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Sample records for sex2 med1 med2

  1. Mars 2020 Entry, Descent and Landing Instrumentation (MEDLI2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Deepak; Wright, Henry; White, Todd; Schoenenberger, Mark; Santos, Jose; Karlgaard, Chris; Kuhl, Chris; Oishi, TOmo; Trombetta, Dominic

    2016-01-01

    This paper will introduce Mars Entry Descent and Landing Instrumentation (MEDLI2) on NASA's Mars2020 mission. Mars2020 is a flagship NASA mission with science and technology objectives to help answer questions about possibility of life on Mars as well as to demonstrate technologies for future human expedition. Mars2020 is scheduled for launch in 2020. MEDLI2 is a suite of instruments embedded in the heatshield and backshell thermal protection systems of Mars2020 entry vehicle. The objectives of MEDLI2 are to gather critical aerodynamics, aerothermodynamics and TPS performance data during EDL phase of the mission. MEDLI2 builds up the success of MEDLI flight instrumentation on Mars Science Laboratory mission in 2012. MEDLI instrumentation suite measured surface pressure and TPS temperature on the heatshield during MSL entry into Mars. MEDLI data has since been used for unprecedented reconstruction of aerodynamic drag, vehicle attitude, in-situ atmospheric density, aerothermal heating, transition to turbulence, in-depth TPS performance and TPS ablation. [1,2] In addition to validating predictive models, MEDLI data has highlighted extra margin available in the MSL forebody TPS, which can potentially be used to reduce vehicle parasitic mass. MEDLI2 expands the scope of instrumentation by focusing on quantities of interest not addressed in MEDLI suite. The type the sensors are expanded and their layout on the TPS modified to meet these new objectives. The paper will provide key motivation and governing requirements that drive the choice and the implementation of the new sensor suite. The implementation considerations of sensor selection, qualification, and demonstration of minimal risk to the host mission will be described. The additional challenges associated with mechanical accommodation, electrical impact, data storage and retrieval for MEDLI2 system, which extends sensors to backshell will also be described.

  2. MED1 independent activation of endogenous target genes by PPARα

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøntved, Lars; Bugge, Anne K.; Roeder, Robert G.

    The mediator complex serves as a transcriptional co-activator complex by acting as a bridge between promoter-bound transcription factors and the preinitiation complex. Genetic and biochemical studies indicate that nuclear receptors recruit the mediator complex through direct interaction with the ......The mediator complex serves as a transcriptional co-activator complex by acting as a bridge between promoter-bound transcription factors and the preinitiation complex. Genetic and biochemical studies indicate that nuclear receptors recruit the mediator complex through direct interaction...... derived from TRAP220 KO mice. Interestingly, rescue experiments in confluent TRAP220 KO MEFs with different versions of MED1 indicate that the LXXLL motif is not necessary for PPARgamma mediated gene activation (Ge et al, MCB published online ahead of print 2007). By analogy, we show here that MED1...... is dispensable for PPARalpha transcriptional activity in proliferating but is necessary in confluent AML-12 cells and TRAP220 KO MEFs. Collectively this indicates that the PPARs might have adopted an alternative mediator recruitment mechanism that is dispensable of direct interaction with MED1 on endogenous...

  3. Arbejdspladsvurdering i små virksomheder med 1-4 ansatte

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasle, Peter; Esben, Dalskinn

    En analyse af mulighederne for at gennemføre arbejdspladsvurdering i mikrovirksomheder med 1-4 ansatte.......En analyse af mulighederne for at gennemføre arbejdspladsvurdering i mikrovirksomheder med 1-4 ansatte....

  4. Mediator subunit MED1 is a T3-dependent and T3-independent coactivator on the thyrotropin β gene promoter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsui, Keiji; Oda, Kasumi; Mizuta, Shumpei; Ishino, Ruri; Urahama, Norinaga; Hasegawa, Natsumi [Laboratory of Hematology, Division of Medical Biophysics, Kobe University Graduate School of Health Sciences, 7-10-2 Tomogaoka, Suma-ku, Kobe 654-0142 (Japan); Roeder, Robert G. [Laboratory of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, The Rockefeller University, 1230 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Ito, Mitsuhiro, E-mail: itomi@med.kobe-u.ac.jp [Laboratory of Hematology, Division of Medical Biophysics, Kobe University Graduate School of Health Sciences, 7-10-2 Tomogaoka, Suma-ku, Kobe 654-0142 (Japan); Laboratory of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, The Rockefeller University, 1230 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Department of Family and Community Medicine, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-1 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe 654-0142 (Japan); Consolidated Research Institute for Advanced Science and Medical Care, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 159-8555 (Japan)

    2013-10-11

    Highlights: •MED1 is a bona fide T3-dependent coactivator on TSHB promoter. •Mice with LxxLL-mutant MED1 have attenuated TSHβ mRNA and thyroid hormone levels. •MED1 activates TSHB promoter T3-dependently in cultured cells. •T3-dependent MED1 action is enhanced when SRC1/SRC2 or HDAC2 is downregulated. •MED1 is also a T3-independent GATA2/Pit1 coactivator on TSHB promoter. -- Abstract: The MED1 subunit of the Mediator transcriptional coregulator complex is a nuclear receptor-specific coactivator. A negative feedback mechanism of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH, or thyrotropin) expression in the thyrotroph in the presence of triiodothyronine (T3) is employed by liganded thyroid hormone receptor β (TRβ) on the TSHβ gene promoter, where conventional histone-modifying coactivators act as corepressors. We now provide evidence that MED1 is a ligand-dependent positive cofactor on this promoter. TSHβ gene transcription was attenuated in MED1 mutant mice in which the nuclear receptor-binding ability of MED1 was specifically disrupted. MED1 stimulated GATA2- and Pit1-mediated TSHβ gene promoter activity in a ligand-independent manner in cultured cells. MED1 also stimulated transcription from the TSHβ gene promoter in a T3-dependent manner. The transcription was further enhanced when the T3-dependent corepressors SRC1, SRC2, and HDAC2 were downregulated. Hence, MED1 is a T3-dependent and -independent coactivator on the TSHβ gene promoter.

  5. Silencing MED1 sensitizes breast cancer cells to pure anti-estrogen fulvestrant in vitro and in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijiang Zhang

    Full Text Available Pure anti-estrogen fulvestrant has been shown to be a promising ER antagonist for locally advanced and metastatic breast cancer. Unfortunately, a significant proportion of patients developed resistance to this type of endocrine therapy but the molecular mechanisms governing cellular responsiveness to this agent remain poorly understood. Here, we've reported that knockdown of estrogen receptor coactivator MED1 sensitized fulvestrant resistance breast cancer cells to fulvestrant treatment. We found that MED1 knockdown further promoted cell cycle arrest induced by fulvestrant. Using an orthotopic xenograft mouse model, we found that knockdown of MED1 significantly reduced tumor growth in mice. Importantly, knockdown of MED1 further potentiated tumor growth inhibition by fulvestrant. Mechanistic studies indicated that combination of fulvestrant treatment and MED1 knockdown is able to cooperatively inhibit the expression of ER target genes. Chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments further supported a role for MED1 in regulating the recruitment of RNA polymerase II and transcriptional corepressor HDAC1 on endogenous ER target gene promoter in the presence of fulvestrant. These results demonstrate a role for MED1 in mediating resistance to the pure anti-estrogen fulvestrant both in vitro and in vivo.

  6. Cardiomyocyte-Specific Ablation of Med1 Subunit of the Mediator Complex Causes Lethal Dilated Cardiomyopathy in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yuzhi; Chang, Hsiang-Chun; Schipma, Matthew J; Liu, Jing; Shete, Varsha; Liu, Ning; Sato, Tatsuya; Thorp, Edward B; Barger, Philip M; Zhu, Yi-Jun; Viswakarma, Navin; Kanwar, Yashpal S; Ardehali, Hossein; Thimmapaya, Bayar; Reddy, Janardan K

    2016-01-01

    Mediator, an evolutionarily conserved multi-protein complex consisting of about 30 subunits, is a key component of the polymerase II mediated gene transcription. Germline deletion of the Mediator subunit 1 (Med1) of the Mediator in mice results in mid-gestational embryonic lethality with developmental impairment of multiple organs including heart. Here we show that cardiomyocyte-specific deletion of Med1 in mice (csMed1-/-) during late gestational and early postnatal development by intercrossing Med1fl/fl mice to α-MyHC-Cre transgenic mice results in lethality within 10 days after weaning due to dilated cardiomyopathy-related ventricular dilation and heart failure. The csMed1-/- mouse heart manifests mitochondrial damage, increased apoptosis and interstitial fibrosis. Global gene expression analysis revealed that loss of Med1 in heart down-regulates more than 200 genes including Acadm, Cacna1s, Atp2a2, Ryr2, Pde1c, Pln, PGC1α, and PGC1β that are critical for calcium signaling, cardiac muscle contraction, arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy, dilated cardiomyopathy and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor regulated energy metabolism. Many genes essential for oxidative phosphorylation and proper mitochondrial function such as genes coding for the succinate dehydrogenase subunits of the mitochondrial complex II are also down-regulated in csMed1-/- heart contributing to myocardial injury. Data also showed up-regulation of about 180 genes including Tgfb2, Ace, Atf3, Ctgf, Angpt14, Col9a2, Wisp2, Nppa, Nppb, and Actn1 that are linked to cardiac muscle contraction, cardiac hypertrophy, cardiac fibrosis and myocardial injury. Furthermore, we demonstrate that cardiac specific deletion of Med1 in adult mice using tamoxifen-inducible Cre approach (TmcsMed1-/-), results in rapid development of cardiomyopathy and death within 4 weeks. We found that the key findings of the csMed1-/- studies described above are highly reproducible in TmcsMed1-/- mouse heart

  7. A muscle-specific knockout implicates nuclear receptor coactivator MED1 in the regulation of glucose and energy metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Zhang, Xiaoting; Birsoy, Kivanc; Roeder, Robert G

    2010-06-01

    As conventional transcriptional factors that are activated in diverse signaling pathways, nuclear receptors play important roles in many physiological processes that include energy homeostasis. The MED1 subunit of the Mediator coactivator complex plays a broad role in nuclear receptor-mediated transcription by anchoring the Mediator complex to diverse promoter-bound nuclear receptors. Given the significant role of skeletal muscle, in part through the action of nuclear receptors, in glucose and fatty acid metabolism, we generated skeletal muscle-specific Med1 knockout mice. Importantly, these mice show enhanced insulin sensitivity and improved glucose tolerance as well as resistance to high-fat diet-induced obesity. Furthermore, the white muscle of these mice exhibits increased mitochondrial density and expression of genes specific to type I and type IIA fibers, indicating a fast-to-slow fiber switch, as well as markedly increased expression of the brown adipose tissue-specific UCP-1 and Cidea genes that are involved in respiratory uncoupling. These dramatic results implicate MED1 as a powerful suppressor in skeletal muscle of genetic programs implicated in energy expenditure and raise the significant possibility of therapeutical approaches for metabolic syndromes and muscle diseases through modulation of MED1-nuclear receptor interactions.

  8. Med1 subunit of the mediator complex in nuclear receptor-regulated energy metabolism, liver regeneration, and hepatocarcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yuzhi; Viswakarma, Navin; Reddy, Janardan K

    2014-01-01

    Several nuclear receptors regulate diverse metabolic functions that impact on critical biological processes, such as development, differentiation, cellular regeneration, and neoplastic conversion. In the liver, some members of the nuclear receptor family, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), farnesoid X receptor (FXR), liver X receptor (LXR), pregnane X receptor (PXR), glucocorticoid receptor (GR), and others, regulate energy homeostasis, the formation and excretion of bile acids, and detoxification of xenobiotics. Excess energy burning resulting from increases in fatty acid oxidation systems in liver generates reactive oxygen species, and the resulting oxidative damage influences liver regeneration and liver tumor development. These nuclear receptors are important sensors of exogenous activators as well as receptor-specific endogenous ligands. In this regard, gene knockout mouse models revealed that some lipid-metabolizing enzymes generate PPARα-activating ligands, while others such as ACOX1 (fatty acyl-CoA oxidase1) inactivate these endogenous PPARα activators. In the absence of ACOX1, the unmetabolized ACOX1 substrates cause sustained activation of PPARα, and the resulting increase in energy burning leads to hepatocarcinogenesis. Ligand-activated nuclear receptors recruit the multisubunit Mediator complex for RNA polymerase II-dependent gene transcription. Evidence indicates that the Med1 subunit of the Mediator is essential for PPARα, PPARγ, CAR, and GR signaling in liver. Med1 null hepatocytes fail to respond to PPARα activators in that these cells do not show induction of peroxisome proliferation and increases in fatty acid oxidation enzymes. Med1-deficient hepatocytes show no increase in cell proliferation and do not give rise to liver tumors. Identification of nuclear receptor-specific coactivators and Mediator subunits should further our understanding of the complexities of metabolic

  9. SIMPL enhancement of tumor necrosis factor-α dependent p65-MED1 complex formation is required for mammalian hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weina Zhao

    Full Text Available Significant insight into the signaling pathways leading to activation of the Rel transcription factor family, collectively termed NF-κB, has been gained. Less well understood is how subsets of NF-κB-dependent genes are regulated in a signal specific manner. The SIMPL protein (signaling molecule that interacts with mouse pelle-like kinase is required for full Tumor Necrosis Factor-α (TNFα induced NF-κB activity. We show that SIMPL is required for steady-state hematopoiesis and the expression of a subset of TNFα induced genes whose products regulate hematopoietic cell activity. To gain insight into the mechanism through which SIMPL modulates gene expression we focused on the Tnf gene, an immune response regulator required for steady-state hematopoiesis. In response to TNFα SIMPL localizes to the Tnf gene promoter where it modulates the initiation of Tnf gene transcription. SIMPL binding partners identified by mass spectrometry include proteins involved in transcription and the interaction between SIMPL and MED1 was characterized in more detail. In response to TNFα, SIMPL is found in p65-MED1 complexes where SIMPL enhances p65/MED1/SIMPL complex formation. Together our results indicate that SIMPL functions as a TNFα-dependent p65 co-activator by facilitating the recruitment of MED1 to p65 containing transcriptional complexes to control the expression of a subset of TNFα-induced genes.

  10. PRDM16 enhances nuclear receptor-dependent transcription of the brown fat-specific Ucp1 gene through interactions with Mediator subunit MED1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iida, Satoshi; Chen, Wei; Nakadai, Tomoyoshi; Ohkuma, Yoshiaki; Roeder, Robert G

    2015-02-01

    PR domain-containing 16 (PRDM16) induces expression of brown fat-specific genes in brown and beige adipocytes, although the underlying transcription-related mechanisms remain largely unknown. Here, in vitro studies show that PRDM16, through its zinc finger domains, directly interacts with the MED1 subunit of the Mediator complex, is recruited to the enhancer of the brown fat-specific uncoupling protein 1 (Ucp1) gene through this interaction, and enhances thyroid hormone receptor (TR)-driven transcription in a biochemically defined system in a Mediator-dependent manner, thus providing a direct link to the general transcription machinery. Complementary cell-based studies show that upon forskolin treatment, PRDM16 induces Ucp1 expression in undifferentiated murine embryonic fibroblasts, that this induction depends on MED1 and TR, and, consistent with a direct effect, that PRDM16 is recruited to the Ucp1 enhancer. Related studies have defined MED1 and PRDM16 interaction domains important for Ucp1 versus Ppargc1a induction by PRDM16. These results reveal novel mechanisms for PRDM16 function through the Mediator complex. © 2015 Iida et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  11. The Arabidopsis mediator complex subunits MED16, MED14, and MED2 regulate mediator and RNA polymerase II recruitment to CBF-responsive cold-regulated genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemsley, Piers A; Hurst, Charlotte H; Kaliyadasa, Ewon; Lamb, Rebecca; Knight, Marc R; De Cothi, Elizabeth A; Steele, John F; Knight, Heather

    2014-01-01

    The Mediator16 (MED16; formerly termed SENSITIVE TO FREEZING6 [SFR6]) subunit of the plant Mediator transcriptional coactivator complex regulates cold-responsive gene expression in Arabidopsis thaliana, acting downstream of the C-repeat binding factor (CBF) transcription factors to recruit the core Mediator complex to cold-regulated genes. Here, we use loss-of-function mutants to show that RNA polymerase II recruitment to CBF-responsive cold-regulated genes requires MED16, MED2, and MED14 subunits. Transcription of genes known to be regulated via CBFs binding to the C-repeat motif/drought-responsive element promoter motif requires all three Mediator subunits, as does cold acclimation-induced freezing tolerance. In addition, these three subunits are required for low temperature-induced expression of some other, but not all, cold-responsive genes, including genes that are not known targets of CBFs. Genes inducible by darkness also required MED16 but required a different combination of Mediator subunits for their expression than the genes induced by cold. Together, our data illustrate that plants control transcription of specific genes through the action of subsets of Mediator subunits; the specific combination defined by the nature of the stimulus but also by the identity of the gene induced.

  12. Towards PubMed 2.0.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorini, Nicolas; Lipman, David J; Lu, Zhiyong

    2017-10-30

    Staff from the National Center for Biotechnology Information in the US describe recent improvements to the PubMed search engine and outline plans for the future, including a new experimental site called PubMed Labs.

  13. QTL list: sex2.1 [PGDBj Registered plant list, Marker list, QTL list, Plant DB link and Genome analysis methods[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available QT64906 Cucumis sativus Cucurbitaceae sex2.1 Female flower ratio gynoecious (F) locus (sex...2.1), small spines (ss) locus (sex6.1) ... CS15 LG_06 ... 35.3 6.56 ... 10.1007/s10681-008-9722-5 ...

  14. QTL list: sex2.2 [PGDBj Registered plant list, Marker list, QTL list, Plant DB link and Genome analysis methods[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available QT64903 Cucumis sativus Cucurbitaceae sex2.2 Female flower ratio gynoecious (F) locus (sex...2.1), small spines (ss) locus (sex6.1) ... F LG_02 ... 10.5 84.44 ... 10.1007/s10681-008-9722-5 ...

  15. QTL list: sex2.1 [PGDBj Registered plant list, Marker list, QTL list, Plant DB link and Genome analysis methods[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available QT64905 Cucumis sativus Cucurbitaceae sex2.1 Female flower ratio gynoecious (F) locus (sex...2.1), small spines (ss) locus (sex6.1) ... e7m18b LG_02 ... 91.6 3.51 ... 10.1007/s10681-008-9722-5 ...

  16. QTL list: sex2.1 [PGDBj Registered plant list, Marker list, QTL list, Plant DB link and Genome analysis methods[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available QT64902 Cucumis sativus Cucurbitaceae sex2.1 Female flower ratio gynoecious (F) locus (sex...2.1), small spines (ss) locus (sex6.1) ... S94A1 LG_02 ... 9.2 72.94 ... 10.1007/s10681-008-9722-5 ...

  17. The Arabidopsis Mediator Complex Subunits MED16, MED14, and MED2 Regulate Mediator and RNA Polymerase II Recruitment to CBF-Responsive Cold-Regulated Genes[C][W][OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemsley, Piers A.; Hurst, Charlotte H.; Kaliyadasa, Ewon; Lamb, Rebecca; Knight, Marc R.; De Cothi, Elizabeth A.; Steele, John F.; Knight, Heather

    2014-01-01

    The Mediator16 (MED16; formerly termed SENSITIVE TO FREEZING6 [SFR6]) subunit of the plant Mediator transcriptional coactivator complex regulates cold-responsive gene expression in Arabidopsis thaliana, acting downstream of the C-repeat binding factor (CBF) transcription factors to recruit the core Mediator complex to cold-regulated genes. Here, we use loss-of-function mutants to show that RNA polymerase II recruitment to CBF-responsive cold-regulated genes requires MED16, MED2, and MED14 subunits. Transcription of genes known to be regulated via CBFs binding to the C-repeat motif/drought-responsive element promoter motif requires all three Mediator subunits, as does cold acclimation–induced freezing tolerance. In addition, these three subunits are required for low temperature–induced expression of some other, but not all, cold-responsive genes, including genes that are not known targets of CBFs. Genes inducible by darkness also required MED16 but required a different combination of Mediator subunits for their expression than the genes induced by cold. Together, our data illustrate that plants control transcription of specific genes through the action of subsets of Mediator subunits; the specific combination defined by the nature of the stimulus but also by the identity of the gene induced. PMID:24415770

  18. Disruption and functional analysis of seven ORFs on chromosome IV: YDL057w, YDL012c, YDL010w, YDL009c, YDL008w (APC11), YDL005c (MED2) and YDL003w (MCD1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, K N; Iwanejko, L; Loeillet, S; Fabre, F; Nicolas, A

    1999-09-15

    In the context of the EUROFAN project, we have carried out the systematic disruption of seven ORFs on chromosome IV of Saccharomyces cerevisiae using the long flanking homology technique to replace each ORF with the KanMX cassette. Targeted disruption of YDL057w, YDL012c, or YDL010w with YDL009c (the two ORFs overlap) confers no overt defects in haploid growth on a variety of media at different temperatures, in mating, or in the sporulation of diploids homozygous for the disruption. By contrast, YDL008w and YDL003w disruptants are non-viable. The product of YDL008w (elsewhere identified as APC11) is a component of the anaphase promoting complex. YDL003w (also termed MCD1) is a homologue of Schizosaccharomyces pombe rad21, an essential gene implicated in DNA double-strand break repair and nuclear organization in fission yeast. In budding yeast, this ORF has been shown by several laboratories to encode a protein involved in sister chromatid cohesion and chromosome condensation. The remaining ORF, YDL005c (also termed MED2), encodes a component of the transcriptional activator complex known as Mediator. Disruption of YDL005c confers a modest slow growth phenotype on rich medium and a more severe phenotype on minimal medium, aberrant cellular morphology, and mating defects; diploids homozygous for the disruption cannot sporulate. Copyright 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Thermodynamic consideration and ground-state search of icosahedral boron subselenide B12(B1-xSex) 2 from a first-principles cluster expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ektarawong, A.

    2018-05-01

    The phase stability of icosahedral boron subselenide B12(B1-xSex) 2 , where 0.5 ≤x ≤1 , is explored using a first-principles cluster expansion. The results shows that, instead of a continuous solid solution, B12(B1-xSex) 2 is thermodynamically stable as an individual line compound at the composition of B9.5Se . The ground-state configuration of B9.5Se is represented by a mixture of B12(Se-Se), B12(B-Se), and B12(Se-B) with a ratio of 1:1:1, where they form a periodic A B C A B C ⋯ stacking sequence of B12(Se-Se), B12(B-Se), and B12(Se-B) layers along the c axis of the hexagonal conventional unit cell. The structural and electronic properties of the ground-state B9.5Se are also derived and discussed. By comparing the derived ground-state properties of B9.5Se to the existing experimental data of boron subselenide B˜13Se , I proposed that the as-synthesized boron subselenide B˜13Se , as reported in the literature, has the actual composition of B9.5Se .

  20. Alloying as a Route to Monolayer Transition Metal Dichalcogenides with Improved Optoelectronic Performance: Mo(S1–xSex)2 and Mo1–yWyS2

    KAUST Repository

    Shi, Zhiming; Zhang, Qingyun; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2018-01-01

    –xSex)2 and Mo1–yWyS2 with x = 1/3, 2/3 and y = 1/3, 1/2, 2/3 are stable according to phonon calculations and realize 1T′ or 1T″ phases. The transition barriers from the 2H phase are lower than for monolayer MoS2, implying that the 1T′ or 1T″ phases

  1. Alloying as a Route to Monolayer Transition Metal Dichalcogenides with Improved Optoelectronic Performance: Mo(S1–xSex)2 and Mo1–yWyS2

    KAUST Repository

    Shi, Zhiming

    2018-04-26

    On the basis of first-principles and cluster expansion calculations, we propose an effective approach to realize monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides with sizable band gaps and improved optoelectronic performance. We show that monolayer Mo(S1–xSex)2 and Mo1–yWyS2 with x = 1/3, 2/3 and y = 1/3, 1/2, 2/3 are stable according to phonon calculations and realize 1T′ or 1T″ phases. The transition barriers from the 2H phase are lower than for monolayer MoS2, implying that the 1T′ or 1T″ phases can be achieved experimentally. Furthermore, it turns out that the 1T″ monolayer alloys with x = 1/3, 2/3 and y = 1/3, 2/3 are semiconductors with band gaps larger than 1 eV, due to trimerization. The visible light absorption and carrier mobility are strongly improved as compared to 2H monolayer MoS2, MoSe2, and WS2. Thus, the 1T″ monolayer alloys have the potential to expand the applications of transition metal dichalcogenides, for example, in solar cells.

  2. Targeting MED1 LxxLL Motifs for Tissue-Selective Treatment of Human Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Tuerk and Gold, 1990). These RNA molecules were termed as “aptamers,” with etymology stemming from the Greek word aptus, which means “to fit...molecular imaging. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 399, 1591-1599. Thiel, K.W., and Giangrande, P.H. (2010). Intracellular delivery of RNA-based

  3. Targeting MED1 LxxLL Motifs for Tissue-Selective Treatment of Human Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    microRNA, antisense oligonucleotides, and RNA aptamers, has long been extensively studied (Guo 2010; Keefe et al. 2010; Levy-Nissenbaum et al. 2008; Que...targeted drug delivery when compared with DNA aptamers, protein aptamers, and antibodies (Guo 2010; Keefe et al. 2010; Que-Gewirth and Sullenger...or even organisms (Dua et al. 2011; Keefe et al. 2010; Levy-Nissenbaum et al. 2008; Thiel and Giangrande 2010). Those that do not bind to the target

  4. Targeting MED1 LxxLL Motifs for Tissue-Selective Treatment of Human Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    AU U UG AU AU CG UA GC au gc gc AA AA AU CG UA GC UA CG UA AU UA UA CG CG UA UA GC GC AU CG GC GU 5́ 3́ U U MG aptamer Survivin siRNA Folate ...DNA/RNA sequence FIGURE 19.5 Diagram of RNA nanoparticle harboring malachite green aptamer, survivin siRNA and folate -DNA/RNA sequence for targeting...modifications were extensively exam- ined to increase its stability in serum by fluori- nation, methylation , and addition of a 3’-3’-linked

  5. Mediator Complex Subunits MED2, MED5, MED16, and MED23 Genetically Interact in the Regulation of Phenylpropanoid Biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, Whitney L; Dilkes, Brian P; Stout, Jake M; Bonawitz, Nicholas D; Chapple, Clint

    2017-12-01

    The phenylpropanoid pathway is a major global carbon sink and is important for plant fitness and the engineering of bioenergy feedstocks. In Arabidopsis thaliana , disruption of two subunits of the transcriptional regulatory Mediator complex, MED5a and MED5b, results in an increase in phenylpropanoid accumulation. By contrast, the semidominant MED5b mutation reduced epidermal fluorescence4-3 ( ref4-3 ) results in dwarfism and constitutively repressed phenylpropanoid accumulation. Here, we report the results of a forward genetic screen for suppressors of ref4-3. We identified 13 independent lines that restore growth and/or phenylpropanoid accumulation in the ref4-3 background. Two of the suppressors restore growth without restoring soluble phenylpropanoid accumulation, indicating that the growth and metabolic phenotypes of the ref4-3 mutant can be genetically disentangled. Whole-genome sequencing revealed that all but one of the suppressors carry mutations in MED5b or other Mediator subunits. RNA-seq analysis showed that the ref4-3 mutation causes widespread changes in gene expression, including the upregulation of negative regulators of the phenylpropanoid pathway, and that the suppressors reverse many of these changes. Together, our data highlight the interdependence of individual Mediator subunits and provide greater insight into the transcriptional regulation of phenylpropanoid biosynthesis by the Mediator complex. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  6. The Evaluation of Minimal Erythema Dose For Narrowband UVB in Patients Receiving Isotretinoin Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuba Çetiner

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: Although photosensitivity is considered as one of the side effects of retinoids, there is no consensus on this issue. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the minimal erythema dose (MED for narrowband ultraviolet B in patients receiving isotretinoin treatmentMaterial and Method: Phototesting was done by narrowband ultraviolet B irradiation on fifty patients for whom isotretinoin treatment was planned. MED values were calculated before treatment (MED1 and during treatment after reaching half of the target dose (kgx120 mg (MED2, and it was evaluated whether there was statistically significant difference between the two MED values. In addition, the patients were assessed according to their skin phototypes in this respect. Results: When the mean values of MED1 and MED2 were compared in all patients who were treated with 0.5-0.7 mg/kg/day isotretinoin, the mean of MED2 values was found to be lower than the mean of MED1 values. Clinically, sunburn erythema was seen in only 3 (6% patients during the treatment. When the patients were evaluated according to their skin phototypes, significant difference between the means of MED 1 and MED 2 values was not determined. Conclusion: Although isotretinoin treatment does not cause clinically sunburn erythema, it was associated with decrease in MED values.

  7. Dispersion of the linear and nonlinear optical susceptibilities of the CuAl(S1−xSex)2 mixed chaclcopyrite compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reshak, A. H.; Brik, M. G.; Auluck, S.

    2014-01-01

    Based on the electronic band structure, we have calculated the dispersion of the linear and nonlinear optical susceptibilities for the mixed CuAl(S 1−x Se x ) 2 chaclcopyrite compounds with x = 0.0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1.0. Calculations are performed within the Perdew-Becke-Ernzerhof general gradient approximation. The investigated compounds possess a direct band gap of about 2.2 eV (CuAlS 2 ), 1.9 eV (CuAl(S 0.75 Se 0.25 ) 2 ), 1.7 eV (CuAl(S 0.5 Se 0.5 ) 2 ), 1.5 eV (CuAl(S 0.25 Se 0.75 ) 2 ), and 1.4 eV (CuAlSe 2 ) which tuned to make them optically active for the optoelectronics and photovoltaic applications. These results confirm that substituting S by Se causes significant band gaps' reduction. The optical function's dispersion ε 2 xx (ω) and ε 2 zz (ω)/ε 2 xx (ω), ε 2 yy (ω), and ε 2 zz (ω) was calculated and discussed in detail. To demonstrate the effect of substituting S by Se on the complex second-order nonlinear optical susceptibility tensors, we performed detailed calculations for the complex second-order nonlinear optical susceptibility tensors, which show that the neat parents compounds CuAlS 2 and CuAlSe 2 exhibit | χ 123 (2) (−2ω;ω;ω) | as the dominant component, while the mixed alloys exhibit | χ 111 (2) (−2ω;ω;ω) | as the dominant component. The features of | χ 123 (2) (−2ω;ω;ω) | and | χ 111 (2) (−2ω;ω;ω) | spectra were analyzed on the basis of the absorptive part of the corresponding dielectric function ε 2 (ω) as a function of both ω/2 and ω.

  8. The influence of carbon monoxide bolus on the measurement of total haemoglobin mass using the optimized CO-rebreathing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, G; Richardson, A J; Maxwell, N S; Pringle, J S M; Ingham, S A; Fudge, B W

    2014-01-01

    The optimized carbon monoxide (CO) rebreathing method (oCOR-method) is routinely used to measure total haemoglobin mass (tHbmass). The tHbmass measure is subject to a test-retest typical error of ∼2%, mostly from the precision of carboxyhaemoglobin (HbCO) measurement. We hypothesized that tHbmass would be robust to differences in the bolus of CO administered during the oCOR-method. Twelve participants (ten males and two females; age 27 ± 6 yr, height 177 ± 11 cm and mass 73.9 ± 12.1 kg) completed the oCOR-method on four occasions. Different bolus of CO were administered (LOW: 0.6 ml kg −1 ; MED 1 : 1.0 ml kg −1  and HIGH: 1.4 ml kg −1 ); to determine the reliability of MED 1 , a second trial was conducted (MED 2 ). tHbmass was found to be significantly less from the HIGH CO bolus (776 ± 148 g) when compared to the LOW CO (791 ± 149 g) or MED 1  CO (788 ± 149 g) trials. MED 2  CO was 785 ± 150 g. The measurement of tHbmass is repeatable to within 0.8%, but a small and notable difference was seen when using a HIGH CO bolus (1.4 to 1.9% less), potentially due to differences in CO uptake kinetics. Previously, an improved precision of the oCOR-method was thought to require a higher bolus of CO (i.e. larger ▵%HbCO), as commercial hemoximeters only estimate %HbCO levels to a single decimal place (usually ± 0.1%). With the new hemoximeter used in this study, a bolus of 1.0 ml kg −1  allows adequate precision with acceptable safety. (note)

  9. Preoperative CT planning of screw length in arthroscopic Latarjet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Alexandre; Gerometta, Antoine; Granger, Benjamin; Massein, Audrey; Casabianca, Laurent; Pascal-Moussellard, Hugues; Loriaut, Philippe

    2018-01-01

    screw 1 or 2 showed no significant difference from the acceptable position: mean 2.45 mm ± 2.07 med 1.8 mm, q1; q3 [1; 3.3] p = 1; mean 2.75 mm ± 2.32 med 2.3 mm, q1; q3 [1.25; 3.8] p = 0.5631. Unplanned Latarjet can lead to inaccurate screw length especially in the lower screw and can increase the risk of non-union and nerve damage. The clinical relevance of this article is that CT planning of screw length before surgery showed good results on post-operative CT.

  10. Trabecular bone mineral density measured by quantitative CT of the lumbar spine in children and adolescents: reference values and peak bone mass; Trabekulaere Knochendichte der Lendenwirbelsaeule bei Kindern und Jugendlichen in der quantitativen CT: Referenzwerte und Peak Bone Mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berthold, L.D.; Alzen, G. [Kinderradiologie, Zentrum fuer Radiologie, Universitaetsklinikum Giessen und Marburg GmbH, Standort Giessen (Germany); Haras, G. [Siemens AG, Medical Solutions, Forchheim (Germany); Mann, M. [AG Medizinische Statistik, Universitaetsklinikum Giessen und Marburg GmbH, Standort Giessen (Germany)

    2006-12-15

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess bone density values in the trabecular substance of the lumbar vertebral column in children and young adults in Germany from infancy to the age of peak bone mass. Materials and Methods: We performed quantiative computed tomography (QCT) on the first lumbar vertebra in 28 children and adolescents without diseases that may influence bone metabolism (15 boys, 13 girls, mean ages 11 and 8 years, respectively). We also measured 17 healthy young adults (9 men, 8 women, mean ages 20 and 21 years). We used a Somatom Balance Scanner (Siemens, Erlangen) and the Siemens Osteo software. Scan parameters: Slice thickness 1 cm, 80 kV, 81 or 114 mAs. We measured the trabecular bone density and the area and height of the vertebra and calculated the volume and content of calcium hydroxyapatite (Ca-HA) in the trabecular substance of the first lumbar vertebra. Results: Prepubertal boys had a mean bone density of 148.5 (median [med] 150.1, standard deviation [SD] 15.4) mg/Ca-HA per ml bone, and prepubertal girls had a mean density of 149.5 (med 150.8, SD 23.5) mg/ml. We did not observe a difference between prepubertal boys and girls. After puberty there was a significant difference (p<0.001) between males and females: Mean density (male) 158.0, med 162.5, SD 24.0 mg/ml, mean density (female) 191.2, med 191.3, SD 17.7 mg/ml. The Ca-HA content in the trabecular bone of the first lumbar vertebra was 1.1 (med 1.1, SD 0.5) g for prepubertal boys and 1.1 (0.9, 0.4) g for prepubertal girls. For post-pubertal males, the mean Ca-HA content was 3.5 g, med 3.5 SD 0.5 g, and for post-pubertal females, the mean content was 2.8, med 2.7, SD 0.4 g. Conclusion: The normal trabecular bone mineral density is 150 mg/ml with a standard deviation of 20 mg/ml independent of age or gender until the beginning of puberty. Peak bone mass (bone mineral content) in the trabecular substance of the lumbar vertebral column is higher in males than in females, and peak bone

  11. Trabecular bone mineral density measured by quantitative CT of the lumbar spine in children and adolescents: reference values and peak bone mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berthold, L.D.; Alzen, G.; Haras, G.; Mann, M.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess bone density values in the trabecular substance of the lumbar vertebral column in children and young adults in Germany from infancy to the age of peak bone mass. Materials and Methods: We performed quantiative computed tomography (QCT) on the first lumbar vertebra in 28 children and adolescents without diseases that may influence bone metabolism (15 boys, 13 girls, mean ages 11 and 8 years, respectively). We also measured 17 healthy young adults (9 men, 8 women, mean ages 20 and 21 years). We used a Somatom Balance Scanner (Siemens, Erlangen) and the Siemens Osteo software. Scan parameters: Slice thickness 1 cm, 80 kV, 81 or 114 mAs. We measured the trabecular bone density and the area and height of the vertebra and calculated the volume and content of calcium hydroxyapatite (Ca-HA) in the trabecular substance of the first lumbar vertebra. Results: Prepubertal boys had a mean bone density of 148.5 (median [med] 150.1, standard deviation [SD] 15.4) mg/Ca-HA per ml bone, and prepubertal girls had a mean density of 149.5 (med 150.8, SD 23.5) mg/ml. We did not observe a difference between prepubertal boys and girls. After puberty there was a significant difference (p<0.001) between males and females: Mean density (male) 158.0, med 162.5, SD 24.0 mg/ml, mean density (female) 191.2, med 191.3, SD 17.7 mg/ml. The Ca-HA content in the trabecular bone of the first lumbar vertebra was 1.1 (med 1.1, SD 0.5) g for prepubertal boys and 1.1 (0.9, 0.4) g for prepubertal girls. For post-pubertal males, the mean Ca-HA content was 3.5 g, med 3.5 SD 0.5 g, and for post-pubertal females, the mean content was 2.8, med 2.7, SD 0.4 g. Conclusion: The normal trabecular bone mineral density is 150 mg/ml with a standard deviation of 20 mg/ml independent of age or gender until the beginning of puberty. Peak bone mass (bone mineral content) in the trabecular substance of the lumbar vertebral column is higher in males than in females, and peak bone

  12. Alteration of skin wound healing in keratinocyte-specific mediator complex subunit 1 null mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, Fumihito; Nakajima, Takeshi; Inui, Shigeki; Reddy, Janardan K; Itami, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    MED1 (Mediator complex subunit 1) is a co-activator of various transcription factors that function in multiple transcriptional pathways. We have already established keratinocyte-specific MED1 null mice (Med1(epi-/-)) that develop epidermal hyperplasia. Herein, to investigate the function(s) of MED1 in skin wound healing, full-thickness skin wounds were generated in Med1(epi-/-) and age-matched wild-type mice and the healing process was analyzed. Macroscopic wound closure and the re-epithelialization rate were accelerated in 8-week-old Med1(epi-/-) mice compared with age-matched wild-type mice. Increased lengths of migrating epithelial tongues and numbers of Ki67-positive cells at the wounded epidermis were observed in 8-week-old Med1(epi-/-) mice, whereas wound contraction and the area of α-SMA-positive myofibroblasts in the granulation tissue were unaffected. Migration was enhanced in Med1(epi-/-) keratinocytes compared with wild-type keratinocytes in vitro. Immunoblotting revealed that the expression of follistatin was significantly decreased in Med1(epi-/-) keratinocytes. Moreover, the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway was enhanced before and after treatment of Med1(epi-/-) keratinocytes with activin A in vitro. Cell-cycle analysis showed an increased ratio of S phase cells after activin A treatment of Med1(epi-/-) keratinocytes compared with wild-type keratinocytes. These findings indicate that the activin-follistatin system is involved in this acceleration of skin wound healing in 8-week-old Med1(epi-/-) mice. On the other hand, skin wound healing in 6-month-old Med1(epi-/-) mice was significantly delayed with decreased numbers of Ki67-positive cells at the wounded epidermis as well as BrdU-positive label retaining cells in hair follicles compared with age-matched wild-type mice. These results agree with our previous observation that hair follicle bulge stem cells are reduced in older Med1(epi-/-) mice, indicating a decreased contribution of hair

  13. Alteration of skin wound healing in keratinocyte-specific mediator complex subunit 1 null mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumihito Noguchi

    Full Text Available MED1 (Mediator complex subunit 1 is a co-activator of various transcription factors that function in multiple transcriptional pathways. We have already established keratinocyte-specific MED1 null mice (Med1(epi-/- that develop epidermal hyperplasia. Herein, to investigate the function(s of MED1 in skin wound healing, full-thickness skin wounds were generated in Med1(epi-/- and age-matched wild-type mice and the healing process was analyzed. Macroscopic wound closure and the re-epithelialization rate were accelerated in 8-week-old Med1(epi-/- mice compared with age-matched wild-type mice. Increased lengths of migrating epithelial tongues and numbers of Ki67-positive cells at the wounded epidermis were observed in 8-week-old Med1(epi-/- mice, whereas wound contraction and the area of α-SMA-positive myofibroblasts in the granulation tissue were unaffected. Migration was enhanced in Med1(epi-/- keratinocytes compared with wild-type keratinocytes in vitro. Immunoblotting revealed that the expression of follistatin was significantly decreased in Med1(epi-/- keratinocytes. Moreover, the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway was enhanced before and after treatment of Med1(epi-/- keratinocytes with activin A in vitro. Cell-cycle analysis showed an increased ratio of S phase cells after activin A treatment of Med1(epi-/- keratinocytes compared with wild-type keratinocytes. These findings indicate that the activin-follistatin system is involved in this acceleration of skin wound healing in 8-week-old Med1(epi-/- mice. On the other hand, skin wound healing in 6-month-old Med1(epi-/- mice was significantly delayed with decreased numbers of Ki67-positive cells at the wounded epidermis as well as BrdU-positive label retaining cells in hair follicles compared with age-matched wild-type mice. These results agree with our previous observation that hair follicle bulge stem cells are reduced in older Med1(epi-/- mice, indicating a decreased contribution of hair

  14. Mediator 1 contributes to enamel mineralization as a coactivator for Notch1 signaling and stimulates transcription of the alkaline phosphatase gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshizaki, Keigo; Hu, Lizhi; Nguyen, Thai; Sakai, Kiyoshi; Ishikawa, Masaki; Takahashi, Ichiro; Fukumoto, Satoshi; DenBesten, Pamela K; Bikle, Daniel D; Oda, Yuko; Yamada, Yoshihiko

    2017-08-18

    Tooth enamel is mineralized through the differentiation of multiple dental epithelia including ameloblasts and the stratum intermedium (SI), and this differentiation is controlled by several signaling pathways. Previously, we demonstrated that the transcriptional coactivator Mediator 1 (MED1) plays a critical role in enamel formation. For instance, conditional ablation of Med1 in dental epithelia causes functional changes in incisor-specific dental epithelial stem cells, resulting in mineralization defects in the adult incisors. However, the molecular mechanism by which Med1 deficiency causes these abnormalities is not clear. Here, we demonstrated that Med1 ablation causes early SI differentiation defects resulting in enamel hypoplasia of the Med1 -deficient molars. Med1 deletion prevented Notch1-mediated differentiation of the SI cells resulting in decreased alkaline phosphatase (ALPL), which is essential for mineralization. However, it does not affect the ability of ameloblasts to produce enamel matrix proteins. Using the dental epithelial SF2 cell line, we demonstrated that MED1 directly activates transcription of the Alpl gene through the stimulation of Notch1 signaling by forming a complex with cleaved Notch1-RBP-Jk on the Alpl promoter. These results suggest that MED1 may be essential for enamel matrix mineralization by serving as a coactivator for Notch1 signaling regulating transcription of the Alpl gene.

  15. Genetics Home Reference: Blau syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Advocacy Resources (3 links) Autoinflammatory Alliance Ocular Immunology and Uveitis Foundation Stop Childhood Auto Inflammatory Diseases (CAID) Now Scientific Articles on PubMed (1 link) PubMed OMIM (1 link) ...

  16. Genetics Home Reference: autosomal dominant vitreoretinochoroidopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vitreoretinochoroidopathy Patient Support and Advocacy Resources (2 links) Foundation Fighting Blindness Prevent Blindness: Living Well with Low Vision Scientific Articles on PubMed (1 link) PubMed OMIM ( ...

  17. Genetics Home Reference: CASK-related intellectual disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disorders ClinicalTrials.gov (1 link) ClinicalTrials.gov Scientific Articles on PubMed (1 link) PubMed OMIM (2 links) FG SYNDROME 4 MENTAL RETARDATION AND MICROCEPHALY WITH PONTINE AND CEREBELLAR HYPOPLASIA Sources for This ...

  18. FGF7 supports hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells and niche-dependent myeloblastoma cells via autocrine action on bone marrow stromal cells in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishino, Ruri; Minami, Kaori; Tanaka, Satowa; Nagai, Mami; Matsui, Keiji; Hasegawa, Natsumi; Roeder, Robert G.; Asano, Shigetaka; Ito, Mitsuhiro

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •FGF7 is downregulated in MED1-deficient mesenchymal cells. •FGF7 produced by mesenchymal stromal cells is a novel hematopoietic niche molecule. •FGF7 supports hematopoietic progenitor cells and niche-dependent leukemia cells. •FGF7 activates FGFR2IIIb of bone marrow stromal cells in an autocrine manner. •FGF7 indirectly acts on hematopoietic cells lacking FGFR2IIIb via stromal cells. -- Abstract: FGF1 and FGF2 support hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) under stress conditions. In this study, we show that fibroblast growth factor (FGF7) may be a novel niche factor for HSPC support and leukemic growth. FGF7 expression was attenuated in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) deficient for the MED1 subunit of the Mediator transcriptional coregulator complex. When normal mouse bone marrow (BM) cells were cocultured with Med1 +/+ MEFs or BM stromal cells in the presence of anti-FGF7 antibody, the growth of BM cells and the number of long-time culture-initiating cells (LTC-ICs) decreased significantly. Anti-FGF7 antibody also attenuated the proliferation and cobblestone formation of MB1 stromal cell-dependent myeloblastoma cells. The addition of recombinant FGF7 to the coculture of BM cells and Med1 −/− MEFs increased BM cells and LTC-ICs. FGF7 and its cognate receptor, FGFR2IIIb, were undetectable in BM cells, but MEFs and BM stromal cells expressed both. FGF7 activated downstream targets of FGFR2IIIb in Med1 +/+ and Med1 −/− MEFs and BM stromal cells. Taken together, we propose that FGF7 supports HSPCs and leukemia-initiating cells indirectly via FGFR2IIIb expressed on stromal cells

  19. FGF7 supports hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells and niche-dependent myeloblastoma cells via autocrine action on bone marrow stromal cells in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishino, Ruri; Minami, Kaori; Tanaka, Satowa [Laboratory of Hematology, Division of Medical Biophysics, Kobe University Graduate School of Health Sciences, 7-10-2 Tomogaoka, Suma-ku, Kobe 654-0142 (Japan); Nagai, Mami [Consolidated Research Institute for Advanced Science and Medical Care, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 159-8555 (Japan); Matsui, Keiji; Hasegawa, Natsumi [Laboratory of Hematology, Division of Medical Biophysics, Kobe University Graduate School of Health Sciences, 7-10-2 Tomogaoka, Suma-ku, Kobe 654-0142 (Japan); Roeder, Robert G. [Laboratory of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, The Rockefeller University, 1230 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Asano, Shigetaka [Consolidated Research Institute for Advanced Science and Medical Care, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 159-8555 (Japan); Ito, Mitsuhiro, E-mail: itomi@med.kobe-u.ac.jp [Laboratory of Hematology, Division of Medical Biophysics, Kobe University Graduate School of Health Sciences, 7-10-2 Tomogaoka, Suma-ku, Kobe 654-0142 (Japan); Laboratory of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, The Rockefeller University, 1230 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Consolidated Research Institute for Advanced Science and Medical Care, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 159-8555 (Japan); Department of Family and Community Medicine, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-1 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe 654-0142 (Japan)

    2013-10-11

    Highlights: •FGF7 is downregulated in MED1-deficient mesenchymal cells. •FGF7 produced by mesenchymal stromal cells is a novel hematopoietic niche molecule. •FGF7 supports hematopoietic progenitor cells and niche-dependent leukemia cells. •FGF7 activates FGFR2IIIb of bone marrow stromal cells in an autocrine manner. •FGF7 indirectly acts on hematopoietic cells lacking FGFR2IIIb via stromal cells. -- Abstract: FGF1 and FGF2 support hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) under stress conditions. In this study, we show that fibroblast growth factor (FGF7) may be a novel niche factor for HSPC support and leukemic growth. FGF7 expression was attenuated in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) deficient for the MED1 subunit of the Mediator transcriptional coregulator complex. When normal mouse bone marrow (BM) cells were cocultured with Med1{sup +/+} MEFs or BM stromal cells in the presence of anti-FGF7 antibody, the growth of BM cells and the number of long-time culture-initiating cells (LTC-ICs) decreased significantly. Anti-FGF7 antibody also attenuated the proliferation and cobblestone formation of MB1 stromal cell-dependent myeloblastoma cells. The addition of recombinant FGF7 to the coculture of BM cells and Med1{sup −/−} MEFs increased BM cells and LTC-ICs. FGF7 and its cognate receptor, FGFR2IIIb, were undetectable in BM cells, but MEFs and BM stromal cells expressed both. FGF7 activated downstream targets of FGFR2IIIb in Med1{sup +/+} and Med1{sup −/−} MEFs and BM stromal cells. Taken together, we propose that FGF7 supports HSPCs and leukemia-initiating cells indirectly via FGFR2IIIb expressed on stromal cells.

  20. Udvendig undersøgelse og vaginal eksploration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rydahl, Eva

    2011-01-01

    Bogen er en nyskabelse udfra Dyre Trolles klassiske Ars Pariendi, der er en praktisk håndbog til studerende og personale agerende inden for obstetrik. Undertegnede har bidraget med : 1 kapitel omhandlende den udvendige undersøgelse og den vaginale eksploration.......Bogen er en nyskabelse udfra Dyre Trolles klassiske Ars Pariendi, der er en praktisk håndbog til studerende og personale agerende inden for obstetrik. Undertegnede har bidraget med : 1 kapitel omhandlende den udvendige undersøgelse og den vaginale eksploration....

  1. Population dose from nuclear medicine studies (DOMNES). Contribution of Project DOMNES to Dose Datemed2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, M. L.; Ruiz, A.; Ferrer, N.; Alonso Farto, J. C.; Alvarez, C.; Rodriguez, M.

    2013-01-01

    The DOMNES Project is created in 2001 to carry out a survey on nuclear medicine procedures used in the Spanish health centers, their frequency and the doses given to patients. In addition, it reports information to Dose Data Project Med 2, focusing on radiology exams. (Author)

  2. Identification of Bacterial Plant Pathogens Using Multilocus Polymerase Chain Reaction/Electrospray Ionization-Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    pathogens also have been detected and identified by numerous nucleic acid-based techniques, including Southern blot hybridization and direct nucleotide...Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. vitians FB-1309; ATCC19320 Lettuce ; USA 1 Xanthomonas axonopodis sp. alfalfae XA129; Med. 2 Alfalfa; Sudan 1 Xanthomonas

  3. Case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    raoul

    . ;17(1): 5026-5027. This article on PubMed. 2. Sukkarieh Troy, Smaldone Marc, Shah Bharat. Multiples foreign bodies in the anterior and posterior urethra.Int Braz J Urol. 2004 May-. Jun;30(3):219-20. . This article on PubMed.

  4. Forundersøgelser og teknologiafprøvning til forbedret vandkvalitet og indeklima for svømmebade og badelande

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rasmus Lund; Nørgaard, Jesper

    Lalandia er med sine 25.000 m2 Danmarks største feriecenter. Det er samtidig yderst moderne med 2 biografsale, en skøjtehal, stort legeland, et væld af restauranter og ikke mindst et stort, tropisk badeland. Denne rapport omhandler udelukkende målinger i badelandets 1. sal. Rapporten indeholder u...

  5. Genetics Home Reference: familial acute myeloid leukemia with mutated CEBPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Familial acute myeloid leukemia with mutated CEBPA Familial acute myeloid leukemia with mutated CEBPA Printable PDF Open All Close ... on PubMed (1 link) PubMed OMIM (1 link) LEUKEMIA, ACUTE MYELOID Sources for This Page Carmichael CL, Wilkins EJ, ...

  6. Genetics Home Reference: core binding factor acute myeloid leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... binding factor acute myeloid leukemia Core binding factor acute myeloid leukemia Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... on PubMed (1 link) PubMed OMIM (1 link) LEUKEMIA, ACUTE MYELOID Sources for This Page Goyama S, Mulloy JC. Molecular ...

  7. PFGE, Lior Serotype, and Antimicrobial Resistance Patterns Among Campylobacter jejuni Isolated from Travelers and US Military Personnel with Acute Diarrhea in Thailand, 1998-2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    dlstllb!Jtlon. and reproduction 1n any med1um, prOVIded the 01191nal w01k is propeliy Cited Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188...Clin Microbial 1998, 36:1787-1789. 18. PeacockS . de Silva G. Justice A. Cowland A. Moore C. Winearls C. Day N: Comparison of multilocus sequence typing

  8. Conversion of interlaced image signals into progressive scanned image signals.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2008-01-01

    In a method of de-interlacing video data (F), at least three different de-interlacing algorithms (VTF, MED1, CM3) are applied on the video data (F) to obtain at least three de-interlaced signals (DIO-1, DIO-2, DIO-3), no majority of de-interlacing algorithms copying a single spatio-temporally

  9. Mediator facilitates transcriptional activation and dynamic long-range contacts at the IgH locus during class switch recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas-Claudepierre, Anne-Sophie; Robert, Isabelle; Rocha, Pedro P; Raviram, Ramya; Schiavo, Ebe; Heyer, Vincent; Bonneau, Richard; Luo, Vincent M; Reddy, Janardan K; Borggrefe, Tilman; Skok, Jane A; Reina-San-Martin, Bernardo

    2016-03-07

    Immunoglobulin (Ig) class switch recombination (CSR) is initiated by the transcription-coupled recruitment of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) to Ig switch regions (S regions). During CSR, the IgH locus undergoes dynamic three-dimensional structural changes in which promoters, enhancers, and S regions are brought to close proximity. Nevertheless, little is known about the underlying mechanisms. In this study, we show that Med1 and Med12, two subunits of the mediator complex implicated in transcription initiation and long-range enhancer/promoter loop formation, are dynamically recruited to the IgH locus enhancers and the acceptor regions during CSR and that their knockdown in CH12 cells results in impaired CSR. Furthermore, we show that conditional inactivation of Med1 in B cells results in defective CSR and reduced acceptor S region transcription. Finally, we show that in B cells undergoing CSR, the dynamic long-range contacts between the IgH enhancers and the acceptor regions correlate with Med1 and Med12 binding and that they happen at a reduced frequency in Med1-deficient B cells. Our results implicate the mediator complex in the mechanism of CSR and are consistent with a model in which mediator facilitates the long-range contacts between S regions and the IgH locus enhancers during CSR and their transcriptional activation. © 2016 Thomas-Claudepierre et al.

  10. C/EBPα creates elite cells for iPSC reprogramming by upregulating Klf4 and increasing the levels of Lsd1 and Brd4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Stefano, Bruno; Collombet, Samuel; Jakobsen, Janus Schou

    2016-01-01

    reprogrammed into iPSCs by the Yamanaka factors OSKM. Here we show that C/EBPα post-transcriptionally increases the abundance of several hundred proteins, including Lsd1, Hdac1, Brd4, Med1 and Cdk9, components of chromatin-modifying complexes present at super-enhancers. Lsd1 was found to be required for B cell...

  11. Antimicrobial activity of Mucuna pruriens on selected bacteria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-09-19

    Sep 19, 2007 ... Manyam BV, Dhanasekaran M, Hare TA (1995). An Alternative. Medicine Treatment for Parkinson's diease: Results of a Multicenter. Clinical Trial, J. Altern. Complement Med., 1(3): 249-255. Russell AD, Furr JR (1977). Antibacterial activity of a new chloroxylenol preparation containing ethylenediamine ...

  12. Genetics Home Reference: motion sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... motion, particularly traveling in a car, bus, train, airplane, or boat. Amusement park rides, skiing, and virtual ... Association ClinicalTrials.gov (1 link) ClinicalTrials.gov Scientific Articles on PubMed (1 link) PubMed OMIM (1 link) ...

  13. Genetics Home Reference: Kabuki syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... also have seizures, an unusually small head size ( microcephaly ), or weak muscle tone (hypotonia). Some have eye ... Syndrome ClinicalTrials.gov (1 link) ClinicalTrials.gov Scientific Articles on PubMed (1 link) PubMed OMIM (2 links) ...

  14. Genetics Home Reference: multiple pterygium syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cleft palate ); and an unusually small head size ( microcephaly ). Affected individuals may also develop a hole in ... Arthrogryposis ClinicalTrials.gov (1 link) ClinicalTrials.gov Scientific Articles on PubMed (1 link) PubMed OMIM (2 links) ...

  15. Multiple-effect diffusion solar still coupled with a vacuum-tube collector and heat pipe

    KAUST Repository

    Chong, Tze-Ling

    2014-08-01

    The present study develops a multiple-effect diffusion solar still (MEDS) with a bended-plate design in multiple-effect diffusion unit (MDU) to solve the peel-off problem of wick material. The MDU is coupled with a vacuum-tube solar collector to produce a high temperature gradient for high productivity. A heat pipe is used to transfer the solar heat to the MDU. A prototype MEDS-1L was built and tested outdoors. Four performance indexes are proposed for the performance evaluation of MEDS, including daily pure water production per unit area of glass cover, solar absorber, and evaporating surface (Mcov, Msol, Mevp, respectively), and solar distillation efficiency Rcov. The outdoor test results of MEDS-1L show that the solar collector supply temperature Th reaches 100°C at solar radiation 800Wm-2. The highest Mcov is 23.9kgm-2d-1 which is about 29% higher than the basin-type MEDS [11]. The highest value is 25.9kgm-2d-1 for Msol and 2.79kgm-2d-1 for Mevp. The measured Rcov is 1.5-2.44, higher than the basin-type MEDS (1.45-1.88). The Mcov, Msol, Mevp and Rcov of MEDS-1L are all higher than the theoretical calculation of a MEDS with a flat-plate solar collector coupled with a heat pipe (MEDS-FHP) [17].© 2014 Elsevier B.V.

  16. Perceptions of Healthy-Looking and Sexy-Looking Brow Thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Kun; Kim, Hun

    2018-06-01

    This study aims to determine which brow thickness levels were considered ideal, healthy-looking, young-looking, and sexy-looking by Koreans.The 163 women and 38 men who visited a brow bar were asked to view illustrations of 4 brow thickness levels defined in terms of the percentage of the eye width at the lateral canthus: very thin (VTn-1/6) (16% of eye width), thin (Tn-1/5) (20%), medium (Med-1/4) (25%), and thick (Tk-1/3) (33%) and to choose which they thought were ideal, young-looking, healthy-looking, and sexy-looking.Med-1/4 (61.2%) was the brow thickness most often considered to be ideal, followed by Tk-1/3 (17.4%) and Tn-1/5 (15.9%). VTn-1/6 was the least preferred (5.5%). Med-1/4 was the most preferred ideal thickness among both sexes. Tk-1/3 (40.8%) was the thickness most often considered to be young-looking, followed by Med-1/4 (35.3%) and Tn-1/5 (18.4%). VTn-1/6 was the least preferred (5.5%). Tk-1/3 was the most preferred young-looking thickness among both sexes. Tk-1/3 (48.8%) was the thickness most often considered to be healthy-looking, followed by Med-1/4 (30.8%) and Tn-1/5 (11.9%). VTn-1/6 was the least preferred (8.5%). Tk-1/3 was the most preferred healthy-looking thickness by women (52.2%), whereas Med-1/4 was the most common choice among men (39.5%). Tn-1/5 (40.8%) was the thickness most often considered to be sexy-looking, followed by VTn-1/6 (25.9%) and Med-1/4 (21.4%). Tk-1/3 was the least preferred (11.9%). Tn-1/5 was the most preferred sexy-looking thickness among both sexes.The results may be used as guidelines for patient or customer preferences in facial rejuvenation operations, brow esthetics, or tattooing.

  17. MED: a new non-supervised gene prediction algorithm for bacterial and archaeal genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yi-Fan

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite a remarkable success in the computational prediction of genes in Bacteria and Archaea, a lack of comprehensive understanding of prokaryotic gene structures prevents from further elucidation of differences among genomes. It continues to be interesting to develop new ab initio algorithms which not only accurately predict genes, but also facilitate comparative studies of prokaryotic genomes. Results This paper describes a new prokaryotic genefinding algorithm based on a comprehensive statistical model of protein coding Open Reading Frames (ORFs and Translation Initiation Sites (TISs. The former is based on a linguistic "Entropy Density Profile" (EDP model of coding DNA sequence and the latter comprises several relevant features related to the translation initiation. They are combined to form a so-called Multivariate Entropy Distance (MED algorithm, MED 2.0, that incorporates several strategies in the iterative program. The iterations enable us to develop a non-supervised learning process and to obtain a set of genome-specific parameters for the gene structure, before making the prediction of genes. Conclusion Results of extensive tests show that MED 2.0 achieves a competitive high performance in the gene prediction for both 5' and 3' end matches, compared to the current best prokaryotic gene finders. The advantage of the MED 2.0 is particularly evident for GC-rich genomes and archaeal genomes. Furthermore, the genome-specific parameters given by MED 2.0 match with the current understanding of prokaryotic genomes and may serve as tools for comparative genomic studies. In particular, MED 2.0 is shown to reveal divergent translation initiation mechanisms in archaeal genomes while making a more accurate prediction of TISs compared to the existing gene finders and the current GenBank annotation.

  18. Mars Science Laboratory Heatshield Flight Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahzari, Milad; White, Todd

    2017-01-01

    NASA Mars Science Laboratory (MSL), which landed the Curiosity rover on the surface of Mars on August 5th, 2012, was the largest and heaviest Mars entry vehicle representing a significant advancement in planetary entry, descent and landing capability. Hypersonic flight performance data was collected using MSLs on-board sensors called Mars Entry, Descent and Landing Instrumentation (MEDLI). This talk will give an overview of MSL entry and a description of MEDLI sensors. Observations from flight data will be examined followed by a discussion of analysis efforts to reconstruct surface heating from heatshields in-depth temperature measurements. Finally, a brief overview of MEDLI2 instrumentation, which will fly on NASAs Mars2020 mission, will be presented with a discussion on how lessons learned from MEDLI data affected the design of MEDLI2 instrumentation.

  19. A Host Transcriptional Signature for Presymptomatic Detection of Infection in Humans Exposed to Influenza H1N1 or H3N2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-09

    intensity [6]. Although previous studies with dengue, melioidosis, tuberculosis, candidiasis , and sepsis have focused on diagnosis in patients as they...the quarantine. All subjects received oral oseltamivir (Roche Pharmaceuticals) 75 mg by mouth twice daily as treatment or prophylaxis at day 6...Lucas J, Perfect JR, Ginsburg GS (2010) Blood gene expression signatures predict invasive candidiasis . Sci Transl Med 2: 21ra17. 8. Berry MP, Graham

  20. Gun Shot Wound to the Chest of a Military Working Dog

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    special care ought to be taken when either human or dog is on isolation precautions. Also, animals without airway compromise should be muzzled , as...Gun Shot Wound to Chest of Military Working Dog Military Medicine Radiology Corner, Volume 174, June, 2009 Radiology Corner Gun Shot Wound to...the Chest of a Military Working Dog Guarantor: 2LT Meghan Galer, MSC, USA1 Contributors: 2LT Meghan Galer, MSC, USA1; Donna Magid, MD, MEd2; Les

  1. Neurofeedback for treating tinnitus

    OpenAIRE

    Dohrmann, Katalin; Weisz, Nathan; Schlee, Winfried; Hartmann, Thomas; Elbert, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Many individuals with tinnitus have abnormal oscillatory brain activity. Led by this finding, we have developed a way to normalize such pathological activity by neurofeedback techniques (Weisz et al. (2005). PLoS Med., 2: e153). This is achieved mainly through enhancement of tau activity, i.e., oscillatory activity produced in perisylvian regions within the alpha frequency range (8 12 Hz) and concomitant reduction in delta power range (0.5 4 Hz). This activity is recorded from electrodes plac...

  2. Transformations of Heavy Metals and Plant Nutrients in Dredged Sediments as Affected by Oxidation Reduction Potential and pH. Volume 1. Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-05-01

    sociated with the lead toxicity. This aspect of lead intoxication is well known and need not be discussed in this report. They concluded that with the...Illinois (1971). 83. Allaway, W. H. " Agronomic Controls Over Environmental Cycling of Trace Elements." Adv. Agron. 20: 235-274 (1968). 84. Sandstead, H. H... Intoxication ." J. Occup. Med. 2: 137 (1960). 199. Penrose, W. R., and Woolson, E. A. "Arsenic in the Marine and Aquatic Environments: Analysis, Occurrence

  3. Hermetic electronic packaging of an implantable brain-machine-interface with transcutaneous optical data communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuettler, Martin; Kohler, Fabian; Ordonez, Juan S; Stieglitz, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Future brain-computer-interfaces (BCIs) for severely impaired patients are implanted to electrically contact the brain tissue. Avoiding percutaneous cables requires amplifier and telemetry electronics to be implanted too. We developed a hermetic package that protects the electronic circuitry of a BCI from body moisture while permitting infrared communication through the package wall made from alumina ceramic. The ceramic package is casted in medical grade silicone adhesive, for which we identified MED2-4013 as a promising candidate.

  4. Hepatic Blood Flow in Hepatic Bilharzial Fibrosis Before and Mter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1974-06-22

    Jun 22, 1974 ... De Lima, J. J. P., Rego, A. S., Viana, R. J. L. and Dias, F. A. (1967): Rev. dos Estudos Gerais Universitarios de M~ambique, 4, series rn, p. 389. 5. Rosario, M. R., De Lima, J. J. P., Ferreira, F. M. F., Dias, F. A. and Viana, R. L. (1968): Revista Ciencias Med., 1, 37. 6. Coutinho, A. (1968): Amer. J. Med., 44, 547.

  5. Integration of energy analytics and smart energy microgrid into mobile medicine operations for the 2012 Democratic National Convention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCahill, Peter W; Noste, Erin E; Rossman, A J; Callaway, David W

    2014-12-01

    Disasters create major strain on energy infrastructure in affected communities. Advances in microgrid technology offer the potential to improve "off-grid" mobile disaster medical response capabilities beyond traditional diesel generation. The Carolinas Medical Center's mobile emergency medical unit (MED-1) Green Project (M1G) is a multi-phase project designed to demonstrate the benefits of integrating distributive generation (DG), high-efficiency batteries, and "smart" energy utilization in support of major out-of-hospital medical response operations. Carolinas MED-1 is a mobile medical facility composed of a fleet of vehicles and trailers that provides comprehensive medical care capacities to support disaster response and special-event operations. The M1G project partnered with local energy companies to deploy energy analytics and an energy microgrid in support of mobile clinical operations for the 2012 Democratic National Convention (DNC) in Charlotte, North Carolina (USA). Energy use data recorded throughout the DNC were analyzed to create energy utilization models that integrate advanced battery technology, solar photovoltaic (PV), and energy conservation measures (ECM) to improve future disaster response operations. The generators that supply power for MED-1 have a minimum loading ratio (MLR) of 30 kVA. This means that loads below 30 kW lead to diesel fuel consumption at the same rate as a 30 kW load. Data gathered from the two DNC training and support deployments showed the maximum load of MED-1 to be around 20 kW. This discrepancy in MLR versus actual load leads to significant energy waste. The lack of an energy storage system reduces generator efficiency and limits integration of alternative energy generation strategies. A storage system would also allow for alternative generation sources, such as PV, to be incorporated. Modeling with a 450 kWh battery bank and 13.5 kW PV array showed a 2-fold increase in potential deployment times using the same amount of

  6. QTL list: sex6.1 [PGDBj Registered plant list, Marker list, QTL list, Plant DB link and Genome analysis methods[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available QT64904 Cucumis sativus Cucurbitaceae sex6.1 Female flower ratio gynoecious (F) locus (sex...2.1), small spines (ss) locus (sex6.1) ... e7m18b LG_02 ... 92.6 4.47 ... 10.1007/s10681-008-9722-5 ...

  7. A simple solution-phase approach to synthesize high quality ternary AgInSe2 and band gap tunable quaternary AgIn(S1-xSe x)2 nanocrystals

    KAUST Repository

    Bai, Tianyu; Li, Chunguang; Li, Feifei; Zhao, Lan; Wang, Zhaorui; Huang, He; Chen, Cailing; Han, Yu; Shi, Zhan; Feng, Shouhua

    2014-01-01

    in detail and different reaction conditions all have a great impact on the growth and morphology of the nanocrystals. Alloyed AgIn(S1-xSex)2 nanocrystals with controlled composition across the entire range (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) was also successfully prepared

  8. Non-Sexist Learning and Teaching with Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morfield, Sheila

    This brief teaching guide provides sex-fair activities for use in grades PS-3. Activities suggested cover five areas: (1) feelings (the need to be able to express feelings regardless of sex), (2) non-sexist behavior (encouraging children to behave according to their needs and desires rather than according to sex role expectations), (3) body…

  9. Origins of Individual Differences in Imitation: Links with Language, Pretend Play, and Socially Insightful Behavior in Two-Year-Old Twins

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwen, Fiona; Happe, Francesca; Bolton, Patrick; Rijsdijk, Fruhling; Ronald, Angelica; Dworzynski, Katharina; Plomin, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Imitation, vocabulary, pretend play, and socially insightful behavior were investigated in 5,206 same- and opposite-sex 2-year-old twin pairs in the United Kingdom. Individual differences in imitative ability were due to modest heritability (30%), while environmental factors shared between twins (42%) and unique to each twin (28%) also made…

  10. Military Rule of Evidence 404(b): Toothless Giant of the Evidence World

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-04-01

    be confident that the evidence will do more harm than good before excluding it and removing it entirely from the case."). 503 See FED. R. EvID. 403...including genital-genital, oral-genital, or oral-anal, whether between persons of the same or opposite sex; (2) Bestiality; (3) Masturbation ; (4) Sadistic

  11. The Children of Working Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouter, Ann C.

    1983-01-01

    The fact that a mother works has no universally predictable effect on a child, according to recent research. Factors which do matter include: (1) child's age and sex; (2) family's social position; and (3) nature of the mother's work. Improved child care and working conditions are needed. (PP)

  12. ERK2-Mediated Phosphorylation of Transcriptional Coactivator Binding Protein PIMT/NCoA6IP at Ser298 Augments Hepatic Gluconeogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsa, Kishore V. L.; Kain, Vasundhara; Behera, Soma; Suraj, Sashidhara Kaimal; Babu, Phanithi Prakash; Kar, Anand; Panda, Sunanda; Zhu, Yi-jun; Jia, Yuzhi; Thimmapaya, Bayar; Reddy, Janardan K.; Misra, Parimal

    2013-01-01

    PRIP-Interacting protein with methyl transferase domain (PIMT) serves as a molecular bridge between CREB-binding protein (CBP)/ E1A binding protein p300 (Ep300) -anchored histone acetyl transferase and the Mediator complex sub-unit1 (Med1) and modulates nuclear receptor transcription. Here, we report that ERK2 phosphorylates PIMT at Ser298 and enhances its ability to activate PEPCK promoter. We observed that PIMT is recruited to PEPCK promoter and adenoviral-mediated over-expression of PIMT in rat primary hepatocytes up-regulated expression of gluconeogenic genes including PEPCK. Reporter experiments with phosphomimetic PIMT mutant (PIMTS298D) suggested that conformational change may play an important role in PIMT-dependent PEPCK promoter activity. Overexpression of PIMT and Med1 together augmented hepatic glucose output in an additive manner. Importantly, expression of gluconeogenic genes and hepatic glucose output were suppressed in isolated liver specific PIMT knockout mouse hepatocytes. Furthermore, consistent with reporter experiments, PIMTS298D but not PIMTS298A augmented hepatic glucose output via up-regulating the expression of gluconeogenic genes. Pharmacological blockade of MAPK/ERK pathway using U0126, abolished PIMT/Med1-dependent gluconeogenic program leading to reduced hepatic glucose output. Further, systemic administration of T4 hormone to rats activated ERK1/2 resulting in enhanced PIMT ser298 phosphorylation. Phosphorylation of PIMT led to its increased binding to the PEPCK promoter, increased PEPCK expression and induction of gluconeogenesis in liver. Thus, ERK2-mediated phosphorylation of PIMT at Ser298 is essential in hepatic gluconeogenesis, demonstrating an important role of PIMT in the pathogenesis of hyperglycemia. PMID:24358311

  13. Entry Descent and Landing Workshop Proceedings. Volume 1; EDL Instrumentation Workshop Background and Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munk, Michelle M.; Lechniak, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Scope out a low-cost instrumentation effort for Discovery and/or New Frontiers-class missions, including acquisition strategy, for FY17-19 (TBR). This is intended to be a new Game-Changing project. MEDLI and MEDLI2 cost $25-$30M each. These costs are not sustainable. Solutions are too massive and large for small planetary missions. Share various perspectives and previous experiences; discuss costs. Establish the future mission needs and measurement/sensor priorities. Determine the best acquisition and phasing approach.

  14. MED14 tethers mediator to the N-terminal domain of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma and is required for full transcriptional activity and adipogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøntved, Lars; Madsen, Maria S; Boergesen, Michael

    2010-01-01

    and proximal promoter of the PPARgamma target gene Fabp4 is also independent of MED1. Using a small interfering RNA (siRNA)-based approach, we identify MED14 as a novel critical Mediator component for PPARgamma-dependent transactivation, and we demonstrate that MED14 interacts directly with the N terminus...... of PPARgamma in a ligand-independent manner. Interestingly, MED14 knockdown does not affect the recruitment of PPARgamma, MED6, and MED8 to the Fabp4 enhancer but does reduce their occupancy of the Fabp4 proximal promoter. In agreement with the necessity of MED14 for PPARgamma transcriptional activity, we show...

  15. Dressed skeleton expansion and the coupling scale ambiguity problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Hung Jung.

    1992-09-01

    Perturbative expansions in quantum field theories are usually expressed in powers of a coupling constant. In principle, the infinite sum of the expansion series is independent of the renormalization scale of the coupling constant. In practice, there is a remnant dependence of the truncated series on the renormalization scale. This scale ambiguity can severely restrict the predictive power of theoretical calculations. The dressed skeleton expansion is developed as a calculational method which avoids the coupling scale ambiguity problem. In this method, physical quantities are expressed as functional expansions in terms of a coupling vertex function. The arguments of the vertex function are given by the physical momenta of each process. These physical momenta effectively replace the unspecified renormalization scale and eliminate the ambiguity problem. This method is applied to various field theoretical models and its main features and limitations are explored. For quantum chromodynamics, an expression for the running coupling constant of the three-gluon vertex is obtained. The effective coupling scale of this vertex is shown to be essentially given by μ 2 ∼ Q min 2 Q med 2 /Q max 2 where Q min 2 Q med 2 /Q max 2 are respectively the smallest, the next-to-smallest and the largest scale among the three gluon virtualities. This functional form suggests that the three-gluon vertex becomes non-perturbative at asymmetric momentum configurations. Implications for four-jet physics is discussed

  16. Fungal mediator tail subunits contain classical transcriptional activation domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhongle; Myers, Lawrence C

    2015-04-01

    Classical activation domains within DNA-bound eukaryotic transcription factors make weak interactions with coactivator complexes, such as Mediator, to stimulate transcription. How these interactions stimulate transcription, however, is unknown. The activation of reporter genes by artificial fusion of Mediator subunits to DNA binding domains that bind to their promoters has been cited as evidence that the primary role of activators is simply to recruit Mediator. We have identified potent classical transcriptional activation domains in the C termini of several tail module subunits of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida albicans, and Candida dubliniensis Mediator, while their N-terminal domains are necessary and sufficient for their incorporation into Mediator but do not possess the ability to activate transcription when fused to a DNA binding domain. This suggests that Mediator fusion proteins actually are functioning in a manner similar to that of a classical DNA-bound activator rather than just recruiting Mediator. Our finding that deletion of the activation domains of S. cerevisiae Med2 and Med3, as well as C. dubliniensis Tlo1 (a Med2 ortholog), impairs the induction of certain genes shows these domains function at native promoters. Activation domains within coactivators are likely an important feature of these complexes and one that may have been uniquely leveraged by a common fungal pathogen. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  17. Evidence for Multiple Mediator Complexes in Yeast Independently Recruited by Activated Heat Shock Factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anandhakumar, Jayamani; Moustafa, Yara W; Chowdhary, Surabhi; Kainth, Amoldeep S; Gross, David S

    2016-07-15

    Mediator is an evolutionarily conserved coactivator complex essential for RNA polymerase II transcription. Although it has been generally assumed that in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Mediator is a stable trimodular complex, its structural state in vivo remains unclear. Using the "anchor away" (AA) technique to conditionally deplete select subunits within Mediator and its reversibly associated Cdk8 kinase module (CKM), we provide evidence that Mediator's tail module is highly dynamic and that a subcomplex consisting of Med2, Med3, and Med15 can be independently recruited to the regulatory regions of heat shock factor 1 (Hsf1)-activated genes. Fluorescence microscopy of a scaffold subunit (Med14)-anchored strain confirmed parallel cytoplasmic sequestration of core subunits located outside the tail triad. In addition, and contrary to current models, we provide evidence that Hsf1 can recruit the CKM independently of core Mediator and that core Mediator has a role in regulating postinitiation events. Collectively, our results suggest that yeast Mediator is not monolithic but potentially has a dynamic complexity heretofore unappreciated. Multiple species, including CKM-Mediator, the 21-subunit core complex, the Med2-Med3-Med15 tail triad, and the four-subunit CKM, can be independently recruited by activated Hsf1 to its target genes in AA strains. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  18. 35Cl, sup(79,81)Br NQR spectra of chalcogenide molybdenum (5) complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fokina, Z.A.; Kuznetsov, S.I.; Timoshchenko, N.I.; Kolesnichenko, V.L.; Bryukhova, E.V.; Semin, G.K.

    1984-01-01

    The NQR spectra of molybdenum thioselenohalogenides MoS 2 SeX 5 (X=Cl, Br) are studied. A high-frequency doublet and a low-frequency triplet are observed in both spectra, one of the lines in the latter being noticeably higher by frequency than two others. The NKR spectra structure, with accoUnt of data on thermography and IR-spectroscopy, points to the MoS 2 X 3 xSeX 2 strrcture where two halide atoms are bound with a chalcogen atom and three others with Mo, one of the three chalcogen atoms being in trans-position to SeX 2 . Essential splittings in low-frequency triplet take place at the expense of intrasphere effect of coordinated S 2 -2 and SeX 2 groups

  19. The Behavioral Repertoire. An Instrument Used to Assess Personal and Social Behavior in the SID Project,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-02-14

    9 .2 .7 1.0 1.3 • z. Talks crudely (inappropriately) about sex .2 .7 .1 .6 .8 1.2 aa. Masturbates in public .0 .3 .1 .7 .0 .3 bb. Exhibits genitals...inapproprIately .1 .5 .1 .6 .2 .5 cc. Practices voyerlsm .0 .3 .3. .5 .2 .6 • 2. Destructive/assaultive .2 .6 .3 .8 .5 1.0 a. Destroys property .1 .5

  20. Elderly woman with multiple morbidities presenting with a funny ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Multi morbidity is the occurrence of more than one concurrant chronic diseases in a patient1,2. It is very common in the elderly and common to both sexes2.It is more or less the norm in Family Practice than the exception. Its importance lies in the fact that it not only affects the patient's quality of life, it poses a big challenge to ...

  1. Sexuality as an Independent Variable: The Contribution to (or Protection against) Chronic Disease,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-05

    a few. A parallel objective would be to test the idea that patterns of sexual activity increase vulnerability to disease in general and to premature...study envisioned here. p. 13 References Armenian, H. K., Lilienfeld , A. M., & Diamond, E. L. Epidemiologic characteristics of patients with prostatic...Hutchinson & Ross, 1974. Ellis, H. Studies in the psychology of sex. (2 volumes). New York: Random House, 1936. Ellis, H. My life. Boston: Houghton Mifflin

  2. A simple solution-phase approach to synthesize high quality ternary AgInSe2 and band gap tunable quaternary AgIn(S1-xSe x)2 nanocrystals

    KAUST Repository

    Bai, Tianyu

    2014-01-01

    A facile solution-phase route for the preparation of AgInSe2 nanocrystals was developed by using silver nitrate, indium stearate, and oleylamine-selenium (OAm-Se) as precursors. The evolution process of the AgInSe2 nanocrystals is discussed in detail and different reaction conditions all have a great impact on the growth and morphology of the nanocrystals. Alloyed AgIn(S1-xSex)2 nanocrystals with controlled composition across the entire range (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) was also successfully prepared by modulating the S/Se reactant mole ratio. X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to confirm that the alloyed AgIn(S1-xSex)2 nanocrystals are homogeneous. The UV-vis absorption spectra revealed that the band gap energies of the alloyed AgIn(S1-xSex)2 nanocrystals could be continuously tuned by increasing the Se content. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2014.

  3. Scanning the horizon for high value-add manufacturing science: Accelerating manufacturing readiness for the next generation of disruptive, high-value curative cell therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hourd, Paul; Williams, David J

    2018-05-01

    Since the regenerative medicine sector entered the second phase of its development (RegenMed 2.0) more than a decade ago, there is increasing recognition that current technology innovation trajectories will drive the next translational phase toward the production of disruptive, high-value curative cell and gene-based regenerative medicines. To identify the manufacturing science problems that must be addressed to permit translation of these next generation therapeutics. In this short report, a long lens look within the pluripotent stem cell therapeutic space, both embryonic and induced, is used to gain early insights on where critical technology and manufacturing challenges may emerge. This report offers a future perspective on the development and innovation that will be needed within manufacturing science to add value in the production and commercialization of the next generation of advanced cell therapies and precision medicines. Copyright © 2018 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Cytological picture of the normergic reaction to radiation of a solar simulator (experimental study)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ditrichova, D.; Jansa, P.

    1993-01-01

    Using the 'skin window' method, the authors evaluated the cellulization of a solar inflammation following single doses (1 MED, 2 MED and 5 MED; MED = minimum erythema dose) of polychromatic radiation from a xenon lamp. The main finding in the majority of tested subjects, as compared with non-irradiated controls, was the earlier appearance of macrophages in the field of inflammation, the regular presence of lymphocytes and eosinophil granulocytes, depending on the radiation dose. This finding differentiates the reaction of sunburn from a simple model inflammation and characterizes it as a process with a significant part played by the immune system. The assembled results will be used for objectivization of the cellular picture of hyperergic reactions, i.e. photo-toxic and photo-allergic reactions. (author) 6 tabs., 2 figs., 27 refs

  5. Mediator-dependent Nuclear Receptor Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Roeder, Robert

    2011-01-01

    As gene-specific transcription factors, nuclear hormone receptors are broadly involved in many important biological processes. Their function on target genes requires the stepwise assembly of different coactivator complexes that facilitate chromatin remodeling and subsequent preinitiation complex (PIC) formation and function. Mediator has proved to be a crucial, and general, nuclear receptor-interacting coactivator, with demonstrated functions in transcription steps ranging from chromatin remodeling to subsequent PIC formation and function. Here we discuss (i) our current understanding of pathways that nuclear receptors and other interacting cofactors employ to recruit Mediator to target gene enhancers and promoters, including conditional requirements for the strong NR-Mediator interactions mediated by the NR AF2 domain and the MED1 LXXLLL motifs and (ii) mechanisms by which Mediator acts to transmit signals from enhancer-bound nuclear receptors to the general transcription machinery at core promoters to effect PIC formation and function. PMID:21854863

  6. Regulering af jagt på vandfugle i kystzonen: Forsøg med dato-regulering på Nyord

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bregnballe, T.; Hounisen, J. P.; Bøgebjerg, E.

    Et 4-årigt forsøg udført på Nyord Sydeng ved Møn har vist at jagt med 1-3 ugers interval ikke påvirkede antallet af gæs, ænder og vadefugle negativt, bort set fra at enkelte arter (især jagtbare arter) optrådte i lavere antal dagen efter en jagt. Fuglenes adfærdsmæssige reaktion på udøvelse af ja...... samt effekten på fuglenes antal var mindst i et år hvor engene blev oversvømmet tidligt på efteråret. Det konkluderes at dato-regulering af jagt på strandenge kan være et velegnet værktøj hvis der skal findes et alternativ til total jagtfredning...

  7. Time for a revolution: smart energy and microgrid use in disaster response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaway, David Wayne; Noste, Erin; McCahill, Peter Woods; Rossman, A J; Lempereur, Dominique; Kaney, Kathleen; Swanson, Doug

    2014-06-01

    Modern health care and disaster response are inextricably linked to high volume, reliable, quality power. Disasters place major strain on energy infrastructure in affected communities. Advances in renewable energy and microgrid technology offer the potential to improve mobile disaster medical response capabilities. However, very little is known about the energy requirements of and alternative power sources in disaster response. A gap analysis of the energy components of modern disaster response reveals multiple deficiencies. The MED-1 Green Project has been executed as a multiphase project designed to identify energy utilization inefficiencies, decrease demands on diesel generators, and employ modern energy management strategies to expand operational independence. This approach, in turn, allows for longer deployments in potentially more austere environments and minimizes the unit's environmental footprint. The ultimate goal is to serve as a proof of concept for other mobile medical units to create strategies for energy independence.

  8. Radiation therapy sources, equipment and installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-03-01

    The safety code for Telegamma Therapy Equipment and Installations, (AERB/SC/MED-1) and safety code for Brachytherapy Sources, Equipment and Installations, (AERB/SC/MED-3) were issued by AERB in 1986 and 1988 respectively. These codes specified mandatory requirements for radiation therapy facilities, covering the entire spectrum of operations ranging from the setting up of a facility to its ultimate decommissioning, including procedures to be followed during emergency situations. The codes also stipulated requirements of personnel and their responsibilities. With the advent of new techniques and equipment such as 3D-conformal radiation therapy, intensity modulated radiation therapy, image guided radiation therapy, treatment planning system, stereotactic radiosurgery, stereotactic radiotherapy, portal imaging, integrated brachytherapy and endovascular brachytherapy during the last two decades, AERB desires that these codes be revised and merged into a single code titled Radiation Therapy Sources, Equipment, and Installations

  9. Identifying candidate driver genes by integrative ovarian cancer genomics data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xinguo; Lu, Jibo

    2017-08-01

    Integrative analysis of molecular mechanics underlying cancer can distinguish interactions that cannot be revealed based on one kind of data for the appropriate diagnosis and treatment of cancer patients. Tumor samples exhibit heterogeneity in omics data, such as somatic mutations, Copy Number Variations CNVs), gene expression profiles and so on. In this paper we combined gene co-expression modules and mutation modulators separately in tumor patients to obtain the candidate driver genes for resistant and sensitive tumor from the heterogeneous data. The final list of modulators identified are well known in biological processes associated with ovarian cancer, such as CCL17, CACTIN, CCL16, CCL22, APOB, KDF1, CCL11, HNF1B, LRG1, MED1 and so on, which can help to facilitate the discovery of biomarkers, molecular diagnostics, and drug discovery.

  10. Roentgenographic evaluation for the malignant tumors of maxillofacial region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Tae Won [Department of Radiology, College of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1976-11-15

    The author observed 48 cases diagnosed as oral malignancies of the patients who had visited to the Infirmary of Dental College of Seoul National University from 1973 to July 1976. The following results were obtained. 1. 5th decades age group showed the highest incidence and there was hardly difference in sex. 2. From the histopathological view point, most of cases were squamous cell carcinomas. 3. Most of cases were considerably in advance and showed the bony destruction not only of primary site, but of surrounding structures.

  11. Mediator, SWI/SNF and SAGA complexes regulate Yap8-dependent transcriptional activation of ACR2 in response to arsenate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Regina Andrade; Pimentel, Catarina; Silva, Ana Rita Courelas; Amaral, Catarina; Merhej, Jawad; Devaux, Frédéric; Rodrigues-Pousada, Claudina

    2017-04-01

    Response to arsenic stress in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is orchestrated by the regulatory protein Yap8, which mediates transcriptional activation of ACR2 and ACR3. This study contributes to the state of art knowledge of the molecular mechanisms underlying yeast stress response to arsenate as it provides the genetic and biochemical evidences that Yap8, through cysteine residues 132, 137, and 274, is the sensor of presence of arsenate in the cytosol. Moreover, it is here reported for the first time the essential role of the Mediator complex in the transcriptional activation of ACR2 by Yap8. Based on our data, we propose an order-of-function map to recapitulate the sequence of events taking place in cells injured with arsenate. Modification of the sulfhydryl state of these cysteines converts Yap8 in its activated form, triggering the recruitment of the Mediator complex to the ACR2/ACR3 promoter, through the interaction with the tail subunit Med2. The Mediator complex then transfers the regulatory signals conveyed by Yap8 to the core transcriptional machinery, which culminates with TBP occupancy, ACR2 upregulation and cell adaptation to arsenate stress. Additional co-factors are required for the transcriptional activation of ACR2 by Yap8, particularly the nucleosome remodeling activity of SWI/SNF and SAGA complexes. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Coupling SAR X-band and optical data for NDVI retrieval: model calibration and validation on two test areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capodici, Fulvio; D'Urso, Guido; Maltese, Antonino; Ciraolo, Giuseppe

    2013-10-01

    Sustainability of modern agro-hydrology requires the knowledge of spatial and temporal variability of vegetation biomass to optimize management of land and water resources. Diversely from optical imaging, temporal resolution of active sensors, such as SAR, is not limited by sky cloudiness; thus, they may be combined with optical imageries to provide a more continuous monitoring of land surfaces. Several new SAR missions (e.g., ALOS-PALSAR, COSMO-SkyMed 1 and 2, TerraSAR-X, TerraSAR-X2, Sentinel 1) acquiring at X-, C- and L-bands and dual polarization capability, are characterized by a short revisit time (from 12 h to ~10 days) and high spatial resolution (COSMOSkyMed images and 2 Landsat 7 SLC-off images were acquired in the southwestern part of Sicily (Italy) between 8 and 25 August 2011. Determination coefficients of the validation set were similar to those of the calibration set. Results confirm that VISAR obtained using the combined model is a suitable surrogate of VIopt if estimated at parcel scale.

  13. Yersinia pestis strains of ancient phylogenetic branch 0.ANT are widely spread in the high-mountain plague foci of Kyrgyzstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eroshenko, Galina A; Nosov, Nikita Yu; Krasnov, Yaroslav M; Oglodin, Yevgeny G; Kukleva, Lyubov M; Guseva, Natalia P; Kuznetsov, Alexander A; Abdikarimov, Sabyrzhan T; Dzhaparova, Aigul K; Kutyrev, Vladimir V

    2017-01-01

    Fifty six Yersinia pestis strains, isolated over the period of more than 50 years in three high-mountain foci of Kyrgyzstan (Tien Shan, Alai, and Talas), have been characterized by means of PCR and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) typing methods. Seven of these strains were also characterized by means of whole genome sequencing and genome-wide SNP phylogenetic analysis. It was found that forty two strains belong to 0.ANT2, 0.ANT3 and 0.ANT5 phylogenetic branches. From these, strains of 0.ANT2 and 0.ANT3 branches were earlier detected in China only, whereas 0.ANT5 phylogenetic branch was identified for Y. pestis phylogeny for the first time. According to the results of genome-wide SNP analysis, 0.ANT5 strains are ones of the most closely related to Y. pestis strain responsible for the Justinianic Plague. We have also found out that four of the studied strains belong to the phylogenetic branch 2.MED1, and ten strains from Talas high-mountain focus belong to the phylogenetic branch 0.PE4 (sub-branch 0.PE4t). Established diversity of Y. pestis strains and extensive dissemination of the strains pertaining to the 0.ANT branch confirm the antiquity of the mentioned above plague foci and suggest that strains of the 0.ANT branch, which serve as precursors for all highly virulent Y. pestis strains, had their origin in the Tien Shan mountains.

  14. Measurement of Mo-99 column activity in the evaluation of Mo-99/Tc-99m generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuster, Z.

    1994-01-01

    In order to calculate the real elution efficiency of Mo-99/Tc-99m generator the Mo-99 content on the column has to be previously determined. As found in this work, the external measurement of Mo-99-column activity by means of Geiger-Mueller counter is a simple, fast and reliable method. Generally, Mo-99-column is placed slightly out of the center of the generator; therefore the externally measured flux of photons (φ) is an angular-dependent function. If the thickness of the lead container is radially uniform, the flux measured at some distance from the generator (which is rotated in 2π/3 steps) is given by the equation φ = A (1 + Bcos (α-2π(i - 2)/3)) -1 , i=1,2 or 3 (Eq.1) where A is a numerical constant depending on the Mo-99-column activity, B is a numerical constant depending on the Mo-99- column position within the lead container, the angle α depends on the initial orientation of the generator. A total of 20 generator were studied. The measured Mo-99-column activities (Capintec dose calibrator) were in the range 13.1- 35.11 GBq. Contrary to the findings of Vinberg and Kristensen (Eur J Nucl Med 1/1976(219), values of A (Eq. 1) are in good correlation (r 2 =0.9794) with the measured Mo-99-column activities. (author)

  15. Phylogeny and Classification of Yersinia pestis Through the Lens of Strains From the Plague Foci of Commonwealth of Independent States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir V. Kutyrev

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The established phylogeny of the etiological agent of plague, Yersinia pestis, is not perfect, as it does not take into account the strains from numerous natural foci of Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS. We have carried out PCR and SNP typing of 359 strains and whole genome sequencing of 51 strains from these plague foci and determined the phylogenetic diversity of the strains circulating here. They belong to 0.ANT3, 0.ANT5, 2.ANT3, 4.ANT branches of antique biovar, 2.MED0, 2.MED1 branches of medieval biovar and to 0.PE2, 0.PE4a. 0.PE4h, 0.PE4t branches. Based on the studies of 178 strains from 23 plague foci of CIS countries, it was determined that the population structure of 2.MED strains is subdivided into Caucasian–Caspian and Central Asian–Chinese branches. In Central-Caucasian high-mountain plague foci in the Russian Federation (RF the most deeply diverged branch of medieval biovar, 2.MED0, has been found. With the data obtained, the current population structure of Y. pestis species has been refined. New subspecies classification is developed, comprising seven subspecies: pestis, caucasica (0.PE2, angolica (0.PE3, central asiatica (0.PE4, tibetica (0.PE7, ulegeica (0.PE5, and qinghaica (0.PE10.

  16. Mediator Med23 deficiency enhances neural differentiation of murine embryonic stem cells through modulating BMP signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wanqu; Yao, Xiao; Liang, Yan; Liang, Dan; Song, Lu; Jing, Naihe; Li, Jinsong; Wang, Gang

    2015-02-01

    Unraveling the mechanisms underlying early neural differentiation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) is crucial to developing cell-based therapies of neurodegenerative diseases. Neural fate acquisition is proposed to be controlled by a 'default' mechanism, for which the molecular regulation is not well understood. In this study, we investigated the functional roles of Mediator Med23 in pluripotency and lineage commitment of murine ESCs. Unexpectedly, we found that, despite the largely unchanged pluripotency and self-renewal of ESCs, Med23 depletion rendered the cells prone to neural differentiation in different differentiation assays. Knockdown of two other Mediator subunits, Med1 and Med15, did not alter the neural differentiation of ESCs. Med15 knockdown selectively inhibited endoderm differentiation, suggesting the specificity of cell fate control by distinctive Mediator subunits. Gene profiling revealed that Med23 depletion attenuated BMP signaling in ESCs. Mechanistically, MED23 modulated Bmp4 expression by controlling the activity of ETS1, which is involved in Bmp4 promoter-enhancer communication. Interestingly, med23 knockdown in zebrafish embryos also enhanced neural development at early embryogenesis, which could be reversed by co-injection of bmp4 mRNA. Taken together, our study reveals an intrinsic, restrictive role of MED23 in early neural development, thus providing new molecular insights for neural fate determination. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  17. Pyridones as NNRTIs against HIV-1 mutants: 3D-QSAR and protein informatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debnath, Utsab; Verma, Saroj; Jain, Surabhi; Katti, Setu B.; Prabhakar, Yenamandra S.

    2013-07-01

    CoMFA and CoMSIA based 3D-QSAR of HIV-1 RT wild and mutant (K103, Y181C, and Y188L) inhibitory activities of 4-benzyl/benzoyl pyridin-2-ones followed by protein informatics of corresponding non-nucleoside inhibitors' binding pockets from pdbs 2BAN, 3MED, 1JKH, and 2YNF were analysed to discover consensus features of the compounds for broad-spectrum activity. The CoMFA/CoMSIA models indicated that compounds with groups which lend steric-cum-electropositive fields in the vicinity of C5, hydrophobic field in the vicinity of C3 of pyridone region and steric field in aryl region produce broad-spectrum anti-HIV-1 RT activity. Also, a linker rendering electronegative field between pyridone and aryl moieties is common requirement for the activities. The protein informatics showed considerable alteration in residues 181 and 188 characteristics on mutation. Also, mutants' isoelectric points shifted in acidic direction. The study offered fresh avenues for broad-spectrum anti-HIV-1 agents through designing new molecules seeded with groups satisfying common molecular fields and concerns of mutating residues.

  18. Structure of the human gene encoding the protein repair L-isoaspartyl (D-aspartyl) O-methyltransferase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVry, C G; Tsai, W; Clarke, S

    1996-11-15

    The protein L-isoaspartyl/D-aspartyl O-methyltransferase (EC 2.1.1.77) catalyzes the first step in the repair of proteins damaged in the aging process by isomerization or racemization reactions at aspartyl and asparaginyl residues. A single gene has been localized to human chromosome 6 and multiple transcripts arising through alternative splicing have been identified. Restriction enzyme mapping, subcloning, and DNA sequence analysis of three overlapping clones from a human genomic library in bacteriophage P1 indicate that the gene spans approximately 60 kb and is composed of 8 exons interrupted by 7 introns. Analysis of intron/exon splice junctions reveals that all of the donor and acceptor splice sites are in agreement with the mammalian consensus splicing sequence. Determination of transcription initiation sites by primer extension analysis of poly(A)+ mRNA from human brain identifies multiple start sites, with a major site 159 nucleotides upstream from the ATG start codon. Sequence analysis of the 5'-untranslated region demonstrates several potential cis-acting DNA elements including SP1, ETF, AP1, AP2, ARE, XRE, CREB, MED-1, and half-palindromic ERE motifs. The promoter of this methyltransferase gene lacks an identifiable TATA box but is characterized by a CpG island which begins approximately 723 nucleotides upstream of the major transcriptional start site and extends through exon 1 and into the first intron. These features are characteristic of housekeeping genes and are consistent with the wide tissue distribution observed for this methyltransferase activity.

  19. Cephalometric evaluation on the maxillofacial type in Korean adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soo, You Dong; Ahn, Hyung Kyu; Park, Tae Won [School of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1973-11-15

    The study was made on the facial profile of the normal Korean adults using the roentgenographic cephalograms. The subjects consisted of 50 male and 50 female with normal occlusion. The measurements were made of the facial angles in skeletal pattern and depth, height and the length in the soft tissue profile. The mean and standard deviations from the subjects were calculated and compared with the samples of male and female. The authors have drawn the conclusions as follows: 1. Compared with the angulation in skeletal patterns, there were no differences between both sexes. 2. Individual variations of the lower face were larger than those of the upper face in most measuring points. 3. In general, facial heights were lesser than facial depth in sexual differences. 4. Most dimensions of the facial depth, height and length of the male were larger than those of female.

  20. Expression of Mycobacterium smegmatis pyrazinamidase in Mycobacterium tuberculosis confers hypersensitivity to pyrazinamide and related amides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boshoff, H I; Mizrahi, V

    2000-10-01

    A pyrazinamidase (PZase)-deficient pncA mutant of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, constructed by allelic exchange, was used to investigate the effects of heterologous amidase gene expression on the susceptibility of this organism to pyrazinamide (PZA) and related amides. The mutant was highly resistant to PZA (MIC, >2,000 microg/ml), in accordance with the well-established role of pncA in the PZA susceptibility of M. tuberculosis (A. Scorpio and Y. Zhang, Nat. Med. 2:662-667, 1996). Integration of the pzaA gene encoding the major PZase/nicotinamidase from Mycobacterium smegmatis (H. I. M. Boshoff and V. Mizrahi, J. Bacteriol. 180:5809-5814, 1998) or the M. tuberculosis pncA gene into the pncA mutant complemented its PZase/nicotinamidase defect. In both pzaA- and pncA-complemented mutant strains, the PZase activity was detected exclusively in the cytoplasm, suggesting an intracellular localization for PzaA and PncA. The pzaA-complemented strain was hypersensitive to PZA (MIC, /=20 microg/ml) and was also sensitive to benzamide (MIC, 20 microg/ml), unlike the wild-type and pncA-complemented mutant strains, which were highly resistant to this amide (MIC, >500 microg/ml). This finding was consistent with the observation that benzamide is hydrolyzed by PzaA but not by PncA. Overexpression of PzaA also conferred sensitivity to PZA, nicotinamide, and benzamide on M. smegmatis (MIC, 150 microg/ml in all cases) and rendered Escherichia coli hypersensitive for growth at low pH.

  1. Management of Multi-Casualty Incidents in Mountain Rescue: Evidence-Based Guidelines of the International Commission for Mountain Emergency Medicine (ICAR MEDCOM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blancher, Marc; Albasini, François; Elsensohn, Fidel; Zafren, Ken; Hölzl, Natalie; McLaughlin, Kyle; Wheeler, Albert R; Roy, Steven; Brugger, Hermann; Greene, Mike; Paal, Peter

    2018-02-15

    Blancher, Marc, François Albasini, Fidel Elsensohn, Ken Zafren, Natalie Hölzl, Kyle McLaughlin, Albert R. Wheeler III, Steven Roy, Hermann Brugger, Mike Greene, and Peter Paal. Management of multi-casualty incidents in mountain rescue. High Alt Med Biol. 00:000-000, 2018. Multi-Casualty Incidents (MCI) occur in mountain areas. Little is known about the incidence and character of such events, and the kind of rescue response. Therefore, the International Commission for Mountain Emergency Medicine (ICAR MEDCOM) set out to provide recommendations for the management of MCI in mountain areas. Details of MCI occurring in mountain areas related to mountaineering activities and involving organized mountain rescue were collected. A literature search using (1) PubMed, (2) national mountain rescue registries, and (3) lay press articles on the internet was performed. The results were analyzed with respect to specific aspects of mountain rescue. We identified 198 MCIs that have occurred in mountain areas since 1956: 137 avalanches, 38 ski lift accidents, and 23 other events, including lightning injuries, landslides, volcanic eruptions, lost groups of people, and water-related accidents. General knowledge on MCI management is required. Due to specific aspects of triage and management, the approach to MCIs may differ between those in mountain areas and those in urban settings. Mountain rescue teams should be prepared to manage MCIs. Knowledge should be reviewed and training performed regularly. Cooperation between terrestrial rescue services, avalanche safety authorities, and helicopter crews is critical to successful management of MCIs in mountain areas.

  2. Task-Sharing Approaches to Improve Mental Health Care in Rural and Other Low-Resource Settings: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeft, Theresa J; Fortney, John C; Patel, Vikram; Unützer, Jürgen

    2018-12-01

    Rural areas persistently face a shortage of mental health specialists. Task shifting, or task sharing, is an approach in global mental health that may help address unmet mental health needs in rural and other low-resource areas. This review focuses on task-shifting approaches and highlights future directions for research in this area. Systematic review on task sharing of mental health care in rural areas of high-income countries included: (1) PubMed, (2) gray literature for innovations not yet published in peer-reviewed journals, and (3) outreach to experts for additional articles. We included English language articles published before August 31, 2013, on interventions sharing mental health care tasks across a team in rural settings. We excluded literature: (1) from low- and middle-income countries, (2) involving direct transfer of care to another provider, and (3) describing clinical guidelines and shared decision-making tools. The review identified approaches to task sharing focused mainly on community health workers and primary care providers. Technology was identified as a way to leverage mental health specialists to support care across settings both within primary care and out in the community. The review also highlighted how provider education, supervision, and partnerships with local communities can support task sharing. Challenges, such as confidentiality, are often not addressed in the literature. Approaches to task sharing may improve reach and effectiveness of mental health care in rural and other low-resource settings, though important questions remain. We recommend promising research directions to address these questions. © 2017 National Rural Health Association.

  3. Selective removal of carbon dioxide from wet CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2} mixtures via facilitated transport membranes containing amine blends as carriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heydari Gorji, A. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic), Tehran (Iran); Kargari, A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, K. N. Toosi University of Technology, Tehran (Iran); Kaghazchi, T.

    2009-01-15

    The selective separation of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from a wet gaseous mixture of CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2} through facilitated transport membranes containing immobilized aqueous solutions of monoethanolamine (MEA), diethanolamine (DEA), ethylenediamine (EDA) and monoprotonated ethylenediamine (EDAH{sup +}) and their blends was experimentally investigated. The effect of CO{sub 2} partial pressure, amine concentration, feed side pressure and amine species on the CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2} permeances were studied. The CO{sub 2} permeability through amine solution membranes decreased with increasing CO{sub 2} feed partial pressure but the H{sub 2} permeance was almost independent of the H{sub 2} partial pressure. A comparison of experimental results showed that single or blended amines with low viscosity and a moderate equilibrium constant, i.e., large forward and reverse reaction rate of CO{sub 2}-amine, are suitable for effective separation of CO{sub 2}. The permeability of CO{sub 2} generally increased with an increase in amine concentration, although this increase may be compromised by the salting out effect and decrease in diffusivities of species. The results obtained indicated that CO{sub 2} permeance across a variety of amines are in the order of DEA (2 M)>MD(2M) >MD(1 M)>MEA(2 M) >MEA(4 M)>MD (4 M)>DEA (1 M)> DEA(4 M)>MEA (1 M) for various concentrations of MEA+DEA blend and are in the order of EDAH{sup +}(2 M)> DEA(2 M) >MH(2 M)>DH (2 M)>ED (2 M)>EDA (2 M)> MEA(2 M) for various blends of amine. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  4. Surgeon Assessment of Gapping versus Kinetic Loading using Intraoperative Sensors during TKA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick A Meere

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine if using a sensor-equipped tibial insert would reduce medial (MED and lateral (LAT gapping and create more equivalent compressive forces in the MED and LAT compartments. Methods: 7 orthopedic surgeons each performed bilateral TKA on complete lower extremity cadaveric specimens. Left TKA was performed first without the use of the instrumented tibial insert. With trial components placed, the patella was reduced and joint capsule closed with towel clips. Surgeons performed varus and valgus stress tests on each knee and the mm of MED and LAT gapping were recorded. Compressive forces in the MED and LAT compartment were measured at 10°, 45°, and 90° of flexion. Sensor-assisted TKA was then performed on the right knee and compressive forces and gapping were again recorded. MED, LAT, and total mediolateral (ML gapping and MED and LAT compressive forces were compared between conventional TKA and sensor-assisted TKA with paired t-tests. Results: Sensor-assisted TKA resulted in significantly reduced MED (1.2 vs. 1.9 mm, p<.001, LAT (0.8 vs. 1.4 mm, p = 0.003, and total ML gapping (2.0 vs. 3.4 mm, p<.001. There were no differences in the MED and LAT compressive forces between conventional and sensor-assisted TKA. However, sensor-assisted TKAs demonstrated greater MED compartment forces as the knee was flexed whereas conventional TKAs had greater LAT forces. Conclusions: Sensor-assisted TKA significantly reduced MED and LAT gapping with the knee in 20° of flexion. Future clinical studies are needed to determine the most appropriate compressive forces in the MED and LAT compartments.

  5. Single daily dosing of antibiotics: importance of in vitro killing rate, serum half-life, and protein binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potel, G; Chau, N P; Pangon, B; Fantin, B; Vallois, J M; Faurisson, F; Carbon, C

    1991-10-01

    The relative importance of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters for the feasibility of a single daily dose (SDD) of antibiotics remains to be established. Therefore, we studied the relationship between in vitro bacteriological parameters (MIC, MBC, and killing rate [KR], defined as the reduction in the inoculum within 3 h), pharmacokinetic parameters (t1/2 and protein binding [PB], and in vivo antibacterial effect of a single antibiotic dose in an experimental rabbit model of Escherichia coli endocarditis. Nine antibiotics were investigated: two aminoglycosides, two quinolones, and five beta-lactams. For each drug, the minimal effective dose (MED) (in milligrams per kilogram) was defined as the lowest dose able to achieve a significant difference (P less than 0.05) of CFU in the vegetations in comparison with controls 24 h after a single intravenous injection. Aminoglycosides and quinolones had the lowest MEDs, followed by beta-lactams. Univariate regression analysis showed that KR was the major determinant of MED. A stepwise regression analysis showed that t1/2 significantly improved the predictive value of KR, while PB, MIC, and MBC did not. The final equation was MED = 1,586-238 KR-297 t1/2 (r = 0.90, P = 0.01). We concluded that the pharmacodynamic parameters (especially the high KR) of aminoglycosides and quinolones explained their low MEDs and might allow SDD. In contrast, the low KR of beta-lactams emphasized the critical importance of a long t1/2, as for ceftriaxone, allowing the use of this beta-lactam alone in SDD.

  6. Knee osteoarthritis related pain: a narrative review of diagnosis and treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshami, Ali M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Osteoarthritis is a common progressive joint disease, involving not only the joint lining but also cartilage, ligaments, and bone. For the last ten years, majority of published review articles were not specific to osteoarthritis of the knee, and strength of evidence and clinical guidelines were not appropriately summarized. Objectives To appraise the literature by summarizing the findings of current evidence and clinical guidelines on the diagnosis and treatment of knee osteoarthritis pain. Methodology English journal articles that focused on knee osteoarthritis related pain were searched via PubMed (1 January 2002 – 26 August 2012) and Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) databases, using the terms ‘knee’, ‘osteoarthritis’ and ‘pain’. In addition, reference lists from identified articles and related book chapters were included as comprehensive overviews. Results For knee osteoarthritis, the highest diagnostic accuracy can be achieved by presence of pain and five or more clinical or laboratory criteria plus osteophytes. Some inconsistencies in the recommendations and findings were found between the clinical guidelines and systematic reviews. Generally, paracetamol, oral and topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, opioids, corticosteroid injections and physical therapy techniques, such as therapeutic exercises, joint manual therapy and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, can help reduce pain and improve function. Patient education programs and weight reduction for overweight patients are important to be considered. Conclusions Some inconsistencies in the recommendations and findings were found between the clinical guidelines and systematic reviews. However, it is likely that a combination of pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments is most effective in treating patients with knee osteoarthritis. PMID:24899883

  7. Treatment of cannabis use among people with psychotic or depressive disorders: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Amanda L; Hides, Leanne; Lubman, Dan I

    2010-03-01

    This article systematically reviews the evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) for pharmacologic and psychological approaches to the treatment of cannabis use among individuals with psychotic or depressive disorders. A systematic literature search was conducted using the PubMed and PsychINFO databases from inception to December 2008. Individual searches in cannabis use (search terms: marijuana, cannabis, marijuana abuse, cannabis abuse, marijuana usage, cannabis usage), mental disorders (search terms: mood disorders, affective disorders, anxiety disorders, anxiety, depressive disorder, depression, psychotic disorders, psychosis, mental disorders), and pharmacotherapy (search terms: medication, drug therapy, pharmacotherapy, psychopharmacology, clinical trials, drug trial, treatment trial) were conducted and limited to humans, adolescents and adults. A search combining the individual cannabis use, mental disorder and pharmacotherapy searches produced 1,713 articles (PubMed = 1,398; PsychINFO = 315). Combining the cannabis use and mental disorder searches while limiting them to English articles and RCTs produced a total of 286 articles (PubMed = 228; PsychINFO = 58). From this literature, there were 7 RCTs conducted among mental health clients that reported cannabis use outcomes using pharmacologic or psychological interventions. While few RCTs have been conducted, there is evidence that pharmacologic and psychological interventions are effective for reducing cannabis use in the short-term among people with psychotic disorders or depression. Although it is difficult to make evidence-based treatment recommendations due to the paucity of research in this area, available studies indicate that effectively treating the mental health disorder with standard pharmacotherapy may be associated with a reduction in cannabis use and that longer or more intensive psychological interventions rather than brief interventions may be required, particularly among heavier

  8. Novel mechanisms for the vitamin D receptor (VDR) in the skin and in skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bikle, Daniel D; Oda, Yuko; Tu, Chia-Ling; Jiang, Yan

    2015-04-01

    The VDR acting with or without its principal ligand 1,25(OH)2D regulates two central processes in the skin, interfollicular epidermal (IFE) differentiation and hair follicle cycling (HFC). Calcium is an important co-regulator with 1,25(OH)2D at least of epidermal differentiation. Knockout of the calcium sensing receptor (CaSR) in addition to VDR accelerates the development of skin cancer in mice on a low calcium diet. Coactivators such as mediator 1 (aka DRIP205) and steroid receptor coactivator 3 (SRC3) regulate VDR function at different stages of the differentiation process, with Med 1 essential for hair follicle differentiation and early stages of epidermal differentiation and proliferation and SRC3 essential for the latter stages of differentiation including formation of the permeability barrier and innate immunity. The corepressor of VDR, hairless (HR), is essential for hair follicle cycling, although its effect on epidermal differentiation in vivo is minimal. In its regulation of HFC and IFE VDR controls two pathways-wnt/β-catenin and sonic hedgehog (SHH). In the absence of VDR these pathways are overexpressed leading to tumor formation. Whereas, VDR binding to β-catenin may block its activation of TCF/LEF1 sites, β-catenin binding to VDR may enhance its activation of VDREs. 1,25(OH)2D promotes but may not be required for these interactions. Suppression of SHH expression by VDR, on the other hand, requires 1,25(OH)2D. The major point of emphasis is that the role of VDR in the skin involves a number of novel mechanisms, both 1,25(OH)2D dependent and independent, that when disrupted interfere with IFE differentiation and HFC, predisposing to cancer formation. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled '17th Vitamin D Workshop'. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Rapid Response to a Typhoon-Induced Flood with an SAR-Derived Map of Inundated Areas: Case Study and Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiao-Wei Chung

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We report the successful case of a rapid response to a flash flood in I-Lan County of Taiwan with a map of inundated areas derived from COSMO-SkyMed 1 radar satellite imagery within 24 hours. The flood was caused by the intensive precipitation brought by Typhoon Soulik in July 2013. Based on the ensemble forecasts of trajectory, an urgent request of spaceborne SAR imagery was made 24 hours before Typhoon Soulik made landfall. Two COSMO-SkyMed images were successfully acquired when the center of Typhoon Soulik had just crossed the northern part of Taiwan. The standard level-1b product (radiometric-corrected, geometric-calibrated and orthorectified image was generated by using the off-the-shelf SARscape software. Following the same approach used with the Expert Landslide and Shadow Area Delineating System, the regional threshold of each tile image was determined to delineate still water surface and quasi-inundated areas in a fully-automatic manner. The results were overlaid on a digital elevation model, and the same tile was visually compared to an optical image taken by Formosat-2 before this event. With this ancillary information, the inundated areas were accurately and quickly identified. The SAR-derived map of inundated areas was published on a web-based platform powered by Google Earth within 24 hours, with the aim of supporting the decision-making process of disaster prevention and mitigation. A detailed validation was made afterwards by comparing the map with in situ data of the water levels at 17 stations. The results demonstrate the feasibility of rapidly responding to a typhoon-induced flood with a spaceborne SAR-derived map of inundated areas. A standard operating procedure was derived from this work and followed by the Water Hazard Mitigation Center of the Water Resources Agency, Taiwan, in subsequent typhoon seasons, such as Typhoon Trami (August, 2013 and Typhoon Soudelor (August, 2015.

  10. Low doze γ-irradiation influence on drosophila life span in different genetics background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moskalev, A.

    2007-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. The main goal of this work was to study in Drosophila melanogaster the contribution of DNA damage sensing and repair, apoptosis and heat shock defence into life span and physical activity alteration after gamma-irradiation at low doze rate. In our experiments, the strains were exposed to chronic gamma-irradiation from a 226Ra source (50 R/h) at doze rate 0.17 cGy/h at pre-imago development stages only. The absorbed radiation dose per generation (from embryo to imago, 12 days) was 60 cGy. Life span estimation was prepared in adult males and females separately. We compared the life span of apoptotic (p53, DIAP-1, dApaf-1, Dcp-1, reaper, grim and hid), heat shock defence (HSP70, HSP23, HSF), DNA damage sensing (ATR) and repair (XPF, XPC, PCNA, DSB repair helicase homologs) mutants after chronic irradiation with the control. On the basis of our investigation we have concluded: 1) Low doze irradiation alter the life span depending on genetic background (mutant alleles, heterozygosity level and sex); 2) Age dynamics of physical activity positively correlates with the life span; 3) Longevity potential forms at early development stages; 4) DNA damage sensing, DNA repair, heat shock defence and apoptosis as aging preventing mechanisms play crucial role in radiation-induced life span hormesis.

  11. Birth Cohort Differences in Sexual Identity Development Milestones among HIV-Negative Gay and Bisexual Men in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grov, Christian; Rendina, H Jonathon; Parsons, Jeffrey T

    2017-10-12

    The coming-out process for gay and bisexual men (GBM) involves crossing sexual identity development (SID) milestones: (1) self-awareness of sexual attraction to the same sex, (2) self-acceptance of an identity as gay or bisexual, (3) disclosure of this sexual identity to others, and (4) having sex with someone of the same sex. We examined trends in SID milestones by birth cohort in a 2015 U.S. national sample of GBM (n = 1,023). Birth cohort was independent of when men first felt sexually attracted to someone of the same sex (median age 11 to 12). However, with the exception of age of first same-sex attraction, older cohorts tended to pass other milestones at later ages than younger cohorts. Latent class analysis (LCA) of SID milestone patterns identified three subgroups. The majority (84%) began sexual identity development with same-sex attraction around the onset of puberty (i.e., around age 10) and progressed to self-identification, same-sex sexual activity, and coming out-in that order. The other two classes felt same-sex attraction during teen years (ages 12.5 to 18.0) but achieved the remaining SID milestones later in life. For 13% of men, this was during early adulthood; for 3% of men, this was in middle adulthood. Findings highlight the need to monitor ongoing generational differences in passing SID milestones.

  12. Trail Making Test: normative data for Turkish elderly population by age, sex and education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cangoz, Banu; Karakoc, Ebru; Selekler, Kaynak

    2009-08-15

    Trail Making Test (TMT) is a neuropsychological test, which has parts A and B that can precisely measure executive functions, like complex visual-motor conceptual screening, planning, organization, abstract thinking and response inhibition. The main purpose of this study is to standardize TMT for Turkish adults and/or elderly population. This study primarily consists of two main parts; norm determination study and reliability/validity studies, respectively. The standardization study was carried on 484 participants (238 female and 246 male). Participants at the age of 50 years and older were selected from a pool of people employed in or retired from governmental and/or private institutions. The research design of this study involves the following variables mainly; age (7 subgroups), sex (2 subgroups) and education (3 subgroups). Age, sex and education variables have significant influence on eight different kinds of TMT scores. Statistical analysis by ANOVA revealed a major effect of age (pKruskal-Wallis Test was performed and chi-square (chi(2)) values revealed that, correction scores for Part A and B were found to be influenced by age groups (pTest-retest reliability and inter-rater reliability coefficients for time scores of Parts A and B were estimated as 0.78, 0.99 and 0.73, 0.93, respectively. This study provides normative data for a psychometric tool that reliably measures the executive functions in Turkish elderly population at the age of 50 and over.

  13. X-ray diagnostics, X-ray therapy, diagnostics and therapy with radioactive materials in free medical practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Setzer, H.D.

    1976-01-01

    On the basis of the documents of the Kassenaerztliche Vereinigung Niederbayerns in Straubing, the work of the established general practicioners in the fields of X-ray and nuclear medicine was investigated for the 1st quarter of 1971, and the X-ray diagnostic services rendered were evaluated according to age and sex. 2/3 of all doctors participating in a health insurance plan in Lower Bavaria are general practitioners; all other fields are represented less often than in Munich. The values for the whole Federal Republic are in between. Internal specialists, radiologists, and urologists together carry out 85.7% of the ten examinations which contribute most to the total gonadal dose. An application of the data on the 1st quarter to the annual value is only possible by allowing for an error of 13.1%. All in all, 6% more X-ray services are administered to men than to women. For both sexes, the genetically most important group of 15-34 resp. 15-39 years of age is highly represented, although young men receive X-ray diagnostics more frequently. X-ray therapy makes up only about 0.5% of all services. Nuclear medical diagnostics is employed to the same extent by radiologists and internal specialists, while therapy with radioactive substances is almost exclusively provided by radiologists. Relative to the population density, radioactive substances are more often used in Lower Bavaria than in West Berlin. (orig.) [de

  14. New paleoradiological investigations of ancient human remains from North West Lombardy archaeological excavations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Licata, Marta; Borgo, Melania; Armocida, Giuseppe; Nicosia, Luca; Ferioli, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Since its birth in 1895, radiology has been used to study ancient mummies. The purpose of this article is to present paleoradiological investigations conducted on several medieval human remains in Varese province. Anthropological (generic identification) and paleopathological analyses were carried out with the support of diagnostic imaging (X-ray and CT scans). Human remains were discovered during excavations of medieval archaeological sites in northwest Lombardy. Classical physical anthropological methods were used for the macroscopic identification of the human remains. X-ray and CT scans were performed on the same scanner (16-layer Hitachi Eclos 16 X-ray equipment). Radiological analysis permitted investigating (1) the sex, (2) age of death, (3) type of trauma, (4) therapeutic interventions and (5) osteomas in ancient human remains. In particular, X-ray and CT examinations showed dimorphic facial traits on the mummified skull, and the same radiological approaches allowed determining the age at death from a mummified lower limb. CT analyses allow investigating different types of traumatic lesions in skulls and postcranial skeleton portions and reconstructing the gait and functional outcomes of a fractured femur. Moreover, one case of possible Gardner's syndrome (GS) was postulated from observing multiple osteomas in an ancient skull. Among the medical tests available to the clinician, radiology is the most appropriate first-line procedure for a diagnostic approach to ancient human remains because it can be performed without causing any significant damage to the specimen. (orig.)

  15. Gender differences in coronary plaque composition by coronary computed tomography angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaha, Michael J; Nasir, Khurram; Rivera, Juan J; Choi, Eue-Keun; Chang, Sung-A; Yoon, Yeonyee E; Chun, Eun Ju; Choi, Sang-il; Agatston, Arthur; Blumenthal, Roger S; Chang, Hyuk-Jae

    2009-12-01

    Coronary computed tomography angiography allows the differentiation of non-calcified (NCAP), calcified (CAP), and mixed coronary artery plaques (MCAP). Although males are thought to have a higher prevalence of atherosclerosis for a given age, there are currently few data regarding age-adjusted sex differences in plaque morphology and composition. We studied 1015 consecutive asymptomatic South Korean patients (49+/-10 years, 64% men) who underwent 64-slice coronary computed tomography angiography during a routine health evaluation. Coronary plaque characteristics were analyzed on a per-segment basis according to the modified AHA classification. Plaques with more than 50% calcified tissue were classified as CAP, plaques with less than 50% calcified tissue were classified as MCAP, and plaques without calcium were classified as NCAP. Multiple regression analysis was used to describe the cross-sectional association between sex and plaque-type burden (>or=2 affected segments) after adjustment for age and other cardiovascular risk factors. There was a greater prevalence of coronary plaque among men (13 vs. 4%, PNCAP was similar across sex (2 vs. 1%, P = 0.28). After multivariable adjustment, men have six to seven times greater odds of having an increased burden of CAP and MCAP, whereas no sex difference was observed in the burden of NCAP. In this population of asymptomatic middle-aged Korean individuals, males had a significantly greater burden of MCAP and CAP. Future studies will determine whether these differences contribute to the accelerated cardiovascular risk observed in men.

  16. Exploring Expressive Vocabulary Variability in Two-Year-Olds: The Role of Working Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newbury, Jayne; Klee, Thomas; Stokes, Stephanie F; Moran, Catherine

    2015-12-01

    This study explored whether measures of working memory ability contribute to the wide variation in 2-year-olds' expressive vocabulary skills. Seventy-nine children (aged 24-30 months) were assessed by using standardized tests of vocabulary and visual cognition, a processing speed measure, and behavioral measures of verbal working memory and phonological short-term memory. Strong correlations were observed between phonological short-term memory, verbal working memory, and expressive vocabulary. Speed of spoken word recognition showed a moderate significant correlation with expressive vocabulary. In a multivariate regression model for expressive vocabulary, the most powerful predictor was a measure of phonological short-term memory (accounting for 66% unique variance), followed by verbal working memory (6%), sex (2%), and age (1%). Processing speed did not add significant unique variance. These findings confirm previous research positing a strong role for phonological short-term memory in early expressive vocabulary acquisition. They also extend previous research in two ways. First, a unique association between verbal working memory and expressive vocabulary in 2-year-olds was observed. Second, processing speed was not a unique predictor of variance in expressive vocabulary when included alongside measures of working memory.

  17. New paleoradiological investigations of ancient human remains from North West Lombardy archaeological excavations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Licata, Marta; Borgo, Melania; Armocida, Giuseppe; Nicosia, Luca; Ferioli, Elena [University of Insubria (Varese), Department of Biotechnology and Life Sciences, Varese (Italy)

    2016-03-15

    Since its birth in 1895, radiology has been used to study ancient mummies. The purpose of this article is to present paleoradiological investigations conducted on several medieval human remains in Varese province. Anthropological (generic identification) and paleopathological analyses were carried out with the support of diagnostic imaging (X-ray and CT scans). Human remains were discovered during excavations of medieval archaeological sites in northwest Lombardy. Classical physical anthropological methods were used for the macroscopic identification of the human remains. X-ray and CT scans were performed on the same scanner (16-layer Hitachi Eclos 16 X-ray equipment). Radiological analysis permitted investigating (1) the sex, (2) age of death, (3) type of trauma, (4) therapeutic interventions and (5) osteomas in ancient human remains. In particular, X-ray and CT examinations showed dimorphic facial traits on the mummified skull, and the same radiological approaches allowed determining the age at death from a mummified lower limb. CT analyses allow investigating different types of traumatic lesions in skulls and postcranial skeleton portions and reconstructing the gait and functional outcomes of a fractured femur. Moreover, one case of possible Gardner's syndrome (GS) was postulated from observing multiple osteomas in an ancient skull. Among the medical tests available to the clinician, radiology is the most appropriate first-line procedure for a diagnostic approach to ancient human remains because it can be performed without causing any significant damage to the specimen. (orig.)

  18. The clinical communication and information challenges associated with the psychosexual aspects of prostate cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speer, Susan A; Tucker, Samantha R; McPhillips, Rebecca; Peters, Sarah

    2017-07-01

    Prostate cancer and its treatment have significant sexual side effects that necessitate timely patient information and open communication with healthcare professionals. However, very little is known about men's experiences of talking to clinicians about the psychosexual difficulties associated with the disease. This study aims to advance understanding of men's perceptions of the communication and information challenges associated with the psychosexual aspects of prostate cancer and its treatment. Between October 2013 and April 2014, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 21 men from the UK who had been treated for prostate cancer. Interview transcripts were analysed using thematic analysis. Three themes describe the communication challenges men face: (1) It can be too soon to talk about sex; (2) the psychology of sex is missing; (3) communication is not individually tailored. Clinicians might usefully (1) consider and discuss with patients how their psychosexual communication needs and information processing abilities may fluctuate across the cancer timeline; (2) initiate discussions about the consequences of treatment that extend beyond biological and mechanical aspects to include emotional and relational factors; (3) tailor communication to the dynamic mix of attributes that shape men's individual psychosexual needs, including their relationship status, sexual orientation, sexual motivations and values. Skills-based training in communication and psychosexual awareness may facilitate the proactive and permissive stance clinicians need to discuss sexual side effects with a heterogeneous group of patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Education reduces the effects of genetic susceptibilities to poor physical health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Wendy; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm; Mortensen, Erik L; Skytthe, Axel; Batty, G David; Deary, Ian J

    2010-04-01

    Greater education is associated with better physical health. This has been of great concern to public health officials. Most demonstrations show that education influences mean levels of health. Little is known about the influence of education on variance in health status, or about how this influence may impact the underlying genetic and environmental sources of health problems. This study explored these influences. In a 2002 postal questionnaire, 21 522 members of same-sex pairs in the Danish Twin Registry born between 1931 and 1982 reported physical health in the 12-item Short Form Health Survey. We used quantitative genetic models to examine how genetic and environmental variance in physical health differed with level of education, adjusting for birth-year effects. and Conclusions As expected, greater education was associated with better physical health. Greater education was also associated with smaller variance in health status. In both sexes, 2 standard deviations (SDs) above mean educational level, variance in physical health was only about half that among those 2 SDs below. This was because fewer highly educated people reported poor health. There was less total variance in health primarily because there was less genetic variance. Education apparently reduced expression of genetic susceptibilities to poor health. The patterns of genetic and environmental correlations suggested that this might take place because more educated people manage their environments to protect their health. If so, fostering the personal charactieristics associated with educational attainment could be important in reducing the education-health gradient.

  20. The association between the 4G/5G polymorphism in the promoter of the plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 gene and extension of postsurgical calf vein thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, Filippo; Meli, Francesco; Raimondi, Francesco; Montalto, Salvatore; Cospite, Valentina; Novo, Giuseppina; Novo, Salvatore

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate whether the presence of a plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) promoter polymorphism 4G/5G could significantly influence the proximal extension of vein thrombosis in spite of anticoagulant treatment in patients with calf vein thrombosis (CVT) following orthopaedic, urological and abdominal surgery. We studied 168 patients with CVT, who had undergone orthopaedic, urological and abdominal surgery, subdivided as follows: first, 50 patients with thrombosis progression; second, 118 patients without thrombosis progression. The 4G/5G polymorphism of the plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 was evaluated in all patients and in 70 healthy matched controls. We also studied PAI-1 activity in plasma. The presence of 4G/5G genotype was significantly increased in the group of patients with the extension of thrombotic lesions and was associated with an increase in CVT extension risk (odds ratio adjusted for sex 2.692; 95% confidence interval 1.302-4.702). Moreover, we observed a significant increase of PAI-1 plasma activity in patients with extension of thrombotic lesion vs. patients without extension (P=0.0001). Patients with 4G/5G genotype in the promoter of the plasminogen activator inhibitor - 1 gene present a higher risk of extension of thrombotic lesions.

  1. Blood disappearance rate of /sup 198/Au-colloid and changes of hepatic blood flow during position change in normal persons and in patients with various hepatic diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, B Y [Capital Armed Forces General Hospital, Seoul (Republic of Korea); Hong, K S; Koh, C S; Lee, M [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Republic of Korea). Coll. of Medicine

    1977-01-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic significance of the blood disappearance rate of /sup 198/Au-colloid and to evaluate the change of hepatic blood flow during position change from supine to erect, we measured the half time of blood disappearance rate of 7,1/sup 98/Au-colloid using external counting method in 94 normal persons and in 77 patients with various hepatic diseases. The results obtained were as follows: 1. In normal control, the mean blood disappearance half time of /sup 198/Au-colloid in supine position was 2.7+-0.4 minutes. There was no significant difference of hepatic blood flow in age and sex. 2. In acute hepatitits, chronic hepatitis and hepatic cirrhosis, the mean blood disappearance half times in supine position were 3.0+-0.45, 3.5+-0.74, 7.2+-3.6 minutes respectively. The hepatic blood flow of the patients with chronic hepatitis and hepatic cirrhosis were significantly decreased than that of normal control. 3. In the normal control and acute hepatitis, the decreaces of the hepatic blood flow during the position change from supine to erect were 27.7% and 22.6% respectively.

  2. The Blood Disappearance Rate of 1{sup 98A}u-Colloid and Changes of Hepatic Blood Flow During Position Change in Normal Persons and in Patients with Various Hepatic Diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Bo Yeon [Capital Armed Force General Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Kee Suk; Koh, Chang Soon; Lee, Mun Ho [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1977-03-15

    To evaluate the diagnostic significance of the blood disappearance rate of {sup 198}Au-colloid and to evaluate the change of hepatic blood flow during position change from supine to erect, we measured the half time of blood disappearance rate of {sup 198}Au-colloid using external counting method in 94 normal persons and in 77 patients with various hepatic diseases. The results obtained were as follows: 1) In normal control, the mean blood disappearance half time of {sup 198}Au-colloid in supine position was 2.7+-0.4 minutes. There was no significant difference of hepatic blood flow in age and sex. 2) In acute hepatitis, chronic hepatitis and hepatic cirrhosis, the mean blood disappearance half times in supine position were 3.0+-0.45, 3.5+-0.74, 7.2+-3.6 minutes respectively. The hepatic blood flow of the patients with chronic hepatitis and hepatic cirrhosis were significantly decreased than that of normal control. 3) In the normal control and acute hepatitis, the decreases of the hepatic blood flow during the position change from supine to erect were 27.7% and 22.6% respectively.

  3. Determinants of the development of post-traumatic stress disorder, in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, Marc; Vandeleur, Caroline L; Castelao, Enrique; Rothen, Stéphane; Glaus, Jennifer; Vollenweider, Peter; Preisig, Martin

    2014-03-01

    To assess (1) the lifetime prevalence of exposure both to trauma and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD); (2) the risk of PTSD by type of trauma; and (3) the determinants of the development of PTSD in the community. The Diagnostic Interview for Genetic Studies was administered to a random sample of an urban area (N = 3,691). (1) The lifetime prevalence estimates of exposure to trauma and PTSD were 21.0 and 5.0%; respectively, with a twice as high prevalence of PTSD in women compared to men despite a similar likelihood of exposure in the two sexes; (2) Sexual abuse was the trauma involving the highest risk of PTSD; (3) The risk of PTSD was most strongly associated with sexual abuse followed by preexisting bipolar disorder, alcohol dependence, antisocial personality, childhood separation anxiety disorder, being victim of crime, witnessing violence, Neuroticism and Problem-focused coping strategies. After adjustment for these characteristics, female sex was no longer found to be significantly associated with the risk of PTSD. The risk for the development of PTSD after exposure to traumatic events is associated with several factors including the type of exposure, preexisting psychopathology, personality features and coping strategies which independently contribute to the vulnerability to PTSD.

  4. Gay bathhouse HIV prevention: the use of staff monitoring of patron sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, William J; Sheon, Nicolas; Morris, Joseph A; Binson, Diane

    2013-06-01

    Many HIV prevention interventions have been launched in gay bathhouses and sex clubs since the onset of the AIDS epidemic, such as condom distribution and HIV testing. Perhaps none of these are as intrusive to the venue's environment as what is called "monitoring," which involves staff, during every shift, repeatedly walking throughout the public areas of a bathhouse to check on patrons' sexual behavior. Yet, monitoring has received little evaluation. Between 2002 and 2004, we conducted qualitative interviews with venue managers, staff and patrons in New York City, Los Angeles, and the San Francisco Bay Area. An analysis found that monitoring was influenced by the kinds of space available for sex, suggesting three approaches to monitoring: 1) monitoring all sex in clubs that only had public areas where men had sex ; 2) monitoring some sex in clubs with private rooms for sex; and 3) no monitoring of sex, regardless of the kinds of space for sex. This paper explores each approach as described by club managers, staff, and patrons to understand the potential effectiveness of monitoring as an HIV prevention intervention.

  5. The blood disappearance rate of 198Au-colloid and changes of hepatic blood flow during position change in normal persons and in patients with various hepatic diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, B.Y.; Hong, K.S.; Koh, C.S.; Lee, M.

    1977-01-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic significance of the blood disappearance rate of 198 Au-colloid and to evaluate the change of hepatic blood flow during position change from supine to erect, we measured the half time of blood disappearance rate of 7,1 98 Au-colloid using external counting method in 94 normal persons and in 77 patients with various hepatic diseases. The results obtained were as follows: 1. In normal control, the mean blood disappearance half time of 198 Au-colloid in supine position was 2.7+-0.4 minutes. There was no significant difference of hepatic blood flow in age and sex. 2. In acute hepatitits, chronic hepatitis and hepatic cirrhosis, the mean blood disappearance half times in supine position were 3.0+-0.45, 3.5+-0.74, 7.2+-3.6 minutes respectively. The hepatic blood flow of the patients with chronic hepatitis and hepatic cirrhosis were significantly decreased than that of normal control. 3. In the normal control and acute hepatitis, the decreaces of the hepatic blood flow during the position change from supine to erect were 27.7% and 22.6% respectively. (author)

  6. The Blood Disappearance Rate of 198Au-Colloid and Changes of Hepatic Blood Flow During Position Change in Normal Persons and in Patients with Various Hepatic Diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Bo Yeon; Hong, Kee Suk; Koh, Chang Soon; Lee, Mun Ho

    1977-01-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic significance of the blood disappearance rate of 198 Au-colloid and to evaluate the change of hepatic blood flow during position change from supine to erect, we measured the half time of blood disappearance rate of 198 Au-colloid using external counting method in 94 normal persons and in 77 patients with various hepatic diseases. The results obtained were as follows: 1) In normal control, the mean blood disappearance half time of 198 Au-colloid in supine position was 2.7±0.4 minutes. There was no significant difference of hepatic blood flow in age and sex. 2) In acute hepatitis, chronic hepatitis and hepatic cirrhosis, the mean blood disappearance half times in supine position were 3.0±0.45, 3.5±0.74, 7.2±3.6 minutes respectively. The hepatic blood flow of the patients with chronic hepatitis and hepatic cirrhosis were significantly decreased than that of normal control. 3) In the normal control and acute hepatitis, the decreases of the hepatic blood flow during the position change from supine to erect were 27.7% and 22.6% respectively.

  7. [Prevalence of violent events and post-traumatic stress disorder in the Mexican population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Mora Icaza, Maria Elena; Borges-Guimaraes, Guilherme; Lara, Carmen; Ramos-Lira, Luciana; Zambrano, Joaquín; Fleiz-Bautista, Clara

    2005-01-01

    To report the rate of exposure to different violent events, their demographic correlates, the prevalence of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), and the impact on quality of life. The National Survey of Psychiatric Epidemiology is representative of the Mexican urban population aged 18 to 65. The survey was undertaken in 2001 and 2002 using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI- 15) computerized version. The statistical analyses take into account the multistage, stratified, and weighted sample design. Kaplan-Meier and logistic regressions were performed. Sixty-eight percent of the population has been exposed to at least one stressful life event. Exposure varies by sex (rape, harassment, and sexual abuse are more frequent in women; accidents and being a victim of burglary among men) and by age (more frequent in children, adolescents, young adult women, and the elderly). By sex, 2.3% of women and 0.49% of men present PTSD. Rape, harassment, kidnapping, and sexual abuse are the events most associated with PTSD. The results suggest the need to increase treatment coverage to attend the consequences of violence, taking into consideration the important gender and age variations.

  8. Factors influencing the choice of antidepressants: A study of antidepressant prescribing practice at University psychiatric clinic in Belgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marić Nađa P.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Antidepressants are a widely used class of drugs. The aim of this study was to investigate different aspects of antidepressant prescribing practice at University Psychiatric Clinic in Belgrade. Methods. This cross-sectional study was carried out by retrospective analysis of the patient's medical charts. The study included all patients with antidepressant prescribed at discharge during 2009 (n = 296. The evaluation was focused on patient- related factors (socio-demographic and illness related, psychiatrist-related factors (sex and duration of working experience and drug related factors (type of antidepressant, dose, polypharmacy and reimbursement by national health insurance. Results. Antidepressants were prescribed for unipolar depression (F32-34, ICD X either without comorbidity (46.2% or with comorbidity (24.7%, mostly as a monotherapy (91% had one antidepressant, to the patients who were 65% female, aged 50.1 ± 8.9, most of them with 12 years of education (52.6%, married (69.3% and employed (55.9%. The majority of patients had a history of two hospitalizations (Med 2; 25th-75th perc. 1-4 during nine years (Med 9; 25th-75th perc. 2-15 after the first episode of depression. Among them, 19% were found to be suicidal in a lifetime. The single most prescribed antidepressant was sertraline (20.4%, followed by fluoxetine (13.3% and maprotiline (11.7%. Utilization of antidepressants was positively correlated with the rate of reimbursement (p < 0.01. The most prescribed antidepressant group was selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI (47.8%, followed by tricyclic antidepresants (TCA (25.3% and new antidepressants - venlafaxine, tianeptine, mirtazapine, bupropion, trazodone (15.1%. Most of the drugs were prescribed in doses which are at the lower end of the recommended dose-range. Regarding severity of the actual depressive episode, TCA were prescribed for severe depression with psychotic features, while SSRI were choice for

  9. Lower cognitive function in patients with age-related macular degeneration: a meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Li-Xiao; Sun, Cheng-Lin; Wei, Li-Juan; Gu, Zhi-Min; Lv, Liang; Dang, Yalong

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the cognitive impairment in patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Methods Relevant articles were identified through a search of the following electronic databases through October 2015, without language restriction: 1) PubMed; 2) the Cochrane Library; 3) EMBASE; 4) ScienceDirect. Meta-analysis was conducted using STATA 12.0 software. Standardized mean differences with corresponding 95% confidence intervals were calculated. All of the included studies met the following four criteria: 1) the study design was a case–control or randomized controlled trial (RCT) study; 2) the study investigated cognitive function in the patient with AMD; 3) the diagnoses of AMD must be provided; 4) there were sufficient scores data to extract for evaluating cognitive function between cases and controls. The Newcastle–Ottawa Scale criteria were used to assess the methodological quality of the studies. Results Of the initial 278 literatures, only six case–control and one RCT studies met all of the inclusion criteria. A total of 794 AMD patients and 1,227 controls were included in this study. Five studies were performed with mini-mental state examination (MMSE), two studies with animal fluency, two studies with trail making test (TMT)-A and -B, one study with Mini-Cog. Results of the meta-analysis revealed lower cognitive function test scores in patients with AMD, especially with MMSE and Mini-Cog test (P≤0.001 for all). The results also showed that differences in the TMT-A (except AMD [total] vs controls) and TMT-B test had no statistical significance (P>0.01). The Newcastle–Ottawa Scale score was ≥5 for all of the included studies. Based on the sensitivity analysis, no single study influenced the overall pooled estimates. Conclusion This meta-analysis suggests lower cognitive function test scores in patients with AMD, especially with MMSE and Mini-Cog test. The other cognitive impairment screening tests, such as animal fluency test and

  10. Epidemiologic Observations on Diarrhea Developing in U.S. and Mexican Students Living in Guadalajara, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ericsson; DuPont; Mathewson

    1995-03-01

    previously unrecognized enteropathogens that were not assessed in this study. Among Mexican students who had the highest frequency of tap water consumption and eating from vendors, the low rates of diarrhea in summer (3%) and winter (5%) imply that they enjoy a substantial degree of immunity. Further study will be necessary to understand the role that immunity (or its loss during summer vacation back in the United States) might play in additionally accounting for observed differences in attack rates between newly arrived students and those who had lived for a period of time in Mexico. (J Travel Med 2:6-10, 1995)

  11. Observational Study of Travelers' Diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meuris

    1995-03-01

    Background: European air travelers returning from Algeria, Egypt, Mexico, Morocco, and Tunisia were interviewed about their experience of travelers' diseases upon arrival in Brussels. Diarrhea was mentioned by 37% of the adults and 27% of the children. These subjects were questioned about the types of measures taken, type and duration of drug treatment (if any), and about duration of diarrhea and side effects experienced. Methods: Final analysis was performed based on 2160 interviews. The largest proportion of diarrhea was reported in the age group 15-24 years (46%). Results: The majority of the 2160 subjects had opted for drug treatment (81%): 927 subjects for loperamide alone, 235 for loperamide in combination with nifuroxazide, and 178 for nifuroxazide alone. Other drugs had been used less frequently. The median time to recovery was 2.4 days with loperamide compared to 3.2 days with nifuroxazide and to 3.4 days for the no-treatment group. Conclusions: A stratification of the results by severity of the diarrhea suggests a rank of antidiarrheal potency as follows: loperamide > nifuroxazide > no-drug treatment. The side effect with the highest incidence was constipation (2.4% with loperamide). (J Travel Med 2:11-15, 1995) Travelers' diarrhea is usually defined as the passage of at least three unformed stools per day or any number of such stools when accompanied by fever, abdominal cramping, or vomiting. The definition may be broadened to include more trivial bowel disturbance.1,2 The duration of this self-limited disease generally is 3 to 5 days. Medical intervention aims at shortening the duration of disease, thus allowing the sufferer to resume his or her usual activities at an early stage. A shortened period of recovery to physical well-being has obvious favorable economic implications if the traveler is on business and may help the maintenance of a desired level of quality of life while a traveler is on holiday. An observational study of various medical

  12. Modeling the Risk of Radiation-Induced Acute Esophagitis for Combined Washington University and RTOG Trial 93-11 Lung Cancer Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Ellen X.; Bradley, Jeffrey D.; El Naqa, Issam; Hope, Andrew J.; Lindsay, Patricia E.; Bosch, Walter R.; Matthews, John W.; Sause, William T.; Graham, Mary V.; Deasy, Joseph O.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To construct a maximally predictive model of the risk of severe acute esophagitis (AE) for patients who receive definitive radiation therapy (RT) for non–small-cell lung cancer. Methods and Materials: The dataset includes Washington University and RTOG 93-11 clinical trial data (events/patients: 120/374, WUSTL = 101/237, RTOG9311 = 19/137). Statistical model building was performed based on dosimetric and clinical parameters (patient age, sex, weight loss, pretreatment chemotherapy, concurrent chemotherapy, fraction size). A wide range of dose–volume parameters were extracted from dearchived treatment plans, including Dx, Vx, MOHx (mean of hottest x% volume), MOCx (mean of coldest x% volume), and gEUD (generalized equivalent uniform dose) values. Results: The most significant single parameters for predicting acute esophagitis (RTOG Grade 2 or greater) were MOH85, mean esophagus dose (MED), and V30. A superior–inferior weighted dose-center position was derived but not found to be significant. Fraction size was found to be significant on univariate logistic analysis (Spearman R = 0.421, p < 0.00001) but not multivariate logistic modeling. Cross-validation model building was used to determine that an optimal model size needed only two parameters (MOH85 and concurrent chemotherapy, robustly selected on bootstrap model-rebuilding). Mean esophagus dose (MED) is preferred instead of MOH85, as it gives nearly the same statistical performance and is easier to compute. AE risk is given as a logistic function of (0.0688 ∗ MED+1.50 ∗ ConChemo-3.13), where MED is in Gy and ConChemo is either 1 (yes) if concurrent chemotherapy was given, or 0 (no). This model correlates to the observed risk of AE with a Spearman coefficient of 0.629 (p < 0.000001). Conclusions: Multivariate statistical model building with cross-validation suggests that a two-variable logistic model based on mean dose and the use of concurrent chemotherapy robustly predicts acute esophagitis

  13. A space-borne, multi-parameter, Virtual Volcano Observatory for the real-time, anywhere-anytime support to decision-making during eruptive crises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrucci, F.; Tampellini, M.; Loughlin, S. C.; Tait, S.; Theys, N.; Valks, P.; Hirn, B.

    2013-12-01

    The EVOSS consortium of academic, industrial and institutional partners in Europe and Africa, has created a satellite-based volcano observatory, designed to support crisis management within the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) framework of the European Commission. Data from 8 different payloads orbiting on 14 satellite platforms (SEVIRI on-board MSG-1, -2 and -3, MODIS on-board Terra and Aqua, GOME-2 and IASI onboard MetOp-A, OMI on-board Aura, Cosmo-SkyMED/1, /2, /3 and /4, JAMI on-board MTSAT-1 and -2, and, until April 8th2012, SCHIAMACHY on-board ENVISAT) acquired at 5 different down-link stations, are disseminated to and automatically processed at 6 locations in 4 countries. The results are sent, in four separate geographic data streams (high-temperature thermal anomalies, volcanic Sulfur dioxide daily fluxes, volcanic ash and ground deformation), to a central facility called VVO, the 'Virtual Volcano Observatory'. This system operates 24H/24-7D/7 since September 2011 on all volcanoes in Europe, Africa, the Lesser Antilles, and the oceans around them, and during this interval has detected, measured and monitored all subaerial eruptions occurred in this region (44 over 45 certified, with overall detection and processing efficiency of ~97%). EVOSS borne realtime information is delivered to a group of 14 qualified end users, bearing the direct or indirect responsibility of monitoring and managing volcano emergencies, and of advising governments in Comoros, DR Congo, Djibouti, Ethiopia, Montserrat, Uganda, Tanzania, France and Iceland. We present the full set of eruptions detected and monitored - from 2004 to present - by multispectral payloads SEVIRI onboard the geostationary platforms of the MSG constellation, for developing and fine tuning-up the EVOSS system along with its real-time, pre- and post-processing automated algorithms. The set includes 91% of subaerial eruptions occurred at 15 volcanoes (Piton de la Fournaise, Karthala, Jebel al

  14. Current biomedical scientific impact (2013) of institutions, academic journals and researchers in the Republic of Macedonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiroski, Mirko

    2014-01-01

    To analyse current ranking (2013) of institutions, journals and researchers in the Republic of Macedonia. the country rankings of R. Macedonia were analyzed with SCImago Country & Journal Rank (SJR) for subject area Medicine in the years 1996-2013, and ordered by H-index. SCImago Institutions Rankings for 2013 was used for the scientific impact of biomedical institutions in the Republic of Macedonia. Journal metrics from Elsevier for the Macedonian scholarly journals for the period 2009-2013 were performed. Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP), the Impact per Publication (IPP), and SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) were analysed. Macedonian scholarly biomedical journals included in Google Scholar metrics (2013, 2012) were analysed with h5-index and h5-median (June 2014). A semantic analysis of the PubMed database was performed with GoPubMed on November 2, 2014 in order to identify published papers from the field of biomedical sciences affiliated with the country of Macedonia. Harzing's Publish or Perish software was used for author impact analysis and the calculation of the Hirsh-index based on Google Scholar query. The rank of subject area Medicine of R. Macedonia according to the SCImago Journal & Country Rank (SJR) is 110th in the world and 17th in Eastern Europe. Of 20 universities in Macedonia, only Ss Cyril and Methodius University, Skopje, and the University St Clement of Ohrid, Bitola, are listed in the SCImago Institutions Rankings (SIR) for 2013. A very small number of Macedonian scholarly journals is included in Web of Sciences (2), PubMed (1), PubMed Central (1), SCOPUS (6), SCImago (6), and Google Scholar metrics (6). The rank of Hirsh index (h-index) was different from the rank of number of abstracts indexed in PubMed for the top 20 authors from R. Macedonia. The current biomedical scientific impact (2013) of institutions, academic journals and researchers in R. Macedonia is very low. There is an urgent need for organized measures to improve the quality

  15. Modeling the Risk of Radiation-Induced Acute Esophagitis for Combined Washington University and RTOG Trial 93-11 Lung Cancer Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Ellen X.; Bradley, Jeffrey D.; El Naqa, Issam [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO (United States); Hope, Andrew J.; Lindsay, Patricia E. [Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, ON (Canada); Bosch, Walter R.; Matthews, John W. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO (United States); Sause, William T. [Department of Radiation Oncology, LDS Hospital, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Graham, Mary V. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Phelps County Regional Hospital, Rolla, MO (United States); Deasy, Joseph O., E-mail: deasyj@mskcc.org [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States)

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: To construct a maximally predictive model of the risk of severe acute esophagitis (AE) for patients who receive definitive radiation therapy (RT) for non-small-cell lung cancer. Methods and Materials: The dataset includes Washington University and RTOG 93-11 clinical trial data (events/patients: 120/374, WUSTL = 101/237, RTOG9311 = 19/137). Statistical model building was performed based on dosimetric and clinical parameters (patient age, sex, weight loss, pretreatment chemotherapy, concurrent chemotherapy, fraction size). A wide range of dose-volume parameters were extracted from dearchived treatment plans, including Dx, Vx, MOHx (mean of hottest x% volume), MOCx (mean of coldest x% volume), and gEUD (generalized equivalent uniform dose) values. Results: The most significant single parameters for predicting acute esophagitis (RTOG Grade 2 or greater) were MOH85, mean esophagus dose (MED), and V30. A superior-inferior weighted dose-center position was derived but not found to be significant. Fraction size was found to be significant on univariate logistic analysis (Spearman R = 0.421, p < 0.00001) but not multivariate logistic modeling. Cross-validation model building was used to determine that an optimal model size needed only two parameters (MOH85 and concurrent chemotherapy, robustly selected on bootstrap model-rebuilding). Mean esophagus dose (MED) is preferred instead of MOH85, as it gives nearly the same statistical performance and is easier to compute. AE risk is given as a logistic function of (0.0688 Asterisk-Operator MED+1.50 Asterisk-Operator ConChemo-3.13), where MED is in Gy and ConChemo is either 1 (yes) if concurrent chemotherapy was given, or 0 (no). This model correlates to the observed risk of AE with a Spearman coefficient of 0.629 (p < 0.000001). Conclusions: Multivariate statistical model building with cross-validation suggests that a two-variable logistic model based on mean dose and the use of concurrent chemotherapy robustly predicts

  16. Modeling the risk of radiation-induced acute esophagitis for combined Washington University and RTOG trial 93-11 lung cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ellen X; Bradley, Jeffrey D; El Naqa, Issam; Hope, Andrew J; Lindsay, Patricia E; Bosch, Walter R; Matthews, John W; Sause, William T; Graham, Mary V; Deasy, Joseph O

    2012-04-01

    To construct a maximally predictive model of the risk of severe acute esophagitis (AE) for patients who receive definitive radiation therapy (RT) for non-small-cell lung cancer. The dataset includes Washington University and RTOG 93-11 clinical trial data (events/patients: 120/374, WUSTL = 101/237, RTOG9311 = 19/137). Statistical model building was performed based on dosimetric and clinical parameters (patient age, sex, weight loss, pretreatment chemotherapy, concurrent chemotherapy, fraction size). A wide range of dose-volume parameters were extracted from dearchived treatment plans, including Dx, Vx, MOHx (mean of hottest x% volume), MOCx (mean of coldest x% volume), and gEUD (generalized equivalent uniform dose) values. The most significant single parameters for predicting acute esophagitis (RTOG Grade 2 or greater) were MOH85, mean esophagus dose (MED), and V30. A superior-inferior weighted dose-center position was derived but not found to be significant. Fraction size was found to be significant on univariate logistic analysis (Spearman R = 0.421, p < 0.00001) but not multivariate logistic modeling. Cross-validation model building was used to determine that an optimal model size needed only two parameters (MOH85 and concurrent chemotherapy, robustly selected on bootstrap model-rebuilding). Mean esophagus dose (MED) is preferred instead of MOH85, as it gives nearly the same statistical performance and is easier to compute. AE risk is given as a logistic function of (0.0688 MED+1.50 ConChemo-3.13), where MED is in Gy and ConChemo is either 1 (yes) if concurrent chemotherapy was given, or 0 (no). This model correlates to the observed risk of AE with a Spearman coefficient of 0.629 (p < 0.000001). Multivariate statistical model building with cross-validation suggests that a two-variable logistic model based on mean dose and the use of concurrent chemotherapy robustly predicts acute esophagitis risk in combined-data WUSTL and RTOG 93-11 trial datasets. Copyright

  17. Studies of colorectal cancer among atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima, 1950-1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakatsuka, Hirofumi

    1985-01-01

    Among the 82,064 subjects, 595 cases of colorectal cancer were confirmed, 395 cases (66.4%) by microscopic examinations of histological specimens and 69 cases (11.6%) by death certificate only. Subjects with unknown exposure dose or who were not in Hiroshima city at the time of the bombing were excluded, and the analysis was based on 60,470 persons with estimated exposure dose. In this population, there were 450 colorectal cancer cases: 239 cases of colon cancer, 203 cases of rectal cancer and eight cases with unknown site. Concerning the relationship between incidence of colorectal cancer and radiation exposure, the following conclusions were obtained: 1. The incidence of colorectal cancer increased with radiation dose, and this tendency was observed in both sexes. 2. The risk of colon cancer increased with dose, and linear trend tests showed that the increase was significant both in males (p<0.05) and females (p<0.01). The effects of radiation on the incidence of colon cancer differed by age at the time of the bombing. Among survivors exposed at young ages (less than 20) the effects were especially remarkable, the relative risk of the 100+ rad group versus the 0 rad group being 6.2, which was significantly greater than unity (p<0.01). Further, by site of colon cancer, radiation dose effects on the incidence of cancer of the right side colon (cecum and ascending colon), and sigmoid colon were observed, while dose effects on the incidence of the transverse colon or descending colon were not. 3. No effects atomic bomb radiation on the incidence of rectal cancer could be demonstrated, even when examined by sex and age at the time of the bombing. 4. For both colon cancer and rectal cancer, no difference in the distribution of tumor histological types could be observed by radiation dose. (J.P.N.)

  18. Discovery of endangered annual killifish Austrolebias cheradophilus (Aplocheiloidei: Rivulidae in Brazil, with comments on habitat, population structure and conservation status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Esteban Krause Lanés

    Full Text Available Austrolebias genus comprises about 40 small annual killifishes endemic to South America and their highest diversity occurs in southern Brazil and Uruguay, especially in drainages of Patos-Mirim system. Austrolebiasspecies are severely threatened with extinction because their life cycle and restricted ranges. Low dispersal ability and the extensive loss and fragmentation of freshwater wetlands contribute to this threat. Accurate information on the geographic distribution and ecology of the species, vital to plan conservation and management strategies, are scarce. In order to provide basic knowledge for annual fish conservation this paper reports the presence of Austrolebias cheradophilus and present data about its population structure (CPUA, size, sex ratio, length-weight relationships and condition factor and conservation status in southern Brazil. The estimated CPUA of populations was 0.86 fish/m2. Standard length (SL of males ranged between 32.14 and 49.17 mm and for females between 25.11 and 41.6 mm. There were no differences in SL between the sexes (t-test = - 1.678; P = 0.105, and Chi-squared test demonstrated marginal differences in proportions of sexes (2.25:1; χ2 = 3.846; P= 0.07. Allometric coefficient of the LWR was slightly hyperallometric (b = 3.08 and K of the specimens ranged from 1.84 to 2.42 (mean ± S.E. = 2.12 ± 0.04. Populations have low density and their biotopes are under critical threat, mainly due to suppression by agriculture, pastures for livestock and increase housing. The species is considered "Critically Endangered" in Brazil, furthermore is strongly recommended its inclusion on lists of endangered fauna and ensures the protection of their remaining habitats.

  19. Examination of emotion-induced changes in eating: A latent profile analysis of the Emotional Appetite Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdier, L; Morvan, Y; Kotbagi, G; Kern, L; Romo, L; Berthoz, S

    2018-04-01

    It is now recognized that emotions can influence food intake. While some people report eating less when distressed, others report either no change of eating or eating more in the same condition. The question whether this interindividual variability also occurs in response to positive emotions has been overlooked in most studies on Emotional Eating (EE). Using the Emotional Appetite Questionnaire (EMAQ) and Latent Profile Analysis, this study aimed to examine the existence of latent emotion-induced changes in eating profiles, and explore how these profiles differ by testing their relations with 1) age and sex, 2) BMI and risk for eating disorders (ED) and 3) factors that are known to be associated with EE such as perceived positive/negative feelings, depression, anxiety, stress symptoms and impulsivity. Among 401 university students (245 females) who completed the EMAQ, 3 profiles emerged (P1:11.2%, P2:60.1%, P3:28.7%), with distinct patterns of eating behaviors in response to negative emotions and situations but few differences regarding positive ones. Negative emotional overeaters (P1) and negative emotional undereaters (P3) reported similar levels of emotional distress and positive feelings, and were at greater risk for ED. However, the people in the former profile i) reported decreasing their food intake in a positive context, ii) were in majority females, iii) had higher BMI and iv) were more prone to report acting rashly when experiencing negative emotions. Our findings suggest that a person-centred analysis of the EMAQ scores offers a promising way to capture the inter-individual variability of emotionally-driven eating behaviors. These observations also add to the growing literature underscoring the importance of further investigating the role of different facets of impulsivity in triggering overeating and to develop more targeted interventions of EE. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Maximal aerobic power in cycle ergometry in middle-aged men and women, active in sports, in relation to age and physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovens, A M; van Baak, M A; Vrencken, J G; Wijnen, J A; Saris, W H; Verstappen, F T

    1993-02-01

    Reliable standards of maximal power output in middle-aged and physically active men and women are desirable in sports-medical practice. For this purpose maximal cycle ergometer tests were evaluated in 2038 men and 898 women over 40 years of age (46.8 +/- 6.1 years (mean +/- SD) and 47.5 +/- 6.6 years), who volunteered in a sports-medical check-up and all of whom were active in sports for at least three months in the year preceding the screening (4.3 +/- 3.1 hours/week respectively 3.6 +/- 2.5 hours/week). The range of maximal values for power output (Wmax), heart rate (HRmax), systolic blood pressure (SBPmax) and peak plasma lactate concentrations (PPLa) during progressive cycle ergometer testing are presented for males and females who were divided into groups with a 5-years age difference. Wmax varied with sex (male = 1, female = 0), age (year) and height (cm); Wmax = 65.3 x (sex) + 2.0 x (height) -1.9 x (age) - 67.9 (See = 38.2; r = 0.76). The weighing of different factors that influence performance was also studied by multiple regression analysis to provide improved precision in standards used to interpret exercise tests. In both men and women about half of the variation of Wmax could be explained by the independent variables age, body mass, body fat, smoking habits, vital capacity, heart rate, and physical activity parameters. It is concluded that active involvement in endurance sports and/or the use of the bicycle for transport, contributed substantially to cardiovascular fitness in healthy, middle-aged men and women.

  1. Impact of smoking on disease severity in patients with plaque type psoriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuriye Kayıran

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: Psoriasis is a chronic enflammatory systemic disease involving skin, scalp, nails and joints and is characterized by remission and activation periods. Although the etiopathogenesis of psoriasis has not been fully elucidated, many genetic and environmental factors are believed to have a role in the development of the disease. Obesity, smoking, family history of psoriasis, repetitive physical traumas and stress are the factors thought to affect the severity and progress of the disease. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of smoking on the clinical severity of psoriasis in patients with chronic plaque psoriasis. Materials and Methods: Three hundred outpatients with chronic plaque-type psoriasis were enrolled in the study. Data on age, gender, family history, smoking history, educational status, history of chronic illness, and psoriasis area severity index (PASI scores were recorded for each patient. The effects of these factors on PASI were evaluated. Results: Current smokers, never smokers and former smokers were compared in terms of disease severity. The median PASI values of current smokers and never smokers were compared. The mean PASI value was statistically significantly higher in smokers (p=0.049. In multiple logistic regression analysis, it was detected that the risk of moderate and severe disease increased by male sex 2 times, by family history 2.3 times, and by smoking period above 20 years, 10 times. In smokers of more than 1 pack a day, this risk further increased. Conclusion: On the basis of these data, it may be concluded that smoking affects the severity of disease significantly. In addition to amount of daily cigarette consumption, smoking period was shown to have an effect on the severity of disease. Elimination of risk factors such as smoking, which appears to increase the severity of diseases, may be helpful in the management of psoriasis.

  2. Women view key sexual behaviours as the trigger for the onset and recurrence of bacterial vaginosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jade E Bilardi

    Full Text Available Bacterial vaginosis (BV affects a third of women of reproductive age in the US and there is increasing evidence to suggest it may be sexually transmitted. This study aimed to extend and validate the findings of our earlier smaller qualitative study by exploring in detail women's views and experiences of the triggering factors associated with BV onset and recurrence.Women aged 20-49, who had experienced one or more symptomatic episode of BV within 6 months, were opportunistically recruited to complete a 38-item questionnaire on their experience of BV.103 women completed the questionnaire. Women were significantly more likely to report sexual than lifestyle factors triggered BV onset and recurrence (p<0.001. The top 3 factors women attributed to both BV onset and recurrence were identical-and all sexual. They included, in order: 1 unprotected sex; 2 sex with a new male partner; and 3 sex in general. The main lifestyle factors nominated included stress, diet, menstruation and the use of feminine hygiene products. While many women felt their BV had been transmitted through sexual contact (54% and developed as a result of sexual activity (59%, few considered BV a sexually transmitted infection (STI (10%. Despite this 57% felt partners should also be treated for BV.These data concur with our earlier qualitative findings that women believe BV is triggered by sexual activity. While many women felt BV was sexually transmitted and supported partner treatment, they did not consider BV an STI. This contradiction is likely due to information conveyed to women based on current guidelines. In the absence of highly effective BV treatments, this study highlights the need for guidelines to indicate there is scientific uncertainty around the pathogenesis of BV and to contain clear health messages regarding the evidence for practices shown to be associated with a reduced risk of BV (i.e. consistent condom use.

  3. MRI EVALUATION OF PAINFUL KNEE JOINT- THE CORRELATION OF MULTIPLE COEXISTING PATHOLOGIES, AGE AND SEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukheswar Pame

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND 1. To evaluate the incidence and coexistence of multiple knee joint pathologies causing painful knee and their correlation to age and sex. 2. To evaluate the Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI features in various knee pathologies and to identify the common lesions. MATERIALS AND METHODS A retrospective study was performed using the clinical data of patients presenting with painful knee joint which were evaluated with MRI. Data from 200 patients examined between September 2015 and August 2016 were included into this study. The data was analysed statistically to evaluate the correlation between the MR pathological findings to age and sex of the patients. RESULTS The patient’s age ranged between 8 and 75 years (mean: 36 years. Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL tear was the commonest finding (60% followed by bursitis (55%, meniscal degeneration (54.6% and meniscal tear (52%. Primary signs of ACL tear were hyperintensity, discontinuity and nonvisualisation. Secondary signs like Posterior cruciate ligament (PCL buckling, PCL index of greater than 0.5, uncovered Lateral meniscus (LM and bone contusion assisted in diagnosis in indeterminate cases. Mid substance was the commonest site of ACL tear (64%. PCL tear accounted for only a small percentage (7%. Medial Meniscus (MM tear (35% was commoner than LM tear (17%. The posterior horn of meniscus was the commonest site of injury (86.5%. Age was significantly correlated with meniscal degeneration and tear, Medial collateral ligament (MCL degeneration, parameniscal cyst, and chondromalacia patellae. A significant correlation between male gender and ACL injury was noted. Meniscal injury was significantly correlated with bursitis, as well with MCL injury. Bone bruise was significantly correlated with ACL injury, MCL injury and Lateral collateral ligament (LCL injury. CONCLUSIONS MRI findings of certain pathologies in a painful knee can coexist and significantly correlate with each other, age and sex of

  4. Key non-controversial concepts of population education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikes, O J; Palacio, J; Kerr, B

    1993-03-01

    The important components of population education should focus on sexuality rather than sex education; content for inclusion depends upon whether the goal is population awareness or critical awareness. Population awareness is the better understanding of the nature, causes, and consequences of population changes experienced by a community, country, region. Critical awareness is the intent and ability to change the sociocultural or educational characteristics that influence fertility, mortality, and migration. 6 basic concepts with universal applicability are discussed, because if not handled properly, the topic become controversial. The concepts are linked to developing thinking or reasoning ability. The concepts are as follows: 1) respect for others, particularly those of the opposite sex; 2) development of self-esteem for both boys and girls; 3) the knowledge that planning is possible and desirable; 4) postponement of first pregnancy; 5) acceptance of responsibility for the consequences of behavior; and 6) the ability to recognize and withstand social pressure. When children learn respect for others, there is little likelihood that others will be harmed. Respect for girls and women is particularly important, and harmful stereotyping and their effects should be pointed out. The key is to develop healthy attitudes and values toward people, not just an intellectualization of gender issues. Self-esteem is used here to mean self-worth in the present and the future. Children can be helped to develop confidence, perseverance, and optimism. Children need to understand that carefully thought out decisions should precede a birth; fatalism and destiny is a choice. Postponing the first pregnancy can lead to economic, emotional, and physical benefits. Risk to the health of the mother and baby occurs during the teen years. The best time for pregnancy is between the ages of 20 and 30 years. A pregnancy in the teen years may have longterm consequences such as more pregnancy and

  5. Evaluation of normal brain CT scan in Korean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Y. H.; Suh, J. H.; Park, C. Y. [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1981-06-15

    The safety of procedure combined with wealth of information have resulted in rapid acceptance of CT as a practical and reliable neurodignostic technique. To understand the alternation in tissue density and associated displacement and distortion caused by pathologic lesion in CT, it is necessary to have clear understanding of normal anatomical landmark. For the purpose of establishing normative criteria in Korean for comparative diagnosis, 500 normal CT scan without neurologic sign were studied. The brief results are follows; 1. Among many ventricular index measured for lateral ventricle, the bifrontal CVI is more sensitive and easily determined. Ventricular size increased with age, especially after 6th decade but no difference with sex. 2. Mean width of third ventricle is 5 mm ({+-} 0.3), more wider in male (male; 5.2 mm, female; 4.5 mm) and increased with age. 2. Mean width of fourth ventricle is 13 mm ({+-} 1.3), without difference in age and sex. The shape of ventricle is variable form of triangle. The position of ventricle relative to Twining's line can be determined, so ratio of distance from tuberculum sellae to center of fourth ventricle to Twining's line is between 0.46-0.52. 4. Suprasellar cistern is visible in 89.7% of scan and shape of cistern is found to be pentagonal (73.3%), hexagonal (23.0%) and tetragonal (3.7%). 5. Choroid plexus can be identified in 90% and asymmetrical in 4%. 45% of identified choroid plexus can be visible on scan without contrast enhancement, and more frequently visible in older age.

  6. Motivation: a new look at an age-old topic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumrow, Allison

    2003-01-01

    Employee motivation is a shared responsibility. An employee has to have some amount of intrinsic desire to perform a task. You can't create that desire. But, you can create an environment that brings out that desire, and allows an employee to shine. Abraham Maslow developed one of the most useful of all motivation theories--the "Hierarchy of Needs"--in the 1940s, and it is still the prevailing theory today. The Needs Hierarchy begins with the basic idea that only an unfulfilled need is a motivator. Or, in plain English, people perform specific actions to meet specific personal needs. Maslow defines five levels of needs that all people experience: 1: Physiological, Food, shelter, and yes, sex. 2: Safety/Security. No personal harm and the current lifestyle is safe. 3: Social. The need for acceptance by others, for belonging, friendship and affection. 4: Self-Esteem/Ego. Recognition, status and prestige. 5: Self-Actualization. Self-fulfillment and the need for achieving one's personal best. What makes this needs theory so interesting and so useful in the workplace is the clarity with which a position in the hierarchy can be determined. The basic premise is that lower-level needs must be satisfied before moving upward to the next level. Consider your own employees and what you know about them. Look at their situations, and evaluate where they may be in the hierarchy. Remember, it's difficult to separate their personal situations from their work personas. Try using Abraham Maslow as a starting point to identify motivations of your staff.

  7. Adrenal-pituitary-gonadal relationships and ejaculate characteristics in captive leopards (Panthera pardus kotiya) isolated on the island of Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, J L; Wildt, D E; Phillips, L G; Seidensticker, J; Fernando, S B; Miththapala, S; Goodrowe, K L

    1989-03-01

    In Study 1, semen was collected using a standardized electroejaculation procedure. Males (N = 8) produced ejaculates with a high incidence of sperm abnormalities (77 +/- 3.3%). After electroejaculation under anaesthesia, serum cortisol concentrations increased (P less than 0.05), while testosterone concentrations decreased (P less than 0.05) and LH and FSH concentrations were unchanged (P less than 0.05) over a 2-h bleeding period. In Study 2, male and female leopards were bled at 5-min intervals for 3 h and given (i.v.): (1) saline (N = 2/sex); (2) GnRH (1 microgram/kg body weight) 30 min after the onset of sampling (N = 5/sex); or (3) ACTH (250 micrograms) at 30 min followed by GnRH 1 h later (N = 5/sex). Basal concentrations of serum LH, FSH and cortisol were comparable (P greater than 0.05) between male and female leopards. After GnRH, peak LH concentrations were 2-fold greater (P less than 0.05) in males than females while FSH responses were similar. In males, testosterone concentrations increased 2-3-fold following GnRH. After ACTH, serum cortisol concentrations doubled within 15 min in both sexes. Administration of ACTH 1 h before GnRH did not affect GnRH-induced LH or FSH release (P greater than 0.05); however, testosterone secretion was only 30% of that observed after GnRH alone (P less than 0.05).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Bullying and truancy: Predictors to sexual practices among school-going adolescents in Malaysia - a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmawati, M N; Dalila, R; Idris, I B; Hod, R

    2017-10-01

    Adolescents' involvement in sexual practices are becoming a major public health concern in Malaysia. This study aims to determine the prevalence of sexual practices among Malaysian school-going adolescents and its predictive factors. A cross-sectional study was carried out from April 2012 till September 2012 among 16-year-old school adolescents from two different schools. They were selected through simple random sampling and these adolescents answered a self-administered questionnaire consisting of three sections i.e. socio-demography, risk-taking behaviours and family-adolescents relationship. Data were analysed using Pearson Chi-Square test while Simple Logistic Regression and Multiple Logistic Regression were applied to determine the predictive factors. The prevalence of sexual practices among the adolescents was 30.1% in which they were either involved in pornography (26.8%), pre-sexual activities (8.5%) or premarital sex (2.9%). Six predictive factors associated with sexual practices among this age group were identified which were male (adjusted Odds Ratio (aOR) 2.7, 95% Confidence Interval (95%CI) 1.4 to 2.5), truancy (aOR 2.3, 95%CI 1.3 to 4.2), bully (aOR 3.5, 95%CI 1.7 to 7.3), hanging out (aOR 2.8, 95% 1.4 to 5.6), staying out late (aOR 3.2, 95%CI 1.5 to 6.8) and conflict with family (aOR 4.1, 95%CI 1.9 to 8.9). Asian background differs from the western countries and findings of this study may suggest suitable intervention programmes that can prevent high-risk sexual practices among Asian school-going adolescents.

  9. Measurement of kidney by computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamada, Tatsumi; Nakagawa, Kenichi; Tamura, Kenji; Yoshida, Akio; Fujii, Koichi

    1983-01-01

    Several measurements of normal kidney in vivo were obtained from computed tomography and were correlated with age, sex and body dimensions. Forty four males and 21 females without a history of renal disease were studied. 1. Angle between renal coronal section and body frontal (degree): The mean value (+- SD) of the angle was 44.0 +- 11.1 for right kidney and 42.3 +- 11.2 for left, with a low correlation coefficient. The angle had no significant correlation with age nor sex. 2. The largest width of kidney (cm): The mean value of the width was 4.6 +- 0.6 for male right kidney, 5.1 +- 0.6 for male left, 4.6 +- 0.7 for female right and 4.7 +- 1.0 for female left. The values correlated with age under 40 positively and over 40 negatively. 3. Renal volume (cm 3 ): Renal volume was calculated by adding together the area measurements obtained from successive 1 cm thick scans, excluding renal sinus. The mean volume was 107 +- 27 for male right kidney, 114 +- 24 for male left, 101 +- 33 for female right and 111 +- 41 for female left. The correlation coefficient of right versus left renal volume was significantly high. Total renal volume, i. e. left + right renal volume, had significant negative correlation with age over 40. 4. CT numbers of kidney: Average value of right kidney was 31.4 +- 6.0 and that of left was 30.7 +- 5.9. Though the correlation coefficient between right and left was nearly 1, no significant correlation was found with other values. (author)

  10. Climate and the complexity of migratory phenology: sexes, migratory distance, and arrival distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macmynowski, Dena P.; Root, Terry L.

    2007-05-01

    The intra- and inter-season complexity of bird migration has received limited attention in climatic change research. Our phenological analysis of 22 species collected in Chicago, USA, (1979 2002) evaluates the relationship between multi-scalar climate variables and differences (1) in arrival timing between sexes, (2) in arrival distributions among species, and (3) between spring and fall migration. The early migratory period for earliest arriving species (i.e., short-distance migrants) and earliest arriving individuals of a species (i.e., males) most frequently correlate with climate variables. Compared to long-distance migrant species, four times as many short-distance migrants correlate with spring temperature, while 8 of 11 (73%) of long-distance migrant species’ arrival is correlated with the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). While migratory phenology has been correlated with NAO in Europe, we believe that this is the first documentation of a significant association in North America. Geographically proximate conditions apparently influence migratory timing for short-distance migrants while continental-scale climate (e.g., NAO) seemingly influences the phenology of Neotropical migrants. The preponderance of climate correlations is with the early migratory period, not the median of arrival, suggesting that early spring conditions constrain the onset or rate of migration for some species. The seasonal arrival distribution provides considerable information about migratory passage beyond what is apparent from statistical analyses of phenology. A relationship between climate and fall phenology is not detected at this location. Analysis of the within-season complexity of migration, including multiple metrics of arrival, is essential to detect species’ responses to changing climate as well as evaluate the underlying biological mechanisms.

  11. Gain a child, lose a tooth? Using natural experiments to distinguish between fact and fiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabel, Frank; Jürges, Hendrik; Kruk, Kai E; Listl, Stefan

    2018-06-01

    Dental diseases are among the most frequent diseases globally and tooth loss imposes a substantial burden on peoples' quality of life. Non-experimental evidence suggests that individuals with more children have more missing teeth than individuals with fewer children, but until now there is no causal evidence for or against this. Using a Two-Stage Least Squares (2SLS) instrumental variables approach and large-scale cross-sectional data from the Survey of Health, Ageing, and Retirement in Europe (study sample: 34 843 non-institutionalised individuals aged 50+ from 14 European countries and Israel; data were collected in 2013), we investigated the causal relationship between the number of biological children and their parents' number of missing natural teeth. Thereby, we exploited random natural variation in family size resulting from (i) the birth of multiples vs singletons, and (ii) the sex composition of the two first-born children (increased likelihood of a third child if the two first-born children have the same sex). 2SLS regressions detected a strong causal relationship between the number of children and teeth for women but not for men when an additional birth occurred after the first two children had the same sex. Women then had an average of 4.27 (95% CI: 1.08 to 7.46) fewer teeth than women without an additional birth whose first two children had different sexes. This study provides novel evidence for causal links between the number of children and the number of missing teeth. An additional birth might be detrimental to the mother's but not the father's oral health. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  12. Masturbation, paying for sex, and other sexual activities: the Second Australian Study of Health and Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richters, Juliet; de Visser, Richard O; Badcock, Paul B; Smith, Anthony M A; Rissel, Chris; Simpson, Judy M; Grulich, Andrew E

    2014-11-01

    Background This study describes the prevalence of (solo) masturbation, paying for sex and a range of other sexual practices among Australians. A representative sample of 20094 men and women aged 16-69 years (participation rate among eligible people, 66.2%) were recruited by landline and mobile phone random-digit dialling and computer-assisted telephone interviews in 2012-13. Many respondents (men, 72%; women, 42%) had masturbated in the past year. Half (51%) of the men and 24% of women had masturbated in the past 4 weeks. In the past year, more than two-fifths of respondents (men, 63%; women, 20%) had looked at pornography in any medium. Approximately 15% of men and 21% of women had used a sex toy. Digital-anal stimulation with a partner was practised by 19% of men and 15% of women, and oral-anal stimulation by 7% of men and 4% of women. Sexual role playing or dressing up were engaged in by 7-8%. Online sex, swinging, group sex, BDSM (bondage and discipline, 'sadomasochism' or dominance and submission) and fisting (rectal or vaginal) were each engaged in by less than 3% of the sample. Seventeen per cent of men said they had ever paid for sex; 2% had done so in the past year. Most of the solo practices studied were engaged in by more men than women, but women were more likely to have used a sex toy. Autoerotic activities are both substitutes for partnered sex and additional sources of pleasure for people with sexual partners.

  13. The feminist position on family planning in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, M V

    1984-04-01

    The Spanish feminist movement had its origins in the early 1970; in 1975 the first offical feminist conference made the following demands on the public authorities; 1) to abolish all sections of the Criminal Code which restrict women's freedom to control of their own bodies through making illegal information on and the purchase of contraceptives, 2) to decriminalize abortion, 3) to create family planning centers and to legalize contraceptives and provide them through the social security system, and 4) to include sex information in study courses. The distribution and sale of contraceptives was not legalized until 1978 and induced abortion is still a criminal offense. Nevertheless, after the 1975 meetins, a Coordinating Organization was established for the family planning committees that were functioning in the different feminist organizations. The problem of where to obtain contraceptives was solved by a group of feminist women which opened the 1st family planning center in Spain in 19779 This center was managed directly by members of the group. This and similar efforts culminated in the origin of the Movement for Movement for Family Planning that demanded in 1978; 1) the provision of sex information confronting the dominant sexual ideology and which is made a ccompulsory subject from school age, for both sexes; 2) free access to contraception for everyone; 3) the legalization of abortion, 4) the development of extensive information campaign on the problems of conception and contraception; and 5) the creation of independent, self-managed, family planning centers. There is now a Coordinating Organization of Family Planning Centers that was established in 1982. The socialist government is determined to create a public network of family planning centers.

  14. Sexually dimorphic transcriptomic responses in the teleostean hypothalamus: a case study with the organochlorine pesticide dieldrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martyniuk, Christopher J; Doperalski, Nicholas J; Kroll, Kevin J; Barber, David S; Denslow, Nancy D

    2013-01-01

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) such as dieldrin are a persistent class of aquatic pollutants that cause adverse neurological and reproductive effects in vertebrates. In this study, female and male largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) (LMB) were exposed to 3mg dieldrin/kg feed in a 2 month feeding exposure (August-October) to (1) determine if the hypothalamic transcript responses to dieldrin were conserved between the sexes; (2) characterize cell signaling cascades underlying dieldrin neurotoxicity; and (3) determine whether or not co-feeding with 17β-estradiol (E(2)), a hormone with neuroprotective roles, mitigates responses in males to dieldrin. Despite also being a weak estrogen, dieldrin treatments did not elicit changes in reproductive endpoints (e.g. gonadosomatic index, vitellogenin, or plasma E(2)). Sub-network (SNEA) and gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) revealed that neuro-hormone networks, neurotransmitter and nuclear receptor signaling, and the activin signaling network were altered by dieldrin exposure. Most striking was that the majority of cell pathways identified by the gene set enrichment were significantly increased in females while the majority of cell pathways were significantly decreased in males fed dieldrin. These data suggest that (1) there are sexually dimorphic responses in the teleost hypothalamus; (2) neurotransmitter systems are a target of dieldrin at the transcriptomics level; and (3) males co-fed dieldrin and E(2) had the fewest numbers of genes and cell pathways altered in the hypothalamus, suggesting that E(2) may mitigate the effects of dieldrin in the central nervous system. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Total pancreatectomy and islet autotransplantation in children for chronic pancreatitis: indication, surgical techniques, postoperative management, and long-term outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinnakotla, Srinath; Bellin, Melena D; Schwarzenberg, Sarah J; Radosevich, David M; Cook, Marie; Dunn, Ty B; Beilman, Gregory J; Freeman, Martin L; Balamurugan, A N; Wilhelm, Josh; Bland, Barbara; Jimenez-Vega, Jose M; Hering, Bernhard J; Vickers, Selwyn M; Pruett, Timothy L; Sutherland, David E R

    2014-07-01

    Describe the surgical technique, complications, and long-term outcomes of total pancreatectomy and islet autotransplantation (TP-IAT) in a large series of pediatric patients. Surgical management of childhood pancreatitis is not clear; partial resection or drainage procedures often provide transient pain relief, but long-term recurrence is common due to the diffuse involvement of the pancreas. Total pancreatectomy (TP) removes the source of the pain, whereas islet autotransplantation (IAT) potentially can prevent or minimize TP-related diabetes. Retrospective review of 75 children undergoing TP-IAT for chronic pancreatitis who had failed medical, endoscopic, or surgical treatment between 1989 and 2012. Pancreatitis pain and the severity of pain statistically improved in 90% of patients after TP-IAT (P Puestow procedure (P = 0.018), lower body surface area (P = 0.048), higher islet equivalents (IEQ) per kilogram body weight (P = 0.001), and total IEQ (100,000) (P = 0.004) were associated with insulin independence. By multivariate analysis, 3 factors were associated with insulin independence after TP-IAT: (1) male sex, (2) lower body surface area, and (3) higher total IEQ per kilogram body weight. Total IEQ (100,000) was the single factor most strongly associated with insulin independence (odds ratio = 2.62; P < 0.001). Total pancreatectomy and islet autotransplantation provides sustained pain relief and improved quality of life. The β-cell function is dependent on islet yield. Total pancreatectomy and islet autotransplantation is an effective therapy for children with painful pancreatitis that failed medical and/or endoscopic management.

  16. Depression and HIV in Botswana: a population-based study on gender-specific socioeconomic and behavioral correlates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reshma Gupta

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Depression is a leading contributor to the burden of disease worldwide, a critical barrier to HIV prevention and a common serious HIV co-morbidity. However, depression screening and treatment are limited in sub-Saharan Africa, and there are few population-level studies examining the prevalence and gender-specific factors associated with depression.We conducted a cross-sectional population-based study of 18-49 year-old adults from five districts in Botswana with the highest prevalence of HIV-infection. We examined the prevalence of depressive symptoms, using a Hopkins Symptom Checklist for Depression (HSCL-D score of ≥ 1.75 to define depression, and correlates of depression using multivariate logistic regression stratified by sex.Of 1,268 participants surveyed, 25.3% of women and 31.4% of men had depression. Among women, lower education (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 2.07, 95% confidence interval [1.30-3.32], higher income (1.77 [1.09-2.86], and lack of control in sexual decision-making (2.35 [1.46-3.81] were positively associated with depression. Among men, being single (1.95 [1.02-3.74], living in a rural area (1.63 [1.02-2.65], having frequent visits to a health provider (3.29 [1.88-5.74], anticipated HIV stigma (fearing discrimination if HIV status was revealed (2.04 [1.27-3.29], and intergenerational sex (2.28 [1.17-4.41] were independently associated with depression.Depression is highly prevalent in Botswana, and its correlates are gender-specific. Our findings suggest multiple targets for screening and prevention of depression and highlight the need to integrate mental health counseling and treatment into primary health care to decrease morbidity and improve HIV management efforts.

  17. Experiences with workplace bullying among athletic trainers in the collegiate setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weuve, Celest; Pitney, William A; Martin, Malissa; Mazerolle, Stephanie M

    2014-01-01

    Workplace bullying (WPB) is a series of persistent negative interactions that affect a clinician's ability to perform his or her role. Although WPB has been studied in other health professions, to date, no information exists pertaining to WPB in athletic training. To determine the prevalence of WPB in the collegiate setting and examine factors that influence its occurrence. Cross-sectional study. Collegiate setting. There were 723 (329 female, 394 male) athletic trainers (ATs) aged 37.5 ± 10.4 years. We collected data via the validated and reliable online Athletic Training Environment Survey. Descriptive statistics were obtained to determine a bullying score for each AT and examine the prevalence of WPB. Chi-square analyses were performed to examine the differences between (1) sex, (2) academic degree level, (3) employment title, and (4) National Athletic Trainers' Association district. A total of 106 participants (14.7%) had a score of 2 or higher, indicating they were bullied in the athletic training setting. Of those bullied, 47 (44.3%) were women and 59 (55.7%) were men. There was no difference between women and men with respect to having experienced bullying (χ(2)1 = 0.068, P = .794). Moreover, no difference existed in the prevalence of bullying among ATs holding various degrees (χ(2)3 = 6.73, P = .081) or among ATs holding various titles within an organization (χ(2)5 = 3.55, P = .616). More (χ(2)1 = 23.77, P = Bullying was experienced by both male and female ATs in the collegiate setting, and a higher number of bullies were male. More research is necessary to explore WPB in other work settings.

  18. Evaluation of normal brain CT scan in Koreans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Y. H.; Suh, J. H.; Park, C. Y.

    1981-01-01

    The safety of procedure combined with wealth of information have resulted in rapid acceptance of CT as a practical and reliable neurodiagnostic technique. To understand the alternation in tissue density and associated displacement and distortion caused by pathologic lesion in CT, it is necessary to have clear understanding of normal anatomical landmark. For the purpose of establishing normartive criteria in Koreans for comparative diagnosis, 500 normal CT scan without neurologic sign were studied. The brief results are follows; 1. Among many ventricular index measured for lateral ventricle, the bifrontal CVI is more sensitive and easily determined. Ventricular size increased with age, especially after 6th decade but no difference with sex. 2. Mean width of third ventricle is 5mm( ± 0.3), more wider in male (male; 5.2mm, female; 4.5mm) and increased with age. 3. Mean width of fourth ventricle is 13mm( ± 1.3), without difference in age and sex. The shape of ventricle is variable form of triangle. The position of ventricle relative to Twining's line can be determined, so ratio of distance from tuberculum sellae to center of fourth ventricle to Twining's line is between 0.46-0.52. 4. Suprasellar cistern is visible in 89.7% of scan and shape of cistern is found to be pentagonal (73.3%), hexagonal (23.0%) and tetragonal (3.7%). 5. Choroid plexus can be identified in 90% and asymetrical in 4%. 45% of identified choroid plexus can be visible on scan without contrast enhancement, and more frequently visible in older age

  19. Evaluation of normal brain CT scan in Korean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Y. H.; Suh, J. H.; Park, C. Y.

    1981-01-01

    The safety of procedure combined with wealth of information have resulted in rapid acceptance of CT as a practical and reliable neurodignostic technique. To understand the alternation in tissue density and associated displacement and distortion caused by pathologic lesion in CT, it is necessary to have clear understanding of normal anatomical landmark. For the purpose of establishing normative criteria in Korean for comparative diagnosis, 500 normal CT scan without neurologic sign were studied. The brief results are follows; 1. Among many ventricular index measured for lateral ventricle, the bifrontal CVI is more sensitive and easily determined. Ventricular size increased with age, especially after 6th decade but no difference with sex. 2. Mean width of third ventricle is 5 mm (± 0.3), more wider in male (male; 5.2 mm, female; 4.5 mm) and increased with age. 2. Mean width of fourth ventricle is 13 mm (± 1.3), without difference in age and sex. The shape of ventricle is variable form of triangle. The position of ventricle relative to Twining's line can be determined, so ratio of distance from tuberculum sellae to center of fourth ventricle to Twining's line is between 0.46-0.52. 4. Suprasellar cistern is visible in 89.7% of scan and shape of cistern is found to be pentagonal (73.3%), hexagonal (23.0%) and tetragonal (3.7%). 5. Choroid plexus can be identified in 90% and asymmetrical in 4%. 45% of identified choroid plexus can be visible on scan without contrast enhancement, and more frequently visible in older age

  20. Sexual learning among East African adolescents in the context of generalized HIV epidemics: A systematic qualitative meta-synthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia S Knopf

    Full Text Available AIDS-related illness is the leading cause of mortality for adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa. Together, Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda account for 21% of HIV-infected adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa. The United Nations framework for addressing the epidemic among adolescents calls for comprehensive sexual and reproductive health education. These HIV prevention efforts could be informed by a synthesis of existing research about the formal and informal sexual education of adolescents in countries experiencing generalized epidemics. The purpose of this study was to describe the process of sexual learning among East African adolescents living in the context of generalized HIV epidemics.Qualitative metasynthesis, a systematic procedure for integrating the results of multiple qualitative studies addressing a similar phenomenon, was used. Thirty-two research reports met study inclusion criteria. The reports were assessed in a four-step analytic process: appraisal, classification of findings, synthesis of findings, and construction of a framework depicting the process of sexual learning in this population.The framework includes three phases of sexual learning: 1 being primed for sex, 2 making sense of sex, and 3 having sexual experiences. Adolescents were primed for sex through gender norms, cultural practices, and economic structures as well as through conversations and formal instruction. They made sense of sex by acquiring information about sexual intercourse, reproduction and pregnancy, sexually transmitted infections, and relationships and by developing a variety of beliefs and attitudes about these topics. Some adolescents described having sexual experiences that met wants or needs, but many experienced sex that was coerced or violent. Whether sex was wanted, coerced, or violent, adolescents experienced worry about sexually transmitted infections or premarital pregnancy.The three phases of sexual learning interact to shape adolescents' sexual lives

  1. Geographic variation in responses of European yellow dung flies to thermal stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauerfeind, Stephanie S; Sørensen, Jesper G; Loeschcke, Volker; Berger, David; Broder, E Dale; Geiger, Madeleine; Ferrari, Manuela; Blanckenhorn, Wolf U

    2018-04-01

    Climatic conditions can be very heterogeneous even over small geographic scales, and are believed to be major determinants of the abundance and distribution of species and populations. Organisms are expected to evolve in response to the frequency and magnitude of local thermal extremes, resulting in local adaptation. Using replicate yellow dung fly (Scathophaga stercoraria; Diptera: Scathophagidae) populations from cold (northern Europe) and warm climates (southern Europe), we compared 1) responses to short-term heat and cold shocks in both sexes, 2) heat shock protein (Hsp70) expression in adults and eggs, and 3) female reproductive traits when facing short-term heat stress during egg maturation. Contrary to expectations, thermal traits showed minor geographic differentiation, with weak evidence for greater heat resistance of southern flies but no differentiation in cold resistance. Hsp70 protein expression was little affected by heat stress, indicating systemic rather than induced regulation of the heat stress response, possibly related to this fly group's preference for cold climes. In contrast, sex differences were pronounced: males (which are larger) endured hot temperatures longer, while females featured higher Hsp70 expression. Heat stress negatively affected various female reproductive traits, reducing first clutch size, overall reproductive investment, egg lipid content, and subsequent larval hatching. These responses varied little across latitude but somewhat among populations in terms of egg size, protein content, and larval hatching success. Several reproductive parameters, but not Hsp70 expression, exhibited heritable variation among full-sib families. Rather than large-scale clinal geographic variation, our study suggests some local geographic population differentiation in the ability of yellow dung flies to buffer the impact of heat stress on reproductive performance. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Å ta spørsmål om form på alvor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liv Mildrid Gjernes

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available I dette essayet vil jeg prøve å vise hvordan Åpen forms metode, som ble utviklet i Bergen på 1970-tallet, og som senere har blitt brukt i undervisninga ved Bergen arkitekthøgskole, også kan anvendes som verktøy i faget kunst og håndverk i grunnskolelærerutdanninga. Åpen form undersøker et intersubjektivt og innovativt rom, tuftet på individets erfaringsverden, egenverdi og skapende mot. I et deltakende samspill kan Åpen form kommuniseres inn i en felles forståelse, tolket, utført, vist og avklaret gjennom praktiske handlinger og øvelser. Jeg tar utgangspunkt i 1 Viktor Papaneks tilnærming med at det å forme i seg selv er en grunnleggende menneskelig aktivitet, går videre til Hansjörg Hohrs «estetiske læreprosesser» og fortsetter med 2 Oskar Hansens begrep om «Open Form», praktisert og utviklet av Svein Hatløy og arkitektgruppa Gult Felt gjennom ulike symposier og prosjekter på Vestlandet. Den åpne tilnærminga til form blir belyst spesielt med 3 «Warszawa-spelet» og med et lite eksempel fra egen didaktisk praksis. For videre å underbygge en kunstdidaktisk tilnærming, tolker jeg 4 Åpen forms metode i et fenomenologisk perspektiv og avrunder essayet med min overbevisning om 5 «det estetiske som kunnskapsform» i forlengelse av definisjonen til pedagogene Austring og Sørensen og min egen erfaring fra praksis som kunstner og som lærer i arbeid med form. Åpen form som metode har referanser i kunstfeltets mangfoldige estetiske praksiser. Denne tenkinga kan la seg utvikle og bruke som en didaktisk formel også i mer almendannende undervisning. Som lærerutdanner med kunstfaglig bakgrunn, ser jeg her en mulighet til å styrke og synliggjøre estetiske læreprosesser i grunnskolelærerutdanninga. Metoden representerer en åpen og praktisk undersøkende holdning til form i et materielt og romlig uttrykk. I et forsøk på å løfte fram dette enkle men anvendelige tenkesettet, vil jeg trekke inn både biografiske og

  3. Observation of the hypodermic fatty layer of the human torso by computed tomography method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuyama, Yoko; Inokuchi, Seiichiro; Suzuki, Masataka

    1984-01-01

    CT images were taken at 7 different longitudinal levels of the torso, and three different body types, which were defined by the Rohrer Index, were discussed. Differences between the sexes were also discussed. 1) Total cross-sectional area: In males, values showed maximum at 2 levels (mid-point of sternum, xiphoid) among 7 levels; and, for females, 2 maximal values appeared at the mid-point of the sternum level and the level of the pubic symphysis. Values at the umbilicus level were smallest in both sexes. 2) Areas of hypodermic fatty layer: Here, the values for males were maximal at the umbilicus level, next largest were found at the lower abdominal level. For females, however, the maximal values appeared at the pubic symphysis and lower abdominal levels and values for the umbilicus level followed in magnitude. 3) Hypodermic fatty layer area ratios to those of the total cross-sectional area: Values here were largest at the umbilicus level in both sexes. For males, the ratio at the lower abdominal level and at the pubic symphysis level followed in this order: For females, the order of magnitude of values was reversed between those two ratios. The most minimal ratio appeared at the level of the xiphoid in both sexes. A tendency towards higher ratios in females than in males was seen at all 7 levels for bodies of the A-type. This was seen, however, only at levels below the upper abdomen for bodies of the C-type, and at all levels, except the umbilicus and lower abdomen, for bodies of the D-type. 4) Thickness of the hypodermic fatty layer: The maximal values in this layer appeared at point F for the superior border, mid-point and xiphoid of sternum levels. For the upper abdominal level, maximal values appeared at point A, and for the umbilicus level, at point D. They were all found at point C for the lower abdominal level and at point A for the pubic symphysis level. (J.P.N.)

  4. Support for social rehabilitation of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients. Psychological and educational assessment by the K-ABC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izumi, Mayuko [Ochanomizu Univ., Tokyo (Japan); Hosoya, Ryouta; Oohira, Mutsuro; Kaneko, Takashi; Matsushita, Taketsugu

    2000-10-01

    Intellectual impairment in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is thought to be caused by the effect of treatment on the central nervous system. We therefore assessed the characteristics and tendencies of patients' cognitive ability by using the K-ABC (Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children), an intelligence test. The subjects were 28 patients treated for ALL (males 18, females 10, age 4.7-12.0 years). The patients who took the K-ABC test were divided into irradiation group (15 patients who received brain irradiation as prophylactic treatment) and a non-irradiation group (13 patients whose brain was not irradiated), and evaluated the results. The K-ABC consists of a cognition processing scale and an acquisition level, and the cognition processing scale consists of a sequential processing scale and simultaneous processing scale. Patients were assessed in regard to various factors: 1. sex, 2. age of onset, 3. length of hospital stay, 4. age at the time of irradiation, 5. radiation dose, 6. score on the cognition processing scale, and multiple comparisons were made based on analysis of variance, least significant differences (1, 2, 3, 6), and the t-test (4, 5). Sequential processing ability was impaired in the patients with impaired cognitive processing in both groups. Part of simultaneous processing ability (ability to understand spatial relationships) tended to be reduced in the irradiation group in addition to the impairment in sequential processing ability, and factors 1 and 4 influenced cognitive ability in the irradiation group. The ability of girls decreased more than in boys. When children were irradiated below 4 years of age, their ability decreased even more. Regardless of whether they had received radiation therapy, all of the patients had received chemotherapy, including methotrexate, etc., and the anticancer drugs may have reduced their cognitive ability. The reduction of simultaneous processing ability may have been caused by the addition

  5. [The assessment of food intake and declared satisfaction in medical students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malara, Beata; Woźniak, Joanna; Miarczyńska-Jończyk, Halina; Jośko, Jadwiga; Jaskólecki, Henryk; Tyrpień, Mirosław

    2003-01-01

    Proper nutrition is one of the basic factors of the external environment which substantially influence the assurance and upkeep of a one's good state of health until old age. For students of medicine, i.e. prospective doctors, acquisition of knowledge and clinical experience should be accompanied by raising qualifications in the field of preventive treatment so that in future they can not only cure but also promote health. The aim of the present study was to analyse students' nutrition habits and to evaluate the declared satisfaction with the way of feeding. In preparation of the present paper the author used anonymous questionnaire method employing an inquiry form. The research included 416 students of the 4th and 5th years of study of the Medicine Department and 3rd and 4th year students of the Stomatology Division in 2001-2002 years. In the female group one could observe a larger consumption of vegetables and fruit, dairy products, poultry, fish and seeds of leguminous plants. Men more often eat animal fat and red meat. The analysis of the number of meals eaten shows that majority of women eat only one hot meal a day and do not eat supper. Whereas men twice as often do not eat breakfasts, they eat two or more hot meals a day and 70% of them declare they eat supper. Every second questioned person eats sweetmeats even several times a day, and only 7.7% of the population does not have the habit of intermittent eating. Analysis of the research material allowed to draw the following conclusions: 1. There is a statistically significant interdependence between the amount and quality of consumed food and the sex. 2. Women's nutritious habits are more adequate than men's nutrition habits to the dietetic prescriptions of the Institute of Food and Nutrition]. 3. Most of the men are satisfied with their nutritious habits, and the dissatisfied group is dominated by women. 4. The obtained results point to a necessity to work out and implement pro-health education within the

  6. An ultrasonographic study on measurement of normal hip joint in Korean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Hyo Keun; Choo, In Wook; Park, Soo Sung; Han, Man Chung

    1989-01-01

    The ultrasonography is very useful in evaluation of small amount of effusion in hip joint and has several advantages such as noninvasiveness, easiness, accuracy and no radiation hazard. The data of normal hip joint space and capsule is very important in ultrasonographic evaluation of inflammatory hip joint disease. However, normal ultrasonographic data of hip joint has not been reported except in pediatric age. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and measure normal hip joint space and capsule and to provide the basic data for the clinical application. Healthy 70 males and 70 females who have had no past history and present clinical symptom of hip joint were examined with real time sector scanner (5MHz transducer). Width of hip joint spaces and thickness of joint capsule were obtained and analysed by statistical analysis. The results were as follows: 1. The average width of the hip joint space were 2.6±0.5 mm (right), 2.5±0.5 mm (left) in males and 2.4±0.5 (right), 2.5±0.6 mm (left) in females. There was no significant difference by sex. 2. The widths of the hip joint space were increased with aging and decreased after 6th decade (male) and 5th decade (females). 3. The maximal difference of both hip joint space was 1.2 mm and there was no significant difference in both side by sex and age. 4. The average thicknesses of hip joint capsule were 1.9±0.3 mm (right), 1.8±0.2 mm (left) in males and 1.7±0.3 mm (right), 1.7±0.2 mm (left) in females. There was no significant difference by sex. 5. The thickness of the hip joint capsule were increased with aging and were in plateau after 5th decade (male and female). 6. The maximal difference of both hip joint capsules was 0.9 mm and there was no significant difference in both sides by sex and age. It is therefore, considered that ultrasonography could be a very useful modality in diagnosis of hip joint disease in which the hip joint space and the hip joint capsule are changed by various etiologies

  7. Psychometric properties and reliability of the Assessment Screen to Identify Survivors Toolkit for Gender Based Violence (ASIST-GBV): results from humanitarian settings in Ethiopia and Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Alexander; Wirtz, Andrea; Pham, Kiemanh; Singh, Sonal; Rubenstein, Leonard; Glass, Nancy; Perrin, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    Refugees and internally displaced persons who are affected by armed-conflict are at increased vulnerability to some forms of sexual violence or other types of gender-based violence. A validated, brief and easy-to-administer screening tool will help service providers identify GBV survivors and refer them to appropriate GBV services. To date, no such GBV screening tool exists. We developed the 7-item ASIST-GBV screening tool from qualitative research that included individual interviews and focus groups with GBV refugee and IDP survivors. This study presents the psychometric properties of the ASIST-GBV with female refugees living in Ethiopia and IDPs in Colombia. Several strategies were used to validate ASIST-GBV, including a 3 month implementation to validate the brief screening tool with women/girls seeking health services, aged ≥15 years in Ethiopia (N = 487) and female IDPs aged ≥ 18 years in Colombia (N = 511). High proportions of women screened positive for past-year GBV according to the ASIST-GBV: 50.6 % in Ethiopia and 63.4 % in Colombia. The factor analysis identified a single dimension, meaning that all items loaded on the single factor. Cronbach's α = 0.77. A 2-parameter logistic IRT model was used for estimating the precision and discriminating power of each item. Item difficulty varied across the continuum of GBV experiences in the following order (lowest to highest): threats of violence (0.690), physical violence (1.28), forced sex (2.49), coercive sex for survival (2.25), forced marriage (3.51), and forced pregnancy (6.33). Discrimination results showed that forced pregnancy was the item with the strongest ability to discriminate between different levels of GBV. Physical violence and forced sex also have higher levels of discrimination with threats of violence discriminating among women at the low end of the GBV continuum and coercive sex for survival among women at the mid-range of the continuum. The findings demonstrate that

  8. Support for social rehabilitation of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients. Psychological and educational assessment by the K-ABC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izumi, Mayuko; Hosoya, Ryouta; Oohira, Mutsuro; Kaneko, Takashi; Matsushita, Taketsugu

    2000-01-01

    Intellectual impairment in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is thought to be caused by the effect of treatment on the central nervous system. We therefore assessed the characteristics and tendencies of patients' cognitive ability by using the K-ABC (Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children), an intelligence test. The subjects were 28 patients treated for ALL (males 18, females 10, age 4.7-12.0 years). The patients who took the K-ABC test were divided into irradiation group (15 patients who received brain irradiation as prophylactic treatment) and a non-irradiation group (13 patients whose brain was not irradiated), and evaluated the results. The K-ABC consists of a cognition processing scale and an acquisition level, and the cognition processing scale consists of a sequential processing scale and simultaneous processing scale. Patients were assessed in regard to various factors: 1. sex, 2. age of onset, 3. length of hospital stay, 4. age at the time of irradiation, 5. radiation dose, 6. score on the cognition processing scale, and multiple comparisons were made based on analysis of variance, least significant differences (1, 2, 3, 6), and the t-test (4, 5). Sequential processing ability was impaired in the patients with impaired cognitive processing in both groups. Part of simultaneous processing ability (ability to understand spatial relationships) tended to be reduced in the irradiation group in addition to the impairment in sequential processing ability, and factors 1 and 4 influenced cognitive ability in the irradiation group. The ability of girls decreased more than in boys. When children were irradiated below 4 years of age, their ability decreased even more. Regardless of whether they had received radiation therapy, all of the patients had received chemotherapy, including methotrexate, etc., and the anticancer drugs may have reduced their cognitive ability. The reduction of simultaneous processing ability may have been caused by the addition of

  9. Prevalence and correlates of sexual behaviors among university students: a study in Hefei, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Xinli; Yu, Lu; Winter, Sam

    2012-11-13

    In China, sexual health and behaviors of young people have become a growing public concern but few studies have been conducted to investigate the prevalence and psychosocial correlates of the phenomenon. A self-reported questionnaire survey on youth sexual behaviors was conducted among 1,500 university students in 2011 at Hefei, a middle-size city in eastern China. A total of 1,403 students (age = 20.30 ± 1.27 years) completed the questionnaire with a high response rate of 93.5%. Among the respondents, 12.6% (15.4% of male versus 8.6% of female) students reported having pre-marital heterosexual intercourse; 10.8% (10.5% of males versus 11.2% females) had oral sex; 2.7% (3.4% of males versus 1.7% females) reported same-sex activities; 46% (70.3% of males versus 10.8% of females) reported masturbation behaviors; 57.4% (86.2% of males versus 15.6% females) students viewed pornography. In terms of sexual communication about sexual knowledge acquisition, 13.7% (10.7% of males versus 18% of females) talked to their parents about sex; 7.1% (6.1% of males versus 8.4% of females) students reported having conversation with parents on contraception. About forcing sexual behavior, 2.7% (4% of males versus 0.9% of females) reported forcing their sexual partners to have sex, and 1.9% (2.4% of males versus 1.2% of females) reported being forced to have sex. Gender was found to be significant predictor of sexual behaviors in university students: males reported more sexual behaviors including sexual fantasy, heterosexual intercourse, masturbation, viewing pornography and talking about sex with friends. Several correlates of sexual behaviors were identified for students of different gender separately. For males, having romantic relationships, past sex education experiences, low educational aspirations, time spent on the Internet, and urban native settings were significantly associated with more sexual behaviors. For female students, having romantic relationships and urban native

  10. Prevalence and correlates of sexual behaviors among university students: a study in Hefei, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi Xinli

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In China, sexual health and behaviors of young people have become a growing public concern but few studies have been conducted to investigate the prevalence and psychosocial correlates of the phenomenon. Methods A self-reported questionnaire survey on youth sexual behaviors was conducted among 1,500 university students in 2011 at Hefei, a middle-size city in eastern China. A total of 1,403 students (age = 20.30 ± 1.27 years completed the questionnaire with a high response rate of 93.5%. Results Among the respondents, 12.6% (15.4% of male versus 8.6% of female students reported having pre-marital heterosexual intercourse; 10.8% (10.5% of males versus 11.2% females had oral sex; 2.7% (3.4% of males versus 1.7% females reported same-sex activities; 46% (70.3% of males versus 10.8% of females reported masturbation behaviors; 57.4% (86.2% of males versus 15.6% females students viewed pornography. In terms of sexual communication about sexual knowledge acquisition, 13.7% (10.7% of males versus 18% of females talked to their parents about sex; 7.1% (6.1% of males versus 8.4% of females students reported having conversation with parents on contraception. About forcing sexual behavior, 2.7% (4% of males versus 0.9% of females reported forcing their sexual partners to have sex, and 1.9% (2.4% of males versus 1.2% of females reported being forced to have sex. Gender was found to be significant predictor of sexual behaviors in university students: males reported more sexual behaviors including sexual fantasy, heterosexual intercourse, masturbation, viewing pornography and talking about sex with friends. Several correlates of sexual behaviors were identified for students of different gender separately. For males, having romantic relationships, past sex education experiences, low educational aspirations, time spent on the Internet, and urban native settings were significantly associated with more sexual behaviors. For female students

  11. Daily Feed Intake, Energy Intake, Growth Rate and Measures of Dietary Energy Efficiency of Pigs from Four Sire Lines Fed Diets with High or Low Metabolizable and Net Energy Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Schinckel

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A trial was conducted to: i evaluate the BW growth, energy intakes and energetic efficiency of pigs fed high and low density diets from 27 to 141 kg BW, ii evaluate sire line and sex differences when fed both diets, and iii to compare ME to NE as predictor of pig performance. The experiment had a replicated factorial arrangement of treatments including four sire lines, two sexes (2,192 barrows and 2,280 gilts, two dietary energy densities and a light or heavy target BW, 118 and 131.5 kg in replicates 1 to 6 and 127 and 140.6 kg in replicates 7 to 10. Pigs were allocated to a series of low energy (LE, 3.27 Mcal ME/kg corn-soybean meal based diets with 16% wheat midds or high energy diets (HE, 3.53 to 3.55 Mcal ME/kg with 4.5 to 4.95% choice white grease. All diets contained 6% DDGS. The HE and LE diets of each of the four phases were formulated to have equal lysine:Mcal ME ratios. Pigs were weighed and pen feed intake (11 or 12 pigs/pen recorded at 28-d intervals. The barrow and gilt daily feed (DFI, ME (MEI and NE (NEI intake data were fitted to a Bridges function of BW. The BW data of each sex were fitted to a generalized Michaelis-Menten function of days of age. ME and NE required for maintenance (Mcal/d were predicted using functions of BW (0.255 and 0.179 BW^0.60 respectively. Pigs fed LE diets had decreased ADG (915 vs. 945 g/d, p<0.001 than pigs fed HE diets. Overall, DFI was greater (p<0.001 for pigs fed the LE diets (2.62 vs. 2.45 kg/d. However, no diet differences were observed for MEI (8.76 vs. 8.78 Mcal/d, p = 0.49 or NEI (6.39 vs. 6.44 Mcal/d, p = 0.13, thereby indicating that the pigs compensated for the decreased energy content of the diet. Overall ADG:DFI (0.362 vs. 0.377 and ADG:Mcal MEI (0.109 vs. 0.113 was less (p<0.001 for pigs fed LE compared to HE diets. Pigs fed HE diets had 3.6% greater ADG:Mcal MEI above maintenance and only 1.3% greater ADG:Mcal NEI (0.152 versus 0.150, therefore NEI is a more accurate predictor of

  12. Prevalence and correlates of sexual behaviors among university students: a study in Hefei, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background In China, sexual health and behaviors of young people have become a growing public concern but few studies have been conducted to investigate the prevalence and psychosocial correlates of the phenomenon. Methods A self-reported questionnaire survey on youth sexual behaviors was conducted among 1,500 university students in 2011 at Hefei, a middle-size city in eastern China. A total of 1,403 students (age = 20.30 ± 1.27 years) completed the questionnaire with a high response rate of 93.5%. Results Among the respondents, 12.6% (15.4% of male versus 8.6% of female) students reported having pre-marital heterosexual intercourse; 10.8% (10.5% of males versus 11.2% females) had oral sex; 2.7% (3.4% of males versus 1.7% females) reported same-sex activities; 46% (70.3% of males versus 10.8% of females) reported masturbation behaviors; 57.4% (86.2% of males versus 15.6% females) students viewed pornography. In terms of sexual communication about sexual knowledge acquisition, 13.7% (10.7% of males versus 18% of females) talked to their parents about sex; 7.1% (6.1% of males versus 8.4% of females) students reported having conversation with parents on contraception. About forcing sexual behavior, 2.7% (4% of males versus 0.9% of females) reported forcing their sexual partners to have sex, and 1.9% (2.4% of males versus 1.2% of females) reported being forced to have sex. Gender was found to be significant predictor of sexual behaviors in university students: males reported more sexual behaviors including sexual fantasy, heterosexual intercourse, masturbation, viewing pornography and talking about sex with friends. Several correlates of sexual behaviors were identified for students of different gender separately. For males, having romantic relationships, past sex education experiences, low educational aspirations, time spent on the Internet, and urban native settings were significantly associated with more sexual behaviors. For female students, having romantic

  13. Prevalencia de sucesos violentos y de trastorno por estrés postraumático en la población mexicana Prevalence of violent events and post-traumatic stress disorder in the Mexican population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma. Elena Medina-Mora

    2005-02-01

    account the multistage, stratified, and weighted sample design. Kaplan-Meier and logistic regressions were performed RESULTS: Sixty-eight percent of the population has been exposed to at least one stressful life event. Exposure varies by sex (rape, harassment, and sexual abuse are more frequent in women; accidents and being a victim of burglary among men and by age (more frequent in children, adolescents, young adult women, and the elderly. By sex, 2.3% of women and 0.49% of men present PTSD. Rape, harassment, kidnapping, and sexual abuse are the events most associated with PTSD CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest the need to increase treatment coverage to attend the consequences of violence, taking into consideration the important gender and age variations.

  14. Free and Open Source Software underpinning the European Forest Data Centre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez Aseretto, Dario; Di Leo, Margherita; de Rigo, Daniele; Corti, Paolo; McInerney, Daniel; Camia, Andrea; San-Miguel-Ayanz, Jesús

    2013-04-01

    http://www.webcitation.org/6DXqCFAN3 ) Kroes, N., 2010. How to get more interoperability in Europe. In: Open Forum Europe 2010 Summit - Openness at the heart of the EU Digital Agenda. No. SPEECH/10/300. European Commission press release. http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_SPEECH-10-300_en.pdf de Rigo, D., 2013. Behind the horizon of reproducible integrated environmental modelling at European scale: ethics and practice of scientific knowledge freedom. F1000 Research. To appear as discussion paper Stallman, R. M., 2005. Free community science and the free development of science. PLoS Med 2 (2), e47+. http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.0020047 Cai, Y., Judd, K. L., Lontzek, T. S., 2012. Open science is necessary. Nature Climate Change 2 (5), 299. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nclimate1509 Morin, A., Urban, J., Adams, P. D., Foster, I., Sali, A., Baker, D., Sliz, P., 2012. Shining light into black boxes. Science 336 (6078), 159-160. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1218263 Ince, D. C., Hatton, L., Graham-Cumming, J., 2012. The case for open computer programs. Nature 482 (7386), 485-488. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature10836 Lehman, M. M., Ramil, J. F., 2002. Software uncertainty. In: Bustard, D., Liu, W., Sterritt, R. (Eds.), Soft-Ware 2002: Computing in an Imperfect World. Vol. 2311 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer Berlin / Heidelberg, Berlin, Heidelberg, Ch. 14, pp. 477-514. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/3-540-46019-5_14 Hatton, L., 2012. Defects, scientific computation and the scientific method uncertainty quantification in scientific computing. Vol. 377 of IFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technology. Springer Boston, Berlin, Heidelberg, Ch. 8, pp. 123-138. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-32677-68 de Rigo, D., 2013. Software Uncertainty in Integrated Environmental Modelling: the role of Semantics and Open Science. Geophysical Research Abstracts 15, EGU General Assembly 2013 Hatton, L., 2007. The chimera of software quality. Computer 40 (8

  15. First Results of a Systematic Study of Internal Contamination Due to Fall-Out; Premiers Resultats d'une Etude Systematique des Contaminations Internes Consecutives aux Retombees Radioactives; 041f 0415 0420 0414 ; Resultados Iniciales de un Estudio Sistematico de las Contaminaciones Internas Debidas a la Precipitacion Radiactiva

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pellerin, P.; Moroni, J. P.; Remy, M. L. [Travail du Service Central de Protection Contre les Rayonnements Ionisants, Ministere de la Sante Publique, Paris (France)

    1964-11-15

    infer a maximum value for the isotope. (author) [French] Depuis septembre 1.961, plus de-500 examens a l'anthropoeamma- metre.ont ete pratiques par le Service central de protection contre les rayonnements ionisants. De nombreuses personnes sont soumises a des examens trimestriels ou semestriels et des radioanalyses urinaires sont frequemment associees a ces examens; une exploration systematique de l'echantillon d'urine par spectrometrie {gamma} precede en general l'etude radiochimique. L'etude comparative des resultats de ces divers examens permet de degager certains faits relatifs a la contamination interne due aux retombees radioactives: 1. Le cesium 137 est le seul radioisotope artificiel constamment retrouve par examen a l'anthropogamma- metre. L'evolution de la charge totale moyenne peut etre suivie durant toute la periode de temps couverte par l'ensemble des examens. On peut constater accessoirement la variation, par ailleurs classique, de la charge radioactive selon le sexe. 2. Les auteurs ont pu etudier, pour les faibles activites habituellement rencontrees, le rapport entre l'excretion urinaire du cesium-137 et la charge corporelle totale de ce radioisotope. Les resultats paraissent'confirmer les relations etablies par d'autres auteurs pour des contaminations plus importantes. 3. En ce qui concerne les produits de fission a vies moyennes, les zirconium 95 + niobium 95 en particulier (et plus accessoirement le ruthenium 103), leur presence a pu etre constatee de facon transitoire a certaines periodes. 4. La connaissance de la charge corporelle totale de strontium 90 serait une donnee capitale, mais la mesure directe de ce radioisotope a Tanthropogammametre ne peut etre realisee pour de faibles activites. Les auteurs ont donc tente d'evaluer l'ordre de grandeur de cette charge par deux voies differentes: tout d'abord, l'etude du cesium 137, dont le pourcentage dans les retombees radioactives evolue de facon sensiblement parallele a celui du strontium 90, permet

  16. Toward Open Science at the European Scale: Geospatial Semantic Array Programming for Integrated Environmental Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Rigo, Daniele; Corti, Paolo; Caudullo, Giovanni; McInerney, Daniel; Di Leo, Margherita; San-Miguel-Ayanz, Jesús

    2013-04-01

    ://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1213847 Morin, A., Urban, J., Adams, P. D., Foster, I., Sali, A., Baker, D., Sliz, P., 2012. Shining light into black boxes. Science 336 (6078), 159-160. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1218263 Nature, 2011. Devil in the details. Nature 470 (7334), 305-306. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/470305b Stodden, V., 2012. Reproducible research: Tools and strategies for scientific computing. Computing in Science and Engineering 14, 11-12. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/MCSE.2012.82 de Rigo, D., Corti, P., Caudullo, G., McInerney, D., Di Leo, M., San-Miguel-Ayanz, J., (exp. 2013). Supporting Environmental Modelling and Science-Policy Interface at European Scale with Geospatial Semantic Array Programming. In prep. Molloy, J. C., 2011. The open knowledge foundation: Open data means better science. PLoS Biology 9 (12), e1001195+. http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001195 de Rigo, D., 2013. Software Uncertainty in Integrated Environmental Modelling: the role of Semantics and Open Science. Geophysical Research Abstracts 15, EGU General Assembly 2013. Cerf, V. G., 2012. Where is the science in computer science? Commun. ACM 55 (10), 5. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2347736.2347737 Wilson, G., 2006. Where's the real bottleneck in scientific computing? American Scientist 94 (1), 5+. http://dx.doi.org/10.1511/2006.1.5 de Rigo, D. 2012. Integrated Natural Resources Modelling and Management: minimal redefinition of a known challenge for environmental modelling. Excerpt from the Call for a shared research agenda toward scientific knowledge freedom, Maieutike Research Initiative. http://www.citeulike.org/groupfunc/15400/home Stallman, R. M., 2005. Free community science and the free development of science. PLoS Med 2 (2), e47+. http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.0020047 Stallman, R. M., 2009. Viewpoint: Why "open source" misses the point of free software. Communications of the ACM 52 (6), 31-33. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1516046.1516058 (free access version: http://www

  17. EDITORIAL Complexity of advanced radiation therapy necessitates multidisciplinary inquiry into dose reconstruction and risk assessment Complexity of advanced radiation therapy necessitates multidisciplinary inquiry into dose reconstruction and risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newhauser, Wayne

    2010-07-01

    organizing committee, I hope to see you there. Wayne Newhauser, The University of Texas M D Anderson Cancer Center, USA Chairman of 4th Joint Symposium Organizing Committee and Guest Editor References Altekruse S F et al (ed) SEER Cancer Statistics Review, 1975--2007 (Bethesda, MD: National Cancer Institute) (http://seer.cancer.gov/csr/1975_2007/) based on November 2009 SEER data submission, posted to the SEER website, 2010 Cheung J, Kudchadker R J, Zhu X R, Lee A K and Newhauser W D 2010 Dose perturbations and image artifacts caused by carbon-coated ceramic and stainless steel fiducials used in proton therapy for prostate cancer Phys. Med. Biol. 55 7135-47 Coutrakon G, Wang N, Miller D W and Yang Y 2010 Dose error analysis for a scanned proton beam delivery system Phys. Med. Biol. 55 7081-96 Disis M L and Slattery J T 2010 The road we must take: multidisciplinary team science Sci. Transl. Med. 2 22cm9 Doi K 2006 Diagnostic imaging over the last 50 years: research and development in medical imaging science and technology Phys. Med. Biol. 51 R5-27 Durante M and Loeffler J S 2010 Charged particles in radiation oncology Nat. Rev. Clin. Oncol. 7 37-43 Erdelyi B 2010 Electron density uncertainties in proton computed tomography Phys. Med. Biol. 55 7121-34 Fontenot J D, Bloch C, Followill D, Titt U, Zhang M and Newhauser W D 2010 Estimate of the uncertainties in the relative risk of secondary malignant neoplasms following proton therapy and intensity-modulated photon therapy Phys. Med. Biol. 55 6987-98 Friedman D L, Whitton J, Leisenring W, Mertens A C, Hammond S, Stovall M, Donaldson S S, Meadows A T, Robison L L and Neglia J P 2010 Subsequent neoplasms in 5-year survivors of childhood cancer: the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study J. Natl Cancer Inst. 102 1083-95 Geurts van Kessel A 2010 The 'omics' of cancer Cancer Genet. Cytogenet. 203 37-42 Howell R M, Scarboro S B, Kry S F and Yaldo D Z 2010a Accuracy of out-of-field dose calculations by a commercial treatment planning system