes, flies, eucharitids, and another gregarious endoparasitoid wasp. Five new host associations for Kapala are reported, all of them involving medium- to large-size poneromorph ant species from 4 genera: Ectatomma brunneum Fr. Smith, Gnamptogenys tortuolosa (Fr. Smith, Odontomachus haematodus (L., O. mayi Mann, and Pachycondyla verenae (Forel. Three other associations involving O. hastatus (Fabr., P. apicalis (Latreille, and P. stigma (Fabr., already reported for other countries but new for French Guiana, are confirmed. The data extend the number of hosts for Kapala to 24 ant species from 7 genera. The high diversity of the ant host genera associated with Kapala, combined with the fact that these ant genera are the most widely distributed among Neotropical poneromorph ants, could account for the dominant status of the genus Kapala among the eucharitine wasps of Central and South America.

  1. Tamaño y composición de la colonia de tres especies de hormigas del género Pogonomyrmex (Hymenoptera: Formicidae en la porción central del desierto del Monte, Argentina Colony size and composition in three Pogonomyrmex ant species (Hymenoptera: Formicidae in the central Monte desert, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz E. Nobua Behrmann

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available El tamaño de la colonia es un atributo fundamental en la biología de las hormigas ya que está asociado a características ecológicamente relevantes, como sus estrategias de alimentación. Mientras que el tamaño de la colonia de varias especies de hormigas granívoras del género Pogonomyrmex de América del Norte se ha estudiado en detalle, no existe tal información para las especies de América del Sur. En este trabajo, se determinó el tamaño y la composición de la colonia y se describió la estructura del nido de tres especies de Pogonomyrmex que habitan la porción central del desierto del Monte en Argentina: P. mendozanus Cuezzo & Claver, P. inermis Forel y P. rastratus Mayr. Para ello, se excavaron dos nidos de cada especie y se recolectaron todos los individuos encontrados. Las tres especies tienen colonias pequeñas, compuestas por 300-1.100 individuos, de los cuales aproximadamente el 70% son obreras adultas. La estructura de sus nidos es relativamente simple, similar a la de la mayoría de las especies norteamericanas estudiadas, pero con un menor desarrollo en profundidad y un número menor de cámaras; probablemente se deba al menor número de obreras que poseen. Estas características (colonias pequeñas y nidos poco desarrollados son consideradas típicas para las especies del género Pogonomyrmex de América del Sur, lo que las diferencia de la mayoría de sus congéneres estudiados en América del Norte.Colony size in ants is associated with important ecological characteristics such as foraging strategy. Though colony size has been studied with some detail for several North American species of Pogonomyrmex harvester ants, it remains unknown for South American species. We studied colony size, composition, and nest structure of three species of Pogonomyrmex harvester ants inhabiting the central Monte desert in Argentina: P. mendozanus Cuezzo & Claver, P. inermis Forel and P. rastratus Mayr. We excavated two nests of each

  2. The localization of the larvae of the nostril fly (Cephenemyia trompe L in the pharynx of reindeer in an earlier unknown tonsil tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claes Rehbinder

    1983-05-01

    : Lokalisationen av svalgkormflugans (Cephenemyia trompe L larver i svalget på ren undersøktes. Resultaten av undersokningen visade att någon preformerad svalgficka inte forekommer hos ren, utan att på den plats dår fickor innehållande larver vanligtvis påvisas år belågen en oparig tonsillvåvnad, forslagsvis kallad Tonsillapbaryngis dorsomedialis. Hos djur infekterade med svalgkormlarver forelåg i april de fiesta fickbildningarna i anslutning till tonsillvåvnaden men fickor forekom också hoger- och vånstersidigt i svalgslemhinnan. I ett fall påvisades två fickor, en i tonsillvåvnaden och en hogersidigt i svalgslemhinnan. Fickornas vågg utgjordes vid denna årstid av en akut ej slemhinneforsedd granulationsvåvnad rikligt infiltrerad med eosinofila leukocyter. Hos novemberrenarna påvisades lsta stadiets larver av C. trompe i tonsillens kryptor. Hos en åldre ren forelåg omedelbart vid sidan av tonsillen en fickbildning, vars vågg besto av kronisk granulationsvåvnad beklådd med slemhinna. Tonsillvåvnadens roll som predilektionsplats for larvernas utveckling diskuteras.

  3. Patterns of diversity and abundance of fungus-growing ants (Formicidae: Attini in areas of the Brazilian Cerrado Padrões de diversidade e abundância de formigas cultivadoras de fungo (Formicidade: Attini em áreas do Cerrado Brasileiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heraldo L. Vasconcelos

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Fungus-growing ants (tribe Attini are characteristic elements of the New World fauna. However, there is little information on the patterns of diversity, abundance, and distribution of attine species in their native ecosystems, especially for the so-called "lower" genera of the tribe. A survey of attine ant nests (excluding Atta Fabricus, 1804 and Acromyrmex Mayr, 1865 was conducted in a variety of savanna and forest habitats of the Cerrado biome near Uberlândia, Brazil. In total, 314 nests from 21 species of nine genera were found. Trachymyrmex Forel, 1893 was the most diverse genus with 10 species. Eighteen species were found in the savannas, including Mycetagroicus cerradensis Brandão & Mayhé-Nunes, 2001, a species from a recently-described genus of Attini, whereas in the forests only 12 species were found. Forest and savannas support relatively distinct faunas, each with a number of unique species; the species present in the forest habitats did not represent a nested subset of the species found in the savannas. Furthermore, although many species were common to both types of vegetation, their abundances were quite different. The density of attine nests is relatively high at some sites, exceeding an estimated 4,000 nests per hectare. In this sense, attine ants can be regarded as prevalent invertebrate taxa in the Brazilian Cerrado.As formigas cultivadoras de fungos (tribo Attini são exclusivas da fauna do Novo Mundo. Entretanto, existem poucas informações sobre os padrões de diversidade, abundância e distribuição das espécies de Attini em seus ecossistemas nativos, em especial para os gêneros menos derivados desta tribo. Um levantamento de ninhos de Attini (excluindo Atta Fabricius, 1804 e Acromyrmex Mayr, 1865 foi realizado em diversos ambientes savânicos e de floresta do bioma Cerrado próximos à Uberlândia, Brasil. Encontramos 314 ninhos de 21 espécies pertencentes a nove gêneros da tribo. Trachymyrmex Forel, 1893 foi o g

  4. Tamaño y composición de la colonia de tres especies de hormigas del género Pogonomyrmex (Hymenoptera: Formicidae en la porción central del desierto del Monte, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz E. NOBUA BEHRMANN

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El tamaño de la colonia es un atributo fundamental de la biología de las hormigas ya que está asociado a características ecológicamente relevantes, como sus estrategias de alimentación. Mientras que el tamaño de la colonia de varias especies de hormigas granívoras del género Pogonomyrmex de América del Norte se ha estudiado en detalle, no existe tal información para las especies de América del Sur. En este trabajo, se determinó el tamaño y la composición de la colonia y se describió la estructura del nido de tres especies de Pogonomyrmex que habitan la porción central del desierto del Monte en Argentina: P. mendozanus Cuezzo & Claver, P. inermis Forel y P. rastratus Mayr. Para ello, se excavaron dos nidos de cada especie y se recolectaron todos los individuos encontrados. Las tres especies tienen colonias pequeñas, compuestas por 300-1.100 individuos, de los cuales aproximadamente el 70% son obreras adultas. La estructura de sus nidos es relativamente simple, similar a la de la mayoría de las especies norteamericanas estudiadas, pero con un menor desarrollo en profundidad y un número menor de cámaras; probablemente se deba al menor número de obreras que poseen. Estas características (colonias pequeñas y nidos poco desarrollados son consideradas típicas para las especies del género Pogonomyrmex de América del Sur, lo que las diferencia de la mayoría de sus congéneres estudiados en América del Norte.

  5. Fuldt nummer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DUT 22

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Nummeret indeholder følgende artikler: Hvordan begrunder undervisere forelæsninger? Et interviewstudie med undervisere fra to fagmiljøer Anna Bager-Elsborg Læring i Modvind: Hvordan forbedrer man de studerendes præstation i fag, som de typisk opfatter som svære og kedelige? Carina Saxlund Bischoff Afmystificering af forskning: Et studenterperspektiv på et praktisk møde med forskerverdenen Maia Ebsen, Sophie Therese Burisch og Sandra Thomas Informationskompetente studieledere – om sammenhænge mellem studielederes brug af videnskilder og deres ledelsestilgange Thomas Harboe, Camilla Østerberg Rump, Jette Hyldegård og Jesper Bruun Retoriske strategier som led i mere effektiv vejledning Helle Hvass og Stine Heger Når der eksamineres mundtligt – eksaminators rolle og indhentning af bedømmelsesgrundlag i sundhedsuddannelser Thomas Würtz Jensen, Winnie Westergaard Høgsaa, Carsten Nielsen Udvikling af studerendes akademiske skrivekompetencer – en model for en indsats på fakultetsniveau Tine Wirenfeldt Jensen, Gina Bay og Per Andersen Ph.d.-vejlederkurser i Danmark: Status på indhold og diskussion af kvalitet Sofie Kobayashi, Mirjam Godskesen og Gitte Wichmann-Hansen Hvordan bedømmes undervisningskompetencer ved ansættelse af videnskabeligt personale ved universitetet? Sofie Kobayashi, Nana Quistgaard og Camilla Østerberg Rump Undervisning i engelsksprogede uddannelser er ikke kun et spørgsmål om sprog – det er først og sidst undervisning Karen M. Lauridsen og Ole Lauridsen Risikonavigation i fremdriftsstormen – når studerende oversætter fremdriftsreformen ud fra nye risikologikker Laura Louise Sarauw og Simon Madsen Aktiv undervisning: ’Flipped’ undervisning i bærende konstruktioner og arkitektur Mirnes Tulic og Jesper Thøger Christensen Læringsportfolio som individuelt refleksionsrum i kollektiv læring Frederikke Winther Anmeldelse: Fra studie til arbejdsliv Henriette Tolstrup Holmegaard

  6. Research into the development of voice assessment in music therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanne Storm

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available I denne afhandling undersøges det, om det er muligt at konstruere et stemmeassessmentredskab (Voice Assesment Profile - herefter forkortet VOIAS, der kan dokumentere forandring over tid med validitet og reliabilitet, og som bygger på principperne for evidensbaseret praksis (Wigram et al. 2002, og om det vha VOIAS er muligt at indhente relevante informationer til klinisk musikterapeutisk praksis og til det tværfaglige behandlingsteam. En foreløbig litteraturgennemgang viste, at der ikke fandtes et sådant redskab inden for musikterapi, og at kun lidt forskning inden for musikterapi fokuserede på og omhandlede den menneskelige stemme. Konsekvensen af denne opdagelse var, at jeg måtte konstruere et sådan stemmeassessmentredskab og fastlægge de procedurer, der måtte være omkring implementeringen af et sådant redskab. Derfor fokuserede den endelige litteraturgennemgang på at indsamle information om mulige stemmeparametre, samt udvælgelse og definition af disse med det formål at konstruere en kvantitativ profil, der kunne evaluere den menneskelige stemme i musikterapi. Jeg vurderede, at det for at sikre et godt grundlag for udvælgelsen af parametrene var nødvendigt at studere den musikterapeutiske litteratur om brugen af den menneskelige stemme i klinisk praksis som et primært instrument, såvel som en gennemgang af udvalgte studier af stemmen fra specialer og fra fagområder uden for det musikterapeutiske felt. Litteraturgennemgangen afslørede et påfaldende fravær af opmærksomhed på den menneskelige stemme i musikterapi og den menneskelige stemmes potentiale som kilde til at indsamle informationer om klientens psykiske tilstand og effekten af en musikterapeutisk behandling baseret på stemmeterapeutisk arbejde.

  7. Exposure of Workers of Ectatomma brunneum Smith (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Ectatomminae to ant Baits Containing Different Active Ingredients under Laboratory Conditions

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    Viviane Tofolo

    2015-03-01

    Resumo. Este trabalho avaliou a mortalidade a curto prazo de operárias de Ectatomma brunneum Smith expostas a iscas formicidas em laboratório, a fim de verificar se a capacidade de atração desta espécie não-alvo a formicidas destinadas ao controle de formigas cortadeiras (alvo pode ser prejudicial para a população estudada. As operárias foram expostas em laboratório por 48 horas a iscas formicidas utilizadas em pastagens para controlar as formigas cortadeiras Atta capiguara Gonçalves (Formicidae: Attini e Atta bisphaerica Forel (Formicidae: Attini, as principais espécies que causam danos às pastagens. Foram utilizados os seguintes ingredientes ativos: sulfluramida 0,3%, fipronil 0,003% e clorpirifos 0,45%. O experimento foi composto por grupos de 30 operárias expostas a 10g de formicidas, usando três repetições. Foi realizado o acompanhamento diário da mortalidade durante 20 dias, registrando-se o número de operárias mortas e intoxicadas. O grupo controle recebeu apenas 10g de polpa cítrica umedecida. A partir de resultados obtidos, as curvas de sobrevivência em função do tempo de observação foram plotadas usando o método de Kaplan-Meier, e comparadas com aplicação do Logrank test (teste não-paramétrico em nível de significância de 5%. Os resultados revelaram que os três ingredientes ativos testados foram tóxicos e a população reduzida em 35.56% no tratamento com clorpirifós, 31,11% com sulfluramida e 30% com fipronil.

  8. Roadside Survey of Ants on Oahu, Hawaii

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    Reina L. Tong

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Hawaii is home to over 60 ant species, including five of the six most damaging invasive ants. Although there have been many surveys of ants in Hawaii, the last island-wide hand-collection survey of ants on Oahu was conducted in 1988–1994. In 2012, a timed hand-collection of ants was made at 44 sites in a systematic, roadside survey throughout Oahu. Ants were identified and species distribution in relation to elevation, precipitation and soil type was analyzed. To assess possible convenience sampling bias, 15 additional sites were sampled further from roads to compare with the samples near roads. Twenty-four species of ants were found and mapped; Pheidole megacephala (F., Ochetellus glaber (Mayr, and Technomyrmex difficilis Forel were the most frequently encountered ants. For six ant species, a logistic regression was performed with elevation, average annual precipitation, and soil order as explanatory variables. O. glaber was found in areas with lower precipitation around Oahu. Paratrechina longicornis (Latrielle and Tetramorium simillimum (Smith, F. were found more often in lower elevations and in areas with the Mollisol soil order. Elevation, precipitation, and soil type were not significant sources of variation for P. megacephala, Plagiolepis alluaudi Emery, and T. difficilis. P. megacephala was associated with fewer mean numbers of ants where it occurred. Ant assemblages near and far from roads did not significantly differ. Many species of ants remain established on Oahu, and recent invaders are spreading throughout the island. Mapping ant distributions contributes to continued documentation and understanding of these pests.

  9. Metodik til studiet af strategiske ledelsesprocesser i organisationer

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    Jørgen Gulddahl Rasmussen

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Denne artikel handler om at skabe viden om en hverdagspraksis, der sjældent er sat ord på. Den behandler de ledelsesprocesser, der i virksomheder producerer strategi og omsætter sådanne strategier i produktive handlinger. Det er processer, der i små og mellemstore virksomheder er præget af intuition og af meget uformelle samspil mellem virksomhedsledere og medarbejdere. Metodikken er en videreudvikling af de metoder til produktion af kvalitative data, som FIRM-gruppen har eksperimenteret med gennem nogle år. Artiklen kan ses som en afrapportering af et flerårigt metodeudviklingsarbejde. Da erfaringer fra sådanne virksomheder viser, at strategiske processer i høj grad udvikler sig gennem uformel kommunikation, og at lederes intuition spiller en meget stor rolle, arbejder metodikken med en struktureret udviklingsdialog mellem et mindre antal virksomhedsledere med strategiske opgaver og forskere. Denne udviklingsdialog har til formål at følge og forstå de processer, der skaber ledernes egne praksisrelaterede ”teorier” for strategisk handling. Efter en præsentation af temaet gennemgås metodikkens praktiske fremgangsmåde med undersøgelser i en række virksomheder, opbygning af cases i samarbejde med ledere fra disse virksomheder, diskussion af disse og foreløbige konklusioner hen mod de næste trin i metodikken. Artiklen er skrevet samtidigt med arbejdet på et igangværende forskningsprojekt og vil derfor både være en præsentation og en udvikling af muligheder og vanskeligheder i metodikken.

  10. [The bamboo Merostachys fischeriana (Bambusoideae: Bambuseae) as a canopy habitat for ants of Neotropical Montane Forest].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagundes, Roberth; Terra, Gilberto; Ribeiro, Sérvio P; Majer, Jonathan D

    2010-01-01

    Although Merostachys fischeriana is very abundant in the Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest, little attention has been paid to the biological interactions with other animals. The present study describes some of the interactions between ants and this bamboo species. The experiment was carried out in a fragment of a montane tropical forest in the Parque Estadual do Itacolomi, near Ouro Preto, MG, Brazil. Thirty culms of bamboo were randomly collected. The ants were obtained by direct collection from nodes and internodes. Morphometric variables of the bamboo were recorded for characterization of potential ant habitat. Merostachys fischeriana grows in rosettes as a thin bamboo (average = 1,0 cm; se = 0,27; n = 20) and is tall enough to reach the upper canopy of this low forest (average = 9,1 m; se = 2,72; n = 20). Fifteen ant species were sampled. Brachymyrmex heeri Forel was the most abundant in the nodes, while Camponotus crassus Mayr (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) was the most abundant in the internodes. The composition of the species that inhabit the internodes was different from the composition in the node (Q-test: Q = 3,76; P = 0,05). The level of occupation was defined by the number of holes (F = 10,33; P < 0,01), the number of internodes in the canopy (F = 6,84; P = 0,01) and the length of the culm (F = 7,52; P = 0,01). The plant's morphology allowed the occurrence of additional species of ants in the canopy and influenced the composition of the entire ant assemblage.

  11. Trends in ocean colour and chlorophyll concentration from 1889 to 2000, worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernand, Marcel R; van der Woerd, Hendrik J; Gieskes, Winfried W C

    2013-01-01

    Marine primary productivity is an important agent in the global cycling of carbon dioxide, a major 'greenhouse gas', and variations in the concentration of the ocean's phytoplankton biomass can therefore explain trends in the global carbon budget. Since the launch of satellite-mounted sensors globe-wide monitoring of chlorophyll, a phytoplankton biomass proxy, became feasible. Just as satellites, the Forel-Ule (FU) scale record (a hardly explored database of ocean colour) has covered all seas and oceans--but already since 1889. We provide evidence that changes of ocean surface chlorophyll can be reconstructed with confidence from this record. The EcoLight radiative transfer numerical model indicates that the FU index is closely related to chlorophyll concentrations in open ocean regions. The most complete FU record is that of the North Atlantic in terms of coverage over space and in time; this dataset has been used to test the validity of colour changes that can be translated to chlorophyll. The FU and FU-derived chlorophyll data were analysed for monotonously increasing or decreasing trends with the non-parametric Mann-Kendall test, a method to establish the presence of a consistent trend. Our analysis has not revealed a globe-wide trend of increase or decrease in chlorophyll concentration during the past century; ocean regions have apparently responded differentially to changes in meteorological, hydrological and biological conditions at the surface, including potential long-term trends related to global warming. Since 1889, chlorophyll concentrations have decreased in the Indian Ocean and in the Pacific; increased in the Atlantic Ocean, the Mediterranean, the Chinese Sea, and in the seas west and north-west of Japan. This suggests that explanations of chlorophyll changes over long periods should focus on hydrographical and biological characteristics typical of single ocean regions, not on those of 'the' ocean.

  12. Trends in ocean colour and chlorophyll concentration from 1889 to 2000, worldwide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel R Wernand

    Full Text Available Marine primary productivity is an important agent in the global cycling of carbon dioxide, a major 'greenhouse gas', and variations in the concentration of the ocean's phytoplankton biomass can therefore explain trends in the global carbon budget. Since the launch of satellite-mounted sensors globe-wide monitoring of chlorophyll, a phytoplankton biomass proxy, became feasible. Just as satellites, the Forel-Ule (FU scale record (a hardly explored database of ocean colour has covered all seas and oceans--but already since 1889. We provide evidence that changes of ocean surface chlorophyll can be reconstructed with confidence from this record. The EcoLight radiative transfer numerical model indicates that the FU index is closely related to chlorophyll concentrations in open ocean regions. The most complete FU record is that of the North Atlantic in terms of coverage over space and in time; this dataset has been used to test the validity of colour changes that can be translated to chlorophyll. The FU and FU-derived chlorophyll data were analysed for monotonously increasing or decreasing trends with the non-parametric Mann-Kendall test, a method to establish the presence of a consistent trend. Our analysis has not revealed a globe-wide trend of increase or decrease in chlorophyll concentration during the past century; ocean regions have apparently responded differentially to changes in meteorological, hydrological and biological conditions at the surface, including potential long-term trends related to global warming. Since 1889, chlorophyll concentrations have decreased in the Indian Ocean and in the Pacific; increased in the Atlantic Ocean, the Mediterranean, the Chinese Sea, and in the seas west and north-west of Japan. This suggests that explanations of chlorophyll changes over long periods should focus on hydrographical and biological characteristics typical of single ocean regions, not on those of 'the' ocean.

  13. Trends in Ocean Colour and Chlorophyll Concentration from 1889 to 2000, Worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernand, Marcel R.; van der Woerd, Hendrik J.; Gieskes, Winfried W. C.

    2013-01-01

    Marine primary productivity is an important agent in the global cycling of carbon dioxide, a major ‘greenhouse gas’, and variations in the concentration of the ocean's phytoplankton biomass can therefore explain trends in the global carbon budget. Since the launch of satellite-mounted sensors globe-wide monitoring of chlorophyll, a phytoplankton biomass proxy, became feasible. Just as satellites, the Forel-Ule (FU) scale record (a hardly explored database of ocean colour) has covered all seas and oceans – but already since 1889. We provide evidence that changes of ocean surface chlorophyll can be reconstructed with confidence from this record. The EcoLight radiative transfer numerical model indicates that the FU index is closely related to chlorophyll concentrations in open ocean regions. The most complete FU record is that of the North Atlantic in terms of coverage over space and in time; this dataset has been used to test the validity of colour changes that can be translated to chlorophyll. The FU and FU-derived chlorophyll data were analysed for monotonously increasing or decreasing trends with the non-parametric Mann-Kendall test, a method to establish the presence of a consistent trend. Our analysis has not revealed a globe-wide trend of increase or decrease in chlorophyll concentration during the past century; ocean regions have apparently responded differentially to changes in meteorological, hydrological and biological conditions at the surface, including potential long-term trends related to global warming. Since 1889, chlorophyll concentrations have decreased in the Indian Ocean and in the Pacific; increased in the Atlantic Ocean, the Mediterranean, the Chinese Sea, and in the seas west and north-west of Japan. This suggests that explanations of chlorophyll changes over long periods should focus on hydrographical and biological characteristics typical of single ocean regions, not on those of ‘the’ ocean. PMID:23776435

  14. Monitoring the Diversity of Hunting Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) on a Fragmented and Restored Andean Landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera-Rangel, J; Jiménez-Carmona, E; Armbrecht, I

    2015-10-01

    Hunting ants are predators of organisms belonging to different trophic levels. Their presence, abundance, and diversity may reflect the diversity of other ants and contribute to evaluate habitat conditions. Between 2003 and 2005 the restoration of seven corridors in an Andean rural landscape of Colombia was performed. The restoration took place in lands that were formerly either forestry plantations or pasturelands. To evaluate restoration progress, hunting ants were intensely sampled for 7 yr, using sifted leaf litter and mini-Winkler, and pitfall traps in 21 plots classified into five vegetation types: forests, riparian forests, two types of restored corridors, and pasturelands. The ant communities were faithful to their habitat over time, and the main differences in ant composition, abundance, and richness were due to differences among land use types. The forests and riparian forests support 45% of the species in the landscape while the restored corridors contain between 8.3-25%. The change from forest to pasturelands represents a loss of 80% of the species. Ant composition in restored corridors was significantly different than in forests but restored corridors of soil of forestry plantations retained 16.7% more species than restored corridors from pasturelands. Ubiquitous hunting ants, Hypoponera opacior (Forel) and Gnamptogenys ca andina were usually associated with pastures and dominate restored corridors. Other cryptic, small, and specialized hunting ants are not present in the restored corridors. Results suggest that the history of land use is important for the biodiversity of hunting ants but also that corridors have not yet effectively contributed toward conservation goals. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Uncoupling Flight and Reproduction in Ants: Evolution of Ergatoid Queens in Two Lineages of Megalomyrmex (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeters, Christian; Adams, Rachelle M M

    2016-01-01

    Megalomyrmex Forel (Myrmicinae: Solenopsidini) consists of 44 species with diverse life history strategies. Most species are predatory and may also tend honeydew-producing insects. A morphologically derived group of species are social parasites that consume the brood and fungus garden within fungus-growing ant nests. The reproductive strategies of Megalomyrmex queens are somewhat aligned with these life-style patterns. Predatory species in the leoninus species group are large in body size and have ergatoid (i.e., permanently wingless) queens whereas the social parasitic species are smaller and typically have winged queens. We examined two ergatoid phenotypes of Megalomyrmex foreli Emery and Megalomyrmex wallacei Mann and compared them to winged species, one a social lestobiotic or "thief ant" parasite (Megalomyrmex mondabora Brandão) and the other a predator (Megalomyrmex modestus Emery). Megalomyrmex foreli colonies have a single queen with an enlarged gaster that is morphologically distinct from workers. Megalomyrmex wallacei colonies have several queens that are similar in body size to workers. Queens in both species showed a simplification of the thorax, but there was a dramatic difference in the number of ovarioles. Megalomyrmex foreli had 60-80 ovarioles compared to eight in M. wallacei and M. mondabora and M. modestus had 22-28. Along with flight loss in queens, there is an obligate shift to dependent colony founding (also called budding or fission) consequently influencing dispersal patterns. These constraints in life history traits may help explain the variation in nesting biology among Megalomyrmex species. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  16. Efficacy of Nootka Oil as a Biopesticide for Management of Imported Fire Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addesso, K M; Oliver, J B; O'Neal, P A; Youssef, N

    2017-08-01

    Recent concerns regarding the impact of traditional synthetic pesticides on nontarget organisms have generated demand for alternative products with lower environmental impact. This demand has led to increasing focus on plant essential oils as sources of new biopesticides. In this study, we demonstrate that the essential oil of the Alaskan yellow cedar, Cupressus nootkatensis (D. Don) Spach, has activity against hybrid imported fire ant workers, Solenopsis invicta Buren × Solenopsis richteri Forel. In digging assays, ants were repelled by nootka oil and digging continued to be suppressed by nearly 50% in nootka oil-treated sand aged 6 mo in the laboratory. Higher worker mortality was also observed in contact and fumigation assays compared to control checks. In a field drench test, mortality of mounds treated with nootka oil lagged behind mounds treated with bifenthrin treatment for 7 wk, but both nootka oil and bifenthrin had higher mortality than the untreated check at the end of the 12-wk evaluation period. In a band application evaluation, nootka oil plots maintained a 90-95% reduction in fire ant mounds from the 2nd to 17th wk, when new mounds began to intrude on the field plots. The quarantine-approved bifenthrin band treatment maintained 100% control from the 2nd to 24th wk. Although the formulation tested here did not perform to Federal Imported Fire Ant Quarantine standards, other formulations may enable this product to reach 100% control. In addition, nootka oil could be beneficial in situations where ant suppression rather than complete quarantine elimination is the management goal. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Video mediering i programmeringsundervisningen - brug af videoer til at udfolde programmeringsprocessen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Bennedsen

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Første gang publiceret i UNEV nr. 3: Internet Video: Teknik og pædagogik mødes på nettet, april - juni 2004, red. Jens Dørup. ISSN 1603-5518.

    Denne artikel belyser hvorledes video mediering har givet en værdifuld ekstra dimension i undervisningen i introducerende programmeringsfærdigheder. I forbindelse med programmering er et af de vigtigste mål at lære de studerende en systematisk tilgang til udviklingen af programmer. Det vil sige at understøtte de studerendes læring af programmeringsprocessen. Traditionelle medier som lærerbøger er meget lidt velegnede til at illustrere denne proces; de fokuserer på produkterne (de færdige programmer i stedet for at fokusere på produktionsprocessen. De videomedierede materialer er i denne sammenhæng optagelser af hvorledes underviseren løser praktiske programmeringsopgaver. Disse videoer kommunikerer vigtige pointer ved programmeringsprocessen såsom at der ikke en lige vej til det færdige produkt, at man anvender forskellige værktøjer, at man ændrer sit program, at man tester sit program undervejs mm. Jeg har identificeret fem forskellige kategorier af videomedierede undervisningsmaterialer og evalueret hvorledes de studerende har anvendt dem i et konkret kursusforløb. Evalueringen viser dels at de studerende anvender de fleste typer meget og finder dem meget anvendelige dels at videoer der blot dokumenterer forelæsninger ikke er ret benyttede.

  18. Influências de Atta spp. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae na recuperação da vegetação pós-fogo em floresta de transição amazônica Influences of leafcutter ant Atta spp. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae on vegetation recovery after fire in Amazonian transitional forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Santana Carvalho

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo investigou o papel das saúvas na recuperação da vegetação pós-fogo. Foi hipotetizado que a perturbação do fogo aumenta a abundância de ninhos de saúva (1 e as atividades de remoção de sementes (2 e desfolha (3, especialmente no ambiente de borda. Os ninhos de saúva foram inventariados e mapeados e após 17 meses, checados para o registro de sua atividade e de novas colônias emergindo na área. Realizou-se experimentos comparativos de remoção de sementes e desfolha de plântulas em duas parcelas de 50 ha, uma submetida a fogo anual (tratamento e outra sem fogo (controle. A abundância de ninhos de saúva foi maior na parcela tratamento que na parcela controle, especialmente na borda da floresta. As espécies encontradas foram: Atta cephalotes, A. laevigata e A. sexdens , sendo esta última a espécie mais abundante e que mostrou aumento em número de colônias ativas após 17 meses. O aumento na abundância de ninhos na parcela tratamento foi acompanhado por um aumento na atividade dessas formigas. Enquanto mais de duas folhas foram arrancadas por plântula nessa parcela, menos de uma foi registrada na parcela controle. Também a abundância média de galhos desfolhados e de sementes removidas por saúvas foi maior na parcela tratamento que na parcela controle. As saúvas tanto podem diminuir ou retardar o processo de regeneração florestal pós-fogo, quanto acelerá-lo, devido à elevada predação seletiva que favorece as espécies menos palatáveis. Desta forma, suas atividades podem modificador apenas a composição da vegetação recuperando-se do fogo.In this study we investigated the role of leaf-cutting ants in the post-fire vegetation recovery. We hypothesized that a forest plot submitted to annual fire presents: (1 higher abundance of leaf-cutting ant nests; (2 higher removal of seeds; and (3 higher herbivory rates of leaf-cutting ants, when compared to the forest plots without fire (control. The leaf

  19. RESISTÊNCIA DE ISCAS GRANULADAS, DISTRIBUÍDAS A GRANEL E EM MICROPORTA-ISCAS, À AÇÃO DA UMIDADE EM PLANTIO DE Pinus taeda NO PLANALTO SUL-CATARINENSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Alexandre Buratto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Control programs for leaf-cutting ants of the genus Acromyrmex in southern Brazil are poorly studied and the information comes from the control of the genus Atta and the damage caused by leaf-cutting ants in Eucalyptus spp. This lack of information about this ant makes some forest companies of Santa Catarina repeat patterns that are not suitable for infestations and for the species of leaf-cutting ants that occur in this state. Along with this, an inadequate distribution of bulk granular baits, in the four seasons, which end up degraded by excessive moisture caused by fog and by constant rainfall occurring in the region. Given this context, the experiments of this work had the following objectives: identify the species of leaf-cutting ants; determine the nest density per unit area; analyze and evaluate the influence of the year and the rainfall stations in each season, about the conservation and degradation of granulated baits based on sulfluramide (0.3% in bulk and distributed in the form of bait holder. To do so, experiments in Dois Irmãos Farm, owned by Florestal Rio Marombas company in areas of Pinus taeda L., located in the municipality of São Cristóvão do Sul, in the southern highlands of Santa Catarina state were installed. It was concluded that: the only species found in the leaf-cutting ant Acromyrmex crassispinus area is assessed (FOREL, 1909. At the experimental site there are 17 nests, the average is 0.94 nests per hectare, less than 1 m² each apparent area; moisture from southern Santa Catarina plateau region degrades the granulated baits distributed in bulk; the granulated baits distributed in bulk remain conserved seven days in the spring and three days in other seasons; the granulated baits distributed in bait holder remain preserved 15 days in the summer and 30 days in other seasons; the bait holder presents greater resistance to moisture in the field in relation to granulated baits distributed in bulk; the opening of the

  20. Mobil læring på danske universiteter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inger-Marie Christensen

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Tallene for 2012 taler for sig selv. Ca. 60 % af den voksne, danske befolkning ejer en smartphone og hele 75 % af de 15-34 årige (FDB Analyse, 2012. Andelen af befolkningen, der anvender en mobiltelefon til at gå på nettet er mere end fordoblet i løbet af 2 år (fra 23 % i 2010 til 55 % i 2012, ligesom de mobile aktiviteter har ændret sig mod en mere intensiv anvendelse af apps, sociale netværk, e-bøger og andre former for interaktive multimedier (Danmarks Statistik, 2012; Pew Internet, 2012; GSMA, 2011. 20 % af befolkningen ejer nu også en tablet-pc og denne andel er i kraftig vækst (FDB Analyse, 2012. Både på danske gymnasier og i universitetssammenhæng ser man ligeledes en stigende interesse for den mobile teknologi og dens anvendelse i undervisningen. Uddannelsesinstitutionerne ønsker bl.a. at tilbyde fleksibel adgang til undervisningsmaterialer samt at understøtte aktiv og studenter-centreret læring (Odder Gymnasium, 2012; Johnson et al., 2012; Johnson et al., 2013, og de studerende ønsker at gøre brug af de devices, der allerede er en naturlig del af deres andre gøremål og uformelle læringsaktiviteter (Uys, 2012; Johnson et al., 2013; GSMA, 2011[1]. Alt dette giver helt nye udfordringer og muligheder for universitetsundervisningen, for selvom teknologien er flittigt brugt til fx underholdning, kommunikation og informationssøgning, er det ikke altid klart, hvorledes den bedst kan benyttes til undervisningsaktiviteter. Det er derfor med fornøjelse, at vi i dette nummer af LOM kan præsentere en samling af artikler med dugfriske erfaringer om brugen af mobil teknologi i undervisningen. Artiklerne beretter om gode erfaringer ved brug af mobile teknologier såvel som udfordringer og barrierer. Du kan finde konkrete eksempler på, hvordan teknologien er blevet anvendt til forskellige undervisningsaktiviteter så som forelæsninger, til vejledning, i forbindelse med eksamen og i laboratorieundervisning, ligesom flere af

  1. The brain on itself: Nobel laureates and the history of fundamental nervous system function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langmoen, Iver A; Apuzzo, Michael L J

    2007-11-01

    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine has been given in recognition of work in the neurosciences a number of times. Laureates have been awarded for work on both fundamental and more complex nervous system functions. This review is restricted to contributions by 20th century laureates to the understanding of fundamental nervous system function on the cellular level. In 1906, Camillo Golgi and Ramón y Cajal were awarded for their work on the microscopic structure of the nervous system. Their achievement and those of others within this field, coupled with technological progress, gradually allowed more complex physiological studies. In 1932, the prize was awarded to Charles Sherrington and Edgar Adrian for their discoveries of how neurons function. They were followed in 1944 by Herbert Gasser and Joseph Erlanger who uncovered the highly differentiated functions of single nerve fibers. Alan Hodgkin and Andrew Huxley were awarded for the detection of the ionic mechanism of the action potential and its mathematical explanation in 1963. In 1991, Erwin Neher and Bernd Sakmann were awarded for their work on single ion channels. Although the scientists who proved the hypothesis (Fridjof Nansen, Wilhelm His, and August Forel) were never awarded by the Nobel Committee, their studies gave rise to one of the most fundamental questions in 20th century neuroscience: How is information carried from one neuron to another or to an effector cell? This was first solved in the vegetative nervous system, and, in 1936, Henry Dale and Otto Loewi received the prize for their discoveries relating to chemical transmission of nerve impulses. In 1963, John Eccles was awarded the prize for his work on the physiology of synapses. In 1970, Bernhard Katz received the Nobel Prize for the discovery of quantal release. Katz shared the prize with Julius Axelrod and Ulf von Euler, who were central in finding that transmitters are stored in presynaptic vesicles and that the effect in many synapses is

  2. Revitalisering af PBL i videregående uddannelser gennem Learning Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Davidsen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Gennem de sidste 10 år har større studenteroptag og begrænsede ressourcer på Aalborg Universitet (AAU ledt til flere klassiske forelæsninger, hvilket har resulteret i en udvanding og af de grundlæggende PBL principper. Vi argumenterer for, at en revitalisering af PBL gennem brugen af Learning Designs er en mulighed til at kvalificere den tilgang til læring og uddannelse, som i mere end 40 år har været kendetegn for AAU. Med afsæt i en case fra Kommunikation og Digitale Medier (KDM afdækker vi, hvordan Learning Design kan fungere som et deskriptivt sprog og en form, der kan danne grundlag for udvikling og kvalificering af kurser, undervisnings- og læringsaktiviteter. Indenfor feltet Learning Design spores to retninger: 1 en retning med fokus effektivisering og standardisering af uddannelse og 2 en retning med fokus på udvikling, formgivning og kvalificering af uddannelse. I denne artikel diskuterer vi potentialer og udfordringer ved at konceptualisere PBL forløb som et Learning Design. Abstract Through the last 10 years, increasing numbers of students and a lack of resources at Aalborg University (AAU have resulted in more classical lectures, which have occasioned a watering down and ritualization of the founding principles of PBL. In this paper, we argue that a revitalization of the PBL at AAU could be facilitated through the application of Learning Design. By using a case from Communication and Digital Media (CDM we explore how Learning Design can act as a descriptive language and form, which can support the development of courses, teaching, and learning activities. Within the field of Learning Design two positions can be identified: 1 a position focusing on finding more effect and standard ways of running education, and 2 a position focusing on development and design of education. In this paper we discuss potentials and challenges of conceptualizing PBL as a Learning Design.

  3. Citizens and satellites: Assessment of phytoplankton dynamics in a NW Mediterranean aquaculture zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Julia A.; Price, Ivan; Jeansou, Eric; Zielinski, Oliver; van der Woerd, Hendrik J.

    2016-05-01

    Ocean colour measurements from space are well suited to assess phytoplankton dynamics over broad spatial scales. Closer to the coast however, the quality of these data degrades as a result of the loading of sediments and dissolved matter from terrestrial runoff, the influences of land reflection on atmospheric correction and sea-bottom reflection, which compromise their use in coastal management actions. Recently, the enabling of citizens to provide environmental observations has gained recognition as a way for enhancing the spatio-temporal coverage of satellite observations. In the FP7 funded EU project "Citclops" (Citizens' observatory for coast and ocean optical monitoring), a smart phone app for the classification of water colour, simplified to 21 hues of the Forel Ule (FU) scale, is developed. In this study we examine two bays in the Ebro Delta (NW Mediterranean) where satellite data, hyperspectral measurements, and observations with the citizen tool for colour comparison were available. FU values and their corresponding novel colorimetric parameter, the hue colour angle, were derived in the bay at 12 stations with the traditional FU scale and one automated in-situ radiometric system at the Alfacs Bay aquaculture site. Both methods complied well during the study course of May-June 2011. These measurements were further compared to data from Full Resolution MERIS (Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer) satellite images. The quality of the retrieved hue angle varies over the image. For high-quality sites, MERIS hue colour angles and FU values gave a good estimate of seasonal algal dynamics in the bays over the year 2011, while ground measurements revealed colour changes over short space- and time frames, which are indicative of the fast dynamics of phytoplankton in the area that could not be fully resolved with MERIS data. The use of FU values and hue colour angle of water will allow a simple integration of data from hyperspectral measurements, MERIS

  4. Sedimentary processes and triggering mechanisms of debris flows in subaquatic canyons in Rhone delta (Lake Geneva, Switzerland, France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corella, J. P.; Loizeau, J. L.; Le Dantec, N.; Sastre, V.; Anselmetti, F. S.; Stark, N.; del Sontro, T.; Girardclos, S.

    2012-04-01

    Subaquatic canyons in deltas are major pathways for the transport of particles from land to the deep basins. They represent active environments with frequent deltaic failures and mass-movement deposits potentially leading to hazardous (tsunami waves) and economic (infrastructure damages) implications. Understanding sedimentary processes and mass-movement triggering mechanisms is crucial to assess related consequences and to carry out geological risk assessments. The Rhone River delta in Lake Geneva (Switzerland, France) is a complex underwater structure with several active and inactive subaquatic canyons, similar to marine deltas but at a smaller scale. The difference between two bathymetric surveys in 1986 and 2002 revealed an inversion in the topography of the distal active canyon, as a former distal canyon was transformed into a mound-like structure. A 12 m-thick layer was deposited in the canyon and modified the sediment transfer conduit. Sediment cores from this deposit were retrieved in-situ in 2002 and 2011 via the "F.-A. Forel" and Russian MIR submersibles, respectively. These cores contained a homogeneous, sandy material. Its sediment texture, grain-size, high density and shear strength, and low water content suggests that it corresponds to a debris-flow deposit that possibly took place after the initiation of a mass movement due to a scarp failure in proximal areas of the canyon. In addition, in-situ geotechnical tests on the modern canyon floor have shown a soft top layer above a stiffer substratum. This soft layer, which increases in thickness towards distal areas, may act as a basal surface for hydroplaning, and might have allowed the debrite to be transported ~9 km away from the source of the scarp failure. Similarities in textures and grain-size of the debris flow and levee deposits hints at proximal northern levee as the source of this material. Rapid sediment loading in this area, at the rate of >3cm/yr, steep slopes in the canyon walls and

  5. A novel assistive method for rigidity evaluation during deep brain stimulation surgery using acceleration sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Ashesh; Coste, Jérôme; Lemaire, Jean-Jacques; Schkommodau, Erik; Taub, Ethan; Guzman, Raphael; Derost, Philippe; Hemm, Simone

    2017-09-01

    analyzed, the number of sites where rigidity-suppressing amplitudes were found increased from 144 to 170 when the accelerometer evaluations were considered. In general, rigidity release could be observed at significantly lower amplitudes with accelerometer evaluation (mean 0.9 ± 0.6 mA) than with subjective evaluation (mean 1.4 ± 0.6 mA) (p stimulation in the fields of Forel ameliorates rigidity at similar amplitudes as stimulation in the subthalamic nucleus, but with fewer side effects. CONCLUSIONS This article describes and validates a new assistive method for assessing rigidity with acceleration sensors during intraoperative stimulation tests in DBS procedures. The initial results indicate that the proposed method may be a clinically useful aid for optimal DBS lead placement as well as a new tool in the ongoing scientific search for the optimal DBS target for PD.

  6. Environmental and human impact on the sedimentary dynamic in the Rhone Delta subaquatic canyons (France-Switzerland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arantegui, A.; Corella, J. P.; Loizeau, J. L.; Anselmetti, F. S.; Girardclos, S.

    2012-04-01

    Deltas are very sensitive environments and highly vulnerable to variations in water discharge and the amount of suspended sediment load provided by the delta-forming currents. Human activities in the watershed, such as building of dams and irrigation ditches, or river bed deviations, may affect the discharge regime and sediment input, thus affecting delta growth. Underwater currents create deeply incised canyons cutting into the delta lobes. Understanding the sedimentary processes in these subaquatic canyons is crucial to reconstruct the fluvial evolution and human impact on deltaic environments and to carry out a geological risk assessment related to mass movements, which may affect underwater structures and civil infractructure. Recently acquired high-resolution multibeam bathymetry on the Rhone Delta in Lake Geneva (Sastre et al. 2010) revealed the complexity of the underwater morphology formed by active and inactive canyons first described by Forel (1892). In order to unravel the sedimentary processes and sedimentary evolution in these canyons, 27 sediment cores were retrieved in the distal part of each canyon and in the canyon floor/levee complex of the active canyon. Geophysical, sedimentological, geochemical and radiometric dating techniques were applied to analyse these cores. Preliminary data show that only the canyon originating at the current river mouth is active nowadays, while the others remain inactive since engineering works in the watershed occurred, confirming Sastre et al. (2010). However, alternating hemipelagic and turbiditic deposits on the easternmost canyons, evidence underflow processes during the last decades as well. Two canyons, which are located close to the Rhone river mouth, correspond to particularly interesting deeply incised crevasse channels formed when the underwater current broke through the outer bend of a meander in the proximal northern levee. In these canyons, turbidites occur in the sediment record indicating ongoing

  7. The origin of the attine ant-fungus mutualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, U G; Schultz, T R; Currie, C R; Adams, R M; Malloch, D

    2001-06-01

    Cultivation of fungus for food originated about 45-65 million years ago in the ancestor of fungus-growing ants (Formicidae, tribe Attini), representing an evolutionary transition from the life of a hunter-gatherer of arthropod prey, nectar, and other plant juices, to the life of a farmer subsisting on cultivated fungi. Seven hypotheses have been suggested for the origin of attine fungiculture, each differing with respect to the substrate used by the ancestral attine ants for fungal cultivation. Phylogenetic information on the cultivated fungi, in conjunction with information on the nesting biology of extant attine ants and their presumed closest relatives, reveal that the attine ancestors probably did not encounter their cultivars-to-be in seed stores (von Ihering 1894), in rotting wood (Forel 1902), as mycorrhizae (Garling 1979), on arthropod corpses (von Ihering 1894) or ant faeces in nest middens (Wheeler 1907). Rather, the attine ant-fungus mutualism probably arose from adventitious interactions with fungi that grew on walls of nests built in leaf litter (Emery 1899), or from a system of fungal myrmecochory in which specialized fungi relied on ants for dispersal (Bailey 1920) and in which the ants fortuitously vectored these fungi from parent to offspring nests prior to a true fungicultural stage. Reliance on fungi as a dominant food source has evolved only twice in ants: first in the attine ants, and second in some ant species in the solenopsidine genus Megalomyrmex that either coexist as trophic parasites in gardens of attine hosts or aggressively usurp gardens from them. All other known ant-fungus associations are either adventitious or have nonnutritional functions (e.g., strengthening of carton-walls in ant nests). There exist no unambiguous reports of facultative mycophagy in ants, but such trophic ant-fungus interactions would most likely occur underground or in leaf litter and thus escape easy observation. Indirect evidence of fungivory can be deduced

  8. Osteoporose – risikofaktor eller sykdom? Definisjon, utbredelse, årsaker, diagnostisering og forebyggende tiltak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Johanne Søgaard

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available  SAMMENDRAGVi vet foreløpig lite om utbredelsen av osteoporose i Norge – dvs. bentetthet (BMD minst 2,5 standardavvikunder gjennomsnittet for unge kvinner. Vi vet heller ikke om det har vært noen økning de siste 10-årene.Denne artikkelen gir en oversikten over emnet osteoporose – med vekt på risikofaktorer og forebyggendetiltak, og drøfter WHOs definisjon av osteoporose. I henhold til denne er osteoporose både en risikofaktor forbrudd – og en betegnelse på en tilstand som forutsetter minst ett brudd (etablert osteoporose. Definisjoneninnebærer at diagnosen osteoporose avhenger av det normalmaterialet man sammenliker med, og medfører aten meget stor andel av norske kvinner over 70 år vil få diagnosen osteoporose. En slik medikalisering vilkunne føre til hyppige legekontroller, angst og lavere fysisk aktivitet av redsel for å falle. Osteoporose erasymptomatisk før man har fått brudd, og har ingen automatiske behandlingsmessige konsekvenser. Man kanlikevel frykte at WHOs definisjon vil tvinge frem krav om medikamentell forebyggende behandling. Dette erproblematisk fordi det er stor overlapping i bentetthet mellom de som får brudd og de som ikke får. Måling avBMD er imidlertid den beste metoden vi i dag har for å forutsi brudd – og er like god som blodtrykksmåling ertil å forutsi slag. For å vurdere individuell risiko, bør imidlertid flere risikofaktorer for brudd kombineres. Deviktigste risikofaktorene for lav bentetthet er: lav kroppsvekt/lav relativ vekt, vektreduksjon, lavt inntak avkalsium/D-vitamin, røyking, tidlig menopause, inaktivitet, høyt alkoholkonsum og genetiske faktorer. Tiltakmed fokus på noen av disse har vist positiv effekt på BMD.Søgaard AJ. Osteoporosis – risk factor or disease? Definition, distribution, aetiology, diagnosis and  ENGLISH SUMMARYAt present we do not know the distribution of osteoporosis in the Norwegian population – i.e. bone mineraldensity (BMD below 2.5 standard