Sample records for sex steroids measured

  1. Sex steroids and bone.

    Manolagas, S C; Kousteni, S; Jilka, R L


    The adult skeleton is periodically remodeled by temporary anatomic structures that comprise juxtaposed osteoclast and osteoblast teams and replace old bone with new. Estrogens and androgens slow the rate of bone remodeling and protect against bone loss. Conversely, loss of estrogen leads to increased rate of remodeling and tilts the balance between bone resorption and formation in favor of the former. Studies from our group during the last 10 years have elucidated that estrogens and androgens decrease the number of remodeling cycles by attenuating the birth rate of osteoclasts and osteoblasts from their respective progenitors. These effects result, in part, from the transcriptional regulation of genes responsible for osteoclastogenesis and mesenchymal cell replication and/or differentiation and are exerted through interactions of the ligand-activated receptors with other transcription factors. However, increased remodeling alone cannot explain why loss of sex steroids tilts the balance of resorption and formation in favor of the former. Estrogens and androgens also exert effects on the lifespan of mature bone cells: pro-apoptotic effects on osteoclasts but anti-apoptotic effects on osteoblasts and osteocytes. These latter effects stem from a heretofore unexpected function of the classical "nuclear" sex steroid receptors outside the nucleus and result from activation of a Src/Shc/extracellular signal-regulated kinase signal transduction pathway probably within preassembled scaffolds called caveolae. Strikingly, estrogen receptor (ER) alpha or beta or the androgen receptor can transmit anti-apoptotic signals with similar efficiency, irrespective of whether the ligand is an estrogen or an androgen. More importantly, these nongenotropic, sex-nonspecific actions are mediated by the ligand-binding domain of the receptor and can be functionally dissociated from transcriptional activity with synthetic ligands. Taken together, these lines of evidence strongly suggest that

  2. Human sexuality and sex steroids.

    Wróbel, Beata; Karasek, Michał


    Studies on human sexuality are considered to be extremely difficult. Moreover, their results appear often unclear and contradictory. Sexuality is perceived as the identity, feelings and behavior associated with sex. Different assumptions concerning its mechanisms are made by researchers in the field of neuroendocrinology, endocrinology and psychology, and their tests' results help to describe human sexuality. Since the second half of the 20th century efforts of describing sexuality have been made, but they are still imperfect. There are no current research methods which allow for separation of sexual functions or sex-related behavior in a human, and for their description. It should be remembered, however, that the very awareness of taking part in such examination can have meaningful impact on the tests' results. What is more, the patient's emotional state can also alter the results. In this paper, current results on sexual steroids' place in forming human sexuality and its role in an adult human being life are presented. The cognition of the complete role of testosterone, estradiol and progesterone in forming human sexuality is considered to be the challenge for researchers in the following years.

  3. Sex Steroids Block the Initiation of Atherosclerosis.

    Naftolin, Frederick; Mehr, Holly; Fadiel, Ahmed


    Atherosclerosis is the main cause of death in men and women. This so-called "hardening of the arteries" results from advanced atherogenesis, the accumulation and death of subendothelial fat-laden macrophages (vascular plaque). The macrophages are attracted as the result of signals from injured vessels recruiting and activating cells to quell the injury by inflammation. Among the recruited cells are circulating monocytes that may be captured by the formation of neural cell adhesion molecule (nCAM) tethers between the monocytes and vascular endothelium; the tethers are dependent on electrostatic binding between distal segments of apposed nCAM molecules. The capture of monocytes is followed by their entry into the subendothelial area as macrophages, many of which will remain and become the fat-laden foam cells in vascular plaque. Neural cell adhesion molecules are subject to sialylation that blocks their electrostatic binding. We showed that estradiol-induced nCAM sialylases are present in vascular endothelial cells and tested whether sex steroid pretreatment of human vascular endothelium could inhibit the capture of monocytes. Using in vitro techniques, pretreatment of human arterial endothelial cells with estradiol, testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone and dihydrotestosterone all induced sialylation of endothelial cells and, in a dose-response manner, reduced the capture of monocytes. Steroid hormones are protective against atherogenesis and its sequellae. Sex steroid depletion is associated with atherosclerosis. Based on this knowledge plus our results using sex steroid pretreatment of endothelial cells, we propose that the blockade of the initial step in atherogenesis by sex steroid-induced nCAM sialylation may be crucial to hormonal prevention of atherosclerosis.

  4. Sex steroids regulation of appetitive behavior.

    Bautista, C J; Martínez-Samayoa, P M; Zambrano, E


    Appetite is the desire to satisfy the need to consume food, felt as hunger. It is regulated by the balance of food intake and energy expenditure via signals between the brain, the digestive tract and the adipose tissue. Males and females vary in terms of eating behavior as well as the way the body fat is stored. Energy balance and body fat distribution are part of the sexual dimorphism in many mammalian species including human beings. These sex dissimilarities could be related to the different sex steroid hormone profile in each sex. Gonadal steroid hormones play an important role in the regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis. Human epidemiological and experimental animal studies have shown that estradiol has a key role in the control of food intake and energy balance. Estradiol has long been known to inhibit feeding in animals. There are important changes in food intake patterns during the estrous cycle, with a reduction of food intake around the time of ovulation, when estradiol presents its highest levels. Men have less total fat and more central fat distribution which carries a much greater risk for metabolic disorders while women have more total fat and more gluteal/femoral subcutaneous fat distribution. Men and postmenopausal women accumulate more fat in the intraabdominal depot. This review is focused on the mechanism by which sex steroids affect feeding behavior and fat distribution.

  5. Measuring water-borne cortisol in Poecilia latipinna:is the process stressful, can stress be minimized and is cortisol correlated with sex steroid release rates?

    Gabor, C R; Contreras, A


    The stress of water-borne hormone collection process was examined in sailfin mollies Poecilia latipinna. Baseline release rates of the stress hormone cortisol were measured and minimum confinement time for water sampling was evaluated for a standard 60 min v. a 30 min protocol. A 30 min hormone collection period reflects release rates over 60 min. Potential stress response to confinement in the beaker for the water-borne collection process was tested over 4 days. There was no evidence of stress due to the collection methods, as cortisol release rates did not differ significantly across four sequential days of handling for P. latipinna. Males and females did not differ significantly in baseline cortisol release rates. Baseline cortisol release rates from fish immediately after being collected in the field were also not significantly different than those in the 4 day confinement experiment. After exposure to a novel environment, however, P. latipinna mounted a stress response. Stress may also affect sex steroids and behaviour but cortisol release rates were not significantly correlated with sex steroids [11-ketotestosterone (KT), testosterone, or oestradiol], or mating attempts. The correlation between water-borne release rates and plasma steroid levels was validated for both cortisol and KT. Finally, normalizing cortisol release rates using standard length in lieu of mass is viable and accurate. Water-borne hormone assays are a valuable tool for investigating questions concerning the role of hormones in mediating stress responses and reproductive behaviours in P. latipinna and other livebearing fishes.

  6. Sex steroids and glucose metabolism

    Carolyn A Allan


    Full Text Available Testosterone levels are lower in men with metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM and also predict the onset of these adverse metabolic states. Body composition (body mass index, waist circumference is an important mediator of this relationship. Sex hormone binding globulin is also inversely associated with insulin resistance and T2DM but the data regarding estrogen are inconsistent. Clinical models of androgen deficiency including Klinefelter's syndrome and androgen deprivation therapy in the treatment of advanced prostate cancer confirm the association between androgens and glucose status. Experimental manipulation of the insulin/glucose milieu and suppression of endogenous testicular function suggests the relationship between androgens and insulin sensitivity is bidirectional. Androgen therapy in men without diabetes is not able to differentiate the effect on insulin resistance from that on fat mass, in particular visceral adiposity. Similarly, several small clinical studies have examined the efficacy of exogenous testosterone in men with T2DM, however, the role of androgens, independent of body composition, in modifying insulin resistance is uncertain.

  7. Sex steroids and brain structure in pubertal boys and girls.

    Peper, Jiska S; Brouwer, Rachel M; Schnack, Hugo G; van Baal, G Caroline; van Leeuwen, Marieke; van den Berg, Stéphanie M; Delemarre-Van de Waal, Henriëtte A; Boomsma, Dorret I; Kahn, René S; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E


    Sex steroids exert important organizational effects on brain structure. Early in life, they are involved in brain sexual differentiation. During puberty, sex steroid levels increase considerably. However, to which extent sex steroid production is involved in structural brain development during human puberty remains unknown. The relationship between pubertal rises in testosterone and estradiol levels and brain structure was assessed in 37 boys and 41 girls (10-15 years). Global brain volumes were measured using volumetric-MRI. Regional gray and white matter were quantified with voxel-based morphometry (VBM), a technique which measures relative concentrations ('density') of gray and white matter after individual global differences in size and shape of brains have been removed. Results showed that, corrected for age, global gray matter volume was negatively associated with estradiol levels in girls, and positively with testosterone levels in boys. Regionally, a higher estradiol level in girls was associated with decreases within prefrontal, parietal and middle temporal areas (corrected for age), and with increases in middle frontal-, inferior temporal- and middle occipital gyri. In boys, estradiol and testosterone levels were not related to regional brain structures, nor were testosterone levels in girls. Pubertal sex steroid levels could not explain regional sex differences in regional gray matter density. Boys were significantly younger than girls, which may explain part of the results. In conclusion, in girls, with the progression of puberty, gray matter development is at least in part directly associated with increased levels of estradiol, whereas in boys, who are in a less advanced pubertal stage, such steroid-related development could not (yet) be found. We suggest that in pubertal girls, estradiol may be implicated in neuronal changes in the cerebral cortex during this important period of brain development.

  8. [Effect of female sex steroids on levels of endogenous ethanol].

    Garber, M R; Kovalenko, A E


    The authors presented the results of a study of the effect of female sex steroids on the level of endogenous ethanol. The time course of endogenous ethanol during the menstrual cycle was investigated. The concentration of endogenous ethanol was compared in the groups of women receiving and not receiving hormonal contraceptives. An increase in sex steroids during the menstrual cycle was accompanied by a decrease in the level of endogenous ethanol. The use of hormonal contraceptives caused an increase in the background concentration of endogenous ethanol. A possible effect of endogenous and exogenous female sex steroids on different levels of regulation of ethanol metabolism was assumed.

  9. Study on two steroidal sex hormones in rice



    Steroidal sex hormones including androgens and estrogens are important in the reproductive development of mammals. A number of studies suggested that these steroids might have similar functions in plants, A latest research on Nongken 58s, a photoperiod-sensitive genie male sterile rice (PGMR),

  10. Sex-Steroid Hormone Manipulation Reduces Brain Response to Reward

    Macoveanu, Julian; Henningsson, Susanne; Pinborg, Anja


    Mood disorders are twice as frequent in women than in men. Risk mechanisms for major depression include adverse responses to acute changes in sex-steroid hormone levels, eg, postpartum in women. Such adverse responses may involve an altered processing of rewards. Here, we examine how women...... regional brain activity related to the magnitude of risk during choice and to monetary reward. The GnRHa intervention caused a net reduction in ovarian sex steroids (estradiol and testosterone) and increased depression symptoms. Compared with placebo, GnRHa reduced amygdala's reactivity to high monetary......'s vulnerability for mood disorders is linked to sex-steroid dynamics by investigating the effects of a pharmacologically induced fluctuation in ovarian sex steroids on the brain response to monetary rewards. In a double-blinded placebo controlled study, healthy women were randomized to receive either placebo...

  11. Neuroprotective effects of female sex steroids in cerebral ischemia

    Drača Sanja


    Full Text Available The central and peripheral nervous system are important targets of sex steroids. Sex steroids affect the brain development and differentiation, and influence neuronal functions. Recent evidence emphasizes a striking sex-linked difference in brain damage after experimental stroke, as well as the efficacy of hormones in treating cerebral stroke injury. Several different models of cerebral ischemia have been utilized for hormone neuroprotection studies, including transient or permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion, transient global ischemia, and transient forebrain ischemia. Extensive experimental studies have shown that female sex steroids such as progesterone and 176-estradiol exert neuroprotective effects in the experimental models of stroke, although deleterious effects have also been reported. Also, a significance of numerous factors, including gender and age of experimental animals, localization of brain lesion, duration of ischemia and precise dose of steroids has been pointed out. There are multiple potential mechanisms that might be invoked to explain the beneficial effects of female sex steroids in brain injury, involving neuroprotection, anti-inflammatory properties, effects on vasculature and altered transcriptional regulation. A several clinical trials on the effects of sex hormones to traumatic brain injury have been performed, suggesting that hormone therapy may represent a new therapeutic tool to combat certain diseases, such as traumatic brain injury. Further basic science studies and randomized clinical trials are necessary to reveal a potential application of these molecules as a new therapeutic strategy.

  12. The Endocannabinoid System and Sex Steroid Hormone-Dependent Cancers

    Thangesweran Ayakannu


    Full Text Available The “endocannabinoid system (ECS” comprises the endocannabinoids, the enzymes that regulate their synthesis and degradation, the prototypical cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2, some noncannabinoid receptors, and an, as yet, uncharacterised transport system. Recent evidence suggests that both cannabinoid receptors are present in sex steroid hormone-dependent cancer tissues and potentially play an important role in those malignancies. Sex steroid hormones regulate the endocannabinoid system and the endocannabinoids prevent tumour development through putative protective mechanisms that prevent cell growth and migration, suggesting an important role for endocannabinoids in the regulation of sex hormone-dependent tumours and metastasis. Here, the role of the endocannabinoid system in sex steroid hormone-dependent cancers is described and the potential for novel therapies assessed.

  13. Role of Sex Steroid Hormones in Bacterial-Host Interactions

    Elizabeth García-Gómez


    Full Text Available Sex steroid hormones play important physiological roles in reproductive and nonreproductive tissues, including immune cells. These hormones exert their functions by binding to either specific intracellular receptors that act as ligand-dependent transcription factors or membrane receptors that stimulate several signal transduction pathways. The elevated susceptibility of males to bacterial infections can be related to the usually lower immune responses presented in males as compared to females. This dimorphic sex difference is mainly due to the differential modulation of the immune system by sex steroid hormones through the control of proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines expression, as well as Toll-like receptors (TLRs expression and antibody production. Besides, sex hormones can also affect the metabolism, growth, or virulence of pathogenic bacteria. In turn, pathogenic, microbiota, and environmental bacteria are able to metabolize and degrade steroid hormones and their related compounds. All these data suggest that sex steroid hormones play a key role in the modulation of bacterial-host interactions.

  14. Sex Steroid Hormones and Reproductive Disorders : Impact on Women's Health

    Fauser, Bart C. J. M.; Laven, Joop S. E.; Tarlatzis, Basil C.; Moley, Kelle H.; Critchley, Hilary O. D.; Taylor, Robert N.; Berga, Sarah L.; Mermelstein, Paul G.; Devroey, Paul; Gianaroli, Luca; D'Hooghe, Thomas; Vercellini, Paolo; Hummelshoj, Lone; Rubin, Susan; Goverde, Angelique J.; De Leo, Vincenzo; Petraglia, Felice


    The role of sex steroid hormones in reproductive function in women is well established. However, in the last two decades it has been shown that receptors for estrogens, progesterone and androgens are expressed in non reproductive tissue /organs (bone, brain, cardiovascular system) playing a role in

  15. Taenia solium tapeworms synthesize corticosteroids and sex steroids in vitro.

    Valdez, R A; Jiménez, P; Fernández Presas, A M; Aguilar, L; Willms, K; Romano, M C


    Cysticercosis is a disease caused by the larval stage of Taenia solium cestodes that belongs to the family Taeniidae that affects a number of hosts including humans. Taeniids tapeworms are hermaphroditic organisms that have reproductive units called proglottids that gradually mature to develop testis and ovaries. Cysticerci, the larval stage of these parasites synthesize steroids. To our knowledge there is no information about the capacity of T. solium tapeworms to metabolize progesterone or other precursors to steroid hormones. Therefore, the aim of this paper was to investigate if T. solium tapeworms were able to transform steroid precursors to corticosteroids and sex steroids. T. solium tapeworms were recovered from the intestine of golden hamsters that had been orally infected with cysticerci. The worms were cultured in the presence of tritiated progesterone or androstenedione. At the end of the experiments the culture media were analyzed by thin layer chromatography. The experiments described here showed that small amounts of testosterone were synthesized from (3)H-progesterone by complete or segmented tapeworms whereas the incubation of segmented tapeworms with (3)H-androstenedione, instead of (3)H-progesterone, improved their capacity to synthesize testosterone. In addition, the incubation of the parasites with (3)H-progesterone yielded corticosteroids, mainly deoxicorticosterone (DOC) and 11-deoxicortisol. In summary, the results described here, demonstrate that T. solium tapeworms synthesize corticosteroid and sex steroid like metabolites. The capacity of T. solium tapeworms to synthesize steroid hormones may contribute to the physiological functions of the parasite and also to their interaction with the host.

  16. Effects of sex steroids on components of the insulin resistance syndrome in transsexual subjects

    Elbers, J.M.H.; Giltay, E.J.; Teerlink, T.; Scheffer, P.G.; Asscheman, H.; Seidell, J.C.; Gooren, L.J.G.


    objective Sex differences are found in most components of the insulin resistance syndrome and the associated cardiovascular risk profile. These differences are attributed to sex-specific sex steroid profiles, but the effects of sex steroids on the individual components of the insulin resistance synd

  17. Sex steroid imbalances in the muricid Stramonita haemastoma from TBT contaminated sites.

    Rossato, M; Castro, I B; Paganini, C L; Colares, E P; Fillmann, G; Pinho, G L L


    Imposex incidence, organotin tissue levels, and sex steroid (free and esterified testosterone and estradiol) levels were assessed in Stramonita haemastoma from Babitonga Bay (Santa Catarina State, Southern Brazil). The imposex levels showed a reduction when compared to a previous evaluation performed in the same area. In spite of that, the detected imposex incidence indicated the occurrence of tributyltin (TBT) inputs that were still able to produce endocrine disruption in local gastropods. In addition, a high level of organotins was observed in tissues of imposexed females. These females also showed a hormonal imbalance, especially in the total testosterone/total estradiol ratio. These findings obtained under realistic field conditions suggest that the steroid pathway could be responsible by the imposex induction after exposure to TBT. In this case, measurements of sex steroid levels can be an additional evidence for monitoring sites and impose affected gastropod populations.

  18. Vasomotor symptom prevalence is associated with polymorphisms in sex steroid-metabolizing enzymes and receptors.

    Crandall, Carolyn J; Crawford, Sybil L; Gold, Ellen B


    The relation of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of genes involved in estrogen function to vasomotor symptoms (VMS) has been inadequately explored. We evaluated SNPs in sex steroid-metabolizing genes and estrogen receptors (ERs) for their association with VMS (hot flashes, night sweats, and/or cold sweats) reported by women who were premenopausal or in early perimenopause at baseline. The study population was drawn from participants in the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN). African American, Caucasian, Chinese, and Japanese women, 42 to 52 years of age at baseline, who were enrolled in the longitudinal, community-based cohort of SWAN provided questionnaire, interview, weight and height measurements, and serum samples through the sixth annual visit. SNPs associated with the sex steroid hormone pathway were genotyped and available for 1,538 participants. These SNPs were associated with reporting VMS > or =6 days compared with rs1056836 GC genotype in African American women; 17HSD rs615942 TG, 17HSD rs592389 TG, and 17HSD rs2830 AG genotypes in Caucasian women; and the CYP1A1 rs2606345 AC genotype in Chinese women. We identified race/ethnicity-specific associations between VMS reporting and specific polymorphisms for sex steroid-metabolizing enzymes and sex steroid receptors. Clarification of the mechanisms of the associations and confirmation in other populations is warranted.

  19. Effects of Steroid Hormones on Sex Differences in Cerebral Perfusion.

    Ghisleni, Carmen; Bollmann, Steffen; Biason-Lauber, Anna; Poil, Simon-Shlomo; Brandeis, Daniel; Martin, Ernst; Michels, Lars; Hersberger, Martin; Suckling, John; Klaver, Peter; O'Gorman, Ruth L


    Sex differences in the brain appear to play an important role in the prevalence and progression of various neuropsychiatric disorders, but to date little is known about the cerebral mechanisms underlying these differences. One widely reported finding is that women demonstrate higher cerebral perfusion than men, but the underlying cause of this difference in perfusion is not known. This study investigated the putative role of steroid hormones such as oestradiol, testosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS) as underlying factors influencing cerebral perfusion. We acquired arterial spin labelling perfusion images of 36 healthy adult subjects (16 men, 20 women). Analyses on average whole brain perfusion levels included a multiple regression analysis to test for the relative impact of each hormone on the global perfusion. Additionally, voxel-based analyses were performed to investigate the sex difference in regional perfusion as well as the correlations between local perfusion and serum oestradiol, testosterone, and DHEAS concentrations. Our results replicated the known sex difference in perfusion, with women showing significantly higher global and regional perfusion. For the global perfusion, DHEAS was the only significant predictor amongst the steroid hormones, showing a strong negative correlation with cerebral perfusion. The voxel-based analyses revealed modest sex-dependent correlations between local perfusion and testosterone, in addition to a strong modulatory effect of DHEAS in cortical, subcortical, and cerebellar regions. We conclude that DHEAS in particular may play an important role as an underlying factor driving the difference in cerebral perfusion between men and women.

  20. Effects of Steroid Hormones on Sex Differences in Cerebral Perfusion.

    Carmen Ghisleni

    Full Text Available Sex differences in the brain appear to play an important role in the prevalence and progression of various neuropsychiatric disorders, but to date little is known about the cerebral mechanisms underlying these differences. One widely reported finding is that women demonstrate higher cerebral perfusion than men, but the underlying cause of this difference in perfusion is not known. This study investigated the putative role of steroid hormones such as oestradiol, testosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS as underlying factors influencing cerebral perfusion. We acquired arterial spin labelling perfusion images of 36 healthy adult subjects (16 men, 20 women. Analyses on average whole brain perfusion levels included a multiple regression analysis to test for the relative impact of each hormone on the global perfusion. Additionally, voxel-based analyses were performed to investigate the sex difference in regional perfusion as well as the correlations between local perfusion and serum oestradiol, testosterone, and DHEAS concentrations. Our results replicated the known sex difference in perfusion, with women showing significantly higher global and regional perfusion. For the global perfusion, DHEAS was the only significant predictor amongst the steroid hormones, showing a strong negative correlation with cerebral perfusion. The voxel-based analyses revealed modest sex-dependent correlations between local perfusion and testosterone, in addition to a strong modulatory effect of DHEAS in cortical, subcortical, and cerebellar regions. We conclude that DHEAS in particular may play an important role as an underlying factor driving the difference in cerebral perfusion between men and women.

  1. Embryonic sex steroid hormones accumulate in the eggshell of loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta).

    Kobayashi, Shohei; Saito, Yoshimichi; Osawa, Akihisa; Katsumata, Etsuko; Karaki, Isuke; Nagaoka, Kentaro; Taya, Kazuyoshi; Watanabe, Gen


    Steroids hormones such as estradiol-17β (E2) and testosterone (T) are involved in gonadal differentiation of oviparous animals with temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD), and are greatly distributed. This hypothesizes that these embryonic steroid hormones probably accumulate in the eggshell throughout blood or/and chorioallantoic fluid in sea turtle species with TSD, producing females at higher temperature. To demonstrate this hypothesis, concentrations of E2 and T in the blood plasma from the hatchling loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta) and in their eggshells were measured by radioimmunoassay. In the present study we propose that both concentrations of E2 and T in the blood plasma are correlated with amounts of these sex steroids in the eggshell. Moreover, contents of E2 in the eggshell showed a significant positive correlation with mean incubation temperatures during a thermosensitive period in the experimental nests, whereas T contents in the eggshell did not. Taken together, these findings indicated that embryonic E2 and T that accumulated in the eggshell can be extracted and measured. Furthermore, the present study suggested that contents of E2 in the eggshell may differ between male and female, and monitoring of these steroids is a useful method to identify the sex of loggerhead sea turtle hatchling.

  2. Regucalcin expression in bovine tissues and its regulation by sex steroid hormones in accessory sex glands.

    Laura Starvaggi Cucuzza

    Full Text Available Regucalcin (RGN is a mammalian Ca2+-binding protein that plays an important role in intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis. Recently, RGN has been identified as a target gene for sex steroid hormones in the prostate glands and testis of rats and humans, but no studies have focused on RGN expression in bovine tissues. Thus, in the present study, we examined RGN mRNA and protein expression in the different tissues and organs of veal calves and beef cattle. Moreover, we investigated whether RGN expression is controlled through sex steroid hormones in bovine target tissues, namely the bulbo-urethral and prostate glands and the testis. Sex steroid hormones are still illegally used in bovine husbandry to increase muscle mass. The screening of the regulation and function of anabolic sex steroids via modified gene expression levels in various tissues represents a new approach for the detection of illicit drug treatments. Herein, we used quantitative PCR, western blot and immunohistochemistry analyses to demonstrate RGN mRNA and protein expression in bovine tissues. In addition, estrogen administration down-regulated RGN gene expression in the accessory sex glands of veal calves and beef cattle, while androgen treatment reduced RGN gene expression only in the testis. The confirmation of the regulation of RGN gene expression through sex steroid hormones might facilitate the potential detection of hormone abuse in bovine husbandry. Particularly, the specific response in the testis suggests that this tissue is ideal for the detection of illicit androgen administration in veal calves and beef cattle.

  3. Assessment of circulating sex steroid levels in prepubertal and pubertal boys and girls by a novel ultrasensitive gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method

    Courant, Frédérique; Aksglæde, Lise; Antignac, Jean-Philippe;


    Estrogens and androgens play key roles for pubertal onset and sexual maturation. Most currently used immunoassays are not sensitive enough to accurately measure the low circulating levels of sex steroids in children without any signs of puberty. However, this does not exclude that sex steroids ha...

  4. Factors That Contribute to Assay Variation in Quantitative Analysis of Sex Steroid Hormones Using Liquid and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

    Xu, Xia; Veenstra, Timothy D.


    The list of physiological events in which sex steroids play a role continues to increase. To decipher the roles that sex steroids play in any condition requires high quality cohorts of samples and assays that provide highly accurate quantitative measures. Liquid and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS and GC-MS) have…

  5. Sex steroids and connectivity in the human brain: a review of neuroimaging studies.

    Peper, Jiska S; van den Heuvel, Martijn P; Mandl, René C W; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E; van Honk, Jack


    Our brain operates by the way of interconnected networks. Connections between brain regions have been extensively studied at a functional and structural level, and impaired connectivity has been postulated as an important pathophysiological mechanism underlying several neuropsychiatric disorders. Yet the neurobiological mechanisms contributing to the development of functional and structural brain connections remain to be poorly understood. Interestingly, animal research has convincingly shown that sex steroid hormones (estrogens, progesterone and testosterone) are critically involved in myelination, forming the basis of white matter connectivity in the central nervous system. To get insights, we reviewed studies into the relation between sex steroid hormones, white matter and functional connectivity in the human brain, measured with neuroimaging. Results suggest that sex hormones organize structural connections, and activate the brain areas they connect. These processes could underlie a better integration of structural and functional communication between brain regions with age. Specifically, ovarian hormones (estradiol and progesterone) may enhance both cortico-cortical and subcortico-cortical functional connectivity, whereas androgens (testosterone) may decrease subcortico-cortical functional connectivity but increase functional connectivity between subcortical brain areas. Therefore, when examining healthy brain development and aging or when investigating possible biological mechanisms of 'brain connectivity' diseases, the contribution of sex steroids should not be ignored.

  6. Endogenous sex steroids and risk of cervical carcinoma: results from the EPIC study

    Rinaldi, Sabina; Plummer, Martyn; Biessy, Carine;


    Epidemiologic data and animal models suggest that, despite the predominant role of human papillomavirus infection, sex steroid hormones are also involved in the etiology of invasive cervical carcinoma (ICC).......Epidemiologic data and animal models suggest that, despite the predominant role of human papillomavirus infection, sex steroid hormones are also involved in the etiology of invasive cervical carcinoma (ICC)....

  7. Sex steroids and their receptors: molecular actions on brain cells.

    Mannella, Paolo; Simoncini, Tommaso


    Sex steroids exert actions of paramount importance on brain cells. They contribute to shape the central nervous system during embryo development. They modulate the formation and the turnover of the interconnections between neurons. They control the function of glial cells. And they do it through a signaling machinery that is apparently simple, but that hides a level of complexity that has been unveiled only in part. Different receptor isoforms, different interactions between receptors and co-regulators, chains of events originating at the cell membrane and leading to effects in the nucleus (or the other way around) all interact to determine selective modulations of brain cells. All these actions end up in phenomenal effects on brain function that change through adolescence, pregnancy, adulthood, up to menopause and ageing. Many of these actions are relevant for degenerative processes and research may offer soon new strategies to counteract these diseases.

  8. Sex Steroid Hormone Receptor Expression Affects Ovarian Cancer Survival

    Jönsson, Jenny-Maria; Skovbjerg Arildsen, Nicolai; Malander, Susanne;


    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Although most ovarian cancers express estrogen (ER), progesterone (PR), and androgen (AR) receptors, they are currently not applied in clinical decision making. We explored the prognostic impact of sex steroid hormone receptor protein and mRNA expression on survival...... in epithelial ovarian cancer. METHODS: Immunohistochemical stainings for ERα, ERβ, PR, and AR were assessed in relation to survival in 118 serous and endometrioid ovarian cancers. Expression of the genes encoding the four receptors was studied in relation to prognosis in the molecular subtypes of ovarian cancer...... in ovarian cancer and support that tumors should be stratified based on molecular as well as histological subtypes in future studies investigating the role of endocrine treatment in ovarian cancer....

  9. Sleep, sex steroid hormones, sexual activities, and aging in Asian men.

    Goh, Victor H-H; Tong, Terry Y-Y


    This was a cross-sectional study to examine the different associations of age and sleep duration with sex steroid hormones and sexual activities in 531 Asian Chinese men aged between 29 and 72 years old. Sleep duration and sexual activities were evaluated through a self-administered questionnaire, and total testosterone (T), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), estradiol (E2), and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) were measured by established immunoassay methods in a single blood sample collected between 8:00 and 11:00 am. Bioavailable T (BioT) was calculated using the Vermeulen formula. Age was a major determinant of sleep, sex steroid hormones, and sexual activities in men. BioT, DHEAS, coital frequency, masturbation, and sleep duration declined with age. On the other hand, SHBG and E2 increased with age. Sleep duration, independently of age, aerobic exercise, and body fat, was positively associated with T and BioT, but not with DHEAS, E2, or any of the sexual activities studied. Men who masturbated had higher levels of both T and BioT. DHEAS was significantly associated with coital frequency and desire for sex. The present study showed that besides age, sleep duration was associated with androgen concentrations in men, and thus the evaluation of sleep hygiene may be beneficial in the management of men with low androgen concentrations. DHEAS may be independently associated with some sexual functions in men.

  10. Metabolic profiling of cholesterol and sex steroid hormones to monitor urological diseases.

    Moon, Ju-Yeun; Choi, Man Ho; Kim, Jayoung


    Cholesterol and sex steroid hormones including androgens and estrogens play a critical role in the development and progression of urological diseases such as prostate cancer. This disease remains the most commonly diagnosed malignant tumor in men and is the leading cause of death from different cancers. Attempts to understand the role of cholesterol and steroid metabolism in urological diseases have been ongoing for many years, but despite this, our mechanistic and translational understanding remains elusive. In order to further evaluate the problem, we have taken an interest in metabolomics; a discipline dedicated to the systematic study of biologically active metabolites in cells, tissues, hair and biofluids. Recently, we provided evidence that a quantitative measurement of cholesterol and sex steroid metabolites can be successfully achieved using hair of human and mouse models. The overall goal of this short review article is to introduce current metabolomic technologies for the quantitative biomarker assay development and also to provide new insight into understanding the underlying mechanisms that trigger the pathological condition. Furthermore, this review will place a particular emphasis on how to prepare biospecimens (e.g., hair fiber), quantify molecular profiles and assess their clinical significance in various urological diseases.

  11. Do mollusks use vertebrate sex steroids as reproductive hormones? II. Critical review of the evidence that steroids have biological effects.

    Scott, Alexander P


    In assessing the evidence as to whether vertebrate sex steroids (e.g. testosterone, estradiol, progesterone) have hormonal actions in mollusks, ca. 85% of research papers report at least one biological effect; and 18 out of 21 review papers (published between 1970 and 2012) express a positive view. However, just under half of the research studies can be rejected on the grounds that they did not actually test steroids, but compounds or mixtures that were only presumed to behave as steroids (or modulators of steroids) on the basis of their effects in vertebrates (e.g. Bisphenol-A, nonylphenol and sewage treatment effluents). Of the remaining 55 papers, some can be criticized for having no statistical analysis; some for using only a single dose of steroid; others for having irregular dose-response curves; 40 out of the 55 for not replicating the treatments; and 50 out of 55 for having no within-study repetition. Furthermore, most studies had very low effect sizes in comparison to fish-based bioassays for steroids (i.e. they had a very weak 'signal-to-noise' ratio). When these facts are combined with the fact that none of the studies were conducted with rigorous randomization or 'blinding' procedures (implying the possibility of 'operator bias') one must conclude that there is no indisputable bioassay evidence that vertebrate sex steroids have endocrinological or reproductive roles in mollusks. The only observation that has been independently validated is the ability of estradiol to trigger rapid (1-5 min) lysosomal membrane breakdown in hemocytes of Mytilus spp. This is a typical 'inflammatory' response, however, and is not proof that estradiol is a hormone - especially when taken in conjunction with the evidence (discussed in a previous review) that mollusks have neither the enzymes necessary to synthesize vertebrate steroids nor nuclear receptors with which to respond to them.

  12. Prognostic role of sex steroid receptors in pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

    Georgiadou, Despoina; Sergentanis, Theodoros N; Sakellariou, Stratigoula; Vlachodimitropoulos, Dimitris; Psaltopoulou, Theodora; Lazaris, Andreas C; Gounaris, Antonia; Zografos, George C


    From the available literature, it is unclear what proportion of pancreatic adenocarcinomas express estrogen receptors (ERα, ERβ), progesterone receptors (PR), and androgen receptors (AR), and if any of these markers have prognostic significance. We aimed to assess (1) the expression and (2) the correlation of the aforementioned markers with clinicopathological parameters and prognosis in patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma. During a five-year period, 60 patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma underwent surgical resection at a single institution. Immunohistochemical stains of the studied markers were quantified by Image analysis system. ERα expression was positively associated with PR expression. Moreover, ERβ was inversely associated with the presence of metastases, whereas no significant associations implicated AR. As far as the prognostic significance of the studied receptors is concerned, higher ERα expression correlated with poorer survival at the univariate analysis, but the finding dissipated at the multivariate approach. No significant associations with overall survival were noted regarding the other receptors. The role of sex hormone receptors in the survival from pancreatic adenocarcinoma seems rather limited. Further prospective studies assessing those receptors should ideally be designed in order to confirm our results and possibly outline additional correlations between other steroid receptors and features of pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

  13. Somatostatin in the rat periventricular nucleus: sex differences and effect of gonadal steroids

    Vugt, van H.H.; Heijning, van de B.J.M.; Beek, van der E.M.


    In the rat, the sexual dimorphism in growth hormone release is driven by sex steroids, and is suggested to result mainly from differences in somatostatin (SOM) release patterns from the median eminence. We studied the effect of gonadal steroids on SOM peptide-containing cells in the periventricular

  14. Short fused? associations between white matter connections, sex steroids, and aggression across adolescence

    Peper, Jiska S.; De Reus, Marcel A.; Van Den Heuvel, Martijn P.; Schutter, Dennis J L G


    Functional neuroimaging studies in adults show that aggression involves reduced brain communication between subcortical and cortical areas dedicated to motivation and control, respectively. Prior research indicates that sex steroid hormone production during adolescence negatively influences the rapi

  15. SHBG, Sex Steroids, and Kyphosis in Older Men: The MrOS Study.

    Woods, Gina N; Huang, Mei-Hua; Cawthon, Peggy M; Laughlin, Gail A; Schousboe, John T; McDaniels-Davidson, Corinne; Cauley, Jane A; Orwoll, Eric; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Kado, Deborah M


    Accentuated kyphosis is associated with adverse health outcomes, including falls and fractures. Low bone density is a risk factor for hyperkyphosis, and each vertebral fracture adds roughly 4° to forward spine curvature. Sex steroids, in particular low bioavailable estradiol and high sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), are associated with bone loss and high SHBG is associated with vertebral fractures in older men. We, therefore, hypothesized that low bioavailable estradiol and high SHBG would be associated with worse kyphosis. To test this hypothesis, we examined the cross-sectional associations between individual bioavailable sex hormones and SHBG with radiographically assessed kyphosis. Participants included 1500 men aged 65 and older from the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) Study, in whom baseline measures of kyphosis and sex hormones were available. Modified Cobb angle of kyphosis, calculated from T4 through T12, was assessed from supine lateral spine radiographs. Serum total estradiol and total testosterone were measured by mass spectrometry, and bioavailable sex steroids were calculated from mass action equations. After adjustment for age and other confounding variables, no association was found between bioavailable estradiol or testosterone and Cobb angle, either when kyphosis was analyzed as a continuous variable or dichotomized into highest versus lower three quartiles. In linear regression models adjusted for age and clinic site, there was a significant association between SHBG and kyphosis (parameter estimate = 0.76 per SD increase, p = 0.01). In the fully adjusted model, this association was weakened and of only borderline statistical significance (parameter estimate = 0.61 per SD, p = 0.05). Logistic models demonstrated similar findings. Although associated with bone loss, we did not demonstrate that low bioavailable estradiol translates into worse kyphosis in older men. High SHBG is associated with bone loss and vertebral

  16. Sex differences in the brain-an interplay of sex steroid hormones and sex chromosomes.

    Grgurevic, Neza; Majdic, Gregor


    Although considerable progress has been made in our understanding of brain function, many questions remain unanswered. The ultimate goal of studying the brain is to understand the connection between brain structure and function and behavioural outcomes. Since sex differences in brain morphology were first observed, subsequent studies suggest different functional organization of the male and female brains in humans. Sex and gender have been identified as being a significant factor in understanding human physiology, health and disease, and the biological differences between the sexes is not limited to the gonads and secondary sexual characteristics, but also affects the structure and, more crucially, the function of the brain and other organs. Significant variability in brain structures between individuals, in addition to between the sexes, is factor that complicates the study of sex differences in the brain. In this review, we explore the current understanding of sex differences in the brain, mostly focusing on preclinical animal studies.

  17. Offspring sex in a TSD gecko correlates with an interaction between incubation temperature and yolk steroid hormones

    Ding, Guo-Hua; Yang, Jing; Wang, Jin; Ji, Xiang


    We incubated eggs of the Japanese gecko Gekko japonicus at three temperatures, and measured yolk testosterone (T) and 17β-estradiol (E2) levels at three time points in embryonic development (oviposition, 1/3 of incubation, and 2/3 of incubation), to examine whether maternal influence on offspring sex via yolk steroid hormone deposition is significant in the species. Eggs incubated at 24 °C and 32 °C produced mostly females, and eggs incubated at 28 °C almost a 50:50 sex ratio of hatchlings. Female-producing eggs were larger than male-producing eggs. Clutches in which eggs were incubated at the same temperature produced mostly same-sex siblings. Yolk T level at laying was negatively related to eggs mass, and yolk E2/T ratio was positively related to egg mass. Results of two-way ANOVA with incubation temperature and stage as the factors show that: yolk E2 level was higher at 32 °C than at 24 °C; yolk T level was higher, whereas yolk E2/T ratio was smaller, at 28 °C than at 24 °C; yolk E2 and T levels were higher at 2/3 than at 1/3 of incubation. Our data in G. japonucus show that: (1) maternal influence on offspring sex via yolk steroid hormone deposition is significant; (2) incubation temperature affects the dynamics of developmental changes in yolk steroid hormones; (3) influences of yolk steroid hormones on offspring sex are secondary relative to incubation temperature effects; and (4) offspring sex correlates with an interaction between incubation temperature and yolk steroid hormones.

  18. Effect of sex steroid hormones on the number of serotonergic neurons in rat dorsal raphe nucleus.

    Kunimura, Yuyu; Iwata, Kinuyo; Iijima, Norio; Kobayashi, Makito; Ozawa, Hitoshi


    Disorders caused by the malfunction of the serotonergic system in the central nervous system show sex-specific prevalence. Many studies have reported a relationship between sex steroid hormones and the brain serotonergic system; however, the interaction between sex steroid hormones and the number of brain neurons expressing serotonin has not yet been elucidated. In the present study, we determined whether sex steroid hormones altered the number of serotonergic neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DR) of adult rat brains. Animals were divided into five groups: ovariectomized (OVX), OVX+low estradiol (E2), OVX+high E2, castrated males, and intact males. Antibodies against 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT, serotonin) and tryptophan hydroxylase (Tph), an enzyme for 5-HT synthesis, were used as markers of 5-HT neurons, and the number of 5-HT-immunoreactive (ir) or Tph-ir cells was counted. We detected no significant differences in the number of 5-HT-ir or Tph-ir cells in the DR among the five groups. By contrast, the intensity of 5-HT-ir showed significant sex differences in specific subregions of the DR independent of sex steroid levels, suggesting that the manipulation of sex steroid hormones after maturation does not affect the number and intensive immunostaining of serotonergic neurons in rat brain. Our results suggest that, the sexual dimorphism observed in the serotonergic system is due to factors such as 5-HT synthesis, transportation, and degradation but not to the number of serotonergic neurons.

  19. No effect of sex steroids on compensatory muscle hypertrophy

    Max, S. R.; Rance, N. E.


    The effects of orchiectomy and/or subcutaneously implanted testosterone propionate (TP) on the hypertrophic response of rat plantaris muscles to functional overload (induced by bilateral removal of gastrocnemius and soleus muscles) are investigated experimentally. Muscle wet weight, metabolic substrate oxidation, and cytosolic androgen-receptor binding are measured, and the results are presented in tables. Eight weeks after surgery, the plantaris muscle weight as a percentage of body weight is found to be about twice that in rats without muscle overload, regardless of the sex-hormone status. Overloading causes decreased ability to oxidize glucose and pyruvate, decreased succinate dehydrogenase specific activity, and no change in the ability to oxidize beta-hydroxybutyrate or in androgen-receptor binding. The oxidative response is unaffected by orchiectomy or TP or both. It is argued that the actions of sex hormones and functional overload are not synergistic.

  20. Parasites and steroid hormones: corticosteroid and sex steroid synthesis, their role in the parasite physiology and development.

    Marta C. Romano


    Full Text Available In many cases parasites display highly complex life cycles that include establishment of the larva or adults within host organs, but even in those that have only one host reciprocal intricate interactions occur. A bulk of evidence indicates that steroid hormones influence the development and course of parasitic infections, the host gender susceptibility to the infection and the associate differences in immunological response are good examples of the host-parasite interplay. However, the capacity of these organisms to synthesize their own steroidogenic hormones still has more questions than answers. It is now well known that many parasites synthesize ecdysteroids, but limited information is available on sex steroid and corticosteroid synthesis. This review intends to summarize some of the existing information in the field. In many but not all parasitosis the host hormonal environment determines the susceptibility, the course and severity of parasite infections. In most cases the infection disturbs the host environment, and activate immune responses that finally affect the endocrine system. Furthermore, sex steroids and corticosteroids may also directly modify the parasite reproduction and molting. Available information indicates that parasites synthesize some steroid hormones like ecdysteroids and sex steroids and the presence and activity of related enzymes have been demonstrated. More recently, the synthesis of corticosteroid like compounds has been shown in Taenia solium and tapeworms and in Taenia crassiceps WFU cysticerci. Deeper knowledge of the endocrine properties of parasites will contribute to understand their reproduction and reciprocal interactions with the host, and also may contribute to design tools to combat the infection in some clinical situations.

  1. Anabolic Steroids (For Teens)

    ... Drug Facts / Anabolic Steroids Anabolic Steroids Street names: Gym ... steroids are manmade medications related to testosterone (male sex hormone). Doctors use anabolic steroids to treat hormone ...

  2. Pubertal maturation and sex steroids are related to alcohol use in adolescents.

    de Water, Erik; Braams, Barbara R; Crone, Eveline A; Peper, Jiska S


    Adolescents often show risk-taking behavior, including experimentation with alcohol. Previous studies have shown that advanced pubertal maturation is related to increased alcohol use in adolescents, even when controlling for age. Little is known about the underlying mechanisms of this relation between pubertal maturation and alcohol use. The goal of the present study was twofold. In Experiment 1, we investigated whether advanced pubertal maturation is associated with higher levels of alcohol use, when controlling for age. To this end, questionnaires on pubertal development and alcohol use were administered to a large sample of 797 Dutch adolescents (405 boys) aged 11-16 years. In Experiment 2, we explored whether sex steroids contribute to this relation between pubertal maturation and alcohol use by examining the association between salivary sex steroid levels and alcohol use in 168 adolescents (86 boys). It was found that, when controlling for age, advanced pubertal maturation is related to increased alcohol use in adolescent boys and girls. Controlling for age, higher testosterone and estradiol levels correlated with the onset of alcohol use in boys. In addition, higher estradiol levels were associated with a larger quantity of alcohol use in boys. Correlations between sex steroids and alcohol use were not significant in girls. These findings show that advanced pubertal maturation is related to advanced alcohol use, and that higher sex steroid levels could be one of the underlying mechanisms of this relation in boys. Sex steroids might promote alcohol use by stimulating brain regions implicated in reward processing.

  3. Methods to quantify sex steroid hormones in bone: applications to the study of androgen ablation and administration.

    Yarrow, Joshua F; Conover, Christine F; Lipinska, Judyta A; Santillana, Cesar A; Wronski, Thomas J; Borst, Stephen E


    Bone may contain an intraskeletal reservoir of sex steroids that is capable of producing biological effects. The purposes of these experiments were to 1) establish and validate methods to extract and measure intraskeletal sex hormones, 2) compare serum and intraskeletal sex hormone abundance, and 3) determine the impact of testosterone-enanthate administration and orchiectomy on intraskeletal sex hormone concentrations. Tibiae from male F344 rats were crushed, suspended in an aqueous buffer, disrupted mechanically and sonically, extracted with organic solvents, dried, and reconstituted in assay buffer appropriate for measurement of testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, and estradiol by immunoassay. Prior to extraction, bone homogenate was spiked with [³H]testosterone, [³H]dihydrotestosterone, or [³H]estradiol, and >80% of each ³H-labeled sex hormone was recovered. Extracted bone samples were also assayed with and without known amounts of unlabeled sex hormones, and >97% of the expected hormone concentrations were measured. Administration of testosterone-enanthate increased intraskeletal testosterone 11-fold and intraskeletal dihydrotestosterone by 82% without altering intraskeletal estradiol (P < 0.01). Conversely, orchiectomy did not alter intraskeletal testosterone or estradiol but increased intraskeletal dihydrotestosterone by 39% (P < 0.05). In intact rats, intraskeletal testosterone and dihydrotestosterone were directionally higher than in serum, whereas intraskeletal estradiol was directionally lower than serum. Serum androgens were positively correlated with intraskeletal androgens (r = 0.74-0.96, P < 0.001); however, neither serum nor intraskeletal androgens nor serum estradiol were correlated with intraskeletal estradiol. We report the validation of a novel method for measuring intraskeletal sex hormones. Our findings demonstrate that the intraskeletal sex steroid reservoirs are modifiable and only partially influenced by circulating sex hormones.

  4. The sensitivity of the child to sex steroids: possible impact of exogenous estrogens

    Aksglaede, Lise; Juul, Anders; Leffers, Henrik


    to estradiol and may respond with increased growth and/or breast development even at serum levels below the current detection limits; (iii) no threshold has been established, below which no hormonal effects can be seen in children exposed to exogenous steroids or endocrine disruptors; (iv) changes in hormone...... threshold for estrogenic action has been established, caution should be taken to avoid unnecessary exposure of fetuses and children to exogenous sex steroids and endocrine disruptors, even at very low levels....

  5. Reassessing the role of growth hormone and sex steroids in thymic involution.

    Min, Hyeyoung; Montecino-Rodriguez, Encarnacion; Dorshkind, Kenneth


    The concomitant decline in growth hormone (GH) and increase in sex steroid production with age is thought to be responsible for thymic involution. If changes in the production of these hormones trigger or sustain thymic involution, that process should be accelerated in little mice, which have a genetic deficiency resulting in reduced production of thymopoietic GH, and delayed in the hypogonadal strain, which fails to produce thymocytotoxic sex steroids. The results indicated that thymic involution in both strains progressed in a manner similar to their normal littermates. That blocking sex steroid production did not delay thymic involution was surprising since castration reportedly increases thymus cellularity. Re-examination of that phenomenon revealed that, while gonadectomy results in increased thymus size, its effects are transient, and the thymus ultimately undergoes involution. Taken together, these data suggest that age-related changes in the endocrine system do not underlie thymic involution.

  6. Reversal of bone loss in mice by nongenotropic signaling of sex steroids.

    Kousteni, S; Chen, J R; Bellido, T; Han, L; Ali, A A; O'Brien, C A; Plotkin, L; Fu, Q; Mancino, A T; Wen, Y; Vertino, A M; Powers, C C; Stewart, S A; Ebert, R; Parfitt, A M; Weinstein, R S; Jilka, R L; Manolagas, S C


    We show that sex steroids protect the adult murine skeleton through a mechanism that is distinct from that used to preserve the mass and function of reproductive organs. The classical genotropic actions of sex steroid receptors are dispensable for their bone protective effects, but essential for their effects on reproductive tissues. A synthetic ligand (4-estren-3alpha,17beta-diol) that reproduces the nongenotropic effects of sex steroids, without affecting classical transcription, increases bone mass and strength in ovariectomized females above the level of the estrogen-replete state and is at least as effective as dihydrotestosterone in orchidectomized males, without affecting reproductive organs. Such ligands merit investigation as potential therapeutic alternatives to hormone replacement for osteoporosis in both women and men [corrected].

  7. The influence of gender and sex steroids on craniofacial nociception.

    Cairns, Brian E


    Several pain conditions localized to the craniofacial region show a remarkable sex-related difference in their prevalence. These conditions include temporomandibular disorders and burning mouth syndrome as well as tension-type, migraine, and cluster headaches. The mechanisms that underlie sex-related differences in the prevalence of these craniofacial pain conditions remain obscure and likely involve both physiological and psychosocial factors. In terms of physiological factors relevant to the development of headache, direct evidence of sex-related differences in the properties of dural afferent fibers or durally activated second-order trigeminal sensory neurons has yet to be provided. There is, however, evidence for sex-related differences in the response properties of afferent fibers and second-order trigeminal sensory neurons that convey nociceptive input from other craniofacial tissues associated with sex-related differences in chronic pain conditions, such as those that innervate the masseter muscle and temporomandibular joint. Further, modulation of craniofacial nociceptive input by opioidergic receptor mechanisms appears to be dependent on biological sex. Research into mechanisms that may contribute to sex-related differences in trigeminal nociceptive processing has primarily focused on effect of the female sex hormone estrogen, which appears to alter the excitability of trigeminal afferent fibers and sensory neurons to noxious stimulation of craniofacial tissues. This article discusses current knowledge of potential physiological mechanisms that could contribute to sex-related differences in certain craniofacial pain conditions.

  8. Regulation of antioxidant enzyme activities in male and female rat macrophages by sex steroids

    Azevedo R.B.


    Full Text Available Human and animal immune functions present sex dimorphism that seems to be mainly regulated by sex hormones. In the present study, the activities of the antioxidant enzymes total superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px were measured in intraperitoneal resident macrophages from adult male and female rats. In addition to comparing males and females, we also examined the regulation of these enzyme activities in macrophages by sex steroids. GSH-Px activity did not differ between male and female macrophages. However, both total SOD and CAT activities were markedly higher in females than in males (83 and 180%. Removal of the gonads in both males and females (comparison between castrated groups increased the difference in SOD activity from 83 to 138% and reduced the difference in CAT activity from 180 to 86%. Castration and testosterone administration did not significantly modify the activities of the antioxidant enzymes in male macrophages. Ovariectomy did not affect SOD or GSH-Px activity but markedly reduced (48% CAT activity. This latter change was fully reversed by estrogen administration, whereas progesterone had a smaller effect. These results led us to conclude that differences in the SOD and CAT activities may partially explain some of the differences in immune function reported for males and females. Also, estrogen is a potent regulator of CAT in macrophages and therefore this enzyme activity in macrophages may vary considerably during the menstrual cycle.

  9. Sex steroid ablation: an immuno-regenerative strategy for immunocompromised patients

    Velardi, Enrico; Dudakov, Jarrod A.; van den Brink, Marcel R.M.


    Age related decline in thymic function is a well-described process that results in reduced T cell development and thymic output of new naïve T cells. Thymic involution leads to reduced response to vaccines and new pathogens in otherwise healthy individuals; however, reduced thymic function is particularly detrimental in clinical scenarios where the immune system is profoundly depleted such as after chemotherapy, radiotherapy, infection and shock. Poor thymic function and restoration of immune competence has been correlated with increased risk of opportunistic infections, tumor relapse and autoimmunity. Apart from their primary role in sex dimorphism, sex steroid levels profoundly affect the immune system in general and, in fact, age-related thymic involution has been at least partially attributed to the increase of sex steroids at puberty. Subsequently it has been demonstrated that removal of sex steroids, or sex steroid ablation (SSA), triggers physiologic changes that ultimately led to thymic re-growth and improved T cell reconstitution in settings of hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT). Although the cellular and molecular process underlying these regenerative effects are still poorly understood, SSA clearly represents an attractive therapeutic approach to enhance thymic function and restore immune competence in immunodeficient individuals. PMID:26039214

  10. Isolation and characterization of a bacterial strain that efficiently degrades sex steroid hormones

    JI Shulan; LIU Zhipei; LIU Zhipeng; REN Haiyan


    A bacterial strain,ZY3,growing on sex steroid hormones as the sole source of carbon and energy was isolated from the sewage treatment plant of a prophylactic steroids factory.ZY3 degrades the 3-methoxy-17β-hyclroxy-1,3,5(10),8(9)-δ-4-estren (MHE).This strain was preliminarily identified as Raoultella sp.ZY3 according to its morphology and its 16S rRNA gene sequence.During the experimental period (72 h),the optimum temperature,pH and 3-MHE concentration for the degradation of hydride by the strain ZY3 were 35℃,10 and 10 mg/L,respectively.The degradation rate of the sex steroid hormones increased to 87% and 85% after the addition of maltose and peptone,respectively.

  11. Steroid hormones, receptors, and perceptual and cognitive sex differences in the visual system.

    Handa, Robert J; McGivern, Robert F


    The actions of gonadal steroid hormones induce morphological sex differences in many tissues in the body, including brain. These occur either during development to organize tissues in a sex-specific pattern and/or in adulthood to activate specific cellular pathways. Cellular and morphological changes in the brain, induced by androgens and estrogens, underlie behavioral sex differences in both reproductive and non-reproductive behaviors, including visual perception. A growing body of evidence indicates that some sex differences related to visual perception arise as the result of the organizational actions of gonadal steroid hormones on cerebral cortical pathways involved in visual processing of objects and movement. This review addresses the influence of gonadal steroids on structural, biochemical and morphological changes in tissues in the brain and body. These effects are extended to consider how gonadal hormone effects may contribute to cognitive sex differences across species that are related to processing within the dorsal and ventral visual streams for motion and objects, respectively. Lastly, this review considers the question of how cognitive sex differences related to processing of movement and objects in humans may be reflective of two types of cognitive style that are only superficially related to gender.

  12. Sex steroids affect triglyceride handling, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, and insulin sensitivity: a 1-week randomized clinical trial in healthy young men

    Lapauw, Bruno; Ouwens, Margriet; 't Hart, Leen M;


    To evaluate metabolic effects of sex steroids in nonfasting and fasting conditions, independent from changes in body composition.......To evaluate metabolic effects of sex steroids in nonfasting and fasting conditions, independent from changes in body composition....

  13. Measurement of endogenous subcellular concentration of steroids in tissue

    Poortman, J.; Landeghem, A.A.J. van; Helmond-Agema, A.; Thussen, J.H.H.


    A reliable method for the extraction of steroid hormones from human uterine tissue and the subsequent measurement of these hormones in the subcellular compartments by radioimmunoassay is described. Extraction of radioactive steroid hormones from in vivo labelled human uterine tissue by different met

  14. Fatherhood in Tall Men Treated with High-Dose Sex Steroids during Adolescence

    Hendriks, A. E. J.; Boellaard, W. P. A.; van Casteren, N. J.; Romijn, J. C.; de Jong, F. H.; Boot, A. M.; Drop, S. L. S.


    Background/Objective: Sex steroid treatment to reduce final height of tall boys has been available since the 1950s. In women, it has been shown to interfere with fertility. In men, no such data are available. We therefore evaluated fertility and gonadal function in tall men who did or did not receiv

  15. Sex Steroid Modulation of Fatty Acid Utilization and Fatty Acid Binding Protein Concentration in Rat Liver

    Ockner, Robert K.; Lysenko, Nina; Manning, Joan A.; Monroe, Scott E.; Burnett, David A.


    The mechanism by which sex steroids influence very low density hepatic lipoprotein triglyceride production has not been fully elucidated. In previous studies we showed that [14C]oleate utilization and incorporation into triglycerides were greater in hepatocyte suspensions from adult female rats than from males. The sex differences were not related to activities of the enzymes of triglyceride biosynthesis, whereas fatty acid binding protein (FABP) concentration in liver cytosol was greater in females. These findings suggested that sex differences in lipoprotein could reflect a sex steroid influence on the availability of fatty acids for hepatocellular triglyceride biosynthesis. In the present studies, sex steroid effects on hepatocyte [14C]oleate utilization and FABP concentration were investigated directly. Hepatocytes from immature (30-d-old) rats exhibited no sex differences in [14C]oleate utilization. With maturation, total [14C]oleate utilization and triglyceride biosynthesis increased moderately in female cells and decreased markedly in male cells; the profound sex differences in adults were maximal by age 60 d. Fatty acid oxidation was little affected. Rats were castrated at age 30 d, and received estradiol, testosterone, or no hormone until age 60 d, when hepatocyte [14C]oleate utilization was studied. Castration virtually eliminated maturational changes and blunted the sex differences in adults. Estradiol or testosterone largely reproduced the appropriate adult pattern of [14C]oleate utilization regardless of the genotypic sex of the treated animal. In immature females and males, total cytosolic FABP concentrations were similar. In 60-d-old animals, there was a striking correlation among all groups (females, males, castrates, and hormone-treated) between mean cytosolic FABP concentration on the one hand, and mean total [14C]oleate utilization (r = 0.91) and incorporation into triglycerides (r = 0.94) on the other. In 30-d-old animals rates of [14C

  16. Serum tree IGF-I, total IGF-I, IGFBP-1 and IGFBP-3 levels in an elderly population : relation to age and sex steroid levels

    Janssen, JAMJL; Stolk, RP; Pols, HAP; Grobbee, DE; de Jong, FH; Lamberts, SWJ


    BACKGROUND Most previous studies concerning the relationship between IGF-I and age used assays measuring total IGF-I, Although free IGF-I is considered of greater biological relevance, little is known about its relationship with sex steroids levels in elderly healthy subjects, MEASUREMENTS In a cros

  17. Sex steroids and brain structure in pubertal boys and girls: a mini-review of neuroimaging studies.

    Peper, J S; Hulshoff Pol, H E; Crone, E A; van Honk, J


    Puberty is an important period during development hallmarked by increases in sex steroid levels. Human neuroimaging studies have consistently reported that in typically developing pubertal children, cortical and subcortical gray matter is decreasing, whereas white matter increases well into adulthood. From animal studies it has become clear that sex steroids are capable of influencing brain organization, both during the prenatal period as well as during other periods characterized by massive sex steroid changes such as puberty. Here we review structural neuroimaging studies and show that the changes in sex steroids availability during puberty and adolescence might trigger a period of structural reorganization of grey and white matter in the developing human brain. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Neuroactive Steroids: Focus on Human Brain.

  18. Major cardiac surgery induces an increase in sex steroids in prepubertal children.

    Heckmann, Matthias; d'Uscio, Claudia H; de Laffolie, Jan; Neuhaeuser, Christoph; Bödeker, Rolf-Hasso; Thul, Josef; Schranz, Dietmar; Frey, Brigitte M


    While the neuroprotective benefits of estrogen and progesterone in critical illness are well established, the data regarding the effects of androgens are conflicting. Surgical repair of congenital heart disease is associated with significant morbidity and mortality, but there are scant data regarding the postoperative metabolism of sex steroids in this setting. The objective of this prospective observational study was to compare the postoperative sex steroid patterns in pediatric patients undergoing major cardiac surgery (MCS) versus those undergoing less intensive non-cardiac surgery. Urinary excretion rates of estrogen, progesterone, and androgen metabolites (μg/mmol creatinine/m(2) body surface area) were determined in 24-h urine samples before and after surgery using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in 29 children undergoing scheduled MCS and in 17 control children undergoing conventional non-cardiac surgery. Eight of the MCS patients had Down's syndrome. There were no significant differences in age, weight, or sex between the groups. Seven patients from the MCS group showed multi-organ dysfunction after surgery. Before surgery, the median concentrations of 17β-estradiol, pregnanediol, 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT), and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) were (control/MCS) 0.1/0.1 (NS), 12.4/11.3 (NS), 4.7/4.4 (NS), and 2.9/1.1 (p=0.02). Postoperatively, the median delta 17β-estradiol, delta pregnanediol, delta DHT, and delta DHEA were (control/MCS) 0.2/6.4 (p=0.0002), -3.2/23.4 (p=0.013), -0.6/3.7 (p=0.0004), and 0.5/4.2 (p=0.004). Postoperative changes did not differ according to sex. We conclude that MCS, but not less intensive non-cardiac surgery, induced a distinct postoperative increase in sex steroid levels. These findings suggest that sex steroids have a role in postoperative metabolism following MCS in prepubertal children.

  19. New insights into the role of sex steroid hormones in pregnancy: possible therapeutic approach by sex steroid hormones for the treatment of both preeclampsia and preterm labor.

    Mizutani, S; Mizutani, E


    Fetal peptide hormones are essential for the development of fetus, which increase in accordance with pregnancy term. Concentration of these hormones within the feto-placental unit is normally higher than that of maternal circulation. Since these hormones are biologically active, the leakage of these hormones into the maternal circulation is regulated by degradation activity by placental aminopeptidases, in order to maintain the balance between carriage of pregnancy and onset of labor.Because the concentration of these hormones, being regulated by the amount of endogenous production and by physiological degradation by enzymes in the blood and tissue, the balance between production and degradation is a definitive element for maintaining normal gestation and term delivery.The changes of the balance between fetal angiotensin II (A-II) and vasopressin (AVP) andA-II and AVP degrading enzymes, between aminopeptidase A (APA) and placental leucine aminopeptidase( P-LAP) - in the placenta and maternal blood due to fetal stress such as hypoxia - are the provable causes of preeclampsia or preterm labor.Induction of APA and P-LAP by estradiol benzoate (E2) and progesterone (P) from placenta has been demonstrated. They are involved in the regulation of fetal peptide hormones via placental aminopeptidases in homeostasis of pregnancy.Recently it was shown that both APA and P-LAP could be potentially safe and effective drugs for preeclampsia and preterm labor. The authors' proposed sex steroid treatment with dose increasing manner by gestational week (sex steroid treatment) for severe preeclampsia and preterm labor could be candidates replacing conventional treatments. In light of lacking safe and effective medication, the proposed sex steroid treatment is worthwhile for the prospective controlled studies for the treatment of both preeclampsia and preterm labor.

  20. The sensitivity of the child to sex steroids: possible impact of exogenous estrogens

    Aksglaede, Lise; Juul, Anders; Leffers, Henrik;


    to estradiol and may respond with increased growth and/or breast development even at serum levels below the current detection limits; (iii) no threshold has been established, below which no hormonal effects can be seen in children exposed to exogenous steroids or endocrine disruptors; (iv) changes in hormone...... levels during fetal and prepubertal development may have severe effects in adult life and (v) the daily production rates of sex steroids in children estimated by the Food and Drug Administration in 1999 and still used in risk assessments are highly overestimated and should be revised. Because no lower...

  1. The mechanisms underlying sexual differentiation of behavior and physiology in mammals and birds: relative contributions of sex steroids and sex chromosomes

    Fumihiko eMaekawa


    Full Text Available From a classical viewpoint, sex-specific behavior and physiological functions as well as the brain structures of mammals such as rats and mice, have been thought to be influenced by perinatal sex steroids secreted by the gonads. Sex steroids have also been thought to affect the differentiation of the sex-typical behavior of a few members of the avian order Galliformes, including the Japanese quail and chickens, during their development in ovo. However, recent mammalian studies that focused on the artificial shuffling or knockout of the sex-determining gene, Sry, have revealed that sex chromosomal effects may be associated with particular types of sex-linked differences such as aggression levels, social interaction, and autoimmune diseases, independently of sex steroid-mediated effects. In addition, studies on naturally occurring, rare phenomena such as gynandromorphic birds and experimentally constructed chimeras in which the composition of sex chromosomes in the brain differs from that in the other parts of the body, indicated that sex chromosomes play certain direct roles in the sex-specific differentiation of the gonads and the brain. In this article, we review the relative contributions of sex steroids and sex chromosomes in the determination of brain functions related to sexual behavior and reproductive physiology in mammals and birds.

  2. Sex steroid binding proteins in the plasma of hatchling Chelonia mydas.

    Ikonomopoulou, M P; Ibrahim, K; Bradley, A J


    Sex steroid binding proteins were identified in hatchling female and male Chelonia mydas by dialysis and steady-state gel electrophoresis when examined at 4 degrees C. A testosterone binding protein with high binding affinity (K (a) = 0.98 +/- 0.5 x 10(8) M(-1)) and low to moderate binding capacity (B (max) = 7.58 +/- 4.2 x 10(-5) M) was observed in male hatchlings. An oestradiol binding protein with high affinity (K (a) = 0.35 +/- 1.8 x 10(8) M(-1)) and low to moderate binding capacity (B (max) = 0.16 +/- 0.5 x 10(-4) M) was identified in female hatchlings. This study confirmed that sex steroid binding proteins (SSBPs) become inactivate in both sexes at 36 degrees C, the maximum body temperature of sea turtle hatchlings at emergence. The inactivation of SSBPs at this temperature indicates that sex steroid hormones circulate freely in the body of the green turtles and are biologically available in the blood plasma. This observation is consistent with female and male hatchling C. mydas having different physiological (hormonal) and developmental requirements around the time of emergence. Moreover, concurrently conducted competition studies showed that sex steroids including testosterone and oestradiol do compete for binding sites in both male and female C. mydas hatchling plasma. Competition also occurred between testosterone and dihydrotestosterone for binding sites in the male C. mydas plasma. However, competition studies in the plasma of female hatchling C. mydas demonstrate that oestrone does not compete with oestradiol for binding sites.

  3. Role of sex steroid receptors in pathobiology of hepatocellular carcinoma

    Mamta Kalra; Jary Mayes; Senait Assefa; Anil K Kaul; Rashmi Kaul


    The striking gender disparity observed in the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) suggests an important role of sex hormones in HCC pathogenesis. Though the studies began as early as in 1980s, the precise role of sex hormones and the significance of their receptors in HCC still remain poorly understood and perhaps contribute to current controversies about the potential use of hormonal therapy in HCC. A comprehensive review of the existing literature revealed several shortcomings associated with the studies on estrogen receptor (ER) and androgen receptor (AR) in normal liver and HCC. These shortcomings include the use of less sensitive receptor ligand binding assays and immunohistochemistry studies for ERα alone until 1996 when ERβ isoform was identified. The animal models of HCC utilized for studies were primarily based on chemical-induced hepatocarcinogenesis with less similarity to virus-induced HCC pathogenesis. However, recent in vitro studies in hepatoma cells provide newer insights for hormonal regulation of key cellular processes including interaction of ER and AR with viral proteins. In light of the above facts, there is an urgent need for a detailed investigation of sex hormones and their receptors in normal liver and HCC. In this review, we systematically present the information currently available on androgens, estrogens and their receptors in normal liver and HCC obtained from in vitro, in vivo experimental models and clinical studies. This information will direct future basic and clinical research to bridge the gap in knowledge to explore the therapeutic potential of hormonal therapy in HCC. 2008 The WJG Press. All rights reserved.

  4. Association of serum inorganic phosphate with sex steroid hormones and vitamin D in a nationally representative sample of men.

    Wulaningsih, W; Van Hemelrijck, M; Michaelsson, K; Kanarek, N; Nelson, W G; Ix, J H; Platz, E A; Rohrmann, S


    Defects in bone regulatory pathways have been linked to chronic diseases including cardiovascular disease and cancer. In men, a link between bone metabolism and gonadal hormones has been suggested. However, to date, there is lack of evidence on the association between serum inorganic phosphate (Pi) and sex steroid hormones. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between Pi, sex steroid hormones and a known Pi metabolic regulator, vitamin D, in men in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III (NHANES III). From NHANES III, we selected 1412 men aged 20+ who participated in the morning session of Phase I (1988-1991) with serum measurements of Pi, sex hormones, and vitamin D. Multivariable linear regression was used to calculate crude and geometric mean Pi by total and estimated free testosterone and estradiol, sex hormone-binding globulin, androstanediol glucuronide (AAG), and vitamin D. Similar analyses were performed while stratifying by race/ethnicity and vitamin D levels. We found a lack of statistically significant difference in geometric means of Pi across quintiles of concentrations of sex hormones, indicating a tight regulation of Pi. However, Pi levels were inversely associated with calculated free testosterone in non-Hispanic black men, with geometric mean levels of Pi of 1.16 and 1.02 ng/mL for those in the lowest and highest quintiles of free testosterone, respectively (p-trend sex hormones, vitamin D, and Pi in men. The observed effects of race/ethnicity and vitamin D indicate a complex association involving various regulators of Pi homeostasis.

  5. Short fused? associations between white matter connections, sex steroids, and aggression across adolescence.

    Peper, Jiska S; de Reus, Marcel A; van den Heuvel, Martijn P; Schutter, Dennis J L G


    Functional neuroimaging studies in adults show that aggression involves reduced brain communication between subcortical and cortical areas dedicated to motivation and control, respectively. Prior research indicates that sex steroid hormone production during adolescence negatively influences the rapid development of white matter connectivity between subcortical and cortical areas during adolescence and may potentiate aggression. Here, we tested this hypothesis in 258 participants between 8 and 25 years of age by using Diffusion Weighted Imaging to examine the microstructure of white matter connections within the fronto-temporal-subcortical network. Trait aggression was measured using the Buss Perry Aggression Questionnaire and testosterone and estradiol levels were measured in saliva. Results indicated that higher levels of testosterone were associated with less white matter integrity within the fronto-temporal-subcortical network (i.e., higher mean diffusivity [MD] longitudinal [LD], and radial diffusivity [RD]). Furthermore, lower fractional anisotropy and higher MD, LD, and RD values within this network increased expressive forms of aggression and reduced inhibited forms of aggression (hostility). Our study indicates higher levels of testosterone relating to lower quality of structural cortical-subcortical connectivity, arguably resulting in a shift from inhibited towards expressive forms of aggression. Our data adds evidence to the idea that aggressive tendencies are subcortically driven, but individuals with relatively high testosterone might have lower structural connectivity within cortical control areas, resulting in a stronger tendency to act on these aggressive tendencies.

  6. Steroid sex hormone dynamics during estradiol-17β induced gonadal differentiation in Paralichthys olivaceus(Teleostei)

    孙鹏; 尤锋; 刘梦侠; 吴志昊; 文爱韵; 李军; 徐永立; 张培军


    Steroid sex hormones,such as estradiol-17β(E2)and testosterone(T),are important regulators of sex change in fish.In this study,we examined the effects of E2 treatment on the dynamics of E2 and T during gonadal differentiation in the olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus using histology and radioimmunoassay(RIA).Flounder larvae were divided into five groups(G0–G4),and fed with 0 (control),0.2,2,20 and 100 mg E2/kg feed from 35 to 110 day post hatching(dph).Fish growth in the G1 and G2 groups was not signific...

  7. Longitudinal monitoring of sex steroid hormones in excrement of spectacled eiders (Somateria fischeri).

    Ellsworth, Abigail; Buck, C Loren; Atkinson, Shannon; Hollmén, Tuula


    From the 1970s to the 1990s, the breeding population of spectacled eiders (Somateria fischeri) in western Alaska declined by 96%, which led to the listing of this species as threatened under the Endangered Species Act in 1993. Since then, the population has stabilized, but has not recovered to pre-decline numbers. While little is known about reproductive endocrinology in spectacled eiders, in other avian species, estrogen and testosterone are known to initiate and modulate various reproductive processes including yolk protein synthesis, reproductive behaviors and secondary sex characteristics. Measurement of the metabolites of estrogen and testosterone (EM and TM, respectively) in excrement reflect circulating hormone concentrations and provide a non-invasive method to monitor reproductive physiology. We measured concentrations of excreted EM in captive females and TM in males to (1) determine the efficacy of commercially available radioimmunoassay kits to detect EM and TM, (2) describe annual profiles of EM and TM concentrations, and (3) define the reproductive season of captive spectacled eiders using endocrine status. Excrement samples were collected from captive female and male spectacled eiders three times per week throughout 1 year. Female EM and male TM levels were quantified using radioimmunoassay. Mean female EM profile exhibited values exceeding the threshold for "peak" values (EM>193.3 ng/g) from mid-February to early July, and again in September. Additionally, the highest average concentrations of EM were seen in March, May and September. Elevated TM concentrations occurred in mid March, mid May and late June. These data suggest that levels of excreted sex steroids reflect patterns predicted by breeding landmarks in the annual cycle and will assist in field monitoring and captive breeding programs for spectacled eiders.

  8. Sex steroid hormones in barn swallow (Hirundo rustica) populations at a dioxin contaminated site in northeast Louisiana

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This study compares the gonadal sex steroid hormone levels (i.e., estradiol, total estrogen, and testosterone) in Louisiana barn swallows (Hirundo rustica) that were...


    Sex-steroid and thyroid hormones are critical regulators of growth and reproduction in all vertebrates, and several recent studies suggest that environmental chemicals can alter circulating concentrations of these hormones. This study examines plasma concentrations of estradiol-...

  10. The influence of sex steroids on structural brain maturation in adolescence.

    Koolschijn, P Cédric M P; Peper, Jiska S; Crone, Eveline A


    Puberty reflects a period of hormonal changes, physical maturation and structural brain reorganization. However, little attention has been paid to what extent sex steroids and pituitary hormones are associated with the refinement of brain maturation across adolescent development. Here we used high-resolution structural MRI scans from 215 typically developing individuals between ages 8-25, to examine the association between cortical thickness, surface area and (sub)cortical brain volumes with luteinizing hormone, testosterone and estradiol, and pubertal stage based on self-reports. Our results indicate sex-specific differences in testosterone related influences on gray matter volumes of the anterior cingulate cortex after controlling for age effects. No significant associations between subcortical structures and sex hormones were found. Pubertal stage was not a stronger predictor than chronological age for brain anatomical differences. Our findings indicate that sex steroids are associated with cerebral gray matter morphology in a sex specific manner. These hormonal and morphological differences may explain in part differences in brain development between boys and girls.

  11. The influence of sex steroids on structural brain maturation in adolescence.

    P Cédric M P Koolschijn

    Full Text Available Puberty reflects a period of hormonal changes, physical maturation and structural brain reorganization. However, little attention has been paid to what extent sex steroids and pituitary hormones are associated with the refinement of brain maturation across adolescent development. Here we used high-resolution structural MRI scans from 215 typically developing individuals between ages 8-25, to examine the association between cortical thickness, surface area and (subcortical brain volumes with luteinizing hormone, testosterone and estradiol, and pubertal stage based on self-reports. Our results indicate sex-specific differences in testosterone related influences on gray matter volumes of the anterior cingulate cortex after controlling for age effects. No significant associations between subcortical structures and sex hormones were found. Pubertal stage was not a stronger predictor than chronological age for brain anatomical differences. Our findings indicate that sex steroids are associated with cerebral gray matter morphology in a sex specific manner. These hormonal and morphological differences may explain in part differences in brain development between boys and girls.

  12. Blood Lipoproteins under the Action of Exogenous Sex Steroids in the Postresuscitation Period

    L. N. Shcherbakova


    Full Text Available Objective: to study the effect of reproductive hormones on the blood lipoprotein spectrum in the postresuscitation period after cardiac arrest. Materials and methods. Experiments were carried out on 66 mature albino rats of either sex weighing 200—250 g. Ten-minute cardiac arrest was induced by intrathoracic ligation of the vascular bundle. At 30 min after resuscitation, 49 animals were intramuscularly injected placebo and 17 animals were administered gyn-odian depot (Schering, Germany. The investigators measured the plasma concentrations of progesterone, 17-OH progesterone, androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, testosterone, estradiol, and estriol, as well as the levels of triglycerides, total, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL, low-density lipoprotein (LDL, and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL cholesterols. Blood was sampled on days 2 and 16 in the absence of therapy and on day 16 of sex steroid therapy. Results. By day 2 postresuscitation, the progesterone/estradiol ratio increased by approximately 1.8 times in males and females. Despite the fact that there were no changes in the concentrations of triglycerides, VLDL and HDL cholesterols in both males and females at that time, but the level of LDL cholesterol increased. Gender-related differences in the LDL spectrum by day 2 postresuscitation remained only in the levels of LDL cholesterol. Despite the normalization of progesterone levels, the concentrations of triglycerides and VLDL cholesterol decreased by day 16 of the postresuscitative period in the absence of therapy. There were no gender-related differences in the lipoprotein spectrum at this stage. The exogenous estradiol in combination with dehydroepiandrosterone caused a significant increase in the concentration of HLD cholesterol and a reduction in that of VLDL cholesterol in males and females both. Conclusion. Under gynodian action, the lipid spectrum was indicative of the exogenous estra-diol and

  13. Collagen synthesis in postmenopausal women during therapy with anabolic steroid or female sex hormones

    Hassager, C; Jensen, L T; Pødenphant, J;


    The effect of anabolic steroid therapy and estrogen-progestogen substitution therapy on serum concentration of procollagen type III aminoterminal peptide (PIIINP), a measure of collagen synthesis, in postmenopausal women was studied in two double-blind studies: (1) 39 women allocated to treatment....... We conclude that anabolic steroids stimulate type III collagen synthesis in postmenopausal women, while estrogen-progestogen therapy may have such an effect, but only to a lesser degree....

  14. Associations of sex steroid hormones with mortality in women with breast cancer.

    Duggan, Catherine; Stanczyk, Frank; Campbell, Kristin; Neuhouser, Marian L; Baumgartner, Richard N; Baumgartner, Kathy B; Bernstein, Leslie; Ballard, Rachel; McTiernan, Anne


    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated associations between circulating levels of sex steroid hormones and risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women. However, data on associations with breast cancer survival are limited. We measured levels of estradiol, estrone, testosterone, and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), in serum collected on average 30 months after diagnosis from 358 postmenopausal women diagnosed with stage I-IIIA breast cancer between 1995 and 1998 who participated in a multiethnic, prospective cohort study. Women were followed through December, 2012. We evaluated associations between log-transformed analytes and breast cancer-specific and all-cause mortality fitting multivariable Cox proportional hazards models. Over a median of 14.5 years of follow-up, 102 deaths occurred; 43 of these were due to breast cancer. In models adjusted for ethnicity/study site, age, body mass index, and tumor stage, increased levels of log-transformed SHBG were associated with reduced risk of both breast cancer-specific mortality (hazard ratio, HR 0.48; 95 % confidence interval, CI 0.26-0.89) and all-cause mortality (HR 0.64, 95 % CI 0.43-0.97). There were no associations between levels of estradiol, estrone, or testosterone for either endpoint. In subgroup analyses, after correction for multiple testing, increased estrone was significantly associated with reduced risk for breast cancer-specific mortality among participants with ER-negative tumors (HR 0.16, 95 % CI 0.05-0.63) but not among participants with ER-positive tumors. Increased serum levels of SHBG were associated with decreased risk of breast cancer-specific and all-cause mortality in women with breast cancer. These results should be confirmed in larger breast cancer survivor cohorts.

  15. Advances in bioanalytical techniques to measure steroid hormones in serum.

    French, Deborah


    Steroid hormones are measured clinically to determine if a patient has a pathological process occurring in the adrenal gland, or other hormone responsive organs. They are very similar in structure making them analytically challenging to measure. Additionally, these hormones have vast concentration differences in human serum adding to the measurement complexity. GC-MS was the gold standard methodology used to measure steroid hormones clinically, followed by radioimmunoassay, but that was replaced by immunoassay due to ease of use. LC-MS/MS has now become a popular alternative owing to simplified sample preparation than for GC-MS and increased specificity and sensitivity over immunoassay. This review will discuss these methodologies and some new developments that could simplify and improve steroid hormone analysis in serum.

  16. Do mollusks use vertebrate sex steroids as reproductive hormones? Part I: Critical appraisal of the evidence for the presence, biosynthesis and uptake of steroids.

    Scott, Alexander P


    The consensus view is that vertebrate-type steroids are present in mollusks and perform hormonal roles which are similar to those that they play in vertebrates. Although vertebrate steroids can be measured in molluscan tissues, a key question is 'Are they formed endogenously or they are picked up from their environment?'. The present review concludes that there is no convincing evidence for biosynthesis of vertebrate steroids by mollusks. Furthermore, the 'mollusk' genome does not contain the genes for key enzymes that are necessary to transform cholesterol in progressive steps into vertebrate-type steroids; nor does the mollusk genome contain genes for functioning classical nuclear steroid receptors. On the other hand, there is very strong evidence that mollusks are able to absorb vertebrate steroids from the environment; and are able to store some of them (by conjugating them to fatty acids) for weeks to months. It is notable that the three steroids that have been proposed as functional hormones in mollusks (i.e. progesterone, testosterone and 17β-estradiol) are the same as those of humans. Since humans (and indeed all vertebrates) continuously excrete steroids not just via urine and feces, but via their body surface (and, in fish, via the gills), it is impossible to rule out contamination as the sole reason for the presence of vertebrate steroids in mollusks (even in animals kept under supposedly 'clean laboratory conditions'). Essentially, the presence of vertebrate steroids in mollusks cannot be taken as reliable evidence of either endogenous biosynthesis or of an endocrine role.


    Manuel eMaliqueo


    Full Text Available Adequate blood supply to the uterine-placental region is crucial to ensure the transport of oxygen and nutrients to the growing fetus. Multiple factors intervene to achieve appropriate uterine blood flow and the structuring of the placental vasculature during the early stages of pregnancy. Among these factors, oxygen concentrations, growth factors, cytokines and steroid hormones are the most important. Sex steroids are present in extremely high concentrations in the maternal circulation and are important paracrine and autocrine regulators of a wide range of maternal and placental functions. In this regard, progesterone and estrogens act as modulators of uterine vessels and decrease the resistance of the spiral uterine arteries. On the other hand, androgens have the opposite effect, increasing the vascular resistance of the uterus. Moreover, progesterone and estrogens modulate the synthesis and release of angiogenic factors by placental cells, which regulates trophoblastic invasion and uterine artery remodeling. In this scenario, it is not surprising that women with pregnancy-related pathologies, such as early miscarriages, preterm delivery, preeclampsia and fetal growth restriction, exhibit altered sex steroid concentrations.

  18. Comparing sex steroid levels during the annual cycles of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) diploid female (XX) and triploid female (XXX) genotypic sex.

    Espinosa, E; Josa, A; Gil, L; Malo, C; Mitjana, O


    In this study, the annual cycle of the gonadal steroids testosterone (T), 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT), 17β-estradiol (E2) and 17α, 20β-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (DHP) was determined using radioimmunoassay and then compared for two populations of rainbow trout, XX diploid females (n = 40) and XXX triploid females (n = 15). In females, E2 and DHP levels were found to be significantly related to body weight (r = 0.22513; p 0.001, respectively). In this group, E2 concentrations peaked in November (25.05 ng/ml), while maximum DHP levels, only measurable from October to April, were attained in February (64.14 ng/ml). No significant differences in hormone ranges related to egg output ability were observed. Finally, sex steroid concentrations were low in the triploid female XXX fish compared to the female XX population. Nevertheless, maximum T (33.85 ng/ml) and 11-KT (32.35 ng/ml) levels were recorded in January, for XXX. The levels for these two hormones are relatively high and are also significantly associated (r = 0.8430; p < 0.0001). Diploid females showed significantly higher levels of E2 than triploids over the 12-month study period. The female triploid fish produced the lowest steroid hormone levels, such that these would be the most suitable for human consumption.

  19. A genome-wide association meta-analysis of circulating sex hormone-binding globulin reveals multiple loci implicated in sex steroid hormone regulation

    A.D. Coviello (Andrea); R. Haring (Robin); M. Wellons (Melissa); D. Vaidya (Dhananjay); T. Lehtimäki (Terho); S. Keildson (Sarah); K.L. Lunetta (Kathryn); C. He (Chunyan); M. Fornage (Myriam); V. Lagou (Vasiliki); M. Mangino (Massimo); N.C. Onland-Moret (Charlotte); B. Chen (Benjamin); J. Eriksson (Joel); M. Garcia (Melissa); Y. Liu (Yongmei); A. Koster (Annemarie); K. Lohman (Kurt); L.-P. Lyytikäinen; A.K. Petersen; C.A.J. Prescott; L. Stolk (Lisette); L. Vandenput (Liesbeth); A.R. Wood (Andrew); W.V. Zhuang; A. Ruokonen (Aimo); A.L. Hartikainen; A. Pouta (Anneli); S. Bandinelli (Stefania); R. Biffar (Reiner); G. Brabant (Georg); D.G. Cox (David); S. Cummings; L. Ferrucci (Luigi); M.J. Gunter (Marc J.); S.E. Hankinson (Susan); H. Martikainen (Hannu); A. Hofman (Albert); G. Homuth (Georg); T. Illig (Thomas); J.O. Jansson; A.D. Johnson (Andrew); D. Karasik (David); M. Karlsson (Magnus); J. Kettunen (Johannes); D.P. Kiel (Douglas); P. Kraft (Peter); O.̈. Ljunggren; M. Lorentzon (Mattias); M. Maggio (Marcello); M.R.P. Markus (Marcello R. P.); D. Mellström (Dan); I. Miljkovic (Iva); D. Mirel (Daniel); S. Nelson (Sarah); L. Morin Papunen (Laure); P.H.M. Peeters; I. Prokopenko (Inga); L.J. Raffel (Leslie); M. Reincke (Martin); A.P. Reiner (Alex); K. Rexrode (Kathryn); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando); S.M. Schwartz (Stephen); D.S. Siscovick (David); N. Soranzo (Nicole); D. Stöckl (Doris); S. Tworoger (Shelley); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); C.H. van Gils (Carla); R.S. Vasan (Ramachandran Srini); H.E. Wichmann (Erich); G. Zhai (Guangju); S. Bhasin (Shalender); M. Bidlingmaier; S.J. Chanock (Stephen); I. de Vivo (Immaculata); T.B. Harris (Tamara); D. Hunter (David); M. Kähönen (Mika); P. Ouyang (Pamela); T.D. Spector (Timothy); Y.T. van der Schouw (Yvonne); J. Viikari (Jorma); H. Wallaschofski (Henri); M.I. McCarthy (Mark); T.M. Frayling (Timothy); J.C. Murray (Jeffrey); S. Franks (Steve); M.R. Jarvelin; F.A. de Jong (Floris); O. Raitakari (Olli); A. Teumer (Alexander); C. Ohlsson (Claes); J. Murabito (Joanne); J.R.B. Perry (John)


    textabstractSex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) is a glycoprotein responsible for the transport and biologic availability of sex steroid hormones, primarily testosterone and estradiol. SHBG has been associated with chronic diseases including type 2 diabetes (T2D) and with hormone-sensitive cancers s

  20. Intracellular distribution and biological effects of phytochemicals in a sex steroid- sensitive model of human prostate adenocarcinoma.

    Smeriglio, Antonella; Trombetta, Domenico; Marcoccia, Daniele; Narciso, Laura; Mantovani, Alberto; Lorenzetti, Stefano


    Prostate function is critical for male fertility and its well-known oncological biomarker, namely Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA), can be also used to monitor prostate epithelial human cells upon treatment with pharmaceutical drugs or natural bioactive compounds. The LNCaP human prostate cell line was previously set up as a model system to investigate chemicals affecting prostate epithelium functionality by means of a tiered approach integrating two different toxicological endpoints, cell viability (MTS) and PSA secretion assays. Here, the same approach has been used to characterize the biological effects of phytochemicals on prostate epithelium. The antiandrogenic ability of phytochemicals to inhibit DHT-induced PSA secretion has been investigated also characterizing their intracellular distribution, in the presence or absence of sex steroids. Intracellular distribution allows to verify whether and to which extent each phytochemical is able to enter the cell and to reach the nucleus, the latter being the target of the supposed transcriptional modulatory activity upon phytochemicals' binding to sex steroid receptors. Some phytochemicals, supposed to have a role in the functionality of the prostate epithelium, have been tested in a dose-dependent manner in both MTS and PSA secretion assays. In parallel, to establish the "effective concentration", in comparison to the "nominal one", the intracellular amount of each phytochemical has been assessed upon cell fractionation of LNCaP-treated cells and subsequent chromatographic measurements.

  1. The effect of sex steroids on primary and secondary sex differentiation in the sexually dichromatic reedfrog (Hyperolius argus: Hyperolidae) from the Arabuko Sokoke Forest of Kenya.

    Hayes, T B; Menendez, K P


    The current study examined the role of steroids in primary and secondary sex differentiation in the African reedfrog (Hyperolius argus: Hyperolidae). This species is sexually dimorphic: males have a solid green dorsum and females are reddish-brown with large white spots. This study is the first to report the effects of sex steroids on the development of a sexually dichromatic species and the first to examine the role of sex steroids on development of the vocal sac. Both males and females metamorphosed solid green without spots. Approximately 2 months after metamorphosis, control females transformed to the female-typical color pattern. Control males never developed this color pattern (remained green), but developed vocal sacs. To examine the role of sex steroid hormones on primary (gonadal differentiation) and secondary (vocal sac development and dorsal coloration) sex differentiation, testosterone (T) or estradiol-17beta (E(2)) were administered throughout larval development. At metamorphosis, 53% of the controls were males, based on gross gonadal morphology and histology of a subsample. Both doses of T produced 100% males. All E(2)-treated animals had ovarian cavities and/or follicles when examined histologically (at both doses) but 50% had testicular tissue in addition to these ovarian characteristics. Both doses of T induced vocal sac development and both doses of E(2) induced female coloration. Thus, both T and E(2) induced secondary sex characteristics (vocal sac development and dorsal color change, respectively) but E(2) produced hermaphroditic gonads, whereas T induced complete sex reversal.

  2. An immunohistochemical analysis of sex-steroid receptors, tumor suppressor gene p53 and Ki-67 in the normal and neoplastic uterine cervix squamous epithelium


    Introduction. Malignant transformation of sex-steroid dependent tissues is associated with the loss of expression of sex steroid receptors as well as of the tumor suppression gene p53. The aim of this study is to evaluate the expression of sex-steroid receptors, p53 and Ki-67 in specimens from pre-malignant and malignant cervical epithelial lesions throughout the menstrual cycle. Material and Methods. Immunohistochemical staining was performed on formalin f...

  3. Linking physiological approaches to marine vertebrate conservation: using sex steroid hormone determinations in demographic assessments.

    Labrada-Martagón, Vanessa; Zenteno-Savín, Tania; Mangel, Marc


    Sex, age and sexual maturation are key biological parameters for aspects of life history and are fundamental information for assessing demographic changes and the reproductive viability and performance of natural populations under exploitation pressures or in response to environmental influences. Much of the information available on the reproductive condition, length at sexual maturity and sex determinations of endangered species has been derived from direct examination of the gonads in dead animals, either intentionally or incidentally caught, or from stranded individuals. However, morphological data, when used alone, do not provide accurate demographic information in sexually monomorphic marine vertebrate species (e.g. sharks, sea turtles, seabirds and cetaceans). Hormone determination is an accurate and non-destructive method that provides indirect information about sex, reproductive condition and sexual maturity of free-ranging individuals. Correlations between sex steroid concentrations and biochemical parameters, gonadal development and state, reproductive behaviour and secondary external features have been already demonstrated in many species. Different non-lethal approaches (e.g. surgical and mark-recapture procedures), with intrinsic advantages and disadvantages when applied on free-ranging organisms, have been proposed to asses sex, growth and reproductive condition. Hormone determination from blood samples will generate valuable additional demographic information needed for stock assessment and biological conservation.

  4. Effects of oral contraceptive agents and sex steroids on carbohydrate metabolism.

    Kalkhoff, R K


    The article offers a general interpretation of the influence of oral contraceptive agents on glucose tolerance, emphasizing comparisons of synthetic sex hormones. Although there are conflicting reports on steroid-induced diabetes in normal women, their glucose curves are often higher when under oral contraceptive treatment, suggesting that oral contraceptives may induce a form of subclinical diabetes melitus that is reversible. Evidence from diabetic women suggests definite deliterious effects from contraceptive administration. Estradiol, estriol, and estrone may improve glucose tolerance in nondiabetic women and reduce insulin requirements in diabetics. Progesterone has little effect on carbohydrate tolerance, as did synthetic progestin. Conjugated equine estrogens (equilenine or Premarin) may provoke mild to moderate deterioration of carbohydrate tolerance. Parenterally administered natural estrogens and orally administered synthetic derivatives appear to differ sharply in their effects. Sex hormones' effects on carbohydrate metabolism likely involve interactions with insulin and endogenous glucocorticoids.

  5. Measuring steroid hormones in avian eggs

    Von Engelhardt, N; Groothuis, TGG; Bauchinger, U; Goymann, W; JenniEiermann, S


    Avian eggs contain substantial levels of various hormones of maternal origin and have recently received a lot of interest, mainly from behavioral ecologists. These studies strongly depend on the measurement of egg hormone levels, but the method of measuring these levels has received little attention

  6. Measuring Steroid Hormones in Avian Eggs

    Engelhardt, Nikolaus von; Groothuis, Ton G.G.


    Avian eggs contain substantial levels of various hormones of maternal origin and have recently received a lot of interest, mainly from behavioral ecologists. These studies strongly depend on the measurement of egg hormone levels, but the method of measuring these levels has received little attention

  7. Does priming with sex steroids improve the diagnosis of normal growth hormone secretion in short children?

    Ashraf Soliman


    Full Text Available Introduction: There is still controversy for priming with sex steroid before growth hormone (GH testing. Objective: We studied GH response to stimulation in 92 children >9 years with idiopathic short stature (height standard deviation score [HtSDS]-2. They were divided randomly into two groups. Children in Group 1 (n = 50 were primed with premarin in girls and testosterone in boys and those in Group 2 were not primed (n = 42. All children were tested using standard clonidine test and their serum insulin-like growth factor-I concentration (IGF-I. Additionally the growth and GH-IGF-I data of the two groups of children were compared with those for 32 short children (HtSDS 9 years. The peak GH response to clonidine provocation test did not differ before (n = 42 versus after 9 years (n = 32 of age. Conclusions: In this randomized study priming with sex steroids before GH testing did not significantly increase the yield of diagnosing short patients with normal GH secretion. In addition, GH response to provocation did not vary significantly between young (9 years short children.

  8. Postmenopausal serum sex steroids and risk of hormone receptor-positive and -negative breast cancer: a nested case-control study

    James, R.E.; Lukanova, A.; Dossus, L.; Becker, S.; Rinaldi, S.; Tjonneland, A.; Olsen, A.; Overvad, K.; Mesrine, S.; Engel, P.; Clavel-Chapelon, F.; Chang-Claude, J.; Vrieling, A.; Boeing, H.; Schutze, M.; Trichopoulou, A.; Lagiou, P.; Trichopoulos, D.; Palli, D.; Krogh, V.; Panico, S.; Tumino, R.; Sacerdote, C.; Rodriguez, L.; Buckland, G.; Sanchez, M.J.; Amiano, P.; Ardanaz, E.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, B.; Ros, M.M.; Gils, C.H. van; Peeters, P.H.M.; Khaw, K.T.; Wareham, N.; Key, T.J.; Allen, N.E.; Romieu, I.; Siddiq, A.; Cox, D.; Riboli, E.; Kaaks, R.


    Prediagnostic endogenous sex steroid hormone levels have well established associations with overall risk of breast cancer. While evidence toward the existence of distinct subtypes of breast cancer accumulates, few studies have investigated the associations of sex steroid hormone levels with risk of

  9. Postmenopausal Serum Sex Steroids and Risk of Hormone Receptor-Positive and -Negative Breast Cancer : a Nested Case-Control Study

    James, Rebecca E.; Lukanova, Annekatrin; Dossus, Laure; Becker, Susen; Rinaldi, Sabina; Tjonneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Overvad, Kim; Mesrine, Sylvie; Engel, Pierre; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Vrieling, Alina; Boeing, Heiner; Schuetze, Madlen; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Palli, Domenico; Krogh, Vittorio; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Rodriguez, Laudina; Buckland, Genevieve; Sanchez, Maria-Jose; Amiano, Pilar; Ardanaz, Eva; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas; Ros, Martine M.; van Gils, Carla H.; Peeters, Petra H.; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Key, Timothy J.; Allen, Naomi E.; Romieu, Isabelle; Siddiq, Afshan; Cox, David; Riboli, Elio; Kaaks, Rudolf


    Prediagnostic endogenous sex steroid hormone levels have well established associations with overall risk of breast cancer. While evidence toward the existence of distinct subtypes of breast cancer accumulates, few studies have investigated the associations of sex steroid hormone levels with risk of

  10. Morphology, sex steroid level and gene expression analysis in gonadal sex reversal of triploid female (XXX) rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Xu, Gefeng; Huang, Tianqing; Jin, Xian; Cui, Cunhe; Li, Depeng; Sun, Cong; Han, Ying; Mu, Zhenbo


    In non-mammalian vertebrates, estrogens and expressions of cyp19a1 and foxl2 play critical roles in maintaining ovary differentiation and development, while dmrt1 and sox9 are male-specific genes in testicular differentiation and are highly conserved. In order to deeply understand the morphological change, sex steroids level and molecular mechanism of triploid female gonadal reversal in rainbow trout, we studied the ovary morphology, tendency of estradiol-17β (E2) and testosterone (T) levels and the relative expressions of dmrt1, cyp19a1, sox9 and foxl2 in juvenile and adult fish. Our results demonstrated that the development of triploid female gonads in rainbow trout went through arrested development, oocytes dedifferentiation, ovary reconstruction and sex reversal finally. During early gonadal development (154-334 days post-fertilization), the expressions of foxl2 and cyp19a1 increased linearly, while expressions of dmrt1 and sox9 were extremely suppressed, and E2 level was higher, while T level was lower. During the mid-to-late period of triploid female gonadal development (574-964 days post-fertilization), the expressions of dmrt1 and sox9 remained high and were very close to the quantity of diploid male genes, and T levels were even reaching diploid male plasma concentrations, while expressions of cyp19a1 and foxl2 were decreased, leading to decrease in E2 level. We realized that the development model of rainbow trout triploid female gonads was extremely rare, and the regulatory mechanism was very special. Genes involved in gonadal development and endogenous estrogens are pivotal factors in fish natural sex reversal.

  11. Anabolic Steroids

    Anabolic steroids are man-made substances related to male sex hormones. Doctors use anabolic steroids to treat some hormone problems in men, delayed ... some diseases. Bodybuilders and athletes often use anabolic steroids to build muscles and improve athletic performance. Using ...

  12. Colonic transit in rats: effect of ovariectomy, sex steroid hormones, and pregnancy

    Ryan, J.P.; Bhojwani, A.


    In vitro studies suggest that the female sex steroid hormones (estrogen (E) and progesterone (P)) can affect the myoelectric and mechanical activity of colonic smooth muscle. The present study was designed to examine the influence of the hormones on colonic transit in vivo. Transit was assessed by quantifying the distribution within the colon of a radiolabeled marker (0.5 Ci Na2V CrO4), using the geometric center method of analysis. Studies were performed with adult male rats and the following groups of female rats: nonpregnant, ovariectomized, ovariectomy plus hormone pretreatment, and pregnant (day 18). Hormone-pretreated animals were studied 24 h following the fourth injection. The data can be summarized as follows. 1) Colonic transit was affected by the timing of the estrus cycle. 2) Ovariectomy eliminated the biphasic transit pattern observed in estruscycling females and resulted in a geometric center value comparable with that of the metestrus-diestrus animals. 3) E + P pretreatment of ovariectomized rats resulted in a significant decrease in the geometric center compared with the untreated ovariectomized rats. 4) The geometric center value in pregnant anials and hormone-pretreated animals. 5) Adult male rats had a geometric center value of 4.12 +/- 0.29. The results suggest that a relation exists between colonic transit and the circulating levels of the steroid hormones.

  13. Sex Steroid Hormones Matter for Learning and Memory: Estrogenic Regulation of Hippocampal Function Inmale and Female Rodents

    Frick, Karyn M.; Kim, Jaekyoon; Tuscher, Jennifer J.; Fortress, Ashley M.


    Ample evidence has demonstrated that sex steroid hormones, such as the potent estrogen 17ß-estradiol (E[subscript 2]), affect hippocampal morphology, plasticity, and memory in male and female rodents. Yet relatively few investigators who work with male subjects consider the effects of these hormones on learning and memory. This review describes…

  14. MicroRNA: sex steroids, hormonal carcinogenesis, hormonal sensitivity of tumor tissue

    A. V. Malek


    indicating the involvement of microRNAs in the phenomenon of breast cancer and prostate cancer cells hormone resistance are discussed in the review.Conception of the possible primary role of microRNAs in the process of malignant transformation and distortion of hormonal regulation is based on a smaller number of scientific reports. In general, in accordance with the main biological role of microRNAs, latter may affect sex hormones function via interaction with the mRNAs of hormone receptors and inhibition of their synthesis. As a result, the effect of many microRNA is converging on the single mRNA, results in suppression of corresponding protein function and, in the end, leads to inhibition of regulatory cascade downstream of sex steroids.Finally, the analysis of the fundamental aspects of sex hormones – microRNA interplay is supplemented by brief overview of clinically significant problems. The prospects for development and introduction into clinical practice innovative methods of diagnosis, prediction and optimization of therapy of breast and prostate cancers are discussed as well.

  15. Is a sex-determining gene(s) necessary for sex-determination in amphibians? Steroid hormones may be the key factor.

    Nakamura, M


    Amphibians have 2 genetic sex-determining systems, one with male (XX/XY) and one with female (ZZ/ZW) heterogamety. While the ancestral state of sex-determination is thought to be female heterogamety, male and female heterogametic types were probably once interchangeable. The Japanese frog Rana rugosa has both XX/XY and ZZ/ZW systems within a single species in certain local populations. However, steroid hormones can alter the phenotypic sex epigenetically. In R. rugosa, steroidogenic enzyme expression starts before sex-determination in the indifferent gonad, and these enzymes become active in both male and female tadpoles. Androgens are produced in the indifferent gonad of male tadpoles at high levels, whereas estrogens are synthesized in females. In this regard, the observed enhanced expression of the hormone-metabolizing genes, CYP19 in the female gonad and CYP17 in males, may be crucial for sex-determination. Moreover, with FSH known to increase estrogen synthesis in the vertebrate ovary, observed upregulation of FSH receptor (FSHR) expression in the indifferent gonad of female tadpoles is intriguing. These data suggest that steroid hormones could be crucial for sex-determination in R. rugosa, with the consequence that upregulation of CYP19 and FSHR expression is necessary for female and CYP17 for male sex-determination.

  16. Acute exposure to ultraviolet-B radiation modulates sex steroid hormones and receptor expression in the skin and may contribute to the sex bias of melanoma in a fish model.

    Mitchell, David L; Fernandez, André A; Garcia, Rachel; Paniker, Lakshmi; Lin, Kevin; Hanninen, Amanda; Zigelsky, Kyle; May, Matthew; Nuttall, Mark; Lo, Herng-Hsiang; Person, Maria D; Earley, Ryan


    Using the Xiphophorus fish melanoma model, we show a strong male bias for sunlight-induced malignant melanoma, consistent with that seen in the human population. To examine underlying factors, we exposed adult X. couchianus fish to a single, sublethal dose of UVB and measured circulating sex steroid hormones and expression of associated hormone receptor genes over a 24-h period. We found that a single exposure had profound effects on circulating levels of steroid hormones with significant decreases for all free sex steroids at 6 and 24 h and increases in conjugated 2-estradiol and 11-ketotestosterone at 6 and 24 h, respectively. Whereas ARα expression increased in male and female skin, neither ARβ nor either of the ERs showed significant responses to UVB in either sex. The rapid response of male androgens and their receptors in the skin after UVB irradiation implicates hormones in the male bias of skin cancer and suggests that the photoendocrine response immediately after UV exposure may be relevant to melanomagenesis.

  17. Acute exposure to ultraviolet-B radiation modulates sex steroid hormones and receptor expression in the skin and may contribute to the sex-bias of melanoma in a fish model

    Mitchell, David L.; Fernandez, André A.; Garcia, Rachel; Paniker, Lakshmi; Lin, Kevin; Hanninen, Amanda; Zigelsky, Kyle; May, Matthew; Nuttall, Mark; Lo, Herng-hsiang; Person, Maria D.; Earley, Ryan


    Using the Xiphophorus fish melanoma model we show a strong male bias for cutaneous malignant melanoma, consistent with that seen in the human population. To examine underlying factors, we exposed adult X. couchianus fish to a single, sub-lethal dose of UVB and measured circulating sex steroid hormones and expression of associated hormone receptor genes over a 24 hour period. We found that a single exposure had profound effects on circulating levels of steroid hormones with significant decreases for all free sex steroids at 6 and 24 h and increases in conjugated 2-estradiol and 11-ketotestosterone at 6 and 24 h, respectively. Whereas ARα expression increased in male and female skin, neither ARβ nor either of the ER’s showed significant responses to UVB in either sex. The rapid response of male androgens and their receptors in the skin after UVB irradiation implicates hormones in the male-bias of skin cancer and suggests that the photoendocrine response immediately after UV exposure may be relevant to melanomagenesis. PMID:24406016

  18. Ovarian steroidogenesis and the role of sex steroid hormones on ovarian growth and maturation of the Japanese eel.

    Kazeto, Yukinori; Tosaka, Ryota; Matsubara, Hajime; Ijiri, Shigeho; Adachi, Shinji


    Three sex steroid hormones, estradiol-17β (E2), 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT), and 17α,20β-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (DHP), are well established as primary estrogen, androgen, and progestin, respectively, in teleost fish. Japanese eel, Anguilla japonica, would be a suitable candidate to study ovarian steroid physiology of fish because the ovarian growth and steroidogenesis is dormant under laboratory condition but can be induced by administration of exogenous gonadotropic reagents. In this review, we summarized our work on the function and production of sex steroid hormones in the ovary of the Japanese eel during ovarian growth and oocyte maturation artificially induced by treatment with extract of salmon pituitary. In vitro and in vivo assays suggest that 11-KT and E2 play primary roles in previtellogenic and vitellogenic growth of oocytes, respectively, whereas DHP is essential for induction of final oocyte maturation. We also reviewed the correlation between ovarian steroidogenesis to produce these sex steroid hormones, serum titers and gene expression.

  19. Steroid sex hormone dynamics during estradiol-17β induced gonadal differentiation in Paralichthys olivaceus (Teleostei)

    Sun, Peng; You, Feng; Liu, Mengxia; Wu, Zhihao; Wen, Aiyun; Li, Jun; Xu, Yongli; Zhang, Peijun


    Steroid sex hormones, such as estradiol-17β (E2) and testosterone (T), are important regulators of sex change in fish. In this study, we examined the effects of E2 treatment on the dynamics of E2 and T during gonadal differentiation in the olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus using histology and radioimmunoassay (RIA). Flounder larvae were divided into five groups (G0-G4), and fed with 0 (control), 0.2, 2, 20 and 100 mg E2/kg feed from 35 to 110 day post hatching (dph). Fish growth in the G1 and G2 groups was not significantly different from that of the control group ( P>0.05), while fish in the G3 and G4 groups were less active and showed growth depression and high mortality. The gonads of fish in the G3 and G4 groups were smaller and surrounded by hyperplastic connective tissue. The frequency of females in the G0-G4 groups was 54.5%, 75.0%, 100%, 100% and 93.3%, respectively. The RIA analyses of E2 and T showed that T levels decreased during gonadal differentiation, and increased slightly at the onset of ovarian differentiation, while E2 levels increased gradually and peaked at the onset of ovarian differentiation in the control group. In the E2-treated groups, T levels decreased before the onset of ovarian differentiation. E2 levels were high on the 48 dph, but declined to a lower level on the 54 dph, and then increased gradually during gonadal differentiation. And a sharp increase of E2 levels were observed in all E2-treated groups at the onset of ovarian differentiation. The data suggest that T and E2 play important roles during gonadal differentiation, and an E2 dose of 2 mg/kg feed could induce sex reversal in P. olivaceus.

  20. Urinary Sex Steroids and Anthropometric Markers of Puberty - A Novel Approach to Characterising Within-Person Changes of Puberty Hormones.

    Gurmeet K S Singh

    Full Text Available The longitudinal relationships of within-individual hormone and anthropometric changes during puberty have not ever been fully described. The objectives of this study were to demonstrate that 3 monthly urine collection was feasible in young adolescents and to utilise liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry assay methods for serum and urine testosterone (T, estradiol (E2 and luteinizing hormone (LH in adolescents by relating temporal changes in urine and serum hormones over 12 months to standard measures of pubertal development.A community sample of 104 adolescents (57 female was studied over 12 months with annual anthropometric assessment, blood sampling and self-rated Tanner staging and urine collected every 3 months. Serum and urine sex steroids (T, E2 were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS and LH by immunoassay.A high proportion (92% of scheduled samples were obtained with low attrition rate of 6.7% over the 12 months. Urine hormone measurements correlated cross-sectionally and longitudinally with age, anthropometry and Tanner stage.We have developed a feasible and valid sampling methodology and measurements for puberty hormones in urine, which allows a sampling frequency by which individual pubertal progression in adolescents can be described in depth.

  1. Urinary Sex Steroids and Anthropometric Markers of Puberty - A Novel Approach to Characterising Within-Person Changes of Puberty Hormones

    Singh, Gurmeet K. S.; Balzer, Ben W. R.; Kelly, Patrick J.; Paxton, Karen; Hawke, Catherine I.; Handelsman, David J.; Steinbeck, Katharine S.


    Background/Aims The longitudinal relationships of within-individual hormone and anthropometric changes during puberty have not ever been fully described. The objectives of this study were to demonstrate that 3 monthly urine collection was feasible in young adolescents and to utilise liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry assay methods for serum and urine testosterone (T), estradiol (E2) and luteinizing hormone (LH) in adolescents by relating temporal changes in urine and serum hormones over 12 months to standard measures of pubertal development. Methods A community sample of 104 adolescents (57 female) was studied over 12 months with annual anthropometric assessment, blood sampling and self-rated Tanner staging and urine collected every 3 months. Serum and urine sex steroids (T, E2) were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and LH by immunoassay. Results A high proportion (92%) of scheduled samples were obtained with low attrition rate of 6.7% over the 12 months. Urine hormone measurements correlated cross-sectionally and longitudinally with age, anthropometry and Tanner stage. Conclusion We have developed a feasible and valid sampling methodology and measurements for puberty hormones in urine, which allows a sampling frequency by which individual pubertal progression in adolescents can be described in depth. PMID:26599397

  2. Sex-dependent expression of caveolin 1 in response to sex steroid hormones is closely associated with development of obesity in rats.

    Rajib Mukherjee

    Full Text Available Caveolin-1 (CAV1 is a conserved group of structural membrane proteins that form special cholesterol and sphingolipid-rich compartments, especially in adipocytes. Recently, it has been reported that CAV1 is an important target protein in sex hormone-dependent regulation of various metabolic pathways, particularly in cancer and diabetes. To clarify distinct roles of CAV1 in sex-dependent obesity development, we investigated the effects of high fat diet (HFD and sex steroid hormones on CAV1 expression in adipose tissues of male and female rats. Results of animal experiments revealed that estrogen (17-β-estradiol, E2 and androgen (dihydrotestosterone, DHT had opposite effects on body weight gain as well as on the regulation of CAV1, hormone sensitive lipase (HSL and uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1 in adipose tissues. Furthermore, sex hormone receptors and aromatase were differentially expressed in a sex-dependent manner in response to E2 and DHT treatments. In vivo data were confirmed using 3T3-L1 and HIB1B cell lines, where Cav1 knock down stimulated lipogenesis but suppressed sex hormone receptor signaling proteins. Most importantly, co-immunoprecipitation enabled the identification of previously unrecognized CAV1-interacting mitochondrial or lipid oxidative pathway proteins in adipose tissues. Taken together, current data showed that CAV1 may play important preventive role in the development of obesity, with more prominent effects in females, and proved to be an important target protein for the hormonal regulation of adipose tissue metabolism by manipulating sex hormone receptors and mitochondrial oxidative pathways. Therefore, we can report, for the first time, the molecular mechanism underlying the effects of sex steroid hormones in the sex-dimorphic regulation of CAV1.

  3. Changes in the serum sex steroids, IL-7 and RANKL-OPG system after bone marrow transplantation: influences on bone and mineral metabolism.

    Baek, Ki Hyun; Oh, Ki Won; Lee, Won Young; Tae, Hyun Jung; Rhee, Eun Jung; Han, Je Ho; Cha, Bong Yun; Kim, Yoo Jin; Lee, Kwang Woo; Son, Ho Young; Kang, Sung Koo; Kim, Chun Choo; Kang, Moo Il


    This study prospectively investigated the changes of the serum levels of the sex steroids, IL-7, soluble receptor activator of nuclear factor kappaB ligand (sRANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG) in bone marrow transplantation (BMT) recipients. This study also examined whether the changes of these cytokine levels and sex steroids actually influence bone turnover and post-BMT bone loss by correlation analysis. Data were analyzed from 39 patients (33.6+/-6.4 years, 19 men and 20 women) who had DXA performed before BMT and at 1 year after BMT. The bone turnover markers, sex steroids and the cytokine levels were measured before BMT and serially after BMT. The mean bone loss in the lumbar spine and the total proximal femur was 5.9% (P bone formation decreased, whereas the bone resorption increased. For the female recipients, the estradiol levels declined at 1 week after BMT, and they did not recover to the basal levels. For the male recipients, the testosterone levels decreased at 1 week and then it increased to its baseline level. The IL-7 levels reached their maximum at 1 week and then declined to baseline level by 3 months. The serum sRANKL, OPG levels and the sRANKL/OPG ratio showed their peak at post-BMT 3 weeks. The mean daily dose of steroid was associated with suppressed bone formation, enhanced bone resorption and increased sRANKL levels. The IL-7 levels were also noted to be either positively correlated with the levels of ICTP or they were negatively correlated with the levels of osteocalcin at 1 and 3 weeks after BMT. Bone loss at the lumbar spine and the proximal femur was influenced by the decreased sex steroids and increased IL-7 levels. During the observation period, the IL-7 levels showed positive correlations with the sRANKL levels and the sRANKL/OPG ratio. For the female patients, the serum IL-7 levels were negatively associated with the estradiol levels at 1 and 3 weeks after BMT. All these findings suggest that IL-7 plays an important role for post

  4. Effects of growth hormone and/or sex steroid administration on whole-body protein turnover in healthy aged women and men.

    Huang, Xin; Blackman, Marc R; Herreman, Karen; Pabst, Katharine M; Harman, S Mitchell; Caballero, Benjamin


    Aging is associated with reduced activities of the growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), and sex steroid axes, and with decreased lean body mass and protein synthesis. Using a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled design, we studied the effects of 6 months of administration of GH alone, sex hormone alone (hormone replacement therapy in women, testosterone enanthate [T] in men), or GH plus sex hormone on protein turnover in healthy men (n=60) and women (n=43), aged 65 to 88 years (mean, 71+/-4.4 years). Growth hormone administration significantly increased IGF-I levels in both sexes, more markedly in men. Sex steroid administration increased the levels of estrogen and testosterone in women and men, respectively (P=.05). Protein turnover was measured before and after the 26-week treatment period by means of a primed, constant l-[1-(13)C]leucine infusion. In men, GH plus T administration increased leucine flux from 80.2+/-2.8 to 93.6+/-4.2 (P=.02). Leucine oxidation did not change significantly after hormone treatment in either sex. Growth hormone treatment led to nonsignificant upward trends in nonoxidative leucine disposal in men (9.1+/-5.2 and women (7.6+/-7.1 Among all groups combined, changes in nonoxidative leucine disposal were directly related to those of serum IGF-I level (r=0.248, P<.02). Whole-body protein turnover increased in GH plus T-treated men (0.6+/-0.2 g; P<.01). These data suggest that low-dose GH administration increases protein synthesis in healthy aged women and men, and that the coadministration of testosterone plus GH enhances this effect in elderly men.

  5. Androgenic/estrogenic balance in the male rat cerebral circulation: metabolic enzymes and sex steroid receptors.

    Gonzales, Rayna J; Ansar, Saema; Duckles, Sue P; Krause, Diana N


    Tissues from males can be regulated by a balance of androgenic and estrogenic effects because of local metabolism of testosterone and expression of relevant steroid hormone receptors. As a critical first step to understanding sex hormone influences in the cerebral circulation of males, we investigated the presence of enzymes that metabolize testosterone to active products and their respective receptors. We found that cerebral blood vessels from male rats express 5alpha-reductase type 2 and aromatase, enzymes responsible for conversion of testosterone into dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and 17beta-estradiol, respectively. Protein levels of these enzymes, however, were not modulated by long-term in vivo hormone treatment. We also showed the presence of receptors for both androgens (AR) and estrogens (ER) from male cerebral vessels. Western blot analysis showed bands corresponding to the full-length AR (110 kDa) and ERalpha (66 kDa). Long-term in vivo treatment of orchiectomized rats with testosterone or DHT, but not estrogen, increased AR levels in cerebral vessels. In contrast, ERalpha protein levels were increased after in vivo treatment with estrogen but not testosterone. Fluorescent immunostaining revealed ERalpha, AR, and 5alpha-reductase type 2 in both the endothelial and smooth muscle layers of cerebral arteries, whereas aromatase staining was solely localized to the endothelium. Thus, cerebral vessels from males are target tissues for both androgens and estrogen. Furthermore, local metabolism of testosterone might balance opposing androgenic and estrogenic influences on cerebrovascular as well as brain function in males.

  6. Eysenck's personality dimensions and sex steroids in male abstinent alcoholics and nonalcoholics: an exploratory study.

    King, A C; Errico, A L; Parsons, O A


    This study investigated the relationship between alcoholics' personality characteristics [as indexed by the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ)] and sex steroid levels. Three serum samples were drawn over a 90-min period in 58 inpatient male alcoholics (mean 33 days sober) and 33 non-alcoholic controls. The EPQ was administered at approximately the same point in the treatment process. Replicating previous work, we found alcoholics scored significantly higher on the Neuroticism and Psychoticism scales of the EPQ than controls. Alcoholics also had higher levels of estradiol and total testosterone than controls, which may be reflective of a biological rebound or characteristic premorbid levels. A significant positive correlation was found between testosterone and extroversion in controls, but not in alcoholics. Alcoholics showed a positive correlation between estradiol and neuroticism and a negative relationship between estradiol and extroversion. The results suggest that (a) 'normal' hormone-personality relationships are disrupted in male alcoholics, and b) personality and psychological changes consistent with the physical feminization syndrome may occur in male alcoholics.

  7. Sex steroid levels in XY males and sex-reversed XX males, of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), during the reproductive cycle.

    Espinosa, E; Josa, A; Gil, L; González, N


    In this study, the annual cycle of the gonadal steroids testosterone (T), 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT), 17β-oestradiol (E2) and 17α, 20β-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (DHP) was determined using radioimmunoassay and then compared, for XY males (n=35) and sex-reversed XX males (n=27) rainbow trout, to establish possible endocrinology differences. Both in XY males and sex-reversed XX males, significant correlation was shown between body weight and T (r=0.5046 and 0.34078, respectively; psex-reversed XX males were similar and showed an intense seasonal variation. The highest levels for T and 11-KT were detected from December to April with a peak in January (51.67 ± 5.11 and 61.95 ± 4.25 ng/ml, for XY males and 57.1 ± 5.82 and 59.27 ± 4.84 ng/ml, respectively, for XX males). In addition, there was a positive correlation (psex-reversed XX males (r=0.6019). Concentrations of DHP in XY males also showed seasonal variation with a peak in February (25.18 ± 12.99 ng/ml). However, DHP levels in sex-reversed XX males were undetectable (sex-reversed XX males were similar to those observed in XY males. The only difference in the annual gonadal steroid cycle between XY and sex-reversed XX males was in the DHP profile.

  8. Organizing effects of sex steroids on brain aromatase activity in quail.

    Charlotte A Cornil

    Full Text Available Preoptic/hypothalamic aromatase activity (AA is sexually differentiated in birds and mammals but the mechanisms controlling this sex difference remain unclear. We determined here (1 brain sites where AA is sexually differentiated and (2 whether this sex difference results from organizing effects of estrogens during ontogeny or activating effects of testosterone in adulthood. In the first experiment we measured AA in brain regions micropunched in adult male and female Japanese quail utilizing the novel strategy of basing the microdissections on the distribution of aromatase-immunoreactive cells. The largest sex difference was found in the medial bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (mBST followed by the medial preoptic nucleus (POM and the tuberal hypothalamic region. A second experiment tested the effect of embryonic treatments known to sex-reverse male copulatory behavior (i.e., estradiol benzoate [EB] or the aromatase inhibitor, Vorozole on brain AA in gonadectomized adult males and females chronically treated as adults with testosterone. Embryonic EB demasculinized male copulatory behavior, while vorozole blocked demasculinization of behavior in females as previously demonstrated in birds. Interestingly, these treatments did not affect a measure of appetitive sexual behavior. In parallel, embryonic vorozole increased, while EB decreased AA in pooled POM and mBST, but the same effect was observed in both sexes. Together, these data indicate that the early action of estrogens demasculinizes AA. However, this organizational action of estrogens on AA does not explain the behavioral sex difference in copulatory behavior since AA is similar in testosterone-treated males and females that were or were not exposed to embryonic treatments with estrogens.

  9. Designed modulation of sex steroid signaling inhibits telomerase activity and proliferation of human prostate cancer cells

    Verma, Vikas; Sharma, Vikas; Singh, Vishal [Division of Endocrinology, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226 031 (India); Sharma, Siddharth; Bishnoi, Ajay Kumar [Division of Medicinal and Process Chemistry, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226 031 (India); Chandra, Vishal; Maikhuri, J.P.; Dwivedi, Anila [Division of Endocrinology, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226 031 (India); Kumar, Atul [Division of Medicinal and Process Chemistry, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226 031 (India); Gupta, Gopal, E-mail: [Division of Endocrinology, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226 031 (India)


    The predominant estrogen-receptor (ER)-β signaling in normal prostate is countered by increased ER-α signaling in prostate cancer (CaP), which in association with androgen-receptor (AR) signaling results in pathogenesis of the disease. However CaP treatments mostly target AR signaling which is initially effective but eventually leads to androgen resistance, hence simultaneous targeting of ERs has been proposed. A novel series of molecules were designed with multiple sex-steroid receptor modulating capabilities by coalescing the pharmacophores of known anti-CaP molecules that act via modulation of ER(α/β) and/or AR, viz. 3,3′diindolylmethane (DIM), mifepristone, toremifene, tamoxifen and raloxifene. N,N-diethyl-4-((2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-1H-indol-3-yl)methyl) aniline (DIMA) was identified as the most promising structure of this new series. DIMA increased annexin-V labelling, cell-cycle arrest and caspase-3 activity, and decreased expression of AR and prostate specific antigen in LNCaP cells, in vitro. Concurrently, DIMA increased ER-β, p21 and p27 protein levels in LNCaP cells and exhibited ∼ 5 times more selective binding for ER-β than ER-α, in comparison to raloxifene. DIMA exhibited a dose-dependent ER-β agonism and ER-α antagonism in classical gene reporter assay and decreased hTERT (catalytic subunit of telomerase) transcript levels in LNCaP at 3.0 μM (P < 0.05). DIMA also dose-dependently decreased telomerase enzyme activity in prostate cancer cells. It is thus concluded that DIMA acts as a multi-steroid receptor modulator and effectively inhibits proliferation of prostate cancer cells through ER-β mediated telomerase inhibition, by countering actions of ER-α and AR. Its unique molecular design can serve as a lead structure for generation of potent agents against endocrine malignancies like the CaP.

  10. Sex and seasonal differences in aggression and steroid secretion in Lemur catta: are socially dominant females hormonally 'masculinized'?

    Drea, Christine M


    Female social dominance characterizes many strepsirrhine primates endemic to Madagascar, but currently there is no comprehensive explanation for how or why female lemurs routinely dominate males. Reconstructing the evolutionary pressures that may have shaped female dominance depends on better understanding the mechanism of inheritance, variation in trait expression, and correlating variables. Indeed, relative to males, many female lemurs also display delayed puberty, size monomorphism, and 'masculinized' external genitalia. As in the spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta), a species characterized by extreme masculinization of the female, this array of traits focuses attention on the role of androgens in female development. Consequently, I examined endocrine profiles and social interaction in the ringtailed lemur (Lemur catta) to search for a potential source of circulating androgen in adult females and an endocrine correlate of female dominance or its proxy, aggression. I measured serum androstenedione (A(4)), testosterone (T), and estradiol (E(2)) in reproductively intact, adult lemurs (10 females; 12 males) over four annual cycles. Whereas T concentrations in males far exceeded those in females, A(4) concentrations were only slightly greater in males than in females. In both sexes, A(4) and T were positively correlated, implicating the Delta(4)-biosynthetic pathway. Moreover, seasonal changes in reproductive function in both sexes coincided with seasonal changes in behavior, with A(4) and T in males versus A(4) and E(2) in females increasing during periods marked by heightened aggression. Therefore, A(4) and/or E(2) may be potentially important steroidal sources in female lemurs that could modulate aggression and underlie a suite of masculinized features.

  11. Modulation of gonadotropin secretion by Sertoli cell inhibin, LHRH, and sex steroids.

    Massicotte, J; Lagacé, L; Labrie, F; Dorrington, J H


    Sertoli cell culture media (SCM) from 10-, 20-, 30-, 35-, and 40-day-old male Wistar rats were assayed to determine the inhibin activity in anterior pituitary cells in culture. In agreement with previous data, SCM did not affect the luteinizing hormone (LH) spontaneous release at all ages studied, whereas it inhibited specifically follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) spontaneous release by 40% for the 40-day-old rats. Younger animals (10-, 20-, and 30-day-old) showed a 60% inhibition of the FSH basal release. The inhibin activity was also different at all stages studied, the IC50 being markedly displaced to the right as the age increased, leading to a fivefold difference between 10- and 30- to 40-day-old rats. The same pattern was observed when the LH and FSH responses to 0.3 nM LH-releasing hormone (LHRH) were studied. SCM from 35-day-old rats did not alter total LH, whereas total FSH was markedly reduced, thus suggesting a reduced FSH synthesis in the presence of inhibin. SCM exerts an additive inhibitory effect with dihydrotestosterone on the LH response to LHRH, whereas it reverses the stimulatory effect of the androgen on spontaneous and LHRH-induced FSH release. Moreover, SCM reversed the stimulatory effect of 17 beta-estradiol on both spontaneous and LHRH-induced LH and FSH release, whereas the stimulatory effect of progesterone on FSH release was 50-80% inhibited. The present data show that inhibin activity of Sertoli cell origin can exert marked interactions with sex steroids in the control of gonadotropin secretion. These data also demonstrate that the inhibin component is an important factor in sexual maturation of the rat and that high FSH levels of 10-day-old rats could suggest a modulation by a nonandrogenic factor of gonadotropin secretion in developing rats.

  12. Impact of sex steroid ablation on viral, tumour and vaccine responses in aged mice.

    Tracy S P Heng

    Full Text Available Recent evidence suggests that the decline in resistance to viral infections with age occurs predominantly as a result of a gradual loss of naïve antigen-specific T cells. As such, restoration of the naïve T cell repertoire to levels seen in young healthy adults may improve defence against infection in the aged. We have previously shown that sex steroid ablation (SSA rejuvenates the ageing thymus and increases thymic export of naïve T cells, but it remains unclear whether T cell responses are improved. Using mouse models of clinically relevant diseases, we now demonstrate that SSA increases the number of naïve T cells able to respond to antigen, thereby enhancing effector responses in aged mice. Specifically, aged mice exhibit a delay in clearing influenza A virus, which correlates with diminished specific cytotoxic activity. This is due to a decreased magnitude of response and not an intrinsic defect in effector T cell function. Upon SSA, aged mice exhibit increased T cell responsiveness that restores efficient viral clearance. We further demonstrate that SSA decreases the incidence of an inducible tumour in aged mice and can potentially increase their responsiveness to a low-dose human papillomavirus vaccine in clearing pre-formed tumours. As thymectomy abrogates the increase in T cell numbers and responsiveness following SSA, we propose that the T cell effects of SSA are dependent on thymic reactivation and subsequent replenishment of the peripheral T cell pool with newly emigrated naïve T cells. These findings have important implications for strategies to improve protection from infection and responsiveness to vaccination in the aged.

  13. PET imaging of brain sex steroid hormone receptors and the role of estrogen in depression

    Khayum, Mohamed Abdul


    Androgens and estrogens are steroid hormones that are involved in several neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders. Decreased levels of steroid hormones are associated with e.g. decreased cognition, anxiety and depression. Androgens and estrogens exert their biological effects through their corre

  14. Female sex steroids and glia cells: Impact on multiple sclerosis lesion formation and fine tuning of the local neurodegenerative cellular network.

    Kipp, Markus; Hochstrasser, Tanja; Schmitz, Christoph; Beyer, Cordian


    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory and demyelinating disease that shows a female-to-male gender prevalence and alleviation of disease activity during late stage pregnancy. In MS-related animal models, sex steroids ameliorate symptoms and protect from demyelination and neuronal damage. Underlying mechanisms of these protective avenues are continuously discovered, in part by using novel transgenic animal models. In this review article, we highlight the regulation of glia cell function by female sex steroids. We specifically focus on the relevance of glia cells for immune cell recruitment into the central nervous system and show how estrogen and progesterone can modulate these cell-cell communication pathways. Since MS is considered to have a strong neurodegenerative component, principal neuroprotective mechanisms, exerted by sex-steroids will be discussed as well. Activation of steroid receptors might not just act as immunosuppressant but at the same time harmonize brain-intrinsic networks to dampen neurodegeneration and, thus, disease progression in MS.

  15. Anti-anxiety, cognitive, and steroid biosynthetic effects of an isoflavone-based dietary supplement are gonad and sex-dependent in rats.

    Friedman, Jonathan; Frye, Cheryl


    Isoflavone-rich diets are associated with reduced menopausal symptoms and lowered risk of cancers of reproductive tissues. Isoflavones may mimic some effects of estrogen by binding to estrogen receptors, and/or altering steroid availability. Despite their potential health benefits, neither the effects, nor mechanisms, of isoflavones are well understood. We hypothesized that isoflavones would alter behavior and physiology of rats in sex and/or gonad-dependent manner. An isoflavone-based, commercially-available, dietary supplement was administered via subcutaneous implantation to female and male, intact and gonadectomized Long-Evans rats. Affective (elevated plus-maze), cognitive (water-maze), and reproductive (sexual) behavior was examined. Weights of reproductive structures were measured, as an index of trophic effects. Steroid levels in circulation and brain regions associated with behavioral measures were evaluated by radioimmunoassay. The supplement increased anti-anxiety behavior of intact, but not gonadectomized, rats. The supplement enhanced visual-spatial performance of all rats, but this effect was most evident among proestrous female rats, which had the poorest spatial performance. There were neither effects of the supplement on sexual behavior, mass of reproductive tissues, nor plasma steroid levels. The supplement increased levels of 5α-androstane,17ß-diol-3α-diol (3α-diol) in the hippocampus (but not other brain regions) of gonadectomized females. Thus, the supplement altered anxiety and cognitive behavior and brain production of steroids; however, the anti-anxiety effects were limited to rats with an intact reproductive axis and effects on cognitive performance and neurosteriodogenesis were most evident among intact and gonadectomized, female rats respectively.

  16. Testosterone regulation of sex steroid-related mRNAs and dopamine-related mRNAs in adolescent male rat substantia nigra

    Purves-Tyson Tertia D


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increased risk of schizophrenia in adolescent males indicates that a link between the development of dopamine-related psychopathology and testosterone-driven brain changes may exist. However, contradictions as to whether testosterone increases or decreases dopamine neurotransmission are found and most studies address this in adult animals. Testosterone-dependent actions in neurons are direct via activation of androgen receptors (AR or indirect by conversion to 17β-estradiol and activation of estrogen receptors (ER. How midbrain dopamine neurons respond to sex steroids depends on the presence of sex steroid receptor(s and the level of steroid conversion enzymes (aromatase and 5α-reductase. We investigated whether gonadectomy and sex steroid replacement could influence dopamine levels by changing tyrosine hydroxylase (TH protein and mRNA and/or dopamine breakdown enzyme mRNA levels [catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT and monoamine oxygenase (MAO A and B] in the adolescent male rat substantia nigra. We hypothesized that adolescent testosterone would regulate sex steroid signaling through regulation of ER and AR mRNAs and through modulation of aromatase and 5α-reductase mRNA levels. Results We find ERα and AR in midbrain dopamine neurons in adolescent male rats, indicating that dopamine neurons are poised to respond to circulating sex steroids. We report that androgens (T and DHT increase TH protein and increase COMT, MAOA and MAOB mRNAs in the adolescent male rat substantia nigra. We report that all three sex steroids increase AR mRNA. Differential action on ER pathways, with ERα mRNA down-regulation and ERβ mRNA up-regulation by testosterone was found. 5α reductase-1 mRNA was increased by AR activation, and aromatase mRNA was decreased by gonadectomy. Conclusions We conclude that increased testosterone at adolescence can shift the balance of sex steroid signaling to favor androgenic responses through promoting

  17. The Effects of Aging and Sex Steroid Deficiency on the Murine Skeleton Are Independent and Mechanistically Distinct

    Ucer, Serra; Iyer, Srividhya; Kim, Ha-Neui; Han, Li; Rutlen, Christine; Allison, Kelly; Thostenson, Jeff D; de Cabo, Rafael; Jilka, Robert L; O’Brien, Charles; Almeida, Maria; Manolagas, Stavros C


    Old age and sex steroid deficiency are the two most critical factors for the development of osteoporosis. It remains unknown, however, whether the molecular culprits of the two conditions are similar or distinct. We show herein that at 19.5 months of age —a time by which the age-dependent decline of cortical and cancellous bone mass and cortical porosity were fully manifested in C57BL/6J mice—these animals remained functionally estrogen sufficient. Transgenic mice with conditional expression of mitochondria-targeted catalase—a potent H2O2 inactivating enzyme—in cells of the myeloid lineage (mitoCAT;LysM-Cre mice) were protected from the loss of cortical, but not cancellous, bone caused by gonadectomy in either sex. Consistent with these findings, in vitro studies with ERα-deficient Prx1+ cells and gonadectomized young adult mice showed that in both sexes decreased ERα signaling in Prx1+ cells leads to an increase in SDF1, a.k.a. CXCL12, an osteoclastogenic cytokine whose effects were abrogated in macrophages from mitoCAT;LysM-Cre mice. In contrast to sex steroid deficiency, the adverse effects of aging on either cortical or cancellous bone were unaffected in mitoCAT;LysM-Cre mice. On the other hand, attenuation of H2O2 generation in cells of the mesenchymal lineage targeted by Prx1-Cre partially prevented the loss of cortical bone caused by old age. Our results suggest the effects of sex steroid deficiency and aging on the murine skeleton are independent and result from distinct mechanisms. In the former, the prevailing mechanism of the cortical bone loss in both sexes is increased osteoclastogenesis caused by estrogen deficiency; this is likely driven, at least in part, by mesenchymal/stromal cell–derived SDF1. Decreased osteoblastogenesis, owing in part to increased H2O2, combined with increased osteoclastogenesis caused by aging mechanisms independent of estrogen deficiency, are the prevailing mechanisms of the loss of cortical bone with old age

  18. Large scale genome-wide association and LDLA mapping study identifies QTLs for boar taint and related sex steroids

    Hansen Marianne HS


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Boar taint is observed in a high proportion of uncastrated male pigs and is characterized by an unpleasant odor/flavor in cooked meat, primarily caused by elevated levels of androstenone and skatole. Androstenone is a steroid produced in the testis in parallel with biosynthesis of other sex steroids like testosterone and estrogens. This represents a challenge when performing selection against androstenone in breeding programs, without simultaneously decreasing levels of other steroids. The aim of this study was to use high-density genome wide association (GWA in combination with linkage disequilibrium-linkage analysis (LDLA to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL associated with boar taint compounds and related sex steroids in commercial Landrace (n = 1,251 and Duroc (n = 918 breeds. Results Altogether, 14 genome wide significant (GWS QTL regions for androstenone in subcutaneous fat were obtained from the LDLA study in Landrace and 14 GWS QTL regions in Duroc. LDLA analysis revealed that 7 of these QTL regions, located on SSC 1, 2, 3, 7 and 15, were obtained in both breeds. All 14 GWS androstenone QTLs in Landrace are also affecting the estrogens at chromosome wise significance (CWS or GWS levels, while in Duroc, 3 of the 14 QTLs affect androstenone without affecting any of the estrogens. For skatole, 10 and 4 QTLs were GWS in the LDLA analysis for Landrace and Duroc respectively, with 4 of these detected in both breeds. The GWS QTLs for skatole obtained by LDLA are located at SSC 1, 5, 6, 7, 10, 11, 13 and 14. Conclusion This is the first report applying the Porcine 60 K SNP array for simultaneous analysis of boar taint compounds and related sex hormones, using both GWA and LDLA approaches. Several QTLs are involved in regulation of androstenone and skatole, and most of the QTLs for androstenone are also affecting the levels of estrogens. Seven QTLs for androstenone were detected in one breed and confirmed in the other, i

  19. Neonatal sex-steroid hormones and timidity in 6-18-month-old boys and girls.

    Jacklin, C N; Maccoby, E E; Doering, C H


    Five sex-steroid hormones (testosterone, androstenedione, estradiol, estrone, and progesterone) are assayed in umbilical cord blood. Timidity is assessed in home and laboratory observations by reactions to a range of novel toys in children from 6 to 18 months of age. Significant short- (1 week) and long- (several months) term stability in timidity is demonstrated. Girls have higher mean scores on observed timidity than do boys in 2 of the 3 samples tested. An across-age timidity score is computed which shows significant correlations with neonatal progesterone, testosterone, and estradiol for boys, but is not significantly predicted by hormone concentrations in girls.

  20. Effects of Kangquan Recipe(康泉方) on Sex Steroids and Cell Proliferation in Rats with Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

    黄源鹏; 杜建; 洪振丰; 陈治卿; 吴锦发; 赵锦燕


    Objective:To investigate the effects of Kangquan Recipe(康泉方,KQR)on sex steroids and cell proliferation in an experimental benign prostatic hyperplasia(BPH)model in rats.Methods:Seventy-two SD rats were randomly divided into six groups:the normal group,the model group,the finasteride group,and the low-, middle-,and high-dose KQR groups,12 in each group.Except those in the normal group,the rats were injected with testosterone after castration for the establishment of BPH model and then given respectively w...

  1. Role of sex steroids and their receptors in human preterm infants: Impacts on future treatment strategies for cerebral development.

    Hübner, Stephanie; Reich, Bettina; Heckmann, Matthias


    Preterm birth is a major risk factor for cerebral complications, such as hemorrhage or periventricular leukomalacia, which lead to lifelong neurodevelopmental deficits. Hypoxia/ischemia, inflammation, hyperoxia, and prematurity itself contribute to the extent of impaired neurodevelopment. Preterm birth leads to disruption of the placental supply of estrogens and progesterone. Postnatally, the plasma levels of estrogens and progesterone drop 100-fold. Preterm infants are deprived of the placental supply of these hormones for up to sixteen weeks. Thus, supplementation of estradiol and progesterone to mimic intrauterine conditions may potentially improve a premature infant́s extrauterine development and help protect the brain against neurological complications. However, preliminary clinical studies did not find improved outcomes except for a trend towards less cerebral palsy. The decrease in estrogen and progesterone concentrations is accompanied by persistent, high postnatal production of fetal zone steroids, mainly dehydroepiandrosterone, which serve as precursors for maternal estrogen synthesis during pregnancy. This commentary will combine knowledge from endocrinology, pharmacology, and neonatology to explain the discrepancies between promising animal models and clinical findings. Most important targets will be classical and non-classical estrogen receptors, which interact differently-not only with estrogens but also with fetal zone steroids. The fetal zone is unique among humans and higher primates. Therefore, a clearly defined model is required to study the role of sex steroids and their receptors before further clinical studies begin.

  2. The effect of glucocorticoids on sex steroid synthesis in cultured Taenia crassiceps Wake Forest University (WFU) cysticerci.

    Hinojosa, L; Valdez, R A; Salvador, V; Rodríguez, A G; Willms, K; Romano, M C


    We have shown previously that cultured Taenia crassiceps Wake Forest University (WFU) and Taenia solium cysticerci, as well as the adult worms, synthesize sex steroid hormones from [3H]steroid precursors and that androgens and oestrogens influence the in vitro development of the parasites. Glucocorticoids (GCs) are used to control the inflammation caused by T. solium cysticerci in the brain. These steroids stimulate oestrogen synthesis in several tissues. Since there is no information on the effect of GC on the endocrine function of cysticerci, we investigated the effect of natural and synthetic GCs on the synthesis of oestrogens in cultured T. crassiceps WFU cysticerci. The cysticerci were obtained from the peritoneal cavity of infected female BALB/c mice; the cysts were washed extensively and pre-cultured in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium (DMEM) plus antibiotics for 5 days. The parasites were further cultured with different doses of corticosterone, dexamethasone or the vehicle for 5 days. [3H]Dehydroepiandrosterone (3H-DHEA) was added to the media and the cysticerci were further incubated for 6 or 24 h. Media were then removed and the steroids ether-extracted. Aliquots of the media were seeded on silica gel plates and developed in solvent systems. Parasites incubated in the presence of 3H-DHEA synthesized [3H]androstenediol, [3H]testosterone and [3H]17β-oestradiol ([3H]17β-E2). The addition of 100 nm or higher corticosterone doses to the media increased [3H]17β-E2 synthesis fourfold after 24 h. Dexamethasone also increased [3H]17β-E2 synthesis. The experiments presented here show for the first time that corticosterone and the synthetic GC dexamethasone modulate the synthesis of oestrogens by cysticerci.

  3. The Effects of Female Sex Steroids on Gastric Secretory Responses of Rat Following Traumatic Brain Injury

    Zakieh Keshavarzi


    Full Text Available AbstractObjective(sGastric ulceration is induced by various forms of stress like surgery, ischemia and trauma. The female sex has more resistance to stress and the gastrointestinal lesions happen fewer than male sex. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of estradiol and progesterone on the gastric acid and pepsin levels following traumatic brain injury (TBI induction.Materials and MethodsDiffuse TBI was induced by Marmarou method in female rats. Rats randomly assigned into 9 groups: intact, OVX (ovarectomized rat, Sham+OVX, TBI (intact rats under TBI, TBI+OVX (ovarectomized rats under TBI and treated OVX rats with vehicle (sesame oil, E2 (estradiol, P4 (progesterone or E2+P4 combination. The acid content and pepsin levels of each gastric washout sample were measured 5 days after the TBI induction.ResultsThere was no significant difference in gastric acid output between groups either after TBI induction or after treatment with E2 or P4 or E2+P4. Gastric pepsin levels were increased in Sham+OVX, TBI (P< 0.001 and TBI+OVX (P< 0.05 compared to intact group. Gastric pepsin levels were significantly lower in E2 and E2+ P4 treated rats than vehicle treated group (P< 0.01. P4 treatment increased gastric pepsin level compared to TBI+OVX group (P< 0.05 and this increment was higher than rats that were treated with the E2 and E2+P4 (P< 0.01.ConclusionThese results suggest that protective effect of estradiol and E2+P4 combination against mucosal damage after TBI, might be mediated by inhibition of pepsin secretion.

  4. Pesticide- and sex steroid analogue-induced endocrine disruption differentially targets hypothalamo-hypophyseal-gonadal system during gametogenesis in teleosts - A review.

    Senthilkumaran, Balasubramanian


    Pesticide-induced endocrine disruption often mimics sex steroidal action resulting in physiological functional disarray of hypothalamo-hypophyseal-gonadal (HHG) system at multiple levels. Among various group of pesticides, organochlorine and organophosphate family of pesticides are known to impart sex steroidal mimicking activity with slightly higher resemblance to estrogens when compared to androgenic action. This review will highlight the effects of organochlorine (for e.g. endosulfan) and organophosphate (for e.g. malathion) pesticides in comparison with sex-steroid analogue-induced changes on HHG axis during gametogenesis in few teleost fish models. Interestingly, the effects of these compounds have produced differential effects in juveniles and adults which also vary based on exposure dosage and duration. Further, the treatments had caused at times sexually dimorphic effects indicating that the action of these compounds bring out serious implications in sexual development. A comprehensive overview has been provided by considering all these aspects to recognize the adverse impacts of pesticide-induced endocrine disruption with special reference to endosulfan and malathion as those had been applied even today or used before for controlling agricultural pests in several Asian countries including India. This review also compares the effects of sex-steroid analogues where in sex reversal to reproductive dysfunction is evident, which may imply the extent of sexual plasticity in teleosts compared to other vertebrates.

  5. Quantitative trait loci predicting circulating sex steroid hormones in men from the NCI-Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3)

    Ahn, Jiyoung; Schumacher, Fredrick R.; Berndt, Sonja I.; Pfeiffer, Ruth; Albanes, Demetrius; Andriole, Gerald L.; Ardanaz, Eva; Boeing, Heiner; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas; Chanock, Stephen J.; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Diver, W. Ryan; Feigelson, Heather Spencer; Gaziano, J. Michael; Giovannucci, Edward; Haiman, Christopher A.; Henderson, Brian E.; Hoover, Robert N.; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Kraft, Peter; Ma, Jing; Le Marchand, Loïc; Overvad, Kim; Palli, Domenico; Stattin, Pär; Stampfer, Meir; Stram, Daniel O.; Thomas, Gilles; Thun, Michael J.; Travis, Ruth C.; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Virtamo, Jarmo; Weinstein, Stephanie J.; Yeager, Meredith; Kaaks, Rudolf; Hunter, David J.; Hayes, Richard B.


    Twin studies suggest a heritable component to circulating sex steroid hormones and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG). In the NCI-Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium, 874 SNPs in 37 candidate genes in the sex steroid hormone pathway were examined in relation to circulating levels of SHBG (N = 4720), testosterone (N = 4678), 3α-androstanediol-glucuronide (N = 4767) and 17β-estradiol (N = 2014) in Caucasian men. rs1799941 in SHBG is highly significantly associated with circulating levels of SHBG (P = 4.52 × 10−21), consistent with previous studies, and testosterone (P = 7.54 × 10−15), with mean difference of 26.9 and 14.3%, respectively, comparing wild-type to homozygous variant carriers. Further noteworthy novel findings were observed between SNPs in ESR1 with testosterone levels (rs722208, mean difference = 8.8%, P = 7.37 × 10−6) and SRD5A2 with 3α-androstanediol-glucuronide (rs2208532, mean difference = 11.8%, P = 1.82 × 10−6). Genetic variation in genes in the sex steroid hormone pathway is associated with differences in circulating SHBG and sex steroid hormones. PMID:19574343

  6. Gender-Related Effects of Sex Steroids on Histamine Release and FcεRI Expression in Rat Peritoneal Mast Cells

    Samira Muñoz-Cruz


    Full Text Available Mast cells (MCs are versatile effector and regulatory cells in various physiologic, immunologic, and pathologic processes. In addition to the well-characterized IgE/FcεRI-mediated degranulation, a variety of biological substances can induce MCs activation and release of their granule content. Sex steroids, mainly estradiol and progesterone, have been demonstrated to elicit MCs activation. Most published studies have been conducted on MCs lines or freshly isolated peritoneal and bone marrow-derived MC without addressing gender impact on MC response. Our goal was to investigate if the effect of estradiol, progesterone, testosterone, and dihydrotestosterone (DHT on MCs may differ depending on whether female or male rats are used as MCs donors. Our results demonstrated that effect of sex steroids on MCs histamine release is dose- and gender-dependent and can be direct, synergistic, or inhibitory depending on whether hormones are used alone or to pretreat MCs followed by substance P-stimulation or upon IgE-mediated stimulation. In contrast, sex steroids did not have effect on the MC expression of the IgE high affinity receptor, FcεRI, no matter female or male rats were used. In conclusion, MCs degranulation is modulated by sex hormones in a gender-selective fashion, with MC from females being more susceptible than MC from males to the effects of sex steroids.

  7. Maternal serum steroid levels are unrelated to fetal sex: a study in twin pregnancies.

    Cohen-Bendahan, C.C.; Goozen, S.H. van; Buitelaar, J.K.; Cohen-Kettenis, P.T.


    Increased prenatal exposure to testosterone (T) in females of an opposite-sex (OS) twin pair may have an effect on the development of sex-typical cognitive and behavioral patterns. The prenatal exposure to T due to hormone transfer in OS twin females may occur in two ways, one directly via the feto-

  8. Early pregnancy sex steroids and maternal breast cancer: a nested case-control study.

    Fortner, Renée T; Schock, Helena; Kaaks, Rudolf; Lehtinen, Matti; Pukkala, Eero; Lakso, Hans-Åke; Tanner, Minna; Kallio, Raija; Joensuu, Heikki; Grankvist, Kjell; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Toniolo, Paolo; Lundin, Eva; Surcel, Helja-Marja


    Pregnancy, parity, and circulating steroid hormone levels are associated with risk of breast cancer, but little is known about hormone concentrations during pregnancy and subsequent breast cancer risk. We evaluated early pregnancy (pregnancies registered in Finland since 1983. Individuals with samples collected in the first pregnancy leading to a live birth were eligible. Breast cancer cases (n = 1,199) were identified through linkage with the Finnish Cancer Registry; 2,281 matched controls were selected using incidence density sampling. ORs were calculated using conditional logistic regression. Hormone concentrations were not associated with breast cancer overall. Estradiol was positively associated with risk of breast cancer diagnosed age hormones were associated with increased risk of estrogen receptor (ER)- and progesterone receptor (PR)-negative tumors in women age hormones and ER(+)/PR(+) disease. These data suggest a positive association between high concentrations of early pregnancy steroid hormones and risk of ER(-)/PR(-) breast cancer in women diagnosed age pregnancy hormones and risk of steroid receptor-negative cancers is needed to further characterize this association.

  9. Ecdysteroids: the overlooked sex steroids of insects? Males: the black box



    The paradigm, still around in textbooks, that 'in insects sex is strictly genetic,thus that they do not have sex hormones', is mainly based on a wrong interpretation of the 'gynandromorph argument'. It is no longer tenable. Given the fact that vertebrates and invertebrates probably had a common, sexually reproducing ancestor, there is no reason to assume that only vertebrates need sex hormones. The major function of sex hormones is to inform the somatoplasm about developmental changes that take place in the gonads. In contrast to juvenile hormone and neuropeptides, ecdysteroids meet all criteria to act as sex hormones, which was probably their ancient role. Their much better documented role in moulting and metamorphosis was a secondary acquisition that enabled arthropods to cope with growth problems, imposed by a rigid cuticle. Female insects use 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), secreted by the follicle cells of the ovary, in a similar way as females of egg-laying vertebrates use estrogens. For a variety of reasons, the possibility that ecdysteroids, in particular ecdysone (E), might also act as sex hormones in male insects, thus as the counterpart of testosterone of vertebrates, has been very much overlooked. Thanks to the recent discovery of the molecular basis of the haploid-diploid system of sex determination in the honeybee, the characterization of Halloween genes, proteomics, RNAi and so on, it now becomes possible to verify whether in insects, as with vertebrates, males are the endocrinologically default gender form.

  10. [Diurnal dynamics of thyroid and sex steroid hormones in the blood of yearlings of the resident form of Black Sea trout Salmo trutta labrax].

    Ganzha, E V; Pavlov, E D; Kostin, V V; Pavlov, D S


    The diurnal dynamics of the content of thyroid and sex steroid hormones is investigated in the blood of the resident form of Black Sea trout in summer. The maximums and minimums of concentration of the investigated hormones do not coincide over 24 h, except for the decrease in the level of T3 and testosterone before dawn. The dynamics of the investigated hormones is controlled to a high extent by the sex of fish in the morning and in the daytime.

  11. Annual changes in plasma levels of cortisol and sex steroid hormones in male rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Hou, Ya-Yi; Han, Xiao-Dong; Suzuki, Yuzuru


    The profiles of cortisol, testosterone, 11-ketotestosterone and 17α, 20β-dihydroxy-4-pregnene-3-one in male rainbow trout reared under constant water temperature and natural photoperiod were determined by radioimmunoassay. Gonads of male rainbow trout reached maturity when the fish were two years old. Changes in the plasma levels of both sex steroid hormones and cortisol were closely related to the GSI. Plasma levels of testosterone, 11-ketotestosterone and 17α; 20β-dihydroxy 4-pregnene-3-one showed a clear peak in the annual breeding season, when the GSI reached their maxima. Plasma cortisol levels also showed clearly seasonal changes in both two- and three-year-old fish. The results suggest that the elevated plasma levels of cortisol may not just be due to stresses during the breeding season but have certain physiological functions in the reproduction of rainbow trout.


    侯亚义; 韩晓冬; SUZUKIYuzuru


    The profiles of cortisol, testosterone, ll-ketotestosterone and 17α, 20β- dihydroxy-4-pregnene-3-one in mule rainbow trout reared under constant water temperature and natural photoperiod were determined by radioimmunoassay. Gonads of male rainbow trout reached maturity when the fish were two years old. Changes in the plasma levels of both sex steroid hormones and cortisol were closely related to the GSI. Plasma levels of testosterone, 11-ketotestostemne and 17a, 2013-dihydroxy 4-pregnene-3-one showed a clear peak in the annual breeding season, when the GSI reached their maxima. Plasma cortisol levels also showed clearly seasonal changes in both two- and three-year-old fish. The results suggest that the elevated plasma levels of cortisol may not just be due to stresses during the breeding season but have certain physiological functions in the reproduction of rainbow trout.



    The profiles of cortisol, testosterone, 11-ketotestosterone and 17α, 20β- dihydroxy-4-pregnene-3-one in male rainbow trout reared under constant water temperature and natural photoperiod were determined by radioimmunoassay. Gonads of male rainbow trout reached maturity when the fish were two years old. Changes in the plasma levels of both sex steroid hormones and cortisol were closely related to the GSI. Plasma levels of testosterone, 11-ketotestosterone and 17α, 20β-dihydroxy 4-pregnene-3-one showed a clear peak in the annual breeding season, when the GSI reached their maxima. Plasma cortisol levels also showed clearly seasonal changes in both two- and three-year-old fish. The results suggest that the elevated plasma levels of cortisol may not just be due to stresses during the breeding season but have certain physiological functions in the reproduction of rainbow trout.

  14. A genome-wide association meta-analysis of circulating sex hormone-binding globulin reveals multiple Loci implicated in sex steroid hormone regulation.

    Andrea D Coviello

    Full Text Available Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG is a glycoprotein responsible for the transport and biologic availability of sex steroid hormones, primarily testosterone and estradiol. SHBG has been associated with chronic diseases including type 2 diabetes (T2D and with hormone-sensitive cancers such as breast and prostate cancer. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS meta-analysis of 21,791 individuals from 10 epidemiologic studies and validated these findings in 7,046 individuals in an additional six studies. We identified twelve genomic regions (SNPs associated with circulating SHBG concentrations. Loci near the identified SNPs included SHBG (rs12150660, 17p13.1, p = 1.8 × 10(-106, PRMT6 (rs17496332, 1p13.3, p = 1.4 × 10(-11, GCKR (rs780093, 2p23.3, p = 2.2 × 10(-16, ZBTB10 (rs440837, 8q21.13, p = 3.4 × 10(-09, JMJD1C (rs7910927, 10q21.3, p = 6.1 × 10(-35, SLCO1B1 (rs4149056, 12p12.1, p = 1.9 × 10(-08, NR2F2 (rs8023580, 15q26.2, p = 8.3 × 10(-12, ZNF652 (rs2411984, 17q21.32, p = 3.5 × 10(-14, TDGF3 (rs1573036, Xq22.3, p = 4.1 × 10(-14, LHCGR (rs10454142, 2p16.3, p = 1.3 × 10(-07, BAIAP2L1 (rs3779195, 7q21.3, p = 2.7 × 10(-08, and UGT2B15 (rs293428, 4q13.2, p = 5.5 × 10(-06. These genes encompass multiple biologic pathways, including hepatic function, lipid metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism and T2D, androgen and estrogen receptor function, epigenetic effects, and the biology of sex steroid hormone-responsive cancers including breast and prostate cancer. We found evidence of sex-differentiated genetic influences on SHBG. In a sex-specific GWAS, the loci 4q13.2-UGT2B15 was significant in men only (men p = 2.5 × 10(-08, women p = 0.66, heterogeneity p = 0.003. Additionally, three loci showed strong sex-differentiated effects: 17p13.1-SHBG and Xq22.3-TDGF3 were stronger in men, whereas 8q21.12-ZBTB10 was stronger in women. Conditional analyses identified additional signals at the SHBG gene that together almost double the proportion

  15. Gonadotropin-induced changes in oviducal mRNA expression levels of sex steroid hormone receptors and activin-related signaling factors in the alligator

    Moore, Brandon C.; Forouhar, Sara; Kohno, Satomi; Botteri, Nicole L.; Hamlin, Heather J.; Guillette, Louis J.


    Oviducts respond to hormonal cues from ovaries with tissue proliferation and differentiation in preparation of transporting and fostering gametes. These responses produce oviducal microenvironments conducive to reproductive success. Here we investigated changes in circulating plasma sex steroid hormones concentrations and ovarian and oviducal mRNA expression to an in vivo gonadotropin (FSH) challenge in sexually immature, five-month-old alligators. Further, we investigated differences in these observed responses between alligators hatched from eggs collected at a heavily-polluted (Lake Apopka, FL) and minimally-polluted (Lake Woodruff, FL) site. In oviducts, we measured mRNA expression of estrogen, progesterone, and androgen receptors and also beta A and B subunits which homo- or heterodimerize to produce the transforming growth factor activin. In comparison, minimal inhibin alpha subunit mRNA expression suggests that these oviducts produce a primarily activin-dominated signaling milieu. Ovaries responded to a five-day FSH challenge with increased expression of steroidogenic enzyme mRNA which was concomitant with increased circulating sex steroid hormone concentrations. Oviducts in the FSH-challenged Lake Woodruff alligators increased mRNA expression of progesterone and androgen receptors, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, and the activin signaling antagonist follistatin. In contrast, Lake Apopka alligators displayed a diminished increase in ovarian CYP19A1 aromatase expression and no increase in oviducal AR expression, as compared to those observed in Lake Woodruff alligators. These results demonstrate that five-month-old female alligators display an endocrine-responsive ovarian-oviducal axis and environmental pollution exposure may alter these physiological responses. PMID:22154572

  16. Influx of testosterone-binding globulin (TeBG) and TeBG-bound sex steroid hormones into rat testis and prostate

    Sakiyama, R.; Pardridge, W.M.; Musto, N.A.


    The availability of testosterone and estradiol to Sertoli and prostate cells is dependent upon 1) the permeability properties of the blood-tubular barrier (BTB) of the testis or prostate cell membrane, and 2) sex steroid binding to plasma proteins, such as albumin or testosterone-binding globulin (TeBG). Sex steroid influx into these tissues was studied after in vivo arterial bolus injections of (/sup 3/H)testosterone or (/sup 3/H)estradiol in anesthetized rats. Both testosterone and estradiol were readily cleared across the BTB or prostate cell membrane in the absence of plasma proteins and in the presence of human pregnancy serum, in which testosterone or estradiol are 80-95% distributed to TeBG. The extravascular extraction of (/sup 3/H)TeBG across the BTB or prostate plasma membrane (73 +/- 2% (+/- SE) and 92 +/- 9%, respectively) was significantly greater than extraction of (/sup 3/H)albumin or other plasma space markers and indicative of a rapid first pass clearance of TeBG by Sertoli or prostate cells. In summary, these studies indicate that 1) testosterone and estradiol are readily cleared by Sertoli and prostate cells; 2) albumin- and TeBG-bound sex steroids represent the major circulating pool of bioavailable hormone for testis or prostate; and 3) the TeBG-sex steroid complex may be nearly completely available for influx through the BTB or prostate plasma membrane.

  17. Role of Serotonin Transporter Changes in Depressive Responses to Sex-Steroid Hormone Manipulation

    Frokjaer, Vibe Gedsoe; Pinborg, Anja; Holst, Klaus Kähler;


    serotonergic brain signaling. Here, we modeled a biphasic ovarian sex hormone fluctuation using a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) and evaluated if emergence of depressive symptoms was associated with change in cerebral serotonin transporter (SERT) binding following intervention. METHODS......BACKGROUND: An adverse response to acute and pronounced changes in sex-hormone levels during, for example, the perimenopausal or postpartum period appears to heighten risk for major depression in women. The underlying risk mechanisms remain elusive but may include transiently compromised.......6 ± 2.2) and at follow-up (16.2 ± 2.6 days after intervention start). RESULTS: Sex hormone manipulation with GnRHa significantly triggered subclinical depressive symptoms within-group (p = .003) and relative to placebo (p = .02), which were positively associated with net decreases in estradiol levels (p...

  18. Neural Differentiation of Mouse Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Treated with Sex Steroid Hormones and Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor

    Kazem Parivar


    Full Text Available Objective: There are several factors, like environmental agents, neurotrophic factors, serotonin and some hormones such as estrogen, affecting neurogenesis and neural differentiation. Regarding to importance of proliferation and regeneration in central nervous system, and a progressive increase in neurodegenerative diseases, cell therapy is an attractive approach in neuroscience. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of sex steroid hormones and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF on neuronal differentiation of mouse bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs. Materials and Methods: This experimental study was established in Kharazmi University. BM was isolated from the bones of femur and tibia of 4-6-week old Naval Medical Research Institute (NMRI mice, and the cells were cultured. The cells were divided into following 4 groups based on the applied treatments: I. control (no treatment, II. steroid hormones (β-estradiol, progesterone and testosterone, III. bFGF and IV. combination of steroid hormones and bFGF. Immunocytochemistry and flow cytometery analyses were applied for beta III-tubulin (β-III tubulin and microtubule-associated proteins-2 (MAP-2 in 4 days of treatment for all groups. Results: The cells treated with combination of bFGF and steroid hormones represented more expressions of neural markers as compared to control and to other two groups treated with either bFGF or steroid hormones. Conclusion: This study showed that BM-MSCs can express specific neural markers after receiving bFGF pretreatment that was followed by sex steroid hormones treatment. More investigations are necessary to specify whether steroid hormones and bFGF can be considered for treatment of CNS diseases and disorders.

  19. Divergent effect of endogenous and exogenous sex steroids on the insulin-like growth factor I response to growth hormone in short normal adolescents.

    Coutant, Régis; de Casson, Florence Boux; Rouleau, Stéphanie; Douay, Olivier; Mathieu, Elisabeth; Gatelais, Frédérique; Bouhours-Nouet, Natacha; Voinot, Christelle; Audran, Maurice; Limal, Jean Marie


    The lower responsiveness to GH in women than in men is probably due to a divergent effect of gonadal steroids. It is unknown, however, how the progressive increase in sex steroid production that occurs during puberty affects this responsiveness. To compare the effects of puberty and sex steroid administration on responsiveness to GH, we used the IGF-I generation test, in which the peak IGF-I level 24 h after a single injection of GH (2 mg/m2) was studied in 117 healthy short subjects (56 females and 61 males). The subjects, aged 8-16 yr, were divided into four groups: prepuberty, early puberty, midpuberty, or pubertal delay. In the latter group, the IGF-I response was determined before and after priming with oral 17beta-estradiol in girls and im testosterone in boys. We also tested for an association between body composition (by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry) and the IGF-I response to GH. The IGF-I increment in response to GH (change in IGF-I from baseline) was correlated with the growth velocity sd score (P produce a relative decrease and no change in responsiveness to GH in similar populations, possibly through the achievement of sex steroid concentrations exceeding physiological ranges for age. Fat percentage was a positive determinant of the responsiveness to GH, suggesting a link between the energy stores and the anabolic action of GH.

  20. The moderating impact of lifestyle factors on sex steroids, sexual activities and aging in Asian men

    Goh, Victor HH; Tong, Terry YY


    The present study sought to evaluate the relative associations of exercise, sleep and other lifestyle habits with aging, sex hormones, percent body fat (%BF) and sexual activities in men living in the community. A better understanding of this complex interrelationship is important in helping the formulation of modalities for a holistic approach to the management of aging men. The results showed that age is a major determinant for many physiological parameters, including sleep, hormonal and me...

  1. Sex Steroid Metabolism in Benign and Malignant Intact Prostate Biopsies: Individual Profiling of Prostate Intracrinology

    Daniele Gianfrilli


    Full Text Available In vitro studies reveal that androgens, oestrogens, and their metabolites play a crucial role in prostate homeostasis. Most of the studies evaluated intraprostatic hormone metabolism using cell lines or preprocessed specimens. Using an ex vivo model of intact tissue cultures with preserved architecture, we characterized the enzymatic profile of biopsies from patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH or cancer (PC, focusing on 17β-hydroxy-steroid-dehydrogenases (17β-HSDs and aromatase activities. Samples from 26 men who underwent prostate needle core biopsies (BPH n = 14; PC n = 12 were incubated with radiolabeled 3H-testosterone or 3H-androstenedione. Conversion was evaluated by TLC separation and beta-scanning of extracted supernatants. We identified three major patterns of conversion. The majority of BPHs revealed no active testosterone/oestradiol conversion as opposed to prostate cancer. Conversion correlated with histology and PSA, but not circulating hormones. Highest Gleason scores had a higher androstenedion-to-testosterone conversion and expression of 17β-HSD-isoenzymes-3/5. Conclusions. We developed an easy tool to profile individual intraprostatic enzymatic activity by characterizing conversion pathways in an intact tissue environment. In fresh biopsies we found that 17β-HSD-isoenzymes and aromatase activities correlate with biological behaviour allowing for morphofunctional phenotyping of pathology specimens and clinical monitoring of novel enzyme-targeting drugs.

  2. Sex steroids as pheromones in mammals: the exceptional role of estradiol.

    deCatanzaro, Denys


    This article is part of a Special Issue (Chemosignals and Reproduction). Whether from endogenous or exogenous sources, 17β-estradiol (E2) has very powerful influences over mammalian female reproductive physiology and behavior. Given its highly lipophilic nature and low molecular mass, E2 readily enters excretions and can be absorbed from exogenous sources via nasal, cutaneous, and other modes of exposure. Indeed, systemic injection of tritiated estradiol ((3)H-E2) into a male mouse or bat has been shown to produce significant levels of radioactivity in the reproductive tissues and brain of cohabiting female conspecifics. Bioactive E2 and other steroids are naturally found in male mouse urine and other excretions, and males actively direct their urine at proximate females. Very low doses of E2 can mimic the Bruce effect (disruption of peri-implantation pregnancy by novel males), the Vandenbergh effect (early reproductive maturation induced by novel males), and male-induced estrus and ovulation. Males' capacities to induce the Bruce and Vandenbergh effects can both be diminished by manipulations that reduce their urinary E2. Uterine dynamics during the Bruce and Vandenbergh effects are consistent with the actions of E2. Collectively, these data demonstrate a critical role of male-sourced E2 in these major mammalian pheromonal effects.

  3. Sex steroids do not affect shigatoxin cytotoxicity on human renal tubular or glomerular cells

    Kohan Donald E


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The greater susceptibility of children to renal injury in post-diarrheal hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS may be related, at least in part, to heightened renal cell sensitivity to the cytotoxic effect of Shiga toxin (Stx, the putative mediator of kidney damage in HUS. We hypothesized that sexual maturation, which coincides with a falling incidence of HUS, may induce a relatively Stx-resistant state in the renal cells. Methods Cultured human glomerular endothelial (HGEN, human glomerular visceral epithelial (HGEC and human proximal tubule (HPT cells were exposed to Stx-1 after pre-incubation with progesterone, β-estradiol or testosterone followed by determination of cytotoxicity. Results Under basal conditions, Stx-1 potently and dose-dependently killed HPT and HGEC, but had relatively little effect on HGEN. Pre-incubation for 1, 2 or 7 days with physiologic or pharmacologic concentrations of progesterone, β-estradiol or testosterone had no effect on Stx-1 cytotoxicity dose-response on any cell type. In addition, no steroid altered Gb3 expression (Stx receptor by any cell type at any time point. Conclusion These data do not support the notion that hormonal changes associated with puberty induce an Stx-resistant state within kidney cells.

  4. The moderating impact of lifestyle factors on sex steroids, sexual activities and aging in Asian men.

    Goh, Victor H H; Tong, Terry Y Y


    The present study sought to evaluate the relative associations of exercise, sleep and other lifestyle habits with aging, sex hormones, percent body fat (%BF) and sexual activities in men living in the community. A better understanding of this complex interrelationship is important in helping the formulation of modalities for a holistic approach to the management of aging men. The results showed that age is a major determinant for many physiological parameters, including sleep, hormonal and metabolic parameters, some lifestyle factors and sexual activities. Testosterone (T), bioavailable testosterone (BioT) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS) concentrations decreased with age, while estradiol (E2), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and %BF increased with age. In addition, there exist intricate associations among hormonal and lifestyle factors, %BF and age. High-intensity exercise and longer duration of sleep were associated with higher concentrations of T and BioT. T was shown to be associated positively with men who were engaged in masturbation. DHEAS was associated with men wanting more sex and with good morning penile rigidity. Older Singaporean men tended to sleep for shorter duration, but exercised more intensely than younger men. Coital and masturbation frequencies decreased with age, and a significantly greater number of younger men were engaged in masturbation. Relationship between the partners is a key determinant of sexuality in men. It appears that T may have a limited, while dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) have a greater role than previously suggest, as a motivational signal for sexual function in men. Both biological and psychosocial factors interact with each other to influence sexual functions in men. Hence, a biopsychosocial approach may be more appropriate for a more lasting resolution to sexual dysfunctions in men.

  5. Novel liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) methods for measuring steroids.

    Keevil, Brian G


    Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) is increasingly becoming the method of choice for steroid hormone measurements due to small sample volumes, fast analysis times and improved specificity compared to immunoassays. Achievement of demanding analytical targets for steroid analysis is now becoming possible because of improvements in sample preparation technology, liquid chromatography column technology and mass spectrometer design. The most popular sample treatment strategies comprise protein precipitation (PP), solid-phase extraction (SLE) and liquid-liquid extraction (LLE). Modern liquid chromatography columns can ensure the adequate separation of isobaric compounds e.g. 21 Deoxycortisol, 11 Deoxycortisol and Corticosterone. The most appropriate method may be chosen to improve assay sensitivity by reducing matrix effects (LLE, SPE) or simplicity and speed (PP). Specific examples of some clinically important steroids including oestradiol, aldosterone, renin, serum cortisol, salivary cortisol and salivary testosterone will be described.

  6. Effects of steroids and sex reversal on intestinal absorption of L-(/sup 14/C)leucine in vivo, in rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri

    Habibi, H.R.; Ince, B.W.


    The effects of steroids (17 alpha-methyltestosterone (MT), 17 beta-oestradiol (E2)), and of sex reversal (XX male) on intestinal absorption and accumulation of L-(/sup 14/C)leucine (5 mM), were investigated in unanaesthetized rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri), using an in vivo gut perfusion technique. Each steroid was luminally perfused through the gut at a concentration of 50 micrograms/ml perfusate, during five separate perfusions carried out on the same fish at 30-min intervals (perfusion periods 1 to 5), for a total of 120 min at 14 degrees. Experiments were also conducted on masculinized, genetically female trout (XX male) with steroid-free perfusate. MT treatment significantly increased the intestinal absorption of radioleucine during periods 1 and 2, whilst E2 was without effect. Neither MT nor E2 influenced intestinal accumulation (mid- and hindgut) of radioleucine, and accumulation of /sup 14/C-solutes in skeletal muscle. Sex reversal, however, whilst having no effect on leucine absorption, nevertheless significantly increased intestinal accumulation of radioleucine, and accumulation of /sup 14/C-solutes in skeletal muscle. The effects observed in the present study are in agreement with previous work in trout using everted gut sac preparations. It is suggested that the growth-promoting effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids in fish may be partly explained by their action on gastrointestinal function.

  7. Sex Steroids Effects on the Molting Process of the Helminth Human Parasite Trichinella spiralis

    Romel Hernández-Bello


    Full Text Available We evaluated the in vitro effects of estradiol, progesterone, and testosterone on the molting process, which is the initial and crucial step in the development of the muscular larvae (ML or L1 to adult worm. Testosterone had no significative effect on the molting rate of the parasite, however, progesterone decreased the molting rate about a 50% in a concentration- and time-independent pattern, while estradiol had a slight effect (10%. The gene expression of caveolin-1, a specific gene used as a marker of parasite development, showed that progesterone and estradiol downregulated its expression, while protein expression was unaffected. By using flow citometry, a possible protein that is recognized by a commercial antiprogesterone receptor antibody was detected. These findings may have strong implications in the host-parasite coevolution, in the sex-associated susceptibility to this infection and could point out to possibilities to use antihormones to inhibit parasite development.

  8. Comparison of Oogenesis and Sex Steroid Profiles between Twice and Once Annually Spawning of Rainbow Trout Females (Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Francisco Estay


    Full Text Available This study compares the gonadosomatic index (GSI, oocyte growth (OG, gonadal histology, and plasma level concentrations of sex hormones (estradiol-17β (E2 and vitellogenin (V of twice-spawning (T-SP and once-spawning (O-SP females of rainbow trout throughout the additional and the normal reproductive cycle, respectively. In T-SP, the GSI values rapidly increase from May to November, in contrast to O-SP, which showed low and constant GSI values (1.19 to 14.5 and 1.19 to 0.63, resp.. T-SP exhibited a marked increase of OG in the same period, reaching a maximum diameter of 4,900 ± 141.42 μm, in contrast to O-SP, which presented a slow OG. The gonadal histology of T-SP agreed with the general pattern of ovogenesis observed for O-SP (vitellogenesis, ovulation, and recrudescence; however, this process was nonsynchronous between the two breeder groups. Plasma steroid levels showed significant variation during oogenesis, which agreed with the GSI, OG, and gonadal histology patterns. The level of E2 increased to a maximum value of 26.2 ng/mL and 36.0 ng/mL in O-SP and T-SP, respectively, one or two months before the spawning event where vitellogenesis was fully active. The V concentrations followed a pattern similar to those of E2.

  9. Comparison of oogenesis and sex steroid profiles between twice and once annually spawning of rainbow trout females (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Estay, Francisco; Colihueque, Nelson; Araneda, Cristian


    This study compares the gonadosomatic index (GSI), oocyte growth (OG), gonadal histology, and plasma level concentrations of sex hormones (estradiol-17β (E2) and vitellogenin (V)) of twice-spawning (T-SP) and once-spawning (O-SP) females of rainbow trout throughout the additional and the normal reproductive cycle, respectively. In T-SP, the GSI values rapidly increase from May to November, in contrast to O-SP, which showed low and constant GSI values (1.19 to 14.5 and 1.19 to 0.63, resp.). T-SP exhibited a marked increase of OG in the same period, reaching a maximum diameter of 4,900 ± 141.42 μm, in contrast to O-SP, which presented a slow OG. The gonadal histology of T-SP agreed with the general pattern of ovogenesis observed for O-SP (vitellogenesis, ovulation, and recrudescence); however, this process was nonsynchronous between the two breeder groups. Plasma steroid levels showed significant variation during oogenesis, which agreed with the GSI, OG, and gonadal histology patterns. The level of E2 increased to a maximum value of 26.2 ng/mL and 36.0 ng/mL in O-SP and T-SP, respectively, one or two months before the spawning event where vitellogenesis was fully active. The V concentrations followed a pattern similar to those of E2.

  10. The Role of Ovarian Sex Steroids in Metabolic Homeostasis, Obesity, and Postmenopausal Breast Cancer: Molecular Mechanisms and Therapeutic Implications

    Viroj Boonyaratanakornkit


    Full Text Available Obese postmenopausal women have an increased risk of breast cancer and are likely to have a worse prognosis than nonobese postmenopausal women. The cessation of ovarian function after menopause results in withdrawal of ovarian sex steroid hormones, estrogen, and progesterone. Accumulating evidence suggests that the withdrawal of estrogen and progesterone causes homeostasis imbalances, including decreases in insulin sensitivity and leptin secretion and changes in glucose and lipid metabolism, resulting in a total reduction in energy expenditure. Together with a decrease in physical activity and consumption of a high fat diet, these factors significantly contribute to obesity in postmenopausal women. Obesity may contribute to breast cancer development through several mechanisms. Obesity causes localized inflammation, an increase in local estrogen production, and changes in cellular metabolism. In addition, obese women have a higher risk of insulin insensitivity, and an increase in insulin and other growth factor secretion. In this review, we describe our current understanding of the molecular actions of estrogen and progesterone and their contributions to cellular metabolism, obesity, inflammation, and postmenopausal breast cancer. We also discuss how modifications of estrogen and progesterone actions might be used as a therapeutic approach for obesity and postmenopausal breast cancer.

  11. [Pattern of plasma sex steroid hormone levels during the breeding season of male and female skink: Eumeces chinensis].

    Hu, Jian Rao; Du, Ji Zeng; Ji, Xiang


    Changes in gonadal activity and plasma sex steroid hormone levels in male and female Eumece chinensis during the breeding season were described. The results showed that: The vitellogensis of follicles of female Eumeces chinensis needed the stimulation of 17beta-estradiol (E2). As ovary masses reached peak values between late April and mid-May, E2 levels rose to the top value by late March, and then sharply declined but went up again before preovulation; The physiological functions of plasma progesterone (P) consisted in its oviductal egg retention, embryo development, and eggshell formation. P levels fluctuated near the basic value between mid-March and late April. In mid-May, with the onset of ovulation, plasma P levels rose rapidly, reached peak value by late May and declined sharply after ovulation. Plasma E2 levels declined as plasma P levels rose, showing an inverse relationship between them; In males, plasma Testosterone (T) levels were closely correlated with the maintenance of spermatogenesis activities, male and male combat, sexual display, and mating. Plasma T levels tended to rise after the termination of hibernation, and reached peak value by mid-April. After mid-May, with the testis aggressing, plasma T levels gradually went down and reached bottom value by late June.

  12. An immunohistochemical analysis of sex-steroid receptors, tumor suppressor gene p53 and Ki-67 in the normal and neoplastic uterine cervix squamous epithelium

    Nikolaou Marinos


    Full Text Available Introduction. Malignant transformation of sex-steroid dependent tissues is associated with the loss of expression of sex steroid receptors as well as of the tumor suppression gene p53. The aim of this study is to evaluate the expression of sex-steroid receptors, p53 and Ki-67 in specimens from pre-malignant and malignant cervical epithelial lesions throughout the menstrual cycle. Material and Methods. Immunohistochemical staining was performed on formalin fixed, paraffin embedded tissue sections of normal squamous cervical epithelium, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and invasive squamous cervical carcinoma, specimens utilizing antibodies against estrogen receptors, progesterone receptors, p53 protein and Ki-67 antigen. Results. In the samples taken from the normal cervical tissue, basal cells were usually estrogen receptor-positive, progesterone receptornegative, p53-negative and Ki-67-negative throughout the menstrual cycle. In contrast, para-basal cells were estrogen receptorpositive and progesterone receptor-negative in the follicular phase, but estrogen receptor-negative and progesterone receptor -positive and Ki-67 positive in the luteal phase. In cervical precancerous and cancer tissue samples (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and squamous cervical carcinoma, the expression of estrogen receptors decreased. 31.15% of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and 11.5% of squamous cervical carcinoma were positive for estrogen receptors. However, the expression of progesterone receptors increased. 29.5% of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and 49.2% of squamous cervical carcinoma were positive for progesterone receptors. Positive staining for p53 was observed in 15 (24.59% cases of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and in 39 (64% of squamous cervical carcinoma. The expression Ki-67 index in squamous cervical carcinoma cases (47.60% was significantly higher than of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia cases (30.2% (p=0.041. Conclusion. The

  13. Combinatorial effects of quercetin and sex-steroids on fluid and electrolytes’ (Na+, Cl-, HCO3-) secretory mechanisms in the uterus of ovariectomised female Sprague-Dawley rats

    Shahzad, Huma; Giribabu, Nelli; Karim, Kamarulzaman; Kassim, Normadiah M.; Muniandy, Sekaran


    Dysregulation of uterine fluid environment could impair successful reproduction and this could be due to the effect of environmental estrogens. Therefore, in this study, effect of quercetin, an environmental estrogen on uterine fluid and electrolytes concentrations were investigated under sex-steroid influence. Ovariectomised adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were given 10, 50 or 100mg/kg/day quercetin subcutaneously with 17-β estradiol (E) for seven days or three days E, then three days E plus progesterone (P) (E+P) treatment. Uterine fluid secretion rate, Na+, Cl- and HCO3- concentrations were determined by in-vivo perfusion. Following sacrifice, uteri were harvested and levels of the proteins of interest were identified by Western blotting and Realtime PCR. Distribution of these proteins in the uterus was observed by immunofluorescence. Levels of uterine cAMP were measured by enzyme-linked immunoassay (EIA). Administration of quercetin at increasing doses increased uterine fluid secretion rate, Na+, Cl- and HCO3- concentrations, but to the levels lesser than that of E. In concordant, levels of CFTR, SLC4A4, ENaC (α, β and γ), Na+/K+-ATPase, GPα/β, AC and cAMP in the uterus increased following increased in the doses of quercetin. Co-administration of quercetin with E caused uterine fluid secretion rate, Na+, Cl- and HCO3- concentrations to decrease. In concordant, uterine CFTR, SLC26A6, SLC4A4, ENaC (α, β and γ), Na+/K+-ATPase, GPα/β, AC and cAMP decreased. Greatest effects were observed following co-administration of 10mg/kg/day quercetin with E. Co-administration of quercetin with E+P caused uterine fluid Na+ and HCO3- concentrations to increase but no changes in fluid secretion rate and Cl- concentration were observed. Co-administration of high dose quercetin (100 mg/kg/day) with E+P caused uterine CFTR, SLC26A6, AC, GPα/β and ENaC (α, β and γ) to increase. Quercetin-induced changes in the uterine fluid secretion rate and electrolytes

  14. Circulating gonadotropins and ovarian adiponectin system are modulated by acupuncture independently of sex steroid or β-adrenergic action in a female hyperandrogenic rat model of polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Maliqueo, Manuel; Benrick, Anna; Alvi, Asif; Johansson, Julia; Sun, Miao; Labrie, Fernand; Ohlsson, Claes; Stener-Victorin, Elisabet


    Acupuncture with combined manual and low-frequency electrical stimulation, or electroacupuncture (EA), reduces endocrine and reproductive dysfunction in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), likely by modulating sympathetic nerve activity or sex steroid synthesis. To test this hypothesis, we induced PCOS in rats by prepubertal implantation of continuous-release letrozole pellets (200 µg/day) or vehicle. Six weeks later, rats were treated for 5-6 weeks with low-frequency EA 5 days/week, subcutaneous injection of 17β-estradiol (2.0 µg) every fourth day, or a β-adrenergic blocker (propranolol hydrochloride, 0.1 mg/kg) 5 days/week. Letrozole controls were handled without needle insertion or injected with sesame oil every fourth day. Estrous cyclicity, ovarian morphology, sex steroids, gonadotropins, insulin-like growth factor I, bone mineral density, and gene and protein expression in ovarian tissue were measured. Low-frequency EA induced estrous-cycle changes, decreased high levels of circulating luteinizing hormone (LH) and the LH/follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) ratio, decreased high ovarian gene expression of adiponectin receptor 2, and increased expression of adiponectin receptor 2 protein and phosphorylation of ERK1/2. EA also increased cortical bone mineral density. Propranolol decreased ovarian expression of Foxo3, Srd5a1, and Hif1a. Estradiol decreased circulating LH, induced estrous cycle changes, and decreased ovarian expression of Adipor1, Foxo3, and Pik3r1. Further, total bone mineral density was higher in the letrozole-estradiol group. Thus, EA modulates the circulating gonadotropin levels independently of sex steroids or β-adrenergic action and affects the expression of ovarian adiponectin system.

  15. Mono-hydroxy methoxychlor alters levels of key sex steroids and steroidogenic enzymes in cultured mouse antral follicles.

    Craig, Zelieann R; Leslie, Traci C; Hatfield, Kimberly P; Gupta, Rupesh K; Flaws, Jodi A


    Methoxychlor (MXC) is an organochlorine pesticide that reduces fertility in female rodents by decreasing antral follicle numbers and increasing follicular death. MXC is metabolized in the body to mono-hydroxy MXC (mono-OH). Little is known about the effects of mono-OH on the ovary. Thus, this work tested the hypothesis that mono-OH exposure decreases production of 17β-estradiol (E₂) by cultured mouse antral follicles. Antral follicles were isolated from CD-1 mice (age 35-39 days) and exposed to dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), or mono-OH (0.1-10 μg/mL) for 96 h. Media and follicles were collected for analysis of sex steroid levels and mRNA expression, respectively. Mono-OH treatment (10 μg/mL) decreased E(2) (DMSO: 3009.72±744.99 ng/mL; mono-OH 0.1 μg/mL: 1679.66±461.99 ng/mL; 1 μg/mL: 1752.72±532.41 ng/mL; 10 μg/mL: 45.89±33.83 ng/mL), testosterone (DMSO: 15.43±2.86 ng/mL; mono-OH 0.1μg/mL: 17.17±4.71 ng/mL; 1 μg/mL: 13.64±3.53 ng/mL; 10 μg/mL: 1.29±0.23 ng/mL), androstenedione (DMSO: 1.92±0.34 ng/mL; mono-OH 0.1 μg/mL: 1.49±0.43ng/mL; 1 μg/mL: 0.64±0.31 ng/mL; 10 μg/mL: 0.12±0.06 ng/mL) and progesterone (DMSO: 24.11±4.21 ng/mL; mono-OH 0.1μg/mL: 26.77±4.41 ng/mL; 1 μg/mL: 20.90±3.75 ng/mL; 10 μg/mL: 9.44±2.97 ng/mL) levels. Mono-OH did not alter expression of Star, Hsd3b1, Hsd17b1 and Cyp1b1, but it did reduce levels of Cyp11a1, Cyp17a1 and Cyp19a1 mRNA. Collectively, these data suggest that mono-OH significantly decreases levels of key sex steroid hormones and the expression of enzymes required for steroidogenesis.

  16. Effects of thermal regime on ovarian maturation and plasma sex steroids in farmed white sturgeon, Acipenser transmontanus

    Webb, M.A.H.; Van Eenennaam, J. P.; Feist, G.W.; Linares-Casenave, J.; Fitzpatrick, M.S.; Schreck, C.B.; Doroshov, S.I.


    Recently, commercial aquaculture farms in Northern California have exposed gravid, cultured white sturgeon females to cold water (12 ?? 1??C) throughout the late phase of vitellogenesis and ovarian follicle maturation resulting in improved ovulation rates and egg quality. However, the optimum timing for transfer of broodfish to the cold water and the capacity of transferred broodfish to maintain reproductive competence over an extended time in cold water had not been evaluated. Gravid white sturgeon females that have been raised at water temperatures of 16-20??C were transported to either cold water (12 ?? 1??C; Group 1) in November 1997 or maintained in ambient water temperatures (10-19??C; Group 2) until early spring. In March 1998, half of the fish in Group 2 had regressed ovaries, but the remaining females had intact ovarian follicles and were transported to the cold water. Ovarian follicles and blood were collected from females until they reached the stage of spawning readiness (determined by germinal vesicle position and an oocyte maturation assay) or underwent ovarian regression. Exposure of gravid sturgeon females to ambient water temperatures (14.5 ?? 2.3??C, mean ?? S.D.) from October to March led to a decrease in plasma sex steroids and a high incidence of ovarian regression in fish with a more advanced stage of oocyte development. Transfer of females with intact ovarian follicles to cold water (12 ?? 1??C) in the fall or early spring resulted in normal ovarian development in the majority of females. Holding females in cold water does not seem to override their endogenous reproductive rhythms but extends their capacity to maintain oocyte maturational competence over a longer period of time. A temperature-sensitive phase in ovarian development may occur during the transition from vitellogenic growth to oocyte maturation, and the degree and timing of sensitivity to environmental temperature are dependent on the female's endogenous reproductive rhythm

  17. The macrophage low-grade inflammation marker sCD163 is modulated by exogenous sex steroids.

    Thomsen, Henrik H; Møller, Holger J; Trolle, Christian; Groth, Kristian A; Skakkebæk, Anne; Bojesen, Anders; Høst, Christian; Gravholt, Claus H


    Soluble CD163 (sCD163) is a novel marker linked to states of low-grade inflammation such as diabetes, obesity, liver disease, and atherosclerosis, all prevalent in subjects with Turner syndrome (TS) and Klinefelter syndrome (KS). We aimed to assess the levels of sCD163 and the regulation of sCD163 in regards to treatment with sex hormone therapy in males with and without KS and females with and without TS. Males with KS (n=70) and age-matched controls (n=71) participating in a cross-sectional study and 12 healthy males from an experimental hypogonadism study. Females with TS (n=8) and healthy age-matched controls (n=8) participating in a randomized crossover trial. The intervention comprised of treatment with sex steroids. Males with KS had higher levels of sCD163 compared with controls (1.75 (0.47-6.90) and 1.36 (0.77-3.11) respectively, P<0.001) and the levels correlated to plasma testosterone (r=-0.31, P<0.01), BMI (r=0.42, P<0.001), and homeostasis model of assessment insulin resistance (r=0.46, P<0.001). Treatment with testosterone did not significantly lower sCD163. Females with TS not receiving hormone replacement therapy (HRT) had higher levels of sCD163 than those of their age-matched healthy controls (1.38±0.44 vs 0.91±0.40, P=0.04). HRT and oral contraceptive therapy decreased sCD163 in TS by 22% (1.07±0.30) and in controls by 39% (0.55±0.36), with significance in both groups (P=0.01 and P=0.04). We conclude that levels of sCD163 correlate with endogenous testosterone in KS and are higher in KS subjects compared with controls, but treatment did not significantly lower levels. Both endogenous and exogenous estradiol in TS was associated with lower levels of sCD163.

  18. The relation between serum sex steroid levels and plasma cell infiltrates in endometritis.

    Punnonen, R; Lehtinen, M; Teisala, K; Aine, R; Rantala, I; Heinonen, P K; Miettinen, A; Laine, S; Paavonen, J


    We measured serum levels of progesterone and estradiol among 35 patients with endometritis confirmed by endometrial biopsy. The onset of symptoms took place predominantly in the proliferative phase of the cycle. A negative correlation was found between the serum progesterone levels and the histopathologic severity of plasma cell endometritis. Our results suggest that the hormonal status contributes to the immune response and susceptibility to endometrial infection.

  19. Sexual Dimorphism in the Regulation of Estrogen, Progesterone, and Androgen Receptors by Sex Steroids in the Rat Airway Smooth Muscle Cells

    Abraham Zarazúa


    Full Text Available The role of sex hormones in lung is known. The three main sex steroid receptors, estrogen, progesterone, and androgen, have not been sufficiently studied in airway smooth muscle cells (ASMC, and the sex hormone regulation on these receptors is unknown. We examined the presence and regulation of sex hormone receptors in female and male rat ASMC by Western blotting and flow cytometry. Gonadectomized rats were treated with 17β-estradiol, progesterone, 17β-estradiol + progesterone, or testosterone. ASMC were enzymatically isolated from tracheas and bronchi. The experiments were performed with double staining flow cytometry (anti-α-actin smooth muscle and antibodies to each hormone receptor. ERα, ERβ, tPR, and AR were detected in females or males. ERα was upregulated by E2 and T and downregulated by P4 in females; in males, ERα was downregulated by P4, E + P, and T. ERβ was downregulated by each treatment in females, and only by E + P and T in males. tPR was downregulated by P4, E + P, and T in females. No hormonal regulation was observed in male receptors. AR was downregulated in males treated with E + P and T. We have shown the occurrence of sex hormone receptors in ASMC and their regulation by the sex hormones in female and male rats.

  20. Sexual Dimorphism in the Regulation of Estrogen, Progesterone, and Androgen Receptors by Sex Steroids in the Rat Airway Smooth Muscle Cells

    Zarazúa, Abraham; González-Arenas, Aliesha; Ramírez-Vélez, Gabriela; Bazán-Perkins, Blanca; Guerra-Araiza, Christian; Campos-Lara, María G.


    The role of sex hormones in lung is known. The three main sex steroid receptors, estrogen, progesterone, and androgen, have not been sufficiently studied in airway smooth muscle cells (ASMC), and the sex hormone regulation on these receptors is unknown. We examined the presence and regulation of sex hormone receptors in female and male rat ASMC by Western blotting and flow cytometry. Gonadectomized rats were treated with 17β-estradiol, progesterone, 17β-estradiol + progesterone, or testosterone. ASMC were enzymatically isolated from tracheas and bronchi. The experiments were performed with double staining flow cytometry (anti-α-actin smooth muscle and antibodies to each hormone receptor). ERα, ERβ, tPR, and AR were detected in females or males. ERα was upregulated by E2 and T and downregulated by P4 in females; in males, ERα was downregulated by P4, E + P, and T. ERβ was downregulated by each treatment in females, and only by E + P and T in males. tPR was downregulated by P4, E + P, and T in females. No hormonal regulation was observed in male receptors. AR was downregulated in males treated with E + P and T. We have shown the occurrence of sex hormone receptors in ASMC and their regulation by the sex hormones in female and male rats. PMID:27110242

  1. The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis in the Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus): absence of vasopressin expression in standard and wild-derived hamsters and galanin regulation by seasonal changes in circulating sex steroids.

    Bolborea, M; Ansel, L; Weinert, D; Steinlechner, S; Pévet, P; Klosen, P


    The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) is a nucleus of the forebrain highly sensitive to sex steroids and containing vasopressin neurons implicated in several social- and reproduction-related behaviours such as scent-marking, aggression, pair bonding and parental behaviour. Sexually dimorphic vasopressin expression in BNST neurons has been reported in almost all rodents, with the notable exception of the Syrian hamster. In this species, vasopressin expression is completely absent in the BNST. Because almost all Syrian hamsters used in research are derived from a very small breeding stock captured in 1930, we compared commercially available Syrian hamsters with a recently captured, wild-derived breeding stock. We checked for vasopressin expression using in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. Vasopressin expression in BNST neurons was completely absent in both breeding stocks, confirming the absence of BNST vasopressin expression in Mesocricetus auratus and ruling out a breeding artefact. Because vasopressin expression in BNST neurons appears to be strictly dependent on circulating sex steroids, the absence of vasopressin expression in Syrian hamster BNST neurons might be due to an insensitivity of these neurons to sex steroids. BNST vasopressin neurons also express galanin. Although galanin expression in the BNST is not sexually dimorphic in the Syrian hamster, it appears to be regulated by sex steroids. In the Djungarian hamster, photoperiodically driven seasonal variations of circulating sex steroids result in a seasonal rhythm of galanin expression in BNST neurons. We analysed the sex steroid dependence of galanin expression in the Syrian hamster. Castration and short photoperiod-induced sexual quiescence both resulted in downregulation of galanin mRNA in cell bodies (BNST) and immunoreactivity in the fibres (lateral septum). Testosterone supplementation of short photoperiod-adapted animals was able to restore galanin expression. Thus Syrian

  2. Measurement of Steroids in Rats after Exposure to an Endocrine Disruptor: Mass Spectrometry and Radioimmunoassay Demonstrate Similar Results

    Commercially available radioimmunoassays (RIAs) are frequently used in toxicological studies to evaluate effects of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) on steroidogenesis in rats. Currently there are limited data comparing steroid concentrations in rats as measured by RIAs to t...

  3. Steroid analysis by micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography.

    Mohammad, A A; Petersen, J R; Bissell, M G


    From the clinical perspective, steroids have always held a great deal of interest, since they are highly specific in their function. They do not have a general or systemic effect, but instead regulate specific physiological functions, such as sex differentiation, fetus implantation and growth, electrolyte balance, menstrual cycles, and muscle and bone development. Many disorders have been identified as being caused by under- or oversecretion of steroids, i.e., Addison's disease, Cushing's syndrome, hirsutism and virilism, adenomas, congenital adrenal hyperplasia, acromegaly, Liddle's syndrome, hypertension, and so on (1). Diseases resulting from steroid imbalance usually result from the cumulative effect of one or more steroids. To get a better understanding of the patho-physiology resulting from steroid imbalances, the measurement of a profile of steroids is potentially more beneficial than measuring a single steroid. Fiet et al. (2), who used a profile of eight steroids to gain a better understanding of hirsutism and acne in women, demonstrated a good example of this type of study.

  4. Melatonin reduces LH, 17 beta-estradiol and induces differential regulation of sex steroid receptors in reproductive tissues during rat ovulation

    Pinheiro Patrícia Fernanda F


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Melatonin is associated with direct or indirect actions upon female reproductive function. However, its effects on sex hormones and steroid receptors during ovulation are not clearly defined. This study aimed to verify whether exposure to long-term melatonin is able to cause reproductive hormonal disturbances as well as their role on sex steroid receptors in the rat ovary, oviduct and uterus during ovulation. Methods Twenty-four adult Wistar rats, 60 days old (+/- 250 g were randomly divided into two groups. Control group (Co: received 0.9% NaCl 0.3 mL + 95% ethanol 0.04 mL as vehicle; Melatonin-treated group (MEL: received vehicle + melatonin [100 μg/100 g BW/day] both intraperitoneally during 60 days. All animals were euthanized by decapitation during the morning estrus at 4 a.m. Results Melatonin significantly reduced the plasma levels of LH and 17 beta-estradiol, while urinary 6-sulfatoximelatonin (STM was increased at the morning estrus. In addition, melatonin promoted differential regulation of the estrogen receptor (ER, progesterone receptor (PR, androgen receptor (AR and melatonin receptor (MTR along the reproductive tissues. In ovary, melatonin induced a down-regulation of ER-alpha and PRB levels. Conversely, it was observed that PRA and MT1R were up-regulated. In oviduct, AR and ER-alpha levels were down-regulated, in contrast to high expression of both PRA and PRB. Finally, the ER-beta and PRB levels were down-regulated in uterus tissue and only MT1R was up-regulated. Conclusions We suggest that melatonin partially suppress the hypothalamus-pituitary-ovarian axis, in addition, it induces differential regulation of sex steroid receptors in the ovary, oviduct and uterus during ovulation.

  5. Intramuscular sex steroid hormones are associated with skeletal muscle strength and power in women with different hormonal status.

    Pöllänen, Eija; Kangas, Reeta; Horttanainen, Mia; Niskala, Paula; Kaprio, Jaakko; Butler-Browne, Gillian; Mouly, Vincent; Sipilä, Sarianna; Kovanen, Vuokko


    Estrogen (E2 )-responsive peripheral tissues, such as skeletal muscle, may suffer from hormone deficiency after menopause potentially contributing to the aging of muscle. However, recently E2 was shown to be synthesized by muscle and its systemic and intramuscular hormone levels are unequal. The objective of the study was to examine the association between intramuscular steroid hormones and muscle characteristics in premenopausal women (n = 8) and in postmenopausal monozygotic twin sister pairs (n = 16 co-twins from eight pairs) discordant for the use of E2 -based hormone replacement. Isometric skeletal muscle strength was assessed by measuring knee extension strength. Explosive lower body muscle power was assessed as vertical jump height. Due to sequential nature of enzymatic conversion of biologically inactive dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) to testosterone (T) and subsequently to E2 or dihydrotestosterone (DHT), separate linear regression models were used to estimate the association of each hormone with muscle characteristics. Intramuscular E2 , T, DHT, and DHEA proved to be significant, independent predictors of strength and power explaining 59-64% of the variation in knee extension strength and 80-83% of the variation of vertical jumping height in women (P strength and power regulation in female muscle providing novel insight to the field of muscle aging.

  6. Sexual Fate Reprogramming in the Steroid-Induced Bi-Directional Sex Change in the Protogynous Orange-Spotted Grouper, Epinephelus coioides.

    Wu, Guan-Chung; Tey, Wei-Guan; Li, Hau-Wen; Chang, Ching-Fong


    (secondary sex determination) is regulated by endogenous sex steroid levels.

  7. Sexual Fate Reprogramming in the Steroid-Induced Bi-Directional Sex Change in the Protogynous Orange-Spotted Grouper, Epinephelus coioides.

    Guan-Chung Wu

    determination (secondary sex determination is regulated by endogenous sex steroid levels.

  8. Effects of diet containing monosodium glutamate on organ weights, acute blood steroidal sex hor mone levels, lipid profile and er ythrocyte antioxidant enzymes activities of rats

    Chiedozie Onyejiaka Ibegbulem


    Full Text Available Objective: To study the effects of diet containing monosodium glutamate on visceral organ weights, acute blood steroidal sex hormone levels, serum lipid profile (SLP and erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes activities of Wistar rats. Methods: The Wistar rats were grouped into two groups of six rats each. The ones in Group 1 (control group were placed on water and pelletized standard guinea feed ad libitum, whereas Group 2 was regarded as test group [Wistar rats (WR-monosodium glutamate (MSG group] and the Wistar rats received water, compounded diet of MSG and pelletized standard guinea feed ad libitum. After 33 days of feeding study, rat body weight was obtained. Rats were sacrificed and the incisions were made into the thoracic cavity and blood samples were drawn by cardiac puncture as a terminal event. Plasma was assayed for estradiol and testosterone concentrations, SLP and erythrocyte peroxidase and catalase activities. Visceral organ weights were also measured. Results: WR-MSG exhibited marginal alterations in blood estradiol and testosterone concentrations. Elevation of serum triacylglycerol concentration in WR-MSG was corresponded to 77.7%. Increases in serum concentrations of very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in WR-MSG were corresponded to 70.6% and 41.0% respectively. Erythrocyte peroxidase and catalase activities showed marginal alterations. Alterations in visceral organs-to-body weights ratios were not profound. Conclusions: Blood testosterone and estradiol concentrations were not significantly (P > 0.05 altered, which may not be connected with the low dose of MSG in the diet. Marginal alterations of SLP did not indicate atherogenicity in WR-MSG. The visceral organs were not atrophic or hypertrophic because of the comparatively low dose of MSG consumed by WR-MSG and the duration of the feeding experiment.

  9. Effect of oral testosterone treatment on serum concentrations of sex steroids gonadotrophins and prolactin in alcoholic cirrhotic men. Copenhagen Study Group for Liver Diseases

    Gluud, C; Bennett, Patrick; Svenstrup, Bo


    The aim of this study was to examine the serum concentrations of sex steroids and pituitary hormones in a randomly selected group of alcoholic cirrhotic men participating in a randomized, placebo-controlled study on the efficacy of oral testosterone treatment on the liver. Before treatment......, patients (n = 25) had median serum concentrations of testosterone, oestradiol, non-protein bound oestradiol, non-sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) bound oestradiol and oestrone sulphate which did not differ significantly from those of healthy controls (n = 16), but the patients had significantly (P less...... than 0.01) higher median serum concentrations of oestrone, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and prolactin. The patients were randomized to treatment with either oral micronized testosterone (200 mg t.d.s.) or placebo for a median duration of 1 year. In the placebo group (n...

  10. Seasonality of reproduction in male spotted murrel Channa punctatus: correlation of environmental variables and plasma sex steroids with histological changes in testis.

    Basak, Reetuparna; Roy, Alivia; Rai, Umesh


    The present study was undertaken to develop a comprehensive understanding of how environmental cues and sex steroids relate with cyclic changes in spermatogenesis in freshwater spotted snakehead Channa punctatus that is nutritious and economically important. The seasonal histological changes in testis and annual profile of gonadosomatic index (GSI) of C. punctatus delineated the testicular cycle into four phases: regressed (December-March), preparatory (April-June), spawning (July and August) and postspawning (September-November). Among environmental variables, correlation and regression analyses exhibited an important relationship between photoperiod and testicular weight while role of rainfall was seen confined to spawning. The seasonal profile of plasma sex steroids when correlated with cyclic changes in spermatogenesis in spotted snakehead, testosterone (T) seems to be involved in controlling the major events of spermatogenesis from renewal of stem cells to spawning of spermatozoa. Another important androgen prevalent in teleosts, 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT), was high during preparatory phase, suggesting that 11-KT in addition to T plays an important role in progression of spermatogenesis and spermiation in C. punctatus. However, 11-KT was not seen to be associated with milt production and release of spermatozoa during spawning. Plasma profile of estradiol-17β (E2) during different reproductive phases revealed the involvement of E2 in repopulation of stem cells during postspawning phase and in maintaining quiescence of testis during regressed phase.

  11. Network of nuclear receptor ligands in multiple sclerosis: Common pathways and interactions of sex-steroids, corticosteroids and vitamin D3-derived molecules.

    Rolf, Linda; Damoiseaux, Jan; Hupperts, Raymond; Huitinga, Inge; Smolders, Joost


    Sex-steroids, corticosteroids and vitamin D3-derived molecules have all been subject to experimental studies and clinical trials in a plethora of autoimmune diseases. These molecules are all derived from cholesterol metabolites and are ligands for nuclear receptors. Ligation of these receptors results in direct regulation of multiple gene transcription involved in general homeostatic and adaptation networks, including the immune system. Indeed, the distinct ligands affect the function of both myeloid and lymphoid cells, eventually resulting in a less pro-inflammatory immune response which is considered beneficial in autoimmune diseases. Next to the immune system, also the central nervous system is prone to regulation by these nuclear receptor ligands. Understanding of the intricate interactions between sex-steroids, corticosteroids and vitamin D3 metabolites, on the one hand, and the immune and central nervous system, on the other hand, may reveal novel approaches to utilize these nuclear receptor ligands to full extent as putative treatments in multiple sclerosis, the prototypic immune-driven disease of the central nervous system.

  12. Sex estimation from sternal measurements using multidetector computed tomography.

    Ekizoglu, Oguzhan; Hocaoglu, Elif; Inci, Ercan; Bilgili, Mustafa Gokhan; Solmaz, Dilek; Erdil, Irem; Can, Ismail Ozgur


    We aimed to show the utility and reliability of sternal morphometric analysis for sex estimation.Sex estimation is a very important step in forensic identification. Skeletal surveys are main methods for sex estimation studies. Morphometric analysis of sternum may provide high accuracy rated data in sex discrimination. In this study, morphometric analysis of sternum was evaluated in 1 mm chest computed tomography scans for sex estimation. Four hundred forty 3 subjects (202 female, 241 male, mean age: 44 ± 8.1 [distribution: 30-60 year old]) were included the study. Manubrium length (ML), mesosternum length (2L), Sternebra 1 (S1W), and Sternebra 3 (S3W) width were measured and also sternal index (SI) was calculated. Differences between genders were evaluated by student t-test. Predictive factors of sex were determined by discrimination analysis and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Male sternal measurement values are significantly higher than females (P < 0.001) while SI is significantly low in males (P < 0.001). In discrimination analysis, MSL has high accuracy rate with 80.2% in females and 80.9% in males. MSL also has the best sensitivity (75.9%) and specificity (87.6%) values. Accuracy rates were above 80% in 3 stepwise discrimination analysis for both sexes. Stepwise 1 (ML, MSL, S1W, S3W) has the highest accuracy rate in stepwise discrimination analysis with 86.1% in females and 83.8% in males. Our study showed that morphometric computed tomography analysis of sternum might provide important information for sex estimation.

  13. Motor function measure scale, steroid therapy and patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy

    Elaine C. da Silva


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the evolution of motor function in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD treated with steroids (prednisolone or deflazacort through the Motor Function Measure (MFM, which evaluates three dimensions of motor performance (D1, D2, D3. METHODS: Thirty-three patients with DMD (22 ambulant, 6 non-ambulant and 5 who lost the capacity to walk during the period of the study were assessed using the MFM scale six times over a period of 18 months. RESULTS: All the motor functions remained stable for 14 months in all patients, except D1 for those who lost their walking ability. In ambulant patients, D2 (axial and proximal motor capacities motor functions improved during six months; an improvement in D3 (distal motor capacity was noted during the total follow-up. D1 (standing posture and transfers and total score were useful to predict the loss of the ability to walk. CONCLUSIONS: The use of the MFM in DMD patients confirms the benefits of the steroid treatment for slowing the progression of the disease.

  14. Clinically insignificant improvement of prostate cancer prediction by addition of sex steroid hormones and SHBG serum levels to serum PSA, fPSA%, and age in a screening setting.

    Heidegger, Isabel; Popovscaia, Marina; Ramoner, Reinhold; Schäfer, Georg; Stenzel, Birgit; Bektic, Jasmin; Horninger, Wolfgang; Klocker, Helmut


    Abstract Various findings implicate sex hormones in prostate growth and development and also in prostate carcinogenesis. We investigated if addition of sex steroid hormone and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) serum levels to standard risk assessment parameters [prostate-specific antigen (PSA), free PSA percentage (fPSA%), and age] improves prostate cancer prediction in a PSA screening setting. Steroid hormones testosterone (T), free testosterone (fT), and estradiol (E2), and binding protein SHBG levels were measured in 762 men undergoing prostate biopsy due to suspect PSA serum levels. Prostate cancer was diagnosed in 286 (37.5%) of these men. Our data confirmed that PSA (mean BE=5.09; mean CA=6.05; p=1.24×10-5), fPSA% (mean BE=22.08; mean CA=18.67; p=1.97×10-7), and age (mean BE=60.64; mean CA=64.5; p=7.05×10-10) differentiate men with cancer (CA) and men with benign disease (BE), such as benign prostate hyperplasia. In addition, SHBG (mean BE=50.3; mean CA=54.9; p=0.008) also differed statistically significantly between these two groups. All hormones except E2 and tumor markers correlated significantly with age (T: ρ=-0.09; fT: ρ=-0.27; SHBG: ρ=0.21; PSA: ρ=0.32; and fPSA%: ρ=0.22). Furthermore, we found that PSA correlates with E2 (ρ=0.08), and fPSA% with SHBG (ρ=0.1) and fT (ρ=-0.09). Addition of hormones and SHBG to a baseline marker model including PSA, fPSA%, and age improved cancer prediction in three multivariate classification methods; however, the improvement was minimal. The best improvement by 0.8% was obtained in the logistic regression model with the addition of T and SHBG or of E2 and SHBG, or in the support vector machine model with the addition of SHBG and all steroid hormones to the combination of standard markers PSA, fPSA%, and age; however, this additional gain of accuracy is too small to justify the additional efforts and costs.

  15. Natural sex steroids and their xenobiotic analogs in animal production: growth, carcass quality, pharmacokinetics, metabolism, mode of action, residues, methods, and epidemiology.

    Lone, K P


    Natural and xenobiotic compounds having sex-related actions have long been used for growth promotion and various changes in carcass quality in meat animals. The first compounds used were synthetic estrogens; however, later on a whole battery of compounds having androgenic, and progestogenic actions have also been involved. In surveying the effects of these compounds in meat-producing animals, it became clear that these drugs increase the growth rate of the treated animals and bring about changes in the carcass that are generally characterized by lower fat content and more lean mass. Extensive studies undertaken in various countries, including the European Economic Community (EEC), have shown that if used according to good husbandry practices, the meat from treated animals does not have excessive amounts of residues compared with the endogenous amount of steroid production in the animals in question and also in human beings. The banning of these compounds in the European community brought a new phenomenon of illegal or black market cocktails. These mixtures of anabolic steroids are injected into the body of the animals rather than implanted in the ears, which is the normal practice in countries where they have not yet been banned. Several screening and confirmatory methods are now available for monitoring programs. However, these programs need excessive resources in terms of manpower, funds, and proper legislation, which in underdeveloped countries is questionable, particularly in the absence of strong scientific evidence for the exercise.

  16. Disparate Changes in Kisspeptin and Neurokinin B Expression in the Arcuate Nucleus After Sex Steroid Manipulation Reveal Differential Regulation of the Two KNDy Peptides in Rats

    Overgaard, Agnete; Ruiz-Pino, Francisco; Castellano, Juan M;


    Kisspeptin, neurokinin B (NKB) and dynorphin A are coexpressed in a population of neurons in the arcuate nucleus (ARC), termed KNDy neurons, which were recently recognized as important elements for the generation of GnRH pulses. However, the topographic distribution of these peptides and their re......Kisspeptin, neurokinin B (NKB) and dynorphin A are coexpressed in a population of neurons in the arcuate nucleus (ARC), termed KNDy neurons, which were recently recognized as important elements for the generation of GnRH pulses. However, the topographic distribution of these peptides...... of kisspeptin and NKB peptide contents in the ARC as a function of sex and steroid milieu enlarge our understanding on how these neuropeptides are posttranscriptionally regulated in KNDy neurons....

  17. Influence of water temperature on induced reproduction by hypophysation, sex steroids concentrations and final oocyte maturation of the "curimatã-pacu" Prochilodus argenteus (Pisces: Prochilodontidae).

    Arantes, Fábio P; Santos, Hélio B; Rizzo, Elizete; Sato, Yoshimi; Bazzoli, Nilo


    Most fishes with commercial importance from the São Francisco basin are migratory and do not complete the reproductive cycle in lentic environments, such as hydroelectric plant reservoirs, hence natural stocks are declining and there is an urgent need to reduce the pressure of fishing on those wild populations. Therefore, studies on reproductive biology and its relationship with endocrine and environmental factors are key to improving the cultivation techniques of Brazilian fish species. This study examined the influence of water temperature on sex steroid concentrations (testosterone, 17β-estradiol and 17α-hydroxyprogesterone), spawning efficiency, fecundity, fertilisation rate, larval abnormality rates and involvement of the cytoskeleton during the final oocyte maturation of Prochilodus argenteus under experimental conditions. The results of our study showed that in captivity, sex steroid plasma concentrations and spawning performance of P. argenteus were clearly different for fish kept in water with different temperature regimes. In lower water temperature (23°C), it was observed that: 33% of females did not ovulate, fecundity was lower and vitellogenic oocytes after the spawning induction procedure exhibited a smaller diameter. Moreover, concentrations of 17β-estradiol and 17α-hydroxyprogesterone were lower and there was a delay in the final oocyte maturation and, consequently, ovulation and spawning. Our experiments showed direct influence of water temperature in the process of induced spawning of P. argenteus. Changes in water temperature also suggest the tubulin involvement in the nuclear dislocation process and the possible action of actin filaments in the release of polar bodies during final oocyte maturation of P. argenteus.

  18. C-peptide, IGF-I, sex-steroid hormones and adiposity : a cross-sectional study in healthy women within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)

    Bezemer, ID; Rinaldi, S; Dossus, L; van Gils, CH; Peeters, PHM; Noord, PAH; Bueno-de-Mesquita, HB; Johnsen, SP; Overvad, K; Olsen, A; Tjonneland, A; Boeing, H; Lahmann, PH; Linseisen, J; Nagel, G; Allen, N; Roddam, A; Bingham, S; Khaw, KT; Kesse, E; Tehard, B; Clavel-Chapelon, F; Agudo, A; Ardanaz, E; Quiros, [No Value; Amiano, P; Martinez-Garcia, C; Tormo, MJ; Pala, [No Value; Panico, S; Vineis, P; Palli, D; Tumino, R; Trichopoulou, A; Baibas, N; Zilis, D; Hemon, B; Norat, T; Riboli, E; Kaaks, R


    Objectives: The risk of some cancers is positively associated with body weight, which may influence circulating levels of sex-steroid hormones, insulin and IGF-I. Interrelationships between these hormones and the associations with adiposity were evaluated in healthy women participating in the Europe

  19. Exposure assessment of prepubertal children to steroid endocrine disrupters 1. Analytical strategy for estrogens measurement in plasma at ultra-trace level.

    Courant, Frédérique; Antignac, Jean-Philippe; Maume, Daniel; Monteau, Fabrice; Andersson, Anna-Maria; Skakkebaek, Niels; Andre, François; Le Bizec, Bruno


    Global concern has been raised in recent years over adverse effects that may result from exposure to chemicals that may interfere with the endocrine system. A specific question is related to low-dose effects and long-term exposure consequences, especially for critical populations (foetus, new born, prepubertal children). In this context, we decided to focus our attention on steroid hormones as they are the most potent endocrine disrupters. Our general goal is to investigate whether the steroid intake through food may represent a risk for prepubertal children, from an endocrine disruption point of view, especially with regard to the corresponding endogenous production level in this target population. As a starting point, it was estimated that a (re)-evaluation of the endogenous production of natural estrogens for this population was necessary, on the basis of a very sensitive and specific confirmatory measurement technique (gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry or gas chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry). Thus, a new ultra-sensitive approach for steroid trace measurement in biological samples was developed, which was mainly based on a specific derivatisation (pentafluorobenzyl derivative) and negative chemical ionisation (NCI). Preliminary results obtained by applying this method on plasma samples from healthy prepubertal children demonstrated that estradiol endogenous level in prepubertal children is unsurprisingly very low. Estrone was determined in almost all samples at concentration in the 2-70 ng L(-1) range while 17alpha and 17beta estradiol were quantified in only few samples at concentrations ranging from 2 to 6 ng L(-1). Exogenous contributions of estrogens will therefore constitute a relatively higher proportion of sex hormone activity in the immature child.

  20. Reproductive periodicity and steroid hormone profiles in the sex-changing coral-reef fish, Plectropomus leopardus

    Frisch, A. J.; McCormick, M. I.; Pankhurst, N. W.


    The reproductive biology of coral trout, Plectropomus leopardus, from the Great Barrier Reef (Australia) was investigated by correlating gonadal condition with plasma levels of gonadal steroids. Female fish were found to be regressed from mid-summer to early spring, after which rapid and cyclical increases in gonado-somatic index ( I G), maximum oocyte diameter (MOD) and plasma concentrations of estradiol-17β and testosterone were detected. Male fish, in contrast, commenced recrudescence slightly earlier in winter and responded with less dramatic increases in both I G and plasma concentrations of testosterone and 11-ketotestosterone. The mode of oocyte development was multiple group-synchronous, and cyclical fluctuations in reproductive parameters ( I G, MOD and gonadal steroid concentrations) were synchronized with new-moon lunar phases. It is likely, therefore, that individual P. leopardus have the capacity to spawn on multiple occasions, with lunar periodicity. However, evidence suggests that early bouts of reproduction may be more important in terms of reproductive investment than subsequent bouts later in the same season. It is concluded that patterns of gametogenesis and steroidogenesis in P. leopardus are similar to the patterns displayed by other tropical groupers, suggesting that management regimes and propagation protocols developed for these fishes may also be appropriate for use with P. leopardus.

  1. Factors affecting exhaled nitric oxide measurements: the effect of sex

    Williamson Avis J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exhaled nitric oxide (FENO measurements are used as a surrogate marker for eosinophilic airway inflammation. However, many constitutional and environmental factors affect FENO, making it difficult to devise reference values. Our aim was to evaluate the relative importance of factors affecting FENO in a well characterised adult population. Methods Data were obtained from 895 members of the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study at age 32. The effects of sex, height, weight, lung function indices, smoking, atopy, asthma and rhinitis on FENO were explored by unadjusted and adjusted linear regression analyses. Results The effect of sex on FENO was both statistically and clinically significant, with FENO levels approximately 25% less in females. Overall, current smoking reduced FENO up to 50%, but this effect occurred predominantly in those who smoked on the day of the FENO measurement. Atopy increased FENO by 60%. The sex-related differences in FENO remained significant (p ENO. Conclusion Even after adjustment, FENO values are significantly different in males and females. The derivation of reference values and the interpretation of FENO in the clinical setting should be stratified by sex. Other common factors such as current smoking and atopy also require to be taken into account.

  2. Endogenous sex hormones, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes in men and women.

    Kim, Catherine; Halter, Jeffrey B


    Endogenous sex hormones predict impairments of glucose regulation. Cross-sectional studies suggest that lower levels of testosterone in men and higher levels in women increase risk of metabolic syndrome and diabetes, whereas lower levels of sex hormone binding globulin in both men and women increase risk of metabolic syndrome and diabetes. In a systematic review, we summarize existing longitudinal studies, which suggest similar patterns. However, these studies are often limited to a single sex steroid measure. Whether these associations are primarily a marker of adiposity, and whether these associations differ between younger eugonadal vs older hypogonadal adults is also uncertain. The impact of exogenous sex steroid therapy may not reflect relationships between sex hormones and impaired glucose regulation that occur without supplementation. Therefore, examination of endogenous sex steroid trajectories and obesity trajectories within individuals might aid our understanding of how sex steroids contribute to glucose regulation.

  3. Sex and age differences in the impact of the forced swimming test on the levels of steroid hormones.

    Martínez-Mota, Lucía; Ulloa, Rosa-Elena; Herrera-Pérez, Jaime; Chavira, Roberto; Fernández-Guasti, Alonso


    Compared with the adult disorder, depression in children exhibits differences in its neurobiology, particularly in the HPA axis regulation. The bases of such differences can be evaluated in animal models of depression. The objective of the present study was to determine age and sex differences of Wistar rats in the forced swimming test (FST). The influence of sex and age on corticosterone, estrogens and testosterone serum levels was also determined. Prepubertal rats showed immobility, swimming and climbing behaviors during the pre-test and test sessions. In addition, in the prepubertal animals, no sex differences were found during the pre-test and test sessions. Age comparisons indicated no differences in the female groups, however adult males exhibited more immobility and less swimming than young males, in both FST sessions. The young and female rats showed less immobility behavior and increased levels of estrogens after the FST. The present results indicate that the FST is an animal model suitable to evaluate depressive-like behaviors in prepubertal subjects and to explore behavioral changes related to neurodevelopment.

  4. Sex Steroid Hormone Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms, Pesticide Use, and the Risk of Prostate Cancer: A Nested Case–Control Study within the Agricultural Health Study

    Christensen, Carol H.; Barry, Kathryn Hughes; Andreotti, Gabriella; Alavanja, Michael C. R.; Cook, Michael B.; Kelly, Scott P.; Burdett, Laurie A.; Yeager, Meredith; Beane Freeman, Laura E.; Berndt, Sonja I.; Koutros, Stella


    Experimental and epidemiologic investigations suggest that certain pesticides may alter sex steroid hormone synthesis, metabolism or regulation, and the risk of hormone-related cancers. Here, we evaluated whether single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) involved in hormone homeostasis alter the effect of pesticide exposure on prostate cancer risk. We evaluated pesticide–SNP interactions between 39 pesticides and SNPs with respect to prostate cancer among 776 cases and 1,444 controls nested in the Agricultural Health Study cohort. In these interactions, we included candidate SNPs involved in hormone synthesis, metabolism or regulation (N = 1,100), as well as SNPs associated with circulating sex steroid concentrations, as identified by genome-wide association studies (N = 17). Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Multiplicative SNP–pesticide interactions were calculated using a likelihood ratio test. We translated p-values for interaction into q-values, which reflected the false discovery rate, to account for multiple comparisons. We observed a significant interaction, which was robust to multiple comparison testing, between the herbicide dicamba and rs8192166 in the testosterone metabolizing gene SRD5A1 (p-interaction = 4.0 × 10−5; q-value = 0.03), such that men with two copies of the wild-type genotype CC had a reduced risk of prostate cancer associated with low use of dicamba (OR = 0.62 95% CI: 0.41, 0.93) and high use of dicamba (OR = 0.44, 95% CI: 0.29, 0.68), compared to those who reported no use of dicamba; in contrast, there was no significant association between dicamba and prostate cancer among those carrying one or two copies of the variant T allele at rs8192166. In addition, interactions between two organophosphate insecticides and SNPs related to estradiol metabolism were observed to result in an increased risk of prostate cancer. While replication is

  5. Sex Steroid Hormone Gene Variants, Pesticide Use and the Risk of Prostate Cancer: A Nested Case-Control Study within the Agricultural Health Study

    Carol H Christensen


    Full Text Available Experimental and epidemiologic investigations suggest that certain pesticides may alter sex steroid hormone synthesis, metabolism or regulation and the risk of hormone-related cancers. Here we evaluated whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs involved in hormone homeostasis alter the effect of pesticide exposure on prostate cancer risk. We evaluated pesticide–SNP interactions between 39 pesticides and SNPs with respect to prostate cancer among 776 cases and 1444 controls nested in the Agricultural Health Study cohort. In these interactions, we included candidate SNPs involved in hormone synthesis, metabolism and regulation (N=1100, as well as SNPs associated with circulating sex steroid concentrations as identified by genome-wide association studies (N=17. Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs. Multiplicative SNP–pesticide interactions were calculated using a likelihood ratio test. We translated p-values for interaction into q-values, which reflected the false discovery rate, to account for multiple comparisons. We observed a significant interaction, which was robust to multiple comparison testing, between the herbicide dicamba and rs8192166 in the testosterone metabolizing gene SRD5A1 (p-interaction=4.0x10-5; q-value=0.03, such that men with two copies of the wild-type genotype CC had a reduced risk of prostate cancer associated with low use of dicamba (OR=0.62 95% CI: 0.41, 0.93, and high use of dicamba (OR=0.44, 95% CI: 0.29, 0.68, compared to those who reported no use of dicamba; in contrast, there was no significant association between dicamba and prostate cancer among those carrying one or two copies of the variant T allele at rs8192166. In addition, interactions between two organophosphate insecticides and SNPs related to estradiol metabolism were observed to result in an increased risk of prostate cancer. While replication is needed, these data suggest both

  6. Sex and ovarian steroids modulate brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) protein levels in rat hippocampus under stressful and non-stressful conditions.

    Franklin, Tamara B; Perrot-Sinal, Tara S


    Abnormal levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) are associated with major depression, a disorder with a higher incidence in women than men. Stress affects BDNF levels in various brain regions and thus, a heightened stress response in females could contribute to the development of depression. As well, ovarian hormones directly affect brain levels of BDNF mRNA and protein. Two experiments were performed to investigate the effects of stress and sex and gonadal hormones on BDNF protein levels in CA1, CA3, and dentate gyrus (DG) subregions of the hippocampus. In the first experiment, male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to one hour of restraint stress or control handling prior to sacrifice. In the second experiment, fifty-one female rats were ovariectomized and separated into stress and control conditions, as described for the first experiment. Stressed and handled groups received a single injection of estrogen (E; 53h prior to stress), estrogen and progesterone (EP; E given at 53h and P given 5h prior to stress), or vehicle (OVX). In both experiments BDNF protein was quantified using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent enzyme assay (ELISA) in micropunches of hippocampus. Gonadally intact females had significantly higher levels of BDNF in CA3, but significantly lower levels in DG, relative to males. In CA3, stress significantly decreased BDNF in both males and females. In DG of ovariectomized female rats, the effects of stress were significantly different following EP vs. vehicle treatment. Thus, stress increased BDNF levels in EP-treated rats but decreased BDNF levels in vehicle-treated rats. Reduced trophic support in DG in the presence of estrogen and progesterone could jeopardize neurogenesis and under certain conditions could be a contributing factor to the hippocampal atrophy associated with stress-induced affective disorders. These results emphasize the need to consider sex, gonadal steroids, and hippocampal subregion when examining the

  7. Steroid biosynthesis in adipose tissue.

    Li, Jiehan; Papadopoulos, Vassilios; Vihma, Veera


    Tissue-specific expression of steroidogenic enzymes allows the modulation of active steroid levels in a local manner. Thus, the measurement of local steroid concentrations, rather than the circulating levels, has been recognized as a more accurate indicator of the steroid action within a specific tissue. Adipose tissue, one of the largest endocrine tissues in the human body, has been established as an important site for steroid storage and metabolism. Locally produced steroids, through the enzymatic conversion from steroid precursors delivered to adipose tissue, have been proven to either functionally regulate adipose tissue metabolism, or quantitatively contribute to the whole body's steroid levels. Most recently, it has been suggested that adipose tissue may contain the steroidogenic machinery necessary for the initiation of steroid biosynthesis de novo from cholesterol. This review summarizes the evidence indicating the presence of the entire steroidogenic apparatus in adipose tissue and discusses the potential roles of local steroid products in modulating adipose tissue activity and other metabolic parameters.

  8. Assessment of spermatogenesis and plasma sex steroids in a seasonal breeding teleost: a comparative study in an area of influence of a tributary, downstream from a hydroelectric power dam, Brazil.

    Domingos, Fabricio F T; Thomé, Ralph G; Arantes, Fabio P; Castro, Antonio Carlos S; Sato, Yoshimi; Bazzoli, Nilo; Rizzo, Elizete


    River damming and building of hydroelectric power plants interrupt the reproductive migration routes and change the major physicochemical parameters of water quality, with drastic consequences for populations of migratory fishes. The goal of this study was to evaluate proliferation and cell death during spermatogenesis and serum profiles of sex steroids in Prochilodus argenteus, from the São Francisco River, downstream from the Três Marias Dam. A total of 257 adult males were caught quarterly during a reproductive cycle in two sites: the first 34 km of the river after the dam (site 1) and the second 34-54 km after the dam (site 2), after the confluence with a tributary, the Abaeté River. Seasonal changes in the testicular activity associated with morphometric analyses of germ cells as well as proliferation and testicular apoptosis support a more active spermatogenesis in fish from site 2, where higher levels of sex steroids and gonadosomatic index (GSI) were also found. In site 1, fish presented low serum levels of testosterone, 17β-estradiol and 17α-hydroxyprogesterone and a low GSI during gonadal maturation. Spermatogonial proliferation (PCNA) and apoptosis (TUNEL) were more elevated in fish from site 1, but spermatocytes were mainly labelled in fish from site 2. Overall, these data demonstrate changes in testicular activity and plasma sex steroids in a neotropical teleost fish living downstream from a hydroelectric dam, supplying new data on fish reproduction in regulated rivers. Moreover, morphometric analyses associated with sex steroids profiles provide reliable tools to assess fish spermatogenesis under environmental stress conditions.

  9. Sex differences in reported and objectively measured sleep in COPD

    Theorell-Haglöw J


    Full Text Available Jenny Theorell-Haglöw,1 Inga Sif Ólafsdóttir,1–3 Bryndís Benediktsdóttir,2,3 Thórarinn Gíslason,2,3 Eva Lindberg,1 Christer Janson1 1Department of Medical Sciences, Respiratory, Allergy and Sleep Research, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; 2Department of Respiratory Medicine and Sleep, Landspitali University Hospital, 3Medical Faculty, University of Iceland, Reykjavík, Iceland Background: The aim was to assess and compare reported sleep disturbances and objectively measured sleep in men and women with COPD compared with controls and also explore sex differences. Methods: A total of 96 patients with COPD and 90 age- and sex-matched controls answered a sleep questionnaire, underwent ambulatory polysomnography, a post-bronchodilatory spirometry, and blood sampling. Results: Of the patients with COPD, 51% reported sleep disturbances as compared with 31% in controls (P=0.008. Sleep disturbances were significantly more prevalent in males with COPD compared with controls, whereas there was no significant difference in females. The use of hypnotics was more common among patients with COPD compared with controls, both in men (15% vs 0%, P=0.009 and women (36% vs 16%, P=0.03. The men with COPD had significantly longer recorded sleep latency than the male control group (23 vs 9.3 minutes, P<0.001, while no corresponding difference was found in women. In men with COPD, those with reported sleep disturbances had lower forced vital capacity, higher C-reactive protein, myeloperoxidase, and higher prevalence of chronic bronchitis. Conclusion: The COPD was associated with impaired sleep in men while the association was less clear in women. This was also confirmed by recorded longer sleep latency in male subjects with COPD compared with controls. Keywords: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, sleep, polysomnography, quality of sleep, sex

  10. Applying generalized linear models as an explanatory tool of sex steroids, thyroid hormones and their relationships with environmental and physiologic factors in immature East Pacific green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas).

    Labrada-Martagón, Vanessa; Méndez-Rodríguez, Lia C; Mangel, Marc; Zenteno-Savín, Tania


    Generalized linear models were fitted to evaluate the relationship between 17β-estradiol (E2), testosterone (T) and thyroxine (T4) levels in immature East Pacific green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas) and their body condition, size, mass, blood biochemistry parameters, handling time, year, season and site of capture. According to external (tail size) and morphological (<77.3 straight carapace length) characteristics, 95% of the individuals were juveniles. Hormone levels, assessed on sea turtles subjected to a capture stress protocol, were <34.7nmolTL(-1), <532.3pmolE2 L(-1) and <43.8nmolT4L(-1). The statistical model explained biologically plausible metabolic relationships between hormone concentrations and blood biochemistry parameters (e.g. glucose, cholesterol) and the potential effect of environmental variables (season and study site). The variables handling time and year did not contribute significantly to explain hormone levels. Differences in sex steroids between season and study sites found by the models coincided with specific nutritional, physiological and body condition differences related to the specific habitat conditions. The models correctly predicted the median levels of the measured hormones in green sea turtles, which confirms the fitted model's utility. It is suggested that quantitative predictions could be possible when the model is tested with additional data.

  11. Distribution of aromatase and sex steroid receptors in the baculum during the rat life cycle: effects of estrogen during the early development of the baculum.

    Yonezawa, Tomohiro; Higashi, Mayuko; Yoshioka, Kazuki; Mutoh, Ken-ichiro


    The baculum, also called os penis, plays an important role during copulation. However, the hormonal regulation of its development remains to be elucidated. To determine the direct involvement of sex steroids in the development of the baculum of rats, the distributions of androgen receptors (ARs), aromatase, and estrogen receptor alpha (ESR1) were observed immunohistochemically. On Postnatal Day 1, the rudiment of the baculum expressed ARs, aromatase, and ESR1. In the proximal segment of the baculum of neonatal rats, ARs were expressed in the parosteal layer but not in the periosteum or osteoblasts. Aromatase was expressed from the parosteal layer to the endosteum, particularly in the inner osteogenic layer. ESR1 was also abundantly expressed in almost all cells from the parosteal layer to the endosteum. ARs, aromatase, and ESR1 were all abundantly expressed during the neonatal period in the hyaline cartilage of the proximal segment and in fibrocartilage of the distal segment of the baculum. Expression in all the tissues was attenuated in an age-dependent manner and became quite weak at puberty. To determine the effect of estrogen on the growth of the baculum, the aromatase inhibitor 1,4,6-androstatrien-3,17-dione (ATD) was subcutaneously injected daily into pregnant rats from Days 19 to 23 of gestation and into pups on postnatal Days 1, 3, 5, 7, and 9. On Day 10, the length of the baculum in the ATD-treated rats was significantly shorter than that in the controls, although the body weight did not change. These findings suggest that not only androgen but also locally aromatized estrogen is involved in the early growth and development of the baculum.

  12. Effects of sex steroids and growth factors on invasive activity and 5'-deoxy-5-fluorouridine sensitivity in ovarian adenocarcinoma OMC-3 cells.

    Ueda, M; Fujii, H; Yoshizawa, K; Kumagai, K; Ueki, K; Terai, Y; Yanagihara, T; Ueki, M


    Effects of sex steroids (estradiol-17 beta, E2; progesterone, Prog) and growth factors (epidermal growth factor, EGF; transforming growth factor-alpha, TGF-alpha) on invasive activity and 5'-deoxy-5-fluorouridine (5'-dFUrd) sensitivity of ovarian adenocarcinoma OMC-3 cells were investigated. Tumor cell migration along a gradient of substratum-bound fibronectin and invasion into reconstituted basement membrane were inhibited by 10 microM Prog, but stimulated by 0.1-10 nM EGF and TGF-alpha in a concentration-dependent manner. E2 did not have any effect on tumor cell migration or invasion. The zymography of tumor conditioned medium showed that the treatment of OMC-3 cells with EGF and TGF-alpha resulted in increases of type IV collagenase, stromelysin and urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA). EGF and TGF-alpha up-regulated thymidine phosphorylase (dThdPase) expression of tumor cells and consequently enhanced the antiproliferative action of 5'-dFUrd, which is converted to 5-fluorouracil by dThdPase. E2 and Prog did not have significant effects on the expression of proteolytic enzymes and dThdPase, or on the 5'-dFUrd sensitivity of tumor cells. The inhibitory effect of Prog on tumor cell invasion may depend on its inhibitory action on the motility of tumor cells. These results suggest that EGF and TGF-alpha simultaneously up-regulate the potential of ovarian adenocarcinoma cells to invade extracellular matrices and their dThdPase expression, both of which are associated with the specific action of 5'-dFUrd selectively to kill tumor cells with high invasive and metastatic potential.

  13. Peripheral and intrauterine neutrophil function in the cow: the influence of endogenous and exogenous sex steroid hormones.

    Subandrio, A L; Sheldon, I M; Noakes, D E


    It has been accepted for many years that the susceptibility of the genital tract to infection is reduced during the follicular phase compared with the luteal phase of the estrous cycle. Since the role of intrauterine neutrophils is paramount in the elimination of bacteria, it can be hypothesized that these differences in resistance to infection could be mediated by differences in uterine-derived neutrophil function. In order to test this hypothesis two groups of cows were used in this study. Group 1 cows (n=5) were studied at estrus, diestrus, after ovariectomy, after exogenous estradiol and after progesterone treatment, at which time they underwent intrauterine infusion with 1% oyster glycogen (OG) and a bacterial-free filtrate (BFF) of Actinomyces genes (BFF), the latter having been recovered from a clinical case of endometritis; neutrophils were harvested by flushing from the lumen 15 to 18 h later. A peripheral blood sample was collected at the time of flushing for the assay of estradiol and progesterone for a WBC and differential count and for the harvesting of neutrophils using a Percoll single-stage discontinuous gradient. After the recovery of the cells they were re-suspended in HBSS. Group 2 (n=4) were infused with BFF during during all reproductive states as Group 1, but with OG only after ovariectomy and after treatment with progesterone and estradiol. Neutrophil chemotaxis was assessed by measuring their migration using a modified Boyden chamber and Zymogen-activated serum as a chemoattractant. Phagocytic activity was measured by determining the number of Candida albicans ingested by each neutrophil after incubation. The percentage of kill was determined using a radiometric assay in which C. albicans was labeled with L-(5-3H) Proline. Peripheral WBC concentration was not influenced by the reproductive state of the cow; however, the mean neutrophil concentration was significantly different between the reproductive states (P<0.001) and between individual

  14. Steroid osteopathy

    Conway, J.J.; Weiss, S.C.


    Patients receiving steroids or having disease processes which increase natural steroid production often demonstrate ''the classic x-ray changes'' of avascular necrosis of bone. Bone scintigraphy in these patients most frequently demonstrates an increased radionuclide localization. The literature suggests that the increased activity is related to healing of the avascular process. In a recent study of Legg-Calve-Perthes Disease (LCPD), 37 of the children had multiple studies and increased activity within the epiphysis during revascularization was extremely rare. Not only are the scintigraphic findings in steroid osteopathy dissimilar to that in healing LCPD, but the time interval for healing is much to short for that of a vascular necrosis and no patients demonstrated an avascular phase on bone scintigraphy. Of 15 children with renal transplants on steroid therapy, 9 demonstrated x-ray and clinical findings of osteopathy. In 8 of 9 instances, bone scintigraphy showed increased localization of radionuclide in the affected bone. Improvement or a return to normal occurred in those patients in whom steroids were discontinued. The following is a proposed mechanism for steroid osteopathy. Steroids affect the osteoblastic and osteoclastic activity of bone and weaken its internal structure. Ordinary stress produces microtrabecular fractures. Fractures characteristically stimulate reactive hyperemia and increase bone metabolism. The result is increased bone radiopharmaceutical localization. The importance of recognizing this concept is that steroid osteopathy is preventable by reducing the administered steroid dose. As opposed to avascular necrosis, bone changes are reversible.

  15. Daily fecal sex steroid hormonal changes and mating success in captive female cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) in Japan.

    Kinoshita, Kodzue; Ohazama, M; Ishida, R; Kusunoki, H


    Daily fecal estrogen and progestin concentrations were measured by enzyme immunoassay in five female cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) for 4-6 months. The animals were housed under different conditions: (1) a female always housed in a group including one or more males; (2) two females isolated individually for short or long periods; (3) the other two females housed together. These females were separately housed with males for mating around the time of the estrogen peaks. The hormone profiles were similar in all five females regardless of the housing conditions. However, only the female that had been isolated from other cheetahs for over a year mated and reproduce cubs successfully, whereas the remaining four did not (one was isolated for only 6 weeks, another was always housed with males and the other two were housed together). In all females, the estrogen peaks were obtained at regular intervals of approximately 8-15 days. Unlike estrogen, the progestin concentrations were always low in all females except during pregnancy and they did not increase following the estrogen surges. These results showed that female cheetahs are typically reflex ovulators and female receptiveness may not be reflected to her hormonal states. It was also suspected that individual housing and long-term separation are advantageous for breeding this wild cat in captivity, mimicking the ecological/behavioral patterns in the wild, though housing condition might have no effect on the estrous cycle.

  16. Mutations in exons of the CYP17-II gene affect sex steroid concentration in male Japanese flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus)

    Ma, Ruiqin; He, Feng; Wen, Haishen; Li, Jifang; Shi, Bao; Shi, Dan; Liu, Miao; Mu, Weijie; Zhang, Yuanqing; Hu, Jian; Han, Weiguo; Zhang, Jianan; Wang, Qingqing; Yuan, Yuren; Liu, Qun


    As a specific gene of fish, cytochrome P450c17-II ( CYP17-II) gene plays a key role in the growth, development an reproduction level of fish. In this study, the single-stranded conformational polymorphism (SSCP) technique was used to characterize polymorphisms within the coding region of CYP17-II gene in a population of 75 male Japanese flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus). Three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified in CYP17-II gene of Japanese flounder. They were c.G594A (p.G188R), c.G939A and c.G1502A (p.G490D). SNP1 (c.G594A), located in exon 4 of CYP17-II gene, was significantly associated with gonadosomatic index (GSI). Individuals with genotype GG of SNP1 had significantly lower GSI ( P < 0.05) than those with genotype AA or AG. SNP2 (c.G939A) located at the CpG island of CYP17-II gene. The mutation changed the methylation of exon 6. Individuals with genotype AA of SNP2 had significantly lower serum testosterone (T) level and hepatosomatic index (HSI) compared to those with genotype GG. The results suggested that SNP2 could influence the reproductive endocrine of male Japanese flounder. However, the SNP3 (c.G1502A) located in exon 9 did not affect the four measured reproductive traits. This study showed that CYP17-II gene could be a potentially useful candidate gene for the research of genetic breeding and physiological aspects of Japanese flounder.

  17. Mutations in Exons of the CYP17- Ⅱ Gene Affect Sex Steroid Concentration in Male Japanese Flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus)

    MA Ruiqin; HU Jian; HAN Weiguo; ZHANG Jianan; WANG Qingqing; YUAN Yuren; LIU Qun; HE Feng; WEN Haishen; LI Jifang; SHI Bao; SHI Dan; LIU Miao; MU Weijie; ZHANG Yuanqing


    As a specific gene of fish,cytochrome P450c 17-Ⅱ (CYP17-Ⅱ) gene plays a key role in the growth,development and reproduction level of fish.In this study,the single-stranded conformational polymorphism (SSCP) technique was used to characterize polymorphisms within the coding region of CYP17- Ⅱ gene in a population of 75 male Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).Three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified in CYP17-Ⅱ gene of Japanese flounder.They were c.G594A (p.G188R),c.G939A and c.G1502A (p.G490D).SNP1 (c.G594A),located in exon 4 of CYP17-Ⅱ gene,was significantly associated with gonadosomatic index (GSI).Individuals with genotype GG of SNP1 had significantly lower GSI (P<0.05) than those with genotype AA or AG.SNP2 (c.G939A) located at the CpG island of CYP17-Ⅱ gene.The mutation changed the methylation of exon 6.Individuals with genotype AA of SNP2 had significantly lower serum testosterone (T) level and hepatosomatic index (HSI) compared to those with genotype GG.The results suggested that SNP2 could influence the reproductive endocrine of male Japanese flounder.However,the SNP3 (c.G 1502A) located in exon 9 did not affect the four measured reproductive traits.This study showed that CYP17-Ⅱgene could be a potentially useful candidate gene for the research of genetic breeding and physiological aspects of Japanese flounder.

  18. Reducing Sex Bias in Interest Measurement at the Item Level.

    Lunneborg, Patricia W.


    Compared Vocational Interest Inventory and Unisex versions of ACT Interest Inventory. Sex-restrictive results occurred. Women preferred Service and Artistic areas, and men Technical, Outdoor, and Scientific areas. Biggest challenge to reducing sex bias in interest tests appears to be women's attraction to People and aversion to Things. (Author/BEF)

  19. [Sex steroids and vascular risk].

    Rozenbaum, H


    The chemical diversity of estrogen and progestogen components of oral contraceptive (OC) products, their use alone or in combination, and the diversity of treatment regimens and doses account for the majority of contradictions in the immense literature on vascular and metabolic side effects of these hormones. OCs are exclusively composed of synthetic hormones. All OCs impose metabolic modifications on the organism and especially on the hepatic parenchyma due to delayed hepatic degradation. Certain factors increase the risk of vascular accidents associated with OC use: metabolic changes affecting coagulation, lipids, glucides, and arterial hypertension, immunologic phenomena, smoking, and obesity. As a whole, OCs affect coagulation by elevating factors 7 and 10, decreasing antithrombin iii (in high doses), and decreasing plasma fibrinolytic activity. synthetic estrogens cause an elevation of HDL cholesterol, a slight elevation of phospholipids, and a dose-dependent elevation of triglycerides and their VLDL fraction. As a group, progestogens tend to decrease the HDL fraction of cholesterol. Norethindrone is incapable of opposing the hypertriglyceridemic action of synthtic estrogens, while norgestrel partially opposes it. Lipid modifications provoked by combined OCs are a function of the nature and dosage of the components. Among hemodynamic modifications, synthetic estrogens cause elevations in renin substrate, plasma renin activity, angiotensin 2 and aldosterone. Synthetic progestogens may have various effects depending on type and dose, but they do not appear sufficient to cause hypertension unless other factors linked to individual predispositions are present. Microdoses of progestogens alone do not affect the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. Studies have also been conducted on the effect of OCs on cardiac function and on the vascular walls. Prospective studies suggest a relative risk of 3 for venous thromboembolic accidents among OC users, while retrospective studies suggest a relative risk of 4-11. Thromboembolic risk is directly correlated with the dose of synthetic estrogens. Recent studies indicate a relative risk of 3-5 for myocardial infarct and cerebral vascular accidents in OC users. Most studies have indicated a multiplier effect of OCs on preexisting risk factors, especially age and smoking. Prevention of vascular accidents is based on the prescription of smaller doses and careful observation of absolute and relative contraindications to OC use.

  20. Sex steroids and cardiovascular disease

    Bu Beng Yeap


    Full Text Available As men grow older, testosterone (T levels decline and the significance of this change is debated. The evidence supporting a causal role for lower circulating T, or its metabolites dihydrotestosterone (DHT and estradiol, in the genesis of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease (CVD in men is limited. Observational studies associate low baseline T levels with carotid atherosclerosis, aortic and peripheral vascular disease, and with the incidence of cardiovascular events and mortality. Studies using mass spectrometry suggest that when total T is assayed optimally, calculation of free T might not necessarily improve risk stratification. There is limited evidence to support an association of estradiol with CVD. Interventional studies of T therapy in men with coronary artery disease have shown beneficial effects on exercise-induced myocardial ischemia. However, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trials (RCTs of T therapy in men with the prespecified outcomes of cardiovascular events or deaths are lacking. Meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials of T published up to 2010 found no increase in cardiovascular events, mortality, or prostate cancer with therapy. Recently, in a trial of older men with mobility limitations, men randomized to receive a substantial dose of T reported cardiovascular adverse effects. This phenomenon was not reported from a comparable trial where men received a more conservative dose of T, suggesting a prudent approach should be adopted when considering therapy in frail older men with existing CVD. Adequately powered RCTs of T in middle-aged and older men are needed to clarify whether or not hormonal intervention would reduce the incidence of CVD.

  1. Conceptualization and measurement of homosexuality in sex surveys: a critical review

    Michaels Stuart; Lhomond Brigitte


    This article reviews major national population sex surveys that have asked questions about homosexuality focusing on conceptual and methodological issues, including the definitions of sex, the measured aspects of homosexuality, sampling and interviewing technique, and questionnaire design. Reported rates of major measures of same-sex attraction, behavior, partners, and sexual identity from surveys are also presented and compared. The study of homosexuality in surveys has been shaped by the re...

  2. Inhaled Steroids

    ... some recommendations to minimize or prevent steroid side effects? Take your long-term control medicines as prescribed to keep your chronic lung disease under good control. This will help decrease the ...

  3. Multiple monolithic fiber solid-phase microextraction based on a polymeric ionic liquid with high-performance liquid chromatography for the determination of steroid sex hormones in water and urine.

    Liao, Keren; Mei, Meng; Li, Haonan; Huang, Xiaojia; Wu, Cuiqin


    The development of a simple and sensitive analytical approach that combines multiple monolithic fiber solid-phase microextraction with liquid desorption followed by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection is proposed for the determination of trace levels of seven steroid sex hormones (estriol, 17β-estradiol, testosterone, ethinylestradiol, estrone, progesterone and mestranol) in water and urine matrices. To extract the target analytes effectively, multiple monolithic fiber solid-phase microextraction based on a polymeric ionic liquid was used to concentrate hormones. Several key extraction parameters including desorption solvent, extraction and desorption time, pH value and ionic strength in sample matrix were investigated in detail. Under the optimal experimental conditions, the limits of detection were found to be in the range of 0.027-0.12 μg/L. The linear range was 0.10-200 μg/L for 17β-estradiol, 0.25-200 μg/L estriol, ethinylestradiol and estrone, and 0.50-200 μg/L for the other hormones. Satisfactory linearities were achieved for analytes with the correlation coefficients above 0.99. Acceptable method reproducibility was achieved by evaluating the repeatability and intermediate precision with relative standard deviations of both less than 8%. The enrichment factors ranged from 54- to 74-fold. Finally, the proposed method was successfully applied to the analysis of steroid sex hormones in environmental water samples and human urines with spiking recoveries ranged from 75.6 to 116%.

  4. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin activates the aryl hydrocarbon receptor and alters sex steroid hormone secretion without affecting growth of mouse antral follicles in vitro

    Karman, Bethany N., E-mail:; Basavarajappa, Mallikarjuna S., E-mail:; Craig, Zelieann R., E-mail:; Flaws, Jodi A., E-mail:


    The persistent environmental contaminant, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is an ovarian toxicant. These studies were designed to characterize the actions of TCDD on steroidogenesis and growth of intact mouse antral follicles in vitro. Specifically, these studies tested the hypothesis that TCDD exposure leads to decreased sex hormone production/secretion by antral follicles as well as decreased growth of antral follicles in vitro. Since TCDD acts through binding to the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), and the AHR has been identified as an important factor in ovarian function, we also conducted experiments to confirm the presence and activation of the AHR in our tissue culture system. To do so, we exposed mouse antral follicles for 96 h to a series of TCDD doses previously shown to have effects on ovarian tissues and cells in culture, which also encompass environmentally relevant and pharmacological exposures (0.1–100 nM), to determine a dose response for TCDD in our culture system for growth, hormone production, and expression of the Ahr and Cyp1b1. The results indicate that TCDD decreases progesterone, androstenedione, testosterone, and estradiol levels in a non-monotonic dose response manner without altering growth of antral follicles. The addition of pregnenolone substrate (10 μM) restores hormone levels to control levels. Additionally, Cyp1b1 levels were increased by 3–4 fold regardless of the dose of TCDD exposure, evidence of AHR activation. Overall, these data indicate that TCDD may act prior to pregnenolone formation and through AHR transcriptional control of Cyp1b1, leading to decreased hormone levels without affecting growth of antral follicles. -- Highlights: ►TCDD disrupts sex steroid hormone levels, but not growth of antral follicles. ►Pregnenolone co-treatment by-passes TCDD-induced steroid hormone disruption. ►TCDD affects steroid hormone levels through an AHR pathway in antral follicles.

  5. How Reliable Is Sex Differentiation From Teeth Measurements

    Harish R.K


    Full Text Available Gender determination of human remains recovered in forensic contexts constitutes an important step in medico-legal examination. The ability of the inert, mineralized structures of teeth to resist post-mortem degradation and to survive deliberate, accidental or natural change has led forensic experts to focus on the teeth as a possible source for valuable forensic data in fragmentary and poorly preserved human remains. Numerous studies show that tooth size standards based on odontometric investigations are population specific and can be used in age and sex determination. This paper reviews the methods of determining sex by odontometrics, tooth proportions and sexual dimorphism.

  6. Sex-Steroid Hormones and Electrocardiographic QT-Interval Duration: Findings From the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

    Zhang, Yiyi; Ouyang, Pamela; Post, Wendy S.; Dalal, Darshan; Vaidya, Dhananjay; Blasco-Colmenares, Elena; Soliman, Elsayed Z.; Tomaselli, Gordon F.; Guallar, Eliseo


    The association between physiologic levels of sex hormones and QT-interval duration in humans was evaluated using data from 727 men enrolled in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and 2,942 men and 1,885 postmenopausal women enrolled in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). Testosterone, estradiol, and sex hormone-binding globulin levels were measured in serum and free testosterone was calculated from those values. QT interval was measured using a standard 12-lead electrocardiogram. In men from the Third National Health and Nutrition Survey, the multivariate adjusted differences in average QT-interval duration comparing the highest quartiles with the lowest quartiles of total testosterone and free testosterone were −8.5 ms (95% confidence interval (CI): −15.5, −1.4) and −8.0 ms (95% CI: −13.2, −2.8), respectively. The corresponding differences were −1.8 ms (95% CI: −3.8, −0.2), and −4.7 ms (95% CI: −6.7, −2.6), respectively, in men from MESA and −0.6 ms (95% CI: −3.0, 1.8) and 0.8 ms (95% CI: −1.6, 3.3), respectively, in postmenopausal women from MESA. Estradiol levels were not associated with QT-interval duration in men, but there was a marginally significant positive association in postmenopausal women. The findings suggest that testosterone levels may explain differences in QT-interval duration between men and women and could be a contributor to population variability in QT-interval duration among men. PMID:21768401

  7. Adolescent Sex Education: A Preventive Mental Health Measure.

    Obstfeld, Lisa S.; Meyers, Andrew W.


    This article addresses the issue of adolescent sex education as a means of preventing sexuality-related disorders, including: sexual dysfunction; sexual deviance; physical health problems often contracted from sexual activity; and various psychological and sociological ill effects resulting from unplanned pregnancies. (Author/CJB)

  8. External calibration in gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry measurements of endogenous androgenic anabolic steroids in sports doping control.

    Kioussi, Maroula K; Angelis, Yiannis S; Cawley, Adam T; Koupparis, Michalis; Kazlauskas, Rymantas; Brenna, J Thomas; Georgakopoulos, Costas G


    An alternative calibration procedure for the gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-C-IRMS) measurements of the World Antidoping Agency (WADA) Accredited Laboratories is presented. To alleviate the need for externally calibrated CO₂ gas for GC-C-IRMS analysis of urinary steroid metabolites, calibration using an external standard mixture solution of steroids with certified isotopic composition was investigated. The reference steroids of the calibration mixture and routine samples underwent identical instrumental processes. The calibration standards bracketed the entire range of the relevant δ¹³C values for the endogenous and exogenous steroids as well as their chromatographic retention times. The certified δ¹³C values of the reference calibrators were plotted in relation to measured m/z ¹³CO₂/¹²CO₂ (i.e. R(45/44)) mass spectrometric signals of each calibrator. δ¹³C values of the sample steroids were calculated from the least squares fit through the calibration curve. The effect of the external calibration on δ¹³C values, using the same calibration standards and set of urine samples but different brands of GC-C-IRMS instruments, was assessed by an interlaboratory study in the WADA Accredited Laboratories of Sydney, Australia and Athens, Greece. Relative correspondence between the laboratories for determination of androsterone, etiocholanolone, 5β-androstane-3α,17β-diacetate, and pregnanediacetate means were SD(δ¹³C)=0.12‰, 0.58‰, -0.34‰, and -0.40‰, respectively. These data demonstrate that accurate intralaboratory external calibration with certified steroids provided by United States Antidoping Agency (USADA) and without external CO₂ calibration is feasible and directly applicable to the WADA Accredited Laboratories for the harmonization of the GC-C-IRMS measurements.

  9. Steroid assays in paediatric endocrinology.

    Honour, John W


    Most steroid disorders of the adrenal cortex come to clinical attention in childhood and in order to investigate these problems, there are many challenges to the laboratory which need to be appreciated to a certain extent by clinicians. The analysis of sex steroids in biological fluids from neonates, over adrenarche and puberty present challenges of specificities and concentrations often in small sample sizes. Different reference ranges are also needed for interpretations. For around 40 years, quantitative assays for the steroids and their regulatory peptide hormones have been possible using immunoassay techniques. Problems are recognised and this review aims to summarise the benefits and failings of immunoassays and introduce where tandem mass spectrometry is anticipated to meet the clinical needs for steroid analysis in paediatric endocrine investigations. It is important to keep a dialogue between clinicians and the laboratory, especially when any laboratory result does not make sense in the clinical investigation.

  10. The effect of organochlorines and heavy metals on sex steroid-binding proteins in vitro in the plasma of nesting green turtles, Chelonia mydas.

    Ikonomopoulou, Maria Petrou; Olszowy, Henry; Hodge, Mary; Bradley, Adrian J


    In this study on green turtles, Chelonia mydas, from Peninsular Malaysia, the effect of selected environmental toxicants was examined in vitro. Emphasis was placed on purported hormone-mimicking chemicals such as dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene, dieldrin, lead, zinc and copper. Five concentrations were used: high (1 mg/L), medium (10(-1) mg/L), low (10(-2) mg/L), very low (10(-6) mg/L) and control (diluted carrier solvent but no toxicants). The results suggest that environmental pesticides and heavy metals may significantly alter the binding of steroids [i.e. testosterone (T) and oestradiol] to the plasma proteins in vitro. Competition studies showed that only Cu competed for binding sites with testosterone in the plasma collected from nesting C. mydas. Dieldrin and all heavy metals competed with oestradiol for binding sites. Furthermore, testosterone binding affinity was affected at various DDT concentrations and was hypothesised that DDT in vivo may act to inhibit steroid-protein interactions in nesting C. mydas. Although the precise molecular mechanism is yet to be described, DDT could have an effect upon the protein conformation thus affecting T binding (e.g. the T binding site on the steroid hormone binding protein molecule).

  11. Designer steroids.

    Kazlauskas, Ray


    Anabolic steroids have been studied for over 50 years and during that time numerous compounds with a variety of functional groups have been produced and many have been published. Of these only a small number have been introduced to the pharmaceutical market. WADA has continued the work begun by the IOC banning the use of these agents within sport as performance enhancing substances. Athletes, however, continue to use these anabolic steroids but tighter testing and the introduction of unannounced sample collection has made this form of cheating harder.In order to try to evade detection, athletes who continue to dope are having to resort to the use of a far more dangerous form of drug - the designer steroid. These steroids are manufactured to closely resemble existing known compounds, but with sufficient chemical diversity to ensure that their detection by the WADA accredited laboratories is more difficult. A worrying feature of the use of these compounds is that no data is available to evaluate either the efficacy or the safety of these substances. Many such drugs are now being made in clandestine ways (as demonstrated by the recent BALCO case) and then passed on to athletes who become the guinea pigs determining the potential of the substances as doping agents.Methods for the detection of these new compounds are being developed using emerging techniques such as gas chromatography or liquid chromatography attached to a variety of mass spectrometry instruments. This technology as well as vigilance by laboratories and enforcement agencies can all help in early detection of designer steroids being used for doping.

  12. [Content of Thyroid and Sex Steroid Hormones in Young-of-the-Year of Black Sea Trout Salmo trutta labrax from Two Spatial Groups for Different Duration of Starvation].

    Pavlov, D S; Pavlov, E D; Ganzha, E V; Kostin, V V


    The content of thyroid and sex steroid hormones is determined in fish-farm juveniles of Black Sea trout 5.5 months old, from the bottom and pelagic spatial groups differing in the probability of future selection of the resident or anadromous life strategies, respectively. Differences in the concentration of the aforementioned hormones are found in young-of-the-year corresponding to those in the migratory and resident forms of yearlings of trout. In the juveniles from the pelagic group at the age 0+, the level of triiodothyronine, thyroxine, and testosterone is higher than in specimens from the bottom group. Prolonged starvation results in a higher content of triiodthyronine, thyroxine, and testosterone in the blood of juveniles from both spatial groups. The concentration of estradiol-17β increases in pelagic specimens and decreases in bottom specimens.

  13. Measuring and Validating Levels of Steroid Hormones in the Skin of Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops Truncatus)


    Björklund E & Styrishave B. Developing a new research tool for use in free-ranging cetaceans: recovering cortisol from harbor porpoise skin. Conservation Physiology, 3: doi:10.1093/conphys/cov016 ...relationship between serum and skin concentrations of aldosterone, c) how long it takes for aldosterone , corticosterone, and cortisol to be measurable in...project described here is complementary to another currently ongoing project: “Validating the novel method of measuring cortisol levels in cetacean

  14. 子代孤独症与母亲基础性激素水平的关联性%Association between autism in offspring and the basic levels of sex steroids in mothers

    邢玉; 邓红珠; 陈凯云; 李巧毅; 岑超群; 唐春; 李建英; 邹小兵


    目的 探讨孤独症患儿母亲与正常儿童母亲基础性激素水平的差异,以及母亲基础性激素水平与孤独症症状严重程度的相关性.方法 利用化学发光法对62例孤独症患儿母亲及29例正常儿童母亲血清睾酮(T)、孕酮(P)、雌二醇(E2)、硫酸脱氢表雄酮(DHEA-S)、雄烯二酮(A)水平进行检测,并对弧独症组患儿分别进行孤独症诊断会谈问卷修订版(ADI-R)、孤独症诊断观察量表(ADOS)、中国韦氏儿童智力量表(C-WISC)/中国韦氏幼儿智力量表(C-WYCSI)、婴幼儿发育检查量表评估.结果 孤独症组母亲血清E2水平(35.00 pg/ml,IQR 27.00 ~ 44.50)较正常对照组(48.00 pg/ml,IQR 30.00~ 59.50)低,差异有统计学意义(P=0.03),而孤独症组与对照组母亲血清T(0.29 ng/ml,IQR 0.24~0.31;0.32 ng/ml,IQR 0.23~0.40)、P(0.20 ng/ml,IQR 0.19~0.30;0.20 ng/ml,IQR 0.10~0.30)、DHEA-S (5.57 μmol/L,IQR 4.19~7.12;4.95 μmol/L,IQR 3.70~7.11)、A(5.85 nmol/L,IQR 4.33 ~ 8.27;6.23 nmoL/L,IQR 4.48 ~ 7.16)、E2 */T(1.23,IQR 0.93~1.94;1.27,IQR 0.89~2.31)比较均差异无统计学意义;且孤独症患儿母亲血清E2低水平与患儿性别、智商(或发育商)及ADI-R、ADOS评分无相关性.结论 孤独症患儿母亲基础雌二醇水平降低,提示母亲低雌激素水平可能与孤独症发生有关.%Objective To investigate the difference of basic levels of sex steroids between mothers with autistic and normal children,and the relationship between severity of symptom in autistic children and the levels of sex steroids in their mothers.Methods The serum levels of testosterone (T),progesterone (P),estradiol (E2),dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate(DHEA-S) and androstenedione (A) in 62 mothers with autistic children and 29 with normal children were measured with chemiluminescent immunoassay.The autistic children were tested with Chinese version of the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R),Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS

  15. Cultural consensus modeling to measure transactional sex in Swaziland: Scale building and validation.

    Fielding-Miller, Rebecca; Dunkle, Kristin L; Cooper, Hannah L F; Windle, Michael; Hadley, Craig


    Transactional sex is associated with increased risk of HIV and gender based violence in southern Africa and around the world. However the typical quantitative operationalization, "the exchange of gifts or money for sex," can be at odds with a wide array of relationship types and motivations described in qualitative explorations. To build on the strengths of both qualitative and quantitative research streams, we used cultural consensus models to identify distinct models of transactional sex in Swaziland. The process allowed us to build and validate emic scales of transactional sex, while identifying key informants for qualitative interviews within each model to contextualize women's experiences and risk perceptions. We used logistic and multinomial logistic regression models to measure associations with condom use and social status outcomes. Fieldwork was conducted between November 2013 and December 2014 in the Hhohho and Manzini regions. We identified three distinct models of transactional sex in Swaziland based on 124 Swazi women's emic valuation of what they hoped to receive in exchange for sex with their partners. In a clinic-based survey (n = 406), consensus model scales were more sensitive to condom use than the etic definition. Model consonance had distinct effects on social status for the three different models. Transactional sex is better measured as an emic spectrum of expectations within a relationship, rather than an etic binary relationship type. Cultural consensus models allowed us to blend qualitative and quantitative approaches to create an emicly valid quantitative scale grounded in qualitative context.

  16. Sex determination in femurs of modern Egyptians: A comparative study between metric measurements and SRY gene detection

    Iman F. Gaballah


    Conclusion: The SRY gene detection method for sex determination is quick and simple, requiring only one PCR reaction. It corroborates the results obtained from anatomical measurements and further confirms the sex of the femur bone in question.

  17. Are there sex differences in Fetal Abdominal Subcutaneous Tissue (FAST) measurements?

    Farah, Nadine


    OBJECTIVE: To determine if Fetal Abdominal Subcutaneous Tissue (FAST) measurements using antenatal ultrasound differ between male and female fetuses. STUDY DESIGN: Women who had an ultrasound examination for fetal growth between 20 and 40 weeks gestation were studied. Women with diabetes mellitus were excluded. The fetal anterior abdominal subcutaneous tissue was measured on the anterior abdominal wall in millimetres anterior to the margins of the ribs, using magnification at the level of the abdominal circumference. The fetal sex was recorded after delivery. RESULTS: A total of 557 fetuses were measured, 290 male and 267 female. The FAST measurements increased with gestational age. The FAST increased at the same rate for both male and female fetuses and at any given week there was no sex difference. CONCLUSIONS: The increased fat composition in females reported after birth was not found in abdominal wall subcutaneous fat measurements using ultrasound during pregnancy. Antenatal centile charts for FAST do not need to be based on sex.

  18. Impulsivity and the Sexes: Measurement and Structural Invariance of the UPPS-P Impulsive Behavior Scale

    Cyders, Melissa A.


    Before it is possible to test whether men and women differ in impulsivity, it is necessary to evaluate whether impulsivity measures are invariant across sex. The UPPS-P Impulsive Behavior Scale (negative urgency, lack of premeditation, lack of perseverance, and sensation seeking, with added subscale of positive urgency) is one measure of five…

  19. Anabolic steroids.

    Brower, K J


    Anabolic-androgenic steroids are controlled substances that are taken illicitly to enhance physical appearance and performance. In addition to the desired somatic effects, reasonably good evidence suggests that AASs are capable of influencing mood and behavior. A myriad of adverse effects have been reported. Although many of these effects appear to reverse with cessation of use, fatalities due to suicides, homicides, liver disease, heart attacks, and cancer have been reported infrequently among illicit users. Although studies are needed to quantify more precisely the long-term consequences and risks of using AASs, patterns of illicit use are particularly troublesome. The use of extremely high doses, needles, counterfeit and veterinary drugs, and multiple steroidal and nonsteroidal drugs simultaneously may further enhance the risks of using AASs. The clinician should suspect AAS use in high-risk individuals who manifest any of the possible consequences described in this article. Laboratory tests can be valuable for detection of use and assessment of consequences. Treatment approaches may borrow from proven techniques employed with other substance abusers, but should also address the special value that physical attributes and body image have for the AAS user.

  20. Anthropometric measures, endogenous sex steroids and breast cancer risk in postmenopausal women: a study within the EPIC cohort.

    Rinaldi, Sabina; Key, Timothy J; Peeters, Petra H M; Lahmann, Petra H; Lukanova, Annekatrin; Dossus, Laure; Biessy, Carine; Vineis, Paolo; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Berrino, Franco; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Palli, Domenico; Nagel, Gabriele; Linseisen, Jakob; Boeing, Heiner; Roddam, Andrew; Bingham, Sheila A; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Chloptios, John; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Tehard, Bertrand; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; González, Carlos Alberto; Larrañaga, Nerea; Barricarte, Aurelio; Quirós, José Ramón; Chirlaque, María-Dolores; Martinez, Carmen; Monninkhof, Evelyn; Grobbee, Diederick E; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Ferrari, Pietro; Slimani, Nadia; Riboli, Elio; Kaaks, Rudolf


    In a large case-control study on breast cancer risk and serum hormone concentrations, nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort, we examined to what extent the relationship of excess body weight with breast cancer risk may be explained by changes in

  1. An interlaboratory study measuring sex steroids with RIAs and/or ELISAs: Are we comparing apples to oranges?

    Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are exogenous substances released into the environment that can lead to adverse reproductive effects in fish by a number of mechanisms including altering circulating levels of estradiol (E2), testosterone (T) and 11-ketotestosterone (11KT). ...

  2. The distance between Mars and Venus: measuring global sex differences in personality.

    Marco Del Giudice

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sex differences in personality are believed to be comparatively small. However, research in this area has suffered from significant methodological limitations. We advance a set of guidelines for overcoming those limitations: (a measure personality with a higher resolution than that afforded by the Big Five; (b estimate sex differences on latent factors; and (c assess global sex differences with multivariate effect sizes. We then apply these guidelines to a large, representative adult sample, and obtain what is presently the best estimate of global sex differences in personality. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Personality measures were obtained from a large US sample (N = 10,261 with the 16PF Questionnaire. Multigroup latent variable modeling was used to estimate sex differences on individual personality dimensions, which were then aggregated to yield a multivariate effect size (Mahalanobis D. We found a global effect size D = 2.71, corresponding to an overlap of only 10% between the male and female distributions. Even excluding the factor showing the largest univariate ES, the global effect size was D = 1.71 (24% overlap. These are extremely large differences by psychological standards. SIGNIFICANCE: The idea that there are only minor differences between the personality profiles of males and females should be rejected as based on inadequate methodology.

  3. Changes in testosterone and dihydrotestosterone levels in male rat accessory sex organs, serum, and seminal fluid after castration: establishment of a new highly sensitive simultaneous androgen measurement method.

    Kashiwagi, Bunzo; Shibata, Yasuhiro; Ono, Yoshihiro; Suzuki, Ryota; Honma, Seijiro; Suzuki, Kazuhiro


    It is known that abnormal androgen dynamics in the tissues is a cause of androgen-dependent disorders. Investigation of tissue androgen levels could provide a clue to the elucidation of disorders. However, it is difficult to measure a trace amount of androgen in the tissues. We established a highly sensitive simultaneous quantification method of testosterone and dihydrotestosterone (DHT), which play the most important roles in the body among androgenic steroids in trace amounts, and investigated time course changes in testosterone and DHT levels in male accessory sex organs, serum, and seminal fluid after castration in rat models. In addition, changes in the testosterone/DHT ratio of male accessory sex organs and seminal fluid were observed. The simultaneous testosterone and DHT measurement method established by us was validated. Intra-assay variation and interassay precision and accuracy were all within +/-20%, and the quantification limits of testosterone and DHT were both 15.6 pg/g. With the use of this method, the testosterone and DHT levels in the prostate, seminal vesicles, and serum immediately after castration were similar to those previously reported. The testosterone and DHT levels were 350 pg/g and 605 pg/g, respectively; which showed dominance of DHT in seminal fluid, although it was not as marked as that in the male accessory sex organs. Androgens decreased with time after castration in the accessory sex organs, serum, and seminal fluid. In the prostate and seminal vesicles, testosterone and DHT decreased to about 50% and about 2% of the normal levels, respectively, 72 hours after castration. The serum levels were under the quantification limits 6 hours after castration and thereafter. In seminal fluid, the testosterone and DHT levels decreased to 49% and 35% of normal levels, respectively, 72 hours after castration. The testosterone/DHT ratio in the male accessory sex organs was lower in the prostate (0.06) than in the seminal vesicles (0

  4. Comparing discriminant analysis and neural network for the determination of sex using femur head measurements.

    Alunni, Véronique; Jardin, Philippe du; Nogueira, Luisa; Buchet, Luc; Quatrehomme, Gérald


    The measurement of the femoral head is usually considered an interesting variable for the sex determination of skeletal remains. To date, there are few published reference measurements of the femoral head in a modern European population for the purpose of sex determination. In this study, 116 femurs from 58 individuals of the South of France (Nice Bone Collection, Nice, France) were studied. Three measurements of the femoral head were taken: the vertical head diameter (VHD), the transversal head diameter (THD) and the head circumference (HC). The results show that: (i) there is no statistical difference between the right and left femurs for each of the three measurements (VHD, THD and HC). Therefore we arbitrarily chose to use the measures from the right femurs (N=58) to pursue our experiments; (ii) the measurements of the femoral head are similar to those of contemporary American populations; (iii) the dimensions of the femoral head place the measurements of the French population somewhere between Germany or Croatia, and Spain; (iv) there is no significant secular trend (in contrast with the femoral neck diameter); (v) the femoral head measurement as a single variable is useful for sex determination: a 96.5% rate of accuracy was obtained using THD and HC measurements with the artificial neural network; and a 94.8% rate of accuracy using VHD, both with the discriminant analysis and the neural network.

  5. Plasma Sex Steroid Hormone Levels and Risk of Breast Cancer among Premenopausal Women%血浆性激素水平和绝经前女性患乳腺癌危险性的关系

    马瑞兰; 张海琛; 李国权; 徐晓颖; 邹丽娟


    Objective To estimate the association of plasma sex steroid hormone levels with risk of breast cancer among premenopausal women.Methods By use of case-control study,levels of plasma estradiol (E3),testosterone (T) and progesterone (P) were measured in 75 premenopausal women with breast cancer patients and 78 matched control subjects by radioimmunoassay during the follicular phase of their menstrual cycles.Conditional logistic regression models,controlling for breast cancer risk factors,were used to examine their associations with breast cancer risk.All statistical tests were two-sided.Results (1)The plasma levcls of E2 and T of case group were significantly higher than those of control group.The plasrna level of P was lower than that of the control group,but the resuts as not statistically significant.(2)Increased risks of breast cancer were positively associated with elevated plasma concentration of testosterone(adjusted odds ratio[OR] for highest versus lowest quartile=3.63,95% confidence interval[95%CI] =1.82-7.45,Ptrend =0.015).Elevated serum progesterone concentrations was associated with a statistically significant reduction in breast cancer risk(adjusted OR =0.43,95%CI=0.20-0.85,Ptrend =0.023).Higher level of estradiol was associated with modest,non-statistically significant increase in risk of breast cancer(adjusted OR =2.48,95 % CI =1.27-5.14,Ptrend =0.270).Conclusion Results suggested that high plasma level of testosterone was positively associated with breast cancer risk,while high plasma level of progesterone was negatively associated with breast cancer risk in premenopausal women.%目的 评价血浆类固醇性激素水平与绝经前女性患乳腺癌危险性的关系.方法 采用放射免疫法测定75例绝经前女性乳腺癌病例和78例匹配对照的血浆雌二醇(E2)、孕酮(P)及睾酮(T)水平,并应用条件Logistic回归分析绝经前女性血浆E2、P、T水平与患乳腺癌危险性的关系.结果 (1)病例组血浆E2

  6. Sex Differences in Self-Report and Behavioral Measures of Disinhibition Predicting Marijuana Use Across Adolescence

    Felton, Julia W.; Collado, Anahi; Shadur, Julia M.; Lejuez, Carl W.; MacPherson, Laura


    Disinhibition has been consistently linked to substance use across development. Recent research suggests, however, that these relations may be influenced by both sex and measurement approach. The current study examined the moderating effect of sex on the association between behavioral and self-report measures of disinhibition and marijuana use across adolescence. Participants were 115 boys and 89 girls initially evaluated at grade 8 using a laboratory behavioral assessment and self-report questionnaires of disinhibitory variables. Marijuana use was measured annually from grades 9 through 12. Results suggest that boys and girls did not differ on either self-reported or behaviorally assessed levels of disinhibition, and that disinhibition measured using both approaches was associated with increases in marijuana use over time. There was a significant interaction between sex and disinhibition, suggesting that boys (but not girls) who self-reported elevations in disinhibition evidenced greater increases in marijuana use. The current findings add to a growing literature supporting the importance of using multiple methods to assess disinhibition and highlight the critical role of biological sex in understanding these relations. PMID:26237324

  7. Depression, Marital Satisfaction, and Marital and Personality Measures of Sex Roles.

    Whisman, Mark A.; Jacobson, Neil S.


    Examined relationship between depression, marital satisfaction, and marital and personality measures of sex roles in 50 couples in which woman was clinically depressed and 24 nondepressed, nondistressed control couples. Found that, compared to nondepressed couples, couples in which woman was depressed showed greater inequality in decision-making.…

  8. Adolescent Steroid Use.

    Office of Inspector General (DHHS), Washington, DC.

    The study focused on non-medical steroid use by adolescents according to data obtained from the National Institute on Drug Abuse, professional literature, 30 key informants knowledgeable in steroid issues, and 72 current or former steroid users. The findings indicated: (1) over 250,000 adolescents, primarily males, used or have used steroids, and…

  9. Abnormal sex chromosome constitution and longitudinal growth

    Aksglaede, Lise; Skakkebaek, Niels E; Juul, Anders


    Growth is a highly complex process regulated by the interaction between sex steroids and the GH IGF-axis. However, other factors such as sex chromosome-related genes play independent roles.......Growth is a highly complex process regulated by the interaction between sex steroids and the GH IGF-axis. However, other factors such as sex chromosome-related genes play independent roles....

  10. Assessment of identity during adolescence using daily diary methods: Measurement invariance across time and sex.

    Becht, Andrik I; Branje, Susan J T; Vollebergh, Wilma A M; Maciejewski, Dominique F; van Lier, Pol A C; Koot, Hans M; Denissen, Jaap J A; Meeus, Wim H J


    The aim of this study was to assess measurement invariance of adolescents' daily reports on identity across time and sex. Adolescents (N = 497; mean age = 13.32 years at Time 1, 56.7% boys) from the general population reported on their identity commitments, exploration in depth and reconsideration on a daily basis for 3 weeks within 1 year across 5 years. We used the single-item version of the Utrecht Management of Identity Commitments Scale (UMICS; Klimstra et al., 2010), a broad measure of identity-formation processes covering both interpersonal and educational identity domains. This study tested configural, metric, scalar, and strict measurement invariance across days within weeks, across sex, across weeks within years, and across years. Results indicated that daily diary reports show strict measurement invariance across days, across weeks within years, across years, and across boys and girls. These results support the use of daily diary methods to assess identity at various time intervals ranging from days to years and across sex. Results are discussed with regard to future implications to study identity processes, both on smaller and larger time intervals. (PsycINFO Database Record

  11. Sex determination in modern Greeks using diagonal measurements of molar teeth.

    Zorba, Eleni; Moraitis, Konstantinos; Eliopoulos, Constantine; Spiliopoulou, Chara


    Sex determination is a necessary step in the investigation of unidentified human remains from a forensic context. Teeth, as one of the strongest tissues in the human body, can be used for this purpose. Most studies of sexual dimorphism in teeth are based on the traditional mesiodistal and buccolingual crown measurements. The purpose of this study is to examine the degree of sexual dimorphism in permanent molars of modern Greeks using crown and cervical diagonal diameters, and to evaluate their applicability in sex determination. A total of 344 permanent molars in 107 individuals (53 male and 54 female) from the Athens Collection were examined. Crown and cervical diagonal diameters of both maxillary and mandibular molars were measured. It was found that males have larger molars than females and in 19 out of 24 dimensions measured male molars exceeded female molars significantly (Pdiagonal diameters have found to be more sexually diamorphic than crown diagonal diameters. In discriminant function analysis the variables entered more frequently were the cervical diagonal diameters mainly of mandibular molars. Classification accuracy was found to be 93% for the total sample, 77.4% for upper jaw, and 88.4% for the lower jaw. Accuracy rates were higher for cervical than crown diagonal diameters. The data generated from the present study suggest that this metric method can be useful and reliable for sex determination, especially when the traditional dental measurements are not applicable.

  12. Steroid Cell Tumor of the Ovary in an Adolescent: A Rare Case Report

    Gokhan Boyraz


    Full Text Available Steroid cell tumors (SCTs of the ovary are a rare subgroup of sex cord tumors, account for less than 0.1% of all ovarian tumors, and also will present at any age. These tumors can produce steroids, especially testosterone, and may give symptoms like hirsutism, hair loss, amenorrhea, or oligomenorrhea. For the evaluation of androgen excess, testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S are the first laboratory tests to be measured. A pelvic ultrasound and a magnetic resonance imaging are useful radiologic imaging techniques. Although steroid cell tumors are generally benign, there is a risk of malignant transformation and clinical malignant formation. Surgery is the most important and hallmark treatment.



    To investigate the role of nitric oxide (NO) in steroid-induced femoral head necrosis, NO production was measured indirectly as nitrite in serum and synovial fluid samples from patients with steroid-induced femoral head necrosis together with serum samples from healthy volunteers matched for age and sex. The results showed that:① serum nitrite concentration in patients with femoral head necrosis were significantly lower than that in controls (P<0.001); ② nitrite level of synovial fluid was markedly higher than that of serum. In addition, there was a positive correlation between them (r=0.378,P<0.05). We reach the conclusion:① NO is synthesized by synovium and chondrocytes; ② the decreased NO concentration in serum suggests a protective role in steroid-induced femoral head necrosis.

  14. Measures of bioavailable serum sex hormone levels in aging Chinese by protein chip

    ZHOU Yong; DU Guanhua; CHANG Shuying; MENG Xiaoluo; YU Huafeng; WANG Luning; HE Jinggui; ZHANG Baohe; ZHANG Juntian; GENG Meiyu


    The purpose of this study was to develop a protein chip technique based on receptor binding assays to measure bioavailable serum sex hormone levels (BSSHL). 224 aging healthy Chinese were investigated to get the referenced values of BSSHL for the first time. In the assays recombined sex hormone receptor proteins were jointed to polysaccharide coated slides to make protein chip, and the dose-dependence curves of sex hormone on chip were prepared. The data showed that this method had good precision (CV<16%) and accuracy (Bias<10%), and the sensitivity could reach 1 pmol/L. From the results, BSSHL of men and women declined with aging, but no significant differences were observed. The BSSHL of aging men were higher than those of women. The bioavailable serum androgen level of men was 52―112 pmol/L, women's was 3―70 pmol/L and the whole group was 41.9―81.4 pmol/L. The bioavailable serum estrogen level of men was 0.8―3.0 pmol/L, women's was 1.2―2.5 pmol/L and the whole group was 0.6―2.64 pmol/L. Based on the assays, BSSHL measurement by protein chip can meet the needs of epidemiological studies in terms of speed, accuracy and sample volume required, and was helpful in quantitative assessment of aging people's health.

  15. Conceptualization and measurement of homosexuality in sex surveys: a critical review

    Michaels Stuart


    Full Text Available This article reviews major national population sex surveys that have asked questions about homosexuality focusing on conceptual and methodological issues, including the definitions of sex, the measured aspects of homosexuality, sampling and interviewing technique, and questionnaire design. Reported rates of major measures of same-sex attraction, behavior, partners, and sexual identity from surveys are also presented and compared. The study of homosexuality in surveys has been shaped by the research traditions and questions ranging from sexology to the epidemiology of HIV/AIDS. Sexual behavior has been a central topic at least since Kinsey. Issues of sexual attraction and/or orientation and sexual identity have emerged more recently. Differences in the treatment of men and women in the design and analysis of surveys as well as in the reported rates in different surveys, in different countries and time periods are also presented and discussed. We point out the importance of the consideration of both methodological and social change issues in assessing such differences.

  16. Conceptualization and measurement of homosexuality in sex surveys: a critical review

    Stuart Michaels

    Full Text Available This article reviews major national population sex surveys that have asked questions about homosexuality focusing on conceptual and methodological issues, including the definitions of sex, the measured aspects of homosexuality, sampling and interviewing technique, and questionnaire design. Reported rates of major measures of same-sex attraction, behavior, partners, and sexual identity from surveys are also presented and compared. The study of homosexuality in surveys has been shaped by the research traditions and questions ranging from sexology to the epidemiology of HIV/AIDS. Sexual behavior has been a central topic at least since Kinsey. Issues of sexual attraction and/or orientation and sexual identity have emerged more recently. Differences in the treatment of men and women in the design and analysis of surveys as well as in the reported rates in different surveys, in different countries and time periods are also presented and discussed. We point out the importance of the consideration of both methodological and social change issues in assessing such differences.

  17. Conceptualization and measurement of homosexuality in sex surveys: a critical review.

    Michaels, Stuart; Lhomond, Brigitte


    This article reviews major national population sex surveys that have asked questions about homosexuality focusing on conceptual and methodological issues, including the definitions of sex, the measured aspects of homosexuality, sampling and interviewing technique, and questionnaire design. Reported rates of major measures of same-sex attraction, behavior, partners, and sexual identity from surveys are also presented and compared. The study of homosexuality in surveys has been shaped by the research traditions and questions ranging from sexology to the epidemiology of HIV/AIDS. Sexual behavior has been a central topic at least since Kinsey. Issues of sexual attraction and/or orientation and sexual identity have emerged more recently. Differences in the treatment of men and women in the design and analysis of surveys as well as in the reported rates in different surveys, in different countries and time periods are also presented and discussed. We point out the importance of the consideration of both methodological and social change issues in assessing such differences.

  18. Steroidal neuromuscular blocking agents

    Wierda, JMKH; Mori, K; Ohmura, A; Toyooka, H; Hatano, Y; Shingu, K; Fukuda, K


    Since 1964 approximately 20 steroidal neuromuscular blocking agents have been evaluated clinically. Pancuronium, a bisquaternary compound designed on the drawingboard, was the first steroidal relaxant introduced into clinical practice worldwide in the 1970's. Although a major improvement, pancuroniu

  19. Sex determination in amphibians.

    Nakamura, Masahisa


    The heterogametic sex is male in all mammals, whereas it is female in almost all birds. By contrast, there are two heterogametic types (XX/XY and ZZ/ZW) for genetic sex determination in amphibians. Though the original heterogametic sex was female in amphibians, the two heterogametic types were probably interchangeable, suggesting that sex chromosomes evolved several times in this lineage. Indeed, the frog Rana rugosa has the XX/XY and ZZ/ZW sex-determining systems within a single species, depending on the local population in Japan. The XY and ZW geographic forms with differentiated sex chromosomes probably have a common origin as undifferentiated sex chromosomes resulted from the hybridization between the primary populations of West Japan and Kanto forms. It is clear that the sex chromosomes are still undergoing evolution in this species group. Regardless of the presence of a sex-determining gene in amphibians, the gonadal sex of some species can be changed by sex steroids. Namely, sex steroids can induce the sex reversal, with estrogens inducing the male-to-female sex reversal, whereas androgens have the opposite effect. In R. rugosa, gonadal activity of CYP19 (P450 aromatase) is correlated with the feminization of gonads. Of particular interest is that high levels of CYP19 expression are observed in indifferent gonads at time before sex determination. Increases in the expression of CYP19 in female gonads and CYP17 (P450 17alpha-hydroxylase/C17-20 lyase) in male gonads suggest that the former plays an important role in phenotypic female determination, whereas the latter is needed for male determination. Thus, steroids could be the key factor for sex determination in R. rugosa. In addition to the role of sex steroids in gonadal sex determination in this species, Foxl2 and Sox3 are capable of promoting CYP19 expression. Since both the genes are autosomal, another factor up-regulating CYP19 expression must be recruited. The factor, which may be located on the X or W

  20. WormGender - Open-Source Software for Automatic Caenorhabditis elegans Sex Ratio Measurement.

    Marta K Labocha

    Full Text Available Fast and quantitative analysis of animal phenotypes is one of the major challenges of current biology. Here we report the WormGender open-source software, which is designed for accurate quantification of sex ratio in Caenorhabditis elegans. The software functions include, i automatic recognition and counting of adult hermaphrodites and males, ii a manual inspection feature that enables manual correction of errors, and iii flexibility to use new training images to optimize the software for different imaging conditions. We evaluated the performance of our software by comparing manual and automated assessment of sex ratio. Our data showed that the WormGender software provided overall accurate sex ratio measurements. We further demonstrated the usage of WormGender by quantifying the high incidence of male (him phenotype in 27 mutant strains. Mutants of nine genes (brc-1, C30G12.6, cep-1, coh-3, him-3, him-5, him-8, skr-1, unc-86 showed significant him phenotype. The WormGender is written in Java and can be installed and run on both Windows and Mac platforms. The source code is freely available together with a user manual and sample data at The source code and sample data are also available at

  1. Thermal nociception as a measure of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug effectiveness in broiler chickens with articular pain.

    Caplen, Gina; Baker, Laurence; Hothersall, Becky; McKeegan, Dorothy E F; Sandilands, Victoria; Sparks, Nick H C; Waterman-Pearson, Avril E; Murrell, Joanna C


    Pain associated with poultry lameness is poorly understood. The anti-nociceptive properties of two non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) were evaluated using threshold testing in combination with an acute inflammatory arthropathy model. Broilers were tested in six groups (n=8 per group). Each group underwent a treatment (saline, meloxicam (3 or 5mg/kg) or carprofen (15 or 25mg/kg)) and a procedure (Induced (arthropathy-induction) or sham (sham-handling)) prior to testing. Induced groups had Freund's complete adjuvant injected intra-articularly into the left intertarsal joint (hock). A ramped thermal stimulus (1°C/s) was applied to the skin of the left metatarsal. Data were analysed using random-intercept multi-level models. Saline-induced birds had a significantly higher skin temperature (± SD) than saline-sham birds (37.6 ± 0.8°C vs. 36.5 ± 0.5°C; Z=-3.47, Pnociception). Quantification of nociceptive responsiveness in a predictable broiler pain model identified thermal anti-hyperalgesic properties of two NSAIDs, which suggested that therapeutically effective treatment was provided at the doses administered. Such validation of analgesic strategies will increase the understanding of pain associated with specific natural broiler lameness types.

  2. Steroid resistant asthma.

    Luhadia, S K


    Inspite of very safe and effective treatment, Bronchial asthmatics do not respond well in 5-10% of cases which are labelled as Refractory Asthma. Besides compliance, presence of psychogenic and trigger factors and comorbid illness, steroid insensitiveness or resistance may play a significant role in the poorly controlled/responding asthmatics. Type I Steroid resistance is due to lack of binding affinity of steroids to glucocorticoid receptors and may respond to higher doses of steroids while type II steroid resistance is because of reduced number of cells with glucocorticoid receptors, which is very rare and do not respond to even higher doses of systemic steroids and these cases require alternative/novel therapies. Future treatment of steroid resistant and severe refractory asthma is likely to be targeted towards cytokines and Bronchial Thermoplasty.

  3. Context-dependent effects of steroid chemosignals on human physiology and mood.

    Jacob, S; Hayreh, D J; McClintock, M K

    We examined the physiological and psychological effects of nanomolar amounts of steroids applied directly under the nose (Delta4,16-androstadien-3-one and 1,3,5,(10),16-estratetraen-3-ol). These potential human chemosignals were not consciously discernible in a strong-odor carrier (clove oil and propylene glycol). In a double-blind, within-subject, repeated-measures experiment with 65 subjects, we demonstrated that both steroids produced sustained changes in digit skin temperature and palmar skin conductance (an indicator of sympathetic nervous system tone) while the subjects were completing psychological questionnaires or reading. These effects, however, did not follow the sex-stereotyped pattern predicted by a sex attractant function. Both androstadienone and estratetraenol raised the skin temperature of men's hands and lowered it in women. Likewise, each steroid increased skin conductance, with a significantly greater effect on women than men. Women's responses were observed only in the sessions run by the male tester, an effect that may or may not be solely attributable to tester sex. Men's responses, in contrast, were not affected by this difference in socioexperimental condition. Similarly, women experienced an immediate increase in positive mood only in the presence of the male tester, while men's responses were unaffected by this socioexperimental context. One source of this sex difference may be the fact that the majority of women were in the late follicular phase of their menstrual cycle. Although it is premature to classify these steroids as pheromones, our data suggest that they function as chemosignals that modulate autonomic nervous system tone as well as psychological state.

  4. Steroids in childhood epilepsy

    Ramachandrannair Rajesh


    Full Text Available Treatment of epileptic encephalopathies can be very challenging as most anticonvulsant drugs fail to achieve good seizure control. Steroids are disease modifying as well as anticonvulsant in these conditions. Though steroids are accepted as the first-line treatment for infantile spasms, there are many unanswered questions with regard to the preparation, dose and duration of treatment. In this review a re-exploration of the literature is attempted. Putative mechanism of action of steroids in infantile spasms is also discussed. As steroids are being increasingly used in other epileptic encephalopathies and Rasmussen′s encephalitis, a brief discussion on the role of steroids in these conditions is attempted. The review ends with the discussion on newer neuroactive steroids in the management of epilepsy.

  5. Oral Steroids for Dermatitis.

    Fisher, Andrew D; Clarke, Jesse; Williams, Timothy K


    Contact/allergic dermatitis is frequently treated inappropriately with lower-than-recommended doses or inadequate duration of treatment with oral and intramuscular glucocorticoids. This article highlights a case of dermatitis in a Ranger Assessment and Selection Program student who was improperly treated over 2 weeks with oral steroids after being bit by Cimex lectularius, commonly known as bed bugs. The article also highlights the pitfalls of improper oral steroid dosing and provides reasoning for longer-duration oral steroid treatment.

  6. Sex Bias in Children.

    Zalk, Sue Rosenberg; And Others

    This study investigated children's sex biased attitudes as a function of the sex, age, and race of the child as well as a geographical-SES factor. Two attitudes were measured on a 55-item questionnaire: Sex Pride (attributing positive characteristics to a child of the same sex) and Sex Prejudice (attributing negative characteristics to a child of…

  7. Mind Over Matter: Anabolic Steroids

    ... Term(s): Teachers / NIDA Teaching Guide / Mind Over Matter Teaching Guide and Series / Anabolic Steroids Print Mind Over Matter: Anabolic Steroids Order Free Publication in: English Spanish Download PDF 830.69 KB Anabolic steroids ...

  8. Sex assignment of lake sturgeon (Acipenser fluvescens) based on plasma sex hormone and vitellogenin levels

    Craig, J.M.; Papoulias, D.M.; Thomas, M.V.; Annis, M.L.; Boase, J.


    This study focused on identifying the sex of lake sturgeon by measuring the sex hormones estradiol and testosterone, and the phosphoprotein vitellogenin (Vtg) in blood plasma by radioimmunoassay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively, and evaluating these techniques as tools in lake sturgeon population management. Surveys of the St Clair River (SCR) lake sturgeon population have characterized it as rebounding by having steady or increasing recruitment since 1997. However, researchers have not been able to effectively determine the sex for most of the sturgeon they capture because few fish caught during surveys are releasing gametes. A total of 115 fish were sampled from May through June in 2004 and 2005 from the SCR, Michigan, USA. Of these, only four females and eight males were verified (i.e. they were releasing gametes at time of capture), resulting in very few fish with which to validate blood hormone and Vtg biomarkers of sex. Fifty-six percent of the fish were assigned a sex designation based on biomarker criteria. Correspondence between actual gonadal sex and biomarker-directed classification was good for the small subset of fish for which gonadal sex was definitively determined. Moreover, application of the steroid values in a predictive sex assignment model developed for white sturgeon misclassified only the same two fish that were misclassified with the steroid and Vtg biomarkers. The experimental results suggest a sex ratio of 1 : 2.7 (F:M), however more conclusive methods are needed to confirm this ratio because so few fish were available for sex validation. Of the 43 males, 14 were within the legal slot limit, 11 were smaller than 1067 mm total length (TL), and 18 were larger than 1270 mm TL. All 15 females were larger than 1270 mm TL, and thus protected by the slot limit criteria. Considering that lake sturgeon are threatened in Michigan, an advantage to using blood plasma assays was that fish were not harmed, and sample collection was

  9. Histologia mamária após uso de esteróides sexuais - estudo em ratas Breast histologic changes in female rats treated with sex steroids

    José Tadeu Vicelli


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar as alterações histológicas em mamas de ratas submetidas à terapêutica com estrogênio, progestogênio e tibolona. MÉTODOS: Estudo experimental com 40 ratas, sendo 20 sem prole (grupo A e 20 com prole (grupo B. Todas as ratas foram castradas e, após quatro semanas, alocadas aleatoriamente em subgrupos: A1, A2, A3, A4, A5 e B1, B2, B3, B4, B5. Os esteróides foram administrados da seguinte forma: A1 e B1 - benzoato de estradiol; A2 e B2 - acetato de medroxiprogesterona; A3 e B3 - benzoato de estradiol e acetato de medroxiprogesterona; A4 e B4 - tibolona; A5 e B5 - placebo. Após dez semanas de tratamento, os animais foram sacrificados e suas glândulas mamárias submetidas à análise histológica. Os parâmetros avaliados foram: proliferação epitelial, atividade secretora e atipias epiteliais nas unidades de ductos ou alvéolos terminais. A associação entre os achados histológicos e os esquemas terapêuticos foi avaliada por meio do odds ratio e intervalo de confiança de 95%. RESULTADOS: Alterações histológicas foram observadas em 29 ratas: hiperplasia moderada (52,5%, hiperplasia alvéolo-nodular (42,5%, atipia sem proliferação (35%, hiperplasia leve (32,5%, atividade secretora (20% e hiperplasia severa (5%. Em ratas sem prole observou-se 1,3 mais chance, em relação ao grupo controle, de apresentar hiperplasia alvéolo-nodular no grupo que recebeu estrogênio, hiperplasia moderada no grupo tratado com progestogênio, e hiperplasia alvéolo-nodular e atipia sem proliferação epitelial com a associação entre estrogênio e progestogênio. CONCLUSÃO: Hiperplasia moderada e atipia epitelial associaram-se à terapia combinada de estrogênio e progestogênio, e o antecedente de prole reduziu a ocorrência destas alterações e de hiperplasia alvéolo-nodular.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association of histologic changes in the breasts of female rats undergoing therapy with sex steroids. METHODS: An experimental

  10. Steroids in neuroinfection

    Ronaldo Abraham


    Full Text Available The consequences of inflammatory response are primarily responsible for morbimortality in bacterial meningitis. Early use of steroids in these cases can reduce mortality and hearing loss and improve functional outcome without causing significant side effects. The formal recommendation towards pneumoccocal meningitis is being extended to other forms of Bacterial Meningitis. The same thought can be applied to tuberculous meningitis. In neurocysticercosis and neuroschistosomiasis steroids are more useful than parasiticides in most cases. Despite the evidence favoring the use of steroids in herpes simplex encephalitis, it is not sufficient to definitely support such indication. Among the opportunistic infections that affect AIDS patients, neurotoxoplasmosis and progressive multifocal leukoencephalopaty are those most often considered for the use of steroids; steroids are safe to use, but no definite benefit could be demonstrated in both conditions.

  11. Finding a Needle in a Haystack: the Advantages of Liquid Chromatography--Tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in Determination of Sex Hormones in Children.

    Hirsh, Shira; Ben-Dor, Anat


    Determination of steroid sex hormones concentrations in children is very important for diagnosis of a wide range of pubertal, adrenal and sex development disorders. The majority of hormone measurements are carried out using traditional immunoassays, due to their technical simplicity, cost and availability of commercial reagents. But, due to limited specificity and sensitivity, traditional immunoassays often fail to determine low concentration analytes such as sex hormones in pediatric blood. In the last decade, the LC-MS/MS assay has risen as a new player in the analytic diagnostic field. The assay has proven appropriate for detection of very low hormones concentrations in blood, is quite easy to perform and can detect multiple steroids from a single sample. For the routine determination of an individual or panel of steroids, LC-MS/MS is now the recommended method for most diagnostic laboratories.

  12. Pharmacology of anabolic steroids.

    Kicman, A T


    Athletes and bodybuilders have recognized for several decades that the use of anabolic steroids can promote muscle growth and strength but it is only relatively recently that these agents are being revisited for clinical purposes. Anabolic steroids are being considered for the treatment of cachexia associated with chronic disease states, and to address loss of muscle mass in the elderly, but nevertheless their efficacy still needs to be demonstrated in terms of improved physical function and quality of life. In sport, these agents are performance enhancers, this being particularly apparent in women, although there is a high risk of virilization despite the favourable myotrophic-androgenic dissociation that many xenobiotic steroids confer. Modulation of androgen receptor expression appears to be key to partial dissociation, with consideration of both intracellular steroid metabolism and the topology of the bound androgen receptor interacting with co-activators. An anticatabolic effect, by interfering with glucocorticoid receptor expression, remains an attractive hypothesis. Behavioural changes by non-genomic and genomic pathways probably help motivate training. Anabolic steroids continue to be the most common adverse finding in sport and, although apparently rare, designer steroids have been synthesized in an attempt to circumvent the dope test. Doping with anabolic steroids can result in damage to health, as recorded meticulously in the former German Democratic Republic. Even so, it is important not to exaggerate the medical risks associated with their administration for sporting or bodybuilding purposes but to emphasize to users that an attitude of personal invulnerability to their adverse effects is certainly misguided.

  13. Measuring Effectiveness in School Sex Education--Methodological Dilemmas in Researching an Intervention Involving Young Mothers

    Kidger, Judi


    Defining and therefore evaluating the effectiveness of school sex education is problematic because of its location at the site of struggle between competing discourses. Those discourses--summarised here as "moralistic," "harm reductionist" and "empowering"--each emphasise a different conceptualisation of sex education's intended outcomes. The…

  14. Gonadal steroid modulation of sleep and wakefulness in male and female rats is sexually differentiated and neonatally organized by steroid exposure.

    Cusmano, Danielle M; Hadjimarkou, Maria M; Mong, Jessica A


    The paucity of clinical and preclinical studies investigating sex differences in sleep has resulted in mixed findings as to the exact nature of these differences. Although gonadal steroids are known to modulate sleep in females, less is known about males. Moreover, little evidence exists concerning the origin of these sex differences in sleep behavior. Thus, the goal of this study was to directly compare the sensitivity of sleep behavior in male and female Sprague Dawley rats to changes in the gonadal steroid milieu and to test whether the sex differences in sleep are the result of brain sexual differentiation or differences in circulating gonadal steroids. Here we report the magnitude of change in sleep behavior induced by either estradiol (E2) or testosterone (T) was greater in females compared with males, suggesting that sleep behavior in females is more sensitive to the suppressive effects of gonadal steroids. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the organizational effects of early gonadal steroid exposure result in male-like responsivity to gonadal steroids and directly alter the activity of the ventrolateral preoptic area (VLPO), an established sleep-promoting nucleus, in adult masculinized females. Moreover, the nonaromatizable androgen dihydrotestosterone did not suppress sleep in either males or females, suggesting that the T-mediated effect in females was due to the aromatization of T into E2. Together our data suggest that, like sex behavior, sex differences in sleep follow the classical organizational/activational effects of gonadal steroids.

  15. Oral steroid contraception.

    Sech, Laura A; Mishell, Daniel R


    Oral steroid contraception is a popular method of family planning worldwide. Over the past several decades, this method of contraception has changed significantly by decreasing the estrogen dose, changing the progestin component, and reducing the hormone free interval. Despite the popularity of oral steroid contraception, there has been much criticism regarding the associated risks of venous thromboembolism and stroke. Despite these established, yet uncommon risks, oral steroid contraception has many important health benefits. This review highlights the available formulations of oral contraceptives along with their evidence-based associated risks and benefits. Highlights regarding future directions for development of novel oral contraceptives are also addressed.

  16. The rate of change in declining steroid hormones: a new parameter of healthy aging in men?

    Walther, Andreas; Philipp, Michel; Lozza, Niclà; Ehlert, Ulrike


    Research on healthy aging in men has increasingly focused on age-related hormonal changes. Testosterone (T) decline is primarily investigated, while age-related changes in other sex steroids (dehydroepiandrosterone [DHEA], estradiol [E2], progesterone [P]) are mostly neglected. An integrated hormone parameter reflecting aging processes in men has yet to be identified. 271 self-reporting healthy men between 40 and 75 provided both psychometric data and saliva samples for hormone analysis. Correlation analysis between age and sex steroids revealed negative associations for the four sex steroids (T, DHEA, E2, and P). Principal component analysis including ten salivary analytes identified a principal component mainly unifying the variance of the four sex steroid hormones. Subsequent principal component analysis including the four sex steroids extracted the principal component of declining steroid hormones (DSH). Moderation analysis of the association between age and DSH revealed significant moderation effects for psychosocial factors such as depression, chronic stress and perceived general health. In conclusion, these results provide further evidence that sex steroids decline in aging men and that the integrated hormone parameter DSH and its rate of change can be used as biomarkers for healthy aging in men. Furthermore, the negative association of age and DSH is moderated by psychosocial factors.

  17. Fine-needle aspiration cytology of ovarian steroid cell tumor: A rare case report

    Nidhi Agrawal


    Full Text Available Steroid cell tumors (SCTs of the ovary are a rare subgroup of sex cord tumors that account for less than 0.1% of all ovarian tumors. These tumors can produce steroids, especially testosterone, which produces symptoms such as hirsutism, amenorrhea/oligomenorrhea, and male patterned voice. For evaluation of the androgen excess, testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S are the first laboratory tests to be measured. Abdominal ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI are useful radiologic imaging techniques. Although SCTs are generally benign, the risk of malignant transformation is always present. Surgical excision of tumor is the most important and hallmark treatment. The present case signifies the early preoperative diagnosis of a virilizing SCT, based on cytological features and its careful correlation with clinicopathological and radiological findings.

  18. Steroids in teleost fishes: A functional point of view.

    Tokarz, Janina; Möller, Gabriele; Hrabě de Angelis, Martin; Adamski, Jerzy


    Steroid hormones are involved in the regulation of a variety of processes like embryonic development, sex differentiation, metabolism, immune responses, circadian rhythms, stress response, and reproduction in vertebrates. Teleost fishes and humans show a remarkable conservation in many developmental and physiological aspects, including the endocrine system in general and the steroid hormone related processes in particular. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge about steroid hormone biosynthesis and the steroid hormone receptors in teleost fishes and compares the findings to the human system. The impact of the duplicated genome in teleost fishes on steroid hormone biosynthesis and perception is addressed. Additionally, important processes in fish physiology regulated by steroid hormones, which are most dissimilar to humans, are described. We also give a short overview on the influence of anthropogenic endocrine disrupting compounds on steroid hormone signaling and the resulting adverse physiological effects for teleost fishes. By this approach, we show that the steroidogenesis, hormone receptors, and function of the steroid hormones are reasonably well understood when summarizing the available data of all teleost species analyzed to date. However, on the level of a single species or a certain fish-specific aspect of physiology, further research is needed.

  19. Steroids (For Parents)

    ... steroids can face legal consequences, including jail time, monetary fines, being banned from an event or team, ... Reading BrightStart! Contact Us Partners Editorial Policy Privacy Policy & Terms of Use Visit the Nemours ...

  20. Sex differences on a measure of conformity in automated teller machine lines.

    Reysen, Stephen; Reysen, Matthew B


    Sex differences in conformity were examined as participants approached two ATMs, one of which was occupied by three confederates and the other immediately available. The number of men and women in the line in front of one of the ATMs was manipulated (3 men or 3 women), and an unobtrusive observer recorded the sex of each participant. The results indicated that women were more likely than men to wait in line to use the ATM regardless of the makeup of the line. Thus, the present study provides evidence in favor of the idea that sex differences in conformity are evident on a common task performed in a natural setting.

  1. Hydrogen-bond acidity of OH groups in various molecular environments (phenols, alcohols, steroid derivatives, and amino acids structures): experimental measurements and density functional theory calculations.

    Graton, Jérôme; Besseau, François; Brossard, Anne-Marie; Charpentier, Eloïse; Deroche, Arnaud; Le Questel, Jean-Yves


    The hydrogen-bond (H-bond) donating strengths of a series of 36 hydroxylic H-bond donors (HBDs) with N-methylpyrrolidinone have been measured in CCl4 solution by FTIR spectrometry. These data allow the definition of a H-bond acidity scale named pKAHY covering almost three pK units, corresponding to 16 kJ mol(-1). These results are supplemented by equilibrium constants determined in CH2Cl2 for one-third of the data set to study compounds showing a poor solubility in CCl4. A systematic comparison of these experimental results with theoretical data computed in the gas phase using DFT (density functional theory) calculations has also been carried out. Quantum electrostatic parameters appear to accurately describe the H-bond acidity of the hydroxyl group, whereas partial atomic charges according to the Merz-Singh-Kollman and CHelpG schemes are not suitable for this purpose. A substantial decrease of the H-bond acidity of the OH group is pointed out when the hydroxyl moiety is involved in intramolecular H-bond interactions. In such situations, the interactions are further characterized through AIM and NBO analyses, which respectively allow localizing the corresponding bond critical point and the quantification of a significant charge transfer from the available lone pair to the σ*OH antibonding orbital. Eventually, the H-bond ability of the hydroxyl groups of steroid derivatives and of lateral chains of amino acids are evaluated on the basis of experimental and/or theoretical data.

  2. Gene by Sex Interaction for Measures of Obesity in the Framingham Heart Study

    Benjamin, Ashlee M.; Suchindran, Sunil; Pearce, Kaela; Rowell, Jennifer; Lien, Lillian F.; Guyton, John R.; McCarthy, Jeanette J.


    Obesity is an increasingly prevalent and severe health concern with a substantial heritable component and marked sex differences. We sought to determine if the effect of genetic variants also differed by sex by performing a genome-wide association study modeling the effect of genotype-by-sex interaction on obesity phenotypes. Genotype data from individuals in the Framingham Heart Study Offspring cohort were analyzed across five exams. Although no variants showed genome-wide significant gene-by-sex interaction in any individual exam, four polymorphisms displayed a consistent BMI association (P-values .00186 to .00010) across all five exams. These variants were clustered downstream of LYPLAL1, which encodes a lipase/esterase expressed in adipose tissue, a locus previously identified as having sex-specific effects on central obesity. Primary effects in males were in the opposite direction from females and were replicated in Framingham Generation 3. Our data support a sex-influenced association between genetic variation at the LYPLAL1 locus and obesity-related traits. PMID:21253498

  3. Gene by Sex Interaction for Measures of Obesity in the Framingham Heart Study

    Ashlee M. Benjamin


    Full Text Available Obesity is an increasingly prevalent and severe health concern with a substantial heritable component and marked sex differences. We sought to determine if the effect of genetic variants also differed by sex by performing a genome-wide association study modeling the effect of genotype-by-sex interaction on obesity phenotypes. Genotype data from individuals in the Framingham Heart Study Offspring cohort were analyzed across five exams. Although no variants showed genome-wide significant gene-by-sex interaction in any individual exam, four polymorphisms displayed a consistent BMI association (P-values .00186 to .00010 across all five exams. These variants were clustered downstream of LYPLAL1, which encodes a lipase/esterase expressed in adipose tissue, a locus previously identified as having sex-specific effects on central obesity. Primary effects in males were in the opposite direction from females and were replicated in Framingham Generation 3. Our data support a sex-influenced association between genetic variation at the LYPLAL1 locus and obesity-related traits.

  4. Sex determination from scapular length measurements by CT scans images in a Caucasian population.

    Giurazza, F; Schena, E; Del Vescovo, R; Cazzato, R L; Mortato, L; Saccomandi, P; Paternostro, F; Onofri, L; Zobel, B Beomonte


    Together with race, stature and age, sex is a main component of the biological identity. Thanks to its proportional correlation with parts of the human body, sex can be evaluated form the skeleton. The most accurate approach to determine sex by bone size is based on os coxae or skull. After natural disaster their presence can never be guaranteed, therefore the development of methods of sex determination using other skeletal elements can result crucial. Herein, sexual dimorphism in the human scapula is used to develop a two-variable discriminant function for sex estimation. We have enrolled 100 males and 100 females who underwent thoracic CT scan evaluation and we have estimated two scapular diameters. The estimation has been carried out by analyzing images of the scapulae of each patient after three dimensional post-processing reconstructions. The two-variable function allows to obtain an overall accuracy of 88% on the calibration sample. Furthermore, we have employed the mentioned function on a collection of 10 individual test sample from the collection of the "Museo di Anatomia Umana di Firenze" of the Università degli Studi di Firenze; sex has been correctly predicted on 9 skeletons.

  5. Assigning sex and reproductive stage to adult Lake Sturgeon using ultrasonography and common morphological measurements

    Chiotti, Justin A.; Boase, James C.; Hondorp, Darryl W.; Briggs, Andrew S.


    Sex determination of fish species is difficult to assess when sexual dimorphism and gametes are not apparent. For threatened and endangered fish species, noninvasive techniques are needed when determining sex to minimize stress and the potential for mortality. We evaluated the use of a portable ultrasound unit to determine sex of Lake Sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens in the field. Ultrasound images were collected from 9 yellow-egg (F2, F3), 32 black-egg (F4, F5), and 107 fully developed male (M2) Lake Sturgeon. Two readers accurately assigned sex to 88–96% of fish, but accuracy varied in relation to maturity stage. Black-egg females and fully developed males were correctly identified for 89–100% of the fish sampled, while these two readers identified yellow-egg females only 33% and 67% of the time. Time spent collecting images ranged between 2 and 3 min once the user was comfortable with operating procedures. Discriminant analysis revealed the total length : girth ratio was a strong predictor of sex and maturity, correctly classifying 81% of black-egg females and 97% of the fully developed males. However, yellow-egg females were incorrectly classified on all occasions. This study shows the utility of using ultrasonography and a total length : girth ratio for sex determination of Lake Sturgeon in later reproductive stages around the spawning season.

  6. Conserved steroid hormone homology converges on nuclear factor κB to modulate inflammation in asthma.

    Payne, Asha S; Freishtat, Robert J


    Asthma is a complex, multifactorial disease comprising multiple different subtypes, rather than a single disease entity, yet it has a consistent clinical phenotype: recurring episodes of chest tightness, wheezing, and difficulty breathing (Pediatr Pulmonol Suppl. 1997;15:9-12). Despite the complex pathogenesis of asthma, steroid hormones (eg, glucocorticoids) are ubiquitous in the short-term and long-term management of all types of asthma. Overall, steroid hormones are a class of widely relevant, biologically active compounds originating from cholesterol and altered in a stepwise fashion, but maintain a basic 17-carbon, 4-ring structure. Steroids are lipophilic molecules that diffuse readily through cell membranes to directly and/or indirectly affect gene transcription. In addition, they use rapid, nongenomic actions to affect cellular products. Steroid hormones comprise several groups (including glucocorticoids, sex steroid hormones, and secosteroids) with critical divergent biological and physiological functions relevant to health and disease. However, the conserved homology of steroid hormone molecules, receptors, and signaling pathways suggests that each of these is part of a dynamic system of hormone interaction, likely involving an overlap of downstream signaling mechanisms. Therefore, we will review the similarities and differences of these 3 groups of steroid hormones (ie, glucocorticoids, sex steroid hormones, and secosteroids), identifying nuclear factor κB as a common inflammatory mediator. Despite our understanding of the impact of individual steroids (eg, glucocorticoids, sex steroids and secosteroids) on asthma, research has yet to explain the interplay of the dynamic system in which these hormones function. To do so, there needs to be a better understanding of the interplay of classic, nonclassic, and nongenomic steroid hormone functions. However, clues from the conserved homology steroid hormone structure and function and signaling pathways offer

  7. Constraints of recreational sport participation: measurement invariance and latent mean differences across sex and physical activity status.

    Liu, Jing Dong; Chung, Pak Kwong; Chen, Wing Ping


    The purpose of the current study was to (a) examine the measurement invariance of the Constraint Scale of Sport Participation across sex and physical activity status among the undergraduate students (N = 630) in Hong Kong and (b) compare the latent mean differences across groups. Measurement invariance of the Constraint Scale of Sport Participation across sex of and physical activity status of the participants was examined first. With receiving support on the measurement invariance across groups, latent mean differences of the scores across groups were examined. Multi-group confirmatory factor analysis revealed that the configural, metric, scalar, and structural invariance of the scale was supported across groups. The results of latent mean differences suggested that the women reported significantly higher constraints on time, partner, psychology, knowledge, and interest than the men. The physically inactive participants reported significantly higher scores on all constraints except for accessibility than the physically active participants.

  8. Standardization of androstenedione and estrone radioimmunoassay and profile of sex steroids, gonadotropins and prolactin - in patients with chronic anovulation due to inappropriate feedback (polycystic ovarian syndrome); Padronizacao do radioimunoensaio da androstenediona e da estrona e o perfil dos esteroides sexuais, gonadotrofinas e prolactina em pacientes com anovulacao cronica por retrocontrole improprio (sindrome dos ovarios policisticos)

    Vilanova, Maria do Socorro Veras


    Full text. In order to evaluate the profile of the sex steroids gonadotropin and prolactin in polycystic ovarian syndrome (POS), 24 patients with POS were studied and compared with 20 normal women during the early follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. Radioimmunoassay techniques for androstenedione (A) and estrone (E{sub 1}) were standardized for the purpose of the study. Androstenedione and estrone were extracted from plasma with ethyl ether. The assays were maintained in equilibrium and the labelled hormone-antibody complex was then separated from the free hormone using dextran charcoal. The sensitivity of the method was 6.8 pg/tube for A and 3.7 pg/tube for E{sub 1}. Nonspecific binding ws 3.4 for A and 3.3 for E{sub 1}. The interessay error at the D50 level was 15.6 for A and 8.6 for E{sub 1}. Patients with POS had significantly higher basal levels of LH, A, T E{sub 1} and PRL and similar FSH and DHEA-S levels when compared with normal women. The LH/FSH ratio was significantly elevated and the A/T ratio was significantly decreased. The A/E{sub 1} and T/E{sub 2} ratios were elevated and the E{sub 1}/E{sub 2} was decreased, although the differences were not statistically significant. A positive correlation between A and E{sub 1} was observed in patients with POS. In view of the above data, it was concluded that: the quality control parameters of the radioimmunoassay for A and E{sub 1} standardized in the present study are considered satisfactory, and the assay could be used for diagnosis and research; the patients with POS have a different sex steroid and gonadotropin profile when compared normal women during the early follicular phase of the menstrual cycle

  9. The importance of the derivative in sex-hormone cycles: a reason why behavioural measures in sex-hormone studies are so mercurial.

    Adam McNamara

    Full Text Available To study the dynamic changes in cognition across the human menstrual cycle, twenty, healthy, naturally-cycling women undertook a lateralized spatial figural comparison task on twelve occasions at approximately 3-4 day intervals. Each session was conducted in laboratory conditions with response times, accuracy rates, eye movements, salivary estrogen and progesterone concentrations and Profile of Mood states questionnaire data collected on each occasion. The first two sessions of twelve for the response variables were discarded to avoid early effects of learning thereby providing 10 sessions spread across each participant's complete menstrual cycle. Salivary progesterone data for each participant was utilized to normalize each participant's data to a standard 28 day cycle. Data was analysed categorically by comparing peak progesterone (luteal phase to low progesterone (follicular phase to emulate two-session repeated measures typical studies. Neither a significant difference in reaction times or accuracy rates was found. Moreover no significant effect of lateral presentation was observed upon reaction times or accuracy rates although inter and intra individual variance was sizeable. We demonstrate that hormone concentrations alone cannot be used to predict the response times or accuracy rates. In contrast, we constructed a standard linear model using salivary estrogen, salivary progesterone and their respective derivative values and found these inputs to be very accurate for predicting variance observed in the reaction times for all stimuli and accuracy rates for right visual field stimuli but not left visual field stimuli. The identification of sex-hormone derivatives as predictors of cognitive behaviours is of importance. The finding suggests that there is a fundamental difference between the up-surge and decline of hormonal concentrations where previous studies typically assume all points near the peak of a hormonal surge are the same. How

  10. Sex differences in subjective and actigraphic sleep measures: A population-based study of elderly persons

    Berg, J.F. van den; Miedema, H.M.E.; Tulen, J.H.M.; Hofman, A.; Neven, A.K.; Tiemeier, H.


    Study Objectives: To investigate and explain sex differences in subjective and actigraphic sleep parameters in community-dwelling elderly persons. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: The study was embedded in the Rotterdam Study, a population-based study. Participants: Nine hundred fifty-six par

  11. Sexual size dimorphism and sex determination by morphometric measurements in locally adapted muscovy duck (Cairina moschata in Nigeria

    Abel Olusegun OGUNTUNJI


    Full Text Available Sexual size dimorphism (SSD is a common phenomenon in most mammalian and poultry species. This study was undertaken to investigate SSD in nondescript locally adapted Muscovy ducks in Nigeria by applying descriptive analysis, sexual dimorphism index (SDI, sexual size dimorphism index (SSDI and Principal Component analysis to morphological variables. Besides, attempt was made to identify best morphological predictors of sex using Stepwise Discriminant analysis. Data on ten morphological traits; body weight, body girth, body length, wing length, shank length, shank circumference, thigh length, total leg length, bill length and bill width were taken from 1,020 extensively managed adult Muscovy ducks comprising 287 males and 733 females. These birds were randomly sampled from Rain Forest, Derived Savanna and Guinea Savanna agro-ecological zones of Nigeria. Sex significantly (P < 0.001 affected all morphometric measurements in favour of males. Assessment of relative contribution of morphological traits to SSD through SDI and SSDI revealed that body weight followed by skeletal frame-related variables (body length and wing length were the most dimorphic traits. Three Principal Components were generated for each sex; accounting for 62.70 % and 54.24 % of the total variance explained of male and female ducks, respectively. In tandem with the SDI and SSDI results, Stepwise Discriminant analysis indicated body weight as the best predictor of sex of adult Muscovy ducks followed by wing length and body length; correctly classifying 98.5 % of ducks and are reliable for sex determination in the field. The established SSD in this study could be employed for description, utilization, selection and planning of improvement programs of male and female Muscovy ducks.

  12. Sex Differences in Cardiovascular Drug Response

    E.M. Rodenburg (Eline)


    textabstractIn the early sixties, a prominent professor in Clinical Pharmacology at the University College in London, D.R. Laurence, stated: “There are no clinically important sex differences in drug action, except, of course, to sex steroid hormones, but the subject is poorly documented. Women are

  13. Steroids facing emotions

    Putman, P.L.J.


    The studies reported in this thesis have been performed to gain a better understanding about motivational mediators of selective attention and memory for emotionally relevant stimuli, and about the roles that some steroid hormones play in regulation of human motivation and emotion. The stimuli used

  14. Steroids. A Resource Guide.

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of School Health Education and Services.

    This guide provides information on steroid use as well as prevention and intervention strategies. It is intended to serve as a supplement to drug abuse education and prevention programs in elementary and secondary schools and as the basis for local curriculum development and instructional activities. The following topics are covered: (1) history…

  15. Anabolic Steroids...What's the Hype?...

    Landry, Gregory L.; Wagner, Lauris L.

    This pamphlet uses a question-and-answer format to examine the use and abuse of anabolic steroids. It begins by explaining that all steroids are not anabolic steroids and that anabolic steroids are those used specifically to build muscles quickly. Medical uses of anabolic steroids are reviewed; how people get steroids, how they take them, and…

  16. Ovarian steroid sulphate functions as priming pheromone in male Barilius bendelisis (Ham.)

    J P Bhatt; M S Sajwan


    The study reveals that pre-ovulatory females of the fish Barilius bendelisis (Ham.) release sex steroids and their conjugates into the water and that a steroid sulphate of these compounds functions as a potent sex pheromone which stimulates milt production in conspecific males prior to spawning. Since males exposed to the purified sub-fraction III of the steroid sulphate fraction have increased milt volume and more spermatozoa with greater motility, the function of this priming pheromone appears to be to enhance male spawning success. High turbulence and faster water currents render the hillstream ecosystem extremely challenging for chemical communication. Therefore, ovulatory female fish secrete highly water soluble steroid sulphates for rapid pheromonal action in males. Inhibited milt volume in olfactory tract lesioned (OTL) males exposed to the steroid sulphate fraction and 17,20-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one supports the concept that the pheromonally induced priming effect in male fish is mediated through olfactory pathways.

  17. Sex and the development of Alzheimer's disease.

    Pike, Christian J


    Men and women exhibit differences in the development and progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The factors underlying the sex differences in AD are not well understood. This Review emphasizes the contributions of sex steroid hormones to the relationship between sex and AD. In women, events that decrease lifetime exposure to estrogens are generally associated with increased AD risk, whereas estrogen-based hormone therapy administered near the time of menopause may reduce AD risk. In men, estrogens do not exhibit age-related reduction and are not significantly associated with AD risk. Rather, normal age-related depletions of testosterone in plasma and brain predict enhanced vulnerability to AD. Both estrogens and androgens exert numerous protective actions in the adult brain that increase neural functioning and resilience as well as specifically attenuating multiple aspects of AD-related neuropathology. Aging diminishes the activational effects of sex hormones in sex-specific manners, which is hypothesized to contribute to the relationship between aging and AD. Sex steroid hormones may also drive sex differences in AD through their organizational effects during developmental sexual differentiation of the brain. Specifically, sex hormone actions during early development may confer inherent vulnerability of the female brain to development of AD in advanced age. The combined effects of organizational and activational effects of sex steroids yield distinct sex differences in AD pathogenesis, a significant variable that must be more rigorously considered in future research. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Nonprescription steroids on the Internet.

    Clement, Christen L; Marlowe, Douglas B; Patapis, Nicholas S; Festinger, David S; Forman, Robert F


    This study evaluated the degree to which anabolic-androgenic steroids are proffered for sale over the Internet and how they are characterized on popular Web sites. Searches for specific steroid product labels (e.g., Dianabol) between March 2006 and June 2006 revealed that approximately half of the Web sites advocated their "safe" use, and roughly one third offered to sell them without prescriptions. The Web sites frequently presented misinformation about steroids and minimized their dangers. Less than 5% of the Web sites presented accurate health risk information about steroids or provided information to abusers seeking to discontinue their steroid use. Implications for education, prevention, treatment, and policy are discussed.

  19. Examining the effects of age, sex, and body mass index on normative median motor nerve excitability measurements.

    McHugh, John C


    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to build a large reference database of excitability measures in normal subjects and to examine the effects of age, sex, and BMI. METHODS: One hundred and five healthy subjects had median motor nerve excitability testing performed at the wrist using the automated threshold-tracking program, QTRAC. Statistical linear regression was used to explore relationships between nerve excitability and the independent variables. RESULTS: The main effect of age is a reduced superexcitability. Lesser effects are flattening of the normalized stimulus response curve and reduction in threshold change following strong hyperpolarizing currents. Females have lower thresholds than males and small but significant differences in voltage-gated potassium channel (KCNQ) mediated properties (late subexcitability, accommodation half time, and threshold undershoot following depolarizing electrotonus), as well as a small increase in superexcitability. BMI has no influence on nerve excitability data and does not explain sex-related differences in threshold. CONCLUSIONS: Age and sex have few and small effects on excitability parameters. SIGNIFICANCE: The expression of nodal KCNQ channels appears to be greater in females. Age-related increases in subexcitability may be attributable to changes in the muscle fibre and not the nerve.

  20. Anabolic steroids and growth hormone.

    Haupt, H A


    Athletes are generally well educated regarding substances that they may use as ergogenic aids. This includes anabolic steroids and growth hormone. Fortunately, the abuse of growth hormone is limited by its cost and the fact that anabolic steroids are simply more enticing to the athlete. There are, however, significant potential adverse effects regarding its use that can be best understood by studying known growth hormone excess, as demonstrated in the acromegalic syndrome. Many athletes are unfamiliar with this syndrome and education of the potential consequences of growth hormone excess is important in counseling athletes considering its use. While athletes contemplating the use of anabolic steroids may correctly perceive their risks for significant physiologic effects to be small if they use the steroids for brief periods of time, many of these same athletes are unaware of the potential for habituation to the use of anabolic steroids. The result may be incessant use of steroids by an athlete who previously considered only short-term use. As we see athletes taking anabolic steroids for more prolonged periods, we are likely to see more severe medical consequences. Those who eventually do discontinue the steroids are dismayed to find that the improvements made with the steroids generally disappear and they have little to show for hours or even years of intense training beyond the psychological scars inherent with steroid use. Counseling of these athletes should focus on the potential adverse psychological consequences of anabolic steroid use and the significant risk for habituation.

  1. Steroids and genes related to steroid biosynthesis in the female giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    Thongbuakaew, Tipsuda; Siangcham, Tanapan; Suwansa-ard, Saowaros; Elizur, Abigail; Cummins, Scott F; Sobhon, Prasert; Sretarugsa, Prapee


    The giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, is important to many Asian countries due to its high economic value as an aquaculture product. With demand increasing, there is requirement for a better understanding of the biosynthetic components that regulate its growth and reproduction, including steroids, in order to help increase production. Vertebrate-type steroids and their receptors were identified in crustaceans and implicated in reproduction. In this study, we presented the sex steroids estradiol and progesterone by LC-MS/MS in female M. rosenbergii, and reveal steroidogenic-related genes by in silico analysis of de novo assembled transcriptomes. Comparative analysis with other species was performed to confirm their putative role, as well as tissue-specific and quantitative gene expression. We reveal 29 transcripts that encode for steroidogenic-related proteins, including steroidogenic enzymes, a nuclear steroid hormone receptors, and a steroidogenic factor. Moreover, we identified for the first time the presence of steroidogenic factor 1, StAR-related lipid transfer protein, estradiol receptor- and progesterone-like protein in M. rosenbergii. Those targeted for gene expression analysis (3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, 17 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, estrogen sulfotransferase and progesterone receptor-like) showed widespread expression within many tissues, and at relatively high levels in the central nervous system (CNS) during ovarian maturation. In summary, we provide further evidence for the existence of steroidogenic pathways in crustaceans, which may be useful for advancing prawn aquaculture.

  2. Steroid Use in Sepsis

    Şerife Mehlika Kuşkonmaz


    Full Text Available Sepsis is defined as “systemic signs and symptoms of infection in the presence of infection”. Nearly one fourth of sepsis cases eventually die. Therefore, rapid and correct management of sepsis is important. There is no reliable test to evaluate adrenal insufficiency in sepsis due to the changes in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and intracellular effects of cortisol during the critical illness. Clinical studies reported conflicting results regarding the effects of steroid therapy on mortality and morbidity in sepsis. Contemporary sepsis management guidelines - although not based on strong evidence - suggest consideration of steroid use in septic patients who do not respond to intravenous fluids and vasopressors. Stronger evidence obtained from randomized controlled trials is needed for this suggestion to be certain. Turk Jem 2013; 17: 121-4

  3. Androgen - secreting steroid cell tumor of the ovary

    Paras Ratilal Udhreja


    Full Text Available Steroid cell tumors (SCTs, not otherwise specified of the ovary are rare subgroup of sex cord tumors, which account for less than 0.1% of all ovarian tumors and also that will present at any age. The majority of these tumors produce steroids with testosterone being the most common. A case of a 28-year-old woman who presented with symptoms of virilization is reported. Although SCTs are generally benign, there is a risk for malignant transformation. Surgery is the most important and hallmark treatment.

  4. Maternal condition but not corticosterone is linked to offspring sex ratio in a passerine bird.

    Lindsay J Henderson

    Full Text Available There is evidence of offspring sex ratio adjustment in a range of species, but the potential mechanisms remain largely unknown. Elevated maternal corticosterone (CORT is associated with factors that can favour brood sex ratio adjustment, such as reduced maternal condition, food availability and partner attractiveness. Therefore, the steroid hormone has been suggested to play a key role in sex ratio manipulation. However, despite correlative and causal evidence CORT is linked to sex ratio manipulation in some avian species, the timing of adjustment varies between studies. Consequently, whether CORT is consistently involved in sex-ratio adjustment, and how the hormone acts as a mechanism for this adjustment remains unclear. Here we measured maternal baseline CORT and body condition in free-living blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus over three years and related these factors to brood sex ratio and nestling quality. In addition, a non-invasive technique was employed to experimentally elevate maternal CORT during egg laying, and its effects upon sex ratio and nestling quality were measured. We found that maternal CORT was not correlated with brood sex ratio, but mothers with elevated CORT fledged lighter offspring. Also, experimental elevation of maternal CORT did not influence brood sex ratio or nestling quality. In one year, mothers in superior body condition produced male biased broods, and maternal condition was positively correlated with both nestling mass and growth rate in all years. Unlike previous studies maternal condition was not correlated with maternal CORT. This study provides evidence that maternal condition is linked to brood sex ratio manipulation in blue tits. However, maternal baseline CORT may not be the mechanistic link between the maternal condition and sex ratio adjustment. Overall, this study serves to highlight the complexity of sex ratio adjustment in birds and the difficulties associated with identifying sex biasing mechanisms.

  5. Clinical pharmacokinetics of contraceptive steroids. An update.

    Shenfield, G M; Griffin, J M


    The present article should be read in conjunction with the original review published in the Journal in 1983. There is no new information of major significance about the pharmacokinetics of levonorgestrel, norethisterone (norethindrone) or ethinylestradiol, although it has been shown that the concentrations of these hormones secreted in breast milk are small and mothers taking combined oral contraceptive steroids may breast-feed safely. Both levonorgestrel and ethinylestradiol can be successfully administered from appropriate vaginal formulations, but no clear advantages over oral administration have been demonstrated. Several new progestogens have been investigated. Desogestrel is a prodrug for its active metabolite 3-keto-desogestrel, gestodene is itself an active progestogen and norgestimate is a prodrug acting by conversion to norgestrel and its metabolites. All 3 compounds have good bioavailability with wide intersubject variation. The newer progestogens, like norethisterone and levonorgestrel, are bound to sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG). This causes their plasma concentrations to increase with time, since SHBG is induced by ethinylestradiol even in doses of 30 micrograms daily. The binding capacity and affinity of SHBG do not increase in direct proportion to its concentration. Further drug interactions with oral contraceptive steroids have been described. Contraceptive steroids may inhibit hepatic microsomal enzyme metabolism and increase the plasma concentration and effect of some tricyclic antidepressants, the hydroxylated benzodiazepines, some beta-blocking drugs, methylxanthines, prednisolone and cyclosporin. There are no significant effects on vitamins. Oral contraceptive steroids induce glucuronidation and hence decrease plasma concentrations of some benzodiazepines, clofibric acid, paracetamol (acetaminophen) and possibly morphine. The plasma concentration of ethinylestradiol may be increased by competitive sulphation with paracetamol. Plasma

  6. ``Sex Hormones'' in Secondary School Biology Textbooks

    Nehm, Ross H.; Young, Rebecca


    This study explores the extent to which the term “sex hormone” is used in science textbooks, and whether the use of the term “sex hormone” is associated with pre-empirical concepts of sex dualism, in particular the misconceptions that these so-called “sex hormones” are sex specific and restricted to sex-related physiological functioning. We found that: (1) all the texts employed the term “sex hormone”; (2) in all texts estrogen is characterized as restricted to females and testosterone is characterized as restricted to males; and (3) in all texts testosterone and estrogen are discussed as exclusively involved in sex-related physiological roles. We conclude that (1) contemporary science textbooks preserve sex-dualistic models of steroid hormones (one sex, one “sex hormone”) that were rejected by medical science in the early 20th century and (2) use of the term “sex hormone” is associated with misconceptions regarding the presence and functions of steroid hormones in male and female bodies.

  7. Concentrations of the adrenocorticotropic hormone, corticosterone and sex steroid hormones and the expression of the androgen receptor in the pituitary and adrenal glands of male turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) during growth and development.

    Kiezun, J; Kaminska, B; Jankowski, J; Dusza, L


    Androgens take part in the regulation of puberty and promote growth and development. They play their biological role by binding to a specific androgen receptor (AR). The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of AR mRNA and protein in the pituitary and adrenal glands, to localize AR protein in luteinizing hormone (LH)-producing pituitary and adrenocortical cells, to determine plasma concentrations of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone and the concentrations of corticosterone, testosterone (T), androstenedione (A4) and oestradiol (E2) in the adrenal glands of male turkeys at the age of 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24 and 28weeks. The concentrations of hormones and the expression of AR varied during development. The expression of AR mRNA and protein in pituitary increased during the growth. The increase of AR mRNA levels in pituitary occurred earlier than increase of AR protein. The percentage of pituitary cells expressing ARs in the population of LH-secreting cells increased in week 20. It suggests that AR expression in LH-producing pituitary cells is determined by the phase of development. The drop in adrenal AR mRNA and protein expression was accompanied by an increase in the concentrations of adrenal androgens. Those results could point to the presence of a compensatory mechanism that enables turkeys to avoid the potentially detrimental effects of high androgen concentrations. Our results will expand our knowledge of the role of steroids in the development of the reproductive system of turkeys from the first month of age until maturity.

  8. Effect of genotype, sex and slaughter weight on veal Longissimus muscle area measured by ultrasound and planimeter

    Zoran Luković


    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to determine effect of genotype (Holstein, Simmental and their crossbreeds, sex and slaughter weight groups (SW1=150-160kg and SW2=190-200kg on veal Longissimus muscle area (LMA. Between the12th and the13th rib, two ultrasound LMA (ULMA images were taken from each animal and carcass LMA (CLMA traced on transparent foil was measured by planimeter. For both measures, Simmental calves had larger LMA than Holstein (P<0.001 and crossbreeds (P<0.05. Male and female calves did not differ significantly in ULMA and CLMA. Calves of SW2 group had larger LMA (P<0.0001 than SW1 group. High correlation coefficient between ULMA and CLMA was determined in this research. Veal LMA was significantly affected by genotype and slaughter weight. According to high correlation coefficients, ultrasound can be useful in estimating carcass traits of cattle at early age.

  9. Effects of Sex and Fatigue on Biomechanical Measures During the Drop-Jump Task in Children

    Briem, Kristín; Jónsdóttir, Kolbrún Vala; Árnason, Árni; Sveinsson, Þórarinn


    Background: Female athletes have a higher rate of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury than males from adolescence and into maturity, which is suggested to result from sex-specific changes in dynamic movement patterns with maturation. Few studies have studied movement strategies and response to fatigue in children. Purpose: To evaluate the effect of fatigue on biomechanical variables associated with increased risk for ACL injury during a drop-jump (DJ) performance in children. Study Design: Controlled laboratory study. Methods: A total of 116 children (mean age, 10.4 years) were recruited from local sports clubs and performed 5 repetitions of a DJ task before and after a fatigue protocol. Kinematic and kinetic data from initial contact (IC) to the first peak vertical ground reaction force (vGRF) were analyzed for both limbs, including limb and fatigue as within-subject factors for analyses between boys and girls. Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated to identify associations between variables of interest. Results: Girls demonstrated greater peak vGRF values than boys (by 8.1%; P athletes, girls and boys seem to adopt dissimilar movement strategies and are differently affected by fatigue. Clinical Relevance: Injury prevention programs should be considered at an earlier age in an effort to lower the risk of ACL injury in athletes. PMID:28203593

  10. Sex differences in objective measures of sleep in post-traumatic stress disorder and healthy control subjects.

    Richards, Anne; Metzler, Thomas J; Ruoff, Leslie M; Inslicht, Sabra S; Rao, Madhu; Talbot, Lisa S; Neylan, Thomas C


    A growing literature shows prominent sex effects for risk for post-traumatic stress disorder and associated medical comorbid burden. Previous research indicates that post-traumatic stress disorder is associated with reduced slow wave sleep, which may have implications for overall health, and abnormalities in rapid eye movement sleep, which have been implicated in specific post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms, but most research has been conducted in male subjects. We therefore sought to compare objective measures of sleep in male and female post-traumatic stress disorder subjects with age- and sex-matched control subjects. We used a cross-sectional, 2 × 2 design (post-traumatic stress disorder/control × female/male) involving83 medically healthy, non-medicated adults aged 19-39 years in the inpatient sleep laboratory. Visual electroencephalographic analysis demonstrated that post-traumatic stress disorder was associated with lower slow wave sleep duration (F(3,82)  = 7.63, P = 0.007) and slow wave sleep percentage (F(3,82)  = 6.11, P = 0.016). There was also a group × sex interaction effect for rapid eye movement sleep duration (F(3,82)  = 4.08, P = 0.047) and rapid eye movement sleep percentage (F(3,82)  = 4.30, P = 0.041), explained by greater rapid eye movement sleep in post-traumatic stress disorder females compared to control females, a difference not seen in male subjects. Quantitative electroencephalography analysis demonstrated that post-traumatic stress disorder was associated with lower energy in the delta spectrum (F(3,82)  = 6.79, P = 0.011) in non-rapid eye movement sleep. Slow wave sleep and delta findings were more pronounced in males. Removal of post-traumatic stress disorder subjects with comorbid major depressive disorder, who had greater post-traumatic stress disorder severity, strengthened delta effects but reduced rapid eye movement effects to non-significance. These findings support previous evidence that post

  11. About Steroids (Inhaled and Oral Corticosteroids)

    ... Medications Long-Term Control Medications About Steroids About Steroids Make an Appointment Ask a Question Refer Patient ... considerations when your dosage changes? What are corticosteroids (‘steroids’)? Corticosteroids (steroids) are medicines that are used to ...

  12. Roles of Steroids in Nematodes

    The inability of nematodes to biosynthesize steroids de novo and the resulting dependence of parasitic nematodes upon their hosts have enhanced the importance of elucidating the metabolism of sterols and the hormonal and other functions of steroids in nematodes. Biochemical research has revealed th...

  13. Evaluation of Steroid Therapy for Vestibular Neuronitis

    Yamashita, Hiroshi; Sekitani, Toru; Okami, Kenji; Endo, Shiro


    The effect of steroid therapy for vestibular neuronitis was evaluated comparing with that of non-steroid therapy. Twelve cases were treated with steroid therapy and fourteen cases ware treated with non-steroid therapy. All cases had no response of caloric test at the onset and underwent therapy within one month since onset. The results ware as follows : Dizziness was significantly reduced by steroid therapy compared with non-steroid therapy. However, there was no difference of subsiding perio...

  14. The HIV Care Cascade Measured Over Time and by Age, Sex, and Race in a Large National Integrated Care System.

    Horberg, Michael Alan; Hurley, Leo Bartemeier; Klein, Daniel Benjamin; Towner, William James; Kadlecik, Peter; Antoniskis, Diana; Mogyoros, Miguel; Brachman, Philip Sigmund; Remmers, Carol Louise; Gambatese, Rebecca Claire; Blank, Jackie; Ellis, Courtney Georgiana; Silverberg, Michael Jonah


    HIV care cascades can evaluate programmatic success over time. However, methodologies for estimating cascade stages vary, and few have evaluated differences by demographic subgroups. We examined cascade performance over time and by age, sex, and race/ethnicity in Kaiser Permanente, providing HIV care in eight US states and Washington, DC. We created cascades for HIV+ members' age ≥13 for 2010-2012. We measured "linkage" (a visit/CD4 within 90 days of being diagnosed for new patients; ≥1 medical visit/year if established); "retention" (≥2 medical visits ≥60 days apart); filled ART (filled ≥3 months of combination ART); and viral suppression (HIV RNA age, and race/ethnicity. We found men had statistically (p age was associated (p care results improved over time, but significant differences exist by patient demographics. Specifically, retention efforts should be targeted toward younger patients and blacks; women, blacks, and Latinos require greater ART prescribing.

  15. A quantitiative LC-MS/MS method for the measurement of arachidonic acid, prostanoids, endocannabinoids, N-acylethanolamines and steroids in human plasma.

    Gachet, María Salomé; Rhyn, Peter; Bosch, Oliver G; Quednow, Boris B; Gertsch, Jürg


    Free arachidonic acid is functionally interlinked with different lipid signaling networks including those involving prostanoid pathways, the endocannabinoid system, N-acylethanolamines, as well as steroids. A sensitive and specific LC-MS/MS method for the quantification of arachidonic acid, prostaglandin E2, thromboxane B2, anandamide, 2-arachidonoylglycerol, noladin ether, lineoyl ethanolamide, oleoyl ethanolamide, palmitoyl ethanolamide, steroyl ethanolamide, aldosterone, cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone, progesterone, and testosterone in human plasma was developed and validated. Analytes were extracted using acetonitrile precipitation followed by solid phase extraction. Separations were performed by UFLC using a C18 column and analyzed on a triple quadrupole MS with electron spray ionization. Analytes were run first in negative mode and, subsequently, in positive mode in two independent LC-MS/MS runs. For each analyte, two MRM transitions were collected in order to confirm identity. All analytes showed good linearity over the investigated concentration range (r>0.98). Validated LLOQs ranged from 0.1 to 190ng/mL and LODs ranged from 0.04 to 12.3ng/mL. Our data show that this LC-MS/MS method is suitable for the quantification of a diverse set of bioactive lipids in plasma from human donors (n=32). The determined plasma levels are in agreement with the literature, thus providing a versatile method to explore pathophysiological processes in which changes of these lipids are implicated.

  16. Sex and Gender Differences in Central Nervous System-Related Disorders


    There are important sex differences in the brain that seem to arise from biology as well as psychosocial influences. Sex differences in several aspects of human behavior and cognition have been reported. Gonadal sex steroids or genes found on sex chromosomes influence sex differences in neuroanatomy, neurochemistry and neuronal structure, and connectivity. There has been some resistance to accept that sex differences in the human brain exist and have biological relevance; however, a few years...

  17. Steroids and endocrine disruptors--History, recent state of art and open questions.

    Hampl, Richard; Kubátová, Jana; Stárka, Luboslav


    This introductory chapter provides an overview of the levels and sites at which endocrine disruptors (EDs) affect steroid actions. In contrast to the special issue of Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology published three years ago and devoted to EDs as such, this paper focuses on steroids. We tried to point to more recent findings and opened questions. EDs interfere with steroid biosynthesis and metabolism either as inhibitors of relevant enzymes, or at the level of their expression. Particular attention was paid to enzymes metabolizing steroid hormones to biologically active products in target cells, such as aromatase, 5α-reductase and 3β-, 11β- and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases. An important target for EDs is also steroid acute regulatory protein (StAR), responsible for steroid precursor trafficking to mitochondria. EDs influence receptor-mediated steroid actions at both genomic and non-genomic levels. The remarkable differences in response to various steroid-receptor ligands led to a more detailed investigation of events following steroid/disruptor binding to the receptors and to the mapping of the signaling cascades and nuclear factors involved. A virtual screening of a large array of EDs with steroid receptors, known as in silico methods (≡computer simulation), is another promising approach for studying quantitative structure activity relationships and docking. New data may be expected on the effect of EDs on steroid hormone binding to selective plasma transport proteins, namely transcortin and sex hormone-binding globulin. Little information is available so far on the effects of EDs on the major hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal/gonadal axes, of which the kisspeptin/GPR54 system is of particular importance. Kisspeptins act as stimulators for hormone-induced gonadotropin secretion and their expression is regulated by sex steroids via a feed-back mechanism. Kisspeptin is now believed to be one of the key factors triggering puberty in

  18. Reference values and age and sex differences in physical performance measures for community-dwelling older Japanese: a pooled analysis of six cohort studies.

    Satoshi Seino

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To determine age- and sex-specific reference values for six physical performance measures, i.e. hand-grip strength, one-legged stance, and gait speed and step length at both usual and maximum paces, and to investigate age and sex differences in these measures among community-dwelling older Japanese adults. METHODS: We conducted a pooled analysis of data from six cohort studies collected between 2002 and 2011 as part of the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology-Longitudinal Interdisciplinary Study on Aging. The pooled analysis included cross-sectional data from 4683 nondisabled, community-dwelling adults aged 65 years or older (2168 men, 2515 women; mean age: 74.0 years in men and 73.9 years in women. RESULTS: Unweighted simple mean (standard deviation hand-grip strength, one-legged stance, usual gait speed, usual gait step length, maximum gait speed, and maximum gait step length were 31.7 (6.7 kg, 39.3 (23.0 s, 1.29 (0.25 m/s, 67.7 (10.0 cm, 1.94 (0.38 m/s, and 82.3 (11.6 cm, respectively, in men and 20.4 (5.0 kg, 36.8 (23.4 s, 1.25 (0.27 m/s, 60.8 (10.0 cm, 1.73 (0.36 m/s, and 69.7 (10.8 cm, respectively, in women. All physical performance measures showed significant decreasing trends with advancing age in both sexes (all P<0.001 for trend. We also constructed age- and sex-specific appraisal standards according to quintiles. With increasing age, the sex difference in hand-grip strength decreased significantly (P<0.001 for age and sex interaction. In contrast, sex differences significantly increased in all other measures (all P<0.05 for interactions except step length at maximum pace. CONCLUSION: Our pooled analysis yielded inclusive age- and sex-specific reference values and appraisal standards for major physical performance measures in nondisabled, community-dwelling, older Japanese adults. The characteristics of age-related decline in physical performance measures differed between sexes.

  19. Medical Issues Associated with Anabolic Steroid Use: Are They Exaggerated?


    For the past 50 years anabolic steroids have been at the forefront of the controversy surrounding performance enhancing drugs. For almost half of this time no attempt was made by sports governing bodies to control its use, and only recently have all of the major sports governing bodies in North America agreed to ban from competition and punish athletes who test positive for anabolic steroids. These punitive measures were developed with the primary concern for promotion of fair play and elimin...

  20. Sex differences in subjective and objective measures of pain, functional impairment, and health-related quality of life in patients with lumbar degenerative disc disease.

    Gautschi, Oliver P; Corniola, Marco V; Smoll, Nicolas R; Joswig, Holger; Schaller, Karl; Hildebrandt, Gerhard; Stienen, Martin N


    Sex differences in pain perception are known to exist; however, the exact pathomechanism remains unclear. This work aims to elucidate sex differences in subjective and objective measures of pain, functional impairment, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients with lumbar degenerative disc disease. In a prospective 2-center study, back and leg pain (visual analogue scale [VAS]), functional disability (Oswestry Disability Index and Roland-Morris Disability Index), and HRQoL (EuroQol-5D and Short Form [SF12]) were collected for consecutive patients undergoing lumbar spine surgery. Objective functional impairment (OFI) was estimated using age-adjusted and sex-adjusted cutoff values for the timed-up-and-go (TUG) test. A healthy cohort of n = 110 subjects served as the control group. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to test the association between sex and pain, subjective and OFIs, and HRQoL. The study comprised n = 305 patients (41.6% females). Female patients had more VAS back pain (P = 0.002) and leg pain (P = 0.014). They were more likely to report higher functional impairment in terms of Oswestry Disability Index (P = 0.005). Similarly, HRQoL measured with the EuroQol-5D index (P = 0.012) and SF12 physical composite score (P = 0.005) was lower in female patients. Female patients reported higher VAS back and leg pain, functional impairment, and reduced HRQoL than male patients. However, there were no sex differences with respect to the presence and degree of OFI measured by the TUG test using age-adjusted and sex-adjusted cutoff values. As such, the TUG may be a good test to overcome sex bias for the clinical assessment of patients with degenerative disc disease.

  1. 乙烯雌酚对雌鼠生殖内分泌及下丘脑ERαmRNA表达的影响%The effects of sex steroid hormones on reproductive endocrine and hypothalamic ERαmRNA expression in the female rats



    Purpose To observe the effects of sex steroid hormones on reproductive endocrine and hypothalamic ERαmRNA expression in the female rats. Methods 16 rats from 32 female rats were randomly taken for the control group,and the remaining 16 rats were taken to couduct surgery and ovariectomy( tail clamp method was made), and after the success of modeling, it is the observation group. Each group was fed continuously for 4 weeks. Morphology of reproductive hormones and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were used to assay the hypothalamus,pituitary ERαmRNA expression. Results Compared with the normal control group,the wet weight index decreased significantly (P < 0.01 ) in the observation group. At the same time there were significant changes in uterine morphology. The expression of hypothalamus,pituitary ERαmRNA in the observation group was significantly decreased compared with the control group (P < 0.05). Conclusion The sex steroid hormones not only have an important physiological role on the reproductive system,and but also have an important role in the hypothalamus especially on the nervous system. The mechanism may be associated with elevated hypothalamic, pituitary ERαmRNA expression.%目的 观察性类固醇激素--乙烯雌酚对雌鼠生殖内分泌及下丘脑ERamRNA表达的影响.方法 健康大鼠32只随机取16只作正常对照组,其余16只均采取双侧卵巢切除手术加夹尾激怒法造模,造模成功后为观察组.两组分别连续灌胃生理盐水与乙烯雌酚4周,采用形态学观察生殖内分泌情况,采用逆转录聚合酶链反应(RT-PCR)法测定大鼠下丘脑ERαmRNA表达.结果 与正常对照组比较,观察组大鼠肾上腺湿重系明显降低(P<0.01).同时子宫形态也有明显变化.观察组大鼠下丘脑ERαmRNA的表达明显下降(P<0.05).结论 乙烯雌酚不仅对生殖系统有重要的生理作用,而且对神经系统尤其是下丘脑也具有重要作用.其作用机制

  2. Interactions among age, adiposity, bodyweight, lifestyle factors and sex steroid hormones in healthy Singaporean Chinese men%健康新加坡华裔男性年龄、肥胖症、体重、生活方式要素和性类固醇激素的相互作用

    V. H. H. Goh; T. Y. Y. Tong; H.P.P. Mok; B.Said


    Aim: To examine the inter-relationships among age, lifestyle factors, anthropometric parameters, percent body fat and steroid hormone parameters in 531 healthy Singaporean Chinese men aged between 29 and 72 years old. Methods:Various lifestyle parameters were quantified through a survey, and testosterone (T), estradiol (E2), dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS) and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) were measured using established methods.Anthropometric parameters were collected and computed, and percent body fat (Siri) was measured using the DEXA scanner. Results: SHBG, DHEAS, bioavailable-T (Bio-T), E2, Siri, Ht, W/H, W/Ht and work stress were independently correlated with age. Using multivariate analyses and adjusting for age and other related factors, exercise,smoking and alcohol consumption have positive impacts on androgen levels and body composition. However, black and green tea consumption was associated with negative effects on body composition and with higher levels of E2 and Free Estradiol Index (FEI). Men with shorter sleep duration had significantly lower T levels as compared to those with 6 h or more of nightly sleep. Higher T levels were associated with lower levels of adiposity and other indices of adiposity, whereas higher E2 levels were related to higher levels of adiposity. Men with higher DHEAS were significantly taller and heavier than those with low DHEAS levels. Conclusion: The study showed the close interactions among the gonadal/adrenal and metabolic compartments, with age being a key determinant in their interactions.Lifestyle factors such as exercise, smoking, sleeping and alcohol and tea consumption might play significantly roles in determining the status of health in men. (Asian JAndrol 2007 Sep; 9: 611-621)%目的:检测在531个年龄在29到72岁之间的健康新加坡华裔男性的年龄、生活方式要素、人体测量参数、体脂含量和类固醇激素参数的相互关系.方法:用调查量化各种生活

  3. Steroids in Athletics: One University's Experience.

    Lopez, Mike


    Presents an account of one university's experience in conducting an investigation into possible steroid use by student athletes and the development of a program to deal with the problem. Discusses why athletes use steroids and how steroids are taken. Concludes it is likely many steroid-related deaths of athletes go undetected. (Author/ABL)

  4. Steroid ulcers:Any news?

    Mario; Guslandi


    Steroid ulcers,although a common feature in experimental studies,seldom develop in clinical practice,as observed by the meta-analyses carried out in the 90s.Corticosteroids alone become ulcerogenic only if treatment lasts longer than one month and the total administered dose exceeds 1000 mg.On the other hand concomitant intake of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs results in a synergistic,highly damaging effect on the gastroduodenal mucosa.Thus,despite the survival of the steroid ulcer myth in the medical culture,pharmacological protection against steroid-induced peptic ulcers is a rare necessity while the best prophylactic strategy still remains to be determined.




    Full Text Available Anabolic androgenic steroids are used for sportive, cosmetic, therapeutic and occupational reasons and there are many side effects reported (George, 2005; Nieminen et al., 1996; O'Sullivan et al., 2000. Prevalence of anabolic steroids’ use also indicates the importance of this topic. Moreover, it is now known that use of anabolic steroids could lead to dependence which could be psychological or/and physiological (Copeland et al., 2000. It isimportant to know about all aspects of anabolic steroids including dependence. Therefore, this study has attempted to give an insight into use of anabolic steroids and dependence. The discussion will focus on prevalence, reasons, and side effects of use and physiological and psychological dependence

  6. Steroidal contraceptive vaginal rings.

    Sarkar, N N


    The development of steroid-releasing vaginal rings over the past three decades is reviewed to illustrate the role of this device as an effective hormonal contraceptive for women. Vaginal rings are made of polysiloxane rubber or ethylene-vinyl-acetate copolymer with an outer diameter of 54-60 mm and a cross-sectional diameter of 4-9.5 mm and contain progestogen only or a combination of progestogen and oestrogen. The soft flexible combined ring is inserted in the vagina for three weeks and removed for seven days to allow withdrawal bleeding. Progesterone/progestogen-only rings are kept in for varying periods and replaced without a ring-free period. Rings are in various stages of research and development but a few, such as NuvaRing, have reached the market in some countries. Women find this method easy to use, effective, well tolerated and acceptable with no serious side-effects. Though the contraceptive efficacy of these vaginal rings is high, acceptability is yet to be established.

  7. Assessment of borderline personality features in population samples: Is the Personality Assessment Inventory-Borderline Features scale measurement invariant across sex and age?

    Moor, de M.H.M.; Distel, M.A.; Trull, T.J.; Boomsma, D.I.


    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is more often diagnosed in women than in men, and symptoms tend to decline with age. Using a large community sample, the authors investigated whether sex and age differences in four main features of BPD, measured with the Personality Assessment Inventory-Borderl

  8. Assessment of Borderline Personality Features in Population Samples: Is the Personality Assessment Inventory-Borderline Features Scale Measurement Invariant across Sex and Age?

    De Moor, Marleen H. M.; Distel, Marijn A.; Trull, Timothy J.; Boomsma, Dorret I.


    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is more often diagnosed in women than in men, and symptoms tend to decline with age. Using a large community sample, the authors investigated whether sex and age differences in four main features of BPD, measured with the "Personality Assessment Inventory-Borderline Features" scale (PAI-BOR; Morey,…

  9. Exposure assessment of prepubertal children to steroid endocrine disruptors. 2. Determination of steroid hormones in milk, egg, and meat samples.

    Courant, Frédérique; Antignac, Jean-Philippe; Laille, Julie; Monteau, Fabrice; Andre, François; Le Bizec, Bruno


    In the present study, the occurrence of the main sex steroid hormones in milk, egg, and meat was evaluated on the basis of a highly specific gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry measurement method. Globally, the results indicated that targeted estrogens and androgens occurred at similar levels (concentration levels in the 10-100 ng kg (-1) range) in the analyzed muscle and milk samples. The same compounds occurred at about 10-fold higher concentrations (i.e., in the 100-1000 ng kg (-1) range) in eggs and kidney samples. More precisely, egg and milk appeared as a non-negligible sources of estradiol (i.e., 2.2 +/- 0.8 and 3.1 +/- 2.0 ng day (-1), respectively), whereas testosterone exposure is caused by ingestion of meat and/or egg (i.e., 12.2 +/- 48.2 and 5.2 +/- 2.3 ng day (-1), respectively). The provided exposure data will be further exploited in the scope of a risk assessment study regarding endocrine disruption associated with these molecules.

  10. Sex hormones modulate the immune response to Plasmodium berghei ANKA in CBA/Ca mice.

    Legorreta-Herrera, Martha; Mosqueda-Romo, Néstor Aarón; Nava-Castro, Karen Elizabeth; Morales-Rodríguez, Ana Laura; Buendía-González, Fidel Orlando; Morales-Montor, Jorge


    Susceptibility to malaria differs between females and males, and this sexual dimorphism may have important implications for the effects of vaccines and drugs. However, little is known about the mechanisms mediating these sexual differences. Because the main differences between sexes are dictated by sex hormones, we studied the effect of gonadal steroids on immune responses to malaria in CBA/Ca mice. We decreased sex hormones levels by gonadectomy and evaluated the splenic index and the cells involved in the immune response, including T cells (CD3(+), CD4(+), CD8(+) and NK(+)), B cells and macrophages (Mac-3(+)) in the spleens of female and male mice infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA. In addition, we measured antibody and cytokine levels in blood. Gonadectomy increased T(+) and B(+) splenic cells in both sexes but increased Mac-3(+) cells only in male mice. By contrast, gonadectomy decreased the NK(+) cell population only in male mice. In general, female mice developed higher antibody levels than males. Contrary to our expectations, gonadectomy increased the synthesis of IgG1, IgG2b, IgG3, and total IgG in female mice, indicating negative regulation of antibody production by female sex hormones. Gonadectomy increased the synthesis of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) only in female mice, suggesting that female sex hormones have anti-inflammatory properties. This work demonstrates that the levels of sex hormones affect the immune response and should be considered when designing malaria vaccines.

  11. The sex difference of plasma homovanillic acid is unaffected by cross-sex hormone administration in transsexual subjects

    Giltay, E.J.; Kho, King H.; Blansjaar, B.A.; Verbeek, M.M.; Geurtz, P.B.H.; Geleijnse, J.M.


    There is a close relationship between the brain and the endocrine system. The brain expresses receptors for sex steroids and is capable of metabolizing these hormones. We explored (1) sex differences in homovanillic acid (HVA), a metabolite of the neurotransmitter dopamine, and (2) the effects of cr

  12. Combinatorial effects of genistein and sex-steroids on the level of cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR), adenylate cyclase (AC) and cAMP in the cervix of ovariectomised rats.

    Salleh, Naguib; Ismail, Nurain; Muniandy, Sekaran; Korla, Praveen Kumar; Giribabu, Nelli


    The combinatorial effects of genistein and estrogen (E) or estrogen plus progesterone (E+P) on CFTR, AC and cAMP levels in cervix were investigated. Ovariectomised adult female rats received 50 or 100mg/kg/day genistein with E or E followed by E+P [E+(E+P)] for seven consecutive days. Cervixes were harvested and analyzed for CFTR mRNA levels by Real-time PCR. Distribution of AC and CFTR proteins in endocervix were observed by immunohistochemistry. Levels of cAMP were measured by enzyme-immunoassay. Molecular docking predicted interaction between genistein and AC. Our results indicate that levels of CFTR, AC and cAMP in cervix of rats receiving genistein plus E were higher than E-only treatment (pCFTR, AC and cAMP in cervix of E and E+(E+P)-treated rats by genistein could affect the cervical secretory function which could influence the female reproductive processes.

  13. The pre- and post-therapy measurement of communication skills of couples undergoing sex therapy at the Masters & Johnson Institute.

    Tullman, G M; Gilner, F H; Kolodny, R C; Dornbush, R L; Tullman, G D


    A battery of five paper and pencil questionnaires designed to measure empirically 10 specific skills hypothesized to be involved in effective interpersonal communication was employed to assess the pre- and post-therapy levels of these skills in couples undergoing treatment for sexual dysfunction at the Masters & Johnson Institute in St. Louis, Missouri. The females exhibited significant increases across the 2-week period of therapy for the following skills: positive assertion in intimate heterosexual peer relationships, assertiveness, verbal expression of feelings, and nonmaterial support and evidence of love. For the males significant increases in the following skills were obtained: assertiveness, verbal expression of feelings, self-disclosure, and tolerance of the less pleasant aspects of the loved one. A significant decrease was observed for the skill entitled feelings not expressed verbally to the loved one. Thus, both the females and males became more assertive and more able to express their feelings openly and thus more able to share more of themselves with their partners as a result of the therapy. These results lend empirical support to Masters and Johnson's theoretical model of communication and to the view that much more than simple behavior therapy is involved in a successful sex therapy program.

  14. Do sex hormones play a role in ankylosing spondylitis?

    Masi, A T


    Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) has a striking disease marker, i.e., HLA-B27, indicating the major genetic predisposition; however, expression of disease is also strongly influenced by age- and sex-related factors. Sex steroids studies suggest greater androgenicity in AS than normal control persons. Therapeutic interventions that normalize such sex steroid status have shown clinical improvements in males and females. Muscle histopathology in AS shows frequent changes early in disease consistent with neuropathic and myopathic mechanisms of a noninflammatory nature. Accepting the available, aggregate data, one may infer that sex steroid imbalance in persons susceptible to AS may target axial and proximal muscle tissues, resulting in relative functional hypertonicity. Such phenomenon, developing in preteen and younger adult ages, may contribute to peripheral and axial manifestations of enthesopathy in this disease by complex and currently unknown mechanisms.

  15. Seasonal modulation of immunity by melatonin and gonadal steroids in a short day breeder goat Capra hircus.

    Ghosh, Somenath; Singh, Amaresh K; Haldar, Chandana


    Role of melatonin in regulation of immunity and reproduction has never been studied in detail in goats. The aim of the present study was to explore hormonal regulation of immunity in goats with special reference to melatonin. Plasma of male and female goats (n = 18 per sex per season) was processed for hormonal (estrogen, testostrone, and melatonin) and cytokine (interleukin [IL-2], IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor α) measurements during three seasons, i.e., summer, monsoon, and winter. To assess cell-mediated immune response, percent stimulation ratio of thymocytes was recorded during three seasons. To support and establish the modulation by hormones, Western blot analysis for expressions of melatonin receptors (MT1, MT2), androgen receptor, and estrogen receptor α and estimations of marker enzymes, arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase for melatonin and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activities for steroidogenesis were performed in thymus. All the hormones and cytokines were estimated by commercial kits. Biochemical, immunologic, and Western blot analyses were done by standardized protocols. We noted a significant increase in estrogen and testosterone levels (P < 0.05) in circulation during monsoon along with melatonin (P < 0.05) presenting a parallel relationship. Expressions of melatonin receptors (MT1 and MT2) in thymus of both the sexes were significantly high (P < 0.01) during winter. Estrogen receptor α expression in female thymus was significantly high during monsoon (P < 0.05). However, androgen receptor showed almost static expression pattern in male thymus during three seasons. Further, both arylalkylamineN-acetyltransferase and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase enzyme activities were significantly high (P < 0.05; P < 0.01, respectively) during monsoon. These results suggest that there may be a functional parallelism between gonadal steroids and melatonin as melatonin is progonadotrophic in goats. Cell-mediated immune parameters (percent stimulation

  16. Psychological, social, and spiritual effects of contraceptive steroid hormones.

    Klaus, Hanna; Cortés, Manuel E


    Governments and society have accepted and enthusiastically promoted contraception, especially contraceptive steroid hormones, as the means of assuring optimal timing and number of births, an undoubted health benefit, but they seldom advert to their limitations and side effects. This article reviews the literature on the psychological, social, and spiritual impact of contraceptive steroid use. While the widespread use of contraceptive steroid hormones has expanded life style and career choices for many women, their impact on the women's well-being, emotions, social relationships, and spirituality is seldom mentioned by advocates, and negative effects are often downplayed. When mentioned at all, depression and hypoactive sexual desire are usually treated symptomatically rather than discontinuing their most frequent pharmacological cause, the contraceptive. The rising incidence of premarital sex and cohabitation and decreased marriage rates parallel the use of contraceptive steroids as does decreased church attendance and/or reduced acceptance of Church teaching among Catholics. Lay summary: While there is wide, societal acceptance of hormonal contraceptives to space births, their physical side effects are often downplayed and their impact on emotions and life styles are largely unexamined. Coincidental to the use of "the pill" there has been an increase in depression, low sexual desire, "hook-ups," cohabitation, delay of marriage and childbearing, and among Catholics, decreased church attendance and reduced religious practice. Fertility is not a disease. Birth spacing can be achieved by natural means, and the many undesirable effects of contraception avoided.

  17. Anabolic steroids are fool's gold.

    Ryan, A J


    Since increases in muscle strength are proportional to increases in the cross-sectional diameter of the muscles being trained, the body must convert greater than normal amounts of amino acids available to it to increase size in athletes in training. When androgens became available in the 1930's they were used primarily to restore positive nitrogen balance in victims of starvation. Anabolic steroids, which were developed to avoid unwanted effects of androgens, were first given to weight lifters, but football players and weight throwers were soon using them. From 1965 to 1977, 25 clinical studies were published dealing with the administration of an anabolic-androgenic steroid to adult human males for evaluating changes in strength and, in 10 of these studies, in maximum oxygen consumption. In 12 of these studies, improvements were claimed from the use of these steroids; in the other 13 no improvements were observed. Other studies have shown that in healthy adult males these steroids reduce testosterone and gonadotrophin output, which reduces spermatogenesis. Alterations of normal liver function have been found in up to 80% of persons treated with C17-alkylated testosterone derivatives. Peliosis hepatitis, with liver failure and death, and fatal liver cancer have also been reported in adults so treated. Reliable methods for detecting anabolic steroids in the urine are now used in certain international competitions. Testing, announced bans, and disqualifications have not been effective in controlling the use of the drugs. The best hope for doing so lies in continuing education of athletes and their supervisors.

  18. Chinical Analysis of Steroid Glaucoma

    LingxunKong; ChengZhang


    Purpose:The authors accumulated 15cases(26eyes)of steroid glaucoma due to topical administration of dexamethasone or prednisolone.Methods:From1970to 1990,26eyesin 15cases were observed(Bilateral11cas-es,unilateral4cases)including 12right eyes and 14left eyes.10cases were male and 5cases female with age ranging from14to52years averaging 28years.25eyes had the manifestation of chronic open angle glaucoma in the clinical coures,and 1eye simulated an acute glaucoma attack.Results:All patents had taken antiglaucoma medication before coming to our ohs-pital,but theIOPwas over6.7kPa in9eyes.TheC/Dration was equal to or over0.6in 9cases(16eyes).and the values were inconsistent between both eyes in 55%of the patients.Treatment for glaucoma was immediate discontinuation of the steroids with antiglaucoma medication if necessary.Three eyes received filter-ing operations and 2eyes had the removal of subconjunctival residual steroid.Normal IOPwas restored in monyths up to a year.Conclusion:Dexamethasone of prednisolone were the easiest to induce steroid glaucoma when the patients had long0term use of steroid eyedrops.

  19. Sex Stereotype



    This paper analyzes the social phenomenon—sex stereotype.The paper illustrates the characteristics of stereotype and discusses about the factors which influence sex stereotypes and the reasons of its existence.And it also found the positive role that sex stereotype plays in the communication.

  20. Sex Steroids and Bone Health Status in Men

    Kok-Yong Chin


    Full Text Available Male osteoporosis is a health problem which deserves more attention as nearly 30% of osteoporotic fractures happen in men aged 50 years and above. Although men do not experience an accelerated bone loss phase and testosterone deficiency is not a universal characteristic for aged men, osteoporosis due to age-related testosterone deficiency does have a negative impact on bone health status of men. Observations from epidemiological studies indicate that elderly men with higher testosterone can preserve their BMD better and thus are less prone to fracture. Observations on men with estrogen resistance or aromatase deficiency indicate that estrogen is equally important in the maintenance of bone health status. This had been validated in several epidemiological studies which found that the relationships between estrogen and bone health indices are significant and sometimes stronger than testosterone. Studies on the relationship between quantitative ultrasound and bone remodeling markers suggest that testosterone and estrogen may have differential effects on bone, but further evidence was needed. In conclusion, both testosterone and estrogen are important in the maintenance of bone health in men.

  1. A New Measure of the Perceived Influence of Sexually Explicit Online Media on the Sexual Behaviors of Men Who Have Sex With Men.

    Nelson, Kimberly M; Pantalone, David W; Gamarel, Kristi E; Simoni, Jane M


    Men who have sex with men (MSM) frequently consume sexually explicit online media (SEOM), yet little is known about its influence on their sexual behaviors. We describe a sequence of four studies to develop and psychometrically validate a measure of the perceived influence of sexually explicit online media (PI-SEOM) on the sexual behaviors of MSM. Study 1 involved qualitative interviews (N = 28) and a quantitative survey (N = 100) to develop a preliminary measure. Using an Internet sample of MSM (N = 1,170), we assessed its factor structure and reliability in Studies 2 and 3 as well as convergent validity and associations with HIV-related sexual risk in Study 4. Based on findings the measure was divided into two subscales: influences on (1) self and (2) other MSM. Factor analyses confirmed a two-factor model for each subscale, measuring perceived influences on (a) general sexual scripts and (b) condomless sex scripts. Survey results indicated that the more men perceived SEOM influencing their own condomless sex scripts, the more likely they were to report engaging in sexual risk behaviors. The developed measure holds promise for assessing the influence of SEOM on the sexual behaviors of MSM and may prove useful for HIV-prevention research.

  2. Steroid-binding receptors in fungi: implication for systemic mycoses

    Mostafa chadeganipour


    Full Text Available It has been shown that some of the mycotic infections especially systemic mycoses show increased male susceptibility and some steroids have been known to influence the immune response. Researchers found that some fungi including yeasts use "message molecules" including hormones to elicit certain responses, especially in the sexual cycle, but until recently no evidence was available to link specific hormonal evidence to this pronounced sex ratio. More evidence needed to demonstrate that a steroid (s might in some manner influence the pathogenicity of the fungus in vivo. Therefore, the aim of this review paper is to shed some light on this subject along with effort to make mycologists more aware of this research as a stimulus for the explore of new ideas and design further research in this area of medical mycology.

  3. From molecule to market: steroid hormones and financial risk-taking.

    Coates, John M; Gurnell, Mark; Sarnyai, Zoltan


    Little is known about the role of the endocrine system in financial decision-making. Here, we survey research on steroid hormones and their cognitive effects, and examine potential links to trader performance in the financial markets. Preliminary findings suggest that cortisol codes for risk and testosterone for reward. A key finding of this endocrine research is the different cognitive effects of acute versus chronic exposure to hormones: acutely elevated steroids may optimize performance on a range of tasks; but chronically elevated steroids may promote irrational risk-reward choices. We present a hypothesis suggesting that the irrational exuberance and pessimism observed during market bubbles and crashes may be mediated by steroid hormones. If hormones can exaggerate market moves, then perhaps the age and sex composition among traders and asset managers may affect the level of instability witnessed in the financial markets.

  4. Isolation Of Compounds Of Steroids Teripang Gamat (Stichopus variegatus With Various Types Of Solvents

    Meydia Meydia


    Full Text Available Sea cucumber is one of the fisheries commodity that has an important economic value. Generally istraded in dried form (beche-de-mer. One of thebioactive substances contained in sea cucumber is steroidcompounds that serves as an aphrodisiac and sex reversal. The purpose of this study was to extract thesteroid of the gamma sea cucumber by using three types of solvents (methanol, ethyl acetate and hexaneand get the best solvent in producing the highest yield of the steroids. The study revealed that steroid ofgamma sea cucumber (Stichopus variegatus dissolved completely ethyl acetate (semi-polar solvent duringthe first phase, second phase and the third phase of extraction. In the methanol (polar solvent steroids onlydissolved in the first extraction phase, while using the hexane (non polar solvent steroid was undetectable.Fractionation by thin layer chromatography was obtained two fractions that identified as cholesterol (Rf =0.96 and testosterone (Rf = 0.91.

  5. Hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls decrease circulating steroids in female polar bears (Ursus maritimus)

    Gustavson, Lisa; Ciesielski, Tomasz M; Bytingsvik, Jenny;


    As a top predator in the Arctic food chain, polar bears (Ursus maritimus) are exposed to high levels of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Because several of these compounds have been reported to alter endocrine pathways, such as the steroidogenesis, potential disruption of the sex steroid...... synthesis by POPs may cause implications for reproduction by interfering with ovulation, implantation and fertility. Blood samples were collected from 15 female polar bears in Svalbard (Norway) in April 2008. The concentrations of nine circulating steroid hormones; dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA......-metabolites (hydroxylated PCBs [OH-PCBs] and hydroxylated PBDEs [OH-PBDEs]), steroid hormones, biological and capture variables in female polar bears. Inverse correlations were found between circulating levels of PRE and AN, and circulating levels of OH-PCBs. There were no significant relationships between the steroid...

  6. Sex and gender in psychoneuroimmunology research: past, present and future.

    Darnall, Beth D; Suarez, Edward C


    To date, research suggests that sex and gender impact pathways central to the foci of psychoneuroimmunology (PNI). This review provides a historical perspective on the evolution of sex and gender in psychoneuroimmunology research. Gender and sexually dimorphic pathways may have synergistic effects on health differences in men and women. We provide an overview of the literature of sex and gender differences in brain structure and function, sex steroids, gender role identification, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function, genetics, immunology and cytokine response. Specific examples shed light on the importance of attending to sex and gender methodology in PNI research and recommendations are provided.

  7. Medical issues associated with anabolic steroid use: are they exaggerated?

    Hoffman, Jay R; Ratamess, Nicholas A


    For the past 50 years anabolic steroids have been at the forefront of the controversy surrounding performance enhancing drugs. For almost half of this time no attempt was made by sports governing bodies to control its use, and only recently have all of the major sports governing bodies in North America agreed to ban from competition and punish athletes who test positive for anabolic steroids. These punitive measures were developed with the primary concern for promotion of fair play and eliminating potential health risks associated with androgenic-anabolic steroids. Yet, controversy exists whether these testing programs deter anabolic steroid use. Although the scope of this paper does not focus on the effectiveness of testing, or the issue of fair play, it is of interest to understand why many athletes underestimate the health risks associated from these drugs. What creates further curiosity is the seemingly well-publicized health hazards that the medical community has depicted concerning anabolic steroidabuse. Is there something that the athletes know, or are they simply naïve regarding the dangers? The focus of this review is to provide a brief history of anabolic steroid use in North America, the prevalence of its use in both athletic and recreational populations and its efficacy. Primary discussion will focus on health issues associated with anabolic steroid use with an examination of the contrasting views held between the medical community and the athletes that are using these ergogenic drugs. Existing data suggest that in certain circumstances the medical risk associated with anabolic steroid use may have been somewhat exaggerated, possibly to dissuade use in athletes. Key PointsFor many years the scientific and medical communities depicted a lack of efficacy and serious adverse effects from anabolic steroid use.Clinical case studies continue to link anabolic steroid administration with myocardial infarct, suicide, and cancer, evidence to support a cause and

  8. Refractory strictures despite steroid injection after esophageal endoscopic resection

    Hanaoka, Noboru; Ishihara, Ryu; Uedo, Noriya; Takeuchi, Yoji; Higashino, Koji; Akasaka, Tomofumi; Kanesaka, Takashi; Matsuura, Noriko; Yamasaki, Yasushi; Hamada, Kenta; Iishi, Hiroyasu


    Background: Although steroid injection prevents stricture after esophageal endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD), some patients require repeated sessions of endoscopic balloon dilation (EBD). We investigated the risk for refractory stricture despite the administration of steroid injections to prevent stricture in patients undergoing esophageal ESD. Refractory stricture was defined as the requirement for more than three sessions of EBD to resolve the stricture. In addition, the safety of steroid injections was assessed based on the rate of complications. Patients and methods: We analyzed data from 127 consecutive patients who underwent esophageal ESD and had mucosal defects with a circumferential extent greater than three-quarters of the esophagus. To prevent stricture, steroid injection was performed. EBD was performed whenever a patient had symptoms of dysphagia. Results: The percentage of patients with a tumor circumferential extent greater than 75 % was significantly higher in those with refractory stricture than in those without stricture (P = 0.001). Multivariate analysis adjusted for age, sex, history of radiation therapy, tumor location, and tumor diameter showed that a tumor circumferential extent greater than 75 % was an independent risk factor for refractory stricture (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 5.49 [95 %CI 1.91 – 15.84], P = 0.002). Major adverse events occurred in 3 patients (2.4 %): perforation during EBD in 2 patients and delayed perforation after EBD in 1 patient. The patient with delayed perforation underwent esophagectomy because of mediastinitis. Conclusions: A tumor circumferential extent greater than 75 % is an independent risk factor for refractory stricture despite steroid injections. The development of more extensive interventions is warranted to prevent refractory stricture. PMID:27004256

  9. Hypochlorite Oxidation of Select Androgenic Steroids

    Steroid hormones are vital for regulation of various biological functions including sexual development. Elevated concentrations of natural and synthetic androgenic steroids have been shown to adversely affect normal development in indigenous aqueous species. Androgens and their s...

  10. Determination of steroids in manure and soil

    Hansen, Martin; Björklund, Bengt Erland; Halling-Sørensen, Bent

    A genuine analytical method to determine native steroids (pregnenolone, progesterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, androstenedione, testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, estrone, 17b-estradiol, and 17a-estradiol) and one anthropogenic steroid (ethynylestradiol) in environmental solid samples is presented...

  11. Sex differences in general intelligence: a psychometric investigation of group differences in mean and variability as measured by the Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices

    Savage-McGlynn, Emily


    Approved hardbound copy has subtitle "a psychometric investigation of group differences in mean and variability as measured by the Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices Plus" Researchers and the general public alike continue to debate ‘which is the smarter sex?’ Research to date suggests that males outperform females, females outperform males, while others find no differences in mean or variance. These inconsistent results are thought to occur for two reasons. First, studies rely on opport...

  12. Endocrine correlates of musth in free-ranging Asian elephants (Elephas maximus determined by non-invasive faecal steroid hormone metabolite measurements.

    Ratna Ghosal

    Full Text Available The occurrence of musth, a period of elevated levels of androgens and heightened sexual activity, has been well documented for the male Asian elephant (Elephas maximus. However, the relationship between androgen-dependent musth and adrenocortical function in this species is unclear. The current study is the first assessment of testicular and adrenocortical function in free-ranging male Asian elephants by measuring levels of testosterone (androgen and cortisol (glucocorticoid--a physiological indicator of stress metabolites in faeces. During musth, males expectedly showed significant elevation in faecal testosterone metabolite levels. Interestingly, glucocorticoid metabolite concentrations remained unchanged between musth and non-musth periods. This observation is contrary to that observed with wild and captive African elephant bulls and captive Asian bull elephants. Our results show that musth may not necessarily represent a stressful condition in free-ranging male Asian elephants.


    Jay R. Hoffman


    Full Text Available For the past 50 years anabolic steroids have been at the forefront of the controversy surrounding performance enhancing drugs. For almost half of this time no attempt was made by sports governing bodies to control its use, and only recently have all of the major sports governing bodies in North America agreed to ban from competition and punish athletes who test positive for anabolic steroids. These punitive measures were developed with the primary concern for promotion of fair play and eliminating potential health risks associated with androgenic-anabolic steroids. Yet, controversy exists whether these testing programs deter anabolic steroid use. Although the scope of this paper does not focus on the effectiveness of testing, or the issue of fair play, it is of interest to understand why many athletes underestimate the health risks associated from these drugs. What creates further curiosity is the seemingly well-publicized health hazards that the medical community has depicted concerning anabolic steroidabuse. Is there something that the athletes know, or are they simply naïve regarding the dangers? The focus of this review is to provide a brief history of anabolic steroid use in North America, the prevalence of its use in both athletic and recreational populations and its efficacy. Primary discussion will focus on health issues associated with anabolic steroid use with an examination of the contrasting views held between the medical community and the athletes that are using these ergogenic drugs. Existing data suggest that in certain circumstances the medical risk associated with anabolic steroid use may have been somewhat exaggerated, possibly to dissuade use in athletes

  14. Steroid injections - tendon, bursa, joint

    ... PA: Elsevier Mosby; 2014:chap 71. Schrank KS. Joint disorders. In: Adams JG, ed. Emergency Medicine. 2nd ed. ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Joint Disorders Steroids Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., ...

  15. Steroidal Triterpenes of Cholesterol Synthesis

    Damjana Rozman


    Full Text Available Cholesterol synthesis is a ubiquitous and housekeeping metabolic pathway that leads to cholesterol, an essential structural component of mammalian cell membranes, required for proper membrane permeability and fluidity. The last part of the pathway involves steroidal triterpenes with cholestane ring structures. It starts by conversion of acyclic squalene into lanosterol, the first sterol intermediate of the pathway, followed by production of 20 structurally very similar steroidal triterpene molecules in over 11 complex enzyme reactions. Due to the structural similarities of sterol intermediates and the broad substrate specificity of the enzymes involved (especially sterol-Δ24-reductase; DHCR24 the exact sequence of the reactions between lanosterol and cholesterol remains undefined. This article reviews all hitherto known structures of post-squalene steroidal triterpenes of cholesterol synthesis, their biological roles and the enzymes responsible for their synthesis. Furthermore, it summarises kinetic parameters of enzymes (Vmax and Km and sterol intermediate concentrations from various tissues. Due to the complexity of the post-squalene cholesterol synthesis pathway, future studies will require a comprehensive meta-analysis of the pathway to elucidate the exact reaction sequence in different tissues, physiological or disease conditions. A major reason for the standstill of detailed late cholesterol synthesis research was the lack of several steroidal triterpene standards. We aid to this efforts by summarizing commercial and laboratory standards, referring also to chemical syntheses of meiosis-activating sterols.

  16. Are Steroids Worth the Risk?

    ... steroidal supplements, which used to be found at health food stores or gyms, are now illegal and require a prescription. DHEA ... career can be destroyed. And there are serious health consequences. When ... to try to improve your athletic performance. Being a star athlete means ...

  17. Steroid profiling in doping analysis

    Kerkhof, Daniël Henri van de


    Profiling androgens in urine samples is used in doping analysis for the detection of abused steroids of endogenous origin. These profiling techniques were originally developed for the analysis of testosterone, mostly by means of the ratio of testosterone to epitestosterone (T/E ratio). A study was p

  18. Sundhedspolitik på steroider

    Christiansen, Ask Vest


    Danmark er det land i verden der har valgt den måske mest drastiske metode til bekæmpelse af brug af anabole androgene steroider (AAS) i fitness- og styrketræningsmiljøerne. Ikke pga. oplysningskampagnerne, samarbejdet med SKAT eller at AAS er ulovlige. Der hvor Danmark skiller sig ud er ved brugen...

  19. Adolescents and Steroids: A User Perspective.

    Office of Inspector General (DHHS), Washington, DC.

    Anabolic-androgenic steroids ("steroids") are synthetic derivatives of the natural male hormone testosterone. They were first used non-medically by elite athletes seeking to improve performance. More recently, however, steroid use has filtered down to high school and junior high school levels. The purpose of this study was to describe…

  20. Alterations in testicular histology and the mRNAs of enzymes responsible for sex steroid synthesis in the zebrafish Danio rerio exposed to nonyphenol%壬基酚对斑马鱼精巢组织及性激素合成酶基因表达的影响

    刘晓丽; 汪奇; 贾林芝; 周忠良


    壬基酚(NP)是广泛存在于水体中的环境内分泌干扰物,会影响鱼类的生殖和发育.为了解NP影响鱼类精巢发育的分子机制,将成年雄性斑马鱼(Danio rerio)暴露于不同浓度(0、125、250、500μg·L-1)NP下21d,用常规组织学方法研究试验鱼精巢组织结构的变化,并用荧光定量PCR(QRT-PCR)方法检测试验鱼精巢性激素合成酶及雌、雄激素受体(ERα、AR)基因的表达.结果表明,暴露于250μg·L-1NP的斑马鱼精巢内精子及精小囊的数目减少,非细胞区域增加;500μg·L-1NP组斑马鱼生精小管内精子凝集于管腔中央.250μg·L-1NP可导致精巢CYP17mRNA的表达量显著下调,125μg·L-1NP可导致CYP11B mRNA的表达量显著下调,并呈现出明显的负剂量-效应关系.但是,NP对精巢AR mRNA的表达无明显影响,精巢中CYP19A mRNA及ERαmRNA的表达与NP暴露浓度之间呈正剂量-效应关系,125μg·L-1NP即可显著上调CYP19A mRNA及ERαmRNA的表达.NP可通过抑制精巢中雄激素合成相关酶基因的表达影响精巢发育,同时可诱导精巢内源雌激素合成和雌激素受体的表达,提高雌激素效应.%Nonylphenol (NP),an aquatic endocrine disruptor,is known to be capable of adversely affecting fish development and reproduction.In order to elucidate the molecular mechanisms for the harmful effects of NP on testicular development in fish,the male zebrafish Danio rerio were exposed to 0,125,250 and 500 μg·L-1 NP for 21 days.Histological alterations in the testis and the mRNAs of enzymes responsible for sex steroid synthesis,estrogen receptor α (ERα) and androgen receptor (AR) were subsequently investigated.Histologically,the fish treated with 250 μg·L-1 NP exhibited reduced numbers of both spermatocyst and spermatozoan and an enlargement of acellular zone.In the fish exposed to 500 μg·L-1 NP,sperms were found to be congregated in the lumen of seminiferous tubules.Downregulation of

  1. Sex differences in the serotonin 1A receptor and serotonin transporter binding in the human brain measured by PET.

    Jovanovic, Hristina; Lundberg, Johan; Karlsson, Per; Cerin, Asta; Saijo, Tomoyuki; Varrone, Andrea; Halldin, Christer; Nordström, Anna-Lena


    Women and men differ in serotonin associated psychiatric conditions, such as depression, anxiety and suicide. Despite this, very few studies focus on sex differences in the serotonin system. Of the biomarkers in the serotonin system, serotonin(1A) (5-HT(1A)) receptor is implicated in depression, and anxiety and serotonin transporter (5-HTT) is a target for selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, psychotropic drugs used in the treatment of these disorders. The objective of the present study was to study sex related differences in the 5-HT(1A) receptor and 5-HTT binding potentials (BP(ND)s) in healthy humans, in vivo. Positron emission tomography and selective radioligands [(11)C]WAY100635 and [(11)C]MADAM were used to evaluate binding potentials for 5-HT(1A) receptors (14 women and 14 men) and 5-HTT (8 women and 10 men). The binding potentials were estimated both on the level of anatomical regions and voxel wise, derived by the simplified reference tissue model and wavelet/Logan plot parametric image techniques respectively. Compared to men, women had significantly higher 5-HT(1A) receptor and lower 5-HTT binding potentials in a wide array of cortical and subcortical brain regions. In women, there was a positive correlation between 5-HT(1A) receptor and 5-HTT binding potentials for the region of hippocampus. Sex differences in 5-HT(1A) receptor and 5-HTT BP(ND) may reflect biological distinctions in the serotonin system contributing to sex differences in the prevalence of psychiatric disorders such as depression and anxiety. The result of the present study may help in understanding sex differences in drug treatment responses to drugs affecting the serotonin system.

  2. Increased serum levels of C21 steroids in female patients with multiple sclerosis.

    Kanceva, R; Stárka, L; Kancheva, L; Hill, M; Veliková, M; Havrdová, E


    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is one of the most common neurological diseases. This neurodegenerative autoimmune disease manifests as inflammatory and demyelinating impairment of the central nervous system (CNS). Although some studies demonstrated associations between altered steroidogenesis and pathophysiology of MS as well as the importance of steroids in the pathophysiology of MS, the knowledge concerning the steroid metabolome in female patients is limited. Hence, 51 steroids and steroid polar conjugates were measured in the serum of 12 women with MS, untreated with steroids and 6 age-corresponding female controls with the use of gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The data were processed using age adjusted ANCOVA, receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis and orthogonal projections to latent structures (OPLS). Our data show higher levels of circulating C21 steroids including steroid modulators of ionotropic type A gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA A) receptors and glutamate receptors. Furthermore, the levels of GABAergic androsterone and 5-androsten-3beta,7alpha,17beta-triol were also higher in the female MS patients. In conclusion, the data demonstrate higher levels of circulating C21 steroids and their polar conjugates and some bioactive C19 steroids in women with MS, which may influence neuronal activity and affect the balance between neuroprotection and excitotoxicity.

  3. Comprehensive Analysis of Hormone and Genetic Variation in 36 Genes Related to Steroid Hormone Metabolism in Pre- and Postmenopausal Women from the Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3)

    Beckmann, L.; Husing, A.; Setiawan, V. W.;


    Context: Sex steroids play a central role in breast cancer development.Objective: This study aimed to relate polymorphic variants in 36 candidate genes in the sex steroid pathway to serum concentrations of sex steroid hormones and SHBG.Design: Data on 700 genetic polymorphisms were combined...... with existing hormone assays and data on breast cancer incidence, within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) and the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) cohorts; significant findings were reanalyzed in the Multiethnic Cohort (MEC).Setting and Participants: We analyzed data from...

  4. Sexual size dimorphism and sex determination by morphometric measurements in locally adapted muscovy duck (Cairina moschata) in Nigeria:


    Sexual size dimorphism (SSD) is a common phenomenon in most mammalian and poultry species. This study was undertaken to investigate SSD in nondescript locally adapted Muscovy ducks in Nigeria by applying descriptive analysis, sexual dimorphism index (SDI), sexual size dimorphism index (SSDI) and Principal Component analysis to morphological variables. Besides, attempt was made to identify best morphological predictors of sex using Stepwise Discriminant analysis. Data on ten morphological trai...

  5. Steroid use in acute liver failure

    Karkhanis, Jamuna; Verna, Elizabeth C; Chang, Matthew S;


    UNLABELLED: Drug-induced and indeterminate acute liver failure (ALF) might be due to an autoimmune-like hepatitis that is responsive to corticosteroid therapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether corticosteroids improve survival in fulminant autoimmune hepatitis, drug......-induced, or indeterminate ALF, and whether this benefit varies according to the severity of illness. We conducted a retrospective analysis of autoimmune, indeterminate, and drug-induced ALF patients in the Acute Liver Failure Study Group from 1998-2007. The primary endpoints were overall and spontaneous survival (SS......, survival without transplant). In all, 361 ALF patients were studied, 66 with autoimmune (25 steroids, 41 no steroids), 164 with indeterminate (21 steroids, 143 no steroids), and 131 with drug-induced (16 steroids, 115 no steroids) ALF. Steroid use was not associated with improved overall survival (61...

  6. Measuring social desirability across language and sex: A comparison of Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale factor structures in English and Mandarin Chinese in Malaysia.

    Kurz, A Solomon; Drescher, Christopher F; Chin, Eu Gene; Johnson, Laura R


    Malaysia is a Southeast Asian country in which multiple languages are prominently spoken, including English and Mandarin Chinese. As psychological science continues to develop within Malaysia, there is a need for psychometrically sound instruments that measure psychological phenomena in multiple languages. For example, assessment tools for measuring social desirability could be a useful addition in psychological assessments and research studies in a Malaysian context. This study examined the psychometric performance of the English and Mandarin Chinese versions of the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale when used in Malaysia. Two hundred and eighty-three students (64% female; 83% Chinese, 9% Indian) from two college campuses completed the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale in their language of choice (i.e., English or Mandarin Chinese). Proposed factor structures were compared with confirmatory factor analysis, and multiple indicators-multiple causes models were used to examine measurement invariance across language and sex. Factor analyses supported a two-factor structure (i.e., Attribution and Denial) for the measure. Invariance tests revealed the scale was invariant by sex, indicating that social desirability can be interpreted similarly across sex. The scale was partially invariant by language version, with some non-invariance observed within the Denial factor. Non-invariance may be related to differences in the English and Mandarin Chinese languages, as well as cultural differences. Directions for further research include examining the measurement of social desirability in other contexts where both English and Mandarin Chinese are spoken (i.e., China) and further examining the causes of non-invariance on specific items.

  7. The future of steroids in female contraception.

    Djerassi, C


    Given the lack of innovative advances in contraceptive research in past decades, steroid ovulation inhibitors are likely to play an even more significant role in female contraception by the year 2000. In developed countries in particular, oral contraceptive (OC) use is likely to increase in the next 15 years. In the US, where OC use has fallen from a high of 10 million users to the current level of 8 million acceptors, the pill's popularity is expected to rise again. This is due to 4 factors: 1) the discovery, through recent epidemiologic studies, of numerous noncontraceptive benefits of OC use that outweigh any deleterious effects; 2) the product litigation phenomenon, which has resulted in the withdrawal of IUDs from the US market, is not affecting the pharmaceutical companies that have an important stake in the OC market; 3) reductions in the daily dosage of the progestational and estrogenic components of OCs have led to less concern about possible longterm side effects; and 4) a political climate favoring restrictions on abortion is likely to increase reliance on highly effective methods of fertility control. In developing countries, long-acting (up to 5 years) subdermal silastic implants of progestogen-releasing devices are likely to find increasing acceptance. The only fundamentally new development in contraceptive technology that has any chance of being available by the year 2000 is use of sex-hormone-binding protein receptors for postcoital fertility control.

  8. Influence of Music on Steroid Hormones and the Relationship between Receptor Polymorphism and Musical Ability: a Pilot Study

    Hajime eFukui


    Full Text Available Studies have shown that music confers plasticity to the brain. In a preliminary pilot study, we examined the effect of music listening on steroid hormones and the relationship between steroid hormone receptor polymorphisms and musical ability. Twenty-one subjects (10 males and 11 females were recruited and divided into musically talented and control groups. The subjects selected (1 music they preferred (chill-inducing music and (2 music they did not like. Before and after the experiments, saliva was collected to measure the levels of steroid hormones such as testosterone, estradiol, and cortisol. DNA was also isolated from the saliva samples to determine the androgen receptor and arginine vasopressin receptor 1A genotypes. Advanced Measures of Music Audiation (AMMA was used to determine the musical ability of the subjects. With both types of music, the cortisol levels decreased significantly in both sexes. The testosterone (T levels declined in males when they listened to both types of music. In females, the T levels increased in those listening to chill-inducing music but declined when they listened to music they disliked. However, these differences were not significant. The 17-beta estradiol levels increased in males with both types of music, whereas the levels increased with chill-inducing music but declined with disliked music in females. The AMMA scores were higher for the short repeat length-type AR than for the long repeat length-type. Comparisons of AR polymorphisms and T levels before the experiments showed that the T levels were within the low range in the short repeat length-type group and there was a positive relationship with the repeat length, although it was not significant. This is the first study conducted in humans to analyze the relationships between the AR gene, T levels, and musical ability.

  9. Isolation Of Compounds Of Steroids Teripang Gamat (Stichopus variegatus With Various Types Of Solvents

    Meydia Meydia


    Full Text Available AbstractSea cucumber is one of the fisheries commodity that has an important economic value. Generally is traded in dried form (beche-de-mer. One of thebioactive substances contained in sea cucumber is steroid compounds that serves as an aphrodisiac and sex reversal. The purpose of this study was to extract the steroid of the gamma sea cucumber by using three types of solvents (methanol, ethyl acetate and hexane and get the best solvent in producing the highest yield of the steroids. The study revealed that steroid of gamma sea cucumber (Stichopus variegatus dissolved completely ethyl acetate (semi-polar solvent during the first phase, second phase and the third phase of extraction. In the methanol (polar solvent steroids only dissolved in the first extraction phase, while using the hexane (non polar solvent steroid was undetectable. Fractionation by thin layer chromatography was obtained two fractions that identified as cholesterol (Rf = 0.96 and testosterone (Rf = 0.91.

  10. Modulation of follistatin and myostatin propeptide by anabolic steroids and gender.

    Mosler, S; Geisler, S; Hengevoss, J; Schiffer, T; Piechotta, M; Adler, M; Diel, P


    The purpose of this pilot study was to investigate the impact of training, anabolic steroids and endogenous hormones on myostatin-interacting proteins in order to identify manipulations of myostatin signalling. To identify whether analysis of the myostatin interacting proteins follistatin and myostatin propeptide is suitable to detect the abuse of anabolic steroids, their serum concentrations were monitored in untrained males, bodybuilders using anabolic steroids and natural bodybuilders. In addition, we analysed follistatin and myostatin propeptide serum proteins in females during menstrual cycle. Our results showed increased follistatin concentrations in response to anabolic steroids. Furthermore, variations of sex steroid levels during the menstrual cycle had no impact on the expression of follistatin and myostatin propetide. In addition, we identified gender differences in the basal expression of the investigated proteins. In general, follistatin and myostatin propeptide concentrations were relatively stable within the same individual both in males and females. In conclusion, the current findings provide an insight into gender differences in myostatin-interacting proteins and their regulation in response to anabolic steroids and endogenous hormones. Therefore our data provide new aspects for the development of doping prevention strategies.

  11. Annual maturation of testis correlated with sex steroids level in male barfin flounder broodstocks%条斑星鲽精巢年周期发育规律和血液性类固醇激素含量变化

    李春广; 柳学周; 徐永江; 王妍妍; 孙中之


    采用组织学方法和放射免疫法(RIA)等技术方法,研究了人工养殖条件下条斑星鲽雄性亲鱼精巢发育规律和性类固醇激素的年周期变化规律.实验结果表明,条斑星鲽精巢中可见5个时相的生殖细胞类型,精巢发育可分为5期.条斑星鲽雄鱼GSI值自10月开始升高,12月达峰值(P≤0.05),之后显著下降并保持较低值至下一次生殖周期开始.HSI值在11~12月保持较高表达值,其他各月份保持相对稳定水平.CF值在5~8月保持较高水平,其他月份保持平稳状态.雄鱼血浆中睾酮(T)水平自9月开始升高并在12月(V期精巢)达到峰值,其后显著下降并在其后的月份保持较低水平,而雌二醇(E2)在2月出现峰值,其他月份保持相对稳定水平.%The annual maturation cycle of testis and variation of sex steroids level in male barfin flounder were investigated by histological and radioimmunoassay methods.The results showed that gametes exhibited five different phases during the annual development cycle,accordingly the testis maturation cycle can be divided into five stages.The biological parameters including gonadosomatic index (GSI),hepatosomatic index (HSI),and condition factor (CF)were also recorded and they exhibited reasonable variation during the testis maturation.The GSI began to increase in October and peaked in December,and then dropped dramatically and maintained until the next maturation cycle.The HSI value was relatively low during the annual cycle except in November and December.The CF value stayed at a high level from May to August and maintained a relative low level at other months.The serum testosterone level increased from September and peaked in December,then dropped to a relatively lower level until the next maturation cycle.Meanwhile,the serum estradiol level peaked in February and maintained at a relatively low level during the annual maturation cycle.These results highight the reproductive biology of male barf in

  12. Why we should consider sex (and study sex differences) in addiction research.

    Sanchis-Segura, Carla; Becker, Jill B


    Among mammals, every cell has a biological sex, and the sex of an individual pervades its body and brain. In this review, we describe the processes through which mammals become phenotypically male or female by organizational and activational influences of genes and hormones throughout development. We emphasized that the molecular and cellular changes triggered by sex chromosomes and steroid hormones may generate sex differences in overt physiological functions and behavior, but they may alternatively promote end-point convergences between males and females. Clinical and pre-clinical evidences suggest that sex and gender differences modulate drug consumption as well as of the transition towards drug-promoted pathological states such as dependence and addiction. Additionally, sex differences in drug pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics will also influence dependence and addiction as well as side effects of drugs. These effects will further interact with socially gendered factors to result in sex differences in the access to, engagement in and efficacy of any therapeutic attempt. Finally, we maintain that 'sex sameness' is as important as 'sex differences' when building a complete understanding of biology for both males and females and provide a framework with which to classify and guide investigation into the mechanisms mediating sex differences and sex sameness.

  13. Steroid hormones and CNS sexual dimorphisms modulate symptom expression in Tourette's syndrome.

    Peterson, B S; Leckman, J F; Scahill, L; Naftolin, F; Keefe, D; Charest, N J; Cohen, D J


    We present our hypothesis that various steroid hormones play an important role in the symptom expression of Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome (TS) and that androgenic hormones, in particular, are likely to exacerbate symptoms of the disorder. We review the clinical evidence supporting our hypothesis. Sex steroids establish brain sexual dimorphisms early in CNS development, and we suggest mechanisms whereby androgenic and other hormonal changes later in human development might act at dimorphic brain regions to influence the natural history of TS. Finally, we discuss the various ways in which neuroendocrine studies might assist in genetic and neurobiologic research programs in TS.

  14. Response to gonadotropin-releasing hormone challenge: Seasonal variation in steroid production in a viviparous lizard, Tiliqua nigrolutea.

    Edwards, Ashley; Jones, Susan M


    The hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis plays a central role in the regulation of gamete maturation, sex steroid production and the stimulation of reproductive behaviours in vertebrates. In seasonal breeders, the timely activation and deactivation of this control system is important to ensure successful reproduction: this process is not well understood in species which breed irregularly. Males of the viviparous blotched blue-tongued lizard, Tiliqua nigrolutea, breed annually, while females display a multiennial cycle. We investigated seasonal variation in hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis responsiveness in both sexes of T. nigrolutea. We measured changes in plasma concentrations of testosterone and estrogen in response to a single intraperitoneal injection of a GnRH agonist, chicken-II LH-RH, at three reproductively distinct times of year. Plasma testosterone concentrations in males were significantly increased during gonadal quiescence, but not initial or final spermatogenesis. There was no estrogen response in males at any time of year. Conversely, in females, there was an increase in plasma testosterone, but not estrogen, concentration, in reproductively quiescent females several months in advance of a successful pregnancy. These results indicate clear variation in HPG axis activity with sex, season and reproductive condition in this seasonally breeding viviparous lizard. This study opens the way for further investigation into the mechanisms by which internal (body condition) and external seasonal cues (temperature and photoperiod) are coordinated to regulate reproduction in irregularly-breeding reptiles.

  15. Sex bias in infectious disease epidemiology: patterns and processes.

    Felipe Guerra-Silveira

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Infectious disease incidence is often male-biased. Two main hypotheses have been proposed to explain this observation. The physiological hypothesis (PH emphasizes differences in sex hormones and genetic architecture, while the behavioral hypothesis (BH stresses gender-related differences in exposure. Surprisingly, the population-level predictions of these hypotheses are yet to be thoroughly tested in humans. METHODS AND FINDINGS: For ten major pathogens, we tested PH and BH predictions about incidence and exposure-prevalence patterns. Compulsory-notification records (Brazil, 2006-2009 were used to estimate age-stratified ♂:♀ incidence rate ratios for the general population and across selected sociological contrasts. Exposure-prevalence odds ratios were derived from 82 published surveys. We estimated summary effect-size measures using random-effects models; our analyses encompass ∼0.5 million cases of disease or exposure. We found that, after puberty, disease incidence is male-biased in cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis, schistosomiasis, pulmonary tuberculosis, leptospirosis, meningococcal meningitis, and hepatitis A. Severe dengue is female-biased, and no clear pattern is evident for typhoid fever. In leprosy, milder tuberculoid forms are female-biased, whereas more severe lepromatous forms are male-biased. For most diseases, male bias emerges also during infancy, when behavior is unbiased but sex steroid levels transiently rise. Behavioral factors likely modulate male-female differences in some diseases (the leishmaniases, tuberculosis, leptospirosis, or schistosomiasis and age classes; however, average exposure-prevalence is significantly sex-biased only for Schistosoma and Leptospira. CONCLUSIONS: Our results closely match some key PH predictions and contradict some crucial BH predictions, suggesting that gender-specific behavior plays an overall secondary role in generating sex bias. Physiological differences, including

  16. "Assessment of identity during adolescence using daily diary methods: Measurement invariance across time and sex": Correction to Becht et al. (2015).


    Reports an error in "Assessment of Identity During Adolescence Using Daily Diary Methods: Measurement Invariance Across Time and Sex" by Andrik I. Becht, Susan J. T. Branje, Wilma A. M. Vollebergh, Dominique F. Maciejewski, Pol A. C. van Lier, Hans M. Koot, Jaap J. A. Denissen and Wim H. J. Meeus (Psychological Assessment, Advanced Online Publication, Aug 10, 2015, np). In the article the participants should have been reported as N = 494. No differences were found in the results upon reanalyzing the data with the correct number of participants. Additionally, the last sentence of the first full paragraph in the Invariance Across Boys and Girls subsection of the Method section should read "In the fourth model, strict invariance was examined, in which the residual variances were constrained to be equal for boys and girls." (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2015-36246-001.) The aim of this study was to assess measurement invariance of adolescents' daily reports on identity across time and sex. Adolescents (N = 497; mean age = 13.32 years at Time 1, 56.7% boys) from the general population reported on their identity commitments, exploration in depth and reconsideration on a daily basis for 3 weeks within 1 year across 5 years. We used the single-item version of the Utrecht Management of Identity Commitments Scale (UMICS; Klimstra et al., 2010), a broad measure of identity-formation processes covering both interpersonal and educational identity domains. This study tested configural, metric, scalar, and strict measurement invariance across days within weeks, across sex, across weeks within years, and across years. Results indicated that daily diary reports show strict measurement invariance across days, across weeks within years, across years, and across boys and girls. These results support the use of daily diary methods to assess identity at various time intervals ranging from days to years and across sex. Results are discussed with

  17. Sex-dependent effects on tasks assessing reinforcement learning and interference inhibition.

    Evans, Kelly L; Hampson, Elizabeth


    Increasing evidence suggests that the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is influenced by sex steroids and that some cognitive functions dependent on the PFC may be sexually differentiated in humans. Past work has identified a male advantage on certain complex reinforcement learning tasks, but it is unclear which latent task components are important to elicit the sex difference. The objective of the current study was to investigate whether there are sex differences on measures of response inhibition and valenced feedback processing, elements that are shared by previously studied reinforcement learning tasks. Healthy young adults (90 males, 86 females) matched in general intelligence completed the Probabilistic Selection Task (PST), a Simon task, and the Stop-Signal task. On the PST, females were more accurate than males in learning from positive (but not negative) feedback. On the Simon task, males were faster than females, especially in the face of incongruent stimuli. No sex difference was observed in Stop-Signal reaction time. The current findings provide preliminary support for a sex difference in the processing of valenced feedback and in interference inhibition.

  18. Sex-dependent effects on tasks assessing reinforcement learning and interference inhibition

    Kelly L Evans


    Full Text Available Increasing evidence suggests that the prefrontal cortex (PFC is influenced by sex steroids and that some cognitive functions dependent on the PFC may be sexually differentiated in humans. Past work has identified a male advantage on certain complex reinforcement learning tasks, but it is unclear which latent task components are important to elicit the sex difference. The objective of the current study was to investigate whether there are sex differences on measures of response inhibition and valenced feedback processing, elements that are shared by previously studied reinforcement learning tasks. Healthy young adults (90 males, 86 females matched in general intelligence completed the Probabilistic Selection Task (PST, a Simon task, and the Stop-Signal task. On the PST, females were more accurate than males in learning from positive (but not negative feedback. On the Simon task, males were faster than females, especially in the face of incongruent stimuli. No sex difference was observed in Stop-Signal reaction time. The current findings provide preliminary support for a sex difference in the processing of valenced feedback and in interference inhibition.

  19. LC-MS/MS analysis of steroids in the clinical laboratory.

    Keevil, Brian G


    Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) is a powerful tool that is changing the way we analyse steroids in the clinical laboratory. It is already opening up the field of steroid analysis in endocrinology and is providing new applications for individual steroids and panels of steroids in different clinical conditions. LC-MS/MS is now well-accepted technology and is increasingly being used to replace problematic immunoassay methods because of greater sensitivity and specificity. Improved sample preparation, modern chromatography methods, and sensitive, faster scanning mass spectrometers have all played a role in improving LC-MS/MS. LC-MS/MS is also playing a key role in improving the quality of assays through the development of reference measurement procedures, characterisation of reference materials and multi-site calibration programmes. There is increasing interest in multiplexing steroid assays into panels of diagnostic tests to aid and improve the diagnosis and monitoring of disease.

  20. Sex hormones and breast cancer risk and prognosis.

    Folkerd, Elizabeth; Dowsett, Mitch


    The study of large prospective collections of plasma samples from women prior to the development of breast cancer has firmly established certain sex steroids as being significantly associated with risk. The strongest associations have been found in postmenopausal women in whom the within person variability of most hormones is markedly reduced but some positive associations have also been seen in premenopausal women. Plasma estrogens show the strongest correlations with risk and these are strengthened by measurement or calculation of the proportion of estradiol that circulates free of sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), consistent with this being the most active fraction. The relationships have been reported to potentially explain virtually all of the association of breast cancer with body mass index in postmenopausal women; this is likely to be due to non-ovarian estrogen synthesis being prominent in subcutaneous fat. These strong relationships have led to plasma and urine estrogen levels being used as intermediate end-points in the search for genes that affect breast cancer risk via their role in steroid disposition. Plasma androgen levels also show a relationship with breast cancer risk that is weakened but not eliminated by 'correction' for estrogen levels. This has been argued to be evidence of the local production of estrogens being important in the etiology of breast cancer. Given that plasma steroid levels do not correlate closely with mammographic density, which is strongly associated with risk, the opportunity exists to combine the two factors in assessing breast cancer risk but the low availability of suitable estrogen assays is a major impediment to this. In established breast cancer, plasma estrogens have been found to correlate with gene expression of estrogen dependent genes and the expression of these varies across the menstrual cycle of premenopausal women. There is infrequently a need for routine measurement of plasma estrogen levels but it has

  1. Sex determination

    McCullagh, W. McK. H.


    How the sex of offspring is determined has puzzled philosophers and scientists for millennia. Modern science has identified both genetic and environmental factors, but the question is still not yet fully answered.

  2. Synthesis of steroidal dimers: Selective amine catalysed steroidal dimerization

    Shamsuzzaman; Mohd Gulfam Aalam; Tabassum Siddiqui


    Some new dimeric steroids namely cholest-5-en-3-spiro-[6',5'-oxa]-5'-cholest-3'-one (2), cholest-5-en-7-spiro-[4',5'-oxa]-5'-cholest-7'-one (4a) and 3-substitutedcholest-5-en-7-spiro-[4',5'-oxa]-3'-substituted-5'-cholestan-7'-ones (4b, c) are synthesized starting from cholest-5-en-3-one (1), cholest-5-en-7-one (3a) and 3-substituted-cholest-5-en-7-ones (3b, c) respectively by using DMAP and xylene. All the synthesized compounds were characterized by using IR, MS and 1H, 13C NMR spectral and elemental analysis.

  3. The many costs of sex.

    Lehtonen, Jussi; Jennions, Michael D; Kokko, Hanna


    Explaining the evolution of sex is challenging for biologists. A 'twofold cost' compared with asexual reproduction is often quoted. If a cost of this magnitude exists, the benefits of sex must be large for it to have evolved and be maintained. Focusing on benefits can be misleading, as this sidelines important questions about the cost of sex: what is the source of the twofold cost: males, genome dilution or both? Does the cost deviate from twofold? What other factors make sex costly? How should the costs of sex be empirically measured? The total cost of sex and how it varies in different contexts must be known to determine the benefits needed to account for the origin and maintenance of sex.

  4. Why Sex?

    Nielsen, Rasmus


    It is assumed that most organisms have sex because the resulting genetic recombination allows Darwinian selection to work better. It is now shown that in water fleas, recombination does lead to fewer deleterious mutations.......It is assumed that most organisms have sex because the resulting genetic recombination allows Darwinian selection to work better. It is now shown that in water fleas, recombination does lead to fewer deleterious mutations....

  5. Sex Differences in Dichotic Listening

    Voyer, Daniel


    The present study quantified the magnitude of sex differences in perceptual asymmetries as measured with dichotic listening. This was achieved by means of a meta-analysis of the literature dating back from the initial use of dichotic listening as a measure of laterality. The meta-analysis included 249 effect sizes pertaining to sex differences and…

  6. Dose-sensitive steroid-induced hyperglycaemia.

    Gannon, Craig; Dando, Nicholas


    Steroids cause significant but under-appreciated and poorly managed glucose intolerance. In this case we describe a patient with steroid-induced hyperglycaemia who obtained a large positive impact on glycaemic control from a small reduction in her steroid dose, sufficient to alleviate the need for insulin. Developments in the treatment of steroid-induced hyperglycaemia may mean that a more active approach needs to be considered when treating steroid-related diabetes in patients whose management is palliative. We advise checking for steroid-induced hyperglycaemia by testing capillary blood glucose values 2 hours after the lunchtime meal and recommend a single morning dose of long-acting insulin to treat the condition.

  7. Feasibility of desorption atmospheric pressure photoionization and desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry to monitor urinary steroid metabolites during pregnancy.

    Vaikkinen, Anu; Rejšek, Jan; Vrkoslav, Vladimír; Kauppila, Tiina J; Cvačka, Josef; Kostiainen, Risto


    Steroids have important roles in the progress of pregnancy, and their study in maternal urine is a non-invasive method to monitor the steroid metabolome and its possible abnormalities. However, the current screening techniques of choice, namely immunoassays and gas and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, do not offer means for the rapid and non-targeted multi-analyte studies of large sample sets. In this study, we explore the feasibility of two ambient mass spectrometry methods in steroid fingerprinting. Urine samples from pregnant women were screened by desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) and desorption atmospheric pressure photoionization (DAPPI) Orbitrap high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS). The urine samples were processed by solid phase extraction for the DESI measurements and by enzymatic hydrolysis and liquid-liquid-extraction for DAPPI. Consequently, steroid glucuronides and sulfates were detected by negative ion mode DESI-HRMS, and free steroids by positive ion mode DAPPI-HRMS. In DESI, signals of eleven steroid metabolite ions were found to increase as the pregnancy proceeded, and in DAPPI ten steroid ions showed at least an order of magnitude increase during pregnancy. In DESI, the increase was seen for ions corresponding to C18 and C21 steroid glucuronides, while DAPPI detected increased excretion of C19 and C21 steroids. Thus both techniques show promise for the steroid marker screening in pregnancy.

  8. Endothelial function in male body builders taking anabolic androgenic steroids

    H Hashemi


    Full Text Available Background: Adverse cardiovascular events have been reported in body builders taking anabolic steroids. Adverse effects of AAS on endothelial function can initiate atherosclerosis. This study evaluates endothelial function in body builders using AAS, compared with non-steroids using athletes as controls. Methods: We recruited 30 nonsmoking male body builders taking AAS, 14 in build up phase, 8 in work out phase, and 8 in post steroid phase, and 30 nonsmoking male athletes who denied ever using steroids. Serum lipids and fasting plasma glucose were measured to exclude dyslipidemia and diabetes. Brachial artery diameter was measured by ultrasound at rest, after cuff inflation, and after sublingual glyceriltrinitrate (GTN to determine flow mediated dilation (FMD, nitro mediated dilation (NMD and ratio of FMD to NMD (index of endothelial function. Result: Use of AAS was associated with higher body mass index (BMI and low density lipoprotein–cholesterol (LDL-C. Mean ratio of flow mediated dilatation after cuff deflation to post GTN dilatation of brachial artery (index of endothelial function in body builders taking AAS was significantly lower than control group (0.96(0.05 versus 1(0.08; p=0.03. After adjusting BMI, age and weight, no significant difference was seen in index of endothelial function between two groups (p=0 .21. Conclusion: Our study indicates that taking AAS in body builders doesn’t have direct effect on endothelial function. Future study with bigger sample size and measurement of AAS metabolites is recommended. Key words: endothelium, lipids, anabolic steroids, body builders

  9. Steroid hormones and the stroma-vascular cells of the adipose tissue.

    Volat, Fanny; Bouloumié, Anne


    The stroma-vascular fraction (SVF) of adipose tissue (AT) is a heterogeneous cell fraction composed of progenitor cells, endothelial cells, and immune cells. SVF plays a key role in AT homeostasis and growth as well as in obesity-associated pathologies. The SVF cell composition and phenotype are distinct according to AT location and adiposity. Such discrepancies influence AT function and are involved in obesity-associated disorders such as chronic inflammation. Investigations performed in recent years in rodents and humans provided evidence that the stroma-vascular cells contribute to the conversion of steroid hormones in AT and are also steroid targets. This review describes the link between steroids and SVF depending on gender, adiposity, and AT location and highlights the potential role of sex and corticosteroid hormones in adipogenesis, angiogenesis, and their contributions in AT inflammation.

  10. Steroidal esters from Ferula sinkiangensis.

    Li, Guangzhi; Li, Xiaojin; Cao, Li; Shen, Liangang; Zhu, Jun; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Junchi; Zhang, Lijing; Si, Jianyong


    Two new steroidal esters with an unusual framework, Sinkiangenorin A and B, a new organic acid glycoside, Sinkiangenorin C, and four known lignin compounds were isolated from the seeds of Ferula sinkiangensis. The structures of these compounds were established by spectroscopic analysis and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. All of the isolated compounds were tested against Hela, K562 and AGS human cancer cell lines. Sinkiangenorin C showed cytotoxic activity against AGS cells with an IC50 of 36.9 μM.

  11. Efficacy of multimodal cocktail periarticular injection with or without steroid in total knee arthroplasty

    YUE De-bo; WANG Bai-liang; LIU Kun-peng; GUO Wan-shou


    Background Multimodal cocktail periarticular injection (MCPI) with a large volume of low concentration local anesthetics,adrenaline,and anti-inflammatory agents such as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug or steroids have shown good pain control and improvement in range of motion after surgery.This study compares the efficacy of pain control after total knee arthroplasty,using multimodal cocktail periarticular injection with steroid or without steroid.Methods This is a prospective,double-blinded,randomized and control study.Seventy-two patients with osteoarthritis that met clinical criteria for total knee arthroplasty were recruited into the study,and were randomized to receive either multimodal cocktail periarticular injection with steroid or without steroid.Pain was assessed by visual analogue scale (VAS) at preoperative and postoperative at rest,and during activity.The range of motion was recorded preoperatively and postoperatively.The amount of daily and cumulative morphine consumption were measured by patient-controlled analgesia in the first 72 hours postoperatively.The duration of celecoxib usage was also recorded at the last follow-up.Results There were no differences between the non-steroid and steroid groups with regard to VAS at rest and during activity,or range of motion,at any postoperative observation time.The postoperative Knee Society Knee Score in the steroid group improved significantly as compared with that in non-steroid group at the one-month (84.1±13.1 and 65.9±12.1; P <0.0045),three-month follow-up (90.2±16.3 and 72.5±16.6; P <0.0027),but after postoperative six-month the Knee Society Knee Score showed no significant difference between the groups.There was no significant difference in consumption of the morphine about daily or total consumption within 72 hours between the two groups.The duration of celecoxib usage in patients in the steroid group was significantly shorter than that in the non-steroid group ((7.2±0.7) compared with

  12. Environmental hormones and their impacts on sex differentiation in fathead minnows

    Runoff from lands fertilized with animal manure from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) is a source of hormones to surface water. To test the hypothesis that juvenile fathead minnows exposed to sex steroids singly and in a “typical” CAFO mixture while undergoing sex...

  13. Race differences in obesity and its relationship to the sex hormone milieu.

    Perry, Arlette C; Martin, Lorena


    A sexual dimorphism exists in which increased abdominal and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) - found in women and marked by low sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and high bioavailable testosterone (BT) - is related to the metabolic risk profile. In men, increased BT is related to decreased abdominal obesity and a decrease in the metabolic risk profile. In women, race differences have been found in androgenic sex steroids including SHBG and BT as well as central fat distribution, creating inherently greater metabolic risk for certain populations. Estrogen and estrogen receptor isoforms play a role in fat deposition and distribution and may influence the changes that occur during the menopausal transition. Androgenic sex steroids serve a mediating role, influencing VAT accumulation and its associated metabolic risk factors while VAT also serves a mediating role influencing the androgenic sex steroid-metabolic risk relationship in women. Furthermore, androgenic sex steroids and VAT may independently contribute to the variance in several metabolic variables associated with cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and their antecedent conditions such as the metabolic syndrome. Race has been shown to modify the relationship between androgenic sex steroids and metabolic variables associated with risk for diabetes in Black and White women. Further research is warranted to examine the mechanisms involved in race differences. Total adiposity and central fat distribution in accordance with changes in the hormone and metabolic milieu influence breast cancer risk, which varies by race and menopausal status. These findings have broader implications for the study of health promotion/disease prevention in women.

  14. Endocrine aspects of anabolic steroids.

    Wu, F C


    Understanding of the mechanism of androgen action has been enhanced by advances in knowledge on the molecular basis of activation of the androgen receptor and the importance of tissue conversion of circulating testosterone to dihydrotestosterone and estradiol. New evidence supports the view that supraphysiological doses of anabolic steroids do have a definite, positive effect on muscle size and muscle strength. However, the nature of the anabolic action of androgens on muscle is currently unclear and may involve mechanisms independent of the androgen receptor. The dose-response relationships of anabolic actions vs the potentially serious risk to health of androgenic-anabolic steroids (AAS) use are still unresolved. Most of the adverse effects of AAS are reversible but some are permanent, particularly in women and children. The reported incidence of acute life-threatening events associated with AAS abuse is low, but the actual risk may be underrecognized or underreported; the exact incidence is unknown. The long-term consequences and disease risks of AAS to the sports competitor remain to be properly evaluated.

  15. High-throughput bioaffinity mass spectrometry for screening and identification of designer anabolic steroids in dietary supplements

    Aqai, P.; Cevik, E.; Gerssen, A.; Haasnoot, W.; Nielen, M.W.F.


    A generic high-throughput bioaffinity liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (BioMS) approach was developed and applied for the screening and identification of known and unknown recombinant human sex hormone-binding globulin (rhSHBG)-binding designer steroids in dietary supplements. For screening,

  16. Reference ranges for the urinary steroid profile in a Latin-American population.

    Martínez-Brito, D; Correa Vidal, M T; de la Torre, X; García-Mir, V; Ledea Lozano, O; Granda Fraga, M


    The urinary steroid profile has been used in clinical endocrinology for the early detection of enzyme deficiencies. In the field of doping, its evaluation in urine samples is used to diagnose the abuse of substances prohibited in sport. This profile is influenced by sex, age, exercise, diet, and ethnicity, among others; laboratories own reference ranges might compensate for ethnic differences among population and inter-laboratory biases. This paper shows the reference ranges obtained in the Antidoping Laboratory of Havana for the following steroid profile parameters: ten androgens (testosterone, epitestosterone, androsterone, etiocholanolone, 5α-androstan-3α,17β-diol, 5β-androstan-3α,17β-diol, dehydroepiandrosterone, epiandrosterone, 11β-hydroxyandrosterone and 11β-hydroxyetiocholanolone), three estrogens (estradiol, estriol and estrone), two pregnanes (pregnanediol and pregnanetriol) and two corticosteroids (cortisol and tetrahydrocortisol). The urine samples (male: n = 2454 and female: n = 1181) and data obtained are representative of population from Latin-American countries like Cuba, Venezuela, Mexico, Dominican Republic, Guatemala and Chile. Urine samples were prepared by solid-phase extraction followed by enzymatic hydrolysis and liquid-liquid extraction with an organic solvent in basic conditions. Trimethylsilyl derivatives were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Reference ranges were established for each sex, allowing the determination of abnormal profiles as a first diagnostic tool for the detection of the abuse of androgenic anabolic steroids. The comparison with the Caucasian population confirms that the urinary steroid profile is influenced by ethnicity.

  17. Use of radioimmunoassay procedures for the determination of sex hormones in animal tissues

    Hoffmann, B. (Institut fuer Veterinaermedizin des Bundesgesundheitsamtes (Robert von Ostertag-Institut), Berlin (Germany, F.R.))


    Radioimmunoassay methods for the determination of sex steroids and other compounds with sex hormone-like activities in various edible animal tissues and endocrine glands have been developed. Reliability of these methods, allowing quantification in a range of 10/sup -11/ M, has been adequately demonstrated. When applied to monitoring residues of anabolic sex hormones in edible tissues of veal calves, physiological baseline levels of some endogenous ''anabolic'' steroids (like testosterone, oestrogens) were established; in the case of xenobiotics residues at the scheduled time of slaughter could be quantified (trenbolone) and a regulatory method to implement the ban of diethylstilbestrol was introduced.

  18. Sex hormones alter sex ratios in the Indian skipper frog, Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis: Determining sensitive stages for gonadal sex reversal.

    Phuge, S K; Gramapurohit, N P


    In amphibians, although genetic factors are involved in sex determination, gonadal sex differentiation can be modified by exogenous steroid hormones suggesting a possible role of sex steroids in regulating the process. We studied the effect of testosterone propionate (TP) and estradiol-17β (E2) on gonadal differentiation and sex ratio at metamorphosis in the Indian skipper frog, Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis with undifferentiated type of gonadal differentiation. A series of experiments were carried out to determine the optimum dose and sensitive stages for gonadal sex reversal. Our results clearly indicate the importance of sex hormones in controlling gonadal differentiation of E. cyanophlyctis. Treatment of tadpoles with 10, 20, 40, and 80μg/L TP throughout larval period resulted in the development of 100% males at metamorphosis at all concentrations. Similarly, treatment of tadpoles with 40μg/L TP during ovarian and testicular differentiation resulted in the development of 90% males, 10% intersexes and 100% males respectively. Treatment of tadpoles with 10, 20, 40, and 80μg/L E2 throughout larval period likewise produced 100% females at all concentrations. Furthermore, exposure to 40μg/L E2 during ovarian and testicular differentiation produced 95% females, 5% intersexes and 91% females, 9% intersexes respectively. Both TP and E2 were also effective in advancing the stages of gonadal development. Present study shows the effectiveness of both T and E2 in inducing complete sex reversal in E. cyanophlyctis. Generally, exposure to E2 increased the larval period resulting in significantly larger females than control group while the larval period of control and TP treated groups was comparable.

  19. Public health measures to control the spread of antimicrobial resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae in men who have sex with men.

    Xiridou, M; Soetens, L C; Koedijk, F D H; VAN DER Sande, M A B; Wallinga, J


    Gonorrhoea is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections. The control of gonorrhoea is extremely challenging because of the repeated development of resistance to the antibiotics used for its treatment. We explored different strategies to control the spread of antimicrobial resistance and prevent increases in gonorrhoea prevalence. We used a mathematical model that describes gonorrhoea transmission among men who have sex with men and distinguishes gonorrhoea strains sensitive or resistant to three antibiotics. We investigated the impact of combination therapy, switching first-line antibiotics according to resistance thresholds, and other control efforts (reduced sexual risk behaviour, increased treatment rate). Combination therapy can delay the spread of resistance better than using the 5% resistance threshold. Increased treatment rates, expected to enhance gonorrhoea control, may reduce gonorrhoea prevalence only in the short term, but could lead to more resistance and higher prevalence in the long term. Re-treatment of resistant cases with alternative antibiotics can substantially delay the spread of resistance. In conclusion, combination therapy and re-treatment of resistant cases with alternative antibiotics could be the most effective strategies to prevent increases in gonorrhoea prevalence due to antimicrobial resistance.

  20. Measuring Intraspecific Variation in Flight-Related Morphology of Monarch Butterflies (Danaus plexippus: Which Sex Has the Best Flying Gear?

    Andrew K. Davis


    Full Text Available Optimal flight in butterflies depends on structural features of the wings and body, including wing size, flight muscle size, and wing loading. Arguably, there is no butterfly for which flight is more important than the monarch (Danaus plexippus, which undergoes long-distance migrations in North America. We examined morphological features of monarchs that would explain the apparent higher migratory success and flight ability of females over males. We examined 47 male and 45 female monarch specimens from a project where monarchs were reared under uniform conditions. We weighed individual body parts, including the thorax (flight muscle and wings, and computed wing loading and wing thickness for all specimens. When we compared each morphological trait between sexes, we found that females did not differ from males in terms of relative thorax (wing muscle size. Females were generally smaller than males, but females had relatively thicker wings than males for their size, which suggests greater mechanical strength. Importantly, females had significantly lower wing loading than males (7% lower. This would translate to more efficient flight, which may explain their higher migratory success. Results of this work should be useful for interpreting flight behavior and/or migration success in this and other Lepidopteran species.

  1. A comparison of hepatitis A and hepatitis B measures among vaccinated and susceptible online men who have sex with men.

    Gilbert, L K; Levandowski, B A; Scanlon, K E; Peterson, R S


    Hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) continue to be major health concerns among men who have sex with men (MSM). The Internet both facilitates high-risk sexual encounters and provides opportunities for promoting healthy behaviours. This study compared self-reported HAV and HBV vaccination levels, based on demographics, health characteristics, hepatitis knowledge, attitudes and risk behaviours among MSM using an online survey posted from February through June 2005. Each participant (n = 968) reported whether they were vaccinated, infected or susceptible for hepatitis A and/or for hepatitis B. Men whose health-care provider recommended vaccination were 12.91 (95% confidence interval [CI] 8.11, 20.55) times more likely to be vaccinated against HAV and 17.93 (95% CI 10.82, 29.70) times more likely to be vaccinated against HBV than those at risk of infection, respectively. These data provide essential information for public health professionals to successfully promote vaccination among members of this population.


    Apri Arisandi


    Full Text Available Testosteron selain dapat dimanfaatkan sebagai obat, juga dimanfaatkan untuk sex reversal pada udang galah (Macrobrachium rosenbergii de Man.  Hormon yang umum dipakai untuk sex reversal jantan adalah 17α metiltestosteron, merupakan hormon sintetis.  Bioassay pada ayam, diketahui bahwa hormon sintetis memberikan efek samping toksik pada hati, limpa dan bursa fabricius.  Agar tidak memberikan efek toksik, salah satu cara dengan menggunakan sumber hormon testosteron alami dari teripang.  Pemberian hormon menggunakan metode dipping, lima perlakuan dan tiga ulangan.  Dosis ekstrak steroid teripang 1, 2 dan 3mg/l, serta 17α metiltestosteron 2mg/l dapat menghasilkan populasi jantan lebih tinggi dari kontrol negatif (tanpa hormon, yaitu 44,15%, 49,65%, 49,72% dan 50,45%.   Kata kunci: ekstrak steroid teripang, 17α metiltestosteron, udang galah

  3. Osteonecrosis following alcohol, cocaine, and steroid use.

    Ziraldo, Laura


    Alcohol, steroids and cocaine have all been shown to be independent risk factors for osteonecrosis when taken in excess. Here we present a case of a young girl who developed debilitating osteonecrosis secondary to low doses of alcohol, steroids and cocaine. We feel it is important to highlight to those caring for such patients of the potential devastating complication of these three agents.

  4. Steroids Update, Part 1 and Part 2.

    Miller, Calvin; Duda, Marty


    Part 1 of this two-part article describes the views of a physician who believes that athletes who want to take steroids are best protected by receiving a prescription and monitoring. Part 2 discusses the more general view of physicians that steroids should not be prescribed but perhaps should be monitored. (MT)

  5. Steroids: To Test or to Educate?

    LaFee, Scott


    In February 2005, The Dallas Morning News published a multipart series on steroid use among high school students in Texas. The paper's four-month investigation was wide-ranging, but shined a particular spotlight upon alleged abuses in the 13,700-student Grapevine-Colleyville Independent School District, north of Dallas. Use of steroids and other…

  6. Systematic comparison of δ13C measurements of testosterone and derivative steroids in a freeze-dried urine candidate reference material for sports drug testing by gas chromatography/combustion/isotope ratio mass spectrometry and uncertainty evaluation using four different metrological approaches.

    Munton, Ellaine; Murby, John; Hibbert, D Brynn; Santamaria-Fernandez, Rebeca


    An alternative calibration procedure for use when performing carbon isotope ratio measurements by gas chromatography/combustion/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/C/IRMS) has been developed. This calibration procedure does not rely on the corrections in-built in the instrument software, as the carbon isotope ratios of a sample are calculated from the measured raw peak areas. The method was developed for the certification of a urine reference material for sports drug testing, as the estimation of measurement uncertainty is greatly simplified. To ensure that the method is free from bias arising from the choice of calibration material and instrument, the carbon isotope ratios of steroids in urine extracts were measured using two different instruments in different laboratories, and three different reference materials (CU/USADA steroid standards from Brenna Laboratory, Cornell University; NIST RM8539 mineral oil; methane calibrated against NIST RM8560 natural gas). The measurements were performed at LGC and the Australian National Measurement Institute (NMI). It was found that there was no significant difference in measurement results when different instruments and reference materials were used to measure the carbon isotope ratio of the major testosterone metabolites androsterone and etiocholanolone, or the endogenous reference compounds pregnanediol, 11- ketoetiocholanolone and 11β-hydroxyandrosterone. Expanded measurement uncertainties at the 95% coverage probability ranged from 0.21‰ to 1.4‰, depending on analyte, instrument and reference material. The measurement results of this comparison were used to estimate a measurement uncertainty of δ(13)C for the certification of the urine reference material being performed on a single instrument using a single reference material at NMI.

  7. Anabolic steroids: implications for the nurse practitioner.

    Duncan, D J; Shaw, E B


    Anabolic steroids are being used by athletes in a wide variety of sports in efforts to enhance their athletic performances. Steroid abuse is complex to evaluate due to the highly emotional subject matter and the limitations in researching anabolic steroids. This article has been written to heighten the practitioner's awareness of the problem of "sports doping" with anabolic steroids. It will provide practical information on possible consequences of steroid use and outline essential information to obtain through the history, physical exam and laboratory studies. Intervention strategies based on the three levels of prevention are described. With awareness of the problem of sports doping and knowledge of how to deal with it in primary care, the nurse practitioner can enhance the health care provided to aspiring athletes, athletes and retired athletes.

  8. Microbial steroid transformations: current state and prospects.

    Donova, Marina V; Egorova, Olga V


    Studies of steroid modifications catalyzed by microbial whole cells represent a well-established research area in white biotechnology. Still, advances over the last decade in genetic and metabolic engineering, whole-cell biocatalysis in non-conventional media, and process monitoring raised research in this field to a new level. This review summarizes the data on microbial steroid conversion obtained since 2003. The key reactions of structural steroid functionalization by microorganisms are highlighted including sterol side-chain degradation, hydroxylation at various positions of the steroid core, and redox reactions. We also describe methods for enhancement of bioprocess productivity, selectivity of target reactions, and application of microbial transformations for production of valuable pharmaceutical ingredients and precursors. Challenges and prospects of whole-cell biocatalysis applications in steroid industry are discussed.

  9. Relative potencies and combination effects of steroidal estrogens in fish.

    Thorpe, Karen L; Cummings, Rob I; Hutchinson, Thomas H; Scholze, Martin; Brighty, Geoff; Sumpter, John P; Tyler, Charles R


    The natural steroids estradiol-17beta (E2) and estrone (E1) and the synthetic steroid ethynylestradiol-17alpha (EE2) have frequently been measured in waters receiving domestic effluents. All of these steroids bind to the estrogen receptor(s) and have been shown to elicit a range of estrogenic responses in fish at environmentally relevant concentrations. At present, however, no relative potency estimates have been derived for either the individual steroidal estrogens or their mixtures in vivo. In this study the estrogenic activity of E2, E1, and EE2, and the combination effects of a mixture of E2 and EE2 (equi-potent fixed-ratio mixture), were assessed using vitellogenin induction in a 14-day in vivo juvenile rainbow trout screening assay. Median effective concentrations, relative to E2, for induction of vitellogenin were determined from the concentration-response curves and the relative estrogenic potencies of each of the test chemicals calculated. Median effective concentrations were between 19 and 26 ng L(-1) for E2, 60 ng L(-1) for E1, and between 0.95 and 1.8 ng L(-1) for EE2, implying that EE2 was approximately 11 to 27 times more potent than E2, while E2 was 2.3 to 3.2 times more potent than E1. The median effective concentration, relative to E2, for the binary mixture of E2 and EE2 was 15 ng L(-1) (comprising 14.4 ng L(-1) E2 and 0.6 ng L(-1) EE2). Using the model of concentration addition it was shown that this activity of the binary mixture could be predicted from the activity of the individual chemicals. The ability of each individual steroid to contribute to the overall effect of a mixture, even at individual no-effect concentrations, combined with the high estrogenic potency of the steroids, particularly the synthetic steroid EE2, emphasizes the need to consider the total estrogenic load of these chemicals in our waterways.

  10. Androgen Secreting Steroid Cell Tumor of the Ovary Represented with Postmenopasal Bleeding and Extensive Hirsutism

    Jadranka Georgievska; Vesna Antovska; Neli Basheska; Natasha Aleksioska


    Introduction: Steroid cell tumors of the ovary present less than 0.1% of all ovarian tumors and belong in the group of sex cord-stromal tumors. Case description: We present a case of 69-year-old woman investigated because of postmenopausal bleeding, a 5-year history of excessive hirsutism, baldness and acne. The evaluation revealed elevated serum testosterone, but ultrasound detected a 2 cm-mass of the left ovary. The patient underwent hysterectomy and bilateral adnexectomy. The histopath...

  11. The Role of Steroid Hormones in the Modulation of Neuroinflammation by Dietary Interventions

    Andrea Rodrigues Vasconcelos; João Victor eCabral-Costa; Caio Henrique Mazucanti; Cristoforo eScavone; Elisa Mitiko Kawamoto


    Steroid hormones, such as sex hormones and glucocorticoids, have been demonstrated to play a role in different cellular processes in the central nervous system, ranging from neurodevelopment to neurodegeneration. Environmental factors, such as calorie intake or fasting frequency, may also impact on such processes, indicating the importance of external factors in the development and preservation of a healthy brain. The hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis and glucocorticoid activity play a role...

  12. Perisurgical and intra-rehabilitative salivary steroid hormone profiles in bicompartmental arthroplasty.

    Perego, S; Grasso, D; Bodini, B D; Cavaiani, F; De Santis, C; Ursino, N; Pelosi, C; Banfi, G; Lombardi, G


    Sex hormones play a role in pain perception, a key variable in evaluating the progression and treatment of osteoarthritis. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between salivary concentrations of four steroid hormones and functional/clinical outcomes after hip and knee arthroplasty. Saliva samples were collected from 24 otherwise healthy patients with osteoarthritis before surgery, on admission to rehabilitation, and at hospital discharge. Salivary concentrations of testosterone, 17β-estradiol, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), and cortisol were immunoassayed. Changes in hormone levels were compared with clinical outcomes, as assessed by functional independence measure (FIM®), Barthel Index (BI), and visual analog scale for pain (VAS) scores. Changes in testosterone levels were significantly inversely correlated with VAS (r= -0.53, p=0.043) and FIM® and BI scores in all patients (r= -0.30, p= 0.043, and r= -0.35, p=0.031, respectively). The testosterone to cortisol ratio was inversely correlated with BI scores in all patients (r= -0.30, p=0.040), and in the men (r= -0.55, p=0.005) and the women (r= -0.28, p=0.042) when analyzed separately. Changes in salivary testosterone concentrations closely correlated with clinical outcome measurements for total hip and knee arthroplasty. Clinical outcome after arthroplasty was generally better among the men.

  13. Sex Differences and Individual Differences

    Plomin, Robert; Foch, Terryl T.


    Sex differences and their relationship to individual differences were examined for Maccoby and Jacklin's sex differences summaries, for a diverse set of measures of specific cognitive abilities (including verbal ability), and for objective personality assessments of 216 school-age children. Average differences between groups appeared to be trivial…

  14. Circulating gonadal and adrenal steroids in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: possible markers of susceptibility and outcome.

    Gargiulo-Monachelli, G M; Sivori, M; Meyer, M; Sica, R E P; De Nicola, A F; Gonzalez-Deniselle, M C


    Although changes of circulating steroids have been reported in patients with sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a full comparison of the adrenal and gonadal steroid profile between control subjects and ALS patients is lacking. Considering that respiratory failure is the most frequent cause of death in ALS, we looked into whether a relationship emerged between circulating steroids and respiratory parameters. Serum levels of adrenal and gonadal steroids were measured in 52 age- and gender-matched subjects (28 ALS and 24 controls) using radioimmunoassay techniques. We also evaluated respiratory parameters in ALS patients, including forced vital capacity (FVC), maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP), and maximal expiratory pressure (MEP). We found increased levels of testosterone in female ALS patients compared to healthy female subjects. Furthermore, control subjects showed a significant decline of testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone and its sulfate, and a borderline decline of progesterone with increasing age. Instead, testosterone did not decline with increasing age in ALS patients. We also found that the dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate/cortisol ratio was positively associated with FVC, MIP, and MEP. Moreover, ALS patients showing higher testosterone levels and lower progesterone/free testosterone ratio presented a more rapid worsening of the monthly FVC. In conclusion, first our study revealed a differential steroid profile with age and gender in ALS patients relative to controls. Second, we demonstrated an association between some steroids and their ratios with respiratory function and disease progression. Thus, we hypothesize that the endogenous steroid profile could be a marker of susceptibility and prognosis in ALS patients.

  15. Bone health in disorders of sex differentiation.

    Bertelloni, S; Baroncelli, G I; Mora, S


    Sex steroids are main regulators of skeletal growth, maturation and mass in both men and women. People with disorders of sex development (DSD) may experience problems in developing normal bone growth, structure and mass, because abnormal sex steroid secretion or action may be operative. In complete androgen insensitivity syndrome several reports documented reduced bone mineral density (BMD). Reduced BMD is evident in patients with not removed or removed gonads, but it is poorer in the latter, mainly when compliance with estrogen replacement therapy is not guaranteed. Large impairment of BMD does not seem to be present in patients with partial androgen insensitivity syndrome or 5alpha-reductase-2 deficiency, providing that gonads are not removed or that substitutive therapy is optimized. In congenital adrenal hyperplasia, BMD may be impaired as a result of not optimal glucocorticoid administration. In Turner syndrome, impaired BMD may result from the combined actions of estrogen deficiency, low bone dimensions, altered bone geometry, deficient cortical bone, and trabecular bone loss. Optimal estrogen administration seems to be important in preserving bone mass and enhancing trabecular bone volume. On the whole, bone health represents a main clinical issue for the management of persons with disorders of sex differentiation, and well designed longitudinal studies should be developed to improve their bone health and well-being.

  16. The Role of Steroid Hormones in the Modulation of Neuroinflammation by Dietary Interventions.

    Vasconcelos, Andrea Rodrigues; Cabral-Costa, João Victor; Mazucanti, Caio Henrique; Scavone, Cristoforo; Kawamoto, Elisa Mitiko


    Steroid hormones, such as sex hormones and glucocorticoids, have been demonstrated to play a role in different cellular processes in the central nervous system, ranging from neurodevelopment to neurodegeneration. Environmental factors, such as calorie intake or fasting frequency, may also impact on such processes, indicating the importance of external factors in the development and preservation of a healthy brain. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and glucocorticoid activity play a role in neurodegenerative processes, including in disorders such as in Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. Sex hormones have also been shown to modulate cognitive functioning. Inflammation is a common feature in neurodegenerative disorders, and sex hormones/glucocorticoids can act to regulate inflammatory processes. Intermittent fasting can protect the brain against cognitive decline that is induced by an inflammatory stimulus. On the other hand, obesity increases susceptibility to inflammation, while metabolic syndromes, such as diabetes, are associated with neurodegeneration. Consequently, given that gonadal and/or adrenal steroids may significantly impact the pathophysiology of neurodegeneration, via their effect on inflammatory processes, this review focuses on how environmental factors, such as calorie intake and intermittent fasting, acting through their modulation of steroid hormones, impact on inflammation that contributes to cognitive and neurodegenerative processes.

  17. The Role of Steroid Hormones on the Modulation of Neuroinflammation by Dietary Interventions

    Andrea Rodrigues Vasconcelos


    Full Text Available Steroid hormones, such as sex hormones and glucocorticoids, have been demonstrated to play a role in different cellular processes in the central nervous system, ranging from neurodevelopment to neurodegeneration. Environmental factors, such as calorie intake or fasting frequency, may also impact on such processes, indicating the importance of external factors in the development and preservation of a healthy brain.The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and glucocorticoid activity play a role in neurodegenerative processes, including in disorders such as in Alzheimer´s and Parkinson´s diseases. Sex hormones have also been shown to modulate cognitive functioning. Inflammation is a common feature in neurodegenerative disorders, and sex hormones/glucocorticoids can act to regulate inflammatory processes. Intermittent fasting can protect the brain against cognitive decline that is induced by an inflammatory stimulus. On the other hand, obesity increases susceptibility to inflammation, whilst metabolic syndromes, like diabetes, are associated with neurodegeneration. Consequently, given that gonadal and/or adrenal steroids may significantly impact on the pathophysiology of neurodegeneration, via their effect on inflammatory processes, this review focuses on how environmental factors, like calorie intake and intermittent fasting, acting through their modulation of steroid hormones, impact on inflammation that contributes to cognitive and neurodegenerative processes.


    Abbas Yavari


    Full Text Available According to the International Olympic Committee, the abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids (AASS is found in over 50% of positive doping tests. AASS abuse is not restricted to the organized sports andwidespread use. It remains as an unsolved public-health problem.Lower black market price, easier access to AASS, bodybuilding clubs and internet advertising are factors of this increasingly misuse. There is not real data about the prevalence of AASS abuse in various populations or countries, because most of athletes or students, due to their prohibition or ethical aspects do not admit to AASS abuse. Often they are aware of the risks of their choice and yet, are eager to put themselves at risk without deeper consideration. The abusers use them to improve their physical fitness and appearance.Present article has been collected to elucidate the risks and adverse effects of AASS and explanation of mechanisms of these events.

  19. Anabolic steroid abuse and dependence.

    Brower, Kirk J


    Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are mainly used to treat androgen deficiency syndromes and, more recently, catabolic states such as AIDS-associated wasting. There is no evidence in the reviewed literature that AAS abuse or dependence develops from the therapeutic use of AAS. Conversely, 165 instances of AAS dependence have been reported among weightlifters and bodybuilders who, as part of their weight training regimens, chronically administered supraphysiologic doses, often including combinations of injected and oral AAS as well as other drugs of abuse. A new model is proposed in which both the "myoactive" and psychoactive effects of AAS contribute to the development of AAS dependence. The adverse consequences of AAS are reviewed, as well as their assessment by means of a history and physical, mental status examination, and laboratory testing. When patients with AAS use disorders are compared with patients with other substance use disorders, both similarities and differences become apparent and have implications for treatment.

  20. Neuroactive steroids with perfluorobenzoyl group.

    Cerný, Ivan; Buděšínský, Miloš; Pouzar, Vladimír; Vyklický, Vojtěch; Krausová, Barbora; Vyklický, Ladislav


    During an initial study in searching for the alternative derivatives suitable for photolabeling of neuroactive steroids, perfluorobenzoates and perfluorobenzamides in position 17 of 5β-androstan-3α-ol were synthesized from the corresponding 17-hydroxy and 17-amino derivatives. After transformation into glutamates or sulfates, 17α-epimers had comparable inhibitory activity at NMDA receptors to the natural neurosteroid (20-oxo-5β-pregnan-3β-yl sulfate), however, were more potent (2- to 36-fold) than their 17β-substituted analogs. In one case, fluorine in position 4' of perfluorobenzoate group was substituted with azide and activity of the final glutamate was retained comparing with the corresponding perfluorobenzoate. The series was expanded with perfluorobenzoyl derivatives of pregnanolone: Perfluorobenzamide of glutamate and perfluorobenzoate of 11α-hydroxy pregnanolone were prepared and tested. From nine tested compounds, four of them exhibit very good inhibition activity and can serve as promising leads for photolabeling experiments.

  1. Steroid profiling in H295R cells to identify chemicals potentially disrupting the production of adrenal steroids.

    Strajhar, Petra; Tonoli, David; Jeanneret, Fabienne; Imhof, Raphaella M; Malagnino, Vanessa; Patt, Melanie; Kratschmar, Denise V; Boccard, Julien; Rudaz, Serge; Odermatt, Alex


    The validated OECD test guideline 456 based on human adrenal H295R cells promotes measurement of testosterone and estradiol production as read-out to identify potential endocrine disrupting chemicals. This study aimed to establish optimal conditions for using H295R cells to detect chemicals interfering with the production of key adrenal steroids. H295R cells' supernatants were characterized by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS)-based steroid profiling, and the influence of experimental conditions including time and serum content was assessed. Steroid profiles were determined before and after incubation with reference compounds and chemicals to be tested for potential disruption of adrenal steroidogenesis. The H295R cells cultivated according to the OECD test guideline produced progestins, glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids and adrenal androgens but only very low amounts of testosterone. However, testosterone contained in Nu-serum was metabolized during the 48h incubation. Thus, inclusion of positive and negative controls and a steroid profile of the complete medium prior to the experiment (t=0h) was necessary to characterize H295R cells' steroid production and indicate alterations caused by exposure to chemicals. Among the tested chemicals, octyl methoxycinnamate and acetyl tributylcitrate resembled the corticosteroid induction pattern of the positive control torcetrapib. Gene expression analysis revealed that octyl methoxycinnamate and acetyl tributylcitrate enhanced CYP11B2 expression, although less pronounced than torcetrapib. Further experiments need to assess the toxicological relevance of octyl methoxycinnamate- and acetyl tributylcitrate-induced corticosteroid production. In conclusion, the extended profiling and appropriate controls allow detecting chemicals that act on steroidogenesis and provide initial mechanistic evidence for prioritizing chemicals for further investigations.

  2. Paclitaxel and Carboplatin or Bleomycin Sulfate, Etoposide Phosphate, and Cisplatin in Treating Patients With Advanced or Recurrent Sex Cord-Ovarian Stromal Tumors


    Ovarian Granulosa Cell Tumor; Ovarian Gynandroblastoma; Ovarian Sertoli-Leydig Cell Tumor; Ovarian Sex Cord Tumor With Annular Tubules; Ovarian Sex Cord-Stromal Tumor; Ovarian Sex Cord-Stromal Tumor of Mixed or Unclassified Cell Types; Ovarian Steroid Cell Tumor

  3. Outcome of primary trabeculotomy ab interno (Trabectome) surgery in patients with steroid-induced glaucoma.

    Ngai, Philip; Kim, Grace; Chak, Garrick; Lin, Ken; Maeda, Masahiro; Mosaed, Sameh


    To determine the efficacy and safety of Trabectome surgery on patients with steroid response, ranging from ocular hypertension refractory to maximal medical therapy to the development of steroid-induced glaucoma.A nonrandomized, nonblinded, retrospective study of 20 subjects with steroid response was conducted. All 20 eyes underwent Trabectome surgery alone. Nine subjects had steroid response with unremarkable visual field, 3 had mild steroid-induced glaucoma, and 8 had advanced steroid-induced glaucoma. Outcome measures included intraocular pressure (IOP), number of glaucoma medications, need for secondary glaucoma surgery, and steroid regimen. Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare postoperative IOP and number of medications to preoperative IOP and number of medications. Kaplan-Meier was used for survival analysis, and success was defined as: IOP reduced by 20% or more on any 2 consecutive visits after 3 months; IOP ≤21 mm Hg on any 2 consecutive visits after 3 months; and no secondary glaucoma surgery.The average preoperative IOP was 33.8 ± 6.9 mm Hg and average preoperative glaucoma medication usage was 3.85 ± 0.75 medications. At 12 months, the IOP was reduced to 15.00 ± 3.46 mm Hg (P = 0.03) and glaucoma medication was reduced to 2.3 ± 1.4 (P glaucoma surgery (glaucoma drainage device). No other complications were noted.The Trabectome procedure is safe and highly effective for steroid-response glaucoma, even in the context of continued steroid treatment.

  4. Effect of long-term steroid withdrawal in renal transplant recipients: a retrospective cohort study

    Gonzalez-Molina, Miguel; Gentil, Miguel Angel; Burgos, Dolores; Cabello, Mercedes; Cobelo, Carmen; Bustamante, Jesús; Errasti, Pedro; Franco, Antonio; Hernández, Domingo


    Background. Steroids are largely effective for the immunosuppressive treatment in renal transplant patients, but cause severe side effects. Whether steroid withdrawal confers long-term beneficial effects remains unclear. Methods. Data on 4481 cadaveric kidney transplant recipients were collected to estimate the impact of steroid withdrawal on kidney function and graft and patient survival using multivariate Cox regression models. Results. A total of 923 patients (20.6%) had steroid treatment withdrawn. This was more common in recipients from younger donors and in older recipients, and in recipients with a first transplant, those who had pre-transplant or de novo diabetes mellitus and those with fewer episodes of acute rejection (AR) (22.4% vs. 29.2%, P < 0.001). Cox multivariate analysis stratifying by propensity scores showed that long-term steroid therapy was associated with a 70% increase in the risk of patient death. The repeated measures linear model showed that, although the abbreviated Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (aMDRD) values changed over time (P = 0.002), this was independent of steroid withdrawal (P = 0.08). In addition, of the 772 (17.2%) recipients who developed de novo diabetes mellitus, 204 (26.4%) ceased antidiabetic therapy, with more of these among those who ceased steroids (23% vs. 33.3%, P = 0.003). Blood pressure, cholesterol and triglyceride values were all significantly lower in the patients who ceased steroids. Conclusions. Steroid withdrawal in selected patients had no negative effect over time on renal function and graft survival, and it was associated with reduced mortality. PMID:20508858

  5. Intrauterine sexual differentiation: biosyntesis and action of sexual steroid hormones

    Amilton Cesar dos Santos


    Full Text Available The objective of this review was to describe sexual differentiation events in mammals, relating them to biosynthesis of sexual steroid hormones and their mechanisms of action. Cholesterol is the precursor of sexual steroid hormone biosynthesis via action of several enzymes converting these hormones. Progestagens hormones serve as substrate for the production of androgens, which in turn serve as substrate for estrogen hormones. These hormones are responsible for sexual differentiation and reproductive cycles of mammals. Sexual differentiation process comprises determining the sexual chromosomes XX or XY + SRY and other genes linked to them, differentiation of gonads in testis or ovary, differentiation of internal and external male or female genital organs from undifferentiated anatomical structures present in the embryo, which is dependent on the presence or absence of testes and the production of anti-Müllerian hormone and testosterone; and secondary sexual differentiation, which is the response of various tissues to hormones produced by the gonads, interacting with genes linked to sexual chromosomes to increase or decrease the differences in sexual phenotype. However, some differences between the sexes and some anomalies of sexual differentiation are not explained only by these sexual hormonal effects, but also by the effect of genes encoded in sexual chromosomes.

  6. Steroid-Refractory Acute GVHD: Predictors and Outcomes

    Jason R. Westin


    Full Text Available Patients with steroid-resistant acute graft versus host disease (aGVHD have a dismal prognosis, with mortality rates in excess of 90%. We sought to identify a subgroup of patients less likely to benefit from initial therapy with corticosteroids as well as the impact of response on day 14 on outcome. Retrospective evaluation was performed of patients with biopsy-proven aGVHD treated with corticosteroids after allogeneic HSCT at M.D. Anderson Cancer Center from 1998 through 2002 (=287. Overall response to first-line therapy on day 14 was 56%. Grade III-IV aGVHD and hyperacute GVHD were the most significant factors predicting failure. Patients who fail to respond to steroids by day 14 should be considered for clinical trials. Severity of aGVHD, hyperacute GVHD, and sex mismatch could be integrated into prognostic scoring systems which may allow for pretreatment identification of patients unlikely to benefit from standard therapy with corticosteroids.

  7. [Lethal sex].

    Rabinerson, David; Ben-Shitrit, Gadi; Glezerman, Marek


    Asphyxiophilic sex is a form of autoerotic activity, in which the user creates mechanical means (such as hanging or bondage) in order to achieve cerebral hypoxia, which, in turn, enhances sexual, as well as orgasmic, stimulus. Failure of safety mechanisms, created by the user, may lead to instant death as a result of asphyxiation or strangulation. This kind of sexual practice is more prevalent among men than in women. In cases of death, it is difficult to relate it to the sexual practice itself. Suicide and homicide are the main differential diagnoses. Closely related derivatives of asphyxiophilic sex are anesthesiophilia (inhalation of variable volatile substances) and electrophilia (use of electric current during sexual activity)--both also intended to enhance the sexual stimulation. These forms of sexual practice are less prevalent than asphyxiophilia.

  8. Sex during Pregnancy

    ... Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Sex During Pregnancy KidsHealth > For Parents > Sex During Pregnancy A A ... safe sexual relationship during pregnancy. Is Sex During Pregnancy Safe? Sex is considered safe during all stages ...

  9. When Sex Is Painful

    ... AQ FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS GYNECOLOGIC PROBLEMS FAQ020 When Sex Is Painful • How common is painful sex? • What causes pain during sex? • Where is pain during sex felt? • When should ...

  10. Sex during Pregnancy

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Sex During Pregnancy KidsHealth > For Parents > Sex During Pregnancy ... satisfying and safe sexual relationship during pregnancy. Is Sex During Pregnancy Safe? Sex is considered safe during ...

  11. Flowers for Algernon: steroid dysgenesis, epigenetics and brain disorders.

    Sanders, Bryan K


    While a recent study has reported that early citalopram exposure alters cortical network function and produces autistic-like behaviors in male rats, when evaluating antidepressant animal models of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) it is important to note that some selective serotonin (5-HT) reuptake inhibitors alter 3α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity, and thus steroidogenesis. At least one study has examined the effect of repeated citalopram administration on the serum and brain concentration of testosterone (T) and its metabolites and shown that citalopram increases serum T. Several in vitro studies also suggest that sex steroid can alter 5-HT homeostasis. While research efforts have demonstrated that transgenic mice expressing the most common of multiple gain-of-function 5-HT reuptake transporter (SERT) coding variants, SERT Ala56, previously identified in children with ASD, exhibit autistic-like behaviors, elevated p38 MAPK-dependent transporter phosphorylation, enhanced 5-HT clearance rates and hyperserotonemia, a few studies provide some evidence that 5-HT may alter gonadal steroidogenesis. T, 17β-estradiol and synthetic estrogens are known inhibitors of AKR1C21 (BRENDA, E.C., the epitestosterone (epiT) producing enzyme in rodents. EpiT is a naturally occurring steroid in mammals, including man. An analysis of the literature suggests that epiT may be the central mediator in the epigenetic regulation of gene expression. Over thirty years ago, it was shown that rat brain epiT production is higher in females than in males. A similar finding in humans could explain the sex differences in the incidence of autism and other brain disorders. Despite this, the role of epiT in brain development remains a long neglected area of research.

  12. Sex and Gender Differences in Central Nervous System-Related Disorders

    Emanuela Zagni


    Full Text Available There are important sex differences in the brain that seem to arise from biology as well as psychosocial influences. Sex differences in several aspects of human behavior and cognition have been reported. Gonadal sex steroids or genes found on sex chromosomes influence sex differences in neuroanatomy, neurochemistry and neuronal structure, and connectivity. There has been some resistance to accept that sex differences in the human brain exist and have biological relevance; however, a few years ago, it has been recommended by the USA National Institute of Mental Health to incorporate sex as a variable in experimental and clinical neurological and psychiatric studies. We here review the clinical literature on sex differences in pain and neurological and psychiatric diseases, with the aim to further stimulate interest in sexual dimorphisms in the brain and brain diseases, possibly encouraging more research in the field of the implications of sex differences for treating these conditions.

  13. Sex and Gender Differences in Central Nervous System-Related Disorders

    Zagni, Emanuela; Simoni, Lucia; Colombo, Delia


    There are important sex differences in the brain that seem to arise from biology as well as psychosocial influences. Sex differences in several aspects of human behavior and cognition have been reported. Gonadal sex steroids or genes found on sex chromosomes influence sex differences in neuroanatomy, neurochemistry and neuronal structure, and connectivity. There has been some resistance to accept that sex differences in the human brain exist and have biological relevance; however, a few years ago, it has been recommended by the USA National Institute of Mental Health to incorporate sex as a variable in experimental and clinical neurological and psychiatric studies. We here review the clinical literature on sex differences in pain and neurological and psychiatric diseases, with the aim to further stimulate interest in sexual dimorphisms in the brain and brain diseases, possibly encouraging more research in the field of the implications of sex differences for treating these conditions. PMID:27314003

  14. Physical provocation of pubertal anabolic androgenic steroid exposed male rats elicits aggression towards females.

    Cunningham, Rebecca L; McGinnis, Marilyn Y


    Human studies suggest that anabolic androgenic steroid (AAS) users are aggressive towards women. This study used a rat model to evaluate whether AAS potentiated aggression towards females and the conditions under which this occurs. Gonadally intact pubertal male rats received one of the following AAS treatments (5 mg/kg s.c. 5 days/week for nine weeks): testosterone (T), stanozolol (S), testosterone + stanozolol (T + S), or vehicle control. Each rat was tested with 3 conspecific stimuli: ovariectomized females (OVX), estrogen only females (E), and estrogen + progesterone females (E + P). The response to physical provocation was tested under three conditions: without physical provocation, provocation of the experimental male, and provocation of the conspecific female. Provocation was a mild tail pinch. Both aggressive and sexual behaviors were measured during each test. In the absence of physical provocation, AAS males were not aggressive towards females. However, provocation significantly increased aggression in males treated with testosterone but only towards OVX females. In the presence of E or E + P females, all animals displayed sex behavior, not aggression. Thus, factors such as the nature of the AAS and the hormonal status of the females are important in determining whether male rats will be aggressive towards females. However, the most salient factor determining aggression towards females is the presence of provocation in combination with high levels of testosterone.

  15. Factors influencing aggression toward females by male rats exposed to anabolic androgenic steroids during puberty.

    Cunningham, Rebecca L; McGinnis, Marilyn Y


    Previous results showed that male rats pubertally exposed to anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) displayed aggression towards females in response to physical provocation. This experiment examined two factors that may modulate AAS-induced behavior towards females: olfactory cues and frustration. Gonadally intact males began one of three AAS treatments at puberty (D40): testosterone propionate (T), stanozolol (S), T+S, or vehicle control. To test for the relevance of olfactory cues in the elicitation of behavior toward females, a hidden neighbor paradigm was used. The proximal stimulus was an ovariectomized (OVX) female, estrogen plus progesterone (E+P) female, or an E+P female with tape-obstructed vagina (OBS). Distal olfactory cues from a hidden neighbor were delivered from a separate cage connected to the testing arena. The vaginally obstructed, sexually receptive female (OBS) was used to determine the effects of frustration on behavior by AAS males. Both sexual and aggressive behaviors were measured. The presence of distal olfactory cues had no effect on either sexual or aggressive behavior. In the presence of E+P and OBS females, all males displayed sex behaviors, not aggression. However, AAS males displayed significantly more aggression towards proximal OVX females than controls. AAS males mounted OBS females significantly more than controls, indicating a persistence of once rewarded behavior. These results suggest (1) proximal cues of the conspecific female are more salient than distal olfactory cues in determining behavior and (2) AAS males display frustration-induced persistence in response to vaginally obstructed receptive females.

  16. Teens and Steroids: A Dangerous Combo

    ... boys who are “late bloomers” or to stimulate growth among teens who are failing to grow. Some may be dealing with unscrupulous clinics or street dealers on the black market. Unfortunately, a number of vendors sell anabolic steroids ...

  17. Steroids for Treating Cancer (For Parents)

    ... because during treatment, the body manufactures less cortisol. Tapering off the medication gives the body a chance ... Radiation Therapy Caring for a Seriously Ill Child Definition: Corticosteroids Steroids and Cancer Treatment Contact Us Print ...

  18. The associations among the dopamine D2 receptor Taq1, emotional intelligence, creative potential measured by divergent thinking, and motivational state and these associations' sex differences.

    Takeuchi, Hikaru; Tomita, Hiroaki; Taki, Yasuyuki; Kikuchi, Yoshie; Ono, Chiaki; Yu, Zhiqian; Sekiguchi, Atsushi; Nouchi, Rui; Kotozaki, Yuka; Nakagawa, Seishu; Miyauchi, Carlos M; Iizuka, Kunio; Yokoyama, Ryoichi; Shinada, Takamitsu; Yamamoto, Yuki; Hanawa, Sugiko; Araki, Tsuyoshi; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Kunitoki, Keiko; Sassa, Yuko; Kawashima, Ryuta


    Previous neuroscientific studies have shown that the dopaminergic system plays an important role in creative potential measured by divergent thinking (CPMDT), emotional control, and motivational state. However, although associations between two of these four components have been previously established (e.g., the association between CPMDT and emotional control, the association between CPMDT and motivational state, etc.), the interactions between these four remain unknown. The purpose of this study was to reveal these interactions using path analyses. The Taq1A polymorphism of the dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) gene was used for this purpose. For measuring emotional intelligence (EI), we used the Japanese version of the Emotional Intelligence Scale. CPMDT was measured using the S-A creativity test. Motivational state was measured using the Vigor subscale of the Japanese version of the Profile of Mood Scale (POMS). Data from 766 healthy, right-handed individuals (426 men and 340 women; 20.7 ± 1.9 years of age) were used in this study. There were significant and robust positive relationships among measures of CPMDT, EI, and motivational state across sex. In addition, the polymorphism of the DRD2 gene was significantly associated with EI, specifically in females. Path analysis in females indicates that the model in which (a) the DRD2 polymorphism primarily facilitates EI, (b) EI in turn facilitates CPMDT and leads to a better motivational state, and (c) a better motivational state also directly facilitates CPMDT explains the data in the most accurate manner. This study suggested a comprehensive picture of the cascade of the associations among dopamine, EI, motivational state, and CPMDT at least in females.

  19. Serum steroid levels in intact and endocrine ablated BALB/c nude mice and their intact littermates

    Brünner, N; Svenstrup, B; Spang-Thomsen, M;


    An investigation was made of the serum steroid levels found in intact and endocrine ablated nude mice of both sexes and in their intact homozygous littermates. The results showed that nude mice have a normal steroidogenesis, but with decreased levels of circulating steroids compared to those...... of the littermates. The efficacy of the endocrine ablations was confirmed by the reduction in serum oestrone following oophorectomy, and by the reduction in serum testosterone and progesterone following orchiectomy. The normal steroidogenesis in nude mice, and the similarities between mouse and man with regard...


    A. A. Gutsol


    Full Text Available Abstract. The aim of our study was to evaluate effects of steroid hormones upon the imbalance of Th1/Th2 cytokine production (IL-2, IFNγ, IL-4, IL-10 by CD45RO+ activated lymphocytes. In our experiments, we have shown a clear trend of multidirectional influence of steroid hormones upon secretory activity of T-lymphocytes. We have revealed that development of cellular immune responses mediated by type 1 T helper cells is regulated primarily by female sex hormones. Glucocorticoid hormones seem to exert a marked effect upon development of humoral Th2 immune response. For androgens, some controversial results have been obtained.

  1. Steroid Hormones in NF1 Tumorigenesis


    neurofibroma and MPNST Schwann cells. We found less than 2-fold difference in these transcripts in tumor versus normal Schwann cells (in those that changed...neurofibromin-negative) to steroid hormones, focusing on estrogen and progesterone. The hypothesis is that human neurofibroma (and MPNST , determine steroid hormone receptor expression in human normal, NF1 neurofibroma, and NF1 MPNST Schwann cells, pre- and post-hormone treatment by

  2. Steroid hormones and sleep regulation.

    Terán-Pérez, G; Arana-Lechuga, Y; Esqueda-León, E; Santana-Miranda, R; Rojas-Zamorano, J Á; Velázquez Moctezuma, J


    In the search of the sleep substance, many studies have been addressed for different hormones, responsible for sleep-wake cycle regulation. In this article we mentioned the participation of steroid hormones, besides its role regulating sexual behavior, they influence importantly in the sleep process. One of the clearest relationships are that estrogen and progesterone have, that causing changes in sleep patterns associated with the hormonal cycles of women throughout life, from puberty to menopause and specific periods such as pregnancy and the menstrual cycle, including being responsible for some sleep disorders such as hypersomnia and insomnia. Another studied hormone is cortisol, a hormone released in stressful situations, when an individual must react to an extraordinary demand that threatens their survival, but also known as the hormone of awakening because the release peak occurs in the morning, although this may be altered in some sleep disorders like insomnia and mood disorders. Furthermore neurosteroids such as pregnanolone, allopregnanolone and pregnenolone are involved in the generation of slow wave sleep, the effect has been demonstrated in experimental animal studies. Thus we see that the sleep and the endocrine system saved a bidirectional relationship in which depends on each other to regulate different physiological processes including sleep.

  3. Steroidal saponins from Tribulus terrestris.

    Kang, Li-Ping; Wu, Ke-Lei; Yu, He-Shui; Pang, Xu; Liu, Jie; Han, Li-Feng; Zhang, Jie; Zhao, Yang; Xiong, Cheng-Qi; Song, Xin-Bo; Liu, Chao; Cong, Yu-Wen; Ma, Bai-Ping


    Sixteen steroidal saponins, including seven previously unreported compounds, were isolated from Tribulus terrestris. The structures of the saponins were established using 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and chemical methods. They were identified as: 26-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-furost-4-en-2α,3β,22α,26-tetrol-12-one (terrestrinin C), 26-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-furost-4-en-22α,26-diol-3,12-dione (terrestrinin D), 26-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(25S)-furost-4-en-22α,26-diol-3,6,12-trione (terrestrinin E), 26-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-5α-furostan-3β,22α,26-triol-12-one (terrestrinin F), 26-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-furost-4-en-12β,22α,26-triol-3-one (terrestrinin G), 26-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-furost-4-en-22α,26-diol-3,12-dione (terrestrinin H), and 24-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(25S)-5α-spirostan-3β,24β-diol-12-one-3-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-β-d-galactopyranoside (terrestrinin I). The isolated compounds were evaluated for their platelet aggregation activities. Three of the known saponins exhibited strong effects on the induction of platelet aggregation.


    Environmental contaminants can act as stressors, inducing elevated circulating concentrations of stress hormones such as corticosterone and cortisol. Development in contaminated eggs has been reported to modify circulating sex steroid hormone concentrations in alligators (Alligat...

  5. Mitochondrial benzodiazepine receptors regulate steroid biosynthesis

    Mukhin, A.G.; Papadopoulos, V.; Costa, E.; Krueger, K.E. (Georgetown Univ. School of Medicine, Washington, DC (USA))


    Recent observations on the steroid synthetic capability within the brain open the possibility that benzodiazepines may influence steroid synthesis in nervous tissue through interactions with peripheral-type benzodiazepine recognition sites, which are highly expressed in steroidogenic cells and associated with the outer mitochondrial membrane. To examine this possibility nine molecules that exhibit a greater than 10,000-fold difference in their affinities for peripheral-type benzodiazepine binding sites were tested for their effects on a well-established steroidogenic model system, the Y-1 mouse adrenal tumor cell line. 4{prime}-Chlorodiazepam, PK 11195, and PK 14067 stimulated steroid production by 2-fold in Y-1 cells, whereas diazepam, flunitrazepam, zolpidem, and PK 14068 displayed a lower (1.2- to 1.5-fold) maximal stimulation. In contrast, clonazepam and flumazenil did not stimulate steroid synthesis. The potencies of these compounds to inhibit {sup 3}H-labeled PK 11195 binding to peripheral-type benzodiazepine recognition sites correlated with their potencies to stimulate steroid production. Similar findings were observed in bovine and rat adrenocortical cell preparations. These results suggest that ligands of the peripheral-type benzodiazepine recognition site acting on this mitochondrial receptor can enhance steroid production. This action may contribute specificity to the pharmacological profile of drugs preferentially acting on the benzodiazepine recognition site associated with the outer membrane of certain mitochondrial populations.

  6. Genomics of sex determination.

    Zhang, Jisen; Boualem, Adnane; Bendahmane, Abdelhafid; Ming, Ray


    Sex determination is a major switch in the evolutionary history of angiosperm, resulting 11% monoecious and dioecious species. The genomic sequences of papaya sex chromosomes unveiled the molecular basis of recombination suppression in the sex determination region, and candidate genes for sex determination. Identification and analyses of sex determination genes in cucurbits and maize demonstrated conservation of sex determination mechanism in one lineage and divergence between the two systems. Epigenetic control and hormonal influence of sex determination were elucidated in both plants and animals. Intensive investigation of potential sex determination genes in model species will improve our understanding of sex determination gene network. Such network will in turn accelerate the identification of sex determination genes in dioecious species with sex chromosomes, which are burdensome due to no recombination in sex determining regions. The sex determination genes in dioecious species are crucial for understanding the origin of dioecy and sex chromosomes, particularly in their early stage of evolution.

  7. The different role of sex hormones on female cardiovascular physiology and function: not only oestrogens.

    Salerni, Sara; Di Francescomarino, Samanta; Cadeddu, Christian; Acquistapace, Flavio; Maffei, Silvia; Gallina, Sabina


    Human response to different physiologic stimuli and cardiovascular (CV) adaptation to various pathologies seem to be gender specific. Sex-steroid hormones have been postulated as the major contributors towards these sex-related differences. This review will discuss current evidence on gender differences in CV function and remodelling, and will present the different role of the principal sex-steroid hormones on female heart. Starting from a review of sex hormones synthesis, receptors and CV signalling, we will summarize the current knowledge concerning the role of sex hormones on the regulation of our daily activities throughout the life, via the modulation of autonomic nervous system, excitation-contraction coupling pathway and ion channels activity. Many unresolved questions remain even if oestrogen effects on myocardial remodelling and function have been extensively studied. So this work will focus attention also on the controversial and complex relationship existing between androgens, progesterone and female heart.

  8. Screening for anabolic steroids in urine of forensic cases using fully automated solid phase extraction and LC-MS-MS.

    Andersen, David W; Linnet, Kristian


    A screening method for 18 frequently measured exogenous anabolic steroids and the testosterone/epitestosterone (T/E) ratio in forensic cases has been developed and validated. The method involves a fully automated sample preparation including enzyme treatment, addition of internal standards and solid phase extraction followed by analysis by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) using electrospray ionization with adduct formation for two compounds. Urine samples from 580 forensic cases were analyzed to determine the T/E ratio and occurrence of exogenous anabolic steroids. Extraction recoveries ranged from 77 to 95%, matrix effects from 48 to 78%, overall process efficiencies from 40 to 54% and the lower limit of identification ranged from 2 to 40 ng/mL. In the 580 urine samples analyzed from routine forensic cases, 17 (2.9%) were found positive for one or more anabolic steroids. Only seven different steroids including testosterone were found in the material, suggesting that only a small number of common steroids are likely to occur in a forensic context. The steroids were often in high concentrations (>100 ng/mL), and a combination of steroids and/or other drugs of abuse were seen in the majority of cases. The method presented serves as a fast and automated screening procedure, proving the suitability of LC-MS-MS for analyzing anabolic steroids.

  9. Auto-modulation of neuroactive steroids on GABA A receptors: a novel pharmacological effect.

    Wegner, Florian; Rassler, Cornelia; Allgaier, Clemens; Strecker, Karl; Wohlfarth, Kai


    GABA(A) receptor function is modulated by various important drugs including neuroactive steroids that act on allosteric modulatory sites and can directly activate GABA(A) receptor channels at high concentrations. We used whole cell patch-clamp recordings and rapid applications of the neuroactive steroid alphaxalone to investigate repetitive steroid effects. Alphaxalone potentiation of submaximal GABA-evoked currents was enhanced significantly by repetitive coapplications at all investigated recombinant isoforms (alpha1beta3delta, alpha1beta3gamma2L, alpha6beta3delta, alpha6beta3gamma2L) and at GABA(A) receptors of differentiated human NT2 neurons. A similar increase of current amplitudes was induced by repetitive applications of a high steroid concentration without GABA. We refer to these reversible effects as auto-modulation because repeated interactions of steroids enhanced their own pharmacological impact at the receptor sites in a time and concentration dependent manner without affecting GABA controls. Pronounced auto-modulatory actions were also measured using the neurosteroid 5alpha-THDOC in contrast to indiplon, THIP, and pentobarbital indicating a steroid specificity. Protein kinase A inhibition significantly reduced alphaxalone auto-modulation at alpha1beta3gamma2L, alpha6beta3gamma2L, and alpha6beta3delta subtypes while it enhanced potentiation at alpha1beta3delta isoforms suggesting a crucial influence of receptor subunit composition and phosphorylation for steroid actions. Especially at extrasynaptic GABA(A) receptor sites containing the delta subunit steroid auto-modulation may have a critical role in enhancing potentiation of GABA-induced currents.

  10. What Do Athletes Know on the Effect of Steroids? An Exploratory Study in Italy.

    Vellante, Marcello; Moro, Maria Francesca; Sancassiani, Federica; Prost, Silvia; Machado, Sergio; Nardi, Antonio Egidio; Preti, Antonio; Mura, Gioia


    Despite the evidence of risks related to the use of anabolic steroids for the improvement of athletic performances, the diffusion of such drugs appears to be increasing. An exploratory study was conducted in Cagliari, Italy, to assess the level of information on this issue, to esteem the use of steroids among athletes, to measure the wellbeing of athletes and the risks related to steroid use. A sample of 192 athletes, including 142 non-agonists and 50 agonists (age range: 18 to 36) was invited to fill in a booklet including several self-report questionnaires. The questionnaire for the assessment of the beliefs regarding the effects of anabolic steroids was developed and validated for the study, while the Self Reporting Questionnaire was used for the assessment of the mental health aspects. A general lack of information on the specific effects of steroid use on general and psychic health, as well as on sportive performances was found. Athletes were also quite unaware of the diffusion of steroids among them. Since the sportive environment seems to be the main source of information, this channel should be targeted to address the prevention and information campaigns. The use of more specific tools and the investigation of the perception of reliability of the information sources as well as the social desirability issues should be explored in future studies.

  11. Anabolic steroids and cardiovascular risk.

    Angell, Peter; Chester, Neil; Green, Danny; Somauroo, John; Whyte, Greg; George, Keith


    Recent reports from needle exchange programmes and other public health initiatives have suggested growing use of anabolic steroids (AS) in the UK and other countries. Data indicate that AS use is not confined to body-builders or high-level sportsmen. Use has spread to professionals working in emergency services, casual fitness enthusiasts and subelite sportsmen and women. Although the precise health consequences of AS use is largely undefined, AS use represents a growing public health concern. Data regarding the consequences of AS use on cardiovascular health are limited to case studies and a modest number of small cohort studies. Numerous case studies have linked AS use with a variety of cardiovascular disease (CVD) events or endpoints, including myocardial infarction, stroke and death. Large-scale epidemiological studies to support these links are absent. Consequently, the impact of AS use upon known CVD risk factors has been studied in relatively small, case-series studies. Data relating AS use to elevated blood pressure, altered lipid profiles and ECG abnormalities have been reported, but are often limited in scope, and other studies have often produced equivocal outcomes. The use of AS has been linked to the appearance of concentric left ventricular hypertrophy as well as endothelial dysfunction but the data again remains controversial. The mechanisms responsible for the negative effect of AS on cardiovascular health are poorly understood, especially in humans. Possibilities include direct effects on myocytes and endothelial cells, reduced intracellular Ca2+ levels, increased release of apoptogenic factors, as well as increased collagen crosslinks between myocytes. New data relating AS use to cardiovascular health risks are emerging, as novel technologies are developed (especially in non-invasive imaging) that can assess physiological structure and function. Continued efforts to fully document the cardiovascular health consequences of AS use is important to

  12. A computational model to predict rat ovarian steroid secretion from in vitro experiments with endocrine disruptors.

    Nadia Quignot

    Full Text Available A finely tuned balance between estrogens and androgens controls reproductive functions, and the last step of steroidogenesis plays a key role in maintaining that balance. Environmental toxicants are a serious health concern, and numerous studies have been devoted to studying the effects of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs. The effects of EDCs on steroidogenic enzymes may influence steroid secretion and thus lead to reproductive toxicity. To predict hormonal balance disruption on the basis of data on aromatase activity and mRNA level modulation obtained in vitro on granulosa cells, we developed a mathematical model for the last gonadal steps of the sex steroid synthesis pathway. The model can simulate the ovarian synthesis and secretion of estrone, estradiol, androstenedione, and testosterone, and their response to endocrine disruption. The model is able to predict ovarian sex steroid concentrations under normal estrous cycle in female rat, and ovarian estradiol concentrations in adult female rats exposed to atrazine, bisphenol A, metabolites of methoxychlor or vinclozolin, and letrozole.

  13. Steroid synthesis by Taenia crassiceps WFU cysticerci is regulated by enzyme inhibitors.

    Aceves-Ramos, A; Valdez, R A; Gaona, B; Willms, K; Romano, M C


    Cysticerci and tapeworms from Taenia crassiceps WFU, ORF and Taenia solium synthesize sex-steroid hormones in vitro. Corticosteroids increase the 17β-estradiol synthesis by T. crassiceps cysticerci. T. crassiceps WFU cysticerci synthesize corticosteroids, mainly 11-deoxycorticosterone (DOC). The aim of this work was to investigate whether classical steroidogenic inhibitors modify the capacity of T. crassiceps WFU cysticerci to synthesize corticosteroids and sex steroid hormones. For this purpose, T. crassiceps WFU cysticerci were obtained from the abdominal cavity of mice, pre-cultured for 24h in DMEM+antibiotics/antimycotics and cultured in the presence of tritiated progesterone ((3)H-P4), androstendione ((3)H-A4), or dehydroepiandrosterone ((3)H-DHEA) plus different doses of the corresponding inhibitors, for different periods. Blanks with the culture media adding the tritiated precursors were simultaneously incubated. At the end of the incubation period, parasites were separated and media extracted with ether. The resulting steroids were separated by thin layer chromatography (TLC). Data were expressed as percent transformation of the tritiated precursors. Results showed that after 2h of exposure of the cysticerci to 100 μM formestane, the (3)H-17β-estradiol synthesis from tritiated androstenedione was significantly inhibited. The incubation of cysticerci in the presence of (3)H-DHEA and danazol (100 nM) resulted in (3)H-androstenediol accumulation and a significant reduction of the 17β-estradiol synthesis. The cysticerci (3)H-DOC synthesis was significantly inhibited when the parasites were cultured in the presence of different ketoconazole dosis. The drug treatments did not affect parasite's viability. The results of this study showed that corticosteroid and sex steroid synthesis in T. crassiceps WFU cysticerci can be modified by steroidogenic enzyme inhibitors. As was shown previously by our laboratory and others, parasite survival and development depends


    R N Srivastava


    Full Text Available Sex, though not everything in life, is a profoundly important aspect of human existence. It has evolved to serve more than reproductive functions; relational and recreational functions having taken precedence over procrea­tional. Sex has come to play a much wider socio-psychological function.Human sexuality is complex and multidimensional. It is subject to influence by multitude of factors often grouped as biological (e.g. genes, hormones, psychological (e.g. fear, anxiety, mood and socio-cultural (e.g. sex roles, values- religious/moral/ethical, customs. It is the interaction and interrelationship of these factors from the time of conception, through intrauterine life, infancy, childhood and adolescence, till adulthood (even later in life that determine the sexual development expressed as sexual attitudes and behaviour of the people. Learning, both social and cognitive, plays a significantly important role in such development.Sexual dysfunctions in men and women, result from factors often categorised as physical or organic and psychological; more often a combination may be involved. Experience has shown that in majority of men and women in India having sexual problems, ignorance misconceptions and prevailing myths are invariably responsible in the causation of Ihese problems. Sexual problems in individual man (e.g. erectile failure and woman (e.g. vaginismus cause anxiety, feelings of frustration, lowered self esteem and symptoms of depression. The condition may also affect the spouse; he/she, as a reaction to the problem in the partner, may develop sexual and psychosocial problems including distressed marital relationship. This may also have influence on general couple relationship, effecting adversely the quality of family life.Modern therapeutic endevours have made it possible now to offer effective therapy to most people who seek help for their sexual problems, thus preventing the consequences on couple relationship. However, there is also

  15. Optimised deconjugation of androgenic steroid conjugates in bovine urine.

    Pedersen, Mikael; Frandsen, Henrik L; Andersen, Jens H


    After administration of steroids to animals the steroids are partially metabolised in the liver and kidney to phase 2 metabolites, i.e., glucuronic acid or sulphate conjugates. During analysis these conjugated metabolites are normally deconjugated enzymatically with aryl sulphatase and glucuronidase resulting in free steroids in the extract. It is well known that some sulphates are not deconjugated using aryl sulphatase; instead, for example, solvolysis can be used for deconjugation of these aliphatic sulphates. The effectiveness of solvolysis on androgenic steroid sulphates was tested with selected aliphatic steroid sulphates (boldenone sulphate, nortestosteron sulphate and testosterone sulphate), and the method was validated for analysis of androgenic steroids in bovine urine using free steroids, steroid sulphates and steroid glucuronides as standards. Glucuronidase and sulphuric acid in ethyl acetate were used for deconjugation and the extract was purified by solid-phase extraction. The final extract was evaporated to dryness, re-dissolved and analysed by LC-MS/MS.

  16. Anabolic-androgenic steroids and the adolescent.

    Rogol, A D; Yesalis, C E


    This article has reviewed some of the hormonal and behavioral maturation that occurs during adolescence, which are characterized by remarkable physical changes and behavioral vulnerability. Risk taking of many varieties is common and drugs (including anabolic-androgenic steroids) form a part of the prevailing culture in many places. These steroids probably are not severe health hazards when taken intermittently and in low to moderate doses. The 17-alkylated derivatives are clearly the more likely to cause hepatotoxicity. Thus, the scare tactics formerly used (severe constitutional side effects) are doomed to failure. The tenuous link between these drugs and objective behavioral and addictive effects must be strengthened before health strategies based on this issue can be validated. Clearly, the lack of scientific information has impeded, if not precluded, the formulation of an effective health education strategy. The most potent deterrent to the use of steroid drugs by athletes must be the moral issue of fair play and maintaining a "level playing field." We strongly support directed research in these areas and hope that the credibility of the scientific community can be regained after its faulted "stop steroid use" campaigns based on the lack of steroid efficacy in bringing about desired results or on their dire consequences have been replaced with credible evidence to refute their use on these and other grounds.

  17. Review of Androgenic Anabolic Steroid Use

    T. Borges; G. Eisele; C. Byrd


    An area that has been overlooked within personnel security evaluations is employee use of androgenic-anabolic steroids (AAS). Current drug testing within the federal government does not include testing for anabolic steroids, and the difficulties to implement such testing protocols-not to mention the cost involved-make AAS testing highly improbable. The basis of this report is to bring to the forefront the damage that anabolic steroids can cause from both a physical and a psychological standpoint. Most individuals who use AASs do so to increase their muscle mass because they wish to gain some type of competitive edge during athletic competition or they wish to enhance their physical features for self-satisfaction and self-esteem (i.e., body building). Security officers are one group of men who often take high doses of anabolic steroids, according to the Second Report of the Senate Standing Committee (1990). The negative psychological characteristics for AAS use is extensive and includes prominent hostility, aggressiveness, irritability, euphoria, grandiose beliefs, hyperactivity, reckless behavior, increased sexual appetite, unpredictability, poor impulse control, mood fluctuations, and insomnia. The drug may invoke a sense of power and invincibility (Leckman and Scahill, 1990). Depressive symptoms, such as anhedonia, fatigue, impaired concentration, decreased libido, and even suicidality (Pope and Katz, 1992) have been noted with steroid withdrawal. It appears that long-term users of AAS experience similar characteristics as other substance abusers (i.e., craving, dependence, and withdrawal symptoms).

  18. Topical steroid addiction in atopic dermatitis

    Fukaya M


    Full Text Available Mototsugu Fukaya,1 Kenji Sato,2 Mitsuko Sato,3 Hajime Kimata,4 Shigeki Fujisawa,5 Haruhiko Dozono,6 Jun Yoshizawa,7 Satoko Minaguchi8 1Tsurumai Kouen Clinic, Nagoya, 2Department of Dermatology, Hannan Chuo Hospital, Osaka, 3Sato Pediatric Clinic, Osaka, 4Kimata Hajime Clinic, Osaka, 5Fujisawa Dermatology Clinic, Tokyo, 6Dozono Medical House, Kagoshima, 7Yoshizawa Dermatology Clinic, Yokohama, 8Department of Dermatology, Kounosu Kyousei Hospital, Saitama, Japan Abstract: The American Academy of Dermatology published a new guideline regarding topical therapy in atopic dermatitis in May 2014. Although topical steroid addiction or red burning skin syndrome had been mentioned as possible side effects of topical steroids in a 2006 review article in the Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, no statement was made regarding this illness in the new guidelines. This suggests that there are still controversies regarding this illness. Here, we describe the clinical features of topical steroid addiction or red burning skin syndrome, based on the treatment of many cases of the illness. Because there have been few articles in the medical literature regarding this illness, the description in this article will be of some benefit to better understand the illness and to spur discussion regarding topical steroid addiction or red burning skin syndrome. Keywords: topical steroid addiction, atopic dermatitis, red burning skin syndrome, rebound, corticosteroid, eczema

  19. CYP19A1 genetic variation in relation to prostate cancer risk and circulating sex hormone concentrations in men from the Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium

    Travis, Ruth C.; Schumacher, Fredrick; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Kraft, Peter; Allen, Naomi E.; Albanes, Demetrius; Berglund, Goran; Berndt, Sonja I.; Boeing, Heiner; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Calle, Eugenia E.; Chanock, Stephen; Dunning, Alison M.; Hayes, Richard; Feigelson, Heather Spencer; Gaziano, J. Michael; Giovannucci, Edward; Haiman, Christopher A.; Henderson, Brian E.; Kaaks, Rudolf; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Ma, Jing; Rodriguez, Laudina; Riboli, Elio; Stampfer, Meir; Stram, Daniel O.; Thun, Michael J.; Tjønneland, Anne; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Vineis, Paolo; Virtamo, Jarmo; Le Marchand, Loïc; Hunter, David J.


    Sex hormones, in particular the androgens, are important for the growth of the prostate gland and have been implicated in prostate cancer carcinogenesis, yet the determinants of endogenous steroid hormone levels remain poorly understood. Twin studies suggest a heritable component for circulating concentrations of sex hormones, although epidemiological evidence linking steroid hormone gene variants to prostate cancer is limited. Here we report on findings from a comprehensive study of genetic variation at the CYP19A1 locus in relation to prostate cancer risk and to circulating steroid hormone concentrations in men by the Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3), a large collaborative prospective study. The BPC3 systematically characterised variation in CYP19A1 by targeted resequencing and dense genotyping; selected haplotype-tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (htSNPs) that efficiently predict common variants in U.S. and European whites, Latinos, Japanese Americans, and Native Hawaiians; and genotyped these htSNPs in 8,166 prostate cancer cases and 9,079 study-, age-, and ethnicity-matched controls. CYP19A1 htSNPs, two common missense variants and common haplotypes were not significantly associated with risk of prostate cancer. However, several htSNPs in linkage disequilibrium blocks 3 and 4 were significantly associated with a 5–10% difference in estradiol concentrations in men (association per copy of the two-SNP haplotype rs749292–rs727479 (A–A) versus noncarriers; P=1 × 10−5), and withinverse, although less marked changes, in free testosterone concentrations. These results suggest that although germline variation in CYP19A1 characterised by the htSNPs produces measurable differences in sex hormone concentrations in men, they do not substantially influence risk for prostate cancer. PMID:19789370

  20. Differences in serum thyroid hormones, sex steroids and cortisol level among different gonad development stages in Monopterus albus%黄鳝不同性腺发育期间血清甲状腺素、性激素和皮质醇水平的差异

    郭威; 胡青; 高宇; 汤蓉; 迟巍; 李大鹏


    以购自武汉市白沙洲水产品批发市场的360尾黄鳝( Monopterus albus)为样本,测定了雌性、间性及雄性个体血清中睾酮(T)、雌二醇(E2)、甲状腺素(T4)、三碘甲腺原氨酸(T3)、皮质醇以及血糖水平,并对其变化规律进行了阐述。结果显示:血清T3在不同性别的黄鳝中维持在同一水平, T4与T3的变化趋势一致;黄鳝从雌性过渡到间性时血清T显著下降,从间性过渡到雄性时则显著上升,而E2仅在黄鳝由间性过渡到雄性时才出现显著下降;雌性与间性黄鳝血清皮质醇处于同一水平,均显著高于雄性( P<0.05);血糖在不同性别的黄鳝中也维持在同一水平。结果表明:血清E2与T水平分别与黄鳝卵巢及精巢的发育保持一致;而甲状腺激素及皮质醇则可能通过调节能量代谢或其他途径间接影响黄鳝性腺的发育,且在性腺发育的不同时期这两种激素表现出不同的促进或抑制作用。%In order to study the differences of main sex -related hormones level among different gonad development stages of ricefield eel Monopterus albus, we sampled M.albus from Wuhan Baishazhou Fishery Product Market , and then meas-ured the hormones concentration in serum in different genders including testosterone ( T ) , estradiol ( E2 ) , thyroxine ( T4 ) , triiodothyronine ( T3 ) , cortisol and also blood glucose.The results showed that serum T level firstly significantly dropped when ricefield eel developed from female to intersex , and then significantly increased from intersex to male.While serum E2 level only significantly decreased from intersex to male.Moreover , serum T3 remained the same level among dif-ferent genders , and T4 showed the same change trend as T 3.Serum cortisol level was significantly higher in female and in-tersex than that in male.Blood glucose also showed the same level among different genders.The results indicated that E 2 and T

  1. Efficacy comparison of oral steroid, intratympanic steroid, hyperbaric oxygen and oral steroid + hyperbaric oxygen treatments in idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss cases.

    Alimoglu, Yalcin; Inci, Ender; Edizer, Deniz Tuna; Ozdilek, Alper; Aslan, Mehmet


    Idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss is a rare disorder of unknown pathogenesis in which hearing is lost partially or totally. About 60 treatment modalities have been described. We aimed to compare the efficacy of hyperbaric oxygen, oral steroid, intratympanic steroid therapy and their combinations in idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss patients. Files of patients who were followed up between 2004 and 2010 in our clinic were examined retrospectively. Patients were divided into four groups according to the therapy received: Oral steroid, oral steroid + hyperbaric oxygen, intratympanic steroid and hyperbaric oxygen. Treatment success was assessed by Siegel criteria and mean gains using pre-treatment and post-treatment audiograms. 217 patients and 219 ears were examined. The proportion of patients responding to therapy was the highest in the oral steroid + hyperbaric oxygen group with 86.88% (53/61) followed by the oral steroid group with 63.79% (37/58), the intratympanic steroid group with 46,51% (20/43) and the hyperbaric oxygen group with 43.85% (25/57). The proportion of patients who had complete recovery was the highest in the oral steroid + hyperbaric oxygen group with 42.6% (26/61) followed by the oral steroid group with 19.0% (11/58), the hyperbaric oxygen group with 17.5% (10/57) and the intratympanic steroid group with 11.6% (5/43). The oral steroid + hyperbaric oxygen group has the highest mean hearing gain among all groups (p sudden sensorineural hearing loss patients receiving oral steroid + hyperbaric oxygen combination therapy have a higher likelihood of recovery than patients receiving oral steroids, hyperbaric oxygen or intratympanic steroids alone.

  2. Sex-linked dominant

    Inheritance - sex-linked dominant; Genetics - sex-linked dominant; X-linked dominant; Y-linked dominant ... can be either an autosomal chromosome or a sex chromosome. It also depends on whether the trait ...

  3. Steroidal alkaloid toxicity to fish embryos.

    Crawford, L; Kocan, R M


    Embryos of two species of fish were evaluated for their suitability as model systems for steroidal alkaloid toxicity, the Japanese rice fish, medaka (Oryzius latipes) and the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Additionally, the equine neurotoxic sesquiterpene lactone repin, was also tested. A PROBIT program was used to evaluate the EC1, EC50 and EC99 as well as the associated confidence limits. The steroidal alkaloids tested were the Solanum potato glycoalkaloids alpha-chaconine, alpha-solanine, the aglyclones solanidine and solasodine and the Veratrum alkaloid, jervine. Embryo mortality, likely due to structural or functional abnormalities in the early development stages of the embryo, were the only response observed in both species. The rainbow trout exhibited a toxic response to chaconine, solasidine, repin and solanine but the medaka embryos were only affected by the compounds, chaconine and solanine. Rainbow trout may indeed serve as a good lower vertebrate model for studying the toxicity of steroidal alkaloids.

  4. Any condomless anal intercourse is no longer an accurate measure of HIV sexual risk behaviour in gay and other men who have sex with men

    Fengyi eJin


    Full Text Available Background: Condomless anal intercourse (CLAI has long been recognised as the primary mode of sexual transmission of HIV in gay and other men who have sex with men (MSM. A variety of measures of CLAI have been commonly used in behavioural surveillance for HIV risk and to forecast trends in HIV infection. However, gay and other MSM’s sexual practices changed as the understanding of disease and treatment options advance. In the present paper, we argue that summary measures such as any CLAI do not accurately measure HIV sexual risk behaviour. Methods: Participants were 1,427 HIV-negative men from the Health in Men cohort study run from 2001 to 2007 in Sydney, Australia, with six-monthly interviews. At each interview, detailed quantitative data on the number of episodes of insertive and receptive CLAI in the last six months were collected, separated by partner type (regular vs. casual and partners’ HIV status (negative, positive, and HIV status unknown.Results: A total of 228,064 episodes of CLAI were reported during the study period with a mean of 44 episodes per year per participant (median: 14. The great majority of CLAI episodes were with a regular partner (92.6%, most of them with HIV-negative regular partners (84.8%. Participants were more likely to engage in insertive CLAI with casual than with regular partners (66.7% vs. 55.3% of all acts of CLAI with each partner type, p<0.001. Men were more likely to report CLAI in the receptive position with HIV-negative and HIV status unknown partners than with HIV-positive partners (p<0.001 for both regular and casual partners. Conclusion: Gay and other MSM engaging in CLAI demonstrate clear patterns of HIV risk reduction behaviour. As HIV prevention enters the era of antiretroviral-based biomedical approach, using all forms of CLAI indiscriminately as a measure of HIV behavioural risk is not helpful in understanding the current drivers of HIV transmission in the community.

  5. Phenotypic differences between the sexes in the sexually plastic mangrove rivulus fish (Kryptolebias marmoratus).

    Garcia, Mark J; Ferro, Jack M; Mattox, Tyler; Kopelic, Sydney; Marson, Kristine; Jones, Ryan; Svendsen, Jon C; Earley, Ryan L


    To maximize reproductive success, many animal species have evolved functional sex change. Theory predicts that transitions between sexes should occur when the fitness payoff of the current sex is exceeded by the fitness payoff of the opposite sex. We examined phenotypic differences between the sexes in a sex-changing vertebrate, the mangrove rivulus fish (Kryptolebias marmoratus), to elucidate potential factors that might drive the 'decision' to switch sex. Rivulus populations consist of self-fertilizing hermaphrodites and males. Hermaphrodites transition into males under certain environmental conditions, affording us the opportunity to generate 40 hermaphrodite-male pairs where, within a pair, individuals possessed identical genotypes despite being different sexes. We quantified steroid hormone levels, behavior (aggression and risk taking), metabolism and morphology (organ masses). We found that hermaphrodites were more aggressive and risk averse, and had higher maximum metabolic rates and larger gonadosomatic indices. Males had higher steroid hormone levels and showed correlations among hormones that hermaphrodites lacked. Males also had greater total mass and somatic body mass and possessed considerable fat stores. Our findings suggest that there are major differences between the sexes in energy allocation, with hermaphrodites exhibiting elevated maximum metabolic rates, and showing evidence of favoring investments in reproductive tissues over somatic growth. Our study serves as the foundation for future research investigating how environmental challenges affect both physiology and reproductive investment and, ultimately, how these changes dictate the transition between sexes.

  6. 生活方式对亚洲男性性激素、性活动以及老龄化的调节作用%The moderating impact of lifestyle factors on sex steroids,sexual activities and aging in Asian men

    Victor HH Goh; Terry YY Tong


    The present study sought to evaluate the relative associations of exercise, sleep and other lifestyle habits with aging, sex hormones, percent body fat (%BF) and sexual activities in men living in the community. A better understanding of this complex interrelationship is important in helping the formulation of modalities for a holistic approach to the management of aging men. The results showed that age is a major determinant for many physiological parameters, including sleep, hormonal and metabolic parameters, some lifestyle factors and sexual activities. Testosterone (T), bioavailable testosterone (BioT) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS) concentrations decreased with age, while estradiol (E2), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and %BF increased with age. In addition, there exist intricate associations among hormonal and lifestyle factors, %BF and age. High-intensity exercise and longer duration of sleep were associated with higher concentrations of T and BioT. T was shown to be associated positively with men who were engaged in masturbation. DHEAS was associated with men wanting more sex and with good morning penile rigidity. Older Singaporean men tended to sleep for shorter duration,but exercised more intensely than younger men. Coital and masturbation frequencies decreased with age, and a significantly greater number of younger men were engaged in masturbation. Relationship between the partners is a key determinant of sexuality in men. It appears that T may have a limited, while dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) have a greater role than previously suggest, as a motivational signal for sexual function in men. Both biological and psychosocial factors interact with each other to influence sexual functions in men.Hence, a biopsychosocial approach may be more appropriate for a more lasting resolution to sexual dysfunctions in men.

  7. Steroids pretreatment in assisted reproduction cycles.

    Sobotka, V; Streda, R; Mardesic, T; Tosner, J; Heracek, J


    The objective is to present an overview of trials and appreciate the relevant data on the effect of steroids pretreatment (oral contraceptives, 17β-estradiol and estradiol valerate) in assisted reproduction cycles. The subject of the study is to evaluate the clinical characteristics during steroids pretreatment cycles focused on the prevention of ovarian cysts, the positive contraceptive effect on the onset of regular period during long gonadotropin releasing hormone agonist protocol. In gonadotropin releasing hormone antagonist protocol the review is interested in supporting ovarian stimulation in low responders, the idea of cycle scheduling and improving treatment outcomes. The method is a review from MEDLINE/Pubmed database between 1994 and July 2012. We identified 15 randomised controlled trials (n=3069 patients). One trail (n=83 patients) assessed GnRH agonist protocol with or without steroids pretreatment, 8 trials (n=1884 patients) assessed GnRH antagonist protocols with or without steroids pretreatment and 6 trials (n=1102 patients) assessed GnRH antagonist protocols versus agonist ones with steroid pretreatment. Data demonstrates that oral contraceptives offer the effective prevention of functional ovarian cysts, the predictable onset of period during desensitisation. Existing data suggest that pretreatment with oral contraceptive pills or estradiol valerate give no advantage concerning number of oocytes or pregnancy rate. Pretreatment with oral contraceptive pills aiming to avoid weekend oocytes retrievals has to be more elucidated. In low responders oral contraceptive pill pretreatment may be beneficial in improving ovarian responses by reducing the amount of gonadotropins and the number of days required for ovarian stimulation. Current research indicates that also 17β-estradiol may be encouraging pretreatment in low responders and in cycle scheduling. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Pregnancy and Steroids'.

  8. Using Digital Images of the Zebra Finch Song System as a Tool to Teach Organizational Effects of Steroid Hormones: A Free Downloadable Module

    Grisham, William; Schottler, Natalie A.; Beck McCauley, Lisa M.; Pham, Anh P.; Ruiz, Maureen L.; Fong, Michelle C.; Cui, Xinran


    Zebra finch song behavior is sexually dimorphic: males sing and females do not. The neural system underlying this behavior is sexually dimorphic, and this sex difference is easy to quantify. During development, the zebra finch song system can be altered by steroid hormones, specifically estradiol, which actually masculinizes it. Because of the…

  9. Development of Analyses of Biological Steroids Using Chromatography--Special Reference to Vitamin D Compounds and Neurosteroids--

    Kazutake Shimada; Tatsuya Higashi; Kuniko Mitamura


    Steroids comprise a large group of natural substances that must frequently be monitored in various biological materials. Due to the metabolic versatility of steroid molecules, extremely complex mixtures are often encountered, necessitating the use of a chromatographic procedure prior to measurement. In this article we present our work, that is, the development of analyses of biological steroids (especially vitamin D compounds and neurosteroids) using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, high-performance liquid chromatography (including inclusion chromatography using cyclodextrin) and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry.

  10. Measurement of Stigma in Men Who Have Sex with Men in Hanoi, Vietnam: Assessment of a Homosexuality-Related Stigma Scale

    Huy Ha


    Full Text Available Objective. To develop and assess a homosexuality-related stigma scale among men who have sex with men (MSM in Hanoi, Vietnam. Methods. We conducted a cross-sectional study using respondent-driven sampling in Hanoi, Vietnam, in 2011. We used a cross-validation approach. Factor analysis was performed, and interitem correlation matrices were constructed to identify the latent factor structures, examine the goodness of fit, and assess convergent and discriminant validity of the determined scales. Internal consistency checks were performed in split samples and whole sample, and separately for each determined factor. Results. The findings were consistent in split samples. Three homosexuality-related stigma factors were identified: enacted homosexual stigma, perceived homosexual stigma, and internalized homosexual stigma. The fit indices of the confirmatory factor analysis in both split samples supported the hypothesized three-factor structures (in subsamples A and B: χ2/degrees of freedom ratio = 1.77 and 1.59, nonnormed fit index = 0.92 and 0.94, comparative fit index = 0.93 and 0.95, and the root mean square of approximation = 0.06 and 0.05, resp.. The interitem correlation supported the convergent and discriminant validity of the scales. The reliability of the three scales indicated good consistency (Cronbach’s alpha: 0.79–0.84 across split samples and for the whole data. Conclusion. Our scales have good psychometric properties for measuring homosexuality-related stigma. These comprehensive and practical tools are crucial not only to assess stigma against MSM and its consequence, but also to guide the development of interventions targeting MSM, as well as to evaluate the efficacy of existing stigma reduction efforts in Vietnam and other countries with similar settings.

  11. Systemic activity of inhaled topical steroid in toddlers studied by knemometry

    Bisgaard, H


    -held knemometer. Eighteen toddlers aged 13-36 months (mean 27 months) with a history of recurrent wheezing requiring inhaled topical steroids, but without need of regular medication during the months prior to the study, were studied. The children were randomized blindly through three consecutive treatment periods...... of exacerbations and one because of non-compliance. The precision of the measurement procedure was 51 microns/day. The mean growth rate during placebo, low-dose and high-dose steroid treatment was 92 microns/day, 114 microns/day and 46 microns/day respectively. The growth rate during the high-dose treatment...... was suppressed significantly compared to placebo treatment (95% CI -76 microns/day to -17 microns/day), whereas the growth rate during low-dose steroid treatment was indistinguishable from placebo treatment (95% CI -7 to +52 microns/day). In conclusion, measurement of short-term linear growth rate by knemometry...

  12. Steroid allergy in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

    Malik, M


    Background: Contact allergy to a steroid enema leading to worsening of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has recently been reported. This study was designed to look for evidence of steroid allergy in patients with IBD.

  13. Bell's Palsy: Treatment with Steroids and Antiviral Drugs

    ... PATIENTS and their FAMILIES BELL’S PALSY: TREATMENT WITH STEROIDS AND ANTIVIRAL DRUGS This information sheet is provided to help you understand the role of steroids and antiviral drugs for treating Bell’s palsy. Neurologists ...

  14. Anabolic-androgenic steroids for alcoholic liver disease

    Rambaldi, Andrea; Iaquinto, Gaetano; Gluud, Christian


    The objectives were to assess the beneficial and harmful effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids for alcoholic liver disease.......The objectives were to assess the beneficial and harmful effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids for alcoholic liver disease....



    Natural steroids, the simple mention of the word brings up topics like cheating, unfair advantages. The first misconception is that all steroids are used for muscle building. This is not at all the case, steroids are natural substances with many different effects in the human body, which begin over several days, as even birth control pills are a form of steroids. “Natural Steroids”, are the organic compounds which are not chemically altered, that mimics hormones, and obviously the hormone it ...


    Vivian Roshan D


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sciatica due to lumbar intervertebral disc herniation is one of the most common causes of radicular pain in an adult working population. This study aims at studying the effectiveness of conservative management of lumbar disc herniation as an alternative to surgical measures. METHODS: A prospective study of 100 patients with lumbar disc herniations who were treated conservatively were followed up at intervals of 1 month, 6 months and 1 year. Patients planned for conservative treatment were treated with pharmacological therapy, rest and physiotherapy. Those planned for epidural steroid injections were administered a single dose of steroid one level higher than the lesion in the epidural space. The collected data was analyzed by Chi square. RESULTS: Our results showed that in both genders, epidural steroid infiltration yielded better results than conservative treatment. Occupation had no discernible effect on the magnitude of disc herniation. People with sedentary lifestyle recovered better with epidural steroid infiltration as compared to the heavy physical labor group. Irrespective of disc bulge, protrusion or extrusion, the epidural steroid injection group showed significant improvement in symptoms as compared to conservative treatment. Smokers tended to show delay in the recovery as compared with the non-smoker group. The amount of disc herniation is not directly proportional to the outcome of treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Epidural steroid infiltration showed significant improvement in symptoms of lumbar intervertebral disc herniation thereby avoiding disc surgery. Conservative management for atleast 4 to 6 weeks can be recommended followed by epidural steroid in those patients without improvement. Cessation of smoking should be an integral part of the treatment.

  17. Evaluation of 5 versus 10 granulocyteaphaeresis sessions in steroid-dependent ulcerative colitis: A pilot, prospective, multicenter, randomized study

    Elena Ricart; Maria Esteve; Montserrat Andreu; Francesc Casellas; David Monfort; Miquel Sans; Natalia Oudovenko; Raúl Lafuente; Julián Panés


    AIM: To evaluate the efficacy of 5 compared to 10 granulocyteaphaeresis sessions in patients with active steroid-dependent ulcerative colitis.METHODS: In this pilot, prospective, multicenter randomized trial, 20 patients with moderately active steroid-dependent ulcerative colitis were randomized to 5 or 10 granulocyteaphaeresis sessions. The primary objective was clinical remission at wk 17. Secondary measures included endoscopic remission and steroid consumption.RESULTS: Nine patients were randomized to 5 granulocyteaphaeresis sessions (group 1) and L1 patients to 10 granulocyteaphaeresis sessions (group 2). At wk 17, 37.5% of patients in group 1 and 45.45% of patients in group 2 were in clinical remission. Clinical remission was accompanied by endoscopic remission in all cases.Eighty-six percent of patients achieving remission were steroid-free at wk 17. Daily steroid requirements were significantly lower in group 2. Eighty-nine per cent of patients remained in remission during a one year follow-up. One serious adverse event, not related to the study therapy, was reported.CONCLUSION: Granulocyteaphaeresis is safe and effective for the treatment of steroid-dependent ulcerative colitis. In this population, increasing the number of aphaeresis sessions is not associated with higher remission rates, but affords a significant steroid-sparing effect.

  18. Residual ovarian activity during oral steroid contraception

    A.M. van Heusden; B.C.J.M. Fauser (Bart)


    textabstractSteroid drugs with contraceptive properties have been available in the clinical setting for over four decades and are still subject to improvement. Estrogens, progestins and anti-progestins have been used alone or in various combinations, regimens and routes of administ

  19. Steroids in house sparrows (Passer domesticus)

    Nossen, Ida; Ciesielski, Tomasz M; Dimmen, Malene V


    . It was hypothesised that POPs may have endocrine disrupting effects on the local house sparrow population and can thus interfere with the steroid hormone homeostasis. Among female house sparrows, bivariate correlations revealed negative relationships between POPs and estrogens. Among male sparrows, positive...

  20. Epidural steroid injection for lumbosacral radiculopathy

    Sung, Mi Sook [The Catholic University of Korea, Pucheon (Korea, Republic of)


    Low back pain combined with radicular pain remains as one of the most challenging musculoskeletal problems for its therapeutic management. This malady results from nerve root impingement and/or inflammation that causes neurologic symptoms in the distribution of the affected nerve root(s) Conservative treatment, percutaneous spine interventions and surgery have all been used as treatment; and the particular treatment that's chosen depends on the severity of the clinical and neurologic presentation. In 1930, Evans reported that sciatica could treated by epidural injection. The use of epidural corticosteroid injections for the treatment of axial and radicular back pain was first reported in 1953. Epidural steroid injections are currently used by many medical professionals for the treatment of lumbosacral radiculopathy. Performing 'blind' epidural steroid injection lacks target specificity that often results in incorrect delivery of medication to the lesion. Imaging-guided steroid injections are now becoming more popular despite the controversy regarding their efficacy. Many reports, including a few randomized controlled trials, have documented the clinical utility of epidural steroid injections.

  1. Enantioselective Transport by a Steroidal Guanidinium Receptor

    Baragaña, Beatriz; Blackburn, Adrian G.; Breccia, Perla; Davis, Anthony P.; Mendoza, Javier de; Padrón-Carrillo, José M.; Prados, Pilar; Riedner, Jens; Vries, Johannes G. de


    The cationic steroidal receptors 9 and 11 have been synthesized from cholic acid 3. Receptor 9 extracts N-acetyl-α-amino acids from aqueous media into chloroform with enantioselectivities (L:D) of 7-10:1. The lipophilic variant 11 has been employed for the enantioselective transport of N-acetylpheny

  2. Two New Steroidal Glycosides from Caryopteris terniflora

    Yong Hong ZHANG; Qing Yi WEI; Zhong Li LIU; Li YANG; Dong Liang CHENG


    Two new steroidal glycosides were isolated from the Chinese medicinal plantCaryopteris terniflora. The spectroscopic and chemical evidences revealed that their structures tobe 6′-(β-sitosteroyl-3-O-β-glucopyranosidyl) hexacosanate 1 and 6′-(stigmasteroyl-3-O-β-glucopyranosidyl) linolenate 2, respectively.

  3. A Steroidal Glycoside from Cynanchum versicolor Bunge

    Zhao Guang ZHENG; Run Hui LIU; Ling Yi KONG; Wei Dong ZHANG


    A new C21 steroidal glycoside, named cynanversicoside F (1), was isolated from the root of Cynanchum versicolor Bunge. Its structure was established as glaucogenin-A 3-O-β-D-digitoxopyranosyl-(1→4)-β-D-cymaropyranoside by spectroscopic and chemical methods.

  4. Lactose contaminant as steroid degradation enhancer

    Nieuwmeyer, Florentine; Maarschalk, Kees van der Voort; Vromans, Herman


    Purpose. By pharmaceutical processes and in the presence of solid excipients physical-chemical changes are known to occur, leading to increased rate of chemical degradation. The purpose of this work was to determine the critical aspects in the stability of a steroid in the presence of a commonly use

  5. Sox and Drugs: Baseball, Steroids and Physics

    Tobin, Roger


    The sports world is in an uproar over performance-enhancing drugs. In the United States steroids in baseball have received the most attention, in part because the purported effects are much more dramatic than in any other sport. From 1995-2003 a few players hit home runs at rates 20-50% higher than the best sluggers of the preceding century. Could steroids really increase home-run performance that much? I will describe a model that combines estimates of the physiological effects of steroids, known baseball physics, and reasonable models of batting effectiveness for highly skilled hitters. A 10% increase in muscle mass, which can reasonably be expected from steroid use, increases the speed of a batted ball by 3%. Because home runs are relatively rare events on the tail of a batter's range distribution, even this modest change in ball speed can increase the proportion of batted balls that result in home runs by 30 -- 70%, enough to account for the record-shattering performances of the recent past. I will also describe some of the attention -- both welcome and not -- that comes to the unsuspecting physicist who wades into such emotionally troubled waters.

  6. Physicochemical properties and transport of steroids across Caco-2 cells

    Faassen, F.; Kelder, J.; Lenders, J.; Onderwater, R.; Vromans, H.


    Purpose. The purpose of this work was to study the relevant physicochemical properties for the absorption of steroids. Methods. Various physicochemical properties of steroids were calculated (molecular weight, ClogP, static polar surface area [PSA], etc.). Within this series of steroids, different p

  7. ent-Steroids: novel tools for studies of signaling pathways.

    Covey, Douglas F


    Membrane receptors are often modulated by steroids and it is necessary to distinguish the effects of steroids at these receptors from effects occurring at nuclear receptors. Additionally, it may also be mechanistically important to distinguish between direct effects caused by binding of steroids to membrane receptors and indirect effects on membrane receptor function caused by steroid perturbation of the membrane containing the receptor. In this regard, ent-steroids, the mirror images of naturally occurring steroids, are novel tools for distinguishing between these various actions of steroids. The review provides a background for understanding the different actions that can be expected of steroids and ent-steroids in biological systems, references for the preparation of ent-steroids, a short discussion about relevant forms of stereoisomerism and the requirements that need to be fulfilled for the interaction between two molecules to be enantioselective. The review then summarizes results of biophysical, biochemical and pharmacological studies published since 1992 in which ent-steroids have been used to investigate the actions of steroids in membranes and/or receptor-mediated signaling pathways.

  8. Steroids and Other Ergogenic Aids: A Resource Guide.

    Virginia State Dept. of Education, Richmond.

    Steroids have become one of society's "short cuts" to athletic prowess and success. This guide includes information and teaching materials for educators and others who work with youth on how to teach that steroids are drugs, that drugs can harm and kill, and that a "no-use" policy applies to steroids as well as to alcohol and…

  9. School and Parent Factors Associated with Steroid Use among Adolescents

    Elkins, Rebecca L.; King, Keith; Nabors, Laura; Vidourek, Rebecca


    Background: Steroid use among adolescents is an increasing health concern. Literature examining factors related to steroid use is limited. Methods: We investigated steroid use among 9th through 12th grade adolescents in the Greater Cincinnati area. A total of 38,414 adolescents completed the PRIDE Questionnaire. Associations between demographics,…

  10. Fluorochemicals used in food packaging inhibit male sex hormone synthesis

    Rosenmai, A.K., E-mail: [Division of Toxicology and Risk Assessment, National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2860 Søborg (Denmark); Nielsen, F.K. [Section of Toxicology, Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Pedersen, M. [Division of Food Chemistry, National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2860 Søborg (Denmark); Hadrup, N. [Division of Toxicology and Risk Assessment, National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2860 Søborg (Denmark); Trier, X. [Division of Food Chemistry, National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2860 Søborg (Denmark); Christensen, J.H. [Department of Basic Sciences and Environment, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Copenhagen, DK-1871 Frederiksberg C. (Denmark); Vinggaard, A.M. [Division of Toxicology and Risk Assessment, National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2860 Søborg (Denmark)


    Polyfluoroalkyl phosphate surfactants (PAPS) are widely used in food contact materials (FCMs) of paper and board and have recently been detected in 57% of investigated materials. Human exposure occurs as PAPS have been measured in blood; however knowledge is lacking on the toxicology of PAPS. The aim of this study was to elucidate the effects of six fluorochemicals on sex hormone synthesis and androgen receptor (AR) activation in vitro. Four PAPS and two metabolites, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and 8:2 fluorotelomer alcohol (8:2 FTOH) were tested. Hormone profiles, including eight steroid hormones, generally showed that 8:2 diPAPS, 8:2 monoPAPS and 8:2 FTOH led to decreases in androgens (testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, and androstenedione) in the H295R steroidogenesis assay. Decreases were observed for progesterone and 17-OH-progesterone as well. These observations indicated that a step prior to progestagen and androgen synthesis had been affected. Gene expression analysis of StAR, Bzrp, CYP11A, CYP17, CYP21 and CYP19 mRNA showed a decrease in Bzrp mRNA levels for 8:2 monoPAPS and 8:2 FTOH indicating interference with cholesterol transport to the inner mitochondria. Cortisol, estrone and 17β-estradiol levels were in several cases increased with exposure. In accordance with these data CYP19 gene expression increased with 8:2 diPAPS, 8:2 monoPAPS and 8:2 FTOH exposures indicating that this is a contributing factor to the decreased androgen and the increased estrogen levels. Overall, these results demonstrate that fluorochemicals present in food packaging materials and their metabolites can affect steroidogenesis through decreased Bzrp and increased CYP19 gene expression leading to lower androgen and higher estrogen levels. -- Highlights: ► Fluorochemicals found in 57% of paper and board food packaging were tested. ► Collectively six fluorochemicals were tested for antiandrogenic potential in vitro. ► Three out of six tested fluorochemicals inhibited

  11. Sex differences in brain aromatase activity: genomic and non-genomic controls

    Jacques eBalthazart


    Full Text Available Aromatization of testosterone into estradiol in the preoptic area plays a critical role in the activation of male copulation in quail and in many other vertebrate species. Aromatase expression in quail and in other birds is higher than in rodents and other mammals, which has facilitated the study of the controls and functions of this enzyme. Over relatively long time periods (days to months, brain aromatase activity and transcription are markedly (4-6 fold increased by genomic actions of sex steroids. Initial work indicated that the preoptic aromatase activity is higher in males than in females and it was hypothesized that this differential production of estrogen could be a critical factor responsible for the lack of behavioral activation in females. Subsequent studies revealed, however, that this enzymatic sex difference might contribute but is not sufficient to explain the sex difference in behavior. Studies of aromatase activity, immunoreactivity and mRNA concentrations revealed that sex differences observed when measuring enzymatic activity are not necessarily observed when one measures mRNA concentrations. Discrepancies potentially reflect post-translational controls of the enzymatic activity. Aromatase activity in quail brain homogenates is rapidly inhibited by phosphorylation processes. Similar rapid inhibitions occur in hypothalamic explants maintained in vitro and exposed to agents affecting intracellular calcium concentrations or to glutamate agonists. Rapid changes in aromatase activity have also been observed in vivo following sexual interactions or exposure to short-term restraint stress and these rapid changes in estrogen production modulate expression of male sexual behaviors. These data suggest that brain estrogens display most if not all characteristics of neuromodulators if not neurotransmitters. Many questions remain however concerning the mechanisms controlling these rapid changes in estrogen production and their behavioral

  12. Preliminary Validation of the Sex Trafficking Attitudes Scale.

    Houston-Kolnik, Jaclyn D; Todd, Nathan R; Wilson, Midge


    This study presents the Sex Trafficking Attitudes Scale (STAS), assessing cognitive, behavioral, and affective attitudes toward the sex trafficking of women and girls. Across two studies, exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses revealed and confirmed six subscales: (a) Knowledge About Sex Trafficking, (b) Awareness of Sex Trafficking, (c) Attitudes Toward Ability to Leave Sex Trafficking, (d) Attitudes Toward Helping Survivors, (e) Empathic Reactions Toward Sex Trafficking, and (f) Efficacy to Reduce Sex Trafficking. Results showed support for convergent validity as the subscales were associated with related measures. The STAS holds promise to expand research and inform efforts to support trafficking survivors.

  13. Sex determination strategies in 2012: towards a common regulatory model?

    Angelopoulou Roxani


    Full Text Available Abstract Sex determination is a complicated process involving large-scale modifications in gene expression affecting virtually every tissue in the body. Although the evolutionary origin of sex remains controversial, there is little doubt that it has developed as a process of optimizing metabolic control, as well as developmental and reproductive functions within a given setting of limited resources and environmental pressure. Evidence from various model organisms supports the view that sex determination may occur as a result of direct environmental induction or genetic regulation. The first process has been well documented in reptiles and fish, while the second is the classic case for avian species and mammals. Both of the latter have developed a variety of sex-specific/sex-related genes, which ultimately form a complete chromosome pair (sex chromosomes/gonosomes. Interestingly, combinations of environmental and genetic mechanisms have been described among different classes of animals, thus rendering the possibility of a unidirectional continuous evolutionary process from the one type of mechanism to the other unlikely. On the other hand, common elements appear throughout the animal kingdom, with regard to a conserved key genes and b a central role of sex steroid control as a prerequisite for ultimately normal sex differentiation. Studies in invertebrates also indicate a role of epigenetic chromatin modification, particularly with regard to alternative splicing options. This review summarizes current evidence from research in this hot field and signifies the need for further study of both normal hormonal regulators of sexual phenotype and patterns of environmental disruption.

  14. Sex hormones adjust "sex-specific" reactive and diurnal cortisol profiles.

    Juster, Robert-Paul; Raymond, Catherine; Desrochers, Alexandra Bisson; Bourdon, Olivier; Durand, Nadia; Wan, Nathalie; Pruessner, Jens C; Lupien, Sonia J


    Sex differences in stress hormone functions are presumed to depend on sex hormones. And yet, surprisingly few psychoneuroendocrine studies actually assess within-sex variations of testosterone, estradiol, and progesterone when investigating sex-specific activities of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. In this methodological study of 204 healthy adults (60 men), we assessed whether cortisol profiles would differ between the sexes when unadjusted or adjusted for basal sex hormones among both sexes. Reactive cortisol was sampled using 6 saliva samples measured every 10-min as part of the Trier Social Stress Test that generally activates cortisol among men more than women. Diurnal cortisol was sampled over two days at (1) awakening, (2) 30-min thereafter, (3) 1400 h, (4) 1600 h, and (5) bedtime. Sex hormones were collected at baseline before the psychosocial stressor and on two occasions during diurnal cortisol assessment. Repeated-measures analysis of covariance controlled for key covariates in analyses unadjusted or adjusted for sex hormones. Results revealed that men had higher reactive cortisol than women in unadjusted analysis, but this sex difference was attenuated when adjusting for sex hormones. While diurnal cortisol showed no sex differences in unadjusted models, adjusting for sex hormones revealed that women have higher morning cortisol. Correlations using area under the curve formulae revealed intriguing sex-specific associations with progesterone in men and testosterone in women that we propose have implications for social and affective neuroscience. In summary, our results reveal that adjusting for sex hormones alters "sex-specific" reactive and diurnal cortisol profiles.

  15. Patterns of endogenous steroids in apathetic refugee children are compatible with long-term stress

    Söndergaard Hans


    Full Text Available Abstract Background During the last few years, a number of children of asylum applicants in Sweden developed an apathetic or unconscious state. The syndrome was perceived as new, and various explanations were advanced such as factitious disorder, intoxication, or stress. Considering a potential association between traumatic stress and regulation of steroids biosynthesis, this study explored whether changes in concentrations of endogenous steroids were associated with the above syndrome. Methods Eleven children were recruited in the study. Concentrations of steroids in blood samples were determined using high sensitivity liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry methods. Symptoms were assessed with a clinical rating scale developed for the study. Steroid concentrations were measured at the entry into study and after recovery; and concentrations were evaluated for the association with the symptoms in apathetic children. Results Cortisol and cortisone concentrations at baseline were negatively associated with duration of the symptoms from entry into the study to clinical recovery. Higher concentrations of pregnanes (pregnenolone, 17-OH-pregnenolone, and dehydroepiandrosterone were observed in the symptomatic state and the concentrations decreased after the recovery. Conclusions Pattern of low cortisol concentrations found in apathetic children is consistent with long-term stress. An increase of upstream steroid metabolites (pregnanes was found to be associated with the symptomatic state.

  16. In vivo MRI evaluation of anabolic steroid precursor growth effects in a guinea pig model.

    Tang, Haiying; Vasselli, Joseph R; Tong, Christopher; Heymsfield, Steven B; Wu, Ed X


    Anabolic steroids are widely used to increase skeletal muscle (SM) mass and improve physical performance. Some dietary supplements also include potent steroid precursors or active steroid analogs such as nandrolone. Our previous study reported the anabolic steroid effects on SM in a castrated guinea pig model with SM measured using a highly quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocol. The aim of the current study was to apply this animal model and in vivo MRI protocol to evaluate the growth effects of four widely used over-the-counter testosterone and nandrolone precursors: 4-androstene-3 17-dione (androstenedione), 4-androstene-3beta 17beta-diol (4-androsdiol), 19-nor-4-androstene-3beta-17beta-diol (bolandiol) and 19-nor-4-androstene-3 17-dione (19-norandrostenedione). The results showed that providing precursor to castrated male guinea pigs led to plasma steroid levels sufficient to maintain normal SM growth. The anabolic growth effects of these specific precursors on individual and total muscle volumes, sexual organs, and total adipose tissue over a 10-week treatment period, in comparison with those in the respective positive control testosterone and nandrolone groups, were documented quantitatively by MRI.

  17. Applicability of external measurements to sexing of the Cape petrel Daption capense at within-pair, within-population and between-population scales

    Weidinger, K.; Franeker, van J.A.


    Sexual size dimorphism in the Cape petrel Daption capense was analysed to improve methods for sexing live birds in field studies. Samples originated from two geographically distant study populations in the Antarctic: Nelson Island, South Shetland Islands (sample N: 83 M, 89 F), and Ardery and O'Conn

  18. Testosterone has a long-term effect on primary sex ratio of first eggs in pigeons-in search of a mechanism

    Goerlich, V. C.; Dijkstra, C.; Schaafsma, S. M.; Groothuis, T. G. G.


    Despite accumulating evidence that birds, in which females are the heterogametic sex, are able to manipulate primary offspring sex ratio, the underlying mechanism remains elusive. Steroid hormones. which govern female reproduction and are also accumulated by the developing follicle could potentially

  19. Sex Hormone Binding Globulin Deficiency Due to a Homozygous Missense Mutation

    Vos, M. J.; Mijnhout, G. S.; Rondeel, J. M. M.; Baron, W.; Groeneveld, P. H. P.


    Context: SHBG is known as the major sex steroid binding protein in plasma, and it regulates the bioavailability of both T and estradiol levels required for effects on target tissues. We identified a man with an undetectable SHBG concentration in combination with low total T. He presented with a 7-ye

  20. Maternal androgens in egg yolks : Relation with sex, incubation time and embryonic growth

    Eising, C.M; Müller, W; Dijkstra, C.; Groothuis, A.G.G.


    Hormones of maternal origin are known to be transferred to the egg yolks of oviparous species. Several studies have shown that within and between clutch variation of maternal androgens may be adaptively tuned. Moreover, it has recently been hypothesized that sex steroids of maternal origin may play

  1. Urinary endogenous sex hormone levels and the risk of postmenopausal breast cancer

    Onland-Moret, N.C.; Kaaks, R.; Noord, P.A.H. van; Rinaldi, S.; Key, T.; Grobbee, D.E.; Peeters, P.H.M.


    To assess the relation between urinary endogenous sex steroid levels and the risk of postmenopausal breast cancer, a nested case–cohort study was conducted within a large cohort (the DOM cohort) in the Netherlands (n¼9 349). Until the end of follow-up (1 January 1996), 397 postmenopausal breast canc

  2. Vocational Steroid Use: Reconsidering the Effectiveness of a Prohibition Approach

    Curtis A. Fogel


    Full Text Available The vast majority of literature on the topic of anabolic steroid use pertains to use by athletes and/or bodybuilders. Recent evidence suggests that performance-enhancing drugs, and anabolic steroids in particular, are used widely outside the realm of sport. In this paper, the term “vocational steroid use” is further developed and explored, referring to any form of steroid use for the purposes of enhanced performance in the workplace; a type of use uncharacteristic of most illicit substances. Vocational steroid users do not use steroids because of addictions or for recreation; they do so to increase their workplace abilities and productivity. Seven forms of documented vocational steroid use are described including use by: athletes, bodybuilders, police, actors, strength coaches, firefighters, and soldiers. While little research has examined the idea of vocational steroid use, even less attention has been given to issues related to examining the effectiveness of steroid prohibition strategies. This paper concludes with a discussion on the dangers of continued prohibition strategies on steroids, particularly in light of vocational steroid use. This study utilized an unobtrusive methodological approach. The unobtrusive data in this study involved media file collection, indexing, and analysis derived from online archives of newspapers throughout Canada and the United States.

  3. Therapeutic Potential of Steroidal Alkaloids in Cancer and Other Diseases.

    Jiang, Qi-Wei; Chen, Mei-Wan; Cheng, Ke-Jun; Yu, Pei-Zhong; Wei, Xing; Shi, Zhi


    Steroidal alkaloids are a class of secondary metabolites isolated from plants, amphibians, and marine invertebrates. Evidence accumulated in the recent two decades demonstrates that steroidal alkaloids have a wide range of bioactivities including anticancer, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, etc., suggesting their great potential for application. It is therefore necessary to comprehensively summarize the bioactivities, especially anticancer activities and mechanisms of steroidal alkaloids. Here we systematically highlight the anticancer profiles both in vitro and in vivo of steroidal alkaloids such as dendrogenin, solanidine, solasodine, tomatidine, cyclopamine, and their derivatives. Furthermore, other bioactivities of steroidal alkaloids are also discussed. The integrated molecular mechanisms in this review can increase our understanding on the utilization of steroidal alkaloids and contribute to the development of new drug candidates. Although the therapeutic potentials of steroidal alkaloids look promising in the preclinical and clinical studies, further pharmacokinetic and clinical studies are mandated to define their efficacy and safety in cancer and other diseases.

  4. Effects of androgenic-anabolic steroids in athletes.

    Hartgens, Fred; Kuipers, Harm


    . Generally, AAS seem to induce increments of aggression and hostility. Mood disturbances (e.g. depression, [hypo-]mania, psychotic features) are likely to be dose and drug dependent. AAS dependence or withdrawal effects (such as depression) seem to occur only in a small number of AAS users. Dissatisfaction with the body and low self-esteem may lead to the so-called 'reverse anorexia syndrome' that predisposes to the start of AAS use. Many other adverse effects have been associated with AAS misuse, including disturbance of endocrine and immune function, alterations of sebaceous system and skin, changes of haemostatic system and urogenital tract. One has to keep in mind that the scientific data may underestimate the actual untoward effects because of the relatively low doses administered in those studies, since they do not approximate doses used by illicit steroid users. The mechanism of action of AAS may differ between compounds because of variations in the steroid molecule and affinity to androgen receptors. Several pathways of action have been recognised. The enzyme 5-alpha-reductase seems to play an important role by converting AAS into dihydrotestosterone (androstanolone) that acts in the cell nucleus of target organs, such as male accessory glands, skin and prostate. Other mechanisms comprises mediation by the enzyme aromatase that converts AAS in female sex hormones (estradiol and estrone), antagonistic action to estrogens and a competitive antagonism to the glucocorticoid receptors. Furthermore, AAS stimulate erythropoietin synthesis and red cell production as well as bone formation but counteract bone breakdown. The effects on the cardiovascular system are proposed to be mediated by the occurrence of AAS-induced atherosclerosis (due to unfavourable influence on serum lipids and lipoproteins), thrombosis, vasospasm or direct injury to vessel walls, or may be ascribed to a combination of the different mechanisms. AAS-induced increment of muscle tissue can be attributed

  5. Effects of steroid hormone on estrogen sulfotransferase and on steroid sulfatase expression in endometriosis tissue and stromal cells.

    Piccinato, Carla A; Neme, Rosa M; Torres, Natália; Sanches, Lívia Renta; Derogis, Priscilla Bento Mattos Cruz; Brudniewski, Heloísa F; Rosa e Silva, Júlio C; Ferriani, Rui A


    Endometriosis is an estrogen-dependent disease that afflicts about 10% of women in their reproductive age, causing severe pain and infertility. The potential roles of female steroid hormones in modulating key estrogen-metabolizing enzymes, steroid sulfatase (STS) and estrogen sulfotransferase (SULT1E1), were investigated. The expression of STS and SULT1E1 mRNA in biopsy samples (n=78) of superficial and deep endometriotic lesions, eutopic endometrium of women with endometriosis and endometrium from control patients were compared according to the menstrual cycle phase. Increased STS gene expression was detected in superficial and deep-infiltrating lesions and a reduced SULT1E1 expression was also observed in the eutopic endometrium relative to the superficial lesions. Additionally, a significantly positive correlation was detected between STS and SULT1E1 mRNA expression levels in biopsy specimens collected from the endometriosis patients, and not in control individuals. The actions of female steroid hormones on SULT1E1 and STS expression were evidenced in endometriosis, revealed by increased expression levels in the luteal phase of the cycle. There was an increased STS expression in primary eutopic and ectopic endometrial stromal cells treated with estradiol and progesterone (representative of the luteal phase, n=3). Although an increased STS mRNA expression was observed in hormone-induced endometrial stromal cells in vitro, no difference could be detected between the hormone treatment groups in estradiol formation from estradiol sulfate measured by LC-MS-MS. Interestingly, a greater expression of STS was observed in stromal cells from eutopic endometrium with an agreement in estradiol formation originated from estradiol sulfate. The differential regulation of STS and SULT1E1 could provide insights for novel studies of the therapeutic use of STS inhibitors.

  6. The use of an anabolic steroid (nandrolone decanoate) to improve nutritional status after esophageal resection for carcinoma.

    Darnton, S J; Zgainski, B; Grenier, I; Allister, K; Hiller, L; McManus, K G; Steyn, R S


    Anabolic steroids increase appetite and muscle mass. This randomized, double-blind trial investigates any nutritional benefits of anabolic steroid in patients after surgery for esophageal cancer. Forty patients were recruited: 19 patients had five injections of 50 mg nandrolone decanoate and 21 patients received placebo over 3 months, starting 1 month after surgery. Measurements of body weight, mid-arm muscle circumference (MAMC) and appetite were taken over a 6-month period. Nutrition was optimized by dietary advice and by esophageal dilatation if required. Percent ideal weight, percent ideal MAMC and appetite score did not show significant differences between steroid and placebo groups, but there was a trend to an increase over 6 months for percent ideal MAMC in the test group. With this protocol, we have experienced minimal side-effects. However, we have not demonstrated any therapeutic benefit with low-dose steroid. An increased dose schedule over a longer period might produce a significant response.

  7. Mycobacterium smegmatis synthesizes in vitro androgens and estrogens from different steroid precursors.

    Dlugovitzky, Diana G; Fontela, María Sol; Martinel Lamas, Diego J; Valdez, Ricardo A; Romano, Marta C


    Fast-growing mycobacteria such as Mycobacterium sp. and Mycobacterium smegmatis degrade natural sterols. They are a model to study tuberculosis. Interestingly, M. smegmatis has been found in river effluents derived from paper production, and therefore, it would be important to gain further insight into its capacity to synthesize steroids that are potential endocrine disruptors affecting the development and reproduction of fishes. To our knowledge, the capacity of M. smegmatis to synthesize estrogens and even testosterone has not been previously reported. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the capacity of M. smegmatis to synthesize in vitro testosterone and estrogens from tritiated precursors and to investigate the metabolic pathways involved. Results obtained by thin-layer chromatography showed that (3)H-progesterone was transformed to 17OH-progesterone, androstenedione, testosterone, estrone, and estradiol after 6, 12, or 24 h of incubation. (3)H-androstenedione was transformed into testosterone and estrogens, mainly estrone, and (3)H-testosterone was transformed to estrone and androstenedione. Incubation with (3)H-dehydroepiandrosterone rendered androstenediol, testosterone, and estrogens. This ability to transform less potent sex steroids like androstenedione and estrone into other more active steroids like testosterone and estradiol or vice versa suggests that M. smegmatis can influence the amount of self-synthesized strong androgens and estrogens and can transform those found in the environment.


    Nigel Bennett


    Full Text Available Steroid hormones and their receptors have important roles in normal kidney biology, and alterations in their expression and function help explain the differences in development of kidney diseases, such as nephrotic syndrome and chronic kidney disease. The distinct gender difference in incidence of renal cell carcinoma (RCC, with males having almost twice the incidence as females globally, also suggests a role for sex hormones or their receptors in RCC development and progression. There was a peak in interest in evaluating the roles of androgen and estrogen receptors in RCC pathogenesis in the late 20th century, with some positive outcomes for RCC therapy that targeted estrogen receptors, especially for metastatic disease. Since that time, however, there have been few studies that look at use of steroid hormone modulators for RCC, especially in the light of new therapies such as the tyrosine kinase inhibitors and new immune therapies, which are having some success for treatment of metastatic RCC. This review summarises past and current literature and attempts to stimulate renewed interest in research into the steroid hormones and their receptors, which might be used to effect, for example, in combination with the other newer targeted therapies for RCC.




    Given meta-analytic findings showing females to be generally more fearful than males on multi-dimensional self-report measures of fear, an empirical attempt was made to examine whether this outcome could be explained by psychological factors such as sex role orientation and masculine sex role stress

  10. Sex differences in the neurobiology of epilepsy: a preclinical perspective.

    Scharfman, Helen E; MacLusky, Neil J


    When all of the epilepsies are considered, sex differences are not always clear, despite the fact that many sex differences are known in the normal brain. Sex differences in epilepsy in laboratory animals are also unclear, although robust effects of sex on seizures have been reported, and numerous effects of gonadal steroids have been shown throughout the rodent brain. Here we discuss several reasons why sex differences in seizure susceptibility are unclear or are difficult to study. Examples of robust sex differences in laboratory rats, such as the relative resistance of adult female rats to the chemoconvulsant pilocarpine compared to males, are described. We also describe a novel method that has shed light on sex differences in neuropathology, which is a relatively new technique that will potentially contribute to sex differences research in the future. The assay we highlight uses the neuronal nuclear antigen NeuN to probe sex differences in adult male and female rats and mice. In females, weak NeuN expression defines a sex difference that previous neuropathological studies have not described. We also show that in adult rats, social isolation stress can obscure the normal effects of 17β-estradiol to increase excitability in area CA3 of the hippocampus. These data underscore the importance of controlling behavioral stress in studies of seizure susceptibility in rodents and suggest that behavioral stress may be one factor that has led to inconsistencies in outcomes of sex differences research. These and other issues have made it difficult to translate our increasing knowledge about the effects of gonadal hormones on the brain to improved treatment for men and women with epilepsy.

  11. Steroids from the Soft Coral Sinularia crassa

    Kuei-Ju Chou


    Full Text Available One new sterol, crassarosterol A (1, and four new steroidal glycosides, crassarosterosides A–D (2–5 were isolated from the Formosan soft coral Sinularia crassa. The absolute configuration of 1 was determined using the Mosher’s method. The absolute configurations for the sugar moieties of 2–5 were determined by HPLC analysis on the o-tolylthiocarbamates derived from the liberated sugar after acid hydrolysis. Compounds 2 and 4 could significantly inhibit the expression of pro-inflammatory iNOS protein at 10 µM. In contrast, 1–3 were found to stimulate the expression of COX-2 protein at this concentration. Steroids 1 and 4 also showed cytotoxicity toward the selected human liver cancer cells.

  12. Steroid-induced central serous retinopathy

    Samidh P Shah


    Full Text Available A-24 year-old male was prescribed prednisolone (60 mg/day for left sided facial palsy. After three days of therapy, the patient complained of black spots in his vision in right eye. Fluorescein angiography of right eye showed evidence of central serous retinopathy (CSR. Prednisolone dose was withdrawn gradually and the patient improved within a week. There were no other systemic or ophthalmic diseases reported by the patient, which could have caused this condition. An improvement after dechallenge confirmed steroid-induced CSR. Recurrent CSR is known to cause permanent loss of vision. Hence, awareness regarding this adverse drug reaction (ADR with steroids and its reporting can minimize this complication and help in better patient management.

  13. Evidence for the contribution of non-covalent steroid interactions between DNA and topoisomerase in the genotoxicity of steroids.

    Snyder, Ronald D; Holt, Patrick A; Maguire, Jon M; Trent, John O


    Fifty two steroids and 9 Vitamin D analogs were docked into ten crystallographically-defined DNA dinucleotide sites and two human topoisomerase II ATP binding sites using two computational programs, Autodock and Surflex. It is shown that both steroids and Vitamin D analogs exhibit a propensity for non-covalent intercalative binding to DNA. A higher predicted binding affinity was found, however, for steroids and the ATP binding site of topoisomerase; in fact these drugs exhibited among the highest topo II binding observed in over 1370 docked drugs. These findings along with genotoxicity data from 26 additional steroids not subjected to docking analysis, support a mechanism wherein the long known, but poorly understood, clastogenicity of steroids may be attributable to inhibition of topoisomerase. A "proof of principle" experiment with dexamethasone demonstrated this to be the likely mechanism of clastogenicity of, at least, this steroid. The generality of this proposed mechanism of genotoxicity across the steroids and vitamin-D analogs is discussed.

  14. Methods for determination of fingernail steroids by LC/MS/MS and differences in their contents between right and left hands.

    Higashi, Tatsuya; Yamagata, Kenichiro; Kato, Yuina; Ogawa, Yu; Takano, Kaori; Nakaaze, Yutaro; Iriyama, Takashi; Min, Jun Zhe; Ogawa, Shoujiro


    Fingernail clipping is expected to be a specimen for steroid testing, because it has several advantages over blood; i.e., noninvasive collection, ease of storage, portability and handling, and possibility for an assessment of the steroid status over a relatively long and retrospective time window. In this study, we examined whether there is a difference in the nail contents between the right and left hands for five steroids [glycochenodeoxycholic acid (GCDCA), taurochenodeoxycholic acid (TCDCA), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), testosterone (TST) and cortisol (CRT)] using newly developed liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry methods. The nail contents between the hands were significantly different for GCDCA, TCDCA and DHEAS, whereas those of TST and CRT only slightly differed. These results might be due to the difference in the binding affinity of each steroid for the nail keratin. The relatively hydrophilic steroids, GCDCA, TCDCA and DHEAS, may be lost from nails in daily life due to their low affinity for keratin, which would produce differences in the nail contents between the hands. Thus, the fingernail GCDCA, TCDCA and DHEAS contents may be influenced by factors other than the disease; the nail analysis is inefficient in the diagnosis of the disease associated with these steroids. On the other hand, the nail analysis looks promising for evaluation of the status of TST and CRT, which are lipophilic and inferred to be tightly bound to the keratin. In fact, the nail TST content showed a significant sex difference, just like its serum/plasma concentration.

  15. Echocardiographic Finding in Anabolic Steroids Abuser Athletics

    B. Haji Moradi; K. Fatahi


    Introduction & Objective: Abuse of anabolic steroids in body builders and competitive sports (doping) is common and prevalent in our country. Due to disagreement about cardiovascular side effects of these drugs and existing controversy in published articles, this study was designed to evaluate the echocardiographic finding in athletics who are current user of these drugs. Materials & Methods: Body builders with continues sport for preceding year and at least twice weekly selected and divided ...

  16. Consequences of use of anabolic androgenic steroids.

    Casavant, Marcel J; Blake, Kathleen; Griffith, Jill; Yates, Andrew; Copley, LaRae M


    Whether providing anticipatory guidance to the young adolescent patient, conducting a preparticipation examination on a young athlete, or treating a sick user of anabolic androgenic steroids (AASs), the primary care physician must be familiar with the adverse consequences of the use of these compounds. This article reviews the endocrine, cardiovascular, neuropsychiatric, musculoskeletal, hematologic, hepatic, and miscellaneous effects of AASs, highlighting effects reported in children and adolescents, and relying on consequences in adults when pediatric data is unavailable.

  17. Paraplegia After Thoracic Epidural Steroid Injection.

    Loomba, Vivek; Kaveeshvar, Hirsh; Dwivedi, Samvid


    Epidural steroid injections are a common procedure performed by pain physicians. The American Society of Regional Anesthesia along with several other groups recently provided guidelines for performing epidural injections in the setting of anticoagulants. We present a case of a patient who developed an epidural hematoma and subsequent paraplegia despite strict adherence to these guidelines. Although new guidelines serve to direct practice, risks of devastating neurologic complications remain as evidenced by our case.

  18. Steroid Analysis in Saliva: An overview


    The first report of steroid analysis in saliva was more than thirty years ago. Since that time its popularity has increased due to the attractiveness of non-invasive, repeated and simple stress-free sampling. It has proved a popular sampling fluid for psychobiology, sports medicine, pharmacology and paediatric studies as well as in the area of complementary medicine. In the diagnostic laboratory, salivary progesterone and oestradiol have been used for assessing ovarian function and 17α-OH pro...

  19. Childhood steroid-responsive ophthalmoplegic migraine

    Mahua Roy


    Full Text Available Ophthalmoplegic migraine (OM is characterized by recurrent attacks of headache with paresis of ocular cranial nerves. Previously, it was classified as a variant of migraine, but recently, International Headache Classification (IHCD-II has reclassified OM to the category of neuralgia. Presently, OM is considered a type of recurrent demyelinating cranial neuropathy. We report an adolescent girl with OM, who had been treated with steroid and showed dramatic improvement.

  20. Terpenoids and steroids from Lappula anocarpa.

    Jin, Yuan-Peng; Shi, Yan-Ping


    A novel nor-terpenoid, named lappulanocarpine A and a known terpenoid derivative, nine known steroids and three known long chine esters were isolated from the alcoholic extract of the whole plant of Lappula anocarpa. The novel structure was characterized by means of spectral methods including 1D-, 2D-NMR and HR-ESIMS and the known compounds were identified on the basis of comparing their NMR data with those of the corresponding compounds in the literature.