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Sample records for sex hispanic ethnicity

  1. Predictors of unprotected sex among young sexually active African American, Hispanic, and White MSM: the importance of ethnicity and culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Jacob C; Fernández, M Isabel; Harper, Gary W; Hidalgo, Marco A; Jamil, Omar B; Torres, Rodrigo Sebastián

    2008-05-01

    Despite the recognized need for culturally tailored HIV prevention interventions for gay, bisexual, and questioning youth, few studies have examined if predictors of unprotected sex vary for youth from different ethnic groups. This study reports on a sample of 189 gay, bisexual, and questioning youth (age 15-22) from three racial/ethnic backgrounds (African American, Hispanic, and White) recruited in Chicago, IL and Miami-Dade and Broward Counties, Florida. For African American youth, being in a long-term relationship, having been kicked out of the home for having sex with men, and younger age at initiation of sexual behavior were associated with unprotected sex. For Hispanic youth, higher ethnic identification and older age at initiation of sexual behavior were associated with unprotected sex. For White youth, no predictors were associated with unprotected sex. Our findings point to the importance of understanding the varying predictors of unprotected sex and integrating them into tailored prevention interventions.

  2. Diversity by race, Hispanic ethnicity, and sex of the United States medical oncology physician workforce over the past quarter century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deville, Curtiland; Chapman, Christina H; Burgos, Ramon; Hwang, Wei-Ting; Both, Stefan; Thomas, Charles R

    2014-09-01

    To assess the medical oncology (MO) physician workforce diversity by race, Hispanic ethnicity, and sex, with attention to trainees. Public registries were used to assess 2010 differences among MO practicing physicians, academic faculty, and fellows; internal medicine (IM) residents; and the US population, using binomial tests with P diversity remains unchanged. For Blacks alone, representation as MO fellows is decreased compared with IM residents, suggesting greater disparity in MO training. Copyright © 2014 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  3. Parenting Predictors of Early-Adolescents' Health Behaviors: Simultaneous Group Comparisons across Sex and Ethnic Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windle, Michael; Brener, Nancy; Cuccaro, Paula; Dittus, Patricia; Kanouse, David E.; Murray, Nancy; Wallander, Jan; Schuster, Mark A.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the invariance of predictive relations across early-adolescent sex and ethnic groups regarding parenting factors and externalizing and internalizing problems and victimization. Data (n = 598; 54% female) from a triethnic (Hispanic, non-Hispanic white, and non-Hispanic black) probability sample of fifth…

  4. Ethnic disparities in traumatic brain injury care referral in a Hispanic-majority population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budnick, Hailey C; Tyroch, Alan H; Milan, Stacey A

    2017-07-01

    Functional outcomes after traumatic brain injury (TBI) can be significantly improved by discharge to posthospitalization care facilities. Many variables influence the discharge disposition of the TBI patient, including insurance status, patient condition, and patient prognosis. The literature has demonstrated an ethnic disparity in posthospitalization care referral, with Hispanics being discharged to rehabilitation and nursing facilities less often than non-Hispanics. However, this relationship has not been studied in a Hispanic-majority population, and thus, this study seeks to determine if differences in neurorehabilitation referrals exist among ethnic groups in a predominately Hispanic region. This study is a retrospective cohort that includes 1128 TBI patients who presented to University Medical Center El Paso, Texas, between the years 2005 and 2015. The patients' age, sex, race, residence, admission Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), GCS motor, Injury Severity Score (ISS), hospital and intensive care unit length of stay (LOS), mechanism of injury, and discharge disposition were analyzed in univariate and multivariate models. Our study population had an insurance rate of 55.5%. Insurance status and markers of injury severity (hospital LOS, intensive care unit LOS, ISS, GCS, and GCS motor) were predictive of discharge disposition to rehabilitation facilities. The study population was 70% Hispanic, yet Hispanics were discharged to rehabilitation facilities (relative risk: 0.56, P: 0.001) and to long-term acute care/nursing facilities (relative risk: 0.35, P < 0.0001) less than non-Hispanics even after LOS, ISS, ethnicity, insurance status, and residence were adjusted for in multivariate analysis. This study suggests that patients of different ethnicities but comparable traumatic severity and insurance status receive different discharge dispositions post-TBI even in regions in which Hispanics are the demographic majority. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  5. Ethnicity, Alienation, Identity: Themes in Hispanic Minority Fiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Marvin A.

    This paper presents a thematic examination of three novels by Hispanic minority writers. In their assessment of the human condition, Chicano, Puerto Rican, and Cuban exile writers share many concerns. Among them are the problems of ethnicity, alienation, and identity. These preoccupations are manifested primarily through character portrayal in…

  6. Performance of Hispanics and Non-Hispanic Whites on the NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery: the roles of ethnicity and language backgrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Ilse; Casaletto, Kaitlin B; Marquine, Maria J; Umlauf, Anya; Moore, David J; Mungas, Dan; Gershon, Richard C; Beaumont, Jennifer L; Heaton, Robert K

    2017-05-01

    This study examined the influence of Hispanic ethnicity and language/cultural background on performance on the NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery (NIHTB-CB). Participants included healthy, primarily English-speaking Hispanic (n = 93; Hispanic-English), primarily Spanish-speaking Hispanic (n = 93; Hispanic-Spanish), and English speaking Non-Hispanic white (n = 93; NH white) adults matched on age, sex, and education levels. All participants were in the NIH Toolbox national norming project and completed the Fluid and Crystallized components of the NIHTB-CB. T-scores (demographically-unadjusted) were developed based on the current sample and were used in analyses. Spanish-speaking Hispanics performed worse than English-speaking Hispanics and NH whites on demographically unadjusted NIHTB-CB Fluid Composite scores (ps differences on tests of executive inhibitory control (p = .001), processing speed (p = .003), and working memory (p language/cultural backgrounds in the Hispanic-Spanish group: better vocabularies and reading were predicted by being born outside the U.S., having Spanish as a first language, attending school outside the U.S., and speaking more Spanish at home. However, many of these same background factors were associated with worse Fluid Composites within the Hispanic-Spanish group. On tests of Fluid cognition, the Hispanic-Spanish group performed the poorest of all groups. Socio-demographic and linguistic factors were associated with those differences. These findings highlight the importance of considering language/cultural backgrounds when interpreting neuropsychological test performances. Importantly, after applying previously published NIHTB-CB norms with demographic corrections, these language/ethnic group differences are eliminated.

  7. Perceived price sensitivity by ethnicity and smoking frequency among California Hispanic and non-Hispanic white smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Mark G; Edland, Steven D; Hofstetter, C Richard; Al-Delaimy, Wael K

    2013-06-01

    Little is currently known about price sensitivity across ethnic groups as well as for non-daily smokers. To address this issue, this study compared perceived price sensitivity across smoking status (daily and non-daily) and within ethnicity (Hispanic and non-Hispanic White) in a recent representative population survey of California smokers. This study employed data from the 2008 California Tobacco Survey (CTS), a large population-based random-digit-dialed telephone survey. Participants were 1,777 non-Hispanic White and 450 Hispanic respondents who had smoked at least 100 cigarettes and currently smoked daily or on some days. Differences in perceived price sensitivity were found by ethnicity when controlling for age, gender, and cigarette consumption. Comparisons across ethnic groups indicated that Hispanic smokers, in general, have more price-sensitive perceptions than non-Hispanic White smokers. However, daily versus non-daily status had no effect on price sensitivity when controlling for cigarette quantity. These findings indicate that pricing increases may be differentially influential for Hispanic compared with non-Hispanic White smokers across smoking status categories.

  8. Media and Sex: Perspectives from Hispanic Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston Polacek, Georgia N. L.; Rojas, Viviana; Levitt, Steven; Mika, Virginia Seguin

    2006-01-01

    Little is known about Hispanic teens' sexual knowledge, attitudes and behaviors and their relationship to media influences. Information about this relationship could contribute to an understanding of the early onset of sexual behavior and early teen pregnancy. This paper reports preliminary findings from a pilot project conducted to determine…

  9. Food Insecurity and Pre-diabetes in Adults: Race/Ethnic and Sex Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo, Rosenda; Reesor, Layton M; Scott, Claudia W; Hernandez, Daphne C

    2017-07-01

    We examined sex and race/ethnicity differences in the association between food insecurity status and prediabetes among adults. We used cross-sectional 2011 and 2012 National Health Interview Survey data on non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and Hispanic adults aged 18-59 years whose household income was ≤ 299% Federal Poverty Line (N = 19,048). Food insecurity status was determined by 3 or more affirmative responses on the 10-item USDA Food Security Scale. Pre-diabetes was self-reported. Logistic regression analyses were used to estimate associations of food insecurity with pre-diabetes and adjusted for several demographic characteristics. All models were stratified by sex and race/ethnicity. In adjusted models, food insecure non-Hispanic white women and non-Hispanic black women had 53% and over 200% higher odds of being pre-diabetic, respectively. Food insecurity was not related to pre-diabetes for Hispanic women or men. Limited food resources appear to place non-Hispanic white and non-Hispanic black women at risk for pre-diabetes. Linking food assistance programs with community-based health education programs may be a comprehensive approach to support those who are food insecure with diabetes prevention.

  10. Effects of Hispanic Ethnic Identification on Marital Roles in the Purchase Decision Process.

    OpenAIRE

    Webster, Cynthia

    1994-01-01

    The research reported in this article investigated the relationship between Hispanic ethnic identification and marital roles as couples proceed through the purchase decision process. Significant differences were found among the Hispanic ethnic identification groups in most of the decision stages for a variety of product categories, even after the effects of social class and length of marriage were removed. The findings of this study revealed a significant positive relationship between ethnic ...

  11. Ethnicity, maternal risk, and birth weight among Hispanics in Massachusetts, 1987-89.

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, B B; Friedman, D J; Mahan, C M; Lederman, R; Munoz, D

    1993-01-01

    National data reveal that low birth weight and infant mortality rates among Hispanics are, in general, between the rates for whites and those for blacks. The question remains, do differences in low birth weight reflect distributions of known risk factors, or do ethnic differences persist after simultaneously adjusting for intervening variables? In this study, Massachusetts birth certificate data for 206,973 white non-Hispanic infants and 19,571 Hispanic infants are used to examine differences...

  12. Sex differences in mortality by ethnic background

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oksuzyan, Anna; Drefahl, Sven; Jacobsen, Rune

    migrant effect and predominantly male migration from non-Western countries to Denmark and Sweden in 1960-70s, as well as high fertility in their female spouses, we expect to find even smaller sex differential mortality among migrants than in the ethnic Danish and Swedish populations. We use high...

  13. Nativity differences in allostatic load by age, sex, and Hispanic background from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian R. Salazar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Allostatic load (AL, an index of biological “wear and tear” on the body from cumulative exposure to stress, has been little studied in US Hispanics/Latinos. We investigated AL accumulation patterns by age, sex, and nativity in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos. We studied 15,830 Hispanic/Latinos of Mexican, Cuban, Dominican, Puerto Rican, Central and South American descent aged 18–74 years, 77% of whom were foreign-born. Consistent with the conceptualization of AL, we developed an index based upon 16 physiological markers that spanned the cardiometabolic, parasympathetic, and inflammatory systems. We computed mean adjusted AL scores using log-linear models across age-groups (18–44, 45–54, 55–74 years, by sex and nativity status. Among foreign-born individuals, differences in AL by duration of residence in the US (<10, ≥10 years and age at migration (<24, ≥24 years were also examined. In persons younger than 55 years old, after controlling for socioeconomic and behavioral factors, AL was highest among US-born individuals, intermediate in foreign-born Hispanics/Latinos with longer duration in the US (≥10 years, and lowest among those with shorter duration in the US (<10 years (P<0.0001 for increasing trend. Similarly, AL increased among the foreign-born with earlier age at immigration. These trends were less pronounced among individuals ≥55 years of age. Similar patterns were observed across all Hispanic/Latino heritage groups (P for interaction=0.5. Our findings support both a “healthy immigrant” pattern and a loss of health advantage over time among US Hispanics/Latinos of diverse heritages. Keywords: Allostatic load, Physiological dysregulation, Hispanic ethnicity, Nativity, Age patterns

  14. Cancer Rates by Race/Ethnicity and Sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Skin Uterine Cancer Rates by Race/Ethnicity and Sex Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... and ethnicity. Incidence Rates by Race/Ethnicity and Sex “Incidence rate” means how many people out of ...

  15. The influence of Hispanic ethnicity on parent-provider communication about asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlin, Courtney; Yee, Alison B; Fagnano, Maria; Halterman, Jill S

    2014-04-01

    Research has shown that minority caregivers of children with asthma report poorer communication with health care providers than nonminority caregivers. Less is known about the specific influence of Hispanic ethnicity on parent-provider communication. Our objective was to evaluate the influence of Hispanic ethnicity on parent-provider communication regarding their child's asthma and on caregiver confidence in communicating with their child's provider at a primary care visit. Data were obtained from 166 caregivers of children (2-12 years) with persistent asthma. Caregiver perceptions of provider communication and confidence were evaluated. We found that Hispanic compared to non-Hispanic caregivers reported better communication with providers on several items. Hispanic caregivers also were more likely to indicate full confidence in their ability to communicate with providers. These findings suggest Hispanic caregivers may experience better parent-provider communication than non-Hispanics. Further investigation is needed to assess provider- and clinic-specific factors that may influence communication between minority caregivers and providers.

  16. Sex and racial/ethnic differences in the reason for 30-day readmission after COPD hospitalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Tadahiro; Faridi, Mohammad Kamal; Gibo, Koichiro; Camargo, Carlos A; Hasegawa, Kohei

    2017-10-01

    Reduction of 30-day readmissions in patients hospitalized for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a national objective. However, there is a dearth of research on sex and racial/ethnic differences in the reason for 30-day readmission. We conducted a retrospective cohort study using 2006-2012 data from the State Inpatient Database of eight geographically-diverse US states (Arkansas, California, Florida, Iowa, Nebraska, New York, Utah, and Washington). After identifying all hospitalizations for COPD made by patients aged ≥40 years, we investigated the primary diagnostic code for all-cause readmissions within 30 days after the original COPD hospitalization, among the overall group and by sex and race/ethnicity strata. Between 2006 and 2012, there was a total of 845,465 COPD hospitalizations at risk for 30-day readmissions in the eight states. COPD was the leading diagnostic for 30-day readmission after COPD hospitalization, both overall (28%) and across all sex and race/ethnicity strata. The proportion of respiratory diseases (COPD, pneumonia, respiratory failure, and asthma) as the readmission diagnosis was higher in non-Hispanic black (55%), compared to non-Hispanic white (52%) and Hispanics (51%) (p reason for 30-day readmission in patients hospitalized for COPD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Do patient expectations about arthroplasty at initial presentation for hip or knee pain differ by sex and ethnicity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavernia, Carlos J; Contreras, Juan S; Parvizi, Javad; Sharkey, Peter F; Barrack, Robert; Rossi, Mark D

    2012-10-01

    Many studies show gender and ethnic differences in healthcare utilization and outcomes. Patients' presurgical cognitions regarding surgical outcomes also may vary by gender and ethnicity and play a role in explaining utilization and outcome differences. However, it is unclear whether and to what extent gender and ethnicity play a role in patients' presurgical cognitions. Do gender and ethnicity influence outcome expectations? Is arthroplasty-related knowledge affected by gender and ethnicity? Do gender and ethnicity influence willingness to pay for surgery? In a prospective, multicenter study we gave 765 patients an anonymous questionnaire on expectations, arthroplasty knowledge, and preferences before their consultation for hip and/or knee pain, from March 2005 to July 2007. Six hundred seventy-two of the 765 patients (88%) completed questionnaires. Non-Hispanics and men were more likely to indicate they would be able to engage in more activities. Non-Hispanics and men had greater arthroplasty knowledge. Hispanics and women were more likely to report they would not pay for a total joint arthroplasty (TJA) relative to non-Hispanics and men. Sex and ethnic differences in patients presenting for their initial visit to the orthopaedists for hip or knee pain influence expectations, knowledge, and preferences concerning TJAs. Longitudinal study of relationships between patients' perceptions and utilization or outcomes regarding TJA is warranted.

  18. Ethnic disparities in renal cell carcinoma: An analysis of Hispanic patients in a single-payer healthcare system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez-Sarmiento, Alfredo; Yao, Xiaopan; Hofmann, Jonathan N; Syed, Jamil S; Zhao, Wei K; Purdue, Mark P; Chow, Wong-Ho; Corley, Douglas; Shuch, Brian

    2017-10-01

    To investigate differences between Hispanics and non-Hispanic whites diagnosed with and treated for renal cell carcinoma in an equal access healthcare system. We carried out a retrospective cohort study within the Kaiser Permanente healthcare system using records from renal cell carcinoma cases. Ethnicity was identified as Hispanic or non-Hispanic whites. Patient characteristics, comorbidities, tumor characteristics and treatment were compared. Overall and disease-specific survival was calculated, and a Cox proportion hazard model estimated the association of ethnicity and survival. A total of 2577 patients (2152 non-Hispanic whites, 425 Hispanic) were evaluated. Hispanics were diagnosed at a younger age (59.6 years vs 65.3 years). Clear cell renal cell carcinoma was more prevalent, whereas papillary renal cell carcinoma was less common among Hispanics. Hispanics had a lower American Joint Committee on Cancer stage (I/II vs III/IV) than non-Hispanic whites (67.4% vs 62.2%). Hispanics were found to have a greater frequency of comorbidities, such as chronic kidney disease and diabetes, but were more likely to receive surgery. The presence of metastases, nodal involvement, increased tumor size, non-surgical management, increasing age and Hispanic ethnicity were independent predictors of worse cancer-specific outcome. Within an equal access healthcare system, Hispanics seem to be diagnosed at younger ages, to have greater comorbidities and to present more frequently with clear cell renal cell carcinoma compared with non-Hispanic white patients. Despite lower stage and greater receipt of surgery, Hispanic ethnicity seems to be an independent predictor of mortality. Further work is necessary to confirm these findings. © 2017 The Japanese Urological Association.

  19. Improving actions to control high blood pressure in Hispanic communities - Racial and Ethnic Approaches to Community Health Across the U.S. Project, 2009-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Youlian; Siegel, Paul Z; White, Shannon; Dulin, Rick; Taylor, April

    2016-02-01

    Compared with the general population in the United States (U.S.), Hispanics with hypertension are less likely to be aware of their condition, to take antihypertensive medication, and to adopt healthy lifestyles to control high blood pressure. We examined whether a multi-community intervention successfully increased the prevalence of actions to control hypertension among Hispanics. Annual survey from 2009-2012 was conducted in six Hispanic communities in the Racial and Ethnic Approaches to Community Health (REACH) Across the U.S. The survey used address based sampling design that matched the geographies of intervention program. Age- and sex-standardized prevalences of taking hypertensive medication, changing eating habits, cutting down on salt, and reducing alcohol use significantly increased among Hispanics with self-reported hypertension in REACH communities. The 3-year relative percent increases were 5.8, 6.8, 7.9, and 35.2% for the four indicators, respectively. These favorable (healthier) trends occurred in both foreign-born and U.S.-born Hispanics. This large community-based participatory intervention resulted in more Hispanic residents in the communities taking actions to control high blood pressure. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Racial and/or Ethnic Differences in Formal Sex Education and Sex Education by Parents among Young Women in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderberg, Rachel H; Farkas, Amy H; Miller, Elizabeth; Sucato, Gina S; Akers, Aletha Y; Borrero, Sonya B

    2016-02-01

    We sought to investigate the associations between race and/or ethnicity and young women's formal sex education and sex education by parents. Cross-sectional analysis of a nationally representative sample of 1768 women aged 15-24 years who participated in the 2011-2013 National Survey of Family Growth. We assessed 6 main outcomes: participants' report of: (1) any formal sex education; (2) formal contraceptive education; (3) formal sexually transmitted infection (STI) education; (4) any sex education by parents; (5) contraceptive education by parents; and (6) STI education by parents. The primary independent variable was self-reported race and/or ethnicity. Nearly all of participants (95%) reported any formal sex education, 68% reported formal contraceptive education, and 92% reported formal STI education. Seventy-five percent of participants reported not having any sex education by parents and only 61% and 56% reported contraceptive and STI education by parents, respectively. US-born Hispanic women were more likely than white women to report STI education by parents (adjusted odds ratio = 1.87; 95% confidence interval, 1.17-2.99). No other significant racial and/or ethnic differences in sex education were found. There are few racial and/or ethnic differences in formal sex education and sex education by parents among young women. Copyright © 2016 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. All rights reserved.

  1. Romanticism as a function of age, sex, and ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, Pamela C; Anguiano, Carlos

    2010-12-01

    This study examined the association between romanticism (operationalized as mean score on the Romantic Beliefs Scale) and age, sex, and ethnicity in a large community sample (N = 436). Age was negatively correlated with romanticism scores; as age increased, romanticism scores decreased. No sex differences were found; men and women had similar, moderate scores. Although ethnicity largely was unrelated to romanticism, Asian/Pacific Islander participants were significantly more romantic than were African-American participants.

  2. Diversity based on race, ethnicity, and sex, of the US radiation oncology physician workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Christina H; Hwang, Wei-Ting; Deville, Curtiland

    2013-03-15

    To assess the current diversity of the US radiation oncology (RO) physician workforce by race, ethnicity, and sex. Publicly available American Medical Association, American Association of Medical Colleges, and US census registries were used to assess differences by race, ethnicity, and sex for 2010 among RO practicing physicians, academic faculty, residents, and residency applicants. RO resident diversity was compared to medical school graduates and medical oncology (MO) fellows. Significant differences in diversity of RO residents by race, ethnicity, and sex were evaluated between 2003 and 2010 academic years. Females and traditionally underrepresented minorities in medicine (URM), blacks, Hispanics, American Indians, Alaska Natives, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islanders are underrepresented as RO residents (33.3% and 6.9%, respectively), faculty (23.8%, 8.1%), and practicing physicians (25.5%, 7.2%) levels compared with the US population (50.8%, 30.0%; Pworkforce. Given existing cancer disparities, further research and efforts are needed to ensure that the field is equipped to meet the needs of an increasingly diverse society. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Coronary collateralization shows sex and racial-ethnic differences in obstructive artery disease patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Liu

    Full Text Available Coronary collateral circulation protects cardiac tissues from myocardial infarction damage and decreases sudden cardiac death. So far, it is unclear how coronary collateralization varies by race-ethnicity groups and by sex.We assessed 868 patients with obstructive CAD. Patients were assessed for collateral grades based on Rentrop grading system, as well as other covariates. DNA samples were genotyped using the Affymetrix 6.0 genotyping array. To evaluate genetic contributions to collaterals, we performed admixture mapping using logistic regression with estimated local and global ancestry.Overall, 53% of participants had collaterals. We found difference between sex and racial-ethnic groups. Men had higher rates of collaterals than women (P-value = 0.000175. White Hispanics/Latinos showed overall higher rates of collaterals than African Americans and non-Hispanic Whites (59%, 50% and 48%, respectively, P-value = 0.017, and especially higher rates in grade 1 and grade 3 collateralization than the other two populations (P-value = 0.0257. Admixture mapping showed Native American ancestry was associated with the presence of collaterals at a region on chromosome 17 (chr17:35,243,142-41,251,931, β = 0.55, P-value = 0.000127. African ancestry also showed association with collaterals at a different region on chromosome 17 (chr17: 32,266,966-34,463,323, β = 0.38, P-value = 0.00072.In our study, collateralization showed sex and racial-ethnic differences in obstructive CAD patients. We identified two regions on chromosome 17 that were likely to harbor genetic variations that influenced collateralization.

  4. Lipid profiles and ischemic stroke risk: variations by sex within racial/ethnic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gezmu, Tefera; Schneider, Dona; Demissie, Kitaw; Lin, Yong; Giordano, Christine; Gizzi, Martin S

    2014-01-01

    Evidence implicates lipid abnormalities as important but modifiable risk factors for stroke. This study assesses whether hypercholesterolemia can be used to predict the risk for etiologic subtypes of ischemic stroke between sexes within racial/ethnic groups. Data elements related to stroke risk, diagnosis, and outcomes were abstracted from the medical records of 3,290 acute stroke admissions between 2006 and 2010 at a regional stroke center. Sex comparison within racial/ethnic groups revealed that South Asian and Hispanic men had a higher proportion of ischemic stroke than women, while the inverse was true for Whites and African Americans (P=0.0014). All women, except South Asian women, had higher mean plasma total cholesterol and higher blood circulating low-density lipoprotein levels (≥100 mg/dL) than men at the time of their admissions. The incidence of large-artery atherosclerosis (LAA) was more common among women than men, except among Hispanics, where men tended to have higher incidences. A regression analysis that considered patients diagnosed with either LAA or small-artery occlusion etiologic subtype as the outcomes and high-density lipoproteins and triglycerides as predictors showed inconsistent associations between lipid profiles and the incidence of these subtypes between the sexes within racial/ethnic groups. In conclusion, our investigation suggests that women stroke patients may be at increased risk for stroke etiologic subtype LAA than men. Although the higher prevalence of stroke risk factors examined in this study predicts the increase in the incidence of the disease, lack of knowledge/awareness and lack of affordable treatments for stroke risk factors among women and immigrants/non-US-born subpopulations may explain the observed associations.

  5. Ethnic differences in ecological concerns: Spanish-speaking Hispanics are more concerned than others

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burger, Joanna; Greenberg, Michael

    2006-01-01

    We postulated that environmental concern encompasses a wide range of different issues, often lumping pollution with habitat loss (or land use) and ecological resources (fish and wildlife). In this paper, we compare perceptions about a range of environmental and ecological resource issues, and explore ethnic/racial differences. We surveyed 1513 residents of New Jersey about 'environmental concerns', using both general environmental questions (two questions: How serious are environmental problems in New Jersey? Are you concerned about the loss of open space?) and ecological resource questions (12 questions: e.g., how important is planting trees in your neighborhood, how concerned are you about loss of breeding and feeding habitat for fish and birds?) in New Jersey. Not all concerns were rated equally. For the ecological questions, there were no ethnic differences in concerns over preserving areas around water supplies, loss of places to hunt and fish, and loss of places for quiet walks and cycling, but there were for the other 9 ecological concerns. For eight of these nine concerns, Spanish-speaking Hispanics were more concerned than others (including English-speaking Hispanics). We divided the ecological resources into three categories: ecological services (clean water and safety), ecological resources (fish and wildlife), and recreational services. The strongest correlates of people's association with enlarging and enhancing recreational services were Spanish-speaking Hispanics, who are supportive of regulations and believe local government is not doing enough for environmental problems. People concerned about the loss of ecological resources and open space believe the federal government and the state are not doing enough for the environment, were non-Hispanic White, want continued environmental regulations, were longer-term residents, were high school graduates, and were older (45-54 years). People interested in ecological services were college-educated, non

  6. Racial/ethnic disparities in obesity among US-born and foreign-born adults by sex and education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrington, Debbie S; Baquero, Maria C; Borrell, Luisa N; Crawford, Natalie D

    2010-02-01

    This study examines sex and education variations in obesity among US- and foreign-born whites, blacks, and Hispanics utilizing 1997-2005 data from the National Health Interview Survey on 267,585 adults aged > or =18 years. After adjusting for various demographic, health, and socioeconomic factors via logistic regression, foreign-born black men had the lowest odds for obesity relative to US-born white men. The largest racial/ethnic disparity in obesity was between US-born black and white women. High educational attainment diminished the US-born black-white and Hispanic-white disparities among women, increased these disparities among men, and had minimal effect on foreign-born Hispanic-white disparities among women and men. Comprehension of these relationships is vital for conducting effective obesity research and interventions within an increasingly diverse United States.

  7. How do race and Hispanic ethnicity affect nursing home admission? Evidence from the Health and Retirement Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomeer, Mieke Beth; Mudrazija, Stipica; Angel, Jacqueline L

    2015-07-01

    This study investigates how health- and disability-based need factors and enabling factors (e.g., socioeconomic and family-based resources) relate to nursing home admission among 3 different racial and ethnic groups. We use Cox proportional hazard models to estimate differences in nursing home admission for non-Hispanic whites, non-Hispanic blacks, and Hispanics from 1998 to 2010 in the Health and Retirement Study (N = 18,952). Racial-ethnic differences in nursing home admission are magnified after controlling for health- and disability-based need factors and enabling factors. Additionally, the degree to which specific factors contribute to risk of nursing home admission varies significantly across racial-ethnic groups. Our findings indicate that substantial racial and ethnic variations in nursing home admission continue to exist and that Hispanic use is particularly low. We argue that these differences may demonstrate a significant underuse of nursing homes for racial and ethnic minorities. Alternatively, they could signify different preferences for nursing home care, perhaps due to unmeasured cultural factors or structural obstacles. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Pay Equity: An Issue of Race, Ethnicity, and Sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Committee on Pay Equity, Washington, DC.

    While the continuing wage gap between men and women, Whites and non-Whites has been well documented, the purpose of this study was to examine the role which discrimination on the basis of race/ethnicity as well as sex plays in the setting of wages. Whether pay equity is an effective means of remedying race-based wage discrimination was also…

  9. Lipid profiles and ischemic stroke risk: variations by sex within racial/ethnic groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gezmu T

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Tefera Gezmu,1 Dona Schneider,1 Kitaw Demissie,2 Yong Lin,2 Christine Giordano,3 Martin S Gizzi4 1Edward J. Bloustein School of Planning and Public Policy, Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ, 2Rutgers School of Public Health, Department of Epidemiology, Piscataway, NJ, 3Rutgers New Jersey Medical School, Newark, NJ, 4New Jersey Neuroscience Institute at JFK Medical Center and Seton Hall University, Edison, NJ, USA Abstract: Evidence implicates lipid abnormalities as important but modifiable risk factors for stroke. This study assesses whether hypercholesterolemia can be used to predict the risk for etiologic subtypes of ischemic stroke between sexes within racial/ethnic groups. Data elements related to stroke risk, diagnosis, and outcomes were abstracted from the medical records of 3,290 acute stroke admissions between 2006 and 2010 at a regional stroke center. Sex comparison within racial/ethnic groups revealed that South Asian and Hispanic men had a higher proportion of ischemic stroke than women, while the inverse was true for Whites and African Americans (P=0.0014. All women, except South Asian women, had higher mean plasma total cholesterol and higher blood circulating low-density lipoprotein levels (≥100 mg/dL than men at the time of their admissions. The incidence of large-artery atherosclerosis (LAA was more common among women than men, except among Hispanics, where men tended to have higher incidences. A regression analysis that considered patients diagnosed with either LAA or small-artery occlusion etiologic subtype as the outcomes and high-density lipoproteins and triglycerides as predictors showed inconsistent associations between lipid profiles and the incidence of these subtypes between the sexes within racial/ethnic groups. In conclusion, our investigation suggests that women stroke patients may be at increased risk for stroke etiologic subtype LAA than men. Although the higher prevalence of stroke

  10. National Differences in Trends for Heart Failure Hospitalizations by Sex and Race/Ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziaeian, Boback; Kominski, Gerald F; Ong, Michael K; Mays, Vickie M; Brook, Robert H; Fonarow, Gregg C

    2017-07-01

    National heart failure (HF) hospitalization rates have not been appropriately age standardized by sex or race/ethnicity. Reporting hospital utilization trends by subgroup is important for monitoring population health and developing interventions to eliminate disparities. The National Inpatient Sample (NIS) was used to estimate the crude and age-standardized rates of HF hospitalization between 2002 and 2013 by sex and race/ethnicity. Direct standardization was used to age-standardize rates to the 2000 US standard population. Relative differences between subgroups were reported. The national age-adjusted HF hospitalization rate decreased 30.8% from 526.86 to 364.66 per 100 000 between 2002 and 2013. Although hospitalizations decreased for all subgroups, the ratio of the age-standardized rate for men compared with women increased from 20% greater to 39% ( P trend=0.002) between 2002 and 2013. Black men had a rate that was 229% ( P trend=0.141) and black women, 240% ( P trend=0.725) with reference to whites in 2013 with no significant change between 2002 and 2013. Hispanic men had a rate that was 32% greater in 2002 and the difference narrowed to 4% ( P trend=0.047) greater in 2013 relative to whites. For Hispanic women, the rate was 55% greater in 2002 and narrowed to 8% greater ( P trend=0.004) in 2013 relative to whites. Asian/Pacific Islander men had a 27% lower rate in 2002 that improved to 43% ( P trend=0.040) lower in 2013 relative to whites. For Asian/Pacific Islander women, the hospitalization rate was 24% lower in 2002 and improved to 43% ( P trend=0.021) lower in 2013 relative to whites. National HF hospitalization rates have decreased steadily during the recent decade. Disparities in HF burden and hospital utilization by sex and race/ethnicity persist. Significant population health interventions are needed to reduce the HF hospitalization burden among blacks. An evaluation of factors explaining the improvements in the HF hospitalization rates among

  11. Differences in healthy life expectancy for the US population by sex, race/ethnicity and geographic region: 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Man-Huei; Molla, Michael T; Truman, Benedict I; Athar, Heba; Moonesinghe, Ramal; Yoon, Paula W

    2015-09-01

    Healthy life expectancy (HLE) varies among demographic segments of the US population and by geography. To quantify that variation, we estimated the national and regional HLE for the US population by sex, race/ethnicity and geographic region in 2008. National HLEs were calculated using the published 2008 life table and the self-reported health status data from the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). Regional HLEs were calculated using the combined 2007-09 mortality, population and NHIS health status data. In 2008, HLE in the USA varied significantly by sex, race/ethnicity and geographical regions. At 25 years of age, HLE for females was 47.3 years and ∼2.9 years greater than that for males at 44.4 years. HLE for non-Hispanic white adults was 2.6 years greater than that for Hispanic adults and 7.8 years greater than that for non-Hispanic black adults. By region, the Northeast had the longest HLE and the South had the shortest. The HLE estimates in this report can be used to monitor trends in the health of populations, compare estimates across populations and identify health inequalities that require attention. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health 2014. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  12. Diversity Based on Race, Ethnicity, and Sex, of the US Radiation Oncology Physician Workforce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, Christina H.; Hwang, Wei-Ting; Deville, Curtiland

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the current diversity of the US radiation oncology (RO) physician workforce by race, ethnicity, and sex. Methods and Materials: Publicly available American Medical Association, American Association of Medical Colleges, and US census registries were used to assess differences by race, ethnicity, and sex for 2010 among RO practicing physicians, academic faculty, residents, and residency applicants. RO resident diversity was compared to medical school graduates and medical oncology (MO) fellows. Significant differences in diversity of RO residents by race, ethnicity, and sex were evaluated between 2003 and 2010 academic years. Results: Females and traditionally underrepresented minorities in medicine (URM), blacks, Hispanics, American Indians, Alaska Natives, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islanders are underrepresented as RO residents (33.3% and 6.9%, respectively), faculty (23.8%, 8.1%), and practicing physicians (25.5%, 7.2%) levels compared with the US population (50.8%, 30.0%; P<.01). Although females and URMs remain underrepresented at the resident trainee level compared with their proportions as medical school graduates (48.3%, 15.6%) and MO fellows (45.0%, 10.8%; P<.01), females are significantly increased in proportion as RO residents compared with RO practicing physicians (P<.01), whereas representation of individual URM groups as RO residents is no different than current practicing physicians. There is no trend toward increased diversification for female or URM trainees over 8 years, suggesting underrepresentation is not diminishing. Conclusions: Females and URM are underrepresented in the RO physician workforce. Given existing cancer disparities, further research and efforts are needed to ensure that the field is equipped to meet the needs of an increasingly diverse society

  13. Diversity Based on Race, Ethnicity, and Sex, of the US Radiation Oncology Physician Workforce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, Christina H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Hwang, Wei-Ting [Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Deville, Curtiland, E-mail: deville@uphs.upenn.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: To assess the current diversity of the US radiation oncology (RO) physician workforce by race, ethnicity, and sex. Methods and Materials: Publicly available American Medical Association, American Association of Medical Colleges, and US census registries were used to assess differences by race, ethnicity, and sex for 2010 among RO practicing physicians, academic faculty, residents, and residency applicants. RO resident diversity was compared to medical school graduates and medical oncology (MO) fellows. Significant differences in diversity of RO residents by race, ethnicity, and sex were evaluated between 2003 and 2010 academic years. Results: Females and traditionally underrepresented minorities in medicine (URM), blacks, Hispanics, American Indians, Alaska Natives, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islanders are underrepresented as RO residents (33.3% and 6.9%, respectively), faculty (23.8%, 8.1%), and practicing physicians (25.5%, 7.2%) levels compared with the US population (50.8%, 30.0%; P<.01). Although females and URMs remain underrepresented at the resident trainee level compared with their proportions as medical school graduates (48.3%, 15.6%) and MO fellows (45.0%, 10.8%; P<.01), females are significantly increased in proportion as RO residents compared with RO practicing physicians (P<.01), whereas representation of individual URM groups as RO residents is no different than current practicing physicians. There is no trend toward increased diversification for female or URM trainees over 8 years, suggesting underrepresentation is not diminishing. Conclusions: Females and URM are underrepresented in the RO physician workforce. Given existing cancer disparities, further research and efforts are needed to ensure that the field is equipped to meet the needs of an increasingly diverse society.

  14. Scaling of adult body weight to height across sex and race/ethnic groups: relevance to BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heymsfield, Steven B; Peterson, Courtney M; Thomas, Diana M; Heo, Moonseong; Schuna, John M; Hong, Sangmo; Choi, Woong

    2014-12-01

    Body mass index (BMI) is formulated on the assumption that body weight (BW) scales to height with a power of 2 (BW∝height(2)), independent of sex and race-ethnicity. Powers differing from 2 are observed in studies of selected samples, thus raising the question if BMI is a generalizable metric that makes BW independent of height across populations. The objectives were to test the hypothesis that adult BW scales to height with a power of 2 independent of sex and race-ethnicity and to advance an understanding of BMI as a measure of shape by extending allometric analyses to waist circumference (WC). We conducted cross-sectional subject evaluations, including body composition, from the NHANES and the Korean NHANES (KNHANES). Variations of the allometric model (Y = αX(β)) were used to establish height scaling powers (β ± SE) across non-Hispanic white and black, Mexican American, and Korean men and women. Exploratory analyses in population samples established age and adiposity as important independent determinants of height scaling powers (i.e., β). After age and adiposity in the next series of analyses were controlled for, BW scaling powers were nonsignificantly different between race/ethnic groups within each sex group; WC findings were similar in women, whereas small but significant between-race differences were observed in the men. Sex differences in β values were nonsignificant except for BW in non-Hispanic blacks and WC in Koreans (P ethnic groups, an observation that makes BMI a generalizable height-independent measure of shape across most populations. WC also follows generalizable scaling rules, a finding that has implications for defining body shape in populations who differ in stature. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  15. Male sex, African American race or ethnicity, and triiodothyronine levels at diagnosis predict weight gain after antithyroid medication and radioiodine therapy for hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariza, Miguel A; Loken, Won Mee J; Pearce, Elizabeth N; Safer, Joshua D

    2010-01-01

    To determine whether racial or ethnic differences affect weight gain after treatment of hyperthyroidism and to reassess established risk factors such as sex, age, and cause of hyperthyroidism. We conducted a retrospective review of medical records of 111 patients treated with radioiodine (RAI) for hyperthyroidism, with or without preceding antithyroid medication, during 2002 to 2005. We ascertained age, sex, race or ethnicity, insurance status, compliance with visits, serum triiodothyronine (T3) level at diagnosis, and cause of hyperthyroidism. Weights and serum thyroidstimulating hormone levels were obtained at diagnosis, at time of RAI therapy, and at 0 to 4 months, 4 to 8 months, 8 to 12 months, and 24 months after RAI treatment. There was a significant weight increase after treatment of hyperthyroidism. Levels of T3 at initial diagnosis of hyperthyroidism, male sex, and black or Hispanic ethnicity were found to be independent predictors of weight gain after RAI treatment. We found a significant interaction between race or ethnicity and sex in multivariate models. There was no difference in thyroid function across racial or ethnic groups or the sexes. Age, cause of hyperthyroidism, posttreatment thyroid-stimulating hormone level, compliance, and insurance status were not found to be significant predictors of weight gain. The T3 level at the time of diagnosis of hyperthyroidism is a strong predictor of weight gain after treatment of hyperthyroidism. Black race or ethnicity and male sex are also risk factors for weight gain.

  16. Evaluating the Role of Birth Weight and Gestational Age on Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Risk Among Those of Hispanic Ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barahmani, Nadia; Dorak, M Tevfik; Forman, Michele R; Sprehe, Michael R; Scheurer, Michael E; Bondy, Melissa L; Okcu, M Fatih; Lupo, Philip J

    2015-01-01

    High birth weight is an established risk factor for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), especially in children younger than 5 years of age at diagnosis. The goal of this study was to explore the association between being born large for gestational age and the risk for ALL by race/ethnicity to determine if the role of this risk factor differed by these characteristics. The authors compared birth certificate data of 575 children diagnosed with ALL who were younger than 5 years and included in the Texas Cancer Registry, Texas Department of Health, between the years 1995 and 2003 with 11,379 controls matched by birth year. Stratified odds ratios were calculated for risk of ALL by birth weight for gestational age, categorized in 3 groups, small, appropriate, and large for gestational age (SGA, AGA, and LGA, respectively), for each race/ethnicity group. The risk of developing ALL was higher among Hispanics who were LGA (odds ratio [OR] = 1.90, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.34-2.68) compared with LGA non-Hispanic whites (OR = 1.27, 95% CI: 0.87-1.86) after adjusting for infant gender, year of birth, maternal age, birth order, and presence of Down syndrome. However, the difference was not statistically significant. These results suggest that there may be differences in the association between higher growth in utero and risk of childhood ALL among Hispanics versus non-Hispanic whites.

  17. Impact of socioeconomic status and ethnic enclave on cervical cancer incidence among Hispanics and Asians in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froment, Marie-Anne; Gomez, Scarlett L; Roux, Audrey; DeRouen, Mindy C; Kidd, Elizabeth A

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the incidence of cervical cancer by nativity [United States (US) versus non-US], neighborhood socioeconomic status and ethnic enclave among Hispanics and Asians in California. Using data from the California Cancer Registry, information on all primary invasive cervical cancer (Cca) patients diagnosed in California from January 1, 1990 through December 31, 2004 was obtained. We analyzed the influence of enclave, socioeconomic status and nativity on Cca incidence. Among the 22,189 Cca cases diagnosed between 1990 and 2004, 50% were non-Hispanic white, 39% Hispanic and 11% Asian women, and 63% US-born. Seventy percent of the Cca cases were squamous cell carcinoma, 19% adenocarcinoma and 11% other histologies. Higher incidence of Cca was observed in high enclave (76%) and low socioeconomic status (70%) neighborhoods. By ethnic group, US-born women showed lower rates of squamous cell carcinoma compared to foreign-born women. Hispanics living in low socioeconomic and high enclave had 12.7 times higher rate of Cca than those living in high socioeconomic, low enclave neighborhoods. For Asian women incidence rates were 6 times higher in the low socioeconomic, high enclave neighborhoods compared to those living in high socioeconomic, low enclave neighborhoods. More targeted outreach to increase Pap smear screening and human papilloma virus vaccination for women living in high enclave neighborhoods can help decrease the incidence of Cca in these groups of women. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. 12 CFR Appendix B to Part 203 - Form and Instructions for Data Collection on Ethnicity, Race, and Sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Ethnicity, Race, and Sex B Appendix B to Part 203 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF... to Part 203—Form and Instructions for Data Collection on Ethnicity, Race, and Sex I. Instructions on Collection of Data on Ethnicity, Race, and Sex You may list questions regarding the ethnicity, race, and sex...

  19. Ethnicity moderates the relationship between perceived stress and benefit finding in HIV+ men who have sex with men (MSM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seay, Julia S; Fekete, Erin M; Antoni, Michael H; Ironson, Gail; Fletcher, MaryAnn; Schneiderman, Neil

    2014-04-01

    Numerous studies conducted within the USA demonstrate higher levels of benefit finding in ethnic minority individuals compared to nonminority individuals living with chronic disease. As benefit finding may be a salient buffer for the effects of stress, the current study examined the association between perceived stress and benefit finding in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)+ men who have sex with men (MSM) living in the southeast USA and investigated whether ethnicity was a moderator of this relationship. We hypothesized that benefit finding would be greater in ethnic minority MSM than in white MSM and that ethnic minority MSM with high levels of stress would experience greater benefit finding than their white MSM counterparts. The current study utilized baseline (T1) and 3-month follow-up (T2) data drawn from a previous trial of a psychosocial intervention in HIV+ MSM. Participants were 130 HIV+ MSM; 52 % were white and 48 % belonged to minority ethnic groups (African-American, Caribbean-American, Hispanic). Analyses revealed that benefit finding was greater in ethnic minority MSM at baseline; however, this difference became nonsignificant when age, education level, highly active antiretroviral therapy adherence, and CD4 count were added to the model. Moderated regression analyses revealed a significant interaction between T1 perceived stress and ethnicity in predicting T2 benefit finding, such that higher levels of T1 perceived stress predicted lower levels of T2 benefit finding in ethnic minority MSM only. This association was independent of intervention group assignment. The current study's results highlight potential differences in the relationship between stress and benefit finding processes in white and ethnic minority HIV+ MSM.

  20. Intersections of poverty, race/ethnicity, and sex: Alcohol consumption and adverse outcomes in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Joseph E.; Rathouz, Paul J.; Gattis, Maurice; Joo, Young Sun; Nelson, Jennifer C.; Williams, Emily C.

    2017-01-01

    We examine whether intersectionality theory—which formalizes the notion that adverse health outcomes owing to having a marginalized social status, identity, or characteristic, may be magnified for individuals with an additional marginalized social status, identity, or characteristic —can be applied using quantitative methods to describe the differential effects of poverty on alcohol consumption across sex and race/ethnicity. Using the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, we analyze longitudinal data from Black, Hispanic, and White drinkers (n = 21,140) to assess multiplicative interactions between poverty, as defined by the U.S. Census Bureau, sex, and race/ethnicity, on adverse alcohol outcomes. Findings indicated that the effect of poverty on the past-year incidence of heavy episodic drinking was stronger among Black men and Black women in comparison to men and women of other racial/ethnic groups. Poverty reduction programs that are culturally informed may help reduce racial/ethnic disparities in the adverse outcomes of alcohol consumption. PMID:28349171

  1. Acculturation and Plasma Fatty Acid Concentrations in Hispanic and Chinese-American Adults: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diep, Cassandra S; Lemaitre, Rozenn N; Chen, Tzu-An; Baranowski, Tom; Lutsey, Pamela L; Manichaikul, Ani W; Rich, Stephen S; St-Jules, David E; Steffen, Brian T; Tsai, Michael Y; Siscovick, David S; Frazier-Wood, Alexis C

    2016-01-01

    Acculturation to the U.S. is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, but the etiologic pathways are not fully understood. Plasma fatty acid levels exhibit ethnic differences and are emerging as biomarkers and predictors of cardiovascular disease risk. Thus, plasma fatty acids may represent one pathway underlying the association between acculturation and cardiovascular disease. We investigated the cross-sectional relationship between acculturation and plasma phospholipid fatty acids in a diverse sample of Hispanic- and Chinese-American adults. Participants included 377 Mexican, 320 non-Mexican Hispanic, and 712 Chinese adults from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, who had full plasma phospholipid assays and acculturation information. Acculturation was determined from three proxy measures: nativity, language spoken at home, and years in the U.S., with possible scores ranging from 0 (least acculturated) to 5 (most acculturated) points. α-Linolenic acid, linoleic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, and arachidonic acid were measured in fasting plasma. Linear regression models were conducted in race/ethnicity-stratified analyses, with acculturation as the predictor and plasma phospholipid fatty acids as the outcome variables. We ran secondary analyses to examine associations between acculturation and dietary fatty acids for comparison. Covariates included age, gender, education, and income. Contrary to our hypothesis, no statistically significant associations were detected between acculturation and plasma phospholipid fatty acids for Chinese, non-Mexican Hispanic, or Mexican participants. However, acculturation was related to dietary total n-6 fatty acids and dietary n-3/n-6 ratios in expected directions for Mexican, non-Mexican Hispanic, and combined Hispanic participants. In Chinese individuals, acculturation was unexpectedly associated with lower arachidonic acid intake. Absence of associations between acculturation and

  2. Rates of Primary and Secondary Syphilis Among White and Black Non-Hispanic Men Who Have Sex With Men, United States, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grey, Jeremy A; Bernstein, Kyle T; Sullivan, Patrick S; Kidd, Sarah E; Gift, Thomas L; Hall, Eric W; Hankin-Wei, Abigail; Weinstock, Hillard S; Rosenberg, Eli S

    2017-11-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) in the United States experience an approximately 100-fold greater rate of primary and secondary (P&S) syphilis diagnoses compared with men who have sex with women only. As in the general population, racial/ethnic disparities in P&S syphilis diagnosis rates may exist among MSM, but MSM-specific P&S syphilis rates by race/ethnicity are unavailable. We enhanced a published modeling approach to estimate area-level MSM populations by race/ethnicity and provide the first estimates of P&S syphilis among black and white non-Hispanic MSM. We used data from the American Community Survey (ACS), published findings from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), and national syphilis surveillance data to estimate state-level rates of P&S syphilis diagnoses among MSM, overall and for black and white non-Hispanic MSM. We also used variability around ACS and NHANES estimates to calculate 95% confidence intervals for each rate. Among 11,359 cases of P&S syphilis among MSM with known race/ethnicity in 2014, 72.5% were among white (40.3%) or black (32.2%) MSM. The national rate of P&S syphilis diagnosis was 168.4/100,000 for white MSM and 583.9/100,000 for black MSM. Regional rates for black MSM ranged from 602.0/100,000 (South) to 521.5/100,000 (Midwest) and were consistently higher than those for white MSM. Although white MSM accounted for more P&S syphilis diagnoses than black MSM in 2014, when evaluating diagnoses based on rate per 100,000, black MSM had consistently and markedly higher rates than white MSM, with the highest impacted states located in the US South.

  3. Influence of experiences of racial discrimination and ethnic identity on prenatal smoking among urban black and Hispanic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Kim Hanh; Subramanian, S V; Sorensen, Glorian; Tsang, Kathy; Wright, Rosalind J

    2012-04-01

    Although the prevalence of prenatal smoking among minority women exceeds the projected 2010 national objective, data on the determinants of prenatal smoking among minorities remain sparse. We examined associations between self-reported experiences of racial discrimination on prenatal smoking among urban black and Hispanic women aged 18-44 years (n=677). Our main independent variable was created from the Experiences of Discrimination (EOD) scale. Multivariable logistic regression models were estimated to examine the relationship between EOD (moderate EOD as the referent group) and smoking for the entire sample and then separately by race/ethnicity adjusted for sociodemographic variables. We also examined the role of ethnic identity (EI) as a buffer to racial discrimination (n=405). The prevalence of smoking was 18.1% versus 10% for black and Hispanic women, respectively (p=0.002). There were no significant differences in the level of EOD based on race. In multivariate regressions, compared to those reporting moderate EOD, women reporting high discrimination (OR 2.64, 95% CI 1.25 to 5.60) had higher odds of smoking. In stratified analyses, this relationship remained significant only in black women. Results suggest that foreign-born Hispanic women with higher EI were less likely to smoke compared to their low-EI counterparts (3.5 vs 10.1%; p=0.08). These are the first data in pregnant minority women showing an association between discrimination and increased risk of smoking particularly among black women. Ethnic identity and nativity status were also associated with smoking risk. Smoking cessation programmes should consider such factors among childbearing minority women.

  4. Contributions of individual acculturation and neighborhood ethnic density to variations in Hispanic children's respiratory health in a US-Mexican border metropolis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grineski, Sara E; Collins, Timothy W; Kim, Young-An

    2016-09-01

    We used an expanded conceptualization of ethnic density at the neighborhood level, tailored to Hispanic majority communities in the USA, and a robust measure of children's acculturation at the individual level, to predict Hispanic children's respiratory health. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 1904 children in 2012 in El Paso, TX, USA. One thousand one hundred and seven Hispanic children nested within 72 census tracts were analyzed. Multilevel logistic regression models with cross-level interactions were used to predict bronchitis, asthma and wheezing during sleep. A neighborhood-level ethnic density factor was a non-significant risk factor while individual-level acculturation was a significant risk factor for the three outcomes. Pest troubles and not having been breastfed as an infant intensified the positive association between ethnic density and bronchitis. Increases in ethnic density intensified the odds of wheezing in sleep if the child was not low birth weight or was not economically deprived. Results suggest that increasing individual-level acculturation is detrimental for US Hispanic children's respiratory health in this Hispanic majority setting, while high ethnic density neighborhoods are mildly risky and pose more significant threats when other individual-level factors are present. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Sex differences in cardiometabolic risk factors among Hispanic/Latino Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isasi, Carmen R; Parrinello, Christina M; Ayala, Guadalupe X; Delamater, Alan M; Perreira, Krista M; Daviglus, Martha L; Elder, John P; Marchante, Ashley N; Bangdiwala, Shrikant I; Van Horn, Linda; Carnethon, Mercedes R

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence of obesity and cardiometabolic risk in US Hispanic/Latino youth and examine whether there are disparities by sex in cardiometabolic risk factors. Study design SOL Youth is a population-based cross-sectional study of 1466 Hispanic/Latino youth (8-16 years old) who were recruited from four urban US communities (Bronx, NY; Chicago, IL, Miami, FL, and San Diego, CA) in 2012-2014. The majority of children were US-born (78%) and from low-income and immigrant families. Cardiometabolic risk factors were defined using national age- and sex-specific guidelines. Results The prevalence of obesity was 26.5%. The prevalence of class II-III obesity, diabetes and dyslipidemia was high (9.7%, 16.5%, and 23.3%, respectively). The prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors increased with severity of obesity in both, boys and girls. Boys had a higher prevalence of diabetes and of elevated blood pressure than girls (20.9% vs. 11.8% and 8.5% vs. 3.3%). In multivariable analyses, younger boys were more likely to have obesity class II-III than girls (OR = 3.59; 95% CI 1.44, 8.97). Boys were more likely to have prediabetes than girls (OR = 2.02; 95% CI 1.35, 3.02), and the association was stronger at older ages. Conclusions The prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors was high in this sample of Hispanic youth. Boys had a more adverse cardiometabolic profile compared with girls that may put them at higher risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease later in life. Reasons for this disparity and the long-term clinical implications remain to be elucidated. PMID:27344220

  6. Sex Differences in Cardiometabolic Risk Factors among Hispanic/Latino Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isasi, Carmen R; Parrinello, Christina M; Ayala, Guadalupe X; Delamater, Alan M; Perreira, Krista M; Daviglus, Martha L; Elder, John P; Marchante, Ashley N; Bangdiwala, Shrikant I; Van Horn, Linda; Carnethon, Mercedes R

    2016-09-01

    To determine the prevalence of obesity and cardiometabolic risk in US Hispanic/Latino youth and examine whether there are disparities by sex in cardiometabolic risk factors. Study of Latino Youth is a population-based cross-sectional study of 1466 Hispanic/Latino youth (8-16 years old) who were recruited from 4 urban US communities (Bronx, NY, Chicago, IL, Miami, FL, and San Diego, CA) in 2012-2014. The majority of children were US-born (78%) and from low-income and immigrant families. Cardiometabolic risk factors were defined by the use of national age- and sex-specific guidelines. The prevalence of obesity was 26.5%. The prevalence of class II-III obesity, diabetes, and dyslipidemia was high (9.7%, 16.5%, and 23.3%, respectively). The prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors increased with severity of obesity in both boys and girls. Boys had a greater prevalence of diabetes and of elevated blood pressure than girls (20.9% vs 11.8% and 8.5% vs 3.3%). In multivariable analyses, younger boys were more likely to have obesity class II-III than girls (OR 3.59; 95% CI 1.44-8.97). Boys were more likely to have prediabetes than girls (OR 2.02; 95% CI 1.35-3.02), and the association was stronger at older ages. The prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors was high in this sample of Hispanic youth. Boys had a more adverse cardiometabolic profile compared with girls that may put them at higher risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease later in life. Reasons for this disparity and the long-term clinical implications remain to be elucidated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Self-Assessed Intelligence: Inter-Ethnic, Rural-Urban, and Sex Differences in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Viren; Furnham, Adrian

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined inter-ethnic, rural-urban, and sex differences in self-assessed intelligence (SAI) in a Malaysian general population sample. In total, 633 individuals varying in rural or urban location, ethnicity (Malay, Kadazan, and Bajau), and sex (women versus men) provided their self-assessed overall intelligence and ten multiple…

  8. Bias in online recruitment and retention of racial and ethnic minority men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Patrick S; Khosropour, Christine M; Luisi, Nicole; Amsden, Matthew; Coggia, Tom; Wingood, Gina M; DiClemente, Ralph J

    2011-05-13

    The Internet has become an increasingly popular venue for men who have sex with men (MSM) to meet potential sex partners. Given this rapid increase in online sex-seeking among MSM, Internet-based interventions represent an important HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) prevention strategy. Unfortunately, black and Hispanic MSM, who are disproportionately impacted by the HIV epidemic in the United States, have been underrepresented in online research studies. Our objective was to examine and quantify factors associated with underrecruitment and underretention of MSM of color in an online HIV behavioral risk research study of MSM recruited from an online social networking site. Internet-using MSM were recruited through banner advertisements on MySpace.com targeted at men who reported in their MySpace profile their age as at least 18 and their sexual orientation as gay, bisexual, or unsure. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to estimate the odds stratified by race and ethnicity of the MySpace user clicking through the banner advertisement. To characterize survey retention, Kaplan-Meier survival curves and multivariable Cox proportional hazards models identified factors associated with survey dropout. Over 30,000 MySpace users clicked on the study banner advertisements (click-through rate of 0.37%, or 30,599 clicks from 8,257,271 impressions). Black (0.36% or 6474 clicks from 1,785,088 impressions) and Hispanic (0.35% or 8873 clicks from 2,510,434 impressions) MySpace users had a lower click-through rate compared with white (0.48% or 6995 clicks from 1,464,262 impressions) MySpace users. However, black men had increased odds of click-through for advertisements displaying a black model versus a white model (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 1.83, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.72 - 1.95), and Hispanic participants had increased odds of click-through when shown an advertisement displaying an Asian model versus a white model (adjusted OR = 1.70, 95% CI 1.62 - 1

  9. The association between BMI and health-related quality of life in the US population: sex, age and ethnicity matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laxy, M; Teuner, C; Holle, R; Kurz, C

    2018-03-01

    Obesity is a major public health problem. Detailed knowledge about the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and health-related quality of life (HRQL) is important for deriving effective and cost-effective prevention and weight management strategies. This study aims to describe the sex-, age- and ethnicity-specific association between BMI and HRQL in the US adult population. Analyses are based on pooled cross-sectional data from 41 459 participants of the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) Household Component (HC) for the years 2000-2003. BMI was calculated using self-reported height and weight, and HRQL was assessed with the EuroQol five-dimensional questionnaire. Generalized additive models were fitted with a smooth function for BMI and a smooth-factor interaction for BMI with sex adjusted for age, ethnicity, poverty, smoking and physical activity. Models were further stratified by age and ethnicity. The association between BMI and HRQL is inverse U-shaped with a HRQL high point at a BMI of 22 kg m -2 in women and a HRQL high plateau at BMI values of 22-30 kg m -2 in men. Men aged 50 years and older with a BMI of 29 kg m -2 reported on average five-point higher visual analog scale (VAS) scores than peers with a BMI of 20 kg m -2 . The inverse U-shaped association is more pronounced in older people, and the BMI-HRQL relationship differs between ethnicities. In Hispanics, the BMI associated with the highest HRQL is higher than in white people and, in black women, the BMI-HRQL association has an almost linear negative slope. The results show that a more differentiated use of BMI cutoffs in scientific discussions and daily practice is indicated. The findings should be considered in the design of future weight loss and weight management programs.

  10. Association of Obesity, BMI, and Hispanic Ethnicity on Ambulatory Status in Children with Spinal Dysraphism followed near the California-Mexico Border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Michelle L; Huang, Andy; Proudfoot, James A; Le, Joan T; Chiang, George J; Bush, Ruth A

    2016-01-01

    Evaluate the relationship between body mass index (BMI), overweight status (OW), or obesity (OB) and ambulatory status in a predominantly Hispanic population of children with spinal dysraphism (SD). Retrospective data were extracted from records of 272 children and youth aged 0-24 years with a diagnosis of SD. Body mass index (BMI) and OW / OB rates were calculated for children 0-3 years, 4-11 years, and adolescents older than 11. Ethnicity was predominantly Hispanic (65.4%). No difference in mean BMI or OW / OB rate was found between ambulation groups (p = .20; p = .72). Mean BMI and OW / OB rate increased with increasing age in all groups (p < .001; p = .02). Forty-four percent of patients were OW / OB, which was greater among Hispanics (48.2%) compared with non-Hispanics [(35.2%), p = .03]. Female gender was a risk factor for increased BMI among Hispanics (p = .00). Despite no difference in ambulatory status, increasing BMI and OW / OB are associated with Hispanic ethnicity and increasing age.

  11. Quality of Breast Cancer Care: The Role of Hispanic Ethnicity, Language, and Socioeconomic Position

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tisnado, Diana M; Kahn, Katherine L

    2007-01-01

    .... Their physicians, and neighborhood data, our goal is to examine the relative importance of ethnicity, language, and socio-economic position, and how they relate to structure, process, and outcomes of breast cancer care...

  12. Mechanisms Underlying Stress Fracture and the Influence of Sex and Race/Ethnicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-16-1-0652 TITLE: Mechanisms Underlying Stress Fracture and the Influence of Sex and Race/Ethnicity PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-16-1-0652 Mechanisms Underlying Stress Fracture and the Influence of Sex and Race/Ethnicity 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH...to stress fracture risk. In particular, in Study 1, we will perform advanced skeletal imaging along with gait-assessments in subjects with history of

  13. QuickStats: Birth Rates Among Teens Aged 15-19 Years, by Race/Hispanic Ethnicity* - National Vital Statistics System, United States,(†) 2007 and 2015(§).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-19

    From 2007 to 2015, the birth rate for female teens aged 15-19 years declined 46%, from 41.5 to 22.3 births per 1,000, the lowest rate ever recorded for this population in the United States. In 2015, rates declined to record lows for all racial/ethnic populations, with declines ranging from 41% for non-Hispanic white teens to 54% for Hispanic teens. Despite the declines, teen birth rates by race/Hispanic ethnicity continued to reflect wide disparities, with rates ranging from 6.9 per 1,000 for Asian or Pacific Islander teens to 34.9 for Hispanic teens in 2015.

  14. Diet quality of Americans differs by age, sex, race/ethnicity, income, and education level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiza, Hazel A B; Casavale, Kellie O; Guenther, Patricia M; Davis, Carole A

    2013-02-01

    An index that assesses the multidimensional components of the diet across the lifecycle is useful in describing diet quality. The purpose of this study was to use the Healthy Eating Index-2005, a measure of diet quality in terms of conformance to the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans, to describe the diet quality of Americans by varying sociodemographic characteristics in order to provide insight as to where diets need to improve. The Healthy Eating Index-2005 scores were estimated using 1 day of dietary intake data provided by participants in the 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Mean daily intakes of foods and nutrients, expressed per 1,000 kilocalories, were estimated using the population ratio method and compared with standards that reflect the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Participants included 3,286 children (2 to 17 years), 3,690 young and middle-aged adults (18 to 64 years), and 1,296 older adults (65+ years). Results are reported as percentages of maximum scores and tested for significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) by age, sex, race/ethnicity, income, and education levels. Children and older adults had better-quality diets than younger and middle-aged adults; women had better-quality diets than men; Hispanics had better-quality diets than blacks and whites; and diet quality of adults, but not children, generally improved with income level, except for sodium. The diets of Americans, regardless of socioeconomic status, are far from optimal. Problematic dietary patterns were found among all sociodemographic groups. Major improvements in the nutritional health of the American public can be made by improving eating patterns. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Update on quality of care in Hispanics and other racial-ethnic groups in the United States discharged with the diagnosis of Acute Myocardial Infarction in 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Tomás; Greenwood, Kristina L; Glaser, Dale

    2017-12-01

    Disparities in Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI) care and outcomes have been frequently reported in racial-ethnic minorities in the U.S. Some studies have attributed disparities in Hispanics and other minorities to lower quality of services at hospitals where they seek care. Current information from hospitals with large Hispanic representations and updated quality resources is needed. Retrospective observational study of 839 AMI patients discharged in 2013 from three Southern California Hospitals (A, B, C) with tertiary cardiac care level. Non-Hispanic Whites (NHW) and Hispanics (H) were the larger racial-ethnic groups (68.3%), and the comparison of these two groups constitutes the focus of the study. Mortality, 30day readmissions, medication/performance measures (PRx); aspirin, statins/anti-lipids, beta-blockers, ACEI/ARB for LV systolic dysfunction, time, and revascularization procedures were compared between hospitals, NHW and H, using Chi-squared tests (χ 2 ), Odds Ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI), and Z tests for proportions - independent groups. No significant differences in hospital, 30day mortality, PRx or procedures were observed between NHW, H and other racial-ethnic minority groups, or hospitals. Hospital C had 47.3% H and Hospitals A+B 14.6% (p<0.001, effect size=0.430). AMI performance measures exceeded 2013 national rates across all facilities. NHW had more private/commercial insurance (52.5% vs. 25.4%, OR 3.24, 95% CI 2.19-4.80, p<0.001) than H. Equitable access to quality hospital services in three Southern California hospitals offset previously reported disparities in AMI management in Hispanics. These results may not necessarily reflect the reality of AMI care for Hispanics in other U.S. regions. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Eating Disorder Symptomotology: The Role of Ethnic Identity in Caucasian and Hispanic College Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avina, Vanessa

    2011-01-01

    A relative large number of women on college campuses report experiencing eating afflictions. About 61% of college women indicated that they either occasionally or regularly used extreme measures to control their weight (Mintz & Betz, 1988). No clear consensus on the relative prevalence of eating disorder symptoms across ethnic groups has…

  17. Effects of Target Person Expression on Ethnic Prejudice toward Middle Easterners and Hispanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Tia N.; Scott, David A.; Nocks, Elaine C.

    2011-01-01

    Research on implicit prejudice suggests that target person judgments may be affected by unintentional, but well-learned, cognitive associations. Ethnicity, gender, and smiling or nonsmiling expression were varied as cues in White college students' perception tasks. The results of a factorial experiment are included as well as a discussion of the…

  18. Vaginal and Oral Sex Initiation Timing: A Focus on Gender and Race/Ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holway, Giuseppina Valle

    2015-07-01

    Most previous studies on sexual initiation timing have examined its effects on a variety of subsequent outcomes without first examining the correlates and predictors of these timing categories. Studies that do exist often do not utilize samples through young adulthood, leading to a misclassified set of sexual timing categories. In addition, the literature does not adequately address the issues of oral sex timing. Therefore, the objectives of this study were 1) to explore age-cutoffs that mark the "normative" and "non-normative" entry into vaginal and oral sex among young women and men in the U.S., creating sexual four sexual initiation timing categories - "early," "normative," "late," and "inexperienced," and; 2) to examine the association between race/ethnicity and sexual initiation timing by gender. The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health) was used in both descriptive and multivariate contexts to determine the net association of gender and race/ethnicity with vaginal and oral sex initiation timing. Age-cutoffs for vaginal sex timing were similar for women and men, yet differed by gender for oral sex timing. Women were more likely than men to initiate vaginal sex (20% vs. 18%) and oral sex (19% vs. 16%) at an early age and less likely than men to initiate these behaviors at a late age (18% vs. 19% for vaginal sex, and 15% vs. 16% for oral sex). Although most respondents initiated these two behaviors by young adulthood, a considerable proportion remained inexperienced, with men more likely than women to report inexperience with vaginal sex (7% vs. 5%), and women more likely than men to report abstaining from oral sex (8% vs. 6%). Race/ethnic differences in sexual initiation timing remained robust in the face of controls for both women and men. Understanding the timing at which adolescents and young adults transition to first vaginal and first oral sex is critical for sex education curriculum and policy makers.

  19. Trends in colorectal cancer incidence among younger adults-Disparities by age, sex, race, ethnicity, and subsite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosbie, Amanda B; Roche, Lisa M; Johnson, Linda M; Pawlish, Karen S; Paddock, Lisa E; Stroup, Antoinette M

    2018-06-22

    Millennials (ages 18-35) are now the largest living generation in the US, making it important to understand and characterize the rising trend of colorectal cancer incidence in this population, as well as other younger generations of Americans. Data from the New Jersey State Cancer Registry (n = 181 909) and Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program (n = 448 714) were used to analyze invasive CRC incidence trends from 1979 to 2014. Age, sex, race, ethnicity, subsite, and stage differences between younger adults (20-49) and screening age adults (≥50) in New Jersey (NJ) were examined using chi-square; and, we compared secular trends in NJ to the United States (US). Whites, men, and the youngest adults (ages 20-39) are experiencing greater APCs in rectal cancer incidence. Rates among younger black adults, overall, were consistently higher in both NJ and the US over time. When compared to older adults, younger adults with CRC in NJ were more likely to be: diagnosed at the late stage, diagnosed with rectal cancer, male, non-white, and Hispanic. Invasive CRC incidence trends among younger adults were found to vary by age, sex, race, ethnicity, and subsite. Large, case-level, studies are needed to understand the role of genetics, human papillomavirus (HPV), and cultural and behavioral factors in the rise of CRC among younger adults. Provider and public education about CRC risk factors will also be important for preventing and reversing the increasing CRC trend in younger adults. © 2018 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Patients' choice of general practitioner: importance of patients' and doctors' sex and ethnicity.

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad, W I; Kernohan, E E; Baker, M R

    1991-01-01

    The relative importance of sex and ethnicity in patients' choice of doctor is not known. A total of 1633 consultations at a health centre in Bradford, with a mixed ethnic list, were examined over a four week period to test the relative importance of these variables. Patients had the choice to consult any one of: a male Asian, a male white or a female white doctor. Asian patients, irrespective of sex, were significantly (P less than 0.001) more likely to consult the Asian doctor then either of...

  1. Perceived Discrimination and Suicide Ideation: Moderating Roles of Anxiety Symptoms and Ethnic Identity among Asian American, African American, and Hispanic Emerging Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheref, Soumia; Talavera, David; Walker, Rheeda L

    2018-05-03

    Suicide is a leading cause of death for vulnerable ethnic minority emerging adults in the United States (Web-based injury statistics query and reporting system [WISQARS], 2015). Perceived discrimination (Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 40, 2011, 1465) and anxiety symptoms (Asian American Journal of Psychology, 1, 2010, 18) are two predictors that are theoretically and conceptually related, but have yet to be examined in a simultaneous model for suicide ideation. Existing theory and research suggest that these variables activate similar pathways (American Behavioral Scientist, 51, 2007, 551). This study sought to address this gap in the literature by examining the simultaneous relationship between perceived discrimination and anxiety symptoms as predictors of suicide ideation. The moderating effect of anxiety symptoms on the relationship between perceived discrimination and suicide ideation was examined in a multiethnic sample of emerging adults. Results indicated that anxiety symptoms moderated the perceived discrimination-suicide ideation relationship for Hispanic emerging adults, but not for their Asian American and African American counterparts. Furthermore, ethnic identity has been shown to mitigate suicide risk in the face of other stressors (Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 14, 2008, 75). Ethnic identity emerged as a protective factor for Hispanic emerging adults by further interacting with perceived discrimination and anxiety symptoms to negatively predict suicide ideation. The implications of these findings are discussed. © 2018 The American Association of Suicidology.

  2. Rates of firearm homicide by Chicago region, age, sex, and race/ethnicity, 2005-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Garth Nyambi; McLone, Suzanne; Mason, Maryann; Sheehan, Karen

    2016-10-01

    The United States reports the highest levels of firearm homicide incidences compared to other high income countries, and the focus and causes of these incidences within the US differ by demographic characteristics and location such as urban versus rural environment. Despite these findings, few studies have published on rates varied by region within a city. This study aims to provide descriptive analysis of the rates of firearm homicide by age, sex, and race/ethnicity in each of the seven City of Chicago regions, and to determine if the rates of firearm homicide differ by demographics among the seven City of Chicago regions. The Illinois Violent Death Reporting System conducts routine surveillance of violent deaths. Decedents were selected according to the following criteria: manner of death was homicide, weapon type was firearm, and location of injury that led to death was the City of Chicago. Location of injury was broken down by regions: North, Northwest, Center, West, South, Southwest, and Far South. Multiyear rates per 100,000 and corresponding 95% confidence intervals were calculated. There were 2,254 victims of homicide by firearm in the City of Chicago. The overall rate across Chicago for all demographics was 12.9 (12.1-13.5 per 100,000) with an average age of 27.4. The highest age group (20-24) for firearm homicide rates was 43.2 (39.7-46.7) per 100,000. For the youngest age group (10-14), only the Southwest (3.3-10.4) region reported any firearm incidence. The 20 to 24 age group reported the highest rates of all age groups within the South (107.9-151.7), West (80.3-108.2), and Far South (69.6-105.3) regions, whereas the North and Northwest reported the lowest rates for all regions by age. Black firearm homicide rates were 33.5 (31.9-35.1) per 100,000 versus Hispanic and non-Hispanic white firearm homicide rates of 8.5 (7.7-9.3) and 1.2 (1-1.5) per 100,000, respectively. Lastly, the West reported the highest firearm rates at 29.1 (657). In conclusion

  3. Sex disparities in acute myocardial infarction incidence : Do ethnic minority groups differ from the majority population?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Oeffelen, Aloysia A M; Vaartjes, Ilonca; Stronks, Karien; Bots, Michiel L.; Agyemang, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Background: The incidence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in men exceeds that in women. The extent of this sex disparity varies widely between countries. Variations may also exist between ethnic minority groups and the majority population, but scientific evidence is lacking. Methods: A

  4. Sex disparities in acute myocardial infarction incidence: do ethnic minority groups differ from the majority population?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oeffelen, Aloysia A. M.; Vaartjes, Ilonca; Stronks, Karien; Bots, Michiel L.; Agyemang, Charles

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in men exceeds that in women. The extent of this sex disparity varies widely between countries. Variations may also exist between ethnic minority groups and the majority population, but scientific evidence is lacking. A nationwide register-based

  5. Beliefs About the Nature of Sex/Gender and Ethnic Inequality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eisinga, R.N.; Elzen, A.J. van den; Verloo, M.M.T.

    1999-01-01

    This research examines five lay explanations of the nature of sex/gender inequality - supernat- ural, genetic, individualistic, cultural, and social - and empirically links these beliefs to lay theories about the nature of ethnic inequality. Using data from a sample of Dutch metropolitan residents,

  6. Beliefs about the nature of sex/gender and ethnic inequality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eisinga, R.N.; Elzen, A.J. van den; Verloo, M.M.T.

    1999-01-01

    This research examines five lay explanations of the nature of sex/gender inequality - supernatural, genetic, individualistic, cultural, and social - and empirically links these beliefs to lay theories about the nature of ethnic inequality. Using data from a sample of Dutch metropolitan residents, it

  7. Sex, Race/Ethnicity, and Context in School-Associated Student Homicides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Joanne M.; Hall, Jeffrey E.; Zagura, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the importance of sex, race/ethnicity, and geographic context for incidents of school-associated student homicides between July 1, 1994 and June 30, 1999, covering 5 academic years. Using data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention School Associated Violent Deaths Study (n = 125 incidents), we compared percentages…

  8. Ethnic and sex differences in E-cigarette use and relation to alcohol use in California adolescents: the California Health Interview Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, D N; Fan, W

    2018-04-01

    E-cigarette use is not only prevalent among adolescents but is growing at an alarming rate. This study sought to determine e-cigarette use prevalence and its relation to alcohol use as a potential gateway drug, and how this may differ by sex and ethnicity in a multi-ethnic sample of California adolescents. Cross-sectional survey. We included data from 1806 adolescents (weighted to 3.0 million) aged 12-17 in the 2014 and 2015 California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) cycles. The prevalence of e-cigarette use was calculated within sex and ethnic groups and the prevalence of alcohol use according to e-cigarette use was also examined with sample weighting providing population estimates. Multiple logistic regression models were built to predict the odds of using alcohol from e-cigarette use status adjusted for sociodemographic and other characteristics. The prevalence of e-cigarette use was 9.1% (projected to 0.3 million) overall in California adolescents but highest in boys among non-Hispanic Whites (15.1%) and in Asian girls (13.3%). Among e-cigarette users, 61.3% of boys and 71.0% of girls reported using alcohol as well. The logistic regression odds of alcohol use, adjusted for age, ethnicity, body mass index, cigarette smoking status, socioeconomic status, parents' education level, and insurance status among e-cigarettes users (compared with non-users) was 9.2 in girls and 3.1 in boys (both P < 0.01). Asians/others, non-Hispanic whites and Hispanics were similarly at increased odds: 17.8, 5.4, and 3.0, respectively (P < 0.01 for Asians/others and for whites) of using alcohol compared with their non-e-cigarette using counterparts, respectively. Attention needs to be paid to the high prevalence of e-cigarette smoking as well as its potential as a gateway drug for alcohol drinking in adolescents, especially among girls and Asians. Copyright © 2018 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Sex disparities in acute myocardial infarction incidence: do ethnic minority groups differ from the majority population?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oeffelen, Aloysia A M; Vaartjes, Ilonca; Stronks, Karien; Bots, Michiel L; Agyemang, Charles

    2015-02-01

    The incidence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in men exceeds that in women. The extent of this sex disparity varies widely between countries. Variations may also exist between ethnic minority groups and the majority population, but scientific evidence is lacking. A nationwide register-based cohort study was conducted (n = 7,601,785) between 1997 and 2007. Cox Proportional Hazard Models were used to estimate sex disparities in AMI incidence within the Dutch majority population and within ethnic minority groups, stratified by age (30-54, 55-64, ≥65 years). AMI incidence was higher in men than in women in all groups under study. Compared with the majority population (hazard ratio (HR): 2.23; 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 2.21-2.25), sex disparities were similar among minorities originating from the immediate surrounding countries (Belgium, Germany), whereas they were greater in most other minority groups. Most pronounced results were found among minorities from Morocco (HR: 3.48; 95% CI: 2.48-4.88), South Asia (HR: 3.92; 95% CI: 2.45-6.26) and Turkey (HR: 3.98; 95% CI: 3.51-4.51). Sex disparity differences were predominantly evident in those below 55 years of age, and were mainly provoked by a higher AMI incidence in ethnic minority men compared with men belonging to the Dutch majority population. Sex disparities in AMI incidence clearly varied between ethnic minorities and the Dutch majority population. Health prevention strategies may first target at a reduction of AMI incidence in young ethnic minority men, especially those originating from Turkey and South Asia. Furthermore, an increase in AMI incidence in their female counterparts should be prevented. © The European Society of Cardiology 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  10. Sex-Specific Prediction Models for Sleep Apnea From the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Neomi; Hanna, David B; Teng, Yanping; Sotres-Alvarez, Daniela; Hall, Martica; Loredo, Jose S; Zee, Phyllis; Kim, Mimi; Yaggi, H Klar; Redline, Susan; Kaplan, Robert C

    2016-06-01

    We developed and validated the first-ever sleep apnea (SA) risk calculator in a large population-based cohort of Hispanic/Latino subjects. Cross-sectional data on adults from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (2008-2011) were analyzed. Subjective and objective sleep measurements were obtained. Clinically significant SA was defined as an apnea-hypopnea index ≥ 15 events per hour. Using logistic regression, four prediction models were created: three sex-specific models (female-only, male-only, and a sex × covariate interaction model to allow differential predictor effects), and one overall model with sex included as a main effect only. Models underwent 10-fold cross-validation and were assessed by using the C statistic. SA and its predictive variables; a total of 17 variables were considered. A total of 12,158 participants had complete sleep data available; 7,363 (61%) were women. The population-weighted prevalence of SA (apnea-hypopnea index ≥ 15 events per hour) was 6.1% in female subjects and 13.5% in male subjects. Male-only (C statistic, 0.808) and female-only (C statistic, 0.836) prediction models had the same predictor variables (ie, age, BMI, self-reported snoring). The sex-interaction model (C statistic, 0.836) contained sex, age, age × sex, BMI, BMI × sex, and self-reported snoring. The final overall model (C statistic, 0.832) contained age, BMI, snoring, and sex. We developed two websites for our SA risk calculator: one in English (https://www.montefiore.org/sleepapneariskcalc.html) and another in Spanish (http://www.montefiore.org/sleepapneariskcalc-es.html). We created an internally validated, highly discriminating, well-calibrated, and parsimonious prediction model for SA. Contrary to the study hypothesis, the variables did not have different predictive magnitudes in male and female subjects. Copyright © 2016 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Cardiovascular risk factors in rural Kenyans are associated with differential age gradients, but not modified by sex or ethnicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Dirk L.; Faurholt-Jepsen, Daniel; Birkegaard, Louise

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between metabolic disease and the non-modifiable risk factors sex, age and ethnicity in Africans is not well-established. This study aimed to describe sex, age and ethnicity differences in blood pressure (BP) and lipid status in rural Kenyans. A cross-sectional study was undertak...... questionnaires. In total, 1139 individuals (61.0% women) participated aged 17-68 years. Age was positively associated with BP and plasma cholesterol levels. Sitting PR was negatively associated with age in women only (sex-interaction p ......The relationship between metabolic disease and the non-modifiable risk factors sex, age and ethnicity in Africans is not well-established. This study aimed to describe sex, age and ethnicity differences in blood pressure (BP) and lipid status in rural Kenyans. A cross-sectional study was undertaken...

  12. Gender, ethnicity, religiosity, and same-sex sexual attraction and the acceptance of same-sex sexuality and gender non-conformity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collier, K.L.; Bos, H.M.W.; Merry, M.S.; Sandfort, T.G.M.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the role of gender, ethnicity, religiosity, and sexual attraction in adolescents’ acceptance of same-sex sexuality and gender non-conformity. Using an intersectionality perspective, we also tested whether the effects of gender, ethnicity, and religiosity on adolescents’ attitudes

  13. Ethnicity and acculturation: do they predict weight status in a longitudinal study among Asain, Hispanic, and non-Hispanic White early adolescent females?

    Science.gov (United States)

    The prevalence of overweight and obesity among adolescents has increased over the past decade. Prevalence rates are disparate among certain racial and ethnic groups. In this study, the relationship between overweight status (> 85th percentile according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevent...

  14. The Racial, Cultural and Social Makeup of Hispanics as a potential Profile Risk for Intensifying the Need for Including this Ethnic Group in Clinical Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Candales, Angel; Aponte Rodríguez, Jaime; Harris, David

    2015-01-01

    Hypertension not only is the most frequently listed cause of death worldwide; but also a well-recognized major risk factor for cardiovascular disease and stroke. Based on the latest published statistics published by the American Heart Association, hypertension is very prevalent and found in one of every 3 US adults. Furthermore, data from NHANES 2007 to 2010 claims that almost 6% of US adults have undiagnosed hypertension. Despite this staggering statistic, previous US guidelines for the prevention, detection, and treatment of hypertension (The Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure 7 [JNC 7]), released in 2003, stated that; "unfortunately, sufficient numbers of Mexican Americans and other Hispanic Americans... have not been included in most of the major clinical trials to allow reaching strong conclusions about their responses to individual antihypertensive therapies." However, the recently published JNC 8 offers no comment regarding recommendations or guideline treatment suggestions on Hispanics. The purpose of this article not only is to raise awareness of the lack of epidemiological data and treatment options regarding high blood pressure in the US Hispanic population; but also to make a case of the racial, cultural and social makeup of this ethnic group that places them at risk of cardiovascular complications related to hypertension.

  15. Vocational interests in the United States: Sex, age, ethnicity, and year effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Michael L

    2016-10-01

    Vocational interests predict educational and career choices, job performance, and career success (Rounds & Su, 2014). Although sex differences in vocational interests have long been observed (Thorndike, 1911), an appropriate overall measure has been lacking from the literature. Using a cross-sectional sample of United States residents aged 14 to 63 who completed the Strong Interest Inventory assessment between 2005 and 2014 (N = 1,283,110), I examined sex, age, ethnicity, and year effects on work related interest levels using both multivariate and univariate effect size estimates of individual dimensions (Holland's Realistic, Investigative, Artistic, Social, Enterprising, and Conventional). Men scored higher on Realistic (d = -1.14), Investigative (d = -.32), Enterprising (d = -.22), and Conventional (d = -.23), while women scored higher on Artistic (d = .19) and Social (d = .38), mostly replicating previous univariate findings. Multivariate, overall sex differences were very large (disattenuated Mahalanobis' D = 1.61; 27% overlap). Interest levels were slightly lower and overall sex differences larger in younger samples. Overall sex differences have narrowed slightly for 18-22 year-olds in more recent samples. Generally very small ethnicity effects included relatively higher Investigative and Enterprising scores for Asians, Indians, and Middle Easterners, lower Realistic scores for Blacks and Native Americans, higher Realistic, Artistic, and Social scores for Pacific Islanders, and lower Conventional scores for Whites. Using Prediger's (1982) model, women were more interested in people (d = 1.01) and ideas (d = .18), while men were more interested in things and data. These results, consistent with previous reviews showing large sex differences and small year effects, suggest that large sex differences in work related interests will continue to be observed for decades. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Factorial Invariance of the Scale Beliefs about Children's Adjustment in Same-Sex Families in Spanish, Chilean, and Hispanic University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual-Soler, Marcos; Frias-Navarro, Dolores; Barrientos-Delgado, Jaime; Badenes-Ribera, Laura; Monterde-i-Bort, Hector; Cárdenas-Castro, Manuel; Berrios-Riquelme, José

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the factorial invariance of the Scale on Beliefs About Children's Adjustment in Same-Sex Families (SBCASSF) across countries in three samples: Chilean, Spanish, and Hispanic university students. The scale analyzes attitudes toward the consequences of the rearing and education of children by parents with a homosexual sexual…

  17. Ethnic and sex differences in bone marrow adipose tissue and bone mineral density relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, W; Chen, J; Gantz, M; Punyanitya, M; Heymsfield, S B; Gallagher, D; Albu, J; Engelson, E; Kotler, D; Pi-Sunyer, X; Shapses, S

    2012-09-01

    The relationship between bone marrow adipose tissue and bone mineral density is different between African Americans and Caucasians as well as between men and women. This suggests that the mechanisms that regulate the differentiation and proliferation of bone marrow stromal cells may differ in these populations. It has long been established that there are ethnic and sex differences in bone mineral density (BMD) and fracture risk. Recent studies suggest that bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) may play a role in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis. It is unknown whether ethnic and sex differences exist in the relationship between BMAT and BMD. Pelvic BMAT was evaluated in 455 healthy African American and Caucasian men and women (age 18-88 years) using whole-body T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. BMD was measured using whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. A negative correlation was observed between pelvic BMAT and total body BMD or pelvic BMD (r = -0.533, -0.576, respectively; P BMAT. Menopausal status significantly entered the regression model with total body BMD as the dependent variable. African Americans had higher total body BMD than Caucasians for the same amount of BMAT, and the ethnic difference for pelvic BMD was greater in those participants with a higher BMAT. Men and premenopausal women had higher total body BMD levels than postmenopausal women for the same amount of BMAT. An inverse relationship exists between BMAT and BMD in African American and Caucasian men and women. The observed ethnic and sex differences between BMAT and BMD in the present study suggest the possibility that the mechanisms regulating the differentiation and proliferation of bone marrow stromal cells may differ in these populations.

  18. Disparities in abnormal mammogram follow-up time for Asian women compared to non-Hispanic Whites and between Asian ethnic groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, KH; Pasick, RJ; Stewart, SL; Kerlikowske, K; Karliner, LS

    2017-01-01

    Background Delays in abnormal mammogram follow-up contribute to poor outcomes. We examined abnormal screening mammogram follow-up differences for non-Hispanic Whites (NHW) and Asian women. Methods Prospective cohort of NHW and Asian women with a Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System abnormal result of 0 or 3+ in the San Francisco Mammography Registry between 2000–2010. We performed Kaplan-Meier estimation for median-days to follow-up with a diagnostic radiologic test, and compared proportion with follow-up at 30, 60 and 90 days, and no follow-up at one-year for Asians overall (and Asian ethnic groups) and NHWs. We additionally assessed the relationship between race/ethnicity and time-to-follow-up with adjusted Cox proportional hazards models. Results Among Asian women, Vietnamese and Filipinas had the longest, and Japanese the shortest, median follow-up time (32, 28, 19 days, respectively) compared to NHWs (15 days). The proportion of women receiving follow-up at 30 days was lower for Asians vs NHWs (57% vs 77%, pAsian ethnic groups except Japanese. Asians had a reduced hazard of follow-up compared with NHWs (aHR 0.70, 95% CI 0.69–0.72). Asians also had a higher rate than NHWs of no follow-up (15% vs 10%; pAsian ethnic groups, Filipinas had the highest percentage of women with no follow-up (18.1%). Conclusion Asian, particularly Filipina and Vietnamese, women were less likely than NHWs to receive timely follow-up after an abnormal screening mammogram. Research should disaggregate Asian ethnicity to better understand and address barriers to effective cancer prevention. PMID:28603859

  19. The Role of Ethnicity in Mexican American and Non-Hispanic White Students' Experience of Sexual Harassment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, Lisa K.; Gilbert, Lucia Albino

    2012-01-01

    This study explored dimensions of a social phenomenon not often investigated among Mexican American college students, namely sexual harassment. Mexican American (n = 261) and non-Hispanic White female students (n = 111) from three southwestern universities responded to scales assessing experiences of sexually harassing behaviors, harassment…

  20. Racial-Ethnic Self-Schemas and Segmented Assimilation: Identity and the Academic Achievement of Hispanic Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altschul, Inna; Oyserman, Daphna; Bybee, Deborah

    2008-01-01

    How are racial-ethnic identity and acculturation processes linked, and when do they have positive consequences for academic achievement and assimilation trajectory? To address these issues this study integrates two frameworks--segmented assimilation (Portes and Rumbaut 2001) and racial-ethnic self-schema (Oyserman et al. 2003)--that focus on how…

  1. Prevalence of Low Cardiovascular Risk Profile Among Diverse Hispanic/Latino Adults in the United States by Age, Sex, and Level of Acculturation: The Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daviglus, Martha L; Pirzada, Amber; Durazo-Arvizu, Ramon; Chen, Jinsong; Allison, Matthew; Avilés-Santa, Larissa; Cai, Jianwen; González, Hector M; Kaplan, Robert C; Schneiderman, Neil; Sorlie, Paul D; Talavera, Gregory A; Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia; Stamler, Jeremiah

    2016-08-20

    Favorable levels of all readily measurable major cardiovascular disease risk factors (ie, low risk [LR]) are associated with lower risks of cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality. Data are not available on LR prevalence among Hispanic/Latino adults of diverse ethnic backgrounds. This study aimed to describe the prevalence of a low cardiovascular disease risk profile among Hispanic/Latino adults in the United States and to examine cross-sectional associations of LR with measures of acculturation. The multicenter, prospective, population-based Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos examined 16 415 men and women aged 18 to 74 years at baseline (2008-2011) with diverse Hispanic/Latino backgrounds. Analyses involved 14 757 adults (mean age 41.3 years; 60.6% women). LR was defined using national guidelines for favorable levels of serum cholesterol, blood pressure, and body mass index and by not having diabetes mellitus and not currently smoking. Age-adjusted LR prevalence was low (8.4% overall; 5.1% for men, 11.2% for women) and varied by background (4.2% in men of Mexican heritage versus 15.0% in women of Cuban heritage). Lower acculturation (assessed using proxy measures) was significantly associated with higher odds of a LR profile among women only: Age-adjusted odds ratios of having LR were 1.64 (95% CI 1.24-2.17) for foreign-born versus US-born women and 1.96 (95% CI 1.49-2.58) for women residing in the United States profile is low. Lower acculturation is associated with higher odds of a LR profile among women but not men. Comprehensive public health strategies are needed to improve the cardiovascular health of US Hispanic/Latino adults. © 2016 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  2. Gender, Ethnicity, Religiosity, and Same-sex Sexual Attraction and the Acceptance of Same-sex Sexuality and Gender Non-conformity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Henny M. W.; Merry, Michael S.; Sandfort, Theo G. M.

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the role of gender, ethnicity, religiosity, and sexual attraction in adolescents’ acceptance of same-sex sexuality and gender non-conformity. Using an intersectionality perspective, we also tested whether the effects of gender, ethnicity, and religiosity on adolescents’ attitudes would function differently in adolescents with and without same-sex attractions. Data for this study were collected by means of a paper questionnaire completed by 1,518 secondary school students (mean age = 14.56 years, SD = 1.05) in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. The sample was 48.1% female and 51.9% male. Approximately one third of adolescents in the sample were of a non-Western ethnic background (32.3%, n = 491) and 7.5% of the participants (n = 114) reported experiencing same-sex attractions. Results of our analyses showed that adolescents in our sample who were male, of non-Western ethnicity, and who were more religious (as indicated by frequency of religious service attendance), were less accepting of same-sex sexuality and gender non-conformity in comparison to female, Western and less religious peers. We also found a significant interaction effect between religiosity and sexual attractions, but only in relation to evaluation of same-sex attracted, gender nonconforming females. The negative effect of religiosity on acceptance of same-sex attracted, gender non-conforming females was stronger among those adolescents who reported same-sex attractions. PMID:23687403

  3. Interactions among sex, ethnicity, religion, and gender role expectations of pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defrin, Ruth; Eli, Ilana; Pud, Dorit

    2011-06-01

    Sex, gender, ethnicity, and religion are powerful factors that may affect pain experience. Recently, gender role expectations of pain (GREP) were suggested to account for some of the differences in pain perception between men and women. However, the interaction between GREP and ethnicity and religion was not examined. This interaction was studied with regard to pain sensitivity, pain endurance, and willingness to report pain. Our objective was to study the interaction among GREP, sex, and ethno-religious belonging. Participants (548 healthy men and women) of 3 different ethno-religious groups (341 Jews, 105 Muslim-Arabs, 102 Christian-Arabs) completed the GREP questionnaire; pain sensitivity, pain endurance, and willingness to report pain were analyzed. Men of all 3 ethno-religious groups perceived themselves and other men as less sensitive and less willing to report pain than typical women. Women of all 3 ethno-religious groups perceived themselves and other women as more sensitive and more willing to report pain than men. Ethno-religious differences were observed in the attitudes towards typical men and women, with Christian men and women exhibiting stronger stereotypical views regarding pain sensitivity and pain endurance. Individual's perceptions of pain regarding one's self compared with the same or opposite sex were similar regardless of ethno-religious belonging and were related to sex. However, attitudes on pain of typical men and women seemed to be influenced by ethno-religious belonging. This differential effect of ethno-religion on GREP with relation to sex suggests that these factors should be considered when pain perception is evaluated. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Ethnic differences in inter- and intra-situational blood pressure variation: Comparisons among African-American, Hispanic-American, Asian-American, and European-American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Gary D; Bovbjerg, Dana H; Hill, Leah A

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the daily inter- and intra-situational ambulatory blood pressure (BP) variation by ethnicity in women. The African-American (N = 82; Age = 39.7 + 8.9), Hispanic-American (N = 25; age = 37.5 + 9.4), Asian-American (N = 22; Age = 35.2 + 8.6), and European-American (N = 122; Age = 37.2+ 9.4) women in this study all worked in similar positions at two major medical centers in NYC. Each wore an ambulatory monitor during the course of one mid-week workday. Proportional BP changes from work or home to sleep, intra-situational BP variation (standard deviation [SD]) and mean situational BP levels were compared among the groups using ANOVA models. African-American and Asian-American women had significantly smaller proportional work-sleep systolic changes than either European- (P women, but the Asian-American women's changes tended to be smallest. The variability (SD) of diastolic BP at work was significantly greater among African- and Hispanic-American women compared to Asian- and European-American women (all P women had greater sleep variability than European-American women (P Asian-American women had the highest level of sleep diastolic pressure (all comparisons P Asian-American women have an attenuated proportional BP decline from waking environments to sleep compared to European-American and Hispanic-American women. Asian-American nocturnal BP may be elevated relative to all other groups. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 28:932-935, 2016. © 2016Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Racial/ethnic differences in correlates of psychological distress among five Asian-American subgroups and non-Hispanic Whites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyunjeong; Choi, Eunsuk; Wenzel, Jennifer A

    2018-05-29

    Despite their vastly different historical backgrounds, unique languages and variable pre- and post-immigration experiences, Asian-Americans are considered to share stressors surrounding immigration, but there is a gap in describing manifestations of possible mental distress. Thus, the purpose of this study was to explore and compare differences in factors associated with psychological distress among Asian subgroups including Chinese, Filipino, Vietnamese, Korean, Japanese, and non-Hispanic Whites. Using a cross-sectional study design, California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) 2011/2012 data were analyzed. The sample consisted of 29,142 participants: 25,645 non-Hispanic Whites, 3497 non-Hispanic Asian-Americans, 1156 Chinese, 471 Filipinos, 864 Vietnamese, 704 Koreans, and 302 Japanese. Sociodemographic characteristics included gender, age group, marital status, education, poverty level, working status, health insurance, level of acculturation, social cohesion, neighborhood safety, and civic engagement. Physical health status included disability and chronic illness. Psychological distress was evaluated using the Kessler 6 (K6) scale. Results showed that psychological distress levels ranged between 1.96 and 4.52 (p < .05) out of 24 and associated factors were significantly different among the five Asian subgroups and non-Hispanic Whites. The current study highlights the differences in characteristics of psychological distress among Asian subgroups. It underscores the significance of understanding individualized cultural and historical background in each Asian subgroup and subsequently developing and applying appropriate interventions for those groups. In addition, different influencing factors should be applied to assess and prioritize the needs of Asian subgroups to improve psychological distress. The study also warrants further investigation and careful description of each Asian subgroups.

  6. A systematic literature review of diabetes self-management education features to improve diabetes education in women of Black African/Caribbean and Hispanic/Latin American ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gucciardi, Enza; Chan, Vivian Wing-Sheung; Manuel, Lisa; Sidani, Souraya

    2013-08-01

    This systematic literature review aims to identify diabetes self-management education (DSME) features to improve diabetes education for Black African/Caribbean and Hispanic/Latin American women with Type 2 diabetes mellitus. We conducted a literature search in six health databases for randomized controlled trials and comparative studies. Success rates of intervention features were calculated based on effectiveness in improving glycosolated hemoglobin (HbA1c), anthropometrics, physical activity, or diet outcomes. Calculations of rate differences assessed whether an intervention feature positively or negatively affected an outcome. From 13 studies included in our analysis, we identified 38 intervention features in relation to their success with an outcome. Five intervention features had positive rate differences across at least three outcomes: hospital-based interventions, group interventions, the use of situational problem-solving, frequent sessions, and incorporating dietitians as interventionists. Six intervention features had high positive rate differences (i.e. ≥50%) on specific outcomes. Different DSME intervention features may influence broad and specific self-management outcomes for women of African/Caribbean and Hispanic/Latin ethnicity. With the emphasis on patient-centered care, patients and care providers can consider options based on DSME intervention features for its broad and specific impact on outcomes to potentially make programming more effective. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Impact of Individual and Neighborhood Factors on Cardiovascular Risk in White Hispanic and Non-Hispanic Women and Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Tanya; Miller, Arlene; Fogg, Louis; Braun, Lynne T; Coke, Lola

    2017-04-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of mortality for adults in the US, regardless of ethnicity. A cross-sectional correlational design was used to describe and compare CVD risk and cardiac mortality in White Hispanic and non-Hispanic women and men. Data from 3,317 individuals (1,523 women and 1,794 men) hospitalized for non-cardiac causes during 2012-2013, and data from the 2010 United States Census were included. The sex-specific 10-year Framingham General Cardiovascular Risk Score (FRS-10) was used to estimate long-term risk for major cardiac events. Approximately three-quarters of the sample was White Hispanic. FRS-10 scores were generally low, but a high prevalence of risk factors not included in the standard FRS-10 scoring formula was seen. White Hispanic women had significantly lower estimated CVD risk scores compared to White Hispanic and non-Hispanic men despite higher non-FRS-10 risks. Neighborhood median household income had a significant negative relationship and Hispanic neighborhood concentration had a significant positive relationship with cardiac mortality. Hispanic concentration was the only predictor of estimated CVD risk in a multilevel model. CVD risk assessment tools that are calibrated for ethnic groups and socioeconomic status may be more appropriate for Hispanic individuals than the FRS-10. Neighborhood-level factors should be included in clinical cardiac assessment in addition to individual characteristics and behavioral risks. Researchers should continue to seek additional risk factors that may contribute to or protect against CVD in order to close the gap between estimated CVD risk and actual cardiac mortality for Hispanics in the US. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Ethnicity- and sex-based discrimination and the maintenance of self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lönnqvist, Jan-Erik; Hennig-Schmidt, Heike; Walkowitz, Gari

    2015-01-01

    The psychological underpinnings of labor market discrimination were investigated by having participants from Israel, the West Bank and Germany (N = 205) act as employers in a stylized employment task in which they ranked, set wages, and imposed a minimum effort level on applicants. State self-esteem was measured before and after the employment task, in which applicant ethnicity and sex were salient. The applicants were real people and all behavior was monetarily incentivized. Supporting the full self-esteem hypothesis of the social identity approach, low self-esteem in women was associated with assigning higher wages to women than to men, and such behavior was related to the maintenance of self-esteem. The narrower hypothesis that successful intergroup discrimination serves to protect self-esteem received broader support. Across all participants, both ethnicity- and sex-based discrimination of out-groups were associated with the maintenance of self-esteem, with the former showing a stronger association than the latter.

  9. Ethnicity- and Sex-Based Discrimination and the Maintenance of Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The psychological underpinnings of labor market discrimination were investigated by having participants from Israel, the West Bank and Germany (N = 205) act as employers in a stylized employment task in which they ranked, set wages, and imposed a minimum effort level on applicants. State self-esteem was measured before and after the employment task, in which applicant ethnicity and sex were salient. The applicants were real people and all behavior was monetarily incentivized. Supporting the full self-esteem hypothesis of the social identity approach, low self-esteem in women was associated with assigning higher wages to women than to men, and such behavior was related to the maintenance of self-esteem. The narrower hypothesis that successful intergroup discrimination serves to protect self-esteem received broader support. Across all participants, both ethnicity- and sex-based discrimination of out-groups were associated with the maintenance of self-esteem, with the former showing a stronger association than the latter. PMID:25978646

  10. Coronary calcium predicts events better with absolute calcium scores than age-sex-race/ethnicity percentiles: MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budoff, Matthew J; Nasir, Khurram; McClelland, Robyn L; Detrano, Robert; Wong, Nathan; Blumenthal, Roger S; Kondos, George; Kronmal, Richard A

    2009-01-27

    In this study, we aimed to establish whether age-sex-specific percentiles of coronary artery calcium (CAC) predict cardiovascular outcomes better than the actual (absolute) CAC score. The presence and extent of CAC correlates with the overall magnitude of coronary atherosclerotic plaque burden and with the development of subsequent coronary events. MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis) is a prospective cohort study of 6,814 asymptomatic participants followed for coronary heart disease (CHD) events including myocardial infarction, angina, resuscitated cardiac arrest, or CHD death. Time to incident CHD was modeled with Cox regression, and we compared models with percentiles based on age, sex, and/or race/ethnicity to categories commonly used (0, 1 to 100, 101 to 400, 400+ Agatston units). There were 163 (2.4%) incident CHD events (median follow-up 3.75 years). Expressing CAC in terms of age- and sex-specific percentiles had significantly lower area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC) than when using absolute scores (women: AUC 0.73 versus 0.76, p = 0.044; men: AUC 0.73 versus 0.77, p better model fit with the overall score. Both methods robustly predicted events (>90th percentile associated with a hazard ratio [HR] of 16.4, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 9.30 to 28.9, and score >400 associated with HR of 20.6, 95% CI: 11.8 to 36.0). Within groups based on age-, sex-, and race/ethnicity-specific percentiles there remains a clear trend of increasing risk across levels of the absolute CAC groups. In contrast, once absolute CAC category is fixed, there is no increasing trend across levels of age-, sex-, and race/ethnicity-specific categories. Patients with low absolute scores are low-risk, regardless of age-, sex-, and race/ethnicity-specific percentile rank. Persons with an absolute CAC score of >400 are high risk, regardless of percentile rank. Using absolute CAC in standard groups performed better than age-, sex-, and race/ethnicity

  11. Suicide Trends Among and Within Urbanization Levels by Sex, Race/Ethnicity, Age Group, and Mechanism of Death - United States, 2001-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivey-Stephenson, Asha Z; Crosby, Alex E; Jack, Shane P D; Haileyesus, Tadesse; Kresnow-Sedacca, Marcie-Jo

    2017-10-06

    Suicide is a public health problem and one of the top 10 leading causes of death in the United States. Substantial geographic variations in suicide rates exist, with suicides in rural areas occurring at much higher rates than those occurring in more urban areas. Understanding demographic trends and mechanisms of death among and within urbanization levels is important to developing and targeting future prevention efforts. 2001-2015. Mortality data from the National Vital Statistics System (NVSS) include demographic, geographic, and cause of death information derived from death certificates filed in the 50 states and the District of Columbia. NVSS was used to identify suicide deaths, defined by International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision (ICD-10) underlying cause of death codes X60-X84, Y87.0, and U03. This report examines annual county level trends in suicide rates during 2001-2015 among and within urbanization levels by select demographics and mechanisms of death. Counties were collapsed into three urbanization levels using the 2006 National Center for Health Statistics classification scheme. Suicide rates increased across the three urbanization levels, with higher rates in nonmetropolitan/rural counties than in medium/small or large metropolitan counties. Each urbanization level experienced substantial annual rate changes at different times during the study period. Across urbanization levels, suicide rates were consistently highest for men and non-Hispanic American Indian/Alaska Natives compared with rates for women and other racial/ethnic groups; however, rates were highest for non-Hispanic whites in more metropolitan counties. Trends indicate that suicide rates for non-Hispanic blacks were lowest in nonmetropolitan/rural counties and highest in more urban counties. Increases in suicide rates occurred for all age groups across urbanization levels, with the highest rates for persons aged 35-64 years. For mechanism of death, greater increases in rates

  12. Past 15-year trends in adolescent marijuana use: Differences by race/ethnicity and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Renee M; Fairman, Brian; Gilreath, Tamika; Xuan, Ziming; Rothman, Emily F; Parnham, Taylor; Furr-Holden, C Debra M

    2015-10-01

    The potential for increases in adolescent marijuana use is an important concern given recent changes in marijuana policy. The purpose of this study was to estimate trends in marijuana use from 1999 to 2013 among a national sample of US high school students. We examine changes over time by race/ethnicity and sex. Data are from the National Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS), which involves biennial, school-based surveys that generate nationally representative data about 9th-12th grade students in the United States. Students self-reported sex, race/ethnicity, and marijuana use (i.e., lifetime use, past 30-day use, any use before age 13). We generated national estimates of the prevalence of marijuana use for the time period, and also tested for linear and quadratic trends (n=115,379). The prevalence of lifetime marijuana use decreased modestly from 1999 to 2009 (44% to 37%), and has increased slightly since 2009 (41%). Other marijuana use variables (e.g., past 30-day use) followed a similar pattern over time. The prevalence of past 30-day use from 1999 to 2013 for all groups and both sexes was 22.5%, and it was lowest among Asians and highest among American Indian/Alaska Natives. Although boys have historically had a higher prevalence of marijuana use, results indicate that male-female differences in marijuana use decreased over time. Despite considerable changes in state marijuana policies over the past 15 years, marijuana use among high school students has largely declined. Continued surveillance is needed to assess the impact of policy changes on adolescent marijuana use. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Disparities in abnormal mammogram follow-up time for Asian women compared with non-Hispanic white women and between Asian ethnic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Kim H; Pasick, Rena J; Stewart, Susan L; Kerlikowske, Karla; Karliner, Leah S

    2017-09-15

    Delays in abnormal mammogram follow-up contribute to poor outcomes. In the current study, the authors examined differences in abnormal screening mammogram follow-up between non-Hispanic white (NHW) and Asian women. The authors used a prospective cohort of NHW and Asian women with a Breast Imaging, Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) abnormal result of category 0 or 3-plus in the San Francisco Mammography Registry between 2000 and 2010. Kaplan-Meier estimation for the median number of days to follow-up with a diagnostic radiologic test was performed, and the authors compared the percentage of women with follow-up at 30 days, 60 days, and 90 days and no follow-up at 1 year for Asian women overall (and Asian ethnic groups) and NHW women. In addition, the authors assessed the relationship between race/ethnicity and time to follow-up with adjusted Cox proportional hazards models. Among Asian women, Vietnamese and Filipina women had the longest, and Japanese women the shortest, median follow-up (32 days, 28 days, and 19 days, respectively) compared with NHW women (15 days). The percentage of women receiving follow-up at 30 days was lower for Asians versus NHWs (57% vs 77%; PAsian ethnic groups except Japanese. Asian women had a reduced hazard of follow-up compared with NHW women (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.70; 95% confidence interval, 0.69-0.72). Asian women also had a higher rate of receiving no follow-up compared with NHW women (15% vs 10%; PAsian ethnic groups, Filipinas were found to have the highest percentage of women with no follow-up (18.1%). Asian women, particularly Filipina and Vietnamese women, were less likely than NHW women to receive timely follow-up after an abnormal screening mammogram. Research should disaggregate Asian ethnicity to better understand and address barriers to effective cancer prevention. Cancer 2017;123:3468-75. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  14. Alternative Definitions of Hispanics: Consequences in a Alcohol Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caetano, Raul

    1986-01-01

    Examines impact of different definitions of Hispanic ethnicity on sociodemographic characteristics, drinking patterns, and rate of alcohol problems among 1,453 Hispanic-American respondents. Defines Hispanic ethnicity by ethnicity of family of origin, national group, country most ancestors came from, and birthplace. Finds major differences between…

  15. Childhood weight status and timing of first substance use in an ethnically diverse sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duckworth, Jennifer C; Doran, Kelly A; Waldron, Mary

    2016-07-01

    We examined associations between weight status during childhood and timing of first cigarette, alcohol, and marijuana use in an ethnically diverse sample. Data were drawn from child respondents of the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, including 1448 Hispanic, 2126 non-Hispanic Black, and 3304 non-Hispanic, non-Black (White) respondents aged 10 years and older as of last assessment. Cox proportional hazards regression was conducted predicting age at first use from weight status (obese, overweight, and underweight relative to healthy weight) assessed at ages 7/8, separately by substance class, sex, and race/ethnicity. Tests of interactions between weight status and respondent sex and race/ethnicity were also conducted. Compared to healthy-weight females of the same race/ethnicity, overweight Hispanic females were at increased likelihood of alcohol and marijuana use and overweight White females were at increased likelihood of cigarette and marijuana use. Compared to healthy-weight males of the same race/ethnicity, obese White males were at decreased likelihood of cigarette and alcohol use and underweight Hispanic and Black males were at decreased likelihood of alcohol and marijuana use. Significant differences in associations by sex and race/ethnicity were observed in tests of interactions. Findings highlight childhood weight status as a predictor of timing of first substance use among Hispanic and Non-Hispanic Black and White female and male youth. Results suggest that collapsing across sex and race/ethnicity, a common practice in prior research, may obscure important within-group patterns of associations and thus may be of limited utility for informing preventive and early intervention efforts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The Impact of Parental Reaction to Sexual Orientation on Depressive Symptoms and Sexual Risk Behavior Among Hispanic Men Who Have Sex with Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrani, Victoria B; De Santis, Joseph P; McCabe, Brian E; Deleon, Diego A; Gattamorta, Karina A; Leblanc, Natalie M

    2017-08-01

    This study examined the relationship of parent reaction to sexual orientation with depressive symptoms and safer sex among Hispanic adult men who have sex with men (MSM). We also examined men's acculturation to the U.S. (Americanism) in relation with these variables. Cross-sectional data collected from July 2011 to December 2012, from 125 MSM with a mean age of 43.02years. Instruments included the Perceived Parent Reaction Scale, the Centers for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale, the Safer Sex Behavior Questionnaire and the Bidimensional Acculturation Scale. Data was analyzed using Hierarchical generalized linear models (GZLM). Among men whose parents knew of their sexual orientation, rejection of son's sexual orientation from mother (p=0.032) and from father (p=0.004) was related to higher number of depressive symptoms. Parent reactions were not directly related to safer sex behaviors. Americanism was associated with lower depressive symptoms (p=0.001) but was not related to safer sex behaviors. Current parent attitudes about their sons' sexual orientation had an effect on the sons' emotional wellbeing and acculturation may play a protective role. Mental health and primary care clinicians working with Hispanic MSM should assess for level of family support and provide resources to assist with disclosure and family acceptance of sexual orientation as indicated, particularly among recently immigrated men who may be at higher risk. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Ethnic and sex differences in ownership of preventive health equipment among rural older adults with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Ronny A; Arcury, Thomas A; Stafford, Jeanette M; Golden, Shannon L; Snively, Beverly M; Quandt, Sara A

    2007-01-01

    Diabetes self-management is important for achieving successful health outcomes. Different levels of self-management have been reported among various populations, though little is known about ownership of equipment that can enhance accomplishment of these tasks. This study examined diabetes self-management equipment ownership among rural older adults. Participants included African American, American Indian, and white men and women 65 years of age and older. Data included equipment ownership overall and by ethnicity and sex across diabetes self-management domains (glucose monitoring, foot care, medication adherence, exercise, and diet). Associations between equipment ownership and demographic and health characteristics were assessed using logistic regression. Equipment ownership ranged from 85.0% for blood glucose meters to less than 11% for special socks, modified dishes, and various forms of home exercise equipment. Equipment ownership was associated with ethnicity, living arrangements, mobility, poverty status, and formal education. Rural older adults with diabetes are at risk because they lack equipment to perform some self-management tasks. Providers should be sensitive to and assist patients in overcoming this barrier.

  18. QuickStats: Age-Adjusted Death Rates* for Top Five Causes of Cancer Death,(†) by Race/Hispanic Ethnicity - United States, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-16

    In 2014, the top five causes of cancer deaths for the total population were lung, colorectal, female breast, pancreatic, and prostate cancer. The non-Hispanic black population had the highest age-adjusted death rates for each of these five cancers, followed by non-Hispanic white and Hispanic groups. The age-adjusted death rate for lung cancer, the leading cause of cancer death in all groups, was 42.1 per 100,000 standard population for the total population, 45.4 for non-Hispanic white, 45.7 for non-Hispanic black, and 18.3 for Hispanic populations.

  19. Friends Like Me: Associations in Overweight/Obese Status among Adolescent Friends by Race/Ethnicity, Sex, and Friendship Type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruening, Meg; MacLehose, Richard; Eisenberg, Marla E; Kim, Sunkyung; Story, Mary; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2015-12-01

    Little is known about how interpersonal friend relationships are associated with obesity in young people, particularly with regard to how race/ethnicity, type of friendship, and sex affect the association between friends' and adolescents' weight status. This study examined associations in weight status among adolescents and their friends, exploring magnitudes of associations across friendship type, sex, and race/ethnicity. As part of EAT-2010 (Eating and Activity in Teens), friend nominations and anthropometrics were obtained from adolescents (n = 2099: 54% female; 80% nonwhite; mean age: 14.2 ± 1.9 years). Generalized estimating equation logistic regression models were used to test associations between adolescents' overweight/obese status and friends' (i.e., friend group, female friends, male friends, female best friends, and male best friends) overweight/obese status. Interactions by adolescent race/ethnicity were examined. The majority of significant associations were observed among white female adolescents' who had a 22-40% higher prevalence of overweight/obesity if their friends were overweight compared to white females whose friends were not overweight. In contrast, there were few significant differences for other adolescent female and male racial/ethnic groups for girls and boys. Results for friend groups and best friends were generally similar to one another. The association between friend and adolescent overweight/obese status depended on adolescents' sex, race/ethnicity, and friendship type. Given the similarities among friends, obesity interventions targeting youth, especially white females, should consider involving friends.

  20. Urban Students' Attitudes about Sexual Minorities across Intersections of Sex and Race/Ethnicity: Data from a Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastic, Billie

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the association between having a gay or lesbian friend and urban students' attitudes about sexual minorities. Results indicate that females were more likely than males to express supportive views about gays and lesbians. The contours of these sex differences were distinct by race/ethnicity. Black males and females differed more…

  1. Self-Concept: A Comparison of Low Socioeconomic, Low Achieving Secondary Students Across Ethnic, Sex and Age Variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grobe, Robert P.; And Others

    The self esteem of Anglo, Negro, and Mexican American secondary students was measured using the Self-Esteem Scale (SES). This instrument was administered to 144 students with equal representation from sex, ethnicity, and grade levels (i.e., each of 18 cells contained 8 students). A three-factor analysis of variance revealed a significant main…

  2. Reasons for seeking dental care in a Malaysian urban adult population: an analysis by sex and ethnic group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaafar, N; Abdul Razak, I

    1988-04-01

    Different groups of people will view and use modern dental services differently. This is determined by their traditional beliefs and cultural background. The aim of this study is to identify variations in utilization among adults in the three major ethnic groups in Malaysia. Dental records of 500 adults attending the University dental center were randomly selected and analyzed by sex and ethnic group. Results from this pilot study clearly indicate that different ethnic groups tend to use certain types of services more than others. Similarly, there is evidence of variation in the type of dental service preferred between males and females. The implications of these findings for dental health educators, program planners and further research is emphasized in order to promote a more positive pattern of utilization among the various ethnic groups.

  3. Sex bias in copy number variation of olfactory receptor gene family depends on ethnicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farideh eShadravan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Gender plays a pivotal role in the human genetic identity and is also manifested in many genetic disorders particularly mental retardation. In this study its effect on copy number variation (CNV, known to cause genetic disorders was explored. As the olfactory receptor (OR repertoire comprises the largest human gene family, it was selected for this study, which was carried out within and between three populations, derived from 150 individuals from the 1000 Genome Project. Analysis of 3872 CNVs detected among 791 OR loci, in which 307 loci showed CNV, revealed the following novel findings: Sex bias in CNV was significantly more prevalent in uncommon than common CNV variants of OR pseudogenes, in which the male genome showed more CNVs; and in one-copy number loss compared to complete deletion of OR pseudogenes; both findings implying a more recent evolutionary role for gender. Sex bias in copy number gain was also detected. Another novel finding was that the observed six bias was largely dependent on ethnicity and was in general absent in East Asians. Using a CNV public database for sick children (ISCA the application of these findings for improving clinical molecular diagnostics is discussed by showing an example of sex bias in CNV among kids with autism. Additional clinical relevance is discussed, as the most polymorphic CNV-enriched OR cluster in the human genome, located on chr 15q11.2, is found near the PWS/AS bi-directionally imprinted region associated with two well-known mental retardation syndromes. As olfaction represents the primitive cognition in most mammals, arguably in competition with the development of a larger brain, the extensive retention of OR pseudogenes in females of this study, might point to a parent-of-origin indirect regulatory role for OR pseudogenes in the embryonic development of human brain. Thus any perturbation in the temporal regulation of olfactory system could lead to developmental delay disorders including

  4. Visual Impairment in White, Chinese, Black, and Hispanic Participants from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Diana E; Shrager, Sandi; Shea, Steven J; Burke, Gregory L; Klein, Ronald; Wong, Tien Y; Klein, Barbara E; Cotch, Mary Frances

    2015-01-01

    To describe the prevalence of visual impairment and examine its association with demographic, socioeconomic, and health characteristics in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) cohort. Visual acuity data were obtained from 6134 participants, aged 46-87 years at time of examination between 2002 and 2004 (mean age 64 years, 47.6% male), from six communities in the United States. Visual impairment was defined as presenting visual acuity 20/50 or worse in the better-seeing eye. Risk factors were included in multivariable logistic regression models to determine their impact on visual impairment for men and women in each racial/ethnic group. Among all participants, 6.6% (n = 421) had visual impairment, including 5.6% of men (n = 178) and 7.5% of women (n = 243). Prevalence of impairment ranged from 4.2% (n = 52) and 6.0% (n = 77) in white men and women, respectively, to 7.6% (n = 37) and 11.6% (n = 44) in Chinese men and women, respectively. Older age was significantly associated with visual impairment in both men and women, particularly in those with lower socioeconomic status, but the effects of increasing age were more pronounced in men. Two-thirds of participants already wore distance correction, and not unexpectedly, a lower prevalence of visual impairment was seen in this group; however, 2.4% of men and 3.5% of women with current distance correction had correctable visual impairment, most notably among seniors. Even in the U.S. where prevalence of refractive correction is high, both visual impairment and uncorrected refractive error represent current public health challenges.

  5. Visual Impairment in White, Chinese, Black and Hispanic Participants from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Diana E.; Shrager, Sandi; Shea, Steven J.; Burke, Gregory L.; Klein, Ronald; Wong, Tien Y.; Klein, Barbara E; Cotch, Mary Frances

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To describe the prevalence of visual impairment and examine its association with demographic, socioeconomic, and health characteristics in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) cohort. Methods Visual acuity data was obtained from 6134 participants, aged 46 to 87 years old at time of examination between 2002 and 2004 (mean age 64 years, 47.6% male), from six communities in the United States (U.S.). Visual impairment was defined as a presenting visual acuity of 20/50 or worse in the better-seeing eye. Risk factors were included in multivariable logistic regression models to determine their impact on visual impairment for men and women in each racial/ethnic group. Results Among all participants, 6.6% (N=421) had visual impairment, including 5.6% (N=178) of men and 7.5% (N=243) of women. Prevalence of impairment ranged from 4.2% (N=52) and 6.0% (N=77) in White men and women, respectively, to 7.6% (N=37) and 11.6% (N=44) in Chinese men and women, respectively. Older age was significantly associated with visual impairment in both men and women, particularly in those with lower socioeconomic status, but the effects of increasing age were more pronounced in men. Two-thirds of participants already wore distance correction and not unexpectedly, lower prevalence of visual impairment was seen in this group; however, 2.4% of men and 3.5% of women with current distance correction had correctable visual impairment, most notably among seniors. Conclusion Even in the United States where prevalence of refractive correction is high, both visual impairment and uncorrected refractive error represent current public health challenges. PMID:26395659

  6. Sex and race/ethnic disparities in the cross-sectional association between depressive symptoms and muscle mass: the Multi-ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remigio-Baker, Rosemay A; Allison, Matthew A; Schreiner, Pamela J; Carnethon, Mercedes R; Nettleton, Jennifer A; Mujahid, Mahasin S; Szklo, Moyses; Crum, Rosa M; Leuotsakos, Jeannie-Marie; Franco, Manuel; Jensky, Nicole; Golden, Sherita Hill

    2015-09-18

    The cross-sectional area of total muscle mass has been reported to decrease by about 40% for those 20-60 years of age. Depressive symptoms may discourage motivation to engage in physical activity such as strength training shown to negate muscle loss. Inflammation related to depressive symptoms may also contribute to muscle atrophy. Physiological differences by sex and race/ethnicity may also modify the association between depression and muscle mass. Evidence on the relationship between depression (or depressive symptoms) and adiposity has been mounting; however, little is known about the depressive symptoms-muscle mass association. We sought to determine the association between elevated depressive symptoms (EDS) and lean muscle mass and whether this varies by sex and race/ethnicity. Evaluating 1605 adults (45-84 years of age) from the Multi-ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis Abdominal Body Composition, Inflammation and Cardiovascular Disease Study, we examined the cross-sectional association between EDS (Center for Epidemiologic Studies for Depression Scale score≥16 and/or antidepressant use) and computed tomography-measured abdominal lean muscle mass using linear regression. Muscles were evaluated as a whole and by functionality (locomotion vs. stabilization/posture). Covariates included height, body mass index, sociodemographics, comorbidities, inflammatory markers and health behaviors (pack-years of smoking, alcohol locomotion compared to men, total intentional exercise, daily caloric intake). Sex and race/ethnicity were assessed as potential modifiers. Statistical significance was at a pdepressive symptoms had 5.9 cm2 lower lean muscle mass for locomotion compared to men without EDS, fully-adjusted (CI=-10.5, -1.4, p=0.011). This was statistically significantly different from the null finding among women (interaction p=0.05). Chinese participants with EDS had 10.2 cm2 lower abdominal lean muscle mass for locomotion compared to those without EDS (fully

  7. Renal cell cancer in Israel: sex and ethnic differences in incidence and mortality, 1980-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarabeia, Jalal; Kaluski, Dorit Nitzan; Barchana, Micha; Dichtiar, Rita; Green, Manfred S

    2010-06-01

    The causes of renal cell cancer (RCC) remain largely unexplained. While the incidence is generally higher in men than in women, little has been reported on ethnic differences. We examine trends in RCC incidence and mortality rates among Israeli Arab and Jewish populations and compared with the rates in other countries. Age-adjusted RCC incidence and mortality rates in Israel, during 1980-2004, were calculated by sex and population group, using the National Cancer Registry. They were compared with the United States based on the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results [SEER] program and the IARC database for international comparisons. While RCC incidence rates in Israel are similar to the United States and the European average, the rates are significantly higher among Israeli Jews than Arabs. Men are affected more than women. Incidence rates over the last 24 years have increased among all men and Jewish women, but not among Arab women. Among men, the incidence rate ratio for Jews to Arabs declined from 3.96 in 1980-1982 to 2.34 in 2001-2004, whereas for women there was no change. The mortality rates were higher among Jews than Arab and among men than women. There were no significant change in the mortality rates and rate ratios. Our findings demonstrate marked ethnic differences in RCC in Israel. The lower incidence among Arabs stands in contrast to the higher prevalence of potential risk factors for RCC in this population group. Genetic factors, diet and other lifestyle factors could play protective roles. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Small-Group Randomized Controlled Trial to Increase Condom Use and HIV Testing Among Hispanic/Latino Gay, Bisexual, and Other Men Who Have Sex With Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Scott D; Alonzo, Jorge; Mann, Lilli; Song, Eunyoung Y; Tanner, Amanda E; Arellano, Jorge Elias; Rodriguez-Celedon, Rodrigo; Garcia, Manuel; Freeman, Arin; Reboussin, Beth A; Painter, Thomas M

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the HOLA en Grupos intervention, a Spanish-language small-group behavioral HIV prevention intervention designed to increase condom use and HIV testing among Hispanic/Latino gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men. In 2012 to 2015, we recruited and randomized 304 Hispanic/Latino men who have sex with men, aged 18 to 55 years in North Carolina, to the 4-session HOLA en Grupos intervention or an attention-equivalent general health education comparison intervention. Participants completed structured assessments at baseline and 6-month follow-up. Follow-up retention was 100%. At follow-up, relative to comparison participants, HOLA en Grupos participants reported increased consistent condom use during the past 3 months (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 4.1; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.2, 7.9; P < .001) and HIV testing during the past 6 months (AOR = 13.8; 95% CI = 7.6, 25.3; P < .001). HOLA en Grupos participants also reported increased knowledge of HIV (P < .001) and sexually transmitted infections (P < .001); condom use skills (P < .001), self-efficacy (P < .001), expectancies (P < .001), and intentions (P < .001); sexual communication skills (P < .01); and decreased fatalism (P < .001). The HOLA en Grupos intervention is efficacious for reducing HIV risk behaviors among Hispanic/Latino men who have sex with men.

  9. Substance use and experienced stigmatization among ethnic minority men who have sex with men in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Jay P; Boylan, Ross; Gregorich, Steve; Ayala, George; Choi, Kyung-Hee

    2014-01-01

    Research has documented deleterious effects of racism among ethnic minorities and of homophobia among men who have sex with men (MSM). Less is known about the impact of multiple forms of stigmatization on ethnic minority MSM. This study examined substance use by African American, Asian/Pacific Islander and Latino MSM, and the associations of experienced racism and homophobia from various sources with polydrug use and stimulant drug use. Experienced racism within the general community was associated with higher levels of use; other forms of discrimination were either not associated with polydrug or stimulant use or had more complex relationships with use. Implications for further research and interventions are discussed.

  10. CKD Progression and Mortality among Hispanics and Non-Hispanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Michael J; Hsu, Jesse Y; Lora, Claudia M; Ricardo, Ana C; Anderson, Amanda H; Bazzano, Lydia; Cuevas, Magdalena M; Hsu, Chi-Yuan; Kusek, John W; Renteria, Amada; Ojo, Akinlolu O; Raj, Dominic S; Rosas, Sylvia E; Pan, Qiang; Yaffe, Kristine; Go, Alan S; Lash, James P

    2016-11-01

    Although recommended approaches to CKD management are achieved less often in Hispanics than in non-Hispanics, whether long-term outcomes differ between these groups is unclear. In a prospective longitudinal analysis of participants enrolled into the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) and Hispanic-CRIC Studies, we used Cox proportional hazards models to determine the association between race/ethnicity, CKD progression (50% eGFR loss or incident ESRD), incident ESRD, and all-cause mortality, and linear mixed-effects models to assess differences in eGFR slope. Among 3785 participants, 13% were Hispanic, 43% were non-Hispanic white (NHW), and 44% were non-Hispanic black (NHB). Over a median follow-up of 5.1 years for Hispanics and 6.8 years for non-Hispanics, 27.6% of all participants had CKD progression, 21.3% reached incident ESRD, and 18.3% died. Hispanics had significantly higher rates of CKD progression, incident ESRD, and mean annual decline in eGFR than did NHW (P<0.05) but not NHB. Hispanics had a mortality rate similar to that of NHW but lower than that of NHB (P<0.05). In adjusted analyses, the risk of CKD progression did not differ between Hispanics and NHW or NHB. However, among nondiabetic participants, compared with NHB, Hispanics had a lower risk of CKD progression (hazard ratio, 0.61; 95% confidence interval, 0.39 to 0.95) and incident ESRD (hazard ratio, 0.50; 95% confidence interval, 0.30 to 0.84). At higher levels of urine protein, Hispanics had a significantly lower risk of mortality than did non-Hispanics (P<0.05). Thus, important differences in CKD progression and mortality exist between Hispanics and non-Hispanics and may be affected by proteinuria and diabetes. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  11. Reducing HIV risk among Hispanic/Latino men who have sex with men: Qualitative analysis of behavior change intentions by participants in a small-group intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonzo, Jorge; Mann, Lilli; Tanner, Amanda E.; Sun, Christina J.; Painter, Thomas M.; Freeman, Arin; Reboussin, Beth A.; Song, Eunyoung; Rhodes, Scott D.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The southeastern United States has the fastest-growing Hispanic/Latino population in the country and carries a disproportionate HIV burden. Among Hispanics/Latinos, men, and men who have sex with men (MSM) in particular, are at elevated risk of HIV infection; however, very few efficacious behavioral HIV prevention interventions are available for use with this vulnerable population. To address this shortage of prevention resources, our community-based participatory research (CBPR) partnership developed and is currently evaluating the efficacy of the HOLA en Grupos intervention to increase condom use and HIV testing among Hispanic/Latino MSM. Methods We recruited 304 Hispanic/Latino MSM who were randomized to receive the small group HOLA en Grupos intervention that was implemented during four 4-hour long sessions over four consecutive Sundays, or a 4-session small group general health education comparison intervention. At the end of the fourth session of the HOLA en Grupos intervention, the intervention facilitators asked participants to write down the sexual health-related behaviors they intended to change as a result of their participation. Results Qualitative analysis of the participants’ responses identified six types of intended behavior changes: increasing and maintaining condom use; identifying strategies to support correct and consistent condom use; increasing communication and negotiation with sexual partners about condom use; getting tested for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections; applying other sexual health promotion strategies; and sharing newly learned sexual health information with their peers. Conclusion Most risk-reduction intentions aligned with the intervention’s key messages of using condoms consistently and getting tested for HIV. However, participants’ stated intentions may have also depended on which behavior changes they perceived as most salient after participating in the intervention. Participants’ intentions to

  12. Reducing HIV risk among Hispanic/Latino men who have sex with men: Qualitative analysis of behavior change intentions by participants in a small-group intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonzo, Jorge; Mann, Lilli; Tanner, Amanda E; Sun, Christina J; Painter, Thomas M; Freeman, Arin; Reboussin, Beth A; Song, Eunyoung; Rhodes, Scott D

    2016-05-01

    The southeastern United States has the fastest-growing Hispanic/Latino population in the country and carries a disproportionate HIV burden. Among Hispanics/Latinos, men, and men who have sex with men (MSM) in particular, are at elevated risk of HIV infection; however, very few efficacious behavioral HIV prevention interventions are available for use with this vulnerable population. To address this shortage of prevention resources, our community-based participatory research (CBPR) partnership developed and is currently evaluating the efficacy of the HOLA en Grupos intervention to increase condom use and HIV testing among Hispanic/Latino MSM. We recruited 304 Hispanic/Latino MSM who were randomized to receive the small group HOLA en Grupo s intervention that was implemented during four 4-hour long sessions over four consecutive Sundays, or a 4-session small group general health education comparison intervention. At the end of the fourth session of the HOLA en Grupo s intervention, the intervention facilitators asked participants to write down the sexual health-related behaviors they intended to change as a result of their participation. Qualitative analysis of the participants' responses identified six types of intended behavior changes: increasing and maintaining condom use; identifying strategies to support correct and consistent condom use; increasing communication and negotiation with sexual partners about condom use; getting tested for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections; applying other sexual health promotion strategies; and sharing newly learned sexual health information with their peers. Most risk-reduction intentions aligned with the intervention's key messages of using condoms consistently and getting tested for HIV. However, participants' stated intentions may have also depended on which behavior changes they perceived as most salient after participating in the intervention. Participants' intentions to share information with their peers may

  13. A confirmatory factor analysis of the metabolic syndrome in adolescents: an examination of sex and racial/ethnic differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurka Matthew J

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective The metabolic syndrome (MetS is a cluster of clinical indices that signals increased risk for cardiovascular disease and Type 2 diabetes. The diagnosis of MetS is typically based on cut-off points for various components, e.g. waist circumference and blood pressure. Because current MetS criteria result in racial/ethnic discrepancies, our goal was to use confirmatory factor analysis to delineate differential contributions to MetS by sub-group. Research Design and Methods Using 1999–2010 data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES, we performed a confirmatory factor analysis of a single MetS factor that allowed differential loadings across sex and race/ethnicity, resulting in a continuous MetS risk score that is sex and race/ethnicity-specific. Results Loadings to the MetS score differed by racial/ethnic and gender subgroup with respect to triglycerides and HDL-cholesterol. ROC-curve analysis revealed high area-under-the-curve concordance with MetS by traditional criteria (0.96, and with elevations in MetS-associated risk markers, including high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (0.71, uric acid (0.75 and fasting insulin (0.82. Using a cut off for this score derived from ROC-curve analysis, the MetS risk score exhibited increased sensitivity for predicting elevations in ≥2 of these risk markers as compared with traditional pediatric MetS criteria. Conclusions The equations from this sex- and race/ethnicity-specific analysis provide a clinically-accessible and interpretable continuous measure of MetS that can be used to identify children at higher risk for developing adult diseases related to MetS, who could then be targeted for intervention. These equations also provide a powerful new outcome for use in childhood obesity and MetS research.

  14. Association of Age, Sex, Body Size and Ethnicity with Electrocardiographic Values in Community-based Older Asian Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Eugene S J; Yap, Jonathan; Xu, Chang Fen; Feng, Liang; Nyunt, Shwe Zin; Santhanakrishnan, Rajalakshmi; Chan, Michelle M Y; Seow, Swee Chong; Ching, Chi Keong; Yeo, Khung Keong; Richards, A Mark; Ng, Tze Pin; Lim, Toon Wei; Lam, Carolyn S P

    2016-07-01

    Existing electrocardiographic (ECG) reference values were derived in middle-aged Caucasian adults. We aimed to assess the association of age, sex, body size and ethnicity on ECG parameters in a multi-ethnic Asian population. Resting 12-lead ECG and anthropometric measurements were performed in a community-based cohort of 3777 older Asians (age 64.7±9.1 years, 1467 men, 88.8% Chinese, 7.7% Malay, 3.5% Indian, body mass index [BMI] 24.0±3.9kg/m(2)). Men had longer PR interval, wider QRS, shorter QTc interval and taller SV3. In both sexes, older age was associated with longer PR interval, wider QRS, larger R aVL and more leftward QRS axis, while higher BMI was associated with longer PR interval, wider QRS, larger RaVL and more negative QRS axis. There were significant inter-ethnic differences in QRS duration among men, as well as in PR and QTc intervals among women (all adjusted p<0.05). Findings were similar in a healthy subset of 1158 adults (age 61.2±9.1 years, 365 men) without cardiovascular risk factors. These first community-based ECG data in multi-ethnic older Asians highlight the independent effects of age, sex, body size and ethnicity on ECG parameters. Copyright © 2016 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Population Reference Values for Serum Methylmalonic Acid Concentrations and Its Relationship with Age, Sex, Race-Ethnicity, Supplement Use, Kidney Function and Serum Vitamin B12 in the Post-Folic Acid Fortification Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Ganji

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Serum methylmalonic acid (MMA is elevated in vitamin B-12 deficiency and in kidney dysfunction. Population reference values for serum MMA concentrations in post-folic acid fortification period are lacking. Aims of this study were to report the population reference values for serum MMA and to evaluate the relation between serum MMA and sex, age, race-ethnicity, kidney dysfunction and vitamin B-12. We used data from three National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, 1999–2000, 2001–2002 and 2003–2004 conducted after folic acid fortification commenced (n = 18,569. Geometric mean MMA was ≈22.3% higher in non-Hispanic white compared to non-Hispanic black (141.2 vs. 115.5 nmol/L and was ≈62.7% higher in >70 years old persons compared to 21–30 years old persons (196.9 vs. 121.0 nmol/L. Median serum MMA was ≈28.5% higher in the 1st the quartile of serum vitamin B-12 than in the 4th quartile of serum vitamin B-12 and was ≈35.8% higher in the 4th quartile of serum creatinine than in the 1st quartile of serum creatinine. Multivariate-adjusted serum MMA concentration was significantly associated with race-ethnicity (p < 0.001 and age (p < 0.001 but not with sex (p = 0.057. In this large US population based study, serum MMA concentrations presented here reflect the post-folic acid fortification scenario. Serum MMA concentrations begin to rise at the age of 18–20 years and continue to rise afterwards. Age-related increase in serum MMA concentration is likely to be due to a concomitant decline in kidney function and vitamin B-12 status.

  16. The Role of Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior in Substance Use and Risky Sex Behaviors in Hispanic Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebron, Cynthia; Stoutenberg, Mark; Janowsky, Mariel; Asfour, Lila; Huang, Shi; Prado, Guillermo

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to investigate the potential relationships in Hispanic adolescents (n = 575) between substance use and/or risky sexual behaviors and (a) physical activity (PA) and (b) sedentary time and (c) the moderating effect of gender. PA levels and sedentary behaviors were assessed using the PA Questionnaire for Adolescents,…

  17. Roles of sex and ethnicity in procurement coordinator--family communication during the organ donation discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baughn, Daniel; Auerbach, Stephen M; Siminoff, Laura A

    2010-09-01

    Interpersonal relations with health care providers influence families' decisions to consent to solid-organ donation. However, previous research has been based on retrospective interviews with donation-eligible families and has not directly examined the interpersonal interactions between families and organ procurement coordinators. To increase understanding of the interpersonal interaction between procurement coordinators and families during the organ donation discussion, with special attention to the influence of the sex and race of the procurement coordinator and the race of the potential donor's family. A descriptive study in which standardized patients portrayed family members interacting with actual procurement coordinators in simulated donation request scenarios. Thirty-three videotaped interactions between standardized patients and 17 procurement coordinators involving 2 different scenarios depicting deceased donation were evaluated. Video recordings were rated by independent coders. Coders completed the Impact Message Inventory-Form C, the Participatory Style of Physician Scale, and the Siminoff Communication and Content and Affect Program-Global Observer Ratings scale. African American procurement coordinators, particularly African American women, were rated as more controlling and work-oriented than white procurement coordinators. Male procurement coordinators were more affiliative with the white family than the African American family, whereas female procurement coordinators were slightly less affiliative with the white family. African American procurement coordinators expressed more positive affect when interacting with the African American family than the white family, whereas the opposite was true for white procurement coordinators. Research is needed to cross-validate these exploratory findings and further examine cultural mistrust between procurement coordinators and families of ethnic minorities, especially given the negative attitudes of many

  18. Parent-child communication: a model for Hispanics on HIV prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavides, Raquel; Bonazzo, Claude; Torres, Rosamar

    2006-01-01

    The prevalence of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome has become a global epidemic that has affected many different racial and ethnic groups. One group that has lacked attention is the Hispanic population, due to its distinctive cultural characteristics. Many of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infections in Hispanics occur in adolescents. A protective factor for preventing HIV infections in adolescents is parent-child communication about sexual intercourse; however discussions about sexuality are uncommon in Hispanic families. When promoting parent-child communication among Hispanics regarding sex, it is essential to include cultural characteristics and the use of a model for empowering both parents and adolescents. The cultural characteristics examined in this article are allocentrism, familialism, personal space, time orientation, power distance, gender roles, and fatalism. A partnership model for empowering parents and adolescents, and 5 steps of the partnership process are discussed.

  19. Hispanic Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 1 The following hypotheses have been presented regarding suicidal behavior among Hispanics: • Family needs are placed above individual ... the parents and elders is of major importance • Suicidal behavior among Hispanic femails may be related to the ...

  20. Health status of Hispanic elders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassford, T L

    1995-02-01

    Hispanic elders living in the United States compose a rapidly increasing population. They are underinsured and more likely to be living in poverty. Health care is hindered in this population by lower access to health services and less use of preventive services. Barriers to access are primarily socioeconomic. Acculturation exerts an effect, primarily through its association with language skills, employment, and education. Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality for Hispanics, who have a higher prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular disease, such as diabetes mellitus, obesity, and hyperlipidemia. Although neoplasia is the second most frequent cause of death among Hispanics, as it is in whites who are not Hispanic, Hispanics have an overall lower cancer rate. Cancer rates are increasing, however. Non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the Hispanic population, affecting nearly a quarter of adult Puerto Ricans and Mexican Americans. Although higher prevalence of obesity in the Hispanic population accounts for some of this difference, some data suggest the possibility of a genetic component as well. Assessment of psychological health in Hispanic elders is impeded by the lack of instruments designed for this population. Distress is often expressed as somatic symptoms. Values traditional to Hispanic culture, such as respeto, allocentrism, and familialism, are important to US Hispanic elders, many of whom were born in rural Mexico. Our knowledge of determinants of healthy aging in this population is still preliminary, but rapidly expanding, in part, because of increased attention to ethnicity in health reporting.

  1. Age, Sex, and Ethnic Variations in Inner and Outer Retinal and Choroidal Thickness on Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bafiq, Rinoza; Mathew, Raeba; Pearce, Elizabeth; Abdel-Hey, Ahmed; Richardson, Matthew; Bailey, Thomas; Sivaprasad, Sobha

    2015-11-01

    To evaluate age, sex, and ethnic variations in inner and outer retinal and choroidal thickness and foveal pit, using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD OCT). Single-center observational cross-sectional study. Ninety randomly selected, healthy individuals of white, black, and South Asian origin underwent SD OCT raster and enhanced depth imaging scan. Manual measurements of inner and outer retinal thickness and choroidal thickness up to 3 mm nasal and temporal to the fovea were performed. The age, sex, and ethnic differences in these parameters were analyzed. The mean inner retinal thickness was lower by approximately 12 μm in black subjects across the central retina compared to white subjects (P ethnic groups but the temporal choroid was significantly thinner in black subjects (P < .05). The choroid showed an age-related decline in thickness of 2 μm per year of age of the subjects. Interethnic differences include wider fovea, lower central foveal thickness, and thinner inner retina in eyes of black subjects compared to their white and South Asian counterparts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Alcohol-related blackouts among college students: impact of low level of response to alcohol, ethnicity, sex, and environmental characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila D. Gonçalves

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore how a genetically-influenced characteristic (the level of response to alcohol [LR], ethnicity, and sex relate to environmental and attitudinal characteristics (peer drinking [PEER], drinking to cope [COPE], and alcohol expectancies [EXPECT] regarding future alcohol-related blackouts (ARBs. Methods: Structural equation models (SEMs were used to evaluate how baseline variables related to ARB patterns in 462 college students over 55 weeks. Data were extracted from a longitudinal study of heavy drinking and its consequences at a U.S. university. Results: In the SEM analysis, female sex and Asian ethnicity directly predicted future ARBs (beta weights 0.10 and -0.11, respectively, while all other variables had indirect impacts on ARBs through alcohol quantities (beta weights ~ 0.23 for European American ethnicity and low LR, 0.21 for cannabis use and COPE, and 0.44 for PEER. Alcohol quantities then related to ARBs with beta = 0.44. The SEM explained 23% of the variance. Conclusion: These data may be useful in identifying college students who are more likely to experience future ARBs over a 1-year period. They enhance our understanding of whether the relationships of predictors to ARBs are direct or mediated through baseline drinking patterns, information that may be useful in prevention strategies for ARBs.

  3. Do Lung Cancer Eligibility Criteria Align with Risk among Blacks and Hispanics?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Fiscella

    Full Text Available Black patients have higher lung cancer risk despite lower pack years of smoking. We assessed lung cancer risk by race, ethnicity, and sex among a nationally representative population eligible for lung cancer screening based on Medicare criteria.We used data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007-2012 to assess lung cancer risk by sex, race and ethnicity among persons satisfying Medicare age and pack-year smoking eligibility criteria for lung cancer screening. We assessed Medicare eligibility based on age (55-77 years and pack-years (≥ 30. We assessed 6-year lung cancer risk using a risk prediction model from Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening trial that was modified in 2012 (PLCOm2012. We compared the proportions of eligible persons by sex, race and ethnicity using Medicare criteria with a risk cut-point that was adjusted to achieve comparable total number of persons eligible for screening.Among the 29.7 million persons aged 55-77 years who ever smoked, we found that 7.3 million (24.5% were eligible for lung cancer screening under Medicare criteria. Among those eligible, Blacks had statistically significant higher (4.4% and Hispanics lower lung cancer risk (1.2% than non-Hispanic Whites (3.2%. At a cut-point of 2.12% risk for lung screening eligibility, the percentage of Blacks and Hispanics showed statistically significant changes. Blacks eligible rose by 48% and Hispanics eligible declined by 63%. Black men and Hispanic women were affected the most. There was little change in eligibility among Whites.Medicare eligibility criteria for lung cancer screening do not align with estimated risk for lung cancer among Blacks and Hispanics. Data are urgently needed to determine whether use of risk-based eligibility screening improves lung cancer outcomes among minority patients.

  4. Prevalence and causes of visual impairment in Asian and non-Hispanic white preschool children: Multi-ethnic Pediatric Eye Disease Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarczy-Hornoch, Kristina; Cotter, Susan A; Borchert, Mark; McKean-Cowdin, Roberta; Lin, Jesse; Wen, Ge; Kim, Jeniffer; Varma, Rohit

    2013-06-01

    To determine the prevalence and causes of decreased visual acuity (VA). Population-based cross-sectional study. Multi-ethnic sample of children 30 to 72 months of age identified in Los Angeles. All eligible children underwent a comprehensive ophthalmic evaluation including monocular VA testing, cover testing, cycloplegic autorefraction, fundus evaluation, and VA retesting with refractive correction. Decreased VA was defined as presenting or best-measured VA worse than 20/50 in children 30 to 47 months of age and worse than 20/40 for children 48 months of age and older. The prevalence and causes of decreased VA were determined, for both presenting and best-measured VA, in the better-seeing and the worse-seeing eyes. Prevalence and causes of decreased vision. Presenting VA was assessed in 1840 children and best-measured VA was assessed in 1886 children. Presenting VA was decreased in the worse eye of 4.2% of Asian children and of 3.6% of non-Hispanic white (NHW) children. Close to one-fourth of these cases had no identifiable cause, and 81% of these resolved on retesting. Decreased presenting VA in the worse eye with an identifiable ophthalmic cause was present in 3.4% of Asian children and in 2.6% of NHW children. Decreased presenting VA attributable to simple refractive error (myopia ≥ 0.5 diopters [D]; hyperopia ≥ 3.0 D; astigmatism ≥ 2.0 D or ≥ 1.5 D for children older than 36 months) was present in the worse eye of 2.3% of Asian children and of 1.4% of NHW children and in the better eye of 0.5% of Asian children and of 0.3% of NHW children. Decreased best-measured VA attributable to a cause was present in the worse eye of 1.2% of both Asian children and NHW children and in the better eye of 0.2% of Asian and of 0.3% of NHW children. Amblyopia related to refractive error was the most common cause, and was 10 times as common as ocular disease. Severe visual impairment was rare. Seventy percent of all decreased VA in Asian and NHW preschool children and

  5. Sex hormone binding globulin and sex steroids among premenopausal women in the diabetes prevention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Catherine; Pi-Sunyer, Xavier; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Stentz, Frankie B; Murphy, Mary Beth; Kong, Shengchun; Nan, Bin; Kitabchi, Abbas E

    2013-07-01

    It is unknown whether intensive lifestyle modification (ILS) or metformin changes sex steroids among premenopausal women without a history of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). We examined 1-year intervention impact on sex steroids (estradiol, testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, and androstenedione [A4]) and SHBG and differences by race/ethnicity. A subgroup of Diabetes Prevention Program participants who were premenopausal, not using estrogen, without a history of PCOS or irregular menses, and who reported non-Hispanic white (NHW), Hispanic, or African-American race/ethnicity (n = 301). Randomization arms were 1) ILS with the goals of weight reduction of 7% of initial weight and 150 minutes per week of moderate intensity exercise, 2) metformin 850 mg twice a day, or 3) placebo. Neither intervention changed sex steroids compared to placebo. ILS, but not metformin, increased median SHBG by 3.1 nmol/L (~11%) compared to decreases of 1.1 nmol/L in the placebo arm (P < .05). This comparison remained significant after adjustment for changes in covariates including waist circumference. However, associations with glucose were not significant. Median baseline A4 was lower in Hispanics compared to NHWs (5.7 nmol/L vs 6.5 nmol/L, P < .05) and increases in A4 were greater in Hispanics compared to NHWs (3.0 nmol/ vs 1.2 nmol/L, P < .05), and these differences did not differ significantly by intervention arm. No other racial/ethnic differences were significant. Among premenopausal glucose-intolerant women, no intervention changed sex steroids. ILS increased SHBG, although associations with glucose were not significant. SHBG and sex steroids were similar by race/ethnicity, with the possible exception of lower baseline A4 levels in Hispanics compared to NHWs.

  6. Mobile Phone and Internet Use Mostly for Sex-Seeking and Associations with Sexually Transmitted Infections and Sample Characteristics among Black/African American and Hispanic/Latino Men who have Sex with Men in Three U.S. Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Jacob E.; Mansergh, Gordon; Mimiaga, Matthew J.; Holman, Jeremy; Herbst, Jeffrey H.

    2017-01-01

    Background Men who have sex with men (MSM) have a relatively high prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). This study examines the association of self-reported STIs and use of mobile phones and/or computer-based Internet to meet sexual partners among black and Hispanic/Latino MSM in the U.S. Methods Black and Hispanic/Latino MSM (N=853) were recruited from three U.S. cities (Chicago, IL, Kansas City, MO, and Fort Lauderdale, FL) via online and community outreach. Men completed a computer-assisted, self-interview assessment on demographics, use of mobile phones and computer-based Internet for sex-seeking, sexual risk behavior, and self-reported bacterial STIs in the past year. Multivariable logistic regression was used to model independent associations of STIs and use of these technologies to meet sexual partners. Results 23% of the sample reported having an STI in the past year; 29% reported using a mobile phone and 28% a computer-based Internet mostly for sex-seeking; and 22% reported using both. Number of male sexual partners (past year) was associated with any STI (AOR=1.03, 95% CI =1.01–1.06). Adjusting for HIV status, number of male sexual partners (past year), and demographic variables, men who reported use of both mobile phones and computer-based Internet for sex-seeking had increased odds of reporting an STI (AOR=2.59, 95% CI=1.75–3.83), as well as with separate reports of chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis (p’smobile phone application sites. PMID:28407644

  7. Correlates of safe sex behaviour among low-educated adolescents of different ethnic origin in Antwerp, Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrickx, Kristin; Philips, Hilde; Avonts, Dirk

    2008-06-01

    Several reports suggest that low educated adolescents of ethnic minority origin are at a higher risk of acquiring a sexually transmitted infection (STI) than autochthonous teens. On the other hand, focus group research with young Moroccan boys revealed a positive attitude towards condom use; they claim to use a condom even more frequently than their Belgian peers. The aim of this study is to document the behavioural, educational and social correlates that influence the use of condoms among low educated adolescents of different origin. Data from 378 questionnaires completed by 253 native Belgian and 125 ethnic minority adolescents, mostly Moslems, were analysed with the statistic software: SPSS. Results were interpreted according to the behavioural science ASE model (Attitude, Social influences, self-Efficacy). Native boys discuss sexual items more frequently with their parents and sexual partner, while boys in the other group address their questions more frequently to teachers, pharmacists and doctors. In both groups the most important correlate of safe sex intention and behaviour is the self-efficacy variable 'both partners taking the initiative with regard to condom use'. This correlate refers to communication skills. Parental support and quality of general communication about sexuality with the parents are very important for both groups. A positive attitude of peers influences the intention of condom use in both groups. There is no significant difference in sexual activity and safe sex behaviour between native boys and young males of ethnic minority. Self efficacy (correct condom use and taking the initiative) is the most prominent predictor of safe sex behaviour in both groups.

  8. America's Churning Races: Race and Ethnicity Response Changes Between Census 2000 and the 2010 Census.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebler, Carolyn A; Porter, Sonya R; Fernandez, Leticia E; Noon, James M; Ennis, Sharon R

    2017-02-01

    A person's racial or ethnic self-identification can change over time and across contexts, which is a component of population change not usually considered in studies that use race and ethnicity as variables. To facilitate incorporation of this aspect of population change, we show patterns and directions of individual-level race and Hispanic response change throughout the United States and among all federally recognized race/ethnic groups. We use internal U.S. Census Bureau data from the 2000 and 2010 censuses in which responses have been linked at the individual level (N = 162 million). Approximately 9.8 million people (6.1 %) in our data have a different race and/or Hispanic-origin response in 2010 than they did in 2000. Race response change was especially common among those reported as American Indian, Alaska Native, Native Hawaiian, Other Pacific Islander, in a multiple-race response group, or Hispanic. People reported as non-Hispanic white, black, or Asian in 2000 usually had the same response in 2010 (3 %, 6 %, and 9 % of responses changed, respectively). Hispanic/non-Hispanic ethnicity responses were also usually consistent (13 % and 1 %, respectively, changed). We found a variety of response change patterns, which we detail. In many race/Hispanic response groups, we see population churn in the form of large countervailing flows of response changes that are hidden in cross-sectional data. We find that response changes happen across ages, sexes, regions, and response modes, with interesting variation across racial/ethnic categories. Researchers should address the implications of race and Hispanic-origin response change when designing analyses and interpreting results.

  9. Gender role orientation is associated with health-related quality of life differently among African-American, Hispanic, and White youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Sarah M; Wallander, Jan L; Depaoli, Sarah; Elliott, Marc N; Grunbaum, Jo Anne; Tortolero, Susan R; Cuccaro, Paula M; Schuster, Mark A

    2015-09-01

    This study examined the association between gender role orientation (GRO) and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in youth, and how this relationship may differ between males and females as well as among African-American, White, and Hispanic individuals. GRO has been reported to influence serious health outcomes including cancer, heart disease, mental illness, and mortality rates. However, few studies have examined the link between GRO and health outcomes for children, even though gender identity is formed in childhood. Data were examined from 4824 participants in the Healthy Passages™ project, a population-based survey of fifth-grade children in three US metropolitan areas. Children reported their own HRQOL using the PedsQL and degree of female, male, and androgynous GRO using the Children's Sex Role Inventory. Based on structural equations analysis, male GRO was positively associated with HRQOL for all racial/ethnic groups, regardless of sex, whereas female GRO was associated with better HRQOL for Hispanic and White females and poorer HRQOL for Hispanic males. Androgynous GRO was associated with better HRQOL among Hispanic and White females, but not males nor African-Americans of either sex. Racial/ethnic differences emerged for female and androgynous, but not male, GROs. Hispanic males are the only group for which GRO (female) was associated with poorer HRQOL. Future research should find ways to help youth overcome negative effects on health from gender beliefs and behavior patterns with sensitivity to racial/ethnic membership.

  10. Parentification, substance use, and sex among adolescent daughters from ethnic minority families: the moderating role of monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Jina; Cederbaum, Julie A; Hurlburt, Michael S

    2014-06-01

    Guided by structural family systems theory, this study explored the relationship between parentification and adolescent daughters' sexual risk engagement and substance use. We also explored how adolescent reports of parental monitoring moderated the relationship between parentification and adolescent risk. Data were from a cross-sectional, cross-generational study of 176 mother-daughter dyads from low-income, inner-city, ethnic minority families. In this sample, which included a subset of mothers with HIV, parental physical symptoms were associated with slightly higher levels of parentification. Parentification was associated with adolescent daughters' intention to have sex (but not substance use) in a direction opposite to prediction. Higher parentification was associated with lower intention to have sex. Parental monitoring did not moderate relationships between parentification and adolescent risk. These findings highlight that despite the negative influence hypothesized in structural family systems theory, parentification was not associated with risk engagement of high-risk adolescent daughters in ethnic minority families with low income. © 2013 FPI, Inc.

  11. Evaluation of educational materials from a social marketing campaign to promote folic acid use among Hispanic women: insight from Cuban and Puerto Rican ethnic subgroups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Gwendolyn P; Thomas, Kamilah B; Hauser, Kimberlea; Rodríguez, Nydia Y; Rodriguez-Snapp, Nazach

    2009-10-01

    Current data indicate significant disparities in awareness and use of folic acid between Hispanic and non-Hispanic women. Hispanic women are less likely to have heard about folic acid, to know that folic acid can prevent birth defects, to take folic acid daily, and to take folic acid before pregnancy. "Three Sisters/Las Tres Hermanos" is a folic acid social marketing campaign designed for Mexican-American women. To determine the effectiveness of the materials on other Hispanic sub groups, women of childbearing age from Cuba and Puerto Rico were recruited to evaluate the materials. Participants were asked five pre-test questions about folic acid knowledge and were then provided with the folic acid educational materials that included either a photo-novella and a low literacy brochure, or a video-novella in English or Spanish. Once the participants reviewed the materials, they were asked 10 post-test questions about the materials. The results of the evaluation are discussed.

  12. Differential environmental exposure among non-Indigenous Canadians as a function of sex/gender and race/ethnicity variables: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravartty, Dolon; Wiseman, Clare L S; Cole, Donald C

    2014-11-21

    To determine the extent, range and types of studies of differential environmental chemical exposures among non-Indigenous Canadians as a function of sex/gender and race/ethnicity. Computerized database searches were performed from November to December 2013 using Medline, Embase, CAB Abstracts, Proquest and Scopus to identify relevant studies of environmental exposures among non-Indigenous adults aged ≥18 years in Canada published between 1993 and 2013. Articles were identified for full-text review based on a screening of titles and abstracts and were excluded during this initial review if they focused on environmental exposures in the following populations: 1) Indigenous populations, 2) individuals <15 years of age, 3) pregnant women and associated negative birth outcomes, or 4) non-Canadian populations. Articles were also excluded if the primary focus was on exposures to environmental tobacco smoke, non-chemical occupational hazards, infectious diseases, noise and/or radiation. A full-text review of 78 identified articles systematically assessed how sex/gender and race/ethnicity were considered. Although 59% of studies stratified results by sex, less than half of these offered any explanation of differential exposures. Eighteen of the 78 studies (23%) used terms related to race/ethnicity in their participant descriptions. Of the studies that conducted subgroup analyses of exposure results by race/ethnicity (n=15), a total of 8 also included subgroup analysis by sex. Overall, 3 of the 78 (3%) articles reviewed analyzed environmental exposures as a function of sex/gender and race/ethnicity. The role of sex/gender and race/ethnicity in influencing environmental exposure levels among non-Indigenous Canadians has not been adequately addressed to date.

  13. Ethnic Differences in Sexual Attitudes of U.S. College Students: Gender, Acculturation, and Religiosity Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrold, Tierney K.

    2015-01-01

    Although it has been hypothesized that culture and religion play an important role in sexuality, the relative roles of acculturation and religiosity on ethnic differences in sexual attitudes have not been often empirically explored. The present study assessed differences in sexual attitudes in Euro-American, Asian, and Hispanic American populations using measures of acculturation to analyze the relative effects of heritage and mainstream cultures, as well as religiosity, within each ethnic group. A total of 1,415 college students (67% Euro-American, 16% Hispanic, 17% Asian; 32% men, 68% women) completed questionnaires which assessed attitudes towards homosexuality, gender role traditionality, casual sex, and extramarital sex. In concordance with previous studies, Asians reported more conservative sexual attitudes than did their Hispanic and Euro-American peers. Hispanics reported sexual attitudes similar to that of Euro-Americans. For both Hispanic and Asians, higher acculturation predicted sexual attitudes similar to that of Euro-Americans. For Asian, Hispanic, and Euro-American women, there was a significant interaction between intrinsic religiosity and spirituality such that the relationship between conservativism of sexual attitudes and intrinsic religiosity was stronger at higher levels of spirituality. In Euro-Americans and Asians, intrinsic religiosity and religious fundamentalism strongly predicted conservative sexual attitudes; while still significant, these relationships were not as pronounced in the Hispanic sample, implying an ethnic-by-religious effect. Novel to this study, acculturation did not mediate the relationship between religiosity and sexual attitudes, indicating that ethnic differences in religiosity effects were distinct from acculturation. PMID:18839302

  14. Obesity and malnutrition among Hispanic children in the United States: double burden on health inequities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celia Iriart

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To examine important micronutrient deficiencies related to child health and growth outcomes for all weight statuses to 1 better understand other potential nutritional problems and inequities that may be masked by focusing solely on BMI percentiles and overweight/obesity, and 2 draw attention to the need for more studies focused on the nutritional well-being of children at all weight statuses, including healthy weight. METHODS: A sample of children (ages 2-19 years old from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2003-2010 was analyzed. Prevalence of stunting, folate, vitamin D, iron, iodine, and anemia, was considered. Comparisons were conducted between non-Hispanic whites and Hispanics, and within Hispanics, based on socio-demographic and economic characteristics. RESULTS: Hispanic children experienced significantly higher prevalence of stunting (6.1% versus 2.6%, and the prevalence of stunted Hispanic children in the healthy weight category was higher than those in the overweight/obese category. Comparable percentages were observed by ethnicity for most analyzed micronutrients, although girls had consistently higher prevalence of nutritional deficiencies than boys, especially girls reaching reproductive age. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this article draw attention to the need for more specific and differentiated analyses of child obesity and nutritional status among and within ethnic, sex, and age groups. Appropriate public health interventions need to consider the entire range of weight statuses and micronutrient deficiencies to eliminate inequities among minority children, especially girls.

  15. Predictors of Recent Marijuana Use and Past Year Marijuana Use Among a National Sample of Hispanic Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Keith A; Vidourek, Rebecca A; Merianos, Ashley L; Bartsch, Lauren A

    2015-01-01

    Marijuana use rates remain higher among Hispanic youth compared to youth from other ethnic groups. The purpose of the study was to examine if sex, age, authoritarian parenting, perceived school experiences, lifetime depression, legal involvement, and perceived social norms of marijuana use predicted recent marijuana use and past year marijuana use among Hispanic youth. The participants of this study were a nationwide sample of Hispanic youth (n = 3,457) in the United States. A secondary data analysis of the 2012 National Survey on Drug Use and Health was performed. Unadjusted odds ratios were computed via univariate logistic regression analyses and all statistically significant variables were retained and included in the final multiple logistic regression analyses. Recent marijuana use was operationally defined as use within the past 30 days, and marijuana use in the past year was defined as use within the past year. Results indicated that 7.5% of Hispanic youth used within the past month and 14.5% of Hispanic youth used within the past year. Results revealed that significant predictors for recent use were age, authoritarian parenting, perceived school experiences, legal involvement, and perceived social norms of youth marijuana use. Predictors for past year were age, perceived school experiences, legal involvement, and perceived social norms of youth marijuana use. Findings from this study can be used to address the public health problem of marijuana use among Hispanic youth that is ultimately contributing to health disparities among this ethnic group nationwide. Recommendations for future studies are included.

  16. Exploring Differences in the Aspirin-Colorectal Cancer Association by Sex and Race/Ethnicity: The Multiethnic Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Song-Yi; Wilkens, Lynne R; Kolonel, Laurence N; Monroe, Kristine R; Haiman, Christopher A; Marchand, Loïc Le

    2017-02-01

    Evidence has accumulated that long-term use of aspirin and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) protects against colorectal cancer. We tested whether the inverse associations between NSAIDs and colorectal cancer is similarly observed across sexes and five racial/ethnic groups (Japanese, Latino, African American, Native Hawaiian, and white) in the Multiethnic Cohort (MEC) Study. During a mean follow-up of 16.1 years, we identified 4,882 invasive incident colorectal cancer cases among 183,199 eligible participants. Cox proportional hazards models were used to calculate HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Use of aspirin and other NSAIDs was associated with a lower incidence of colorectal cancer in men (HR = 0.77; 95% CI, 0.69-0.86 for current vs. never users of aspirin) but not in women (P interaction = 0.005). Among male current users, a reduced risk was observed with ≥6 years of aspirin or total NSAID use. The inverse association with current NSAID use in men was observed in all racial/ethnic groups, except for Native Hawaiians, and was stronger in whites. Our findings suggest that the benefit of NSAIDs for colorectal cancer may be strongest for white men and generalizes to African American, Japanese, and Latino, but not to Native Hawaiian men. The lack of inverse association observed in women and Native Hawaiian men in the MEC should be interpreted with caution. As only very few ethnic/racial groups are likely to be represented in trials of NSAIDs and colorectal cancer, it is important to conduct prospective observational studies in various populations to test the generalizability of their results. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(2); 162-9. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  17. Trends in Educational Attainment by Race/Ethnicity, Nativity, and Sex in the United States, 1989–2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    EVERETT, BETHANY G.; ROGERS, RICHARD G.; HUMMER, ROBERT A.; KRUEGER, PATRICK M.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the importance of education for shaping individuals’ life chances, little research has examined trends and differences in educational attainment for detailed demographic subpopulations in the United States. We use labor market segmentation and cohort replacement theories, linear regression methods, and data from the National Health Interview Survey to understand educational attainment by race/ethnicity, nativity, birth cohort, and sex between 1989 and 2005 in the United States. There have been significant changes in educational attainment over time. In support of the cohort replacement theory, we find that across cohorts, females have enjoyed greater gains in education than men, and for some race/ethnic groups, recent cohorts of women average more years of education than comparable men. And in support of labor market segmentation theories, foreign-born Mexican Americans continue to possess relatively low levels of educational attainment. Our results can aid policymakers in identifying vulnerable populations, and form the base from which to better understand changing disparities in education. PMID:22649275

  18. America’s Churning Races: Race and Ethnic Response Changes between Census 2000 and the 2010 Census

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebler, Carolyn A.; Porter, Sonya R.; Fernandez, Leticia E.; Noon, James M.; Ennis, Sharon R.

    2017-01-01

    Race and ethnicity responses can change over time and across contexts – a component of population change not usually considered in studies that use race and ethnicity as variables. To facilitate incorporation of this aspect of population change, we show patterns and directions of individual-level race and Hispanic response change throughout the U.S. and among all federally recognized race/ethnic groups. We use internal Census Bureau data from the 2000 and 2010 censuses in which responses have been linked at the individual level (N = 162 million). About 9.8 million people (6.1 percent) in our data have a different race and/or Hispanic origin response in 2010 than they did in 2000. Race response change was especially common among those reported as American Indian, Alaska Native, Native Hawaiian, Other Pacific Islander, in a multiple-race response group, or Hispanic. People reported as non-Hispanic white, black, or Asian in 2000 usually had the same response in 2010 (3%, 6% and 9% of responses changed, respectively). Hispanic/non-Hispanic ethnicity responses were also usually consistent (13% and 1% changed). There were a variety of response change patterns, which we detail. In many race/Hispanic response groups, there is population churn in the form of large countervailing flows of response changes that are hidden in cross-sectional data. We find that response changes happen across ages, sexes, regions, and response modes, with interesting variation across race/ethnic categories. Researchers should think through and discuss the implications of race and Hispanic origin response change when designing analyses and interpreting results. PMID:28105578

  19. Alcohol use and subsequent sex among HIV-infected patients in an ethnic minority area of Yunnan Province, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofeng Luo

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To examine alcohol use and subsequent HIV risky behaviors among a sample of predominately ethnic minority people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA in a rural community in Yunnan Province, China. METHOD: A cross-sectional study with a face-to-face questionnaire interview was conducted among eligible participants. RESULTS: In total, 455 (94.4% out of 482 eligible HIV patients participated in the study. Of them, 82.6% were ethnic minorities; 15.4% were never married; 96.5% were sexually experienced; 55.4% had used drugs, 67% were receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART. Over 65% were ever drinkers; of whom 61.5% were current drinkers. Among current drinkers, 32.4% drank daily and 41.2% were hazardous drinkers. Chinese white wine was the preferred choice. Higher level of alcohol use among drinkers in the preceding month was positively associated with being males (OR = 2.76, 95%CI: 1.03-7.43, ethnic minorities (OR Jingpo = 2.21, 95%CI: 1.06-4.59; OR other minorities = 3.20, 95%CI: 1.34-7.62, higher education (OR1-6 = 1.98, 95%CI: 0.99-3.96; OR≥7 = 2.35, 95%CI: 1.09-5.06 and being ART-naive (OR = 2.69, 95%CI: 1.67-4.32. About 39% of ever drinkers reported having engaged in sex after drinking since HIV diagnosis. Those who were younger than 46 years (OR16-25 = 7.77, 95%CI: 1.22-49.60, OR26-35 = 2.79, 95%CI: 1.06-7.35, OR36-45 = 2.96, 95%CI: 1.57-7.58, hazardous drinkers (OR = 1.99, 95%CI: 1.00-3.97 and drug users (OR = 3.01, 95%CI: 1.19-7.58 were more likely to have had sex after drinking. Approximately 56% of drug users had used drugs after drinking. CONCLUSIONS: High prevalence of alcohol use and subsequent risky behaviors including sexual engagement and drug use among HIV patients in rural Yunnan require tremendous and integrated efforts for prevention and control of alcohol and drug abuse and HIV spreading.

  20. Sex, Age, and Race/Ethnicity Do Not Modify the Effectiveness of a Diet Intervention among Family Members of Hospitalized Cardiovascular Disease Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochari-Greenberger, Heidi; Terry, Mary Beth; Mosca, Lori

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether effectiveness of a diet intervention for family members of cardiovascular disease patients varies by participant sex, race/ethnicity, or age because these characteristics have been associated with unique barriers to diet change. Design: Randomized controlled trial. Setting and Participants: University medical…

  1. Comparison of outcomes for African Americans, Hispanics, and Non-Hispanic Whites in the CATIE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Jodi Gonzalez; Miller, Alexander L; Cañive, José M; Rosenheck, Robert A; Swartz, Marvin S; Mintz, Jim

    2013-06-01

    Medication outcome literature in schizophrenia across racial-ethnic groups is sparse, with inconsistent findings. The Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness (CATIE) study provided an opportunity for exploratory analyses of racial-ethnic outcomes. The study objective was to examine race-ethnicity outcomes for CATIE's main outcome (study discontinuation) and secondary outcomes. CATIE participants included whites (non-Hispanic) (N=722), African Americans (N=506), and Hispanics (N=170). Survival analyses and mixed-effects regression modeling were conducted, with adjustment for baseline sociodemographic differences and baseline scores of the secondary outcomes. Racial-ethnic groups had unique patterns of outcomes. Hispanics were much more likely to discontinue for lack of efficacy from perphenazine (64% versus 42% non-Hispanic whites and 24% African Americans) and ziprasidone (71% versus 40% non-Hispanic whites and 24% African Americans); Hispanics' quality of life also declined on these medications. Non-Hispanic whites were more likely to discontinue for lack of efficacy in general (averaging olanzapine, quetiapine, and risperidone discontinuation rates). African Americans were less likely to continue after the first phase (32% continuing versus 40% for non-Hispanic whites and 41% Hispanics). Discontinuations were driven by research burden, personal issues, and unspecified loss to follow-up. Non-Hispanic whites had higher depression scores during the follow-up period. African Americans had fewer side effects. CATIE results did not show disparities favoring non-Hispanic whites. CATIE may have provided state-of-the-art treatment and thus reduced disparate treatments observed in community clinics. African Americans discontinued even after consideration of socioeconomic differences. Why perphenazine and ziprasidone may be less effective with Hispanics should be explored.

  2. Body size and pubertal development explain ethnic differences in structural geometry at the femur in Asian, Hispanic and white early adolescent girls living in the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Variation in structural geometry is present in adulthood, but when this variation arises and what influences this variation prior to adulthood remains poorly understood. Ethnicity is commonly the focus of research of skeletal integrity and appears to explain some of the variation in quantification o...

  3. Hispanic American views on the stewardship of federal land management agencies: an exploratory analysis of the Ethnic NewsWatch database

    Science.gov (United States)

    David N. Bengston; Jose J. Sanchez

    2004-01-01

    Ethnic and racial communities have often been found to hold distinct views about the environment and natural resource management (Schelhas 2002, Jostad et al. 1996). But these perspectives are often unheard or underrepresented in mainstream environmental discourses (Lynch 1993, Bengston 2004). As society becomes more diverse, natural resource planners, managers and...

  4. Trends in state/territorial obesity prevalence by race/ethnicity among U.S. low-income, preschool-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, L; Grummer-Strawn, L M; McGuire, L C; Park, S; Blanck, H M

    2016-10-01

    Understanding state/territorial trends in obesity by race/ethnicity helps focus resources on populations at risk. This study aimed to examine trends in obesity prevalence among low-income, preschool-aged children from 2008 through 2011 in U.S. states and territories by race/ethnicity. We used measured weight and height records of 11.1 million children aged 2-4 years who participated in federally funded health and nutrition programmes in 40 states, the District of Columbia and two U.S. territories. We used logistic regression to examine obesity prevalence trends, controlling for age and sex. From 2008 through 2011, the aggregated obesity prevalence declined among all racial/ethnic groups (decreased by 0.4-0.9%) except American Indians/Alaska Natives (AI/ANs); the largest decrease was among Asians/Pacific Islanders (A/PIs). Declines were significant among non-Hispanic whites in 14 states, non-Hispanic blacks in seven states/territories, Hispanics in 13 states, A/PIs in five states and AI/ANs in one state. Increases were significant among non-Hispanic whites in four states, non-Hispanic blacks in three states, Hispanics in two states and A/PIs in one state. The majority of the states/territories had no change in obesity prevalence. Our findings indicate slight reductions in obesity prevalence and variations in obesity trends, but disparities exist for some states and racial/ethnic groups. © 2015 World Obesity.

  5. Hispanic and Immigrant Paradoxes in U.S. Breast Cancer Mortality: Impact of Neighborhood Poverty and Hispanic Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandi L. Pruitt

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available To test the Hispanic and Immigrant Paradoxes—i.e., survival advantages despite a worse risk factor profile—and the modifying role of neighborhood context, we examined associations between patient ethnicity, birthplace, neighborhood Hispanic density and neighborhood poverty among 166,254 female breast cancer patients diagnosed 1995–2009 in Texas, U.S. Of all, 79.9% were non-Hispanic White, 15.8% Hispanic U.S.-born, and 4.2% Hispanic foreign-born. We imputed birthplace for the 60.7% of Hispanics missing birthplace data using multiple imputation. Shared frailty Cox proportional hazard models (patients nested within census tracts adjusted for age, diagnosis year, stage, grade, histology, urban/rural residence, and local mammography capacity. Whites (vs. U.S.-born Hispanics had increased all-cause and breast cancer mortality. Foreign-born (vs. U.S.-born Hispanics had increased all-cause and breast cancer mortality. Living in higher Hispanic density neighborhoods was generally associated with increased mortality, although associations differed slightly in magnitude and significance by ethnicity, birthplace, and neighborhood poverty. We found no evidence of an Immigrant Paradox and some evidence of a Hispanic Paradox where protective effects were limited to U.S.-born Hispanics. Contrary to prior studies, foreign birthplace and residence in higher Hispanic density neighborhoods were associated with increased mortality. More research on intersections between ethnicity, birthplace and neighborhood context are needed.

  6. Racial/ethnic variation in devices used to access patient portals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Eva; Blondon, Katherine; Lyles, Courtney R; Jordan, Luesa; Ralston, James D

    2018-01-01

    We examined racial/ethnic variation in the devices used by patients to access medical records through an online patient portal. Retrospective, cross-sectional analysis. Using data from 318,700 adults enrolled in an integrated delivery system between December 2012 and November 2013, we examined: 1) online patient portal use that directly engages the electronic health record and 2) portal use over desktops/laptops only, mobile devices only, or both device types. The primary covariate was race/ethnicity (non-Hispanic white, black, Hispanic, and Asian). Other covariates included age, sex, primary language, and neighborhood-level income and education. Portal use and devices used were assessed with multiple and multinomial logistic models, respectively. From December 2012 to November 2013, 56% of enrollees used the patient portal. Of these portal users, 62% used desktops/laptops only, 6% used mobile devices only, and 32% used both desktops/laptops and mobile devices. Black, Hispanic, and Asian enrollees had significantly lower odds of portal use than whites. Black and Hispanic portal users also were significantly more likely to use mobile devices only (relative risk ratio, 1.73 and 1.44, respectively) and both device types (1.21 and 1.07, respectively) than desktops/laptops only compared with whites. Although racial/ethnic minority enrollees were less likely to access the online patient portal overall, a greater proportion of black and Hispanic users accessed the patient portal with mobile devices than did non-Hispanic white users. The rapid spread of mobile devices among racial/ethnic minorities may help reduce variation in online patient portal use. Mobile device use may represent an opportunity for healthcare organizations to further engage black and Hispanic enrollees in online patient portal use.

  7. Adolescents in Public Substance Abuse Treatment Programs: The Impacts of Sex and Race on Referrals and Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shillington, Audrey M.; Clapp, John D.

    2003-01-01

    Analyses of study on adolescents in publicly funded treatment programs present sex and ethnic differences. Among some of the findings: females were more likely to report methamphetamine use, males reported marijuana use; Hispanics and African Americans were referred to treatment from criminal justice; reported marijuana as primary drug; mandated…

  8. Stress and sleep: Results from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos Sociocultural Ancillary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmela Alcántara

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Hispanics/Latinos face specific sociocultural stressors associated with their marginalized status in the United States. While stress is known to cause poor sleep, the differential effects of the specific stressors faced by Hispanics/Latinos have not been evaluated. Using cross-sectional data from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos Sociocultural Ancillary Study, we conducted weighted generalized linear models to evaluate the associations of acculturation stress, ethnic discrimination, and chronic moderate/severe stress with self-reported sleep outcomes (insomnia symptoms, daytime sleepiness, sleep duration in individual and aggregate models adjusted for site, socio-demographics, behavioral, and medical conditions. Participants included 5313 Hispanic/Latino adults; 43.5% ≥ age 45, 54.8% female, and 22.0% US-born. Chronic moderate/severe stress, ethnic discrimination, and acculturation stress were each positively associated with sleep. In the adjusted aggregate model, only chronic moderate/severe stress was associated with insomnia symptoms (exp(b = 1.07 for each additional stressor, 95% CI = 1.05, 1.09. Both acculturation stress (exp(b = 1.05 for each additional SD, 95% CI = 1.02, 1.10 and ethnic discrimination (exp(b = 1.05 for each additional SD, 95% CI = 1.01, 1.08 were associated with daytime sleepiness. Each SD increase in ethnic discrimination related to a 16% and 13% increased prevalence of short ( 9 h (RRR = 1.13, 95% CI = 1.00, 1.27, respectively. These associations were consistent across sex. Acculturation stress and ethnic discrimination are associated with poor sleep in Hispanics/Latinos. Future research should explore whether behavioral sleep interventions minimize the impact of sociocultural stressors on sleep.

  9. Risk of Stress Fracture Varies by Race/Ethnic Origin in a Cohort Study of 1.3 Million US Army Soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulathsinhala, Lakmini; Hughes, Julie M; McKinnon, Craig J; Kardouni, Joseph R; Guerriere, Katelyn I; Popp, Kristin L; Matheny, Ronald W; Bouxsein, Mary L

    2017-07-01

    Stress fractures (SF) are common and costly injuries in military personnel. Risk for SF has been shown to vary with race/ethnicity. Previous studies report increased SF risk in white and Hispanic Soldiers compared with black Soldiers. However, these studies did not account for the large ethnic diversity in the US military. We aimed to identify differences in SF risk among racial/ethnic groups within the US Army. A retrospective cohort study was conducted using data from the Total Army Injury and Health Outcomes Database from 2001 until 2011. SF diagnoses were identified from ICD-9 codes. We used Cox-proportional hazard models to calculate time to SF by racial/ethnic group after adjusting for age, education, and body mass index. We performed a sex-stratified analysis to determine whether the ethnic variation in SF risk depends on sex. We identified 21,549 SF cases in 1,299,332 Soldiers (more than 5,228,525 person-years of risk), revealing an overall incidence rate of 4.12 per 1000 person-years (7.47 and 2.05 per 1000 person-years in women and men, respectively). Using non-Hispanic blacks as the referent group, non-Hispanic white women had the highest risk of SF, with a 92% higher risk of SF than non-Hispanic black women (1.92 [1.81-2.03]), followed by American Indian/Native Alaskan women (1.72 [1.44-1.79]), Hispanic women (1.65 [1.53-1.79]), and Asian women (1.32 [1.16-1.49]). Similarly, non-Hispanic white men had the highest risk of SF, with a 59% higher risk of SF than non-Hispanic black men (1.59 [1.50-1.68]), followed by Hispanic men (1.19 [1.10-1.29]). When examining the total US Army population, we found substantial differences in the risk of stress fracture among racial/ethnic groups, with non-Hispanic white Soldiers at greatest risk and Hispanic, American Indian/Native Alaskan, and Asian Soldiers at an intermediate risk. Additional studies are needed to determine the factors underlying these race- and ethnic-related differences in stress fracture risk.

  10. Racial/ethnic disparity in obesity among US youth, 1999-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Ruopeng

    2015-11-04

    One fundamental goal in the Healthy People 2020 is to achieve health equity and eliminate disparities. To examine the annual trends in racial/ethnic disparity in obesity among US youth from 1999 to 2013. Nationally representative sample of 108,811 students in grades 9th-12th from the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) 1999-2013 surveys. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated based on self-reported height and weight. Obesity in youth is defined as BMI at or above 95th sex- and age-specific percentile of the 2000 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention growth charts. Multiple logistic regressions were conducted to estimate the annual prevalence of obesity by race/ethnicity, adjusted for gender and age group and accounted for the YRBSS survey design. Between-group variance (BGV) was used to measure absolute racial/ethnic disparity in obesity, and the mean log deviation (MLD) and the Theil Index (T) were used to measure relative racial/ethnic disparity in obesity, weighted by corresponding racial/ethnic population size. The obesity prevalence among non-Hispanic Whites, non-Hispanic African Americans, non-Hispanic other race or multi-race, and Hispanic increased from 10.05%, 12.31%, 10.25%, and 13.24% in 1999 to 13.14%, 15.76%, 10.87%, and 15.20% in 2013, respectively. Both absolute and relative racial/ethnic disparity in obesity increased initially since 1999 but then steadily declined starting from mid-2000s back to around its original level by 2013. The obesity epidemic in youth is marked by salient and persistent disparity pertaining to race/ethnicity. No improvement on racial/ethnic disparity in obesity among American youth was observed during 1999-2013.

  11. The effect of active video games by ethnicity, sex and fitness: subgroup analysis from a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Louise; Jiang, Yannan; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona; Jull, Andrew; Prapavessis, Harry; Rodgers, Anthony; Maddison, Ralph

    2014-04-03

    The prevention and treatment of childhood obesity is a key public health challenge. However, certain groups within populations have markedly different risk profiles for obesity and related health behaviours. Well-designed subgroup analysis can identify potential differential effects of obesity interventions, which may be important for reducing health inequalities. The study aim was to evaluate the consistency of the effects of active video games across important subgroups in a randomised controlled trial (RCT). A two-arm, parallel RCT was conducted in overweight or obese children (n=322; aged 10-14 years) to determine the effect of active video games on body composition. Statistically significant overall treatment effects favouring the intervention group were found for body mass index, body mass index z-score and percentage body fat at 24 weeks. For these outcomes, pre-specified subgroup analyses were conducted among important baseline demographic (ethnicity, sex) and prognostic (cardiovascular fitness) groups. No statistically significant interaction effects were found between the treatment and subgroup terms in the main regression model (p=0.36 to 0.93), indicating a consistent treatment effect across these groups. Preliminary evidence suggests an active video games intervention had a consistent positive effect on body composition among important subgroups. This may support the use of these games as a pragmatic public health intervention to displace sedentary behaviour with physical activity in young people.

  12. HIV prevalence by ethnic group covaries with prevalence of herpes simplex virus-2 and high-risk sex in Uganda: An ecological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Chris R

    2018-01-01

    HIV prevalence varies from 1.7% to 14.8% between ethnic groups in Uganda. Understanding the factors responsible for this heterogeneity in HIV spread may guide prevention efforts. We evaluated the relationship between HIV prevalence by ethnic group and a range of risk factors as well as the prevalence of herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2), syphilis and symptomatic STIs in the 2004/2005 Uganda HIV/AIDS Sero-Behavioural Survey-a two stage, nationally representative, population based survey of 15-59-year-olds. Spearman's correlation was used to assess the relationship between HIV prevalence and each variable. There was a positive association between HIV prevalence and HSV-2, symptomatic STIs and high-risk sex (sex with a non-cohabiting, non-marital partner) for women. Non-significant positive associations were present between HIV and high-risk sex for men and lifetime number of partners for men and women. Variation in sexual behavior may contribute to the variations in HIV, HSV-2 and other STI prevalence by ethnic group in Uganda. Further work is necessary to delineate which combinations of risk factors determine differential STI spread in Uganda.

  13. Energy and Nutrient Intakes from Processed Foods Differ by Sex, Income Status, and Race/Ethnicity of US Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eicher-Miller, Heather A; Fulgoni, Victor L; Keast, Debra R

    2015-06-01

    The 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA) recommends nutrients to increase and to decrease for US adults. The contributions processed foods make to the US intake of nutrients to increase and decrease may vary by the level of processing and by population subgroup. The hypotheses that the intakes of nutrients to increase or decrease, as specified by the DGA, are contributed exclusively from certain processed food categories and consumed differentially by population subgroups by sex, poverty-income ratio (ratio of household income to poverty threshold), and race/ethnicity was tested along with the hypothesis that specific processed food categories are responsible for nutrient intake differences between the population subgroups. The 24-hour dietary recall data from the cross-sectional 2003-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey was used to determine population subgroup energy and nutrient intake differences among processed food categories defined by the International Food Information Council Foundation Continuum of Processed Foods. Fifteen thousand fifty-three US adults aged ≥19 years. The mean daily intake of energy and nutrients from processed food categories reported by population subgroups were compared using regression analysis to determine covariate-adjusted least square means. Processed food categories that contributed to energy and nutrient intake differences within subgroups did not uniformly or exclusively contribute nutrients to increase or decrease per DGA recommendations. The between-group differences in mean daily intake of both nutrients to increase and decrease contributed by the various processed food categories were diverse and were not contributed exclusively from specific processed food categories. Recommendations for a diet adhering to the DGA should continue to focus on the energy and nutrient content, frequency of consumption, and serving size of individual foods rather than the level of processing. Copyright © 2015

  14. Modelled seasonal influenza mortality shows marked differences in risk by age, sex, ethnicity and socioeconomic position in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khieu, Trang Q T; Pierse, Nevil; Telfar-Barnard, Lucy Frances; Zhang, Jane; Huang, Q Sue; Baker, Michael G

    2017-09-01

    Influenza is responsible for a large number of deaths which can only be estimated using modelling methods. Such methods have rarely been applied to describe the major socio-demographic characteristics of this disease burden. We used quasi Poisson regression models with weekly counts of deaths and isolates of influenza A, B and respiratory syncytial virus for the period 1994 to 2008. The estimated average mortality rate was 13.5 per 100,000 people which was 1.8% of all deaths in New Zealand. Influenza mortality differed markedly by age, sex, ethnicity and socioeconomic position. Relatively vulnerable groups were males aged 65-79 years (Rate ratio (RR) = 1.9, 95% CI: 1.9, 1.9 compared with females), Māori (RR = 3.6, 95% CI: 3.6, 3.7 compared with European/Others aged 65-79 years), Pacific (RR = 2.4, 95% CI: 2.4, 2.4 compared with European/Others aged 65-79 years) and those living in the most deprived areas (RR = 1.8, 95% CI: 1.3, 2.4) for New Zealand Deprivation (NZDep) 9&10 (the most deprived) compared with NZDep 1&2 (the least deprived). These results support targeting influenza vaccination and other interventions to the most vulnerable groups, in particular Māori and Pacific people and men aged 65-79 years and those living in the most deprived areas. Copyright © 2017 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Predicting Condom Use Attitudes, Norms, and Control Beliefs in Hispanic Problem Behavior Youth: The Effects of Family Functioning and Parent-Adolescent Communication about Sex on Condom Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcolm, Shandey; Huang, Shi; Cordova, David; Freitas, Derek; Arzon, Margaret; Jimenez, Giselle Leon; Pantin, Hilda; Prado, Guillermo

    2013-01-01

    Hispanic problem behavior youth are at an increased risk of engaging in HIV risk behaviors, including low condom use. However, relatively little research has examined factors that affect condom use in this population. Although research indicates that family processes, such as higher levels of family functioning and open parent-adolescent…

  16. Impact of parent-child communication interventions on sex behaviors and cognitive outcomes for black/African-American and Hispanic/Latino youth: a systematic review, 1988-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Madeline Y; Lasswell, Sarah M; Lanier, Yzette; Miller, Kim S

    2014-04-01

    We reviewed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and sexually transmitted infection (STI)- behavioral interventions implemented with disproportionately affected black/African-American and Hispanic/Latino youth and designed to improve parent-child communications about sex. We compared their effectiveness in improving sex-related behavior or cognitive outcomes. A search of electronic databases identified peer-reviewed studies published between 1988 and 2012. Eligible studies were U.S.-based parent-child communication interventions with active parent components, experimental and quasiexperimental designs, measurement of youth sexual health outcomes, and enrollment of ≥ 50% black/African-American or Hispanic/Latino youth. We conducted systematic, primary reviews of eligible papers to abstract data on study characteristics and youth outcomes. Fifteen studies evaluating 14 interventions were eligible. Although youth outcome measures and follow-up times varied, 13 of 15 studies (87%) showed at least one significantly improved youth sexual health outcome compared with controls (p communication skills with their youth. Parent-child communication interventions that include parents of youth disproportionately affected by HIV/STIs can effectively reduce sexual risk for youth. These interventions may help reduce HIV/STI-related health disparities and improve sexual health outcomes. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Personal and cultural identity development in recently immigrated Hispanic adolescents: Links with psychosocial functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meca, Alan; Sabet, Raha F; Farrelly, Colleen M; Benitez, Cynthia G; Schwartz, Seth J; Gonzales-Backen, Melinda; Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I; Unger, Jennifer B; Zamboanga, Byron L; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Picariello, Simona; Des Rosiers, Sabrina E; Soto, Daniel W; Pattarroyo, Monica; Villamar, Juan A; Lizzi, Karina M

    2017-07-01

    This study examined directionality between personal (i.e., coherence and confusion) and cultural identity (i.e., ethnic and U.S.) as well as their additive effects on psychosocial functioning in a sample of recently immigrated Hispanic adolescents. The sample consisted of 302 recent (identity coherence and both ethnic and U.S. identity. Ethnic and U.S. affirmation/commitment (A/C) positively and indirectly predicted optimism and negatively predicted rule breaking and aggression through coherence. However, confusion predicted lower self-esteem and optimism and higher depressive symptoms, rule breaking, unprotected sex, and cigarette use. Results further indicated significant site differences. In Los Angeles (but not Miami), ethnic A/C also negatively predicted confusion. Given the direct effects of coherence and confusion on nearly every outcome, it may be beneficial for interventions to target personal identity. However, in contexts such as Los Angeles, which has at least some ambivalence toward recently immigrated Hispanic adolescents, it may be more beneficial for interventions to also target cultural identity to reduce confusion and thus promote positive development. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Osteoporosis and Hispanic Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Osteoporosis Osteoporosis and Hispanic Women Osteoporosis and Hispanic Women It is a common misconception that osteoporosis only ... seizures. Are There Any Special Issues for Hispanic Women Regarding Bone Health? Several studies indicate a number ...

  19. Asthma and Hispanic Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Data > Minority Population Profiles > Hispanic/Latino > Asthma Asthma and Hispanic Americans In 2015, 2.2 million Hispanics reported that they currently have asthma. Puerto Rican Americans have almost twice the asthma ...

  20. Reproducibility and intermethod reliability of a calcium food frequency questionnaire for use in Hispanic, non-Hispanic Black, and non-Hispanic White youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollberding, Nicholas J; Gilsanz, Vicente; Lappe, Joan M; Oberfield, Sharon E; Shepherd, John A; Winer, Karen K; Zemel, Babette S; Kalkwarf, Heidi J

    2015-04-01

    A dietary assessment instrument designed for use in a nationally representative pediatric population was required to examine associations between calcium intake and bone mineral accrual in a large, multicenter study. To determine the reproducibility and intermethod reliability of a youth calcium food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) in a multiracial/ethnic sample of children and adolescents. Reproducibility (n=69) and intermethod reliability (n=393) studies were conducted by administering repeat FFQs and three unannounced 24-hour dietary recalls to stratified random samples of individuals participating in the Bone Mineral Density in Childhood Study. Children and adolescents ages 5 to 21 years. Calcium intake estimated from the FFQ and 24-hour dietary recalls. Reproducibility was assessed by the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Intermethod reliability was assessed by deattenuated Pearson correlations between the FFQ and 24-hour recalls. Attenuation factors and calibration corrected effect estimates for bone density were calculated to determine the potential influence of measurement error on associations with health outcomes. The ICC (0.61) for repeat administrations and deattenuated Pearson correlation between the FFQ and 24-hour recalls (r=0.60) for all subjects indicated reproducibility and intermethod reliability (Pearson r=0.50 to 0.74 across sex and age groups). Attenuation factors were ≤0.50 for all sex and age groups and lower for non-Hispanic blacks (λ=0.20) and Hispanics (λ=0.26) than for non-Hispanic whites (λ=0.42). The Bone Mineral Density in Childhood Study calcium FFQ appears to provide a useful tool for assessing calcium intake in children and adolescents drawn from multiracial/ethnic populations and/or spanning a wide age range. However, similar to other FFQs, attenuation factors were substantially <1, indicating the potential for appreciable measurement error bias. Calibration correction should be performed and racial/ethnic differences

  1. Overweight, Body Image, and Depression in Asian and Hispanic Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Bin; Unger, Jennifer B.; Gallaher, Peggy; Johnson, C. Anderson; Wu, Qiaobing; Chou, Chih-Ping

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To prospectively investigate associations between overweight and depressive symptoms in Asian and Hispanic adolescents. Methods: Data included 780 Hispanic and 375 Asian students. Structural equation model was used to prospectively explore moderation effects of gender, ethnicity, and acculturation on associations of overweight, body…

  2. Hispanic Origin, Socio-Economic Status, and Community College Enrollment

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Noga

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between parental SES, ethnicity, and college enrollment. Parental SES is found to translate into a significantly smaller advantage for Hispanics compared to Blacks and Whites. This statistical interaction suggests that high-SES Hispanics are at a unique disadvantage, most likely due to limited access to…

  3. Hispanic Families and Their Culture: Implications for FCS Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Barbara N.; Bencomo, Angelina

    2015-01-01

    Hispanic children constitute the largest population of racial/ethnic minority students in the nation's public schools. By the year 2023, the Hispanic enrollment is expected to increase to 30% of the total school population (pre-K through 12) in the United States. Because cultural background affects student learning, family and consumer sciences…

  4. The association between sexual orientation identity and behavior across race/ethnicity, sex, and age in a probability sample of high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustanski, Brian; Birkett, Michelle; Greene, George J; Rosario, Margaret; Bostwick, Wendy; Everett, Bethany G

    2014-02-01

    We examined the prevalence and associations between behavioral and identity dimensions of sexual orientation among adolescents in the United States, with consideration of differences associated with race/ethnicity, sex, and age. We used pooled data from 2005 and 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Surveys to estimate prevalence of sexual orientation variables within demographic sub-groups. We used multilevel logistic regression models to test differences in the association between sexual orientation identity and sexual behavior across groups. There was substantial incongruence between behavioral and identity dimensions of sexual orientation, which varied across sex and race/ethnicity. Whereas girls were more likely to identify as bisexual, boys showed a stronger association between same-sex behavior and a bisexual identity. The pattern of association of age with sexual orientation differed between boys and girls. Our results highlight demographic differences between 2 sexual orientation dimensions, and their congruence, among 13- to 18-year-old adolescents. Future research is needed to better understand the implications of such differences, particularly in the realm of health and health disparities.

  5. The Association Between Sexual Orientation Identity and Behavior Across Race/Ethnicity, Sex, and Age in a Probability Sample of High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustanski, Brian; Birkett, Michelle; Greene, George J.; Rosario, Margaret; Bostwick, Wendy; Everett, Bethany G.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the prevalence and associations between behavioral and identity dimensions of sexual orientation among adolescents in the United States, with consideration of differences associated with race/ethnicity, sex, and age. Methods. We used pooled data from 2005 and 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Surveys to estimate prevalence of sexual orientation variables within demographic sub-groups. We used multilevel logistic regression models to test differences in the association between sexual orientation identity and sexual behavior across groups. Results. There was substantial incongruence between behavioral and identity dimensions of sexual orientation, which varied across sex and race/ethnicity. Whereas girls were more likely to identify as bisexual, boys showed a stronger association between same-sex behavior and a bisexual identity. The pattern of association of age with sexual orientation differed between boys and girls. Conclusions. Our results highlight demographic differences between 2 sexual orientation dimensions, and their congruence, among 13- to 18-year-old adolescents. Future research is needed to better understand the implications of such differences, particularly in the realm of health and health disparities. PMID:24328662

  6. Hispanic Medical Organizations' Support for LGBT Health Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, John Paul; Sola, Orlando; Ramallo, Jorge; Sánchez, Nelson Felix; Dominguez, Kenneth; Romero-Leggott, Valerie

    2014-09-01

    Hispanics represent the fastest growing ethnic segment of the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) community in the United States and are disproportionately burdened by LGBT-related health issues and limited political support from Hispanic medical organizations. Recently, the Latino Medical Student Association, the National Hispanic Medical Association, and the Hispanic Serving Health Professions Schools, representing over 60,000 Hispanic students and providers and 35 institutions, collaborated to support a resolution opposing discrimination based on sexual orientation or gender identity and recognizing the obstacles encountered by LGBTQ Hispanics. The resolution provides an important framework for organizational members and leaders to address LGBT health issues and serve to support a more positive sociopolitical climate for the Hispanic LGBT community nationally and internationally.

  7. Equality in sexual health promotion: a systematic review of effective interventions for black and minority ethnic men who have sex with men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Fish

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the past decade, new diagnoses of HIV have increased eightfold among men who have sex with men (MSM of other or of mixed ethnicity in the UK. Yet there is little intervention research on HIV among black and minority ethnic (BME MSM. This article aimed to identify effective HIV and sexual health prevention strategies for BME MSM. Methods We searched three databases PubMed, Scopus and PsychInfo using a combination of search terms: MSM or men who have sex with men and women (MSMW; Black and Minority Ethnic; HIV or sexual health; and evaluation, intervention, program* or implementation. We identified a total of 19 studies to include in the review including those which used randomised control, pre/post-test and cross-sectional design; in addition, we included intervention development studies. Results A total of 12 studies reported statistically significant results in at least one of the behavioural outcomes assessed; one study reported significant increases in HIV knowledge and changes in safer sex practices. In 10 studies, reductions were reported in unprotected anal intercourse (UAI, number of sexual partners, or in both of these measures. Six out of the 13 studies reported reductions in UAI; while seven reported reductions in number of sexual partners. Seven were intervention development studies. Conclusions Research into the mechanisms and underpinnings of future sexual health interventions is urgently needed in order to reduce HIV and other sexually transmitted infection (STI among UK BME MSM. The design of interventions should be informed by the members of these groups for whom they are targeted to ensure the cultural and linguistic sensitivity of the tools and approaches generated.

  8. Exploring opinions and beliefs about cord blood donation among Hispanic and non-Hispanic black women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rucinski, Dianne; Jones, Risé; Reyes, Brenda; Tidwell, Lawon; Phillips, RoiAnn; Delves, Denise

    2010-05-01

    Despite higher birth rates among non-Hispanic blacks and Hispanics, the availability of umbilical cord blood from these groups is lower due to lower donation rates than that of non-Hispanic whites. Similar racial and ethnic disparities in donation rates have been found for blood and organ donation. This study is among the first to explore beliefs and attitudes toward umbilical cord blood donation among Hispanic and non-Hispanic black women. Five focus groups composed of Hispanic and non-Hispanic black women were conducted to explore how women conceptualize information needs about umbilical cord blood donation and from whom women want to receive information about donation. Participants were adult women who had given birth within the past year or were pregnant. Lack of basic information regarding umbilical cord blood, its harvesting and use, and the steps and conditions necessary to donate were primary barriers to donation. Women expressed confusion over the differences between "donation" and "banking." The social value of donation was explicitly weighed in terms of the cost of the donation effort. Doctors were viewed as critical sources for information about donation, although women expressed skepticism about doctors' ability to convey sufficient information during short office visits. Efforts to increase donation rates among Hispanic and non-Hispanic black women should include information about both the technical aspects and the social value of donation. The specific terms "umbilical" and "donation" should be used consistently to prevent misunderstanding. Information should be provided by physicians with follow-up by other health providers.

  9. Life Experiences of Hispanic Adolescents: Developmental and Language Considerations in Acculturation Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes, Richard C.; Cordova, David

    2011-01-01

    Hispanic youth currently constitute the largest and fastest growing of all ethnic and racial groups in the United States. In addition to normal developmental life stressors, Hispanic youth also face minority status and acculturation-related stress. This study examined the psychosocial and acculturative stressors of Hispanic youth (n=170) residing…

  10. Cardiovascular mortality in Hispanics compared to non-Hispanic whites: a systematic review and meta-analysis of the Hispanic paradox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortes-Bergoderi, Mery; Goel, Kashish; Murad, Mohammad Hassan; Allison, Thomas; Somers, Virend K; Erwin, Patricia J; Sochor, Ondrej; Lopez-Jimenez, Francisco

    2013-12-01

    Hispanics, the largest minority in the U.S., have a higher prevalence of several cardiovascular (CV) risk factors than non-Hispanic whites (NHW). However, some studies have shown a paradoxical lower rate of CV events among Hispanics than NHW. To perform a systematic review and a meta-analysis of cohort studies comparing CV mortality and all-cause mortality between Hispanic and NHW populations in the U.S. We searched EMBASE, MEDLINE, Web of Science, and Scopus databases from 1950 through May 2013, using terms related to Hispanic ethnicity, CV diseases and cohort studies. We pooled risk estimates using the least and most adjusted models of each publication. We found 341 publications of which 17 fulfilled the inclusion criteria; data represent 22,340,554 Hispanics and 88,824,618 NHW, collected from 1950 to 2009. Twelve of the studies stratified the analysis by gender, and one study stratified people by place of birth (e.g. U.S.-born, Mexican-born, and Central/South American-born). There was a statistically significant association between Hispanic ethnicity and lower CV mortality (OR 0.67; 95% CI, 0.57-0.78; pvalue value 0.06. These results confirm the existence of a Hispanic paradox regarding CV mortality. Further studies are needed to identify the mechanisms mediating this protective CV effect in Hispanics. © 2013.

  11. New Mexican Hispanic smokers have lower odds of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and less decline in lung function than non-Hispanic whites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruse, Shannon; Sood, Akshay; Petersen, Hans; Liu, Yushi; Leng, Shuguang; Celedón, Juan C; Gilliland, Frank; Celli, Bartolomé; Belinsky, Steven A; Tesfaigzi, Yohannes

    2011-12-01

    The epidemiology of cigarette smoking-related chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is not well characterized in Hispanics in the United States. Understanding how ethnicity influences COPD is important for a number of reasons, from informing public health policies to dissecting the genetic and environmental effects that contribute to disease. The present study assessed differences in risk between Hispanics and non-Hispanic whites for longitudinal and cross-sectional COPD phenotypes. Genetic ancestry was used to verify findings based on self-reported ethnicity. Hispanics in New Mexico are primarily differentiated from non-Hispanic whites by their proportion of Native American ancestry. The study was performed in a New Mexican cohort of current and former smokers. Self-reported Hispanic and non-Hispanic white ethnicity was validated by defining genetic ancestry proportions at the individual level using 48 single-nucleotide polymorphism markers. Self-reported ethnicity and genetic ancestry were independently used to assess associations with cross-sectional and longitudinal measures of lung function. Multivariable models were adjusted for indicators of smoking behavior. Self-reported Hispanic ethnicity was significantly associated with lower odds of COPD (odds ratio, 0.49; 95% confidence interval, 0.35-0.71; P = 0.007), and this protection was validated by the observation that Hispanic smokers have reduced risk of rapid decline in lung function (odds ratio, 0.48; 95% confidence interval, 0.30-0.78; P = 0.003). Similar findings were noted when Native American genetic ancestry proportions were used as predictors instead of self-report of Hispanic ethnicity. Hispanic ethnicity is inversely associated with cross-sectional and longitudinal spirometric COPD phenotypes even after adjustment for smoking. Native American genetic ancestry may account for this "Hispanic protection."

  12. Marketing the HIV test to MSM: ethnic differences in preferred venues and sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechuga, Julia; Owczarzak, Jill T; Petroll, Andrew E

    2013-05-01

    Lack of awareness of HIV status is associated with an increased likelihood of HIV transmission. We surveyed 633 men who have sex with men (MSM) from diverse ethnic groups recruited from a variety of community venues in a U.S. Midwestern city with rising HIV infection rates. Our first aim was to describe patterns of sexual risk, annual HIV testing frequency, and venues where information about HIV and HIV testing could be disseminated to inner-city MSM. Our second aim was to identify preferred sources to receive information about HIV testing and determine whether these preferences differed by ethnic background. Results indicated that despite similar proportions of high-sexual risk behaviors, compared with African American and Latino MSM, smaller proportions of non-Hispanic White MSM had received an HIV test in the last 12 months. Despite ethnic differences in health care access, a physician's office was the most common HIV testing site. Overall, a majority conveyed a preference to see advertisements in mainstream media outlets. However, when preferences were stratified by ethnicity, African American MSM were the least likely to prefer receiving information from mainstream media and conveyed a stronger preference to receive information from authority figures than non-Hispanic White and Hispanic MSM.

  13. Hispanic Adolescent Fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darabi, Katherine F.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Discusses fertility of Hispanic adolescents in the United States. Summarizes what is known about sexuality, contraception, pregnancy, and childbearing among male and female Hispanics of various countries of origin. Indicates Hispanic adolescent birthrates fall between those of non-Hispanic Whites and Blacks, but there is considerable within-group…

  14. Predictors of College Adjustment among Hispanic Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazedjian, Ani; Toews, Michelle L.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess personal and interpersonal predictors of college adjustment among a sample of 190 first-year Hispanic students. Specifically, we examined the extent to which personal factors such as self-esteem, acculturation, and ethnic identity and interpersonal factors such as parental education and parental attachment…

  15. Charter Public Schools Serving Hispanic Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Alliance for Public Charter Schools, 2016

    2016-01-01

    The innovative and culturally responsive teaching practices provided in high-quality charter schools are not only providing Hispanic students with an excellent alternative to district public schools, but they are also yielding academic results that show neither race/ethnicity nor income level must determine a child's future. The compilation of…

  16. Ethnic Identity and Self-Esteem: Contrasting Cuban and Nicaraguan Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cislo, Andrew M.

    2008-01-01

    A growing literature suggests that stronger ethnic identity is associated with higher levels of self-esteem among Hispanic Americans. However, most studies employ a panethnic "Hispanic" category or focus on one ethnic group, leaving open the question of how different Hispanic groups compare in this association. In the framework of social…

  17. Different yet similar: Examining race and ethnicity in treatment-seeking adults with binge eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lydecker, Janet A; Grilo, Carlos M

    2016-01-01

    This study examined racial/ethnic differences in demographic variables and the clinical presentation of treatment-seeking adults with binge eating disorder (BED) who participated in treatment research at a medical school-based program. Participants were 775 (n = 195 men, n = 560 women) treatment-seeking adults with DSM-IV-defined BED who self-identified as Black (n = 121), Hispanic (n = 54), or White (n = 580). Doctoral-level research clinicians assessed participants for BED and for eating disorder psychopathology using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Disorders and the Eating Disorder Examination (EDE) interview, and measured height and weight. Participants also completed established self-report measures. Black participants had a greater proportion of women than White participants and White participants had higher education than Black and Hispanic participants. Black participants had higher body mass index (BMI) and reported more frequent binge eating episodes than White participants but eating-disorder psychopathology (EDE scales and Global Severity) did not significantly differ across racial/ethnic groups. Black participants had lower levels of depression than Hispanic and White participants. These differences in clinical presentation remained unchanged after adjusting for age, education, sex, and BMI. White participants had younger ages of onset for dieting, binge eating, and obesity, but not BED, than Black and Hispanic participants. There are some racial/ethnic differences in the developmental trajectories and clinical presentation of treatment-seeking adults with BED that remain unchanged after adjusting for demographic differences. Black participants presented for treatment with higher BMI and binge eating frequency than White participants and with lower depression than White and Hispanic groups, but associated eating disorder psychopathology levels were similar across racial/ethnic groups. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Correlates of sexual, ethnic, and dual identity: a study of young Asian and Pacific Islander men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Lung; Choi, Kyung-Hee; Do, Tri

    2011-10-01

    Having a positive attitude toward one's own sexual and ethnic identity can improve psychological well-being and self-efficacy and may reduce vulnerability to HIV infection. We sought to understand factors associated with having greater self-worth about being Asian and Pacific Islander (API), being gay/bisexual, and being both gay/bisexual and API (dual identity). We conducted serial, cross-sectional surveys of 763 API men who have sex with men (MSM) annually from 1999 to 2002 in San Diego, California and Seattle, Washington. We found (a) sexual and ethnic identity were intertwined and mutually influential; (b) a positive attitude toward sexual identity was associated with higher socioeconomic status, greater social support, and self-identified homosexual orientation (as opposed to "straight/undecided"); (c) a positive dual identity was associated with higher socioeconomic status, greater social support, and levels of acculturation (being United States born and speaking English and another language equally); and (d) a positive sexual identity and dual identity were associated with HIV testing. The findings suggest that targeted programs should address cultural issues at the intersection of sexual and ethnic identity, promote social support and self-acceptance around homosexual identity, and help MSM build a positive sense of self to foster their self-esteem and HIV prevention self-efficacy.

  19. Medical decision-making among Hispanics and non-Hispanic Whites with chronic back and knee pain: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Jeffrey N; Lyons, Nancy; Wolff, Lisa S; Silverman, Jodie; Emrani, Parastu; Holt, Holly L; Corbett, Kelly L; Escalante, Agustin; Losina, Elena

    2011-04-21

    Musculoskeletal disorders affect all racial and ethnic groups, including Hispanics. Because these disorders are not life-threatening, decision-making is generally preference-based. Little is known about whether Hispanics in the U.S. differ from non-Hispanic Whites with respect to key decision making preferences. We assembled six focus groups of Hispanic and non-Hispanic White patients with chronic back or knee pain at an urban medical center to discuss management of their conditions and the roles they preferred in medical decision-making. Hispanic groups were further stratified by socioeconomic status, using neighborhood characteristics as proxy measures. Discussions were led by a moderator, taped, transcribed and analyzed using a grounded theory approach. The analysis revealed ethnic differences in several areas pertinent to medical decision-making. Specifically, Hispanic participants were more likely to permit their physician to take the predominant role in making health decisions. Also, Hispanics of lower socioeconomic status generally preferred to use non-internet sources of health information to make medical decisions and to rely on advice obtained by word of mouth. Hispanics emphasized the role of faith and religion in coping with musculoskeletal disability. The analysis also revealed broad areas of concordance across ethnic strata including the primary role that pain and achieving pain relief play in patients' experiences and decisions. These findings suggest differences between Hispanics and non-Hispanic Whites in preferred information sources and decision-making roles. These findings are hypothesis-generating. If confirmed in further research, they may inform the development of interventions to enhance preference-based decision-making among Hispanics.

  20. Postsecondary Participation Rates by Sex and Race/Ethnicity: 1974-2003. Issue Brief. NCES 2005-028

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Lisa; Aquilino, Sally; Kienzl, Greg

    2005-01-01

    This Issue Brief examines participation in postsecondary education among women and men and among different racial/ethnic groups, from 1974 to 2003. Participation rates are defined here as the proportion of 18- to 24-year-olds who are enrolled in or have completed postsecondary education. Over this time period, the participation rates of young…

  1. Devaluing Women and Minorities: The Effects of Race/Ethnic and Sex Composition of Occupations on Wage Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Lori L.

    1998-01-01

    Data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1979-87, suggest that the percentage of white women in an occupation negatively affects wage levels. The percentages of black men or women or Latino/a men or women do not have negative effects. Occupational devaluation does not contribute to the race/ethnic wage gap and comparable worth policies…

  2. Attitudes and behaviors of Hispanic smokers: implications for cessation interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, B V; Perez-Stable, E J; Marin, G; Sabogal, F; Otero-Sabogal, R

    1990-01-01

    The smoking behavior of Hispanics, especially Mexican Americans, has been reported to differ from that of non-Hispanic whites, in both large gender differences in prevalence as well as a lower self-reported number of cigarettes smoked per day. This study compared the responses of a convenience sample of 263 Hispanic (44% Mexican American and 38% Central American) and 150 non-Hispanic white smokers, in order to identify other ethnic; gender, and acculturation differences in smoking behaviors. Hispanic women smoked fewer cigarettes and initiated smoking at a comparatively later age than Hispanic men; they were also less likely to smoke during pregnancy than non-Hispanic white women. Hispanics smoked more cigarettes on Saturday than other days, but this was not true for non-Hispanic whites. Will power (voluntad propia) and knowing the negative effects of smoking were considered the most helpful techniques for quitting by Hispanics. Considering that light smokers are able to quit with less intensive cessation techniques, these data suggest that a properly developed health education community intervention may have an impact on smoking rates among Hispanics.

  3. Caregiving Practice Patterns of Asian, Hispanic, and Non-Hispanic White American Family Caregivers of Older Adults Across Generations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyawaki, Christina E

    2016-03-01

    This study is a cross-sectional investigation of caregiving practice patterns among Asian, Hispanic and non-Hispanic White American family caregivers of older adults across three immigrant generations. The 2009 California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) dataset was used, and 591 Asian, 989 Hispanic and 6537 non-Hispanic White American caregivers of older adults were selected. First, descriptive analyses of caregivers' characteristics, caregiving situations and practice patterns were examined by racial/ethnic groups and immigrant generations. Practice patterns measured were respite care use, hours and length of caregiving. Three hypotheses on caregiving patterns based on assimilation theory were tested and analyzed using logistic regression and generalized linear models by racial/ethnic groups and generations. Caregiving patterns of non-Hispanic White caregivers supported all three hypotheses regarding respite care use, caregiving hours and caregiving duration, showing less caregiving involvement in later generations. However, Asian and Hispanic counterparts showed mixed results. Third generation Asian and Hispanic caregivers used respite care the least and spent the most caregiving hours per week and had the longest caregiving duration compared to earlier generations. These caregiving patterns revealed underlying cultural values related to filial responsibility, even among later generations of caregivers of color. Findings suggest the importance of considering the cultural values of each racial/ethnic group regardless of generation when working with racially and ethnically diverse populations of family caregivers of older adults.

  4. Eating Disorders: Explanatory Variables in Caucasian and Hispanic College Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aviña, Vanessa; Day, Susan X.

    2016-01-01

    The authors explored Hispanic and Caucasian college women's (N = 264) behavioral and attitudinal symptoms of eating disorders after controlling for body mass index and internalization of the thinness ideal, as well as the roles of ethnicity and ethnic identity in symptomatology. Correlational analysis, multivariate analysis of variance, and…

  5. Domains of Acculturation and their Effects on Substance Use and Sexual Behavior in Recent Hispanic Immigrant Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Seth J.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Des Rosiers, Sabrina E.; Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I.; Zamboanga, Byron L.; Huang, Shi; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Villamar, Juan A.; Soto, Daniel W.; Pattarroyo, Monica; Szapocznik, José

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the immigrant paradox by ascertaining the effects of multiple components of acculturation on substance use and sexual behavior among recently immigrated Hispanic adolescents primarily from Mexico (35%) and Cuba (31%). A sample of 302 adolescents (53% boys; mean age 14.51 years) from Miami (n = 152) and Los Angeles (n = 150) provided data on Hispanic and U.S. cultural practices, values, and identifications at baseline and provided reports of cigarette use, alcohol use, sexual activity, and unprotected sex approximately one year later. Results indicated strong gender differences, with the majority of significant findings emerging for boys. Supporting the immigrant paradox (i.e., that becoming oriented toward U.S. culture is predictive of increased health risks), individualist values predicted greater numbers of oral sex partners and unprotected sex occasions for boys. However, contrary to the immigrant paradox, for boys, both U.S. practices and U.S. identification predicted less heavy drinking, fewer oral and vaginal/anal sex partners, and less unprotected vaginal/anal sex. Ethnic identity (identification with one’s heritage culture) predicted greater numbers of sexual partners but negatively predicted unprotected sex. Results indicate a need for multidimensional, multi-domain models of acculturation and suggest that more work is needed to determine the most effective ways to culturally inform prevention programs. PMID:23828449

  6. The Impact of Sex of Child on Breastfeeding in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafer, Emily Fitzgibbons; Hawkins, Summer Sherburne

    2017-11-01

    Background Sex of child has been shown to impact breastfeeding duration in India, Australia, Scandinavia, Latin America, and, within the US, in a sample in Eastern Connecticut and in a separate sample of Indian and Chinese immigrants. Objectives The objective of this study is to examine differences in breastfeeding initiation and duration by sex of child across racial/ethnic groups in the US. Methods We used the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System 2009-2010 and logistic regression to examine whether sex of child impacts breastfeeding initiation and duration for at least 8 weeks by women's racial/ethnic group. Results Among the 66,107 women in our sample representing 12 different race/ethnic groups, Hispanic women (n = 9049) had lower odds of breastfeeding initiation (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.81, 95% CI 0.71-0.93) and breastfeeding duration (AOR = .87, 95% CI 0.80-0.96) if they have sons compared to Hispanic women who have daughters. Sex of child did not impact the odds of breastfeeding initiation or duration among any other race/ethnic group. Conclusion We have shown that, for Hispanics in the US, sex of child may have an impact on breastfeeding, a health behavior that has a variety of positive impacts on infants throughout their lives. Boys, relative to girls, were at a disadvantage in breastfeeding initiation and duration. Future work is necessary to unpack the mechanisms behind these findings. In particular, how sex of child impacts how mothers and fathers view the nutritional needs of their children and breastfeeding more broadly.

  7. Tobacco Withdrawal Amongst African American, Hispanic, and White Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello, Mariel S; Pang, Raina D; Cropsey, Karen L; Zvolensky, Michael J; Reitzel, Lorraine R; Huh, Jimi; Leventhal, Adam M

    2016-06-01

    Persistent tobacco use among racial and ethnic minority populations in the United States is a critical public health concern. Yet, potential sources of racial/ethnic disparities in tobacco use remain unclear. The present study examined racial/ethnic differences in tobacco withdrawal-a clinically-relevant underpinning of tobacco use that has received sparse attention in the disparities literature-utilizing a controlled laboratory design. Daily smokers (non-Hispanic African American [n = 178], non-Hispanic white [n = 118], and Hispanic [n = 28]) attended two counterbalanced sessions (non-abstinent vs. 16-hour abstinent). At both sessions, self-report measures of urge, nicotine withdrawal, and affect were administered and performance on an objective behavioral task that assessed motivation to reinstate smoking was recorded. Abstinence-induced changes (abstinent scores vs. non-abstinent scores) were analyzed as a function of race/ethnicity. Non-Hispanic African American smokers reported greater abstinence-induced declines in several positive affect states in comparison to other racial/ethnic groups. Relative to Hispanic smokers, non-Hispanic African American and non-Hispanic white smokers displayed larger abstinence-provoked increases in urges to smoke. No racial/ethnic differences were detected for a composite measure of nicotine withdrawal symptomatology, negative affect states, and motivation to reinstate smoking behavior. These results suggest qualitative differences in the expression of some components of tobacco withdrawal across three racial/ethnic groups. This research helps shed light on bio-behavioral sources of tobacco-related health disparities, informs the application of smoking cessation interventions across racial/ethnic groups, and may ultimately aid the overall effort towards reducing the public health burden of tobacco addiction in minority populations. The current study provides some initial evidence that there may be qualitative differences in the

  8. Can the Medical Home eliminate racial and ethnic disparities for transition services among Youth with Special Health Care Needs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Nicole E; Tran, Tri; Berry, Susan

    2012-05-01

    The Medical Home (MH) is shown to improve health outcomes for Youth with Special Health Care Needs (YSHCN). Some MH services involve Transition from pediatric to adult providers to ensure YSHCN have continuous care. Studies indicate racial/ethnic disparities for Transition, whereas the MH is shown to reduce health disparities. This study aims to (1) Determine the Transition rate for YSHCN with a MH (MH Transition) nationally, and by race/ethnicity (2) Identify which characteristics are associated with MH Transition (3) Determine if racial/ethnic disparities exist after controlling for associated characteristics, and (4) Identify which characteristics are uniquely associated with each race/ethnic group. National survey data were used. YSCHN with a MH were grouped as receiving Transition or not. Characteristics included race, ethnicity (Non-Hispanic (NH), Hispanic), sex, health condition effect, five special health care need categories, education, poverty, adequate insurance, and urban/rural residence. Frequencies, chi-square, and logistic regression were used to calculate rates and define associations. Alpha was set to 0.05. About 57.0% of YSHCN received MH Transition. Rates by race/ethnicity were 59.0, 45.5, 60.2, 41.9, and 44.6% for NH-White, NH-Black, NH-Multiple race, NH-Other, and Hispanic YSHCN, respectively. Disparities remained between NH-White and NH-Black YSHCN. All characteristics except urban/rural status were associated. Adequate insurance was associated for all race/ethnic groups, except NH-Black YSHCN. Almost 57.0% of YSHCN received MH Transition. Disparities remained. Rates and associated characteristics differed by race/ethnic group. Culturally tailored interventions incorporating universal factors to improve MH Transition outcomes are warranted.

  9. Racial and ethnic differences in pulmonary arterial hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Naamani, Nadine; Paulus, Jessica K.; Roberts, Kari E.; Pauciulo, Michael W.; Lutz, Katie; Nichols, William C.; Kawut, Steven M.

    2017-01-01

    This study explores the racial and ethnic differences in presentation, severity, and treatment of patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) in a large multicenter registry. African American and Hispanic patients are more likely to present with associated PAH compared to non-Hispanic whites. Hispanic patients with PAH were less likely to be treated with PAH-specific medications compared to non-Hispanic whites.

  10. Physical activity in older, rural, Hispanic, and non-Hispanic white adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson, Carolyn J; Marshall, Julie A; Mikulich-Gilbertson, Susan K; Baxter, Judith; Morgenstern, Nora

    2005-06-01

    Understanding variations in physical activity patterns is important for planning health interventions. This study describes age-related change in physical activity in 903 rural Hispanic and non-Hispanic white (NHW) adults age 55-80. The Physical Activity History assessed 13 categories of productive and recreational activity during the past year with up to four assessments per participant from 1987 to 1998. The most common activities were walking and home maintenance/gardening. Productive and recreational physical activity levels were lower in women than men (P productive activity steadily declined with age in NHW and Hispanics. Recreational activity increased slightly until age 63, then decreased after age 70. In women, productive activity initially stayed stable then decreased in NHW after age 63, and in Hispanics it decreased at younger ages before stabilizing after age 70. Recreational activity levels decreased steadily with age in all women, with a steeper rate of decline in NHW than Hispanics. In both ethnic groups, activity levels were lower in diabetics than nondiabetics, except for recreational activity in women where levels did not differ by diabetes status. The most common activities were similar to other studies of older adults, both recreational and productive activities contributed to total activity, and physical activity decreased in all gender-ethnic subgroups with age. Hispanic women reported the lowest activity levels. Interventions to maintain or increase recreational activity may need to target women at an earlier age than men.

  11. The intersection of gender and ethnicity in HIV risk, interventions, and prevention: new frontiers for psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, Gail E; Gómez, Cynthia A; Hamilton, Alison B; Valencia-Garcia, Dellanira; Gant, Larry M; Graham, Charles E

    2013-01-01

    This article articulates a contextualized understanding of gender and ethnicity as interacting social determinants of HIV risk and acquisition, with special focus on African Americans and Hispanics/Latinos--2 ethnic groups currently at most risk for HIV/AIDS acquisition in the United States. First, sex and gender are defined. Second, a conceptual model of gender, ethnicity, and HIV risk and resilience is presented. Third, a historical backdrop of gender and ethnic disparities is provided, with attention to key moments in history when notions of the intersections between gender, ethnicity, and HIV have taken important shifts. Finally, new frontiers in psychology are presented, with recommendations as to how psychology as a discipline can better incorporate considerations of gender and ethnicity as not only HIV risk factors but also as potential avenues of resilience in ethnic families and communities. Throughout the article, we promulgate the notion of a syndemic intersectional approach, which provides a critical framework for understanding and building the conditions that create and sustain overall community health by locating gendered lived experiences and expectations within the layered conceptual model ranging from the biological self to broader societal structures that define and constrain personal decisions, behaviors, actions, resources, and consequences. For ethnic individuals and populations, health disparities, stress and depression, substance abuse, and violence and trauma are of considerable concern, especially with regard to HIV risk, infection, and treatment. The conceptual model poses new frontiers for psychology in HIV policy, research, interventions, and training.

  12. Racial and ethnic differences among children with new-onset autoimmune Type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, K; Tosur, M; Schaub, R; Haymond, M W; Redondo, M J

    2017-10-01

    To compare demographic and clinical characteristics among children from ethnic minorities and non-Hispanic white children with new-onset autoimmune Type 1 diabetes. We analysed a single-centre series of 712 children with new-onset autoimmune Type 1 diabetes between January 2008 and March 2011. The median (range) age was 9.7 (0.3-18.1) years, the mean (sd) BMI percentile was 69.7 (25.4) and 48.3% of the cohort were girls. The cohort comprised 57.3% non-Hispanic white, 20.5% Hispanic and 14.8% African-American children, and 7.4% were of other, mixed or unknown race. The Hispanic subgroup, compared with non-Hispanic white subgroup, had a higher mean (sd) C-peptide level [0.82 (1.62) vs 0.55 (0.47) ng/ml; P=0.004), and a greater proportion of children with elevated BMI (overweight or obesity; 49.6% vs 32.5%; P1) and diabetic ketoacidosis (51.8% vs 38.2%; P=0.006). The African-American group had a higher mean (sd) glucose level [24.4 (12.8) vs 21.4 (10.7) mmol/l; P=0.017], a greater proportion of children with ketoacidosis (56.7% vs 38.2%; P=0.001), a greater proportion with elevated BMI (52.9% vs 32.5%; P1), and a lower proportion of children at pre-pubertal stage (49.0% vs 61.6%; P=0.01), and tended to have higher C-peptide levels [0.65 (0.59) vs 0.55 [0.47] ng/ml; P=0.079) compared with the non-Hispanic white children. The differences in C-peptide levels compared with non-Hispanic white children persisted for Hispanic (P=0.01) but not African-American children (P=0.29) after adjustment for age, sex, BMI, ketoacidosis, glucose, Tanner stage and autoantibody number. At the onset of paediatric autoimmune Type 1 diabetes, Hispanic, but not African-American children had higher C-peptide levels, after adjustment for potential confounders, compared with non-Hispanic white children. These findings suggest that ethnicity may contribute to the heterogeneity of Type 1 diabetes pathogenesis, with possible implications for intervention. © 2017 Diabetes UK.

  13. Targeting Hispanic adolescents with outdoor food & beverage advertising around schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, A L; Pasch, K E

    2017-02-09

    Although some research has focused on the food environment and food marketing, little has examined outdoor food and beverage (FB) advertising, particularly its relationship to the Hispanic composition in schools. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine if the prevalence of outdoor FB advertising was greater around middle and high schools with a majority Hispanic population as compared to schools with a lower Hispanic population. All FB advertisements located within a half-mile of 47 schools in Central Texas were documented. Advertisements were coded as free standing or on establishments. Advertisements were coded for theme including price (emphasizing price) and deals/value meals (promoting discounted price/meal deals). These two themes were combined to create an overall price promotion variable. In order to determine if the prevalence of FB advertising varied by the Hispanic composition of the students in the school, data from the Texas Education Agency was used to create a variable which dichotomized the schools into two groups: schools that reported ≥60% Hispanic students or 'Hispanic schools' (n = 21) and schools that reported advertising was greater around Hispanic schools as compared to non-Hispanic schools. Hispanic schools had more overall outdoor FB advertisements as compared to non-Hispanic schools (p = 0.02). Similarly, we found significantly more outdoor FB establishment (p = 0.02) and price promotion (p = 0.05) around Hispanic schools as compared to non-Hispanic schools. Differences in freestanding advertisements by school type approached significance (p = 0.07) with Hispanic schools having more freestanding FB advertisements on average. Further research is needed that documents the content of these advertisements and determines the extent to which these advertisements affect Hispanic and other racial/ethnic minority youth's attitudes and behaviors toward the consumption of these products.

  14. Developing a Leadership Identity as a Hispanic Woman at a Hispanic- Serving Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onorato, Suzanne; Musoba, Glenda Droogsma

    2015-01-01

    Institutions of higher education are uniquely positioned to educate tomorrow's leaders and initiate change in the number and ethnic diversity of women in leadership roles. The purpose of our study was to understand the essence of Hispanic college women's leadership identity development with participants and researchers co-constructing meaning. We…

  15. Differences in Self-Reported Physical Activity and Body Mass Index Among Older Hispanic and Non-Hispanic White Men and Women: Findings from the 2009 California Health Interview Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorkin, Dara H; Biegler, Kelly A; Billimek, John

    2015-10-01

    Older Hispanic Americans are a rapidly growing minority group who are disproportionately affected by diabetes mellitus and obesity. Given the importance of physical activity, particularly leisure-time activity, in the management of diabetes mellitus and obesity, the current study examined ethnic and sex differences in walking for transportation, leisure-time walking, moderate activity (not including walking), and vigorous activity between Hispanic and non-Hispanic white (NHW) older adults (age 55 and older) using the 2009 California Health Interview Survey, a population-based survey representative of California's noninstitutionalized population. The total sample consisted of 21,702 participants (20,148 NHW (7,968 men, 12,180 women) and 1,554 Hispanic (609 men, 945 women)). Multivariable logistic and linear regression analyses were adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics. The findings revealed that Hispanic men and women were significantly less likely to engage in self-reported leisure-time walking and vigorous activity than NHW men (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 0.71, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.51-0.99) and women (aOR = 0.60, 95% CI = 0.42-0.87). Regardless of ethnic group, men were more likely than women to engage in self-reported walking for transportation (aOR = 0.71, 95% CI = 0.58-0.87), moderate activity (aOR = 0.68, 95% CI = 0.57-0.81), and vigorous activity (aOR = 0.58, 95% CI = 0.50-0.68). All types of self-reported physical activity were associated with lower body mass index (BMI; P activity (P activity (P activities reported the lowest BMIs. The findings highlight the importance of emphasizing walking in efforts to increase moderate and vigorous activity, particularly for older women. © 2015, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2015, The American Geriatrics Society.

  16. Segregation and Hispanic Homicide

    OpenAIRE

    Michael G. Bisciglia

    2014-01-01

    As the overall population of Hispanics within the United States has eclipsed that of African Americans, a mounting concern has developed regarding the rise in Hispanic lethal violence as a result of social and economic inequality. One means to measure this inequality is in the form of segregation. Research indicates that in many Hispanic communities, their levels of segregation from the White non-Hispanic population ar...

  17. Accessing physical activity among young adults attending a university: the role of sex, race/ethnicity, technology use, and sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towne, Samuel D; Ory, Marcia G; Smith, Matthew Lee; Peres, S Camille; Pickens, Adam W; Mehta, Ranjana K; Benden, Mark

    2017-09-18

    Identifying factors associated with recommended physical activity (PA) levels are critical in efforts to combat the obesity epidemic and related comorbidities. We conducted cross-sectional analyses of college students (n = 490) enrolled in a large southern state university in October of 2014. Our aim was to identify sociodemographic characteristics, technology use, and sleep patterns among college students and their independent relationship to recommended PA. An online survey was sent to all enrolled students. Logistic regression predicted achieving recommended ≥150 min per week of moderate-vigorous PA (MVPA) versus not (≤149 min MVPA). Approximately 69% of study participants were males, 18% were Hispanic, and more than half (60%) were within the normal body mass index (12% were obese). The average age of students was 21 years. On a daily average, individuals used smartphones most often (nearly 4.4 h), followed by laptops at 4.0 h, desktops at 1.2 h, and tablets at 0.6 h. The mean number of hours individuals reported sleeping was 6.7. Sociodemographic factors associated with reporting ≥150 min of MVPA included being male (OR = 4.0, 95% CI 2.2-7.1) versus female, being non-Hispanic White (OR = 1.8, CI 1.1-3.2) versus being a member of minority race group. Behavioral factors associated with reporting ≥150 min of MVPA included technology use (being moderate-heavy (OR = 2.3, CI 1.1-4.8) or heavy (OR = 3.4, CI 1.6-7.5) users of technology), and receiving low-moderate (OR = 1.9, 1.01-3.7) levels of sleep versus the lowest level of sleep. In the current study, minority status and being female were the strongest sociodemographic factors associated with inadequate PA levels, while high technology use (primarily driven by smartphone use) were associated with recommended PA levels. Identifying factors associated with being physically active will allow for targeted interventions to improve the health of young adults.

  18. Accessing physical activity among young adults attending a university: the role of sex, race/ethnicity, technology use, and sleep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel D. Towne

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Identifying factors associated with recommended physical activity (PA levels are critical in efforts to combat the obesity epidemic and related comorbidities. Methods We conducted cross-sectional analyses of college students (n = 490 enrolled in a large southern state university in October of 2014. Our aim was to identify sociodemographic characteristics, technology use, and sleep patterns among college students and their independent relationship to recommended PA. An online survey was sent to all enrolled students. Logistic regression predicted achieving recommended ≥150 min per week of moderate-vigorous PA (MVPA versus not (≤149 min MVPA. Results Approximately 69% of study participants were males, 18% were Hispanic, and more than half (60% were within the normal body mass index (12% were obese. The average age of students was 21 years. On a daily average, individuals used smartphones most often (nearly 4.4 h, followed by laptops at 4.0 h, desktops at 1.2 h, and tablets at 0.6 h. The mean number of hours individuals reported sleeping was 6.7. Sociodemographic factors associated with reporting ≥150 min of MVPA included being male (OR = 4.0, 95% CI 2.2–7.1 versus female, being non-Hispanic White (OR = 1.8, CI 1.1–3.2 versus being a member of minority race group. Behavioral factors associated with reporting ≥150 min of MVPA included technology use (being moderate-heavy (OR = 2.3, CI 1.1–4.8 or heavy (OR = 3.4, CI 1.6–7.5 users of technology, and receiving low-moderate (OR = 1.9, 1.01–3.7 levels of sleep versus the lowest level of sleep. Conclusions In the current study, minority status and being female were the strongest sociodemographic factors associated with inadequate PA levels, while high technology use (primarily driven by smartphone use were associated with recommended PA levels. Identifying factors associated with being physically active will allow for targeted interventions to

  19. Increasing socioeconomic gap between the young and old: temporal trends in health and overall deprivation in England by age, sex, urbanity and ethnicity, 2004-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontopantelis, Evangelos; Mamas, Mamas A; van Marwijk, Harm; Buchan, Iain; Ryan, Andrew M; Doran, Tim

    2018-07-01

    At a low geographical level, little is known about the associations between population characteristics and deprivation, and their trends, which would be directly affected by the house market, labour pressures and government policies. We describe temporal trends in health and overall deprivation in England by age, sex, urbanity and ethnicity. Repeated cross-sectional whole population study for England, 2004-2015, at a low geographical level (average 1500 residents). We calculated weighted medians of the Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD) for each subgroup of interest. Over time, we observed increases in relative deprivation for people aged under 30, and aged 30-59, while median deprivation decreased for those aged 60 or over. Subgroup analyses indicated that relative overall deprivation was consistently higher for young adults (aged 20-29) and infants (aged 0-4), with increases in deprivation for the latter. Levels of overall deprivation in 2004 greatly varied by ethnicity, with the lowest levels observed for White British and the highest for Blacks. Over time, small reductions were observed in the deprivation gap between White British and all other ethnic groups. Findings were consistent across overall IMD and its health and disability subdomain, but large regional variability was also observed. Government policies, the financial crisis of 2008, education funding and the increasing cost of houses relative to real wages are important parameters in interpreting our findings. Socioeconomic deprivation is an important determinant of health and the inequalities this work highlights may have significant implications for future fiscal and healthcare policy. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  20. RACE ETHNICITY Persons by Hispanic Ethnicity and Race NMHD 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  1. RACE ETHNICITY Persons by Hispanic Ethnicity and Race BGs 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — TIGER, TIGER/Line, and Census TIGER are registered trademarks of the Bureau of the Census. The Redistricting Census 2000 TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected...

  2. Analysis of complex patterns of human exposure and immunity to Schistosomiasis mansoni: the influence of age, sex, ethnicity and IgE.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Pinot de Moira

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Numerous factors may influence Schistosoma infection intensity and prevalence within endemic communities, including exposure-related factors such as local environment and behaviour, and factors relating to susceptibility to infection such as immunology and genetics. While animal studies performed in the laboratory can be tightly controlled, human populations are highly heterogeneous, varying according to demographic characteristics, genetic background and exposure to infection. The heterogeneous nature of human water contact behaviour in particular makes it difficult to distinguish between a lack of cercarial exposure and reduced susceptibility to infection as the cause for low levels of infection in the field.In this study we investigate risk factors for Schistosoma mansoni infection in a rural Ugandan fishing community receiving treatment as part of a multi-disciplinary longitudinal reinfection study. More specifically, we examine the influence that age, sex and ethnic background have on susceptibility to reinfection after anti-helminth drug treatment, but use individual estimates of cercarial exposure and multivariable methods in an attempt to remove noise created by environmental and behavioural heterogeneities. We then investigate whether schistosome-specific IgE immune responses could account for any remaining variations in susceptibility to reinfection. Our findings suggest that observed ethnic- and sex-related variations in S. mansoni reinfection were due to variations in cercarial exposure, as opposed to biological differences in susceptibility to infection. Age-related differences in reinfection were not explained by exposure, however, and appeared linked to the balance of IgE and IgG(4 to the tegumental antigen SmTAL1 (formerly Sm22.6, which itself was significantly related to resistance to reinfection.This study highlights the benefit of taking a multidisciplinary approach in complex field settings; it allows the ecology of a

  3. Obesity and Hispanic Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Data > Minority Population Profiles > Hispanic/Latino > Obesity Obesity and Hispanic Americans Among Mexican American women, 77 percent are overweight ... inhqrdr/data/query At a Glace – Risk Factors: Obesity is a risk ... Americans Heart Disease – See Heart Disease and Hispanic Americans ...

  4. Cardiovascular risk in Hispanic and non-Hispanic preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Amy J; Gilbert, Lynn; Baramee, Julaluk; Granger, Theresa

    2006-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the United States for both men and women among all racial and ethnic groups. Identifying risk factors early in life can facilitate use of preventive strategies to reduce risk and improve health status across the life span. The aim of this study was to identify modifiable (tobacco smoke exposure, physical inactivity, dietary fat intake, overweight, and high blood pressure [BP]) and nonmodifiable (family history, gender, and age) cardiovascular risk factors in low-income preschool children. Low-income preschool children (N = 205) 3-5 years old were recruited to participate. Parents completed a multigenerational cardiovascular health history form and a 24-hour dietary recall for themselves and their child. The children's height, weight, and BP were obtained. Of the 205 children, 61% reported ethnicity as Latino or Hispanic, 31.7% non-Hispanic White, 1% non-Hispanic Black, 3.9% Asian, and 2.4% mixed race. The number of males (50.7%) and females (49.3%) was similar. Only 22 (10.7%) children had no identified cardiovascular risk factors. At least one modifiable risk factor was present in 179 (87.3%) children. Fifty-two (25.5%) children had a body mass index (BMI) > or = 85th percentile for gender and age; 44 (22.3%) had a systolic or diastolic BP over the 90th percentile for gender, age, and height; 128 (66.3%) had a dietary fat intake of > 30%; 77 (37.6%) watched TV or played video games more than 2 hr/day; and 48 (23.4%) were exposed to passive tobacco smoke. The identification of cardiovascular risk factors in almost 90% of presumably healthy preschoolers provides evidence to support testing of interventions that can improve health behaviors and reduce risks.

  5. Trends in oral anti-osteoporosis drug prescription in the United Kingdom between 1990 and 2012: Variation by age, sex, geographic location and ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Velde, R Y; Wyers, C E; Teesselink, E; Geusens, P P M M; van den Bergh, J P W; de Vries, F; Cooper, C; Harvey, N C; van Staa, T P

    2017-01-01

    Given the expected increase in the number of patients with osteoporosis and fragility fractures it is important to have concise information on trends in prescription rates of anti-osteoporosis drugs (AOD). We undertook a retrospective observational study using the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) in the UK between 1990 and 2012 in subjects 50years or older, stratified by age, sex, geographic region and ethnicity. Yearly prescription incidence rates of any AOD and of each specific AOD were calculated as the number of patients first prescribed these AODs per 10,000person-years (py). In women, yearly rates of first prescription of any AOD increased from 1990 to 2006 (from 2.3 to 169.7 per 10,000py), followed by a plateau and a 12% decrease in the last three years. In men, a less steep increase from 1990 to 2007 (from 1.4 to 45.3 per 10,000py) was followed by a plateau from 2008 onwards. Yearly rates of first prescription of any AOD increased up to the age of 85-89years (248.9 per 10,000py in women and 119.3 in men). There were marked differences between ethnic groups and regions. Bisphosphonates were the most frequently prescribed AODs: etidronate till 2000, and then subsequently alendronate. We have demonstrated marked secular changes in rates of anti-osteoporosis drug prescription over the last two decades. The plateau (and decrease amongst women) in rates in recent years, set against an ever ageing population, is worrying, suggesting that the well-documented care gap in osteoporosis treatment persists. The differences in prescription rates by geographic location and ethnicity raise intriguing questions in relation to underlying fracture rates, provision of care and health behaviour. We studied the prescription incidence of anti-osteoporosis drugs (AOD) from 1990 to 2012 in the UK CPRD. Overall AOD prescription incidence showed a strong increase from 1990 to 2006, followed by a plateau in both sexes and a decrease amongst women in the last three years

  6. Ethnic differences in progression of islet autoimmunity and type 1 diabetes in relatives at risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosur, Mustafa; Geyer, Susan M; Rodriguez, Henry; Libman, Ingrid; Baidal, David A; Redondo, Maria J

    2018-06-21

    We hypothesised that progression of islet autoimmunity and type 1 diabetes mellitus differs among races/ethnicities in at-risk individuals. In this study, we analysed the data from the Type 1 Diabetes TrialNet Pathway to Prevention Study. We studied 4873 non-diabetic, autoantibody-positive relatives of individuals with type 1 diabetes followed prospectively (11% Hispanic, 80.9% non-Hispanic white [NHW], 2.9% non-Hispanic black [NHB] and 5.2% non-Hispanic other [NHO]). Primary outcomes were time from single autoantibody positivity confirmation to multiple autoantibody positivity, and time from multiple autoantibody positivity to type 1 diabetes mellitus diagnosis. Conversion from single to multiple autoantibody positivity was less common in Hispanic individuals than in NHW individuals (HR 0.66 [95% CI 0.46, 0.96], p = 0.028) adjusting for autoantibody type, age, sex, Diabetes Prevention Trial Type 1 Risk Score and HLA-DR3-DQ2/DR4-DQ8 genotype. In participants who screened positive for multiple autoantibodies (n = 2834), time to type 1 diabetes did not differ by race/ethnicity overall (p = 0.91). In children who were <12 years old when multiple autoantibody positivity was determined, being overweight/obese had differential effects by ethnicity: type 1 diabetes risk was increased by 36% in NHW children (HR 1.36 [95% CI 1.04, 1.77], p = 0.024) and was nearly quadrupled in Hispanic children (HR 3.8 [95% CI 1.6, 9.1], p = 0.0026). We did not observe this interaction in participants who were ≥12 years old at determination of autoantibody positivity, although this group size was limited. No significant differential risks were observed between individuals of NHB and NHW ethnicity. The risk and rate of progression of islet autoimmunity were lower in Hispanic compared with NHW at-risk individuals, while significant differences in the development of type 1 diabetes were limited to children <12 years old and were modified by BMI.

  7. Place of birth,age of immigration,and disability in Hispanics with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amezcua, Lilyana; Conti, David V; Liu, Lihua; Ledezma, Karina; Langer-Goulda, Annette M

    2015-01-01

    Hispanics in the US are a diverse community where their knowledge and risk for developing disability in multiple sclerosis (MS) may relate to their level of acculturation. To compare the risk of disability in Hispanics with MS in the US by place of birth and age of immigration. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 304 Hispanics with MS residing in Southern California. Place of birth and age of immigration were used as proxies to acculturation. Individuals were classified as US-born, early and late-immigrant (immigration to the US, respectively). Risk of disability (expanded disability status scale ≥6) was adjusted for age at symptom onset, sex, socioeconomic status, and disease duration, using logistic regression. Late-immigrants were older at symptom onset (34.2±11.9 vs. 31.9±12.9 vs. 28.5±9.7 years, pimmigrant and US-born respectively. There was no difference between groups by female sex, type of MS, ethnicity, chronic medical conditions, and disease duration while differences were noted by socioeconomic status. Being late-immigrant was independently associated with increased disability (adjusted OR 2.3 95% CIs 1.07–4.82; p=0.03) compared to US-born. Later immigration to the US in Hispanics with MS is associated with greater disability. These findings may reflect differences in social, environmental and cultural factors that may act as barriers for accessibility and utilization of health services. An in-depth assessment of the perceptions and attitudes about MS are warranted in this population.

  8. Ethnic differences in lens parameters measured by ocular biometry in a cataract surgery population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dajiang; Amoozgar, Behzad; Porco, Travis; Wang, Zhen; Lin, Shan C

    2017-01-01

    To investigate whether differences exist in lens position and other lens parameters among major ethnic groups with cataractous eyes, which may help explain racial differences in angle closure risk. This retrospective, cross-sectional study included 807 adult patients who had cataract surgery between years 2014 and 2016 at the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF). Adult patients of white, Asian, Hispanic and African-American ethnicity were included. Lens position (LP), defined as anterior chamber depth (ACD) + 1/2 lens thickness (LT), was assessed using measurements from optical biometry. Other assessed biometric parameters included axial length (AL), relative lens position (RLP) (defined as LP/AL), and anterior chamber depth (ACD). A total of 807 patients and 1361 eyes were included in this study from a database of patients having cataract surgery. Mean age was 69.2 years (age range from 18 to 101 years old), and 60.3% of patients were women. The mean LP measurements were 5.54±0.32 mm for white, 5.38±0.32 mm for Asian, 5.32±0.30 mm for Hispanic, and 5.40±0.28 mm for African-American participants. After adjusting for age, sex, and AL, significant differences were found when comparing LP in paired comparisons among White cohort with Asians (P<0.001), Hispanics (P<0.001) and African-Americans (P = 0.003). Additionally, when comparing RLP, similar significant results were found when comparing Whites with Asians (P<0.001), Hispanics (P<0.001) and African-Americans (P = 0.002). Lastly, pair-wise comparison of LT between ethnic groups showed significant differences while comparing Asians with Whites (P = 0.001) and Asians with African-Americans (P<0.001). The results of this study suggest that the LP of Hispanic, Asian, and African-American patients are significantly smaller than that of White patients, and among all ethnic groups, Hispanics and after Asians have the smallest LP (P<0.001) and RLP (P<0.001). These findings may have implications for the

  9. Ethnic Minority Elders: Issues and Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Henry L.

    1998-01-01

    Presents an overview of issues related to culture, health, illness, ethnicity, and poverty for aging Asian and Pacific Islanders, Hispanic Americans, American Indians, and African Americans. Identifies the relationship between culture and ethnicity and draws implications for mental health counseling. (SK)

  10. Ethnic Diversity in Geography Undergraduate Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estaville, Lawrence E.; Akiwumi, Fenda A.; Montalvo, Edris J.

    2008-01-01

    The discipline of geography in the United States has not done a good job of attracting people, other than Asians, from underrepresented ethnic groups. This article examines undergraduate geography programs in the United States to understand better the status of their ethnic diversity, particularly regarding Hispanics and African Americans, and to…

  11. Race, Ethnicity and Participation in the Arts: Patterns of Participation by Black, Hispanic and White Americans in Selected Activities from the 1982 and 1985 Surveys of Public Participation in the Arts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiMaggio, Paul; Ostrower, Francie

    This report utilizes data from the 1982 and 1985 Surveys of Public Participation in the Arts to describe differences in patterns of participation in selected arts related activities by Black, Hispanic, and White respondents. Arts participation by Whites is greatest for all selected activities, except for Black attendance at jazz music activities.…

  12. Changing Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Heavy Drinking Trajectories Through Young Adulthood: A Comparative Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Edwina; Mulia, Nina; Karriker-Jaffe, Katherine J; Lui, Camillia K

    2018-01-01

    There is evidence of racial/ethnic differences in the age at which young adults age out of heavy drinking. Some studies have found Black and Hispanic drinkers engage in more frequent heavy drinking than White people beyond adulthood. Yet, the alcohol-related disparities literature has produced contradictory findings on whether an age-crossover effect is evident among racial/ethnic groups; that is, whether racial/ethnic minorities' drinking levels or trajectories are lower than White people at young ages but later exceed (or crossover) those of White people. This study extends this scant literature by assessing whether racial/ethnic differences in heavy drinking have changed over time (possibly accounting for mixed findings from prior research); and tests for an age-crossover effect in heavy drinking using longitudinal data from 2 cohorts born 20 years apart. Data are from the 1979 (n = 10,963) and 1997 (n = 8,852) cohorts of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY). Generalized estimating equations were used to model trajectories of heavy drinking frequency from ages 17 to 31. Racial/ethnic differences were determined using sex-stratified models and 3-way interactions of race/ethnicity with age, age-squared, and cohort. Racial/ethnic differences in heavy drinking trajectories have changed over time in men and women. In the older NLSY cohort, Hispanic men and Black women surpassed White men's and women's heavy drinking frequency by age 31. This crossover was absent in the younger cohort, where trajectories of all racial-sex groups converged by age 31. Normative trajectories have changed in Hispanics and White people of both sexes, with a delay in age of peak frequency, and greater levels of heavy drinking in the younger cohort of women. Changes in heavy drinking trajectories over time suggest the need for targeted interventions during young adulthood. While disparities in young adult heavy drinking were no longer apparent in the more recent birth cohort

  13. Familism and Health Care Provision to Hispanic Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Brittany; Foli, Karen J; Edwards, Nancy E; Abrahamson, Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    The Hispanic older adult population's rapid growth calls for an awareness of values that can affect the rendering and receipt of care. Familism, or familismo, a traditional Hispanic value, places importance of family over the self and can potentially affect health care perceptions and practices for Hispanic older adults. The current article discusses familism, which is upheld by some Hispanic older adults, and the potential for underuse of health care services. The traditional feminine role, marianismo, and masculine role, machismo, are considered, as well as implications for how decision making may be made by family members rather than the patient. Clinical implications for the provision of health care to Hispanic older adults are provided, along with the importance of considering acculturation and ethnic heterogeneity. Health care management strategies that reflect recognition and respect of familism, yet emphasize optimization of adherence and self-care, are described. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  14. Sociodemographic Correlates of Cognition in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Annette L; Rapp, Stephen R; Luchsinger, José; Hill-Briggs, Felicia; Alonso, Alvaro; Gottesman, Rebecca; Lee, Hochang; Carnethon, Mercedes; Liu, Kiang; Williams, Kayleen; Sharrett, A Richey; Frazier-Wood, Alexis; Lyketsos, Constantine; Seeman, Teresa

    2015-07-01

    To describe the methodology utilized to evaluate cognitive function in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) and to present preliminary results by age, sex, and race/ethnicity. Cross-sectional measurements of a prospective observational cohort. Residents of 6 U.S. communities free of cardiovascular disease at baseline (2000-02). 4,591 adults who completed the fifth MESA clinical examination in 2011-12; mean age 70.3 (SD: 9.5) years, 53.1% women, 40.7% non-Hispanic white, 26.4% non-Hispanic black, 21.4% Hispanic, and 11.5% Chinese. The cognitive battery consisted of the Cognitive Abilities Screening Instrument (version 2) to evaluate global cognition, the Digit Symbol Code for processing speed and Digit Spans Forward and Backward to assess memory. Demographic, socioeconomic, and cultural covariates were also collected for descriptive statistics and multivariate modeling. Associations between socioeconomic factors and cognition revealed that age, race/ethnicity, education, occupational status, household income, health insurance type, household size, place of birth, years and generation in U.S., and the presence of the ApoE4 allele were significantly associated with performance on the cognitive tests, although patterns varied by specific test, racial/ethnicity, and sociocultural factors. As many of the influencing cultural and socioeconomic factors measured here are complex, multifactorial, and may not be adequately quantified, caution has been recommended with regard to comparison and interpretation of racial/ethnic group performance differences from these cross-sectional models. These data provide a baseline for future exams and more comprehensive longitudinal analyses of the contributions of subclinical and clinical diseases to cognitive function and decline. Copyright © 2015 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Reported Sports Participation, Race, Sex, Ethnicity, and Obesity in US Adolescents From NHANES Physical Activity (PAQ_D).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Robert W; Perrin, Eliana M; Coyne-Beasley, Tamera; Peterson, Camilla J; Skinner, Asheley C

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To understand the relationships between participation in different types of leisure time sport activity and adolescent obesity, and how those relationships might differ based on race, gender, and household income. Methods. Data consisted of 6667 students that took part in the 1999 to 2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The authors used adjusted Wald tests to examine differences in the prevalence of obesity (body mass index >95th percentile for age and sex) by sport for boys and girls separately. Results. Among adolescent youth age 12 to 19 years, 16.6% of male leisure time sport participants and 15.3% of female sport participants were obese, compared with 23.6% for male nonathlete participant-in-other-activities and 17.0% obesity rate for female nonathlete/participant-in-other-activities. For both males and females, reported participation in leisure time sports decreased between middle school and high school, and this reduction was associated with higher body mass index.

  16. Prevalence of Complementary and Alternative Medicine and Herbal Remedy Use in Hispanic and Non-Hispanic White Women: Results from the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Robin R; Santoro, Nanette; Allshouse, Amanda A; Neal-Perry, Genevieve; Derby, Carol

    2017-10-01

    To investigate the prevalence of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use, including botanical/herbal remedies, among Hispanic and non-Hispanic white women from the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN), New Jersey site. We also examined whether attitudes toward CAM and communication of its use to providers differed for Hispanic and non-Hispanic women. SWAN is a community-based, multiethnic cohort study of midlife women. At the 13th SWAN follow-up, women at the New Jersey site completed both a general CAM questionnaire and a culturally sensitive CAM questionnaire designed to capture herbal products commonly used in Hispanic/Latina communities. Prevalence of and attitudes toward CAM use were compared by race/ethnicity and demographic characteristics. Among 171 women (average age 61.8 years), the overall prevalence of herbal remedy use was high in both Hispanic and non-Hispanic white women (88.8% Hispanic and 81.3% non-Hispanic white), and prayer and herbal teas were the most common modalities used. Women reported the use of multiple herbal modalities (mean 6.6 for Hispanic and 4.0 for non-Hispanic white women; p = 0.001). Hispanic women were less likely to consider herbal treatment drugs (16% vs. 37.5%; p = 0.005) and were less likely to report sharing the use of herbal remedies with their doctors (14.4% Hispanic vs. 34% non-Hispanic white; p = 0.001). The number of modalities used was similar regardless of the number of prescription medications used. High prevalence of herbal CAM use was observed for both Hispanic and non-Hispanic white women. Results highlight the need for healthcare providers to query women regarding CAM use to identify potential interactions with traditional treatments and to determine whether CAM is used in lieu of traditional medications.

  17. Profile: Hispanic/Latino Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hispanic whites have a bachelor's degree or higher. Economics: According to a 2015 U.S. Census Bureau report, ... non-Hispanic whites, Puerto Ricans have a low birth weight rate that twice that of non-Hispanic whites. Also, ...

  18. The beneficial effect of family meals on obesity differs by race, sex, and household education: the national survey of children's health, 2003-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollins, Brandi Y; Belue, Rhonda Z; Francis, Lori A

    2010-09-01

    Studies have indicated that family meals may be a protective factor for childhood obesity; however, limited evidence is available in children with different racial, socioeconomic, and individual characteristics. The purpose of this study was to examine family meal frequency as a protective factor for obesity in a US-based sample of non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and Hispanic children age 6 to 11 years, and to identify individual, familial, and socioeconomic factors that moderate this association. Data were from the 2003 National Survey of Children's Health (n=16,770). Multinomial logistic regression analyses were used to test the association between family meal frequency and weight status, and the moderating effects of household structure, education, poverty level, and sex, by racial group. Non-Hispanic white children who consumed family meals every day were less likely to be obese than those eating family meals zero or a few days per week. A moderating effect for sex was observed in non-Hispanic black children such that family meal frequency was marginally protective in boys but not in girls. Higher family meal frequency was a marginal risk factor for obesity in Hispanic boys from low-education households, but not in girls from similar households. In conclusion, family meals seem to be protective of obesity in non-Hispanic white children and non-Hispanic black boys, whereas they may put Hispanic boys living in low-education households at risk. Greater emphasis is needed in future research on assessing why this association differs among different race/ethnic groups, and evaluating the influence of the quality and quantity of family meals on child obesity. Copyright 2010 American Dietetic Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Explaining racial/ethnic differences in all-cause mortality in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA: Substantive complexity and hazardous working conditions as mediating factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaori Fujishiro

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Research on racial/ethnic health disparities and socioeconomic position has not fully considered occupation. However, because occupations are racially patterned, certain occupational characteristics may explain racial/ethnic difference in health. This study examines the role of occupational characteristics in racial/ethnic disparities in all-cause mortality. Data are from a U.S. community-based cohort study (n=6342, median follow-up: 12.2 years, in which 893 deaths (14.1% occurred. We estimated mortality hazard ratios (HRs for African Americans, Hispanics, and Chinese Americans compared with whites. We also estimated the proportion of the HR mediated by each of two occupational characteristics, substantive complexity of work (e.g., problem solving, inductive/deductive reasoning on the job and hazardous conditions (e.g., noise, extreme temperature, chemicals, derived from the Occupational Information Network database (O*NET. Analyses were adjusted for age, sex, nativity, working status at baseline, and study sites. African Americans had a higher rate of all-cause death (HR 1.41; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.19–1.66 than whites. Chinese-American ethnicity was protective (HR 0.59, CI: 0.40–0.85; Hispanic ethnicity was not significantly different from whites (HR 0.88; CI: 0.67–1.17. Substantive complexity of work mediated 30% of the higher rate of death for African Americans compared with whites. For other groups, mediation was not significant. Hazardous conditions did not significantly mediate mortality in any racial/ethnic group. Lower levels of substantive complexity of work mediate a substantial part of the health disadvantage in African Americans. This job characteristic may be an important factor in explaining racial health disparities.

  20. The residential segregation of detailed Hispanic and Asian groups in the United States: 1980-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Iceland

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Racial and ethnic diversity continues to grow in communities across the United States,raising questions about the extent to which different ethnic groups will become residentially integrated. Objective: While a number of studies have examined the residential patterns of pan-ethnic groups, our goal is to examine the segregation of several Asian and Hispanic ethnic groups - Cubans, Dominicans, Mexicans, Puerto Ricans, Salvadorans, Asian Indians, Chinese, Filipinos, Japanese, Koreans, and Vietnamese. We gauge the segregation of each group from several alternative reference groups using two measures over the 1980 to 2010 period. Results: We find that the dissimilarity of Hispanics and Asians from other groups generally held steady or declined, though, because most Hispanic and Asian groups are growing, interaction with Whites also often declined. Our analyses also indicate that pan-ethnic segregation indexes do not always capture the experience of specific groups. Among Hispanics, Mexicans are typically less residentially segregated (as measured using the dissimilarity index from Whites, Blacks, Asians, and other Hispanics than are other Hispanic-origin groups. Among Asian ethnic groups, Japanese and Filipinos tend to have lower levels of dissimilarity from Whites, Blacks, and Hispanics than other Asian groups. Examining different dimensions of segregation also indicates that dissimilarity scores alone often do not capture to what extent various ethnic groups are actually sharing neighborhoods with each other. Finally, color lines vary across groups in some important ways, even as the dominant trend has been toward reduced racial and ethnic residential segregation over time. Conclusions: The overarching trend is that ethnic groups are becoming more residentially integrated,suggestive of assimilation, though there is significant variation across ethnic groups.

  1. Disparities in Mental Health Quality of Life Between Hispanic and Non-Hispanic White LGB Midlife and Older Adults and the Influence of Lifetime Discrimination, Social Connectedness, Socioeconomic Status, and Perceived Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Jun; Fredriksen-Goldsen, Karen I

    2017-10-01

    We assessed factors contributing to ethnic and racial disparities in mental health quality of life (MHQOL) among lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) midlife and older adults. We utilized cross-sectional survey data from a sample of non-Hispanic White and Hispanic LGB adults aged 50 and older. Structural equation modeling was used to test the indirect effect of ethnicity/race on MHQOL via explanatory factors including social connectedness, lifetime discrimination, socioeconomic status (SES), and perceived stress. Hispanics reported significantly lower levels of MHQOL, compared to non-Hispanic Whites. In the final model, the association between ethnicity/race and MHQOL was explained by higher levels of perceived stress related to lower SES, higher frequency of lifetime discrimination, and lack of social connectedness among Hispanic LGB adults. This study suggests that perceived stress related to social disadvantage and marginalization plays an important role in MHQOL disparities among Hispanic LGB midlife and older adults.

  2. Skin-Tone Preferences and Self-Representation in Hispanic Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Erin A.; Wiese, Deborah L.

    2012-01-01

    Skin-tone preferences and colourism within Hispanic children have been largely unexamined in the psychological literature. The objectives of the current study were to investigate Hispanic children's skin-tone preferences and the effect of assessor race and ethnicity on those preferences. To carry out the study, Clark and Clark's colouring task was…

  3. Hispanic College Students' Perceptions of Members of Business Occupations: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cory, Suzanne N.; Mullen, Ellen Wall; Reeves, Thomas Edward

    2010-01-01

    The authors explored freshmen Hispanic and non-Hispanic White student perceptions of the members of three different business occupations: bankers, accountants, and marketing managers. Using "t" tests, some differences were found between the two ethnic groups regarding perceived individual characteristics of members of the occupations, but the…

  4. Family and Work Predictors of Psychological Well-Being among Hispanic Women Professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaro, Hortensia; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Examined contributions of job- and gender-related variables to Hispanic women professionals' mental health. Income, Hispanic group, discrimination, job stress, and peer support related to mental health. Spouse support and spouse ethnicity were associated with stress in balancing roles and psychological distress. Married women reported greater…

  5. Hispanic Business Agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coca-Cola USA, Atlanta, GA.

    This is a corporate policy statement of the Hispanic business agenda of Coca Cola USA, and the results of a community survey conducted to inform that agenda. The statement outlines several areas of company policy as they relate to Hispanic Americans. These areas include regional marketing, promotion, and community relations strategies, a…

  6. Sex and Race/Ethnicity Differences in Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator Counseling and Use Among Patients Hospitalized With Heart Failure: Findings from the Get With The Guidelines-Heart Failure Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Paul L; Hernandez, Adrian F; Bhatt, Deepak L; Hellkamp, Anne S; Yancy, Clyde W; Schwamm, Lee H; Peterson, Eric D; Schulte, Phillip J; Fonarow, Gregg C; Al-Khatib, Sana M

    2016-08-16

    Previous studies have found that women and black patients eligible for a primary prevention implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) are less likely than men or white patients to receive one. We performed an observational analysis of the Get With The Guidelines-Heart Failure Program from January 1, 2011, to March 21, 2014. Patients admitted with heart failure and an ejection fraction ≤35% without an ICD were included. Rates of ICD counseling among eligible patients and ICD receipt among counseled patients were examined by sex and race/ethnicity. Among 21 059 patients from 236 sites, 4755 (22.6%) received predischarge ICD counseling. Women were counseled less frequently than men (19.3% versus 24.6%, Prace/ethnic group 14.4% versus white 24.3%, Pdifferences by race and ethnicity persisted. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  7. Toward a Demographic Understanding of Incarceration Disparities : Race, Ethnicity, and Age Structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogel, M.S.; Porter, L.C.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Non-Hispanic blacks and Hispanics in the United States are more likely to be incarcerated than non-Hispanic whites. The risk of incarceration also varies with age, and there are striking differences in age distributions across racial/ethnic groups. Guided by these trends, the present

  8. Maternal Employment and Overweight Among Hispanic Children of Immigrants and Children of Natives

    OpenAIRE

    Baker, Elizabeth; Balistreri, Kelly Stamper; Van Hook, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    This research examines the relationship between maternal employment and child overweight among fifth grade Hispanic and non-Hispanic white children. Data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study Kindergarten (ECLS-K) cohort fifth grade sample (N = 4,360) were analyzed. OLS regression models were estimated predicting percentile BMI as a function of maternal employment, ethnicity, parental nativity status, income, and the interactions of employment, ethnicity/nativity, and income. Among Hisp...

  9. Racial/Ethnic Workplace Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, Laura J.; Ornelas, India J.; Lyles, Courtney R.; Williams, Emily C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Experiences of discrimination are associated with tobacco and alcohol use, and work is a common setting where individuals experience racial/ethnic discrimination. Few studies have evaluated the association between workplace discrimination and these behaviors, and none have described associations across race/ethnicity. Purpose To examine the association between workplace discrimination and tobacco and alcohol use in a large, multistate sample of U.S. adult respondents to the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey Reactions to Race Module (2004–2010). Methods Multivariable logistic regression analyses evaluated cross-sectional associations between self-reported workplace discrimination and tobacco (current and daily smoking) and alcohol use (any and heavy use, and binge drinking) among all participants and stratified by race/ethnicity, adjusting for relevant covariates. Data were analyzed in 2013. Results Among respondents, 70,080 completed the workplace discrimination measure. Discrimination was more common among black non-Hispanic (21%), Hispanic (12%), and other race respondents (11%) than white non-Hispanics (4%) (pdiscrimination was associated with current smoking (risk ratio [RR]=1.32, 95% CI=1.19, 1.47), daily smoking (RR=1.41, 95% CI=1.24, 1.61), and heavy drinking (RR=1.11, 95% CI=1.01, 1.22), but not binge or any drinking. Among Hispanics, workplace discrimination was associated with increased heavy and binge drinking, but not any alcohol use or smoking. Workplace discrimination among black non-Hispanics and white Non-Hispanics was associated with increased current and daily smoking, but not alcohol outcomes. Conclusions Workplace discrimination is common, associated with smoking and alcohol use, and merits further policy attention given the impact of these behaviors on morbidity and mortality. PMID:25441232

  10. Correlates of unprotected sex with female sex workers among male clients in Tijuana, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, Shira M; Gallardo Cruz, Manuel; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Nguyen, Lucie; Semple, Shirley J; Patterson, Thomas L

    2010-05-01

    Tijuana, situated adjacent to San Diego, CA on the US-Mexico border, is experiencing an emerging HIV epidemic, with prevalence among female sex workers (FSWs) having risen in recent years from Tijuana. In 2008, males from San Diego (N = 189) and Tijuana (N = 211) aged 18 or older who had paid or traded for sex with a FSW in Tijuana during the past 4 months were recruited in Tijuana's red light district. Participants underwent psychosocial interviews, and were tested for HIV, syphilis (Treponema pallidum), gonorrhea (Neisseria gonorrhoeae), and Chlamydia (Chlamydia trachomatis). Of 394 men, median age was 36 years, 42.1% were married, and 39.3% were unemployed. Ethnic composition was 13.2% white, 79.4% Hispanic, and 7.4% black or other. Half (50.3%) reported unprotected vaginal or anal sex with FSWs in Tijuana in the past 4 months. High proportions reported using drugs during sex (66%), and 36% reported frequenting the same FSW. Factors independently associated with unprotected sex with FSWs were using drugs during sex, visiting the same FSW, being married, and being unemployed. FSWs' clients represent a sexually transmitted infections/HIV transmission "bridge" through unprotected sex with FSWs, wives, and other partners. Tailored interventions to promote consistent condom use are needed for clients, especially within the context of drug use and ongoing relations with particular FSWs.

  11. The Gender Differences: Hispanic Females and Males Majoring in Science or Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Susan Wightman

    Documented by national statistics, female Hispanic students are not eagerly rushing to major in science or engineering. Using Seidman's in-depth interviewing method, 22 Hispanic students, 12 female and 10 male, majoring in science or engineering were interviewed. Besides the themes that emerged with all 22 Hispanic students, there were definite differences between the female and male Hispanic students: role and ethnic identity confusion, greater college preparation, mentoring needed, and the increased participation in enriched additional education programs by the female Hispanic students. Listening to these stories from successful female Hispanic students majoring in science and engineering, educators can make changes in our school learning environments that will encourage and enable more female Hispanic students to choose science or engineering careers.

  12. Alcohol consumption in relation to residence status and ethnicity in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciola, Eleanora E T; Nevid, Jeffrey S

    2014-12-01

    The present study examined the roles of gender, ethnicity, and residence status in an ethnically diverse sample of undergraduate students who completed the Core Alcohol and Drug Survey. Gender, ethnicity, and residential status were associated with likelihood of binge drinking among students who reported consuming alcohol (non-Hispanic). White students were more likely to report using alcohol than Black students and Asian students. Ethnicity moderated the effects of both residence status and gender on alcohol consumption. Living with one's parents was associated with a lower likelihood of reported alcohol use among Hispanic students, but not among (non-Hispanic) White students. Hispanic women were more likely to report using alcohol than were Hispanic men, but no gender difference in likelihood of alcohol consumption was found among (non-Hispanic) White students.

  13. Sexual functioning and practices in a multi-ethnic study of midlife women: baseline results from SWAN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Virginia S; Johannes, Catherine B; Avis, Nancy E; Mohr, Beth; Schocken, Miriam; Skurnick, Joan; Ory, Marcia

    2003-08-01

    This study examined the sexual practices and function of midlife women by ethnicity (African American, Caucasian, Chinese, Hispanic, Japanese) and menopausal status. Sexual behavior was compared in 3,262 women in the baseline cohort of SWAN. Participants were 42 to 52 years old, premenopausal or early perimenopausal, and not hysterectomized or using hormones. Analysis used multivariate proportional odds regression. In our sample, 79% had engaged in sex with a partner in the last 6 months, and a third considered sex to be very important. Common reasons for no sex (n = 676) were lack of partner (67%), lack of interest (33%), and fatigue (16%). Compared with Caucasians, Japanese and Chinese women were less likely, and African Americans more likely, to report sex as very important (p practices. Perimenopause status was associated only with higher frequencies of masturbation and pain during intercourse.

  14. Drug Poisoning Deaths according to Ethnicity in Utah

    OpenAIRE

    Merrill, Ray M.; Hedin, Riley J.; Fondario, Anna; Sloan, Arielle A.; Hanson, Carl L.

    2013-01-01

    This study characterizes drug-related deaths according to ethnicity in Utah during 2005–2010, based on data from the Utah Violent Death Reporting System (UTVDRS). Hispanics made up 12.1% (12.5% male and 11.7% female) of deaths. The most frequently identified drugs among decedents were opiates, then illicit drugs, benzodiazepines, over-the-counter medication, and antidepressants. Death rates for each drug were significantly greater in non-Hispanics than Hispanics. Most decedents used a combina...

  15. Identification of Barriers to Stroke Awareness and Risk Factor Management Unique to Hispanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Martinez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Barriers to risk factor control may differ by race/ethnicity. The goal of this study was to identify barriers to stroke awareness and risk factor management unique to Hispanics as compared to non-Hispanic whites (NHWs. We performed a prospective study of stroke patients from an academic Stroke Center in Arizona and surveyed members of the general community. Questionnaires included: the Duke Social Support Index (DSSI, the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control (MHLC Scale, a stroke barriers questionnaire, and a Stroke Awareness Test. Of 145 stroke patients surveyed (72 Hispanic; 73 NHW, Hispanics scored lower on the Stroke Awareness Test compared to NHWs (72.5% vs. 79.1%, p = 0.029. Hispanic stroke patients also reported greater barriers related to medical knowledge, medication adherence, and healthcare access (p < 0.05 for all. Hispanics scored higher on the “powerful others” sub-scale (11.3 vs. 10, p < 0.05 of the MHLC. Of 177 members of the general public surveyed, Hispanics had lower stroke awareness compared to NHWs and tended to have lower awareness than Hispanic stroke patients. These results suggest that Hispanic stroke patients perceive less control over their health, experience more healthcare barriers, and demonstrate lower rates of stroke literacy. Interventions for stroke prevention and education in Hispanics should address these racial/ethnic differences in stroke awareness and barriers to risk factor control.

  16. Evidence of Nonconscious Stereotyping of Hispanic Patients by Nursing and Medical Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, Meghan G.; Stone, Jeff; Badger, Terry A.; Focella, Elizabeth S.; Moskowitz, Gordon B.

    2013-01-01

    Background Current research on nonconscious stereotyping in health care is limited by an emphasis on practicing physicians’ beliefs about African American patients and by heavy reliance on a measure of nonconscious processes that allows participants to exert control over their behavior if they are motivated to appear nonbiased. Objectives The present research examined whether nursing and medical students exhibit nonconscious activation of stereotypes about Hispanic patients using a task that subliminally primes patient ethnicity. It was hypothesized that participants would exhibit greater activation of noncompliance and health risk stereotypes following subliminal exposure to Hispanic faces compared with non-Hispanic White faces and, because ethnicity was primed outside of conscious awareness, that explicit motivations to control prejudice would not moderate stereotype activation. Methods Nursing and medical students completed a sequential priming task that measured the speed with which they recognized words related to noncompliance and health risk following subliminal exposure to Hispanic and non-Hispanic White faces. They then completed explicit measures of their motivation to control prejudice against Hispanics. Results Both nursing and medical students exhibited greater activation of noncompliance and health risk words after subliminal exposure to Hispanic faces, compared with non-Hispanic White faces. Explicit motivations to control prejudice did not moderate stereotype activation. Discussion These findings show that, regardless of their motivation to treat Hispanics fairly, nursing and medical students exhibit nonconscious activation of negative stereotypes when they encounter Hispanics. Implications are discussed. PMID:23995470

  17. Quality of life and functioning of Hispanic patients with Major Depressive Disorder before and after treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Enrique; Steiner, Alexander J; Manier, Karra; Shapiro, Bryan B; Vanle, Brigitte; Parisi, Thomas; Dang, Jonathan; Chang, Tiffany; Ganjian, Shaina; Mirocha, James; Danovitch, Itai; IsHak, Waguih William

    2018-01-01

    Similar rates of remission from Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) have been documented between ethnic groups in response to antidepressant treatment. However, ethnic differences in functional outcomes, including patient-reported quality of life (QOL) and functioning, have not been well-characterized. We compared symptomatic and functional outcomes of antidepressant treatment in Hispanic and non-Hispanic patients with MDD. We analyzed 2280 nonpsychotic treatment-seeking adults with MDD who received citalopram monotherapy in Level 1 of the Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression study. All subjects (239 Hispanic, 2041 non-Hispanic) completed QOL, functioning, and depressive symptom severity measures at entry and exit. Hispanic participants had significantly worse QOL scores at entry and exit (p depressive symptom severity or functioning. Both groups had significant improvements in depressive symptom severity, QOL, and functioning from entry to exit (all p values depressive symptom severity, greater QOL, and better functioning at exit compared to patients without private insurance. This study was a retrospective data analysis, and the Hispanic group was relatively small compared to the non-Hispanic group. Hispanic and non-Hispanic participants with MDD had similar responses to antidepressant treatment as measured by depressive symptom severity scores, quality of life, and functioning. Nevertheless, Hispanic patients reported significantly worse quality of life at entry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Racial/ethnic differences in 30-year trajectories of heavy drinking in a nationally representative U.S. sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulia, Nina; Karriker-Jaffe, Katherine J; Witbrodt, Jane; Bond, Jason; Williams, Edwina; Zemore, Sarah E

    2017-01-01

    Racial/ethnic minorities bear a disproportionate burden of alcohol-related problems in the U.S. It is unknown whether this reflects harmful patterns of lifecourse heavy drinking. Prior research shows little support for the latter but has been limited to young samples. We examine racial/ethnic differences in heavy drinking trajectories from ages 21 to 51. Data on heavy drinking (6+ drinks/occasion) are from the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (N=9468), collected between 1982 and 2012. Sex-stratified, generalized estimating equations (GEE) were used to model heavy drinking frequency trajectories as a function of age with a cubic curve, and interactions of race with age terms were tested to assess racial/ethnic differences. Models adjusted for time-varying socioeconomic status and marital and parenting status; predictors of trajectories were examined in race- and sex-specific models. White men and women had similarly steep declines in heavy drinking frequency throughout the 20s, contrasting with slower declines (and lower peaks) in Black and Hispanic men and women. During the 30s there was a Hispanic-White crossover in men's heavy drinking curves, and a Black-White female crossover among lifetime heavy drinkers; by age 51, racial/ethnic group trajectories converged in both sexes. Greater education was protective for all groups. Observed racial/ethnic crossovers in heavy drinking frequency following young adulthood might contribute to disparities in alcohol-related problems in middle adulthood, and suggest a need for targeted interventions during this period. Additionally, interventions that increase educational attainment may constitute an important strategy for reducing heavy drinking in all groups. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Racial and Ethnic Differences in Total Knee Arthroplasty in the Veterans Affairs Health Care System, 2001-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausmann, Leslie R M; Brandt, Cynthia A; Carroll, Constance M; Fenton, Brenda T; Ibrahim, Said A; Becker, William C; Burgess, Diana J; Wandner, Laura D; Bair, Matthew J; Goulet, Joseph L

    2017-08-01

    To examine black-white and Hispanic-white differences in total knee arthroplasty from 2001 to 2013 in a large cohort of patients diagnosed with osteoarthritis (OA) in the Veterans Affairs (VA) health care system. Data were from the VA Musculoskeletal Disorders cohort, which includes data from electronic health records of more than 5.4 million veterans with musculoskeletal disorders diagnoses. We included white (non-Hispanic), black (non-Hispanic), and Hispanic (any race) veterans, age ≥50 years, with an OA diagnosis from 2001-2011 (n = 539,841). Veterans were followed from their first OA diagnosis until September 30, 2013. As a proxy for increased clinical severity, analyses were also conducted for a subsample restricted to those who saw an orthopedic or rheumatology specialist (n = 148,844). We used Cox proportional hazards regression to examine racial and ethnic differences in total knee arthroplasty by year of OA diagnosis, adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, physical and mental diagnoses, and pain intensity scores. We identified 12,087 total knee arthroplasty procedures in a sample of 473,170 white, 50,172 black, and 16,499 Hispanic veterans. In adjusted models examining black-white and Hispanic-white differences by year of OA diagnosis, total knee arthroplasty rates were lower for black than for white veterans diagnosed in all but 2 years. There were no Hispanic-white differences regardless of when diagnosis occurred. These patterns held in the specialty clinic subsample. Black-white differences in total knee arthroplasty appear to be persistent in the VA, even after controlling for potential clinical confounders. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology.

  20. Socioeconomic Status and Self-Rated Oral Health; Diminished Return among Hispanic Whites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assari, Shervin

    2018-04-24

    Background. An extensive body of knowledge has documented weaker health effects of socio-economic status (SES) for Blacks compared to Whites, a phenomenon also known as Blacks’ diminished return. It is, however, unknown whether the same diminished return also holds for other ethnic minorities such as Hispanics or not. Aim. Using a nationally representative sample, the current study aimed to compare Non-Hispanic and Hispanic Whites for the effects of SES on self-rated oral health. Methods. For the current cross-sectional study, we used data from the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys (CPES), 2001⁻2003. With a nationally representative sampling, CPES included 11,207 adults who were either non-Hispanic Whites ( n = 7587) or Hispanic Whites ( n = 3620. The dependent variable was self-rated oral health, treated as dichotomous measure. Independent variables were education, income, employment, and marital status. Ethnicity was the focal moderator. Age and gender were covariates. Logistic regressions were used for data analysis. Results. Education, income, employment, and marital status were associated with oral health in the pooled sample. Although education, income, employment, and marital status were associated with oral health in non-Hispanic Whites, none of these associations were found for Hispanic Whites. Conclusion. In a similar pattern to Blacks’ diminished return, differential gain of SES indicators exists between Hispanic and non-Hispanic Whites, with a disadvantage for Hispanic Whites. Diminished return of SES should be regarded as a systemically neglected contributing mechanism behind ethnic oral health disparities in the United States. Replication of Blacks’ diminished return for Hispanics suggests that these processes are not specific to ethnic minority groups, and non-White groups gain less because they are not enjoying the privilege and advantage of Whites.

  1. Disparities in eating disorder diagnosis and treatment according to weight status, race/ethnicity, socioeconomic background, and sex among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonneville, K R; Lipson, S K

    2018-03-02

    Eating disorders (EDs) present a significant threat to the health of adolescents and young adults, yet remain under-diagnosed and under-treated at a population-level. EDs have historically been thought to afflict "skinny, white, affluent girls" (the SWAG stereotype). As such, higher-weight individuals, racial/ethnic minorities, those from socioeconomically disadvantaged backgrounds, and males may not recognize their need for treatment, may not be properly screened for EDs, and/or may not be referred to treatment. Using large-scale survey data from the healthy bodies study, we examined variations in prevalence of perceived need for ED treatment, ED diagnosis, past-year ED treatment, and treatment barriers according to weight status, race, socioeconomic background, and sex among undergraduate and graduate students with symptoms of an ED (N = 1,747). Among students with symptoms of an ED, 30.7% perceived a need for treatment, 10.5% had received a diagnosis, and 13.6% had received treatment in the past year. Individual characteristics were highly associated with perceived need, diagnosis, and past-year treatment. Females were more likely than males to perceive a need for treatment (OR = 1.97), to be diagnosed (OR = 4.66), and to be treated (OR = 1.64) for their ED symptoms. Socioeconomic background was associated with perceived need for treatment and past-year treatment, with students from affluent backgrounds having higher odds of perceiving need (OR = 1.52) and of receiving treatment (OR = 1.89) compared with their non-affluent peers. At a population-level, the unmet need for ED treatment disproportionately affects certain groups. Stereotypes about who develops EDs could contribute to disparities in ED treatment and outcomes. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Perinatal factors and breast cancer risk among Hispanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maureen Sanderson

    2013-06-01

    Conclusions: The results tended to differ slightly from previous studies of this topic perhaps owing to the different hormonal milieu among Hispanics relative to Caucasians, African Americans and Asians in whom all previous studies of this topic have been conducted. Confirmation of these findings in larger studies may assist in determining how hormonal mechanisms responsible for breast cancer differ by ethnicity.

  3. Making Our Way through: Voices of Hispanic Counselor Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerma, Eunice; Zamarripa, Manuel X.; Oliver, Marvarine; Cavazos Vela, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Through 23 open-ended questionnaires and 8 individual interviews, this phenomenological study explored the experiences of Hispanic men and women (N = 23) who completed doctoral degrees in counselor education. Six themes were identified: family role models, educational support, parental expectations, ethnic identity, acculturation/cultural…

  4. Hispanic Law Students' Perceptions of Discrimination, Justice, and Career Prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Sharon; Kidder, Deborah L.

    2002-01-01

    A survey of 118 Hispanic law students found that female students were more likely than males to expect gender discrimination in their future law firms; perceived discrimination affected student perceptions of the fairness of the promotion process, which influenced career satisfaction; and students did not expect ethnic discrimination to impede…

  5. Differences in Obesity Among Men of Diverse Racial and Ethnic Background

    OpenAIRE

    Hill, Sarah E.; Bell, Caryn; Bowie, Janice V.; Kelley, Elizabeth; Furr-Holden, Debra; LaVeist, Thomas A.; Thorpe, Roland J.

    2015-01-01

    Racial/ethnic disparities exist in obesity prevalence among men, with Hispanic men exhibiting the highest prevalence compared with non-Hispanic White and non-Hispanic Black men. Most studies do not parse out Hispanic groups; therefore, it is unclear whether the increases in obesity rates among Hispanic men applies to all groups or if there are particular groups of Hispanic men that are driving the increase. The goal of this study is to examine the variations in obesity among men of diverse ra...

  6. Physical activity among Hispanic/Latino and non-Hispanic/Latino white visitors to urban-proximate public lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonia A. Wilhelm Stanis; Ingrid E. Schneider; Kimberly J. Shinew; Deborah J. Chavez; Mary C. Vogel

    2008-01-01

    Health benefits of physical activity are well recognized and documented, yet obesity rates remain high in the United States, particularly among Hispanics/Latinos. As our population becomes more urban and ethnically diverse, a greater understanding of specific populations may help agencies better address issues related to obesity and sedentary lifestyles. This study...

  7. Developing a Leadership Identity: A Case Study Exploring a Select Group of Hispanic Women at a Hispanic Serving Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onorato, Suzanne M.

    2010-01-01

    Leadership is a socially constructed concept shaped by the context, values and experiences of society (Klenke, 1996); the historical context of gender and ethnicity in society affects views about leadership and who merits a leadership role. Therefore, developing an understanding of Hispanic women students' leadership identity development is…

  8. Partner Preference Among Men Who Have Sex with Men: Potential Contribution to Spread of HIV Within Minority Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Gregory; Birkett, Michelle; Hammond, Sydney; Mustanski, Brian

    2016-06-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disproportionately affects men who have sex with men (MSM) in the United States. Most prior research into drivers of HIV transmission has focused on individual characteristics rather than on dyadic-level behaviors such as sex partner selection. This article explores racial/ethnic preferences in sex and relationship partner selection among MSM to further contextualize the spread of HIV within minority groups. Participants were recruited through a mobile application (app) for men to meet other men in 2015 and completed an online survey on behaviors related to HIV risk. All analyses on the sample of 530 MSM were conducted in 2015. There was significant homophily in partner selection within racial/ethnic minorities, but not for white MSM. In general, mobile app-using MSM reported a general preference for white and Hispanic men and a dispreference for black and Asian men, both for sex and relationship partners. Racial/ethnic preferences were found to drive intentions to form partnerships within this sample. Combined with the stigma many of these racial/ethnic minorities may also feel from homophobic attitudes within their own racial/ethnic communities, these MSM may be at particular risk for social isolation. These partner preferences likely affect the structure of the sexual networks of MSM and may contribute to increased clustering within high HIV incident sexual networks.

  9. Diabetes in Hispanic American Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Jean M.; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth J.; Reynolds, Kristi; Beyer, Jennifer; Pettitt, David J.; D'Agostino, Ralph B.; Marcovina, Santica M.; Imperatore, Giuseppina; Hamman, Richard F.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To report the 2001 prevalence and 2002–2005 incidence of type 1 and type 2 diabetes in Hispanic American youth and to describe the demographic, clinical, and behavioral characteristics of these youth. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—Data from the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth Study, a population-based multicenter observational study of youth aged 0–19 years with physician-diagnosed diabetes, were used to estimate the prevalence and incidence of type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Information obtained by questionnaire, physical examination, and blood and urine collection was analyzed to describe the characteristics of youth who completed a study visit. RESULTS—Among Hispanic American youth, type 1 diabetes was more prevalent than type 2 diabetes, including in youth aged 10–19 years. There were no significant sex differences in type 1 or type 2 diabetes prevalence. The incidence of type 2 diabetes for female subjects aged 10–14 years was twice that of male subjects (P < 0.005), while among youth aged 15–19 years the incidence of type 2 diabetes exceeded that of type 1 diabetes for female subjects (P < 0.05) but not for male subjects. Poor glycemic control, defined as A1C ≥9.5%, as well as high LDL cholesterol and triglycerides were common among youth aged ≥15 years with either type of diabetes. Forty-four percent of youth with type 1 diabetes were overweight or obese. CONCLUSIONS—Factors such as poor glycemic control, elevated lipids, and a high prevalence of overweight and obesity may put Hispanic youth with type 1 and type 2 diabetes at risk for future diabetes-related complications. PMID:19246577

  10. Hispanic Health PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the May 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. About one in six people living in the U.S. are Hispanic. The two leading causes of death in this group are heart disease and cancer, accounting for two out of five deaths. Unfortunately, many Hispanics face considerable barriers to getting high quality health care, including language and low income. Learn what can be done to reduce the barriers.

  11. Breast Cancer Incidence and Risk Reduction in the Hispanic Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Eric J; Chin, Megan L; Haq, Mohamed M

    2018-02-26

    Breast cancer is the most common non-skin cancer amongst women worldwide and is the fifth leading cause of cancer-related mortality overall. It is also the foremost reason for cancer-related mortality in Hispanic females in the United States (US). Although the current incidence of breast cancer is significantly lower in Hispanics compared to that of non-Hispanic Whites (NHW) and Blacks, (91.9, 128.1, and 124.3 per 100,000, respectively, annually), this may increase if Hispanics develop similar lifestyle behaviors to other American women, in categories such as weight management, age at first birth, number of children, and breastfeeding habits. Stage-for-stage mortality for Hispanics is similar to NHWs, but the mortality rate is not declining as rapidly in this ethnic group. Hispanic women share many of the same risk factors for developing breast cancer as NHWs and Blacks. This suggests that many of the risk reduction strategies used in other racial populations may also benefit this group. Providing education about breast cancer and implementing risk reduction strategies in culturally-aware environments could help keep incidence low and reduce cancer-related mortality. Since Hispanics are the largest minority group in the US, this could have a significant impact on the incidence and mortality nationally.

  12. Segregation and Hispanic Homicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael G. Bisciglia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As the overall population of Hispanics within the United States has eclipsed that of African Americans, a mounting concern has developed regarding the rise in Hispanic lethal violence as a result of social and economic inequality. One means to measure this inequality is in the form of segregation. Research indicates that in many Hispanic communities, their levels of segregation from the White non-Hispanic population are similar to that of African Americans. Although a multitude of previous studies have looked at the impact of segregation among African Americans, the literature remains under-represented in terms of multi-city macro-level analyses among Hispanics. This current study extends the analysis of segregation’s effects on lethal violence to this population. To this end, two measures of segregation were used, the index of dissimilarity and exposure. Using data from the census and the Centers for Disease Control (CDC mortality files, negative binominal regression models were created using a sample of 236 U.S. cities. The results indicated that both measures of segregation show a strong positive influence on rates of Hispanic homicides.

  13. Cultural Considerations: Pharmacological and Nonpharmacological Means for Improving Blood Pressure Control among Hispanic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neela K. Patel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States, and its prevention and treatment remain a priority for the medical community. Ethnic variations account for some differences in the prevalence of hypertension and blood pressure (BP control rates among Hispanics, indicating the need for culturally appropriate management models. Aggressive treatment strategies are key to achieving optimal BP control in high-risk Hispanic patients. Hypertension in this ethnic group continues to be a major health concern. Of note, when provided access to comprehensive care, Hispanics demonstrate similar response rates to treatment as the majority of non-Hispanic whites. This highlights the importance of effective, culturally responsive hypertension management among high-risk Hispanic patients for achieving observable, positive health outcomes.

  14. Hispanics have the lowest stem cell transplant utilization rate for autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation for multiple myeloma in the United States: A CIBMTR report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schriber, Jeffrey R; Hari, Parameswaran N; Ahn, Kwang Woo; Fei, Mingwei; Costa, Luciano J; Kharfan-Dabaja, Mohamad A; Angel-Diaz, Miguel; Gale, Robert P; Ganguly, Siddharatha; Girnius, Saulius K; Hashmi, Shahrukh; Pawarode, Attaphol; Vesole, David H; Wiernik, Peter H; Wirk, Baldeep M; Marks, David I; Nishihori, Taiga; Olsson, Richard F; Usmani, Saad Z; Mark, Tomer M; Nieto, Yago L; D'Souza, Anita

    2017-08-15

    Race/ethnicity remains an important barrier in clinical care. The authors investigated differences in the receipt of autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation (AHCT) among patients with multiple myeloma (MM) and outcomes based on race/ethnicity in the United States. The Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research database was used to identify 28,450 patients who underwent AHCT for MM from 2008 through 2014. By using data from the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results 18 registries, the incidence of MM was calculated, and a stem cell transplantation utilization rate (STUR) was derived. Post-AHCT outcomes were analyzed among patients ages 18 to 75 years who underwent melphalan-conditioned peripheral cell grafts (N = 24,102). The STUR increased across all groups from 2008 to 2014. The increase was substantially lower among Hispanics (range, 8.6%-16.9%) and non-Hispanic blacks (range, 12.2%-20.5%) compared with non-Hispanic whites (range, 22.6%-37.8%). There were 18,046 non-Hispanic whites, 4123 non-Hispanic blacks, and 1933 Hispanic patients. The Hispanic group was younger (P blacks (42%) compared with non-Hispanic whites (56%). A Karnofsky score 3 were more common in non-Hispanic blacks compared with Hispanic and non-Hispanic whites (P blacks (54%) and non-Hispanic whites (52%; P blacks (45%) and non-Hispanic whites (44%) had a very good partial response or better before transplantation (P = .005). Race/ethnicity did not impact post-AHCT outcomes. Although the STUR increased, it remained low and was significantly lower among Hispanics followed by non-Hispanic blacks compared with non-Hispanic whites. Race/ethnicity did not impact transplantation outcomes. Efforts to increase the rates of transplantation for eligible patients who have MM, with an emphasis on groups that underuse transplantation, are warranted. Cancer 2017;123:3141-9. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  15. Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study: meal and snack intakes of Hispanic and non-Hispanic infants and toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Paula; Hanson, Charlotte; Ponza, Michael; Novak, Timothy; Hendricks, Kristy

    2006-01-01

    To describe meal and snack patterns of Hispanic and non-Hispanic infants and toddlers. A cross-sectional telephone survey in which mothers or other primary caregivers reported their infants' and toddlers' food and beverage intake for a 24-hour period. Subjects were a subset of the national random sample of children aged 4-24 months who participated in the 2002 Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study. The Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study includes a stratified random sample of 3,022 infants and toddlers aged 4-24 months. Three hundred seventy-one Hispanic and 2,637 non-Hispanic children who had 24-hour dietary recalls are included in the subset. Means+/-standard errors of daily intakes of energy, nutrients, and nutrient densities were calculated, as were percentages of children consuming foods at each eating occasion. Hispanic and non-Hispanic infants and toddlers, on average, were fed seven times per day. Overall, the percentages of children who ate snacks increased with age, and more than 80% of toddlers aged 12-24 months consumed afternoon snacks, with more than 90% of Hispanic children consuming an afternoon snack. In each age group, there were significant differences between ethnic groups in nutrient intakes by eating occasion. No significant difference was seen for energy across all meal occasions. At age 6-11 months, Hispanic children had a significantly lower intake of carbohydrate at dinner and lower intake of saturated fat at afternoon snacks compared with non-Hispanic children (Pchildren's and non-Hispanic children's intakes by eating occasion is at age 12-24 months. Hispanics aged 12-24 months had significantly (Pchildren. For dinner, Hispanic toddlers had significantly (Pcomplement meals by including additional fruits, vegetables, and whole grains that are culturally appropriate rather than fruit drinks, cookies, and crackers. This will increase fiber intake and limit fat and sugar intakes. To develop healthful eating patterns, introduce toddlers to foods

  16. Neighborhood poverty, urban residence, race/ethnicity, and asthma: Rethinking the inner-city asthma epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keet, Corinne A; McCormack, Meredith C; Pollack, Craig E; Peng, Roger D; McGowan, Emily; Matsui, Elizabeth C

    2015-03-01

    Although it is thought that inner-city areas have a high burden of asthma, the prevalence of asthma in inner cities across the United States is not known. We sought to estimate the prevalence of current asthma in US children living in inner-city and non-inner-city areas and to examine whether urban residence, poverty, or race/ethnicity are the main drivers of asthma disparities. The National Health Interview Survey 2009-2011 was linked by census tract to data from the US Census and the National Center for Health Statistics. Multivariate logistic regression models adjusted for sex; age; race/ethnicity; residence in an urban, suburban, medium metro, or small metro/rural area; poverty; and birth outside the United States, with current asthma and asthma morbidity as outcome variables. Inner-city areas were defined as urban areas with 20% or more of households at below the poverty line. We included 23,065 children living in 5,853 census tracts. The prevalence of current asthma was 12.9% in inner-city and 10.6% in non-inner-city areas, but this difference was not significant after adjusting for race/ethnicity, region, age, and sex. In fully adjusted models black race, Puerto Rican ethnicity, and lower household income but not residence in poor or urban areas were independent risk factors for current asthma. Household poverty increased the risk of asthma among non-Hispanics and Puerto Ricans but not among other Hispanics. Associations with asthma morbidity were very similar to those with prevalent asthma. Although the prevalence of asthma is high in some inner-city areas, this is largely explained by demographic factors and not by living in an urban neighborhood. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Differences in marital status and mortality by race/ethnicity and nativity among California cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, María Elena; Anderson, Kristin; Murphy, James D; Hurley, Susan; Canchola, Alison J; Keegan, Theresa H M; Cheng, Iona; Clarke, Christina A; Glaser, Sally L; Gomez, Scarlett L

    2016-05-15

    It has been observed that married cancer patients have lower mortality rates than unmarried patients, but data for different racial/ethnic groups are scarce. The authors examined the risk of overall mortality associated with marital status across racial/ethnic groups and sex in data from the California Cancer Registry. California Cancer Registry data for all first primary invasive cancers diagnosed from 2000 through 2009 for the 10 most common sites of cancer-related death for non-Hispanic whites (NHWs), blacks, Asians/Pacific Islanders (APIs), and Hispanics were used to estimate multivariable hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for marital status in relation to overall mortality by race/ethnicity and sex. The study cohort included 393,470 male and 389,697 female cancer patients and 204,007 and 182,600 deaths from all causes, respectively, through December 31, 2012. All-cause mortality was higher in unmarried patients than in married patients, but there was significant variation by race/ethnicity. Adjusted HRs (95% CIs) ranged from 1.24 (95% CI, 1.23-1.26) in NHWs to 1.11 (95% CI, 1.07-1.15) in APIs among males and from 1.17 (95% CI, 1.15-1.18) in NHWs to 1.07 (95% CI, 1.04-1.11) in APIs among females. All-cause mortality associated with unmarried status compared with married status was higher in US-born API and Hispanic men and women relative to their foreign-born counterparts. For patients who have the cancers that contribute most to mortality, being unmarried is associated with worse overall survival compared with being married, with up to 24% higher mortality among NHW males but only 6% higher mortality among foreign-born Hispanic and API females. Future research should pursue the identification of factors underlying these associations to inform targeted interventions for unmarried cancer patients. Cancer 2016;122:1570-8. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  18. Maternal employment and overweight among Hispanic children of immigrants and children of natives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Elizabeth; Balistreri, Kelly Stamper; Van Hook, Jennifer

    2009-06-01

    This research examines the relationship between maternal employment and child overweight among fifth grade Hispanic and non-Hispanic white children. Data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study Kindergarten (ECLS-K) cohort fifth grade sample (N = 4,360) were analyzed. OLS regression models were estimated predicting percentile BMI as a function of maternal employment, ethnicity, parental nativity status, income, and the interactions of employment, ethnicity/nativity, and income. Among Hispanic children of immigrants, maternal employment is associated with lower percentile BMI and this association strengthens at higher levels of income. Among Hispanic children of natives and non-Hispanic whites, maternal employment is beneficial (i.e. associated with lower percentile BMI) among low-income children but detrimental among high-income children, but this pattern is significantly greater in strength for Hispanics than non-Hispanic whites. Thus, maternal employment is associated with worse health outcomes only in the case of Hispanic children of natives, and maternal employment is associated with the best outcomes for Hispanic children of mothers from high-income families. We speculate that among children of immigrants, maternal employment may signify and/or accelerate assimilation towards middle- or upper-class American values of healthy weight and body size. Diet, meal regularity and supervision, and childcare did not mediate the relationship between maternal employment and overweight.

  19. Using the MMPI/MMPI-2 with the Hispanic/Latino Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, Jennifer M.

    Examination of the relationship between Hispanic/Latino ethnicity, racial identification, acculturation, culture, language and the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI/MMPI-2) has revealed controversial results. Because the MMPI/MMPI-2 is the most widely used personality assessment, it is important to understand how ethnic and…

  20. Culture and ethnicity influence outcomes of the Scoliosis Research Society Instrument in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Lee Jae; Kawakami, Noriaki; Lenke, Lawrence G; Sucato, Daniel J; Sanders, James O; Diab, Mohammad

    2012-05-20

    Retrospective comparative study. To report preoperative differences in the Scoliosis Research Society Outcomes Instrument (SRS-30) between multiple US ethnicities and native Japanese and Korean children with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). The SRS-24 was developed in a US cohort with AIS. Comparative studies using the SRS-24 between US and Japanese patients showed differences, suggesting that culture might affect functional outcome. Preoperative SRS-30 outcomes were collected from 1853 children with AIS from 6 different ethnic groups: US white (1234), black (213), Hispanic (78), and Asian (29), as well as native Japanese (192) and Koreans (107). Analysis of covariance of 4 SRS-30 domains (pain, appearance, activity, and mental) was compared between groups adjusting for differences in age, sex, major curve magnitude, and body mass index. Pairwise comparisons of the 4 SRS-30 domains were adjusted for multiple comparisons, using Bonferroni correction. A P value of less than 0.05 was considered significant. Significant differences between ethnicities were found in all domains (P Culture and ethnicity influence SRS-30 outcomes in AIS. Whites reported more pain than Japanese and Koreans. Japanese and Koreans had the lowest appearance scores. Koreans additionally were distinguished by the lowest activity, mental, and total scores. These cultural and ethnic differences must be taken into account when counseling patients with AIS and studying functional outcomes.

  1. Drug Poisoning Deaths according to Ethnicity in Utah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ray M. Merrill

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study characterizes drug-related deaths according to ethnicity in Utah during 2005–2010, based on data from the Utah Violent Death Reporting System (UTVDRS. Hispanics made up 12.1% (12.5% male and 11.7% female of deaths. The most frequently identified drugs among decedents were opiates, then illicit drugs, benzodiazepines, over-the-counter medication, and antidepressants. Death rates for each drug were significantly greater in non-Hispanics than Hispanics. Most decedents used a combination of drugs. For each combination, rates were significantly greater for non-Hispanics than Hispanics, with an exception for opiates and illicit drugs combined, where there was no significant difference. Approximately 79% of non-Hispanics and 65% of Hispanics had one or more of the selected problems (e.g., mental, physical, or crisis related. Rates for each combination of problems were significantly greater in non-Hispanics, with the exception of crisis. Hispanics were less affected by the rise in prescription drug abuse. Hispanic decedents had a greater proportion of illegal drugs, consistent with it being more difficult to obtain prescription drugs. Hispanic decedents were less likely to have physical and mental health problems, which may be related to a smaller chance of diagnosis of such problems through the healthcare system.

  2. Comparisons Between Hispanic and Non-Hispanic White Informal Caregivers

    OpenAIRE

    Nancy J. Karlin; Joyce Weil; James Gould

    2012-01-01

    This study focuses on understanding similarities and differences between non-Hispanic White and Hispanic informal caregivers of those with Alzheimer’s disease. Comparisons take place between caregivers reporting high levels of burden as indicated by the Zarit Burden Inventory. Data suggest similarities and differences between Hispanic (n = 17) and non-Hispanic White (n = 17) caregivers in this study in several areas. H...

  3. Asian American mothers' perception of their children's weight: a comparison with other racial/ethnic groups in Los Angeles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobari, Tabashir Z; Wang, May-Choo; Whaley, Shannon E

    2015-01-01

    While mother's perception of child's weight is important for the success of early childhood obesity prevention programs, few studies have examined that of Asian Americans. Our study examined their perception and compared it to that of mothers of other racial/ethnic groups. Cross-sectional study of 2,051 randomly selected mothers of children aged 2-5 years living in Los Angeles County who were enrolled in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women Infants and Children (WIC). The primary outcome was mother's perception of child's weight. We found that Asian American mothers were 2.12 (95% CI: 1.27-3.54) times as likely as Hispanic mothers to accurately perceive their children's weight, adjusting for child's age, sex and birthweight, and mother's age and education. However, this relationship disappeared after adjusting for mother's BMI. We did not find differences in perception of child's weight among non-Hispanic White, non-Hispanic Black and Hispanic mothers. It appears that Asian American mothers' increased accurate perception of child's weight status can be partially explained by their lower prevalence of obesity. Our findings suggest that early childhood obesity prevention programs should consider the weight status of mothers.

  4. Ethnic Differences in Adolescents' Mental Distress, Social Stress, and Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Heeseung; Meininger, Janet C.; Roberts, Robert E.

    2006-01-01

    Limited data on ethnic group differences among young adolescents exist regarding the prevalence of mental distress, social stress, and resources. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to examine ethnic differences among African American (AA), European American (EA), Hispanic American (HA), and Asian American adolescents in mental distress,…

  5. Suicidality, ethnicity and immigration in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Guilherme; Orozco, Ricardo; Rafful, Claudia; Miller, Elizabeth; Breslau, Joshua

    2013-01-01

    Background Suicide is the eleventh cause of death in the US. This rate varies across ethnic groups. Whether suicide behavior differs by ethnic groups in the US in the same way as observed for suicide death is a matter of current discussion. The goal of this report is to compare the lifetime prevalence of suicide ideation and attempt among four main ethnic groups (Asians, Blacks, Hispanics, and Whites) in the US. Methods Suicide ideation and attempts were assessed using the World Mental Health version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Discrete time survival analysis was used to examine risk for life-time suicidality by ethnicity and immigration among 15,180 participants in the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiological Surveys, a group of cross-sectional surveys. Results Suicide ideation was most common among Non-Hispanic Whites (16.10%), least common among Asians (9.02%), and intermediate among Hispanics (11.35%) and Non-Hispanic Blacks (11.82%). Suicide attempts were equally common among Non-Hispanic Whites (4.69%), Hispanics (5.11%) and Non-Hispanic Blacks (4.15%) and slightly less common among Asians (2.55%). These differences in the crude prevalence rates of suicide ideation decreased but persisted after control for psychiatric disorders, but disappeared for suicide attempt. Within ethnic groups, risk for suicidality was low among immigrants prior to migration compared to the US-born, but equalized over time after migration. Conclusions Ethnic differences in suicidal behaviors are partly explained by differences in psychiatric disorders and low risk prior to arrival in the US. These differences are likely to decrease as the US-born proportion of Hispanics and Asians increases. PMID:22030006

  6. Heart Disease in Hispanic Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Heart Disease in Women Heart Disease in Hispanic Women “I thought it couldn’t be true,” says ... disease is their No. 1 killer. Why Hispanic women? While heart disease doesn’t discriminate, you could ...

  7. Hispanic Health PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-05-05

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the May 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. About one in six people living in the U.S. are Hispanic. The two leading causes of death in this group are heart disease and cancer, accounting for two out of five deaths. Unfortunately, many Hispanics face considerable barriers to getting high quality health care, including language and low income. Learn what can be done to reduce the barriers.  Created: 5/5/2015 by Office of Minority Health & Health Equity (OMHHE).   Date Released: 5/5/2015.

  8. Genome-Wide Association Study of Blood Pressure Traits by Hispanic/Latino Background: the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos

    OpenAIRE

    Sofer, Tamar; Wong, Quenna; Hartwig, Fernando P.; Taylor, Kent; Warren, Helen R.; Evangelou, Evangelos; Cabrera, Claudia P.; Levy, Daniel; Kramer, Holly; Lange, Leslie A.; Horta, Bernardo L.; Liang, Jingjing; Le, Thu H.; Edwards, Digna R. Velez; Tayo, Bamidele O.

    2017-01-01

    Hypertension prevalence varies between ethnic groups, possibly due to differences in genetic, environmental, and cultural determinants. Hispanic/Latino Americans are a diverse and understudied population. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of blood pressure (BP) traits in 12,278 participants from the Hispanics Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL). In the discovery phase we identified eight previously unreported BP loci. In the replication stage, we tested these ...

  9. Age, gender, and race/ethnic differences in total body and subregional bone density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looker, A C; Melton, L J; Harris, T; Borrud, L; Shepherd, J; McGowan, J

    2009-07-01

    Total body bone density of adults from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2004 differed as expected for some groups (men>women and blacks>whites) but not others (whites>Mexican Americans). Cross-sectional age patterns in bone mineral density (BMD) of older adults differed at skeletal sites that varied by degree of weight-bearing. Total body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) data offer the opportunity to compare bone density of demographic groups across the entire skeleton. The present study uses total body DXA data (Hologic QDR 4500A, Hologic, Bedford MA, USA) from the NHANES 1999-2004 to examine BMD of the total body and selected skeletal subregions in a wide age range of adult men and women from three race/ethnic groups. Total body, lumbar spine, pelvis, right leg, and left arm BMD and lean mass from 13,091 adults aged 20 years and older were used. The subregions were chosen to represent sites with different degrees of weight-bearing. Mean BMD varied in expected ways for some demographic characteristics (men>women and non-Hispanic blacks>non-Hispanic whites) but not others (non-Hispanic whites>Mexican Americans). Differences in age patterns in BMD also emerged for some characteristics (sex) but not others (race/ethnicity). Differences in cross-sectional age patterns in BMD and lean mass by degree of weight-bearing in older adults were observed for the pelvis, leg, and arm. This information may be useful for generating hypotheses about age, race, and sex differences in fracture risk in the population.

  10. Racial/ethnic variations in the prevalence of selected major birth defects, metropolitan Atlanta, 1994-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucik, James E; Alverson, Clinton J; Gilboa, Suzanne M; Correa, Adolfo

    2012-01-01

    Birth defects are the leading cause of infant mortality and are responsible for substantial child and adult morbidity. Documenting the variation in prevalence of birth defects among racial/ethnic subpopulations is critical for assessing possible variations in diagnosis, case ascertainment, or risk factors among such groups. We used data from the Metropolitan Atlanta Congenital Defects Program, a population-based birth defects registry with active case ascertainment. We estimated the racial/ethnic variation in prevalence of 46 selected major birth defects among live births, stillbirths, and pregnancy terminations at >20 weeks gestation among mothers residing in the five central counties of metropolitan Atlanta between 1994 and 2005, adjusting for infant sex, maternal age, gravidity, and socioeconomic status (SES). We also explored SES as a potential effect measure modifier. Compared with births to non-Hispanic white women, births to non-Hispanic black women had a significantly higher prevalence of five birth defects and a significantly lower prevalence of 10 birth defects, while births to Hispanic women had a significantly higher prevalence of four birth defects and a significantly lower prevalence of six birth defects. The racial/ethnic disparities in the prevalence of some defects varied by SES, but no clear pattern emerged. Racial/ethnic disparities were suggested in 57% of included birth defects. Disparities in the prevalence of birth defects may result from different underlying genetic susceptibilities; exposure to risk factors; or variability in case diagnosis, ascertainment, or reporting among the subpopulations examined. Policies that improve early diagnosis of birth defects could reduce associated morbidity and mortality.

  11. Ethnic Differences in Poststroke Quality of Life in the Brain Attack Surveillance in Corpus Christi (BASIC) Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Sarah L; Brown, Devin L; Baek, Jonggyu; Wing, Jeffrey J; Morgenstern, Lewis B; Lisabeth, Lynda D

    2015-10-01

    Mexican Americans (MAs) have an increased risk of stroke and experience worse poststroke disability than non-Hispanic whites, which may translate into worse poststroke quality of life (QOL). We assessed ethnic differences in poststroke QOL, as well as potential modification of associations by age, sex, and initial stroke severity. Ischemic stroke survivors were identified through the biethnic, population-based Brain Attack Surveillance in Corpus Christi (BASIC) Project. Data were collected from medical records, baseline interviews, and 90-day poststroke interviews. Poststroke QOL was measured at ≈90 days by the validated short-form stroke-specific QOL in 3 domains: overall, physical, and psychosocial (range, 0-5; higher scores represent better QOL). Tobit regression was used to model associations between ethnicity and poststroke QOL scores, adjusted for demographics, clinical characteristics, and prestroke cognition and function. Among 290 eligible stroke survivors (66% MA, 34% non-Hispanic whites, median age=69 years), median scores for overall, physical, and psychosocial poststroke QOL were 3.3, 3.8, and 2.7, respectively. Poststroke QOL was lower for MAs than non-Hispanic whites both overall (mean difference, -0.30; 95% confidence interval, -0.59, -0.01) and in the physical domain (mean difference, -0.47; 95% confidence interval, -0.81, -0.14) after multivariable adjustment. No ethnic difference was found in the psychosocial domain. Age modified the associations between ethnicity and poststroke QOL such that differences were present in older but not in younger ages. Disparities exist in poststroke QOL for MAs and seem to be driven by differences in older stroke patients. Targeted interventions to improve outcomes among MA stroke survivors are urgently needed. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  12. Differences in Health-Related Quality of Life Between New Mexican Hispanic and Non-Hispanic White Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Alejandro A; Petersen, Hans; Meek, Paula; Sood, Akshay; Celli, Bartolome; Tesfaigzi, Yohannes

    2016-10-01

    Smoking is associated with impaired health-related quality of life (HRQL) across all populations. Because decline in lung function and risk for COPD are lower in New Mexican Hispanic smokers compared with their non-Hispanic white (NHW) counterparts, the goal of this study was to ascertain whether HRQL differs between these two racial/ethnic groups and determine the factors that contribute to this difference. We compared the score results of the Medical Outcomes Short-Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36) and St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) in 378 Hispanic subjects and 1,597 NHW subjects enrolled in the Lovelace Smokers' Cohort (LSC) from New Mexico. The associations of race/ethnicity with SGRQ and SF-36 were assessed by using multivariable regression. Physical functioning (difference, -4.5; P = .0008) but not mental health or role emotional domains of the SF-36 was worse in Hispanic smokers than in their NWH counterparts in multivariable analysis. SGRQ total score and its activity and impact subscores were worse in Hispanic (vs NHW) smokers after adjustment for education level, current smoking, pack-years smoked, BMI, number of comorbidities, and FEV 1 % predicted (difference range, 2.9-5.0; all comparisons, P ≤ .001). Although the difference in the SGRQ activity domain was above the clinically important difference of four units, the total score was not. New Mexican Hispanic smokers have clinically relevant, lower HRQL than their NHW counterparts. A perception of diminished physical functioning and impairment in daily life activities contribute to the poorer HRQL among Hispanic subjects. Copyright © 2016 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Hispanics in Fast Food Jobs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charner, Ivan; Fraser, Bryna Shore

    A study examined the employment of Hispanics in the fast-food industry. Data were obtained from a national survey of employees at 279 fast-food restaurants from seven companies in which 194 (4.2 percent) of the 4,660 respondents reported being Hispanic. Compared with the total sample, Hispanic fast-food employees were slightly less likely to be…

  14. Bicultural Advertising and Hispanic Acculturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Wan-Hsiu Sunny; Li, Cong

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the moderating effects of acculturation modes (assimilated, integrated, and separated) on Hispanic consumers' responses to three advertising targeting strategies (Caucasian targeted, bicultural, and Hispanic targeted). The hypotheses were empirically tested in a 3 x 3 factorial experiment with 155 self-identified Hispanic adult…

  15. Ethnic Differences in Cancer Pain Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Eun-ok

    2008-01-01

    Background Inconsistent findings on ethnic differences in cancer pain experience suggest the need for further studies on this topic for adequate cancer pain management. Objectives The purpose of this study was to determine ethnic differences in cancer pain experience of 4 ethnic groups in the U.S. Methods A feminist perspective provided the theoretical basis. This was a survey of a multiethnic sample of 480 cancer patients asking questions on sociodemographic characteristics and health/illness status, 3 unidimensional cancer pain scales, 2 multidimensional cancer pain scales, the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale, and the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy Scale. The data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics including ANOVA and hierarchical multiple regression analyses. Results The results indicated certain ethnic differences in types of pain and symptoms that patients experienced. Also, the results demonstrated significant ethnic differences in cancer pain and functional status. The VDS, VAS, FS, MPQ, and BPI scores of Non-Hispanic (N-H) Asian participants were significantly lower than those of Hispanic and N-H White participants (p<.01). The VAS and MPQ scores of N-H African American participants were significantly lower than those of Hispanic and N-H White participants (p<.01). The FACT-G scores of N-H Asian participants were significantly lower than Hispanic participants (p<.01). The findings also indicated that being N-H Asian or not was a significant predictor of the VDS, FS, and BPI scores. Discussion The findings suggest further in-depth qualitative exploration on cultural values and beliefs related to cancer pain in each ethnic group and national-scope studies with a larger number of ethnic minorities on this topic. PMID:17846550

  16. Mexican Americans Receive Less Intensive Stroke Rehabilitation Than Non-Hispanic Whites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenstern, Lewis B; Sais, Emma; Fuentes, Michael; Ifejika, Nneka L; Jiang, Xiaqing; Horn, Susan D; Case, Erin; Lisabeth, Lynda D

    2017-06-01

    Mexican Americans (MAs) have worse neurological, functional, and cognitive outcomes after stroke. Stroke rehabilitation is important for good outcome. In a population-based study, we sought to determine whether allocation of stroke rehabilitation services differed by ethnicity. Patients with stroke were identified as part of the Brain Attack Surveillance in Corpus Christi (BASIC) project, TX, USA. Cases were validated by physicians using source documentation. Patients were followed prospectively for 3 months after stroke to determine rehabilitation services and transitions. Descriptive statistics were used to depict the study population. Continuous baseline variables were compared using 2 sample t tests or Wilcoxon rank-sum tests by ethnicity. Categorical baseline variables were compared using χ 2 tests. Ethnic comparisons of rehabilitation services were compared using χ 2 tests, Fisher's exact tests, and logistic regression. Seventy-two subjects (50 MA and 22 non-Hispanic white [NHW]) were followed. Mean age, NHW-69 (SD 13), MA-66 (SD 11) years, sex (NHW 55% male, MA 50% male) and median presenting National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale did not differ significantly. There were no ethnic differences among the proportion of patients who were sent home without any rehabilitation services ( P =0.9). Among those who received rehabilitation, NHWs were more likely to get inpatient rehabilitation (73%) compared with MAs (30%), P =0.016. MAs (51%) were much more likely to receive home rehabilitation services compared with NHWs (0%) ( P =0.0017). In this population-based study, MAs were more likely to receive home-based rehabilitation, whereas NHWs were more likely to get inpatient rehabilitation. This disparity may, in part, explain the worse stroke outcome in MAs. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  17. Mexican Americans receive less intensive stroke rehabilitation than non Hispanic whites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenstern, Lewis B.; Sais, Emma; Fuentes, Michael; Ifejika, Nneka L.; Jiang, Xiaqing; Horn, Susan D.; Case, Erin; Lisabeth, Lynda D.

    2017-01-01

    Background and Purpose Mexican Americans (MAs) have worse neurologic, functional and cognitive outcomes after stroke. Stroke rehabilitation is important for good outcome. In a population-based study, we sought to determine if allocation of stroke rehabilitation services differed by ethnicity. Methods Stroke patients were identified as part of the Brain Attack Surveillance in Corpus Christi (BASIC) project, Texas, USA. Cases were validated by physicians using source documentation. Patients were followed prospectively for three months following stroke to determine rehabilitation services and transitions. Descriptive statistics were used to depict the study population. Continuous baseline variables were compared using two sample t-tests or Wilcoxon rank-sum tests by ethnicity. Categorical baseline variables were compared using chi-squared tests. Ethnic comparisons of rehabilitation services were compared using chi-squared tests, Fisher’s exact tests and logistic regression. Results Seventy-two subjects (50 MA and 22 non-Hispanic white [NHW]) were followed. Mean age, NHW-69 (sd-13), MA-66 (sd-11) years, sex (NHW 55% male, MA 50% male) and median presenting NIHSS did not differ significantly. There were no ethnic differences among the proportion of patients who were sent home without any rehabilitation services (p=0.9). Among those who received rehabilitation NHWs were more likely to get inpatient rehabilitation (73%) compared with MAs (30%), p=0.016. MAs (51%) were much more likely to receive home rehabilitation services compared with NHWs (0%) (p=0.0017). Conclusions In this population-based study, MAs were more likely to receive home-based rehabilitation while NHWs more likely to get inpatient rehabilitation. This disparity may, in part, explain the worse stroke outcome in MAs. PMID:28386042

  18. Breast cancer prevention knowledge, beliefs, and information sources between non-Hispanic and Hispanic college women for risk reduction focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratzke, Cynthia; Amatya, Anup; Vilchis, Hugo

    2015-02-01

    Although growing research focuses on breast cancer screenings, little is known about breast cancer prevention with risk reduction awareness for ethnic differences among college-age women. This study examined breast cancer prevention knowledge, beliefs, and information sources between non-Hispanic and Hispanic college women. Using a cross-sectional study, women at a university in the Southwest completed a 51-item survey about breast cancer risk factors, beliefs, and media and interpersonal information sources. The study was guided by McGuire's Input Output Persuasion Model. Of the 546 participants, non-Hispanic college women (n = 277) and Hispanic college women (n = 269) reported similar basic knowledge levels of modifiable breast cancer risk factors for alcohol consumption (52 %), obesity (72 %), childbearing after age 35 (63 %), and menopausal hormone therapy (68 %) using bivariate analyses. Most common information sources were Internet (75 %), magazines (69 %), provider (76 %) and friends (61 %). Least common sources were radio (44 %), newspapers (34 %), and mothers (36 %). Non-Hispanic college women with breast cancer family history were more likely to receive information from providers, friends, and mothers. Hispanic college women with a breast cancer family history were more likely to receive information from their mothers. Breast cancer prevention education for college women is needed to include risk reduction for modifiable health behavior changes as a new focus. Health professionals may target college women with more information sources including the Internet or apps.

  19. Hispanic Health: CDC Vitalsigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Injury Prevention & Control Gateway to Health Communication & Social Marketing Practice On Other Web Sites MedlinePlus – Hispanic American ... MB] en Español [PDF – 1.61 MB] CDC Digital Press Kit Read the MMWR Science Clips Language: ...

  20. Hispanic American Volunteering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Josue; Safrit, R. Dale

    2001-01-01

    Hispanic Americans in Cleveland, Ohio were interviewed about volunteerism. Six themes were identified: (1) influence of family and friends; (2) importance of volunteering to benefit youth; (3) importance of church and religious beliefs; (4) volunteering as a requirement; (5) connections between volunteerism and the community; and (6) personal…

  1. Performance of a risk index for advanced proximal colorectal neoplasia among a racially/ethnically diverse patient population (risk index for advanced proximal neoplasia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitzky, Benjamin E; Brown, Colin C; Heeren, Timothy C; Schroy, Paul C

    2011-06-01

    Tailoring the use of screening colonoscopy based on the risk of advanced proximal neoplasia (APN) has been advocated as a strategy for reducing demand and optimizing effectiveness. A 7-point index based on age, sex, and distal findings at sigmoidoscopy has been proposed that stratifies individuals into low, intermediate, and high-risk categories. The aim of this cross-sectional analysis was to determine the validity of this index, which was originally derived and validated among mostly whites, for black and Hispanic patients. Data, including age, sex, colonoscopic findings, and pathology, were collected retrospectively from 1,481 white, 1,329 black, and 689 Hispanic asymptomatic, average-risk patients undergoing screening colonoscopy between 2000 and 2005. Cumulative scores ranging from 0 to 7 were derived for each subject and categorized as low, intermediate, or high risk. Rates of APN were assessed for each risk category after stratification by race/ethnicity. Index performance was assessed using the C-statistic and compared across the three racial groups. Rates of APN among patients categorized as low, intermediate, or high risk increased from 1.0 to 2.8 to 3.7% for whites, 1.0 to 2.2 to 4.2% for blacks, and 0.6 to 1.9 to 3.7% for Hispanics. The index performed similarly for all three groups, but showed limited ability to discriminate low from intermediate-risk patients, with C-statistic values of 0.62 for whites, 0.63 for blacks, and 0.68 for Hispanics. A risk index based on age, sex, and distal endoscopic findings has limited ability to discriminate low from intermediate-risk white, black, and Hispanic patients for APN.

  2. Multiple independent genetic factors at NOS1AP modulate the QT interval in a multi-ethnic population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan E Arking

    Full Text Available Extremes of electrocardiographic QT interval are associated with increased risk for sudden cardiac death (SCD; thus, identification and characterization of genetic variants that modulate QT interval may elucidate the underlying etiology of SCD. Previous studies have revealed an association between a common genetic variant in NOS1AP and QT interval in populations of European ancestry, but this finding has not been extended to other ethnic populations. We sought to characterize the effects of NOS1AP genetic variants on QT interval in the multi-ethnic population-based Dallas Heart Study (DHS, n = 3,072. The SNP most strongly associated with QT interval in previous samples of European ancestry, rs16847548, was the most strongly associated in White (P = 0.005 and Black (P = 3.6 x 10(-5 participants, with the same direction of effect in Hispanics (P = 0.17, and further showed a significant SNP x sex-interaction (P = 0.03. A second SNP, rs16856785, uncorrelated with rs16847548, was also associated with QT interval in Blacks (P = 0.01, with qualitatively similar results in Whites and Hispanics. In a previously genotyped cohort of 14,107 White individuals drawn from the combined Atherosclerotic Risk in Communities (ARIC and Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS cohorts, we validated both the second locus at rs16856785 (P = 7.63 x 10(-8, as well as the sex-interaction with rs16847548 (P = 8.68 x 10(-6. These data extend the association of genetic variants in NOS1AP with QT interval to a Black population, with similar trends, though not statistically significant at P<0.05, in Hispanics. In addition, we identify a strong sex-interaction and the presence of a second independent site within NOS1AP associated with the QT interval. These results highlight the consistent and complex role of NOS1AP genetic variants in modulating QT interval.

  3. The Relationship of Gender and Academic Performance to Motivation: Within-Ethnic-Group Variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouse, Kimberly A. Gordon; Austin, James T.

    2002-01-01

    Three studies examined within-ethnic-group variations in the relationship of grade point average and gender to motivation among African American, Hispanic American, and Euro-American students. Survey data revealed patterns of significant within-ethnic-group differences that varied across ethnic groups. In general, males demonstrated more…

  4. Internalised homophobia is differentially associated with sexual risk behaviour by race/ethnicity and HIV serostatus among substance-using men who have sex with men in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansergh, Gordon; Spikes, Pilgrim; Flores, Stephen A; Koblin, Beryl A; McKirnan, David; Hudson, Sharon M; Colfax, Grant N

    2015-08-01

    There is a continuing need to identify factors associated with risk for HIV transmission among men who have sex with men (MSM), including a need for further research in the ongoing scientific debate about the association of internalised homophobia and sexual risk due partly to the lack of specificity in analysis. We assess the association of internalised homophobia by race/ethnicity within HIV serostatus for a large sample of substance-using MSM at high risk of HIV acquisition or transmission. Convenience sample of substance-using (non-injection) MSM reporting unprotected anal sex in the prior 6 months residing in Chicago, Los Angeles, New York and San Francisco. The analytic sample included HIV-negative and HIV-positive black (n=391), Latino (n=220), and white (n=458) MSM. Internalised homophobia was assessed using a published four-item scale focusing on negative self-perceptions and feelings of their own sexual behaviour with men, or for being gay or bisexual. Analyses tested associations of internalised homophobia with recent risk behaviour, stratified by laboratory-confirmed HIV serostatus within race/ethnicity, and controlling for other demographic variables. In multivariate analysis, internalised homophobia was inversely associated (pbehaviour among white and Latino MSM. More research is needed to further identify nuanced differences in subpopulations of MSM, but these results suggest differentially targeted intervention messages for MSM by race/ethnicity. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  5. Racial and ethnic disparities in children's oral health: the National Survey of Children's Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Thomas; Culler, Corinna; Garcia, Raul I; Henshaw, Michelle M

    2008-11-01

    The authors evaluated racial/ethnic differences and their socioeconomic determinants in the oral health status of U.S. children, as reported by parents. The authors used interview data from the 2003 National Survey of Children's Health, a large representative survey of U.S. children. They calculated weighted, nationally representative prevalence estimates for non-Hispanic whites, non-Hispanic blacks and Hispanics, and they used logistic regression to explore the association between parents' reports of fair or poor oral health and various socioeconomic determinants of oral health. The results showed significant racial/ethnic differences in parental reports of fair or poor oral health, with prevalences of 6.5 percent for non-Hispanic whites, 12.0 percent for non-Hispanic blacks and 23.4 percent for Hispanics. Although adjustments for family socioeconomic status (poverty level and education) partially explained these racial/ethnic disparities, Hispanics still were twice as likely as non-Hispanic whites to report their children's oral health as fair or poor, independent of socioeconomic status. The authors did find differences in preventive-care attitudes among groups. However, in multivariate models, such differences did not explain the disparities. Significant racial/ethnic disparities exist in parental reports of their children's oral health, with Hispanics being the most disadvantaged group. Disparities appear to exist independent of preventive-care attitudes and socioeconomic status.

  6. Cardiovascular Disease and Diabetes by Race/Ethnicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Vishnu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. We examined the association between insufficient rest/sleep and cardiovascular disease or diabetes mellitus separately among non-Hispanic whites, non-Hispanic blacks, Hispanic Americans, and other races in a contemporary sample of US adults. Methods. Multiethnic, nationally representative, cross-sectional survey (2008 BRFSS participants who were >20 years of age (n=369, 217; 50% women. Self-reported insufficient rest/sleep in the previous month was categorized into: zero, 1–13, 14–29, and all 30 days. Outcomes were: (1 any CVD, (2 coronary artery disease (CHD, (3 stroke, and (4 diabetes mellitus. Results. Insufficient rest/sleep was found to be positively associated with (1 any CVD, (2 CHD, and (3 stroke among all race-ethnicities. In contrast, insufficient rest/sleep was positively associated with diabetes mellitus in all race-ethnicities except non-Hispanic blacks. The odds ratio of diabetes association with insufficient rest/sleep for all 30 days was 1.37 (1.26–1.48 among non-Hispanic whites, 1.11 (0.90–1.36 among non-Hispanic blacks, 1.88 (1.46–2.42 among Hispanic Americans, and 1.48 (1.10–2.00 among other race/ethnicities. Conclusion. In a multiethnic sample of US adults, perceived insufficient rest/sleep was associated with CVD, among all race-ethnicities. However, the association between insufficient rest/sleep and diabetes mellitus was present among all race-ethnicities except non-Hispanic blacks.

  7. Difference in airflow obstruction between Hispanic and non-Hispanic White female smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Akshay; Stidley, Christine A; Picchi, Maria A; Celedón, Juan C; Gilliland, Frank; Crowell, Richard E; Belinsky, Steven A; Tesfaigzi, Yohannes

    2008-10-01

    Smoking-related respiratory diseases are a major cause of morbidity and mortality. However, the relationship between smoking and respiratory disease has not been well-studied among ethnic minorities in general and among women in particular. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the risk of airflow obstruction and to assess lung function among Hispanic and non-Hispanic White (NHW) female smokers in a New Mexico cohort. Participants completed a questionnaire detailing smoking history and underwent spirometry testing. Outcomes studied included airflow obstruction, selected lung function parameters, and chronic mucus hyper-secretion. Chi square, logistic, and linear regression techniques were utilized. Of the 1,433 eligible women participants, 248 (17.3%) were Hispanic; and 319 had airflow obstruction (22.3%). Hispanic smokers were more likely to be current smokers, and report lower pack-years of smoking, compared to NHW smokers (p smokers were at a reduced risk of airflow obstruction compared to NHW smokers, with an O.R. of 0.51, 95% C.I. 0.34, 0.78 (p = 0.002) after adjustment for age, BMI, pack-years and duration of smoking, and current smoking status. Following adjustment for covariates, Hispanic smokers also had a higher mean absolute and percent predicted post-bronchodilator FEV(1)/FVC ratio, as well as higher mean percent predicted FEV(1) (p smokers in this New Mexico-based cohort had lower risk of airflow obstruction and better lung function than NHW female smokers. Further, smoking history did not completely explain these associations.

  8. Racial and Ethnic Difference in Falls Among Older Adults: Results from the California Health Interview Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Simona C; Han, Benjamin H; Kranick, Julie A; Wyatt, Laura C; Blaum, Caroline S; Yi, Stella S; Trinh-Shevrin, Chau

    2018-04-01

    Research suggests that fall risk among older adults varies by racial/ethnic groups; however, few studies have examined fall risk among Hispanics and Asian American older adults. Using 2011-2012 California Health Interview Survey data, this study examines falling ≥2 times in the past year by racial/ethnic groups (Asian Americans, Hispanics, and Blacks) aged ≥65, adjusting for socio-demographic characteristics, body mass index, co-morbidities, and functional limitations. A secondary analysis examines differences in fall risk by English language proficiency and race/ethnicity among Asian Americans and Hispanics. Asian Americans were significantly less likely to fall compared to non-Hispanic whites, individuals with ≥2 chronic diseases were significantly more likely to fall than individuals with fall risk, when adjusting for all factors. African Americans and Hispanics did not differ significantly from non-Hispanic whites. Analysis adjusting for race/ethnicity and English language proficiency found that limited English proficient Asian Americans were significantly less likely to fall compared to non-Hispanic whites, individuals with ≥2 chronic diseases were significantly more likely to fall than individuals with fall risk, when adjusting for all factors. No differences were found when examining by racial/ethnic and English proficient/limited English proficient groups. Further research is needed to explore factors associated with fall risks across racial/ethnic groups. Culturally relevant and targeted interventions are needed to prevent falls and subsequent injuries in the increasingly diverse aging population in the USA.

  9. Treatment outcomes in undocumented Hispanic immigrants with HIV infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth K Poon

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Little is known about the treatment outcomes of undocumented Hispanic immigrants with HIV infection. We sought to compare the treatment outcomes of undocumented and documented patients 12-months after entering HIV care. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of antiretroviral-naive patients 18 years and older attending their first visit at Thomas Street Health Center in Houston, Texas, between 1/1/2003 and 6/30/2008. The study population of 1,620 HIV-infected adults included 186 undocumented Hispanic, 278 documented Hispanic, 986 Black, and 170 White patients. The main outcome measures were retention in care (quarter years with at least one completed HIV primary care provider visit and HIV suppression (HIV RNA <400 copies/mL, both measured 12-months after entering HIV care. RESULTS: Undocumented Hispanic patients had lower median initial CD4 cell count (132 cells/mm(3 than documented Hispanic patients (166 cells/mm(3; P = 0.186, Black patients (226 cells/mm(3; P<0.001, and White patients (264 cells/mm(3; P = 0.001. However, once in care, undocumented Hispanic patients did as well or better than their documented counterparts. One year after entering HIV care, undocumented Hispanics achieved similar rates of retention in care and HIV suppression as documented Hispanic and White patients. Of note, black patients were significantly less likely to have optimal retention in care (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 0.65, CI = 0.45-0.94 or achieve HIV suppression (aOR 0.32, CI = 0.17-0.61 than undocumented Hispanics. CONCLUSIONS: Undocumented Hispanic persons with HIV infection enter care with more advanced disease than documented persons, suggesting testing and/or linkage to care efforts for this difficult-to-reach population need intensification. Once diagnosed, however, undocumented Hispanics have outcomes as good as or better than other racial/ethnic groups. Safety net providers for undocumented immigrants are vital for maintaining

  10. Neighbourhood economic deprivation explains racial/ethnic disparities in overweight and obesity among children and adolescents in the U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossen, Lauren M

    2014-02-01

    Low-income and some racial and ethnic subpopulations are more likely to suffer from obesity. Inequities in the physical and social environment may contribute to disparities in paediatric obesity, but there is little empirical evidence to date. This study explored whether neighbourhood-level socioeconomic factors attenuate racial and ethnic disparities in obesity among youth in the U.S.A. and whether individual-level socioeconomic status (SES) interacts with neighbourhood deprivation. This analysis used data from 17,100 youth ages 2-18 years participating in the 2001-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey linked to census tract-level socioeconomic characteristics. Multilevel logistic regression models were used to examine neighbourhood deprivation in association with odds of obesity (age-specific and sex-specific body mass index percentile ≥95). The unadjusted prevalence of obesity was 15% among non-Hispanic white children and 21% among non-Hispanic black and Mexican-American children. Adjustment for individual-level SES neighbourhood deprivation and the interaction between these two factors resulted in a 74% attenuation of the disparity in obesity between non-Hispanic black and non-Hispanic white children and a 49% attenuation of the disparity between Mexican-American and non-Hispanic white children. There was a significant interaction between individual-level SES and neighbourhood deprivation where higher individual-level income was protective for children living in low-deprivation neighbourhoods, but not for children who lived in high-deprivation areas. Conversely, area deprivation was associated with higher odds of obesity, but only among children who were above the poverty threshold. Future research on disparities in obesity and other health outcomes should examine broader contextual factors and social determinants of inequities.

  11. Impact of change in neighborhood racial/ethnic segregation on cardiovascular health in minority youth attending a park-based afterschool program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Agostino, Emily M; Patel, Hersila H; Ahmed, Zafar; Hansen, Eric; Sunil Mathew, M; Nardi, Maria I; Messiah, Sarah E

    2018-05-01

    Research on the mechanistic factors associating racial/ethnic residential segregation with health is needed to identify effective points of intervention to ultimately reduce health disparities in youth. We examined the association of changes in racial/ethnic segregation and cardiovascular health outcomes including body mass index percentile, sum of skinfold thicknesses, systolic and diastolic blood pressure percentile, and 400 m run time in non-Hispanic Black (NHB) and Hispanic youth (n = 2,250, mean age 9.1 years, 54% male; 51% Hispanic, 49% NHB; 49% high area poverty; 25% obese) attending Fit2Play™, a multisite park-based afterschool program in Miami, Florida, USA. A series of crude and adjusted two-level longitudinal generalized linear mixed models with random intercepts for park effects were fit to assess the association of change in segregation between home and program/park site and cardiovascular health outcomes for youth who participated for up to two school years in Fit2Play™. After adjusting for individual-level factors (sex, age, time, and park-area poverty) models showed significantly greater improvements in cardiovascular health if youth attended Fit2Play™ in an area less segregated than their home area (p < 0.05 for all outcomes) except 400 m run time and diastolic blood pressure percentile in Hispanics (p<.001 and p = 0.11, respectively). Area poverty was not found to confound or significantly modify this association. These findings have implications for youth programming focused on reducing health disparities and improving cardiovascular outcomes in NHB and Hispanic youth, particularly in light of a continually expanding obesity epidemic in these groups. Parks and Recreation Departments have potential to expand geographic mobility for minorities, therein supporting the national effort to reduce health inequalities. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Getting Data Right — and Righteous to Improve Hispanic or Latino Health

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez-Lainz, Alfonso; McDonald, Mariana; Penman-Aguilar, Ana; Barrett, Drue H.

    2016-01-01

    Hispanics or Latinos constitute the largest racial/ethnic minority in the United States. They are also a very diverse population. Latino/Hispanic’s health varies significantly for subgroups defined by national origin, race, primary language, and migration-related factors (place of birth, immigration status, years of residence in the United States). Most Hispanics speak Spanish at home, and one-third have limited English proficiency (LEP). There is growing awareness on the importance for popul...

  13. Incidence of lymphoid neoplasms by subtype among six Asian ethnic groups in the United States, 1996-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreon, J Daniel; Morton, Lindsay M; Devesa, Susan S; Clarke, Christina A; Gomez, Scarlett L; Glaser, Sally L; Sakoda, Lori C; Linet, Martha S; Wang, Sophia S

    2008-12-01

    To establish baseline data for lymphoid neoplasm incidence by subtype for six Asian-American ethnic groups. Incident rates were estimated by age and sex for six Asian ethnic groups--Asian Indian/Pakistani, Chinese, Filipino, Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese--in five United States cancer registry areas during 1996-2004. For comparison, rates for non-Hispanic Whites were also estimated. During 1996-2004, Filipinos had the highest (24.0) and Koreans had the lowest incidence (12.7) of total lymphoid neoplasms. By subtype, Vietnamese and Filipinos had the highest incidence for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) (8.0 and 7.2); Japanese had the highest incidence of follicular lymphoma (2.3). Although a general male predominance of lymphoid neoplasms was observed, this pattern varied by lymphoid neoplasm subtype. Whites generally had higher rates than all Asian ethnic groups for all lymphoid neoplasms and most lymphoma subtypes, although the magnitude of the difference varied by both ethnicity and lymphoma subtype. The observed variations in incidence patterns among Asian ethnic groups in the United States suggest that it may be fruitful to pursue studies that compare Asian populations for postulated environmental and genetic risk factors.

  14. Hispanic American Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... racial or ethnic group has specific health concerns. Differences in the health of groups can result from Genetics Environmental factors Access to care Cultural factors On this page, you'll find links ...

  15. Trends in cannabis use disorders among racial/ethnic population groups in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Li-Tzy; Zhu, He; Swartz, Marvin S

    2016-08-01

    Minority groups generally experience more disparities than whites in behavioral healthcare use. The population of racial/ethnic groups is growing faster than whites. Given increased concerns of cannabis use (CU) and its associations with health conditions, we examined national trends in cannabis use disorder (CUD) among adults aged ≥18 by race/ethnicity. Data were from the 2005-2013 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health (N=340,456). We compared CU patterns and the conditional prevalence of CUD among cannabis users by race/ethnicity to understand racial/ethnic variations in CUD. Approximately 1.5% of adults met criteria for a CUD in the past year. Regardless of survey year, cannabis dependence was more common than cannabis abuse, representing 66% of adults with a CUD. Across racial/ethnic groups, the prevalence of cannabis abuse and dependence remained stable during 2005-2013. In the total adult sample, the odds of weekly CU, monthly CU, and cannabis dependence were greater among blacks, native-Americans, and mixed-race adults than whites. Among cannabis users, the odds of cannabis abuse and dependence were greater among blacks, native-Americans, and Hispanics than whites. Logistic regression controlling for age, sex, education, and survey year indicated an increased trend in monthly CU and weekly CU in the total sample and among past-year cannabis users. Younger age, male sex, and low education were associated with increased odds of cannabis dependence. The large sample provides robust information that indicates a need for research to monitor CUD and identify culturally appropriate interventions especially for targeting minority populations. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Chronic liver disease in the Hispanic population of the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrion, Andres F; Ghanta, Ravi; Carrasquillo, Olveen; Martin, Paul

    2011-10-01

    Chronic liver disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among Hispanic people living in the United States. Environmental, genetic, and behavioral factors, as well as socioeconomic and health care disparities among this ethnic group have emerged as important public health concerns. We review the epidemiology, natural history, and response to therapy of chronic liver disease in Hispanic patients. The review covers nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, viral hepatitis B and C, coinfection of viral hepatitis with human immunodeficiency virus, alcoholic cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, autoimmune hepatitis, and primary biliary cirrhosis. For most of these disorders, the Hispanic population has a higher incidence and more aggressive pattern of disease and overall worse treatment outcomes than in the non-Hispanic white population. Clinicians should be aware of these differences in caring for Hispanic patients with chronic liver disease. Copyright © 2011 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Racial/ethnic differences in report of drug testing practices at the workplace level in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, William C; Meghani, Salimah; Tetrault, Jeanette M; Fiellin, David A

    2014-01-01

    It is unknown whether racial/ethnic differences in report of workplace drug testing persist when analyzed within and across various occupations. We sought to examine the association between worker demographics, workplace characteristics, and report of employment in a workplace that performs drug testing. We performed a cross-sectional study of the 2008-2010 National Survey on Drug Use and Health examining the relationship between race/ethnicity and report of workplace drug testing among employed, white, black, or Hispanic respondents ≥18 years old. In logistic regression analysis, we adjusted for demographic, occupational, and other relevant variables and performed stratified analyses among three specific occupations. Among 69,163 respondents, 48.2% reported employment in a workplace that performs drug testing. On multivariable analysis, younger age, male sex, black race, income greater than $20,000, completion of high school and non-urban residence were associated with report of drug testing at one's workplace among the full sample as were non-white collar occupation, work in medium or large workplace, and absence of other substance abuse/dependence. In stratified analyses, black race was associated with report of workplace level drug testing among executive/administrative/managerial/financial workers and technicians/related support occupations; Hispanic ethnicity was associated with the outcome among technicians/related support occupations. Racial/ethnic differences in report of workplace drug testing exist within and across various occupations. These differences have important public health implications deserving further study. Increased report of drug testing where racial/ethnic minorities work highlights the potential bias that can be introduced when drug testing policies are not implemented in a universal fashion. © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  18. Nonsuicidal Self-Injury: Exploring the Connection among Race, Ethnic Identity, and Ethnic Belonging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wester, Kelly L.; Trepal, Heather C.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined race and ethnic identity in relation to nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI). Participants included freshmen at 2 universities, who were predominantly female. Final inferential statistics examined differences across Caucasian, African American, Hispanic, Asian American, and Multiracial students, finding African Americans and Asian…

  19. Comparisons Between Hispanic and Non-Hispanic White Informal Caregivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy J. Karlin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on understanding similarities and differences between non-Hispanic White and Hispanic informal caregivers of those with Alzheimer’s disease. Comparisons take place between caregivers reporting high levels of burden as indicated by the Zarit Burden Inventory. Data suggest similarities and differences between Hispanic (n = 17 and non-Hispanic White (n = 17 caregivers in this study in several areas. Hispanic caregivers indicated fewer sources of income, had less investment money for family member’s treatment, reported caregiving as a greater interference with life’s accomplishments, and indicated a lesser percentage of the total care cost provided by the family member. Non-Hispanic White caregivers reported having completed a higher level of formal education and that organized religion’s importance prior to becoming a caregiver was not quite as important as compared with the Hispanic care provider. With current trends, of demographic and cultural changes, it is crucial to fully understand the changing role and needs of both Hispanic and non-Hispanic White caregivers.

  20. Effects of pre-pregnancy obesity, race/ethnicity and prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jongh, B E; Paul, D A; Hoffman, M; Locke, R

    2014-04-01

    To investigate the association between maternal pre-pregnancy obesity, race/ethnicity and prematurity. Retrospective cohort study of maternal deliveries at a single regional center from 2009 to 2010 time period (n = 11,711). Generalized linear models were used for the analysis to estimate an adjusted odds ratio with 95% confidence interval of the association between maternal pre-pregnancy obesity, race/ethnicity and prematurity. Analysis controlled for diabetes, chronic hypertension, previous preterm birth, smoking and insurance status. The demographics of the study population were as follows, race/ethnicity had predominance in the White/Non-Hispanic population with 60.1%, followed by the Black/Non-Hispanic population 24.2%, the Hispanic population with 10.3% and the Asian population with 5.4%. Maternal pre-pregnancy weight showed that the population with a normal body mass index (BMI) was 49.4%, followed by the population being overweight with 26.2%, and last, the population which was obese with 24.4%. Maternal obesity increased the odds of prematurity in the White/Non-Hispanic, Hispanic and Asian population (aOR 1.40, CI 1.12-1.75; aOR 2.20, CI 1.23-3.95; aOR 3.07, CI 1.16-8.13, respectively). Although the Black/Non-Hispanic population prematurity rate remains higher than the other race/ethnicity populations, the Black/Non-Hispanic population did not have an increased odds of prematurity in obese mothers (OR 0.87; CI 0.68-1.19). Unlike White/Non-Hispanic, Asian and Hispanic mothers, normal pre-pregnancy BMI in Black/Non-Hispanic mothers was not associated with lower odds for prematurity. The odds for mothers of the White/Non-Hispanic, Hispanic and Asian populations, for delivering a premature infant, were significantly increased when obese. Analysis controlled for chronic hypertension, diabetes, insurance status, prior preterm birth and smoking. Obesity is a risk factor for prematurity in the White/Non-Hispanic, Asian and Hispanic population, but not for the

  1. Blood cadmium by race/hispanic origin: The role of smoking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoki, Yutaka, E-mail: yaoki@cdc.gov [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, Division of Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, 3311 Toledo Rd, Hyattsville, MD 20782 (United States); Yee, Jennifer [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, Division of Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, 3311 Toledo Rd, Hyattsville, MD 20782 (United States); Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Center for Surveillance, Epidemiology, and Laboratory Services, Division of Scientific Education and Professional Development, Epidemiology Elective Program, MS E-92, 1600 Clifton Rd, NE, Atlanta, GA 30329 (United States); Georgetown University Medical Center, Department of Family Medicine, 4000 Reservoir Road, N.W., Washington D.C 20057 (United States); Mortensen, Mary E. [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Environmental Health, Division of Laboratory Sciences, MS F-20, 4770 Buford Highway, Atlanta, GA 30341 (United States)

    2017-05-15

    Background: There have been increasing concerns over health effects of low level exposure to cadmium, especially those on bones and kidneys. Objective: To explore how age-adjusted geometric means of blood cadmium in adults varied by race/Hispanic origin, sex, and smoking status among U.S. adults and the extent to which the difference in blood cadmium by race/Hispanic origin and sex may be explained by intensity of smoking, a known major source of cadmium exposure. Methods: Our sample included 7,368 adults from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2011–2014. With direct age adjustment, geometric means of blood cadmium and number of cigarettes smoked per day were estimated for subgroups defined by race/Hispanic origin, smoking status, and sex using interval regression, which allows mean estimation in the presence of left- and right-censoring. Results: Among never and former smoking men and women, blood cadmium tended to be higher for non-Hispanic Asian adults than adults of other race/Hispanic origin. Among current smokers, who generally had higher blood cadmium than never and former smokers, non-Hispanic white, black, and Asian adults had similarly elevated blood cadmium compared to Hispanic adults. A separate analysis revealed that non-Hispanic white adults tended to have the highest smoking intensity regardless of sex, than adults of the other race/Hispanic origin groups. Conclusions: The observed pattern provided evidence for smoking as a major source of cadmium exposure, yet factors other than smoking also appeared to contribute to higher blood cadmium of non-Hispanic Asian adults. - Highlights: • Among never and former smoking adults, Asians have the highest blood cadmium. • White adults tend to have the highest smoking intensity, but not blood cadmium. • Women overall have higher levels of blood cadmium than men regardless of smoking. • Non-smoking sources of exposure likely contribute to Asians’ higher blood cadmium.

  2. Blood cadmium by race/hispanic origin: The role of smoking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Yutaka; Yee, Jennifer; Mortensen, Mary E.

    2017-01-01

    Background: There have been increasing concerns over health effects of low level exposure to cadmium, especially those on bones and kidneys. Objective: To explore how age-adjusted geometric means of blood cadmium in adults varied by race/Hispanic origin, sex, and smoking status among U.S. adults and the extent to which the difference in blood cadmium by race/Hispanic origin and sex may be explained by intensity of smoking, a known major source of cadmium exposure. Methods: Our sample included 7,368 adults from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2011–2014. With direct age adjustment, geometric means of blood cadmium and number of cigarettes smoked per day were estimated for subgroups defined by race/Hispanic origin, smoking status, and sex using interval regression, which allows mean estimation in the presence of left- and right-censoring. Results: Among never and former smoking men and women, blood cadmium tended to be higher for non-Hispanic Asian adults than adults of other race/Hispanic origin. Among current smokers, who generally had higher blood cadmium than never and former smokers, non-Hispanic white, black, and Asian adults had similarly elevated blood cadmium compared to Hispanic adults. A separate analysis revealed that non-Hispanic white adults tended to have the highest smoking intensity regardless of sex, than adults of the other race/Hispanic origin groups. Conclusions: The observed pattern provided evidence for smoking as a major source of cadmium exposure, yet factors other than smoking also appeared to contribute to higher blood cadmium of non-Hispanic Asian adults. - Highlights: • Among never and former smoking adults, Asians have the highest blood cadmium. • White adults tend to have the highest smoking intensity, but not blood cadmium. • Women overall have higher levels of blood cadmium than men regardless of smoking. • Non-smoking sources of exposure likely contribute to Asians’ higher blood cadmium.

  3. Racial and ethnic disparities in U.S. cancer screening rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    The percentage of U.S. citizens screened for cancer remains below national targets, with significant disparities among racial and ethnic populations, according to the first federal study to identify cancer screening disparities among Asian and Hispanic gr

  4. Factors Associated With Volunteering Among Racial/Ethnic Groups: Findings From the California Health Interview Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kimberly J; Lee, S Hannah

    2017-06-01

    The present study investigated how volunteering was influenced by individual resources and social capital among four racial/ethnic groups of adults aged 50 and older. The data came from the California Health Interview Survey, a statewide sample that includes non-Hispanic Whites ( n = 18,927), non-Hispanic Asians ( n = 2,428), non-Hispanic Blacks ( n = 1,265), and Hispanics ( n = 3,799). Logistic regression models of volunteering were estimated to explore the effects of human and social capital within and across the racial/ethnic groups. Compared to Whites, racial/ethnic minority adults volunteered less. Although education was a significant predictor of volunteering across all groups, the findings indicated group-specific factors related to human and social capital. Results showed similarities and differences associated with volunteer participation among diverse racial/ethnic groups. The findings underscore the importance of understanding ways of creating inclusive opportunities for civic engagement among an increasingly diverse population.

  5. "That word, cancer": breast care behavior of Hispanic women in new Mexico background and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginossar, Tamar; De Vargas, Felicia; Sanchez, Christina; Oetzel, John

    2010-01-01

    Despite international efforts, national and ethnic disparities in utilization of breast cancer (BC) screenings prevail. In the United States, Hispanic women have one of the lowest BC screening rates. The purpose of our study was to examine how Hispanic women in New Mexico described their breast care behavior (BCB; BC screening practices, motivation to act, and breast care information behavior). Analysis of focus groups revealed five types of approaches to BCB. These findings have global implications for health care practitioners in directing attention toward the complexity of BC preventive behavior. Implications for other ethnic groups are discussed.

  6. Race, Ethnicity, Concentrated Poverty, and Low Birth Weight Disparities

    OpenAIRE

    Sims, Mario; Sims, Tammy L.; Bruce, Marino A.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the extent to which the relationship between area socioeconomic position (SEP) and low birth weight (LBW) varies by race and ethnicity. A cross-sectional, secondary data analysis was performed with 1992-1994 Vital Statistics and 1990 U.S. Census data for selected metropolitan areas. Low birth weight (< 2500 grams) rates were calculated for non-Hispanic Black, Latino, and non-Hispanic White live singleton births. Concentrated poverty was defined as poor persons living in ne...

  7. Ethnic Inequalities in Mortality: The Case of Arab-Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sayed, Abdulrahman M.; Tracy, Melissa; Scarborough, Peter; Galea, Sandro

    2011-01-01

    Background Although nearly 112 million residents of the United States belong to a non-white ethnic group, the literature about differences in health indicators across ethnic groups is limited almost exclusively to Hispanics. Features of the social experience of many ethnic groups including immigration, discrimination, and acculturation may plausibly influence mortality risk. We explored life expectancy and age-adjusted mortality risk of Arab-Americans (AAs), relative to non-Arab and non-Hispanic Whites in Michigan, the state with the largest per capita population of AAs in the US. Methodology/Principal Findings Data were collected about all deaths to AAs and non-Arab and non-Hispanic Whites in Michigan between 1990 and 2007, and year 2000 census data were collected for population denominators. We calculated life expectancy, age-adjusted all-cause, cause-specific, and age-specific mortality rates stratified by ethnicity and gender among AAs and non-Arab and non-Hispanic Whites. Among AAs, life expectancies among men and women were 2.0 and 1.4 years lower than among non-Arab and non-Hispanic White men and women, respectively. AA men had higher mortality than non-Arab and non-Hispanic White men due to infectious diseases, chronic diseases, and homicide. AA women had higher mortality than non-Arab and non-Hispanic White women due to chronic diseases. Conclusions/Significance Despite better education and higher income, AAs have higher age-adjusted mortality risk than non-Arab and non-Hispanic Whites, particularly due to chronic diseases. Features specific to AA culture may explain some of these findings. PMID:22216204

  8. Relative contributions of lean and fat mass to bone strength in young Hispanic and non-Hispanic girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetherington-Rauth, Megan; Bea, Jennifer W; Blew, Robert M; Funk, Janet L; Hingle, Melanie D; Lee, Vinson R; Roe, Denise J; Wheeler, Mark D; Lohman, Timothy G; Going, Scott B

    2018-05-22

    With the high prevalence of childhood obesity, especially among Hispanic children, understanding how body weight and its components of lean and fat mass affect bone development is important, given that the amount of bone mineral accrued during childhood can determine osteoporosis risk later in life. The aim of this study was to assess the independent contributions of lean and fat mass on volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD), geometry, and strength in both weight-bearing and non-weight-bearing bones of Hispanic and non-Hispanic girls. Bone vBMD, geometry, and strength were assessed at the 20% distal femur, the 4% and 66% distal tibia, and the 66% distal radius of the non-dominant limb of 326, 9- to 12-year-old girls using peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT). Total body lean and fat mass were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Multiple linear regression was used to assess the independent relationships of fat and lean mass with pQCT bone measures while adjusting for relevant confounders. Potential interactions between ethnicity and both fat and lean mass were also tested. Lean mass was a significant positive contributor to all bone outcomes (p Lean mass is the main determinant of bone strength for appendicular skeletal sites. Fat mass contributes to bone strength in the weight-bearing skeleton but does not add to bone strength in non-weight-bearing locations and may potentially be detrimental. Bone vBMD, geometry, and strength did not differ between Hispanic and non-Hispanic girls; fat mass may be a stronger contributor to bone strength in weight-bearing bones of Hispanic girls compared to non-Hispanic. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Validation of PR interval length as a criterion for development of atrial fibrillation in non-Hispanic whites, African Americans and Hispanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulman, Eric; Aagaard, Philip; Kargoli, Faraj; Hoch, Ethan; Zheng, Laura; Di Biase, Luigi; Fisher, John; Gross, Jay; Kim, Soo; Ferrick, Kevin; Krumerman, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    PR interval prolongation on electrocardiogram (ECG) increases the risk of atrial fibrillation (AF). Non-Hispanic Whites are at higher risk of AF compared to African Americans and Hispanics. However, it remains unknown if prolongation of the PR interval for the development of AF varies by race/ethnicity. Therefore, we determined whether race affects the PR interval length's ability to predict AF and if the commonly used criterion of 200 ms in AF prediction models can continue to be used for non-White cohorts. This is a retrospective epidemiological study of consecutive inpatient and outpatients. An ECG database was initially interrogated. Patients were included if their initial ECG demonstrated sinus rhythm and had two or more electrocardiograms and declared a race and/or ethnicity as non-Hispanic White, African American or Hispanic. Development of AF was stratified by race/ethnicity along varying PR intervals. Cox models controlled for age, gender, race/ethnicity, systolic blood pressure, BMI, QRS, QTc, heart rate, murmur, treatment for hypertension, heart failure and use of AV nodal blocking agents to assess PR interval's predictive ability for development of AF. 50,870 patients met inclusion criteria of which 5,199 developed AF over 3.72 mean years of follow-up. When the PR interval was separated by quantile, prolongation of the PR interval to predict AF first became significant in Hispanic and African Americans at the 92.5th quantile of 196-201 ms (HR: 1.42, 95% CI: 1.09-1.86, p=0.01; HR: 1.32, 95% CI: 1.07-1.64, p=0.01, respectively) then in non-Hispanic Whites at the 95th quantile at 203-212 ms (HR: 1.24, 95% CI: 1.24-1.53, p=0.04). For those with a PR interval above 200 ms, African Americans had a lower risk than non-Hispanic Whites to develop AF (HR: 0.80, 95% CI: 0.64-0.95, p=0.012), however, no significant difference was demonstrated in Hispanics. This is the first study to validate a PR interval value of 200 ms as a criterion in African Americans and

  10. HIV Infection among People Who Inject Drugs: The Challenge of Racial/Ethnic Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Des Jarlais, Don C.; McCarty, Dennis; Vega, William A.; Bramson, Heidi

    2013-01-01

    Racial/ethnic disparities in HIV infection, with minority groups typically having higher rates of infection, are a formidable public health challenge. In the United States, among both men and women who inject drugs, HIV infection rates are elevated among Hispanics and non-Hispanic Blacks. A meta-analysis of international research concluded that…

  11. Racial/Ethnic Differences in Mental Health Service Use among Adolescents with Major Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Janet R.; Druss, Benjamin G.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Little is known about racial/ethnic differences in the receipt of treatment for major depression in adolescents. This study examined differences in mental health service use in non-Hispanic white, black, Hispanic, and Asian adolescents who experienced an episode of major depression. Method: Five years of data (2004-2008) were pooled…

  12. Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Consistent Reporting of Smoking-Related Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Soulakova, Julia N; Huang, Huang; Crockett, Lisa J

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the effect of race/ethnicity on the prevalence of inconsistent reports regarding ever smoking, time since smoking cessation, and age of initiating regular smoking. We used the Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey data, which came from a test-retest reliability study, and considered three racial/ethnic subpopulations, Hispanics, Non-Hispanic (NH) Blacks and NH Whites. Initial exploration of highly disagreeing reports of time since smoking cessation and ag...

  13. High rates of unprotected anal intercourse with regular and casual partners and associated risk factors in a sample of ethnic Malay men who have sex with men (MSM) in Penang, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Sin How; Bazazi, Alexander Reza; Sim, Clarence; Choo, Martin; Altice, Frederick L; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba

    2013-12-01

    To assess the prevalence of unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) and its correlates among ethnic Malay men who have sex with men (MSM). In 2010, a convenience sample of 350 MSM in Penang were recruited to participate in an anonymous, computerised survey with rapid HIV testing. Participants who were not of Malay ethnicity (n=44) or who did not report sex with another man in the previous 12 months (n=22) were excluded, resulting in 284 participants in the final analysis. Correlates of UAI were examined separately for regular and casual partnerships using bivariate and multivariate logistic regression. Four men (1.9%) tested HIV positive. In the past 12 months, 64.7% of participants had regular sexual partners, 77.1% had casual sexual partners and 41.9% had both. Most participants (83.1%) reported UAI, which was more common in regular partnerships. Over two-thirds of participants had never been tested for HIV. In multivariate analysis, agreement about sexual risk reduction practices was associated with a reduction in UAI with regular partners (adjusted OR (AOR)=0.14, 95% CI 0.05 to 0.40). Reporting difficulty in using condoms was associated with an increase in UAI with casual partners (AOR=9.07, 95% CI 3.35 to 24.5), and any exposure to HIV prevention was associated with a decrease in UAI with casual partners (AOR=0.22, 95% CI 0.09 to 0.54). Despite highly prevalent HIV risk behaviours, HIV seropositivity and prior HIV testing were low. Increasing sexual negotiation skills and access to HIV testing and other prevention services may improve future prevention efforts.

  14. Can school income and racial/ethnic composition explain the racial/ethnic disparity in adolescent physical activity participation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Tracy K; Hayward, Rodney A; Gahagan, Sheila; Field, Alison E; Heisler, Michele

    2006-06-01

    Our goal was to determine if racial/ethnic disparities in adolescent boys' and girls' physical activity participation exist and persist once the school attended is considered. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 17,007 teens in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Using multivariate linear regression, we examined the association between adolescent self-reported physical activity and individual race/ethnicity stratified by gender, controlling for a wide range of sociodemographic, attitudinal, behavioral, and health factors. We used multilevel analyses to determine if the relationship between race/ethnicity and physical activity varied by the school attended. Participants attended racially segregated schools; approximately 80% of Hispanic and black adolescent boys and girls attended schools with student populations that were schools that were >94% white. Black and Hispanic adolescent girls reported lower levels of physical activity than white adolescent girls. There were more similar levels of physical activity reported in adolescent boys, with black boys reporting slightly more activities. Although black and Hispanic adolescent girls were more likely to attend poorer schools with overall lower levels of physical activity in girls; there was no difference within schools between black, white, and Hispanic adolescent girls' physical activity levels. Within the same schools, both black and Hispanic adolescent boys had higher rates of physical activity when compared with white adolescent boys. In this nationally representative sample, lower physical activity levels in Hispanic and black adolescent girls were largely attributable to the schools they attended. In contrast, black and Hispanic males had higher activity levels than white males when attending the same schools. Future research is needed to determine the mechanisms through which school environments contribute to racial/ethnic disparities in adolescent physical activity and will need to

  15. The Role of Socioeconomic Status and Health Care Access in Breast Cancer Screening Compliance Among Hispanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadav, Smruti; Rajan, Suja S; Abughosh, Susan; Sansgiry, Sujit S

    2015-01-01

    Considerable disparities in breast cancer screening exist between Hispanic and non-Hispanic white (NHW) women. Identifying and quantifying the factors contributing to these racial-ethnic disparities can help shape interventions and policies aimed at reducing these disparities. This study, for the first time, identified and quantified individual-level sociodemographic and health-related factors that contribute to racial-ethnic disparities in breast cancer screening using the nonlinear Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition method. Analysis of the retrospective pooled cross-sectional Medical Expenditure Panel Survey data from 2000 to 2010 was conducted. Women aged 40 years and older were included in the study. Logistic regressions were used to estimate racial-ethnic disparities in breast cancer screening. Nonlinear Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition method was used to identify and quantify the contribution of each individual-level factor toward racial-ethnic disparities. Based on the unadjusted analyses, Hispanic women had lower odds of receiving mammogram screening (MS) (odds ratio [OR]: 0.74; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.69-0.80) and breast cancer screening (OR: 0.75; 95% CI: 0.70-0.81) as compared with NHW women. However, the relationship reversed in adjusted analyses, such that Hispanic women had higher odds of receiving MS (OR: 1.27; 95% CI: 1.16-1.40) and breast cancer screening (OR: 1.28; 95% CI: 1.17-1.40) as compared with NHW women. The Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition estimated that improving insurance status, access to care, education, and income will considerably increase screening rates among Hispanic women. The study projects that improving health care access and health education will considerably increase breast cancer screening compliance among Hispanic women. Policies like the Affordable Care Act, and patient navigation and health education interventions, might considerably reduce screening disparities in the Hispanic population.

  16. Sexual Behaviors, Healthcare Interactions, and HIV-Related Perceptions Among Adults Age 60 Years and Older: An Investigation by Race/Ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaude-Hosch, Jonathan A; Smith, Matthew Lee; Heckman, Timothy G; Miles, Toni P; Olubajo, Babatunde A; Ory, Marcia G

    2015-01-01

    Older adults are remaining sexually active for longer periods of time, underscoring the need to assess sexual activity patterns in this group and identify differences by race/ethnicity, some of which may have implications for the development and implementation of sexual risk reduction interventions. Using data from the 2010 National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project, this study examined responses from 1,429 adults aged 60 years and older. Multinomial logistic regression compared sexual behaviors, health-related indicators, interactions with healthcare professionals, and HIV-related perceptions across participants' race/ethnicity. Approximately 81% of participants self-reported as non-Hispanic white, 10.59% as African American, and 8.05% as Hispanic. On average, participants were 69.9 years of age. In the previous year, 49.3% of participants engaged in sexual intercourse; only 3% used condoms. The majority of participants (83.1%) visited a physician at least twice in the previous year, 30.9% had discussed sex with a physician since turning 50, and 14.2% had been tested for HIV. Relative to non-Hispanic whites, African Americans were more likely to be divorced (OR=3.23, Psexually transmitted infection (STI) diagnoses (OR=1.67, P=0.030); and have paid for sex (OR=2.83, P=0.002). Although African Americans had greater perceived risk for HIV infection (OR=1.66, P=0.046), they were less likely to have discussed sex with a physician since turning 50 (OR=0.45, P=0.009). Contextualized interventions to improve patient-provider communication and proactive screening behaviors in sexually-active and aging African Americans are needed.

  17. Documenting Nursing and Medical Students’ Stereotypes about Hispanic and American Indian Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, Meghan G.; Focella, Elizabeth S.; Covarrubias, Rebecca; Stone, Jeff; Moskowitz, Gordon B.; Badger, Terry A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Hispanic Americans and American Indians face significant health disparities compared with White Americans. Research suggests that stereotyping of minority patients by members of the medical community is an important antecedent of race and ethnicity-based health disparities. This work has primarily focused on physicians’ perceptions, however, and little research has examined the stereotypes healthcare personnel associate with Hispanic and American Indian patients. The present study assesses: 1) the health-related stereotypes both nursing and medical students hold about Hispanic and American Indian patients, and 2) nursing and medical students’ motivation to treat Hispanic and American Indian patients in an unbiased manner. Design Participants completed a questionnaire assessing their awareness of stereotypes that healthcare professionals associate with Hispanic and American Indian patients then completed measures of their motivation to treat Hispanics and American Indians in an unbiased manner. Results Despite being highly motivated to treat Hispanic and American Indian individuals fairly, the majority of participants reported awareness of stereotypes associating these patient groups with noncompliance, risky health behavior, and difficulty understanding and/or communicating health-related information. Conclusion This research provides direct evidence for negative health-related stereotypes associated with two understudied minority patient groups—Hispanics and American Indians—among both nursing and medical personnel. PMID:26504671

  18. Genetic basis of hearing loss in Spanish, Hispanic and Latino populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Rahul; Patel, Amit P; Nguyen, Desiree; Pan, Debbie R; Jhaveri, Vasanti M; Rudman, Jason R; Dharmaraja, Arjuna; Yan, Denise; Feng, Yong; Chapagain, Prem; Lee, David J; Blanton, Susan H; Liu, Xue Zhong

    2018-03-20

    Hearing loss (HL) is the most common neurosensory disorder affecting humans. The screening, prevention and treatment of HL require a better understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms. Genetic predisposition is one of the most common factors that leads to HL. Most HL studies include few Spanish, Hispanic and Latino participants, leaving a critical gap in our understanding about the prevalence, impact, unmet health care needs, and genetic factors associated with hearing impairment among Spanish, Hispanic and Latino populations. The few studies which have been performed show that the gene variants commonly associated with HL in non-Spanish and non-Hispanic populations are infrequently responsible for hearing impairment in Spanish as well as Hispanic and Latino populations (hereafter referred to as Hispanic). To design effective screening tools to detect HL in Spanish and Hispanic populations, studies must be conducted to determine the gene variants that are most commonly associated with hearing impairment in this racial/ethnic group. In this review article, we summarize gene variants and loci associated with HL in Spanish and Hispanic populations. Identifying new genetic variants associated with HL in Spanish and Hispanic populations will pave the way to develop effective screening tools and therapeutic strategies for HL. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Getting Data Right - and Righteous to Improve Hispanic or Latino Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Lainz, Alfonso; McDonald, Mariana; Penman-Aguilar, Ana; Barrett, Drue H

    2016-01-01

    Hispanics or Latinos constitute the largest racial/ethnic minority in the United States. They are also a very diverse population. Latino/Hispanic's health varies significantly for subgroups defined by national origin, race, primary language, and migration-related factors (place of birth, immigration status, years of residence in the United States). Most Hispanics speak Spanish at home, and one-third have limited English proficiency (LEP). There is growing awareness on the importance for population health monitoring programs to collect those data elements (Hispanic subgroup, primary language, and migration-related factors) that better capture Hispanics' diversity, and to provide language assistance (translation of data collection forms, interpreters) to ensure meaningful inclusion of all Latinos/Hispanics in national health monitoring. There are strong ethical and scientific reasons for such expansion of data collection by public health entities. First, expand data elements can help identify otherwise hidden Hispanic subpopulations' health disparities. This may promote a more just and equitable distribution of health resources to underserved populations. Second, language access is needed to ensure fair and legal treatment of LEP individuals in federally supported data collection activities. Finally, these strategies are likely to improve the quality and representativeness of data needed to monitor and address the health of all Latino/Hispanic populations in the United States.

  20. Hispanic College Students Library Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumley, Risa; Newman, Eric; Brown, Haakon T.

    2015-01-01

    This study looks at undergraduate Hispanic students' interpretations and current perceptions of the academic library's purpose, usefulness and value. What are the reasons to use the library? What are the barriers to use? This study will examine academic libraries' move toward electronic library materials and what it means for Hispanic students.…

  1. Self-reported and accelerometer-measured physical activity by body mass index in US Hispanic/Latino adults: HCHS/SOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Palta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The association between obesity and physical activity has not been widely examined in an ethnically diverse sample of Hispanic/Latino adults in the US. A cross-sectional analysis of 16,094 Hispanic/Latino adults 18–74 years was conducted from the multi-site Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL. Body mass index (BMI was measured and categorized into normal, overweight, and obese; underweight participants were excluded from analyses. Physical activity was measured using the 16-item Global Physical Activity Questionnaire and by an Actical accelerometer. Minutes/day of physical activity and prevalence of engaging in ≥150 moderate–vigorous physical activity (MVPA minutes/week were estimated by BMI group and sex adjusting for covariates. No adjusted differences were observed in self-reported moderate (MPA, vigorous (VPA, or MVPA across BMI groups. Accelerometry-measured MPA, VPA, and MVPA were significantly higher for the normal weight (females: 18.9, 3.8, 22.6 min/day; males: 28.2, 6.1, 34.3 min/day, respectively compared to the obese group (females: 15.3, 1.5, 16.8 min/day; males: 23.5, 3.6, 27.1 min/day, respectively. The prevalence of engaging in ≥150 MVPA minutes/week using accelerometers was lower compared to the self-reported measures. Efforts are needed to reach the Hispanic/Latino population to increase opportunities for an active lifestyle that could reduce obesity in this population at high risk for metabolic disorders.

  2. Racial/ethnic differences in early-life risk factors for childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taveras, Elsie M; Gillman, Matthew W; Kleinman, Ken; Rich-Edwards, Janet W; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L

    2010-04-01

    By the preschool years, racial/ethnic disparities in obesity prevalence are already present. The objective of this study was to examine racial/ethnic differences in early-life risk factors for childhood obesity. A total of 1343 white, 355 black, and 128 Hispanic mother-child pairs were studied in a prospective study. Mother's reported child's race/ethnicity. The main outcome measures were risk factors from the prenatal period through 4 years old that are known to be associated with child obesity. In multivariable models, compared with their white counterparts, black and Hispanic children exhibited a range of risk factors related to child obesity. In pregnancy, these included higher rates of maternal depression (odds ratio [OR]: 1.55 for black, 1.89 for Hispanic); in infancy more rapid weight gain (OR: 2.01 for black, 1.75 for Hispanic), more likely to introduce solid foods before 4 months of age (OR: 1.91 for black, 2.04 for Hispanic), and higher rates of maternal restrictive feeding practices (OR: 2.59 for black, 3.35 for Hispanic); and after 2 years old, more televisions in their bedrooms (OR: 7.65 for black, 7.99 for Hispanic), higher intake of sugar-sweetened beverages (OR: 4.11 for black, 2.48 for Hispanic), and higher intake of fast food (OR: 1.65 for black, 3.14 for Hispanic). Black and Hispanic children also had lower rates of exclusive breastfeeding and were less likely to sleep at least 12 hours/day in infancy. Racial/ethnic differences in risk factors for obesity exist prenatally and in early childhood. Racial/ethnic disparities in childhood obesity may be determined by factors that operate at the earliest stages of life.

  3. Social media use and HIV transmission risk behavior among ethnically diverse HIV-positive gay men: results of an online study in three U.S. states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirshfield, Sabina; Grov, Christian; Parsons, Jeffrey T; Anderson, Ian; Chiasson, Mary Ann

    2015-10-01

    Though Black and Hispanic men who have sex with men (MSM) are at an increased risk for HIV, few HIV risk reduction interventions that target HIV-positive MSM, and even fewer that use technology, have been designed to target these groups. Despite similar rates of social media and technology use across racial/ethnic groups, online engagement of minority MSM for HIV prevention efforts is low. Since minority MSM tend to have less representation in online HIV prevention studies, the goals of this online anonymous study of HIV-positive gay-identified men were to test the feasibility of conducting targeted recruitment by race/ethnicity and sexual orientation, to assess technology and social media use, and to assess global HIV transmission risk. In 2011, an anonymous online survey was conducted among 463 members of an HIV-positive personals website. Emails were sent to a subset of HIV-positive male members who self-identified as gay. While 57 % were White, substantial proportions of participants were Black (20 %) or Hispanic (18 %). Median age was 46 (range 18-79). Men who reported using 3 or more websites or apps to meet sex partners were significantly more likely to report anal intercourse (AOR 4.43, p social media use, and sexual risk among a diverse sample of HIV-positive gay men. Efficacy trials of technology-based HIV prevention interventions targeting high-risk minority HIV-positive MSM are warranted.

  4. Validation of an Albuminuria Self-assessment Tool in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Rikki M; Woodward, Mark; Peralta, Carmen; Warnock, David G; Gutiérrez, Orlando; Shimbo, Daichi; Kramer, Holly; Katz, Ronit; Muntner, Paul

    2015-11-05

    We previously developed an 8-item self-assessment tool to identify individuals with a high probability of having albuminuria. This tool was developed and externally validated among non-Hispanic Whites and non-Hispanic Blacks. We sought to validate it in a multi-ethnic cohort that also included Hispanics and Chinese Americans. This is a cross-sectional study. Data were collected using standardized questionnaires and spot urine samples at a baseline examination in 2000-2002. The 8 items in the self-assessment tool include age, race, gender, current cigarette smoking, history of diabetes, hypertension, or stroke, and self-rated health. Of 6,814 community-dwelling adults aged 45-84 years participating in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA), 6,542 were included in the primary analysis. Albuminuria was defined as urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio ≥ 30 mg/g at baseline. Among non-Hispanic Whites, non-Hispanic Blacks, Hispanics, and Chinese Americans, the prevalence of albuminuria was 6.0%, 11.3%, 11.6%, and 10.8%, respectively. The c-statistic for discriminating participants with and without albuminuria was .731 (95% CI: .692, .771), .728 (95% CI: .687, .761), .747 (95% CI: .709, .784), and .761 (95% CI: .699, .814) for non-Hispanic Whites, non-Hispanic Blacks, Hispanics, and Chinese Americans, respectively. The self-assessment tool over-estimated the probability of albuminuria for non-Hispanic Whites and Blacks, but was well-calibrated for Hispanics and Chinese Americans. The albuminuria self-assessment tool maintained good test characteristics in this large multi-ethnic cohort, suggesting it may be helpful for increasing awareness of albuminuria in an ethnically diverse population.

  5. "Cognitive, emotion control, and motor performance of adolescents in the NCANDA study: Contributions from alcohol consumption, age, sex, ethnicity, and family history of addiction": Correction to Sullivan et al. (2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Reports an error in "Cognitive, emotion control, and motor performance of adolescents in the NCANDA study: Contributions from alcohol consumption, age, sex, ethnicity, and family history of addiction" by Edith V. Sullivan, Ty Brumback, Susan F. Tapert, Rosemary Fama, Devin Prouty, Sandra A. Brown, Kevin Cummins, Wesley K. Thompson, Ian M. Colrain, Fiona C. Baker, Michael D. De Bellis, Stephen R. Hooper, Duncan B. Clark, Tammy Chung, Bonnie J. Nagel, B. Nolan Nichols, Torsten Rohlfing, Weiwei Chu, Kilian M. Pohl and Adolf Pfefferbaum ( Neuropsychology , 2016[May], Vol 30[4], 449-473). A problem with a computation to invert speed scores is noted and explained in this correction. All statements indicating group differences in speed scores, as well as Table 5 and Figure 8A, have been corrected in the online version of this article. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2016-00613-001.) To investigate development of cognitive and motor functions in healthy adolescents and to explore whether hazardous drinking affects the normal developmental course of those functions. Participants were 831 adolescents recruited across 5 United States sites of the National Consortium on Alcohol and NeuroDevelopment in Adolescence 692 met criteria for no/low alcohol exposure, and 139 exceeded drinking thresholds. Cross-sectional, baseline data were collected with computerized and traditional neuropsychological tests assessing 8 functional domains expressed as composite scores. General additive modeling evaluated factors potentially modulating performance (age, sex, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and pubertal developmental stage). Older no/low-drinking participants achieved better scores than younger ones on 5 accuracy composites (general ability, abstraction, attention, emotion, and balance). Speeded responses for attention, motor speed, and general ability were sensitive to age and pubertal development. The exceeds-threshold group (accounting for age, sex

  6. Differential Associations Between the Food Environment Near Schools and Childhood Overweight Across Race/Ethnicity, Gender, and Grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Brisa N.; Sanchez-Vaznaugh, Emma V.; Uscilka, Ali; Baek, Jonggyu; Zhang, Lindy

    2012-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies have observed influences of the food environment near schools on children’s overweight status but have not systematically assessed the associations by race, sex, and grade. The authors examined whether the associations between franchised fast food restaurant or convenience store density near schools and overweight varied by these factors using data for 926,018 children (31.3% white, 55.1% Hispanic, 5.7% black, and 8% Asian) in fifth, seventh, or ninth grade, nested in 6,362 schools. Cross-sectional data were from the 2007 California physical fitness test (also known as “Fitnessgram”), InfoUSA, the California Department of Education, and the 2000 US Census. In adjusted models, the overweight prevalence ratio comparing children in schools with 1 or more versus 0 fast food restaurants was 1.02 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.01, 1.03), with a higher prevalence ratio among girls compared with boys. The association varied by student’s race/ethnicity (P = 0.003): Among Hispanics, the prevalence ratio = 1.02 (95% CI: 1.01, 1.03); among blacks, the prevalence ratio = 1.03 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.06), but among Asians the prevalence ratio = 0.94 (95% CI: 0.91, 0.97). For each additional convenience store, the prevalence ratio was 1.01 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.01), with a higher prevalence ratio among fifth grade children. Nuanced understanding of the impact of food environments near schools by race/ethnicity, sex, and grade may help to elucidate the etiology of childhood overweight and related race/ethnic disparities. PMID:22510276

  7. Religiosity and faith in relation to time to metabolic syndrome for Hispanic women in a multiethnic cohort of women-Findings from the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allshouse, Amanda A; Santoro, Nanette; Green, Robin; Wong, Jason Y Y; Upchurch, Dawn M; Neal-Perry, Genevieve; Thurston, Rebecca C; Derby, Carol A

    2018-06-01

    We investigated whether faith was associated with a difference in time to incident metabolic syndrome (MetS) among midlife Hispanic women vs women of other ethnicities. The Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN) is a community-based, longitudinal study of a cohort of midlife women. Social, demographic, psychosocial, anthropometric, medical, and physiological measures, and incident MetS were assessed in near-annual intervals using questionnaires and assays. Each participant answered key questions related to religion and meaning in her life. Differences in time to MetS were modeled by Hispanic ethnicity (vs. otherwise) among women reporting low and high levels of faith. Incident MetS in the 7 years after the SWAN baseline assessment. Among 2371 women, average baseline age 46, Hispanic women (n = 168) were more likely to have higher perceived stress and financial strain than non-Hispanic women (n = 2203). Nevertheless, Hispanic women were far more likely than non-Hispanic women to report that faith brought them strength and comfort in times of adversity, that they prayed often, and that their faith was sustaining for them. Hispanic women had the highest incidence rate of MetS of any racial/ethnic group. However, among women with high levels of faith, the incidence rate of MetS was similar in the Hispanic and non-Hispanic groups. Conversely, among women with low levels of faith, Hispanic women had a faster progression to MetS than did non-Hispanic women. Faith might be associated with a different risk of MetS among women of Hispanic vs other ethnicities. Among women who are not part of a faith community, Hispanic ethnicity might be a risk factor for MetS. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Body image and eating disordered behavior in a community sample of Black and Hispanic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrabosky, Joshua I; Grilo, Carlos M

    2007-01-01

    The current study examined body image concerns and eating disordered behaviors in a community sample of Black and Hispanic women. In addition, this study explored whether there are ethnic differences in the correlates or in the prediction of body image concerns. Participants were 120 (67 Black and 53 Hispanic) women who responded to advertisements to participate in a study of women and health. Participants completed a battery of established self-report measures to assess body image, eating disordered behaviors, and associated psychological domains. Black and Hispanic women did not differ significantly in their self-reports of body image, eating disordered behaviors, or associated psychological measures. Comparisons performed separately within both ethnic groups revealed significant differences by weight status, with a general graded patterning of greater concerns in obese than overweight than average weight groups. In terms of predicting body image, multiple regression analyses testing a number of variables, including BMI, performed separately for Black and Hispanic women revealed that eating concern and depressive affect were significant predictors of body image concern for both groups. Overall, Black and Hispanic women differed little in their self-reports of body image, eating-disordered features, and depressive affect. Higher weight was associated with a general pattern of increased body image concerns and features of eating disorders in both groups and with binge eating in Black women. Eating concerns and depressive affect emerged as significant independent predictors of body image for both ethnic groups.

  9. Psychosocial Disparities Among Racial/Ethnic Minority Transgender Young Adults and Young Men Who Have Sex with Men Living in Detroit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauermeister, José A; Goldenberg, Tamar; Connochie, Daniel; Jadwin-Cakmak, Laura; Stephenson, Rob

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Transgender populations in the United States experience unique inequities in health and social well-being; however, they continue to be categorized with men who have sex with men (MSM) in HIV surveillance. To illustrate the differences in the lived realities of young MSM and transgender youth, we compare psychosocial outcomes across a sample of transgender and MSM youth from Detroit. Methods: Data for this study come from a community-based cross-sectional survey of young adults (ages 18-29) living in Detroit who identify as transgender and/or as cisgender young men who have sex with men (YMSM). Using participants' geographic location within the city of Detroit, we matched transgender participants ( N =26) to YMSM ( N =123) living in the same area, and compared the prevalence in risk and resilience indicators across the two groups. Results: Transgender participants were more likely than YMSM to experience socioeconomic vulnerability across several indicators, including lower educational attainment and workforce participation, greater residential instability, and higher lifetime experiences of transactional sex. Transgender participants were more likely than YMSM to report poorer health status, higher symptoms of depression and anxiety, and greater experiences of daily hassles and gender-related discrimination. Transgender participants did not differ from YMSM peers on health-promotive factors, including self-esteem, coping mastery, purpose in life, or social support. Conclusions: Our findings underscore the importance of addressing the social and economic inequities experienced by transgender young adults. Local- and national-level programmatic and policy interventions are recommended to alleviate the psychosocial vulnerability experienced by transgender young adults and to improve their health and social well-being.

  10. Curry County Block Groups, Race and Hispanic Ethnicity (2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The once-a-decade decennial census was conducted in April 2010 by the U.S. Census Bureau. This count of every resident in the United States was mandated by Article...

  11. Torrance County Block Groups, Race and Hispanic Ethnicity (2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The once-a-decade decennial census was conducted in April 2010 by the U.S. Census Bureau. This count of every resident in the United States was mandated by Article...

  12. Socorro County Blocks, Race and Hispanic Ethnicity (2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The once-a-decade decennial census was conducted in April 2010 by the U.S. Census Bureau. This count of every resident in the United States was mandated by Article...

  13. Curry County Blocks, Race and Hispanic Ethnicity (2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The once-a-decade decennial census was conducted in April 2010 by the U.S. Census Bureau. This count of every resident in the United States was mandated by Article...

  14. Sandoval County Block Groups, Race and Hispanic Ethnicity (2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The once-a-decade decennial census was conducted in April 2010 by the U.S. Census Bureau. This count of every resident in the United States was mandated by Article...

  15. Socorro County Block Groups, Race and Hispanic Ethnicity (2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The once-a-decade decennial census was conducted in April 2010 by the U.S. Census Bureau. This count of every resident in the United States was mandated by Article...

  16. Cibola County Blocks, Race and Hispanic Ethnicity (2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The once-a-decade decennial census was conducted in April 2010 by the U.S. Census Bureau. This count of every resident in the United States was mandated by Article...

  17. De Baca County Blocks, Race and Hispanic Ethnicity (2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The once-a-decade decennial census was conducted in April 2010 by the U.S. Census Bureau. This count of every resident in the United States was mandated by Article...

  18. Taos County Blocks, Race and Hispanic Ethnicity (2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The once-a-decade decennial census was conducted in April 2010 by the U.S. Census Bureau. This count of every resident in the United States was mandated by Article...

  19. Catron County Blocks, Race and Hispanic Ethnicity (2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The once-a-decade decennial census was conducted in April 2010 by the U.S. Census Bureau. This count of every resident in the United States was mandated by Article...

  20. Taos County Block Groups, Race and Hispanic Ethnicity (2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The once-a-decade decennial census was conducted in April 2010 by the U.S. Census Bureau. This count of every resident in the United States was mandated by Article...

  1. Chaves County Block Groups, Race and Hispanic Ethnicity (2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The once-a-decade decennial census was conducted in April 2010 by the U.S. Census Bureau. This count of every resident in the United States was mandated by Article...

  2. Santa Fe County Blocks, Race and Hispanic Ethnicity (2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The once-a-decade decennial census was conducted in April 2010 by the U.S. Census Bureau. This count of every resident in the United States was mandated by Article...

  3. Hidalgo County Blocks, Race and Hispanic Ethnicity (2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The once-a-decade decennial census was conducted in April 2010 by the U.S. Census Bureau. This count of every resident in the United States was mandated by Article...

  4. Otero County Block Groups, Race and Hispanic Ethnicity (2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The once-a-decade decennial census was conducted in April 2010 by the U.S. Census Bureau. This count of every resident in the United States was mandated by Article...

  5. Union County Block Groups, Race and Hispanic Ethnicity (2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The once-a-decade decennial census was conducted in April 2010 by the U.S. Census Bureau. This count of every resident in the United States was mandated by Article...

  6. Grant County Block Groups, Race and Hispanic Ethnicity (2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The once-a-decade decennial census was conducted in April 2010 by the U.S. Census Bureau. This count of every resident in the United States was mandated by Article...

  7. Rio Arriba County Block Groups, Race and Hispanic Ethnicity (2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The once-a-decade decennial census was conducted in April 2010 by the U.S. Census Bureau. This count of every resident in the United States was mandated by Article...

  8. New Mexico Census Tracts, Race and Hispanic Ethnicity (2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The once-a-decade decennial census was conducted in April 2010 by the U.S. Census Bureau. This count of every resident in the United States was mandated by Article...

  9. Guadalupe County Block Groups, Race and Hispanic Ethnicity (2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The once-a-decade decennial census was conducted in April 2010 by the U.S. Census Bureau. This count of every resident in the United States was mandated by Article...

  10. New Mexico Counties, Race and Hispanic Ethnicity (2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The once-a-decade decennial census was conducted in April 2010 by the U.S. Census Bureau. This count of every resident in the United States was mandated by Article...

  11. Bernalillo County Blocks, Race and Hispanic Ethnicity (2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The once-a-decade decennial census was conducted in April 2010 by the U.S. Census Bureau. This count of every resident in the United States was mandated by Article...

  12. San Miguel County Block Groups, Race and Hispanic Ethnicity (2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The once-a-decade decennial census was conducted in April 2010 by the U.S. Census Bureau. This count of every resident in the United States was mandated by Article...

  13. Santa Fe County Block Groups, Race and Hispanic Ethnicity (2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The once-a-decade decennial census was conducted in April 2010 by the U.S. Census Bureau. This count of every resident in the United States was mandated by Article...

  14. Eddy County Block Groups, Race and Hispanic Ethnicity (2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The once-a-decade decennial census was conducted in April 2010 by the U.S. Census Bureau. This count of every resident in the United States was mandated by Article...

  15. Bernalillo County Block Groups, Race and Hispanic Ethnicity (2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The once-a-decade decennial census was conducted in April 2010 by the U.S. Census Bureau. This count of every resident in the United States was mandated by Article...

  16. Otero County Blocks, Race and Hispanic Ethnicity (2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The once-a-decade decennial census was conducted in April 2010 by the U.S. Census Bureau. This count of every resident in the United States was mandated by Article...

  17. Lea County Blocks, Race and Hispanic Ethnicity (2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The once-a-decade decennial census was conducted in April 2010 by the U.S. Census Bureau. This count of every resident in the United States was mandated by Article...

  18. Los Alamos County Blocks, Race and Hispanic Ethnicity (2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The once-a-decade decennial census was conducted in April 2010 by the U.S. Census Bureau. This count of every resident in the United States was mandated by Article...

  19. McKinley County Blocks, Race and Hispanic Ethnicity (2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The once-a-decade decennial census was conducted in April 2010 by the U.S. Census Bureau. This count of every resident in the United States was mandated by Article...

  20. Harding County Blocks, Race and Hispanic Ethnicity (2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The once-a-decade decennial census was conducted in April 2010 by the U.S. Census Bureau. This count of every resident in the United States was mandated by Article...

  1. Luna County Blocks, Race and Hispanic Ethnicity (2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The once-a-decade decennial census was conducted in April 2010 by the U.S. Census Bureau. This count of every resident in the United States was mandated by Article...

  2. Valencia County Blocks, Race and Hispanic Ethnicity (2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The once-a-decade decennial census was conducted in April 2010 by the U.S. Census Bureau. This count of every resident in the United States was mandated by Article...

  3. Lincoln County Blocks, Race and Hispanic Ethnicity (2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The once-a-decade decennial census was conducted in April 2010 by the U.S. Census Bureau. This count of every resident in the United States was mandated by Article...

  4. San Miguel County Blocks, Race and Hispanic Ethnicity (2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The once-a-decade decennial census was conducted in April 2010 by the U.S. Census Bureau. This count of every resident in the United States was mandated by Article...

  5. Catron County Block Groups, Race and Hispanic Ethnicity (2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The once-a-decade decennial census was conducted in April 2010 by the U.S. Census Bureau. This count of every resident in the United States was mandated by Article...

  6. Guadalupe County Blocks, Race and Hispanic Ethnicity (2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The once-a-decade decennial census was conducted in April 2010 by the U.S. Census Bureau. This count of every resident in the United States was mandated by Article...

  7. Torrance County Blocks, Race and Hispanic Ethnicity (2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The once-a-decade decennial census was conducted in April 2010 by the U.S. Census Bureau. This count of every resident in the United States was mandated by Article...

  8. Quay County Block Groups, Race and Hispanic Ethnicity (2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The once-a-decade decennial census was conducted in April 2010 by the U.S. Census Bureau. This count of every resident in the United States was mandated by Article...

  9. Valencia County Block Groups, Race and Hispanic Ethnicity (2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The once-a-decade decennial census was conducted in April 2010 by the U.S. Census Bureau. This count of every resident in the United States was mandated by Article...

  10. Union County Blocks, Race and Hispanic Ethnicity (2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The once-a-decade decennial census was conducted in April 2010 by the U.S. Census Bureau. This count of every resident in the United States was mandated by Article...

  11. Lincoln County Block Groups, Race and Hispanic Ethnicity (2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The once-a-decade decennial census was conducted in April 2010 by the U.S. Census Bureau. This count of every resident in the United States was mandated by Article...

  12. Eddy County Blocks, Race and Hispanic Ethnicity (2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The once-a-decade decennial census was conducted in April 2010 by the U.S. Census Bureau. This count of every resident in the United States was mandated by Article...

  13. Colfax County Blocks, Race and Hispanic Ethnicity (2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The once-a-decade decennial census was conducted in April 2010 by the U.S. Census Bureau. This count of every resident in the United States was mandated by Article...

  14. San Juan County Blocks, Race and Hispanic Ethnicity (2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The once-a-decade decennial census was conducted in April 2010 by the U.S. Census Bureau. This count of every resident in the United States was mandated by Article...

  15. Dona Ana County Blocks, Race and Hispanic Ethnicity (2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The once-a-decade decennial census was conducted in April 2010 by the U.S. Census Bureau. This count of every resident in the United States was mandated by Article...

  16. Quay County Blocks, Race and Hispanic Ethnicity (2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The once-a-decade decennial census was conducted in April 2010 by the U.S. Census Bureau. This count of every resident in the United States was mandated by Article...

  17. Rio Arriba County Blocks, Race and Hispanic Ethnicity (2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The once-a-decade decennial census was conducted in April 2010 by the U.S. Census Bureau. This count of every resident in the United States was mandated by Article...

  18. Sierra County Blocks, Race and Hispanic Ethnicity (2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The once-a-decade decennial census was conducted in April 2010 by the U.S. Census Bureau. This count of every resident in the United States was mandated by Article...

  19. Sierra County Block Groups, Race and Hispanic Ethnicity (2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The once-a-decade decennial census was conducted in April 2010 by the U.S. Census Bureau. This count of every resident in the United States was mandated by Article...

  20. Roosevelt County Block Groups, Race and Hispanic Ethnicity (2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The once-a-decade decennial census was conducted in April 2010 by the U.S. Census Bureau. This count of every resident in the United States was mandated by Article...

  1. Roosevelt County Blocks, Race and Hispanic Ethnicity (2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The once-a-decade decennial census was conducted in April 2010 by the U.S. Census Bureau. This count of every resident in the United States was mandated by Article...

  2. De Baca County Block Groups, Race and Hispanic Ethnicity (2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The once-a-decade decennial census was conducted in April 2010 by the U.S. Census Bureau. This count of every resident in the United States was mandated by Article...

  3. Lea County Block Groups, Race and Hispanic Ethnicity (2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The once-a-decade decennial census was conducted in April 2010 by the U.S. Census Bureau. This count of every resident in the United States was mandated by Article...

  4. Dona Ana County Block Groups, Race and Hispanic Ethnicity (2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The once-a-decade decennial census was conducted in April 2010 by the U.S. Census Bureau. This count of every resident in the United States was mandated by Article...

  5. Chaves County Blocks, Race and Hispanic Ethnicity (2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The once-a-decade decennial census was conducted in April 2010 by the U.S. Census Bureau. This count of every resident in the United States was mandated by Article...

  6. Grant County Blocks, Race and Hispanic Ethnicity (2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The once-a-decade decennial census was conducted in April 2010 by the U.S. Census Bureau. This count of every resident in the United States was mandated by Article...

  7. Mora County Blocks, Race and Hispanic Ethnicity (2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The once-a-decade decennial census was conducted in April 2010 by the U.S. Census Bureau. This count of every resident in the United States was mandated by Article...

  8. Sandoval County Blocks, Race and Hispanic Ethnicity (2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The once-a-decade decennial census was conducted in April 2010 by the U.S. Census Bureau. This count of every resident in the United States was mandated by Article...

  9. Perceived risk of regular cannabis use in the United States from 2002 to 2012: differences by sex, age, and race/ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacek, Lauren R; Mauro, Pia M; Martins, Silvia S

    2015-04-01

    Cannabis is one of the most widely used psychoactive substances in the United States (U.S.). Perceived risk of use is associated with substance use; the recent debate surrounding medicalization and legalization of cannabis in the U.S. has the potential to impact perceived risk of use. Recent estimates are needed to assess temporal changes in, and identify correlates of, perceived risk of cannabis use. Utilizing data from the 2002-2012 survey years of the National Survey on Drug Use and Health, chi-squared statistics and logistic regression were used to describe temporal changes in perceived risk of regular cannabis use (i.e., once or twice a week), to explore correlates of perceived risk, and to report frequency of cannabis use. Between 2002 and 2012, perceived great risk of regular cannabis use varied significantly overall (p race/ethnicity; age 50+; and family income of $20,000-49,999. Characteristics associated with decreased odds of perceived great risk included: ages 12-17 and 18-25; high school education or greater; total family income of $75,000+; past year non-daily and daily cannabis use; and survey years 2008-2012. Findings characterize trends of perceived risk of regular cannabis use, and past year non-daily and daily cannabis use. Longitudinal studies of the influence of legal status of cannabis at the state-level are needed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Working with Hispanic Women Who Are Deaf: Recommendations from the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feist, Amber M.; Saladin, Shawn P.; Hansmann, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    The authors used the hermeneutics approach within social cognitive career theory to explore employment trends and issues over the past 20 years relevant to Hispanic women who are deaf. Barriers to employment were discovered including discrepancies due to gender, race/ethnicity, and severity of hearing loss. Recommendations for policymakers and…

  11. Comparing Black, Hispanic, and White Mothers with a National Standard of Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strom, Robert D.; Strom, Paris S.; Beckert, Troy E.

    2008-01-01

    Black, Hispanic, and White mothers (N = 739) and adolescents (N = 806) completed a Parent Success Indicator to assess maternal behavior related to Communication, Use of Time, Teaching, Frustration, Satisfaction, and Information Needs. Comparisons between each ethnic group and a previously established national parenting standard revealed that both…

  12. "There She Is": Hispanic Identity, Academic Success, and Class Mobility in a Collegiate Beauty Pageant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Taylor Renee

    2018-01-01

    Widely accepted definitions of academic success are neither adequate nor meaningful for many ethnic minority students. Using ethnographic research with high-achieving Latina college students in Oklahoma, student experiences in a collegiate Hispanic beauty pageant were analyzed. These successful Latina students negotiated academic achievement…

  13. Risk/Protective Factors for Alcohol Use among Hispanic and White Teenagers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix-Ortiz, Maria; Newcomb, Michael D.

    Changing alcohol and drug use patterns among women and ethnic minorities, such as the over-representation of Hispanics in alcohol-related deaths, drunk driving arrests, and treatment facilities, emphasize the importance of understanding substance use patterns in these populations. This study attempted to identify a single cause of substance abuse…

  14. Comparative Experience Factors among Black, Asian, and Hispanic Americans: Coalitions or Conflicts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Talmadge

    1992-01-01

    Compares the culture, sociology, politics, and economics of African Americans, Hispanic Americans, and Asian Americans in the United States. Describes increased racial-ethnic national pluralism, the increased possibility of conflict between groups, and the need for dialogue and work toward coalition among these groups. (JB)

  15. Dietary nutrients associated with preservation of lung function in Hispanic and non-Hispanic white smokers from New Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leng S

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Shuguang Leng,1,2 Maria A Picchi,1 Yohannes Tesfaigzi,3 Guodong Wu,1 W James Gauderman,4 Fadi Xu,5 Frank D Gilliland,4 Steven A Belinsky1,2,6 1The Lung Cancer Program, Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, 2Cancer Control Research Program, University of New Mexico Comprehensive Cancer Center, 3COPD Program, Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, Albuquerque, NM, 4Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, 5Pathophysiology Program, Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, 6Cancer Genetics and Epigenetics Program, University of New Mexico Comprehensive Cancer Center, Albuquerque, NM, USA Background: COPD is the third leading cause of death in the United States. Cigarette smoking accelerates the age-related forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1 decline, an important determinant for the genesis of COPD. Hispanic smokers have lower COPD prevalence and FEV1 decline than non-Hispanic whites (NHWs. Patients and methods: A nutritional epidemiological study was conducted in the Lovelace Smokers cohort (LSC; n=1,829 and the Veterans Smokers cohort (n=508 to identify dietary nutrients (n=139 associated with average FEV1 and its decline and to assess whether nutrient intakes could explain ethnic disparity in FEV1 decline between Hispanics and NHW smokers. Results: Nutrients discovered and replicated to be significantly associated with better average FEV1 included magnesium, folate, niacin, vitamins A and D, eicosenoic fatty acid (20:1n9, eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n3, docosapentaenoic acid (DPA; 22:5n3, docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n3, and fiber. In addition, greater intakes of eicosenoic fatty acid and DPA were associated with slower FEV1 decline in the LSC. Among omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, DPA is the most potent nutrient associated with better average FEV1 and slower FEV1 decline. Adverse effect of continuous current smoking on FEV1 decline was completely negated in LSC members with high DPA intake (>20

  16. Cigarette Smoking and Breast Cancer Risk in Hispanic and Non-Hispanic White Women: The Breast Cancer Health Disparities Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Avonne E; Baumgartner, Kathy B; Baumgartner, Richard N; Pinkston, Christina M; Boone, Stephanie D; John, Esther M; Torres-Mejía, Gabriela; Hines, Lisa M; Giuliano, Anna R; Wolff, Roger K; Slattery, Martha L

    2016-03-01

    Few epidemiological studies have included Hispanics with the evaluation of the effects of cigarette smoking and breast cancer. We examined the relationship between cigarette smoking, ethnicity, and breast cancer risk using data from the Breast Cancer Health Disparities Study (BCHDS). The BCHDS is a consortium of three population-based case-control studies, including U.S. non-Hispanic whites (NHWs) (1,525 cases; 1,593 controls), U.S. Hispanics/Native Americans (1,265 cases; 1,495 controls), and Mexican women (990 cases; 1,049 controls). Multivariable logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Breast cancer risk was elevated among Mexican former smokers (OR 1.43, 95% CI 1.04-1.96) and among those who smoked ≥ 31 years (OR 1.95, 95% CI 1.13-3.35), compared to never smokers. In addition, Mexican former smokers with a history of alcohol consumption had increased breast cancer risk (OR 2.30, 95% CI 1.01-5.21). Among NHW premenopausal women, breast cancer risk was increased for smoking ≥ 20 cigarettes per day (OR 1.61, 95% CI 1.07-2.41). Our findings suggest the possibility of ethnic differences with the associations between cigarette smoking and breast cancer risk.

  17. Sex ratio, poverty, and concurrent partnerships among men and women in the United States: a multilevel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adimora, Adaora A; Schoenbach, Victor J; Taylor, Eboni M; Khan, Maria R; Schwartz, Robert J; Miller, William C

    2013-11-01

    Social and economic contextual factors may promote concurrent sexual partnerships, which can accelerate population HIV transmission and are more common among African Americans than U.S. Whites. We investigated the relationship between contextual factors and concurrency. We analyzed past 12-month concurrency prevalence in the 2002 National Survey of Family Growth and its contextual database in relation to county sex ratio (among respondent's racial and ethnic group), percentage in poverty (among respondent's racial and ethnic group), and violent crime rate. Analyses examined counties with balanced (0.95-1.05 males/female) or low (poverty (OR, 1.18; 95% CI, 0.98-1.42 per 10 percentage-point increase), and higher crime rates (OR, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.00-1.09 per 1000 population/year). Notably, 99.5% of Whites and 93.7% of Hispanics, but only 7.85% of Blacks, lived in balanced sex ratio counties; about 5% of Whites, half of Hispanics, and three-fourths of Blacks resided in counties with >20% same-race poverty. The dramatic Black-White differences in contextual factors in the United States and their association with sexual concurrency could contribute to the nation's profound racial disparities in HIV infection. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Race/ethnicity and measurement equivalence of the Everyday Discrimination Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Giyeon; Sellbom, Martin; Ford, Katy-Lauren

    2014-09-01

    The present study examines the effect of race/ethnicity on measurement equivalence of the Everyday Discrimination Scale (EDS; Williams, Yu, Jackson, & Anderson, 1997). Drawn from the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys (CPES; Alegría, Jackson, Kessler, & Takeuchi, 2008), adults aged 18 and older from four racial/ethnic groups were selected for analyses: 884 non-Hispanic Whites, 4,950 Blacks, 2,733 Hispanics/Latinos, and 2,089 Asians. Multiple-group confirmatory factor analyses were conducted. After adjusting for age and gender, the underlying construct of the EDS was invariant across four racial/ethnic groups, with Item 7 ("People act as if they're better than you are") associated with lower intercepts for the Hispanic/Latino and Asian groups relative to the non-Hispanic White and Black groups. In terms of latent factor differences, Blacks tended to score higher on the latent construct compared to other racial/ethnic groups, whereas Asians tended to score lower on the latent construct compared to Whites and Hispanics/Latinos. Findings suggest that although the EDS in general assesses the underlying construct of perceived discrimination equivalently across diverse racial/ethnic groups, caution is needed when Item 7 is used among Hispanics/Latinos or Asians. Implications are discussed in cultural and methodological contexts. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  19. Working with Hispanic women who are deaf: recommendations from the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feist, Amber M; Saladin, Shawn P; Hansmann, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    The authors used the hermeneutics approach within social cognitive career theory to explore employment trends and issues over the past 20 years relevant to Hispanic women who are deaf. Barriers to employment were discovered including discrepancies due to gender, race/ethnicity, and severity of hearing loss. Recommendations for policymakers and professionals suggest a need for research that addresses the unique experiences of Hispanic women who are deaf within vocational rehabilitation, the use of social cognitive career theory as it relates to career development and choices, and an increase in education and training to better prepare vocational rehabilitation counselors to work with individuals from multiple minority backgrounds. While information about Hispanic women who are deaf is limited, this review provides a better understanding of Hispanic deaf women and encourages expansion of knowledge in practice and research for professionals working with this unique population.

  20. Lupus among Asians and Hispanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Emails Lupus among Asians and Hispanics Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... compared with white women. Signs and Symptom of Lupus Lupus can affect people of all ages. However, ...

  1. Sex-, Ethnic-, and Age-Specific Centile Curves for pQCT- and HR-pQCT-Derived Measures of Bone Structure and Strength in Adolescents and Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabel, Leigh; Macdonald, Heather M; Nettlefold, Lindsay A; McKay, Heather A

    2018-02-02

    There are presently no adolescent centile curves for bone parameters at the tibial midshaft using peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) or at the distal radius and tibia using high-resolution pQCT (HR-pQCT). Thus, we aimed to develop sex-, ethnic-, site-, and age-specific centile curves for pQCT and HR-pQCT-derived bone outcomes for youth and young adults aged 10 to 21 years. We acquired pQCT scans (XCT3000 or XCT2000) at the tibial midshaft (50% site) and HR-pQCT scans (XtremeCT) at the distal radius (7% site) and tibia (8% site) in a convenience sample of participants in the mixed-longitudinal University of British Columbia Healthy Bones III Study. We scanned 778 10- to 21-year-olds annually for a maximum of 11 years using pQCT (413 girls, 56% Asian; 365 boys, 54% Asian; n = 3160 observations) and 349 10- to 21-year-olds annually for a maximum of 4 years using HR-pQCT (189 girls, 51% Asian; 165 boys, 50% Asian; n = 1090 observations). For pQCT, we report cortical bone mineral density (BMD), total bone cross-sectional area, and polar strength-strain index. For HR-pQCT, we report standard measures (total BMD, trabecular number, thickness, and bone volume fraction) and automated segmentation measures (total bone cross-sectional area, cortical BMD, porosity, and thickness). We applied finite element analysis to estimate failure load. We applied the lamda, mu, sigma (LMS) method using LMS ChartMaker Light (version 2.5, The Institute of Child Health, London, UK) to construct LMS tables and centile plots. We report sex- and age-specific centiles (3rd, 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, and 97th) for whites and Asians for pQCT bone parameters at the tibial midshaft and HR-pQCT bone parameters at the distal radius and tibia. These centile curves might be used by clinicians and scientists to interpret values or better understand trajectories of bone parameters in clinical populations, those from different geographic regions or of different ethnic origins. © 2018

  2. A multi-ethnic comparison of perceptions of forest recreation service quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chieh-Lu Li; James D. Absher; Harry C. Zinn; Alan R. Graefe; Garry E. Chick

    2010-01-01

    This study examines perceptions of service quality on an ethnically diverse national forest adjacent to a large metropolitan area, specifically looking for differences among whites, Hispanics, and Asians. Published studies of recreation and ethnicity have focused primarily on activity participation rates and patterns. The literature contains few cross–cultural...

  3. Racial Ethnic Health Disparities: A Phenomenological Exploration of African American with Diabetes Complications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okombo, Florence A.

    2017-01-01

    Racial/ethnic minority groups experience a higher mortality rate, a lower life expectancy, and worse mental health outcomes than non-Hispanic in the United States. There is a scarcity of qualitative studies on racial/ethnic health disparities. The purpose of this hermeneutic phenomenological study was to explore the personal experiences,…

  4. Racial/ethnic and immigrant differences in early childhood diet quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Hoog, Marieke L. A.; Kleinman, Ken P.; Gillman, Matthew W.; Vrijkotte, Tanja G. M.; van Eijsden, Manon; Taveras, Elsie M.

    2014-01-01

    To assess racial/ethnic differences in the diet in young children and the explanatory role of maternal BMI, immigrant status and perception of child's weight. Among white, black and Hispanic 3-year-olds, we used negative binomial and linear regression to examine associations of race/ethnicity with

  5. Health Education Research and Practice Literature on Hispanic Health Issues: Have We Lost Sight of the Largest Minority Population?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, James H; Khubchandani, Jagdish

    2016-03-01

    Hispanics constitute the largest racial/ethnic minority population in the United States and are the fastest growing segment of the population. Knowledge about health needs and practices, effective health promotion programs, and health policy making for Hispanics has the potential to improve population health outcomes for this group. Continued research and practice literature will aid in accomplishing these objectives. However, little is known about the extent of health education-related literature available on Hispanic health issues. In this review, we analyzed research and practice publications in all health education-related journals to assess the volume of articles published on Hispanic health issues. We found that the portion of journal articles devoted to Hispanic health issues varied widely among the journals and that there was a very limited emphasis on Hispanic health-related issues. Journal editors and editorial board members may need to be more proactive in soliciting manuscripts on Hispanic health, and our practitioners may have to improve their professional skills and cultural competence in order to work with Hispanic populations to produce research and practice literature that is of adequate quantity and quality to help improve Hispanics' health. © 2016 Society for Public Health Education.

  6. Assimilation and Health: Evidence From Linked Birth Records of Second- and Third-Generation Hispanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuntella, Osea

    2016-12-01

    This study explores the effects of assimilation on the health of Hispanics in the United States, using ethnic intermarriage as a metric of acculturation. I exploit a unique data set of linked confidential use birth records in California and Florida from 1970-2009. The confidential data allow me to link mothers giving birth in 1989-2009 to their own birth certificate records in 1970-1985 and to identify second-generation siblings. Thus, I can analyze the relationship between the parental exogamy of second-generation Hispanic women and the birth outcomes of their offspring controlling for grandmother fixed effects as well as indicators for second generation's birth weight. Despite their higher socioeconomic status, third-generation children of second-generation intermarried Hispanic women are more likely to have poor health at birth, even after I account for second-generation health at birth and employ only within-family variations in the extent of assimilation. I find that a second-generation Hispanic woman married to a non-Hispanic man is 9 % more likely to have a child with low birth weight relative to a second-generation woman married to another Hispanic. These results largely reflect the higher incidence of risky behaviors (e.g., smoking during pregnancy) among intermarried Hispanic women.

  7. Hispanic Men in the United States: Acculturation and Recent Sexual Behaviors With Female Partners, 2006–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Scott D.; Romaguera, Raul A.; Bloom, Fred R.; Leichliter, Jami S.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We examined Hispanic men’s recent risky and protective sexual behaviors with female partners by acculturation. Methods. Using the 2006–2010 National Survey of Family Growth, we performed bivariate analyses to compare acculturation groups (Hispanic Spanish-speaking immigrants, Hispanic English-speaking immigrants, Hispanic US natives, and non-Hispanic White men) by demographics and recent sexual behaviors with women. Multivariable logistic regression models for sexual behaviors by acculturation group were adjusted for demographics. Results. Compared with Hispanic Spanish-speaking immigrants, non-Hispanic White men were less likely to report exchange of money or drugs for sex (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.3; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.1, 0.9), but were also less likely to report condom use at last vaginal (AOR = 0.6; 95% CI = 0.4, 0.8) and anal sex (AOR = 0.4; 95% CI = 0.3, 0.7). Hispanic US natives were less likely to report condom use at last vaginal sex than were Spanish-speaking immigrants (AOR = 0.6; 95% CI = 0.4, 0.8). English- and Spanish-speaking immigrants did not differ in risky or protective sexual behaviors. Conclusions. Our findings suggest that targeted interventions focusing on unique sexual risks and sociodemographic differences by acculturation level, particularly nativity, may be helpful for preventing sexually transmitted infections. PMID:26066961

  8. Hispanic Men in the United States: Acculturation and Recent Sexual Behaviors With Female Partners, 2006-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haderxhanaj, Laura T; Rhodes, Scott D; Romaguera, Raul A; Bloom, Fred R; Leichliter, Jami S

    2015-08-01

    We examined Hispanic men's recent risky and protective sexual behaviors with female partners by acculturation. Using the 2006-2010 National Survey of Family Growth, we performed bivariate analyses to compare acculturation groups (Hispanic Spanish-speaking immigrants, Hispanic English-speaking immigrants, Hispanic US natives, and non-Hispanic White men) by demographics and recent sexual behaviors with women. Multivariable logistic regression models for sexual behaviors by acculturation group were adjusted for demographics. Compared with Hispanic Spanish-speaking immigrants, non-Hispanic White men were less likely to report exchange of money or drugs for sex (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.3; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.1, 0.9), but were also less likely to report condom use at last vaginal (AOR = 0.6; 95% CI = 0.4, 0.8) and anal sex (AOR = 0.4; 95% CI = 0.3, 0.7). Hispanic US natives were less likely to report condom use at last vaginal sex than were Spanish-speaking immigrants (AOR = 0.6; 95% CI = 0.4, 0.8). English- and Spanish-speaking immigrants did not differ in risky or protective sexual behaviors. Our findings suggest that targeted interventions focusing on unique sexual risks and sociodemographic differences by acculturation level, particularly nativity, may be helpful for preventing sexually transmitted infections.

  9. Dietary and physical activity behaviors of New York City children from different ethnic minority subgroups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vangeepuram, Nita; Mervish, Nancy; Galvez, Maida P; Brenner, Barbara; Wolff, Mary S

    2012-01-01

    To examine racial/ethnic differences in diet and physical activity behaviors in ethnic minority New York City children. Cross-sectional data from a community-based study of 486 6- to 8-year-old children were used. Race/ethnicity was derived using a caregiver's report of child's race and Hispanic ancestry. Dietary intake was obtained by 24-hour diet recalls using the Nutrition Data System for Research. Physical activity was assessed with pedometers and caregiver interviews. We compared diet and activity measures across racial/ethnic subgroups using chi-square and analysis of variance tests. Multivariate analyses adjusted for age, gender, body mass index, and caregiver education (with breastfeeding history and total energy intake included in diet models). Participants (N = 486) were categorized as Mexican (29.4%), Dominican (8.4%), Puerto Rican (20.6%), other/mixed Hispanic (14.0%), or non-Hispanic black (27.6%). Obesity rates were lower in non-Hispanic blacks (18%) than in Hispanics (31%). Mexicans had the lowest obesity rates among Hispanic subgroups (25%), and Dominicans had the highest (39%). There were differences in mean daily servings of food groups, with Mexicans having healthier diets and Puerto Ricans and non-Hispanic Blacks having less healthy diets. Sedentary time was lower in Mexicans than in other groups in adjusted models. Examination of additional models, including home language, did not show significant differences in the estimates. Diet and activity behaviors varied across racial/ethnic subgroups. Specifically, Mexican children had healthier diets, the least amount of sedentary time, and the lowest rates of obesity among the Hispanic subgroups examined. Targeted interventions in ethnic subgroups may be warranted to address specific behaviors. Copyright © 2012 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Differences in Natriuretic Peptide Levels by Race/Ethnicity (From the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Deepak K; Daniels, Lori B; Cheng, Susan; deFilippi, Christopher R; Criqui, Michael H; Maisel, Alan S; Lima, Joao A; Bahrami, Hossein; Greenland, Philip; Cushman, Mary; Tracy, Russell; Siscovick, David; Bertoni, Alain G; Cannone, Valentina; Burnett, John C; Carr, John Jeffrey; Wang, Thomas J

    2017-09-15

    Natriuretic peptides (NP) are cardiac-derived hormones with favorable cardiometabolic actions. Low NP levels are associated with increased risks of hypertension and diabetes mellitus, conditions with variable prevalence by race and ethnicity. Heritable factors underlie a significant proportion of the interindividual variation in NP concentrations, but the specific influences of race and ancestry are unknown. In 5597 individuals (40% white, 24% black, 23% Hispanic, and 13% Chinese) without prevalent cardiovascular disease at baseline in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, multivariable linear regression and restricted cubic splines were used to estimate differences in serum N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) levels according to, ethnicity, and ancestry. Ancestry was determined using genetic ancestry informative markers. NT-proBNP concentrations differed significantly by race and ethnicity (black, median 43 pg/ml [interquartile range 17 to 94], Chinese 43 [17 to 90], Hispanic 53 [23 to 107], white 68 [34 to 136]; p = 0.0001). In multivariable models, NT-proBNP was 44% lower (95% confidence interval -48 to -40) in black and 46% lower (-50 to -41) in Chinese, compared with white individuals. Hispanic individuals had intermediate concentrations. Self-identified blacks and Hispanics were the most genetically admixed. Among self-identified black individuals, a 20% increase in genetic European ancestry was associated with 12% higher (1% to 23%) NT-proBNP. Among Hispanic individuals, genetic European and African ancestry were positively and negatively associated with NT-proBNP levels, respectively. In conclusion, NT-proBNP levels differ according to race and ethnicity, with the lowest concentrations in black and Chinese individuals. Racial and ethnic differences in NT-proBNP may have a genetic basis, with European and African ancestry associated with higher and lower NT-proBNP concentrations, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All

  11. The impact of ethnic identity on changes in high risk HIV behaviors in sexually active migrant workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shehadeh, Nancy; Virginia McCoy, H; Rubens, Muni; Batra, Anamica; Renfrew, Roderick; Winter, Kelly

    2012-02-01

    Among migrant workers (MWs) in the US, HIV/AIDS prevalence may be as high as 13.5%. This serial cross-sectional study examines associations between Ethnic Identity (EI) in African American and Hispanic MWs and short-term changes in high-risk sexual behaviors. Baseline and 3-month follow-up data was collected from a larger HIV intervention study among MWs in Immokalee, Florida (n = 119) who reported unprotected sex in the past 30 days. The Multigroup Identity Measure was used to assess EI. A high EI score indicates less acculturation to one's new surroundings. Females had higher levels of positive behavior change. Lower EI was associated with higher levels of positive change in relation to HIV/AIDS risk behavior. Among Hispanics, education was negatively correlated with EI. Education was a predictor of behavior change. Future interventions should focus on reducing acculturation stress, which may prompt harmful coping behaviors, such as high-risk sex and substance abuse.

  12. Racial, Ethnic, and Gender Differences in School Discipline among U.S. High School Students: 1991-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, John M., Jr.; Goodkind, Sara; Wallace, Cynthia M.; Bachman, Jerald G.

    2008-01-01

    Large nationally representative samples of White, Black, Hispanic, Asian American, and American Indian students were used in this study to examine current patterns and recent trends in racial, ethnic, and gender differences in school discipline from 1991 to 2005. Findings revealed that Black, Hispanic, and American Indian youth are slightly more…

  13. Racial-Ethnic Differences in Social Anxiety among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeSure-Lester, G. Evelyn; King, Nancy

    2004-01-01

    The present study investigated racial-ethnic differences in social anxiety among college students in two-year colleges. The sample consisted of 189 Asian American, African American, White American, and Hispanic American students from two colleges in the Southeast. Participants completed a questionnaire measure of social anxiety. The results…

  14. Implicit Race/Ethnic Prejudice in Mexican Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garza, Christelle Fabiola; Gasquoine, Philip Gerard

    2013-01-01

    Implicit race/ethnic prejudice was assessed using Spanish- and English-language versions of an Implicit Association Test that used Hispanic/Anglo first names and pleasant/unpleasant words as stimuli. This test was administered to a consecutive sample of Mexican American adults residing in the Rio Grande Valley region of Texas of whom about…

  15. Fostering Cultural Diversity: Problems of Access and Ethnic Boundary Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maria T. Allison

    1992-01-01

    This presentation explores theoretical reasons for the underutilization of services, discusses types and problems of access which may be both inadvertent and institutionalized, and discusses policy implications of this work. Data suggest that individuals from distinct ethnic populations, particularly Hispanic, African-American, and Native American, tend to underutilize...

  16. The Changing Face of Noncardia Gastric Cancer Incidence Among US Non-Hispanic Whites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, William F; Rabkin, Charles S; Turner, Natalie; Fraumeni, Joseph F; Rosenberg, Philip S; Camargo, M Constanza

    2018-01-19

    The initial step for noncardia gastric carcinogenesis is atrophic gastritis, driven by either Helicobacter pylori infection or autoimmunity. In recent decades, the prevalence rates of these two major causes declined and increased, respectively, with changes in Western lifestyles. We therefore assessed gastric cancer incidence trends for US race/ethnic groups, 1995-2013. Age-standardized rates (ASRs) from 45 North American Association of Central Cancer Tumor Registries were summarized by estimated annual percentage change (EAPC) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Age period cohort models supplemented standard descriptive techniques and projected future trends. There were 137 447 noncardia cancers in 4.4 billion person-years of observation. Among non-Hispanic whites, the ASR was 2.2 per 100 000 person-years, with an EAPC of -2.3% (95% CI = -2.0% to -2.6%). Notwithstanding this overall decline, EAPCs rose 1.3% (95% CI = 0.6% to 2.1%) for persons younger than age 50 years and fell -2.6% (95% CI = -2.4% to -2.9%) for older individuals. These converging trends manifested a birth cohort effect more pronounced among women than men, with incidence among women born in 1983 twofold (95% CI = 1.1-fold to 3.6-fold) greater than those born in 1951. Age interaction was also statistically significant among Hispanic whites, with slightly increasing vs decreasing EAPCs for younger and older individuals, respectively. Incidence declined regardless of age for other races. Current trends foreshadow expected reversals in both falling incidence and male predominance among non-Hispanic whites. Dysbiosis of the gastric microbiome associated with modern living conditions may be increasing risk of autoimmune gastritis and consequent noncardia cancer. The changing face by age and sex of gastric cancer warrants analytical studies to identify potential causal mechanisms. Published by Oxford University Press 2018. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public

  17. Panic disorder phenomenology in urban self-identified Caucasian-Non-Hispanics and Caucasian-Hispanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollifield, Michael; Finley, M Rosina; Skipper, Betty

    2003-01-01

    The epidemiology of panic disorder is well known, but data about some phenomenological aspects are sparse. The symptom criteria for panic disorder were developed largely from rational expert consensus methods and not from empirical research. This fact calls attention to the construct validity of the panic disorder diagnosis, which may affect accuracy of epidemiological findings. Seventy self-identified Non-Hispanic-Caucasian (Anglo) and Hispanic-Caucasian (Hispanic) people who were diagnosed with DSM-III-R panic disorder with or without agoraphobia were invited to complete a Panic Phenomenological Questionnaire (PPQ), which was constructed for this study from the Hamilton Anxiety Scale Items and The DSM-III-R panic symptoms. Fifty (71%) subjects agreed to participate, and there was no response bias detected. Seven symptoms on the PPQ that are not in the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria were reported to occur with a high prevalence in this study. Furthermore, many symptoms that occurred with a high frequency and were reported to be experienced as severe are also not included in current nosology. A few of the DSM-IV criterion symptoms occurred with low prevalence, frequency, and severity. Cognitive symptoms were reported to occur with higher frequency and severity during attacks than autonomic or other symptoms. There were modest differences between ethnic groups with regard to panic attack phenomena. Further research using multiple empirical methods aimed at improving the content validity of the panic disorder diagnosis is warranted. This includes utilizing consistent methods to collect data that will allow for rational decisions about how to construct valid panic disorder criteria across cultures. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Association of lens vault with narrow angles among different ethnic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Roland Y; Huang, Guofu; Cui, Qi N; He, Mingguang; Porco, Travis C; Lin, Shan C

    2012-06-01

    To compare lens vault between open-angle and narrow-angle eyes in African-, Caucasian-, Hispanic-, Chinese- and Filipino-Americans. In this prospective study, 436 patients with open angle and narrow angle based on the Shaffer gonioscopic grading classification underwent anterior-segment optical coherence tomography. The Zhongshan Angle Assessment Program was used to calculate lens vault. The narrow-angle group included 32 Chinese-Americans, 22 Filipino-Americans, 26 African-Americans, 24 Hispanic-Americans and 73 Caucasian-Americans. The open-angle group included 56 Chinese-Americans, 29 Filipino-Americans, 45 African-Americans, 27 Hispanic-Americans and 102 Caucasian-Americans. Linear mixed effect regression models, accounting for the use of both eyes and adjusting for age, sex, pupil diameter and spherical equivalent, were used to test for the ethnicity and angle coefficients. Tukey's multiple comparison test was used for pairwise comparisons among the open-angle racial groups. Significant difference in lens vault was found among the open-angle racial groups (P = 0.022). For the open-angle patients, mean values for the lens vault measurements were 265 ± 288 µm for Chinese-Americans, 431 ± 248 µm for Caucasian-Americans, 302 ± 213 µm for Filipino-Americans, 304 ± 263 µm for Hispanic-Americans and 200 ± 237 µm for African-Americans. Using Tukey's multiple comparison for pairwise comparisons among the open-angle racial groups, a significant difference was found between African-American and Caucasian-Americans groups (P values for the rest of the pairwise comparisons were not statistically significant. No significant difference was found among the narrow-angle racial groups (P = 0.14). Comparison between the open angle and narrow angle within each racial group revealed significant difference for all racial groups (P < 0.05). Among all the ethnicities included in this study, narrow-angle eyes have greater lens vault compared to open

  19. Weight-loss interventions for Hispanic populations: the role of culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Nangel M; Stevens, Victor J; Halperin, Ruben O

    2013-01-01

    In the United States, ethnic minorities are overrepresented among the overweight and obese population, with Hispanic individuals being among the groups most at risk for obesity and obesity-related disease and disability. Most weight-loss interventions designed for the general population have been less successful with individuals from ethnic minorities and there is a pressing need to develop more effective interventions for these groups. This paper examines the importance of culture in the development of "culturally competent" weight-loss interventions for ethnic minority populations, and discusses specific culturally mediated factors that should be considered in the design and implementation of treatment interventions. While specifically focusing on Hispanic populations, we also address issues of relevance to other multiethnic societies.

  20. Effects of prior testing lasting a full year in NCANDA adolescents: Contributions from age, sex, socioeconomic status, ethnicity, site, family history of alcohol or drug abuse, and baseline performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edith V. Sullivan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Longitudinal study provides a robust method for tracking developmental trajectories. Yet inherent problems of retesting pose challenges in distinguishing biological developmental change from prior testing experience. We examined factors potentially influencing change scores on 16 neuropsychological test composites over 1 year in 568 adolescents in the National Consortium on Alcohol and NeuroDevelopment in Adolescence (NCANDA project. The twice-minus-once-tested method revealed that performance gain was mainly attributable to testing experience (practice with little contribution from predicted developmental effects. Group mean practice slopes for 13 composites indicated that 60% to ∼100% variance was attributable to test experience; General Ability accuracy showed the least practice effect (29%. Lower baseline performance, especially in younger participants, was a strong predictor of greater gain. Contributions from age, sex, ethnicity, examination site, socioeconomic status, or family history of alcohol/substance abuse were nil to small, even where statistically significant. Recognizing that a substantial proportion of change in longitudinal testing, even over 1-year, is attributable to testing experience indicates caution against assuming that performance gain observed during periods of maturation necessarily reflects development. Estimates of testing experience, a form of learning, may be a relevant metric for detecting interim influences, such as alcohol use or traumatic episodes, on behavior.

  1. Race-ethnicity and poverty after spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, J S; Dismuke, C E; Acuna, J; Sligh-Conway, C; Walker, E; Washington, K; Reed, K S

    2014-02-01

    Secondary analysis of existing data. Our objective was to examine the relationship between race-ethnicity and poverty status after spinal cord injury (SCI). A large specialty hospital in the southeastern United States. Participants were 2043 adults with traumatic SCI in the US. Poverty status was measured using criteria from the US Census Bureau. Whereas only 14% of non-Hispanic White participants were below the poverty level, 41.3% of non-Hispanic Blacks were in poverty. Logistic regression with three different models identified several significant predictors of poverty, including marital status, years of education, level of education, age and employment status. Non-Hispanic Blacks had 2.75 greater odds of living in poverty after controlling for other factors, including education and employment. We may need to consider quality of education and employment to better understand the elevated risk of poverty among non-Hispanic Blacks in the US.

  2. Racial/Ethnic Variations in Colorectal Cancer Screening Self-Efficacy, Fatalism and Risk Perception in a Safety-Net Clinic Population: Implications for Tailored Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumpkins, Cy; Cupertino, P; Young, K; Daley, C; Yeh, Hw; Greiner, Ka

    2013-01-25

    Ethnic and racial minority groups in the U.S. receive fewer colorectal cancer (CRC) screening tests and are less likely to be up-to-date with CRC screening than the population as a whole. Access, limited awareness of CRC and barriers may, in part, be responsible for inhibiting widespread adoption of CRC screening among racial and ethnic minority groups. The purpose of this study was to examine the role of self-efficacy, fatalism and CRC risk perception across racial and ethnic groups in a diverse sample. This study was a cross-sectional analysis from baseline measures gathered on a group of patients recruited into a trial to track colorectal cancer screening in underserved adults over 50. Out of 470 Participants, 42% were non-Hispanic; 27% Hispanic and 28% non-Hispanic White. Hispanic and non-Hispanic Blacks were more likely to have fatalistic beliefs about CRC than non-Hispanic Whites. Non-Hispanic Blacks perceived higher risk of getting colon cancer. Self-efficacy for completing CRC screening was higher among Non-Hispanic Blacks than among Hispanics. Racial and ethnic differences in risk perceptions, fatalism and self-efficacy should be taken into consideration in future CRC interventions with marginalized and uninsured populations.

  3. Examining the Protective Effect of Ethnic Identity on Drug Attitudes and Use Among a Diverse Youth Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapolski, Tamika C B; Fisher, Sycarah; Banks, Devin E; Hensel, Devon J; Barnes-Najor, Jessica

    2017-08-01

    Ethnic identity is an important buffer against drug use among minority youth. However, limited work has examined pathways through which ethnic identity mitigates risk. School-aged youth (N = 34,708; 52 % female) of diverse backgrounds (i.e., African American (n = 5333), Asian (n = 392), Hispanic (n = 662), Multiracial (n = 2129), Native American (n = 474), and White (n = 25718) in grades 4-12 provided data on ethnic identity, drug attitudes, and drug use. After controlling for gender and grade, higher ethnic identity was associated with lower past month drug use for African American, Hispanic, and Multiracial youth. Conversely, high ethnic identity was associated with increased risk for White youth. An indirect pathway between ethnic identity, drug attitudes, and drug use was also found for African American, Hispanic, and Asian youth. Among White youth the path model was also significant, but in the opposite direction. These findings confirm the importance of ethnic identity for most minority youth. Further research is needed to better understand the association between ethnic identity and drug use for Multiracial and Hispanic youth, best ways to facilitate healthy ethnic identity development for minority youth, and how to moderate the risk of identity development for White youth.

  4. The Hispanic Association of Colleges and Universities and Hispanic-Serving Institutions: Partners in the Advancement of Hispanic Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderon Galdeano, Emily; Flores, Antonio R.; Moder, John

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between the Hispanic Association of Colleges and Universities (HACU) and the recognition of Hispanic-Serving Institutions (HSIs) occurs at the federal level. HACU's origins and the legislative history of the HSI designation in federal law are explored. The demographic growth and corresponding importance of Hispanics in the…

  5. Secular Trends in the Incidence of Dementia in a Multi-Ethnic Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, James M; Schupf, Nicole; Manly, Jennifer J; Andrews, Howard; Tang, Ming-Xin; Mayeux, Richard

    2017-10-03

    Determination of secular trends in cognitive aging is important for prioritization of resources, services, and research in aging populations. Prior studies have identified declining dementia incidence associated with changes in cardiovascular risk factors and increased educational attainment. However, few studies have examined these factors in multi-ethnic cohorts. To identify secular trends in the incidence rate of dementia in an elderly population. Participants in this study were drawn from the Washington Heights-Inwood Columbia Aging Project, a multi-ethnic cohort study of northern Manhattan residents aged 65 years and older. Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine differences in the incidence of dementia in cohorts recruited in 1992 and 1999, with age at dementia or age at last follow-up visit as the "time-to-event" variable. Overall, there was a 41% reduction in the hazard ratio for dementia among participants in the 1999 cohort compared with those in the 1992 cohort, adjusting for age, sex, race, and baseline memory complaints (HR = 0.59). The reduction in incidence was greatest among non-Hispanic Whites and African-Americans and lowest among Hispanic participants (HRs = 0.60, 0.52 and 0.64, respectively), and was associated with increases in level of educational attainment, especially among African-Americans. Reduction in incidence of dementia was also greater among persons 75 years or older than among younger participants (HR = 0.52 versus HR = 0.69). Our results support previous findings that secular trends in dementia incidence are changing, including in aging minority populations.

  6. Ethnicity and cultural values as predictors of the occurrence and impact of experienced workplace incivility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welbourne, Jennifer L; Gangadharan, Ashwini; Sariol, Ana M

    2015-04-01

    Workplace incivility is a subtle type of deviant work behavior that is low in intensity and violates workplace norms of respect. Past research demonstrates the harmful impact of incivility on work attitudes and employee wellbeing; however, little is known about how incivility is experienced by individuals of different ethnicities and cultural orientations. In the current study, we compared the amount and impact of workplace incivility that was experienced by Hispanic and white, non-Hispanic employees. Further, we examined whether cultural dimensions of vertical and horizontal individualism and collectivism moderated the relationships between workplace incivility and work and health outcomes. A sample of 262 university employees (50% Hispanic; 63% female) provided self-reports of experienced incivility, burnout, job satisfaction, and cultural values. Although male Hispanic employees experienced more incivility, female Hispanic employees experienced less incivility than non-Hispanic employees of the same gender. Hispanic employees displayed greater resilience against the impact of incivility on job satisfaction and burnout, compared with non-Hispanic employees. Additionally, employees with strong horizontal collectivism values (emphasizing sociability) were more resilient against the impact of incivility on burnout, whereas employees with strong horizontal individualism values (emphasizing self-reliance) were more susceptible to burnout and dissatisfaction when faced with incivility. These findings suggest that employees' ethnicity and cultural values may increase or decrease their vulnerability to the impact of incivility at work. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Disordered eating in ethnic minority adolescents with overweight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Rachel F; Watts, Allison W; Austin, S Bryn; Haines, Jess; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2017-06-01

    High rates of disordered eating exist among adolescents with overweight and among ethnic/racial minority adolescents. Given the lack of research examining how eating disorder risk is moderated by both overweight and ethnicity/race, this study aimed to explore interactions between ethnicity/race and overweight status on disordered eating behaviors in a population-based adolescent sample. Cross-sectional data from adolescents (n = 2,271; 52% females) of White (23%), Black (34%), Hispanic (20%), and Asian (23%; 82% Hmong) ethnicity/race participating in the EAT 2010 study were used to examine associations between overweight status and disordered eating behaviors across ethnic/racial groups. Disordered eating behaviors occurred more frequently among adolescents with overweight compared with those without overweight across all ethnic/racial groups. Although some differences in the prevalence of disordered eating were found by ethnicity/race, particularly in girls, no consistent patterns of interaction emerged. Overweight White and Hispanic girls reported the highest risk for dieting, while the highest risk for unhealthy weight control behaviors was among overweight Black girls, and for overeating among overweight White and Asian girls. Within a society in which thinness is highly valued and being overweight is stigmatized, across diverse cultural groups, adolescents with overweight are at risk for disordered eating. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Hispanic Youth and Military Enlistment Propensity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    O'Connor

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to explore the issue of Hispanic propensity in more depth than has previously been available, and to identify possible causes of Hispanic youths' declining interest in military service...

  9. Race/ethnicity, psychological resilience, and social support among OEF/OIF combat veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Matthew S; Leung, Desmond W; Pittman, James O E; Floto, Elizabeth; Afari, Niloofar

    2018-07-01

    This study examined the relationship between race/ethnicity and psychological resilience, and the moderating role of social support in this relationship among non-Hispanic White (n = 605), Hispanic (n = 107), African American (n = 141), and Asian American (n = 97) Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) combat veterans. Veterans were primarily male (88%) with a mean age of 31.4 years (SD = 8.35). An analysis of covariance showed that Asian American veterans reported significantly lower psychological resilience than non-Hispanic White veterans. The interaction of race/ethnicity and social support with psychological resilience was examined via linear regression. We found that the relationship between psychological resilience and social support significantly differed by race/ethnicity such that social support was positively associated with psychological resilience among non-Hispanic White veterans, but not among other racial/ethnic groups. Our findings are consistent with previous studies that show Asian American veterans report lower psychological resilience than non-Hispanic White veterans. Cultural differences in how and why individuals use social support may underlie racial/ethnic differences in the relationship between social support and psychological resilience. Future qualitative and quantitative research is encouraged to better understand how social support relates to psychological resilience among minority OEF/OIF combat veterans. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Do wealth disparities contribute to health disparities within racial/ethnic groups?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, Craig Evan; Cubbin, Catherine; Sania, Ayesha; Hayward, Mark; Vallone, Donna; Flaherty, Brian; Braveman, Paula A

    2013-05-01

    Though wide disparities in wealth have been documented across racial/ethnic groups, it is largely unknown whether differences in wealth are associated with health disparities within racial/ethnic groups. Data from the Survey of Consumer Finances (2004, ages 25-64) and the Health and Retirement Survey (2004, ages 50+), containing a wide range of assets and debts variables, were used to calculate net worth (a standard measure of wealth). Among non-Hispanic black, Hispanic and non-Hispanic white populations, we tested whether wealth was associated with self-reported poor/fair health status after accounting for income and education. Except among the younger Hispanic population, net worth was significantly associated with poor/fair health status within each racial/ethnic group in both data sets. Adding net worth attenuated the association between education and poor/fair health (in all racial/ethnic groups) and between income and poor/fair health (except among older Hispanics). The results add to the literature indicating the importance of including measures of wealth in health research for what they may reveal about disparities not only between but also within different racial/ethnic groups.

  11. Examining Racial and Ethnic Differences in Nursing Home Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefele, Jennifer Gaudet; Ritter, Grant A; Bishop, Christine E; Acevedo, Andrea; Ramos, Candi; Nsiah-Jefferson, Laurie A; Katz, Gabrielle

    2017-11-01

    Identifying racial/ethnic differences in quality is central to identifying, monitoring, and reducing disparities. Although disparities across all individual nursing home residents and disparities associated with between-nursing home differences have been established, little is known about the degree to which quality of care varies by race//ethnicity within nursing homes. A study was conducted to measure within-facility differences for a range of publicly reported nursing home quality measures. Resident assessment data on approximately 15,000 nursing homes and approximately 3 million residents (2009) were used to assess eight commonly used and publicly reported long-stay quality measures: the proportion of residents with weight loss, with high-risk and low-risk pressure ulcers, with incontinence, with depressive symptoms, in restraints daily, and who experienced a urinary tract infection or functional decline. Each measure was stratified by resident race/ethnicity (non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and Hispanic), and within-facility differences were examined. Small but significant differences in care on average were found, often in an unexpected direction; in many cases, white residents were experiencing poorer outcomes than black and Hispanic residents in the same facility. However, a broad range of differences in care by race/ethnicity within nursing homes was also found. The results suggest that care is delivered equally across all racial/ethnic groups in the same nursing home, on average. The results support the call for publicly reporting stratified nursing home quality measures and suggest that nursing home providers should attempt to identify racial/ethnic within-facility differences in care. Copyright © 2017 The Joint Commission. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Association between workplace psychosocial factors and mental health in Black, Hispanic, and White women: Cross-sectional findings from the National Health Interview Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutambudzi, Miriam

    2017-01-01

    Research evaluating the relation of workplace psychosocial factors to mental health among U.S. women of different racial/ethnic backgrounds is limited. This study investigated the relationship between work-related psychosocial factors and mental health among non-Hispanic Black, Hispanic, and non-Hispanic White women using data from the 2010 National Health Interview Survey. Independent variables of interest included job insecurity, workplace harassment, and work-family conflict (WFC). Multiple Poisson regression models were used to examine the associations between the outcome and independent variables. The prevalence of unfavorable mental health was highest among non-Hispanic Black women (36%) compared to Hispanic (34%) and non-Hispanic White (30%) women. A higher proportion of non-Hispanic Black women reported WFC compared to Hispanics and non-Hispanic Whites (χ 2 = 15.50, p mental health were significantly higher for women reporting psychosocial work factors. Unexpectedly, a greater association between psychosocial work factors and unfavorable mental health was observed among non-Hispanic White women compared to non-White women; however, caution should be taken in interpreting these cross-sectional results. Future studies should investigate temporal associations and additional psychosocial variables that were not available for use in the current study.

  13. Comparison of substance use and risky sexual behavior among a diverse sample of urban, HIV-positive men who have sex with men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatfield, Laura A.; Horvath, Keith J.; Jacoby, Scott M.; Rosser, B. R. Simon

    2012-01-01

    Aims To measure substance use across racial and ethnic subgroups of HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM), model associations between drug use and unsafe sex, and characterize users of the substances most strongly associated with risky sexual behavior. Design Cross-sectional survey at the pre-intervention time point of the Positive Connections behavioral intervention trial. Setting HIV-positive men of color who have sex with men living in six US cities. Participants 675 trial participants. Measurements Self-reported drug and alcohol use and sexual behaviors. Findings We found high prevalence of substance use in this sample, with differences across racial and ethnic groups. Compared to Hispanic, African America, and men of other or mixed races/ethnicities, Caucasian men were most likely to report use of stimulants (30%), methamphetamines (27%), and amyl nitrite inhalants (“poppers”, 46%) with anal sex. African American men reported crack/cocaine use in the highest proportion (38%) among the four groups. While many drugs were individually associated with serodiscordant unprotected anal intercourse (SDUAI), only alcohol quantity and poppers with sex were retained in a multivariate model. More frequent poppers use was associated with more reported instances of SDUAI, adjusted for increased anal sex. Men who used poppers were more likely to be white, have completed more education, and have slightly higher income than non-users. Poppers users also reported lower peer norms and self-efficacy for condom use. In a multiple logistic regression model including these psychosocial factors, only poppers use (vs non-use OR = 2.46, CI: 1.55, 3.94) and condom self-efficacy (1 sd increase on scale OR = .58, CI: .46, .73) were significantly associated with SDUAI. Conclusion These results, from a large sample of HIV-positive MSM of color, highlight the HIV transmission importance of drugs used specifically in conjunction with sex. PMID:20155589

  14. Hypertrophic scarring in cleft lip repair: a comparison of incidence among ethnic groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soltani AM

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Ali M Soltani, Cameron S Francis, Arash Motamed, Ashley L Karatsonyi, Jeffrey A Hammoudeh, Pedro A Sanchez-Lara, John F Reinisch, Mark M UrataDivision of Plastic and Maxillofacial Surgery at Children's Hospital Los Angeles, CA, USA; The Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery at the Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USABackground: Although hypertrophic scar (HTS formation following cleft lip repair is relatively common, published rates vary widely, from 1% to nearly 50%. The risk factors associated with HTS formation in cleft patients are not well characterized. The primary aim of this retrospective study of 180 cleft lip repairs is to evaluate the frequency of postoperative HTS among various ethnic groups following cleft lip repair.Methods: A retrospective chart view of patients undergoing primary cleft lip repair over a 16-year period (1990–2005 by the senior surgeon was performed. The primary outcome was the presence of HTS at 1 year postoperatively. Bivariate analysis and multivariable logistic regression were used to evaluate potential risk factors for HTS, including ethnicity, type and laterality of cleft, and gender.Results: One hundred and eighty patients who underwent cleft lip repair were included in the study. The overall rate of postoperative HTS formation was 25%. Ethnicity alone was found to be an independent predictor of HTS formation. Caucasian patients had the lowest rate of HTS formation (11.8% and were used as the reference group. HTS rates were significantly higher in the other ethnicities, 32.2% in Hispanic patients (odds ratio [OR]: 3.51; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.53–8.85, and 36.3% for Asian patients (OR 4.27; 95% CI: 1.36–13.70. Sex, cleft type, and cleft laterality were not associated with increased rates of HTS.Conclusions: Differences in ethnic makeup of respective patient populations may be a major factor influencing the wide variability of reported

  15. Teaching Hispanic Linguistics: Strategies to Engage Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knouse, Stephanie M.; Gupton, Timothy; Abreau, Laurel

    2015-01-01

    Even though many post-secondary institutions offer a variety of Hispanic linguistics classes (Hualde 2006; Lipski 2006), research on the pedagogy of Hispanic linguistics is an underdeveloped or non-existent area of the discipline. Courses in Hispanic linguistics can present not only linguistic challenges for non-native speakers of Spanish, but…

  16. Education Level of Catholic Hispanic Deacons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Joseph R.

    2016-01-01

    The present study assessed self-reported religiosity, spirituality, faith-related behaviors, leadership styles, and personality dimensions of 156 Hispanic Catholic deacons, based on varied educational degrees assisting in Hispanic (n = 91) or non-Hispanic (n = 65) parishes. Results found no significant differences on any self-reported variables…

  17. Alcoholism among Hispanics--A Growing Concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Rolando

    1979-01-01

    A major concern to anyone involved in the alcoholism field is the basic understanding of alcoholism as a disease that Hispanics have not yet completely accepted. Hispanics have usually labeled the use of alcoholic beverages as being embedded into Hispanic culture and have viewed alcoholism as an individual weakness to be endured in silence. (NQ)

  18. Mentoring Revisited: The Hispanic Woman's Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bova, Breda Murphy

    1995-01-01

    Interviews with 20 Hispanic female faculty and administrators revealed mentoring to be important to career development but difficult to obtain. Barriers included limited opportunities for informal contact, compounded stereotypes of women and of Hispanic women, and conflicting values of Hispanic and academic cultures. (SK)

  19. Educational Journeys of Hispanic Women in Nursing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Antoinette Navalta

    2012-01-01

    Hispanics continue to be the fastest growing minority population in the Nation. According to U.S. Census Bureau (2011; 2008), the Hispanic or Latino population was 16.3 percent in 2010 and is projected to be over 30 percent in 2050. However, only 3.6% of the RN population is Hispanic indicating an unrealistic representation of today's…

  20. Inferential Statistics from Black Hispanic Breast Cancer Survival Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafiz M. R. Khan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we test the statistical probability models for breast cancer survival data for race and ethnicity. Data was collected from breast cancer patients diagnosed in United States during the years 1973–2009. We selected a stratified random sample of Black Hispanic female patients from the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER database to derive the statistical probability models. We used three common model building criteria which include Akaike Information Criteria (AIC, Bayesian Information Criteria (BIC, and Deviance Information Criteria (DIC to measure the goodness of fit tests and it was found that Black Hispanic female patients survival data better fit the exponentiated exponential probability model. A novel Bayesian method was used to derive the posterior density function for the model parameters as well as to derive the predictive inference for future response. We specifically focused on Black Hispanic race. Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC method was used for obtaining the summary results of posterior parameters. Additionally, we reported predictive intervals for future survival times. These findings would be of great significance in treatment planning and healthcare resource allocation.

  1. The Effects of work-related perceptions on retention of Hispanics in the U.S. Marine Corps

    OpenAIRE

    Azenon, Enrique A.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis investigates whether perceptions of the working environment are related to a Marine Corps member's intentions to remain on active duty. The study further examines whether perceptions about intra-organizational mobility, inequity in the workplace, and organizational support vary by racial/ethnic group. The analysis focuses on Hispanics, the largest growing ethnic minority in the United States and draws upon data from the 2002 Status of the Armed Forces: Gender and Working Relations...

  2. Ethnic Variations in Psychosocial and Health Correlates of Eating Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assari, Shervin; DeFreitas, Mariana R

    2018-04-25

    The aim of this study is to explore ethnic variations in psychosocial and health correlates of eating disorders in the United States, Specifically, we compared associations between gender, socioeconomic status (SES), body mass index (BMI), physical and mental self-rated health (SRH), and major depressive disorder (MDD) with eating disorders (EDs) across 10 different ethnic groups in the United States. Data was obtained from the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys (CPES), a national household probability sample collected in 2001⁻2003. Data for this study included a sample of 17,729 individuals with the following ethnic profile: 520 Vietnamese, 508 Filipino, 600 Chinese, 656 Other Asian, 577 Cuban, 495 Puerto Rican, 1442 Mexican, 1106 Other Hispanic, 4746 African American, and 7587 Non-Latino Whites. Gender, SES (education and income), BMI, SRH, MDD, and presence of EDs were measured across different ethnic groups. Logistic regression analysis was conducted for each ethnic group with lifetime EDs as the main outcome. Ethnic group varied in psychosocial and health correlates of EDs. In most ethnic groups, gender and SES were not associated with EDs. In almost all ethnic groups, EDs were associated with MDD and BMI. EDs were found to be associated with SRH in half of the ethnic groups studied. The associations between gender, SES, BMI, SRH, MDD, and EDs vary across different ethnic groups. These differences must be considered in further studies and in clinical practice in order to improve our approach towards diagnosis and treatment of EDs.

  3. Ethnic Variations in Psychosocial and Health Correlates of Eating Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervin Assari

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to explore ethnic variations in psychosocial and health correlates of eating disorders in the United States, Specifically, we compared associations between gender, socioeconomic status (SES, body mass index (BMI, physical and mental self-rated health (SRH, and major depressive disorder (MDD with eating disorders (EDs across 10 different ethnic groups in the United States. Data was obtained from the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys (CPES, a national household probability sample collected in 2001–2003. Data for this study included a sample of 17,729 individuals with the following ethnic profile: 520 Vietnamese, 508 Filipino, 600 Chinese, 656 Other Asian, 577 Cuban, 495 Puerto Rican, 1442 Mexican, 1106 Other Hispanic, 4746 African American, and 7587 Non-Latino Whites. Gender, SES (education and income, BMI, SRH, MDD, and presence of EDs were measured across different ethnic groups. Logistic regression analysis was conducted for each ethnic group with lifetime EDs as the main outcome. Ethnic group varied in psychosocial and health correlates of EDs. In most ethnic groups, gender and SES were not associated with EDs. In almost all ethnic groups, EDs were associated with MDD and BMI. EDs were found to be associated with SRH in half of the ethnic groups studied. The associations between gender, SES, BMI, SRH, MDD, and EDs vary across different ethnic groups. These differences must be considered in further studies and in clinical practice in order to improve our approach towards diagnosis and treatment of EDs.

  4. Race/ethnicity, educational attainment, and pregnancy complications in New York City women with pre-existing diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James-Todd, Tamarra; Janevic, Teresa; Brown, Florence M; Savitz, David A

    2014-03-01

    More women are entering pregnancy with pre-existing diabetes. Disease severity, glycaemic control, and predictors of pregnancy complications may differ by race/ethnicity or educational attainment, leading to differences in adverse pregnancy outcomes. We used linked New York City hospital record and birth certificate data for 6291 singleton births among women with pre-existing diabetes between 1995 and 2003. We defined maternal race/ethnicity as non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, Hispanic, South Asian, and East Asian, and education level as 12 years. Our outcomes were pre-eclampsia, preterm birth (PTB) (pregnancy complications. Non-Hispanic black, Hispanic, and South Asian women with pre-existing diabetes may benefit from targeted interventions to improve pregnancy outcomes. © 2013 The Authors. Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Hispanic women overcoming deterrents to computer science: A phenomenological study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herling, Lourdes

    The products of computer science are important to all aspects of society and are tools in the solution of the world's problems. It is, therefore, troubling that the United States faces a shortage in qualified graduates in computer science. The number of women and minorities in computer science is significantly lower than the percentage of the U.S. population which they represent. The overall enrollment in computer science programs has continued to decline with the enrollment of women declining at a higher rate than that of men. This study addressed three aspects of underrepresentation about which there has been little previous research: addressing computing disciplines specifically rather than embedding them within the STEM disciplines, what attracts women and minorities to computer science, and addressing the issues of race/ethnicity and gender in conjunction rather than in isolation. Since women of underrepresented ethnicities are more severely underrepresented than women in general, it is important to consider whether race and ethnicity play a role in addition to gender as has been suggested by previous research. Therefore, this study examined what attracted Hispanic women to computer science specifically. The study determines whether being subjected to multiple marginalizations---female and Hispanic---played a role in the experiences of Hispanic women currently in computer science. The study found five emergent themes within the experiences of Hispanic women in computer science. Encouragement and role models strongly influenced not only the participants' choice to major in the field, but to persist as well. Most of the participants experienced a negative atmosphere and feelings of not fitting in while in college and industry. The interdisciplinary nature of computer science was the most common aspect that attracted the participants to computer science. The aptitudes participants commonly believed are needed for success in computer science are the Twenty

  6. Genome-wide association study of dental caries in the Hispanic Communities Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Jean; Laurie, Cathy C.; Marazita, Mary L.; Sanders, Anne E.; Offenbacher, Steven; Salazar, Christian R.; Conomos, Matthew P.; Thornton, Timothy; Jain, Deepti; Laurie, Cecelia A.; Kerr, Kathleen F.; Papanicolaou, George; Taylor, Kent; Kaste, Linda M.; Beck, James D.; Shaffer, John R.

    2016-01-01

    Dental caries is the most common chronic disease worldwide, and exhibits profound disparities in the USA with racial and ethnic minorities experiencing disproportionate disease burden. Though heritable, the specific genes influencing risk of dental caries remain largely unknown. Therefore, we performed genome-wide association scans (GWASs) for dental caries in a population-based cohort of 12 000 Hispanic/Latino participants aged 18–74 years from the HCHS/SOL. Intra-oral examinations were used to generate two common indices of dental caries experience which were tested for association with 27.7 M genotyped or imputed single-nucleotide polymorphisms separately in the six ancestry groups. A mixed-models approach was used, which adjusted for age, sex, recruitment site, five principal components of ancestry and additional features of the sampling design. Meta-analyses were used to combine GWAS results across ancestry groups. Heritability estimates ranged from 20–53% in the six ancestry groups. The most significant association observed via meta-analysis for both phenotypes was in the region of the NAMPT gene (rs190395159; P-value = 6 × 10−10), which is involved in many biological processes including periodontal healing. Another significant association was observed for rs72626594 (P-value = 3 × 10−8) downstream of BMP7, a tooth development gene. Other associations were observed in genes lacking known or plausible roles in dental caries. In conclusion, this was the largest GWAS of dental caries, to date and was the first to target Hispanic/Latino populations. Understanding the factors influencing dental caries susceptibility may lead to improvements in prediction, prevention and disease management, which may ultimately reduce the disparities in oral health across racial, ethnic and socioeconomic strata. PMID:26662797

  7. Genome-wide association study of dental caries in the Hispanic Communities Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Jean; Laurie, Cathy C; Marazita, Mary L; Sanders, Anne E; Offenbacher, Steven; Salazar, Christian R; Conomos, Matthew P; Thornton, Timothy; Jain, Deepti; Laurie, Cecelia A; Kerr, Kathleen F; Papanicolaou, George; Taylor, Kent; Kaste, Linda M; Beck, James D; Shaffer, John R

    2016-02-15

    Dental caries is the most common chronic disease worldwide, and exhibits profound disparities in the USA with racial and ethnic minorities experiencing disproportionate disease burden. Though heritable, the specific genes influencing risk of dental caries remain largely unknown. Therefore, we performed genome-wide association scans (GWASs) for dental caries in a population-based cohort of 12 000 Hispanic/Latino participants aged 18-74 years from the HCHS/SOL. Intra-oral examinations were used to generate two common indices of dental caries experience which were tested for association with 27.7 M genotyped or imputed single-nucleotide polymorphisms separately in the six ancestry groups. A mixed-models approach was used, which adjusted for age, sex, recruitment site, five principal components of ancestry and additional features of the sampling design. Meta-analyses were used to combine GWAS results across ancestry groups. Heritability estimates ranged from 20-53% in the six ancestry groups. The most significant association observed via meta-analysis for both phenotypes was in the region of the NAMPT gene (rs190395159; P-value = 6 × 10(-10)), which is involved in many biological processes including periodontal healing. Another significant association was observed for rs72626594 (P-value = 3 × 10(-8)) downstream of BMP7, a tooth development gene. Other associations were observed in genes lacking known or plausible roles in dental caries. In conclusion, this was the largest GWAS of dental caries, to date and was the first to target Hispanic/Latino populations. Understanding the factors influencing dental caries susceptibility may lead to improvements in prediction, prevention and disease management, which may ultimately reduce the disparities in oral health across racial, ethnic and socioeconomic strata. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. CDC Vital Signs: Hispanic Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Injury Prevention & Control Gateway to Health Communication & Social Marketing Practice On Other Web Sites MedlinePlus – Hispanic American ... MB] en Español [PDF – 1.61 MB] CDC Digital Press Kit Read the MMWR Science Clips Language: ...

  9. Association Between Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Intake and Proxies of Acculturation Among U.S. Hispanic and Non-Hispanic White Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sohyun; Blanck, Heidi M.; Dooyema, Carrie A.; Ayala, Guadalupe X.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study examined associations between sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake and acculturation among a sample representing civilian noninstitutionalized U.S. adults. Design Quantitative, cross-sectional study. Setting National. Subjects The 2010 National Health Interview Survey data for 17,142 Hispanics and U.S.-born non-Hispanic whites (≥18 years). Measures The outcome variable was daily SSB intake (nondiet soda, fruit drinks, sports drinks, energy drinks, and sweetened coffee/tea drinks). Exposure variables were Hispanic ethnicity and proxies of acculturation (language of interview, birthplace, and years living in the United States). Analysis We used multivariate logistic regression to estimate adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for the exposure variables associated with drinking SSB ≥ 1 time/d after controlling for covariates. Results The adjusted odds of drinking SSB ≥ 1 time/d was significantly higher among Hispanics who completed the interview in Spanish (OR = 1.65) than U.S.-born non-Hispanic whites. Compared with those who lived in the United States for important subpopulations that may benefit from targeted intervention to reduce SSB intake. PMID:27404644

  10. The relationship between race/ethnicity and the perceived experience of mental health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Angela; Robst, John

    2016-01-01

    Although there is a vast amount of literature on differences in the perceived experiences of general health care among different racial/ethnic groups, few studies have examined the relationship between race/ethnicity and perceptions of mental health care. The purpose of this study was to determine whether non-Hispanic African Americans and Hispanics had more negative (or less positive) perceptions of the mental health treatment they receive compared to non-Hispanic Whites. Data were from the 1998-2006 Florida Health Services Surveys. The findings indicated that African Americans and Hispanics were less likely than Whites to have favorable perceptions of the mental health care services they received, even after adjusting for demographic and health status variables. Interventions should be designed to address disparities in mental health treatment and the perceptions of such treatment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Economic, racial and ethnic disparities in breast cancer in the US: towards a more comprehensive model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Richard T; Li, Xue; Dolecek, Therese A; Barrett, Richard E; Weaver, Kathryn E; Warnecke, Richard B

    2009-09-01

    Using cancer registry data, we focus on racial and ethnic disparities in stage of breast cancer diagnosis in Cook County, IL. The county health system is the "last resort" health-care provider for low-income persons. Socioeconomic status is measured using empirical Bayes estimates of tract-level poverty, specific to non-Hispanic whites, non-Hispanic blacks or Hispanics in one of three age groups. We use ordinal logistic regression with non-proportional odds to model stage. Blacks and Hispanics are at greater risk for regional and distant stage diagnosis, but the disparity declines with age. Women in high-poverty areas are at substantially greater risk for late-stage diagnosis. The effects of poverty do not differ by age or across racial and ethnic groups.

  12. RACE ETHNICITY Pct Persons by Hispanic Ethnicity and Race NMHD 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  13. Ethnic and racial disparities in the risk of preterm birth: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaaf, Jelle M.; Liem, Sophie M. S.; Mol, Ben Willem J.; Abu-Hanna, Ameen; Ravelli, Anita C. J.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to present a systematic review of available literature on the effect of maternal ethnicity (Africans/blacks, Asians, Hispanics, others) on the risk of preterm birth (PTB). Studies investigating ethnicity (or race) as a risk factor for PTB were included if performing

  14. Pregnant and Parenting Adolescents: A Study of Ethnic Identity, Emotional and Behavioral Functioning, Child Characteristics, and Social Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieger, Karin; Renk, Kimberly

    2007-01-01

    This study examined relationships among the ethnic identity, behavior problems, self-esteem, and social support of 166 ethnically diverse pregnant and parenting adolescents, the majority of whom were African American and Hispanic American, and their infants. Results indicated that pregnant and parenting adolescent females were experiencing…

  15. Ethnicity and Urban Park Use: A Cross-Cultural Examination of Recreation Characteristics Among Six Population Subgroups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinod Sasidharan

    2004-01-01

    The ethnic minority population of the US continues to increase due to rising minority birth rates coupled with the influx of ethnic immigrants to America's cities, suburbs and towns (Parrillo 1994). Based on present immigration trends, by the year 2050, 22 percent of the US population will be Hispanic and 10 percent will be Asian (US Department of Commerce 1994)....

  16. Management Options for Women at Risk for Inherited Breast Cancer in a Multi-Ethnic Health Plan Population: A Randomized Control Trial

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schaefer, Catherine

    2001-01-01

    ... susceptibility, and sociodemographic factors, such as education and ethnicity; b) to conduct focus groups with Asian, Hispanic, African American, and White women to learn about possible differences in their attitudes concerning genetic testing...

  17. Safe sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sex; Sexually transmitted - safe sex; GC - safe sex; Gonorrhea - safe sex; Herpes - safe sex; HIV - safe sex; ... contact. STIs include: Chlamydia Genital herpes Genital warts Gonorrhea Hepatitis HIV HPV Syphilis STIs are also called ...

  18. Ethnic, Gender, and Acculturation Influences on Sexual Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrold, Tierney

    2015-01-01

    Much research has been conducted on ethnic differences in sexuality, but few studies have systematically assessed the importance of acculturation in sexual behavior. The present study assessed general differences in normative sexual practices in healthy Euro-American, Asian, and Hispanic populations, using measures of acculturation to analyze the relative effects of heritage and mainstream cultures within each group. A total of 1,419 undergraduates (67% Euro-American, 17% Hispanic, 16% Asian; 33% men, 67% women) completed questionnaires which assessed sexual experience and causal sexual behaviors. In concordance with previous studies, Asians reported more conservative levels of sexual experience and frequency of sexual behaviors, fewer lifetime partners, and later ages of sexual debut than Euro-American or Hispanic counterparts. Hispanic reported sexual experiences similar to that of Euro-Americans. There was a significant interaction between mainstream and heritage acculturation in predicting number of lifetime sexual partners in Asian women such that the relationship between heritage acculturation and casual sexual behavior was stronger at lower levels of mainstream acculturation. On the other hand, in Hispanic men, higher levels of mainstream acculturation predicted more casual sexual behavior (one-time sexual encounters and number of lifetime sexual partners) when heritage acculturation was low but less casual sexual behavior when heritage acculturation was high. These results suggest that, for sexual behavior, Hispanic men follow an “ethnogenesis” model of acculturation while Asian women follow an “assimilation” model of acculturation. PMID:18931901

  19. Effects of a cognitive dissonance-based eating disorder prevention program are similar for Asian American, Hispanic, and White participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Rosalía; Marchand, Erica; Ng, Janet; Stice, Eric

    2008-11-01

    This study explored the effects of participating in a dissonance-based eating disorder prevention program on changes in thin ideal internalization, body dissatisfaction, and eating symptoms among White, Asian American, and Hispanic participants. Participants were (n = 394), 13 to 20-year-old adolescent girls and young women who reported being White (n = 311), Hispanic/Latina (n = 61), or Asian-American/Hawaiian/Pacific Islander (n = 33). The current study used data drawn from the pre- and post assessments of an efficacy trial and an effectiveness trial of this eating disorder prevention program. The intervention reduced disordered eating behaviors and eating disorder risk factors for all three ethnic groups at post-intervention assessment; there was no evidence of significantly stronger effects in any particular ethnic group. Results suggest that a cognitive dissonance-based prevention program for eating disorders may be equally effective for Asian American, Hispanic, and White adolescent women.

  20. Longitudinal Links between Spanking and Children's Externalizing Behaviors in a National Sample of White, Black, Hispanic, and Asian American Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershoff, Elizabeth T.; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Sexton, Holly R.; Davis-Kean, Pamela; Sameroff, Arnold J.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined whether the longitudinal links between mothers' use of spanking and children's externalizing behaviors are moderated by family race/ethnicity, as would be predicted by cultural normativeness theory, once mean differences in frequency of use are controlled. A nationally representative sample of White, Black, Hispanic, and Asian…

  1. Employment, Wages, and Earnings of Hispanics in the Federal and Non-Federal Sectors: Methodological Issues and Their Empirical Consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abowd, John M.; Killingsworth, Mark R.

    This paper has two purposes: (1) to examine whether Puerto Ricans, non-Puerto Rican Hispanics, and Blacks suffer substantial wage discrimination relative to comparable Whites; and (2) to examine the extent to which employers in the Federal and non-Federal sectors discriminate by race or ethnicity in making wage offers. After a discussion of…

  2. Racial and ethnic variations in phthalate metabolite concentration changes across full-term pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James-Todd, Tamarra M; Meeker, John D; Huang, Tianyi; Hauser, Russ; Seely, Ellen W; Ferguson, Kelly K; Rich-Edwards, Janet W; McElrath, Thomas F

    2017-03-01

    Higher concentrations of certain phthalate metabolites are associated with adverse reproductive and pregnancy outcomes, as well as poor infant/child health outcomes. In non-pregnant populations, phthalate metabolite concentrations vary by race/ethnicity. Few studies have documented racial/ethnic differences between phthalate metabolite concentrations at multiple time points across the full-course of pregnancy. The objective of the study was to characterize the change in phthalate metabolite concentrations by race/ethnicity across multiple pregnancy time points. Women were participants in a prospectively collected pregnancy cohort who delivered at term (≥37 weeks) and had available urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations for ≥3 time points across full-term pregnancies (n=350 women). We assessed urinary concentrations of eight phthalate metabolites that were log-transformed and specific gravity-adjusted. We evaluated the potential racial/ethnic differences in phthalate metabolite concentrations at baseline (median 10 weeks gestation) using ANOVA and across pregnancy using linear mixed models to calculate the percent change and 95% confidence intervals adjusted for sociodemographic and lifestyle factors. Almost 30% of the population were non-Hispanic black or Hispanic. With the exception of mono-(3-carboxypropyl) (MCPP) and di-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) metabolites, baseline levels of phthalate metabolites were significantly higher in non-whites (Pethnicity, mono-ethyl phthalate (MEP) and MCPP had significant percent changes across pregnancy. MEP was higher in Hispanics at baseline and decreased in mid-pregnancy but increased in late pregnancy for non-Hispanic blacks. MCPP was substantially higher in non-Hispanic blacks at baseline but decreased later in pregnancy. Across pregnancy, non-Hispanic black and Hispanic women had higher concentrations of certain phthalate metabolites. These differences may have implications for racial/ethnic differences in adverse

  3. Racial and ethnic differences in the transition to a teenage birth in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manlove, Jennifer; Steward-Streng, Nicole; Peterson, Kristen; Scott, Mindy; Wildsmith, Elizabeth

    2013-06-01

    Rates of teenage childbearing are high in the United States, and they differ substantially by race and ethnicity and nativity status. Data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 cohort were used to link characteristics of white, black, U.S.-born Hispanic and foreign-born Hispanic adolescents to teenage childbearing. Following a sample of 3,294 females aged 12-16 through age 19, discrete-time logistic regression analyses were used to examine which domains of teenagers' lives were associated with the transition to a teenage birth for each racial and ethnic group, and whether these associations help explain racial and ethnic and nativity differences in this transition. In a baseline multivariate analysis controlling for age, compared with whites, foreign-born Hispanics had more than three times the odds of a teenage birth (odds ratio, 3.5), while blacks and native-born Hispanics had about twice the odds (2.1 and 1.9, respectively). Additional controls (for family environments; individual, peer and dating characteristics; characteristics of first sexual relationships; and subsequent sexual experience) reduced the difference between blacks and whites, and between foreign-born Hispanics and whites, and eliminated the difference between U.S.-born Hispanics and whites. Further, if racial or ethnic minority adolescents had the same distribution as did white teenagers across all characteristics, the predicted probability of a teenage birth would be reduced by 40% for blacks and 35% for U.S.-born Hispanics. Differences in the context of adolescence may account for a substantial portion of racial, ethnic and nativity differences in teenage childbearing. Copyright © 2013 by the Guttmacher Institute.

  4. Perceived Discrimination and Nocturnal Blood Pressure Dipping Among Hispanics: The Influence of Social Support and Race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Carlos Jose; Gwathmey, TanYa M; Jin, Zhezhen; Schwartz, Joseph; Beech, Bettina M; Sacco, Ralph L; Di Tullio, Marco R; Homma, Shunichi

    2016-09-01

    Little is known about the relationship of perceived racism to ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) in Hispanics. We explored possible associations between ABP nocturnal dipping and perceived racism in a Hispanic cohort. Participants included 180 community-dwelling Hispanics from the Northern Manhattan Study. Measures included perceived racism, socioeconomic status, social support, and ABP monitoring. Nocturnal ABP nondipping was defined as a less than 10% decline in the average asleep systolic blood pressure relative to the awake systolic blood pressure. Overall, 77.8% of participants reported some form of perceived racism (Perceived Ethnic Discrimination Questionnaire scores >1.0). Greater social support was associated with less perceived discrimination (Spearman r = -0.54, p pressure levels during daytime exposures to discrimination.

  5. A case of probable non-familial early onset Alzheimer dementia in a Hispanic male

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corey Ephrussi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Early onset Alzheimer's type dementia (EOAD is usually familial and associated with mutations in the Presenilin-1 (PSEN1, Presenilin-2 (PSEN2 or amyloid precursor protein (APP genes. It is rarely reported in patients of Hispanic descent. Case report: A 49-year-old Hispanic male developed significant cognitive impairment over a 4-year period. PET scan showed diminished metabolic activity in the posterior parietal/temporal lobes. Genetic testing revealed the presence of a PSEN1 gene mutation. Conclusion: Disparities in health care may account for an under-recognition of EOAD in the Hispanic population. Clinicians should test for EOAD in all patients with appropriate symptomatology, regardless of ethnicity. Early recognition and enrollment in clinical trials is vital to enhancing our understanding of the natural history and treatment of this condition.

  6. Ethnic Distribution of Microscopic Colitis in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Kevin; Genta, Robert M; Sonnenberg, Amnon

    2015-11-01

    A large electronic database of histopathology reports was used to study the ethnic distribution of microscopic colitis in the United States. Miraca Life Sciences is a nation-wide pathology laboratory that receives biopsy specimens submitted by 1500 gastroenterologists distributed throughout the United States. In a case-control study, the prevalence of microscopic colitis in 4 ethnic groups (East Asians, Indians, Hispanics, and Jews) was compared with that of all other ethnic groups (composed of American Caucasians and African Americans), serving as reference group. A total of 11,706 patients with microscopic colitis were included in the analysis. In all ethnic groups alike, microscopic colitis was more common in women than men (78% versus 22%, odds ratio = 3.40, 95% confidence interval = 3.26-3.55). In all ethnic groups, the prevalence of microscopic colitis showed a continuous age-dependent rise. Hispanic patients with microscopic colitis were on average younger than the reference group (59.4 ± 16.2 years versus 64.2 ± 13.8 years, P variations of its occurrence among different ethnic groups. Such variations could point at differences in the exposure to environmental risk factors.

  7. Ethnic differences in family member diabetes involvement and psychological outcomes: results from the second Diabetes Attitudes, Wishes and Needs (DAWN2) study in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyrot, Mark; Egede, Leonard E; Funnell, Martha M; Hsu, William C; Ruggiero, Laurie; Siminerio, Linda M; Stuckey, Heather L

    2015-01-01

    To assess differences among USA ethnic groups in psychological status of adult family members (FMs) and their involvement with the diabetes of another adult. Data are from the FM survey of the USA DAWN2 study, including 105 White non-Hispanics, 47 African Americans, 46 Hispanic Americans and 40 Chinese Americans. All FMs lived with and cared for an adult with diabetes. Analysis of covariance controlled for respondent and patient characteristics to assess ethnic group differences (P ethnic minority groups. African Americans reported the highest well-being and lowest negative life impact, Chinese Americans reported the most diabetes burden, Hispanic Americans reported the highest distress. There were no ethnic group differences in QoL. Ethnic minority FMs reported having more involvement with diabetes, greater support success, and more access to a diabetes support network than White non-Hispanics. Higher FM diabetes involvement was associated with negative psychological outcomes, while diabetes education, support success and diabetes support network size were associated with better psychological outcomes. Potential limitations are the sample sizes and representativeness. Minority ethnic FMs experienced both advantages and disadvantages in psychological outcomes relative to each other and to White non-Hispanics. Ethnic minority FMs had more involvement in diabetes care, support success and support from others, with the first associated with worse and the latter two with better psychological outcomes. Additional studies are needed with larger samples and broader representation of ethnic groups to better understand these associations and identify areas for intervention.

  8. Diabetes-Specific and General Life Stress and Glycemic Outcomes in Emerging Adults With Type 1 Diabetes: Is Race/Ethnicity a Moderator?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Ashley M; Weller, Bridget E; Yi-Frazier, Joyce P; Fegan-Bohm, Kelly; Anderson, Barbara; Pihoker, Catherine; Hilliard, Marisa E

    2017-10-01

    This study examines whether race/ethnicity moderates relationships of (a) diabetes stress and general life stressors with (b) diabetes outcomes of glycemic control and diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) among emerging adults (aged 18-25 years) with type 1 diabetes (T1D). Using a T1D Exchange Registry sample of non-Hispanic White, African American, and Hispanic emerging adults (N = 3,440), multiple group analyses were used to determine whether race/ethnicity moderates the relationships between stress and diabetes outcomes. The relationships between the two stress types and glycemic control did not differ between African American and non-Hispanic Whites. However, as compared with non-Hispanic Whites, the association between higher diabetes-specific stress and poorer glycemic control was significantly stronger for Hispanics, and Hispanics had poorer glycemic control when they experienced a relatively fewer number of general life stressors than non-Hispanic Whites. The relationships between the type of stress (diabetes-specific and general stress) and DKA did not differ across racial/ethnic groups. Future research should evaluate possible mechanisms that contribute to the different relationships of stress with glycemic control among Hispanics compared with non-Hispanic Whites. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  9. A Historical Review of R. J. Reynolds’ Strategies for Marketing Tobacco to Hispanics in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parascandola, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Hispanics are the fastest growing racial/ethnic group in the United States, and smoking is the leading preventable cause of morbidity and mortality among this population. We analyzed tobacco industry documents on R. J. Reynolds’ marketing strategies toward the Hispanic population using tobacco industry document archives from the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library (http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu) between February–July 2011 and April–August 2012. Our analysis revealed that by 1980 the company had developed a sophisticated surveillance system to track the market behavior of Hispanic smokers and understand their psychographics, cultural values, and attitudes. This information was translated into targeted marketing campaigns for the Winston and Camel brands. Marketing targeted toward Hispanics appealed to values and sponsored activities that could be perceived as legitimating. Greater understanding of tobacco industry marketing strategies has substantial relevance for addressing tobacco-related health disparities. PMID:23488493

  10. A historical review of R.J. Reynolds' strategies for marketing tobacco to Hispanics in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias-Rios, Lisbeth; Parascandola, Mark

    2013-05-01

    Hispanics are the fastest growing racial/ethnic group in the United States, and smoking is the leading preventable cause of morbidity and mortality among this population. We analyzed tobacco industry documents on R. J. Reynolds' marketing strategies toward the Hispanic population using tobacco industry document archives from the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library (http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu) between February-July 2011 and April-August 2012. Our analysis revealed that by 1980 the company had developed a sophisticated surveillance system to track the market behavior of Hispanic smokers and understand their psychographics, cultural values, and attitudes. This information was translated into targeted marketing campaigns for the Winston and Camel brands. Marketing targeted toward Hispanics appealed to values and sponsored activities that could be perceived as legitimating. Greater understanding of tobacco industry marketing strategies has substantial relevance for addressing tobacco-related health disparities.

  11. Feminist identity among women and men from four ethnic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robnett, Rachael D; Anderson, Kristin J

    2017-01-01

    Multiracial feminist theory proposes that the meaning of feminism and the pathways to feminist identity may differ on the basis of cross-cutting social categories such as ethnicity and gender. However, there is currently little research that has included systematic examination of feminist identity among women and men from diverse ethnic backgrounds. We examined feminist orientations among 1,140 undergraduates (70% women) at a Hispanic-Serving Institution who identified as African American, Asian American, European American, or Latina/o. Three related research aims were assessed through a combination of closed- and open-ended questions. First, we examined whether the meaning of the term feminism differed depending on participants' ethnicity or gender. We then tested for ethnic and gender variation in rates of feminist identity. Lastly, we examined participants' reasons for either identifying or not identifying as feminists. Ethnic and gender differences were obtained across each of the 3 research aims. For example, there were significant ethnic differences in rates of feminist identity among women, but not among men. Relative to past research, through the current study, we have provided an especially comprehensive examination of how ethnicity and gender interact to shape feminist attitudes. Consistent with multiracial feminist theory, findings demonstrated that attitudes about feminism vary as a function of both gender and ethnicity, yet key ethnic and gender similarities also emerged. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Racially and Ethnically Diverse Schools and Adolescent Romantic Relationships*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strully, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Focusing on romantic relationships, which are often seen as a barometer of social distance, this analysis investigates how adolescents from different racial-ethnic and gender groups respond when they attend diverse schools with many opportunities for inter-racial-ethnic dating. Which groups respond by forming inter-racial-ethnic relationships, and which groups appear to “work around” opportunities for inter-racial-ethnic dating by forming more same-race-ethnicity relationships outside of school boundaries? Most prior studies have analyzed only relationships within schools and, therefore, cannot capture a potentially important way that adolescents express preferences for same-race-ethnicity relationships and/or work around constraints from other groups’ preferences. Using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, I find that, when adolescents are in schools with many opportunities for inter-racial-ethnic dating, black females and white males are most likely to form same-race-ethnicity relationships outside of the school; whereas Hispanic males and females are most likely to date across racial-ethnic boundaries within the school. PMID:25848670

  13. Anxiety disorders among Mexican Americans and non-Hispanic whites in Los Angeles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karno, M; Golding, J M; Burnam, M A; Hough, R L; Escobar, J I; Wells, K M; Boyer, R

    1989-04-01

    This report from the Los Angeles site of the NIMH Epidemiologic Catchment Area study reveals significant ethnic and national origin differences in lifetime prevalence rates for three out of six specific, DSM-III-defined anxiety disorders. In the case of simple phobia, United States-born Mexican Americans report higher rates than native non-Hispanic whites or immigrant Mexican Americans, the latter two groups having similar rates. Mexican Americans born in the United States had higher rates of agoraphobia than immigrant Mexican Americans, and non-Hispanic whites reported higher lifetime rates of generalized anxiety disorder compared with both immigrant and native Mexican Americans. Neither ethnic nor national origin differences in lifetime prevalence rates were found for panic disorder, social phobia, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Selective migration is postulated as a potential factor influencing prevalence differences between native and immigrant Mexican Americans.

  14. Race, Ethnicity, and Self-Rated Health Among Immigrants in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alang, Sirry M; McCreedy, Ellen M; McAlpine, Donna D

    2015-12-01

    Previous work has not fully explored the role of race in the health of immigrants. We investigate race and ethnic differences in self-rated health (SRH) among immigrants, assess the degree to which socio-economic characteristics explain race and ethnic differences, and examine whether time in the USA affects racial and ethnic patterning of SRH among immigrants. Data came from the 2012 National Health Interview Survey (N = 16, 288). Using logistic regression, we examine race and ethnic differences in SRH controlling for socio-economic differences and length of time in the country. Hispanic and non-Hispanic Black immigrants were the most socio-economically disadvantaged. Asian immigrants were socio-economically similar to non-Hispanic White immigrants. Contrary to U.S. racial patterning, Black immigrants had lower odds of poor SRH than did non-Hispanic White immigrants when socio-demographic factors were controlled. When length of stay in the USA was included in the model, there were no racial or ethnic differences in SRH. However, living in the USA for 15 years and longer was associated with increased odds of poor SRH for all immigrants. Findings have implications for research on racial and ethnic disparities in health. Black-White disparities that have received much policy attention do not play out when we examine self-assessed health among immigrants. The reasons why non-Hispanic Black immigrants have similar self-rated health than non-Hispanic White immigrants even though they face greater socio-economic disadvantage warrant further attention.

  15. Gender, Ethnicity, and Their Intersectionality in the Prediction of Smoking Outcome Expectancies in Regular Cigarette Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, Claudia G; Bello, Mariel S; Andrabi, Nafeesa; Pang, Raina D; Hendricks, Peter S; Bluthenthal, Ricky N; Leventhal, Adam M

    2016-01-01

    The current study utilized the intersectionality framework to explore whether smoking outcome expectancies (i.e., cognitions about the anticipated effects of smoking) were predicted by gender and ethnicity, and the gender-by-ethnicity interaction. In a cross-sectional design, daily smokers from the general community (32.2% women; non-Hispanic African American [n = 175], non-Hispanic White [n = 109], or Hispanic [n = 26]) completed self-report measures on smoking expectancies and other co-factors. Results showed that women reported greater negative reinforcement (i.e., anticipated smoking-induced negative affect reduction) and weight control (i.e., anticipated smoking-induced appetite/weight suppression) expectancies than men. Hispanic (vs. African American or White) smokers endorsed greater negative reinforcement expectancies. A gender-by-ethnicity interaction was found for weight control expectancies, such that White women reported greater weight control expectancies than White men, but no gender differences among African American and Hispanic smokers were found. These findings suggest that gender, ethnicity, and their intersectionality should be considered in research on cognitive mechanisms that may contribute to tobacco-related health disparities. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Epidemiology of drinking, alcohol use disorders, and related problems in US ethnic minority groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caetano, Raul; Vaeth, Patrice A C; Chartier, Karen G; Mills, Britain A

    2014-01-01

    This chapter reviews selected epidemiologic studies on drinking and associated problems among US ethnic minorities. Ethnic minorities and the White majority group exhibit important differences in alcohol use and related problems, including alcohol use disorders. Studies show a higher rate of binge drinking, drinking above guidelines, alcohol abuse, and dependence for major ethnic and racial groups, notably, Blacks, Hispanics, and American Indians/Alaskan Natives. Other problems with a higher prevalence in certain minority groups are, for example, cancer (Blacks), cirrhosis (Hispanics), fetal alcohol syndrome (Blacks and American Indians/Alaskan Natives), drinking and driving (Hispanics, American Indians/Alaskan Natives). There are also considerable differences in rates of drinking and problems within certain ethnic groups such as Hispanics, Asian Americans, and American Indians/Alaskan Natives. For instance, among Hispanics, Puerto Ricans and Mexican Americans drink more and have higher rates of disorders such as alcohol abuse and dependence than Cuban Americans. Disparities also affect the trajectory of heavy drinking and the course of alcohol dependence among minorities. Theoretic accounts of these disparities generally attribute them to the historic experience of discrimination and to minority socioeconomic disadvantages at individual and environmental levels. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Hispanic Labor Friends Initiative: supporting vulnerable women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazard, Cambria Jones; Callister, Lynn Clark; Birkhead, Ana; Nichols, Lisa

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the qualitative aspects of the Hispanic Labor Friends Initiative. "Hispanic Labor Friends," bilingual Hispanic community women who were themselves mothers, were recruited by clinic and hospital personnel. Women who agreed were educated, received translation certification, and were oriented to the initiative. Pregnant Hispanic immigrant women seen in the health center who met criteria set by the multidisciplinary health care team were assigned a Hispanic Labor Friend by 32 weeks' gestation. Hispanic Labor Friends assisted women with communication with healthcare providers and provided social support. Qualitative evaluation of the program consisted of interviews with several groups: (1) Hispanic immigrant women who had a Hispanic Labor Friend, (2) Hispanic immigrant women who were not in the Hispanic Labor Friends program, (3) Hispanic Labor Friends, (4) healthcare providers for Hispanic women. Data saturation was reached, and data were analyzed by the research team using descriptive qualitative inquiry. The Hispanic immigrant women described positive outcomes from being involved in the Hispanic Labor Friends program, including feeling supported and comforted. "I felt as though my family were at my side." One woman who had standard care said, "It is hard for me to communicate. When I gave birth, the nurses asked me things, and I didn't understand anything. I stayed quiet." One of the nurses who was interviewed said: "I think they [the HLF patients] get better care. Sometimes we think we can communicate with them with their little bit of English and our little bit of Spanish. But you get an HLF and it's a totally different story. We can more adequately tell what's going on with them...They end up getting better care." One Hispanic Labor Friend said, "The women are very appreciative that I was there to help them through a critical time." Women who participated in the study identified the need to have a continuing association with Hispanic Labor Friends in

  18. Perceived discrimination and cancer screening behaviors in US Hispanics: the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos Sociocultural Ancillary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdovinos, Cristina; Penedo, Frank J; Isasi, Carmen R; Jung, Molly; Kaplan, Robert C; Giacinto, Rebeca Espinoza; Gonzalez, Patricia; Malcarne, Vanessa L; Perreira, Krista; Salgado, Hugo; Simon, Melissa A; Wruck, Lisa M; Greenlee, Heather A

    2016-01-01

    Perceived discrimination has been associated with lower adherence to cancer screening guidelines. We examined whether perceived discrimination was associated with adherence to breast, cervical, colorectal, and prostate cancer screening guidelines in US Hispanic/Latino adults. Data were obtained from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos Sociocultural Ancillary Study, including 5,313 Hispanic adults aged 18–74 from Bronx, NY, Chicago, IL, Miami, FL, and San Diego, CA, and those who were within appropriate age ranges for specific screening tests were included in the analysis. Cancer screening behaviors were assessed via self-report. Perceived discrimination was measured using the Perceived Ethnic Discrimination Questionnaire. Confounder-adjusted multivariable polytomous logistic regression models assessed the association between perceived discrimination and adherence to cancer screening guidelines. Among women eligible for screening, 72.1 % were adherent to cervical cancer screening guidelines and 71.3 %were adherent to breast cancer screening guidelines. In participants aged 50–74, 24.6 % of women and 27.0 % of men were adherent to fecal occult blood test guidelines; 43.5 % of women and 34.8 % of men were adherent to colonoscopy/sigmoidoscopy guidelines; 41.0 % of men were adherent to prostate-specific antigen screening guidelines. Health insurance coverage, rather than perceived ethnic discrimination,was the variable most associated with receiving breast, cervical,colorectal, or prostate cancer screening. The influence of discrimination as a barrier to cancer screening may be modest among Hispanics/Latinos in urban US regions. Having health insurance facilitates cancer screening in this population. Efforts to increase cancer screening in Hispanics/Latinos should focus on increasing access to these services, especially among the uninsured.

  19. Racial, Ethnic, and Insurance Status Disparities in Use of Posthospitalization Care after Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englum, Brian R; Villegas, Cassandra; Bolorunduro, Oluwaseyi; Haut, Elliott R; Cornwell, Edward E; Efron, David T; Haider, Adil H

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Posthospitalization care is important for recovery after trauma. Disadvantaged populations, like racial or ethnic minorities and the uninsured, make up substantial percentages of trauma patients, but their use of posthospitalization facilities is unknown. STUDY DESIGN This study analyzed National Trauma Data Bank admissions from 2007 for 18- to 64-year-olds and estimated relative risk ratios (RRR) of discharge to posthospitalization facilities—home, home health, rehabilitation, or nursing facility—by race, ethnicity, and insurance. Multinomial logistic regression adjusted for patient characteristics including age, sex, Injury Severity Score, mechanism of injury, and length of stay, among others. RESULTS There were 136,239 patients who met inclusion criteria with data for analysis. Most patients were discharged home (78.9%); fewer went to home health (3.3%), rehabilitation (5.0%), and nursing facilities (5.4%). When compared with white patients in adjusted analysis, relative risk ratios of discharge to rehabilitation were 0.61 (95% CI 0.56, 0.66) and 0.44 (95% CI 0.40, 0.49) for blacks and Hispanics, respectively. Compared with privately insured white patients, Hispanics had lower rates of discharge to rehabilitation whether privately insured (RRR 0.45, 95% CI 0.40, 0.52), publicly insured (RRR 0.51, 95% CI 0.42, 0.61), or uninsured (RRR 0.20, 95% CI 0.17, 0.24). Black patients had similarly low rates: private (RRR 0.63, 95% CI 0.56, 0.71), public (RRR 0.72, 95% CI 0.63, 0.82), or uninsured (RRR 0.27, 95% CI 0.23, 0.32). Relative risk ratios of discharge to home health or nursing facilities showed similar trends among blacks and Hispanics regardless of insurance, except for black patients with insurance whose discharge to nursing facilities was similar to their white counterparts. CONCLUSIONS Disadvantaged populations have more limited use of posthospitalization care such as rehabilitation after trauma, suggesting a potential improvement in trauma

  20. Active and passive cigarette smoking and mortality among Hispanic and non-Hispanic white women diagnosed with invasive breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, Stephanie D; Baumgartner, Kathy B; Baumgartner, Richard N; Connor, Avonne E; John, Esther M; Giuliano, Anna R; Hines, Lisa M; Rai, Shesh N; Riley, Elizabeth C; Pinkston, Christina M; Wolff, Roger K; Slattery, Martha L

    2015-11-01

    Women who smoke at breast cancer diagnosis have higher risk of breast cancer-specific and all-cause mortality than nonsmokers; however, differences by ethnicity or prognostic factors and risk for noncancer mortality have not been evaluated. We examined associations of active and passive smoke exposure with mortality among Hispanic (n = 1020) and non-Hispanic white (n = 1198) women with invasive breast cancer in the Breast Cancer Health Disparities Study (median follow-up of 10.6 years). Risk of breast cancer-specific (HR = 1.55, 95% CI = 1.11-2.16) and all-cause (HR = 1.68, 95% CI = 1.30-2.17) mortality was increased for current smokers, with similar results stratified by ethnicity. Ever smokers had an increased risk of noncancer mortality (HR = 1.68, 95% CI = 1.12-2.51). Associations were strongest for current smokers who smoked for 20 years or more were postmenopausal, overweight and/or obese, or reported moderate and/or high alcohol consumption; however, interactions were not significant. Breast cancer-specific mortality was increased two fold for moderate and/or high recent passive smoke exposure among never smokers (HR = 2.12, 95% CI = 1.24-3.63). Findings support associations of active-smoking and passive-smoking diagnosis with risk of breast cancer-specific and all-cause mortality and ever smoking with noncancer mortality, regardless of ethnicity, and other factors. Smoking is a modifiable lifestyle factor and effective smoking cessation, and maintenance programs should be routinely recommended for women with breast cancer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Prodigal daughters: portraying lesbians in Hispanic Caribbean cinema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Reyes, Consuelo

    2012-01-01

    During the last twenty years, Hispanic Caribbean cinema has slowly developed roles to represent lesbians. In order to draw a conceptual map and to examine the un/successfulness of this new lesbian "public image," I analyze both independent films that challenge the status quo by portraying openly lesbian characters and mainstream films that insist on denying autonomy to same-sex love. Whereas commercial markets may deem an openly lesbian role transgressive, queer female roles can be considered "appropriate." Gender-queering functions as a symbolically transitional stage toward lesbian visibility and inclusion.

  2. The Hispanic Stress Inventory Version 2: Improving the assessment of acculturation stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes, Richard C; Fisher, Dennis G; Padilla, Amado M; Napper, Lucy E

    2016-05-01

    This article reports on a 2-phase study to revise the Hispanic Stress Inventory (HSI; Cervantes, Padilla, & Salgado de Snyder, 1991). The necessity for a revised stress-assessment instrument was determined by demographic and political shifts affecting Latin American immigrants and later-generation Hispanics in the United States in the 2 decades since the development of the HSI. The data for the revision of the HSI (termed the HSI2) was collected at 4 sites: Los Angeles, El Paso, Miami, and Boston, and included 941 immigrants and 575 U.S.-born Hispanics and a diverse population of Hispanic subgroups. The immigrant version of the HSI2 includes 10 stress subscales, whereas the U.S.-born version includes 6 stress subscales. Both versions of the HSI2 are shown to possess satisfactory Cronbach's alpha reliabilities and demonstrate expert-based content validity, as well as concurrent validity when correlated with subscales of the Brief Symptom Inventory (Derogatis, 1993) and the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (Kroenke, Spitzer, & Williams, 2001). The new HSI2 instruments are recommended for use by clinicians and researchers interested in assessing psychosocial stress among diverse Hispanic populations of various ethnic subgroups, age groups, and geographic location. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. A Review of Teen Dating Violence Prevention Research: What About Hispanic Youth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Krithika; Gonzalez-Guarda, Rosa M; Mitchell, Emma M

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide a critical review of the literature on evidence-based teen dating violence (TDV) prevention programs with a particular focus on highlighting gaps in the literature with regard to prevention efforts targeting Hispanic teens. The target populations, characteristics, designs, and results of TDV prevention studies reported in the scientific literature for the last 20 years were reviewed and analyzed according to cultural and contextual factors associated with TDV among Hispanic teens. To date, three studies have focused on a predominantly Hispanic population with only one study looking at the long-term effects of a TDV intervention. There is a growing need to develop and evaluate immediate and long-term effects of TDV prevention programs that address ethnic pride, acculturation and acculturative stress, familism, and gender norms within the context of Hispanic communities (e.g., machismo and marianismo). The authors discuss the implications for research, prevention practice, and policy regarding TDV prevention for Hispanic teens. © The Author(s) 2014.

  4. Alcohol use among Hispanic college students along the US/Mexico border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, Jared A; Wittenburg, David; Martinez, Vanessa

    2016-11-01

    The trend of alcohol use among college students has been shown to vary by ethnicity and has been linked to acculturation among Hispanics. Consistent findings indicate that males consume alcohol more frequently and in greater quantities compared to females. This study investigated the drinking habits of Hispanic college students living in the border region of South Texas. The study evaluated the influence of acculturation on alcohol consumption among Hispanic males and females. Two hundred and ninety-six Hispanic students participated in this study. The participants reported their drinking behaviors over the past 30 days and completed a measure of acculturation. Fifty-nine percent of the participants reported consuming alcohol in the past 30 days with more males than females reporting alcohol consumption. Logistic regression analysis indicated that age and gender, and not acculturation or enculturation, predicted drinking in the last 30 days. Among drinkers, the regression analyses indicated that gender and lower levels of Anglo orientation were linked to increased alcohol consumption, suggesting that Hispanics who were less oriented toward the Anglo culture consumed more alcohol than those more oriented toward the Anglo culture. Among drinkers, males and females did not differ in frequency or binge drinking, but males consumed more alcohol than females. Previous research indicates that greater acculturation is linked to greater consumption of alcohol; however, we found it to be associated with less consumption. The findings regarding gender represent some consistencies with previous research but there are some inconsistencies as well. These results suggest that less acculturated Hispanic male college students residing in the border region may be at a higher risk of alcohol abuse than Hispanic female students and more acculturated male students.

  5. Acculturation, sexual behaviors, and health care access among Hispanic and non-Hispanic white adolescents and young adults in the United States, 2006-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haderxhanaj, Laura T; Dittus, Patricia J; Loosier, Penny S; Rhodes, Scott D; Bloom, Fred R; Leichliter, Jami S

    2014-11-01

    To examine national estimates of sexual behaviors and health care access by acculturation among adolescents. Using the 2006-2010 National Survey of Family Growth, four acculturation groups of Hispanic and non-Hispanic whites aged 15-24 years were analyzed by sexual behaviors and health care access. In analyses adjusted for demographics, English-speaking immigrants, Hispanic natives, and non-Hispanic white youth were less likely to have a partner age difference of ≥6 years (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], .28; 95% confidence interval [CI], .13-.60; AOR, .13; 95% CI, .07-.26; AOR, .16; 95% CI, .08-.32, respectively) and more likely to use a condom at the first vaginal sex (AOR, 1.99; 95% CI, 1.10-3.61; AOR, 2.10; 95% CI, 1.33-3.31; AOR, 2.39; 95% CI, 1.53-3.74, respectively) than Spanish-speaking immigrants. Non-Hispanic white youth and Hispanic natives were more likely to have a regular place for medical care (AOR, 2.07; 95% CI, 1.36-3.16; AOR, 3.66; 95% CI, 2.36-5.68, respectively) and a chlamydia test in the past 12 months (AOR, 3.62; 95% CI, 1.52-8.60; AOR, 2.94; 95% CI, 1.32-6.54) than Spanish-speaking immigrants. Interventions to reduce risk and increase health care access are needed for immigrant Hispanic youth, particularly Spanish-speaking immigrants. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Acculturation, Sexual Behaviors, and Health Care Access Among Hispanic and Non-Hispanic White Adolescents and Young Adults in the United States, 2006–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haderxhanaj, Laura T.; Dittus, Patricia J.; Loosier, Penny S.; Rhodes, Scott D.; Bloom, Fred R.; Leichliter, Jami S.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose To examine national estimates of sexual behaviors and health care access by acculturation among adolescents. Methods Using the 2006–2010 National Survey of Family Growth, four acculturation groups of Hispanic and non-Hispanic whites aged 15–24 years were analyzed by sexual behaviors and health care access. Results In analyses adjusted for demographics, English-speaking immigrants, Hispanic natives, and non-Hispanic white youth were less likely to have a partner age difference of ≥6 years (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], .28; 95% confidence interval [CI], .13–.60; AOR, .13; 95% CI, .07–.26; AOR, .16; 95% CI, .08–.32, respectively) and more likely to use a condom at the first vaginal sex (AOR, 1.99; 95% CI, 1.10–3.61; AOR, 2.10; 95% CI, 1.33–3.31; AOR, 2.39; 95% CI, 1.53–3.74, respectively) than Spanish-speaking immigrants. Non-Hispanic white youth and Hispanic natives were more likely to have a regular place for medical care (AOR, 2.07; 95% CI, 1.36–3.16; AOR, 3.66; 95% CI, 2.36–5.68, respectively) and a chlamydia test in the past 12 months (AOR, 3.62; 95% CI, 1.52–8.60; AOR, 2.94; 95% CI, 1.32–6.54) than Spanish-speaking immigrants. Conclusions Interventions to reduce risk and increase health care access are needed for immigrant Hispanic youth, particularly Spanish-speaking immigrants. PMID:25156896

  7. Maximum mouth opening of ethnic Chinese in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuang-Ta Yao

    2009-03-01

    Conclusion: Within the limits of this study, we concluded that both sex and age have significant influences on the MMO value of ethnic Chinese in Taiwan, and age is a significant predictor of MMO measurements.

  8. Attributions of Mental Illness: An Ethnically Diverse Community Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bignall, Whitney J Raglin; Jacquez, Farrah; Vaughn, Lisa M

    2015-07-01

    Although the prevalence of mental illness is similar across ethnic groups, a large disparity exists in the utilization of services. Mental health attributions, causal beliefs regarding the etiology of mental illness, may contribute to this disparity. To understand mental health attributions across diverse ethnic backgrounds, we conducted focus groups with African American (n = 8; 24 %), Asian American (n = 6; 18 %), Latino/Hispanic (n = 9; 26 %), and White (n = 11; 32 %) participants. We solicited attributions about 19 mental health disorders, each representing major sub-categories of the DSM-IV. Using a grounded theory approach, participant responses were categorized into 12 themes: Biological, Normalization, Personal Characteristic, Personal Choice, Just World, Spiritual, Family, Social Other, Environment, Trauma, Stress, and Diagnosis. Results indicate that ethnic minorities are more likely than Whites to mention spirituality and normalization causes. Understanding ethnic minority mental health attributions is critical to promote treatment-seeking behaviors and inform culturally responsive community-based mental health services.

  9. The Impact of Educational Attainment on Observed Race/Ethnic Disparities in Inflammatory Risk in the 2001–2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gniesha Y. Dinwiddie

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation has shown to be an independent predictor of cardiovascular disease (CVD and growing evidence suggests Non-Hispanic Blacks (NHBs and certain Hispanic subgroups have higher inflammation burden compared to Non-Hispanic Whites (NHWs. Socioeconomic status (SES is a hypothesized pathway that may account for the higher inflammation burden for race/ethnic groups yet little is known about the biological processes by which SES “gets under the skin” to affect health and whether income and education have similar or distinct influences on elevated inflammation levels. The current study examines SES (income and education associations with multiple levels of C-Reactive Protein (CRP, an important biomarker of inflammation, in a sample of 13,362 NHWs, 7696 NHBs and 4545 Mexican Americans (MAs in the United States from the 2001 to 2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. After adjusting for age, sex, and statin use, NHBs and MAs had higher intermediate and high CRP levels compared to NHWs. Income lessened the magnitude of the association for both race/ethnic groups. The greater intermediate and high CRP burden for NHBs and MAs was strongly explained by educational attainment. MAs were more vulnerable to high CRP levels for the lowest (i.e., less than nine years and post high school (i.e., associates degree educational levels. After additional adjustment for smoking, heavy drinking, high waist circumference, high blood pressure, diabetes and statin use, the strength of the association between race/ethnicity and inflammation was reduced for NHBs with elevated intermediate (RR = 1.31; p ≤ 0.001 and high CRP levels (RR = 1.14; p ≤ 0.001 compared to NHWs but the effect attenuated for MAs for both intermediate (RR = 0.74; p ≤ 0.001 and high CRP levels (RR = 0.38; p ≤ 0.001. These findings suggest educational attainment is a powerful predictor of elevated CRP levels in race/ethnic populations and challenges studies to move beyond

  10. Trends and characteristics of home births in the United States by race and ethnicity, 1990-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDorman, Marian F; Declercq, Eugene; Menacker, Fay

    2011-03-01

    After a gradual decline from 1990 to 2004, the percentage of births occurring at home in the United States increased by 5 percent in 2005 and that increase was sustained in 2006. The purpose of the study was to analyze trends and characteristics in home births in United States by race and ethnicity from 1990 to 2006. U.S. birth certificate data on home births were analyzed and compared with hospital births for a variety of demographic and medical characteristics. From 1990 to 2006, both the number and percentage of home births increased for non-Hispanic white women, but declined for all other race and ethnic groups. In 2006, non-Hispanic white women were three to four times more likely to have a home birth than women of other race and ethnic groups. Home births were more likely than hospital births to occur to older, married women with singleton pregnancies and several previous children. For non-Hispanic white women, fewer home births than hospital births were born preterm, whereas for other race and ethnic groups a higher percentage of home births than hospital births were born preterm. For non-Hispanic white women, two-thirds of home births were delivered by midwives. In contrast, for other race and ethnic groups, most home births were delivered by either physicians or "other" attendants, suggesting that a higher proportion of these births may be unplanned home births because of emergency situations. Differences in the risk profile of home births by race and ethnicity are consistent with previous research, suggesting that, compared with non-Hispanic white women, a larger proportion of non-Hispanic black and Hispanic home births represent unplanned, emergency situations. © 2010, Copyright the Authors. Journal compilation © 2010, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Sexual health among U.S. black and Hispanic men and women: a nationally representative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodge, Brian; Reece, Michael; Herbenick, Debby; Schick, Vanessa; Sanders, Stephanie A; Fortenberry, J Dennis

    2010-10-01

    Little is known about the prevalence of sexual behaviors among the black and Hispanic populations in the United States outside the context of sexual risk and disease transmission in "high-risk" samples. This study sought to establish current rates of sexual behaviors, sexual health care practices (i.e., experiences with testing and diagnosis of sexually transmitted infections [STIs]), and condom use in a probability sample of black and Hispanic adult men and women in the United States. Sexual behaviors including solo masturbation, partnered masturbation, receiving oral sex and giving oral sex, vaginal intercourse, and anal intercourse were assessed. Self-reported rates of HIV and other STI testing, and self-reported history of STI diagnosis were examined. Also assessed were rates of condom use during most recent and past 10 vaginal intercourse events. Data from a probability sample of 1246 black and Hispanic adults were analyzed to explore sexual behaviors, condom use, and STI testing and diagnosis trends. Masturbation, oral sex, and vaginal intercourse were prevalent among black and Hispanic men and women throughout the life course. Anal intercourse and same-gender sexual activities were less common. Self-reported rates of HIV testing were relatively high but varied by gender across age groups. Similarly, rates of testing for other STI were high and differed by gender across age groups. Overall rates of condom use among black and Hispanic men and women were relatively high and did not appear to be related to a variety of situational factors including location of sexual encounter, relationship status, other contraceptive use, and substance use during sexual activity. These data provide a foundation for understanding diverse sexual behaviors, sexual health-care practices, and condom use among the general population of black and Hispanic men and women in the United States. © 2010 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  12. Demographic Changes of Hispanic Populations and Hispanic Student Enrollment in Texas Community Colleges: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Jack; Slate, John R.; Joyner, Sheila A.

    2015-01-01

    In this literature review, Hispanic demographic changes in the United States and in Texas are examined. Hispanics have accounted for large changes in population, population change, and proportion of population. Accordingly, the literature was reviewed regarding Hispanic immigrants, both authorized and non-authorized immigrants. The issue of…

  13. Differences in Household Saving between Non-Hispanic White and Hispanic Households

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Patti J.; Hsu, Chungwen

    2012-01-01

    This study uses the 2007 Survey of Consumer Finances to empirically explore differences in saving behavior between Hispanic (N = 533) and non-Hispanic White (N = 2,473) households. The results of the logistic regression model show that self-employed Hispanics were more likely to save, while self-employment was not significant for Whites. Being…

  14. Racial and ethnic comparisons of nursing home residents at admission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Robert J; Rosenthal, Mark; Graber, David R; Wang, Suojin; Kim, Myung Suk

    2008-10-01

    To present racial/ethnic comparisons of comprehensive profiles of nursing home residents at admission, including whites, African Americans, Hispanics, Asians/Pacific Islanders, and American Indians/Alaska Natives. More than 885,000 admission assessments recorded in the national Minimum Data Set (MDS) were analyzed. Racial and ethnic analyses of the MDS admission assessments were conducted using the software package SAS. There were significant racial/ethnic differences in gender and age, with minority residents more likely to be male and younger. African American, Hispanic, and Asian/Pacific Islanders were significantly more likely than white residents to exhibit total dependence in the self-performance of the ADLs and to have greater cognitive impairments, with Asian/Pacific Islanders the most physically dependent and cognitively impaired. The results illustrate significant and substantive differences among the racial/ethnic groups for many demographic characteristics, as well as health-related indicators and conditions. This analysis suggests that the general perspective that economically disadvantaged minorities enter nursing homes in worse condition than whites is too simplistic. More research, particularly qualitative studies of specific minority groups, will advance our understanding of why members of some racial/ethnic groups require nursing home placement sooner than other groups.

  15. Native American Ancestry Affects the Risk for Gene Methylation in the Lungs of Hispanic Smokers from New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yushi; Thomas, Cynthia L.; Gauderman, W. James; Picchi, Maria A.; Bruse, Shannon E.; Zhang, Xiequn; Flores, Kristina G.; Van Den Berg, David; Stidley, Christine A.; Gilliland, Frank D.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale: Gene promoter methylation detected in sputum predicts lung cancer risk in smokers. Compared with non-Hispanic whites (NHW), Hispanics have a lower age-standardized incidence for lung cancer. Objectives: This study compared the methylation prevalence in sputum of NHWs with Hispanics using the Lovelace Smokers cohort (n = 1998) and evaluated the effect of Native American ancestry (NAA) and diet on biomarkers for lung cancer risk. Methods: Genetic ancestry was estimated using 48 ancestry markers. Diet was assessed by the Harvard University Dietary Assessment questionnaire. Methylation of 12 genes was measured in sputum using methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction. The association between NAA and risk for methylation was assessed using generalized estimating equations. The ethnic difference in the association between pack-years and risk for lung cancer was assessed in the New Mexico lung cancer study. Measurements and Main Results: Overall Hispanics had a significantly increased risk for methylation across the 12 genes analyzed (odds ratio, 1.18; P = 0.007). However, the risk was reduced by 32% (P = 0.032) in Hispanics with high versus low NAA. In the New Mexico lung cancer study, Hispanic non–small cell lung cancer cases have significantly lower pack-years than NHW counterparts (P = 0.007). Furthermore, compared with NHW smokers, Hispanic smokers had a more rapidly increasing risk for lung cancer as a function of pack-years (P = 0.058). Conclusions: NAA may be an important risk modifier for methylation in Hispanic smokers. Smoking intensity may have a greater impact on risk for lung cancer in Hispanics compared with NHWs. PMID:24032348

  16. Racial/Ethnic and socioeconomic disparities in mental health in Arizona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Arturo Valdez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mental health issues are a rapidly increasing problem in the United States. Little is known about mental health and healthcare among Arizona’s Hispanic population.Methods: We assess differences in mental health service need, mental health diagnoses and illicit drug use among 7,578 White and Hispanic participants in the 2010 Arizona Health Survey. Results: Prevalence of mild, moderate, or severe psychological distress was negatively associated with SES among both Whites and Hispanics. Overall, Hispanics were less likely than Whites to have been diagnosed with a mental health condition; however, diagnosis rates were negatively associated with SES among both populations. Hispanics had considerably lower levels of lifetime illicit drug use than their White counterparts. Illicit drug use increased with SES among Hispanics but decreased with SES among Whites. After adjustment for relevant socio-demographic characteristics, multivariable linear regression suggested that Hispanics have significantly lower Kessler scores than Whites. These differences were largely explained by lower Kessler scores among non-English proficient Hispanics relative to English-speaking populations. Moreover, logistic regression suggests that Hispanics, the foreign born, and the non-English language proficient have lower odds of lifetime illicit drug use than Whites, the US born, and the English-language proficient, respectively. Conclusions: The unique social and political context in Arizona may have important but understudied effects on the physical and mental health of Hispanics. Our findings suggest mental health disparities between Arizona Whites and Hispanics, which should be addressed via culturally- and linguistically-tailored mental health care. More observational and intervention research is necessary to better understand the relationship between race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, healthcare, and mental health in Arizona.

  17. Ethnic variations in lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groeger, A M; Mueller, M R; Odocha, O; Dekan, G; Salat, A; Röthy, W; Esposito, V; Caputi, M; Wolner, E; Kaiser, H E

    1997-01-01

    Cancer of the lung is the most frequent cancer in the world, but with wide geographical variation in risk. It is most spread among males of all races worldwide, the only exception being its incidence among Chinese women aged 70 years and older. When comparing the different ethnic groups we have to consider that besides inhaling cigarette smoke actively or as a passive smoker the exposure to occupational carcinogens varies considerably according to different work places. In our study we compared 10 years of data from African-Americans in Howard University Hospital, Washington D.C. with 20 years of data from the white population in the University Hospital of Vienna, Austria. Ethnic patterns are generally consistent within each group in terms of both incidence and mortality. The difference in susceptibility between the sexes, the three major racial groups and already proven differences in genetic variations indicate the difference between individuals concerning the initiation and progression of lung cancer.

  18. Childhood maltreatment among Hispanic women in the United States: an examination of subgroup differences and impact on psychiatric disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Lynn A; Alegría, Margarita; Canino, Glorisa

    2012-05-01

    Prevalence rates of childhood maltreatment among Hispanic women in the United States are presented separately for nativity status and ethnic origin subgroups, and the associations between different types of maltreatment and the development of anxiety and depressive disorders are examined. Analyses used self-report data from 1,427 Hispanic women who participated in the National Latino and Asian American Survey. Foreign-born Hispanic women compared to U.S.-born Hispanic women reported significantly lower rates of sexual assault and witnessing interpersonal violence, and a significantly higher rate of being beaten. Ethnic subgroups reported similar rates of maltreatment, with the exception of rape. Bivariate analyses were remarkably consistent in that regardless of nativity status or ethnic subgroup, each type of maltreatment experience increased the risk of psychiatric disorder. In multivariate models controlling for all types of victimization and proxies of acculturation, having been beaten and witnessing interpersonal violence remained significant predictors of both disorders, but sexual abuse increased risk of anxiety only. A significant interaction effect of family cultural conflict and witnessing violence on anxiety provided very limited support for the hypothesis that acculturation moderates the influence of maltreatment on mental health outcomes. Implications for culturally relevant prevention and intervention approaches are presented.

  19. Prenatal Particulate Air Pollution and Asthma Onset in Urban Children. Identifying Sensitive Windows and Sex Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Hsiao-Hsien Leon; Chiu, Yueh-Hsiu Mathilda; Coull, Brent A; Kloog, Itai; Schwartz, Joel; Lee, Alison; Wright, Robert O; Wright, Rosalind J

    2015-11-01

    The influence of particulate air pollution on respiratory health starts in utero. Fetal lung growth and structural development occurs in stages; thus, effects on postnatal respiratory disorders may differ based on timing of exposure. We implemented an innovative method to identify sensitive windows for effects of prenatal exposure to particulate matter with a diameter less than or equal to 2.5 μm (PM2.5) on children's asthma development in an urban pregnancy cohort. Analyses included 736 full-term (≥37 wk) children. Each mother's daily PM2.5 exposure was estimated over gestation using a validated satellite-based spatiotemporal resolved model. Using distributed lag models, we examined associations between weekly averaged PM2.5 levels over pregnancy and physician-diagnosed asthma in children by age 6 years. Effect modification by sex was also examined. Most mothers were ethnic minorities (54% Hispanic, 30% black), had 12 or fewer years of education (66%), and did not smoke in pregnancy (80%). In the sample as a whole, distributed lag models adjusting for child age, sex, and maternal factors (education, race and ethnicity, smoking, stress, atopy, prepregnancy obesity) showed that increased PM2.5 exposure levels at 16-25 weeks gestation were significantly associated with early childhood asthma development. An interaction between PM2.5 and sex was significant (P = 0.01) with sex-stratified analyses showing that the association exists only for boys. Higher prenatal PM2.5 exposure at midgestation was associated with asthma development by age 6 years in boys. Methods to better characterize vulnerable windows may provide insight into underlying mechanisms.

  20. Impact of Patient-Provider Race, Ethnicity, and Gender Concordance on Cancer Screening: Findings from Medical Expenditure Panel Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Jyoti; Rotter, David; Tsui, Jennifer; Llanos, Adana A M; Balasubramanian, Bijal A; Demissie, Kitaw

    2017-12-01

    Background: Racial and ethnic minorities experience lower rates of cancer screening compared with non-Hispanic whites (NHWs). Previous studies evaluating the role of patient-provider race, ethnicity, or gender concordance in cancer screening have been inconclusive. Methods: In a cross-sectional analysis using the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS), data from 2003 to 2010 were assessed for associations between patient-provider race, ethnicity, and/or gender concordance and, screening (American Cancer Society guidelines) for breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer. Multivariable logistic analyses were conducted to examine associations of interest. Results: Of the 32,041 patient-provider pairs in our analysis, more than 60% of the patients were NHW, 15% were non-Hispanic black (NHB), and 15% were Hispanic. Overall, patients adherent to cancer screening were more likely to be non-Hispanic, better educated, married, wealthier, and privately insured. Patient-provider gender discordance was associated with lower rates of breast [OR, 0.83; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.76-0.90], cervical (OR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.76-0.91), and colorectal cancer (OR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.79-0.90) screening in all patients. This association was also significant after adjusting for racial and/or ethnic concordance. Conversely, among NHWs and NHBs, patient-provider racial and/or ethnic concordance was not associated with screening. Among Hispanics, patient-provider ethnic discordant pairs had higher breast (58% vs. 52%) and colorectal cancer (45% vs. 39%) screening rates compared with concordant pairs. Conclusions: Patient-provider gender concordance positively affected cancer screening. Patient-provider ethnic concordance was inversely associated with receipt of cancer screening among Hispanics. This counter-intuitive finding requires further study. Impact: Our findings highlight the importance of gender concordance in improving cancer screening rates. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26