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Sample records for sex hdl cholesterol

  1. to HDL-cholesterol functionality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malara Marzena

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analyse the scientific evidence concerning the effects of two enzymes – paraoxonase 1 and myeloperoxidase – on the functions of HDL-cholesterol. It is well documented that disturbed circulating lipoproteins (a high total and high LDL-cholesterol, and low HDL-cholesterol bring about atherosclerosis and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD which is recognised as the main cause of death all around the world. In consequence, numerous studies have focused on procedures which will improve the plasma lipoproteins profile by decreasing the total cholesterol and the LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C and increasing the HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C. However, the anti-atherogenic role of HDL-C has been challenged in studies showing that genetically elevated HDL-cholesterol does not offer protection against CVD. Moreover, it has been found that raising the circulating HDL-cholesterol fails to reduce atherosclerosis. The doubts concerning the protective role of HDL-C have been supported by in vitro studies which indicate that the HDL-C from patients with atherosclerosis does not have a protective action, but does stimulate inflammation and free radical synthesis. The above data suggests that HDL-C, commonly recognised as protective against atherosclerosis, in some circumstances becomes pro-atherogenic, and is thus dysfunctional. Our review focuses on two enzymes – paraoxonase 1 (PON1 and myeloperoxidase (MPO – which markedly affect the properties of HDL-C and contribute to its anti – or pro-atherogenic activity. Moreover, the effects of the diet and physical activity on PON1 and MPO are summarised with respect to the HDL-C functionality.

  2. HDL cholesterol: atherosclerosis and beyond

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bochem, A.E.

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the Western world. Myocardial infarction and stroke are the result of a compromised blood flow which may result from cholesterol accumulation in the vessel wall due to high plasma levels of LDL cholesterol. High plasma levels of HDL

  3. Raising HDL cholesterol in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny J Eapen

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Danny J Eapen1, Girish L Kalra1, Luay Rifai1, Christina A Eapen2, Nadya Merchant1, Bobby V Khan11Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USA; 2University of South Florida School of Medicine, Tampa, FL, USAAbstract: High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C concentration is essential in the determination of coronary heart disease (CHD risk in women. This is especially true in the postmenopausal state, where lipid profiles and CHD risk mimic that of age-matched men. Thus, interventions designed to reduce CHD risk by raising HDL-C levels may have particular significance during the transition to menopause. This review discusses HDL-C-raising therapies and the role of HDL in the primary prevention of CHD in women. Lifestyle-based interventions such as dietary change, aerobic exercise regimens, and smoking cessation are initial steps that are effective in raising HDL-C, and available data suggest women respond similarly to men with these interventions. When combined with pharmacotherapy, the effects of these lifestyle alterations are further amplified. Though studies demonstrating gender-specific differences in therapy are limited, niacin continues to be the most effective agent in raising HDL-C levels, especially when used in combination with fibrate or statin therapy. Emerging treatments such as HDL mimetic therapy show much promise in further raising HDL-C levels and improving cardiovascular outcomes.Keywords: high-density lipoprotein, HDL, women, cholesterol, heart disease

  4. Niacin to Boost Your HDL "Good" Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niacin can boost 'good' cholesterol Niacin is a B vitamin that may raise your HDL ("good") cholesterol. But side effects might outweigh benefits for most ... been used to increase high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol — the "good" cholesterol that helps remove low-density ...

  5. Reference intervals for serum total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reference intervals of total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and non-HDL cholesterol concentrations were determined on 309 blood donors from an urban and peri-urban population of Botswana. Using non-parametric methods to establish 2.5th and 97.5th percentiles of the distribution, the intervals were: total cholesterol 2.16 ...

  6. HDL Cholesterol and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haase, Christiane L; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2015-01-01

    Observationally, low levels of HDL cholesterol are consistently associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes. Therefore, plasma HDL cholesterol increasing has been suggested as a novel therapeutic option to reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes. Whether levels of HDL cholesterol are causally as...

  7. Effects of Dietary Flavonoids on Reverse Cholesterol Transport, HDL Metabolism, and HDL Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millar, Courtney L; Duclos, Quinn; Blesso, Christopher N

    2017-03-01

    Strong experimental evidence confirms that HDL directly alleviates atherosclerosis. HDL particles display diverse atheroprotective functions in reverse cholesterol transport (RCT), antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiapoptotic processes. In certain inflammatory disease states, however, HDL particles may become dysfunctional and proatherogenic. Flavonoids show the potential to improve HDL function through their well-documented effects on cellular antioxidant status and inflammation. The aim of this review is to summarize the basic science and clinical research examining the effects of dietary flavonoids on RCT and HDL function. Based on preclinical studies that used cell culture and rodent models, it appears that many flavonoids (e.g., anthocyanidins, flavonols, and flavone subclasses) influence RCT and HDL function beyond simple HDL cholesterol concentration by regulating cellular cholesterol efflux from macrophages and hepatic paraoxonase 1 expression and activity. In clinical studies, dietary anthocyanin intake is associated with beneficial changes in serum biomarkers related to HDL function in a variety of human populations (e.g., in those who are hyperlipidemic, hypertensive, or diabetic), including increased HDL cholesterol concentration, as well as HDL antioxidant and cholesterol efflux capacities. However, clinical research on HDL functionality is lacking for some flavonoid subclasses (e.g., flavanols, flavones, flavanones, and isoflavones). Although there has been a tremendous effort to develop HDL-targeted drug therapies, more research is warranted on how the intake of foods or specific nutrients affects HDL function. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  8. LCAT, HDL Cholesterol and Ischemic Cardiovascular Disease: A Mendelian Randomization Study of HDL Cholesterol in 54,500 Individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haase, Christiane L; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne; Ali Qayyum, Abbas

    2012-01-01

    , S208T (rs4986970, allele frequency 4%), associated with HDL cholesterol levels in both the CCHS and the CGPS was used to study causality of HDL cholesterol using instrumental variable analysis.Results:Epidemiologically, in the CCHS, a 13% (0.21 mmol/liter) decrease in plasma HDL cholesterol levels...... was associated with an 18% increase in risk of MI. S208T associated with a 13% (0.21 mmol/liter) decrease in HDL cholesterol levels but not with increased risk of MI or other ischemic end points. The causal odds ratio for MI for a 50% reduction in plasma HDL cholesterol due to S208T genotype in both studies......Background:Epidemiologically, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels associate inversely with risk of ischemic cardiovascular disease. Whether this is a causal relation is unclear.Methods:We studied 10,281 participants in the Copenhagen City Heart Study (CCHS) and 50,523 participants...

  9. A Closer Look at Cardioprotective Function of HDL: Revise the HDLCholesterol Hypothesis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Meiliana

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The strong inverse association of plasma levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol with coronary heart disease (CHD found in human epidemiological studies led to the development of the ‘HDL cholesterol hypothesis’, which posits that intervention to raise HDL cholesterol will result in reduced risk of CHD. A number of recent developments have brought the potential protective role of HDL into question. Several clinical trials of agents that substantially raise HDL-C have been demonstrated to not reduce CHD event rates. CONTENT: For decades, HDL and HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C levels were viewed as synonymous, and modulation of HDL-C levels by drug therapy held great promise for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease. Nevertheless, recent failures of drugs that raise HDL-C to reduce cardiovascular risk and the now greater understanding of the complexity of HDL composition and biology have prompted researchers in the field to redefine HDL. As such, the focus of HDL has now started to shift away from a cholesterol-centric view toward HDL particle number, subclasses, and other alternative metrics of HDL. Many of the recently discovered functions of HDL are, in fact, not strictly conferred by its ability to promote cholesterol flux but by the other molecules it transports, including a diverse set of proteins, small RNAs, hormones, carotenoids, vitamins, and bioactive lipids. Based on HDL’s ability to interact with almost all cells and deliver fat-soluble cargo, HDL has the remarkable capacity to affect a wide variety of endocrine-like systems. SUMMARY: There is a significant need to redefine HDL and its benefit. HDL transports a diverse set of functional proteins, including many binding proteins. HDL transports and deliver vitamins, carotenoids, and other small molecules. Moreover, HDL transports hormones, steroids and bile acids, and can modulate multiple endocrine pathways. HDLs also transport and deliver micro

  10. How much does HDL cholesterol add to risk estimation? A report from the SCORE Investigators.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cooney, Marie Therese

    2009-06-01

    Systematic COronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE), the risk estimation system recommended by the European guidelines on cardiovascular disease prevention, estimates 10-year risk of cardiovascular disease mortality based on age, sex, country of origin, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and either total cholesterol (TC) or TC\\/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) ratio. As, counterintuitively, these two systems perform very similarly, we have investigated whether incorporating HDL-C and TC as separate variables improves risk estimation.

  11. High Pre-β1 HDL Concentrations and Low Lecithin: Cholesterol Acyltransferase Activities Are Strong Positive Risk Markers for Ischemic Heart Disease and Independent of HDL-Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethi, Amar A.; Sampson, Maureen; Warnick, Russell; Muniz, Nehemias; Vaisman, Boris; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne; Remaley, Alan T.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND We hypothesized that patients with high HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) and ischemic heart disease (IHD) may have dysfunctional HDL or unrecognized nonconventional risk factors. METHODS Individuals with IHD (Copenhagen University Hospital) and either high HDL-C (n = 53; women ≥735 mg/L; men ≥619 mg/L) or low HDL-C (n = 42; women ≤387 mg/L; men ≤341 mg/L) were compared with individuals without IHD (Copenhagen City Heart Study) matched by age, sex, and HDL-C concentrations (n = 110). All participants had concentrations within reference intervals for LDL-C (lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) activity by using a proteoliposome cholesterol esterification assay. RESULTS Pre-β1 HDL concentrations were 2-fold higher in individuals with IHD vs no IHD in both the high [63 (5.7) vs 35 (2.3) mg/L; P < 0.0001] and low HDL-C [49 (5.0) vs 27 (1.5) mg/L; P = 0.001] groups. Low LCAT activity was also associated with IHD in the high [95.2 (6.7) vs 123.0 (5.3) μmol · L−1 · h−1; P = 0.002] and low [93.4 (8.3) vs 113.5 (4.9) μmol · L−1 · h−1; P = 0.03] HDL-C groups. ROC curves for pre-β1 HDL in the high–HDL-C groups yielded an area under the curve of 0.71 (95% CI: 0.61–0.81) for predicting IHD, which increased to 0.92 (0.87–0.97) when LCAT was included. Similar results were obtained for low HDL-C groups. An inverse correlation between LCAT activity and pre-β1 HDL was observed (r2 = 0.30; P < 0.0001) in IHD participants, which was stronger in the low HDL-C group (r2 = 0.56; P < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS IHD was associated with high pre-β1 HDL concentrations and low LCAT levels, yielding correct classification in more than 90% of the IHD cases for which both were measured, thus making pre-β1 HDL concentration and LCAT activity level potentially useful diagnostic markers for cardiovascular disease. PMID:20511449

  12. marital status and occupation versus serum total cholesterol and hdl

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMIN

    ABSTRACT. The influence of marital status and occupation on serum total cholesterol (TC) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL – CH) concentrations was studied in sixty one (61) adult male and female Hausa subjects aged 20 – 50 years. Irrespective of marital status and occupation, female subjects had higher ...

  13. HDL (Good), LDL (Bad) Cholesterol and Triglycerides

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Cholesterol-Lowering Medications? How Statins Work Medication Tracker Personal ... or Sudden Cardiac Arrest: How Are They Different? 7 Warning Signs of a Heart Attack 8 Low Blood Pressure - ...

  14. Intracellular cholesterol-binding proteins enhance HDL-mediated cholesterol uptake in cultured primary mouse hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storey, Stephen M; McIntosh, Avery L; Huang, Huan; Landrock, Kerstin K; Martin, Gregory G; Landrock, Danilo; Payne, H Ross; Atshaves, Barbara P; Kier, Ann B; Schroeder, Friedhelm

    2012-04-15

    A major gap in our knowledge of rapid hepatic HDL cholesterol clearance is the role of key intracellular factors that influence this process. Although the reverse cholesterol transport pathway targets HDL to the liver for net elimination of free cholesterol from the body, molecular details governing cholesterol uptake into hepatocytes are not completely understood. Therefore, the effects of sterol carrier protein (SCP)-2 and liver fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP), high-affinity cholesterol-binding proteins present in hepatocyte cytosol, on HDL-mediated free cholesterol uptake were examined using gene-targeted mouse models, cultured primary hepatocytes, and 22-[N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl)-amino]-23,24-bisnor-5-cholen-3β-ol (NBD-cholesterol). While SCP-2 overexpression enhanced NBD-cholesterol uptake, counterintuitively, SCP-2/SCP-x gene ablation also 1) enhanced the rapid molecular phase of free sterol uptake detectable in rate and maximal uptake of HDL free cholesterol and 2) differentially enhanced free cholesterol uptake mediated by the HDL3, rather than the HDL2, subfraction. The increased HDL free cholesterol uptake was not due to increased expression or distribution of the HDL receptor [scavenger receptor B1 (SRB1)], proteins regulating SRB1 [postsynaptic density protein (PSD-95)/Drosophila disk large tumor suppressor (dlg)/tight junction protein (ZO1) and 17-kDa membrane-associated protein], or other intracellular cholesterol trafficking proteins (steroidogenic acute response protein D, Niemann Pick C, and oxysterol-binding protein-related proteins). However, expression of L-FABP, the single most prevalent hepatic cytosolic protein that binds cholesterol, was upregulated twofold in SCP-2/SCP-x null hepatocytes. Double-immunogold electron microscopy detected L-FABP sufficiently close to SRB1 for direct interaction, similar to SCP-2. These data suggest a role for L-FABP in HDL cholesterol uptake, a finding confirmed with SCP-2/SCP-x/L-FABP null

  15. Plasma HDL cholesterol and risk of myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voight, Benjamin F; Peloso, Gina M; Orho-Melander, Marju

    2012-01-01

    High plasma HDL cholesterol is associated with reduced risk of myocardial infarction, but whether this association is causal is unclear. Exploiting the fact that genotypes are randomly assigned at meiosis, are independent of non-genetic confounding, and are unmodified by disease processes...

  16. HDL cholesterol, very low levels of LDL cholesterol, and cardiovascular events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barter, Philip; Gotto, Antonio M.; LaRosa, John C.; Maroni, Jaman; Szarek, Michael; Grundy, Scott M.; Kastelein, John J. P.; Bittner, Vera; Fruchart, Jean-Charles

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: High-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels are a strong inverse predictor of cardiovascular events. However, it is not clear whether this association is maintained at very low levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. METHODS: A post hoc analysis of the recently

  17. Identification of cardiometabolic risk: visceral adiposity index versus triglyceride/HDL cholesterol ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Martin R; Carbajal, Horacio A; Espeche, Walter G; Aizpurúa, Marcelo; Maciel, Pablo M; Reaven, Gerald M

    2014-02-01

    The plasma concentration ratio of triglyceride (TG)/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) can identify cardiometabolic risk and cardiovascular disease. The visceral adiposity index is a sex-specific index, in which measurements of body mass index and waist circumference are combined with TG and HDL-C concentrations. The current analysis was initiated to see if the visceral adiposity index would improve the ability of the TG/HDL-C to identify increased cardiometabolic risk and outcome. Cardiometabolic data were obtained in 2003 from 926 apparently healthy individuals, 796 of whom were evaluated in 2012 for evidence of incident cardiovascular disease. The relationship between TG/HDL-C and values for visceral adiposity index was evaluated by Pearson's correlation coefficient. The relative risks for first cardiovascular event between individuals above and below the TG/HDL-C sex-specific cut points, and in the top quartile of visceral adiposity index versus the remaining 3 quartiles, were estimated using Cox proportional hazard models. TG/HDL-C concentration and visceral adiposity index were highly correlated (r = 0.99) in both men and women. Although more men (133 vs121) and women (73 vs 59) were identified as being at "high risk" by an elevated TG/HDL-C ratio, the individual cardiometabolic risk factors were essentially identical with either index used. However, the hazard ratio of developing cardiovascular disease was significantly increased in individuals with an elevated TG/HDL-C, whereas it was not the case when the visceral adiposity index was used to define "high risk." The visceral adiposity index does not identify individuals with an adverse cardiometabolic profile any better than the TG/HDL-C. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Survey of total error of precipitation and homogeneous HDL-cholesterol methods and simultaneous evaluation of lyophilized saccharose-containing candidate reference materials for HDL-cholesterol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.M. Cobbaert (Christa); H. Baadenhuijsen; L. Zwang (Louwerens); C.W. Weykamp; P.N. Demacker; P.G.H. Mulder (Paul)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: Standardization of HDL-cholesterol is needed for risk assessment. We assessed for the first time the accuracy of HDL-cholesterol testing in The Netherlands and evaluated 11 candidate reference materials (CRMs). METHODS: The total error (TE) of

  19. Mechanism of transfer of LDL-derived free cholesterol to HDL subfractions in human plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miida, T.; Fielding, C.J.; Fielding, P.E.

    1990-01-01

    The transfer of [ 3 H]cholesterol in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) to different high-density lipoprotein (HDL) species in native human plasma was determined by using nondenaturing two-dimensional electrophoresis. Transfer from LDL had a t 1/2 at 37 degree C of 51 ± 8 min and an activation energy of 18.0 kCal mol -1 . There was unexpected specificity among HDL species as acceptors of LDL-derived labeled cholesterol. The largest fraction of the major α-migrating class (HDL 2b ) was the major initial acceptor of LDL-derived cholesterol. Kinetic analysis indicated a rapid secondary transfer from HDL 2b to smaller αHDL (particularly HDL 3 ) driven enzymatically by the lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase reaction. Rates of transfer among αHDL were most rapid from the largest αHDL fraction (HDL 2b ), suggesting possible protein-mediated facilitation. Simultaneous measurements of the transport of LDL-derived and cell-derived isotopic cholesterol indicated that the former preferably utilized the αHDL pathyway, with little label in pre-βHDL. The same experiments confirmed earlier data that cell-derived cholesterol is preferentially channeled through pre-βHDL. The authors suggest that the functional heterogeneity of HDL demonstrated here includes the ability to independently process cell- and LDL-derived free cholesterol

  20. Differences in the triglyceride to HDL-cholesterol ratio between Palestinian and Israeli adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram Weiss

    Full Text Available AIMS: To evaluate differences in the triglyceride to HDL-cholesterol ratio (TG/HDL, thought to be a proxy measure of insulin resistance, between Palestinian and Israeli adults in view of the greater incidence of coronary heart disease and high prevalence of diabetes in Palestinian Arabs. RESEARCH METHODS: A population-based observational prevalence study of cardiovascular and diabetes risk factors in Jerusalem. Participants (968 Palestinians, 707 Israelis, sampled at ages 25-74 years underwent fasting and 2 h post-75 g oral challenge plasma glucose determinations. Metabolic risk was assessed using the surrogate index TG/HDL. Sex-specific comparisons were stratified by categories of body mass index and sex-specific waist circumference quartiles, adjusted by regression for age, glucose tolerance status and use of statins. RESULTS: Prevalence of overweight and obesity was substantially larger in Palestinians (p = 0.005. Prevalence of diabetes was 2.4 and 4 fold higher among Palestinian men and women, respectively (p<0.001. Adjusted TG/HDL was higher in Palestinians than Israelis across BMI and waist circumference categories (p<0.001 for both. Higher TG/HDL in Palestinians persisted in analyses restricted to participants with normal glucose tolerance and off statins. Notably, higher TG/HDL among Palestinians prevailed at a young age (25-44 years and in normal weight individuals of both sexes. CONCLUSIONS: Palestinians have a higher TG/HDL ratio than Israelis. Notably, this is evident also in young, healthy and normal weight participants. These findings indicate the need to study the determinants of this biomarker and other measures of insulin resistance in urban Arab populations and to focus research attention on earlier ages: childhood and prenatal stages of development.

  1. Rare variant in scavenger receptor BI raises HDL cholesterol and increases risk of coronary heart disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scavenger receptor BI (SR-BI) is the major receptor for high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (HDL-C). In humans, high amounts of HDL-C in plasma are associated with a lower risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). Mice that have depleted Scarb1 (SR-BI knockout mice) have markedly elevated HDL-C l...

  2. Rare variant in scavenger receptor BI raises HDL cholesterol and increases risk of coronary heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zanoni, Paolo; Khetarpal, Sumeet A; Larach, Daniel B

    2016-01-01

    Scavenger receptor BI (SR-BI) is the major receptor for high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (HDL-C). In humans, high amounts of HDL-C in plasma are associated with a lower risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). Mice that have depleted Scarb1 (SR-BI knockout mice) have markedly elevated HDL-...

  3. Meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies of HDL cholesterol response to statins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Postmus, Iris; Warren, Helen R; Trompet, Stella

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In addition to lowering low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), statin therapy also raises high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels. Inter-individual variation in HDL-C response to statins may be partially explained by genetic variation. METHODS AND RESULTS: We performed...... a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) to identify variants with an effect on statin-induced high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) changes. The 123 most promising signals with p

  4. Beyond HDL-cholesterol increase: phospholipid enrichment and shift from HDL3 to HDL2 in alcohol consumers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schäfer, C.; Parlesak, Alexandr; Eckoldt, J.

    2007-01-01

    (increase of the HDL(2)-CH/HDL(3)-CH ratio). Moreover, phospholipid enrichment of HDL occurred in alcohol consumers, whereas the ratios between other HDL components remained constant. Multivariate analysis revealed alcohol to have the foremost statistical influence on changes of the HDL fraction, followed...... by body mass index and physical activity level. The increased lipidation of HDL found in alcohol consumers might augment the antiatherogenic effect of HDL-CH increase. In addition, the phospholipid enrichment of HDL might reduce the inflammatory response of atherogenesis....

  5. Atorvastatin increases HDL cholesterol by reducing CETP expression in cholesterol-fed APOE*3-Leiden.CETP mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, W. de; Hoogt, C.C. van der; Westerterp, M.; Hoekstra, M.; Dallinga-Thie, G.M.; Princen, H.M.G.; Romijn, J.A.; Jukema, J.W.; Havekes, L.M.; Rensen, P.C.N.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: In addition to lowering low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, statins modestly increase high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol in humans and decrease cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) mass and activity. Our aim was to determine whether the increase in HDL depends on CETP

  6. Differences in the Triglyceride to HDL-Cholesterol Ratio between Palestinian and Israeli Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Ram; Nassar, Hisham; Sinnreich, Ronit; Kark, Jeremy D.

    2015-01-01

    Aims To evaluate differences in the triglyceride to HDL-cholesterol ratio (TG/HDL), thought to be a proxy measure of insulin resistance, between Palestinian and Israeli adults in view of the greater incidence of coronary heart disease and high prevalence of diabetes in Palestinian Arabs. Research Methods A population-based observational prevalence study of cardiovascular and diabetes risk factors in Jerusalem. Participants (968 Palestinians, 707 Israelis, sampled at ages 25-74 years) underwent fasting and 2h post-75g oral challenge plasma glucose determinations. Metabolic risk was assessed using the surrogate index TG/HDL. Sex-specific comparisons were stratified by categories of body mass index and sex-specific waist circumference quartiles, adjusted by regression for age, glucose tolerance status and use of statins. Results Prevalence of overweight and obesity was substantially larger in Palestinians (p = 0.005). Prevalence of diabetes was 2.4 and 4 fold higher among Palestinian men and women, respectively (psexes. Conclusions Palestinians have a higher TG/HDL ratio than Israelis. Notably, this is evident also in young, healthy and normal weight participants. These findings indicate the need to study the determinants of this biomarker and other measures of insulin resistance in urban Arab populations and to focus research attention on earlier ages: childhood and prenatal stages of development. PMID:25635396

  7. [Triglycerides/HDL-cholesterol ratio: in adolescents without cardiovascular risk factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soutelo, Jimena; Graffigna, Mabel; Honfi, Margarita; Migliano, Marta; Aranguren, Marcela; Proietti, Adrian; Musso, Carla; Berg, Gabriela

    2012-06-01

    Triglycerides/HDL-cholesterol ratio (TG/HDL) is an easy resource determination and it has good correlation with the HOMA index in adults. Due to physiological insulin resistance (IR) in adolescence it is necessary to find markers of IR independent of age, sex and pubertal stage. The objective was to identify reference values of TG/HDL ratio in a population of adolescents without cardiovascular risk factors. We evaluated 943 adolescents, 429 females and 514 males between 11 and 14. Anthropometric measures were determined and body mass index was calculated (BMI). Blood was extracted after 12 hours of fasting to determine glucose, triglycerides, HDL. The metabolic syndrome (MS) was diagnosed according to criteria of NCEP/ATP III modified by Cook. We excluded adolescents with MS or any component of it. We evaluated 562 adolescents (289 women and 273 men) with a weight of 48.91 +/- 6.51kg, BMI: 18.95 +/- 1.78, systolic blood pressure of 108.12 +/- 13.60 mmHg, diastolic blood pressure: 63.82 +/- 9.43 and waist circumference: 65.09 +/- 4.54 cm. TG/HDL ratio was 1.25 +/- 0.43, with a 95 percentile of 2.05. In adults, TG/HDL ratio greater than 3 is a marker of insulin resistance. We believe that a higher value to 2.05 might be a good index of insulin resistance in adolescence. TG/HDL ratio has the advantage of being methodologically simpler, more economical and independent of pubertal stage.

  8. Prevalence of low HDL-cholesterol in patients with cardiovascular risk factors: The ECHOS (Etude du Cholesterol HDL en Observationnel) French Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnier, M; Garnier, P; Yau, C; Dejager, S; Verpilleux, M P

    2006-10-01

    A low concentration of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular heart disease (CHD), but little is known about the distribution of HDL-C in France. This study evaluated the prevalence of low HDL-C among a large French population (5232 patients) with other cardiovascular risk factors. Depending on the guidelines used, the prevalence of low HDL-C varied from 8.7% (cutoff value of 35 mg/dl) to 26.9% (National Cholesterol Education Program metabolic syndrome cutoff values). The prevalence of low HDL-C gradually increased with the number of associated risk factors. We identified three independent risk predictors for low HDL-C: hypertriglyceridaemia (HTG), abdominal obesity and gender. Overall, the frequency of HDL-C assessment was very high (>85%) and it was highest in patients with hypercholesterolaemia or a history of CHD. Risk factors more frequently associated with low HDL-C (i.e. HTG, abdominal obesity and type 2 diabetes) were not associated with a more frequent assessment of HDL-C. Our findings indicate that in France, the prevalence of low HDL-C remains relatively high, particularly for patients with obesity and HTG.

  9. Novel mutations in scavenger receptor BI associated with high HDL cholesterol in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brunham, Liam R.; Tietjen, Ian; Bochem, Andrea E.; Singaraja, Roshni R.; Franchini, Patrick L.; Radomski, Chris; Mattice, Maryanne; Legendre, Annick; Hovingh, G. Kees; Kastelein, John J. P.; Hayden, Michael R.

    2011-01-01

    The scavenger receptor class B, member 1 (SR-BI), is a key cellular receptor for high-density lipoprotein (HDL) in mice, but its relevance to human physiology has not been well established. Recently a family was reported with a mutation in the gene encoding SR-BI and high HDL cholesterol (HDL-C).

  10. Meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies of HDL cholesterol response to statins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postmus, Iris; Warren, Helen R.; Trompet, Stella; Arsenault, Benoit J.; Avery, Christy L.; Bis, Joshua C.; Chasman, Daniel I.; de Keyser, Catherine E.; Deshmukh, Harshal A.; Evans, Daniel S.; Feng, QiPing; Li, Xiaohui; Smit, Roelof A. J.; Smith, Albert V.; Sun, Fangui; Taylor, Kent D.; Arnold, Alice M.; Barnes, Michael R.; Barratt, Bryan J.; Betteridge, John; Boekholdt, S. Matthijs; Boerwinkle, Eric; Buckley, Brendan M.; Chen, Y.-D. Ida; de Craen, Anton J. M.; Cummings, Steven R.; Denny, Joshua C.; Dubé, Marie Pierre; Durrington, Paul N.; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Ford, Ian; Guo, Xiuqing; Harris, Tamara B.; Heckbert, Susan R.; Hofman, Albert; Hovingh, G. Kees; Kastelein, John J. P.; Launer, Leonore J.; Liu, Ching-Ti; Liu, Yongmei; Lumley, Thomas; McKeigue, Paul M.; Munroe, Patricia B.; Neil, Andrew; Nickerson, Deborah A.; Nyberg, Fredrik; O'Brien, Eoin; O'Donnell, Christopher J.; Post, Wendy; Poulter, Neil; Vasan, Ramachandran S.; Rice, Kenneth; Rich, Stephen S.; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Sattar, Naveed; Sever, Peter; Shaw-Hawkins, Sue; Shields, Denis C.; Slagboom, P. Eline; Smith, Nicholas L.; Smith, Joshua D.; Sotoodehnia, Nona; Stanton, Alice; Stott, David J.; Stricker, Bruno H.; Stürmer, Til; Uitterlinden, André G.; Wei, Wei-Qi; Westendorp, Rudi G. J.; Whitsel, Eric A.; Wiggins, Kerri L.; Wilke, Russell A.; Ballantyne, Christie M.; Colhoun, Helen M.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Franco, Oscar H.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Hitman, Graham; Palmer, Colin N. A.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Ridker, Paul M.; Stafford, Jeanette M.; Stein, Charles M.; Tardif, Jean-Claude; Caulfield, Mark J.; Jukema, J. Wouter; Rotter, Jerome I.; Krauss, Ronald M.

    2016-01-01

    In addition to lowering low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), statin therapy also raises high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels. Inter-individual variation in HDL-C response to statins may be partially explained by genetic variation. We performed a meta-analysis of genome-wide

  11. Meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies of HDL cholesterol response to statins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Postmus (Douwe); H. Warren (Helen); S. Trompet (Stella); B.J. Arsenault (Benoit J.); C.L. Avery; J.C. Bis (Joshua); D.I. Chasman (Daniel); C.E. de Keyser (Catherina Elisabeth); H. Deshmukh (Harshal); D.S. Evans (Daniel); Feng, Q. (QiPing); X. Li (Xiaohui); Smit, R.A.J. (Roelof A.J.); A.V. Smith (Albert Vernon); F. Sun (Fangui); K.D. Taylor (Kent); A.M. Arnold (Alice M.); M.J. Barnes (Michael); B.J. Barratt (Bryan J.); J. Betteridge (John); S.M. Boekholdt (Matthijs); E.A. Boerwinkle (Eric); B.M. Buckley (Brendan M.); Y.D. Chen (Y.); A.J. de Craen (Anton); S. Cummings; Denny, J.C. (Joshua C.); G.P. Dubé (Gregory); P.N. Durrington (Paul); G. Eiriksdottir (Gudny); I. Ford (Ian); X. Guo (Xiuqing); T.B. Harris (Tamara); S.R. Heckbert (Susan); A. Hofman (Albert); G. Kees Hovingh; J.J.P. Kastelein (John); Launer, L.J. (Leonore J.); Liu, C.-T. (Ching-Ti); Y. Liu (YongMei); T. Lumley (Thomas); P.M. Mckeigue (Paul); P. Munroe (Patricia); A. Neil (Andrew); D.A. Nickerson (Deborah); F. Nyberg (Fredrik); E. O'Brien (Eoin); C.J. O'Donnell (Christopher); W.S. Post (Wendy S.); N.R. Poulter (Neil); R.S. Vasan (Ramachandran Srini); K.M. Rice (Kenneth); S.S. Rich (Stephen); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando); N. Sattar (Naveed); P. Sever (Peter); S. Shaw-Hawkins (Sue); D.C. Shields (Denis C.); P.E. Slagboom (Eline); N.L. Smith (Nicholas); J.D. Smith (Joshua D.); N. Sotoodehnia (Nona); A. Stanton (Alice); D.J. Stott (David. J.); B.H.Ch. Stricker (Bruno); T. Stürmer; A.G. Uitterlinden (André); W.-Q. Wei (Wei-Qi); R.G.J. Westendorp (Rudi); E.A. Whitsel (Eric A.); K.L. Wiggins (Kerri); R.A. Wilke (Russell A.); C. Ballantyne (Christie); H.M. Colhoun (H.); L.A. Cupples (Adrienne); O.H. Franco (Oscar); V. Gudnason (Vilmundur); G.A. Hitman (Graham); C.N.A. Palmer (Colin); B.M. Psaty (Bruce); P.M. Ridker (Paul); J.M. Stafford (Jeanette M.); Stein, C.M. (Charles M.); J.-C. Tardif (Jean-Claude); M. Caulfield (Mark); J.W. Jukema (Jan Wouter); Rotter, J.I. (Jerome I.); R.M. Krauss (Ronald)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground In addition to lowering low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), statin therapy also raises high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels. Interindividual variation in HDL-C response to statins may be partially explained by genetic variation. Methods and results We

  12. Heterogeneity at the CETP gene locus. Influence on plasma CETP concentrations and HDL cholesterol levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuivenhoven, J.A.; de Knijff, P.; Boer, J M; Smalheer, H A; Botma, G.J.; Seidell, J C; Kastelein, J.J.; Pritchard, P H

    This study was designed to investigate the association(s) between heterogeneity at the cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) gene locus, CETP plasma concentrations, and HDL cholesterol levels. Healthy men with the lowest, median, and highest deciles of HDL cholesterol were selected from a large

  13. HDL function is impaired in acute myocardial infarction independent of plasma HDL cholesterol levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annema, Wijtske; Willemsen, Hendrik M.; de Boer, Jan Freark; Dikkers, Arne; van der Giet, Markus; Nieuwland, Wybe; Muller Kobold, Anna; van Pelt, L. Joost; Slart, Riemer H. J. A.; van der Horst, Iwan C. C.; Dullaart, Robin P. F.; Tio, Rene A.; Tietge, Uwe J. F.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: High-density lipoproteins (HDLs) protect against the development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. HDL function represents an emerging concept in cardiovascular research. OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the association between HDL functionality and acute myocardial infarction

  14. Coenzyme O*U1*UO, Alpha-Tocopherol and Free Cholesterol in HDL and LDL Fractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Kurt; Theorell, Henning; Karlsson, Jan

    1991-01-01

    Farmakologi, Alpha-tocopherol, Coenzyme Q*U1*U0, free cholesterol, LDL, Antioxidants, Lipoproteins, HDL......Farmakologi, Alpha-tocopherol, Coenzyme Q*U1*U0, free cholesterol, LDL, Antioxidants, Lipoproteins, HDL...

  15. Dietary Almonds Increase Serum HDL Cholesterol in Coronary Artery Disease Patients in a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamshed, Humaira; Sultan, Fateh Ali Tipoo; Iqbal, Romaina; Gilani, Anwar Hassan

    2015-10-01

    More than one-half of coronary artery disease (CAD) patients have low HDL cholesterol despite having well-managed LDL cholesterol. Almond supplementation has not been shown to elevate circulating HDL cholesterol concentrations in clinical trials, perhaps because the baseline HDL cholesterol of trial subjects was not low. This clinical trial was designed to test the effect of almond supplementation on low HDL cholesterol in CAD patients. A total of 150 CAD patients (50 per group), with serum LDL cholesterol ≤100 mg/dL and HDL cholesterol ≤40 mg/dL in men and ≤50 mg/dL in women, were recruited from the Aga Khan University Hospital. After recording vital signs and completing a dietary and physical activity questionnaire, patients were randomly assigned to 1 of the following 3 groups: the no-intervention group (NI), the Pakistani almonds group (PA), and the American almonds group (AA). The respective almond varieties (10 g/d) were given to patients with instructions to soak them overnight, remove the skin, and eat them before breakfast. Blood samples for lipid profiling, body weight, and blood pressure were collected, and assessment of dietary patterns was done at baseline, week 6, and week 12. Almonds significantly increased HDL cholesterol. At weeks 6 and 12, HDL cholesterol was 12-14% and 14-16% higher, respectively, in the PA and AA than their respective baselines. In line with previous reports, serum concentrations of total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL cholesterol, and VLDL cholesterol; total-to-HDL and LDL-to-HDL cholesterol ratios, and the atherogenic index were reduced in both the PA and AA at weeks 6 and 12 compared with baseline (P almond groups. Dietary patterns, body weight, and blood pressure did not change in any of the 3 groups during the trial. A low dose of almonds (10 g/d) consumed before breakfast can increase HDL cholesterol, in addition to improving other markers of abnormal lipid metabolism in CAD patients with low initial HDL cholesterol

  16. Plasma lecithin : cholesterol acyltransferase activity modifies the inverse relationship of C-reactive protein with HDL cholesterol in nondiabetic men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dullaart, R. P. F.; Perton, F.; Kappelle, P.J.W.H.; de Vries, R.; Sluiter, W. J.; van Tol, A.

    Lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) is instrumental in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) maturation, but high LCAT levels do not predict low cardiovascular risk. LCAT may affect antioxidative or anti-inflammatory properties of HDL We determined the relationship of plasma high-sensitivity

  17. Atherogenic Impact of Lecithin-Cholesterol Acyltransferase and Its Relation to Cholesterol Esterification Rate in HDL (FERHDL) and AIP [log(TG/HDL-C)] Biomarkers: The Butterfly Effect?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dobiášová, Milada

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 66, č. 2 (2017), s. 193-203 ISSN 0862-8408 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) * atherosclerosis * FERHDL (fractional esterification rate in HDL) * AIP (atherogenic index of plasma, log(TG/HDL-C) * biomarkers of cardiometabolic risk * lipoprotein particle size Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery OBOR OECD: Endocrinology and metabolism (including diabetes, hormones) Impact factor: 1.461, year: 2016

  18. Reverse Cholesterol Transport: Molecular Mechanisms and the Non-medical Approach to Enhance HDL Cholesterol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro R. Marques

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Dyslipidemia (high concentrations of LDL-c and low concentrations of HDL-c is a major cause of cardiovascular events, which are the leading cause of death in the world. On the other hand, nutrition and regular exercise can be an interesting strategy to modulate lipid profile, acting as prevention or treatment, inhibiting the risk of diseases due to its anti-inflammatory and anti-atherogenic characteristics. Additionally, the possibility of controlling different training variables, such as type, intensity and recovery interval, can be used to maximize the benefits of exercise in promoting cardiovascular health. However, the mechanisms by which exercise and nutrients act in the regulation of cholesterol and its fractions, such as reverse cholesterol transport, receptors and transcription factors involved, such as PPARs and their role related to exercise, deserve further discussion. Therefore, the objective of this review is to debate about non-medical approaches to increase HDL-c, such as nutritional and training strategies, and to discuss the central mechanisms involved in the modulation of lipid profile during exercise, as well as that can be controlled by physical trainers or sports specialists in attempt to maximize the benefits promoted by exercise. The search for papers was performed in the databases: Medline (Pubmed, Science Direct, Scopus, Sport Discus, Web of Science, Scielo and Lilacs until February 2016.

  19. High density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) metabolism and its role in ischemic heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirzado, Z.A.; Sngi, S.A.; Malik, R.

    1999-01-01

    Case control and prospective epidemiological studies have found a striking, consistently negative association between High Density Lipoprotein(HDL) levels and coronary vascular events. As a results, the genetic and environmental determinants of HDL levels are being studied intensively. These investigations and their potential clinical applications require a fundamental understanding of the structure, function and metabolism of HDL and its components. Of the special interest are the means by which it exerts its apparently protective effect. In this report we characterize the structure of HLD: and describe its compounds, particularly the protein component. We discuss HDL metabolism in light of the relationship of HDL to other lipoprotein classes and relate what little is known of the functions of HDL. We also review the biochemical mechanism by which HDL may protect against cardiovascular disease and discuss further biochemical research that will be necessary for a better understanding of HDL. Interest in HDL has been greatly intensified in recent years, stimulated largely by the finding that HDL is inversely related in HDL has been greatly intensified in recent years, stimulated largely by the finding that HDL is inversely related to coronary artery disease. Case-control and prospective observations of the striking, consistent and independent negative association between HDL levels and coronary vascular events have in turn generated new interest in the structure, composition and metabolism of these fascinating lipoproteins. Several studies carried out in Pakistan also reveal the inverse relation of HDL to IHD/sup 1,2/. This article contains a tremendous amount of information on HDL and its relationship to genetic and environmental factors which should be useful to investigations and clinicians in their evaluation and use of HDL cholesterol measurements to assess hearth disease risk. A knowledge of the structure, function and metabolism of HDL and its components is

  20. Hemorheological and Glycemic Parameters and HDL Cholesterol for the Prediction of Cardiovascular Events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Sung Woo; Kim, Byung Gyu; Kim, Byung Ok; Byun, Young Sup; Goh, Choong Won; Rhee, Kun Joo; Kwon, Hyuck Moon; Lee, Byoung Kwon

    2016-01-01

    Hemorheological and glycemic parameters and high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol are used as biomarkers of atherosclerosis and thrombosis. To investigate the association and clinical relevance of erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), fibrinogen, fasting glucose, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), and HDL cholesterol in the prediction of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) and coronary heart disease (CHD) in an outpatient population. 708 stable patients who visited the outpatient department were enrolled and followed for a mean period of 28.5 months. Patients were divided into two groups, patients without MACE and patients with MACE, which included cardiac death, acute myocardial infarction, newly diagnosed CHD, and cerebral vascular accident. We compared hemorheological and glycemic parameters and lipid profiles between the groups. Patients with MACE had significantly higher ESR, fibrinogen, fasting glucose, and HbA1c, while lower HDL cholesterol compared with patients without MACE. High ESR and fibrinogen and low HDL cholesterol significantly increased the risk of MACE in multivariate regression analysis. In patients with MACE, high fibrinogen and HbA1c levels increased the risk of multivessel CHD. Furthermore, ESR and fibrinogen were significantly positively correlated with HbA1c and negatively correlated with HDL cholesterol, however not correlated with fasting glucose. Hemorheological abnormalities, poor glycemic control, and low HDL cholesterol are correlated with each other and could serve as simple and useful surrogate markers and predictors for MACE and CHD in outpatients

  1. Hemorheological and Glycemic Parameters and HDL Cholesterol for the Prediction of Cardiovascular Events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Sung Woo [Division of Cardiology - Department of Internal Medicine - Sanggye Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Division of Cardiology - Department of Medicine - Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Byung Gyu; Kim, Byung Ok; Byun, Young Sup; Goh, Choong Won; Rhee, Kun Joo [Division of Cardiology - Department of Internal Medicine - Sanggye Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Hyuck Moon; Lee, Byoung Kwon, E-mail: cardiobk@yuhs.ac [Division of Cardiology - Department of Internal Medicine - Gangnam Severance Hospital - Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-01-15

    Hemorheological and glycemic parameters and high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol are used as biomarkers of atherosclerosis and thrombosis. To investigate the association and clinical relevance of erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), fibrinogen, fasting glucose, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), and HDL cholesterol in the prediction of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) and coronary heart disease (CHD) in an outpatient population. 708 stable patients who visited the outpatient department were enrolled and followed for a mean period of 28.5 months. Patients were divided into two groups, patients without MACE and patients with MACE, which included cardiac death, acute myocardial infarction, newly diagnosed CHD, and cerebral vascular accident. We compared hemorheological and glycemic parameters and lipid profiles between the groups. Patients with MACE had significantly higher ESR, fibrinogen, fasting glucose, and HbA1c, while lower HDL cholesterol compared with patients without MACE. High ESR and fibrinogen and low HDL cholesterol significantly increased the risk of MACE in multivariate regression analysis. In patients with MACE, high fibrinogen and HbA1c levels increased the risk of multivessel CHD. Furthermore, ESR and fibrinogen were significantly positively correlated with HbA1c and negatively correlated with HDL cholesterol, however not correlated with fasting glucose. Hemorheological abnormalities, poor glycemic control, and low HDL cholesterol are correlated with each other and could serve as simple and useful surrogate markers and predictors for MACE and CHD in outpatients.

  2. Lack of Abcg1 results in decreased plasma HDL cholesterol levels and increased biliary cholesterol secretion in mice fed a high cholesterol diet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersma, Harmen; Nijstad, Niels; de Boer, Jan Freark; Out, Ruud; Hogewerf, Wytse; Van Berkel, Theo J.; Kuipers, Folkert; Tietge, Uwe J. F.

    Objective: The ATP Binding Cassette transporter G1 (ABCG1) has been implicated in cholesterol efflux towards HDL and reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). Biliary cholesterol secretion is considered as an important step in RCT. The aim of the present study was to determine the consequences of Abcg1

  3. Mutation in APOA1 predicts increased risk of ischaemic heart disease and total mortality without low HDL cholesterol levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haase, C L; Frikke-Schmidt, R; Nordestgaard, B G

    2011-01-01

    levels. Mutations in apolipoprotein (apo) A-I, the major protein constituent of HDL, might be associated with low HDL cholesterol and predispose to IHD and early death. DESIGN: We resequenced APOA1 in 190 individuals and examined the effect of mutations on HDL cholesterol, risk of IHD, myocardial...

  4. Low HDL cholesterol is correlated to the acute ischemic stroke with diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yun; Li, Jingwei; Zhang, Junfeng; Xu, Yun

    2014-11-14

    To clarify the role of lipid composition in the occurrence of acute ischemic stroke (AIS) with diabetes mellitus (DM) and its influence factors. Data was collected from the patients hospitalization in Affiliated Drum Tower Hospital of Nanjing University Medical School from October 2008 to May 2012, which included AIS and non-AIS consist of transient ischemic attack (TIA) and Vertigo or dizzy. Lipid and other risk factors including blood glucose (BG), uric acid (UA), hypertension, DM and atrial fibrillation (AF) were investigated in relation to occurrence of AIS. The level of high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol was decreased obviously in the DM group compared to the non-DM group and low level of HDL cholesterol was prevalent in the AIS patients with DM. logistic regression demonstrated that decreased HDL cholesterol was correlated to the AIS with DM, not all AIS, and the relative risk of ischemic stroke in low HDL cholesterol level group was 2.113 (95% CI = 1.191-3.749, P = 0.011) compared to the high level group. Furthermore, age has the obviously impact on it. HDL cholesterol was correlated to the AIS with DM just in the populations of aged ≦70 years (OR = 0.192, P = 0.000), low level of HDL cholesterol had more high risk of ischemic stroke than that in the high level group (OR = 6.818, P = 0.002). Decreased HDL cholesterol was correlated to the occurrence of AIS with DM, especially in the populations of aged ≦70 years.

  5. Genetic variation in ABC transporter A1 contributes to HDL cholesterol in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frikke-Schmidt, Ruth; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Jensen, Gorm B

    2004-01-01

    Homozygosity for mutations in ABC transporter A1 (ABCA1) causes Tangier disease, a rare HDL-deficiency syndrome. Whether heterozygosity for genetic variation in ABCA1 also contributes to HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) levels in the general population is presently unclear. We determined whether mutations...... or single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in ABCA1 were overrepresented in individuals with the lowest 1% (n=95) or highest 1% (n=95) HDL-C levels in the general population by screening the core promoter and coding region of ABCA1. For all nonsynonymous SNPs identified, we determined the effect of genotype...... on lipid traits in 9,259 individuals from the general population. Heterozygosity for ABCA1 mutations was identified in 10% of individuals with low HDL-C only. Three of 6 nonsynonymous SNPs (V771M, V825I, and R1587K) were associated with increases or decreases in HDL-C in women in the general population...

  6. Structure-function relationships in reconstituted HDL: Focus on antioxidative activity and cholesterol efflux capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cukier, Alexandre M O; Therond, Patrice; Didichenko, Svetlana A; Guillas, Isabelle; Chapman, M John; Wright, Samuel D; Kontush, Anatol

    2017-09-01

    High-density lipoprotein (HDL) contains multiple components that endow it with biological activities. Apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) and surface phospholipids contribute to these activities; however, structure-function relationships in HDL particles remain incompletely characterised. Reconstituted HDLs (rHDLs) were prepared from apoA-I and soy phosphatidylcholine (PC) at molar ratios of 1:50, 1:100 and 1:150. Oxidative status of apoA-I was varied using controlled oxidation of Met112 residue. HDL-mediated inactivation of PC hydroperoxides (PCOOH) derived from mildly pre-oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL) was evaluated by HPLC with chemiluminescent detection in HDL+LDL mixtures and re-isolated LDL. Cellular cholesterol efflux was characterised in RAW264.7 macrophages. rHDL inactivated LDL-derived PCOOH in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The capacity of rHDL to both inactivate PCOOH and efflux cholesterol via ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) increased with increasing apoA-I/PC ratio proportionally to the apoA-I content in rHDL. Controlled oxidation of apoA-I Met112 gradually decreased PCOOH-inactivating capacity of rHDL but increased ABCA1-mediated cellular cholesterol efflux. Increasing apoA-I content in rHDL enhanced its antioxidative activity towards oxidized LDL and cholesterol efflux capacity via ABCA1, whereas oxidation of apoA-I Met112 decreased the antioxidative activity but increased the cholesterol efflux. These findings provide important considerations in the design of future HDL therapeutics. Non-standard abbreviations and acronyms: AAPH, 2,2'-azobis(-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride; ABCA1, ATP-binding cassette transporter A1; apoA-I, apolipoprotein A-I; BHT, butylated hydroxytoluene; CV, cardiovascular; EDTA, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid; HDL-C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; LOOH, lipid hydroperoxides; Met(O), methionine sulfoxide; Met112, methionine 112 residue; Met86, methionine 86 residue; oxLDL, oxidized low

  7. Historical milestones in measurement of HDL-cholesterol: impact on clinical and laboratory practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlois, Michel R; Blaton, Victor H

    2006-07-23

    High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) comprises a family of particles with differing physicochemical characteristics. Continuing progress in improving HDL-C analysis has originated from two separate fields-one clinical, reflecting increased attention to HDL-C in estimating risk for coronary heart disease (CHD), and the other analytical, reflecting increased emphasis on finding more reliable and cost-effective HDL-C assays. Epidemiologic and prospective studies established the inverse association of HDL-C with CHD risk, a relationship that is consistent with protective mechanisms demonstrated in basic research and animal studies. Atheroprotective and less atheroprotective HDL subpopulations have been described. Guidelines on primary and secondary CHD prevention, which increased the workload in clinical laboratories, have led to a revolution in HDL-C assay technology. Many analytical techniques including ultracentrifugation, electrophoresis, chromatography, and polyanion precipitation methods have been developed to separate and quantify HDL-C and HDL subclasses. More recently developed homogeneous assays enable direct measurement of HDL-C on an automated analyzer, without the need for manual pretreatment to separate non-HDL. Although homogeneous assays show improved accuracy and precision in normal serum, discrepant results exist in samples with atypical lipoprotein characteristics. Hypertriglyceridemia and monoclonal paraproteins are important interfering factors. A novel approach is nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy that allows rapid and reliable analysis of lipoprotein subclasses, which may improve the identification of individuals at increased CHD risk. Apolipoprotein A-I, the major protein of HDL, has been proposed as an alternative cardioprotective marker avoiding the analytical limitations of HDL-C.

  8. The usefulness of information on HDL-cholesterol: potential pitfalls of conventional assumptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furberg Curt D

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Treatment decisions related to disease prevention are often based on two conventional and related assumptions. First, an intervention-induced change in a surrogate marker (such as high-density lipoprotein [HDL]-cholesterol in the desired direction translates into health benefits (such as reduction in coronary events. Second, it is unimportant which interventions are used to alter surrogate markers, since an intervention benefit is independent of the means by which it is achieved. The scientific foundation for these assumptions has been questioned. In this commentary, the appropriateness of relying on low levels of HDL-cholesterol for treatment decisions is reviewed. The Veterans Affairs - HDL-Cholesterol Intervention Trial (VA-HIT investigators recently reported that only 23% of the gemfibrozil-induced relative reduction in risk of coronary events observed in the trial could be explained by changes in HDL-cholesterol between baseline and the 1-year visit. Thus, 77% of the health benefit to the participants was unexplained. Other possible explanations are that gemfibrozil has multiple mechanisms of action, disease manifestations are multifactorial, and laboratory measurements of HDL-cholesterol are imprecise. The wisdom of relying on levels and changes in surrogate markers such as HDL-cholesterol to make decisions about treatment choices should questioned. It seems better to rely on direct evidence of health benefits and to prescribe specific interventions that have been shown to reduce mortality and morbidity. Since extrapolations based on surrogate markers may not be in patients' best interest, the practice of medicine ought to be evidence-based.

  9. High-cocoa polyphenol-rich chocolate improves HDL cholesterol in Type 2 diabetes patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellor, D D; Sathyapalan, T; Kilpatrick, E S; Beckett, S; Atkin, S L

    2010-11-01

    To examine the effects of chocolate on lipid profiles, weight and glycaemic control in individuals with Type 2 diabetes. Twelve individuals with Type 2 diabetes on stable medication were enrolled in a randomized, placebo-controlled double-blind crossover study. Subjects were randomized to 45 g chocolate with or without a high polyphenol content for 8 weeks and then crossed over after a 4-week washout period. Changes in weight, glycaemic control, lipid profile and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein were measured at the beginning and at the end of each intervention. HDL cholesterol increased significantly with high polyphenol chocolate (1.16 ± 0.08 vs. 1.26 ± 0.08 mmol/l, P = 0.05) with a decrease in the total cholesterol: HDL ratio (4.4 ± 0.4 vs. 4.1 ± 0.4 mmol/l, P = 0.04). No changes were seen with the low polyphenol chocolate in any parameters. Over the course of 16 weeks of daily chocolate consumption neither weight nor glycaemic control altered from baseline. High polyphenol chocolate is effective in improving the atherosclerotic cholesterol profile in patients with diabetes by increasing HDL cholesterol and improving the cholesterol:HDL ratio without affecting weight, inflammatory markers, insulin resistance or glycaemic control.

  10. High ratio of triglycerides to hdl-cholesterol predicts extensive coronary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Protasio Lemos da Luz

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available An abnormal ratio of triglycerides to HDL-cholesterol (TG/HDL-c indicates an atherogenic lipid profile and a risk for the development of coronary disease. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between lipid levels, specifically TG/HDL-c, and the extent of coronary disease. METHODS: High-risk patients (n = 374 submitted for coronary angiography had their lipid variables measured and coronary disease extent scored by the Friesinger index. RESULTS: The subjects consisted of 220 males and 154 females, age 57.2 ± 11.1 years, with total cholesterol of 210± 50.3 mg/dL, triglycerides of 173.8 ± 169.8 mg/dL, HDL-cholesterol (HDL-c of 40.1 ± 12.8 mg/dL, LDL-cholesterol (LDL-c of 137.3 ± 46.2 mg/dL, TG/HDL-c of 5.1 ± 5.3, and a Friesinger index of 6.6 ± 4.7. The relationship between the extent of coronary disease (dichotomized by a Friesenger index of 5 and lipid levels (normal vs. abnormal was statistically significant for the following: triglycerides, odds ratio of 2.02 (1.31-3.1; p = 0.0018; HDL-c, odds ratio of 2.21 (1.42-3.43; p = 0.0005; and TG/HDL-c, odds ratio of 2.01(1.30-3.09; p = 0.0018. However, the relationship was not significant between extent of coronary disease and total cholesterol [1.25 (0.82-1.91; p = 0.33] or LDL-c [1.47 (0.96-2.25; p = 0.0842]. The chi-square for linear trends for Friesinger > 4 and lipid quartiles was statistically significant for triglycerides (p = 0.0017, HDL-c (p = 0.0001, and TG/HDL-c (p = 0.0018, but not for total cholesterol (p = 0.393 or LDL-c (p = 0.0568. The multivariate analysis by logistic regression OR gave 1.3 ± 0.79 (p = .0001 for TG/HDL-c, 0.779 ± 0.074 (p = .0001 for HDL-c, and 1.234 ± 0.097 (p = 0.03 for LDL. Analysis of receiver operating characteristic curves showed that only TG/HDL-c and HDL-c were useful for detecting extensive coronary disease, with the former more strongly associated with disease. CONCLUSIONS: Although some lipid variables were associated with the extent of

  11. Human paraoxonase and HDL-cholesterol in pakistan patients with acute myocardial infarction and normal healthy adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, I.P.; Khan, A.H.; Mehboobali, N.

    2007-01-01

    Human serum paraoxonase is a high density lipoprotein (HDL)-bound enzyme exhibiting antiatherogenic properties. The aim of this study was to investigate any relationship between serum paraoxonase activity and serum levels of HDL-cholesterol in Pakistani patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) compared to normal healthy subjects and to examine possible association between serum paraoxonase activity and AMI in Pakistani population. In a case-control study, serum paraoxonase activity and serum levels of HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol were monitored in 164 Pakistani patients with AMI and 106 normal healthy adults matched for gender, BMI and age within 10 years. Mean serum concentration of HDL-cholesterol and mean serum paraoxonase activity in AMI patients were not significantly different from the corresponding values in normal healthy subjects. Mean serum paraoxonase activity value was significantly lower in normal healthy subjects with low HDL-cholesterol (serum levels < 40mg/dl) compared to the value in those with normal levels of HDL-cholesterol (P=0.04). In AMI patients, paraoxonase activity was lower in subjects with low HDL-cholesterol compared to those with normal levels of HDL-cholesterol, however, the decrease was not statistically significant. Correlation analyses of the data revealed a moderate association of paraoxonase activity with HDL-cholesterol (Pearson's r= 0.225, P<0.01 for AMI patients and r=0.281, P<0.01 for normal healthy controls). Seventy three percent of normal healthy subjects and 65% of AMI patients in this study had low HDL-cholesterol. Low serum paraoxonase activity and high prevalence of low HDL-cholesterol in Pakistani population could be contributing to the high rates of coronary heart disease in this population. (author)

  12. Plasma HDL cholesterol and risk of myocardial infarction : A mendelian randomisation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voight, Benjamin F.; Peloso, Gina M.; Orho-Melander, Marju; Frikke-Schmidt, Ruth; Barbalic, Maja; Jensen, Majken K.; Hindy, George; Holm, Hilma; Ding, Eric L.; Johnson, Toby; Schunkert, Heribert; Samani, Nilesh J.; Clarke, Robert; Hopewell, Jemma C.; Thompson, John F.; Li, Mingyao; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Newton-Cheh, Christopher; Musunuru, Kiran; Pirruccello, James P.; Saleheen, Danish; Chen, Li; Stewart, Alexandre F. R.; Schillert, Arne; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Thorgeirsson, Gudmundur; Anand, Sonia; Engert, James C.; Morgan, Thomas; Spertus, John; Stoll, Monika; Berger, Klaus; Martinelli, Nicola; Girelli, Domenico; McKeown, Pascal P.; Patterson, Christopher C.; Epstein, Stephen E.; Devaney, Joseph; Burnett, Mary-Susan; Mooser, Vincent; Ripatti, Samuli; Surakka, Ida; Nieminen, Markku S.; Sinisalo, Juha; Lokki, Marja-Liisa; Perola, Markus; Havulinna, Aki; de Faire, Ulf; Gigante, Bruna; Ingelsson, Erik; Zeller, Tanja; Wild, Philipp; de Bakker, Paul I. W.; Klungel, Olaf H.; Maitland-van der Zee, Anke-Hilse; Peters, Bas J. M.; de Boer, Anthonius; Grobbee, Diederick E.; Kamphuisen, Pieter W.; Deneer, Vera H. M.; Elbers, Clara C.; Onland-Moret, N. Charlotte; Hofker, Marten H.; Wijmenga, Cisca; Verschuren, W. M. Monique; Boer, Jolanda M. A.; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.; Rasheed, Asif; Frossard, Philippe; Demissie, Serkalem; Willer, Cristen; Do, Ron; Ordovas, Jose M.; Abecasis, Goncalo R.; Boehnke, Michael; Mohlke, Karen L.; Daly, Mark J.; Guiducci, Candace; Burtt, Noel P.; Surti, Aarti; Gonzalez, Elena; Purcell, Shaun; Gabriel, Stacey; Marrugat, Jaume; Peden, John; Erdmann, Jeanette; Diemert, Patrick; Willenborg, Christina; Koenig, Inke R.; Fischer, Marcus; Hengstenberg, Christian; Ziegler, Andreas; Buysschaert, Ian; Lambrechts, Diether; Van de Werf, Frans; Fox, Keith A.; El Mokhtari, Nour Eddine; Rubin, Diana; Schrezenmeir, Juergen; Schreiber, Stefan; Schaefer, Arne; Danesh, John; Blankenberg, Stefan; Roberts, Robert; McPherson, Ruth; Watkins, Hugh; Hall, Alistair S.; Overvad, Kim; Rimm, Eric; Boerwinkle, Eric; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Reilly, Muredach P.; Melander, Olle; Mannucci, Pier M.; Ardissino, Diego; Siscovick, David; Elosua, Roberto; Stefansson, Kari; O'Donnell, Christopher J.; Salomaa, Veikko; Rader, Daniel J.; Peltonen, Leena; Schwartz, Stephen M.; Altshuler, David; Kathiresan, Sekar

    2012-01-01

    Background High plasma HDL cholesterol is associated with reduced risk of myocardial infarction, but whether this association is causal is unclear. Exploiting the fact that genotypes are randomly assigned at meiosis, are independent of non-genetic confounding, and are unmodified by disease

  13. Application of pooled genotyping to scan candidate regions for association with HDL cholesterol levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hinds David A

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Association studies are used to identify genetic determinants of complex human traits of medical interest. With the large number of validated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs currently available, two limiting factors in association studies are genotyping capability and costs. Pooled DNA genotyping has been proposed as an efficient means of screening SNPs for allele frequency differences in case-control studies and for prioritising them for subsequent individual genotyping analysis. Here, we apply quantitative pooled genotyping followed by individual genotyping and replication to identify associations with human serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol levels. The DNA from individuals with low and high HDL cholesterol levels was pooled separately, each pool was amplified by polymerase chain reaction in triplicate and each amplified product was separately hybridised to a high-density oligonucleotide array. Allele frequency differences between case and control groups with low and high HDL cholesterol levels were estimated for 7,283 SNPs distributed across 71 candidate gene regions spanning a total of 17.1 megabases. A novel method was developed to take advantage of independently derived haplotype map information to improve the pooled estimates of allele frequency differences. A subset of SNPs with the largest estimated allele frequency differences between low and high HDL cholesterol groups was chosen for individual genotyping in the study population, as well as in a separate replication population. Four SNPs in a single haplotype block within the cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP gene interval were significantly associated with HDL cholesterol levels in both populations. Our study is among the first to demonstrate the application of pooled genotyping followed by confirmation with individual genotyping to identify genetic determinants of a complex trait.

  14. Association between triglyceride/HDL cholesterol ratio and carotid atherosclerosis in postmenopausal middle-aged women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masson, Walter; Siniawski, Daniel; Lobo, Martín; Molinero, Graciela; Huerín, Melina

    2016-01-01

    The triglyceride/HDL cholesterol ratio, as a surrogate marker of insulin resistance, may be associated to presence of subclinical carotid atherosclerosis in postmenopausal women. The aim of this study was to explore this association. Women (last menstrual period≥2 years) in primary prevention up to 65 years of age were recruited. Association between the triglyceride/HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) ratio and presence of carotid plaque, assessed by ultrasonography, was analyzed. ROC analysis was performed, determining the precision of this ratio to detect carotid plaque. A total of 332 women (age 57±5 years) were recruited. Triglyceride/HDL-C ratio was 2.35±1.6. Prevalence of carotid plaque was 29%. Women with carotid plaque had higher triglyceride/HDL-C ratios (3.33±1.96 vs. 2.1±1.2, P<.001) than women with no carotid plaque. A positive relationship was seen between quintiles of this ratio and prevalence of carotid plaque (p<.001). Regardless of other risk factors, women with higher triglyceride/HDL-C ratios were more likely to have carotid plaque (odds ratio 1.47, 95% confidence interval 1.20-1.79, P<.001). The area under the curve of the triglyceride/HDL-C ratio to detect carotid plaque was .71 (95% confidence interval .65 to .76), and the optimal cut-off point was 2.04. In postmenopausal women in primary prevention, insulin resistance, estimated from the triglyceride/HDL-C ratio, was independently associated to a greater probability of carotid plaque. A value of such ratio greater than 2 may be used for assessing cardiovascular risk in this particular group of women. Copyright © 2016 SEEN. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Genetic variation in the ABCA1 gene, HDL cholesterol, and risk of ischemic heart disease in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frikke-Schmidt, Ruth

    2010-01-01

    Epidemiological studies consistently demonstrate a strong inverse association between low levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and increased risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD). This review focuses on whether both rare and common genetic variation in ABCA1 contributes to plasma...... levels of HDL cholesterol and to risk of IHD in the general population, and further seeks to understand whether low levels of HDL cholesterol per se are causally related to IHD. Studies of the ABCA1 gene demonstrate a general strategy for detecting functional genetic variants, and show that both common...... and rare ABCA1 variants contribute to levels of HDL cholesterol and risk of IHD in the general population. The association between ABCA1 variants and risk of IHD appears, however, to be independent of plasma levels of HDL cholesterol. With the recent identification of the largest number of individuals...

  16. Normal Non-HDL Cholesterol, Low Total Cholesterol, and HDL Cholesterol Levels in Sickle Cell Disease Patients in the Steady State: A Case-Control Study of Tema Metropolis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ephraim, Richard K D; Adu, Patrick; Ake, Edem; Agbodzakey, Hope; Adoba, Prince; Cudjoe, Obed; Agoni, Clement

    2016-01-01

    Background. Abnormal lipid homeostasis in sickle cell disease (SCD) is characterized by defects in plasma and erythrocyte lipids and may increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. This study assessed the lipid profile and non-HDL cholesterol level of SCD patients. Methods. A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted in 50 SCD patients, in the steady state, aged 8-28 years, attending the SCD clinic, and 50 healthy volunteers between the ages of 8-38 years. Serum lipids were determined by enzymatic methods and non-HDL cholesterol calculated by this formula: non-HDL-C = TC-HDL-C. Results. Total cholesterol (TC) ( p = 0.001) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) ( p < 0.0001) were significantly decreased in cases compared to controls. The levels of non-HDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and triglyceride (TG) were similar among the participants. The levels of decrease in TC and HDL were associated with whether a patient was SCD-SS or SCD-SC. Systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure were each significantly associated with increased VLDL [SBP, p = 0.01, OR: 0.74 (CI: 0.6-0.93); DBP, p = 0.023, OR: 1.45 (CI: 1.05-2.0)]. Conclusion. Dyslipidemia is common among participants in this study. It was more pronounced in the SCD-SS than in SCD-SC. This dyslipidemia was associated with high VLDL as well as increased SBP and DBP.

  17. Lipid transfers to HDL are diminished in long-term bedridden patients: association with low HDL-cholesterol and increased inflammatory markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Wilson Pascoalino Camargo; Tavoni, Thauany Martins; Freitas, Fatima Rodrigues; Silva, Bruna Miranda Oliveira; Maranhão, Raul Cavalcante

    2017-08-01

    Plasma lipids have been extensively studied in sedentary and in subjects practicing exercise training, but not in extreme inactivity as occurs in bedridden patients. This is important for the care of bedridden patients and understanding the overall plasma lipid regulation. Here, we investigated plasma lipids, lipid transfers to HDL and inflammatory markers in bedridden patients. Fasting blood samples were collected from 23 clinically stable bedridden patients under long-term care (>90 days) and 26 normolipidemic sedentary subjects, paired for age and gender. In vitro transfer of four lipids to HDL was performed by incubating plasma with donor nanoparticles containing radioactive lipids. Total (193 ± 36 vs 160 ± 43, p = 0.005), LDL (124 ± 3 vs 96 ± 33 p = 0.003) and HDL-cholesterol (45 ± 10 vs 36 ± 13, p = 0.008), apolipoprotein A-I (134 ± 20 vs 111 ± 24, p = 0.001) and oxidized LDL (53 ± 13 vs 43 ± 12, p = 0.011) were lower in bedridden patients, whereas triglycerides, apolipoprotein B, CETP and LCAT were equal in both groups. Transfers of all lipids, namely unesterified cholesterol, cholesterol esters, triglycerides and phospholipids, to HDL were lower in bedridden patients, probably due to their lower HDL-cholesterol levels. Concentrations of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, HGF and NGF were higher in bedridden patients compared to sedentary subjects. In conclusion, inactivity had great impact on HDL, by lowering HDL-cholesterol, apolipoprotein A-I and thereby cholesterol transfers to the lipoprotein, which suggests that inactivity may deteriorate HDL protection beyond the ordinary sedentary condition.

  18. Inclusion of Almonds in a Cholesterol-Lowering Diet Improves Plasma HDL Subspecies and Cholesterol Efflux to Serum in Normal-Weight Individuals with Elevated LDL Cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryman, Claire E; Fleming, Jennifer A; Kris-Etherton, Penny M

    2017-08-01

    Background : Almonds may increase circulating HDL cholesterol when substituted for a high-carbohydrate snack in an isocaloric diet, yet little is known about the effects on HDL biology and function. Objective: The objective was to determine whether incorporating 43 g almonds/d in a cholesterol-lowering diet would improve HDL subspecies and function, which were secondary study outcomes. Methods: In a randomized, 2-period, crossover, controlled-feeding study, a diet with 43 g almonds/d (percentage of total energy: 51% carbohydrate, 16% protein, and 32% total and 8% saturated fat) was compared with a similar diet with an isocaloric muffin substitution (58% carbohydrate, 15% protein, and 26% total and 8% saturated fat) in men and women with elevated LDL cholesterol. Plasma HDL subspecies and cholesterol efflux from J774 macrophages to human serum were measured at baseline and after each diet period. Diet effects were examined in all participants ( n = 48) and in normal-weight (body mass index: almond diet, compared with the control diet, increased α-1 HDL [mean ± SEM: 26.7 ± 1.5 compared with 24.3 ± 1.3 mg apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I)/dL; P = 0.001]. In normal-weight participants, the almond diet, relative to the control diet, increased α-1 HDL (33.7 ± 3.2 compared with 28.4 ± 2.6 mg apoA-I/dL), the α-1 to pre-β-1 ratio [geometric mean (95% CI): 4.3 (3.3, 5.7) compared with 3.1 (2.4, 4.0)], and non-ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 cholesterol efflux (8.3% ± 0.4% compared with 7.8% ± 0.3%) and decreased pre-β-2 (3.8 ± 0.4 compared with 4.6 ± 0.4 mg apoA-I/dL) and α-3 (23.5 ± 0.9 compared with 26.9 ± 1.1 mg apoA-I/dL) HDL ( P almonds for a carbohydrate-rich snack within a lower-saturated-fat diet may be a simple strategy to maintain a favorable circulating HDL subpopulation distribution and improve cholesterol efflux in normal-weight individuals with elevated LDL cholesterol. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01101230. © 2017

  19. MooPoong (Gye Young Jeong) increases HDL-cholesterol but decreases LDL cholesterol and body-weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hwan-Suck; Hong, Seung-Heon; Do, Keum-Rok; Rhee, Hyung-Koo; Jung, Sung-Ki; Hwang, Woo-Jun; Kim, Hyung-Min

    2004-05-01

    MooPoong (MP, Gye Young Jeong), a Korean traditional wine, has been used as a prevention and treatment agent of blood circulatory trouble. To evaluate such an effect of MP, we analyzed whether the plasma levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and body weight change after rats were fed on high fat diet with MP for 8 weeks. Plasma LDL cholesterol level decreased by 5.6% in 0.128% MP treated group and by 11.1% in 0.640% MP treated group. However, HDL cholesterol was increased by 6.7% in 0.128% MP diet group and 33.3% in 0.640% MP diet group. In addition, there was a significant weight loss in the MP treated group compared with the high-fat diet group (P < 0.05). Our findings indicate that MP may contain compounds with actions which can treat blood circulatory trouble as well as overweight.

  20. Postpartum weight retention is associated with elevated ratio of oxidized LDL lipids to HDL-cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhkala, Jatta; Luoto, Riitta; Ahotupa, Markku; Raitanen, Jani; Vasankari, Tommi

    2013-12-01

    Oxidized LDL lipids (ox-LDL) are associated with lifestyle diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. The present study investigated how postpartum weight retention effects on ox-LDL and serum lipids. The study is a nested comparative research of a cluster-randomized controlled trial, NELLI (lifestyle and counselling during pregnancy). During early pregnancy (8-12 weeks) and 1 year postpartum, 141 women participated in measurements for determining of plasma lipids: total cholesterol (T-C), LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C), HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), triacylglycerols (TAG) and ox-LDL. Subjects were stratified into tertiles (weight loss, unaltered weight and weight gain groups) based on their weight change from baseline to follow-up. Ox-LDL was determined by baseline level of conjugated dienes in LDL lipids. Among the group of weight gainers, concentration of TAG reduced less (-0.14 vs. -0.33, p = 0.002), HDL-C reduced more (-0.31 vs. -0.16, p = 0.003) and ox-LDL/HDL-C ratio increased (3.0 vs. -0.2, p = 0.003) when compared to group of weight loss. Both T-C and LDL-C elevated more (0.14 vs. -0.21, p = 0.008; 0.31 vs. 0.07, p = 0.015) and TAG and ox-LDL reduced less (-0.33 vs. 0.20, p = 0.033; -3.33 vs. -0.68, p = 0.026) in unaltered weight group compared to weight loss group. The women who gained weight developed higher TAG and ox-LDL/HDL-C ratio as compared to those who lost weight. Postpartum weight retention of 3.4 kg or more is associated with atherogenic lipid profile.

  1. Flow-mediated vasodilation is not impaired when HDL-cholesterol is lowered by substituting carbohydrates for monounsaturated fat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Roos, NM; Bots, ML; Siebelink, E; Katan, MB

    Low-fat diets, in which carbohydrates replace some of the fat, decrease serum cholesterol. This decrease is due to decreases in LDL-cholesterol but in part to possibly harmful decreases in HDL-cholesterol. High-oil diets, in which oils rich in monounsaturated fat replace some of the saturated fat,

  2. Effect of cocoa and theobromine consumption on serum HDL-cholesterol concentrations: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neufingerl, Nicole; Zebregs, Yvonne E M P; Schuring, Ewoud A H; Trautwein, Elke A

    2013-06-01

    Evidence from clinical studies has suggested that cocoa may increase high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol concentrations. However, it is unclear whether this effect is attributable to flavonoids or theobromine, both of which are major cocoa components. We investigated whether pure theobromine increases serum HDL cholesterol and whether there is an interaction effect between theobromine and cocoa. The study had a 2-center, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, full factorial parallel design. After a 2-wk run-in period, 152 healthy men and women (aged 40-70 y) were randomly allocated to consume one 200-mL drink/d for 4 wk that contained 1) cocoa, which naturally provided 150 mg theobromine and 325 mg flavonoids [cocoa intervention (CC)], 2) 850 mg pure theobromine [theobromine intervention (TB)], 3) cocoa and added theobromine, which provided 1000 mg theobromine and 325 mg flavonoids [theobromine and cocoa intervention (TB+CC)], or 4) neither cocoa nor theobromine (placebo). Blood lipids and apolipoproteins were measured at the start and end of interventions. In a 2-factor analysis, there was a significant main effect of the TB (P cocoa and interaction effects suggested that theobromine may be the main ingredient responsible for the HDL cholesterol-raising effect. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01481389.

  3. The association of the triglyceride-to-HDL cholesterol ratio with insulin resistance in White European and South Asian men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafa, Samiul A; Davies, Melanie J; Morris, Danielle H; Yates, Tom; Srinivasan, Balasubramanian Thiagarajan; Webb, David; Brady, Emer; Khunti, Kamlesh

    2012-01-01

    There is recent interest surrounding the use of the triglyceride-to-HDL cholesterol ratio as a surrogate marker of insulin resistance in clinical practice, as it may identify people at high risk of developing diabetes or its complications. However, it has been suggested using this lipid ratio may not be appropriate for measuring insulin resistance in African-Americans, particularly women. We investigated if this inconsistency extended to South Asian women in a UK multi-ethnic cohort of White Europeans and South Asians. Cross-sectional analysis was done of 729 participants from the ADDITION-Leicester study from 2005 to 2009. The association between tertiles of triglyceride-to-HDL cholesterol ratio to fasting insulin, homeostatic model of assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA1-IR), quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI) and glucose: insulin ratio was examined with adjustment for confounding variables. Incremental tertiles of the triglyceride-to-HDL cholesterol ratio demonstrated a significant positive association with levels of fasting insulin, HOMA1-IR, glucose: insulin ratio and a negative association with QUICKI in White European men (n = 255) and women (n = 250) and South Asian men (n = 124) (all pAsian women (n = 100). A significant interaction was demonstrated between sex and triglyceride-to-HDL cholesterol ratio tertiles in South Asians only (pwomen, South Asian men and women respectively. The optimal cut-points for detecting insulin resistance were 0.9-1.7 in mmol/l (2.0-3.8 in mg/dl) for the triglyceride-to-HDL ratio. In South Asian women the triglyceride-to-HDL cholesterol ratio was not associated with insulin resistance; therefore there may be limitations in its use as a surrogate marker in this group.

  4. Overexpression and deletion of phospholipid transfer protein reduce HDL mass and cholesterol efflux capacity but not macrophage reverse cholesterol transport[S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwano, Takashi; Bi, Xin; Cipollari, Eleonora; Yasuda, Tomoyuki; Lagor, William R.; Szapary, Hannah J.; Tohyama, Junichiro; Millar, John S.; Billheimer, Jeffrey T.; Lyssenko, Nicholas N.; Rader, Daniel J.

    2017-01-01

    Phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) may affect macrophage reverse cholesterol transport (mRCT) through its role in the metabolism of HDL. Ex vivo cholesterol efflux capacity and in vivo mRCT were assessed in PLTP deletion and PLTP overexpression mice. PLTP deletion mice had reduced HDL mass and cholesterol efflux capacity, but unchanged in vivo mRCT. To directly compare the effects of PLTP overexpression and deletion on mRCT, human PLTP was overexpressed in the liver of wild-type animals using an adeno-associated viral (AAV) vector, and control and PLTP deletion animals were injected with AAV-null. PLTP overexpression and deletion reduced plasma HDL mass and cholesterol efflux capacity. Both substantially decreased ABCA1-independent cholesterol efflux, whereas ABCA1-dependent cholesterol efflux remained the same or increased, even though preβ HDL levels were lower. Neither PLTP overexpression nor deletion affected excretion of macrophage-derived radiocholesterol in the in vivo mRCT assay. The ex vivo and in vivo assays were modified to gauge the rate of cholesterol efflux from macrophages to plasma. PLTP activity did not affect this metric. Thus, deviations in PLTP activity from the wild-type level reduce HDL mass and ex vivo cholesterol efflux capacity, but not the rate of macrophage cholesterol efflux to plasma or in vivo mRCT. PMID:28137768

  5. Total HDL cholesterol efflux capacity in healthy children - Associations with adiposity and dietary intakes of mother and child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, H; Murrin, C; O'Reilly, M; Viljoen, K; Segurado, R; O'Brien, J; Somerville, R; McGillicuddy, F; Kelleher, C C

    2017-01-01

    High-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol efflux capacity in adults may be a measure of the atheroprotective property of HDL. Little however, is known about HDL cholesterol efflux capacity in childhood. We aimed to investigate the relationship between HDL cholesterol efflux capacity and childhood anthropometrics in a longitudinal study. Seventy-five children (mean age = 9.4 ± 0.4 years) were followed from birth until the age of 9 years. HDL cholesterol efflux capacity was determined at age 9 by incubating serum-derived HDL-supernatants with 3 H-cholesterol labeled J774 macrophages and percentage efflux determined. Mothers provided dietary information by completing food frequency questionnaires in early pregnancy and then 5 years later on behalf of themselves and their children. Pearson's correlations and multiple regression analyses were conducted to confirm independent associations with HDL efflux. There was a negative correlation between HDL cholesterol efflux capacity and waist circumference at age 5 (r = -0.3, p = 0.01) and age 9 (r = -0.24, p = 0.04) and BMI at age 5 (r = -0.45, p = 0.01) and age 9 (r = -0.19, p = 0.1). Multiple regression analysis showed that BMI at age 5 remained significantly associated with reduced HDL cholesterol efflux capacity (r = -0.45, p < 0.001). HDL-C was negatively correlated with energy-adjusted fat intake (r = -0.24, p = 0.04) and positively correlated with energy-adjusted protein (r = 0.24, p = 0.04) and starch (r = 0.29, p = 0.01) intakes during pregnancy. HDL-C was not significantly correlated with children dietary intake at age 5. There were no significant correlations between maternal or children dietary intake and HDL cholesterol efflux capacity. This novel analysis shows that efflux capacity is negatively associated with adiposity in early childhood independent of HDL-C. Copyright © 2016 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the

  6. Effect of Animal and Industrial Trans Fatty Acids on HDL and LDL Cholesterol Levels in Humans - A Quantitative Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, I.A.; Wanders, A.J.; Katan, M.B.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Trans fatty acids are produced either by industrial hydrogenation or by biohydrogenation in the rumens of cows and sheep. Industrial trans fatty acids lower HDL cholesterol, raise LDL cholesterol, and increase the risk of coronary heart disease. The effects of conjugated linoleic acid

  7. Effect of theobromine consumption on serum lipoprotein profiles in apparently healthy humans with low HDL-cholesterol concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, Doris M.; Smolders, Lotte; Lin, Yuguang; Roo, de Niels; Trautwein, Elke A.; Duynhoven, van John; Mensink, Ronald P.; Plat, Jogchum; Mihaleva, Velitchka V.

    2017-01-01

    Scope: Theobromine is a major active compound in cocoa with allegedly beneficial effect on high-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-CH). We have investigated the effect of theobromine (TB) consumption on the concentrations of triglyceride (TG) and cholesterol (CH) in various lipoprotein (LP)

  8. Mutations in the gene for lipoprotein lipase. A cause for low HDL cholesterol levels in individuals heterozygous for familial hypercholesterolemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pimstone, S. N.; Gagné, S. E.; Gagné, C.; Lupien, P. J.; Gaudet, D.; Williams, R. R.; Kotze, M.; Reymer, P. W.; Defesche, J. C.; Kastelein, J. J.

    1995-01-01

    Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is characterized by elevated plasma concentrations of LDL cholesterol resulting from mutations in the gene for the LDL receptor. Low HDL cholesterol levels are seen frequently in patients both heterozygous and homozygous for mutations in this gene. Suggested

  9. The Comparison of Gemfibrozil and Lovastatin Therapy in Patients with High LDL and Low HDL Cholesterol Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-08-01

    CLI ’T i-ITI2N 20. IM~IA~iN OF ASIRACTj OF REPORT OF TIIlS PAGF OF ARrsWiIlACT i The comparison of gemfibrozil and lovastatin therapy in patients...PRESENTATIONS/SEMINARS: Jun 1990 The comparison of gemfibrozil and lovastatin in a subpopulation of patients with high LDL and low HDL cholesterol levels...aggressive ndical treatment. 2 Gemfibrozil is known to increase HDL cholesterol, decrease VLDL cholesterol and triglycerides, as well as lower LDL

  10. Description of Discordance Between LDL Cholesterol, Non-HDL Cholesterol, and LDL Particle Number Among Patients of a Lipid Clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua W Gaborcik

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: While LDL cholesterol measures the cholesterol content within an LDL particle (LDL-P, it may not reflect LDL-P concentrations. If discordance exists, LDL-P may better predict cardiovascular events compared to LDL-C and non-HDL cholesterol (non-HDL-C. In primary prevention patients, discordance has been associated with diabetes, ethnicity, gender, metabolic syndrome, and smoking history. Objective: To describe discordance in patients of a lipid clinic by exploring associations between patient characteristics and discordance among LDL-C, non-HDL-C, or LDL-P. Secondarily to compare proportion of patients with baseline concordance versus discordance who have ASCVD events, diagnoses of new onset diabetes or death. Methods: A retrospective, single-center cohort study at a large academic medical center was conducted. Patients establishing care from January 2009 through December 2012 with complete initial labs were included. Logistic regression models were used to explore associations between discordance and patient characteristics. Results: Of 603 patients screened, the final cohort included 166 patients with 104 (62.7% discordant. LDL-P was the most common discordant value. Discordance was associated with gender, smoking status, use of lipid lowering medications, and achieving patient specific LDL-C goals. In terms of any event observed after initial measurements, no significant differences were detected between discordant and concordant groups. Conclusion: Within a lipid clinic population, discordance was associated with male gender, smoking status, lipid-lowering therapy, and being at patient specific LDL-C goal. While associations were found in our population, clinicians should consider measuring LDL-P to fully assess presence or extent of discordance. Conflict of Interest We declare no conflicts of interest or financial interests that the authors or members of their immediate families have in any product or service discussed in the

  11. Linseed oil increases HDL3 cholesterol and decreases blood pressure in patients diagnosed with mild hypercholesterolemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoczyńska, Anna H; Gluza, Ewa; Wojakowska, Anna; Turczyn, Barbara; Skoczyńska, Marta

    2018-04-24

    Linseed oil has cardio-protective effects. However, its antihypertensive action has not yet been well characterized. The primary purpose of the study was to evaluate the effect of short-term dietary supplementation with linseed oil on blood pressure (BP) and lipid metabolism in patients with mild hypercholesterolemia. The secondary aim was to evaluate the effect of linseed oil on nitric oxide pathway and selected serum trace metals. 150 volunteers: 43 men (49.9±11.5 years) and 107 women (53.2±10.3 years), diagnosed with mild hypercholesterolemia, were assessed prospectively for BP and lipids' levels, before and after lipid-lowering diet plus linseed oil supplementation at a dose of 15 ml daily for 4 weeks (study groups) or 4-weekly lipid-lowering diet (control group). The multivariate logistic regression analysis model was used to determine the effect of linseed oil on BP after adjustment for age, gender, height, body weight, BMI, smoking and alcohol consumption. The supplementation with linseed oil significantly decreased LDL- and non-HDL cholesterol, and increased HDL- and HDL₃- cholesterol levels. Additionally, linseed oil decreased diastolic BP in men (CI:-6.0;-1.1, poil reduced (poil consumption was associated with a decrease in mean BP (aOR 3.85, 95%CI 1.32-11.33). Our findings confirm the benefit of short-term linseed oil use in mild hypercholesterolemia, in particular in patients with increased blood pressure.

  12. HDL cholesterol response to GH replacement is associated with common cholesteryl ester transfer protein gene variation (-629C>A) and modified by glucocorticoid treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dullaart, Robin P. F.; van den Berg, Gerrit; van der Knaap, Aafke M.; Dijck-Brouwer, Janneke; Dallinga-Thie, Geesje M.; Zelissen, Peter M. J.; Sluiter, Wim J.; van Beek, André P.

    2010-01-01

    GH replacement lowers total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in GH-deficient adults, but effects on high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (HDL-C) are variable. Both GH and glucocorticoids decrease cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) activity, which is important

  13. Favorable effects of berry consumption on platelet function, blood pressure, and HDL cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlund, Iris; Koli, Raika; Alfthan, Georg; Marniemi, Jukka; Puukka, Pauli; Mustonen, Pirjo; Mattila, Pirjo; Jula, Antti

    2008-02-01

    Berries are a particularly rich source of polyphenols. They also contain other bioactive substances, such as vitamin C. Previous studies indicated that the consumption of polyphenol-rich foods (eg, cocoa, tea, and red wine) may induce beneficial changes in pathways related to cardiovascular health. Whether the consumption of berries has similar effects is unknown. We aimed to investigate the effects of berry consumption on hemostatic function, serum lipids, and blood pressure (BP). Middle-aged unmedicated subjects (n = 72) with cardiovascular risk factors consumed moderate amounts of berry or control products for 8 wk in a single-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled intervention trial. Berry consumption inhibited platelet function as measured with a platelet function analyzer (using collagen and ADP as platelet activator) [changes: 11% and -1.4% in the berry and control groups, respectively; P = 0.018, analysis of covariance (ANCOVA)]. Plasma biomarkers of platelet activation, coagulation, and fibrinolysis did not change during the intervention. Serum HDL-cholesterol concentrations increased significantly more (P = 0.006, ANCOVA) in the berry than in the control group (5.2% and 0.6%, respectively), but total cholesterol and triacylglycerol remained unchanged. Systolic BP decreased significantly (P = 0.050, ANCOVA); the decrease mostly occurred in subjects with high baseline BP (7.3 mm Hg in highest tertile; P = 0.024, ANCOVA). Polyphenol and vitamin C concentrations in plasma increased, whereas other nutritional biomarkers (ie, folate, tocopherols, sodium, and potassium) were unaffected. The consumption of moderate amounts of berries resulted in favorable changes in platelet function, HDL cholesterol, and BP. The results indicate that regular consumption of berries may play a role in the prevention of cardiovascular disease.

  14. Lp(a-cholesterol is associated with HDL-cholesterol in overweight and obese African American children and is not an independent risk factor for CVD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Sushma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The role of Lipoprotein (a cholesterol {Lp(a-C}as an additional and/or independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD is not clear. We evaluated the associations between Lp(a-C and other CVD risk factors including plasma lipoprotein concentrations and body fatness in overweight and obese African American children. Methods A cross-sectional analysis was carried out using data from a sample of 121 African American children aged 9-11 years with Body Mass Index (BMI's greater than the 85th percentile. Body height, weight and waist circumference (WC were measured. Fasting plasma concentrations of Lp(a-C, Total cholesterol (TC, High density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, Very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C, Intermediate density lipoprotein cholesterol (IDL-C, Low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, and Triacylglycerides (TAG were analyzed using the vertical auto profile (VAP cholesterol method. Results After adjusting for child age, gender, and pubertal status, Lp(a-C was positively associated with both HDL-C and TC, and negatively associated with VLDL-C and TAG. Including BMIz and WC as additional covariates did not alter the direction of the relationships between Lp(a-C and the other lipoproteins. Finally, after adjusting for the other plasma lipoproteins, Lp(a-C remained strongly associated with HDL-C, whereas the associations of Lp(a-C with the other lipoproteins were not significant when HDL-C was simultaneously included in the regression models. Conclusions Lp(a-C was positively associated with HDL-C and this association is not influenced by other lipoprotein subclasses or by the degree of obesity. We conclude that Lp(a cholesterol is not an independent risk factor for CVD in African American children.

  15. Very low levels of HDL cholesterol and atherosclerosis, a variable relationship – a review of LCAT deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savel J

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Julia Savel,1,2 Marianne Lafitte,1 Yann Pucheu,1,3 Vincent Pradeau,1 Antoine Tabarin,2,3 Thierry Couffinhal1,3,41Centre d'Exploration, de Prévention et de Traitement de l'Athérosclérose, Hôpital Cardiologique, 2Service d'endocrinologie, CHU Bordeaux, Université Bordeaux Segalen, Bordeaux, France; 3Université de Bordeaux Adaptation cardiovasculaire à l'ischémie, 4INSERM, Adaptation cardiovasculaire à l'ischémie, U1034, Pessac, FranceAbstract: A number of epidemiological and clinical studies have demonstrated that plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL level is a strong inverse predictor of cardiovascular events. HDL is believed to retard the formation of atherosclerotic lesions by removing excess cholesterol from cells and preventing endothelial dysfunction. Lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT plays a central role in the formation and maturation of HDL, and in the intravascular stage of reverse cholesterol transport: a major mechanism by which HDL modulates the development and progression of atherosclerosis. A defect in LCAT function would be expected to enhance atherosclerosis, by interfering with the reverse cholesterol transport step. As such, one would expect to find more atherosclerosis and cardiovascular events in LCAT-deficient patients. But this relationship is not always evident. In this review, we describe contradictory reports in the literature about cardiovascular risks in this patient population. We discuss the paradoxical finding of severe HDL deficiency and an absence of subclinical atherosclerosis in LCAT-deficient patients, which has been used to reject the hypothesis that HDL level is important in the protection against atherosclerosis. Furthermore, to illustrate this paradoxical finding, we present a case study of one patient, referred for evaluation of global cardiovascular risk in the presence of a low HDL cholesterol level, who was diagnosed with LCAT gene mutations.Keywords: atherosclerosis, LCAT function

  16. [Effect of healthy diet and physical activity on the level of non-HDL cholesterol in obese subjects without cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Móczár, Csaba

    2015-10-18

    Prevention program including lifestyle changes was initiated with the participation of obese and overweight subjects recruited from the practices of 29 family doctors. The aim of the author was to analyse changes of non-HDL-cholesterol levels, especially when triglyceride levels were above 2.26 mmol/l, and when non-HDL cholesterol levels were high in association with low HDL-cholesterol levels in overweight or obese subjects who had no cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus. Data obtained from 1192 subjects (424 men and 768 women) before and 12 month after inclusion into the prevention program was analysed. The average level of non-HDL-cholesterol in the whole group of subjects decreased from 4.74 to 4.64 mmol/l, but the change was not significant. However, the average concentration of non-HDL-cholesterol was reduced significantly from 4.87 to 4.4 mmol/l in men, whereas no significant change was detected in women. In cases when triglyceride levels were higher than 2.26 mmol/l, the non-HDL-cholesterol level was reduced by 0.65 mmol/l. In cases when the non-HDL-cholesterol level was high in association with low HDL-cholesterol level, the non-HDL-cholesterol was significantly decreased from 5.22 to 4.48 mmol/l. In addition, in cases when HDL-cholesterol levels were low, the average level of the HDL-cholesterol significantly increased from 0.84 to 1.3 mmol/l. Lifestyle changes decrease the level of atherogenic lipid fractions, particularly in men with high triglyceride levels. Improvement of the atherogenic lipid profile in response to lifestyle changes is related not only to the reduction of atherogenic lipid fractions, but also to the increase of HDL-cholesterol level.

  17. Atorvastatin treatment lowers fasting remnant-like particle cholesterol and LDL subfraction cholesterol without affecting LDL size in type 2 diabetes mellitus: Relevance for non-HDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein B guideline targets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kappelle, Paul J. W. H.; Dallinga-Thie, Geesje M.; Dullaart, Robin P. F.

    2010-01-01

    The extent to which atorvastatin treatment affects LDL size, LDL subfraction levels and remnant-like particle cholesterol (RLP-C) was determined in type 2 diabetes. We also compared LDL size and RLP-C in relation to guideline cut-off values for LDL cholesterol, non-HDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein

  18. Atorvastatin treatment lowers fasting remnant-like particle cholesterol and LDL subfraction cholesterol without affecting LDL size in type 2 diabetes mellitus : Relevance for non-HDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein B guideline targets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kappelle, Paul J.W.H.; Dallinga-Thie, Geesje M.; Dullaart, Robin P. F.

    The extent to which atorvastatin treatment affects LDL size, LDL subfraction levels and remnant-like particle cholesterol (RLP-C) was determined in type 2 diabetes. We also compared LDL size and RLP-C in relation to guideline cut-off values for LDL cholesterol, non-HDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein

  19. Treatment of HIV infection with a raltegravir-based regimen increases LDL levels, but improves HDL cholesterol efflux capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funderburg, Nicholas T; Xu, Dihua; Playford, Martin P; Joshi, Aditya A; Andrade, Adriana; Kuritzkes, Daniel R; Lederman, Michael M; Mehta, Nehal N

    2017-01-01

    Persons infected with HIV often have altered lipid profiles that may be affected by antiretroviral therapies (ART). Traditional lipid measurements may be insufficient to assess cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in this population. We report results from 39 ART-naive participants in a substudy of A5248, a single-arm study of raltegravir, emtricitabine/tenofovir administration. Samples were collected at baseline, 12, 24 and 48 weeks after ART initiation. We performed advanced lipid phenotyping using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (Liposcience, Raleigh, NC, USA) for lipid particle size and number, and examined high-density lipoprotein (HDL) function measuring reverse cholesterol transport using J774 macrophages. We report significant increases in total cholesterol (13 mg/dl; PLDL; 8 mg/dl; P=0.03), with no change in triglycerides and without an increase in LDL particle number (P>0.1 all time points). HDL levels were increased over baseline levels at all time points (PLDL (oxLDL) levels decreased by week 12, but rose subsequently, and were not different from baseline at later time points. HDL increases were associated with increases in beneficial HDL particles and HDL cholesterol efflux capacity, which may reduce future CVD events. Persistent inflammation in these HIV+ participants, may be a cause or consequence of oxLDL levels, and may contribute to declining levels of HDL over time. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00660972.

  20. Effect of Theobromine Consumption on Serum Lipoprotein Profiles in Apparently Healthy Humans with Low HDL-Cholesterol Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doris M. Jacobs

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Scope: Theobromine is a major active compound in cocoa with allegedly beneficial effect on high-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-CH. We have investigated the effect of theobromine (TB consumption on the concentrations of triglyceride (TG and cholesterol (CH in various lipoprotein (LP subclasses.Methods: In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study, 44 apparently healthy women and men (age: 60 ± 6 years, BMI: 29 ± 3 kg/m2 with low baseline HDL-CH concentrations consumed a drink supplemented with 500 mg/d theobromine for 4 weeks. TG and CH concentrations in 15 LP subclasses were predicted from diffusion-edited 1H NMR spectra of fasting serum.Results: The LP phenotype of the subjects was characterized by low CH concentrations in the large HDL particles and high TG concentrations in large VLDL and chylomicron (CM particles, which clearly differed from a LP phenotype of subjects with normal HDL-CH. TB only reduced CH concentrations in the LDL particles by 3.64 and 6.79%, but had no effect on TG and CH in any of the HDL, VLDL and CM subclasses.Conclusion: TB was not effective on HDL-CH in subjects with a LP phenotype characterized by low HDL-CH and high TG in VLDL.

  1. Effect of Theobromine Consumption on Serum Lipoprotein Profiles in Apparently Healthy Humans with Low HDL-Cholesterol Concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Doris M; Smolders, Lotte; Lin, Yuguang; de Roo, Niels; Trautwein, Elke A; van Duynhoven, John; Mensink, Ronald P; Plat, Jogchum; Mihaleva, Velitchka V

    2017-01-01

    Scope: Theobromine is a major active compound in cocoa with allegedly beneficial effect on high-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-CH). We have investigated the effect of theobromine (TB) consumption on the concentrations of triglyceride (TG) and cholesterol (CH) in various lipoprotein (LP) subclasses. Methods: In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study, 44 apparently healthy women and men (age: 60 ± 6 years, BMI: 29 ± 3 kg/m 2 ) with low baseline HDL-CH concentrations consumed a drink supplemented with 500 mg/d theobromine for 4 weeks. TG and CH concentrations in 15 LP subclasses were predicted from diffusion-edited 1 H NMR spectra of fasting serum. Results: The LP phenotype of the subjects was characterized by low CH concentrations in the large HDL particles and high TG concentrations in large VLDL and chylomicron (CM) particles, which clearly differed from a LP phenotype of subjects with normal HDL-CH. TB only reduced CH concentrations in the LDL particles by 3.64 and 6.79%, but had no effect on TG and CH in any of the HDL, VLDL and CM subclasses. Conclusion: TB was not effective on HDL-CH in subjects with a LP phenotype characterized by low HDL-CH and high TG in VLDL.

  2. Is non-HDL-cholesterol a better predictor of long-term outcome in patients after acute myocardial infarction compared to LDL-cholesterol? : a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongcharoen, Wanwarang; Sutthiwutthichai, Satjatham; Gunaparn, Siriluck; Phrommintikul, Arintaya

    2017-01-05

    It has recently been shown that non-high density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) may be a better predictor of cardiovascular risk than low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Based on known ethic differences in lipid parameters and cardiovascular risk prediction, we sought to study the predictability of attaining non-HDL-C target and long-term major adverse cardiovascular event (MACE) in Thai patients after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) compared to attaining LDL-C target. We retrospectively obtained the data of all patients who were admitted at Maharaj Nakorn Chiang Mai hospital due to AMI during 2006-2013. The mean non-HDL-C and LDL-C during long-term follow-up were used to predict MACE at each time point. The patients were classified as target attainment if non-HDL-C LDL-C LDL-C target and 21.2% experienced MACEs. LDL-C and non-HDL-C were directly compared in Cox regression model. Compared with non-HDL-C 130 mg/dl had higher incidence of MACEs (HR 3.15, 95% CI 1.46-6.80, P = 0.003). Surprisingly, LDL-C >100 mg/dl was associated with reduced risk of MACE as compared to LDL LDL-C goal was not associated with the higher risk. Therefore, non-HDL-C may be a more suitable target of dyslipidemia treatment than LDL-C in patients after AMI.

  3. HDL mimetic peptide CER-522 treatment regresses left ventricular diastolic dysfunction in cholesterol-fed rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlet, Nolwenn; Busseuil, David; Mihalache-Avram, Teodora; Mecteau, Melanie; Shi, Yanfen; Nachar, Walid; Brand, Genevieve; Brodeur, Mathieu R; Charpentier, Daniel; Rhainds, David; Sy, Gavin; Schwendeman, Anna; Lalwani, Narendra; Dasseux, Jean-Louis; Rhéaume, Eric; Tardif, Jean-Claude

    2016-07-15

    High-density lipoprotein (HDL) infusions induce rapid improvement of experimental atherosclerosis in rabbits but their effect on ventricular function remains unknown. We aimed to evaluate the effects of the HDL mimetic peptide CER-522 on left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD). Rabbits were fed with a cholesterol- and vitamin D2-enriched diet until mild aortic valve stenosis and hypercholesterolemia-induced LV hypertrophy and LVDD developed. Animals then received saline or 10 or 30mg/kg CER-522 infusions 6 times over 2weeks. We performed serial echocardiograms and LV histology to evaluate the effects of CER-522 therapy on LVDD. LVDD was reduced by CER-522 as shown by multiple parameters including early filling mitral deceleration time, deceleration rate, Em/Am ratio, E/Em ratio, pulmonary venous velocities, and LVDD score. These findings were associated with reduced macrophages (RAM-11 positive cells) in the pericoronary area and LV, and decreased levels of apoptotic cardiomyocytes in CER-522-treated rabbits. CER-522 treatment also resulted in decreased atheromatous plaques and internal elastic lamina area in coronary arteries. CER-522 improves LVDD in rabbits, with reductions of LV macrophage accumulation, cardiomyocyte apoptosis, coronary atherosclerosis and remodelling. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Novel natural food colourant G8000 benefits LDL- and HDL-cholesterol in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peres, Rogerio Correa; Gollücke, Andrea Pitelli Boiago; Soares, Clayton; Machado, Patricia; Viveiros Filho, Vitor; Rocha, Silvana; Morais, Damila Rodrigues; Bataglion, Giovana Anceski; Eberlin, Marcos Nogueira; Ribeiro, Daniel Araki

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the phenolic composition of a natural food colourant (G8000™) as well as its effects on plasma markers after 28-day consumption by healthy individuals at a dietary dose (70 g). Parameters of total cholesterol and its fractions, triglycerides and plasma enzymes biomarkers of muscle injury were measured. Major compounds identified in G8000™ by ESI-MS showed the presence of anthocyanins, organic acids, phenolic acids as well as monosaccharides. HDL levels significantly increased from 43 ± 10.2 mg/dL to 95 ± 16.9 mg/dL. LDL levels significantly decreased from 110 ± 40.9 mg/dL to 69 ± 39 mg/dL (p  0.05) were observed for total cholesterol, triglycerides and VLDL. After the intake, plasma enzyme CK-MB decreased from 20 ± 12.1 U/L to 10 ± 1.9 U/L while LDH levels increased from 275 ± 124.4 U/L to 317 ± 114.7 U/L (p natural colourant G8000™ was able to exert beneficial effects on atherosclerosis biomarkers.

  5. Total and HDL cholesterol and risk of stroke. EUROSTROKE: a collaborative study among research centres in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.L. Bots (Michiel); D.E. Grobbee (Diederick); P.C. Elwood; Y. Nikitin; J.T. Salonen; A. Freire de Concalves; D. Inzitari; J. Sivenius; V. Benetou (Vassiliki); J. Tuomilehto; P.J. Koudstaal (Peter Jan)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: Controversy remains on the relation between serum lipids levels and stroke risk. This paper investigated the association of total and HDL cholesterol level to fatal and non-fatal, and haemorrhagic and ischaemic stroke in four European cohorts participating

  6. Increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in mice with XX versus XY sex chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, Jenny C; Chen, Xuqi; Prien, Christopher; Borja, Mark S; Hammerson, Bradley; Oda, Michael N; Arnold, Arthur P; Reue, Karen

    2015-08-01

    The molecular mechanisms underlying sex differences in dyslipidemia are poorly understood. We aimed to distinguish genetic and hormonal regulators of sex differences in plasma lipid levels. We assessed the role of gonadal hormones and sex chromosome complement on lipid levels using the four core genotypes mouse model (XX females, XX males, XY females, and XY males). In gonadally intact mice fed a chow diet, lipid levels were influenced by both male-female gonadal sex and XX-XY chromosome complement. Gonadectomy of adult mice revealed that the male-female differences are dependent on acute effects of gonadal hormones. In both intact and gonadectomized animals, XX mice had higher HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) levels than XY mice, regardless of male-female sex. Feeding a cholesterol-enriched diet produced distinct patterns of sex differences in lipid levels compared with a chow diet, revealing the interaction of gonadal and chromosomal sex with diet. Notably, under all dietary and gonadal conditions, HDL-C levels were higher in mice with 2 X chromosomes compared with mice with an X and Y chromosome. By generating mice with XX, XY, and XXY chromosome complements, we determined that the presence of 2 X chromosomes, and not the absence of the Y chromosome, influences HDL-C concentration. We demonstrate that having 2 X chromosomes versus an X and Y chromosome complement drives sex differences in HDL-C. It is conceivable that increased expression of genes escaping X-inactivation in XX mice regulates downstream processes to establish sexual dimorphism in plasma lipid levels. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  7. Comparison of non-HDL-cholesterol versus triglycerides-to-HDL-cholesterol ratio in relation to cardiometabolic risk factors and preclinical organ damage in overweight/obese children: the CARITALY study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Bonito, P; Valerio, G; Grugni, G; Licenziati, M R; Maffeis, C; Manco, M; Miraglia del Giudice, E; Pacifico, L; Pellegrin, M C; Tomat, M; Baroni, M G

    2015-05-01

    Lipid ratios to estimate atherosclerotic disease risk in overweight/obese children are receiving great attention. We aimed to compare the performance of non-high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) versus triglycerides-to-HDL-C ratio (Tg/HDL-C) in identifying cardiometabolic risk factors (CMRFs) or preclinical signs of organ damage in outpatient Italian overweight/obese children. In this retrospective, cross-sectional study, 5505 children (age 5-18 years) were recruited from 10 Italian centers for the care of obesity, of which 4417 (78%) showed obesity or morbid obesity. Anthropometric, biochemical, and blood pressure variables were analyzed in all children. Liver ultrasound scan, carotid artery ultrasound, and echocardiography were performed in 1257, 601, and 252 children, respectively. The entire cohort was divided based on the 75th percentile of non-HDL-C (≥130 mg/dl) or Tg/HDL-C ratio (≥2.2). The odds ratio for insulin resistance, high blood pressure, metabolic syndrome, presence of liver steatosis, increased levels of carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) and concentric left ventricular hypertrophy (cLVH) was higher in children with high levels of Tg/HDL-C with respect to children with high levels of non-HDL-C. In an outpatient setting of overweight/obese children, Tg/HDL-C ratio discriminated better than non-HDL-C children with CMRFs or preclinical signs of liver steatosis, and increased cIMT and cLVH. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Plasma HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides, but not LDL-cholesterol, are associated with insulin secretion in non-diabetic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natali, Andrea; Baldi, Simona; Bonnet, Fabrice; Petrie, John; Trifirò, Silvia; Tricò, Domenico; Mari, Andrea

    2017-04-01

    Experimental data support the notion that lipoproteins might directly affect beta cell function, however clinical data are sparse and inconsistent. We aimed at verifying whether, independently of major confounders, serum lipids are associated with alterations in insulin secretion or clearance non-diabetic subjects. Cross sectional and observational prospective (3.5yrs), multicentre study in which 1016 non-diabetic volunteers aged 30-60yrs. and with a wide range of BMI (20.0-39.9kg/m 2 ) were recruited in a setting of University hospital ambulatory care (RISC study). baseline fasting lipids, fasting and OGTT-induced insulin secretion and clearance (measured by glucose and C-peptide modeling), peripheral insulin sensitivity (by the euglycemic clamp). Lipids and OGTT were repeated in 980 subjects after 3.5years. LDL-cholesterol did not show independent associations with fasting or stimulated insulin secretion or clearance. After accounting for potential confounders, HDL-cholesterol displayed negative and triglycerides positive independent associations with fasting and OGTT insulin secretion; neither with insulin clearance. Low HDL-cholesterol and high triglycerides were associated with an increase in glucose-dependent and a decrease in non-glucose-dependent insulin secretion. Over 3.5years both an HDL-cholesterol decline and a triglycerides rise were associated with an increase in fasting insulin secretion independent of changes in body weight or plasma glucose. LDL-cholesterol does not seem to influence any major determinant of insulin bioavailability while low HDL-cholesterol and high triglycerides might contribute to sustain the abnormalities in insulin secretion that characterize the pre-diabetic state. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Ten years cardiovascular risk estimation according to Framingham score and non HDL-cholesterol in blood donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graffigna, Mabel Nora; Berg, Gabriela; Migliano, Marta; Salgado, Pablo; Soutelo, Jimena; Musso, Carla

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is currently the primary cause of morbidity and mortality. (1) Assess the 10 years risk for CVD in Argentinean blood donors, according to Framingham score (updated by ATP III), (2) evaluate the prevalence of the MS, (3) evaluate non HDL-cholesterol level in this population as other risk for CVD. A prospective, epidemiological, transversal study was performed to evaluate 585 volunteer blood donors for two years. Non HDL-C was calculated as total cholesterol minus HDL-C and we evaluated the 10 years risk for CVD according to Framingham score (updated by ATP III). Metabolic syndrome prevalence was estimated according to ATP III and IDF criteria. Non HDL-C was (media±SD) 178.3±48.0 mg/dl in participants with MS and 143.7±39.3 mg/dl without MS (ATPIII) and 160.1±43.6 mg/dl in participants with MS and 139.8±43.1 mg/dl without MS (IDF). Participants with MS presented an OR of 3.1; IC 95% (2-5) of CVD according to de Framingham score. Individuals with MS and elevated non HDL-C are at a higher estimated risk for cardiovascular events in the next 10 years according to the Framingham risk score. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Increased serum triglycerides and reduced HDL cholesterol in male rats after intake of ammonium chloride for 3 weeks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous data suggested that intake of sodas and other acid beverages might be associated with increased levels of serum triglycerides, lowered HDL cholesterol, and increased formation of mono unsaturated fatty acids, which are the preferred ones for triglyceride synthesis. The present work is an extension of these studies. Methods Thirty male rats were divided into 3 groups. All groups were given the same food, but various beverages: water (W), ammonium chloride, 200 mmol/L (AC), or sodium bicarbonate, 200 mmol/L (SB). Serum triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, and the fatty acid distribution in total serum lipids were determined. Delta9-desaturase in serum lipids was estimated by the ratio of palmitoleic to palmitic acid, and by the oleic/stearic acid ratio. Correlation and ANOVA were used to study associations and group differences. Results After 3 weeks, the AC group had higher triglyceride concentration and higher Delta9 desaturase indexes, but lower serum HDL and body weight as compared with the SB and W groups. In each of the groups, the oleic acid/stearic acid ratio correlated positively with serum triglycerides; in the pooled group the correlation coefficient was r = 0.963, ptriglycerides, and lowered HDL cholesterol concentration, thereby possibly contributing to explain the increased triglyceride concentration previously observed in subjects with a frequent intake of acid beverages, such as sodas containing carbonic acid, citric acid, and phosphoric acid. PMID:23800210

  11. Effect of VCO and olive oil on HDL, LDL, and cholesterol level of hyperglycemic Rattus Rattus Norvegicus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusuf Wachidah Yuiwarti, Enny; Rini Saraswati, Tyas; Kusdiyantini, Endang

    2018-05-01

    Virgin coconut oil (VCO) and olive oil are edible oil containing an antioxidant that can prevent free radicals in Rattus rattus norvegicus hypoglycemic due to the damage of pancreatic beta cell after alloxan injection. Virgin coconut oil and olive oil are fatty acids when being consumed will affect lipid metabolism particularly HDL, LDL and cholesterol in serum. This research aims to determine the effect of VCO and Olive oil on cholesterol levels in hyperglycemic rats. Research materials were twenty male Rattus rattus norvegicus. Randomized Factorial Design was used in four treatment groups including P1(control), P2 (mice injected with alloxan), P3 (mice injected with alloxan plus 0.1 ml/BW of each VCO and vitamin E) and P4 (mice injected with alloxan plus 0.1 ml/BW of each olive oil and vitamin E. Each treatment was replicated 5 times. Feed and water were provided adlibitum for four weeks. The result showed that there was no significant difference in the level of HDL serum across the treatments, but P4 had a significantly higher LDL than the other treatments. Moreover, total cholesterol was significantly increased in P4 compared to the other groups. It can be concluded that olive oil could increase the level of cholesterol and LDL in serum, while VCO did not increase the level of cholesterol and LDL so VCO more potential to maintain cholesterol in hyperglycemic Rattus rattus norvegicus.

  12. Use of the triglyceride to HDL cholesterol ratio for assessing insulin sensitivity in overweight and obese children in rural Appalachia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, Kristie Grove; Jarrett, Traci; Thorpe, Anthony; Baus, Adam; Cochran, Jill

    2015-01-01

    Background Studies have suggested that triglyceride to HDL-cholesterol ratio (TRG/HDL) is a surrogate marker of insulin resistance (IR), but information regarding its use in pediatric patients is limited. Objective This study investigated the ability of TRG/HDL ratio to assess IR in obese and overweight children. Subjects The sample consisted of de-identified electronic medical records of patients aged 10–17 years (n = 223). Materials and methods Logistic regression was performed using TRG/HDL ratio as a predictor of hyperinsulinemia or IR defined using homeostasis model assessment score. Results TRG/HDL ratio had limited ability to predict hyperinsulinemia (AUROC 0.71) or IR (AUROC 0.72). Although females had higher insulin levels, male patients were significantly more likely to have hypertriglyceridemia and impaired fasting glucose. Conclusions TRG/HDL ratio was not adequate for predicting IR in this population. Gender differences in the development of obesity-related metabolic abnormalities may impact the choice of screening studies in pediatric patients. PMID:26352085

  13. Saturated Fats from Butter but Not from Cheese Increase HDL-Mediated Cholesterol Efflux Capacity from J774 Macrophages in Men and Women with Abdominal Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brassard, Didier; Arsenault, Benoît J; Boyer, Marjorie; Bernic, Daniela; Tessier-Grenier, Maude; Talbot, Denis; Tremblay, Angelo; Levy, Emile; Asztalos, Bela; Jones, Peter J H; Couture, Patrick; Lamarche, Benoît

    2018-04-01

    Recent evidence suggests that the association between dietary saturated fatty acids (SFAs) and coronary artery disease risk varies according to food sources. How SFAs from butter and cheese influence HDL-mediated cholesterol efflux capacity (CEC), a key process in reverse cholesterol transport, is currently unknown. In a predefined secondary analysis of a previously published trial, we have examined how diets rich in SFAs from either cheese or butter influence HDL-mediated CEC, compared with diets rich in either monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) or polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). In a randomized crossover controlled consumption trial, 46 men and women with abdominal obesity consumed 5 isocaloric diets, each for 4 wk. Two diets were rich in SFAs either from cheese (CHEESE) or butter (BUTTER) [12.4-12.6% of energy (%E) as SFAs, 32%E as fat, 52%E as carbohydrates]. In 2 other diets, SFAs (5.8%E) were replaced with either MUFAs from refined olive oil (MUFA) or PUFAs from corn oil (PUFA). Finally, a lower fat and carbohydrate diet was used as a control (5.8%E as SFAs, 25.0%E as fat, 59%E as carbohydrates; CHO). Post-diet HDL-mediated CEC was determined ex vivo using radiolabelled J774 macrophages incubated with apolipoprotein B-depleted serum from the participants. Mean (±SD) age was 41.4 ± 14.2 y, and waist circumference was 107.6 ± 11.5 cm in men and 94.3 ± 12.4 cm in women. BUTTER and MUFA increased HDL-mediated CEC compared with CHEESE (+4.3%, P = 0.026 and +4.7%, P = 0.031, respectively). Exploring the significant diet × sex interaction (P = 0.044) revealed that the increase in HDL-mediated CEC after BUTTER compared with CHEESE was significant among men (+6.0%, P = 0.047) but not women (+2.9%, P = 0.19), whereas the increase after MUFA compared with CHEESE was significant among women (+9.1%, P = 0.008) but not men (-0.6%, P = 0.99). These results provide evidence of a food matrix effect modulating the impact of dairy SFAs on HDL

  14. Total physical activity might not be a good measure in the relationship with HDL cholesterol and triglycerides in a multi-ethnic population: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Evidence suggests that physical activity (PA) has a beneficial effect on high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) and triglycerides. However, observational studies show contrasting results for this association between different ethnic groups. It is unclear whether this is due to differences in the PA composition. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship of the total PA, along with its intensity and duration, with HDL and triglycerides in a multi-ethnic population. Methods The study population was sampled from the SUNSET study and included: 502 European- Dutch, 338 Hindustani-Surinamese, and 596 African-Surinamese participants living in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. We assessed PA with the SQUASH questionnaire. We calculated age-sex-adjusted betas, geometric mean ratios (GMRs), and prevalence ratios (PRs) to assess the relationship of PA with HDL and triglycerides. Results In the adjusted models, the highest total PA tertile compared to the lowest tertile was beneficially associated with HDL (beta: 0.08, 95% CI: 0.00, 0.16 and PR low HDL 0.59, 95% CI: 0.39, 0.88) and triglycerides (GMR: 0.93, 95% CI: 0.83, 1.03 and PR: 0.56, 95% CI: 0.29, 1.08) for the African-Surinamese. No statistically significant associations appeared for total PA among the European-Dutch and Hindustani-Surinamese. The adjusted models with the intensity score and HDL showed beneficial associations for the European-Dutch (beta: 0.06, 95% CI: 0.03, 0.10) and African-Surinamese (beta: 0.06, 0.02, 0.10), for log triglycerides for the European-Dutch (beta: -0.08, 95% CI: -0.12, 0.03), Hindustani-Surinamese (beta: -0.06, 95% CI: -0.16, 0.03), and African-Surinamese (beta: -0.04, 95% CI: -0.10, 0.01). Excepting HDL in African-Surinamese, the duration score was unrelated to HDL and triglycerides in any group. Conclusions Activity intensity related beneficially to blood lipids in almost every ethnic group. The activity duration was unrelated to blood lipids, while the total PA

  15. Total physical activity might not be a good measure in the relationship with HDL cholesterol and triglycerides in a multi-ethnic population: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Munter Jeroen SL

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence suggests that physical activity (PA has a beneficial effect on high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL and triglycerides. However, observational studies show contrasting results for this association between different ethnic groups. It is unclear whether this is due to differences in the PA composition. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship of the total PA, along with its intensity and duration, with HDL and triglycerides in a multi-ethnic population. Methods The study population was sampled from the SUNSET study and included: 502 European- Dutch, 338 Hindustani-Surinamese, and 596 African-Surinamese participants living in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. We assessed PA with the SQUASH questionnaire. We calculated age-sex-adjusted betas, geometric mean ratios (GMRs, and prevalence ratios (PRs to assess the relationship of PA with HDL and triglycerides. Results In the adjusted models, the highest total PA tertile compared to the lowest tertile was beneficially associated with HDL (beta: 0.08, 95% CI: 0.00, 0.16 and PR low HDL 0.59, 95% CI: 0.39, 0.88 and triglycerides (GMR: 0.93, 95% CI: 0.83, 1.03 and PR: 0.56, 95% CI: 0.29, 1.08 for the African-Surinamese. No statistically significant associations appeared for total PA among the European-Dutch and Hindustani-Surinamese. The adjusted models with the intensity score and HDL showed beneficial associations for the European-Dutch (beta: 0.06, 95% CI: 0.03, 0.10 and African-Surinamese (beta: 0.06, 0.02, 0.10, for log triglycerides for the European-Dutch (beta: -0.08, 95% CI: -0.12, 0.03, Hindustani-Surinamese (beta: -0.06, 95% CI: -0.16, 0.03, and African-Surinamese (beta: -0.04, 95% CI: -0.10, 0.01. Excepting HDL in African-Surinamese, the duration score was unrelated to HDL and triglycerides in any group. Conclusions Activity intensity related beneficially to blood lipids in almost every ethnic group. The activity duration was unrelated to blood lipids, while

  16. HDL cholesterol, LDL receptor activity and response to dietary cholesterol *1 A reply to the letter of Cortese, Miller, Marenah and Lewis [2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beynen, A.C.; Katan, M.B.

    1984-01-01

    Variation in the concentration of cholesterol in blood plasma is partly accounted for by differences in diet, age, sex and genetic constitution. No correlation between plasma low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol concentration and the activity of the LDL receptor in white blood cells could be

  17. Sex Differences in the Hepatic Cholesterol Sensing Mechanisms in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingemar Björkhem

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Cholesterol is linked to many multifactorial disorders, including different forms of liver disease where development and severity depend on the sex. We performed a detailed analysis of cholesterol and bile acid synthesis pathways at the level of genes and metabolites combined with the expression studies of hepatic cholesterol uptake and transport in female and male mice fed with a high-fat diet with or without cholesterol. Lack of dietary cholesterol led to a stronger response of the sterol sensing mechanism in females, resulting in higher expression of cholesterogenic genes compared to males. With cholesterol in the diet, the genes were down-regulated in both sexes; however, males maintained a more efficient hepatic metabolic flux through the pathway. Females had higher content of hepatic cholesterol but this was likely not due to diminished excretion but rather due to increased synthesis and absorption. Dietary cholesterol and sex were not important for gallbladder bile acids composition. Neither sex up-regulated Cyp7a1 upon cholesterol loading and there was no compensatory up-regulation of Abcg5 or Abcg8 transporters. On the other hand, females had higher expression of the Ldlr and Cd36 genes. These findings explain sexual dimorphism of cholesterol metabolism in response to dietary cholesterol in a high-fat diet in mice, which contributes to understanding the sex-basis of cholesterol-associated liver diseases.

  18. Genetic variation in ABC transporter A1 contributes to HDL cholesterol in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frikke-Schmidt, Ruth; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Jensen, Gorm B

    2004-01-01

    on lipid traits in 9,259 individuals from the general population. Heterozygosity for ABCA1 mutations was identified in 10% of individuals with low HDL-C only. Three of 6 nonsynonymous SNPs (V771M, V825I, and R1587K) were associated with increases or decreases in HDL-C in women in the general population...

  19. Alpinumisoflavone and abyssinone V 4'-methylether derived from Erythrina lysistemon (Fabaceae) promote HDL-cholesterol synthesis and prevent cholesterol gallstone formation in ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mvondo, Marie A; Njamen, Dieudonné; Kretzschmar, Georg; Imma Bader, Manuela; Tanee Fomum, Stephen; Wandji, Jean; Vollmer, Günter

    2015-07-01

    Erythrina lysistemon was found to improve lipid profile in ovariectomized rats. Alpinumisoflavone (AIF) and abyssinone V 4'-methylether (AME) derived from this plant induced analogous effects on lipid profile and decreased atherogenic risks. To highlight the molecular mechanism of action of these natural products, we evaluated their effects on the expression of some estrogen-sensitive genes associated with cholesterol synthesis (Esr1 and Apoa1) and cholesterol clearance (Ldlr, Scarb1 and Cyp7a1). Ovariectomized rats were subcutaneously treated for three consecutive days with either compound at the daily dose of 0.1, 1 and 10 mg/kg body weight (BW). Animals were sacrificed thereafter and their liver was collected. The mRNA of genes of interest was analysed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Both compounds downregulated the mRNA expression of Esr1, a gene associated with cholesterogenesis and cholesterol gallstone formation. AME leaned the Apoa1/Scarb1 balance in favour of Apoa1, an effect promoting high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol formation. It also upregulated the mRNA expression of Ldlr at 1 mg/kg/BW per day (25%) and 10 mg/kg/BW per day (133.17%), an effect favouring the clearance of low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol. Both compounds may also promote the conversion of cholesterol into bile acids as they upregulated Cyp7a1 mRNA expression. AIF and AME atheroprotective effects may result from their ability to upregulate mechanisms promoting HDL-cholesterol and bile acid formation. © 2015 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  20. Australian Aboriginal people and Torres Strait Islanders have an atherogenic lipid profile that is characterised by low HDL-cholesterol level and small LDL particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neal, D N; Piers, L S; Iser, D M; Rowley, K G; Jenkins, A J; Best, J D; O'Dea, K

    2008-12-01

    To characterise lipid profiles for Australian Aboriginal people and Torres Strait Islanders. Community-based, cross-sectional surveys in 1995-1997 including: 407 female and 322 male Australian Aboriginal people and 207 female and 186 male Torres Strait Islanders over 15 years old. A comparator of 78 female (44 with diabetes) and 148 male (73 with diabetes) non-indigenous participants recruited to clinical epidemiological studies was used. Lipids were determined by standard assays and LDL diameter by gradient gel electrophoresis. Diabetes prevalence was 14.8% and 22.6% among Aboriginal people and Torres Strait Islanders, respectively. LDL size (mean [95% CI (confidence interval)]) was smaller (P<0.05) in non-diabetic Aboriginal (26.02 [25.96-26.07] nm) and Torres Strait Islander women (26.01 [25.92-26.09] nm) than in non-diabetic non-indigenous women (26.29 [26.13-26.44] nm). LDL size correlated (P<0.0005) inversely with triglyceride, WHR, and fasting insulin and positively with HDL-cholesterol. HDL-cholesterol (mean [95% CI] mmol/L) was lower (P<0.0005) in indigenous Australians than in non-indigenous subjects, independent of age, sex, diabetes, WHR, insulin, triglyceride, and LDL size: Aboriginal (non-diabetic women, 0.86 [0.84-0.88]; diabetic women, 0.76 [0.72-0.80]; non-diabetic men, 0.79 [0.76-0.81]; diabetic men, 0.76 [0.71-0.82]); Torres Strait Islander (non-diabetic women, 1.00 [0.95-1.04]; diabetic women, 0.89 [0.83-0.96]; non-diabetic men, 1.00 [0.95-1.04]; diabetic men, 0.87 [0.79-0.96]); non-indigenous (non-diabetic women, 1.49 [1.33-1.67]; diabetic women, 1.12 [1.03-1.21]; non-diabetic men, 1.18 [1.11-1.25]; diabetic men, 1.05 [0.98-1.12]). Indigenous Australians have a dyslipidaemia which includes small LDL and very low HDL-cholesterol levels. The dyslipidaemia was equally severe in both genders. Strategies aimed at increasing HDL-cholesterol and LDL size may reduce high CVD risk for indigenous populations.

  1. HDL-cholesterol and physical performance: results from the ageing and longevity study in the sirente geographic area (ilSIRENTE Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landi, Francesco; Russo, Andrea; Cesari, Matteo; Pahor, Marco; Bernabei, Roberto; Onder, Graziano

    2007-09-01

    High-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol has been hypothesised to be a reliable marker of frailty and poor prognosis among the oldest elderly. We evaluate the relationship of HDL-cholesterol with measures of physical performance, muscle strength, and functional status in older persons aged 80years or older. Data are from baseline evaluation of the ageing and longevity study in the Sirente geographic area (ilSIRENTE study) (n = 364). Physical performance was assessed using the physical performance battery score [short physical performance battery (SPPB)], which is based on three-timed tests: 4-m walking-speed, balance, and chair-stand tests. Muscle strength was measured by hand-grip strength. Analyses of covariance were performed to evaluate the relationship of different HDL-cholesterol levels with physical function. In the unadjusted analyses, physical function (as measured by the 4-m walking-speed, theSPPB score, the basic and instrumental activities of daily living scales scores), but not hand-grip strength, improved significantly as HDL-cholesterol tertiles increased. After adjustment for potential confounders, which included age, gender, living alone, alcohol abuse, physical activity, congestive heart failure, diabetes, cerebrovascular diseases, osteoarthritis, albumin, urea, C-reactive protein and LDL cholesterol, the association of HDL-cholesterol tertiles with the 4-m walking-speed and the SPPB score was still consistent. The present study suggests that among very old subjects living in the community the higher levels of HDL-cholesterol are associated with better functional performance.

  2. The association between adiponectin, HDL-cholesterol and α1-antitrypsin-LDL in female subjects without metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotani, Kazuhiko; Yamada, Toshiyuki; Taniguchi, Nobuyuki

    2010-12-30

    Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL) may act as an atheroprotective (anti-atherosclerotic) agent under some conditions. While the α1-antitrypsin (AT)-LDL complex is considered a type of oxidized LDL, its clinical relevance remains unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between AT-LDL and anti-atherosclerotic variables such as HDL-cholesterol and adiponectin in subjects with and without metabolic syndrome (MetS). In asymptomatic females (n = 194; mean age, 54 years) who were divided into non-MetS (n = 108) and MetS groups (n = 86), the fasting levels of serum AT-LDL, adiponectin and glucose/lipid panels were measured, in addition to body mass index (BMI) and blood pressure. The MetS group showed significantly higher BMI, blood pressure, glucose and triglyceride levels as well as significantly lower levels of HDL-cholesterol and adiponectin than the non-MetS group. A multivariate-adjusted analysis revealed that in the non-MetS group, AT-LDL was significantly, independently and positively correlated with adiponectin (β = 0.297, P cholesterol (β = 0.217, P LDL was significantly, independently and positively correlated with LDL-cholesterol only (β = 0.342, P LDL may exert anti-atherosclerotic effects in female subjects without MetS. More studies are required to clarify the clinical roles of AT-LDL in relation to the pathophysiology of MetS.

  3. Total, LDL, and HDL cholesterol decrease with age in older men and women. The Rancho Bernardo Study 1984-1994.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, A; Barrett-Connor, E; Shan, J

    1997-07-01

    The purpose of the present study was to study the effects of age, weight change, and covariates on lipid and lipoprotein levels cross-sectionally and prospectively in an elderly population. A community-based sample of 1041 men and 1303 women aged 50 to 93 years was studied cross-sectionally in 1984 to 1987, with follow-up of 372 men and 545 women 8 years later. In the cross-sectional study, levels of total cholesterol (TC) and LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) decreased and levels of HDL cholesterol (HDLC) increased with age in men (all P or = 75 years) and in all weight change groups (> 2.5-kg loss, change within 2.5 kg, and > 2.5-kg gain) and in all waist girth change groups, for an overall decrement of approximately 1% per year. In multiple linear regression models, change in weight was the most important independent and consistent predictor of changes in TC, LDL-C, and HDL-C. Similar results were obtained in analyses excluding subjects taking lipid-lowering drugs or estrogen and in analyses adjusted for changes in cigarette smoking, alcohol intake, physical activity, medication use, and incident myocardial infarction, cancer, or diabetes. Cross-sectional decrements in TC and LDL-C with age in men are not explained by survivor bias because they are also observed prospectively. Although weight change was the most important explanatory variable, TC, LDL-C, and HDL-C levels also decreased in those who lost or gained weight. Age was not an independent predictor of change. Other prospective studies are recommended to better define the causes and consequences of cholesterol and lipoprotein changes in old age.

  4. Triglycerides-to-HDL cholesterol ratio as screening tool for impaired glucose tolerance in obese children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manco, Melania; Grugni, Graziano; Di Pietro, Mario; Balsamo, Antonio; Di Candia, Stefania; Morino, Giuseppe Stefano; Franzese, Adriana; Di Bonito, Procolo; Maffeis, Claudio; Valerio, Giuliana

    2016-06-01

    To identify metabolic phenotypes at increased risk of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) in Italian overweight/obese children (n = 148, age 5-10 years) and adolescents (n = 531, age 10-17.9 year). Phenotypes were defined as follows: obesity by the 95th cut-points of the Center for Disease Control body mass index reference standards, impaired fasting glucose (fasting plasma glucose ≥100 mg/dl), high circulating triglycerides (TG), TG/HDL cholesterol ≥2.2, waist-to-height ratio (WTHR) >0.6, and combination of the latter with high TG or TG/HDL cholesterol ≥2.2. In the 148 obese children, TG/HDL-C ≥ 2.2 (OR 20.19; 95 % CI 2.50-163.28, p = 0.005) and the combination of TG/HDL-C ≥ 2.2 and WTHR > 0.60 (OR 14.97; 95 % CI 2.18-102.76, p = 0.006) were significantly associated with IGT. In the 531 adolescents, TG/HDL-C ≥ 2.2 (OR 1.991; 95 % CI 1.243-3.191, p = 0.004) and the combination with WTHR > 0.60 (OR 2.24; 95 % CI 1.29-3.87, p = 0.004) were associated with significantly increased risk of IGT. In the whole sample, having high TG levels according to the NIH National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute Expert Panel was not associated with an increased risk of presenting IGT. TG/HDL-C ratio can be useful, particularly in children, to identify obese young patients at risk of IGT. Its accuracy as screening tool in a general population needs to be verified. The combination of TG/HDL-C ratio and WTHR > 0.6 did not improve prediction. Having high TG according to the NIH definition was not associated with increased risk of developing IGT.

  5. Relations between particle size of HDL and LDL lipoproteins and cholesterol esterification rate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dobiášová, Milada; Urbanová, Z.; Šamánek, M.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 2 (2005), s. 159-165 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NA6590; GA MZd(CZ) NR8328 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : particle size of lipoproteins * FER(HDL) * Log(TG/HDL-C) Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery Impact factor: 1.806, year: 2005

  6. Mitochondrial GWA Analysis of Lipid Profile Identifies Genetic Variants to Be Associated with HDL Cholesterol and Triglyceride Levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antònia Flaquer

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that mitochondrial dysfunction has an influence on lipid metabolism. The fact that mitochondrial defects can be accumulated over time as a normal part of aging may explain why cholesterol levels often are altered with age. To test the hypothesis whether mitochondrial variants are associated with lipid profile (total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, and triglycerides we analyzed a total number of 978 mitochondrial single nucleotide polymorphisms (mtSNPs in a sample of 2,815 individuals participating in the population-based KORA F4 study. To assess mtSNP association while taking the presence of heteroplasmy into account we used the raw signal intensity values measured on the microarray and applied linear regression. Ten mtSNPs (mt3285, mt3336, mt5285, mt6591, mt6671, mt9163, mt13855, mt13958, mt14000, and mt14580 were significantly associated with HDL cholesterol and one mtSNP (mt15074 with triglycerides levels. These results highlight the importance of the mitochondrial genome among the factors that contribute to the regulation of lipid levels. Focusing on mitochondrial variants may lead to further insights regarding the underlying physiological mechanisms, or even to the development of innovative treatments. Since this is the first mitochondrial genome-wide association analysis (mtGWAS for lipid profile, further analyses are needed to follow up on the present findings.

  7. Plasma Antimicrobial Peptide LL-37 Level Is Inversely Associated with HDL Cholesterol Level in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Meguro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Relation between atherosclerosis and innate immunity has attracted attention. As the antimicrobial peptide, LL-37, could have an important role in atherosclerosis, we supposed that there could be a meaningful association of plasma LL-37 level with risk factors for cardiovascular disease in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Materials and Methods. We evaluated plasma LL-37 level and other clinical markers in Japanese subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (n=133, 115 men and 18 women; age 64.7±11.5 years; HbA1c 8.1±1.6%. Plasma level of LL-37 was measured by ELISA. Results. Mean plasma LL-37 level was 71.2±22.3 ng/mL. Plasma LL-37 level showed significant correlations with HDL cholesterol (r=−0.450, P<0.01, triglyceride (r=0.445, P<0.01, and high sensitive C-reactive protein (r=0.316, P<0.01 but no significant correlation with age, body mass index, HbA1c, estimated glomerular filtration rate, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, or vitamin D binding protein. Multiple linear regression analysis showed significant correlations of plasma LL-37 level with HDL cholesterol (β=−0.411, P<0.01 and high sensitive C-reactive protein (β=0.193, P<0.05. Conclusion. Plasma LL-37 level was positively correlated with inflammatory markers and negatively correlated with HDL cholesterol in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  8. Association of a cholesteryl ester transfer protein variant (rs1800777) with fat mass, HDL cholesterol levels, and metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Luis, Daniel; Izaola, Olatz; Primo, David; Gomez, Emilia; Lopez, Juan Jose; Ortola, Ana; Aller, Rocio

    2018-04-25

    There is little evidence of the association between CETP SNPs and obesity and/or related metabolic parameters. To analyze the association of the polymorphism rs1800777 of the CETP gene with anthropometric parameters, lipid profile, metabolic syndrome and its components, and adipokine levels in obese subjects without type 2 diabetes mellitus or hypertension. A population of 1005 obese subjects was analyzed. Electrical bioimpedance was performed, and blood pressure, presence of metabolic syndrome, dietary intake, physical activity, and biochemical tests were recorded. Nine hundred and sixty eight patients (96.3%) had the GG genotype, 37 patients the GA genotype (3.7%) (no AA genotype was detected). Fat mass (delta: 4.4±1.1kg; p=0.04), waist circumference (delta: 5.6±2.1cm; p=0.02), and waist to hip ratio (delta: 0.04±0.01cm; p=0.01) were higher in A allele carriers than in non-A allele carriers. HDL cholesterol levels were lower in A allele carriers than in non-A allele carriers (delta: 4.2±1.0mg/dL; p=0.04). In the logistic regression analysis, the GA genotype was associated to an increased risk of central obesity (OR 7.55, 95% CI 1.10-55.70, p=0.02) and low HDL cholesterol levels (OR 2.46, 95% CI 1.23-4.91, p=0.014). The CETP variant at position +82 is associated to lower HDL cholesterol levels, increased fat mass, and central obesity in obese subjects. These results may suggest a potential role of this variant gene in pathophysiology of adipose tissue. Copyright © 2018 SEEN y SED. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Status of non-HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol among subjects with and without metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sikandar Hayat; Asif, Naveed; Ijaz, Aamir; Manzoor, Syed Mohsin; Niazi, Najumusaquib Khan; Fazal, Nadeem

    2018-04-01

    To to compare non-high-density lipoprotein and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol among subjects with or without metabolic syndrome, glycation status and nephropathic changes. The comparative cross-sectional study was carried out from Dec 21, 2015, to Nov 15, 2016, at the department of pathology and medicine PNS HAFEEZ and department of chemical pathology and clinical endocrinology (AFIP), and comprised patients of either gender visiting the out-patient department for routine screening. They were evaluated for anthropometric indices, blood pressure and sampled for lipid profile, fasting plasma glucose, glycated haemoglobin, insulin, and urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio. Subjects were segregated based upon presence (Group1) or absence (Group2) of metabolic syndrome based upon criteria of National Cholesterol Education Programme and the International Diabetes Federation. Differences in high and low density lipoprotein cholesterols were calculated between the groups. Of the 229 subjects, 120(52.4%) were women and 109(47.6%) were men. Overall, there were 107(46.7%) subjects in Group 1, and 122(53.3%) in Group 2. Non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was significantly different between subjects with and without metabolic syndrome as per both the study criteria (p<0.05 each). . Non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were higher in subjects with metabolic syndrome.

  10. HDL cholesterol and residual risk of first cardiovascular events after treatment with potent statin therapy: an analysis from the JUPITER trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ridker, Paul M.; Genest, Jacques; Boekholdt, S. Matthijs; Libby, Peter; Gotto, Antonio M.; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Mora, Samia; Macfadyen, Jean G.; Glynn, Robert J.; Kastelein, John Jp

    2010-01-01

    Background HDL-cholesterol concentrations are inversely associated with occurrence of cardiovascular events. We addressed, using the JUPITER trial cohort, whether this association remains when LDL-cholesterol concentrations are reduced to the very low ranges with high-dose statin treatment. Methods

  11. rHDL administration increases reverse cholesterol transport in mice, but is not additive on top of ezetimibe or cholestyramine treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maugeais, Cyrille; Annema, Wijtske; Blum, Denise; Mary, Jean-Luc; Tietge, Uwe J. F.

    Objective: Promoting reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) is a major atheroprotective property of HDL. The present study explored the effect of stimulating the first step of RCT (cholesterol efflux from macrophages) alone or in combination with stimulating the last step of RCT (fecal sterol

  12. Pharmacological LXR activation reduces presence of SR-B1 in liver membranes contributing to LXR-mediated induction of HDL-cholesterol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Grefhorst (Aldo); D.M. Oosterveer (Daniella); G. Brufau (Gemma); M. Boesjes (Marije); F. Kuipers (Folkert); A. Groen (Albert)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractObjective: Pharmacological LXR activation has anti-atherosclerotic actions in animal models. Part of these beneficial effects may be explained by accelerated reverse cholesterol transport since both plasma high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and fecal neutral sterol secretion are

  13. Pharmacological LXR activation reduces presence of SR-B1 in liver membranes contributing to LXR-mediated induction of HDL-cholesterol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grefhorst, Aldo; Oosterveer, Maaike H.; Brufau, Gemma; Boesjes, Marije; Kuipers, Folkert; Groen, Albert K.

    Objective: Pharmacological LXR activation has anti-atherosclerotic actions in animal models. Part of these beneficial effects may be explained by accelerated reverse cholesterol transport since both plasma high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and fecal neutral sterol secretion are higher upon

  14. Spirulina platensis effects on the levels of total cholesterol, HDL and triacylglycerols in rabbits fed with a hypercholesterolemic diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Maria Colla

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work, hypercholesterolemia was induced in rabbits by feeding them a high cholesterol diet (CD, 350 mg/d and the effects of supplementing this diet with 0.5 g/d Spirulina platensis was evaluated by measuring the levels of serum total-cholesterol (TC, triacylglycerols (TAG and high-density lipoprotein (HDL-cholesterol at the start of the experiment and after 30 d and 60 d. It was found that the levels of serum cholesterol decreased from 1,054±101 mg.dL-1 in the rabbits fed a CD without S. platensis to 516±163 mg.dL-1 to those fed with a high cholesterol diet supplemented with S. platensis (significant at p A microalga Spirulina é cultivada e comercializada no mundo devido a suas características nutricionais (elevada concentração de proteínas, em torno de 65%, vitaminas e sais minerais e ao seu potencial terapêutico no tratamento de inúmeras doenças, inclusive a hipercolesterolemia. Neste trabalho foi avaliada a inibição da hipercolesterolemia induzida em coelhos por uma dieta adicionada de colesterol (350 mg.d-1, pela suplementação de 0,5 g.dia-1 de biomassa de Spirulina platensis, sendo avaliados os níveis de colesterol total, triglicerídeos e HDL nos tempos de 0 d, 30 d e 60 d de tratamento. Os resultados indicaram que a adição de Spirulina platensis na dieta ocasionou decréscimo nos níveis de colesterol total de 1054±101 mg.dL-1 para 516±163 mg.dL-1 (p<0,0001, para os coelhos alimentados com a dieta colesterolêmica em comparação com os que receberam a dieta adicionada de Spirulina platensis. A adição de Spirulina a dieta colesterolêmica não ocasionou decréscimo significativo nos níveis de triglicerídios dos coelhos. Os valores de HDL aumentaram de 73±31 mg.dL-1 para 91,0±15,7 mg.dL-1, comparando-se os coelhos alimentados com a dieta colesterolêmica e os alimentados com a dieta adicionada de Spirulina, estatisticamente diferentes a um nível de significância maior que 0,1533.

  15. Non-HDL Cholesterol is a More Superior Predictor of Small-Dense LDL Cholesterol than LDL Cholesterol in Japanese Subjects with TG Levels <400 mg/dL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriyama, Kengo; Takahashi, Eiko

    2016-09-01

    The Japan Atherosclerosis Society (JAS) guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of hyperlipidemia in Japanese adults recommend using low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) calculated by Friedewald formula (F_LDL-C) for subjects with triglyceride (TG) levels <400 mg/dL and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) levels for subjects with TG levels ≥400 mg/dL. Because small-dense LDL particles are more atherogenic than large LDL particles, we sought the better lipid parameter which was more reflective of the high small-dense LDL-C (sdLDL-C) levels in subjects with TG levels <400 mg/dL. This study included 769 Japanese subjects who met our inclusion criteria and underwent an annual health examination, including sdLDL-C analyses. The correlation coefficient of non-HDL-C for sdLDL-C (r=0.760) was significantly higher than that of F_LDL-C (r=0.601). The area under the curve (95% confidence interval) was 0.771 (0.731, 0.811) for F_LDL-C and 0.871 (0.842, 0.901) for non HDL-C, which showed significantly higher predictive value for more than fourth quartile value of sdLDL-C (46 mg/dL). The optimal cut-off point of non-HDL-C was 158 mg/dL. Even in subjects stratified by waist circumstance, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, TG, and F_LDL-C levels and non-HDL-C showed stronger relationships with sdLDL-C than F_LDL-C. Moreover, non-HDL-C showed a better relationship with sdLDL-C than total cholesterol (TC), TC/HDL-C, and non-HDL-C/HDL-C. Our data suggested that non-HDL-C is superior to F_LDL-C and one of the reliable surrogate lipid markers of sdLDL-C in Japanese subjects with TG levels <400 mg/dL.

  16. Levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C among children with steady-state sickle cell disease

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    Seixas Magda O

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The search for sickle cell disease (SCD prognosis biomarkers is a challenge. These markers identification can help to establish further therapy, later severe clinical complications and with patients follow-up. We attempted to study a possible involvement of levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C in steady-state children with SCD, once that this lipid marker has been correlated with anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, anti-aggregation, anti-coagulant and pro-fibrinolytic activities, important aspects to be considered in sickle cell disease pathogenesis. Methods We prospectively analyzed biochemical, inflammatory and hematological biomarkers of 152 steady-state infants with SCD and 132 healthy subjects using immunochemistry, immunoassay and electronic cell counter respectively. Clinical data were collected from patient medical records. Results Of the 152 infants investigated had a significant positive association of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol with hemoglobin (P Conclusions We hypothesize that some SCD patients can have a specific dyslipidemic subphenotype characterized by low HDL-C with hypertriglyceridemia and high VLDL-C in association with other biomarkers, including those related to inflammation. This represents an important step toward a more reliable clinical prognosis. Additional studies are warranted to test this hypothesis and the probably mechanisms involved in this complex network of markers and their role in SCD pathogenesis.

  17. Effects of dietary fatty acids and carbohydrates on the ratio of serum total to HDL cholesterol and on serum lipids and apolipoproteins: a meta-analysis of 60 controlled trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mensink, R.P.; Zock, P.L.; Kester, A.D.M.; Katan, M.B.

    2003-01-01

    Background: The effects of dietary fats on the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) have traditionally been estimated from their effects on LDL cholesterol. Fats, however, also affect HDL cholesterol, and the ratio of total to HDL cholesterol is a more specific marker of CAD than is LDL

  18. Reduced and high molecular weight barley beta-glucans decrease plasma total and non-HDL-cholesterol in hypercholesterolemic Syrian golden hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Thomas A; Nicolosi, Robert J; Delaney, Bryan; Chadwell, Kim; Moolchandani, Vikas; Kotyla, Timothy; Ponduru, Sridevi; Zheng, Guo-Hua; Hess, Richard; Knutson, Nathan; Curry, Leslie; Kolberg, Lore; Goulson, Melanie; Ostergren, Karen

    2004-10-01

    Consumption of concentrated barley beta-glucan lowers plasma cholesterol because of its soluble dietary fiber nature. The role of molecular weight (MW) in lowering serum cholesterol is not well established. Prior studies showed that enzymatic degradation of beta-glucan eliminates the cholesterol-lowering activity; however, these studies did not evaluate the MW of the beta-glucan. The current study was conducted to evaluate whether barley beta-glucan concentrates, partially hydrolyzed to reduce MW, possess cholesterol-lowering and antiatherogenic activities. The reduced MW fraction was compared with a high MW beta-glucan concentrate from the same barley flour. Concentrated beta-glucan preparations were evaluated in Syrian Golden F(1)B hamsters fed a hypercholesterolemic diet (HCD) with cholesterol, hydrogenated coconut oil, and cellulose. After 2 wk, hamsters were fed HCD or diets that contained high or reduced MW beta-glucan at a concentration of 8 g/100 g at the expense of cellulose. Decreases in plasma total cholesterol (TC) and non-HDL-cholesterol (non-HDL-C) concentrations occurred in the hamsters fed reduced MW and high MW beta-glucan diets. Plasma HDL-C concentrations did not differ. HCD-fed hamsters had higher plasma triglyceride concentrations. Liver TC, free cholesterol, and cholesterol ester concentrations did not differ. Aortic cholesterol ester concentrations were lower in the reduced MW beta-glucan-fed hamsters. Consumption of either high or reduced MW beta-glucan increased concentrations of fecal total neutral sterols and coprostanol, a cholesterol derivative. Fecal excretion of cholesterol was greater than in HCD-fed hamsters only in those fed the reduced MW beta-glucan. Study results demonstrate that the cholesterol-lowering activity of barley beta-glucan may occur at both lower and higher MW.

  19. Extra Virgin Olive Oil Polyphenols Promote Cholesterol Efflux and Improve HDL Functionality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hicham Berrougui

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Results of the present work give evidence from the beneficial role of extra virgin olive of oil (EVOO consumption towards oxidative stress and cardiovascular diseases. Polyphenols contained in EVOO are responsible for inhibiting lipoproteins oxidative damages and promoting reverse cholesterol transport process via ABCA1 pathway.

  20. Importance of measuring Non-HDL cholesterol in type 2 diabetes patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ram, N.; Hashmi, F.; Jabbar, A

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To study the correlation between Non-high-density lipoprotein and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus and the proportion of patients achieving Adult Treatment Panel III recommended goals. Methods: The cross sectional study was conducted at the Diabetic Clinic, Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi. Data of Type 2 diabetes mellitus patients who attended the clinic between 2007 and 2011 was reviewed. All Type 2 diabetic patients of either gender with fasting lipid profile irrespective of taking lipid lowering therapy were included. Type-1 DM, gestational diabetes, type 2 diabetes patients with pregnancy and those with incomplete data were excluded. Correlation between the low-density lipoprotein and Non- high-density lipoprotein was assessed by applying Cramer V and phi. Proportion of patients achieving Adult Treatment Panel III recommended goals was checked. Multivariable regression was done to identify common factors associated with elevated Non- high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Results: A total of 1352 patients fulfilling the eligibility criteria were included in the study. Mean age of the patients was 54.5+-11.3 years; 797 (59%) were males; 1122 (83%) had Body Mass Index above 25; and 1016 (75%) had HbA1c >7%. Mean Non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was 129+-42mg/dl. Mean low-density lipoprotein cholesterol was 100+-37mg/dl. Both low-density lipoprotein 130mg/dl (p 100mg/dl was independently associated with having Non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol >130mg/dl (Adjusted Odds Ratio 38.6; 95% Confidance Interval 28.1-53.1). Similarly, age 130 mg/dl (Adjusted Odds Ratio 1.6; 95% Confidance Interval = 1.01 - 2.3). Whereas having obesity Body Mass Index >25 was 3.6 times more associated to have Non-high-density lipoprotein >130mg/dl (Adjusted Odds Ratio 3.6; 95% Confidance Interval = 1.6-7.7). In patients with coronary artery disease, combined goal achievement of low-density lipoprotein 100mg/dl (p <0

  1. The monocyte counts to HDL cholesterol ratio in obese and lean patients with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usta, Akin; Avci, Eyup; Bulbul, Cagla Bahar; Kadi, Hasan; Adali, Ertan

    2018-04-10

    Women with polycystic ovary syndrome are more likely to suffer from obesity, insulin resistance, and chronic low-grade inflammation. In fact, the excessive activation of monocytes exacerbates oxidative stress and inflammation. However, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol neutralizes the pro-inflammatory and pro-oxidant effects of monocytes. The aim of this study is to investigate whether monocyte counts to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio can predict the inflammatory condition in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome. In this cross-sectional study, a total of 124 women (61 of them with polycystic ovary syndrome and 63 age-matched healthy volunteers) were included in the study population. Obese polycystic ovary syndrome patients (n = 30) with a body mass index of ≥25 kg/m 2 and lean polycystic ovary syndrome patients (n = 31) with a body mass index of polycystic ovary syndrome were significantly higher than in control subjects (p = 0.0018). Moreover, a regression analysis revealed that body mass index, the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance and the high sensitivity C-reactive protein levels were confounding factors that affected the monocyte counts to high density lipoprotein cholesterol values. Additionally, a univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that the increased monocyte counts to high density lipoprotein cholesterol values were more sensitive than the other known risk factors (such as increased body mass index, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance and high sensitive C-reactive protein levels) in the prediction of the inflammation in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome. The present study demonstrated that the monocyte count to high density lipoprotein cholesterol may be a novel and useful predictor of the presence of polycystic ovary syndrome.

  2. Obeticholic acid raises LDL-cholesterol and reduces HDL-cholesterol in the Diet-Induced NASH (DIN) hamster model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briand, François; Brousseau, Emmanuel; Quinsat, Marjolaine; Burcelin, Rémy; Sulpice, Thierry

    2018-01-05

    The use of rat and mouse models limits the translation to humans for developing novel drugs targeting nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Obeticholic acid (OCA) illustrates this limitation since its dyslipidemic effect in humans cannot be observed in these rodents. Conversely, Golden Syrian hamsters have a lipoprotein metabolism mimicking human dyslipidemia since it does express the cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP). We therefore developed a Diet-Induced NASH (DIN) hamster model and evaluated the impact of OCA. Compared with chow fed controls, hamsters fed for 20 weeks with a free-choice (FC) diet, developed obesity, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and NASH (microvesicular steatosis, inflammation, hepatocyte ballooning and perisinusoidal to bridging fibrosis). After 20 weeks of diet, FC fed hamsters were treated without or with obeticholic acid (15mg/kg/day) for 5 weeks. Although a non-significant trend towards higher dietary caloric intake was observed, OCA significantly lowered body weight after 5 weeks of treatment. OCA significantly increased CETP activity and LDL-C levels by 20% and 27%, and reduced HDL-C levels by 20%. OCA blunted hepatic gene expression of Cyp7a1 and Cyp8b1 and reduced fecal bile acids mass excretion by 64% (P OCA showed a trend towards higher scavenger receptor Class B type I (SR-BI) and lower LDL-receptor hepatic protein expression. OCA reduced NAS score for inflammation (P OCA as observed in humans, and should be useful for evaluating novel drugs targeting NASH. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. HDL cholesterol and residual risk of first cardiovascular events after treatment with potent statin therapy: an analysis from the JUPITER trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridker, Paul M; Genest, Jacques; Boekholdt, S Matthijs; Libby, Peter; Gotto, Antonio M; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Mora, Samia; MacFadyen, Jean G; Glynn, Robert J; Kastelein, John J P

    2010-07-31

    HDL-cholesterol concentrations are inversely associated with occurrence of cardiovascular events. We addressed, using the JUPITER trial cohort, whether this association remains when LDL-cholesterol concentrations are reduced to the very low ranges with high-dose statin treatment. Participants in the randomised placebo-controlled JUPITER trial were adults without diabetes or previous cardiovascular disease, and had baseline concentrations of LDL cholesterol of less than 3.37 mmol/L and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein of 2 mg/L or more. Participants were randomly allocated by a computer-generated sequence to receive rosuvastatin 20 mg per day or placebo, with participants and adjudicators masked to treatment assignment. In the present analysis, we divided the participants into quartiles of HDL-cholesterol or apolipoprotein A1 and sought evidence of association between these quartiles and the JUPITER primary endpoint of first non-fatal myocardial infarction or stroke, hospitalisation for unstable angina, arterial revascularisation, or cardiovascular death. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00239681. For 17,802 patients in the JUPITER trial, rosuvastatin 20 mg per day reduced the incidence of the primary endpoint by 44% (p<0.0001). In 8901 (50%) patients given placebo (who had a median on-treatment LDL-cholesterol concentration of 2.80 mmol/L [IQR 2.43-3.24]), HDL-cholesterol concentrations were inversely related to vascular risk both at baseline (top quartile vs bottom quartile hazard ratio [HR] 0.54, 95% CI 0.35-0.83, p=0.0039) and on-treatment (0.55, 0.35-0.87, p=0.0047). By contrast, among the 8900 (50%) patients given rosuvastatin 20 mg (who had a median on-treatment LDL-cholesterol concentration of 1.42 mmol/L [IQR 1.14-1.86]), no significant relationships were noted between quartiles of HDL-cholesterol concentration and vascular risk either at baseline (1.12, 0.62-2.03, p=0.82) or on-treatment (1.03, 0.57-1.87, p=0.97). Our analyses

  4. The effect of oat β-glucan on LDL-cholesterol, non-HDL-cholesterol and apoB for CVD risk reduction: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised-controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Hoang V T; Sievenpiper, John L; Zurbau, Andreea; Blanco Mejia, Sonia; Jovanovski, Elena; Au-Yeung, Fei; Jenkins, Alexandra L; Vuksan, Vladimir

    2016-10-01

    Oats are a rich source of β-glucan, a viscous, soluble fibre recognised for its cholesterol-lowering properties, and are associated with reduced risk of CVD. Our objective was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised-controlled trials (RCT) investigating the cholesterol-lowering potential of oat β-glucan on LDL-cholesterol, non-HDL-cholesterol and apoB for the risk reduction of CVD. MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL and Cochrane CENTRAL were searched. We included RCT of ≥3 weeks of follow-up, assessing the effect of diets enriched with oat β-glucan compared with controlled diets on LDL-cholesterol, non-HDL-cholesterol or apoB. Two independent reviewers extracted data and assessed study quality and risk of bias. Data were pooled using the generic inverse-variance method with random effects models and expressed as mean differences with 95 % CI. Heterogeneity was assessed by the Cochran's Q statistic and quantified by the I 2-statistic. In total, fifty-eight trials (n 3974) were included. A median dose of 3·5 g/d of oat β-glucan significantly lowered LDL-cholesterol (-0·19; 95 % CI -0·23, -0·14 mmol/l, Pcholesterol (-0·20; 95 % CI -0·26, -0·15 mmol/l, PLDL-cholesterol (I 2=79 %) and non-HDL-cholesterol (I 2=99 %). Pooled analyses showed that oat β-glucan has a lowering effect on LDL-cholesterol, non-HDL-cholesterol and apoB. Inclusion of oat-containing foods may be a strategy for achieving targets in CVD reduction.

  5. Novel Apo E-Derived ABCA1 Agonist Peptide (CS-6253 Promotes Reverse Cholesterol Transport and Induces Formation of preβ-1 HDL In Vitro.

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    Anouar Hafiane

    Full Text Available Apolipoprotein (apo mimetic peptides replicate some aspects of HDL function. We have previously reported the effects of compound ATI-5261 on its ability to replicate many functions of native apo A-I in the process of HDL biogenesis. ATI-5261 induced muscle toxicity in wild type C57Bl/6 mice, increased CPK, ALT and AST and increase in triglyceride (Tg levels. Aromatic phenylalanine residues on the non-polar face of ATI-5261, together with positively charged arginine residues at the lipid-water interface were responsible for these effects. This information was used to create a novel analog (CS-6253 that was non-toxic. We evaluated this peptide designed from the carboxyl terminus of apo E, in its ability to mimic apo A-I functionality. Our data shows that the lipidated particles generated by incubating cells overexpressing ABCA1 with lipid free CS-6253 enhances the rate of ABCA1 lipid efflux with high affinity interactions with native ABCA1 oligomeric forms and plasma membrane micro-domains. Interaction between ABCA1 and lipid free CS-6253 resulted in formation of nascent HDL-CS-6253 particles that are actively remodeled in plasma. Mature HDL-CS-6253 particles deliver cholesterol to liver cells via SR-BI in-vitro. CS-6253 significantly increases cholesterol efflux in murine macrophages and in human THP-1 macrophage-derived foam cells expressing ABCA1. Addition of CS-6253 to plasma dose-dependently displaced apo A-I from α-HDL particles and led to de novo formation of preβ-1 HDL that stimulates ABCA1 dependent cholesterol efflux efficiently. When incubated with human plasma CS-6253 was also found to bind with HDL and LDL and promoted the transfer of cholesterol from HDL to LDL predominantly. Our data shows that CS-6253 mimics apo A-I in its ability to promote ABCA1-mediated formation of nascent HDL particles, and enhances formation of preβ-1 HDL with increase in the cycling of apo A-I between the preβ and α-HDL particles in-vitro. These

  6. Is High Serum LDL/HDL Cholesterol Ratio an Emerging Risk Factor for Sudden Cardiac Death? Findings from the KIHD Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunutsor, Setor K; Zaccardi, Francesco; Karppi, Jouni; Kurl, Sudhir; Laukkanen, Jari A

    2017-06-01

    Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), which are components of total cholesterol, have each been suggested to be linked to the risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD). However, the relationship between LDL-c/HDL-c ratio and the risk of SCD has not been previously investigated. We aimed to assess the associations of LDL-c, HDL-c, and the ratio of LDL-c/HDL-c with the risk of SCD. Serum lipoprotein concentrations were assessed at baseline in the Finnish Kuopio Ischemic Heart Disease prospective cohort study of 2,616 men aged 42-61 years at recruitment. Hazard ratios (HRs) (95% confidence intervals [CI]) were assessed. During a median follow-up of 23.0 years, a total of 228 SCDs occurred. There was no significant evidence of an association of LDL-c or HDL-c with the risk of SCD. In analyses adjusted for age, examination year, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, years of education, diabetes, previous myocardial infarction, family history of coronary heart disease, and serum high sensitivity C-reactive protein, there was approximately a two-fold increase in the risk of SCD (HR 1.94, 95% CI 1.21-3.11; p=0.006), comparing the top (>4.22) versus bottom (≤2.30) quintile of serum LDL-c/HDL-c ratio. In this middle-aged male population, LDL-c or HDL-c was not associated with the risk of SCD. However, a high serum LDL-c/HDL-c ratio was found to be independently associated with an increased risk of SCD. Further research is warranted to understand the mechanistic pathways underlying this association.

  7. A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials of the effect of konjac glucomannan, a viscous soluble fiber, on LDL cholesterol and the new lipid targets non-HDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Hoang Vi Thanh; Jovanovski, Elena; Zurbau, Andreea; Blanco Mejia, Sonia; Sievenpiper, John L; Au-Yeung, Fei; Jenkins, Alexandra L; Duvnjak, Lea; Leiter, Lawrence; Vuksan, Vladimir

    2017-05-01

    Background: Evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) suggests the consumption of konjac glucomannan (KJM), a viscous soluble fiber, for improving LDL-cholesterol concentrations. It has also been suggested that the cholesterol-lowering potential of KJM may be greater than that of other fibers. However, trials have been relatively scarce and limited in sample size and duration, and the effect estimates have been inconsistent. The effect of KJM on new lipid targets of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk is also unknown. Objective: This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to assess the effect of KJM on LDL cholesterol, non-HDL cholesterol, and apolipoprotein B. Design: Medline, Embase, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Central databases were searched. We included RCTs with a follow-up of ≥3 wk that assessed the effect of KJM on LDL cholesterol, non-HDL cholesterol, or apolipoprotein B. Data were pooled by using the generic inverse-variance method with random-effects models and expressed as mean differences (MDs) with 95% CIs. Heterogeneity was assessed by the Cochran Q statistic and quantified by the I 2 statistic. Results: Twelve studies ( n = 370), 8 in adults and 4 in children, met the inclusion criteria. KJM significantly lowered LDL cholesterol (MD: -0.35 mmol/L; 95% CI: -0.46, -0.25 mmol/L) and non-HDL cholesterol (MD: -0.32 mmol/L; 95% CI: -0.46, -0.19 mmol/L). Data from 6 trials suggested no impact of KJM on apolipoprotein B. Conclusions: Our findings support the intake of ∼3 g KJM/d for reductions in LDL cholesterol and non-HDL cholesterol of 10% and 7%, respectively. The information may be of interest to health agencies in crafting future dietary recommendations related to reduction in CVD risk. This study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02068248. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  8. Non-HDL Cholesterol and Triglycerides: Implications for Coronary Atheroma Progression and Clinical Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puri, Rishi; Nissen, Steven E; Shao, Mingyuan; Elshazly, Mohamed B; Kataoka, Yu; Kapadia, Samir R; Tuzcu, E Murat; Nicholls, Stephen J

    2016-11-01

    Non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDLC) levels reflect the full burden of cholesterol transported in atherogenic lipoproteins. Genetic studies suggest a causal association between elevated triglycerides (TGs)-rich lipoproteins and atherosclerosis. We evaluated associations between achieved non-HDLC and TG levels on changes in coronary atheroma volume. Data were analyzed from 9 clinical trials involving 4957 patients with coronary disease undergoing serial intravascular ultrasonography to assess changes in percent atheroma volume (ΔPAV) and were evaluated against on-treatment non-HDLC and TG levels. The effects of lower (0) was associated with achieved TG levels >200 mg/dL, respectively. Lower on-treatment non-HDLC and TG levels associated with significant PAV regression compared with higher non-HDLC and TG levels across all levels of LDLC and C-reactive protein and irrespective of diabetic status (P<0.001 across all comparisons). ΔPAV were more strongly influenced by changes in non-HDLC (β=0.62; P<0.001) compared with changes in LDLC (β=0.51; P<0.001). Kaplan-Meier sensitivity analyses demonstrated significantly greater major adverse cardiovascular event rates in those with higher versus lower non-HDLC and TG levels, with an earlier separation of the non-HDLC compared with the LDLC curve. Achieved non-HDLC levels seem more closely associated with coronary atheroma progression than LDLC. Plaque progression associates with achieved TGs, but only above levels of 200 mg/dL. These observations support a more prominent role for non-HDLC (and possibly TG) lowering in combating residual cardiovascular risk. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  9. The effects of ABCG5/G8 polymorphisms on plasma HDL cholesterol concentrations depend on smoking habit in the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background-Low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) is associated with an increased risk for atherosclerosis and concentrations are modulated by genetic and environmental factors such as smoking. Objective- To assess whether the association of common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs...

  10. Total physical activity might not be a good measure in the relationship with HDL cholesterol and triglycerides in a multi-ethnic population: a cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Munter, J.S.L.; van Valkengoed, I.G.; Stronks, K.; Agyemang, C.

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests that physical activity (PA) has a beneficial effect on high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) and triglycerides. However, observational studies show contrasting results for this association between different ethnic groups. It is unclear whether this is due

  11. Total physical activity might not be a good measure in the relationship with HDL cholesterol and triglycerides in a multi-ethnic population: a cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Munter, Jeroen S. L.; van Valkengoed, Irene G.; Stronks, Karien; Agyemang, Charles

    2011-01-01

    Evidence suggests that physical activity (PA) has a beneficial effect on high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) and triglycerides. However, observational studies show contrasting results for this association between different ethnic groups. It is unclear whether this is due to differences in the

  12. High density lipoprotein as a source of cholesterol for adrenal steroidogenesis: a study in individuals with low plasma HDL-C

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bochem, Andrea E.; Holleboom, Adriaan G.; Romijn, Johannes A.; Hoekstra, Menno; Dallinga-Thie, Geesje M.; Motazacker, Mahdi M.; Hovingh, G. Kees; Kuivenhoven, Jan A.; Stroes, Erik S. G.

    2013-01-01

    Few studies have addressed the delivery of lipoprotein-derived cholesterol to the adrenals for steroid production in humans. While there is evidence against a role for low-density lipoprotein (LDL), it is unresolved whether high density lipoprotein (HDL) contributes to adrenal steroidogenesis. To

  13. Blood cholesterol and vascular mortality by age, sex, and blood pressure: a meta-analysis of individual data from 61 prospective studies with 55,000 vascular deaths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    NN, NN; Jensen, Gorm Boje

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Age, sex, and blood pressure could modify the associations of total cholesterol (and its main two fractions, HDL and LDL cholesterol) with vascular mortality. This meta-analysis combined prospective studies of vascular mortality that recorded both blood pressure and total cholesterol.......65-0.68]), and a sixth (0.83 [0.81-0.85]) lower IHD mortality in both sexes at ages 40-49, 50-69, and 70-89 years, respectively, throughout the main range of cholesterol in most developed countries, with no apparent threshold. The proportional risk reduction decreased with increasing blood pressure, since the absolute......). Total cholesterol was weakly positively related to ischaemic and total stroke mortality in early middle age (40-59 years), but this finding could be largely or wholly accounted for by the association of cholesterol with blood pressure. Moreover, a positive relation was seen only in middle age and only...

  14. The Ala54Thr Polymorphism of the Fatty Acid Binding Protein 2 Gene Modulates HDL Cholesterol in Mexican-Americans with Type 2 Diabetes

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    Lorena M. Salto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The alanine to threonine amino acid substitution at codon 54 (Ala54Thr of the intestinal fatty acid binding protein (FABP2 has been associated with elevated levels of insulin and blood glucose as well as with dyslipidemia. The aim of this study was to characterize the effect of this FABP2 polymorphism in Mexican-Americans with type 2 diabetes (T2D in the context of a three-month intervention to determine if the polymorphism differentially modulates selected clinical outcomes. For this study, we genotyped 43 participant samples and performed post-hoc outcome analysis of the profile changes in fasting blood glucose, HbA1c, insulin, lipid panel and body composition, stratified by the Ala54Thr polymorphism. Our results show that the Thr54 allele carriers (those who were heterozygous or homozygous for the threonine-encoding allele had lower HDL cholesterol and higher triglyceride levels at baseline compared to the Ala54 homozygotes (those who were homozygous for the alanine-encoding allele. Both groups made clinically important improvements in lipid profiles and glycemic control as a response to the intervention. Whereas the Ala54 homozygotes decreased HDL cholesterol in the context of an overall total cholesterol decrease, Thr54 allele carriers increased HDL cholesterol as part of an overall total cholesterol decrease. We conclude that the Ala54Thr polymorphism of FABP2 modulates HDL cholesterol in Mexican-Americans with T2D and that Thr54 allele carriers may be responsive in interventions that include dietary changes.

  15. A COCONUT EXTRA VIRGIN OIL-RICH DIET INCREASES HDL CHOLESTEROL AND DECREASES WAIST CIRCUMFERENCE AND BODY MASS IN CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE PATIENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Diuli A; Moreira, Annie S B; de Oliveira, Glaucia M M; Raggio Luiz, Ronir; Rosa, Glorimar

    2015-11-01

    saturated fat restriction has been recommended for coronary arterial disease, but the role of coconut oil (Cocos nucifera L.) extra virgin, lauric acid source in the management of lipid profile remains unclear. to evaluate the effect of nutritional treatment associated with the consumption of extra virgin coconut oil in anthropometric parameters and lipid profile. we conducted a longitudinal study of 116 adults of both sexes presenting CAD. Patients were followed in two stages: the first stage (basal-3 months), intensive nutritional treatment. In the second stage (3-6 months), the subjects were divided into two groups: diet group associated with extra virgin coconut oil consumption (GDOC) and diet group (DG). Held monthly anthropometric measurements: body mass, waist circumference (WC), neck circumference (PP), body mass index (BMI). Gauged to collected blood pressure and blood samples were fasted for 12 hours, for total cholesterol analysis and fractions apoproteins (Apo A-1 and B), glucose, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C), insulin (I). Comparing the averages at the beginning and end of the study employing the paired Student t-independent. And set the diastolic blood pressure by BMI using ANOVA. Analyses were performed using the SPSS statistical package, being significant p groups for DC (-2.1 ± 2,7 cm; p virgin coconut oil consumption reduced the CC and increased HDL-C levels in patients with CAD. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  16. Intermittent fasting during Ramadan causes a transient increase in total, LDL, and HDL cholesterols and hs-CRP in ethnic obese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakishun, Nalini; Blokhuis, Charlotte; van Vliet, Mariska; von Rosenstiel, Ines; Weijer, Olivier; Heymans, Martijn; Beijnen, Jos; Brandjes, Dees; Diamant, Michaela

    2014-08-01

    The radical change of lifestyle during Ramadan fast has shown to affect cardiometabolic risk variables in adults. In youth, however, no studies are available. We aimed to evaluate the effect of Ramadan fast on Body Mass Index (BMI) and the cardiometabolic profile of obese adolescents. A prospective cohort study was conducted. We measured weight, height, body composition, blood pressure, heart rate, glucose, insulin, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, triglycerides, and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels before, during the last week of and at 6 weeks after Ramadan. Twenty-five obese adolescents were included. BMI and glucose metabolism did not change after Ramadan or at 6 week after cessation of Ramadan. At the end of Ramadan, a significant decrease in body fat percentage was observed, while significant increases in heart rate, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and hs-CRP were found (all P < 0.05). Six weeks after Ramadan, all parameters returned to baseline levels. In this sample of 25 ethnic obese adolescents transient cardiometabolic changes were observed during Ramadan fasting. Since most of these changes were reversible within 6 weeks, there seems no harm or benefit for obese adolescents to participate in Ramadan.

  17. Blood cholesterol and vascular mortality by age, sex, and blood pressure: a meta-analysis of individual data from 61 prospective studies with 55,000 vascular deaths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    NN, NN; Jensen, Gorm Boje

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Age, sex, and blood pressure could modify the associations of total cholesterol (and its main two fractions, HDL and LDL cholesterol) with vascular mortality. This meta-analysis combined prospective studies of vascular mortality that recorded both blood pressure and total cholesterol...... pressures, is unexplained, and invites further research. Nevertheless, there is conclusive evidence from randomised trials that statins substantially reduce not only coronary event rates but also total stroke rates in patients with a wide range of ages and blood pressures....... and blood pressure. During nearly 12 million person years at risk between the ages of 40 and 89 years, there were more than 55,000 vascular deaths (34,000 ischaemic heart disease [IHD], 12,000 stroke, 10,000 other). Information about HDL cholesterol was available for 150,000 participants, among whom...

  18. High blood cholesterol levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cholesterol - high; Lipid disorders; Hyperlipoproteinemia; Hyperlipidemia; Dyslipidemia; Hypercholesterolemia ... There are many types of cholesterol. The ones talked about most are: ... lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol -- often called "good" cholesterol ...

  19. THE CONSUMPTION OF RED PUPUNHA (BACTRIS GASIPAES KUNTH) INCREASES HDL CHOLESTEROL AND REDUCES WEIGHT GAIN OF LACTATING AND POST-LACTATING WISTAR RATS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, R Piccolotto; Lemos, J R Gonzaga; de Aquino Sales, R Souza; Martins, M Gassen; Nascimento, C H; Bayona, M; Marcon, J L; Monteiro, J Barros

    2013-09-01

    The lactating and post-lactating periods are marked by large metabolic change. Production of milk is 60% lipid dependent. We reported in a recent scientific meeting that Red pupunha palm tree fruit increases HDL cholesterol in lactating rats. This study evaluated if consumption of Red Pupunha by adult female rats has a beneficial impact on the lipid metabolism of lacting and post-lacting adult rats. Evaluate if consumption of red pupunha has a beneficial effect in the lipid metabolism of lacting and post-lacting adult Wistar rats. Four groups including two for control; (1) control adult lactating rats, (2) control adults post-lactating rats; and two experimental groups; (3) pupunha adults lactating rats and (4) pupunha adult post-lactating rats were evaluated and compared regarding: weight gain, food consumption, plasma total protein, glucose, total lipid, triglycerides, total cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol levels. The mean difference and its 95% confidence intervals were used for group comparisons. Group comparisons were evaluated by using analysis of variance (one-way ANOVA). The statistical significance of the pairwise differences among groups was assessed by using the two-sided Tukey test. There were no important differences in food consumption, plasma glucose, total lipids and triglycerides among groups. The red pupunha lactating group gain less weight showing lower body mass index (BMI) than controls (p < 0.05). Total cholesterol was lower in red pupunha lactating than in controls but not in the red pupunha post-lactating group as compared to controls. Triglycerides were lower in the post-lactating red pupunha group as compared to the control group (p = 0.039) but not for the lactating groups. Red pupunha lactating and post-lactating groups had higher HDL-cholesterol than their corresponding control groups (p ≤ 0.01). Original findings include the beneficial effect of red pupunha in post-lactating rats increasing the HDL-cholesterol and lowering the BMI

  20. Activation of the human complement system by cholesterol-rich and pegylated liposomes - Modulation of cholesterol-rich liposome-mediated complement activation by elevated serum LDL and HDL levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moghimi, S.M.; Hamad, I.; Bunger, R.

    2006-01-01

    level of S-protein-bound form of the terminal complex (SC5b-9). However, liposome-induced rise of SC5b-9 was significantly suppressed when serum HDL cholesterol levels increased by 30%. Increase of serum LDL to levels similar to that observed in heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia also suppressed......Intravenously infused liposomes may induce cardiopulmonary distress in some human subjects, which is a manifestation of "complement activation-related pseudoallergy." We have now examined liposome-mediated complement activation in human sera with elevated lipoprotein (LDL and HDL) levels, since...... abnormal or racial differences in serum lipid profiles seem to modulate the extent of complement activation and associated adverse responses. In accordance with our earlier observations, cholesterol-rich (45 mol% cholesterol) liposomes activated human complement, as reflected by a significant rise in serum...

  1. Modification and Validation of the Triglyceride-to-HDL Cholesterol Ratio as a Surrogate of Insulin Sensitivity in White Juveniles and Adults without Diabetes Mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulmichl, Katharina; Hatunic, Mensud; Højlund, Kurt

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The triglyceride-to-HDL cholesterol (TG/HDL-C) ratio was introduced as a tool to estimate insulin resistance, because circulating lipid measurements are available in routine settings. Insulin, C-peptide, and free fatty acids are components of other insulin-sensitivity indices...... but their measurement is expensive. Easier and more affordable tools are of interest for both pediatric and adult patients. METHODS: Study participants from the Relationship Between Insulin Sensitivity and Cardiovascular Disease [43.9 (8.3) years, n = 1260] as well as the Beta-Cell Function in Juvenile Diabetes...... and Obesity study cohorts [15 (1.9) years, n = 29] underwent oral-glucose-tolerance tests and euglycemic clamp tests for estimation of whole-body insulin sensitivity and calculation of insulin sensitivity indices. To refine the TG/HDL ratio, mathematical modeling was applied including body mass index (BMI...

  2. CER-001, a HDL-mimetic, stimulates the reverse lipid transport and atherosclerosis regression in high cholesterol diet-fed LDL-receptor deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardy, Claudine; Goffinet, Marine; Boubekeur, Nadia; Ackermann, Rose; Sy, Gavin; Bluteau, Alice; Cholez, Guy; Keyserling, Constance; Lalwani, Narendra; Paolini, John F; Dasseux, Jean-Louis; Barbaras, Ronald; Baron, Rudi

    2014-01-01

    CER-001 is a novel engineered HDL-mimetic comprised of recombinant human apoA-I and phospholipids that was designed to mimic the beneficial properties of nascent pre-β HDL. In this study, we have evaluated the capacity of CER-001 to perform reverse lipid transport in single dose studies as well as to regress atherosclerosis in LDLr(-/-) mice after short-term multiple-dose infusions. CER-001 induced cholesterol efflux from macrophages and exhibited anti-inflammatory response similar to natural HDL. Studies with HUVEC demonstrated CER-001 at a concentration of 500 μg/mL completely suppressed the secretion of cytokines IL-6, IL-8, GM-CSF and MCP-1. Following infusion of CER-001 (10mg/kg) in C57Bl/6J mice, we observed a transient increase in the mobilization of unesterified cholesterol in HDL particles containing recombinant human apoA-I. Finally we show that cholesterol elimination was stimulated in CER-001 treated animals as demonstrated by the increased cholesterol concentration in liver and feces. In a familial hypercholesterolemia mouse model (LDL-receptor deficient mice), the infusion of CER-001 caused 17% and 32% reductions in plaque size, 17% and 23% reductions in lipid content after 5 and 10 doses given every 2 days, respectively. Also, there was an 80% reduction in macrophage content in the plaque following 5 doses, and decreased VCAM-1 expression by 16% and 22% in the plaque following 5 and 10 intravenous doses of CER-001, respectively. These data demonstrate that CER-001 rapidly enhances reverse lipid transport in the mouse, reducing vascular inflammation and promoting regression of diet-induced atherosclerosis in LDLr(-/-) mice upon a short-term multiple dose treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. HDL cholesterol as a diagnostic tool for clinical differentiation of GCK-MODY from HNF1A-MODY and type 1 diabetes in children and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fendler, Wojciech; Borowiec, Maciej; Antosik, Karolina; Szadkowska, Agnieszka; Deja, Grazyna; Jarosz-Chobot, Przemyslawa; Mysliwiec, Malgorzata; Wyka, Krystyna; Pietrzak, Iwona; Skupien, Jan; Malecki, Maciej T; Mlynarski, Wojciech

    2011-09-01

    Confirmation of monogenic diabetes caused by glucokinase mutations (GCK-MODY) allows pharmacogenetic intervention in the form of insulin discontinuation. This is especially important among paediatric and young adult populations where GCK-MODY is most prevalent. The study evaluated the utility of lipid parameters in screening for patients with GCK-MODY. Eighty-nine children with type 1 diabetes and 68 with GCK-MODY were screened for triglyceride (TG), total and HDL cholesterol levels. Standardization against a control group of 171 healthy children was applied to eliminate the effect of development. Clinical applicability and cut-off value were evaluated in all available patients with GCK-MODY (n = 148), hepatocyte nuclear factor 1-alpha-MODY (HNF1A MODY) (n = 37) or type 1 diabetes (n = 221). Lower lipid parameter values were observed in GCK-MODY than in patients with type 1 diabetes. Standard deviation scores were -0·22 ± 2·24 vs 1·31 ± 2·17 for HDL cholesterol (P MODY selection [sensitivity 87%, specificity 54%, negative predictive value (NPV) 86%, positive PV 56%]. A threshold HDL concentration of 1·56 mm offered significantly better diagnostic efficiency than total cholesterol (cut-off value 4·51 mm; NPV 80%; PPV 38%; P MODY and differentiation from T1DM and HNF1A-MODY, regardless of treatment or metabolic control. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. A functional ABCA1 gene variant is associated with low HDL-cholesterol levels and shows evidence of positive selection in Native Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acuña-Alonzo, Víctor; Flores-Dorantes, Teresa; Kruit, Janine K.; Villarreal-Molina, Teresa; Arellano-Campos, Olimpia; Hünemeier, Tábita; Moreno-Estrada, Andrés; Ortiz-López, Ma Guadalupe; Villamil-Ramírez, Hugo; León-Mimila, Paola; Villalobos-Comparan, Marisela; Jacobo-Albavera, Leonor; Ramírez-Jiménez, Salvador; Sikora, Martin; Zhang, Lin-Hua; Pape, Terry D.; de Ángeles Granados-Silvestre, Ma; Montufar-Robles, Isela; Tito-Alvarez, Ana M.; Zurita-Salinas, Camilo; Bustos-Arriaga, José; Cedillo-Barrón, Leticia; Gómez-Trejo, Celta; Barquera-Lozano, Rodrigo; Vieira-Filho, Joao P.; Granados, Julio; Romero-Hidalgo, Sandra; Huertas-Vázquez, Adriana; González-Martín, Antonio; Gorostiza, Amaya; Bonatto, Sandro L.; Rodríguez-Cruz, Maricela; Wang, Li; Tusié-Luna, Teresa; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A.; Lisker, Ruben; Moises, Regina S.; Menjivar, Marta; Salzano, Francisco M.; Knowler, William C.; Bortolini, M. Cátira; Hayden, Michael R.; Baier, Leslie J.; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel

    2010-01-01

    It has been suggested that the higher susceptibility of Hispanics to metabolic disease is related to their Native American heritage. A frequent cholesterol transporter ABCA1 (ATP-binding cassette transporter A1) gene variant (R230C, rs9282541) apparently exclusive to Native American individuals was associated with low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels, obesity and type 2 diabetes in Mexican Mestizos. We performed a more extensive analysis of this variant in 4405 Native Americans and 863 individuals from other ethnic groups to investigate genetic evidence of positive selection, to assess its functional effect in vitro and to explore associations with HDL-C levels and other metabolic traits. The C230 allele was found in 29 of 36 Native American groups, but not in European, Asian or African individuals. C230 was observed on a single haplotype, and C230-bearing chromosomes showed longer relative haplotype extension compared with other haplotypes in the Americas. Additionally, single-nucleotide polymorphism data from the Human Genome Diversity Panel Native American populations were enriched in significant integrated haplotype score values in the region upstream of the ABCA1 gene. Cells expressing the C230 allele showed a 27% cholesterol efflux reduction (P< 0.001), confirming this variant has a functional effect in vitro. Moreover, the C230 allele was associated with lower HDL-C levels (P = 1.77 × 10−11) and with higher body mass index (P = 0.0001) in the combined analysis of Native American populations. This is the first report of a common functional variant exclusive to Native American and descent populations, which is a major determinant of HDL-C levels and may have contributed to the adaptive evolution of Native American populations. PMID:20418488

  5. HDL cholesterol and residual risk of first cardiovascular events after treatment with potent statin therapy: an analysis from the JUPITER trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridker, P.M.; Genest, J.; Boekholdt, S.M.

    2010-01-01

    Background HDL-cholesterol concentrations are inversely associated with occurrence of cardiovascular events. We addressed, using the JUPITER trial cohort, whether this association remains when LDL-cholesterol concentrations are reduced to the very low ranges with high-dose statin treatment. Methods...... Participants in the randomised placebo-controlled JUPITER trial were adults without diabetes or previous cardiovascular disease, and had baseline concentrations of LDL cholesterol of less than 3.37 mmol/L and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein of 2 mg/L or more. Participants were randomly allocated...... these quartiles and the JUPITER primary endpoint of first non-fatal myocardial infarction or stroke, hospitalisation for unstable angina, arterial revascularisation, or cardiovascular death. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00239681. Findings For 17802 patients in the JUPITER trial...

  6. Low HDL cholesterol as a cardiovascular risk factor in rural, urban, and rural-urban migrants: PERU MIGRANT cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazo-Porras, María; Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio; Málaga, Germán; Gilman, Robert H; Acuña-Villaorduña, Ana; Cardenas-Montero, Deborah; Smeeth, Liam; Miranda, J Jaime

    2016-03-01

    Whilst the relationship between lipids and cardiovascular mortality has been well studied and appears to be controversial, very little has been explored in the context of rural-to-urban migration in low-resource settings. Determine the profile and related factors for HDL-c patterns (isolated and non-isolated low HDL-c) in three population-based groups according to their migration status, and determine the effect of HDL-c patterns on the rates of cardiovascular outcomes (i.e. non-fatal stroke and non-fatal myocardial infarction) and mortality. Cross-sectional and 5-year longitudinal data from the PERU MIGRANT study, designed to assess the effect of migration on cardiovascular risk profiles and mortality in Peru. Two different analyses were performed: first, we estimated prevalence and associated factors with isolated and non-isolated low HDL-c at baseline. Second, using longitudinal information, relative risk ratios (RRR) of composite outcomes of mortality, non-fatal stroke and non-fatal myocardial infarction were calculated according to HDL-c levels at baseline. Data from 988 participants, rural (n = 201), rural-to-urban migrants (n = 589), and urban (n = 199) groups, was analysed. Low HDL-c was present in 56.5% (95%CI: 53.4%-59.6%) without differences by study groups. Isolated low HDL-c was found in 36.5% (95%CI: 33.5-39.5%), with differences between study groups. In multivariable analysis, urban group (vs. rural), female gender, overweight and obesity were independently associated with isolated low HDL-c. Only female gender, overweight and obesity were associated with non-isolated low HDL-c. Longitudinal analyses showed that non-isolated low HDL-c increased the risk of negative cardiovascular outcomes (RRR = 3.46; 95%CI: 1.23-9.74). Isolated low HDL-c was the most common dyslipidaemia in the study population and was more frequent in rural subjects. Non-isolated low HDL-c increased three-to fourfold the 5-year risk of cardiovascular outcomes. Copyright © 2015 The

  7. Comparison of apolipoprotein (apoB/apoA-I and lipoprotein (total cholesterol/HDL ratio determinants. Focus on obesity, diet and alcohol intake.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Tognon

    Full Text Available The ratio between apolipoprotein B and apolipoprotein A-I (apoB/apoA-I has been suggested to be a powerful and more accurate predictor of future cardiovascular disease risk than total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol. Since diet and lifestyle can directly influence dyslipidemia, it is of interest to identify modifiable factors that are associated with high levels of the apolipoprotein ratio and if they can have a different association with a more traditional indicator of cardiovascular risk such as total cholesterol/HDL. The relationship between obesity and dyslipidemia is established and it is of interest to determine which factors can modify this association. This study investigated the cross-sectional association of obesity, diet and lifestyle factors with apoB/apoA-I and total cholesterol/HDL respectively, in a Swedish population of 2,907 subjects (1,537 women as part of the INTERGENE study. The apolipoprotein and lipoprotein ratios were highly correlated, particularly in women, and obesity was strongly associated with both. Additionally, age, cigarette smoking and alcohol intake were important determinants of these ratios. Alcohol was the only dietary factor that appreciably attenuated the association between obesity and each of the ratios, with a stronger attenuation in women. Other dietary intake and lifestyle-related factors such as smoking status and physical activity had a lower effect on this association. Because the apolipoprotein and lipoprotein ratios share similar diet and lifestyle determinants as well as being highly correlated, we conclude that either of these ratios may be a sufficient indicator of dyslipidemia.

  8. The Effect of Cloud Ear Fungus (Auricularia polytricha on Serum Total Cholesterol, LDL And HDL Levels on Wistar Rats Induced by Reused Cooking Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budinastiti Ratih

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The usage of reused cooking oil affects the increase of serum total cholesterol (TC and LDL, also the decrease of serum HDL. This condition escalates the risk of atherosclerosis, which could lead to the incidence of cardiovascular disease. Cloud ear fungus is a natural antioxidant that contains polysaccharides, flavonoids, niacin, and vitamin C, which can improve the lipid profiles. Objective of this research is to analyze the impact of water from boiled cloud ear fungus on total cholesterol, LDL, and HDL level of Wistar rats that have been given reused cooking oil. This study is a true experimental research with post test only control group design, using 12 weeks-aged male Wistar rats (n = 24 that were randomly divided into 4 groups. K1 as the negative control, K2 was given reused cooking oil and standard diet, K3 was given water from boiled cloud ear fungus and standard diet, and K4 was given reused cooking oil, water from boiled cloud ear fungus and standard diet. Serum total cholesterol, LDL, and HDL levels were measured by the CHOD-PAP method after 28 days treatment. The study showed that TC mean value of K1 (80.2217 ± 3.61 mg / dL, K2 (195.8483 ± 5.47 mg / dL, K3 (75.5800 ± 4.02 mg / dL, and K4 (110.8683 ± 5.82 mg / dL; p = 0.000. LDL mean value of K1 (29.9200 ± 1.53 mg / dL, K2 (78.4167 ± 1.77 mg / dL, K3 (24.3167 ± 1.77 mg / dL, and K4 (40, 1617 ± 2.84 mg / dL; p = 0.000. HDL mean value of K1 (65.8950 ± 1.99 mg / dL, K2 (24.3233 ± 1.44 mg / dL, K3 (73.2300 ± 1.92 mg / dL, and K4 (54, 9550 ± 2.04 mg / dL; p= 0.000. Conclusion: Water from boiled cloud ear fungus decreases the serum total cholesterol and LDL, 06006 increases serum HDL levels of Wistar rats that has been given reused cooking oil.

  9. The Effect of Cloud Ear Fungus (Auricularia polytricha) on Serum Total Cholesterol, LDL And HDL Levels on Wistar Rats Induced by Reused Cooking Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budinastiti, Ratih; Sunoko, Henna Rya; Widiastiti, Nyoman Suci

    2018-02-01

    The usage of reused cooking oil affects the increase of serum total cholesterol (TC) and LDL, also the decrease of serum HDL. This condition escalates the risk of atherosclerosis, which could lead to the incidence of cardiovascular disease. Cloud ear fungus is a natural antioxidant that contains polysaccharides, flavonoids, niacin, and vitamin C, which can improve the lipid profiles. Objective of this research is to analyze the impact of water from boiled cloud ear fungus on total cholesterol, LDL, and HDL level of Wistar rats that have been given reused cooking oil. This study is a true experimental research with post test only control group design, using 12 weeks-aged male Wistar rats (n = 24) that were randomly divided into 4 groups. K1 as the negative control, K2 was given reused cooking oil and standard diet, K3 was given water from boiled cloud ear fungus and standard diet, and K4 was given reused cooking oil, water from boiled cloud ear fungus and standard diet. Serum total cholesterol, LDL, and HDL levels were measured by the CHOD-PAP method after 28 days treatment. The study showed that TC mean value of K1 (80.2217 ± 3.61 mg / dL), K2 (195.8483 ± 5.47 mg / dL), K3 (75.5800 ± 4.02 mg / dL), and K4 (110.8683 ± 5.82 mg / dL); p = 0.000. LDL mean value of K1 (29.9200 ± 1.53 mg / dL), K2 (78.4167 ± 1.77 mg / dL), K3 (24.3167 ± 1.77 mg / dL), and K4 (40, 1617 ± 2.84 mg / dL); p = 0.000. HDL mean value of K1 (65.8950 ± 1.99 mg / dL), K2 (24.3233 ± 1.44 mg / dL), K3 (73.2300 ± 1.92 mg / dL), and K4 (54, 9550 ± 2.04 mg / dL); p= 0.000. Conclusion: Water from boiled cloud ear fungus decreases the serum total cholesterol and LDL, 06006 increases serum HDL levels of Wistar rats that has been given reused cooking oil.

  10. Cost-effectiveness of raising HDL cholesterol by adding prolonged-release nicotinic acid to statin therapy in the secondary prevention setting: a French perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roze, S; Ferrières, J; Bruckert, E; Van Ganse, E; Chapman, M J; Liens, D; Renaudin, C

    2007-11-01

    To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of raising high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) with add-on nicotinic acid in statin-treated patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) and low HDL-C, from the French healthcare system perspective. Computer simulation economic modelling incorporating two decision analytic submodels was used. The first submodel generated a cohort of 2000 patients and simulated lipid changes using baseline characteristics and treatment effects from the ARterial Biology for the Investigation of the Treatment Effects of Reducing cholesterol (ARBITER 2) study. Prolonged-release (PR) nicotinic acid (1 g/day) was added in patients with HDL-C costs were accounted from a third party payer perspective [2004 Euros (euro)] and discounted by 3%. Addition of PR nicotinic acid to statin therapy resulted in substantial health gain and increased life expectancy, at a cost well within the threshold (cost-effective in France at a level considered to represent good value for money by reimbursement authorities in Europe. This strategy was highly cost-effective in CHD patients with type 2 diabetes.

  11. Changes in body weight are significantly associated with changes in fasting plasma glucose and HDL cholesterol in Japanese men without abdominal obesity (waist circumference < 85 cm).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Eiji; Kawai, Ryu

    2011-06-01

    The aims are to examine whether changes in body weight (dBW) are associated with changes in cardiovascular risk factors in Japanese men without abdominal obesity (waist circumference (WC) obesity. It is a retrospective study in 692 Japanese men without abdominal obesity who took annual health screening tests consecutively over one year. Standardized linear regression coefficients (SRCs) of dBW and dWC were calculated for changes in systolic blood pressure (dSBP), diastolic blood pressure (dDBP), fasting plasma glucose (dFPG), triglycerides (dTG), HDL cholesterol (dHDL), and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (dCRP). The SRCs of dBW for dFPG and dHDL were significant in all men and in men with each risk factor corresponding to the component of metabolic syndrome (MetS). The SRCs of dWC for dTG and dCRP were significant in all men but not in men with each risk factor corresponding to the MetS component. In conclusions, dBW were significantly associated with dFPG and dHDL in Japanese men without abdominal obesity. Therefore, abdominal obesity should not be considered as a necessary component of MetS in Japanese men. dBW may be more useful than dWC as a marker of changes in cardiovascular risk factors in lifestyle intervention programs.

  12. Low Maternal Vitamin B12 Status Is Associated with Lower Cord Blood HDL Cholesterol in White Caucasians Living in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonysunil Adaikalakoteswari

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Studies in South Asian population show that low maternal vitamin B12 associates with insulin resistance and small for gestational age in the offspring. Low vitamin B12 status is attributed to vegetarianism in these populations. It is not known whether low B12 status is associated with metabolic risk of the offspring in whites, where the childhood metabolic disorders are increasing rapidly. Here, we studied whether maternal B12 levels associate with metabolic risk of the offspring at birth. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study of 91 mother-infant pairs (n = 182, of white Caucasian origin living in the UK. Blood samples were collected from white pregnant women at delivery and their newborns (cord blood. Serum vitamin B12, folate, homocysteine as well as the relevant metabolic risk factors were measured. Results: The prevalence of low serum vitamin B12 (<191 ng/L and folate (<4.6 μg/L were 40% and 11%, respectively. Maternal B12 was inversely associated with offspring’s Homeostasis Model Assessment 2-Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR, triglycerides, homocysteine and positively with HDL-cholesterol after adjusting for age and BMI. In regression analysis, after adjusting for likely confounders, maternal B12 is independently associated with neonatal HDL-cholesterol and homocysteine but not triglycerides or HOMA-IR. Conclusions: Our study shows that low B12 status is common in white women and is independently associated with adverse cord blood cholesterol.

  13. Evidence of major genes for plasma HDL, LDL cholesterol and triglyceride levels at baseline and in response to 20 weeks of endurance training: the HERITAGE Family Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, P; Borecki, I B; Rankinen, T; Després, J-P; Leon, A S; Skinner, J S; Wilmore, J H; Bouchard, C; Rao, D C

    2005-01-01

    This study assessed major gene effects for baseline HDL-C, LDL-C, TG, and their training responses (post-training minus baseline) in 527 individuals from 99 White families and 326 individuals from 113 Black families in the HERITAGE Family Study. The baseline phenotypes were adjusted for the effects of age and BMI, and the training response phenotypes were adjusted for the effects of age, BMI, and their respective baseline values, within each of the sex-by-generation-by-race groups, prior to genetic analyses. In Whites, we found that LDL-C at baseline and HDL-C training response were under influence of major recessive genes (accounting for 2--30 % of the variance) and multifactorial (polygenic and familial environmental) effects. Interactions of these major genes with sex, age, and BMI were tested, and found to be nonsignificant. In Blacks, we found that baseline HDL-C was influenced by a major dominant gene without a multifactorial component. This major gene effect accounted for 45 % of the variance, and exhibited no significant genotype-specific interactions with age, sex, and BMI. Evidence of major genes for the remaining phenotypes at baseline and in response to endurance training were not found in both races, though some were influenced by major effects that did not follow Mendelian expectations or were with ambiguous transmission from parents to offspring. In summary, major gene effects that influence baseline plasma HDL-C and LDL-C levels as well as changes in HDL-C levels in response to regular exercise were detected in the current study.

  14. The association of 83 plasma proteins with CHD mortality, BMI, HDL-, and total-cholesterol in men: Applying multivariate statistics to identify proteins with prognostic value and biological relevance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geert Heidema, A.; Thissen, U.; Boer, J.M.A.; Bouwman, F.G.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Mariman, E.C.M.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we applied the multivariate statistical tool Partial Least Squares (PLS) to analyze the relative importance of 83 plasma proteins in relation to coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality and the intermediate end points body mass index, HDL-cholesterol and total cholesterol. From a Dutch

  15. Butter increased total and LDL cholesterol compared with olive oil but resulted in higher HDL cholesterol compared with a habitual diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engel, Sara; Tholstrup, Tine

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Butter is known to have a cholesterol-raising effect and, therefore, has often been included as a negative control in dietary studies, whereas the effect of moderate butter intake has not been elucidated to our knowledge. OBJECTIVE: We compared the effects of moderate butter intake...... their habitual diets. The study included 47 healthy men and women (mean ± SD total cholesterol: 5.22 ± 0.90 mmol/L) who substituted a part of their habitual diets with 4.5% of energy from butter or refined olive oil. RESULTS: Study subjects were 70% women with a mean age and body mass index (in kg/m(2)) of 40.......4 y and 23.5, respectively. Butter intake increased total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol more than did olive oil intake (P cholesterol compared with the run-in period (P

  16. Effects of aspirin in combination with EPA and DHA on HDL-C cholesterol and ApoA1 exchange in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Robert C; Holub, Ashley; Abdolahi, Amir; Tu, Xin M; Mousa, Shaker A; Oda, Michael N

    2017-11-01

    Low-dose aspirin is an effective drug for the prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) events but individuals with diabetes mellitus can be subject to 'aspirin resistance'. Thus, aspirin's effect in these individuals is controversial. Higher blood levels of seafood-derived omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω3) eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) also have beneficial effects in reducing risk of CVD events but few studies have examined the interaction of plasma EPA and DHA with aspirin ingestion. Our study examined the combinatory effects of EPA, DHA, and aspirin ingestion on HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) and apoA-I exchange (shown to be associated with CVD event risk). 30 adults with Type 2 diabetes mellitus ingested aspirin (81mg/day) for 7 consecutive days, EPA+DHA (2.6g/day) for 28 days, then both for 7 days. Plasma was collected at baseline and at 5 subsequent visits including 4h after each aspirin ingestion. Mixed model methods were used to determine HDL-C-concentrations and apoA-I exchange compared to the baseline visit values. LOWESS curves were used for non-linear analyses of outcomes to help discern change patterns, which was followed by piecewise linear functions for formal testing of curvilinear relationships. Significant changes (p aspirin-only ingestion, apoA-I exchange was significantly modified by increasing levels of DHA concentration, with increased apoA-I exchange observed up until log(DHA) of 4.6 and decreased exchange thereafter (p = 0.03). These LOWESS curve effects were not observed for EPA or HDL-C (p > 0.05). Aspirin's effects on apoA-I exchange were the greatest when EPA or DHA concentrations were moderate compared to high or low. Comparison of EPA, DHA, and EPA+DHA LOWESS curves, demonstrated that the majority of the effect is due to DHA. Our results strongly suggest that plasma concentrations of EPA and DHA influence aspirin effects on lipid mediators of CVD event risk where their concentrations are most beneficial

  17. Low serum levels of High-Density Lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) as an indicator for the development of severe postpartum depressive symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran Pillai, Raji; Wilson, Anand Babu; Premkumar, Nancy R.; Kattimani, Shivanand; Sagili, Haritha

    2018-01-01

    Postpartum depression (PPD) is a psychiatric complication of childbirth affecting 10–20% of new mothers and has negative impact on both mother and infant. Serum lipid levels have been related to depressive disorders, but very limited literatures are available regarding the lipid levels in women with postpartum depression. The present study is aimed to examine the association of serum lipids with the development of postpartum depressive symptoms. This is a cross sectional study conducted at a tertiary care hospital in South India. Women who came for postpartum check-up at 6th week post-delivery were screened for PPD (September 2014-October 2015). Women with depressive symptoms were assessed using EPDS (Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale). The study involved 186 cases and 250 controls matched for age and BMI. Serum levels of lipid parameters were estimated through spectrophotometry and the atherogenic indices were calculated in all the subjects. Low serum levels of Total Cholesterol (TC) and High Density Lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) were significantly low in PPD women with severe depressive symptoms. The study recorded a significant negative correlation between HDL-c and the EPDS score in PPD women (r = -0.140, p = 0.05). Interestingly, the study also observed a significant negative correlation between Body Mass Index (BMI) and EPDS scores in case group (r = -0.146, p = 0.047), whereas a positive correlation between the same in controls (r = 0.187, p = 0.004). Our study demonstrated that low levels of serum HDL-c is correlated with the development of severe depressive symptoms in postpartum women. Study highlights the role of lipids in the development of postpartum depressive symptoms. PMID:29444162

  18. Low serum levels of High-Density Lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c as an indicator for the development of severe postpartum depressive symptoms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raji Ramachandran Pillai

    Full Text Available Postpartum depression (PPD is a psychiatric complication of childbirth affecting 10-20% of new mothers and has negative impact on both mother and infant. Serum lipid levels have been related to depressive disorders, but very limited literatures are available regarding the lipid levels in women with postpartum depression. The present study is aimed to examine the association of serum lipids with the development of postpartum depressive symptoms. This is a cross sectional study conducted at a tertiary care hospital in South India. Women who came for postpartum check-up at 6th week post-delivery were screened for PPD (September 2014-October 2015. Women with depressive symptoms were assessed using EPDS (Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. The study involved 186 cases and 250 controls matched for age and BMI. Serum levels of lipid parameters were estimated through spectrophotometry and the atherogenic indices were calculated in all the subjects. Low serum levels of Total Cholesterol (TC and High Density Lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c were significantly low in PPD women with severe depressive symptoms. The study recorded a significant negative correlation between HDL-c and the EPDS score in PPD women (r = -0.140, p = 0.05. Interestingly, the study also observed a significant negative correlation between Body Mass Index (BMI and EPDS scores in case group (r = -0.146, p = 0.047, whereas a positive correlation between the same in controls (r = 0.187, p = 0.004. Our study demonstrated that low levels of serum HDL-c is correlated with the development of severe depressive symptoms in postpartum women. Study highlights the role of lipids in the development of postpartum depressive symptoms.

  19. What Is Cholesterol?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Cholesterol There are two main types of cholesterol: LDL and HDL. The cholesterol blood test tells how much of each kind you have. Most cholesterol is LDL (low-density lipoprotein) cholesterol. This type is most ...

  20. Acute Cocoa Supplementation Increases Postprandial HDL Cholesterol and Insulin in Obese Adults with Type 2 Diabetes after Consumption of a High-Fat Breakfast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Arpita; Betts, Nancy M; Leyva, Misti J; Fu, Dongxu; Aston, Christopher E; Lyons, Timothy J

    2015-10-01

    Dietary cocoa is an important source of flavonoids and is associated with favorable cardiovascular disease effects, such as improvements in vascular function and lipid profiles, in nondiabetic adults. Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is associated with adverse effects on postprandial serum glucose, lipids, inflammation, and vascular function. We examined the hypothesis that cocoa reduces metabolic stress in obese T2D adults after a high-fat fast-food-style meal. Adults with T2D [n = 18; age (mean ± SE): 56 ± 3 y; BMI (in kg/m(2)): 35.3 ± 2.0; 14 women; 4 men] were randomly assigned to receive cocoa beverage (960 mg total polyphenols; 480 mg flavanols) or flavanol-free placebo (110 mg total polyphenols; cocoa or placebo, and blood sample collection [glucose, insulin, lipids, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP)] and vascular measurements were conducted at 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 6 h postprandially on each study day. Insulin resistance was evaluated by homeostasis model assessment. Over the 6-h study, and specifically at 1 and 4 h, cocoa increased HDL cholesterol vs. placebo (overall Δ: 1.5 ± 0.8 mg/dL; P ≤ 0.01) but had no effect on total and LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, and hsCRP. Cocoa increased serum insulin concentrations overall (Δ: 5.2 ± 3.2 mU/L; P cocoa vs. placebo (Δ: -1.6 ± 0.7 mL/mm Hg; P cocoa supplementation showed no clear overall benefit in T2D patients after a high-fat fast-food-style meal challenge. Although HDL cholesterol and insulin remained higher throughout the 6-h postprandial period, an overall decrease in large artery elasticity was found after cocoa consumption. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01886989. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  1. Acute Cocoa Supplementation Increases Postprandial HDL Cholesterol and Insulin in Obese Adults with Type 2 Diabetes after Consumption of a High-Fat Breakfast123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Arpita; Betts, Nancy M; Leyva, Misti J; Fu, Dongxu; Aston, Christopher E; Lyons, Timothy J

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dietary cocoa is an important source of flavonoids and is associated with favorable cardiovascular disease effects, such as improvements in vascular function and lipid profiles, in nondiabetic adults. Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is associated with adverse effects on postprandial serum glucose, lipids, inflammation, and vascular function. Objective: We examined the hypothesis that cocoa reduces metabolic stress in obese T2D adults after a high-fat fast-food–style meal. Methods: Adults with T2D [n = 18; age (mean ± SE): 56 ± 3 y; BMI (in kg/m2): 35.3 ± 2.0; 14 women; 4 men] were randomly assigned to receive cocoa beverage (960 mg total polyphenols; 480 mg flavanols) or flavanol-free placebo (110 mg total polyphenols; cocoa or placebo, and blood sample collection [glucose, insulin, lipids, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP)] and vascular measurements were conducted at 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 6 h postprandially on each study day. Insulin resistance was evaluated by homeostasis model assessment. Results: Over the 6-h study, and specifically at 1 and 4 h, cocoa increased HDL cholesterol vs. placebo (overall Δ: 1.5 ± 0.8 mg/dL; P ≤ 0.01) but had no effect on total and LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, and hsCRP. Cocoa increased serum insulin concentrations overall (Δ: 5.2 ± 3.2 mU/L; P cocoa vs. placebo (Δ: −1.6 ± 0.7 mL/mm Hg; P cocoa supplementation showed no clear overall benefit in T2D patients after a high-fat fast-food–style meal challenge. Although HDL cholesterol and insulin remained higher throughout the 6-h postprandial period, an overall decrease in large artery elasticity was found after cocoa consumption. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01886989. PMID:26338890

  2. Sex differences in HDL ApoC-III in American Indian youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blackett Piers R

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since American Indians are predisposed to type 2 diabetes (DM2 and associated cardiovascular risk, Cherokee boys and girls (n = 917 were studied to determine whether BMI Z (body mass index Z score is associated with the apoC-III (apolipoprotein C-III content of HDL (high density lipoprotein, a previously reported predictor of DM2. Methods An ad hoc cross-sectional analysis was conducted on a previously studied cohort. Participants were grouped by gender-specific age groups (5 to 9, 10 to 14 and 15 to 19 years. ApoA-I (apolipoprotein A-I and HDL apoC-III were assayed by electroimmunoassay. ApoC-III was measured in whole plasma, and in HDL to determine the molar proportion to apoA-I. General linear models were used to assess association. Results The HDL apoC-III to apoA-I molar ratio increased by BMI Z quartile in girls aged 10–14 years (p  Conclusions ApoC-III showed an obesity-related increase relative to apoA-I during adolescence beginning in girls aged 10 to 14 years and in boys aged 15 to 19 years. The earlier changes in girls may alter HDL’s protective properties on the β-cell and contribute to their increased risk for DM2.

  3. A lipoprotein lipase mutation (Asn291Ser) is associated with reduced HDL cholesterol levels in premature atherosclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reymer, P.W.A.; Gagné, S E; Groenemeyer, B E; Zhang, H; Forsyth, I; Jansen, H; Seidell, J C; Kromhout, D.; Lie, K E; Kastelein, J.J.

    1995-01-01

    A reduction of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDC) is recognized as an important risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD). We now show in approximately 1 in 20 males with proven atherosclerosis that an Asn291Ser mutation in the human lipoprotein lipase (LPL) gene is associated with

  4. Fractional esterification rate of cholesterol and ratio of triglycerides to HDL-cholesterol are powerful predictors of positive findings on coronary angiography

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Frohlich, J.; Dobiášová, Milada

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 11 (2003), s. 1873-1880 ISSN 0009-9147 R&D Projects: GA MZd NA6590 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : fractional esterification rate of cholesterol (FERHDL) * coronary angiography * markers of atherosclerotic lesions Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery Impact factor: 5.538, year: 2003

  5. The triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TG/HDL-C) ratio as a predictor of insulin resistance but not of β cell function in a Chinese population with different glucose tolerance status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Meicen; Zhu, Lixin; Cui, Xiangli; Feng, Linbo; Zhao, Xuefeng; He, Shuli; Ping, Fan; Li, Wei; Li, Yuxiu

    2016-06-07

    Triglyceride/high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (TG/HDL-C) ratio was a surrogate marker of IR; however, the relationship of TG/HDL-C with IR might vary by ethnicity. This study aims to investigate whether lipid ratios-TG/HDL-C, cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (TC/HDL-C) ratio, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C/HDL-C)) could be potential clinical markers of insulin resistance (IR) and β cell function and further to explore the optimal cut-offs in a Chinese population with different levels of glucose tolerance. Four hundred seventy-nine subjects without a history of diabetes underwent a 75 g 2 h Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT). New-onset diabetes (n = 101), pre-diabetes (n = 186), and normal glucose tolerance (n = 192) were screened. IR was defined by HOMA-IR > 2.69. Based on indices (HOMA-β, early-phase disposition index [DI30], (ΔIns30/ΔGlu30)/HOMA-IR and total-phase index [DI120]) that indicated different phases of insulin secretion, the subjects were divided into two groups, and the lower group was defined as having inadequate β cell compensation. Logistic regression models and accurate estimates of the areas under receiver operating characteristic curves (AUROC) were obtained. In all of the subjects, TG/HDL, TC/HDL-C, LDL-C/HDL-C, and TG were significantly associated with IR. The AUROCs of TG/HDL-C and TG were 0.71 (95 % CI: 0.66-0.75) and 0.71 (95 % CI: 0.65-0.75), respectively. The optimal cut-offs of TG/HDL-C and TG for IR diagnosis were 1.11 and 1.33 mmol/L, respectively. The AUROCs of TC/HDL-C and LDL-C/HDL-C were 0.66 and 0.65, respectively, but they were not acceptable for IR diagnosis. TG/HDL-C,LDL-C/HDL-C and TG were significantly associated with HOMA-β, but AUROCs were less than 0.50; therefore, the lipid ratios could not be predictors of basal β cell dysfunction. None of the lipid ratios was associated with early-phase insulin secretion. Only TG/HDL-C and

  6. LDL: The "Bad" Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... There are two main types of cholesterol: LDL (bad) cholesterol and HDL (good) cholesterol: LDL stands for low-density lipoproteins. It is called the "bad" cholesterol because a high LDL level leads to ...

  7. Intracellular trafficking of the free cholesterol derived from LDL cholesteryl ester is defective in vivo in Niemann-Pick C disease: insights on normal metabolism of HDL and LDL gained from the NP-C mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamburek, R D; Pentchev, P G; Zech, L A; Blanchette-Mackie, J; Carstea, E D; VandenBroek, J M; Cooper, P S; Neufeld, E B; Phair, R D; Brewer, H B; Brady, R O; Schwartz, C C

    1997-12-01

    Niemann-Pick C disease (NP-C) is a rare inborn error of metabolism with hepatic involvement and neurological sequelae that usually manifest in childhood. Although in vitro studies have shown that the lysosomal distribution of LDL-derived cholesterol is defective in cultured cells of NP-C subjects, no unusual characteristics mark the plasma lipoprotein profiles. We set out to determine whether anomalies exist in vivo in the cellular distribution of newly synthesized, HDL-derived or LDL-derived cholesterol under physiologic conditions in NP-C subjects. Three affected and three normal male subjects were administered [14C]mevalonate as a tracer of newly synthesized cholesterol and [3H]cholesteryl linoleate in either HDL or LDL to trace the distribution of lipoprotein-derived free cholesterol. The rate of appearance of free [14C]- and free [3H]cholesterol in the plasma membrane was detected indirectly by monitoring their appearance in plasma and bile. The plasma disappearance of [3H]cholesteryl linoleate was slightly faster in NP-C subjects regardless of its lipoprotein origin. Appearance of free [14C] cholesterol ill the plasma (and in bile) was essentially identical in normal and affected individuals as was the initial appearance of free [3H]cholesterol derived from HDL, observed before extensive exchange occurred of the [3H]cholesteryl linoleate among lipoproteins. In contrast, the rate of appearance of LDL-derived free [3H]cholesterol in the plasma membrane of NP-C subjects, as detected in plasma and bile, was retarded to a similar extent that LDL cholesterol metabolism was defective in cultured fibroblasts of these affected subjects. These findings show that intracellular distribution of both newly synthesized and HDL-derived cholesterol are essentially unperturbed by the NP-C mutation, and therefore occur by lysosomal-independent paths. In contrast, in NP-C there is defective trafficking of LDL-derived cholesterol to the plasma membrane in vivo as well as in vitro

  8. Cholesterol - what to ask your doctor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your doctor; What to ask your doctor about cholesterol ... What is my cholesterol level? What should my cholesterol level be? What are HDL ("good") cholesterol and LDL ("bad") cholesterol? Does my cholesterol ...

  9. LDL-apheresis depletes apoE-HDL and pre-β1-HDL in familial hypercholesterolemia: relevance to atheroprotection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orsoni, Alexina; Saheb, Samir; Levels, Johannes H. M.; Dallinga-Thie, Geesje; Atassi, Marielle; Bittar, Randa; Robillard, Paul; Bruckert, Eric; Kontush, Anatol; Carrié, Alain; Chapman, M. John

    2011-01-01

    Subnormal HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) and apolipoprotein (apo)AI levels are characteristic of familial hypercholesterolemia (FH), reflecting perturbed intravascular metabolism with compositional anomalies in HDL particles, including apoE enrichment. Does LDL-apheresis, which reduces HDL-cholesterol,

  10. Genetic determinants of HDL metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossoli, A; Gomaraschi, M; Franceschini, G; Calabresi, L

    2014-01-01

    Plasma high density lipoproteins (HDL) comprise a highly heterogeneous family of lipoprotein particles, with subclasses that can be separated and identified according to density, size, surface charge as well as shape and protein composition. There is evidence that these subclasses may differ in their functional properties. The individual plasma HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) level is generally taken as a snapshot of the steady-state concentration of all circulating HDL subclasses together, but this is insufficient to capture the structural and functional variation in HDL particles. HDL are continuously remodeled and metabolized in plasma and interstitial fluids, through the interaction with a large number of factors, including structural proteins, membrane transporters, enzymes, transfer proteins and receptors. Genetic variation in these factors can lead to essential changes in plasma HDL levels, and to remarkable changes in HDL particle density, size, surface charge, shape, and composition in lipids and apolipoproteins. This review discusses the impact of rare mutations and common variants in genes encoding factors involved in HDL remodeling and metabolism on plasma HDL-C levels and particle distribution. The study of the effects of human genetic variation in major players in HDL metabolism provides important clues on how individual factors modulate the formation, maturation, remodeling and catabolism of HDL.

  11. Cholesterol IQ Quiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Cholesterol IQ Quiz Updated:Jul 5,2017 Begin the quiz ... What Your Cholesterol Levels Mean Common Misconceptions Cholesterol IQ Quiz • HDL, LDL, and Triglycerides • Causes of High ...

  12. Effect of rosuvastatin versus atorvastatin treatment on paraoxonase-1 activity in men with established cardiovascular disease and a low HDL-cholesterol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergheanu, S. C.; van Tol, A.; Dallinga-Thie, G. M.; Liem, A.; Dunselman, P. H. J.; van der Bom, J. G.; Jukema, J. W.

    2007-01-01

    Paraoxonase-1 (PON-1) is a high-density lipoprotein (HDL) associated enzyme involved in the protective mechanisms of HDL. Our aim was to compare the effect of treatment with rosuvastatin and atorvastatin on serum PON-1 activity. We performed a prespecified prospective study in 68 patients, part of a

  13. Effect of rosuvastatin versus atorvastatin treatment on paraoxonase-1 activity in men with established cardiovascular disease and a low HDL-cholesterol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergheanu, S. C.; van Tol, A.; Dallinga-Thie, G. M.; Liem, A.; Dunselman, P. H. J.; Van Der Bom, J. G.; Jukema, J. W.

    Objective: Paraoxonase-1 (PON-1) is a highdensity lipoprotein (HDL) associated enzyme involved in the protective mechanisms of HDL. Our aim was to compare the effect of treatment with rosuvastatin and atorvastatin on serum PON-1 activity. Methods: We performed a prespecif ied prospective study in 68

  14. Modification and Validation of the Triglyceride-to-HDL Cholesterol Ratio as a Surrogate of Insulin Sensitivity in White Juveniles and Adults without Diabetes Mellitus: The Single Point Insulin Sensitivity Estimator (SPISE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulmichl, Katharina; Hatunic, Mensud; Højlund, Kurt; Jotic, Aleksandra; Krebs, Michael; Mitrakou, Asimina; Porcellati, Francesca; Tura, Andrea; Bergsten, Peter; Forslund, Anders; Manell, Hannes; Widhalm, Kurt; Weghuber, Daniel; Anderwald, Christian-Heinz

    2016-09-01

    The triglyceride-to-HDL cholesterol (TG/HDL-C) ratio was introduced as a tool to estimate insulin resistance, because circulating lipid measurements are available in routine settings. Insulin, C-peptide, and free fatty acids are components of other insulin-sensitivity indices but their measurement is expensive. Easier and more affordable tools are of interest for both pediatric and adult patients. Study participants from the Relationship Between Insulin Sensitivity and Cardiovascular Disease [43.9 (8.3) years, n = 1260] as well as the Beta-Cell Function in Juvenile Diabetes and Obesity study cohorts [15 (1.9) years, n = 29] underwent oral-glucose-tolerance tests and euglycemic clamp tests for estimation of whole-body insulin sensitivity and calculation of insulin sensitivity indices. To refine the TG/HDL ratio, mathematical modeling was applied including body mass index (BMI), fasting TG, and HDL cholesterol and compared to the clamp-derived M-value as an estimate of insulin sensitivity. Each modeling result was scored by identifying insulin resistance and correlation coefficient. The Single Point Insulin Sensitivity Estimator (SPISE) was compared to traditional insulin sensitivity indices using area under the ROC curve (aROC) analysis and χ(2) test. The novel formula for SPISE was computed as follows: SPISE = 600 × HDL-C(0.185)/(TG(0.2) × BMI(1.338)), with fasting HDL-C (mg/dL), fasting TG concentrations (mg/dL), and BMI (kg/m(2)). A cutoff value of 6.61 corresponds to an M-value smaller than 4.7 mg · kg(-1) · min(-1) (aROC, M:0.797). SPISE showed a significantly better aROC than the TG/HDL-C ratio. SPISE aROC was comparable to the Matsuda ISI (insulin sensitivity index) and equal to the QUICKI (quantitative insulin sensitivity check index) and HOMA-IR (homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance) when calculated with M-values. The SPISE seems well suited to surrogate whole-body insulin sensitivity from inexpensive fasting single-point blood draw and BMI

  15. Cholesterol Levels: What You Need to Know: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lipoprotein ( LDL ) cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein ( HDL ) cholesterol. LDL (bad) cholesterol - the main source of cholesterol buildup ... Teens How to Lower Cholesterol How to Lower Cholesterol with Diet LDL: The "Bad" Cholesterol Nutrition Statins Triglycerides VLDL Cholesterol ...

  16. Characteristics of human hypo- and hyperresponders to dietary cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katan, M B; Beynen, A C

    1987-03-01

    The characteristics of people whose serum cholesterol level is unusually susceptible to consumption of cholesterol were investigated. Thirty-two volunteers from the general population of Wageningen, the Netherlands, each participated in three controlled dietary trials in 1982. A low-cholesterol diet was fed during the first half and a high-cholesterol diet during the second half of each trial, and the change (response) of serum cholesterol was measured. The responses in the three trials were averaged to give each subject's mean responsiveness. Fecal excretion of cholesterol and its metabolites were measured in the second trial, and body cholesterol synthesis was calculated. Responsiveness showed a positive correlation with serum high density lipoprotein2 (HDL2) cholesterol (r = 0.41, p less than 0.05) and with serum total cholesterol level on a high-cholesterol diet (r = 0.31, p = 0.09). A negative relation was found with habitual cholesterol consumption (r = -0.62, p less than 0.01), with body mass index (r = -0.50, p less than 0.01), and with the rate of endogenous cholesterol synthesis (r = -0.40, p less than 0.05), but not with the reaction of endogenous cholesterol synthesis rate to an increased intake of cholesterol. No relation was found with age, sex, total caloric needs, or the ratio of primary to secondary fecal steroids. Upon multiple regression analysis, only habitual cholesterol intake and serum total and HDL2 cholesterol levels contributed significantly to the explanation of variance in responsiveness. Thus, a low habitual cholesterol intake, a high serum HDL2 cholesterol level, or a low body weight do not make one less susceptible to dietary cholesterol-induced hypercholesterolemia.

  17. The triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TG/HDL-C) ratio as a predictor of β-cell function in African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maturu, Amita; DeWitt, Peter; Kern, Philip A; Rasouli, Neda

    2015-05-01

    The TG/HDL-C ratio is used as a marker of insulin resistance (IR) in Caucasians. However, there are conflicting data on TG/HDL-C ratio as a predictor of IR in African Americans. Compared to Caucasians, African Americans have lower TG levels and increased insulin levels despite a greater risk for diabetes. We hypothesized that the TG/HDL-C ratio is predictive of IR and/or β-cell function in African American (AA) women. Non-diabetic AA women (n = 41) with a BMI > 25 kg/m(2) underwent frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test (FSIGTT). Insulin sensitivity (SI) and the acute insulin response to glucose (AIRg) were measured using minimal model and β-cell function was determined by disposition index (DI = S I*AIRg). IR was defined as the lowest tertile of SI ( 0.70 was defined as significant discrimination. The mean (± SD) age was 38.5 ± 11.3 years, with BMI of 33.5 ± 6.7 kg/m(2) and fasting glucose of 86.5 ± 10.5 mg/dL. The AUC-ROC for the prediction of DI women. However, we did show an inverse association between the TG/HDL-C ratio and β-cell function, suggesting that this simple tool may effectively identify AA women at risk for DM2. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Data in support of a central role of plasminogen activator inhibitor-2 polymorphism in recurrent cardiovascular disease risk in the setting of high HDL cholesterol and C-reactive protein using Bayesian network modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James P. Corsetti

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Data is presented that was utilized as the basis for Bayesian network modeling of influence pathways focusing on the central role of a polymorphism of plasminogen activator inhibitor-2 (PAI-2 on recurrent cardiovascular disease risk in patients with high levels of HDL cholesterol and C-reactive protein (CRP as a marker of inflammation, “Influences on Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-2 Polymorphism-Associated Recurrent Cardiovascular Disease Risk in Patients with High HDL Cholesterol and Inflammation” (Corsetti et al., 2016; [1]. The data consist of occurrence of recurrent coronary events in 166 post myocardial infarction patients along with 1. clinical data on gender, race, age, and body mass index; 2. blood level data on 17 biomarkers; and 3. genotype data on 53 presumptive CVD-related single nucleotide polymorphisms. Additionally, a flow diagram of the Bayesian modeling procedure is presented along with Bayesian network subgraphs (root nodes to outcome events utilized as the data from which PAI-2 associated influence pathways were derived (Corsetti et al., 2016; [1]. Keywords: Recurrent cardiovascular disease risk, Pathophysiology, Plasminogen activator inhibitor-2, Bayesian network

  19. Cardiometabolic risk factors as apolipoprotein B, triglyceride/HDL-cholesterol ratio and C-reactive protein, in adolescents with and without obesity: cross-sectional study in middle class suburban children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musso, Carla; Graffigna, Mabel; Soutelo, Jimena; Honfi, Margarita; Ledesma, Laura; Miksztowicz, Verónica; Pazos, Mónica; Migliano, Marta; Schreier, Laura Ester; Berg, Gabriela Alicia

    2011-05-01

    The prevalence of obesity (OB), overweight (OW), and metabolic syndrome (MS) has increased worldwide. That imposes a substantial risk for type 2 diabetes and premature cardiovascular disease. However, to date no unified criteria exist to asses risk or outcomes in children and adolescents. To establish the presence of OB/OW and MS and risk factors for cardiovascular disease in adolescents. Male (n = 514) and female (n = 429) adolescents from high school were studied (11-14 yr). Weight, height, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and blood pressure were determined in all subjects. Glucose, lipoprotein profile, apolipoprotein B (apoB), and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels were measured. Triglyceride/high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (TG/HDL-cholesterol) ratio was calculated. The frequency of OB/OW and MS were 22.2 and 3.7%, respectively. In comparison to healthy adolescents, TG/HDL-cholesterol ratio was increased in OB/OW (2.9 ± 2.5 vs. 1.6 ± 1.0) and MS groups (4.0 ± 2.5 vs. 1.6 ± 0.9), p < 0.001. OB/OW adolescents presented higher values of hs-CRP in comparison to non-obese, median (range): 1.9 (0.1-9.4) vs. 1.4 (0.1-9.9), mg/L, p < 0.001. ApoB (mean ± SD) was 71 ± 21 mg/dL in MS group and 59 ± 17 mg/dL in those without MS (p < 0.001). TG/HDL-cholesterol ratio positively correlated with BMI (r = 0.18, p < 0.001), WC (r = 0.24, p < 0.001), and apoB (r = 0.24, p < 0.001); hs-CRP correlated with WC (r = 0.14, p < 0.001) and BMI (r = 0.17, p < 0.001). Even when the frequency of OB, OW, and MS in adolescents was low, those subjects presented an atherogenic lipoprotein. These findings emphasize the importance to evaluate cardiovascular risk factors in adolescents to assess strategies to prevent future disease. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  20. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to OptiEFAX™ and maintenance of normal blood HDL-cholesterol concentrations pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to OptiEFAX™ and maintenance of normal blood HDL-cholesterol concentrations. The food that is the subject of the health claim, OptiEFAX™, which is standardised pure krill oil, is sufficiently characterised in relation to the claimed effect. The claimed...... effect, maintenance of normal blood HDL-cholesterol concentrations, is a beneficial physiological effect. The target population proposed by the applicant is the general population. No human studies have been provided from which conclusions could be drawn for the scientific substantiation of the claim....... A cause and effect relationship has not been established between the consumption of OptiEFAX™ and maintenance of normal blood HDL-cholesterol concentrations....

  1. A functional ABCA1 gene variant is associated with low HDL-cholesterol levels and shows evidence of positive selection in Native Americans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Acuña-Alonzo, Víctor; Flores-Dorantes, Teresa; Kruit, Janine K; Villarreal-Molina, Teresa; Arellano-Campos, Olimpia; Hünemeier, Tábita; Moreno-Estrada, Andrés; Ortiz-López, Ma Guadalupe; Villamil-Ramírez, Hugo; León-Mimila, Paola; Villalobos-Comparan, Marisela; Jacobo-Albavera, Leonor; Ramírez-Jiménez, Salvador; Sikora, Martin; Zhang, Lin-Hua; Pape, Terry D; Granados-Silvestre, Ma de Angeles; Montufar-Robles, Isela; Tito-Alvarez, Ana M; Zurita-Salinas, Camilo; Bustos-Arriaga, José; Cedillo-Barrón, Leticia; Gómez-Trejo, Celta; Barquera-Lozano, Rodrigo; Vieira-Filho, Joao P; Granados, Julio; Romero-Hidalgo, Sandra; Huertas-Vázquez, Adriana; González-Martín, Antonio; Gorostiza, Amaya; Bonatto, Sandro L; Rodríguez-Cruz, Maricela; Wang, Li; Tusié-Luna, Teresa; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A; Lisker, Ruben; Moises, Regina S; Menjivar, Marta; Salzano, Francisco M; Knowler, William C; Bortolini, M Cátira; Hayden, Michael R; Baier, Leslie J; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel

    2010-01-01

    It has been suggested that the higher susceptibility of Hispanics to metabolic disease is related to their Native American heritage. A frequent cholesterol transporter ABCA1 (ATP-binding cassette transporter A1) gene variant (R230C, rs9282541) apparently exclusive to Native American individuals was

  2. Longitudinal study of alcohol consumption and HDL concentrations: a community-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shue; Li, Junjuan; Shearer, Gregory C; Lichtenstein, Alice H; Zheng, Xiaoming; Wu, Yuntao; Jin, Cheng; Wu, Shouling; Gao, Xiang

    2017-04-01

    Background: In cross-sectional studies and short-term clinical trials, it has been suggested that there is a positive dose-response relation between alcohol consumption and HDL concentrations. However, prospective data have been limited. Objective: We sought to determine the association between total alcohol intake, the type of alcohol-containing beverage, and the 6-y (2006-2012) longitudinal change in HDL-cholesterol concentrations in a community-based cohort. Design: A total of 71,379 Chinese adults (mean age: 50 y) who were free of cardiovascular diseases and cancer and did not use cholesterol-lowering agents during follow-up were included in the study. Alcohol intake was assessed via a questionnaire in 2006 (baseline), and participants were classified into the following categories of alcohol consumption: never, past, light (women: 0-0.4 servings/d; men: 0-0.9 servings/d), moderate (women: 0.5-1.0 servings/d; men: 1-2 servings/d), and heavy (women: >1.0 servings/d; men: >2 servings/d). HDL-cholesterol concentrations were measured in 2006, 2008, 2010, and 2012. We used generalized estimating equation models to examine the associations between baseline alcohol intake and the change in HDL-cholesterol concentrations with adjustment for age, sex, smoking, physical activity, obesity, hypertension, diabetes, liver function, and C-reactive protein concentrations. Results: An umbrella-shaped association was observed between total alcohol consumption and changes in HDL-cholesterol concentrations. Compared with never drinkers, past, light, moderate, and heavy drinkers experienced slower decreases in HDL cholesterol of 0.012 mmol · L -1 · y -1 (95% CI: 0.008, 0.016 mmol · L -1 · y -1 ), 0.013 mmol · L -1 · y -1 (95% CI: 0.010, 0.016 mmol · L -1 · y -1 ), 0.017 mmol · L -1 · y -1 (95% CI: 0.009, 0.025 mmol · L -1 · y -1 ), and 0.008 mmol · L -1 · y -1 (95% CI: 0.005, 0.011 mmol · L -1 · y -1 ), respectively ( P alcohol consumption was associated with the

  3. Tuberculosis treatment raises total cholesterol level and restores ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aghomotsegin

    2013-10-09

    Oct 9, 2013 ... and restores high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL- ... cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglycerides (TG) were determined .... However, we found a strong negative correlation (r = - 0.96,.

  4. The Arg59Trp variant in ANGPTL8 (betatrophin) is associated with total and HDL-cholesterol in American Indians and Mexican Americans and differentially affects cleavage of ANGPTL3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Robert L; Leti, Fatjon; Tsinajinnie, Darwin; Kobes, Sayuko; Puppala, Sobha; Curran, Joanne E; Almasy, Laura; Lehman, Donna M; Blangero, John; Duggirala, Ravindranath; DiStefano, Johanna K

    2016-06-01

    We previously identified a locus linked to total cholesterol (TC) concentration in Pima Indians on chromosome 19p. To characterize this locus, we genotyped >2000 SNPs in 1838 Pimas and assessed association with log(TC). We observed evidence for association with log(TC) with rs2278426 (3.5% decrease/copy of the T allele; P=5.045×10(-6)) in the ANGPTL8 (angiopoietin-like 8) gene. We replicated this association in 2413 participants of the San Antonio Mexican American Family Study (SAMAFS: 2.0% decrease per copy of the T allele; P=0.005842). In a meta-analysis of the combined data, we found the strongest estimated effect with rs2278426 (P=2.563×10(-7)). The variant T allele at rs2278426 predicts an Arg59Trp substitution and has previously been associated with LDL-C and HDL-C. In Pimas and SAMAFS participants, the T allele of rs2278426 was associated with reduced HDL-C levels (P=0.000741 and 0.00002, respectively), and the combined estimated effect for the two cohorts was -3.8% (P=8.526×10(-8)). ANGPTL8 transcript and protein levels increased in response to both glucose and insulin. The variant allele was associated with increased levels of cleaved ANGPTL3. We conclude that individuals with the variant allele may have lower TC and HDL-C levels due to increased activation of ANGPTL3 by ANGPTL8. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Plasma kinetics of an LDL-like nanoemulsion and lipid transfer to HDL in subjects with glucose intolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina P Bertato

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Glucose intolerance is frequently associated with an altered plasma lipid profile and increased cardiovascular disease risk. Nonetheless, lipid metabolism is scarcely studied in normolipidemic glucose-intolerant patients. The aim of this study was to investigate whether important lipid metabolic parameters, such as the kinetics of LDL free and esterified cholesterol and the transfer of lipids to HDL, are altered in glucose-intolerant patients with normal plasma lipids. METHODS: Fourteen glucose-intolerant patients and 15 control patients were studied; none of the patients had cardiovascular disease manifestations, and they were paired for age, sex, race and co-morbidities. A nanoemulsion resembling a LDL lipid composition (LDE labeled with 14C-cholesteryl ester and ³H-free cholesterol was intravenously injected, and blood samples were collected over a 24-h period to determine the fractional clearance rate of the labels by compartmental analysis. The transfer of free and esterified cholesterol, triglycerides and phospholipids from the LDE to HDL was measured by the incubation of the LDE with plasma and radioactivity counting of the supernatant after chemical precipitation of non-HDL fractions. RESULTS: The levels of LDL, non-HDL and HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, apo A1 and apo B were equal in both groups. The 14C-esterified cholesterol fractional clearance rate was not different between glucose-intolerant and control patients, but the ³H-free-cholesterol fractional clearance rate was greater in glucose-intolerant patients than in control patients. The lipid transfer to HDL was equal in both groups. CONCLUSION: In these glucose-intolerant patients with normal plasma lipids, a faster removal of LDE free cholesterol was the only lipid metabolic alteration detected in our study. This finding suggests that the dissociation of free cholesterol from lipoprotein particles occurs in normolipidemic glucose intolerance and may participate in

  6. Anion exchange HPLC isolation of high-density lipoprotein (HDL and on-line estimation of proinflammatory HDL.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Ji

    Full Text Available Proinflammatory high-density lipoprotein (p-HDL is a biomarker of cardiovascular disease. Sickle cell disease (SCD is characterized by chronic states of oxidative stress that many consider to play a role in forming p-HDL. To measure p-HDL, apolipoprotein (apo B containing lipoproteins are precipitated. Supernatant HDL is incubated with an oxidant/LDL or an oxidant alone and rates of HDL oxidation monitored with dichlorofluorescein (DCFH. Although apoB precipitation is convenient for isolating HDL, the resulting supernatant matrix likely influences HDL oxidation. To determine effects of supernatants on p-HDL measurements we purified HDL from plasma from SCD subjects by anion exchange (AE chromatography, determined its rate of oxidation relative to supernatant HDL. SCD decreased total cholesterol but not triglycerides or HDL and increased cell-free (cf hemoglobin (Hb and xanthine oxidase (XO. HDL isolated by AE-HPLC had lower p-HDL levels than HDL in supernatants after apoB precipitation. XO+xanthine (X and cf Hb accelerated purified HDL oxidation. Although the plate and AE-HPLC assays both showed p-HDL directly correlated with cf-Hb in SCD plasma, the plate assay yielded p-HDL data that was influenced more by cf-Hb than AE-HPLC generated p-HDL data. The AE-HPLC p-HDL assay reduces the influence of the supernatants and shows that SCD increases p-HDL.

  7. Anion exchange HPLC isolation of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and on-line estimation of proinflammatory HDL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xiang; Xu, Hao; Zhang, Hao; Hillery, Cheryl A; Gao, Hai-Qing; Pritchard, Kirkwood A

    2014-01-01

    Proinflammatory high-density lipoprotein (p-HDL) is a biomarker of cardiovascular disease. Sickle cell disease (SCD) is characterized by chronic states of oxidative stress that many consider to play a role in forming p-HDL. To measure p-HDL, apolipoprotein (apo) B containing lipoproteins are precipitated. Supernatant HDL is incubated with an oxidant/LDL or an oxidant alone and rates of HDL oxidation monitored with dichlorofluorescein (DCFH). Although apoB precipitation is convenient for isolating HDL, the resulting supernatant matrix likely influences HDL oxidation. To determine effects of supernatants on p-HDL measurements we purified HDL from plasma from SCD subjects by anion exchange (AE) chromatography, determined its rate of oxidation relative to supernatant HDL. SCD decreased total cholesterol but not triglycerides or HDL and increased cell-free (cf) hemoglobin (Hb) and xanthine oxidase (XO). HDL isolated by AE-HPLC had lower p-HDL levels than HDL in supernatants after apoB precipitation. XO+xanthine (X) and cf Hb accelerated purified HDL oxidation. Although the plate and AE-HPLC assays both showed p-HDL directly correlated with cf-Hb in SCD plasma, the plate assay yielded p-HDL data that was influenced more by cf-Hb than AE-HPLC generated p-HDL data. The AE-HPLC p-HDL assay reduces the influence of the supernatants and shows that SCD increases p-HDL.

  8. Association of metabolic and genetic factors with cholesterol esterification rate in HDL plasma and atherogenic index of plasma in a 40 years old Slovak population

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rašlová, K.; Dobiášová, Milada; Hubáček, J. A.; Bencová, D.; Siváková, D.; Danková, Z.; Franeková, J.; Jabor, A.; Gašparovič, J.; Vohnout, B.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 5 (2011), s. 758-795 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NR8328; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0510 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : fractional esterification rate of cholesterol (FERHDL) * atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) * biomarkers of CVD * CILP2 * FTO * MLXIPL Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.555, year: 2011

  9. Effects of curcumin on HDL functionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganjali, Shiva; Blesso, Christopher N; Banach, Maciej; Pirro, Matteo; Majeed, Muhammed; Sahebkar, Amirhossein

    2017-05-01

    Curcumin, a bioactive polyphenol, is a yellow pigment of the Curcuma longa (turmeric) plant. Curcumin has many pharmacologic effects including antioxidant, anti-carcinogenic, anti-obesity, anti-angiogenic and anti-inflammatory properties. Recently, it has been found that curcumin affects lipid metabolism, and subsequently, may alleviate hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis. Plasma HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) is an independent negative risk predictor of cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, numerous clinical and genetic studies have yielded disappointing results about the therapeutic benefit of raising plasma HDL-C levels. Therefore, research efforts are now focused on improving HDL functionality, independent of HDL-C levels. The quality of HDL particles can vary considerably due to heterogeneity in composition. Consistent with its complexity in composition and metabolism, a wide range of biological activities is reported for HDL, including antioxidant, anti-glycation, anti-inflammatory, anti-thrombotic, anti-apoptotic and immune modulatory activities. Protective properties of curcumin may influence HDL functionality; therefore, we reviewed the literature to determine whether curcumin can augment HDL function. In this review, we concluded that curcumin may modulate markers of HDL function, such as apo-AI, CETP, LCAT, PON1, MPO activities and levels. Curcumin may subsequently improve conditions in which HDL is dysfunctional and may have potential as a therapeutic drug in future. Further clinical trials with bioavailability-improved formulations of curcumin are warranted to examine its effects on lipid metabolism and HDL function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The association of 83 plasma proteins with CHD mortality, BMI, HDL-, and total-cholesterol in men: applying multivariate statistics to identify proteins with prognostic value and biological relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidema, A Geert; Thissen, Uwe; Boer, Jolanda M A; Bouwman, Freek G; Feskens, Edith J M; Mariman, Edwin C M

    2009-06-01

    In this study, we applied the multivariate statistical tool Partial Least Squares (PLS) to analyze the relative importance of 83 plasma proteins in relation to coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality and the intermediate end points body mass index, HDL-cholesterol and total cholesterol. From a Dutch monitoring project for cardiovascular disease risk factors, men who died of CHD between initial participation (1987-1991) and end of follow-up (January 1, 2000) (N = 44) and matched controls (N = 44) were selected. Baseline plasma concentrations of proteins were measured by a multiplex immunoassay. With the use of PLS, we identified 15 proteins with prognostic value for CHD mortality and sets of proteins associated with the intermediate end points. Subsequently, sets of proteins and intermediate end points were analyzed together by Principal Components Analysis, indicating that proteins involved in inflammation explained most of the variance, followed by proteins involved in metabolism and proteins associated with total-C. This study is one of the first in which the association of a large number of plasma proteins with CHD mortality and intermediate end points is investigated by applying multivariate statistics, providing insight in the relationships among proteins, intermediate end points and CHD mortality, and a set of proteins with prognostic value.

  11. Cholesterol, Triglycerides, and the Five-Factor Model of Personality

    OpenAIRE

    Sutin, Angelina R.; Terracciano, Antonio; Deiana, Barbara; Uda, Manuela; Schlessinger, David; Lakatta, Edward G.; Costa, Paul T.

    2010-01-01

    Unhealthy lipid levels are among the leading controllable risk factors for coronary heart disease. To identify the psychological factors associated with dyslipidemia, this study investigates the personality correlates of cholesterol (total, LDL, and HDL) and triglycerides. A community-based sample (N=5,532) from Sardinia, Italy, had their cholesterol and triglyceride levels assessed and completed a comprehensive personality questionnaire, the NEO-PI-R. All analyses controlled for age, sex, BM...

  12. Gender-dependent association of HSD11B1 single nucleotide polymorphisms with glucose and HDL-C levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Viater Turek

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the influence of two SNPs (rs846910 and rs12086634 of the HSD11B1 gene that encodes 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1(11β-HSD1, the enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of cortisol to cortisone, on variables associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome in 215 individuals of both sexes from southern Brazil. The HSD11B1 gene variants were genotyped using the TaqMan SNP genotyping assay. Glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol were measured by standard automated methods. Significant results were found in women, with carriers of the G allele of SNP rs12086634 having higher glucose levels than non-carriers. Carriers of the A allele of SNP rs846910 had higher levels of HDL-cholesterol. The involvement of both polymorphisms as independent factors in determining the levels of glucose and HDL-cholesterol was confirmed by multiple regression analysis (β = 0.19 ± 0.09, p = 0.03 and β = 0.22 ± 0.10, p = 0.03, respectively. Our findings suggest that the HSD11B1SNPs studied may indirectly influence glucose and HDL-cholesterol metabolism in women, possibly through down-regulation of the HSD11B1 gene by estrogen.

  13. Realistic intake of a flavanol-rich soluble cocoa product increases HDL-cholesterol without inducing anthropometric changes in healthy and moderately hypercholesterolemic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-López, Sara; Sarriá, Beatriz; Sierra-Cinos, José Luis; Goya, Luis; Mateos, Raquel; Bravo, Laura

    2014-02-01

    To assess whether antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and other cardio-protective effects attributed to cocoa are achieved when regularly consuming moderate amounts of a flavanol-rich soluble cocoa product, a non-randomized, controlled, crossover, free-living study was carried out in healthy (n = 24; 25.9 ± 5.6 years) and moderately hypercholesterolemic (200-240 mg dL(-1); n = 20; 30.0 ± 10.3 years) volunteers. Participants consumed two servings per day (7.5 g per serving) of a soluble cocoa product (providing 45.3 mg flavanols per day) in milk, which was compared with consuming only milk during a 4 week period. The effects on systolic and diastolic blood pressure and heart rate were determined, as well as on serum lipid and lipoprotein profiles, interleukins (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), vascular (VCAM-1) and intercellular cell adhesion molecules (ICAM-1), serum malondialdehyde (MDA), carbonyl groups (CG), ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP), oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), and free radical scavenging capacity (ABTS). During the study, the volunteers' diets and physical activity were also evaluated, as well as any changes in weight, skin folds, circumferences and related anthropometric parameters. Cocoa and certain polyphenol-rich fruits and vegetables and their derivatives were restricted. After consuming the cocoa product positive effects were observed such as an increase in serum HDL-C (p related biomarkers and anthropometric parameters were unaffected. We have therefore concluded that regular consumption of this cocoa product in a Spanish-Mediterranean diet may protect against cardiovascular disease in healthy and hypercholesterolemic subjects without producing any weight gain or other anthropometric changes.

  14. Cholesterol, Triglycerides, and the Five-Factor Model of Personality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutin, Angelina R.; Terracciano, Antonio; Deiana, Barbara; Uda, Manuela; Schlessinger, David; Lakatta, Edward G.; Costa, Paul T.

    2010-01-01

    Unhealthy lipid levels are among the leading controllable risk factors for coronary heart disease. To identify the psychological factors associated with dyslipidemia, this study investigates the personality correlates of cholesterol (total, LDL, and HDL) and triglycerides. A community-based sample (N=5,532) from Sardinia, Italy, had their cholesterol and triglyceride levels assessed and completed a comprehensive personality questionnaire, the NEO-PI-R. All analyses controlled for age, sex, BMI, smoking, drinking, hypertension, and diabetes. Low Conscientiousness and traits related to impulsivity were associated with lower HDL cholesterol and higher triglycerides. Compared to the lowest 10%, those who scored in top 10% on Impulsivity had a 2.5 times greater risk of exceeding the clinical threshold for elevated triglycerides (OR=2.51, CI=1.56–4.07). In addition, sex moderated the association between trait depression (a component of Neuroticism) and HDL cholesterol, such that trait depression was associated with lower levels of HDL cholesterol in women but not men. When considering the connection between personality and health, unhealthy lipid profiles may be one intermediate biomarker between personality and morbidity and mortality. PMID:20109519

  15. Antioxidant activity of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) using different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HDL is a potent antioxidant in terms of inhibition of lipid peroxidation, ROS production and LDL oxidation. These may to some extent add to the antiatherogenic beyond reverse-cholesterol transport properties of HDL. Keywords: high-density lipoprotein; reverse cholesterol transport; apolipoprotein A1; antioxidant; in vitro.

  16. Association between high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level and pulmonary function in healthy Korean adolescents: the JS high school study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ji Hye; Mun, Seyeon; Choi, Dong Phil; Lee, Joo Young; Kim, Hyeon Chang

    2017-12-11

    Accumulating evidence suggests that high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol is associated with pulmonary function and pulmonary disorders. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between HDL cholesterol and pulmonary function in healthy adolescents. This cross-sectional study was based on data collected for the JS High School study. The analysis included 644 adolescents (318 male and 326 female) aged 15-16 years old and free from asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Fasting blood samples were collected for hematologic and biochemical assessment. Forced vital capacity volume (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in the 1 s (FEV1) were measured using dry-rolling-seal spirometry. The associations between HDL cholesterol and pulmonary function were analyzed using multiple linear regression models. Among male adolescents, an increase of 1.0 mg/dL in HDL cholesterol was associated with 10 mL decrease in FVC (p = 0.013) and FEV1 (p = 0.013) after adjusting for age, height, weight, alcohol drinking, smoking, physical activity, systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, triglyceride, and monthly household income. Percent predicted values of FVC (p = 0.036) and FEV1 (p = 0.017) were also inversely associated with HDL cholesterol. However, among female adolescents, HDL cholesterol level was not significantly associated with absolute or percent predictive value of FVC and FEV1. Higher HDL cholesterol level may be associated with decreased pulmonary function among healthy male adolescents. The sex differences observed in the association between HDL cholesterol and pulmonary function need further investigation.

  17. How to Lower Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... includes high triglyceride levels, low HDL (good) cholesterol levels, and being overweight with a large waist measurement (more than 40 inches for men and more than 35 inches for women). Physical Activity. Everyone should get regular physical activity (30 minutes ...

  18. HDL-LDL Ratio: A Significant Predisposition to the Onset of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The significance of high-density lipoprotein/low density lipoprotein (HDL-LDL) ratio as a predisposing factor to the onset of atherogenesis has been studied. Standard enzymatic method using Cholesterol kit to extract cholesterol was used. HDL was analysed using standard HDL Kit and LDL concentration was derived by a ...

  19. Estimations of cholesterol, triglycerides and fractionation of lipoproteins in serum samples of some Nigerian female subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.I. Adeyeye

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Blood samples (serum were collected to determine some biochemical parameters: total glycerides (TG, total cholesterol (TC, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C and very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (VLDL-C in 53 female subjects in Warri, Delta State, Nigeria using the Reflotron® (an auto analyser, supported with the use of questionnaire to get information on age and sex. Age range of the subjects was 18–80 years. The TG levels in all the subjects were < 200 mg/dL; only one subject (1.89% had TC < 200 mg/dL; nine subjects (17.0% had HDL-C ≤ 35 mg/dL; for LDL-C only one subject (1.89% had a desirable level of < 130 mg/dL; for VLDL-C 29 subjects (54.7% had values 17.2 mg/dL and above. For therapeutic decision-making, TC/HDL-C and LDL-C/HDL-C, were calculated. In TC/HDL-C, three subjects (5.66% had values < 4.4 and in LDL-C/HDL-C, 41 subjects (77.4% had values < 4.5. Hence, TC, HDL-C, LDL-C, TC/HDL-C and slightly LDL-C/HDL-C and VLDL-C in the subjects could lead to increase coronary heart diseases. Results were matched for the age and sex of subjects.

  20. TOTAL CHOLESTEROL, HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS (HDL AND CORTISOL PLASMA LEVELS, AND THEIR BIORHYTMICITY, IN 24 HOURS, THROUGHOUT YEAR, IN IDEAL-POLWARTH RAMS NÍVEIS PLASMÁTICOS DE COLESTEROL TOTAL, LIPOPROTEÍNAS DE ALTA DENSIDADE (HDL E CORTISOL, E SUA BIORRITMICIDADE, EM CARNEIROS IDEAL-POLWARTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcides de Amorim Ramos

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the mean plasma concentrations of total cholesterol (TC, high density lipoproteins (HDL and cortisol, blood samples were collected of five Ideal-Polwarth rams, maintained at 22?53’S latitude, in semi-confinement, every two months throughout the year, by 24h period, with 2-hour intervals between colects. The TC, changed 40.70?1,11mg/dL (April and 61.48?1,11mg/dL (December, between months, while HDL changed 22.16?0.23mg/dL (December as 33.40?0.23mg/dL (February, but not make evident a circannual rhythm in this levels. The TC presented the lowest value at 16:30h (50.40?1.57mg/dL and the highest value at 8:30h collect (54.67?1.57mg/dL; the HDL lowest level was at 10:30h (27.04?0.33mg/dL and the highest level also at 8:30h collect (28.49?0.33mg/dL, however without permit circadian rhythm determination in your plasma concentrations. Similarly, the cortisol plasma concentrations, between collect months, presents variable, however without demonstrate circadian rhythm in this hormone secretion. In relation to different collection’s moments, throughout months, it wasn’t possible to define, by statistical analysis, a circadian rhythm of cortisol secretion. KEY WORDS: Ovine, adrenal hormone, biochemistry metabolites, circadian rhythm. Visando avaliar as concentrações médias de colesterol total (CT, lipoproteínas de alta densidade (HDL e cortisol plasmáticos, foram colhidas amostras de sangue de cinco carneiros Ideal-Polwarth, alocados em latitude 22°53’S, em regime de semiconfinamento, a cada dois meses, ao longo de um ano, com as colheitas em um período de 24 horas, e intervalos de duas horas entre elas. O CT oscilou entre 40,70±1,11mg/dL (abril e 61,48±1,11mg/dL (dezembro, entre os meses, enquanto HDL variou de 22,16±0,23mg/dL (dezembro a 33,40±0,23mg/dL (fevereiro, mas não evidenciando um ritmo circanual em seus níveis. O CT apresentou seu valor mínimo na colheita das 16h30min (50,40±1,57mg/dL e o máximo às 8h30min

  1. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to polyphenols in olive and maintenance of normal blood HDL-cholesterol concentrations (ID 1639, further assessment) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    and maintenance of normal blood HDL-cholesterol concentrations. The food constituent, polyphenols in olive (olive fruit, olive mill waste waters or olive oil, Olea europaea L. extract and leaf) standardised by their content of hydroxytyrosol and its derivatives (e.g. oleuropein complex), that is the subject...... was insufficient to establish a cause and effect relationship between the consumption of olive oil polyphenols (standardised by the content of hydroxytyrosol and its derivatives) and maintenance of normal blood HDL cholesterol concentrations.......Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to provide a scientific opinion on a health claim pursuant to Article 13 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 in the framework of further assessment related to polyphenols in olive...

  2. ApoA-I/A-II-HDL positively associates with apoB-lipoproteins as a potential atherogenic indicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kido, Toshimi; Kondo, Kazuo; Kurata, Hideaki; Fujiwara, Yoko; Urata, Takeyoshi; Itakura, Hiroshige; Yokoyama, Shinji

    2017-11-29

    We recently reported distinct nature of high-density lipoproteins (HDL) subgroup particles with apolipoprotein (apo) A-I but not apoA-II (LpAI) and HDL having both (LpAI:AII) based on the data from 314 Japanese. While plasma HDL level almost exclusively depends on concentration of LpAI having 3 to 4 apoA-I molecules, LpAI:AII appeared with almost constant concentration regardless of plasma HDL levels having stable structure with two apoA-I and one disulfide-dimeric apoA-II molecules (Sci. Rep. 6; 31,532, 2016). The aim of this study is further characterization of LpAI:AII with respect to its role in atherogenesis. Association of LpAI, LpAI:AII and other HDL parameters with apoB-lipoprotein parameters was analyzed among the cohort data above. ApoA-I in LpAI negatively correlated with the apoB-lipoprotein parameters such as apoB, triglyceride, nonHDL-cholesterol, and nonHDL-cholesterol + triglyceride, which are apparently reflected in the relations of the total HDL parameters to apoB-lipoproteins. In contrast, apoA-I in LpAI:AII and apoA-II positively correlated to the apoB-lipoprotein parameters even within their small range of variation. These relationships are independent of sex, but may slightly be influenced by the activity-related CETP mutations. The study suggested that LpAI:AII is an atherogenic indicator rather than antiatherogenic. These sub-fractions of HDL are to be evaluated separately for estimating atherogenic risk of the patients.

  3. Plasma cholesterol and related lipid levels of seemingly healthy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was achieved through analysis of fasting plasma samples for the following: Total cholesterol (TC), Triacylglycerols (TG), High density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL), Low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL), and molar ratios of LDL/HDL, TC/ HDL, and TC/TG. Methods: One hundred and seventy four ...

  4. High density lipoprotein (HDL) metabolism in noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: measurement of HDL turnover using tritiated HDL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golay, A.; Zech, L.; Shi, M.Z.; Chiou, Y.A.; Reaven, G.M.; Chen, Y.D.

    1987-01-01

    High density lipoprotein (HDL) kinetics were studied by injecting [ 3 H]apoprotein A-I (apoA-I)/HDL into 12 subjects with normal glucose tolerance and 12 patients with noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). The results indicate that the mean fractional catabolic rate (FCR) of apoA-I/HDL was significantly faster [0.63 +/- 0.07 (+/- SEM) vs. 0.39 +/- 0.02 1/day; P less than 0.001] and the apoA-I/HDL synthetic rate greater (29.4 +/- 2.9 vs. 22.9 +/- 1.3 mg/kg X day; P less than 0.02) in patients with NIDDM than in normal subjects. Furthermore, there were statistically significant inverse relationships between apoA-I/HDL FCR and plasma levels of both HDL cholesterol (r = -0.71; P less than 0.001) and apoA-I (r = -0.63; P less than 0.001). In addition, the increase in apoA-I/HDL FCR was directly related to fasting plasma glucose (r = 0.78; P less than 0.001) and insulin (r = 0.76; P less than 0.001) concentrations. These data support the view that the decrease in plasma HDL cholesterol and apoA-I levels commonly found in patients with noninsulin-dependent diabetes is due to an increase in the catabolic rate of apoA-I/HDL secondary to the defects in carbohydrate metabolism present in these patients

  5. Naar nieuwe therapeutische domeinen voor HDL-gerichte interventies

    OpenAIRE

    Gordts, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    Plasma levels of high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and its major apolipoprotein (apo), apo A-I, are inversely correlated with the incidence of coronary heart diseases. The Framingham Heart Study, the Kuopio Ischemic Heart Disease Factor Study, the Israel Ischemic Heart Disease Study, and other epidemiological prospective cohort studies have unequivocally demonstrated that lower HDL cholesterol levels are an independent risk marker for ischemic heart diseases. A meta-analysis of 4 pro...

  6. Apolipoproteins E and CIII interact to regulate HDL metabolism and coronary heart disease risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morton, Allyson M; Koch, Manja; Mendivil, Carlos O

    2018-01-01

    cholesterol transport, which may protect against atherosclerosis. ApoCIII on HDL strongly attenuates these metabolic actions of HDL apoE. In the epidemiological study, the relation between HDL apoE concentration and CHD significantly differed depending on whether apoCIII was present. HDL apoE was associated...... significantly with lower risk of CHD only in the HDL subspecies lacking apoCIII. CONCLUSIONS: ApoE and apoCIII on HDL interact to affect metabolism and CHD. ApoE promotes metabolic steps in reverse cholesterol transport and is associated with lower risk of CHD. ApoCIII, when coexisting with apoE on HDL......, abolishes these benefits. Therefore, differences in metabolism of HDL subspecies pertaining to reverse cholesterol transport are reflected in differences in association with CHD. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01399632. FUNDING: This work was supported by NIH grant R01HL095964 to FMS...

  7. Regional variations in HDL metabolism in human fat cells: effect of cell size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despres, J.; Fong, B.S.; Julien, P.; Jimenez, J.; Angel, A.

    1987-01-01

    Abdominal obesity is related to reduced plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and both are associated with cardiovascular disease risk. The authors have observed that plasma membranes from abdominal subcutaneous adipocytes have a greater HDL binding capacity than omental fat cell plasma membranes. The present study examined whether these binding characteristics could be due to differences in fat cell size or cholesterol concentration between the two adipose depots. Abdominal subcutaneous and deep omental fat were obtained from massively obese patients at surgery. Subcutaneous abdominal fat cells were significantly larger and their cellular cholesterol content greater than omental adipocytes. The uptake of HDL by collagenase-isolated fat cells was studied by incubating the cells for 2 h at 37 0 C with 10 μg/ml 125 I-HDL 2 or 125 I-HDL 3 . In both depots, the cellular uptake of 125 I-HDL 2 and 125 I-HDL 3 was specifically inhibited by addition of 25-fold excess unlabeled HDL and a close correlation was observed between the cellular uptake of 125 I-HDL 2 and 125 I-HDL 3 . In obese patients, the uptake of 125 I-HDL was higher in subcutaneous cells than in omental cells. The cellular 125 I-HDL uptake was significantly correlated with adipocyte size and fat cell cholesterol content but not with adipocyte cholesterol concentration. These results suggest that the higher HDL uptake observed in subcutaneous cells compared with omental cells in obesity is the result of differences in adipocyte size rather than differences in the cholesterol concentration (cholesterol-to-triglyceride ratio). The increased interaction of HDL with hypertrophied abdominal adipocytes may play an important role in determining the lipid composition of HDL in obesity

  8. ATP Synthase β-Chain Overexpression in SR-BI Knockout Mice Increases HDL Uptake and Reduces Plasma HDL Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kexiu Song

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available HDL cholesterol is known to be inversely correlated with cardiovascular disease due to its diverse antiatherogenic functions. SR-BI mediates the selective uptake of HDL-C. SR-BI knockout diminishes but does not completely block the transport of HDL; other receptors may be involved. Ectopic ATP synthase β-chain in hepatocytes has been previously characterized as an apoA-I receptor, triggering HDL internalization. This study was undertaken to identify the overexpression of ectopic ATP synthase β-chain on DIL-HDL uptake in primary hepatocytes in vitro and on plasma HDL levels in SR-BI knockout mice. Human ATP synthase β-chain cDNA was delivered to the mouse liver by adenovirus and GFP adenovirus as control. The adenovirus-mediated overexpression of β-chain was identified at both mRNA and protein levels on mice liver and validated by its increasing of DiL-HDL uptake in primary hepatocytes. In response to hepatic overexpression of β-chain, plasma HDL-C levels and cholesterol were reduced in SR-BI knockout mice, compared with the control. The present data suggest that ATP synthase β-chain can serve as the endocytic receptor of HDL, and its overexpression can reduce plasma HDL-C.

  9. Evidence for low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in Australian indigenous peoples: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Jasmine G; O'Dea, Kerin; Walker, Karen Z

    2014-06-02

    Low plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels are a strong, independent, but poorly understood risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Although this atherogenic lipid abnormality has been widely reported in Australia's Indigenous peoples, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders, the evidence has not come under systematic review. This review therefore examines published data for Indigenous Australians reporting 1) mean HDL-C levels for both sexes and 2) factors associated with low HDL-C. PubMed, Medline and Informit ATSI Health databases were systematically searched between 1950 and 2012 for studies on Indigenous Australians reporting mean HDL-C levels in both sexes. Retrieved studies were evaluated by standard criteria. Low HDL-C was defined as: Indigenous populations living in rural and remote communities. Inverse associations between HDL-C and central obesity, diabetes prevalence and inflammatory markers suggest a particularly adverse CVD risk factor profile. An absence of sex dichotomy in HDL-C levels warrants further investigation.

  10. Aging, female sex, migration, elevated HDL-C, and inflammation are associated with prevalence of metabolic syndrome among African bank employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gombet T

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Thierry Gombet,1 Benjamin Longo-Mbenza,2 Bertrand Ellenga-Mbolla,1 Meo Stephane Ikama,3 Etienne Mokondjimobe,4 Gisele Kimbally-Kaky,3 Jean-Louis Nkoua,31Emergency Department, University Hospital Center of Brazzaville, Brazzaville, Congo; 2Faculty of Health Sciences, Walter Sisulu University, Mthatha, Eastern Cape, South Africa; 3Department of Cardiology and Internal Medicine, University Hospital Center of Brazzaville, Brazzaville, Congo; 4Laboratory of Biochemistry and Pharmacology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Brazzaville, CongoBackground: The objective of this study was to compare four different criteria for diagnosing metabolic syndrome (MS and to correlate sociodemographic data, liver enzymes, lipids, inflammation, and insulin resistance with MS definitions.Methods: This cross-sectional study included a random number of 126 African bank employees from Brazzaville, Congo.Results: The prevalence of MS varied according to the different definitions used: 4.8% under World Health Organization (WHO criteria, 8.7% under the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NECP-ATPIII criteria, 14.3% under the International Diabetes Federation (IDF for Europe, and 15.9% by the IDF for Central Africa. According to the IDF, specific cutoff points for the erythrocyte sedimentation rate, ≥13 mm at first hour and ≥30 mm at second hour, defined MS for Central Africa. The best agreement was observed between the IDF for Europe and the IDF for Central Africa (Kappa = 0.938; P < 0.0001 criteria. The worst agreements were between the WHO and IDF for Central Africa (Kappa = 0.419; P < 0.0001 criteria and between the WHO and IDF for Europe (Kappa = 0.462; P < 0.0001 criteria. The NECP-ATPIII criteria did not agree with either the IDF for Europe or the IDF for Central Africa criteria. There was a significant relationship between female sex, aging, elevated liver enzymes, elevated phospholipids, high homeostasis model assessment of insulin

  11. Lymphatic vasculature mediates macrophage reverse cholesterol transport in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martel, Catherine; Li, Wenjun; Fulp, Brian; Platt, Andrew M.; Gautier, Emmanuel L.; Westerterp, Marit; Bittman, Robert; Tall, Alan R.; Chen, Shu-Hsia; Thomas, Michael J.; Kreisel, Daniel; Swartz, Melody A.; Sorci-Thomas, Mary G.; Randolph, Gwendalyn J.

    2013-01-01

    Reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) refers to the mobilization of cholesterol on HDL particles (HDL-C) from extravascular tissues to plasma, ultimately for fecal excretion. Little is known about how HDL-C leaves peripheral tissues to reach plasma. We first used 2 models of disrupted lymphatic

  12. Markers of Oxidative Stress in Dogs with Myxomatous Mitral Valve Disease are Influenced by Sex, Neuter Status, and Serum Cholesterol Concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reimann, M J; Häggström, J; Møller, J E

    2017-01-01

    -tocopherol [P = .003]) was associated with body condition score (BCS), but the association disappeared when cholesterol was included in the analyses. All markers of oxidative stress (MDA, oxLDL, and vitamin E) were positively associated with serum cholesterol concentration (P ≤ .04), but none were associated...... with clinical stage of MMVD. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, markers of oxidative stress are associated with sex, BCS, neuter status, and cholesterol. The results cannot confirm a relationship between oxidative stress and clinical stage of the disease in dogs with MMVD....

  13. Abnormalities in lipoprotein metabolism: from dysfunctional HDL to abnormal processing of triglyceride rich lipoproteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franssen, R.

    2010-01-01

    Remco Franssen bestudeerde de rol van HDL, van nature gezien als het goede cholesterol, in ontstekingsprocessen en in het reverse cholesterol transport. Het kunstmatige rHDL is in staat de gevolgen van een stijging van het ontstekingseiwit CRP te voorkomen. Een chronische ontsteking als reuma of de

  14. Endothelial lipase is a major determinant of HDL level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishida, Tatsuro; Choi, Sungshin; Kundu, Ramendra K.; Hirata, Ken-Ichi; Rubin, Edward M.; Cooper, Allen D.; Quertermous, Thomas

    2003-01-30

    For the past three decades, epidemiologic studies have consistently demonstrated an inverse relationship between plasma HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations and coronary heart disease (CHD). Population-based studies have provided compelling evidence that low HDL-C levels are a risk factor for CHD, and several clinical interventions that increased plasma levels of HDL-C were associated with a reduction in CHD risk. These findings have stimulated extensive investigation into the determinants of plasma HDL-C levels. Turnover studies using radiolabeled apolipoprotein A-I, the major protein component of HDL, suggest that plasma HDL-C concentrations are highly correlated with the rate of clearance of apolipoprotein AI. However, the metabolic mechanisms by which HDL are catabolized have not been fully defined. Previous studies in humans with genetic deficiency of cholesteryl ester transfer protein, and in mice lacking the scavenger receptor BI (SR-BI), have demonstrated that these proteins participate in the removal of cholesterol from HDL, while observations in individuals with mutations in hepatic lipase indicate that this enzyme hydrolyzes HDL triglycerides. In this issue of the JCI, reports from laboratories of Tom Quertermous and Dan Rader now indicate that endothelial lipase (LIPG), a newly identified member of the lipase family, catalyzes the hydrolysis of HDL phospholipids and facilitates the clearance of HDL from the circulation. Endothelial lipase was initially cloned by both of these laboratories using entirely different strategies. Quertermous and his colleagues identified endothelial lipase as a transcript that was upregulated in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells undergoing tube formation, whereas the Rader group cloned endothelial lipase as a transcript that was upregulated in the human macrophage-like cell line THP-1 exposed to oxidized LDL. Database searches revealed that endothelial lipase shows strong sequence similarity to lipoprotein

  15. Apolipoprotein M promotes mobilization of cellular cholesterol in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsøe, Sara; Christoffersen, Christina; Luchoomun, Jayraz

    2013-01-01

    The HDL associated apolipoprotein M (apoM) protects against experimental atherosclerosis but the mechanism is unknown. ApoM increases prebeta-HDL formation. We explored whether plasma apoM affects mobilization of cholesterol from peripheral cells in mice.......The HDL associated apolipoprotein M (apoM) protects against experimental atherosclerosis but the mechanism is unknown. ApoM increases prebeta-HDL formation. We explored whether plasma apoM affects mobilization of cholesterol from peripheral cells in mice....

  16. Perbedaan Kadar Kolesterol Ldl dan Hdl antara Wanita Vegetarian Tipe Vegan dan Non-vegan

    OpenAIRE

    Edyanto, Ermia; Puruhita, Niken

    2012-01-01

    Background: Studies which investigated different risk for cardiovascular disease in vegetarian reported that each vegetarian diet type had different lipid serum level. Elevated LDL cholesterol level and reduced HDL cholesterol level are independent risk factors for coronary heart disease. This study was aimed to compare levels on LDL and HDL cholesterol between vegetarian vegan and non-vegan.Methods: Two groups of vegetarian women, 23 people in each group of vegan and non-vegan, participated ...

  17. ApoE-containing HDL and the development of atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Zdrojewski

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The current state of knowledge about the role of high density lipoproteins (HDL indicates that their anti-atherogenic function is mainly related to the effectiveness of their actions (mostly to the participation in reverse cholesterol transport from tissues to liver rather than the concentration of HDL itself. HDLs are highly heterogeneous in their structure, lipid and protein composition and metabolic pathways and individual HDL subpopulations differ in their biological activity and effectiveness of anti-atherogenic actions. Apolipoproteins play a key role in HDL metabolism, therefore their presence in lipoproteins is one of the main criterion for HDL classification. According to this criterion HDLs containing apolipoprotein E, called HDL-apoE, are distinguished. Although the anti-atherogenic role of apo E has been demonstrated in many scientific reports, understanding of the mechanisms of formation, transformation and the role of HDL-apoE is still the aim of intense research. The results of epidemiological studies are inconclusive; some of them have demonstrated that high HDL- -apoE concentration has been associated with lower risk of developing coronary heart disease (CHD, while other studies have shown that high levels of HDL-apoE has been an independent risk factor for cardiovascular events and positively correlated with other risk factors for CHD.

  18. Role of Hepatic Lipase and Endothelial Lipase in High-Density Lipoprotein-Mediated Reverse Cholesterol Transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annema, Wijtske; Tietge, Uwe J. F.

    Reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) constitutes a key part of the atheroprotective properties of high-density lipoproteins (HDL). Hepatic lipase (HL) and endothelial lipase (EL) are negative regulators of plasma HDL cholesterol levels. Although overexpression of EL decreases overall

  19. HDL-apoA-I exchange: rapid detection and association with atherosclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark S Borja

    Full Text Available High density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol levels are associated with decreased risk of cardiovascular disease, but not all HDL are functionally equivalent. A primary determinant of HDL functional status is the conformational adaptability of its main protein component, apoA-I, an exchangeable apolipoprotein. Chemical modification of apoA-I, as may occur under conditions of inflammation or diabetes, can severely impair HDL function and is associated with the presence of cardiovascular disease. Chemical modification of apoA-I also impairs its ability to exchange on and off HDL, a critical process in reverse cholesterol transport. In this study, we developed a method using electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR to quantify HDL-apoA-I exchange. Using this approach, we measured the degree of HDL-apoA-I exchange for HDL isolated from rabbits fed a high fat, high cholesterol diet, as well as human subjects with acute coronary syndrome and metabolic syndrome. We observed that HDL-apoA-I exchange was markedly reduced when atherosclerosis was present, or when the subject carries at least one risk factor of cardiovascular disease. These results show that HDL-apoA-I exchange is a clinically relevant measure of HDL function pertinent to cardiovascular disease.

  20. Small high-density lipoprotein (HDL) subclasses are increased with decreased activity of HDL-associated phospholipase A₂ in subjects with prediabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippatos, Theodosios D; Rizos, Evangelos C; Tsimihodimos, Vasilios; Gazi, Irene F; Tselepis, Alexandros D; Elisaf, Moses S

    2013-06-01

    Alterations in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) subclass distribution, as well as in the activities of HDL-associated enzymes, have been associated with increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. HDL subclass distribution and the activities of HDL-associated enzymes remain unknown in prediabetic patients, a condition also associated with increased CVD risk. The aim of the present study was to assess any differences in HDL subclass distribution (using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis) and in activities of HDL-associated enzymes between prediabetic (impaired fasting glucose, IFG, n = 80) and non-prediabetic subjects (n = 105). Subjects with prediabetes had significantly increased waist circumference, blood pressure and triacylglycerol (TAG) levels compared with subjects with fasting glucose levels prediabetic subjects compared with their controls (p prediabetes (p prediabetes. In a stepwise linear regression analysis, the proportion of small HDL3 over HDL-C concentration was independently associated with the presence of prediabetes and with total cholesterol and TAG concentration (positively), as well as with HDL-C levels (negatively). We also observed a trend of increased small dense low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in prediabetic subjects compared with their controls. Subjects with IFG exhibit increased proportion of small HDL3 particles combined with decreased activity of the anti-atherogenic HDL-LpPLA₂.

  1. Cholesterol lipoproteins and prevalence of dyslipidemias in urban Asian Indians: A cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soneil Guptha

    2014-05-01

    Conclusions: Mean cholesterol and LDL cholesterol are low and triglycerides were high in urban Asian Indians. Most prevalent dyslipidemias are borderline high LDL, low HDL and high triglycerides. Subjects with high socioeconomic status, high fat intake and greater adiposity have higher total and LDL cholesterol and triglyceride and lower HDL cholesterol.

  2. Impacto do exercício físico isolado e combinado com dieta sobre os níveis séricos de HDL, LDL, colesterol total e triglicerídeos Impact of isolated and combined with diet physical exercise on the HDL, LDL, total cholesterol and triglycerides plasma levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanmira Fagherazzi

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Adequados hábitos alimentares e a prática de exercícios físicos exercem efeito benéfico sobre as dislipidemias. Se associados, podem ainda otimizar as mudanças do perfil lipoprotéico plasmático, sendo, além disso, intervenções de custo moderado quando comparados com tratamentos medicamentosos e dependentes de alta tecnologia. Este estudo tem por objetivo avaliar o impacto do exercício físico isolado e combinado com dieta sobre o perfil lipídico em indivíduos com sobrepeso/obesos. O presente trabalho é do tipo retrospectivo analítico observacional. Nele foi analisada a evolução do perfil lipídico e do peso, por período entre três e seis meses, de 30 indivíduos, divididos em dois grupos: grupo exercício (prática de exercício físico e grupo dieta (prática de exercício físico associada à intervenção nutricional. Foram encontradas reduções estatisticamente significativas no CT (-14,4mg/dl; P = 0,022 e no LDL-c (-20,9mg/dl; P = 0,013 para os componentes do grupo exercício. Tal redução também ocorreu em relação à razão CT/HDL-c (-0,9; P = 0,005 para os componentes do grupo dieta. Foi observada elevação dos níveis de HDL-c, apenas no grupo dieta (+4,2 mg/dl. Nesse mesmo grupo verificou-se diminuição no CT (-8mg/dl e no LDL-c (-9,8mg/dl, bem como redução de peso (-2,6kg, no entanto, tais resultados não foram estatisticamente significativos. Quanto aos níveis de TG, não foi verificada evolução positiva em ambos os grupos. Concluiu-se que o efeito isolado do exercício físico foi mais evidente em relação às variáveis CT e LDL-c. Os TG não sofreram modificações positivas com a prática exclusiva de exercícios físicos ou com sua associação à dieta. Para as variáveis HDL-c e peso, a combinação da dieta com o exercício físico apresentou maiores benefícios.Adequate eating habits and physical exercise have a beneficial effect on dislipidemies. When associated, they might even optimize

  3. Acrolein impairs the cholesterol transport functions of high density lipoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick, Alexandra C; Holme, Rebecca L; Chen, Yiliang; Thomas, Michael J; Sorci-Thomas, Mary G; Silverstein, Roy L; Pritchard, Kirkwood A; Sahoo, Daisy

    2015-01-01

    High density lipoproteins (HDL) are considered athero-protective, primarily due to their role in reverse cholesterol transport, where they transport cholesterol from peripheral tissues to the liver for excretion. The current study was designed to determine the impact of HDL modification by acrolein, a highly reactive aldehyde found in high abundance in cigarette smoke, on the cholesterol transport functions of HDL. HDL was chemically-modified with acrolein and immunoblot and mass spectrometry analyses confirmed apolipoprotein crosslinking, as well as acrolein adducts on apolipoproteins A-I and A-II. The ability of acrolein-modified HDL (acro-HDL) to serve as an acceptor of free cholesterol (FC) from COS-7 cells transiently expressing SR-BI was significantly decreased. Further, in contrast to native HDL, acro-HDL promotes higher neutral lipid accumulation in murine macrophages as judged by Oil Red O staining. The ability of acro-HDL to mediate efficient selective uptake of HDL-cholesteryl esters (CE) into SR-BI-expressing cells was reduced compared to native HDL. Together, the findings from our studies suggest that acrolein modification of HDL produces a dysfunctional particle that may ultimately promote atherogenesis by impairing functions that are critical in the reverse cholesterol transport pathway.

  4. Dietary Rhus coriaria L. powder reduces the blood cholesterol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dietary Rhus coriaria L. powder reduces the blood cholesterol, VLDL-c and ... of total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high density lipoprotein (HDL-c), low ... birds had higher feed conversion ratio compared with birds in the other treatments.

  5. HDL-mimetic PLGA nanoparticle to target atherosclerosis plaque macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Gaytan, Brenda L; Fay, Francois; Lobatto, Mark E; Tang, Jun; Ouimet, Mireille; Kim, YongTae; van der Staay, Susanne E M; van Rijs, Sarian M; Priem, Bram; Zhang, Liangfang; Fisher, Edward A; Moore, Kathryn J; Langer, Robert; Fayad, Zahi A; Mulder, Willem J M

    2015-03-18

    High-density lipoprotein (HDL) is a natural nanoparticle that exhibits an intrinsic affinity for atherosclerotic plaque macrophages. Its natural targeting capability as well as the option to incorporate lipophilic payloads, e.g., imaging or therapeutic components, in both the hydrophobic core and the phospholipid corona make the HDL platform an attractive nanocarrier. To realize controlled release properties, we developed a hybrid polymer/HDL nanoparticle composed of a lipid/apolipoprotein coating that encapsulates a poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) core. This novel HDL-like nanoparticle (PLGA-HDL) displayed natural HDL characteristics, including preferential uptake by macrophages and a good cholesterol efflux capacity, combined with a typical PLGA nanoparticle slow release profile. In vivo studies carried out with an ApoE knockout mouse model of atherosclerosis showed clear accumulation of PLGA-HDL nanoparticles in atherosclerotic plaques, which colocalized with plaque macrophages. This biomimetic platform integrates the targeting capacity of HDL biomimetic nanoparticles with the characteristic versatility of PLGA-based nanocarriers.

  6. Lack of P2Y(13) in mice fed a high cholesterol diet results in decreased hepatic cholesterol content, biliary lipid secretion and reverse cholesterol transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lichtenstein, Laeticia; Serhan, Nizar; Annema, Wijtske; Combes, Guillaume; Robaye, Bernard; Boeynaems, Jean-Marie; Perret, Bertrand; Tietge, Uwe J. F.; Laffargue, Muriel; Martinez, Laurent O.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The protective effect of HDL is mostly attributed to their metabolic function in reverse cholesterol transport (RCT), a process whereby excess cellular cholesterol is taken up from peripheral cells, processed in HDL particles, and later delivered to the liver for further metabolism and

  7. Sex specific response in cholesterol level in zebrafish (Danio rerio) after long-term exposure of difenoconazole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mu, Xiyan; Wang, Kai; Chai, Tingting; Zhu, Lizhen; Yang, Yang; Zhang, Jie; Pang, Sen; Wang, Chengju; Li, Xuefeng

    2015-01-01

    Difenoconazole is a widely used triazole fungicide, its extensive application may potentially cause toxic effects on non-target organisms. To investigate the effect of difenoconazole on cholesterol content and related mechanism, adult zebrafish were exposed to environmental related dosage (0.1, 10 and 500 μg/L) difenoconazole. The body weight and hepatic total cholesterol (TCHO) level was tested at 7, 15 and 30 days post exposure (dpe). The expressions of eight cholesterol synthesis genes and one cholesterol metabolism gene were assessed via Quantitative PCR method. The significant decrease of TCHO level in male zebrafish liver was observed at 15 and 30 dpe, which was accompanied by apparent hepatic cholesterol-genesis genes expression decline. In comparison with males, female zebrafish showed different transcription modification of tested genes, and the cholesterol content maintain normal level during the whole exposure. - Highlights: • Difenoconazle could reduce TCHO level in male zebrafish liver. • Difenoconazole could inhibit sterol-genesis genes expression in male zebrafish. • Female zebrafish didn't show obvious change of TCHO level after exposure. • Difenoconazole could inhibit body weight of both male and female zebrafish. - Difenoconazle could reduce cholesterol level and sterol-genesis genes expression in male zebrafish. While female zebrafish showed no obvious cholesterol content change during exposure

  8. Rethinking reverse cholesterol transport and dysfunctional high-density lipoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillard, Baiba K; Rosales, Corina; Xu, Bingqing; Gotto, Antonio M; Pownall, Henry J

    2018-04-12

    Human plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations are a negative risk factor for atherosclerosis-linked cardiovascular disease. Pharmacological attempts to reduce atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease by increasing plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol have been disappointing so that recent research has shifted from HDL quantity to HDL quality, that is, functional vs dysfunctional HDL. HDL has varying degrees of dysfunction reflected in impaired reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). In the context of atheroprotection, RCT occurs by 2 mechanisms: one is the well-known trans-hepatic pathway comprising macrophage free cholesterol (FC) efflux, which produces early forms of FC-rich nascent HDL (nHDL). Lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase converts HDL-FC to HDL-cholesteryl ester while converting nHDL from a disc to a mature spherical HDL, which transfers its cholesteryl ester to the hepatic HDL receptor, scavenger receptor B1 for uptake, conversion to bile salts, or transfer to the intestine for excretion. Although widely cited, current evidence suggests that this is a minor pathway and that most HDL-FC and nHDL-FC rapidly transfer directly to the liver independent of lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase activity. A small fraction of plasma HDL-FC enters the trans-intestinal efflux pathway comprising direct FC transfer to the intestine. SR-B1 -/- mice, which have impaired trans-hepatic FC transport, are characterized by high plasma levels of a dysfunctional FC-rich HDL that increases plasma FC bioavailability in a way that produces whole-body hypercholesterolemia and multiple pathologies. The design of future therapeutic strategies to improve RCT will have to be formulated in the context of these dual RCT mechanisms and the role of FC bioavailability. Copyright © 2018 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Impact of LDL apheresis on atheroprotective reverse cholesterol transport pathway in familial hypercholesterolemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orsoni, Alexina; Villard, Elise F.; Bruckert, Eric; Robillard, Paul; Carrie, Alain; Bonnefont-Rousselot, Dominique; Chapman, M. John; Dallinga-Thie, Geesje M.; Le Goff, Wilfried; Guerin, Maryse

    2012-01-01

    In familial hypercholesterolemia (FH), low HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) levels are associated with functional alterations of HDL particles that reduce their capacity to mediate the reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) pathway. The objective of this study was to evaluate the consequences of LDL apheresis

  10. Phospholipase A2-treated human high-density lipoprotein and cholesterol movements: exchange processes and lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chollet, F; Perret, B P; Chap, H; Douste-Blazy, L

    1986-02-12

    Human HDL3 (d 1.125-1.21 g/ml) were treated by an exogenous phospholipase A2 from Crotalus adamenteus in the presence of albumin. Phosphatidylcholine hydrolysis ranged between 30 and 90% and the reisolated particle was essentially devoid of lipolysis products. (1) An exchange of free cholesterol was recorded between radiolabelled erythrocytes at 5-10% haematocrit and HDL3 (0.6 mM total cholesterol) from 0 to 12-15 h. Isotopic equilibration was reached. Kinetic analysis of the data indicated a constant rate of free cholesterol exchange of 13.0 microM/h with a half-time of equilibration around 3 h. Very similar values of cholesterol exchange, specific radioactivities and kinetic parameters were measured when phospholipase-treated HDL replaced control HDL. (2) The lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase reactivity of HDL3, containing different amounts of phosphatidylcholine, as achieved by various degrees of phospholipase A2 treatment, was measured using a crude preparation of lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase (the d 1.21-1.25 g/ml plasma fraction). The rate of esterification was determined between 0 and 12 h. Following a 15-30% lipolysis, the lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase reactivity of HDL3 was reduced about 30-40%, and then continued to decrease, though more slowly, as the phospholipid content was further lowered in the particle. (3) The addition of the lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase preparation into an incubation medium made of labelled erythrocytes and HDL3 promoted a movement of radioactive cholesterol out of cells, above the values of exchange, and an accumulation of cholesteryl esters in HDL. This reflected a mass consumption of free cholesterol, from both the cellular and the lipoprotein compartments upon the lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase action. As a consequence of a decreased reactivity, phospholipase-treated HDL (with 2/3 of phosphatidylcholine hydrolyzed) proved much less effective in the lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase

  11. The WWOX Gene Modulates HDL and Lipid Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iatan, Iulia; Choi, Hong Y.; Ruel, Isabelle; Linga Reddy, M.V. Prasad; Kil, Hyunsuk; Lee, Jaeho; Abu Odeh, Mohammad; Salah, Zaidoun; Abu-Remaileh, Muhannad; Weissglas-Volkov, Daphna; Nikkola, Elina; Civelek, Mete; Awan, Zuhier; Croce, Carlo M.; Aqeilan, Rami I.; Pajukanta, Päivi; Aldaz, C. Marcelo; Genest, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    Background Low high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) constitutes a major risk factor for atherosclerosis. Recent studies from our group reported a genetic association between the WW domain-containing oxidoreductase (WWOX) gene and HDL-C levels. Here, through next-generation resequencing, in vivo functional studies and gene microarray analyses, we investigated the role of WWOX in HDL and lipid metabolism. Methods and Results Using next-generation resequencing of the WWOX region, we first identified 8 variants significantly associated and perfectly segregating with the low-HDL trait in two multi-generational French Canadian dyslipidemic families. To understand in vivo functions of WWOX, we used liver-specific Wwoxhep−/− and total Wwox−/− mice models, where we found decreased ApoA-I and ABCA1 levels in hepatic tissues. Analyses of lipoprotein profiles in Wwox−/−, but not Wwox hep−/− littermates, also showed marked reductions in serum HDL-C concentrations, concordant with the low-HDL findings observed in families. We next obtained evidence of a gender-specific effect in female Wwoxhep−/− mice, where an increase in plasma triglycerides and altered lipid metabolic pathways by microarray analyses were observed. We further identified a significant reduction in ApoA-I and LPL, and upregulation in Fas, Angptl4 and Lipg, suggesting that the effects of Wwox involve multiple pathways, including cholesterol homeostasis, ApoA-I/ABCA1 pathway, and fatty acid biosynthesis/triglyceride metabolism. Conclusions Our data indicate that WWOX disruption alters HDL and lipoprotein metabolism through several mechanisms and may account for the low-HDL phenotype observed in families expressing the WWOX variants. These findings thus describe a novel gene involved in cellular lipid homeostasis, which effects may impact atherosclerotic disease development. PMID:24871327

  12. Bioinformatic Analysis of Plasma Apolipoproteins A-I and A-II Revealed Unique Features of A-I/A-II HDL Particles in Human Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kido, Toshimi; Kurata, Hideaki; Kondo, Kazuo; Itakura, Hiroshige; Okazaki, Mitsuyo; Urata, Takeyoshi; Yokoyama, Shinji

    2016-01-01

    Plasma concentration of apoA-I, apoA-II and apoA-II-unassociated apoA-I was analyzed in 314 Japanese subjects (177 males and 137 females), including one (male) homozygote and 37 (20 males and 17 females) heterozygotes of genetic CETP deficiency. ApoA-I unassociated with apoA-II markedly and linearly increased with HDL-cholesterol, while apoA-II increased only very slightly and the ratio of apoA-II-associated apoA-I to apoA-II stayed constant at 2 in molar ratio throughout the increase of HDL-cholesterol, among the wild type and heterozygous CETP deficiency. Thus, overall HDL concentration almost exclusively depends on HDL with apoA-I without apoA-II (LpAI) while concentration of HDL containing apoA-I and apoA-II (LpAI:AII) is constant having a fixed molar ratio of 2 : 1 regardless of total HDL and apoA-I concentration. Distribution of apoA-I between LpAI and LpAI:AII is consistent with a model of statistical partitioning regardless of sex and CETP genotype. The analysis also indicated that LpA-I accommodates on average 4 apoA-I molecules and has a clearance rate indistinguishable from LpAI:AII. Independent evidence indicated LpAI:A-II has a diameter 20% smaller than LpAI, consistent with a model having two apoA-I and one apoA-II. The functional contribution of these particles is to be investigated. PMID:27526664

  13. What's Cholesterol?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... LDL. Most cholesterol is LDL (low-density lipoprotein) cholesterol. LDL cholesterol is more likely to clog blood vessels because ... Here's a way to remember the difference: the LDL cholesterol is the bad kind, so call it "lousy" ...

  14. Whey protein improves HDL/non-HDL ratio and body weight gain in rats subjected to the resistance exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kely Raspante Teixeira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of resistance exercise, such as weight-lifting (WL on the biochemical parameters of lipid metabolism and cardiovascular disease risk in the rats fed casein (control or whey protein (WP diets. Thirty-two male Fisher rats were randomly assigned to sedentary or exercise-trained groups and were fed control or WP diets. The WL program consisted of inducing the animals to perform the sets of jumps with weights attached to the chest. After seven weeks, arteriovenous blood samples were collected for analysis. The WL or WP ingestion were able to improve the lipid profile, reducing the TC and non-HDL cholesterol concentrations, but only WP treatment significantly increased the serum HDL concentrations, thereby also affecting the TC/HDL and HDL/non-HDL ratios. However, WL plus WP was more effective in improving the HDL/non-HDL ratio than the exercise or WP ingestion alone and the body weight gain than exercise without WP ingestion.

  15. Variants for HDL-C, LDL-C and Triglycerides Identified from Admixture Mapping and Fine-Mapping Analysis in African-American Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Priya B.; Tang, Hua; Feng, Tao; Tayo, Bamidele; Morrison, Alanna C.; Kardia, Sharon L.R.; Hanis, Craig L.; Arnett, Donna K.; Hunt, Steven C.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Rao, D.C.; Cooper, R.S.; Risch, Neil; Zhu, Xiaofeng

    2015-01-01

    Background Admixture mapping of lipids was followed-up by family-based association analysis to identify variants for cardiovascular disease in African-Americans. Methods and Results The present study conducted admixture mapping analysis for total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglycerides. The analysis was performed in 1,905 unrelated African-American subjects from the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute’s Family Blood Pressure Program. Regions showing admixture evidence were followed-up with family-based association analysis in 3,556 African-American subjects from the FBPP. The admixture mapping and family-based association analyses were adjusted for age, age2, sex, body-mass-index, and genome-wide mean ancestry to minimize the confounding due to population stratification. Regions that were suggestive of local ancestry association evidence were found on chromosomes 7 (LDL-C), 8 (HDL-C), 14 (triglycerides) and 19 (total cholesterol and triglycerides). In the fine-mapping analysis, 52,939 SNPs were tested and 11 SNPs (8 independent SNPs) showed nominal significant association with HDL-C (2 SNPs), LDL-C (4 SNPs) and triglycerides (5 SNPs). The family data was used in the fine-mapping to identify SNPs that showed novel associations with lipids and regions including genes with known associations for cardiovascular disease. Conclusions This study identified regions on chromosomes 7, 8, 14 and 19 and 11 SNPs from the fine-mapping analysis that were associated with HDL-C, LDL-C and triglycerides for further studies of cardiovascular disease in African-Americans. PMID:25552592

  16. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol: How High

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Rajagopal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C is considered anti-atherogenic good cholesterol. It is involved in reverse transport of lipids. Epidemiological studies have found inverse relationship of HDL-C and coronary heart disease (CHD risk. When grouped according to HDL-C, subjects having HDL-C more than 60 mg/dL had lesser risk of CHD than those having HDL-C of 40-60 mg/dL, who in turn had lesser risk than those who had HDL-C less than 40 mg/dL. No upper limit for beneficial effect of HDL-C on CHD risk has been identified. The goals of treating patients with low HDL-C have not been firmly established. Though many drugs are known to improve HDL-C concentration, statins are proven to improve CHD risk and mortality. Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP is involved in metabolism of HDL-C and its inhibitors are actively being screened for clinical utility. However, final answer is still awaited on CETP-inhibitors.

  17. Pemberian Teh Kombucha Pada Air Minum Terhadap Nilai Ldl Kolesterol Dan Hdl Kolesterol Darah Ayam Broiler (Gallus SP)

    OpenAIRE

    Djaelani, Muhammad Anwar; Tana, Silvana

    2015-01-01

    The risk of consuming large quantities of food containing cholesterol has been widely known. By knowing the cholesterol content of food products, people could restrict their consumption of high cholesterol food. This study was to knew LDL cholesterol and HDL cholesterol of blood broiler chickens after treated with kombucha tea. This research used the CP 707 broiler strains chickens aged 1 week, treated with kombucha tea that has been fermented for 12 days at a temperature of 25oC. 20 broiler ...

  18. Improving reconstituted HDL composition for efficient post-ischemic reduction of ischemia reperfusion injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Claude Brulhart-Meynet

    Full Text Available New evidence shows that high density lipoproteins (HDL have protective effects beyond their role in reverse cholesterol transport. Reconstituted HDL (rHDL offer an attractive means of clinically exploiting these novel effects including cardioprotection against ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI. However, basic rHDL composition is limited to apolipoprotein AI (apoAI and phospholipids; addition of bioactive compound may enhance its beneficial effects.The aim of this study was to investigate the role of rHDL in post-ischemic model, and to analyze the potential impact of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P in rHDL formulations.The impact of HDL on IRI was investigated using complementary in vivo, ex vivo and in vitro IRI models. Acute post-ischemic treatment with native HDL significantly reduced infarct size and cell death in the ex vivo, isolated heart (Langendorff model and the in vivo model (-48%, p<0.01. Treatment with rHDL of basic formulation (apoAI + phospholipids had a non-significant impact on cell death in vitro and on the infarct size ex vivo and in vivo. In contrast, rHDL containing S1P had a highly significant, protective influence ex vivo, and in vivo (-50%, p<0.01. This impact was comparable with the effects observed with native HDL. Pro-survival signaling proteins, Akt, STAT3 and ERK1/2 were similarly activated by HDL and rHDL containing S1P both in vitro (isolated cardiomyocytes and in vivo.HDL afford protection against IRI in a clinically relevant model (post-ischemia. rHDL is significantly protective if supplemented with S1P. The protective impact of HDL appears to target directly the cardiomyocyte.

  19. Xanthophylls, phytosterols and pre-β1-HDL are differentially affected by fenofibrate and niacin HDL-raising in a cross-over study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niesor, Eric J; Gauthamadasa, Kekulawalage; Silva, R A Gangani D; Suchankova, Gabriela; Kallend, David; Gylling, Helena; Asztalos, Bela; Damonte, Elisabetta; Rossomanno, Simona; Abt, Markus; Davidson, W Sean; Benghozi, Renee

    2013-12-01

    Fenofibrate and extended-release (ER) niacin similarly raise high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) concentration but their effects on levels of potent plasma antioxidant xanthophylls (lutein and zeaxanthin) and phytosterols obtained from dietary sources, and any relationship with plasma lipoproteins and pre-β1-HDL levels, have not been investigated. We studied these parameters in 66 dyslipidemic patients treated for 6 week with fenofibrate (160 mg/day) or ER-niacin (0.5 g/day for 3 week, then 1 g/day) in a cross-over study. Both treatments increased HDL-C (16 %) and apolipoprotein (apo) A-I (7 %) but only fenofibrate increased apoA-II (28 %). Lutein and zeaxanthin levels were unaffected by fenofibrate but inversely correlated with percentage change in apoB and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and positively correlated with end of treatment apoA-II. ApoA-II in isolated HDL in vitro bound more lutein than apoA-I. Xanthophylls were increased by ER-niacin (each ~30 %) without any correlation to lipoprotein or apo levels. Only fenofibrate markedly decreased plasma markers of cholesterol absorption; pre-β1-HDL was significantly decreased by fenofibrate (-19 %, p xanthophylls, phytosterols and pre-β1-HDL differed markedly, suggesting differences in intestinal lipidation of HDL. In addition, the in vitro investigations suggest an important role of plasma apoA-II in xanthophyll metabolism.

  20. Regulation of biliary cholesterol secretion and reverse cholesterol transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dikkers, Arne

    2016-01-01

    According to the World Health Organization the number one cause of death throughout the world is cardiovascular disease. Therefore, there is an urgent need for new therapeutic strategies to prevent and treat cardiovascular disease. One possible way is to target the HDL-driven reverse cholesterol

  1. nduced hyperlipidemic rats. Methods: Column chromatographic fractionation of butanol fraction of total methanol extract of leaves of Bauhinia variegata (Linn. yields four sub-fractions (sub-fraction A-D. All sub-fractions tested for their anti-hyperlipidemic activity. Sub-fractions administered at a dose of 65 mg/kg (oral to the Triton WR-1339 induced hyperlipidemic rats and total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL, LDL and VLDL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Kumar

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the effect and evaluation of Anti-hyperlipidemic activity guided subfraction isolated from total methanolic extract of Bauhinia variegata (Linn. leaves on Triton WR-1339 induced hyperlipidemic rats. Methods: Column chromatographic fractionation of butanol fraction of total methanol extract of leaves of Bauhinia variegata (Linn. yields four subfractions (sub-fraction A-D. All sub-fractions tested for their anti-hyperlipidemic activity. Subfractions administered at a dose of 65 mg/kg (oral to the Triton WR-1339 induced hyperlipidemic rats and total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL, LDL and VLDL level in the blood were checked. Results: Sub-fraction D showed significant reduction (P<0.05 among four sub-fraction in comparison with standard drug fenofibrate. Conclusions: From the above study it could be concluded that butanol sub-fraction D of Bauhinia variegata (Linn. not only have resulted in significant reduction in cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL, VLDL level but also increases the HDL level at a reduced dose level.

  2. Hepatic ACAT2 knock down increases ABCA1 and modifies HDL metabolism in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Pedrelli

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: ACAT2 is the exclusive cholesterol-esterifying enzyme in hepatocytes and enterocytes. Hepatic ABCA1 transfers unesterified cholesterol (UC to apoAI, thus generating HDL. By changing the hepatic UC pool available for ABCA1, ACAT2 may affect HDL metabolism. The aim of this study was to reveal whether hepatic ACAT2 influences HDL metabolism. DESIGN: WT and LXRα/β double knockout (DOKO mice were fed a western-type diet for 8 weeks. Animals were i.p. injected with an antisense oligonucleotide targeted to hepatic ACAT2 (ASO6, or with an ASO control. Injections started 4 weeks after, or concomitantly with, the beginning of the diet. RESULTS: ASO6 reduced liver cholesteryl esters, while not inducing UC accumulation. ASO6 increased hepatic ABCA1 protein independently of the diet conditions. ASO6 affected HDL lipids (increased UC only in DOKO, while it increased apoE-containing HDL in both genotypes. In WT mice ASO6 led to the appearance of large HDL enriched in apoAI and apoE. CONCLUSIONS: The use of ASO6 revealed a new pathway by which the liver may contribute to HDL metabolism in mice. ACAT2 seems to be a hepatic player affecting the cholesterol fluxes fated to VLDL or to HDL, the latter via up-regulation of ABCA1.

  3. Dietary cholesterol from eggs increases the ratio of total cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in humans : a meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weggemans, R.M.; Zock, P.L.; Katan, M.B.

    2001-01-01

    Several epidemiologic studies found no effect of egg consumption on the risk of coronary heart disease. It is possible that the adverse effect of eggs on LDL-cholesterol is offset by their favorable effect on HDL cholesterol. Objective: The objective was to review the effect of dietary cholesterol

  4. Melanocortin signaling in the CNS directly regulates circulating cholesterol

    OpenAIRE

    Perez-Tilve, Diego; Hofmann, Susanna M; Basford, Joshua; Nogueiras, Ruben; Pfluger, Paul T; Patterson, James T; Grant, Erin; Wilson-Perez, Hilary E; Granholm, Norman A; Arnold, Myrtha; Trevaskis, James L; Butler, Andrew A; Davidson, William S; Woods, Stephen C; Benoit, Stephen C

    2010-01-01

    Cholesterol circulates in the blood in association with triglycerides and other lipids, and elevated blood low-density lipoprotein cholesterol carries a risk for metabolic and cardiovascular disorders, whereas high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol in the blood is thought to be beneficial. Circulating cholesterol is the balance among dietary cholesterol absorption, hepatic synthesis and secretion, and the metabolism of lipoproteins by various tissues. We found that the CNS is also an impo...

  5. Remnant cholesterol and ischemic heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varbo, Anette; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review recent advances in the field of remnant cholesterol as a contributor to the development of ischemic heart disease (IHD). RECENT FINDINGS: Epidemiologic, mechanistic, and genetic studies all support a role for elevated remnant cholesterol (=cholesterol in triglyceride......-rich lipoproteins) as a contributor to the development of atherosclerosis and IHD. Observational studies show association between elevated remnant cholesterol and IHD, and mechanistic studies show remnant cholesterol accumulation in the arterial wall like LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) accumulation. Furthermore, large...... genetic studies show evidence of remnant cholesterol as a causal risk factor for IHD independent of HDL-cholesterol levels. Genetic studies also show that elevated remnant cholesterol is associated with low-grade inflammation, whereas elevated LDL-C is not. There are several pharmacologic ways of lowering...

  6. A Prospective Birth Cohort Study on Maternal Cholesterol Levels and Offspring Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: New Insight on Sex Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Yuelong; Riley, Anne W; Lee, Li-Ching; Volk, Heather; Hong, Xiumei; Wang, Guoying; Angomas, Rayris; Stivers, Tom; Wahl, Anastacia; Ji, Hongkai; Bartell, Tami R; Burd, Irina; Paige, David; Fallin, Margaret D; Zuckerman, Barry; Wang, Xiaobin

    2017-12-23

    Growing evidence suggests that maternal cholesterol levels are important in the offspring's brain growth and development. Previous studies on cholesterols and brain functions were mostly in adults. We sought to examine the prospective association between maternal cholesterol levels and the risk of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in the offspring. We analyzed data from the Boston Birth Cohort, enrolled at birth and followed from birth up to age 15 years. The final analyses included 1479 mother-infant pairs: 303 children with ADHD, and 1176 neurotypical children without clinician-diagnosed neurodevelopmental disorders. The median age of the first diagnosis of ADHD was seven years. The multiple logistic regression results showed that a low maternal high-density lipoprotein level (≤60 mg/dL) was associated with an increased risk of ADHD, compared to a higher maternal high-density lipoprotein level, after adjusting for pertinent covariables. A "J" shaped relationship was observed between triglycerides and ADHD risk. The associations with ADHD for maternal high-density lipoprotein and triglycerides were more pronounced among boys. The findings based on this predominantly urban low-income minority birth cohort raise a new mechanistic perspective for understanding the origins of ADHD and the gender differences and future targets in the prevention of ADHD.

  7. PLTP activity in premenopausal women. Relationship with lipoprotein lipase, HDL, LDL, body fat, and insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdoch, S J; Carr, M C; Hokanson, J E; Brunzell, J D; Albers, J J

    2000-02-01

    Plasma phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) is thought to play a major role in the facilitated transfer of phospholipids between lipoproteins and in the modulation of high density lipoprotein (HDL) particle size and composition. However, little has been reported concerning the relationships of PLTP with plasma lipoprotein parameters, lipolytic enzymes, body fat distribution, insulin, and glucose in normolipidemic individuals, particularly females. In the present study, 50 normolipidemic healthy premenopausal females were investigated. The relationships between the plasma PLTP activity and selected variables were assessed. PLTP activity was significantly and positively correlated with low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (r(s) = 0.53), apoB (r(s) = 0.44), glucose (r(s) = 0.40), HDL cholesterol (r(s) = 0.38), HDL(3) cholesterol (r(s) = 0.37), lipoprotein lipase activity (r(s) = 0.36), insulin (r(s) = 0.33), subcutaneous abdominal fat (r(s) = 0.36), intra-abdominal fat (r(s) = 0.29), and body mass index (r(s) = 0.29). HDL(2) cholesterol, triglyceride, and hepatic lipase were not significantly related to PLTP activity. As HDL(2) can be decreased by hepatic lipase and hepatic lipase is increased in obesity with increasing intra-abdominal fat, the participants were divided into sub-groups of non-obese (n = 35) and obese (n = 15) individuals and the correlation of PLTP with HDL(2) cholesterol was re-examined. In the non-obese subjects, HDL(2) cholesterol was found to be significantly and positively related to PLTP activity (r(s) = 0.44). Adjustment of the HDL(2) values for the effect of hepatic lipase activity resulted in a significant positive correlation between PLTP and HDL(2) (r(s) = 0.41), indicating that the strength of the relationship between PLTP activity and HDL(2) can be reduced by the opposing effect of hepatic lipase on HDL(2) concentrations. We conclude that PLTP-facilitated lipid transfer activity is related to HDL and LDL metabolism, as well as

  8. Fish consumption, mercury exposure, and the risk of cholesterol profiles: findings from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Min Cho

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the associations between mercury (Hg exposure and cholesterol profiles were analyzed, and increased Hg levels and cholesterol profiles according to the amount of fish consumption were evaluated. Data on levels of blood Hg, the frequency of fish consumption, total blood cholesterol (TC, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, and triglyceride (TG in 3951 adults were obtained from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010-2011 database. To compare the distribution for each log-transformed indicator, Student’s t-test and analysis of variance were carried out, and the groups were classified according to the frequency of fish consumption through linear regression analysis; the association between Hg level and cholesterol profiles in each group was analyzed. The blood Hg levels (arithmetic mean, median, and geometric mean for all target participants were 4.59, 3.66, and 3.74 µg/L, respectively. The high cholesterol group, low HDL-C group, and high TG group showed a statistically and significantly higher blood Hg level than the low-risk group. In both sexes, as the frequency of fish consumption increased, blood Hg level also increased, but TC, HDL-C, LDL-C, and TG did not show a similar trend. Increased blood Hg level showed a significant association with increased TC and LDL-C. This statistical significance was maintained in the group with less frequent fish consumption (8 times per month did not show a similar trend. The results of this study suggest that fish consumption increases the level of Hg exposure, and that as the level of Hg exposure increases, the levels of cholesterol profiles increase. However, this study also suggests that the levels of cholesterol profiles in those with frequent fish consumption can be diminished.

  9. Presence of elevated non-HDL among patients with T2DM with CV events despite of optimal LDL-C – A report from South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satyavani Kumpatla

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Elevated non-high density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C was the commonest lipid abnormality among T2DM patients with cardiovascular events (CV events. Prevalence of elevated non-HDL-C was 21.6% among patients who were on statin therapy and with optimal low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C levels. Despite an optimal LDL-C level, 47% of the T2DM patients with CV events had elevated non-HDL-C.

  10. Alcohol consumption stimulates early stemps in reverse cholesterol transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaag, van der M.S.; Tol, van A.; Vermunt, S.H.F.; Scheek, L.M.; Schaafsma, G.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2001-01-01

    Alcohol consumption is associated with increased HDL cholesterol levels, which may indicate stimulated reverse cholesterol transport. The mechanism is, however, not known. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of alcohol consumption on the first two steps of the reverse cholesterol

  11. Alcohol consumption stimulates early steps in reverse cholesterol transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaag, M.S. van der; Tol, A. van; Vermunt, S.H.F.; Scheek, L.M.; Schaafsma, G.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2001-01-01

    Alcohol consumption is associated with increased HDL cholesterol levels, which may indicate stimulated reverse cholesterol transport. The mechanism is, however, not known. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of alcohol consumption on the first two steps of the reverse cholesterol

  12. Moderate alcohol consumption increases cholesterol efflux mediated by ABCA1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beulens, J.W.J.; Sierksma, A.; Tol, A. van; Fournier, N.; Gent, T. van; Paul, J.L.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2004-01-01

    Moderate alcohol consumption increases HDL cholesterol, which is involved in reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of moderate alcohol consumption on cholesterol efflux, using J774 mouse macrophages and Fu5AH cells, and on other parameters in the

  13. Genetic determinants of LDL, lipoprotein(a), triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and HDL: concordance and discordance with cardiovascular disease risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordestgaard, Børge G; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate whether new and known genetic determinants of plasma levels of LDL cholesterol, lipoprotein(a), triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, and HDL cholesterol associate with the risk of cardiovascular disease expected from the effect on lipoprotein levels. Concordance or discordance of such gene......To evaluate whether new and known genetic determinants of plasma levels of LDL cholesterol, lipoprotein(a), triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, and HDL cholesterol associate with the risk of cardiovascular disease expected from the effect on lipoprotein levels. Concordance or discordance...

  14. Effects of the BET-inhibitor, RVX-208 on the HDL lipidome and glucose metabolism in individuals with prediabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siebel, Andrew L; Trinh, Si Khiang; Formosa, Melissa F

    2016-01-01

    (HDL lipidome) and glucose metabolism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty unmedicated males with prediabetes received 100mg b.i.d. RVX-208 and placebo for 29-33days separated by a wash-out period in a randomized, cross-over design trial. Plasma HDL-cholesterol and apoA-I were assessed as well as lipoprotein...

  15. ATP binding cassette G1-dependent cholesterol efflux during inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Beer, Maria C; Ji, Ailing; Jahangiri, Anisa; Vaughan, Ashley M; de Beer, Frederick C; van der Westhuyzen, Deneys R; Webb, Nancy R

    2011-02-01

    ATP binding cassette transporter G1 (ABCG1) mediates the transport of cellular cholesterol to HDL, and it plays a key role in maintaining macrophage cholesterol homeostasis. During inflammation, HDL undergoes substantial remodeling, acquiring lipid changes and serum amyloid A (SAA) as a major apolipoprotein. In the current study, we investigated whether remodeling of HDL that occurs during acute inflammation impacts ABCG1-dependent efflux. Our data indicate that lipid free SAA acts similarly to apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) in mediating sequential efflux from ABCA1 and ABCG1. Compared with normal mouse HDL, acute phase (AP) mouse HDL containing SAA exhibited a modest but significant 17% increase in ABCG1-dependent efflux. Interestingly, AP HDL isolated from mice lacking SAA (SAAKO mice) was even more effective in promoting ABCG1 efflux. Hydrolysis with Group IIA secretory phospholipase A(2) (sPLA(2)-IIA) significantly reduced the ability of AP HDL from SAAKO mice to serve as a substrate for ABCG1-mediated cholesterol transfer, indicating that phospholipid (PL) enrichment, and not the presence of SAA, is responsible for alterations in efflux. AP human HDL, which is not PL-enriched, was somewhat less effective in mediating ABCG1-dependent efflux compared with normal human HDL. Our data indicate that inflammatory remodeling of HDL impacts ABCG1-dependent efflux independent of SAA.

  16. Portulaca oleracea reduces triglyceridemia, cholesterolemia, and improves lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase activity in rats fed enriched-cholesterol diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zidan, Y; Bouderbala, S; Djellouli, F; Lacaille-Dubois, M A; Bouchenak, M

    2014-10-15

    The effects of Portulaca oleracea (Po) lyophilized aqueous extract were determined on the serum high-density lipoproteins (HDL2 and HDL3) amounts and composition, as well as on lecithin: cholesterol acyltansferase (LCAT) activity. Male Wistar rats (n = 12) were fed on 1% cholesterol-enriched diet for 10 days. After this phase, hypercholesterolemic rats (HC) were divided into two groups fed the same diet supplemented or not with Portulaca oleracea (Po-HC) (0.5%) for four weeks. Serum total cholesterol (TC) and triacylglycerols (TG), and liver TG values were respectively 1.6-, 1.8-, and 1.6-fold lower in Po-HC than in HC group. Cholesterol concentrations in LDL-HDL1, HDL2, and HDL3 were respectively 1.8, 1.4-, and 2.4-fold decreased in Po-HC group. HDL2 and HDL3 amounts, which were the sum of apolipoproteins (apos), TG, cholesteryl esters (CE), unesterified cholesterol (UC), and phospholipids (PL) contents, were respectively 4.5-fold higher and 1.2-fold lower with Po treatment. Indeed, enhanced LCAT activity (1.2-fold), its cofactor-activator apo A-I (2-fold) and its reaction product HDL2-CE (2.1-fold) were observed, whereas HDL3-PL (enzyme substrate) and HDL3-UC (acyl group acceptor) were 1.2- and 2.4-fold lower. Portulaca oleracea reduces triglyceridemia, cholesterolemia, and improves reverse cholesterol transport in rat fed enriched-cholesterol diet, contributing to anti-atherogenic effects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Remnant cholesterol as a causal risk factor for ischemic heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varbo, Anette; Benn, Marianne; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that elevated nonfasting remnant cholesterol is a causal risk factor for ischemic heart disease independent of reduced high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol.......The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that elevated nonfasting remnant cholesterol is a causal risk factor for ischemic heart disease independent of reduced high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol....

  18. Effects of dietary fucoxanthin on cholesterol metabolism in diabetic/obese KK-Ay mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beppu Fumiaki

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fucoxanthin is a xanthophyll present in brown seaweeds and has several beneficial effects, including anti-obesity and anti-diabetic effects. However, we and another group previously observed that fucoxanthin increases serum cholesterol levels in rodents. Cholesterol is an important component of cell membranes and biosynthesis of bile acids. Serum cholesterol levels are also closely associated with atherosclerosis. Therefore, we sought to identify the mechanism underlying the increase in serum cholesterol levels by fucoxanthin. Methods Diabetic/obese KK-Ay mice were fed a diet containing 0.2% fucoxanthin for 4 weeks. The mice were sacrificed, and total blood samples were collected for the measurement of serum total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and non-HDL-cholesterol levels. Cholesterol content in tissues was also analyzed. Real-time PCR and Western blotting were performed to determine hepatic mRNA and protein expression of genes involved in cholesterol metabolism, respectively. Results Dietary fucoxanthin significantly increased serum HDL and non-HDL cholesterol levels, and reduced hepatic cholesterol content. In liver, the expression of SREBP1, SREBP2 and their target genes involved in cholesterol biosynthesis significantly increased and tended to increase in the fucoxanthin-fed mice, respectively. In contrast, hepatic levels of LDLR and SR-B1 proteins which is important factors for LDL-cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol uptake in the liver from serum, decreased to 60% and 80% in the fucoxanthin-fed mice, respectively, compared with the control mice. Further, we found that dietary fucoxanthin significantly increased the mRNA expression of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9, which enhances intracellular degradation of LDLR in lysosomes. Conclusions Fucoxanthin increased HDL-cholesterol and non-HDL-cholesterol levels in KK-Ay mice by inducing SREBP expression and reduced cholesterol uptake in the liver via

  19. Sex-Specific Associations Between Thyrotropin and Serum Lipid Profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meisinger, Christa; Ittermann, Till; Tiller, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Population-based studies investigating the sex-specific association between thyrotropin (TSH) levels and serum lipid concentrations are scarce. We examined the association between TSH and total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL......) cholesterol, and triglycerides in men and women from the general population. Furthermore, the association with TSH outside and within the reference range and lipid levels was studied. METHODS: Individual data of 13,571 men and women without lipid medication of four population-based studies conducted...... in Western European adults were pooled for cross-sectional analyses. The association between TSH levels and lipid concentrations were analyzed by calculating sex-specific multivariable median regression models. RESULTS: In the pooled population, serum TSH levels were significantly positively associated...

  20. Effect of uremia on HDL composition, vascular inflammation, and atherosclerosis in wild-type mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Christian A; Bro, Susanne; Bartels, Emil D

    2007-01-01

    Wild-type mice normally do not develop atherosclerosis, unless fed cholic acid. Uremia is proinflammatory and increases atherosclerosis 6- to 10-fold in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice. This study examined the effect of uremia on lipoproteins, vascular inflammation, and atherosclerosis in wild...... in cholic acid-fed sham mice. The results suggest that moderate uremia neither induces aortic inflammation nor atherosclerosis in C57BL/6J mice despite increased LDL/HDL cholesterol ratio and altered HDL composition....

  1. Trans-intestinal cholesterol effl ux is not mediated through high density lipoprotein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrins, C.L.; Ottenhoff, R.; Oever, K. van den; Waart, D.R. de; Kruyt, J.K.; Zhao, Y.; Berkel, T.J. van; Havekes, L.M.; Aerts, J.M.; Eck, M. van; Rensen, P.C.; Groen, A.K.

    2012-01-01

    Transintestinal cholesterol efflux (TICE) provides an attractive target to increase body cholesterol excretion. At present, the cholesterol donor responsible for direct delivery of plasma cholesterol to the intestine is unknown. In this study, we investigated the role of HDL in TICE. ATP-binding

  2. Trans-intestinal cholesterol efflux is not mediated through high density lipoprotein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrins, Carlos L. J.; Ottenhoff, Roelof; van den Oever, Karin; de Waart, Dirk R.; Kruyt, J. Kar; Zhao, Ying; van Berkel, Theo J. C.; Havekes, Louis M.; Aerts, Johannes M.; van Eck, Miranda; Rensen, Patrick C. N.; Groen, Albert K.

    2012-01-01

    Transintestinal cholesterol efflux (TICE) provides an attractive target to increase body cholesterol excretion. At present, the cholesterol donor responsible for direct delivery of plasma cholesterol to the intestine is unknown. In this study, we investigated the role of HDL in TICE. ATP-binding

  3. Changes in the serum profiles of lipids and cholesterol in sheep ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The samples were used for haematological and parasitological analyses and determination of serum concentrations of total cholesterol, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-cholesterol) and low density lipoproteincholesterol (LDL-cholesterol). All animals in the infected group showed parasitaemia by day ...

  4. Apolipoprotein M predicts pre-beta-HDL formation: studies in type 2 diabetic and nondiabetic subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plomgaard, P; Dullaart, R P F; de Vries, R

    2009-01-01

    protein (PLTP) activity and the ability of plasma to promote cholesterol efflux from cultured fibroblasts. RESULTS: ApoM was approximately 9% lower in patients with type 2 diabetes compared to controls (0.025 +/- 0.006 vs. 0.027 +/- 0.007 g L(-1), P = 0.01). The difference in apoM was largely attributable...... diabetes. Pre-beta-HDL and pre-beta-HDL formation are positively associated with apoM, supporting the hypothesis that apoM plays a role in HDL remodelling in humans. Lower apoM may provide a mechanism to explain why pre-beta-HDL formation is not increased in type 2 diabetes despite elevated PLTP activity.......OBJECTIVE: Studies in mice suggest that plasma apoM is lowered in hyperinsulinaemic diabetes and that apoM stimulates formation of pre-beta-HDL. Pre-beta-HDL is an acceptor of cellular cholesterol and may be critical for reverse cholesterol transport. Herein, we examined whether patients with type...

  5. Cholesterol (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cholesterol is a soft, waxy substance that is present in all parts of the body including the ... and obtained from animal products in the diet. Cholesterol is manufactured in the liver and is needed ...

  6. Cholesterol Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... artery disease. Other names for a cholesterol test: Lipid profile, Lipid panel What is it used for? If you ... Clinic [Internet]. Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research; c1998-2017.Cholesterol Test: Overview; 2016 Jan 12 [ ...

  7. Effect of apolipoprotein E-free high density lipoproteins on cholesterol metabolism in cultured pig hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachorik, P.S.; Virgil, D.G.; Kwiterovich, P.O. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    We studied cholesterol synthesis from [ 14 C]acetate, cholesterol esterification from [ 14 C]oleate, and cellular cholesterol and cholesteryl ester levels after incubating cells with apoE-free high density lipoproteins (HDL) or low density lipoproteins (LDL). LDL suppressed synthesis by up to 60%, stimulated esterification by up to 280%, and increased cell cholesteryl ester content about 4-fold. Esterification increased within 2 h, but synthesis was not suppressed until after 6 h. ApoE-free HDL suppressed esterification by about 50% within 2 h. Cholesterol synthesis was changed very little within 6 h, unless esterification was maximally suppressed; synthesis was then stimulated about 4-fold. HDL lowered cellular unesterified cholesterol by 13-20% within 2 h and promoted the removal of newly synthesized cholesterol and cholesteryl esters. These changes were transient; by 24 h, both esterification and cellular unesterified cholesterol returned to control levels, and cholesteryl esters increased 2-3-fold. HDL core lipid was taken up selectively from 125 I-labeled [ 3 H]cholesteryl ester- and ether-labeled HDL. LDL core lipid uptake was proportional to LDL apoprotein uptake. The findings suggest that 1) the cells respond initially to HDL or LDL with changes in esterification, and 2) HDL mediates both the removal of free cholesterol from the cell and the delivery of HDL cholesteryl esters to the cell

  8. Genetic determinants of LDL, lipoprotein(a), triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and HDL: concordance and discordance with cardiovascular disease risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordestgaard, Børge G; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate whether new and known genetic determinants of plasma levels of LDL cholesterol, lipoprotein(a), triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, and HDL cholesterol associate with the risk of cardiovascular disease expected from the effect on lipoprotein levels. Concordance or discordance...... of such genetic determinants with cardiovascular disease risk will either favor or disfavor that these lipoproteins are causally related to cardiovascular disease....

  9. Effects of long term feeding of Quillaja saponins on sex ratio, muscle and serum cholesterol and LH levels in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus (L)).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, George; Levavi-Sivan, Berta; Avitan, Ayelet; Becker, Klaus

    2002-12-01

    Seventeen-day-old Nile tilapia fry were fed a standard diet (C) or diets containing 50-700 mg kg(-1) Quillaja saponin (QS) extract (groups S50, S150, S300, S500 and S700). After the first 8 weeks, 30 randomly selected tilapia from each of the treatments were placed in separate aquaria and fed the standard diet without saponins from then on (these were designated S50/C, S150/C, S300/C, S500/C and S700/C). The fish grew from an initial average weight of approximately 30 mg to a final average weight of 79 g during the 6-month feeding period. The difference between the average weight of C-fed tilapia and the treatment with the highest average weight after 6 months was 53.5%. The sex ratio of tilapia in the saponin-fed groups deviated from the normal 50:50 male:female ratio, with the S700 group showing a significantly higher number of males. Quillaja saponin stimulated LH release from dispersed tilapia pituitary cells in vitro. This effect was abolished in the presence of dilute calf serum. Serum LH values did not show any diet-dependent trend in either male or female tilapia in vivo. In both continuously saponin-fed and only-initially saponin-fed groups, the average serum (but not muscle) cholesterol levels in males showed an increasing trend (R(2) values of 0.62 and 0.69) with increasing dietary saponin level. It was concluded that dietary QS has the potential to change the sex-ratio in favour of males. More investigations are required to determine the mechanism of action and the optimum dietary level of QS for maximum effects.

  10. Markers of Oxidative Stress in Dogs with Myxomatous Mitral Valve Disease are Influenced by Sex, Neuter Status, and Serum Cholesterol Concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reimann, M. J.; Haggstrom, J.; Moller, J. E.

    2017-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular disease has been associated with oxidative stress, which has been suggested to contribute to myocardial remodeling in human patients. Little is known about the relationship between myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD) and oxidative stress in dogs. Objective To determin...... with clinical stage of MMVD. Conclusions In conclusion, markers of oxidative stress are associated with sex, BCS, neuter status, and cholesterol. The results cannot confirm a relationship between oxidative stress and clinical stage of the disease in dogs with MMVD.......Background Cardiovascular disease has been associated with oxidative stress, which has been suggested to contribute to myocardial remodeling in human patients. Little is known about the relationship between myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD) and oxidative stress in dogs. Objective To determine...... whether clinical stage of MMVD is associated with changes in the plasma concentrations of certain markers of oxidative stress in clinically healthy dogs and dogs with MMVD. Animals Seventy five privately owned dogs: 59 cavalier King Charles Spaniels (CKCS) with different severities of MMVD and 16 dogs...

  11. Alcohol-independent beneficial cardiometabolic profile of individuals with hyper-HDL cholesterolemia in Japanese men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakabayashi, Ichiro; Daimon, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    There is limited information on characterization of individuals with hyper-high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterolemia. The purpose of this study was to investigate the cardiometabolic profile of individuals with hyper-HDL cholesterolemia in comparison with the profile of individuals with normo-HDL cholesterolemia. The subjects were Japanese men and women who had hyper-HDL cholesterolemia (≥100 mg/dL) and their control subjects who had normal HDL cholesterol levels (≥40 and hyper- and normo-HDL cholesterolemic groups. Both in men and women, body mass index, waist-to-height ratio, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and hemoglobin A1c were significantly lower in subjects with hyper-HDL cholesterolemia than in subjects with normo-HDL cholesterolemia, whereas systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels were not significantly different between the 2 groups. In generalized estimating equation with adjustment for smoking and regular exercise, odds ratios of the hyper- vs normo-HDL cholesterolemic groups were significantly lower than the reference level of 1.00 for high body mass index, high waist-to-height ratio, hypertriglyceridemia, hyper-low-density lipoprotein cholesterolemia, high lipid accumulation product, and metabolic syndrome. The previously mentioned results were obtained both in age-matched analysis and in age- and alcohol intake-matched analysis, although the percentage of regular drinkers was significantly higher in the hyper-HDL cholesterolemic group than in the age-matched control group. Hyper-HDL cholesterolemia was inversely associated with obesity, dyslipidemia, and metabolic syndrome in the analysis using alcohol intake-matched subject groups. Therefore, the association of hyper-HDL cholesterolemia with lower cardiometabolic risk is thought to be independent of habitual alcohol drinking. Copyright © 2015 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Grape Polyphenols Increase the Activity of HDL Enzymes in Old and Obese Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andriy L. Zagayko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available HDL particles are protein-rich particles that act as a vehicle for reverse cholesterol transport from tissues to the liver. The purpose of this study was to investigate age-dependent changes in the functional activity of HDL and the effect of high-energy diet on this index, as well as to correct it under the influence of grape polyphenols from “Enoant” obtained from Vitis vinifera grapes. We observed the age-dependent composition changes in HDL particle. It was shown that total lipids and triacylglycerol (TG levels were higher in 24-month-old animals. In obese rats, HDL total lipids and TG levels were higher in 24-month-old than in the 3-month-old and 12-month-old groups but did not differ from 24-month-old group. The plasma HDL paraoxonase (PON and lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT activity levels were decreased in old-aged rats, and cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP activity was higher in old rats. Keeping 12-month-old animals on high-fructose diet completely leveled the age differences in the data that have been measured between 12-month-old and 24-month-old rats. After “Enoant” administration, an increase of HDL PON and LCAT activity levels and a reduction of CETP activity were found in 24-month-old and obese rats.

  13. Current guidelines for high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in therapy and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subedi BH

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Bishnu H Subedi,1,2 Parag H Joshi,1 Steven R Jones,1 Seth S Martin,1 Michael J Blaha,1 Erin D Michos1 1Johns Hopkins Ciccarone Center for the Prevention of Heart Disease, 2Greater Baltimore Medical Center, Baltimore, MD, USA Abstract: Many studies have suggested that a significant risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD is low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C. Therefore, increasing HDL-C with therapeutic agents has been considered an attractive strategy. In the prestatin era, fibrates and niacin monotherapy, which cause modest increases in HDL-C, reduced ASCVD events. Since their introduction, statins have become the cornerstone of lipoprotein therapy, the benefits of which are primarily attributed to decrease in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Findings from several randomized trials involving niacin or cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibitors have challenged the concept that a quantitative elevation of plasma HDL-C will uniformly translate into ASCVD benefits. Consequently, the HDL, or more correctly, HDL-C hypothesis has become more controversial. There are no clear guidelines thus far for targeting HDL-C or HDL due to lack of solid outcomes data for HDL specific therapies. HDL-C levels are only one marker of HDL out of its several structural or functional properties. Novel approaches are ongoing in developing and assessing agents that closely mimic the structure of natural HDL or replicate its various functions, for example, reverse cholesterol transport, vasodilation, anti-inflammation, or inhibition of platelet aggregation. Potential new approaches like HDL infusions, delipidated HDL, liver X receptor agonists, Apo A-I upregulators, Apo A mimetics, and gene therapy are in early phase trials. This review will outline current therapies and describe future directions for HDL therapeutics. Keywords: high-density lipoprotein, lipids, cholesterol, atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease, therapy

  14. Triglycerides/High density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio as a cardiometabolic risk marker in children and adolescents from Mérida city, Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, Miguel; Briceño, Yajaira; Gómez-Pérez, Roald; Zerpa, Yajaira; Camacho, Nolis; Paoli, Mariela

    2018-02-01

    To determine the behavior of the triglycerides/HDL-cholesterol ratio (TG/HDL) as a cardiometabolic risk marker in children and adolescents from Mérida, Venezuela. A total of 1292 children and adolescents aged 7-18 years who attended educational institutions in the Libertador Municipality were enrolled into this study. Anthropometric measurements and blood pressure values were recorded. Fasting blood glucose, insulin and lipid levels were measured. The TG/HDL ratio, HOMA-IR, and QUICKI indexes were calculated. Subjects were categorized as with and without cardiometabolic risk based on the presence or absence of 2or more risk factors. Cut-off points for the TG/HDL ratio were determined by constructing ROC curves. Significantly higher mean TG/HDL ratios were found in pubertal (2.2 ± 1.7) as compared to prepubertal subjects (1.8 ± 1.5; P=.001), with no sex differences. Two or more risk factors were found in 14.7% (n=192) of the participants, in whom TG/HDL ratios were significantly higher as compared to those with no risk (3.5±2.9 versus 1.6±0.8 in prepubertal and 4.1 ± 3.5 versus 1.8 ± 0.9 in pubertal subjects; P=.0001). According to cardiometabolic risk, cut-off points for the TG/HDL ratio of 1.8 and 2.5 were found for prepubertal and pubertal children respectively. These cut-off points showed risks (odds ratio) higher than 2.5 for conditions such as metabolic syndrome, elevated non-HDL-C, abdominal obesity, and elevated HOMA-IR. In this sample of children and adolescents, an elevated TG/HDLc ratio was found to be a good marker for predicting cardiometabolic risk. Copyright © 2017 SEEN y SED. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Resveratrol protects rabbits against cholesterol diet- induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... groups compared to HFD group only. In conclusion, the findings indicated that Resveratrol may contain polar products able to lower plasma lipid concentrations and might be beneficial in treatment of hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis. Keywords: Cholesterol diet, Lipidaemia, Rabbit; Resveratrol, LDL-c, HDL-c, TC, TG ...

  16. Statin action enriches HDL3 in polyunsaturated phospholipids and plasmalogens and reduces LDL-derived phospholipid hydroperoxides in atherogenic mixed dyslipidemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Ricardo; Giral, Philippe; Robillard, Paul; Kontush, Anatol; Chapman, M. John

    2016-01-01

    Atherogenic mixed dyslipidemia associates with oxidative stress and defective HDL antioxidative function in metabolic syndrome (MetS). The impact of statin treatment on the capacity of HDL to inactivate LDL-derived, redox-active phospholipid hydroperoxides (PCOOHs) in MetS is indeterminate. Insulin-resistant, hypertriglyceridemic, hypertensive, obese males were treated with pitavastatin (4 mg/day) for 180 days, resulting in marked reduction in plasma TGs (−41%) and LDL-cholesterol (−38%), with minor effects on HDL-cholesterol and apoAI. Native plasma LDL (baseline vs. 180 days) was oxidized by aqueous free radicals under mild conditions in vitro either alone or in the presence of the corresponding pre- or poststatin HDL2 or HDL3 at authentic plasma mass ratios. Lipidomic analyses revealed that statin treatment i) reduced the content of oxidizable polyunsaturated phosphatidylcholine (PUPC) species containing DHA and linoleic acid in LDL; ii) preferentially increased the content of PUPC species containing arachidonic acid (AA) in small, dense HDL3; iii) induced significant elevation in the content of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) plasmalogens containing AA and DHA in HDL3; and iv) induced formation of HDL3 particles with increased capacity to inactivate PCOOH with formation of redox-inactive phospholipid hydroxide. Statin action attenuated LDL oxidability Concomitantly, the capacity of HDL3 to inactivate redox-active PCOOH was enhanced relative to HDL2, consistent with preferential enrichment of PE plasmalogens and PUPC in HDL3. PMID:27581680

  17. Longitudinal Trajectories of Cholesterol from Midlife through Late Life according to Apolipoprotein E Allele Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Downer

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Previous research indicates that total cholesterol levels increase with age during young adulthood and middle age and decline with age later in life. This is attributed to changes in diet, body composition, medication use, physical activity, and hormone levels. In the current study we utilized data from the Framingham Heart Study Original Cohort to determine if variations in apolipoprotein E (APOE, a gene involved in regulating cholesterol homeostasis, influence trajectories of total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and total: HDL cholesterol ratio from midlife through late life. Methods: Cholesterol trajectories from midlife through late life were modeled using generalized additive mixed models and mixed-effects regression models. Results: APOE e2+ subjects had lower total cholesterol levels, higher HDL cholesterol levels, and lower total: HDL cholesterol ratios from midlife to late life compared to APOE e3 and APOE e4+ subjects. Statistically significant differences in life span cholesterol trajectories according to gender and use of cholesterol-lowering medications were also detected. Conclusion: The findings from this research provide evidence that variations in APOE modify trajectories of serum cholesterol from midlife to late life. In order to efficiently modify cholesterol through the life span, it is important to take into account APOE allele status.

  18. Physical inactivity interacts with an endothelial lipase polymorphism to modulate high density lipoprotein cholesterol in the GOLDN study

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: Plasma high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (HDL-C) concentration is highly heritable but is also modifiable by environmental factors including physical activity. HDL-C response to exercise varies among individuals, and this variability may be associated with genetic polymorphism...

  19. High serum total cholesterol is a long-term cause of osteoporotic fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimpou, P; Odén, A; Simonsson, T; Wilhelmsen, L; Landin-Wilhelmsen, K

    2011-05-01

    Risk factors for osteoporotic fractures were evaluated in 1,396 men and women for a period of 20 years. Serum total cholesterol was found to be an independent osteoporotic fracture risk factor whose predictive power improves with time. The purpose of this study was to evaluate long-term risk factors for osteoporotic fracture. A population random sample of men and women aged 25-64 years (the Gothenburg WHO MONICA project, N = 1,396, 53% women) was studied prospectively. The 1985 baseline examination recorded physical activity at work and during leisure time, psychological stress, smoking habits, coffee consumption, BMI, waist/hip ratio, blood pressure, total, HDL and LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, and fibrinogen. Osteoporotic fractures over a period of 20 years were retrieved from the Gothenburg hospital registers. Poisson regression was used to analyze the predictive power for osteoporotic fracture of each risk factor. A total number of 258 osteoporotic fractures occurred in 143 participants (10.2%). As expected, we found that previous fracture, smoking, coffee consumption, and lower BMI each increase the risk for osteoporotic fracture independently of age and sex. More unexpectedly, we found that the gradient of risk of serum total cholesterol to predict osteoporotic fracture significantly increases over time (p = 0.0377). Serum total cholesterol is an independent osteoporotic fracture risk factor whose predictive power improves with time. High serum total cholesterol is a long-term cause of osteoporotic fracture.

  20. [HDL-C/apoA-I]: A multivessel cardiometabolic risk marker in women with T2DM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermans, Michel P; Valensi, Paul; Ahn, Sylvie A; Rousseau, Michel F

    2018-01-01

    Although women have higher high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) than have men, their HDL particles are also prone to become small, dense, and dysfunctional in case of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). To assess the vascular risk related to HDLs of different sizes/densities without direct measurement, we adjusted HDL-C to its main apolipoprotein (apoA-I) as [HDL-C/apoA-I]. This ratio estimates HDL sizes and provides indices as to their number, cholesterol load, and density. We stratified 280 Caucasian T2DM women according to [HDL-C/apoA-I] quartiles (Q) to determine how they are segregated according to cardiometabolic risk, β-cell function, glycaemic control, and vascular complications. Five parameters were derived from combined determination of HDL-C and apoA-I: HDL size, HDL number, cholesterol load per particle (pP), apoA-I pP, and HDL density. An adverse cardiometabolic profile characterized QI and QII patients whose HDLs were denser and depleted in apoA-I, whereas QIII patients had HDLs with characteristics closer to those of controls. QIV patients had HDLs of supernormal size/composition and a more favourable phenotype in terms of fat distribution; insulin sensitivity (64% vs 41%), metabolic syndrome, and β-cell function (32% vs 23%); exogenous insulin (44 vs 89 U·d -1 ); and glycaemic control (glycated haemoglobin, 56 vs 61 mmol·mol -1 ), associated with lower prevalence of microvascular/macrovascular complications: all-cause microangiopathy 47% vs 61%; retinopathy 22% vs 34%; all-cause macroangiopathy 19% vs 31%; and coronary artery disease 6% vs 24% (P women according to metabolic phenotype, macrovascular and coronary damage, β-cell function, microangiopathic risk, and retinopathy. This ratio is a versatile and readily available marker of cardiometabolic status and vascular complications in T2DM women. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Dairy products and plasma cholesterol levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Ohlsson

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Cholesterol synthesized in the body or ingested is an essential lipid component for human survival from our earliest life. Newborns ingest about 3–4 times the amount per body weight through mother's milk compared to the dietary intake of adults. A birth level of 1.7 mmol/L plasma total cholesterol will increase to 4–4.5 mmol/L during the nursing period and continue to increase from adulthood around 40% throughout life. Coronary artery disease and other metabolic disorders are strongly associated with low-density lipoprotein (LDL and high-density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol as well as triacylglycerol concentration. Milk fat contains a broad range of fatty acids and some have a negative impact on the cholesterol rich lipoproteins. The saturated fatty acids (SFAs, such as palmitic acid (C16:0, myristic acid (C14:0, and lauric acid (C12:0, increase total plasma cholesterol, especially LDL, and constitute 11.3 g/L of bovine milk, which is 44.8% of total fatty acid in milk fat. Replacement of dairy SFA and trans-fatty acids with polyunsaturated fatty acids decreases plasma cholesterol, especially LDL cholesterol, and is associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. Available data shows different effects on lipoproteins for different dairy products and there is uncertainty as to the impact a reasonable intake amount of dairy items has on cardiovascular risk. The aim of this review is to elucidate the effect of milk components and dairy products on total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, and the LDL/HDL quotients. Based on eight recent randomized controlled trials of parallel or cross-over design and recent reviews it can be concluded that replacement of saturated fat mainly (but not exclusively derived from high-fat dairy products with low-fat dairy products lowers LDL/HDL cholesterol and total/HDL cholesterol ratios. Whey, dairy fractions enriched in polar lipids, and techniques such as fermentation, or fortification of cows feeding can be used

  2. Serum concentrations of cholesterol, apolipoprotein A-I and apolipoprotein B in a total of 1694 meat-eaters, fish-eaters, vegetarians and vegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbury, K E; Crowe, F L; Appleby, P N; Schmidt, J A; Travis, R C; Key, T J

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this study was to describe serum lipid concentrations, including apolipoproteins A-I and B, in different diet groups. A cross-sectional analysis of a sample of 424 meat-eaters, 425 fish-eaters, 423 vegetarians and 422 vegans, matched on sex and age, from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Oxford cohort. Serum concentrations of total, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, as well as apolipoproteins A-I and B were measured, and serum non-HDL cholesterol was calculated. Vegans had the lowest body mass index (BMI) and the highest and lowest intakes of polyunsaturated and saturated fat, respectively. After adjustment for age, alcohol and physical activity, compared with meat-eaters, fish-eaters and vegetarians, serum concentrations of total and non-HDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein B were significantly lower in vegans. Serum apolipoprotein A-I concentrations did not differ between the diet groups. In males, the mean serum total cholesterol concentration was 0.87 mmol/l lower in vegans than in meat-eaters; after further adjustment for BMI this difference was 0.76 mmol/l. In females, the difference in total cholesterol between these two groups was 0.6 mmol/l, and after further adjustment for BMI was 0.55 mmol/l. [corrected]. In this study, which included a large number of vegans, serum total cholesterol and apolipoprotein B concentrations were lower in vegans compared with meat-eaters, fish-eaters and vegetarians. A small proportion of the observed differences in serum lipid concentrations was explained by differences in BMI, but a large proportion is most likely due to diet.

  3. Effect of Synthetic Truncated Apolipoprotein C-I Peptide on Plasma Lipoprotein Cholesterol in Nonhuman Primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rampratap S. Kushwaha

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The present studies were conducted to determine whether a synthetic truncated apoC-I peptide that inhibits CETP activity in baboons would raise plasma HDL cholesterol levels in nonhuman primates with low HDL levels. We used 2 cynomolgus monkeys and 3 baboons fed a cholesterol- and fat-enriched diet. In cynomolgus monkeys, we injected synthetic truncated apoC-I inhibitor peptide at a dose of 20 mg/kg and, in baboons, at doses of 10, 15, and 20 mg/kg at weekly intervals. Blood samples were collected 3 times a week and VLDL + LDL and HDL cholesterol concentrations were measured. In cynomolgus monkeys, administration of the inhibitor peptide caused a rapid decrease in VLDL + LDL cholesterol concentrations (30%–60% and an increase in HDL cholesterol concentrations (10%–20%. VLDL + LDL cholesterol concentrations returned to baseline levels in approximately 15 days. In baboons, administration of the synthetic inhibitor peptide caused a decrease in VLDL + LDL cholesterol (20%–60% and an increase in HDL cholesterol (10%–20%. VLDL + LDL cholesterol returned to baseline levels by day 21, whereas HDL cholesterol concentrations remained elevated for up to 26 days. ApoA-I concentrations increased, whereas apoE and triglyceride concentrations decreased. Subcutaneous and intravenous administrations of the inhibitor peptide had similar effects on LDL and HDL cholesterol concentrations. There was no change in body weight, food consumption, or plasma IgG levels of any baboon during the study. These studies suggest that the truncated apoC-I peptide can be used to raise HDL in humans.

  4. Gene-gene combination effect and interactions among ABCA1, APOA1, SR-B1, and CETP polymorphisms for serum high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol in the Japanese population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akihiko Nakamura

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Gene-gene interactions in the reverse cholesterol transport system for high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C are poorly understood. The present study observed gene-gene combination effect and interactions between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in ABCA1, APOA1, SR-B1, and CETP in serum HDL-C from a cross-sectional study in the Japanese population. METHODS: The study population comprised 1,535 men and 1,515 women aged 35-69 years who were enrolled in the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort (J-MICC Study. We selected 13 SNPs in the ABCA1, APOA1, CETP, and SR-B1 genes in the reverse cholesterol transport system. The effects of genetic and environmental factors were assessed using general linear and logistic regression models after adjusting for age, sex, and region. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Alcohol consumption and daily activity were positively associated with HDL-C levels, whereas smoking had a negative relationship. The T allele of CETP, rs3764261, was correlated with higher HDL-C levels and had the highest coefficient (2.93 mg/dL/allele among the 13 SNPs, which was statistically significant after applying the Bonferroni correction (p<0.001. Gene-gene combination analysis revealed that CETP rs3764261 was associated with high HDL-C levels with any combination of SNPs from ABCA1, APOA1, and SR-B1, although no gene-gene interaction was apparent. An increasing trend for serum HDL-C was also observed with an increasing number of alleles (p<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: The present study identified a multiplier effect from a polymorphism in CETP with ABCA1, APOA1, and SR-B1, as well as a dose-dependence according to the number of alleles present.

  5. Polygenic determinants in extremes of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol[S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dron, Jacqueline S.; Wang, Jian; Low-Kam, Cécile; Khetarpal, Sumeet A.; Robinson, John F.; McIntyre, Adam D.; Ban, Matthew R.; Cao, Henian; Rhainds, David; Dubé, Marie-Pierre; Rader, Daniel J.; Lettre, Guillaume; Tardif, Jean-Claude

    2017-01-01

    HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) remains a superior biochemical predictor of CVD risk, but its genetic basis is incompletely defined. In patients with extreme HDL-C concentrations, we concurrently evaluated the contributions of multiple large- and small-effect genetic variants. In a discovery cohort of 255 unrelated lipid clinic patients with extreme HDL-C levels, we used a targeted next-generation sequencing panel to evaluate rare variants in known HDL metabolism genes, simultaneously with common variants bundled into a polygenic trait score. Two additional cohorts were used for validation and included 1,746 individuals from the Montréal Heart Institute Biobank and 1,048 individuals from the University of Pennsylvania. Findings were consistent between cohorts: we found rare heterozygous large-effect variants in 18.7% and 10.9% of low- and high-HDL-C patients, respectively. We also found common variant accumulation, indicated by extreme polygenic trait scores, in an additional 12.8% and 19.3% of overall cases of low- and high-HDL-C extremes, respectively. Thus, the genetic basis of extreme HDL-C concentrations encountered clinically is frequently polygenic, with contributions from both rare large-effect and common small-effect variants. Multiple types of genetic variants should be considered as contributing factors in patients with extreme dyslipidemia. PMID:28870971

  6. Lipid regulation in lipodystrophy versus the obesity-associated metabolic syndrome: the dissociation of HDL-C and triglycerides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Jalaja; Shamburek, Robert D; Cochran, Elaine K; Gorden, Phillip; Brown, Rebecca J

    2014-09-01

    There is an inverse relationship between triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in insulin resistance, such that improvement in insulin resistance decreases triglycerides and increases HDL-C. Patients with lipodystrophy have extreme insulin resistance with high triglycerides and low HDL-C. Leptin replacement in lipodystrophy leads to a marked decrease in triglycerides (∼60%). Our objective was to study the effects of metreleptin on triglycerides and HDL-C in lipodystrophy in contrast to changes in triglycerides and HDL-C in interventions for the obesity-associated metabolic syndrome. This open-label nonrandomized study at the National Institutes of Health included 82 patients with various forms of lipodystrophy. Metreleptin (0.06-0.24 mg/kg/d) was administered for 24 months in lipodystrophy. Serum triglycerides and HDL-C were measured. At baseline, lipodystrophy patients had low HDL-C (30 ± 1 mg/dL) and high triglycerides (961 ± 220 mg/dL) with an inverse relationship between the two (R = -0.37, P = .0006). There was no change in HDL-C with metreleptin despite major improvement in triglycerides, and individual changes in triglycerides only weakly predicted HDL-C change. On linear regression, in obesity, a decrease of 0.1 mg/dL in log(triglycerides) was associated with a 4.2 mg/dL rise in HDL-C, whereas in lipodystrophy, a decrease of 0.1 mg/dL in log(triglycerides) was associated with only a 0.6 mg/dL rise in HDL-C. The normal reciprocal relationship between triglyceride and HDL-C change seen in response to interventions for the obesity-associated metabolic syndrome is quantitatively different from that seen in lipodystrophy in response to metreleptin. Further work is needed to understand HDL-C regulation in this condition.

  7. Should we change our lipid management strategies to focus on non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rana, Jamal S.; Boekholdt, S. Matthijs

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of review Despite aggressive low-density lipoprotein cholesterol lowering, patients continue to be at significant risk of cardiovascular events. Assessment of non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) provides a measure of cholesterol contained in all atherogenic particles. In the

  8. Lymphatic vasculature mediates macrophage reverse cholesterol transport in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, Catherine; Li, Wenjun; Fulp, Brian; Platt, Andrew M; Gautier, Emmanuel L; Westerterp, Marit; Bittman, Robert; Tall, Alan R; Chen, Shu-Hsia; Thomas, Michael J; Kreisel, Daniel; Swartz, Melody A; Sorci-Thomas, Mary G; Randolph, Gwendalyn J

    2013-04-01

    Reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) refers to the mobilization of cholesterol on HDL particles (HDL-C) from extravascular tissues to plasma, ultimately for fecal excretion. Little is known about how HDL-C leaves peripheral tissues to reach plasma. We first used 2 models of disrupted lymphatic drainage from skin--1 surgical and the other genetic--to quantitatively track RCT following injection of [3H]-cholesterol-loaded macrophages upstream of blocked or absent lymphatic vessels. Macrophage RCT was markedly impaired in both models, even at sites with a leaky vasculature. Inhibited RCT was downstream of cholesterol efflux from macrophages, since macrophage efflux of a fluorescent cholesterol analog (BODIPY-cholesterol) was not altered by impaired lymphatic drainage. We next addressed whether RCT was mediated by lymphatic vessels from the aortic wall by loading the aortae of donor atherosclerotic Apoe-deficient mice with [2H]6-labeled cholesterol and surgically transplanting these aortae into recipient Apoe-deficient mice that were treated with anti-VEGFR3 antibody to block lymphatic regrowth or with control antibody to allow such regrowth. [2H]-Cholesterol was retained in aortae of anti-VEGFR3-treated mice. Thus, the lymphatic vessel route is critical for RCT from multiple tissues, including the aortic wall. These results suggest that supporting lymphatic transport function may facilitate cholesterol clearance in therapies aimed at reversing atherosclerosis.

  9. Cholesterol testing and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your cholesterol is in this normal range. LDL (Bad) Cholesterol LDL cholesterol is sometimes called "bad" cholesterol. ... to 3.3 mmol/l) are desired. VLDL (Bad) Cholesterol VLDL contains the highest amount of triglycerides. ...

  10. Cholesterol Facts and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Managing High Cholesterol Cholesterol-lowering Medicine High Cholesterol Statistics and Maps High Cholesterol Facts High Cholesterol Maps ... Deo R, et al. Heart disease and stroke statistics—2017 update: a report from the American Heart ...

  11. Dietary cholesterol, heart disease risk and cognitive dissonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Donald J

    2014-05-01

    In the 1960s, the thesis that dietary cholesterol contributes to blood cholesterol and heart disease risk was a rational conclusion based on the available science at that time. Fifty years later the research evidence no longer supports this hypothesis yet changing the dietary recommendation to limit dietary cholesterol has been a slow and at times contentious process. The preponderance of the clinical and epidemiological data accumulated since the original dietary cholesterol restrictions were formulated indicate that: (1) dietary cholesterol has a small effect on the plasma cholesterol levels with an increase in the cholesterol content of the LDL particle and an increase in HDL cholesterol, with little effect on the LDL:HDL ratio, a significant indicator of heart disease risk, and (2) the lack of a significant relationship between cholesterol intake and heart disease incidence reported from numerous epidemiological surveys. Over the last decade, many countries and health promotion groups have modified their dietary recommendations to reflect the current evidence and to address a now recognised negative consequence of ineffective dietary cholesterol restrictions (such as inadequate choline intake). In contrast, health promotion groups in some countries appear to suffer from cognitive dissonance and continue to promote an outdated and potentially hazardous dietary recommendation based on an invalidated hypothesis. This review evaluates the evidence for and against dietary cholesterol restrictions and the potential consequences of such restrictions.

  12. HDL Subspecies Defined by Presence of Apolipoprotein C-III and Incident Coronary Heart Disease in Four Cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Majken K; Aroner, Sarah A; Mukamal, Kenneth J

    2018-01-01

    Background -The causal role of high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol in cardioprotection has been questioned by genetic and randomized studies. Novel measures that relate to HDL function may contribute new information to prediction of cardiovascular risk. Apolipoprotein C-III (apoC-III) is a......Background -The causal role of high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol in cardioprotection has been questioned by genetic and randomized studies. Novel measures that relate to HDL function may contribute new information to prediction of cardiovascular risk. Apolipoprotein C-III (apo...... studies of adults free of CHD. In the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA), 5,657 participants (52% women; age 52-72 y) were followed for risk of CHD from 2000-2002 through 2013. In a case-cohort study nested within the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health (DCH) study, 3,642 participants (47% women; age.......87). Conclusions -Our findings from four prospective studies support the hypothesis that apoC-III may mark a subfraction of HDL that is associated with higher risk of CHD. New measures reflecting HDL structure and function may provide novel insights for cardiovascular risk that extend beyond traditional plasma HDL...

  13. HDL to verification logic translator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambles, J. W.; Windley, P. J.

    1992-01-01

    The increasingly higher number of transistors possible in VLSI circuits compounds the difficulty in insuring correct designs. As the number of possible test cases required to exhaustively simulate a circuit design explodes, a better method is required to confirm the absence of design faults. Formal verification methods provide a way to prove, using logic, that a circuit structure correctly implements its specification. Before verification is accepted by VLSI design engineers, the stand alone verification tools that are in use in the research community must be integrated with the CAD tools used by the designers. One problem facing the acceptance of formal verification into circuit design methodology is that the structural circuit descriptions used by the designers are not appropriate for verification work and those required for verification lack some of the features needed for design. We offer a solution to this dilemma: an automatic translation from the designers' HDL models into definitions for the higher-ordered logic (HOL) verification system. The translated definitions become the low level basis of circuit verification which in turn increases the designer's confidence in the correctness of higher level behavioral models.

  14. Differential effects of simple vs. complex carbohydrates on VLDL secretion rates and HDL metabolism in the guinea pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, M L; Abdel-Fattah, G; McNamara, D J

    1995-04-28

    Guinea pigs were fed isocaloric diets containing 52% (w/w) carbohydrate, either sucrose or starch, to investigate effects of simple vs. complex carbohydrates on plasma VLDL and HDL metabolism. Plasma cholesterol concentrations were not different between dietary groups while plasma triacylglycerol (TAG) and VLDL cholesterol levels were significantly increased in animals fed the sucrose diet (P < 0.05). Hepatic VLDL TAG secretion rates measured following intravenous injection of Triton WR-1339 were not affected by carbohydrate type whereas the rate of apo B secretion was 1.9-fold higher in sucrose fed animals (P < 0.02). Nascent VLDL from the sucrose group contained less TAG per apo B suggesting that the higher plasma TAG in animals fed simple carbohydrates results from increased secretion of VLDL particles with lower TAG content. Sucrose fed animals exhibited higher concentrations of hepatic free cholesterol (P < 0.01) while hepatic TAG levels and acyl CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) activity were not different between groups. Plasma HDL cholesterol concentrations and composition, and plasma lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) activity were not affected by diet yet there was a positive correlation between HDL cholesteryl ester content and LCAT activities (r = 0.70, P < 0.05). Hepatic membranes from the sucrose group had a higher hepatic HDL binding protein number (Bmax) with no changes in the dissociation constant (Kd). These results suggest that at the same carbohydrate energy intake, simple sugars induce modest changes in HDL metabolism while VLDL metabolism is affected at multiple sites, as indicated by the higher concentrations of hepatic cholesterol, dissociation in the synthesis rates of VLDL components, and compositional changes in nascent and mature VLDL.

  15. Will Lipidation of ApoA1 through Interaction with ABCA1 at the Intestinal Level Affect the Protective Functions of HDL?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric J. Niesor

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C and cardiovascular (CV risk is well recognized; however, in recent years, large-scale phase III studies with HDL-C-raising or -mimicking agents have failed to demonstrate a clinical benefit on CV outcomes associated with raising HDL-C, casting doubt on the “HDL hypothesis.” This article reviews potential reasons for the observed negative findings with these pharmaceutical compounds, focusing on the paucity of translational models and relevant biomarkers related to HDL metabolism that may have confounded understanding of in vivo mechanisms. A unique function of HDL is its ability to interact with the ATP-binding cassette transporter (ABC A1 via apolipoprotein (Apo A1. Only recently, studies have shown that this process may be involved in the intestinal uptake of dietary sterols and antioxidants (vitamin E, lutein and zeaxanthin at the basolateral surface of enterocytes. This parameter should be assessed for HDL-raising drugs in addition to the more documented reverse cholesterol transport (RCT from peripheral tissues to the liver. Indeed, a single mechanism involving the same interaction between ApoA1 and ABCA1 may encompass two HDL functions previously considered as separate: antioxidant through the intestinal uptake of antioxidants and RCT through cholesterol efflux from loaded cells such as macrophages.

  16. HDL mimetic CER-001 targets atherosclerotic plaques in patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Kang He; van der Valk, Fleur M; Smits, Loek P; Sandberg, Mara; Dasseux, Jean-Louis; Baron, Rudi; Barbaras, Ronald; Keyserling, Constance; Coolen, Bram F; Nederveen, Aart J; Verberne, Hein J; Nell, Thijs E; Vugts, Danielle J; Duivenvoorden, Raphaël; Fayad, Zahi A; Mulder, Willem J M; van Dongen, Guus A M S; Stroes, Erik S G

    2016-08-01

    Infusion of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) mimetics aimed at reducing atherosclerotic burden has led to equivocal results, which may relate in part to the inability of HDL mimetics to adequately reach atherosclerotic lesions in humans. This study evaluated delivery of recombinant human apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) containing HDL mimetic CER-001 in carotid plaques in patients. CER-001 was radiolabeled with the long-lived positron emitter zirconium-89 ((89)Zr) to enable positron emission tomography with computed tomography (PET/CT) imaging. Eight patients with atherosclerotic carotid artery disease (>50% stenosis) received a single infusion of unlabeled CER-001 (3 mg/kg), co-administered with 10 mg of (89)Zr-labeled CER-001 (18 MBq). Serial PET/CT imaging and contrast enhanced-magnetic resonance imaging (CE-MRI) were performed to evaluate targeted delivery of CER-001. One hour after infusion, mean plasma apoA-I levels increased by 9.9 mg/dL (p = 0.026), with a concomitant relative increase in the plasma cholesterol efflux capacity of 13.8% (p CER-001 expressed as target-to-background ratio (TBRmax) increased significantly 24 h after infusion, and remained increased up to 48 h (TBRmax t = 10 min: 0.98; t = 24 h: 1.14 (p = 0.001); t = 48 h: 1.12 (p = 0.007)). TBRmax was higher in plaque compared with non-plaque segments (1.18 vs. 1.05; p CER-001 increases plasma apoA-I concentration and plasma cholesterol efflux capacity. Our data support the concept that CER-001 targets plaque regions in patients, which correlates with plaque contrast enhancement. These clinical findings may also guide future nanomedicine development using HDL particles for drug delivery in atherosclerosis. Netherlands Trial Registry - NTR5178. http://www.trialregister.nl/trialreg/admin/rctview.asp?TC=5178. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of age and sex on the association between lipid profile and obesity among telecomunication workers in Palembang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardi Darmawan

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The study objective is to examine the effects of age and sex on the association between various obesity parameters and lipid profile. The measurements of whole body obesity (body fat, body fat % and BMI, abdominal obesity (waist to hip ratio, waist to thigh ratio and waist circumference and lipid profile (HDL, LDL, VLDL, total cholesterol and triglyceride were performed on 112 telecom workers in Palembang (84 men and 28 women, age 25, 35, 45, and 55 years. All lipid parameters results depend on sex and age of subjects. The association between obesity assessments and HDL or LDL was independent of sex and age of subjects, whereas the association between obesity assessments and total cholesterol, VLDL and triglyceride is dependent on sex and age of subjects. Abdominal obesity has greater effect on VLDL and triglyceride levels than on other lipid parameters. Whole body obesity has equal effects on all lipid parameters. When comparing results of male and female subjects, obesity measurements and lipid profile association is stronger in male subjects of almost all age groups. The exception is a stronger association between abdominal obesity and VLDL or triglyceride levels in 45 years old female subjects. Obesity measurements and VLDL or triglyceride level association is independent of age, whereas obesity and total cholesterol association is stronger in younger subjects. (Med J Indones 2007; 16:251-6Keywords: Lipid profile, fat distribution, obesity, abdominal obesity

  18. Low plasma lecithin : cholesterol acyltransferase and lipid transfer protein activities in growth hormone deficient and acromegalic men: role in altered high density lipoproteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beentjes, JAM; van Tol, A; Sluiter, WJ; Dullaart, RPF

    2000-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) deficiency and acromegaly may be associated with increased cardiovascular risk. Little is known about alterations in high density lipoproteins (HDL) in these conditions. Lecithin:cholesterol acyl transferase (LCAT) has the ability to esterify free cholesterol (FC) in HDL.

  19. Genetic analysis of long-lived families reveals novel variants influencing high density-lipoprotein cholesterol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feitosa, Mary F; Wojczynski, Mary K; Straka, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The plasma levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) have an inverse relationship to the risks of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease (CVD), and have also been associated with longevity. We sought to identify novel loci for HDL that could potentially provide new insights...

  20. Pharmacological interventions in human HDL metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balder, Jan-Willem; Staels, Bart; Kuivenhoven, Jan A.

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review focuses on the recent developments in the field of drugs that affect HDL metabolism. Additionally, some general (retrospective) thoughts on fighting cardiovascular disease through modulating circulating lipids are discussed. RECENT FINDINGS: Recently, the large

  1. New perspectives on biological HDL-targeted therapies

    OpenAIRE

    Muthuramu, Ilayaraja; Amin, Md Ruhul; De Geest, Bart

    2017-01-01

    According to a modified high-density lipoprotein (HDL) hypothesis, improving HDL function will lead to a decrease of coronary events. The stringent requirement for proving or refuting this hypothesis is that the causal pathway between the therapeutic intervention and a clinically meaningful endpoint obligatory passes through HDL. Infusion therapy of reconstituted HDL particles and human apolipoprotein A-I gene transfer are biological HDL-targeted therapies that are distinguished by HDL specif...

  2. The expression of cholesterol metabolism genes in monocytes from HIV-infected subjects suggests intracellular cholesterol accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeney, Eoin R; McAuley, Nuala; O'Halloran, Jane A; Rock, Clare; Low, Justin; Satchell, Claudette S; Lambert, John S; Sheehan, Gerald J; Mallon, Patrick W G

    2013-02-15

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is associated with increased cardiovascular risk and reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c). In vitro, HIV impairs monocyte-macrophage cholesterol efflux, a major determinant of circulating HDL-c, by increasing ABCA1 degradation, with compensatory upregulation of ABCA1 messenger RNA (mRNA). We examined expression of genes involved in cholesterol uptake, metabolism, and efflux in monocytes from 22 HIV-positive subjects on antiretroviral therapy (ART-Treated), 30 untreated HIV-positive subjects (ART-Naive), and 22 HIV-negative controls (HIV-Neg). HDL-c was lower and expression of ABCA1 mRNA was higher in ART-Naive subjects than in both ART-Treated and HIV-Neg subjects (both P ART-Treated and ART-Naive subjects than in HIV-Neg controls. In vivo, increased monocyte ABCA1 expression in untreated HIV-infected patients and normalization of ABCA1 expression with virological suppression by ART supports direct HIV-induced impairment of cholesterol efflux previously demonstrated in vitro. However, decreased expression of cholesterol sensing, uptake, and synthesis genes in both untreated and treated HIV infection suggests that both HIV and ART affect monocyte cholesterol metabolism in a pattern consistent with accumulation of intramonocyte cholesterol.

  3. Low serum hdl-c levels: a hidden threat to patients with spinal cord injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, S.; Ayyub, A.

    2014-01-01

    To determine the serum lipid profile in patients with traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) of duration >1 year and to compare the serum HDL-c levels of SCI patients undergoing regular physiotherapy for >60 minutes daily with those who did not Undergo physiotherapy. Study Design: Cross-sectional, comparative study. Place and Duration of Study: Spinal Cord Injury Department, AFIRM Rawalpindi and Department of Chemical Pathology, Army Medical College, Rawalpindi, from January 2013 to June 2013. Patients and Methods: Forty six patients suffering from traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) were included. After recording the detailed medical history, fasting blood samples were obtained and analyzed for serum lipid profile. Dyslipidemias were assessed using guidelines from the National Cholesterol Education Project Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III). Serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c)< 0.9 mmol/l (40mg/dl) was considered as low HDL-c level. Results: Out of total 46 patients, 33 (71.7%) were male and 13 (28.3%) were females with mean age of 34.9+- 9.55 years. Low levels of serum HDL-c were found in 21 (45.7%) SCI patients (mean serum HDL-clevels: 0.97+-0.23). SCI patients were further categorized in two groups depending upon the status of regular physiotherapy. Statistically significant difference was found in mean serum HDL-c levels of 22 (47.82%) SCI patients undergoing regular physiotherapy as compared to 24 (52.18%) SCI patients who did not underwent physiotherapy (p<0.05). Conclusion: Patients with SCI have decreased levels of serum HDL-c, imparting an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in these disabled persons. SCI individuals following regular physiotherapy, have better serum HDL-c levels as compared to bed-ridden SCI patients, suggesting the physical activity as an important factor to elevate the serum HDL-c in such patients. Knowledge of relative risk of CVD in persons with SCI is important for appropriate intervention alstrategies

  4. Prevalence of Low High-density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Among Adults, by Physical Activity: United States, 2011-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwald, Marissa L; Akinbami, Lara J; Fakhouri, Tala H I; Fryar, Chryl D

    2017-03-01

    Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey •The prevalence of low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol was significantly higher among adults who did not meet recommended physical activity guidelines (21.0%) than adults who met the guidelines (17.7%). •Low HDL cholesterol prevalence differed significantly for both men and women by adherence to physical activity guidelines. •Prevalence of low HDL cholesterol declined as age increased for both those who did and did not meet the physical activity guidelines. •Non-Hispanic white and non-Hispanic black adults who did not meet the physical activity guidelines had a higher prevalence than those who met the guidelines. •Low HDL cholesterol prevalence declined with increasing education level regardless of adherence to physical activity guidelines. Regular physical activity can improve cholesterol levels among adults, including increasing high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (1). HDL cholesterol is known as "good" cholesterol because high levels can reduce cardiovascular disease risk (2). The 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans recommend that adults engage in 150 minutes or more of moderate-intensity aerobic activity per week, 75 minutes of vigorous-intensity aerobic activity per week, or an equivalent combination (3). Adherence to these guidelines is expected to decrease the prevalence of low HDL cholesterol levels (4-8). This report presents national data for 2011-2014 on low HDL cholesterol prevalence among U.S. adults aged 20 and over, by whether they met these guidelines. All material appearing in this report is in the public domain and may be reproduced or copied without permission; citation as to source, however, is appreciated.

  5. The LDL-HDL profile determines the risk of atherosclerosis: a mathematical model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenrui Hao

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis, the leading death in the United State, is a disease in which a plaque builds up inside the arteries. As the plaque continues to grow, the shear force of the blood flow through the decreasing cross section of the lumen increases. This force may eventually cause rupture of the plaque, resulting in the formation of thrombus, and possibly heart attack. It has long been recognized that the formation of a plaque relates to the cholesterol concentration in the blood. For example, individuals with LDL above 190 mg/dL and HDL below 40 mg/dL are at high risk, while individuals with LDL below 100 mg/dL and HDL above 50 mg/dL are at no risk. In this paper, we developed a mathematical model of the formation of a plaque, which includes the following key variables: LDL and HDL, free radicals and oxidized LDL, MMP and TIMP, cytockines: MCP-1, IFN-γ, IL-12 and PDGF, and cells: macrophages, foam cells, T cells and smooth muscle cells. The model is given by a system of partial differential equations with in evolving plaque. Simulations of the model show how the combination of the concentrations of LDL and HDL in the blood determine whether a plaque will grow or disappear. More precisely, we create a map, showing the risk of plaque development for any pair of values (LDL,HDL.

  6. Comparison of human plasma low- and high-density lipoproteins as substrates for lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barter, P J; Hopkins, G J; Gorjatschko, L

    1984-01-17

    A recent observation that lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase (EC 2.3.1.43) interacts with both low-density lipoproteins (LDL) and high-density lipoproteins (HDL) in human plasma is in apparent conflict with an earlier finding that the purified enzyme, while highly reactive with isolated HDL, was only minimally reactive with LDL. There is evidence, however, that lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase may exist physiologically as a component of a complex with other proteins and that studies with the isolated enzyme may therefore provide misleading results. Consequently, interactions of the enzyme with isolated human lipoproteins have been re-examined in incubations containing lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase as a component of human lipoprotein-free plasma in which a physiologically active complex of the enzyme with other proteins may have been preserved. In this system there was a ready esterification of the free cholesterol associated with both LDL and HDL-subfraction 3 (HDL3) in reactions that obeyed typical enzyme-saturation kinetics. For a given preparation of lipoprotein-free plasma the Vmax values with LDL and with HDL3 were virtually identical. The apparent Km for free cholesterol associated with HDL3 was 5.6 X 10(-5) M, while for that associated with LDL it was 4.1 X 10(-4) M. This implied that, in terms of free cholesterol concentration, the affinity of HDL3 for lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase was about 7-times greater than that of LDL. When expressed in terms of lipoprotein particle concentration, however, it was apparent that the affinity of LDL for the enzyme was considerably greater than that of HDL3. When the lipoprotein fractions were equated in terms of lipoprotein surface area, the apparent affinities of the two fractions for the enzyme were found to be comparable.

  7. Polygenic determinants in extremes of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dron, Jacqueline S; Wang, Jian; Low-Kam, Cécile; Khetarpal, Sumeet A; Robinson, John F; McIntyre, Adam D; Ban, Matthew R; Cao, Henian; Rhainds, David; Dubé, Marie-Pierre; Rader, Daniel J; Lettre, Guillaume; Tardif, Jean-Claude; Hegele, Robert A

    2017-11-01

    HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) remains a superior biochemical predictor of CVD risk, but its genetic basis is incompletely defined. In patients with extreme HDL-C concentrations, we concurrently evaluated the contributions of multiple large- and small-effect genetic variants. In a discovery cohort of 255 unrelated lipid clinic patients with extreme HDL-C levels, we used a targeted next-generation sequencing panel to evaluate rare variants in known HDL metabolism genes, simultaneously with common variants bundled into a polygenic trait score. Two additional cohorts were used for validation and included 1,746 individuals from the Montréal Heart Institute Biobank and 1,048 individuals from the University of Pennsylvania. Findings were consistent between cohorts: we found rare heterozygous large-effect variants in 18.7% and 10.9% of low- and high-HDL-C patients, respectively. We also found common variant accumulation, indicated by extreme polygenic trait scores, in an additional 12.8% and 19.3% of overall cases of low- and high-HDL-C extremes, respectively. Thus, the genetic basis of extreme HDL-C concentrations encountered clinically is frequently polygenic, with contributions from both rare large-effect and common small-effect variants. Multiple types of genetic variants should be considered as contributing factors in patients with extreme dyslipidemia. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  8. [High-density lipoproteins (HDL) size and composition are modified in the rat by a diet supplemented with "Hass" avocado (Persea americana Miller)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Méndez, Oscar; García Hernández, Lizbeth

    2007-01-01

    To determine the effects of dietary avocado on HDL structure and their associated enzyme, paraoxonase 1 (PON1). Fifteen Wistar male rats received avocado as part of their daily meal (5 g by 17.5 g chow diet), keeping the caloric intake similar to the control group (n=15) that received their usual chow diet. After 5 weeks, HDL were isolated by sequential ultracentrifugation and their size and chemical composition were analyzed. PON1 was determined in serum spectrophotometrically using phenylacetate as substrate. Rats that received avocado had about 27% lower triglycerides plasma levels whereas their HDL-cholesterol was 17% higher as compared to control group. The mean HDL Stokes diameter was significantly lower in avocado group (11.71 +/- 0.8 vs. 12.27 +/- 0.26 nm, in control group, p avocado group. HDL structural modifications induced by avocado were not related to modifications of LCAT and PLTP activities, but occurred in parallel with higher serum levels of PON1 activity when compared to the controls (57.4 +/- 8.9 vs. 43.0 +/- 5.6 micromol/min/mL serum, p avocado in the diet decreased plasma triglycerides, increased HDL-cholesterol plasma levels and modified HDL structure. The latter effect may enhance the antiatherogenic properties of HDL since PON1 activity also increased as a consequence of avocado.

  9. An investigation about correlations of the levels of sex hormones with lipid profile, malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase and T lymphocyte subpopulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Saizhu; Tan Jiayu; Wu Yingxing; Sun Fei; Rong Zhiyi; Zhou Zhongjiang

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the correlations of the levels of sex hormones [follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and prolactin (PRL)] and lipid profile, malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and T lymphocyte subpopulations. Methods: Through epidemiological investigations in our country, the levels of sex hormones were measured by radio-immunological methods; lipid profile and apolipoprotein by automatic biochemistry analyses; T cell subsets by flow cytometry; and the MDA was evaluated by the thiobarbituric acid (TBA) test and SOD by the nitrite method modified by Oyanagui, respectively using spectrophotometry. Results: In the study women, the concentrations of serum FSH, LH increased significantly after menopause; PRL increased after menopause; compared with the control group in the study population, 17β-estradiol (E 2 ) and progesterone (P) in postmenopausal group reduced obviously, 17β-E 2 /P reduced significantly after menopause. Testosterone (T) increased significantly after menopause, but not did free testosterone (FT) . 17β-E 2 , P and the ratio of 17β-E 2 /P were negatively correlated with age, respectively by bivariate correlation analysis, and a positive relation between T and age was observed. After the age of 70 years, the level of total cholesterol (TC) increased obviously, so did that of triglyceride (TG) after menopause; high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) decreased after menopause, but low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) increased after 70, the ratios of HDL-C/TC and HDL-C/LDL-C all reduced after menopause; ApoA-I decreased after 70, but ApoB increased significantly after menopause, correspondingly, the ratio of ApoA-I/ApoB declined obviously. CD3 + and CD4 + didn't change until 60, but reduced after 60. Compared with that in the control group, CD8 + remained unchanged, CD4 + /CD8 + reduced greatly with aging, and both CD4 + and CD8 + presented a negative correlation with aging. The serum MDA

  10. Role of HDL in neutralizing the VLDL effect on endothelial dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zago, Valeria; Gorzalczany, Susana; Lucero, Diego; Taira, Carlos; Schreier, Laura

    2013-09-01

    It has been reported that LDL inhibits endothelium-dependent relaxation (EDR) and that HDL can neutralize this effect. However, the atherogenic properties of VLDL have been so far difficult to demonstrate. Studies on VLDL are controversial, and nothing is known about the role of HDL on potential VLDL vascular actions. We examined the effect of human VLDLs on EDR, and the role of HDL in this system. VLDL (n=14) and LDL (n=6) were isolated from volunteer subjects. Normal HDL was obtained from one healthy donor. VLDL ability to inhibit ACh-induced vasorelaxation (10(-9)-10(-5)mM) on aortic rings previously precontracted by noradrenaline (10(-8)mM) was measured in the presence and absence of HDL. ACh-induced maximal relaxation (R%) was mildly, but not significantly attenuated in the presence of VLDL (72±7%), while LDL caused a significant inhibition (60±10%, p<0.05) when compared to incubation in the absence of lipoproteins. VLDLs were subdivided into 2 groups depending on their cholesterol/triglyceride ratio: 0.18-0.22 (n=8) was considered typical and 0.10-0.15, rich in triglycerides (VLDLRT, n=6). Typical VLDL had no effect on EDR (p=0.38), however R% from VLDLRT was lower (54±7%, p<0.01) similar to the one obtained with LDL (p=0.32). HDL showed favorable effects on EDR inhibition induced by the presence of VLDLRT (p<0.05.). Although typical VLDL did not cause endothelial dysfunction, triglyceride-enriched VLDL had inhibitory effect on EDR. It is proposed that alterations in VLDL composition would increase its atherogenic capacity. Moreover HDL appears to protect endothelium from VLDL action. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of dietary cholesterol and plant sterol consumption on plasma lipid responsiveness and cholesterol trafficking in healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alphonse, Peter A S; Ramprasath, Vanu; Jones, Peter J H

    2017-01-01

    Dietary cholesterol and plant sterols differentially modulate cholesterol kinetics and circulating cholesterol. Understanding how healthy individuals with their inherent variabilities in cholesterol trafficking respond to such dietary sterols will aid in improving strategies for effective cholesterol lowering and alleviation of CVD risk. The objectives of this study were to assess plasma lipid responsiveness to dietary cholesterol v. plant sterol consumption, and to determine the response in rates of cholesterol absorption and synthesis to each sterol using stable isotope approaches in healthy individuals. A randomised, double-blinded, crossover, placebo-controlled clinical trial (n 49) with three treatment phases of 4-week duration were conducted in a Manitoba Hutterite population. During each phase, participants consumed one of the three treatments as a milkshake containing 600 mg/d dietary cholesterol, 2 g/d plant sterols or a control after breakfast meal. Plasma lipid profile was determined and cholesterol absorption and synthesis were measured by oral administration of [3, 4-13C] cholesterol and 2H-labelled water, respectively. Dietary cholesterol consumption increased total (0·16 (sem 0·06) mmol/l, P=0·0179) and HDL-cholesterol (0·08 (sem 0·03) mmol/l, P=0·0216) concentrations with no changes in cholesterol absorption or synthesis. Plant sterol consumption failed to reduce LDL-cholesterol concentrations despite showing a reduction (6 %, P=0·0004) in cholesterol absorption. An over-compensatory reciprocal increase in cholesterol synthesis (36 %, P=0·0026) corresponding to a small reduction in absorption was observed with plant sterol consumption, possibly resulting in reduced LDL-cholesterol lowering efficacy of plant sterols. These data suggest that inter-individual variability in cholesterol trafficking mechanisms may profoundly impact plasma lipid responses to dietary sterols in healthy individuals.

  12. Native and reconstituted HDL activate Stat3 in ventricular cardiomyocytes via ERK1/2: role of sphingosine-1-phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frias, Miguel A; James, Richard W; Gerber-Wicht, Christine; Lang, Ursula

    2009-05-01

    High-density lipoprotein (HDL) has been reported to have cardioprotective properties independent from its cholesterol transport activity. The influence of native HDL and reconstituted HDL (rHDL) on Stat3, the transcription factor playing an important role in myocardium adaptation to stress, was analysed in neonatal rat ventricular cardiomyocytes. We have investigated modulating the composition of rHDL as a means of expanding its function and potential cardioprotective effects. Stat3 phosphorylation and activation were determined by western blotting and electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). In ventricular cardiomyocytes, HDL and the HDL constituent sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) induce a concentration- and time-dependent increase in Stat3 activation. They also enhance extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK1/2) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation. U0126, a specific inhibitor of MEK1/2, the upstream activator of ERK1/2, abolishes HDL- and S1P-induced Stat3 activation, whereas the p38 MAPK blocker SB203580 has no significant effect. Inhibition of the tyrosine kinase family Src (Src) caused a significant reduction of Stat3 activation, whereas inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) had no effect. S1P and rHDL containing S1P have a similar strong stimulatory action on Stat3, ERK1/2, and p38 MAPK comparable to native HDL. S1P-free rHDL has a much weaker effect. Experiments with agonists and antagonists of the S1P receptor subtypes indicate that HDL and S1P activate Stat3 mainly through the S1P2 receptor. In ventricular cardiomyocytes, addition of S1P to rHDL enhances its therapeutic potential by improving its capacity to activate Stat3. Activation of Stat3 occurs mainly via the S1P constituent and the lipid receptor S1P2 requiring stimulation of ERK1/2 and Src but not p38 MAPK or PI3K. The study underlines the therapeutic potential of tailoring rHDL to confront particular clinical situations.

  13. Nonlinear associations between plasma cholesterol levels and neuropsychological function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendell, Carrington R; Zonderman, Alan B; Katzel, Leslie I; Rosenberger, William F; Plamadeala, Victoria V; Hosey, Megan M; Waldstein, Shari R

    2016-11-01

    Although both high and low levels of total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol have been associated with poor neuropsychological function, little research has examined nonlinear effects. We examined quadratic relations of cholesterol to performance on a comprehensive neuropsychological battery. Participants were 190 older adults (53% men, ages 54-83) free of major medical, neurologic, and psychiatric disease. Measures of fasting plasma total and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol were assayed, and LDL cholesterol was calculated. Participants completed neuropsychological measures of attention, executive function, memory, visuospatial judgment, and manual speed and dexterity. Multiple regression analyses examined cholesterol levels as quadratic predictors of each measure of cognitive performance, with age (dichotomized as Reproduction II ( b = -.0020, p = .026) and log of the Trail Making Test, Part B (b = .0001, p = .044). Quadratic associations between HDL cholesterol and cognitive performance were nonsignificant. Results indicate differential associations between cholesterol and neuropsychological function across different ages and domains of function. High and low total and LDL cholesterol may confer both risk and benefit for suboptimal cognitive function at different ages. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Transport of cholesterol autoxidation products in rabbit lipoproteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Shi-Kaung; Phillips, G.A.; Xia, Guang-Zhi; Morin, R.J.

    1987-01-01

    Radiolabeled pure [4- 14 C] cholesterol was kept at 60 0 C under air to autoxidize for 5 weeks, after which approximately 12% cholesterol oxidation products were formed. The mixture, suspended in gelatin, was given to rabbits by gastric gavage. Rabbits were killed 4, 24 and 48 h after treatment. Cholesterol and its autoxidation products were separated by thin-layer chromatography into 5 fractions and radioactivities of each fraction were measured. Percentages of each fraction of cholesterol oxidation products and cholesterol in the original mixture before administration and in the rabbit sera after administration were similar, suggesting that the rates of absorption of cholesterol oxidation products are not significantly different from that of cholesterol. Lipoproteins were fractioned by ultracentrifugation into VLDL, LDL and HDL. Radioactivities of each fraction in lipoproteins separated by thin layer chromatography showed that fractions containing cholestane-3β, 5α, 6β-triol, 7α- and 7β-hydroxycholesterol and 7-ketocholesterol were more selectively transported in VLDL, whereas most of the 25-hydroxycholesterol was present in LDL. HDL contained only minute amounts of cholesterol oxidation products. 22 refs

  15. Plasma 27-hydroxycholesterol/cholesterol ratio is increased in low high density lipoprotein-cholesterol healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Valéria S; Leança, Camila C; Panzoldo, Natália B; Parra, Eliane; Zago, Vanessa; Cazita, Patrícia M; Nakandakare, Edna R; de Faria, Eliana C; Quintão, Eder C R

    2013-10-01

    Sterol 27-hydroxylase converts cholesterol to 27-hydroxycholesterol (27-OHC) which is widely distributed among tissues and is expressed at high levels in the vascular endothelium and macrophages. There is a continuous flow of this oxysterol from the tissues into the liver, where it is converted to bile acids. Measure plasma concentrations of 27-OHC in subjects that differ according to their plasma HDL-C concentration. Healthy men presenting low HDL-C (1.55 mmol/L), n=18, BMIm² were recruited after excluding secondary causes that might interfere with their plasma lipid concentrations such as smoking, heavy drinking and diabetes. Blood samples were drawn after a 12h fasting period for the measurement of 27-OHC by the combined GC/MS analysis utilizing deuterium-label internal standards. The plasma ratio 27-OHC/total cholesterol (median and range nmoL/mmoL) was 50.41 (27.47-116.00) in the High HDL-C subjects and 63.34 (36.46-91.18) in the Low HDL-C subjects (p=0.0258). Our data indicate that the production of 27-OHC by extrahepatic tissues and its transport to the liver may represent an alternative pathway for a deficient reverse cholesterol transport system when plasma HDL-C is low. © 2013.

  16. Therapeutic Impacts of Almond Oil and Olive Oil on Cholesterol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparing to the +ve control group supplementations of the atherogenic diet with either almond or olive oils induced significant reductions (p<0.05) in plasma levels oftotal cholesterol (TC) and LDL-C, VLDL-C, triglycerides (TG), free fatty acids(FFA) levels and TC/HDL ratio.The same was observed for the %oβ- apo ...

  17. HDL and CER-001 Inverse-Dose Dependent Inhibition of Atherosclerotic Plaque Formation in apoE-/- Mice: Evidence of ABCA1 Down-Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardy, Claudine; Goffinet, Marine; Boubekeur, Nadia; Cholez, Guy; Ackermann, Rose; Sy, Gavin; Keyserling, Constance; Lalwani, Narendra; Paolini, John F; Dasseux, Jean-Louis; Barbaras, Ronald; Baron, Rudi

    2015-01-01

    CER-001 is a novel engineered HDL-mimetic comprised of recombinant human apoA-I and charged phospholipids that was designed to mimic the beneficial properties of nascent pre-ß HDL. In this study, we have evaluated the dose-dependent regulation of ABCA1 expression in vitro and in vivo in the presence of CER-001 and native HDL (HDL3). CER-001 induced cholesterol efflux from J774 macrophages in a dose-dependent manner similar to natural HDL. A strong down-regulation of the ATP-binding cassette A1 (ABCA1) transporter mRNA (- 50%) as well as the ABCA1 membrane protein expression (- 50%) was observed at higher doses of CER-001 and HDL3 compared to non-lipidated apoA-I. In vivo, in an apoE-/- mouse "flow cessation model," in which the left carotid artery was ligatured to induce local inflammation, the inhibition of atherosclerotic plaque burden progression in response to a dose-range of every-other-day CER-001 or HDL in the presence of a high-fat diet for two weeks was assessed. We observed a U-shaped dose-response curve: inhibition of the plaque total cholesterol content increased with increasing doses of CER-001 or HDL3 up to a maximum inhibition (- 51%) at 5 mg/kg; however, as the dose was increased above this threshold, a progressively less pronounced inhibition of progression was observed, reaching a complete absence of inhibition of progression at doses of 20 mg/kg and over. ABCA1 protein expression in the same atherosclerotic plaque was decreased by-45% and-68% at 50 mg/kg for CER-001 and HDL respectively. Conversely, a-12% and 0% decrease in ABCA1 protein expression was observed at the 5 mg/kg dose for CER-001 and HDL respectively. These data demonstrate that high doses of HDL and CER-001 are less effective at slowing progression of atherosclerotic plaque in apoE-/- mice compared to lower doses, following a U-shaped dose-response curve. A potential mechanism for this phenomenon is supported by the observation that high doses of HDL and CER-001 induce a rapid and

  18. Treating patients with low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol: choices, issues and opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watts Gerald F

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Three clinical trials have recently focused on the benefits of lipid-regulating therapy in populations with normocholesterolaemia and low high-density lipoprotein (HDL-cholesterol. Two secondary prevention studies (Veterans Affairs HDL-Cholesterol Intervention Trial [VA-HIT] and Bezafibrate Infarction Prevention [BIP] trial testified to the efficacy of fibrates in decreasing cardiovascular events, particularly in patients with coexisting risk factors, including hypertriglyceridaemia. The Air Force/Texas Coronary Atherosclerosis Prevention Study (AFCAPS/TexCAPS demonstrated that a statin could decrease acute coronary events in patients with isolated low HDL-cholesterol in a primary prevention setting. The absolute risk reduction in coronary events in the VA-HIT study compares favourably with those reported from the statin-based Cholesterol and Recurrent Events (CARE and Long-term Intervention with Pravastatin in Ischaemic Disease (LIPID trials. The absolute risk reduction in AFCAPS-TexCAPS is similar to that in West of Scotland Coronary Pravastatin Study (WOSCOPS. Recommendations are given concerning lifestyle and pharmacological management of low HDL-cholesterol. Optimal management also requires review of current treatment targets for HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides levels.

  19. Obesity and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in black and white 9- and 10-year-old girls : The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morrison, JA; Sprecher, D; McMahon, RP; Schreiber, GB; Khoury, PR

    It has been hypothesized that the role of obesity in the pathogenesis of coronary heart disease (CHD) may be mediated in part through its inverse relationship with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). Obesity is inversely correlated with HDL-C, and HDL-C has been shown to be protective

  20. Atorvastatin affects low density lipoprotein and non-high density lipoprotein cholesterol relations with apolipoprotein B in type 2 diabetes mellitus : modification by triglycerides and cholesteryl ester transfer protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kappelle, Paul J.W.H.; Zwang, Louwerens; Huisman, Menno V.; Banga, Jan Dirk; Sluiter, Wim. J.; Dallinga-Thie, Geesje M.; Dullaart, Robin P. F.

    Objectives: Non-HDL-cholesterol (non-HDL-C) and apolipoprotein (apo) B are proposed as treatment targets. The extent to which statin therapy affects relationships of LDL-C and non-HDL-C with apoB was examined in type 2 diabetes. Methods: Analyses were performed in 217 hypertriglyceridaemic type 2

  1. Enhanced hepatic apoA-I secretion and peripheral efflux of cholesterol and phospholipid in CD36 null mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pin Yue

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available CD36 facilitates oxidized low density lipoprotein uptake and is implicated in development of atherosclerotic lesions. CD36 also binds unmodified high and very low density lipoproteins (HDL, VLDL but its role in the metabolism of these particles is unclear. Several polymorphisms in the CD36 gene were recently shown to associate with serum HDL cholesterol. To gain insight into potential mechanisms for these associations we examined HDL metabolism in CD36 null (CD36(-/- mice. Feeding CD36(-/- mice a high cholesterol diet significantly increased serum HDL, cholesterol and phospholipids, as compared to wild type mice. HDL apolipoproteins apoA-I and apoA-IV were increased and shifted to higher density HDL fractions suggesting altered particle maturation. Clearance of dual-labeled HDL was unchanged in CD36(-/- mice and cholesterol uptake from HDL or LDL by isolated CD36(-/- hepatocytes was unaltered. However, CD36(-/- hepatocytes had higher cholesterol and phospholipid efflux rates. In addition, expression and secretion of apoA-I and apoA-IV were increased reflecting enhanced PXR. Similar to hepatocytes, cholesterol and phospholipid efflux were enhanced in CD36(-/- macrophages without changes in protein levels of ABCA1, ABCG1 or SR-B1. However, biotinylation assays showed increased surface ABCA1 localization in CD36(-/- cells. In conclusion, CD36 influences reverse cholesterol transport and hepatic ApoA-I production. Both pathways are enhanced in CD36 deficiency, increasing HDL concentrations, which suggests the potential benefit of CD36 inhibition.

  2. Rational Targeting of Cellular Cholesterol in Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma (DLBCL) Enabled by Functional Lipoprotein Nanoparticles: A Therapeutic Strategy Dependent on Cell of Origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rink, Jonathan S; Yang, Shuo; Cen, Osman; Taxter, Tim; McMahon, Kaylin M; Misener, Sol; Behdad, Amir; Longnecker, Richard; Gordon, Leo I; Thaxton, C Shad

    2017-11-06

    Cancer cells have altered metabolism and, in some cases, an increased demand for cholesterol. It is important to identify novel, rational treatments based on biology, and cellular cholesterol metabolism as a potential target for cancer is an innovative approach. Toward this end, we focused on diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) as a model because there is differential cholesterol biosynthesis driven by B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling in germinal center (GC) versus activated B-cell (ABC) DLBCL. To specifically target cellular cholesterol homeostasis, we employed high-density lipoprotein-like nanoparticles (HDL NP) that can generally reduce cellular cholesterol by targeting and blocking cholesterol uptake through the high-affinity HDL receptor, scavenger receptor type B-1 (SCARB1). As we previously reported, GC DLBCL are exquisitely sensitive to HDL NP as monotherapy, while ABC DLBCL are less sensitive. Herein, we report that enhanced BCR signaling and resultant de novo cholesterol synthesis in ABC DLBCL drastically reduces the ability of HDL NPs to reduce cellular cholesterol and induce cell death. Therefore, we combined HDL NP with the BCR signaling inhibitor ibrutinib and the SYK inhibitor R406. By targeting both cellular cholesterol uptake and BCR-associated de novo cholesterol synthesis, we achieved cellular cholesterol reduction and induced apoptosis in otherwise resistant ABC DLBCL cell lines. These results in lymphoma demonstrate that reduction of cellular cholesterol is a powerful mechanism to induce apoptosis. Cells rich in cholesterol require HDL NP therapy to reduce uptake and molecularly targeted agents that inhibit upstream pathways that stimulate de novo cholesterol synthesis, thus, providing a new paradigm for rationally targeting cholesterol metabolism as therapy for cancer.

  3. Impact of high-density lipoprotein 3 cholesterol subfraction on periprocedural myocardial injury in patients who underwent elective percutaneous coronary intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Kazuhiro; Kikuchi, Ryosuke; Suzuki, Susumu; Tanaka, Akihito; Aoki, Toshijiro; Iwakawa, Naoki; Kojima, Hiroki; Hirayama, Kenshi; Mitsuda, Takayuki; Sumi, Takuya; Negishi, Yosuke; Ishii, Hideki; Murohara, Toyoaki

    2018-02-02

    Periprocedural myocardial injury (PMI) is a major complication of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and is associated with atherosclerotic coronary plaque and worse clinical outcomes. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) is a protective factor for cardiovascular disease. However, the role of HDL-C subfractions, such as HDL2 cholesterol (HDL2-C) or HDL3 cholesterol (HDL3-C), in cardiovascular disease remains unclear. The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship between HDL2-C and HDL3-C subfractions and the incidence of PMI in patients who underwent elective PCI. We enrolled 129 patients who underwent elective PCI for stable angina pectoris. PMI was defined as an increase in high-sensitivity troponin T levels > 5 times the upper normal limit (> 0.070 ng/mL) at 24 h after PCI. Serum HDL-C subfractions (HDL2-C and HDL3-C) were assessed using ultracentrifugation in patients with and those without PMI. HDL3-C levels were significantly lower in patients with PMI than in those without (15.1 ± 3.0 mg/dL vs. 16.4 ± 2.9 mg/dL, p = 0.016) and had an independent and inverse association with PMI (odds ratio, 0.86; 95% confidence interval, 0.74-0.99; p = 0.038). When divided by the cut-off value of HDL3-C for PMI (14.3 mg/dL), the incidence of PMI was significantly higher in low HDL3-C patients than in high HDL3-C patients (51.2% vs. 30.2%, p = 0.020). HDL3-C was an independent inverse predictor of PMI in patients who underwent elective PCI.

  4. Macrophage cholesterol efflux correlates with lipoprotein subclass distribution and risk of obstructive coronary artery disease in patients undergoing coronary angiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kremer Werner

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies in patients with low HDL have suggested that impaired cellular cholesterol efflux is a heritable phenotype increasing atherosclerosis risk. Less is known about the association of macrophage cholesterol efflux with lipid profiles and CAD risk in normolipidemic subjects. We have therefore measured macrophage cholesterol efflux in142 normolipidemic subjects undergoing coronary angiography. Methods Monocytes isolated from blood samples of patients scheduled for cardiac catheterization were differentiated into macrophages over seven days. Isotopic cholesterol efflux to exogenously added apolipoprotein A-I and HDL2 was measured. Quantitative cholesterol efflux from macrophages was correlated with lipoprotein subclass distribution in plasma from the same individuals measured by NMR-spectroscopy of lipids and with the extent of coronary artery disease seen on coronary angiography. Results Macrophage cholesterol efflux was positively correlated with particle concentration of smaller HDL and LDL particles but not with total plasma concentrations of HDL or LDL-cholesterol. We observed an inverse relationship between macrophage cholesterol efflux and the concntration of larger and triglyceride rich particles (VLDL, chylomicrons. Subjects with significant stenosis on coronary angiography had lower cholesterol efflux from macrophages compared to individuals without significant stenosis (adjusted p = 0.02. Conclusion Macrophage cholesterol efflux is inversely correlated with lipoprotein particle size and risk of CAD.

  5. Inherited disorders of HDL metabolism and atherosclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hovingh, G Kees; de Groot, E.P.; van der Steeg, Wim; Boekholdt, S Matthijs; Hutten, Barbara A; Kuivenhoven, J.A.; Kastelein, John J P

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Genetic disorders of HDL metabolism are rare and, as a result, the assessment of atherosclerosis risk in individuals suffering from these disorders has been difficult. Ultrasound imaging of carotid arteries has provided a tool to assess the risk in hereditary hypo and

  6. Inherited disorders of HDL metabolism and atherosclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hovingh, G. Kees; de Groot, Eric; van der Steeg, Wim; Boekholdt, S. Matthijs; Hutten, Barbara A.; Kuivenhoven, Jan Albert; Kastelein, John J. P.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose of review Genetic disorders of HDL metabolism are rare and, as a result, the assessment of atherosclerosis risk in individuals suffering from these disorders has been difficult. Ultrasound imaging of carotid arteries has provided a tool to assess the risk in hereditary hypo and

  7. Soybean glycinin improves HDL-C and suppresses the effects of rosuvastatin on hypercholesterolemic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neves Valdir A

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was an investigation of the effects of ingesting a daily dose of isolated glycinin soy protein (11S globulin, in association with rosuvastatin, on the control of hypercholesterolemia in experimental animals. Methods Male Wistar rats were kept in individual cages under appropriate controlled conditions of temperature, light and humidity. The animals were divided into five groups (n = 9: 1 standard (STD: fed on casein as protein source; 2 hypercholesterolemic (HC: STD plus 1% cholesterol and 0.5% cholic acid; 3 HC+11S: hypercholesterolemic + glycinin (300 mg/kg/day; 4 HC+ROS: hypercholesterolemic + rosuvastatin (10 mg/kg/day; 5 HC+11S+ROS: HC diet, the 11S protein and the drug in the doses given in (3 and (4. The protein and the drug were administered by gavage for 28 days. The results indicated that the addition of 1% cholesterol and 0.5% cholic acid induced hypercholesterolemia in the animals without interfering with their weight gain. Results A single daily dose of glycinin contributed an additional 2.8% of dietary protein intake and demonstrated its functional role, particularly in raising HDL-C, decreasing triglycerides in the liver and improving the atherogenic index in animals exposed to a hypercholesterolemic diet. Conclusion Most of the beneficial effects of the isolated treatments disappeared when the drug (rosuvastatin and the protein (glycinin were taken simultaneously. The association was shown not to interact additively, as noted in the plasma levels of total cholesterol and non-HDL cholesterol, and in the significant increase of cholesterol in the liver. Studies are in progress to identify the effects of peptides derived from the 11S globulin and their role in cholesterol metabolism.

  8. Association between non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations and mortality from coronary heart disease among Japanese men and women: the Ibaraki Prefectural Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, Hiroyuki; Iso, Hiroyasu; Irie, Fujiko; Sairenchi, Toshimi; Ohtaka, Emiko; Ohta, Hitoshi

    2010-02-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-cholesterol) raises the risk of coronary heart disease in a dose-response fashion in a non-obese population with low total cholesterol levels and high HDL-cholesterol levels, such as Japanese. A total of 30,802 men and 60,417 women, aged 40 to 79 years with no history of stroke or coronary heart disease, completed a baseline risk factor survey in 1993 under the auspices of the Ibaraki Prefectural Health Study. Systematic mortality surveillance through 2003 identified 539 coronary heart disease deaths. The mean values for non-HDL-cholesterol were 140 mg/dL for men and 151 mg/dL for women. The corresponding mean values were 193 mg/dL and 208 mg/dL total cholesterol and 52 mg/dL and 57 mg/dL HDL-cholesterol, respectively. Men with non-HDL-cholesterol > or = 180 mg/dL had a two-fold higher age-adjusted risk of mortality from coronary heart disease than did those with non-HDL-cholesterol or = 180 mg/dL versus <100 mg/dL of non-HDL-cholesterol was 2.22 (95% confidence interval: 1.37 to 3.62) for men and 0.71 (0.37 to 1.34) for women. Higher concentrations of non-HDL-cholesterol were associated with an increased risk of mortality from coronary heart disease for men, but not for women.

  9. Increased hepatic cholesterol esterification with essential fatty acid deficiency (EFAD): relationship to plasma lipoprotein (LP) cholesterol content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ney, D.M.; Ziboh, V.A.; Schneeman, B.O.

    1986-01-01

    EFAD in the rat is associated with hepatic accumulation of esterified cholesterol and altered distribution of cholesterol between plasma and hepatic tissue. Little is known regarding the impact of EFAD on LP composition. To determine the relationship between hepatic cholesterol esterification and plasma lP composition in control (C) and EFAD male Wistar rats, the authors induced EFAD with continuous intragastric (IG) infusion of EFA-free solutions containing 3.5% of calories as triolein for 7 and 14 days. C animals received IG infusion of solutions containing 3.5% of calories as linoleic acid. Data in the EFAD groups reveal: (i) marked decreases in hepatic EFAs and increases in monoenoic acids; (ii) progressive increases in hepatic content of triglyceride and esterified cholesterol with 7 and 14 days of feeding; (iii) assay of acyl CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase activity in hepatic tissue using 14 C-cholesterol demonstrates an increase in hepatic cholesterol esterification when compared to C animals. Increased hepatic cholesterol esterification correlates with elevated levels of esterified cholesterol in plasma VLDL and HDL particles. These data indicate that the elevated levels of cholesterol esters in LP particles is due, at least in part, to increased hepatic cholesterol esterification with EFAD

  10. Common Misconceptions about Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Common Misconceptions about Cholesterol Updated:Jan 29,2018 How much do you ... are some common misconceptions — and the truth. High cholesterol isn’t a concern for children. High cholesterol ...

  11. Genetically elevated apolipoprotein A-I, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, and risk of ischemic heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundegaard, Christiane; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne; Grande, Peer

    2010-01-01

    Epidemiologically, levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and its major protein constituent, apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), are inversely related to risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD).......Epidemiologically, levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and its major protein constituent, apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), are inversely related to risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD)....

  12. A Healthy Balance of Plasma Cholesterol by a Novel Annurca Apple-Based Nutraceutical Formulation: Results of a Randomized Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Tenore, Gian Carlo; Caruso, Domenico; Buonomo, Giuseppe; D'Avino, Maria; Campiglia, Pietro; Marinelli, Luciana; Novellino, Ettore

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Cardiovascular diseases are nowadays preferential targets of preventive medicine through a straightforward therapy on lipid profile. However, statins, the first-line lipid-lowering drug therapy, specifically act on low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), having a modest effect on plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations. Today, a number of novel HDL-targeted therapies are emerging, along with unexpected side effects. Thus, novel and possibly safe substa...

  13. Associations between hypo-HDL cholesterolemia and cardiometabolic risk factors in middle-aged men and women: Independence of habitual alcohol drinking, smoking and regular exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakabayashi, Ichiro; Daimon, Takashi

    Hypo-HDL cholesterolemia is a potent cardiovascular risk factor, and HDL cholesterol level is influenced by lifestyles including alcohol drinking, smoking and regular exercise. The aim of this study was to clarify the relationships between hypo-HDL cholesterolemia and cardiovascular risk factors and to determine whether or not these relationships depend on the above-mentioned lifestyles. The subjects were 3456 men and 2510 women (35-60 years of age) showing low HDL cholesterol levels (smoking and regular exercise (men, n=333; women, n=1410) and their age-matched control subjects were also analysed. Both in men and in women of overall subjects and subjects without histories of alcohol drinking, smoking and regular exercise, odds ratios of subjects with hypo-HDL cholesterolemia vs. subjects with normo-HDL cholesterolemia for high body mass index, high waist-to-height ratio, high triglycerides, high lipid accumulation product and multiple risk factors (three or more out of obesity, hypertension, dyslipidaemia and diabetes) were significantly higher than the reference level of 1.00. These associations in overall subjects were found when the above habits were adjusted. Hypo-HDL cholesterolemic men and women have adverse cardiovascular profiles, such as obesity, hypertriglyceridemia and multiple risk factors, independently of age, alcohol drinking, smoking and regular exercise. Copyright © 2016 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Impact of gene variants on sex-specific regulation of human Scavenger receptor class B type 1 (SR-BI expression in liver and association with lipid levels in a population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barrett-Connor Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies have noted that genetic variants of SCARB1, a lipoprotein receptor involved in reverse cholesterol transport, are associated with serum lipid levels in a sex-dependent fashion. However, the mechanism underlying this gene by sex interaction has not been explored. Methods We utilized both epidemiological and molecular methods to study how estrogen and gene variants interact to influence SCARB1 expression and lipid levels. Interaction between 35 SCARB1 haplotype-tagged polymorphisms and endogenous estradiol levels was assessed in 498 postmenopausal Caucasian women from the population-based Rancho Bernardo Study. We further examined associated variants with overall and SCARB1 splice variant (SR-BI and SR-BII expression in 91 human liver tissues using quantitative real-time PCR. Results Several variants on a haplotype block spanning intron 11 to intron 12 of SCARB1 showed significant gene by estradiol interaction affecting serum lipid levels, the strongest for rs838895 with HDL-cholesterol (p = 9.2 × 10-4 and triglycerides (p = 1.3 × 10-3 and the triglyceride:HDL cholesterol ratio (p = 2.7 × 10-4. These same variants were associated with expression of the SR-BI isoform in a sex-specific fashion, with the strongest association found among liver tissue from 52 young women Conclusions Estrogen and SCARB1 genotype may act synergistically to regulate expression of SCARB1 isoforms and impact serum levels of HDL cholesterol and triglycerides. This work highlights the importance of considering sex-dependent effects of gene variants on serum lipid levels.

  15. Absorption and transport of cholesterol autoxidation derivatives in rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, S.K.; Morin, R.J.; Phillips, G.A.; Xia, G.Z.

    1986-01-01

    Spontaneously autoxidized products of cholesterol have been demonstrated to be angiotoxic and possibly atherogenic. This study investigates the absorption and transport of these cholesterol oxidation derivatives (COD's) as compared to cholesterol. 14 C-labeled cholesterol autoxidized by incubation in a 60 0 C water bath for 5 weeks, then suspended in gelatin and given to New Zealand white rabbits by gastric gavage. Rabbits were sacrificed 24 hours after treatment. COD's were separated by thin layer chromatography (TLC) and radioactivities of each COD and cholesterol were measured. Percentages of each COD and cholesterol in the original mixture before administration and in the rabbits' serum after administration are almost identical, suggesting that the rates of absorption of COD's are not significantly different from that of cholesterol. Lipoproteins were fractionated by ultracentrifugation into VLDL, LDL and HDL. Radioactivities of each COD separated by TLC in each lipoprotein fraction showed that cholestane-3β,5α,6β-triol, 7α- and 7β-hydroxycholesterol and 7-ketocholesterol were predominantly present in VLDL (3 x serum concentration) and 25-hydroxycholesterol was predominantly in LDL (2.5 x serum concentration). HDL contained only minute amounts of COD's. The increased levels of COD's in VLDL and LDL may contribute to the atherogenicity of these lipoprotein

  16. VARIABILITY IN LEVELS OF LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS CHOLESTEROL IN PATIENTS WITH FAMILIAL HYPERCHOLESTEROLEMIA DEPENDING ON AGE AND SEX AND ITS IMPORTANCE IN THE DIAGNOSIS OF THIS DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. А. Korneva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study the ranges of low density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol depending on the age and gender of patients with familial hypercholesterolemia (FHC by an example of a sample of patients living in the Republic of Karelia.Material and methods. Parameters of lipid spectrum of 219 patients (aged 52.5±1.7 years; males 38.3% with heterozygous FHC were studied before the start of statin therapy. Definite FHC was diagnosed in 102 patients. Lipid profile was estimated by enzymatic calorimetric method. The diagnosis of FHC was established according to the criteria of The Dutch Lipid Clinic Network.  Genetic analysis was performed in 102 patients (46.6%; pathogenic mutation in the LDL receptor was identified in 21 patients. The control group consisted of 539 people with the excluded diagnosis of FHC (aged 46.8±0.8 years; males 53.8%.Results. We determined the level of LDL cholesterol (LDLC associated with increased frequency of mutations of the LDL receptor in patients with definite FHC; mutation frequency was 3 times higher when LDLC level was more than 6.5 mmol/L. We revealed the following characteristic intervals of the LDLC levels in patients with a definite FHC: up to 20 years old – 4.8-6.2 mmol/l; in patients of 20-29 years old – 5.9-8.2 mmol/l; in the age range of 30-39 years the upper value of the LDLC levels reached 9.6 mmol/l; in individuals of 40-49 years old a stabilization, "plateau", was observed – LDLC level did not differ significantly compared to the previous decade, and was 5.4-9.0 mmol/l. In the age range  of 50-59 years the upper LDLC level was up to 11.4 mmol/l. Similar indicators were identified in patients aged 60-69 years. Patients older than 70 years with a definite FHC an upper level of LDLC was higher and reached 12.5 mmol/l. Tendency to increase in the characteristic values of LDLC with age was observed both in men and in women. Specific age-related trends  for men (an increase from a plateau by the age of 50

  17. Cholesterol Efflux Capacity, High-Density Lipoprotein Particle Number, and Incident Cardiovascular Events: An Analysis From the JUPITER Trial (Justification for the Use of Statins in Prevention: An Intervention Trial Evaluating Rosuvastatin).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khera, Amit V; Demler, Olga V; Adelman, Steven J; Collins, Heidi L; Glynn, Robert J; Ridker, Paul M; Rader, Daniel J; Mora, Samia

    2017-06-20

    Recent failures of drugs that raised high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels to reduce cardiovascular events in clinical trials have led to increased interest in alternative indices of HDL quality, such as cholesterol efflux capacity, and HDL quantity, such as HDL particle number. However, no studies have directly compared these metrics in a contemporary population that includes potent statin therapy and low low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. HDL cholesterol levels, apolipoprotein A-I, cholesterol efflux capacity, and HDL particle number were assessed at baseline and 12 months in a nested case-control study of the JUPITER trial (Justification for the Use of Statins in Prevention: An Intervention Trial Evaluating Rosuvastatin), a randomized primary prevention trial that compared rosuvastatin treatment to placebo in individuals with normal low-density lipoprotein cholesterol but increased C-reactive protein levels. In total, 314 cases of incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) (myocardial infarction, unstable angina, arterial revascularization, stroke, or cardiovascular death) were compared to age- and gender-matched controls. Conditional logistic regression models adjusting for risk factors evaluated associations between HDL-related biomarkers and incident CVD. Cholesterol efflux capacity was moderately correlated with HDL cholesterol, apolipoprotein A-I, and HDL particle number (Spearman r = 0.39, 0.48, and 0.39 respectively; P capacity (OR/SD, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.72-1.10; P =0.28), HDL cholesterol (OR/SD, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.66-1.02; P =0.08), or apolipoprotein A-I (OR/SD, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.67-1.03; P =0.08). Twelve months of rosuvastatin (20 mg/day) did not change cholesterol efflux capacity (average percentage change -1.5%, 95% CI, -13.3 to +10.2; P =0.80), but increased HDL cholesterol (+7.7%), apolipoprotein A-I (+4.3%), and HDL particle number (+5.2%). On-statin cholesterol efflux capacity was inversely associated with incident CVD (OR/SD, 0.62; 95% CI, 0

  18. Sex-specific heritability of spontaneous lipid levels in an extended pedigree of Indian-origin rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Vinson

    Full Text Available The rhesus macaque is an important model for human atherosclerosis but genetic determinants of relevant phenotypes have not yet been investigated in this species. Because lipid levels are well-established and heritable risk factors for human atherosclerosis, our goal was to assess the heritability of lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride levels in a single, extended pedigree of 1,289 Indian-origin rhesus macaques. Additionally, because increasing evidence supports sex differences in the genetic architecture of lipid levels and lipid metabolism in humans and macaques, we also explored sex-specific heritability for all lipid measures investigated in this study. Using standard methods, we measured lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride levels from fasted plasma in a sample of 193 pedigreed rhesus macaques selected for membership in large, paternal half-sib cohorts, and maintained on a low-fat, low cholesterol chow diet. Employing a variance components approach, we found moderate heritability for total cholesterol (h²=0.257, P=0.032, LDL cholesterol (h²=0.252, P=0.030, and triglyceride levels (h²=0.197, P=0.034 in the full sample. However, stratification by sex (N=68 males, N=125 females revealed substantial sex-specific heritability for total cholesterol (0.644, P=0.004, females only, HDL cholesterol (0.843, P=0.0008, females only, VLDL cholesterol (0.482, P=0.018, males only, and triglyceride levels (0.705, P=0.001, males only that was obscured or absent when sexes were combined in the full sample. We conclude that genes contribute to spontaneous variation in circulating lipid levels in the Indian-origin rhesus macaque in a sex-specific manner, and that the rhesus macaque is likely to be a valuable model for sex-specific genetic effects on lipid risk factors for human atherosclerosis. These findings are a first-ever report of heritability for cholesterol levels in this species, and support the need for expanded analysis of these traits in

  19. Verilog HDL digital design and modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Cavanagh, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    PREFACE INTRODUCTION History of HDL Verilog HDL IEEE Standard Features Assertion Levels OVERVIEW Design Methodologies Modulo-16 Synchronous Counter Four-Bit Ripple Adder Modules and Ports Designing a Test Bench for Simulation Construct Definitions Introduction to Dataflow Modeling Two-Input Exclusive-OR Gate Four 2-Input AND Gates With Delay Introduction to Behavioral Modeling Three-Input OR Gate Four-Bit Adder Modulo-16 Synchronous Counter Introduction to Structural Modeling Sum-of-Products Implementation Full Adder Four-Bit Ripple Adder Introduction to Mixed-Design Modeling Full Adder Problems LANGUAGE ELEMENTS Comments Identifiers Keywords Bidirectional Gates Charge Storage Strengths CMOS Gates Combinational Logic Gates Continuous Assignment Data Types Module Declaration MOS Switches Multiple-Way Branching Named Ev...

  20. ApoA-I/HDL-C levels are inversely associated with abdominal aortic aneurysm progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burillo, Elena; Lindholt, Jes S.; Molina-Sánchez, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    proteomic analysis of plasma proteins was performed in AAA patients at different stages of evolution [small AAA (aortic size=3-5 cm) vs large AAA] using iTRAQ labelling, high-throughput nano-LC-MS/MS and a novel multi-layered statistical model. Among the proteins identified, ApoA-I was decreased in patients...... with large AAA compared to those with small AAA. These results were validated by ELISA on plasma samples from small (n=90) and large AAA (n=26) patients (150± 3 vs 133± 5 mg/dl, respectively, plevels strongly correlated with HDL-Cholesterol (HDL-C) concentration (r=0.9, p....89± 2.99 vs 1.59± 5.74 mmol/l, plevels are negatively associated with AAA evolution. Therapies targeting...

  1. Lipids rich in phosphatidylethanolamine from natural gas-utilizing bacteria reduce plasma cholesterol and classes of phospholipids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, H.; Hellgren, Lars; Olsen, E.

    2004-01-01

    -utilizing bacteria (LNGB), which were rich in PE. The group with 0% LNGB was fed a diet for which the lipid content was 100% soybean oil. The total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and HDL cholesterol of animals consuming a diet with 67% LNGB (67LNGB-diet), were significantly lowered by 35, 49, and 29%, respectively......, and unesterified cholesterol increased by 17% compared with the animals fed a diet of 100% lipids from soybean oil (SB-diet). In addition, the ratio of LDL cholesterol to HDL cholesterol was 27% lower in mink fed the 67LNGB-diet than those fed the S13-cliet. When the mink were fed the 67LNGB-diet, plasma PC, total...... phospholipids, lysoPC, and PI were lowered significantly compared with the mink fed a SB-diet. Plasma total cholesterol was correlated with total phospholipids as well as with PC (R = 0.8, P

  2. Differential effects of gemfibrozil and fenofibrate on reverse cholesterol transport from macrophages to feces in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotllan, Noemí; Llaverías, Gemma; Julve, Josep; Jauhiainen, Matti; Calpe-Berdiel, Laura; Hernández, Cristina; Simó, Rafael; Blanco-Vaca, Francisco; Escolà-Gil, Joan Carles

    2011-02-01

    Gemfibrozil and fenofibrate, two of the fibrates most used in clinical practice, raise HDL cholesterol (HDLc) and are thought to reduce the risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. These drugs act as PPARα agonists and upregulate the expression of genes crucial in reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). In the present study, we determined the effects of these two fibrates on RCT from macrophages to feces in vivo in human apoA-I transgenic (hApoA-ITg) mice. [(3)H]cholesterol-labeled mouse macrophages were injected intraperitoneally into hApoA-ITg mice treated with intragastric doses of fenofibrate, gemfibrozil or a vehicle solution for 17days, and radioactivity was determined in plasma, liver and feces. Fenofibrate, but not gemfibrozil, enhanced [(3)H]cholesterol flux to plasma and feces of female hApoA-ITg mice. Fenofibrate significantly increased plasma HDLc, HDL phospholipids, hApoA-I levels and phospholipid transfer protein activity, whereas these parameters were not altered by gemfibrozil treatment. Unlike gemfibrozil, fenofibrate also induced the generation of larger HDL particles, which were more enriched in cholesteryl esters, together with higher potential to generate preβ-HDL formation and caused a significant increase in [(3)H]cholesterol efflux to plasma. Our findings demonstrate that fenofibrate promotes RCT from macrophages to feces in vivo and, thus, highlight a differential action of this fibrate on HDL. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. EFFECT OF DIETARY OLIVE OIL/CHOLESTEROL ON SERUM LIPOPROTEINS, LIPID PEROXIDATION, AND ATHEROSCLEROSIS IN RABBITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R MAHDAVI

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: High plasma cholesterol levels, mainly LDL are a widely recognized major risk factor for Coronary Heart Disease (CHD. According to the epidemiologic studies findings, people from the Mediterranean countries, have lower CHD rats than other countries, in these countries usual diet is high in olive oil. The present study compares the effects of cholesterol enriched diet with or without adding olive oil on serum Lipoproteins, lipid per oxidation, and atherosclerosis development. Method: Twenty Dutch male rabbits were Categorized to four groups (one group as Control, and others as Experimental. They received one of standard, cholesterol - rich, olive oil rich and combined (cholesterol + olive oil diet for Twelve weeks. Fasting blood samples from heart were collected at the beginning, and the end of Experimental period. Means of total cholesterol, HDL-Ctriglycerides, MDA and antioxidant caperimental period, significant differences were showed in total cholesterol, HDL-C, triglyceride and MDA between groups. Results: The comparison of cholesterol rich diet with cholesterol + olive oil showed a higher mean of MDA in cholesterol rich group (P < 0.001. Biochemical factors and aortic lesion degree showed no significant difference between standard and olive oil group. Aortic lesions in cholesterol + olive oil showed nonsignificant lower degree than cholesterol group. Discussion: This findings showed preventive effect of olive oil against atherosclerosis which is independent of plasma lipoprotein effect, and suggested that probably olive oil acts on arteries directly.

  4. Non-leaky vesiculation of large unilamellar vesicles (LUV) induced by plasma high density lipoproteins (HDL): Detection by HPLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tischler, U.; Rueckert, D.S.; Schubert, R.; Jaroni, H.W.; Schmidt, K.H.

    1989-01-01

    Interaction of large unilamellar phosphatidylcholine vesicles (LUV, 75nm) and plasma high density lipoproteins (HDL) resulted in a non-leaky vesiculation of LUV. This vesiculation was detected by a HPLC-system consisting of a combination of three TSK-gel columns (6000PW, 5000PW, 3000SW). With increasing incubation time liposomal [ 14 C]PC, entrapped [ 3 H]inulin, and apoprotein of HDL origin decreased. The decrease was accompanied by a formation of new particles, consisting of liposomal PC and apoprotein. These particles also enclosed [3H]inulin, reflecting a hydrophilic inner space. The formation of the particles reached a maximum after one day of incubation. Retention time was 21 minutes for LUV, 28 minutes for the new particles, and 36 minutes for HDL. In vesicles with membranes consisting of phosphatidylcholine and 30% cholesterol no interactions were observed

  5. Achieving secondary prevention low-density lipoprotein particle concentration goals using lipoprotein cholesterol-based data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon C Mathews

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic studies suggest that LDL particle concentration (LDL-P may remain elevated at guideline recommended LDL cholesterol goals, representing a source of residual risk. We examined the following seven separate lipid parameters in achieving the LDL-P goal of <1000 nmol/L goal for very high risk secondary prevention: total cholesterol to HDL cholesterol ratio, TC/HDL, <3; a composite of ATP-III very high risk targets, LDL-C<70 mg/dL, non-HDL-C<100 mg/dL and TG<150 mg/dL; a composite of standard secondary risk targets, LDL-C<100, non-HDL-C<130, TG<150; LDL phenotype; HDL-C ≥ 40; TG<150; and TG/HDL-C<3. METHODS: We measured ApoB, ApoAI, ultracentrifugation lipoprotein cholesterol and NMR lipoprotein particle concentration in 148 unselected primary and secondary prevention patients. RESULTS: TC/HDL-C<3 effectively discriminated subjects by LDL-P goal (F = 84.1, p<10(-6. The ATP-III very high risk composite target (LDL-C<70, nonHDL-C<100, TG<150 was also effective (F = 42.8, p<10(-5. However, the standard secondary prevention composite (LDL-C<100, non-HDL-C<130, TG<150 was also effective but yielded higher LDL-P than the very high risk composite (F = 42.0, p<10(-5 with upper 95% confidence interval of LDL-P less than 1000 nmol/L. TG<150 and TG/HDL-C<3 cutpoints both significantly discriminated subjects but the LDL-P upper 95% confidence intervals fell above goal of 1000 nmol/L (F = 15.8, p = 0.0001 and F = 9.7, p = 0.002 respectively. LDL density phenotype neared significance (F = 2.85, p = 0.094 and the HDL-C cutpoint of 40 mg/dL did not discriminate (F = 0.53, p = 0.47 alone or add discriminatory power to ATP-III targets. CONCLUSIONS: A simple composite of ATP-III very high risk lipoprotein cholesterol based treatment targets or TC/HDL-C ratio <3 most effectively identified subjects meeting the secondary prevention target level of LDL-P<1000 nmol/L, providing a potential alternative to advanced lipid testing in many clinical

  6. The plasma parameter log (TG/HDL-C) as an atherogenic index: correlation with lipoprotein particle size and esterification rate in apoB-lipoprotein-depleted plasma (FER(HDL))

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dobiášová, Milada; Frohlich, J.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 7 (2001), s. 583-588 ISSN 0009-9120. [Congress of the European Atherosclerosis Society /71./. Athens, 26.05.1999-29.05.1999] R&D Projects: GA ČR GV306/96/K220; GA MZd NE5465 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : atherogenic index of plasma * HDL-cholesterol * triglycerides Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery Impact factor: 1.516, year: 2001

  7. Blood Lipoproteins under the Action of Exogenous Sex Steroids in the Postresuscitation Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. N. Shcherbakova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study the effect of reproductive hormones on the blood lipoprotein spectrum in the postresuscitation period after cardiac arrest. Materials and methods. Experiments were carried out on 66 mature albino rats of either sex weighing 200—250 g. Ten-minute cardiac arrest was induced by intrathoracic ligation of the vascular bundle. At 30 min after resuscitation, 49 animals were intramuscularly injected placebo and 17 animals were administered gyn-odian depot (Schering, Germany. The investigators measured the plasma concentrations of progesterone, 17-OH progesterone, androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, testosterone, estradiol, and estriol, as well as the levels of triglycerides, total, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL, low-density lipoprotein (LDL, and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL cholesterols. Blood was sampled on days 2 and 16 in the absence of therapy and on day 16 of sex steroid therapy. Results. By day 2 postresuscitation, the progesterone/estradiol ratio increased by approximately 1.8 times in males and females. Despite the fact that there were no changes in the concentrations of triglycerides, VLDL and HDL cholesterols in both males and females at that time, but the level of LDL cholesterol increased. Gender-related differences in the LDL spectrum by day 2 postresuscitation remained only in the levels of LDL cholesterol. Despite the normalization of progesterone levels, the concentrations of triglycerides and VLDL cholesterol decreased by day 16 of the postresuscitative period in the absence of therapy. There were no gender-related differences in the lipoprotein spectrum at this stage. The exogenous estradiol in combination with dehydroepiandrosterone caused a significant increase in the concentration of HLD cholesterol and a reduction in that of VLDL cholesterol in males and females both. Conclusion. Under gynodian action, the lipid spectrum was indicative of the exogenous estra-diol and

  8. Changes in plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL)- and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in hypo- and hyperthyroid patients are related to changes in free thyroxine, not to polymorphisms in LDL receptor or cholesterol ester transfer protein genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diekman, M. J.; Anghelescu, N.; Endert, E.; Bakker, O.; Wiersinga, W. M.

    2000-01-01

    Thyroid function disorders lead to changes in lipoprotein metabolism. Both plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) increase in hypothyroidism and decrease in hyperthyroidism. Changes in LDL-C relate to altered clearance of LDL particles

  9. Combining LDL-C and HDL-C to predict survival in late life: The InChianti study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Zuliani

    Full Text Available While the relationship between total cholesterol (TC and cardiovascular disease (CVD progressively weakens with aging, several studies have shown that low TC is associated with increased mortality in older individuals. However, the possible additive/synergic contribution of the two most important cholesterol rich fractions (LDL-C and HDL-C to mortality risk has not been previously investigated. Our study aimed to investigate the relationship between baseline LDL-C and HDL-C, both separately and combined, and 9-years mortality in a sample of community dwelling older individuals from the InCHIANTI study.1044 individuals over 64 years were included. CVD and cancer mortality were defined by ICD-9 codes 390-459 and 140-239, respectively. LDL-C <130 mg/dL (3.36 mmol/L was defined as "optimal/near optimal". Low HDL-C was defined as <40/50 mg/dL (1.03/1.29 mmol/L in males/females, respectively. Nine-years mortality risk was calculated by multivariate Cox proportional hazards model. We found that, compared to subjects with high LDL-C and normal HDL-C (reference group, total mortality was significantly increased in subjects with optimal/near optimal LDL-C and low HDL-C (H.R.:1.58; 95%CI:1.11-2.25. As regards the specific cause of death, CVD mortality was not affected by LDL-C/HDL-C levels, while cancer mortality was significantly increased in all subjects with optimal/near optimal LDL-C (with normal HDL-C: H.R.: 2.49; with low HDL-C: H.R.: 4.52. Results were unchanged after exclusion of the first three years of follow-up, and of subjects with low TC (<160 g/dL-4.13 mmol/L.Our findings suggest that, in community dwelling older individuals, the combined presence of optimal/near optimal LDL-C and low HDL-C represents a marker of increased future mortality.

  10. Remnant cholesterol predicts periprocedural myocardial injury following percutaneous coronary intervention in poorly-controlled type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Rui-Xiang; Li, Sha; Zhang, Min-Zhou; Li, Xiao-Lin; Zhu, Cheng-Gang; Guo, Yuan-Lin; Zhang, Yan; Li, Jian-Jun

    2017-08-01

    Remnant cholesterol (RC) is receiving increasing attention regarding its relation to cardiovascular risk. Whether RC is associated with periprocedural myocardial injury (PMI) following percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in type 2 diabetes (T2D) is currently unknown. We prospectively enrolled 1182 consecutive T2D patients who were scheduled for PCI but with baseline normal preprocedural cardiac troponin I (cTnI). Patients were divided according to their glycemic control status: group A [glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c)cholesterol ratio (RC/HDL-C) with PMI were investigated. The associations of RC and RC/HDL-C with PMI were observed in group B (both p0.05). Patients in group B, a 1-SD increase of RC produced 30% and 32% increased risk for postprocedural cTnI>3× upper limit of normal (ULN) and >5×ULN, respectively. The odds ratios for RC/HDL-C were the highest compared with any cholesterol fractions including total cholesterol (TC)/HDL-C, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C)/HDL-C, nonHDL-C/HDL-C, and triglyceride/HDL-C with 1.43 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.10-1.88] for >3× ULN and 1.49 (95% CI: 1.13-1.97) for >5× ULN. However, no such associations were found in group A. Furthermore, patients with RC >27.46mg/dL (third tertile) [RC≤14.15mg/dL (first tertile) as reference] were associated with a 1.57-fold and 2-fold increased risk for >3× ULN and >5× ULN in group B, respectively. RC and RC/HDL-C might be valuable, independent predictors for PMI in poorly-controlled diabetic patients undergoing PCI. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Distribution and correlates of non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides in Lebanese school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gannagé-Yared, Marie-Hélène; Farah, Vanessa; Chahine, Elise; Balech, Nicole; Ibrahim, Toni; Asmar, Nadia; Barakett-Hamadé, Vanda; Jambart, Selim

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of dyslipidelmia in pediatric Middle-Eastern populations is unknown. Our study aims to investigate the distribution and correlates of non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) and triglycerides among Lebanese school children. A total of 969 subjects aged 8-18 years were included in the study (505 boys and 464 girls). Recruitment was done from 10 schools located in the Great Beirut and Mount-Lebanon areas. Non-fasting total cholesterol, triglycerides, and HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) were measured. Non-HDL-C was calculated. Schools were categorized into 3 socioeconomic statuses (SESs; low, middle, and high). In the overall population, the prevalence of high non-HDL-C (>3.8 mmol/L), very high non-HDL-C (>4.9 mmol/L), and high triglycerides (>1.5 mmol/l) are respectively 9.2%, 1.24%, and 26.6%. There is no significant gender difference for non-HDL-C or triglycerides. Non-HDL-C and triglycerides are inversely correlated with age in girls (P triglycerides are higher in children from lower SES schools. After adjustment for age and body mass index (BMI), testosterone is inversely associated with triglycerides in boys (P triglycerides are independently associated with BMI and schools' SES in both girls and boys. This study confirms, in our population, the association between obesity and both high non-HDL-C and triglycerides, and between high triglycerides and low SES. Copyright © 2016 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Association of Air Pollution Exposures With High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol and Particle Number: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Griffith; Mora, Samia; Greenland, Philip; Tsai, Michael; Gill, Ed; Kaufman, Joel D

    2017-05-01

    The relationship between air pollution and cardiovascular disease may be explained by changes in high-density lipoprotein (HDL). We examined the cross-sectional relationship between air pollution and both HDL cholesterol and HDL particle number in the MESA Air study (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis Air Pollution). Study participants were 6654 white, black, Hispanic, and Chinese men and women aged 45 to 84 years. We estimated individual residential ambient fine particulate pollution exposure (PM 2.5 ) and black carbon concentrations using a fine-scale likelihood-based spatiotemporal model and cohort-specific monitoring. Exposure periods were averaged to 12 months, 3 months, and 2 weeks prior to examination. HDL cholesterol and HDL particle number were measured in the year 2000 using the cholesterol oxidase method and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, respectively. We used multivariable linear regression to examine the relationship between air pollution exposure and HDL measures. A 0.7×10 - 6 m - 1 higher exposure to black carbon (a marker of traffic-related pollution) averaged over a 1-year period was significantly associated with a lower HDL cholesterol (-1.68 mg/dL; 95% confidence interval, -2.86 to -0.50) and approached significance with HDL particle number (-0.55 mg/dL; 95% confidence interval, -1.13 to 0.03). In the 3-month averaging time period, a 5 μg/m 3 higher PM 2.5 was associated with lower HDL particle number (-0.64 μmol/L; 95% confidence interval, -1.01 to -0.26), but not HDL cholesterol (-0.05 mg/dL; 95% confidence interval, -0.82 to 0.71). These data are consistent with the hypothesis that exposure to air pollution is adversely associated with measures of HDL. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  13. The total cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol as a predictor of poor outcomes in a Chinese population with acute ischaemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lifang; Xu, Jianing; Sun, Hao; Wu, Hao; Zhang, Jinsong

    2017-11-01

    High admission cholesterol has been associated with better outcome after acute ischaemic stroke (AIS), but a paradox not completely illustrated. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of the total cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TC/HDL-C) on short-term survival after AIS. Consecutive patients admitted in 2013 and 2015 were enrolled in the present study. The logistic regression analysis was conducted to evaluate predictors of 3-month outcomes. The primary endpoint was death. Secondary endpoint was good (modified Rankin Scale score 0-2 or equal to prestrike modified Rankin Scale score) at 3 months. Of 871 patients enrolled in the final analysis, 94 (10.8%) individuals died during 3 months of observation. The serum TC and TC/HDL-C levels at admission were significantly associated with stroke outcomes at 3 months, and the HDL-C level was only correlated with the good outcomes at 3 months. Mortality risk was markedly decreased for patients with high TC/HDL-C ratio (odds ratio: 0.23, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.10-0.50 for Q4:Q1; P-trend <.001) after adjustment. The effect of TC/HDL-C ratio on the probability of good outcomes was still obvious (odds ratio: 2.18, 95% CI: 1.40-3.39 for Q4:Q1; P-trend=.029). According to the receiver operating characteristic analyses, the best discriminating factor was a TG/HDL-C ≥3.37 (area under the ROC curve [AUC]=0.643, sensitivity 61.3%, specificity 61.7%) as well as the TC/HDL-C ≥4.09 for good outcomes (AUC: 0.587, sensitivity 63.9%, specificity 79.7%). High TC/HDL-C ratio may be associated with increased short-term survival and better outcomes after AIS. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Effect of growth hormone replacement therapy on plasma lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase and lipid transfer protein activities in growth hormone-deficient adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. Beentjes; A. van Tol (Arie); W.J. Sluiter (Wim); R.P.F. Dullaart (Robin)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractThe effects of growth hormone (GH) replacement on plasma lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT), cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP), and phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP), factors involved in high density lipoprotein (HDL) metabolism, are

  15. Serum cholesterol as a risk factor for coronary heart disease revisited

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-08-04

    Aug 4, 2014 ... levels to low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels, and high- density ... intestinal absorption of triglycerides and cholesterol, plus very low- ... These relationships are present across the age spectrum and in both sexes.

  16. A new rapid method to measure human platelet cholesterol: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagroop, I Anita; Persaud, Jahm Want; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P

    2011-01-01

    Platelet cholesterol (PC) could be used to assess "tissue" cholesterol of patients with vascular disease. However, the methods available so far to measure PC involve a complex extraction process. We developed a rapid method to measure PC and assessed its correlation with serum total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), LDL-C/HDL-C ratio, triglycerides (TG), and non-HDL-C. We assessed repeatability (20 times, 3 participants) and reproducibility (8 times, 2 participants). A group of 47 healthy participants was studied. Blood was collected to analyze serum TC, LDL-C, HDL-C, and TG. Citrated blood was used to prepare a platelet pellet. A "clear soup" was produced (by disrupting this pellet using freeze-thaw and sonication cycles) and used to measure PC. Repeatability of PC showed a coefficient of variation (CV) of 4.8%. The reproducibility of PC over a period of 2 months was CV 7.5% and 8.1% (8 measurements for 2 participants). The PC of participants with serum LDL-C >2.6 mmol/L (treatment goal recommended by the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III) was 377 ± 120 μmol/10(12) platelets (n = 25). There was a significant correlation (Spearman, correlation coefficient) of PC (n = 25) with serum LDL-C (r(s) = 0.45, P = .02), LDL-C/HDL-C (r(s) = 0.45, P = .02), TG (r(s) = 0.43, P = .03), and non-HDL-C (r(s) = 0.53, P = .007). This technique of measuring PC has the advantage of being reproducible, fast, and simpler than previous methods. Thus, it may be useful for multiple sampling when investigating changes in PC in hypercholesterolemic patients. More extensive evaluation is necessary.

  17. Controlling Cholesterol with Statins

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Controlling Cholesterol with Statins Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ... not, the following tips can help keep your cholesterol in check: Talk with your healthcare provider about ...

  18. Cholesterol - drug treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000314.htm Cholesterol - drug treatment To use the sharing features on ... treatment; Hardening of the arteries - statin Statins for Cholesterol Statins reduce your risk of heart disease, stroke, ...

  19. Some kinetic properties of plasma lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase in hyper-alphalipoproteinemia in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikiforova, A.A.; Alksnis, E.G.; Ivanova, E.M.

    1985-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to study some kinetic properties of lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) in the blood plasma of patients with hyper-alpha-lipoproteinemia, enabling the presence of LCAT isozymes in the blood to be detected. The velocity of the LCAT reaction was judged by determining labeled CHE formed from 14 C-nonesterified CH and lecithin of HDL on incubation of the latter with the enzyme. Dependence of the velocity of the LCAT reaction on concentration of substrate (nonesterified HDL cholesterol) in four subjects with hyper-alpha-lipoproteinemia is shown

  20. Phytosterols Differentially Influence ABC transporter Expression, Cholesterol Efflux and Inflammatory Cytokine Secretion in Macrophage Foam Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabeva, Nadezhda S; McPhaul, Christopher M; Li, Xiangan; Cory, Theodore J.; Feola, David J.; Graf, Gregory A

    2010-01-01

    Phytosterol supplements lower low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, but accumulate in vascular lesions of patients and limit the anti-atherosclerotic effects of LDL lowering in apolipoprotein E deficient mice, suggesting that the cholesterol lowering benefit of phytosterol supplementation may not be fully realized. Individual phytosterols have cell-type specific effects that may either be beneficial or deleterious with respect to atherosclerosis, but little is known concerning their effects on macrophage function. The effects of phytosterols on ABCA1 and ABCG1 abundance, cholesterol efflux, and inflammatory cytokine secretion were determined in cultured macrophage foam cells. Among the commonly consumed phytosterols, stigmasterol increased expression of ABCA1 and ABCG1 and increased efflux of cholesterol to apolipoprotein (Apo) AI and high density lipoprotein (HDL). Campesterol and sitosterol had no effect on ABCA1 or ABCG1 levels. Sitosterol had no effect of cholesterol efflux to Apo AI or HDL, whereas campesterol had a modest, but significant reduction in cholesterol efflux to HDL in THP-1 macrophages. Whereas stigmasterol blunted aggregated LDL-induced increases in tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-1β secretion, sitosterol exacerbated these effects. The presence of campesterol had no effect on agLDL-induced inflammatory cytokine secretion from THP-1 macrophages. In conclusion, the presence of stigmasterol in modified lipoproteins promoted cholesterol efflux and suppressed inflammatory cytokine secretion in response to lipid loading in macrophage foam cells. While campesterol was largely inert, the presence of sitosterol increased the proinflammatory cytokine secretion. PMID:21111593

  1. Effective reduction of LDL cholesterol by indigenous plant product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, P K; Dasgupta, D J; Prashar, B S; Kaushal, S S

    1994-03-01

    A herbal powder containing guar gum, methi, tundika and meshasringi was administered to 30 control and 30 type 2 (non-insulin dependent) diabetes mellitus patients for a month. Total serum cholesterol and its fractions eg, high density lipoprotein, low density lipoproteins, very low density lipoproteins and serum triglyceride were determined before and after the trial period. Total and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterols were reduced significantly after the therapy. There were no significant changes in high density lipoproteins (HDL), very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) or triglyceride levels. Side-effects eg, mild flatulence and looseness of bowel were noticed in less than 40% cases.

  2. Addition of Garlic Extract in Ration to Reduce Cholesterol Level of Broiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utami, M. M. D.; Pantaya, D.; Agus, A.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to know the effect of garlic extract (GE) in reducing cholesterol level of broiler chicken by analyzing cholesterol level of broiler chicken blood. Two hundred one day broiler age were used in this study for 35 days. The chickens were randomly divided into four treatments, each treatment consist of five replications and each repetition consist of ten chickens. This research is used completely randomized design, such as: T0: 0% EBP, T1: 2%, T2: 4% and T3: 6%. Furthermore, at age 35 days each chicken was taken blood to be analyzed cholesterol levels, low density lipoprotein (LDL), high density lipoprotein (HDL) and calculated the ratio of LDL and HDL levels. The data obtained were analyzed using software from Statistical Product and Service Solution (SPSS 16.0). The results of significant analysis continued by Duncan’s New Multiple Range Test. Addition of GE from the 2% level decreases (P <0.05) of LDL and total cholesterol, and increases HDL and HDL-LDL ratio. The conclusions is obtained garlic extract plays an important role in lowering cholesterol levels of broiler meat.

  3. Home-Use Tests - Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medical Procedures In Vitro Diagnostics Home Use Tests Cholesterol Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... a home-use test kit to measure total cholesterol. What cholesterol is: Cholesterol is a fat (lipid) ...

  4. Atherogenic index of plasma [log(triglycerides/HDL-cholesterol)]: theoretical and practical implications

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dobiášová, Milada

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 7 (2004), s. 1113-1115 ISSN 0009-9147 R&D Projects: GA ČR GV306/96/K220; GA MZd NA6590 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : AIP * LCAT * lipoprotein particle size Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery Impact factor: 6.501, year: 2004

  5. Correlation between High Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (HDL) Level and Aerobic Activity Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-01

    over a 40 day period for HDtJICholesteroll and Total Choleis- added with the "reverse" technique, This technique is only poai- tarot . The results are...Stand- tarot and Total Cholestero levels, it is beat that eet laoatr ard and a control Serum were each analyzed 10 times giving the * determinle its

  6. Sex Differences in the Impact of the Mediterranean Diet on LDL Particle Size Distribution and Oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Bédard

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Sex differences have been previously highlighted in the cardioprotective effects of the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet. The objective of this study was to investigate whether sex differences also exist with regard to LDL particle size distribution and oxidation. Participants were 37 men and 32 premenopausal women (24–53 years with slightly elevated LDL-C concentrations (3.4–4.9 mmol/L or total cholesterol/HDL-C ≥5.0. Variables were measured before and after a four-week isoenergetic MedDiet. Sex differences were found in response to the MedDiet for the proportion of medium LDL (255–260 Å (p for sex-by-time interaction = 0.01 and small, dense LDL (sdLDL; <255 Å (trend; p for sex-by-time interaction = 0.06, men experiencing an increase in the proportion of medium LDL with a concomitant reduction in the proportion of sdLDL, while an opposite trend was observed in women. A sex difference was also noted for estimated cholesterol concentrations among sdLDL (p for sex-by-time interaction = 0.03, with only men experiencing a reduction in response to the MedDiet. The MedDiet marginally reduced oxidized LDL (oxLDL concentrations (p = 0.07, with no sex difference. Results suggest that short-term consumption of the MedDiet leads to a favorable redistribution of LDL subclasses from smaller to larger LDL only in men. These results highlight the importance of considering sex issues in cardiovascular benefits of the MedDiet.

  7. Sex Differences in the Impact of the Mediterranean Diet on LDL Particle Size Distribution and Oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bédard, Alexandra; Corneau, Louise; Lamarche, Benoît; Dodin, Sylvie; Lemieux, Simone

    2015-05-15

    Sex differences have been previously highlighted in the cardioprotective effects of the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet). The objective of this study was to investigate whether sex differences also exist with regard to LDL particle size distribution and oxidation. Participants were 37 men and 32 premenopausal women (24-53 years) with slightly elevated LDL-C concentrations (3.4-4.9 mmol/L) or total cholesterol/HDL-C ≥5.0. Variables were measured before and after a four-week isoenergetic MedDiet. Sex differences were found in response to the MedDiet for the proportion of medium LDL (255-260 Å) (p for sex-by-time interaction = 0.01) and small, dense LDL (sdLDL; <255 Å) (trend; p for sex-by-time interaction = 0.06), men experiencing an increase in the proportion of medium LDL with a concomitant reduction in the proportion of sdLDL, while an opposite trend was observed in women. A sex difference was also noted for estimated cholesterol concentrations among sdLDL (p for sex-by-time interaction = 0.03), with only men experiencing a reduction in response to the MedDiet. The MedDiet marginally reduced oxidized LDL (oxLDL) concentrations (p = 0.07), with no sex difference. Results suggest that short-term consumption of the MedDiet leads to a favorable redistribution of LDL subclasses from smaller to larger LDL only in men. These results highlight the importance of considering sex issues in cardiovascular benefits of the MedDiet.

  8. Development and partial metabolic characterization of a dietary cholesterol-resistant colony of rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Overturf, M.L.; Smith, S.A.; Hewett-Emmett, D.; Loose-Mitchell, D.S.; Soma, M.R.; Gotto, A.M. Jr.; Morrisett, J.D.

    1989-01-01

    A colony of New Zealand white rabbits has been developed which, when fed a cholesterol-supplemented diet, exhibit unusual resistance to hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis, disorders usually observed in normal cholesterol-fed rabbits. When resistant rabbits (RT) were fed a normal low cholesterol diet (ND), their plasma lipoprotein patterns were significantly different from those of normal rabbits (NR) fed the same diet. The low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c)/high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) ratio and LDL-c/very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-c) ratio were lower in the resistant rabbits. The hydrated density of HDL of the normal-responsive rabbits was greater than that of the resistant rabbits. LDL from resistant rabbits contained a lower proportion of esterified cholesterol and protein than LDL from normal rabbits. Peripheral mononuclear cells from resistant rabbits bound about 30% more 125 I-labeled rabbit LDL than mononuclear cells from normal rabbits. These results demonstrate that the plasma cholesterol levels of these animals is at least partly under genetic control and that compositional differences exist between the major plasma lipoprotein classes of normal and resistant rabbits even during the ingestion of low-cholesterol diet. The results indicate that at least a part of the difference in the cholesterolemic responses between the two rabbit groups is due to an enhanced LDL uptake by the mononuclear cells, and presumably by other somatic cells of the resistant group

  9. Sex, plasma lipoproteins, and atherosclerosis: prevailing assumptions and outstanding questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godsland, I F; Wynn, V; Crook, D; Miller, N E

    1987-12-01

    We review the hypothesis that the incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD) is higher in men than in women due to differences in plasma lipoprotein risk factors between the sexes. Men and women appear to be equally susceptible to the effects of lipoprotein risk factors for CHD, and the difference between the sexes in lipoprotein risk factors for CHD appears to be consistent with their being, at least in part, responsible for the sex difference in CHD. This is apparent both when men and women of equal age are compared, and when age-related variations in the sex differences in plasma lipoproteins and CHD are considered. Differences between the sexes in lipoprotein concentrations are still present when sex differences in adiposity, cigarette smoking, physical activity, and diet are taken into account. Evidence relating these sex differences in CHD and lipoproteins to the effects of sex hormones is critically examined. It is commonly accepted that androgens induce changes in lipoprotein concentrations that would predispose towards CHD, whereas estrogens are held to have opposite effects. However, much of the evidence for this comes from studies of changes associated with administration of synthetic gonadal steroids or with changes in gonadal function. Studies of differences in lipoprotein metabolism in normal men and women are extremely limited. In males high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels fall at puberty, correlating with the rise in plasma testosterone concentrations. In females, HDL levels do not change at puberty, despite the rise in estrogen concentrations. Evidence for lipoprotein changes during the menopause, when estrogen levels decline, is equivocal. Similarly, the evidence for an increase in CHD incidence at the menopause is inconclusive. National mortality data indicate that the decreasing sex difference in CHD after 50 years of age is due to a declining rate of increase in men rather than to an acceleration in CHD incidence in women. In men

  10. Apolipoprotein A-I configuration and cell cholesterol efflux activity of discoidal lipoproteins depend on the reconstitution process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuellar, Luz Ángela; Prieto, Eduardo Daniel; Cabaleiro, Laura Virginia; Garda, Horacio Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Discoidal high-density lipoproteins (D-HDL) are critical intermediates in reverse cholesterol transport. Most of the present knowledge of D-HDL is based on studies with reconstituted lipoprotein complexes of apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) obtained by cholate dialysis (CD). D-HDL can also be generated by the direct microsolubilization (DM) of phospholipid vesicles at the gel/fluid phase transition temperature, a process mechanistically similar to the "in vivo" apoAI lipidation via ABCA1. We compared the apoA-I configuration in D-HDL reconstituted with dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine by both procedures using fluorescence resonance energy transfer measurements with apoA-I tryptophan mutants and fluorescently labeled cysteine mutants. Results indicate that apoA-I configuration in D-HDL depends on the reconstitution process and are consistent with a "double belt" molecular arrangement with different helix registry. As reported by others, a configuration with juxtaposition of helices 5 of each apoAI monomer (5/5 registry) predominates in D-HDL obtained by CD. However, a configuration with helix 5 of one monomer juxtaposed with helix 2 of the other (5/2 registry) would predominate in D-HDL generated by DM. Moreover, we also show that the kinetics of cholesterol efflux from macrophage cultures depends on the reconstitution process, suggesting that apoAI configuration is important for this HDL function. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Metabolism of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and transfer of lipids to high-density lipoproteins (HDL) in vegan and omnivore subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinagre, J C; Vinagre, C G; Pozzi, F S; Slywitch, E; Maranhão, R C

    2013-01-01

    Vegan diet excludes all foodstuffs of animal origin and leads to cholesterol lowering and possibly reduction of cardiovascular disease risk. The aim was to investigate whether vegan diet improves the metabolic pathway of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, consisting in lipoprotein lipolysis and removal from circulation of the resulting remnants and to verify whether the diet alters HDL metabolism by changing lipid transfers to this lipoprotein. 21 vegan and 29 omnivores eutrophic and normolipidemic subjects were intravenously injected triglyceride-rich emulsions labeled with (14)C-cholesterol oleate and (3)H-triolein: fractional clearance rates (FCR, in min(-1)) were calculated from samples collected during 60 min for radioactive counting. Lipid transfer to HDL was assayed by incubating plasma samples with a donor nanoemulsion labeled with radioactive lipids; % lipids transferred to HDL were quantified in supernatant after chemical precipitation of non-HDL fractions and nanoemulsion. Serum LDL cholesterol was lower in vegans than in omnivores (2.1 ± 0.8, 2.7 ± 0.7 mmol/L, respectively, p vegans than in omnivores (0.016 ± 0.012, 0.003 ± 0.003, p vegans than in omnivores (2.7 ± 0.6, 3.5 ± 1.5%, p vegans, but the lipolysis process, estimated by triglyceride FCR was equal. Increased removal of atherogenic remnants and diminution of cholesteryl ester transfer may favor atherosclerosis prevention by vegan diet. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Sex hormone binding globulin, free estradiol index, and lipid profiles in girls with precocious puberty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Wook Chae

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available PurposeSex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG modulates the availability of biologically active free sex hormones. The regulatory role of SHBG might be important in the relationship between hormone levels and the modification of lipid profiles in girls with precocious puberty. However, few studies have evaluated the relationship of SHBG, free estradiol index (FEI, and lipid levels in these girls.MethodsOne hundred and nine girls less than 8 years of age with pubertal development were enrolled. FEI was calculated with SHBG and estradiol (E2. We analyzed SHBG between peak luteinizing hormone (LH≥5 (IU/L (group 1 and LH<5 (IU/L (group 2 through a gonadotropin releasing hormone stimulation test.ResultsBody mass index (BMI standard deviation score (SDS was higher in group 2 than in group 1 (P=0.004. Serum SHBG levels did not differ and FEI was not higher in group 1 (P=0.122. Serum cholesterol, HDL, and LDL did not differ; however, triglyceride levels were higher in group 2 (P=0.023. SHBG was negatively correlated with bone age advancement, BMI, BMI SDS, and FEI, and was positively correlated with HDL. However, SHBG was not correlated with E2 or peak LH.ConclusionSerum SHBG itself might not be associated with precocious puberty in girls, but it might be related to BMI and lipid profiles. Further studies are needed to reveal the relationship between sex hormone and obesity in girls with precocious puberty.

  13. Amide-linked Ethanolamine Conjugate of Gemfibrozil as a Profound HDL Enhancer: Design, Synthesis, Pharmacological Screening and Docking Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Himanshu; Dhaneshwar, Suneela S

    2015-01-01

    Elevated concentration of any or all types of lipids in the plasma including hypertriglyceridemia and hypercholesterolemia leads to atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Effective medication needs multiple drug therapy as recommended cholesterol and triglyceride levels are difficult to achieve by monotherapy and frequently require the use of more than one lipid-lowering medication. Gemfibrozil lowers plasma triglyceride-rich lipoproteins mainly VLDL and increases HDL. It is associated with short plasma half-life (1.5h) and GIT distress on long term use. In a study it was found that ethanolamine decreases serum cholesterol, especially VLDL cholesterol and LDL cholesterol in rats fed an HF/HC diet. In the present work, we thought of exploring the effect of co-drug of gemfibrozil with ethanolamine (GE-I) as a potential combination therapy for the management of mixed hyperlipidemia. Synthesis of GE-I was effected by CDI coupling. Structure was confirmed spectrally. Interestingly kinetic studies revealed that GE-I resisted chemical and enzymatic hydrolysis. In tritoninduced hyperlipidemia, significant lowering of serum lipid levels was observed. The hallmark of GEI was its profound effect on HDL level which was raised above the normal level by 15%. Docking study also supported modulatory effect of GE-I (docking score -7.012) on PPAR-α which was comparable to docking score of gemfibrozil (-9.432). These preliminary observations prompt us to consider GE-I as a novel, serendipitous, hybrid anti-hyperlipidemic new chemical entity which needs be studied extensively to prove it as an HDL enhancing anti-hyperlipidemic agent.

  14. Effects of age and sex on blood biochemistry of dorper lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Espírito Santo da Cruz

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the physiological variations and influence of age group and sex on biochemical variables of 32 male and female Dorper sheep at the age of 15 to 121 days. Four blood samples were collected from each animal, at monthly intervals, totaling 128 samples. Biochemical variables determined in each sample were total protein (TP, albumin (ALB, globulin (GLB, albumin/globulin ratio (A/G, glucose (GLU, triglycerides (TG, total cholesterol (tCHOL, high density cholesterol carrying lipoproteins (HDL-C, low density cholesterol carrying lipoproteins (LDL-C, very low density cholesterol carrying lipoproteins (VLDL-C, urea, creatinine (CRE, total calcium (tCa, ionized calcium (iCa, phosphorus (P, calcium/phosphorus ratio (Ca/P, magnesium (Mg, sodium (Na, potassium (K, chloride (Cl, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT and alkaline phosphatase (ALP. The results were obtained in four moments according to age: M1 - sheep from 15 to 30 days, M2 - sheep from 45 to 61 days, M3 - sheep from 74 to 90 days and M4 - sheep from 105 to 121 days. Comparing the values of the biochemical variables among the four age groups studied a significant difference (p 0.05 the values of the biochemical variables analyzed. Based on the results, it is concluded that the age groups exert a significant influence on the majority of blood biochemical variables of Dorper sheep from 15 to 121 days of age.

  15. Elevated plasma low-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in amenorrheic athletes: effects of endogenous hormone status and nutrient intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friday, K E; Drinkwater, B L; Bruemmer, B; Chesnut, C; Chait, A

    1993-12-01

    To determine the interactive effects of hormones, exercise, and diet on plasma lipids and lipoproteins, serum estrogen and progesterone levels, nutrient intake, and plasma lipid, lipoprotein, and apolipoprotein concentrations were measured in 24 hypoestrogenic amenorrheic and 44 eumenorrheic female athletes. When compared to eumenorrheic athletes, amenorrheic athletes had higher levels of plasma cholesterol (5.47 +/- 0.17 vs. 4.84 +/- 0.12 mmol/L, P = 0.003), triglyceride (0.75 +/- 0.06 vs. 0.61 +/- 0.03 mmol/L, P = 0.046), low-density lipoprotein (LDL; 3.16 +/- 0.15 vs. 2.81 +/- 0.09 mmol/L, P = 0.037), high-density lipoprotein (HDL; 1.95 +/- 0.07 vs. 1.73 +/- 0.05 mmol/L, P = 0.007), and HDL2 (0.84 +/- 0.06 vs. 0.68 +/- 0.04 mmol/L, P = 0.02) cholesterol. Plasma LDL/HDL cholesterol ratios, very low-density lipoprotein and HDL3 cholesterol, and apolipoprotein A-I and A-II levels were similar in the two groups. Amenorrheic athletes consumed less fat than eumenorrheic subjects (52 +/- 5 vs. 75 +/- 3 g/day, P = 0.02), but similar amounts of calories, cholesterol, protein, carbohydrate, and ethanol. HDL cholesterol levels in amenorrheic subjects correlated positively with the percent of dietary calories from fat (r = 0.42, n = 23, P = 0.045) but negatively with the percent from protein (r = -0.49, n = 23, P = 0.017). Thus, exercise-induced amenorrhea may adversely affect cardiovascular risk by increasing plasma LDL and total cholesterol. However, cardioprotective elevations in plasma HDL and HDL2 cholesterol may neutralize the risk of cardiovascular disease in amenorrheic athletes.

  16. HDL functionality in South Asians as compared to white Caucasians

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, L. E. H.; Boon, M. R.; Annema, W.; Dikkers, A.; van Eyk, H. J.; Verhoeven, A.; Mayboroda, O. A.; Jukema, J. W.; Havekes, L. M.; Meinders, A. E.; van Dijk, K. Willems; Jazet, I. M.; Tietge, U. J. F.; Rensen, P. C. N.

    Background and Aims: South Asians have an exceptionally high risk of developing cardiovascular disease compared to white Caucasians. A contributing factor might be dysfunction of high density lipoprotein (HDL). We aimed to compare HDL function in different age groups of both ethnicities. Methods and

  17. Lipid lowering and HDL raising gene transfer increase endothelial progenitor cells, enhance myocardial vascularity, and improve diastolic function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie C Gordts

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hypercholesterolemia and low high density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol contribute to coronary heart disease but little is known about their direct effects on myocardial function. Low HDL and raised non-HDL cholesterol levels carried increased risk for heart failure development in the Framingham study, independent of any association with myocardial infarction. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that increased endothelial progenitor cell (EPC number and function after lipid lowering or HDL raising gene transfer in C57BL/6 low density lipoprotein receptor deficient (LDLr(-/- mice may be associated with an enhanced relative vascularity in the myocardium and an improved cardiac function. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Lipid lowering and HDL raising gene transfer were performed using the E1E3E4-deleted LDLr expressing adenoviral vector AdLDLr and the human apolipoprotein A-I expressing vector AdA-I, respectively. AdLDLr transfer in C57BL/6 LDLr(-/- mice resulted in a 2.0-fold (p<0.05 increase of the circulating number of EPCs and in an improvement of EPC function as assessed by ex vivo EPC migration and EPC adhesion. Capillary density and relative vascularity in the myocardium were 28% (p<0.01 and 22% (p<0.05 higher, respectively, in AdLDLr mice compared to control mice. The peak rate of isovolumetric relaxation was increased by 12% (p<0.05 and the time constant of isovolumetric relaxation was decreased by 14% (p<0.05 after AdLDLr transfer. Similarly, HDL raising gene transfer increased EPC number and function and raised both capillary density and relative vascularity in the myocardium by 24% (p<0.05. The peak rate of isovolumetric relaxation was increased by 16% (p<0.05 in AdA-I mice compared to control mice. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Both lipid lowering and HDL raising gene transfer have beneficial effects on EPC biology, relative myocardial vascularity, and diastolic function. These findings raise concerns over the

  18. HDL as a drug and nucleic acid delivery vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andras G Lacko

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This review is intended to evaluate the research findings and potential clinical applications of drug transport systems, developed based on the concepts of the structure/function and physiological role(s of high density lipoprotein=type nanoparticles. These macromolecules provide targeted transport of cholesteryl esters (a highly lipophilic payload in their natural/physiological environment. The property of accommodating highly water insoluble constituents in their core region enables HDL type nanoparticles to effectively transport hydrophobic drugs upon intravenous administration. Even though the application of reconstituted HDL in the treatment of a number of diseases is reviewed, the primary focus is on the application of HDL type drug delivery agents in cancer chemotherapy. The use of both native and synthetic HDL as drug delivery agents are compared to evaluate their respective potentials for commercial and clinical development. The current status and future perspectives for HDL type nanoparticles are discussed, including current obstacles and future applications in therapeutics.

  19. Statins, fibrates, nicotinic acid, cholesterol absorption inhibitors, anion-exchange resins, omega-3 fatty acids: which drugs for which patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drexel, Heinz

    2009-12-01

    Classes of lipid lowering drugs differ strongly with respect to the types of lipids or lipoproteins they predominantly affect. Statins inhibit the de-novo synthesis of cholesterol. Consequently, the liver produces less VLDL, and the serum concentration primarily of LDL cholesterol (but, to a lesser extent, also of triglycerides) is lowered. Further, statins somewhat increase HDL cholesterol. There is abundant evidence that statins lower the rate of cardiovascular events. Cardiovascular risk reduction is the better, the lower the LDL cholesterol values achieved with statin therapy are. Some evidence is available that anion exchange resins which also decrease LDL cholesterol decrease vascular risk, too. This is not the case for the ezetimibe, which strongly lowers LDL cholesterol: its potential to decrease vascular risk remains to be proven. In contrast evidence for cardiovascular risk reduction through the mainly triglyceride lowering fibrates as well as for niacin is available. Niacin is the most potent HDL increasing drug currently available and besides increasing HDL cholesterol efficaciously lowers triglycerides and LDL cholesterol. Large ongoing trials address the decisive question whether treatment with fibrates and niacin provides additional cardiovascular risk reduction when given in addition to statin treatment.

  20. Review of 5 years of a combined dietary and physical fitness intervention for control of serum cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angotti, C. M.; Levine, M. S.

    1994-01-01

    A chart review covering the first 5 years of clinical experience with a combined dietary and exercise intervention program for the reduction of hypercholesterolemia at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration headquarters demonstrated the program's success in maintaining high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels while significantly lowering total serum cholesterol levels. This combined program also resulted in improved ratios of total serum cholesterol to HDL-C and lowered levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, thus further reducing the risk for cardiovascular disease. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration Cardiovascular Risk Reduction Program was developed after it was determined that although dietary intervention alone improved total cholesterol levels, it often resulted in a more than proportionate decrease in HDL-C and a worsening of the ratio of cholesterol to HDL-C. An approach was needed that would positively affect all factors of the lipid profile. The findings from the program indicate that reduction of cardiovascular risk can be accomplished easily and effectively at the worksite through dietary intervention, personal monitoring, and a reasonable exercise program.

  1. Can non-cholesterol sterols and lipoprotein subclasses distribution predict different patterns of cholesterol metabolism and statin therapy response?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gojkovic, Tamara; Vladimirov, Sandra; Spasojevic-Kalimanovska, Vesna; Zeljkovic, Aleksandra; Vekic, Jelena; Kalimanovska-Ostric, Dimitra; Djuricic, Ivana; Sobajic, Sladjana; Jelic-Ivanovic, Zorana

    2017-03-01

    Cholesterol homeostasis disorders may cause dyslipidemia, atherosclerosis progression and coronary artery disease (CAD) development. Evaluation of non-cholesterol sterols (NCSs) as synthesis and absorption markers, and lipoprotein particles quality may indicate the dyslipidemia early development. This study investigates associations of different cholesterol homeostasis patterns with low-density (LDL) and high-density lipoproteins (HDL) subclasses distribution in statin-treated and statin-untreated CAD patients, and potential use of aforementioned markers for CAD treatment optimization. The study included 78 CAD patients (47 statin-untreated and 31 statin-treated) and 31 controls (CG). NCSs concentrations were quantified using gas chromatography- flame ionization detection (GC-FID). Lipoprotein subclasses were separated by gradient gel electrophoresis. In patients, cholesterol-synthesis markers were significantly higher comparing to CG. Cholesterol-synthesis markers were inversely associated with LDL size in all groups. For cholesterol homeostasis estimation, each group was divided to good and/or poor synthetizers and/or absorbers according to desmosterol and β-sitosterol median values. In CG, participants with reduced cholesterol absorption, the relative proportion of small, dense LDL was higher in those with increased cholesterol synthesis compared to those with reduced synthesis (p<0.01). LDL I fraction was significantly higher in poor synthetizers/poor absorbers subgroup compared to poor synthetizers/good absorbers (p<0.01), and good synthetizers/poor absorbers (p<0.01). Statin-treated patients with increased cholesterol absorption had increased proportion of LDL IVB (p<0.05). The results suggest the existence of different lipoprotein abnormalities according to various patterns of cholesterol homeostasis. Desmosterol/β-sitosterol ratio could be used for estimating individual propensity toward dyslipidemia development and direct the future treatment.

  2. On-treatment non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, apolipoprotein B, triglycerides, and lipid ratios in relation to residual vascular risk after treatment with potent statin therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mora, Samia; Glynn, Robert J; Boekholdt, S Matthijs

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine whether residual risk after high-dose statin therapy for primary prevention individuals with reduced levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is related to on-treatment apolipoprotein B, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C), tri...

  3. Scavenger Receptor Class B Type I Mediates Biliary Cholesterol Secretion Independent of ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter g5/g8 in Mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersma, Harmen; Gatti, Alberto; Nijstad, Niels; Elferink, Ronald P. J. Oude; Kuipers, Folkert; Tietge, Uwe J. F.

    2009-01-01

    Scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI) mediates selective uptake of cholesterol from high-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles by the liver and influences biliary cholesterol secretion. However, it is not dear, if this effect is direct or indirect. The aim of this study was to determine the impact

  4. Corn fiber oil lowers plasma cholesterol levels and increases cholesterol excretion greater than corn oil and similar to diets containing soy sterols and soy stanols in hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, T A; DeSimone, A P; Romano, C A; Nicolosi, R J

    2000-09-01

    The aims of this study were to compare the cholesterol-lowering properties of corn fiber oil (CFO) to corn oil (CO), whether the addition of soy stanols or soy sterols to CO at similar levels in CFO would increase CO's cholesterol-lowering properties, and the mechanism(s) of action of these dietary ingredients. Fifty male Golden Syrian hamsters were divided into 5 groups of 10 hamsters each, based on similar plasma total cholesterol (TC) levels. The first group of hamsters was fed a chow-based hypercholesterolemic diet containing either 5% coconut oil + 0.24% cholesterol (coconut oil), 5% CO, 5% CFO, 5% CO + 0.6% soy sterols (sterol), or 5% CO + 0.6% soy stanols (stanol) in place of the coconut oil for 4 weeks. The stanol diet significantly inhibited the elevation of plasma TC compared to all other dietary treatments. Also, the CFO and sterol diets significantly inhibited the elevation of plasma TC compared to the CO and coconut oil diets. The CFO, sterol, and stanol diets significantly inhibited the elevation of plasma non-high density lipoprotein cholesterol compared to the CO and coconut oil diets. The stanol diet significantly inhibited the elevation of plasma high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) compared to all other dietary treatments. The sterol diet significantly inhibited the elevation of plasma HDL-C compared to the CO and coconut oil diets, whereas the CFO diet significantly inhibited the elevation of plasma HDL-C compared to the coconut oil diet only. No differences were observed between the CFO and CO for plasma HDL-C. There were no differences observed between groups for plasma triglycerides. The CO and CFO diets had significantly less hepatic TC compared to the coconut oil, sterol, and stanol diets. The CO and CFO diets had significantly less hepatic free cholesterol compared to the sterol and stanol diets but not compared to the coconut oil diet; whereas the coconut oil and sterol diets had significantly less hepatic free cholesterol

  5. The Arachidonic Acid Metabolome Serves as a Conserved Regulator of Cholesterol Metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demetz, Egon; Schroll, Andrea; Auer, Kristina; Heim, Christiane; Patsch, Josef R.; Eller, Philipp; Theurl, Markus; Theurl, Igor; Theurl, Milan; Seifert, Markus; Lener, Daniela; Stanzl, Ursula; Haschka, David; Asshoff, Malte; Dichtl, Stefanie; Nairz, Manfred; Huber, Eva; Stadlinger, Martin; Moschen, Alexander R.; Li, Xiaorong; Pallweber, Petra; Scharnagl, Hubert; Stojakovic, Tatjana; Maerz, Winfried; Kleber, Marcus E.; Garlaschelli, Katia; Uboldi, Patrizia; Catapano, Alberico L.; Stellaard, Frans; Rudling, Mats; Kuba, Keiji; Imai, Yumiko; Arita, Makoto; Schuetz, John D.; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Tietge, Uwe J. F.; Trauner, Michael; Norata, Giuseppe D.; Claudel, Thierry; Hicks, Andrew A.; Weiss, Guenter; Tancevski, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Cholesterol metabolism is closely interrelated with cardiovascular disease in humans. Dietary supplementation with omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids including arachidonic acid (AA) was shown to favorably affect plasma LDL-C and HDL-C. However, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. By

  6. Association between sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG and metabolic syndrome among men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuela Quental Callou de Sá

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Metabolic syndrome consists of a set of factors that imply increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. The objective here was to evaluate the association between sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG, sex hormones and metabolic syndrome among men. DESIGN AND SETTING: Retrospective analysis on data from the study "Endogenous oestradiol but not testosterone is related to coronary artery disease in men", conducted in a hospital in São Paulo. METHODS: Men (aged 40-70 who underwent coronary angiography were selected. The age, weight, height, waist circumference, body mass index and prevalence of dyslipidemia, hypertension and diabetes of each patient were registered. Metabolic syndrome was defined in accordance with the criteria of the Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (NCEP-ATPIII. Serum samples were collected to assess the levels of glucose, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol (high density lipoprotein, triglycerides, albumin, SHBG, estradiol and total testosterone (TT. The levels of LDL-cholesterol (low density lipoprotein were calculated using Friedewald's formula and free testosterone (FT and bioavailable testosterone (BT using Vermeulen's formula. RESULTS: 141 patients were enrolled in the study. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was significantly higher in the first SHBG tercile than in the second and third terciles. A statistically significant positive association between the SHBG and TT values was observed, but no such association was seen between SHBG, BT and FT. CONCLUSION: Low serum levels of SHBG are associated with higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome among male patients, but further studies are required to confirm this association.

  7. Triglycerides, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol in rats exposed to premium motor spirit fumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aberare, Ogbevire L; Okuonghae, Patrick; Mukoro, Nathaniel; Dirisu, John O; Osazuwa, Favour; Odigie, Elvis; Omoregie, Richard

    2011-06-01

    Deliberate and regular exposure to premium motor spirit fumes is common and could be a risk factor for liver disease in those who are occupationally exposed. A possible association between premium motor spirit fumes and plasma levels of triglyceride, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol using a rodent model could provide new insights in the pathology of diseases where cellular dysfunction is an established risk factor. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible effect of premium motor spirit fumes on lipids and lipoproteins in workers occupationally exposed to premium motor spirit fumes using rodent model. Twenty-five Wister albino rats (of both sexes) were used for this study between the 4(th) of August and 7(th) of September, 2010. The rats were divided into five groups of five rats each. Group 1 rats were not exposed to premium motor spirit fumes (control group), group 2 rats were exposed for 1 hour daily, group 3 for 3 hours daily, group 4 for 5 hours daily and group 5 for 7 hours daily. The experiment lasted for a period of 4 weeks. Blood samples obtained from all the groups after 4 weeks of exposure were used for the estimation of plasma levels of triglyceride, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein- cholesterol and low density lipoprotein- cholesterol. Results showed significant increase in means of plasma total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein levels (P<0.05). The mean triglyceride and total body weight were significantly lower (P<0.05) in the exposed group when compared with the unexposed. The plasma level of high density lipoprotein, the ratio of low density lipoprotein to high density lipoprotein and the ratio of total cholesterol to high density lipoprotein did not differ significantly in exposed subjects when compared with the control group. These results showed that frequent exposure to petrol fumes may be highly deleterious to the liver cells.

  8. National Cholesterol Education Month

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-09-01

    Do you know your cholesterol numbers? Your doctor can do a simple test to check your cholesterol levels and help you make choices that lower your risk for heart disease and stroke.  Created: 9/1/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 9/9/2009.

  9. Cholesterol delivery to the adrenal glands estimated by adrenal venous sampling: An in vivo model to determine the contribution of circulating lipoproteins to steroidogenesis in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buitenwerf, Edward; Dullaart, Robin P F; Muller Kobold, Anneke C; Links, Thera P; Sluiter, Wim J; Connelly, Margery A; Kerstens, Michiel N

    Cholesterol, required for adrenal steroid hormone synthesis, is at least in part derived from circulating lipoproteins. The contribution of high-density lipoproteins (HDL) and low-density lipoproteins (LDL) to adrenal steroidogenesis in humans is unclear. The aim of the study was to determine the extent to which HDL and LDL are taken up by the adrenal glands using samples obtained during adrenal venous sampling (AVS). AVS was successfully performed in 23 patients with primary aldosteronism. Samples were drawn from both adrenal veins and inferior vena cava (IVC). HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) and lipoprotein particle profiles were determined by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Apolipoprotein (apo) A-I and apoB were assayed by immunoturbidimetry. Plasma HDL-C and HDL and LDL particle concentrations (HDL-P and LDL-P) were not lower in samples obtained from the adrenal veins compared with the IVC (HDL-C, P = .59; HDL-P, P = .06; LDL-P, P = .93). ApoB was lower in adrenal venous plasma than in IVC (P = .026; P lipoproteins and steroidogenesis. Copyright © 2017 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The Ratio of Unesterified/esterified Cholesterol is the Major Determinant of Atherogenicity of Lipoprotein Fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri, Babak; Alikhani, Asal; Mokhtari, Hossein; Rasouli, Mehdi

    2018-04-01

    The hypothesis is proposed that the atherogenicity of lipoporotein fractions is correlated with the content of unesterified cholesterol. To evaluate the role and prognostic values of unesterified and esterified cholesterol in lipoprotein fractions for coronary artery disease (CAD). The study population consisted of 400 patients who were divided to CAD controls and cases according to the data of coronary angiography. Fractional cholesterol esterification (FCE) as well as the complete profile of lipids and (apo)lipoproteins were determined. Total cholesterol was increased significantly in CAD patients (196.3 ± 52.3 mg/dL vs. 185.7 ± 48.0, p≤ 0.049) and the increment occurred totally in unesterified portion (77.2 ± 28.4 mg/dL vs. 71.1 ± 24.4, p≤ 0.031). HDL cholesterol showed a significant decrease in CAD group (39.9 ± 9.5 mg/dL vs. 44.6 ± 10.5, p≤ 0.001), but the decrement occurred wholly in the esterified portion (26.2 ± 9.2 mg/dL vs. 31.1 ± 8.1, p≤ 0.001). NonHDL cholesterol was increased significantly in CAD group (156.8 ± 48.3 mg/dL vs. 140.3 ± 43.6, p≤ 0.001), and the changes occurred in both un- and esterified portions. FCE in HDL was diminished significantly in CAD patients (64.8 ± 13.9% vs. 69.3 ± 7.9, p≤ 0.01). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, unesterified cholesterol in NonHDL (UeNonHDLc) and esterified cholesterol in HDL (EsHDLc) excluded total cholesterol and HDLc respectively from the regression equation. In ROC analysis, the ratio of UeNonHDLc/EsHDLc was the strongest predictor for CAD among cholesterol subfractions. The results confirm that UeNonHDLc is atherogenic and EsHDLc is antiatherogenic and are independent risk factors for CAD.

  11. Predictors of coronary heart disease events among asymptomatic persons with low low-density lipoprotein cholesterol MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankstein, Ron; Budoff, Matthew J; Shaw, Leslee J; Goff, David C; Polak, Joseph F; Lima, Joao; Blumenthal, Roger S; Nasir, Khurram

    2011-07-19

    Our aim was to identify risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD) events among asymptomatic persons with low (≤ 130 mg/dl) low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Even among persons with low LDL-C, some will still experience CHD events and may benefit from more aggressive pharmacologic and lifestyle therapies. The MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis) is a prospective cohort of 6,814 participants free of clinical cardiovascular disease. Of 5,627 participants who were not receiving any baseline lipid-lowering therapies, 3,714 (66%) had LDL-C ≤ 130 mg/dl and were included in the present study. Unadjusted and adjusted hazard ratios were calculated to assess the association of traditional risk factors and biomarkers with CHD events. To determine if subclinical atherosclerosis markers provided additional information beyond traditional risk factors, coronary artery calcium (CAC) and carotid intima media thickness were each separately added to the multivariable model. During a median follow-up of 5.4 years, 120 (3.2%) CHD events were observed. In unadjusted analysis, age, male sex, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), high triglycerides, and subclinical atherosclerosis markers (CAC >0; carotid intima media thickness ≥1 mm) predicted CHD events. Independent predictors of CHD events included age, male sex, hypertension, diabetes, and low HDL-C. After accounting for all traditional risk factors, the predictive value of CAC was attenuated but remained highly significant. The relationship of all independent clinical predictors remained robust even after accounting for elevated CAC. Among persons with low LDL-C, older age, male sex, hypertension, diabetes, and low HDL-C are associated with adverse CHD events. Even after accounting for all such variables, the presence of CAC provided incremental prognostic value. These results may serve as a basis for deciding which patients with low LDL-C may be considered for

  12. Bile acid sequestrants for cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ency/patientinstructions/000787.htm Bile acid sequestrants for cholesterol To use the sharing features on this page, ... are medicines that help lower your LDL (bad) cholesterol . Too much cholesterol in your blood can stick ...

  13. Free cholesterol is a potent regulator of lipid transfer protein function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morton, R.E.

    1988-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of altered lipoprotein free cholesterol (FC) content on the transfer of cholesteryl ester (CE) and triglyceride (TG) from very low- (VLDL), low- (LDL), and high-(HDL) density lipoproteins by the plasma-derived lipid transfer protein (LTP). The FC content of VLDL and HDL was selectively altered by incubating these lipoproteins with FC/phospholipid dispersions of varying composition. FC-modified lipoproteins were then equilibrated with [3H] TG, [14C]CE-labeled lipoproteins of another class to facilitate the subsequent modification of the radiolabeled donor lipoproteins. LTP was added and the extent of radiolabeled TG and CE transfer determined after 1 h. With either LDL or VLDL as lipid donor, an increase in the FC content of these lipoproteins caused a concentration-dependent inhibition (up to 50%) of CE transfer from these particles, without any significant effect on TG transfer. In contrast, with HDL as donor, increasing the HDL FC content had little effect on CE transfer from HDL, but markedly stimulated (up to 2.5-fold) the transfer of TG. This differential effect of FC on the unidirectional transfer of radiolabeled lipids from VLDL and HDL led to marked effects on LTP-facilitated net mass transfer of lipids. During long-term incubation of a constant amount of LTP with FC-modified VLDL and HDL, the extent of net mass transfer was linearly related to lipoprotein FC content; a 4-fold increase in FC content resulted in a 3-fold stimulation of the CE mass transferred to VLDL, which was coupled to an equimolar, reciprocal transfer of TG mass to HDL. Since lipid transfer between lipoproteins is integral to the process of reverse cholesterol transport, we conclude that lipoprotein FC levels are a potent, positive regulator of the pathways involved in sterol clearance. FC may modulate lipid transfer by altering the availability of CE and TG to LTP at the lipoprotein surface

  14. Changes in HDL-c concentrations after 16 weeks of combined training in postmenopausal women: characteristics of positive and negative responders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Tiego A; Rossi, Fabricio E; Fortaleza, Ana Claudia Souza; Neves, Lucas Melo; Christofaro, Diego Giulliano Destro; Buonani, Camila; Lira, Fabio S; Campos, Eduardo Zapaterra; Prado, Wagner Luiz do; Freitas, Ismael Forte

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the individual characteristics of body composition and metabolic profile that could explain interindividual variation in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) concentrations in response to 16 weeks of combined strength plus aerobic (combined) training in postmenopausal women. The participants were divided into tertiles based on percentage of changes in HDL-c concentrations after combined training. Only women in the upper tertile (positive responders: Δ > 10.4%; n = 19) and lower tertile (negative responders: Δ < -1.4%; n = 19) were considered for analyses. The total body fat (BF), trunk fat (TF), android fat (AF), gynoid fat, and lean body mass were estimated by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The metabolic profile - glucose, triacylglycerol, total cholesterol, HDL-c, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) - were assessed. After 16 weeks, both positive and negative responders presented similar improvement in body composition, such as a decrease in percentage and kilograms of BF, TF, and AF, and increase in lean body mass (p value for time < 0.05). As expected, there was an effect of time and also a significant interaction (time vs. group) (p value < 0.001) in the improvement of HDL-c, with higher values for positive responders. Regarding metabolic profile, there were significant interactions (time vs. group) for triacylglycerol (p value = 0.032) and VLDL (p value = 0.027) concentrations, with lower values for positive responders. Our results suggests there is heterogeneity in combined training-induced HDL-c changes in postmenopausal women, and the positive responders were those who presented more pronounced decreases in triacylglycerol and VLDL concentrations.

  15. Ordering effects of cholesterol and its analogues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Róg, Tomasz; Pasenkiewicz-Gierula, Marta; Vattulainen, Ilpo

    2009-01-01

    Without any exaggeration, cholesterol is one of the most important lipid species in eukaryotic cells. Its effects on cellular membranes and functions range from purely mechanistic to complex metabolic ones, besides which it is also a precursor of the sex hormones (steroids) and several vitamins....... In this review, we discuss the biophysical effects of cholesterol on the lipid bilayer, in particular the ordering and condensing effects, concentrating on the molecular level or inter-atomic interactions perspective, starting from two-component systems and proceeding to many-component ones e.g., modeling lipid...... rafts. Particular attention is paid to the roles of the methyl groups in the cholesterol ring system, and their possible biological function. Although our main research methodology is computer modeling, in this review we make extensive comparisons between experiments and different modeling approaches....

  16. Cholesterol lowering effect of a soy drink enriched with plant sterols in a French population with moderate hypercholesterolemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bard Jean-Marie

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant sterols are an established non-pharmacological means to reduce total and LDL blood cholesterol concentrations and are therefore recommended for cholesterol management by worldwide-renown health care institutions. Their efficacy has been proven in many types of foods with the majority of trials conducted in spreads or dairy products. As an alternative to dairy products, soy based foods are common throughout the world. Yet, there is little evidence supporting the efficacy of plant sterols in soy-based foods. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of a soy drink enriched with plant sterols on blood lipid profiles in moderately hypercholesterolemic subjects. Methods In a randomized, placebo-controlled double-blind mono-centric study, 50 subjects were assigned to 200 ml of soy drink either enriched with 2.6 g plant sterol esters (1.6 g/d free plant sterol equivalents or without plant sterols (control for 8 weeks. Subjects were instructed to maintain stable diet pattern and physical activity. Plasma concentrations of lipids were measured at initial visit, after 4 weeks and after 8 weeks. The primary measurement was the change in LDL cholesterol (LDL-C. Secondary measurements were changes in total cholesterol (TC, non-HDL cholesterol (non-HDL-C, HDL cholesterol (HDL-C and triglycerides. Results Regular consumption of the soy drink enriched with plant sterols for 8 weeks significantly reduced LDL- C by 0.29 mmol/l or 7% compared to baseline (p 96%, and products were well tolerated. Conclusion Daily consumption of a plant sterol-enriched soy drink significantly decreased total, non-HDL and LDL cholesterol and is therefore an interesting and convenient aid in managing mild to moderate hypercholesterolemia.

  17. Cholesterol-lowering properties of Ganoderma lucidum in vitro, ex vivo, and in hamsters and minipigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajjaj H

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction There has been renewed interest in mushroom medicinal properties. We studied cholesterol lowering properties of Ganoderma lucidum (Gl, a renowned medicinal species. Results Organic fractions containing oxygenated lanosterol derivatives inhibited cholesterol synthesis in T9A4 hepatocytes. In hamsters, 5% Gl did not effect LDL; but decreased total cholesterol (TC 9.8%, and HDL 11.2%. Gl (2.5 and 5% had effects on several fecal neutral sterols and bile acids. Both Gl doses reduced hepatic microsomal ex-vivo HMG-CoA reductase activity. In minipigs, 2.5 Gl decreased TC, LDL- and HDL cholesterol 20, 27, and 18%, respectively (P Conclusions Overall, Gl has potential to reduce LDL cholesterol in vivo through various mechanisms. Next steps are to: fully characterize bioactive components in lipid soluble/insoluble fractions; evaluate bioactivity of isolated fractions; and examine human cholesterol lowering properties. Innovative new cholesterol-lowering foods and medicines containing Gl are envisioned.

  18. Sex-dependent response of some rat biochemical, histological and embryological features to Squalene administration or/ and gamma radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, M.F.; Abo-Zid, N.M.; Ahmed, A.G.

    2012-01-01

    Squalene, an intermediate of cholesterol biosynthesis, is known to possess potent antioxidant properties. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the influence of Squalene on some radiation-induced biochemical, histological and embryological changes in Sprague Dawley rats. Squalene was orally administered to rats (5 ml/kg/day) throughout 60 days before whole body gamma irradiation with 4 Gy. In adult male and female rats, the results revealed that Squalene has modulated the radiation produced abrupt elevation of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG) and and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) levels and reduction of high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) ones in both male and female serum and male liver samples whereas it could not control the abrupt increase of HDL-C and decline of LDL-C in female liver values. Also Squalene has modified the histopathological acquired radiation lesions of both male and female colonic and hepatic tissues yet the female tested colonic sections showed moderate regeneration of crypts and villi layers whereas the hepatic sections yet displayed apparent hemorrhage and fatty liver infiltration of inflammatory cells. However, in the mated male rats and their pregnant counterparts, Squalene considerably restored the radiation induced male and female sex hormonal abrupt changes especially in female rats. Squalene administration to pergnant rats before irradiation at gestational day 17 improved the fetal survival ability as identified by the disappearance of resorption sites in the tested maternal uteri. Hence, it could be concluded that Squalene radioprotective capability surpassed the adult male rats than the female ones though it specified the pregnant females by protecting their growing embryos against radiation induced intrauterine fatal effect

  19. Interactions of six SNPs in APOA1 gene and types of obesity on low HDL-C disease in Xinjiang pastoral area of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinping; He, Jia; Guo, Heng; Mu, Lati; Hu, Yunhua; Ma, Jiaolong; Yan, Yizhong; Ma, Rulin; Li, Shugang; Ding, Yusong; Zhang, Mei; Niu, Qiang; Liu, Jiaming; Zhang, Jingyu; Guo, Shuxia

    2017-10-02

    This study aims to investigate association between six single nucleotide polymorphisms(SNPs) in APOA1 gene and types of obesity with the risk of low level HDL-C in the pastoral area of northwest China. A total of 1267 individuals including 424 patients with low HDL-C disease and 843 health subjects were analyzed based on matched for age, sex. SNPShot technique was used to detect the genotypes of rs670, rs5069, rs5072, rs7116797, rs2070665 and rs1799837 in APOA1 gene. The relationship between above six SNPs and types of obesity with low HDL-C disease was analyzed by binary logistic regression. Carriers with rs670 G allele were more likely to get low HDL-C disease (OR = 1.46, OR95%CI: 1.118-1.915; P = 0.005); The genotypic and allelic frequencies of rs5069, rs5072, rs7116797, rs2070665, rs1799837 revealed no significant differences between cases and controls (P obesity measured by BMI had 2.686 times (OR95%CI: 1.695-4.256; P obesity measured by WC had 1.925 times (OR95%CI: 1.273-2.910; P = 0.002) and abdominal obesity measured by WHR had 1.640 times (OR95%CI: 1.114-2.416; P = 0.012) risk to get low HDL-C disease; APOA1 rs670 interacted with obesity (no matter general obesity or abdominal obesity) on low HDL-C disease. APOA1 gene may be associated with low HDL-C disease in the pastoral area of northwest China; obesity was the risk factor for low HDL-C disease; the low HDL-C disease is influenced by APOA1, obesity, and their interactions.

  20. Non-HDL-C goals based on the distribution of population percentiles in ELSA-Brasil: Is it time to change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Fabiano A; Pedrosa, William; Maluf, Chams B; Dos Reis, Rodrigo C P; Fedeli, Ligia M G; Castilhos, Cristina; Barreto, Sandhi M; Vidigal, Pedro G

    2018-07-01

    Non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) goals are defined as 30 mg/dL (0.78 mmol/L) higher than the respective low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) goals. This definition, however, do not consider the population distribution of non-HDL-C, which could represent a more appropriate individual goal when both markers are discordant. The aim of this study is to establish non-HDL-C goals at the same population percentiles of LDL-C. Non-HDL-C values were assigned at the same percentiles correspondent to the LDL-C treatment goals for 14,837 participants from the Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) with triglycerides levels ≤ 400 mg/dL (4.52 mmol/L). We also assessed the frequency of reclassification, defined as the number of subjects with LDL-C levels in the recommended therapeutic category, but with non-HDL-C levels above or below the category. The non-HDL-C values, based on correspondent LDL-C population percentiles, were 92 (2.38), 122 (3.16), 156 (4.04), 191 (4.95), and 223 mg/dL (5.78 mmol/L). Among participants with LDL-C <70 mg/dL (1.81 mmol/L), 22.8% were reclassified in a higher category according to the guidelines-based non-HDL-C cut-off and 30.1% according to the population percentile-based cut-off; 25.6% and 64.1%, respectively, if triglycerides concurrently 150-199 mg/dL (1.69-2.25 mmol/L). Our results demonstrated that non-HDL-C percentiles-based goals were up to 8 mg/dL (0.21 mmol/L) lower than the guidelines recommended goal and had a profound impact on the reclassification of participants, notably when LDL-C was <100 mg/dL (2.56 mmol/L), the treatment goal for high risk patients. Therefore, non-HDL-C goals should be changed for reduction of residual risk. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Cholesterol and Health

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    fats and oil in the diet on the other hand. Gallstones result from ... such factors as high levels of estrogens, multiple pregnancies, obesity, genetic factors and certain ... protein with an inner core of cholesterol and triglycerides. Lipoproteins are ...

  2. Endogenous Cholesterol Excretion Is Negatively Associated With Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiaobo; Racette, Susan B; Ma, Lina; Wallendorf, Michael; Dávila-Román, Victor G; Ostlund, Richard E

    2017-12-01

    Epidemiological studies strongly suggest that lipid factors independent of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol contribute significantly to cardiovascular disease risk. Because circulating lipoproteins comprise only a small fraction of total body cholesterol, the mobilization and excretion of cholesterol from plasma and tissue pools may be an important determinant of cardiovascular disease risk. Our hypothesis is that fecal excretion of endogenous cholesterol is protective against atherosclerosis. Cholesterol metabolism and carotid intima-media thickness were quantitated in 86 nondiabetic adults. Plasma cholesterol was labeled by intravenous infusion of cholesterol-d 7 solubilized in a lipid emulsion and dietary cholesterol by cholesterol-d 5 and the nonabsorbable stool marker sitostanol-d 4 . Plasma and stool samples were collected while subjects consumed a cholesterol- and phytosterol-controlled metabolic kitchen diet and were analyzed by mass spectrometry. Carotid intima-media thickness was negatively correlated with fecal excretion of endogenous cholesterol ( r =-0.426; P cholesterol ( r =-0.472; P ≤0.0001), and daily percent excretion of cholesterol from the rapidly mixing cholesterol pool ( r =-0.343; P =0.0012) and was positively correlated with percent cholesterol absorption ( r =+0.279; P =0.0092). In a linear regression model controlling for age, sex, systolic blood pressure, hemoglobin A1c, low-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and statin drug use, fecal excretion of endogenous cholesterol remained significant ( P =0.0008). Excretion of endogenous cholesterol is strongly, independently, and negatively associated with carotid intima-media thickness. The reverse cholesterol transport pathway comprising the intestine and the rapidly mixing plasma, and tissue cholesterol pool could be an unrecognized determinant of cardiovascular disease risk not reflected in circulating lipoproteins. Further work is needed to relate measures of

  3. Impact of Dietary Cholesterol on the Pathophysiology of Infectious and Autoimmune Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine J. Andersen

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Cellular cholesterol metabolism, lipid raft formation, and lipoprotein interactions contribute to the regulation of immune-mediated inflammation and response to pathogens. Lipid pathways have been implicated in the pathogenesis of bacterial and viral infections, whereas altered lipid metabolism may contribute to immune dysfunction in autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus, multiple sclerosis, and rheumatoid arthritis. Interestingly, dietary cholesterol may exert protective or detrimental effects on risk, progression, and treatment of different infectious and autoimmune diseases, although current findings suggest that these effects are variable across populations and different diseases. Research evaluating the effects of dietary cholesterol, often provided by eggs or as a component of Western-style diets, demonstrates that cholesterol-rich dietary patterns affect markers of immune inflammation and cellular cholesterol metabolism, while additionally modulating lipoprotein profiles and functional properties of HDL. Further, cholesterol-rich diets appear to differentially impact immunomodulatory lipid pathways across human populations of variable metabolic status, suggesting that these complex mechanisms may underlie the relationship between dietary cholesterol and immunity. Given the Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2015–2020 revision to no longer include limitations on dietary cholesterol, evaluation of dietary cholesterol recommendations beyond the context of cardiovascular disease risk is particularly timely. This review provides a comprehensive and comparative analysis of significant and controversial studies on the role of dietary cholesterol and lipid metabolism in the pathophysiology of infectious disease and autoimmune disorders, highlighting the need for further investigation in this developing area of research.

  4. Cholesterol in unusual places

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucerka, N; Nieh, M P; Marquardt, D; Harroun, T A; Wassail, S R; Katsaras, J

    2010-01-01

    Cholesterol is an essential component of mammalian cells, and is required for building and maintaining cell membranes, regulating their fluidity, and possibly acting as an antioxidant. Cholesterol has also been implicated in cell signaling processes, where it has been suggested that it triggers the formation of lipid rafts in the plasma membrane. Aside from cholesterol's physiological roles, what is also becoming clear is its poor affinity for lipids with unsaturated fatty acids as opposed to saturated lipids, such as sphingomyelin with which it forms rafts. We previously reported the location of cholesterol in membranes with varying degrees of acyl chain unsaturation as determined by neutron diffraction studies (Harroun et al 2006 Biochemistry 45, 1227; Harroun et al 2008 Biochemistry 47, 7090). In bilayers composed of phosphatidylcholine (PC) molecules with a saturated acyl chain at the sn-1 position or a monounsaturated acyl chain at both sn-1 and sn-2 positions, cholesterol was found in its much-accepted 'upright' position. However, in dipolyunsaturated 1,2-diarachidonyl phosphatidylcholine (20:4-20:4PC) membranes the molecule was found sequestered in the center of the bilayers. In further experiments, mixing l-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl phosphatidylcholine (16:0-18:1 PC) with 20:4-20:4PC resulted in cholesterol reverting to its upright orientation at approximately 40 mol% 16:0-18:1 PC. Interestingly, the same effect was achieved with only 5 mol% 1,2-dimyristoyl phosphatidylchoile (14:0-14:0PC).

  5. Cholesterol in unusual places

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kucerka, N; Nieh, M P; Marquardt, D; Harroun, T A; Wassail, S R; Katsaras, J, E-mail: John.Katsaras@nrc.gc.ca, E-mail: Norbert.Kucerka@nrc.gc.ca

    2010-11-01

    Cholesterol is an essential component of mammalian cells, and is required for building and maintaining cell membranes, regulating their fluidity, and possibly acting as an antioxidant. Cholesterol has also been implicated in cell signaling processes, where it has been suggested that it triggers the formation of lipid rafts in the plasma membrane. Aside from cholesterol's physiological roles, what is also becoming clear is its poor affinity for lipids with unsaturated fatty acids as opposed to saturated lipids, such as sphingomyelin with which it forms rafts. We previously reported the location of cholesterol in membranes with varying degrees of acyl chain unsaturation as determined by neutron diffraction studies (Harroun et al 2006 Biochemistry 45, 1227; Harroun et al 2008 Biochemistry 47, 7090). In bilayers composed of phosphatidylcholine (PC) molecules with a saturated acyl chain at the sn-1 position or a monounsaturated acyl chain at both sn-1 and sn-2 positions, cholesterol was found in its much-accepted 'upright' position. However, in dipolyunsaturated 1,2-diarachidonyl phosphatidylcholine (20:4-20:4PC) membranes the molecule was found sequestered in the center of the bilayers. In further experiments, mixing l-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl phosphatidylcholine (16:0-18:1 PC) with 20:4-20:4PC resulted in cholesterol reverting to its upright orientation at approximately 40 mol% 16:0-18:1 PC. Interestingly, the same effect was achieved with only 5 mol% 1,2-dimyristoyl phosphatidylchoile (14:0-14:0PC).

  6. Recombinant high-density lipoprotein nanoparticles containing gadolinium-labeled cholesterol for morphologic and functional magnetic resonance imaging of the liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui M

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Mengjie Rui,1 Wei Guo,2 Qian Ding,2 Xiaohui Wei,2 Jianrong Xu,3 Yuhong Xu21School of Life Science and Biotechnology, 2School of Pharmacy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, People's Republic of China; 3Department of Radiology, Renji Hospital Affiliation with Medical School of Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, People's Republic of ChinaBackground: Natural high-density lipoproteins (HDL possess important physiological functions to the transport of cholesterol from the peripheral tissues to the liver for metabolic degradation and excretion in the bile.Methods and results: In this work, we took advantage of this pathway and prepared two different gadolinium (Gd-DTPA-labeled cholesterol-containing recombinant HDL nanoparticles (Gd-chol-HDL and Gd-(chol2-HDL as liver-specific magnetic resonance imaging (MRI contrast agents. The reconstituted HDL nanoparticles had structural similarity to native HDL, and could be taken up by HepG2 cells via interaction with HDL receptors in vitro. In vivo MRI studies in rats after intravenous injections of 10 µmol gadolinium per kg of recombinant HDL nanoparticles indicated that both nanoparticles could provide signal enhancement in the liver and related organs. However, different T1-weighted image details suggested that they participated in different cholesterol metabolism and excretion pathways in the liver.Conclusion: Such information could be highly useful to differentiate functional changes as well as anatomic differences in the liver. These cholesterol-derived contrast agents and their recombinant HDL preparations may warrant further development as a new class of contrast agents for MRI of the liver and related organs.Keywords: magnetic resonance imaging, apolipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein, contrast agent, gadolinium, liver

  7. Kandungan kolesterol, High Density Lipoprotein (HDL dan low density lipopro-tein (LDL darah burung puyuh dengan pemberian aditif cair buah naga merah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khabib Arrosichin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to determine, assess and evaluate the content of cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL and Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL blood quail which were treated with liquid additive red dragon fruit. Materials used in the study were 200 female quails aged 14 days with an average weight of 13.61 ± 0.49 g. Ration composed by metabolizable energy content of ± 3000 kcal/kg and ± 20% of crude protein. The study consisted of 4 treatments and 5 replications. The treatments were (T0: without addition of liquid red dragon fruit (control; T1: addition of 5 ml liquid red dragon fruit twice a day; T2: addition of 5 ml liquid red dragon fruit once a day and T3: addition of 5 ml liquid red dragon fruit once in every two days. Blood sampling was performed in EDTA tube at the end of the study. Analysis of samples was carried out in health laboratory Semarang. The results were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA. The study showed that the addition of liquid red dragon fruit additive had no significant effect (P> 0.05 on cholesterol, HDL and LDL of quil’s blood. Keywords: Quail, cholesterol; HDL, LDL, and red dragon fruit

  8. 2-heptyl-formononetin increases cholesterol and induces hepatic steatosis in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Charlotte; Schjoldager, Janne Gram; Tortzen, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Consumption of isoflavones may prevent adiposity, hepatic steatosis, and dyslipidaemia. However, studies in the area are few and primarily with genistein. This study investigated the effects of formononetin and its synthetic analogue, 2-heptyl-formononetin (C7F), on lipid and cholesterol metabolism...... in C57BL/6J mice. The mice were fed a cholesterol-enriched diet for five weeks to induce hypercholesterolemia and were then fed either the cholesterol-enriched diet or the cholesterol-enriched diet-supplemented formononetin or C7F for three weeks. Body weight and composition, glucose homeostasis......, and plasma lipids were compared. In another experiment, mice were fed the above diets for five weeks, and hepatic triglyceride accumulation and gene expression and histology of adipose tissue and liver were examined. Supplementation with C7F increased plasma HDL-cholesterol thereby increasing the plasma...

  9. Metabolic Syndrome Prevalence by Race/Ethnicity and Sex in the United States, National Health and Nutrition Examination ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... data that include clinical measures of blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, triglycerides, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol in addition to self-reported medication use for health conditions. We conducted cross-sectional analysis of the ...

  10. Association between non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in postmenopausal Uyghur women in Xinjiang, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mailamuguli

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate the association between non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD in postmenopausal Uyghur women in Xinjiang, China. MethodsA total of 1271 postmenopausal Uyghur women who underwent physical examination in the physical examination centers of hospitals in Urumqi and Kashi, Xinjiang, were enrolled as study subjects, and according to the presence or absence of NAFLD, they were divided into NAFLD group (682 women and control group (589 women. Demographic data were recorded in detail, and the hepatic enzyme parameters, parameters for glucose and lipid metabolism, and parameters including uric acid and non-HDL-C were measured. The t-test was used for comparison of continuous data between groups, the chi-square test was used for comparison of categorical data between groups, and non-conditional logistic regression analysis was used to determine the risk factors for NAFLD in postmenopausal women. ResultsCompared with the control group, the NAFLD group had significantly higher uric acid, fasting blood glucose, triglyceride (TG, glycosylated hemoglobin, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, waist circumference, hip circumference, body mass index, waist-hip ratio, systolic pressure, diastolic pressure, and non-HDL-C level (all P<0.05, and a significantly lower HDL-C level (P<0.05. Compared with the group with a non-HDL-C level of ≥3.58 mmol/L, the group with a non-HDL-C level of <3.58 mmol/L had significantly lower levels of blood glucose, total cholesterol, TG, AST, ALT, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. The multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that non-HDL-C, serum uric acid, and BMI were risk factors for NAFLD in postmenopausal women. ConclusionNon-HDL-C, along with central obesity, hypertriglyceridemia, and hyperuricemia, is a major risk factor for NAFLD in postmenopausal women.

  11. Reduction of dietary saturated fatty acids correlates with increased plasma lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase activity in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bérard, A M; Dabadie, H; Palos-Pinto, A; Dumon, M-F; Darmon, M

    2004-06-01

    Increased HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations have been associated with lower coronary heart disease risk. On the other hand, dietary fats are known to influence the fatty acid profile of plasma lipids, including phospholipids that are substrates of lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT), an important enzyme in HDL metabolism. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between the saturated fatty acid (SFA) intake and LCAT activity. An interventional study was performed in a monk community of 25 men. A French monk community, South West of France. The basal diet of the study cohort contained SFA in a proportion of 13.5% of their total energy intake (TEI). They were submitted to two experimental isocaloric diets containing either 8.4% of the TEI in SFA (diet A) or 11% (diet B), each lasting 5 weeks. The elevation of SFA in diet B was mainly obtained by decreasing carbohydrates. The only significant difference among total fats between diets A and B was the myristic acid content (0.6 and 1.2% of TEI, respectively). The elevation in SFA in diet B resulted in a significant increase of HDL-C (P<0.04), while plasma apo A-I concentration and LCAT activity both decreased (P<0.02). Altogether, these results are consistent with a negative effect of SFA on reverse cholesterol transport.

  12. Discovery of molecular mechanism of a clinical herbal formula upregulating serum HDL-c levels in treatment of metabolic syndrome by in vivo and computational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Meimei; Yang, Fafu; Kang, Jie; Gan, Huijuan; Lai, Xinmei; Gao, Yuxing

    2018-01-15

    Decreased HDL cholesterol (HDL-c) is considered as an independent risk factor of cardiovascular disease in metabolic syndrome (Mets). Wendan decoction (WDD), a famous clinical traditional Chinese medicine formula in Mets in China, which can obviously up-regulate serum HDL-c levels in Mets. However, till now, the molecular mechanism of up-regulation still remained unclear. In this study, an integrated approach that combined serum ABCA1 in vivo assay, QSAR modeling and molecular docking was developed to explore the molecular mechanism and chemical substance basis of WDD upregulating HDL-c levels. Compared with Mets model group, serum ABCA1 and HDL-c levels intervened by two different doses of WDD for two weeks were significantly up-regulated. Then, kohonen and LDA were applied to develop QSAR models for ABCA1 up-regulators based flavonoids. The derived QSAR model produced the overall accuracy of 100%, a very powerful tool for screening ABCA1 up-regulators. The QSAR model prediction revealed 67 flavonoids in WDD were ABCA1 up-regulators. Finally, they were subjected to the molecular docking to understand their roles in up-regulating ABCA1 expression, which led to discovery of 23 ABCA1 up-regulators targeting LXR beta. Overall, QSAR modeling and docking studies well accounted for the observed in vivo activities of ABCA1 affected by WDD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol calculation and goal awareness among physicians-in-training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negi, Smita I; Steinberg, Lynne; Polsani, Venkateshwar R; Gowani, Saqib A; Nambi, Vijay; Kumar, Varinder; Marinescu, Victor; Jones, Peter H; Petersen, Laura A; Ballantyne, Christie M; Virani, Salim S

    2012-01-01

    Non-high density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) goal attainment per Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) guidelines remains low. To understand gaps in knowledge and practices of physicians-in-training (internal medicine, family medicine, cardiology, endocrinology) towards non-HDL-C. A survey based on a conceptual model to assess the trainee's knowledge, attitudes, and practice regarding non-HDL-C was developed and administered to physicians-in-training (n = 655) at 26 training programs in the United States. Responses of those in internal medicine and family medicine (residents-in-training; n = 418) were compared with those in cardiology and endocrinology (fellows-in-training; n = 124). Response rate was 83.7%. Fifty-three percent of residents and 31% of fellows-in-training had not read the ATP III guidelines (P training could not calculate non-HDL-C from a standard lipid panel (P = .7). Sixty-seven percent of the residents and 52% of fellows were not aware of treatment goals for non-HDL-C (P = .004 for comparison between residents and fellows). Both residents and fellows reported infrequent calculation of non-HDL-C levels in patients with elevated triglycerides (≥200 mg/dL; 32.5% vs 35.4%, respectively, P = .6). Lack of familiarity with ATP III guidelines, lack of knowledge regarding importance of non-HDL-C, lack of institutional mandate to calculate non-HDL-C, and lack of emphasis on non-HDL-C by teaching staff were reported as barriers to non-HDL-C use in routine clinical practice. At least one-third of physicians-in-training could not calculate non-HDL-C from a standard lipid panel, and a large number were not aware of ATP III treatment goals pertaining to non-HDL-C. This area represents one for improvement if non-HDL-C is to be retained as a treatment target in the forthcoming ATP-IV guidelines. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Pectin penta-oligogalacturonide reduces cholesterol accumulation by promoting bile acid biosynthesis and excretion in high-cholesterol-fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ru-Gang; Sun, Yan-Di; Hou, Yu-Ting; Fan, Jun-Gang; Chen, Gang; Li, Tuo-Ping

    2017-06-25

    Haw pectin penta-oligogalacturonide (HPPS) has important role in improving cholesterol metabolism and promoting the conversion of cholesterol to bile acids (BA) in mice fed high-cholesterol diet (HCD). However, the mechanism is not clear. This study aims to investigate the effects of HPPS on cholesterol accumulation and the regulation of hepatic BA synthesis and transport in HCD-fed mice. Results showed that HPPS significantly decreased plasma and hepatic TC levels but increased plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) levels, compared to HCD. BA analysis showed that HPPS markedly decreased hepatic and small intestine BA levels but increased the gallbladder BA levels, and finally decreased the total BA pool size, compared to HCD. Studies of molecular mechanism revealed that HPPS promoted hepatic ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1), ATP-binding cassette transporter G1 (ABCG1), and scavenger receptor BI (SR-BI) expression but did not affect ATB binding cassette transporter G5/G8 (ABCG5/8) expression. HPPS inactivated hepatic farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and target genes expression, which resulted in significant increase of cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase 1 (CYP7A1) and sterol 12α-hydroxylase (CYP8B1) expression, with up-regulations of 204.2% and 33.5% for mRNA levels, respectively, compared with HCD. In addition, HPPS markedly enhanced bile salt export pump (BSEP) expression but didn't affect the sodium/taurocholate co-transporting polypeptide (NTCP) expression. In conclusion, the study revealed that HPPS reduced cholesterol accumulation by promoting BA synthesis in the liver and excretion in the feces, and might promote macrophage-to-liver reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) but did not liver-to-fecal RCT. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. 21-Methylpyrenyl-cholesterol stably and specifically associates with lipoprotein peripheral hemi-membrane: A new labelling tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaibelet, Gérald [INSERM U563, CHU Purpan, Toulouse (France); CEA, SB2SM and UMR8221 CNRS, IBiTec-Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Tercé, François [Université Toulouse III, UMR 1048, Toulouse (France); INSERM U1048, Toulouse (France); Bertrand-Michel, Justine [Université Toulouse III, UMR 1048, Toulouse (France); INSERM U1048, Lipidomic Platform Metatoul, Toulouse (France); Allart, Sophie [Plateau Technique d’Imagerie Cellulaire, INSERM U1043, Toulouse (France); Azalbert, Vincent [Université Toulouse III, UMR 1048, Toulouse (France); INSERM U1048, Toulouse (France); Lecompte, Marie-France [INSERM U563, Faculté de Médecine de Rangueil, Toulouse (France); Collet, Xavier [Université Toulouse III, UMR 1048, Toulouse (France); INSERM U1048, Toulouse (France); Orlowski, Stéphane, E-mail: stephane.orlowski@cea.fr [INSERM U563, CHU Purpan, Toulouse (France); CEA, SB2SM and UMR8221 CNRS, IBiTec-Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2013-11-01

    Highlights: •21-Methylpyrenyl-cholesterol specifically and stably associates to lipoproteins. •It is not esterified by LCAT, and thus reliably labels their peripheral hemi-membrane. •HDL vs. LDL are well distinguishable by various fluorescent labelling characteristics. •LDL peripheral hemi-membrane harbors cholesterol-rich ordered lipid (micro)domains. •Cultured cells can be stained by such labelled lipoproteins-mediated delivery. -- Abstract: Lipoproteins are important biological components. However, they have few convenient fluorescent labelling probes currently reported, and their physiological reliability can be questioned. We compared the association of two fluorescent cholesterol derivatives, 22-nitrobenzoxadiazole-cholesterol (NBD-Chol) and 21-methylpyrenyl-cholesterol (Pyr-met-Chol), to serum lipoproteins and to purified HDL and LDL. Both lipoproteins could be stably labelled by Pyr-met-Chol, but virtually not by NBD-Chol. At variance with NBD-Chol, LCAT did not esterify Pyr-met-Chol. The labelling characteristics of lipoproteins by Pyr-met-Chol were well distinguishable between HDL and LDL, regarding dializability, associated probe amount and labelling kinetics. We took benefit of the pyrene labelling to approach the structural organization of LDL peripheral hemi-membrane, since Pyr-met-Chol-labelled LDL, but not HDL, presented a fluorescence emission of pyrene excimers, indicating that the probe was present in an ordered lipid micro-environment. Since the peripheral membrane of LDL contains more sphingomyelin (SM) than HDL, this excimer formation was consistent with the existence of cholesterol- and SM-enriched lipid microdomains in LDL, as already suggested in model membranes of similar composition and reminiscent to the well-described “lipid rafts” in bilayer membranes. Finally, we showed that Pyr-met-Chol could stain cultured PC-3 cells via lipoprotein-mediated delivery, with a staining pattern well different to that observed with NBD

  16. 21-Methylpyrenyl-cholesterol stably and specifically associates with lipoprotein peripheral hemi-membrane: A new labelling tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaibelet, Gérald; Tercé, François; Bertrand-Michel, Justine; Allart, Sophie; Azalbert, Vincent; Lecompte, Marie-France; Collet, Xavier; Orlowski, Stéphane

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •21-Methylpyrenyl-cholesterol specifically and stably associates to lipoproteins. •It is not esterified by LCAT, and thus reliably labels their peripheral hemi-membrane. •HDL vs. LDL are well distinguishable by various fluorescent labelling characteristics. •LDL peripheral hemi-membrane harbors cholesterol-rich ordered lipid (micro)domains. •Cultured cells can be stained by such labelled lipoproteins-mediated delivery. -- Abstract: Lipoproteins are important biological components. However, they have few convenient fluorescent labelling probes currently reported, and their physiological reliability can be questioned. We compared the association of two fluorescent cholesterol derivatives, 22-nitrobenzoxadiazole-cholesterol (NBD-Chol) and 21-methylpyrenyl-cholesterol (Pyr-met-Chol), to serum lipoproteins and to purified HDL and LDL. Both lipoproteins could be stably labelled by Pyr-met-Chol, but virtually not by NBD-Chol. At variance with NBD-Chol, LCAT did not esterify Pyr-met-Chol. The labelling characteristics of lipoproteins by Pyr-met-Chol were well distinguishable between HDL and LDL, regarding dializability, associated probe amount and labelling kinetics. We took benefit of the pyrene labelling to approach the structural organization of LDL peripheral hemi-membrane, since Pyr-met-Chol-labelled LDL, but not HDL, presented a fluorescence emission of pyrene excimers, indicating that the probe was present in an ordered lipid micro-environment. Since the peripheral membrane of LDL contains more sphingomyelin (SM) than HDL, this excimer formation was consistent with the existence of cholesterol- and SM-enriched lipid microdomains in LDL, as already suggested in model membranes of similar composition and reminiscent to the well-described “lipid rafts” in bilayer membranes. Finally, we showed that Pyr-met-Chol could stain cultured PC-3 cells via lipoprotein-mediated delivery, with a staining pattern well different to that observed with NBD

  17. The Efficiency of Irradiated Garlic Powder in Mitigation of Hypercholesterolemic Risk Factor in High cholesterol Fed Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Neily, H.F.G.; El-Shennawy, H.M.

    2011-01-01

    The present study was conducted to explore the efficiency of radiation processed dried garlic powder at 10, 15 and 20 kGy on the average daily body gain, internal organ weights, certain hematological and biochemical parameters; including total plasma protein, albumin, globulin, total cholesterol, low and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and HDL-C), triglyceride levels, and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activities in rats fed with a high-cholesterol diet. Experimental rats were fed a high cholesterol diet (10 g kg -1 ) with and without raw or radiation processed dried garlic powder at the above-mentioned doses for 6 weeks. Control rats were fed a casein diet (C). 20 g kg -1 dietary raw or irradiated dried garlic powder was used to supplemented cholesterol diet (Ch). It was observed that cholesterol-fed (Ch) animals had a significant increase in relative liver weight, plasma total cholesterol, LDL-C, triglyceride levels, LDL/HDL ratio, AST and ALT activities and a significant decrease in HDL-C level compared to the control group of rats fed on a Casein diet (C). However, when the rats were fed with a high cholesterol diet mixed with 20 g kg -1 raw (ChRG) or irradiated dried garlic powder at 10 (ChG10), 15 (ChG15), and 20 kGy (ChG20), there was a significant reduction in their relative liver weight, hemoglobin, haematocrit, plasma total cholesterol, LDL-C, triglyceride levels, LDL/HDL ratio, and increased HDL level and amended AST and ALT activities levels as compared with the group which was on a diet containing high cholesterol without garlic powder (Ch). No significant changes were observed in relative spleen, kidney, lung, heart and testes weights, as well as, the total plasma protein, albumin, globulin concentrations in all of treated groups. These results show that the dietary 20 g kg -1 irradiated dried garlic powder at 10, 15 and 20 kGy are beneficial in reducing plasma cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-C levels, El

  18. Cholesterol esterification and atherogenic index of plasma correlate with lipoprotein size and findings on coronary angiography

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dobiášová, Milada; Frohlich, J.; Šedová, Michaela; Cheung, M. C.; Brown, B.G.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 3 (2011), s. 566-571 ISSN 0022-2275 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NR8328; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06014 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509; CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : fractional esterification rate (FERHDL). * log(TG/HDL-Cholesterol) * AIP * biomarkers of cardiovascular risk * lipoprotein particle size * HDL- Atherosclerosis Treatment Study (HATS) Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition Impact factor: 5.559, year: 2011

  19. [Effect of raw and cooked nopal (Opuntia ficus indica) ingestion on growth and profile of total cholesterol, lipoproteins, and blood glucose in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas Medellín, M L; Serna Saldívar, S O; Velazco de la Garza, J

    1998-12-01

    Two different concentrations (approx. 6 and 12%) and two presentations (raw and cooked) of dehydrated nopal were fed to laboratory rats and growth and serum total cholesterol, lipoprotein profile and glucose determined. Samples of raw and cooked nopal were chemically characterized for moisture, protein, ash, crude fiber, ether extract, total dietary fiber, reducing sugars, amino acids, minerals and gross energy. Cooking slightly affected some of the nutrients analyzed. After one month feeding, blood was withdrawn via intracardiac puncture and serum glucose, total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, and VLDL were determined. Rats fed 12% nopal had lower weight gains (P nopal or the control diet. Consumption of nopal did not affect (P > 0.05) glucose, total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol levels. However, rats fed raw nopal at the 12% concentration level had a 34% reduction in LDL cholesterol levels; thus, it was concluded that raw nopal had a potentially beneficial effect for hypercholesterolemic individuals.

  20. Psoriasis-associated vascular disease: the role of HDL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva-Lopes, Maria Joao; Delgado Alves, José

    2017-09-14

    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory systemic disease with a prevalence of 2-3%. Overwhelming evidence show an epidemiological association between psoriasis, cardiovascular disease and atherosclerosis. Cardiovascular disease is the most frequent cause of death in patients with severe psoriasis. Several cardiovascular disease classical risk factors are also increased in psoriasis but the psoriasis-associated risk persists after adjusting for other risk factors.Investigation has focused on finding explanations for these epidemiological data. Several studies have demonstrated significant lipid metabolism and HDL composition and function alterations in psoriatic patients. Altered HDL function is clearly one of the mechanisms involved, as these particles are of the utmost importance in atherosclerosis defense. Recent data indicate that biologic therapy can reverse both structural and functional HDL alterations in psoriasis, reinforcing their therapeutic potential.

  1. Cholesterol and myelin biogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saher, Gesine; Simons, Mikael

    2010-01-01

    Myelin consists of several layers of tightly compacted membranes wrapped around axons in the nervous system. The main function of myelin is to provide electrical insulation around the axon to ensure the rapid propagation of nerve conduction. As the myelinating glia terminally differentiates, they begin to produce myelin membranes on a remarkable scale. This membrane is unique in its composition being highly enriched in lipids, in particular galactosylceramide and cholesterol. In this review we will summarize the role of cholesterol in myelin biogenesis in the central and peripheral nervous system.

  2. To Study the Activity of Paraoxonase-1 and High Density Lipoprotein-Cholesterol in Alcoholic Liver Cirrhosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooja Nemagoudar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Alcoholic liver cirrhosis is the most common complication of ethanol abuse. Alcoholic fatty liver progresses to alcoholic hepatitis, cirrhosis and liver failure. Lipoproteins are synthesized by the liver and secreted into the circulation. Alcoholic liver cirrhosis causes alteration in lipoprotein metabolism producing liver steatosis and necrosis. Paraoxonase-1 (PON-1 is an enzyme synthesized in liver and has an esterase activity towards lipid peroxides and circulates in plasma bound to High-Density Lipoproteins-cholesterol (HDL-c. Aim and Objectives: To determine the activity of PON-1 and levels of HDL-c in alcoholic liver disease and to correlate PON-1 activity with HDL-c. Materials and Methods: A Cross sectional study done in Department of Biochemistry and Department of Medicine, Belagavi Institute of Medical Sciences, Belagavi, Karnataka, India, from 1st December 2014 to 31st January 2016 Study included 50 males (age range 25-55 years with alcoholic liver cirrhosis and 50 healthy male participants (age range 25-55 years. PON-1 activity was estimated using spectrophotometric method by the hydrolysis of phenylacetate. HDL-c level was measured by cholesterol oxidase-peroxidase method. Results: The serum PON-1 activity and levels of HDL-c in patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis were significantly reduced (p<0.001 compared with controls. Conclusion: A significant decrease in PON-1 and HDL-c in alcoholic liver cirrhosis may contribute to the risk of atherosclerosis in alcoholic liver cirrhosis patients.

  3. Effect of vildagliptin and pravastatin combination on cholesterol efflux in adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafa, Ahmed M; Hamdy, Nadia M; Abdel-Rahman, Sherif Z; El-Mesallamy, Hala O

    2016-07-01

    Many reports suggested that some statins are almost ineffective in reducing triglycerides or enhancing HDL-C plasma levels, although statin treatment was still efficacious in reducing LDL-C. In diabetic dyslipidemic patients, it may therefore be necessary to use a combination therapy with other drugs to achieve either LDL-C- and triglyceride-lowering or HDL-C-enhancing goals. Such ineffectiveness of statins can be attributed to their effect on the liver X receptor (LXR) which regulates the expression of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters ABCA1 and ABCG1. A decrease in the expression of these transporters eventually leads to decreased cholesterol efflux from peripheral tissues leading to low levels of HDL-C. Although manipulating the LXR pathway may complement the effects of statins, LXR synthetic ligands as T091317 have shown significant hypertriglyceridemic action which limits their use. We recently found that the antidiabetic drug vildagliptin stimulates LXR expression leading to increased ABCB1/ABCG1 expression which improves cholesterol efflux from adipocytes. Therefore, a combination of vildagliptin and statin may provide a solution without the hypertriglyceridemic action observed with LXR agonist. We hypothesize that a combination of vildagliptin and pravastatin will improve cholesterol efflux in adipocytes. Statin-treated 3T3-L1 adipocytes were treated with vildagliptin, and the expression of LXR-ABCA1/ABCG1 cascade and the cholesterol efflux were then determined. Our data indicate that a combination of vildagliptin and pravastatin significantly induces the expression of LXR-ABCA1/ABCG1 cascade and improves cholesterol efflux (P > 0.05) in adipocytes. Our data may explain, at least in part, the improvement in HDL-C levels observed in patients receiving both medications. © 2016 IUBMB Life, 68(7):535-543, 2016. © 2016 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  4. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio is the best surrogate marker for insulin resistance in non-obese Japanese adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takayama Shuzo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the present study was to examine how lipid profiles are associated with insulin resistance in Japanese community-dwelling adults. Methods This cross-sectional study included 614 men aged 58 ± 14 (mean ± standard deviation; range, 20-89 years and 779 women aged 60 ± 12 (range, 21-88 years. The study sample were 1,042 (74.8% non-obese (BMI 2 and 351 (25.2% overweight (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 subjects. Insulin resistance was defined by homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR of at least 2.5. The areas under the curve (AUC of the receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC were used to compare the power of these serum markers. Results In non-obese subjects, the best marker of insulin resistance was low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C ratio of 0.74 (95% confidence interval (CI, 0.66-0.80. The HDL-C, triglyceride (TG/HDL-C ratio, and non-HDL-C also discriminated insulin resistance, as the values for AUC were 0.31 (95% CI, 0.24-0.38, 0.69 (95% CI, 0.62-0.75 and 0.69 (95% CI, 0.62-0.75, respectively. In overweight subjects, the AUC for TG and TG/HDL-C ratio were 0.64 (0.58-0.71 and 0.64 (0.57-0.70, respectively. The optimal cut-off point to identifying insulin resistance for these markers yielded the following values: TG/HDL-C ratio of ≥1.50 and LDL-C/HDL-C ratio of ≥2.14 in non-obese subjects, and ≥2.20, ≥2.25 in overweight subjects. In non-obese subjects, the positive likelihood ratio was greatest for LDL-C/HDL-C ratio. Conclusion In non-obese Japanese adults, LDL-C/HDL-C ratio may be the best reliable marker of insulin resistance.

  5. Biogenesis of plasma membrane cholesterol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lange, Y.

    1986-01-01

    A striking feature of the molecular organization of eukaryotic cells is the singular enrichment of their plasma membranes in sterols. The authors studies are directed at elucidating the mechanisms underlying this inhomogeneous disposition. Cholesterol oxidase catalyzes the oxidation of plasma membrane cholesterol in intact cells, leaving intracellular cholesterol pools untouched. With this technique, the plasma membrane was shown to contain 95% of the unesterified cholesterol of cultured human fibroblasts. Cholesterol synthesized from [ 3 H] acetate moved to the plasma membrane with a half-time of 1 h at 37 0 C. They used equilibrium gradient centrifugation of homogenates of biosynthetically labeled, cholesterol oxidase treated cells to examine the distribution of newly synthesized sterols among intracellular pools. Surprisingly, lanosterol, a major precursor of cholesterol, and intracellular cholesterol both peaked at much lower buoyant density than did 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase. This suggests that cholesterol biosynthesis is not taken to completion in the endoplasmic reticulum. The cholesterol in the buoyant fraction eventually moved to the plasma membrane. Digitonin treatment increased the density of the newly synthesized cholesterol fractions, indicating that nascent cholesterol in transit is associated with cholesterol-rich membranes. The authors are testing the hypothesis that the pathway of cholesterol biosynthesis is spatially organized in various intracellular membranes such that the sequence of biosynthetic steps both concentrates the sterol and conveys it to the plasma membrane

  6. High doses of garlic extract significantly attenuated the ratio of serum LDL to HDL level in rat-fed with hypercholesterolemia diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Tahereh; Behdad, Behnoosh; Abbasi, Maryam Agha; Rabati, Rahman Ghaffarzadegan; Fayyaz, Amir Farshid; Behnod, Vahid; Asgari, Ali

    2015-06-20

    Hypercholesterolemia is associated with an increased risk of heart disease. In this study, we investigated the antihyperlipidemic effects of garlic (Allium sativum L.) in rat models of hypercholesterolemic. Wistar male rats were randomly divided into 4 diet groups with garlic supplementation. Male Wistar rats were fed by standard pellet diet (group I), standard diet supplemented with 4% garlic (group II), lipogenic diet (containing sunflower oil, cholesterol and ethanol) equivalent to 200 mg raw garlic/kg body weight (raw) (group III) and lipogenic diet equivalent to 400 mg raw garlic/kg body weight (raw) (group IV). Rats fed 400 g/kg garlic extract(GE), had a significantly lower concentration of serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) cholesterol and elevated HDL -C cholesterol at day 28 (P garlic supplementation (P garlic in reducing lateral side effects of hyperlipidemia. Our data demonstrate that GE has protective effects on HDL in rats with high LDL intake. Therefore, it could be used to remedy hypercholesterolemia with help reduce risk of coronary heart disease The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1834155749171141.

  7. HIFSuite: Tools for HDL Code Conversion and Manipulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bombieri Nicola

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract HIFSuite ia a set of tools and application programming interfaces (APIs that provide support for modeling and verification of HW/SW systems. The core of HIFSuite is the HDL Intermediate Format (HIF language upon which a set of front-end and back-end tools have been developed to allow the conversion of HDL code into HIF code and vice versa. HIFSuite allows designers to manipulate and integrate heterogeneous components implemented by using different hardware description languages (HDLs. Moreover, HIFSuite includes tools, which rely on HIF APIs, for manipulating HIF descriptions in order to support code abstraction/refinement and postrefinement verification.

  8. Gemfibrozil treatment of the high triglyceride-low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol trait in men with established atherosclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knipscheer, H. C.; Nurmohamed, M. T.; van den Ende, A.; Plaat, B.; Pruijs, H. J.; Mulder, W. J.; Kastelein, J. J.

    1994-01-01

    To study the short-term efficacy, tolerability and safety of the treatment with gemfibrozil 600 mg twice daily or placebo in male patients with established atherosclerosis, with a lipid profile matching the 'high triglyceride-low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol trait'. Double-blind

  9. Circulating PCSK9 affects serum LDL and cholesterol levels more than SREBP-2 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Asghar; Shabani, Mohamad; Naseri, Faezeh; Hosseni, Bita; Soltanmohammadi, Elham; Piran, Sadegh; Najafi, Mohammad

    2017-07-01

    Cholesterol homeostasis is dependent upon the sterol regulatory element binding protein 2 (SREBP-2) regulatory system and the functioning of plasma proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9). Many studies have also reported that low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) levels in cellular membranes are related to the functioning of these proteins. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of lipid profiles with circulating PCSK9 protein values and SREBP-2 expression levels in normal subjects. The study involved 120 randomly chosen healthy subjects. Their lipid profiles were measured using routine laboratory techniques, and the plasma PCSK9 protein and SREBP-2 expression levels were determined by ELISA and real time quantitative PCR methods, respectively. A statistical analysis was carried out using a statistical software package. Linear regression analyses showed a significant correlation between total cholesterol and PCSK9 (3.54 ± 1.31 ng/mL), as well as between total cholesterol and SREBP-2 (0.1-35.38) (p = 0.002 and p = 0.02, respectively). Furthermore, multiple regression analyses showed strict correlations between PCSK9 and cholesterol-related parameters especially the total cholesterol/HDL-C ratio (β = 3.53, p = 0.001). There was no significant correlation between circulating PCSK9 and SREBP-2 expression levels (r = 1.2, p = 0.3). The study results revealed that serum cholesterol-related parameters are strictly associated with plasma PCSK9 values, suggesting that PCSK9 function has a greater effect on serum total cholesterol levels than SREBP-2 expression does. Furthermore, the total cholesterol/HDL-C ratio was a better indicator for evaluating PCSK9 level than total cholesterol.

  10. Clinical benefit from pharmacological elevation of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol: meta-regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hourcade-Potelleret, F; Laporte, S; Lehnert, V; Delmar, P; Benghozi, Renée; Torriani, U; Koch, R; Mismetti, P

    2015-06-01

    Epidemiological evidence that the risk of coronary heart disease is inversely associated with the level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) has motivated several phase III programmes with cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) inhibitors. To assess alternative methods to predict clinical response of CETP inhibitors. Meta-regression analysis on raising HDL-C drugs (statins, fibrates, niacin) in randomised controlled trials. 51 trials in secondary prevention with a total of 167,311 patients for a follow-up >1 year where HDL-C was measured at baseline and during treatment. The meta-regression analysis showed no significant association between change in HDL-C (treatment vs comparator) and log risk ratio (RR) of clinical endpoint (non-fatal myocardial infarction or cardiac death). CETP inhibitors data are consistent with this finding (RR: 1.03; P5-P95: 0.99-1.21). A prespecified sensitivity analysis by drug class suggested that the strength of relationship might differ between pharmacological groups. A significant association for both statins (p<0.02, log RR=-0.169-0.0499*HDL-C change, R(2)=0.21) and niacin (p=0.02, log RR=1.07-0.185*HDL-C change, R(2)=0.61) but not fibrates (p=0.18, log RR=-0.367+0.077*HDL-C change, R(2)=0.40) was shown. However, the association was no longer detectable after adjustment for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol for statins or exclusion of open trials for niacin. Meta-regression suggested that CETP inhibitors might not influence coronary risk. The relation between change in HDL-C level and clinical endpoint may be drug dependent, which limits the use of HDL-C as a surrogate marker of coronary events. Other markers of HDL function may be more relevant. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  11. Intestinal cholesterol transport: Measuring cholesterol absorption and its reverse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jakulj, L.

    2013-01-01

    Intestinal cholesterol transport might serve as an attractive future target for cardiovascular disease reduction, provided that underlying molecular mechanisms are more extensively elucidated, combined with improved techniques to measure changes in cholesterol fluxes and their possible

  12. The challenges of genome-wide interaction studies: lessons to learn from the analysis of HDL blood levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth M van Leeuwen

    Full Text Available Genome-wide association studies (GWAS have revealed 74 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs associated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL blood levels. This study is, to our knowledge, the first genome-wide interaction study (GWIS to identify SNP×SNP interactions associated with HDL levels. We performed a GWIS in the Rotterdam Study (RS cohort I (RS-I using the GLIDE tool which leverages the massively parallel computing power of Graphics Processing Units (GPUs to perform linear regression on all genome-wide pairs of SNPs. By performing a meta-analysis together with Rotterdam Study cohorts II and III (RS-II and RS-III, we were able to filter 181 interaction terms with a p-value<1 · 10-8 that replicated in the two independent cohorts. We were not able to replicate any of these interaction term in the AGES, ARIC, CHS, ERF, FHS and NFBC-66 cohorts (Ntotal = 30,011 when adjusting for multiple testing. Our GWIS resulted in the consistent finding of a possible interaction between rs774801 in ARMC8 (ENSG00000114098 and rs12442098 in SPATA8 (ENSG00000185594 being associated with HDL levels. However, p-values do not reach the preset Bonferroni correction of the p-values. Our study suggest that even for highly genetically determined traits such as HDL the sample sizes needed to detect SNP×SNP interactions are large and the 2-step filtering approaches do not yield a solution. Here we present our analysis plan and our reservations concerning GWIS.

  13. Maternal plasma cholesterol and duration of pregnancy: A prospective cohort study in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oaks, Brietta M; Stewart, Christine P; Laugero, Kevin D; Adu-Afarwuah, Seth; Lartey, Anna; Vosti, Stephen A; Ashorn, Per; Dewey, Kathryn G

    2017-10-01

    Low plasma cholesterol may be associated with preterm birth; however, results are mixed and limited primarily to high-income countries. Our objective was to determine whether maternal plasma lipid concentrations are associated with pregnancy duration. We performed a nested cohort (n = 320) study of pregnant Ghanaian women enrolled in a randomized controlled trial. Total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride concentrations were analyzed in plasma at ≤20and 36 weeks gestation as continuous variables and also categorized into low, referent, or high (90th percentile). At ≤20 weeks, plasma lipid concentrations were not associated with pregnancy duration. At 36 weeks, total cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations were not associated with pregnancy duration. Higher HDL-C at 36 weeks was associated with a longer pregnancy duration (adjusted β-coefficient ± standard error: 0.05 ± 0.02 days mg -1 /dL, p = .02); pregnancy duration was 5.9 ± 2.0 (mean ± standard error) days shorter among women with low HDL-C compared with the referent group (10th-90th percentile) (p = .02) and 8.6 ± 2.6 days shorter when compared with the high HDL-C group (p = .003). Pregnancy duration was 4.9 ± 2.1 days longer among women with low low-density lipoprotein cholesterol at 36 weeks gestation when compared with the referent group (p = .051). Our data suggest that low HDL-C in the third trimester of pregnancy is associated with a shorter duration of pregnancy in this study population but do not support the hypothesis that low total cholesterol is associated with a shorter pregnancy duration. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Lower Squalene Epoxidase and Higher Scavenger Receptor Class B Type 1 Protein Levels Are Involved in Reduced Serum Cholesterol Levels in Stroke-Prone Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michihara, Akihiro; Mido, Mayuko; Matsuoka, Hiroshi; Mizutani, Yurika

    2015-01-01

    A lower serum cholesterol level was recently shown to be one of the causes of stroke in an epidemiological study. Spontaneously hypertensive rats stroke-prone (SHRSP) have lower serum cholesterol levels than normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY). To elucidate the mechanisms responsible for the lower serum cholesterol levels in SHRSP, we determined whether the amounts of cholesterol biosynthetic enzymes or the receptor and transporter involved in cholesterol uptake and efflux in the liver were altered in SHRSP. When the mRNA levels of seven cholesterol biosynthetic enzymes were measured using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase and squalene epoxidase (SQE) levels in the liver of SHRSP were significantly lower than those in WKY. SQE protein levels were significantly reduced in tissues other than the brain of SHRSP. No significant differences were observed in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor (uptake of serum LDL-cholesterol) or ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (efflux of cholesterol from the liver/formation of high-density lipoprotein (HDL)) protein levels in the liver and testis between SHRSP and WKY, whereas scavenger receptor class B type 1 (SRB1: uptake of serum HDL-cholesterol) protein levels were higher in the livers of SHRSP. These results indicated that the lower protein levels of SQE and higher protein levels of SRB1 in the liver were involved in the reduced serum cholesterol levels in SHRSP.

  15. HDL-S1P: cardiovascular functions, disease-associated alterations, and therapeutic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levkau, Bodo

    2015-01-01

    Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive sphingolipid contained in High-density lipoproteins (HDL) and has drawn considerable attention in the lipoprotein field as numerous studies have demonstrated its contribution to several functions inherent to HDL. Some of them are partly and some entirely due to the S1P contained in HDL (HDL-S1P). Despite the presence of over 1000 different lipids in HDL, S1P stands out as it possesses its own cell surface receptors through which it exercises key physiological functions. Most of the S1P in human plasma is associated with HDL, and the amount of HDL-S1P influences the quality and quantity of HDL-dependent functions. The main binding partner of S1P in HDL is apolipoprotein M but others may also exist particularly under conditions of acute S1P elevations. HDL not only exercise functions through their S1P content but have also an impact on genuine S1P signaling by influencing S1P bioactivity and receptor presentation. HDL-S1P content is altered in human diseases such as atherosclerosis, coronary artery disease, myocardial infarction, renal insufficiency and diabetes mellitus. Low HDL-S1P has also been linked to impaired HDL functions associated with these disorders. Although the pathophysiological and molecular reasons for such disease-associated shifts in HDL-S1P are little understood, there have been successful approaches to circumvent their adverse implications by pharmacologically increasing HDL-S1P as means to improve HDL function. This mini-review will cover the current understanding of the contribution of HDL-S1P to physiological HDL function, its alteration in disease and ways for its restoration to correct HDL dysfunction.

  16. High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Level Relates to Working Memory, Immediate and Delayed Cued Recall in Brazilian Older Adults: The Role of Cognitive Reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihle, Andreas; Gouveia, Élvio R; Gouveia, Bruna R; Freitas, Duarte L; Jurema, Jefferson; Tinôco, Maria A; Kliegel, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    The present study set out to investigate the relation of the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) level to cognitive performance and its interplay with key markers of cognitive reserve in a large sample of older adults. We assessed tests of working memory, immediate and delayed cued recall in 701 older adults from Amazonas, Brazil. The HDL-C level was derived from fasting blood samples. In addition, we interviewed individuals on their education, past occupation, and cognitive leisure activity. A critically low HDL-C level (cued recall. Moderation analyses suggested that the relations of the HDL-C level to working memory and delayed cued recall were negligible in individuals with longer education, a higher cognitive level of the job, and greater engagement in cognitive leisure activity. Cognitive reserve accumulated during the life course may reduce the detrimental influences of a critically low HDL-C level on cognitive functioning in old age. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Effect of sardine proteins on hyperglycaemia, hyperlipidaemia and lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase activity, in high-fat diet-induced type 2 diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benaicheta, Nora; Labbaci, Fatima Z; Bouchenak, Malika; Boukortt, Farida O

    2016-01-14

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a major risk factor of CVD. The effects of purified sardine proteins (SP) were examined on glycaemia, insulin sensitivity and reverse cholesterol transport in T2D rats. Rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 5 weeks, and injected with a low dose of streptozotocin, were used. The diabetic rats were divided into four groups, and they were fed casein (CAS) or SP combined with 30 or 5% lipids, for 4 weeks. HFD-induced hyperglycaemia, insulin resistance and hyperlipidaemia in rats fed HFD, regardless of the consumed protein. In contrast, these parameters lowered in rats fed SP combined with 5 or 30% lipids, and serum insulin values reduced in SP v. CAS. HFD significantly increased total cholesterol and TAG concentrations in the liver and serum, whereas these parameters decreased with SP, regardless of lipid intake. Faecal cholesterol excretion was higher with SP v. CAS, combined with 30 or 5% lipids. Lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) activity and HDL3-phospholipids (PL) were higher in CAS-HF than in CAS, whereas HDL2-cholesteryl esters (CE) were lower. Otherwise, LCAT activity and HDL2-CE were higher in the SP group than in the CAS group, whereas HDL3-PL and HDL3-unesterified cholesterol were lower. Moreover, LCAT activity lowered in the SP-HF group than in the CAS-HF group, when HDL2-CE was higher. In conclusion, these results indicate the potential effects of SP to improve glycaemia, insulin sensitivity and reverse cholesterol transport, in T2D rats.

  18. HDL-mimetic PLGA nanoparticle to target atherosclerosis plaque macrophages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanchez-Gaytan, Brenda L.; Fay, Francois; Lobatto, Mark E.; Tang, Jun; Ouimet, Mireille; Kim, Yongtae; van der Staay, Susanne E. M.; van Rijs, Sarian M.; Priem, Bram; Zhang, Liangfang; Fisher, Edward A.; Moore, Kathryn J.; Langer, Robert; Fayad, Zahi A.; Mulder, Willem J. M.

    2015-01-01

    High-density lipoprotein (HDL) is a natural nanoparticle that exhibits an intrinsic affinity for atherosclerotic plaque macrophages. Its natural targeting capability as well as the option to incorporate lipophilic payloads, e.g., imaging or therapeutic components, in both the hydrophobic core and

  19. Relación entre paraoxonasa, otros componentes de HDL y estado inflamatorio en hemodiálisis Relation between paraoxonase activity, other HDL components and inflammatory conditions in hemodialyzed patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Inés González

    2010-12-01

    -rich lipoproteins and decrease in HDL level. HDL contains antioxidant enzymes such as paraoxonase (PON, whose activity is diminished in CKD. The aim of our study was to evaluate the relationship between PON activity with HDL cholesterol, apo A1 and hs-CRP levels, which are known to be inflammatory markers in hemodialyzed patients. Forty-two patients were studied; age, median (range = 50 (25-67 years old, gender M/F = 22/20, duration of hemodialysis = 4.4 ± 0.5 years, BMI: 23 ± 0.5 kg/m². After a 12 h fast, a blood sample was obtained and classic components of lipid profile were determined, as well as apoproteins A1 and B, PON by means of its arylsterase activity and hs-CRP levels. On the basis of the latter, patients were divided into two groups: hs-CRP ≤ 1 (low risk, range: 0.1 to 1.0 mg/l and >1 mg/l (moderate and high risk, 1.1 to 10.7 mg/l. No difference was found in triglycerides, LDL cholesterol and apo B in the groups. Patients with hs-CRP > 1 showed lower HDL cholesterol (40 ± 2 mg/dl and apo A1 (118 ± 4 mg/dl than patients with hs-CRP ≤ 1 (50 ± 4 and 133 ± 5, respectively; p 1 = 90.5 ± 24.0 μmol/ml.min than in hs-CRP ≤ 1 = 105.2 ± 18.0. Consequently, inverse correlations were obtained between apo A1 and hs-CRP, r = -0.381, p = 0.013 and between PON and hs-CRP, r = -0.32, p = 0.042. Furthermore, increase in hs-CRP correlated positively with BMI r = 0.318, p = 0.042. Since apo A1 has an anti-inflammatory role and PON an antioxidant activity, the decrease in HDL and its components, cholesterol, apo A1 and PON, in subjects with higher chronic inflammatory condition might explain, in part, the increased cardiovascular risk in these patients.

  20. Optimization of bioactive compounds in buckwheat sprouts and their effect on blood cholesterol in hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Li-Yun; Peng, Chiung-Chi; Yang, Ya-Lu; Peng, Robert Y

    2008-02-27

    Nutrient levels in buckwheats that were maximized in day 8 sprouts (D8SP) included total phenolics, quercetin, and l-ascorbic acid, whereas those of oxalic, malic, tartaric, and citric acids, rutin, and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) were found to reach maximum levels on day 10. Ethanolic extract of D8SP (2.5 mg/mL) revealed potent free-radical scavenging (FRS) and antioxidative (ANO) capabilities. However, its Fe2+-chelating capability was only moderate. To further study the hypolipidemic activity of D8SP, 36 Syrian hamsters were grouped into six groups and fed for 28 days, respectively, with (i) control meal, (ii) high fat plus high cholesterol meal, (iii) high fat plus high cholesterol plus 2.5% of buckwheat seeds, (iv) high fat plus high cholesterol plus 25% of buckwheat seeds, (v) high fat plus high cholesterol plus 2.5% of D8SP, and (vi) high fat plus high cholesterol plus 25% of D8SP. High seed meal prominently enhanced body weight gain, whereas high sprout meal exhibited the highest feed efficiency. Ratios of liver/body weight (L/B) were significantly lowered by all BS meals. Although low seed meal reduced serum total cholesterol (TC) levels (pcholesterol (LDL-C) were significantly suppressed by all buckwheat meals (pcholesterol (HDL-C) levels were increased, however, insignificantly. Nutraceutically more meaningful is that both LDL-C/HDL-C and TC/HDL-C ratios were significantly lowered (p<0.01). Apparently, hepatic TC levels were significantly reduced, whereas hepatic TG levels were totally unaffected. Conclusively, sprouting triggers a variety of nutritional changes in buckwheats. Day 8 sprouts, consisting of high polyphenolic and moderate quercetin contents, are nutraceutically maximized when hypocholesterolemic, hypotriglyceridemic, and antioxidative activities are concerned.

  1. [Relationship between the triglyceride/high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol ratio, insulin resistance index and cardiometabolic risk factors in women with polycystic ovary syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roa Barrios, Marlene; Arata-Bellabarba, Gabriela; Valeri, Lenin; Velázquez-Maldonado, Elsy

    2009-02-01

    To evaluate the relationship between the triglyceride/high density lipoprotein cholesterol (TG/HDL-c) ratio, insulin resistance index and cardiometabolic risk factors in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The present crosssectional study analyzed 62 women with PCOS and 48 healthy women (control group) aged 17- 35 years old. Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and blood pressure were registered. Plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, triglycerides, total cholesterol and HDL-c were measured. TheTG/HDL-c ratio, homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA(IR)) and quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI) were calculated. Women with PCOS showed significantly higher values of the TG/HDL-c ratio and HOMA(IR), and a significantly lower QUICKI value. These differences were related to BMI and WC, with the highest values being observed in obese patients. The 50th percentile for the TG/HDL-c ratio was 3.64; the TG/cHDL ratio was positively correlated with BMI, WC and HOMA(IR) (r=0.48, pglucose > 100 mg/dl (10% vs 3%; ptriglycerides>150 mg/dl (55% vs 20%; p80 cm (82.3% vs 43.8%; pindexes (HOMA(IR), QUICKI). The TG/HDL-c ratio could be considered as a useful and practical method to identify an increased risk of cardiovascular disease in patients with PCOS.

  2. [Beclobrate (Turec) in the treatment of primary hyperlipoproteinemia. I. Effect on cholesterol, lipid and apoprotein levels].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sznajd, J; Idzior-Waluś, B; Zabiński, J; Wybrańska, I; Korzus, G; Iwanejko, J

    1990-01-01

    The effects of a new fibric acid derivative--beclobrate (Turec, Zyma) on serum lipid and apoprotein concentrations in 63 patients with primary hyperlipoproteinemia were examined. Beclobrate was given in the evening, 100 mg, once daily. After 3 months of beclobrate treatment mean total cholesterol concentration in serum decreased from 9.35 to 7.73 mmol/l (17.3%), mean LDL-cholesterol concentration from 6.32 to 5.38 mmol/l (14.9%), mean HDL-cholesterol concentration increased by 0.21 mmol/l (15.3% of initial value). The greatest decrease was observed in triglyceride concentration--by 50% of the initial value. Apoprotein B concentration decreased by 19.7%, apoprotein A1 and A2 concentration increased by 20.3% and 26.8% respectively. Higher initial values of total cholesterol and triglyceride concentration in serum were associated with greater concentration decrease after beclobrate treatment.

  3. A pooled analysis of the association of isolated low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol with cardiovascular mortality in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Takumi; Sugiyama, Daisuke; Nagasawa, Shin-Ya; Murakami, Yoshitaka; Saitoh, Shigeyuki; Okayama, Akira; Iso, Hiroyasu; Irie, Fujiko; Sairenchi, Toshimi; Miyamoto, Yoshihiro; Yamada, Michiko; Ishikawa, Shizukiyo; Miura, Katsuyuki; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Okamura, Tomonori

    2017-07-01

    Low levels of serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) have been shown to be associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). However, because this is usually observed in the context of other lipid abnormalities, it is not known whether isolated low serum HDL-C levels are an independent risk factor for CHD. We performed a large pooled analysis in Japan using data from nine cohorts with 41,206 participants aged 40-89 years who were free of cardiovascular disease at baseline. We divided participants into three groups: isolated low HDL-C, non-isolated low HDL-C, and normal HDL-C. Cohort-stratified Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for death due to CHD, ischemic stroke, and intracranial cerebral hemorrhage; during a 12.9-year follow-up, we observed 355, 286, and 138 deaths, respectively, in these groups. Non-isolated low HDL-C was significantly associated with increased risk of CHD compared with normal HDL-C (HR 1.37, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.04-1.80); however, isolated low HDL-C was not. Although isolated low HDL-C was significantly associated with decreased risk of CHD (HR 0.51, 95 % CI 0.29-0.89) in women, it was significantly associated with increased risk of intracranial cerebral hemorrhage in all participants (HR 1.62, 95 % CI 1.04-2.53) and in men (HR 2.00, 95 % CI 1.04-3.83). In conclusion, isolated low HDL-C levels are not associated with increased risk of CHD in Japan. CHD risk may, therefore, be more strongly affected by serum total cholesterol levels in this population.

  4. Transintestinal cholesterol excretion in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reeskamp, Laurens F.; Meessen, Emma C. E.; Groen, Albert K.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose of review To discuss recent insights into the measurement and cellular basis of transintestinal cholesterol excretion (TICE) in humans and to explore TICE as a therapeutic target for increasing reverse cholesterol transport. Recent findings TICE is the net effect of cholesterol excretion by

  5. Triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in patients at high risk of cardiovascular disease: evidence and guidance for management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chapman, M John; Ginsberg, Henry N; Amarenco, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Even at low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) goal, patients with cardiometabolic abnormalities remain at high risk of cardiovascular events. This paper aims (i) to critically appraise evidence for elevated levels of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRLs) and low levels of high......-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) as cardiovascular risk factors, and (ii) to advise on therapeutic strategies for management. Current evidence supports a causal association between elevated TRL and their remnants, low HDL-C, and cardiovascular risk. This interpretation is based on mechanistic and genetic...

  6. The levels of plasma low density lipoprotein are independent of cholesterol ester transfer protein in fish-oil fed F1B hamsters

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    Davis Phillip J

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cholesterol ester transfer protein (CETP plays a major role in regulating the levels of LDL- and HDL-cholesterol. We previously observed a fish-oil-induced elevation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL-and very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL-cholesterol concentrations and a decrease in high-density lipoprotein (HDL-cholesterol concentration in F1B hamsters. The molecular mechanism/s by which fish oil induces hyperlipidaemic effect was investigated in this study. We examined whether the effects of dietary fish oil on plasma lipoprotein concentrations are due to fish-oil-induced alterations in plasma CETP activity. MIX diet, a diet supplemented with a mixture of lard and safflower oil, was used as the control diet. Results We found that fish oil feeding in hamsters reduced CETP mass as well as CETP activity. Increasing the dietary fat level of fish-oil from 5% to 20% (w/w led to a further decrease in CETP mass. Supplementation with dietary cholesterol increased both CETP mass and CETP activity in fish-oil and MIX-diet fed hamsters. However, there was no correlation between CETP mass as well as CETP activity and LDL-cholesterol concentrations. Conclusion These findings suggest that cholesterol ester transfer between HDL and LDL is not likely to play a major role in determining fish-oil-induced changes in LDL- and HDL-cholesterol concentrations in F1B hamsters. A possible role of reduced clearance of LDL-particles as well as dietary fat level and dietary cholesterol dependent changes in LDL-lipid composition have been discussed.

  7. Triterpenic Acids Present in Hawthorn Lower Plasma Cholesterol by Inhibiting Intestinal ACAT Activity in Hamsters

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    Yuguang Lin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hawthorn (Crataegus pinnatifida is an edible fruit used in traditional Chinese medicine to lower plasma lipids. This study explored lipid-lowering compounds and underlying mechanisms of action of hawthorn. Hawthorn powder extracts inhibited acylCoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT activity in Caco-2 cells. The inhibitory activity was positively associated with triterpenic acid (i.e., oleanolic acid (OA and ursolic acid (UA contents in the extracts. Cholesterol lowering effects of hawthorn and its potential additive effect in combination with plant sterol esters (PSE were further studied in hamsters. Animals were fed a semi-synthetic diet containing 0.08% (w/w cholesterol (control or the same diet supplemented with (i 0.37% hawthorn dichloromethane extract, (ii 0.24% PSE, (iii hawthorn dichloromethane extract (0.37% plus PSE (0.24% or (iv OA/UA mixture (0.01% for 4 weeks. Compared to the control diet, hawthorn, PSE, hawthorn plus PSE and OA/UA significantly lowered plasma non-HDL (VLDL + LDL cholesterol concentrations by 8%, 9%, 21% and 6% and decreased hepatic cholesterol ester content by 9%, 23%, 46% and 22%, respectively. The cholesterol lowering effects of these ingredients were conversely associated with their capacities in increasing fecal neutral sterol excretion. In conclusion, OA and UA are responsible for the cholesterol lowering effect of hawthorn by inhibiting intestinal ACAT activity. In addition, hawthorn and particularly its bioactive compounds (OA and UA enhanced the cholesterol lowering effect of plant sterols.

  8. Beneficial effect of low dose Amlodipine vs Nifedipine on serum cholesterol profile of rabbits receiving standard diet.

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    Bavane DS, Rajesh CS, Gurudatta Moharir, Bharatha Ambadasu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effect of low dose amlodipine v/s nifedipine on serum cholesterol profile of rabbits receiving standard diet. Methods: Fourty Newzealand rabbits were selected for the study. Their cholesterol profile was estimated at the beginning of the study. Rabbits were grouped into 4 groups receiving standard diet (control group, standard diet + vehicle propylene glycol, standard diet + nifedipine dissolved in propylene glycol and standard diet + amlodipine dissolved in propylene glycol. Along with standard diet they were treated with respective drugs for ten weeks. At the end of ten weeks serum cholesterol profile was estimated. Results: The cholesterol profile was estimated at the beginning and at the end of ten weeks. Total cholesterol in the amlodipine group decreased from 97±4.06 mg/dl to 90±4.2 mg/dl and HDL-Cholesterol increased from 32.01±4.40 mg/dl to 37±4.60 mg/dl after 10 week treatment but these changes were not significant. LDL cholesterol decreased significantly in rabbits with low dose of amlodipine from 55.42±3.32 mg/dl to 32.40±3.22 mg/dl and. In the nifedipine group there was a slight increase in total cholesterol from 102.49±5.16 mg/dl to 106±5.39 mg/dl, HDL cholesterol from 34.10±2.80 to 35.16±2.82 mg/dl and LDL cholesterol also increased from 56.20±2.20 mg/dl to 59.00±2.20 mg/dl after 10 week treatment. Conclusion: The study shows amlodipine produces favorable alterations in serum cholesterol profile

  9. Increased maternal and fetal cholesterol efflux capacity and placental CYP27A1 expression in preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistry, Hiten D; Kurlak, Lesia O; Mansour, Yosef T; Zurkinden, Line; Mohaupt, Markus G; Escher, Geneviève

    2017-06-01

    Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-specific condition that leads to increased cardiovascular risk in later life. A decrease in cholesterol efflux capacity is linked to CVD. We hypothesized that in preeclampsia there would be a disruption of maternal/fetal plasma to efflux cholesterol, as well as differences in the concentrations of both placental sterol 27-hydroxylase (CYP27A1) and apoA1 binding protein (AIBP). Total, HDL-, and ABCA1-mediated cholesterol effluxes were performed with maternal and fetal plasma from women with preeclampsia and normotensive controls (both n = 17). apoA1 and apoE were quantified by chemiluminescence, and 27-hydroxycholesterol (27-OHC) by GC-MS. Immunohistochemistry was used to determine placental expression/localization of CYP27A1, AIBP, apoA1, apoE, and SRB1. Maternal and fetal total and HDL-mediated cholesterol efflux capacities were increased in preeclampsia (by 10-20%), but ABCA1-mediated efflux was decreased (by 20-35%; P preeclampsia. Fetal plasma 27-OHC levels were decreased in preeclamptic samples ( P preeclampsia ( P = 0.04). Placental 27-OHC concentrations were also raised in preeclampsia ( P preeclampsia, to remove cholesterol from cells to limit lipid peroxidation and increase placental angiogenesis. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  10. Sex-specific nonlinear associations between serum lipids and different domains of cognitive function in middle to older age individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yanhui; An, Yu; Yu, Huanling; Che, Fengyuan; Zhang, Xiaona; Rong, Hongguo; Xi, Yuandi; Xiao, Rong

    2017-08-01

    To examine how serum lipids relates to specific cognitive ability domains between the men and women in Chinese middle to older age individuals. A complete lipid panel was obtained from 1444 individuals, ages 50-65, who also underwent a selection of cognitive tests. Participants were 584 men and 860 women from Linyi city, Shandong province. Multiple linear regression analyses examined serum lipids level as quadratic predictors of sex-specific measure of performance in different cognitive domains, which were adjusted for sociodemographic and lifestyle characteristics. In men, a significant quadratic effect of total cholesterol (TC) was identified for Digit Symbol (B = -0.081, P = 0.044) and also quadratic effect of low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) was identified for Trail Making Test B (B = -0.082, P = 0.045). Differently in women, there were significant quadratic associations between high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) and multiple neuropsychological tests. The nonlinear lipid-cognition associations differed between men and women and were specific to certain cognitive domains and might be of potential relevance for prevention and therapy of cognitive decline.

  11. Changes in cholesterol homeostasis modify the response of F1B hamsters to dietary very long chain n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecker, Jaime L; Matthan, Nirupa R; Billheimer, Jeffrey T; Rader, Daniel J; Lichtenstein, Alice H

    2011-10-21

    The plasma lipoprotein response of F1B Golden-Syrian hamsters fed diets high in very long chain (VLC) n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) is paradoxical to that observed in humans. This anomaly is attributed, in part, to low lipoprotein lipase activity and is dependent on cholesterol status. To further elucidate the mechanism(s) for these responses, hamsters were fed diets containing supplemental fish oil (VLC n-3 PUFA) or safflower oil (n-6 PUFA) (both 10% [w/w]) and either cholesterol-supplemented (0.1% cholesterol [w/w]) or cholesterol-depleted (0.01% cholesterol [w/w] and 10 days prior to killing fed 0.15% lovastatin+2% cholestyramine [w/w]). Cholesterol-supplemented hamsters fed fish oil, relative to safflower oil, had higher non-high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations (P safflower oil, had lower non-HDL cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations (P < 0.001) which were associated with lower hepatic SREBP-1c (p < 0.05) but not apo B-100, apo E or ACAT-2 mRNA or protein levels. Independent of cholesterol status, fish oil fed hamsters had lower HDL cholesterol concentrations (p < 0.001), which were associated with lower hepatic apoA-I protein levels (p < 0.05). These data suggest disturbing cholesterol homeostasis in F1B hamsters alters their response to dietary fatty acids, which is reflected in altered plasma lipoprotein patterns and regulation of genes associated with their metabolism.

  12. Chronic vitamin A-enriched diet feeding regulates hypercholesterolaemia through transcriptional regulation of reverse cholesterol transport pathway genes in obese rat model of WNIN/GR-Ob strain

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    Shanmugam M Jeyakumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Hepatic scavenger receptor class B1 (SR-B1, a high-density lipoprotein (HDL receptor, is involved in the selective uptake of HDL-associated esterified cholesterol (EC, thereby regulates cholesterol homoeostasis and improves reverse cholesterol transport. Previously, we reported in euglycaemic obese rats (WNIN/Ob strain that feeding of vitamin A-enriched diet normalized hypercholesterolaemia, possibly through hepatic SR-B1-mediated pathway. This study was aimed to test whether it would be possible to normalize hypercholesterolaemia in glucose-intolerant obese rat model (WNIN/GR/Ob through similar mechanism by feeding identical vitamin A-enriched diet. Methods: In this study, 30 wk old male lean and obese rats of WNIN/GR-Ob strain were divided into two groups and received either stock diet or vitamin A-enriched diet (2.6 mg or 129 mg vitamin A/kg diet for 14 wk. Blood and other tissues were collected for various biochemical analyses. Results: Chronic vitamin A-enriched diet feeding decreased hypercholesterolaemia and normalized abnormally elevated plasma HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C levels in obese rats as compared to stock diet-fed obese groups. Further, decreased free cholesterol (FC and increased esterified cholesterol (EC contents of plasma cholesterol were observed, which were reflected in higher EC to FC ratio of vitamin A-enriched diet-fed obese rats. However, neither lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT activity of plasma nor its expression (both gene and protein in the liver were altered. On the contrary, hepatic cholesterol levels significantly increased in vitamin A-enriched diet fed obese rats. Hepatic SR-B1 expression (both mRNA and protein remained unaltered among groups. Vitamin A-enriched diet fed obese rats showed a significant increase in hepatic low-density lipoprotein receptor mRNA levels, while the expression of genes involved in HDL synthesis, namely, ATP-binding cassette protein 1 (ABCA1 and

  13. Hip circumference is associated with high density lipoprotein cholesterol response following statin therapy in hypertensive subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pio-Magalhães, J A; Ferreira-Sae, M C; Souza, F A; Grespan-Magossi, A M; Schreiber, R; Velloso, L A; Geloneze, B; Franchini, K G; Nadruz, W

    2011-10-01

    This report investigated the relationship between anthropometric measurements of body fat distribution and lipid response to statins in hypercholesterolemic hypertensive patients. We prospectively examined 129 subjects who used either simvastatin 20 mg/day (no.=83) or atorvastatin 10 mg/day (no.=46) for 3 months. Anthropometry included evaluation of body mass index, waist and hip circumferences, and waist-to-hip-ratio. Significant decreases in LDL (pcorrelation between waist circumference and HDLcholesterol levels was detected (r=-0.18; p=0.04). Conversely, a direct relationship between hip circumference and HDLcholesterol response to statins was found in the whole sample (r=0.24; p=0.006), while no other anthropometric measurement displayed significant correlation with lipid changes. The association between HDL-cholesterol response and hip circumference was further confirmed by stepwise regression analysis adjusted for baseline HDL-cholesterol levels, metabolic syndrome, body mass index, and waist circumference. Hip circumference, a surrogate marker of peripheral adiposity, is associated with HDL-cholesterol changes following statin therapy in hypertensive patients.

  14. Efeitos dos métodos de abate e sexo na composição centesimal, perfil de ácidos graxos e colesterol da carne de capivaras Effect of two slaughter methods and sex on proximate composition, cholesterol content and fatty acids profile of capybara meat (Hydrochaeris Hydrochaeris L. 1766

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra H. I. Oda

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos de métodos de abate (MA (humanitário (MH e por tiro (MT e sexo na composição centesimal, perfil de ácidos graxos (AG e colesterol da carne de capivara (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris L. 1766. Foram abatidos 20 animais (13 machos (M e 7 fêmeas (F com peso médio de 45,71kg. No músculo longissimus dorsi (LD foram determinados: umidade, lipídios totais (LT, proteína e cinzas e no semimembranosus (SM, o colesterol por colorimetria e o perfil de AG por cromatografia gasosa. O LD apresentou: 75,87% de umidade, 1,37% de LT, 22,11% de proteínas e 1,09% de cinzas. Houve diferença (pThe objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of two slaughter methods: traditional (TS and head-shot (HS and sex on the proximate composition, fatty acids (FA profile and cholesterol content of capybara meat. Twenty animals (13 males (M and 7 females (F, weighting about 45.71kg, were slaughtered. In longissimus dorsi (LD muscle were determined: moisture, crude fat, protein and ash. In semimembranosus (SM muscle, were determined: cholesterol content for colorimetric method and fatty acids (FA profile for gas chromatography. The LD muscle had values of: 75.87% of moisture, 1.37% of crude fat, 22.11% of crude protein, 1.09% of ash. There were significant differences (p<0.01 between lipid contents of M (1.75% and F (0.98%. The FA in major concentration (% were: C16:0 (29.57; C18:1w9 (27.87; C18:2w6 (19.19; C18:0 (6.57; C18:3w3 (4.97; C14:0 (3.64; C20:4w6 (3.45; C18:1w7 (3.31 and C16:1w7 (1.90. Ratio value of poliunsaturated FA to saturated FA was 0.82. The average values of w6 FA and w3 FA were 23.41 and 5.63%, respectively. The factors sex and slaughter method had no effect on poliunsaturated FA percentages and cholesterol content (28.11mg/100g. Capybara meat presented low total lipid content and high crude protein values and FA w6/w3 ratio considered nutritionally adequated.

  15. Triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio and carotid intima-medial thickness in Chinese adolescents with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Deng, You-Ping; Yang, Miao; Wu, Yu-Wen; Sun, Su-Xin; Sun, Jia-Zhong

    2016-03-01

    To investigate the relationship between triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TG/HDL-C) ratio and carotid intima-medial thickness (CIMT) in Chinese youth and adolescents with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Ninety-eight subjects aged 10-24 yr with newly-diagnosed T2DM had general inflammation, anthropometric, laboratory and CIMT data collected, and were divided into three groups based on TG/HDL-C tertiles. There were no significant differences in gender, age, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), and carotid arterial diameter (CAD) among the groups based on TG/HDL-C tertiles. Across TG/HDL-C tertiles, there was a significant progressive increase in body mass index (BMI), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), TG, total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and CIMT (all P < 0.01 or P < 0.05), while HDL-C was decreased significantly across the groups (P < 0.01). In general linear regression model, TG/HDL-C was an independent determinant of CIMT even after adjusting for BMI, SBP, DBP, TG, TC, LDL-C, HDL-C, HbA1c and HOMA-IR. TG/HDL-C ratio, the marker of small dense LDL particles, is an independent determinant of CIMT in Chinese youth and adolescents with newly diagnosed T2DM, and may be a simple and helpful tool in predicting the increased CIMT in such patients. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. A case-control study on reduced HDL2b in patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Weihong; Chen, Lin; Mao, Sha; Qiao, Jie

    2016-10-01

    High-density lipoprotein (HDL) is an important factor associated with the increasing risk of future ischaemic heart disease. In this study, we analyzed serum HDL2b level in the patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Total of 60 female patients with PCOS was enrolled for assessment and another 60 non-PCOS females with matched age and weight were selected as control. A highly sensitive microfluidic chip was employed to analyze the serum HDL subfractions. Serum HDL2b and HDL2b/HDL ratio were decreased in PCOS group than those in the control group (p PCOS patients by using the microfluidic chip method assessment. Hyperandrogenism was the main factor to affect HDL2b and its ratio to total HDL in PCOS patients, and it might increase the incidence of atherosclerosis as well as the risk of coronary heart disease.

  17. Consumption of less than 10% of total energy from added sugars is associated with increasing HDL in females during adolescence: a longitudinal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Alexandra K; Binongo, José Nilo G; Chowdhury, Ritam; Stein, Aryeh D; Gazmararian, Julie A; Vos, Miriam B; Welsh, Jean A

    2014-02-26

    Atherosclerotic changes associated with dyslipidemia and increased cardiovascular disease risk are believed to begin in childhood. While previous studies have linked added sugars consumption to low high-density lipoprotein (HDL), little is known about the long-term impact of this consumption. This study aims to assess the association between added sugars intake and HDL cholesterol levels during adolescence, and whether this association is modified by obesity. We used data from the National Heart Lung and Blood Institute's Growth and Health Study, a 10-year cohort study of non-Hispanic Caucasian and African-American girls (N=2379) aged 9 and 10 years at baseline recruited from 3 sites in 1987-1988 with biennial plasma lipid measurement and annual assessment of diet using a 3-day food record. Added sugars consumption was dichotomized into low (0% to added sugar consumption was associated with a 0.26 mg/dL greater annual increase in HDL levels (95% CI 0.48 to 0.04; P=0.02). Over the 10-year study period, the model predicted a mean increase of 2.2 mg/dL (95% CI 0.09 to 4.32; P=0.04) among low consumers, and a 0.4 mg/dL decrease (95% CI -1.32 to 0.52; P=0.4) among high consumers. Weight category did not modify this association (P=0.45). Low added sugars consumption is associated with increasing HDL cholesterol levels throughout adolescence.

  18. The Cholesterol Lowering Effects of Eurycoma longifolia Jack (Tongkat Ali Root Extract in Male Rats

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    Ghasak G Faisal

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: To investigate the effect of Eurycoma longifolia Jack root extract on serum lipids in rats. Methods: Twenty-six mature male albino Wistar rats were used in this study. A group of 18 rats were fed a high fat and high cholesterol diet for 4 weeks, after which their lipid profile was compared to the control group, who were kept on a normal diet. The rats were then further divided into three groups, the Cf group that continued to feed on a high fat and cholesterol diet only, and group A and group B who continued on a high fat diet with the addition of 5 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg of Eurycoma longifolia Jack root extract respectively for 4 weeks. After the 4 week period, the rat's lipid profiles were analysed again. Results: Group A and B showed significant total cholesterol reduction when compared to the Cf group, 140 ± 7.23, 139.63 ± 7.95, 192.14 ± 8.96 mg/dL respectively (p < 0.001. The total cholesterol/HDL ratio in group A was 5 however there was a sharp increase in group B to a high-risk level of 9.2 indicating a significant drop in HDL levels. The LDL level increased significantly in both group A and B compared to the Cf group. Conclusions: Eurycoma longifolia Jack root extract is effective in lowering total cholesterol, however the dose needs to be adjusted to prevent an excessive decrease in HDL levels.

  19. Hypolipidemic Effect of Tomato Juice in Hamsters in High Cholesterol Diet-Induced Hyperlipidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Li-Chen; Wei, Li; Huang, Wen-Ching; Hsu, Yi-Ju; Chen, Yi-Ming; Huang, Chi-Chang

    2015-12-17

    Tomato is a globally famous food and contains several phytonutrients including lycopene, β-carotene, anthocyanin, and flavonoids. The increased temperature used to produce tomato juice, ketchup, tomato paste and canned tomato enhances the bioactive composition. We aimed to verify the beneficial effects of processed tomato juice from Kagome Ltd. (KOT) on hypolipidemic action in hamsters with hyperlipidemia induced by a 0.2% cholesterol and 10% lard diet (i.e., high-cholesterol diet (HCD)). Male Golden Syrian hamsters were randomly divided into two groups for treatment: normal (n = 8), standard diet (control); and experimental (n = 32), HCD. The 32 hamsters were further divided into four groups (n = 8 per group) to receive vehicle or KOT by oral gavage at 2787, 5573, or 13,934 mg/kg/day for six weeks, designated the HCD-1X, -2X and -5X groups, respectively. The efficacy and safety of KOT supplementation was evaluated by lipid profiles of serum, liver and feces and by clinical biochemistry and histopathology. HCD significantly increased serum levels of total cholesterol (TC), triacylglycerol (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), LDL-C/HDL-C ratio, hepatic and fetal TC and TG levels, and degree of fatty liver as compared with controls. KOT supplementation dose-dependently decreased serum TC, TG, LDL-C levels, LDL-C/HDL-C ratio, hepatic TC and TG levels, and fecal TG level. Our study provides experiment-based evidence to support that KOT may be useful in treating or preventing the onset of hyperlipidemia.

  20. Hypolipidemic Effect of Tomato Juice in Hamsters in High Cholesterol Diet-Induced Hyperlipidemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Chen Lee

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Tomato is a globally famous food and contains several phytonutrients including lycopene, β-carotene, anthocyanin, and flavonoids. The increased temperature used to produce tomato juice, ketchup, tomato paste and canned tomato enhances the bioactive composition. We aimed to verify the beneficial effects of processed tomato juice from Kagome Ltd. (KOT on hypolipidemic action in hamsters with hyperlipidemia induced by a 0.2% cholesterol and 10% lard diet (i.e., high-cholesterol diet (HCD. Male Golden Syrian hamsters were randomly divided into two groups for treatment: normal (n = 8, standard diet (control; and experimental (n = 32, HCD. The 32 hamsters were further divided into four groups (n = 8 per group to receive vehicle or KOT by oral gavage at 2787, 5573, or 13,934 mg/kg/day for six weeks, designated the HCD-1X, -2X and -5X groups, respectively. The efficacy and safety of KOT supplementation was evaluated by lipid profiles of serum, liver and feces and by clinical biochemistry and histopathology. HCD significantly increased serum levels of total cholesterol (TC, triacylglycerol (TG, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, LDL-C/HDL-C ratio, hepatic and fetal TC and TG levels, and degree of fatty liver as compared with controls. KOT supplementation dose-dependently decreased serum TC, TG, LDL-C levels, LDL-C/HDL-C ratio, hepatic TC and TG levels, and fecal TG level. Our study provides experiment-based evidence to support that KOT may be useful in treating or preventing the onset of hyperlipidemia.

  1. Triglyceride-to-high-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol ratio is an index of heart disease mortality and of incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, Gloria Lena; Barlow, Carolyn E; Grundy, Scott M; Leonard, David; DeFina, Laura F

    2014-02-01

    High triglyceride (TG) and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) impart risk for heart disease. This study examines the relationships of TG/HDL-C ratio to mortality from all causes, coronary heart disease (CHD), or cardiovascular disease (CVD). Survival analysis was done in 39,447 men grouped by TG/HDL-C ratio cut point of 3.5 and for metabolic syndrome. National Death Index International Classification of Diseases (ICD-9 and ICD-10) codes were used for CVD and CHD deaths occurring from 1970 to 2008. Incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) according to ratio was estimated in 22,215 men. Triglyceride/HDL-C ratio and cross-product of TG and fasting blood glucose (TyG index) were used in analysis. Men were followed up for 581,194 person-years. Triglyceride/HDL-C ratio predicted CHD, CVD, and all-cause mortality after adjustment for established risk factors and non-HDL-C. Mortality rates were higher in individuals with a high ratio than in those with a low ratio. Fifty-five percent of men had metabolic syndrome that was also predictive of CHD, CVD, and all-cause mortality. Annual incidence of DM was 2 times higher in men with high TG/HDL-C ratio than in those with a low ratio. Individuals with high TG/HDL-C ratio had a higher incidence of DM than those with a low ratio. The TyG index was not equally predictive of causes of mortality to TG/HDL-C, but both were equally predictive of diabetes incidence. Triglyceride/HDL-C ratio predicts CHD and CVD mortality as well as or better than do metabolic syndrome in men. Also, a high ratio predisposes to DM. The TyG index does not predict CHD, CVD, or all-cause mortality equally well, but like TG/HDL-C ratio, it predicts DM incidence.

  2. Effects of HDL-modifiers on cardiovascular outcomes: a meta-analysis of randomized trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdoia, M.; Schaffer, A.; Suryapranata, H.; Luca, G. De

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIM: High density lipoproteins (HDL) have been addressed as a potential strategy for cardiovascular prevention, with great controversies on pharmacological approaches for HDL-elevation. Our aim was to compare HDL-rising treatment with niacin or CETP-inhibitors with optimal medical

  3. PXR agonism decreases plasma HDL levels in ApoE*3-Leiden.CETP mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, W. de; Vries-van der Weij, J. de; Mol, I.M.; Hoekstra, M.; Romijn, J.A.; Jukema, J.W.; Havekes, L.M.; Princen, H.M.G.; Rensen, P.C.N.

    2009-01-01

    Pregnane X receptor (PXR) agonism has been shown to affect multiple steps in both the synthesis and catabolism of HDL, but its integrated effect on HDL metabolism in vivo remains unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the net effect of PXR agonism on HDL metabolism in ApoE*3-Leiden (E3L) and

  4. Lack of Cholesterol Awareness among Physicians Who Smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard E. Scranton

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Cigarette use is a known risk factor for the development of coronary artery disease (CAD as it adversely affects HDL cholesterol levels and promotes thrombogenesis. Smoking may also be associated with behavioral characteristics that potentiate the risk of CAD. A lack of cholesterol knowledge would indicate an aversion to a prevention-oriented lifestyle. Thus, our goal was to determine the association between tobacco use and knowledge of self-reported cholesterol among male physicians. Using the 1982 and follow-up questionnaires from the physician health study, we report the changes in the frequencies of awareness of self-reported total cholesterol and cardiovascular risk factors among the 22,067 participants. We classified physicians as being aware of their cholesterol if they reported a cholesterol level and unaware if the question was left unanswered. In 1997, 207 physicians were excluded, as the recorded cholesterol was not interpretable, leaving 21,860 for our follow up analyses. Using unadjusted logistic models, we determined the odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI of not reporting a cholesterol level in either 1982 or 1997 for each specified risk factor. We then evaluated whether the lack of cholesterol awareness at both time points was associated with the use of tobacco throughout the study. After 14-years of follow up, cholesterol awareness increased from 35.9 to 58.6 percent. During this period, the frequency of hypertension and hyperlipidemia treatment increased (13.5 to 40.5% and 0.57% to 19.6% respectively, as did the diagnosis of diabetes (2.40 to 7.79%. Behavioral characteristics such as a sedentary lifestyle and obesity also increased (27.8 to 42% and 43.5 to 53.5%, respectively, however the proportion of current smokers deceased from 11.1 to 4.05%. The percentages of individuals being unaware of their cholesterol decreased in all risk factor groups. However, individuals were likely to be unaware of their cholesterol

  5. Clinical relevance of non-fasting and postprandial hypertriglyceridemia and remnant cholesterol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordestgaard, Børge G; Freiberg, Jacob J

    2011-01-01

    Non-fasting triglycerides are measured at any time within up to 8 h (14 h) after any normal meal, while postprandial triglycerides are measured at a fixed time point within up to 8 h (14 h) of a standardised fat tolerance test. The simplest possible way of evaluating remnant cholesterol is non......-fasting/postprandial total cholesterol minus low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol minus high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. Elevated levels of non-fasting/postprandial triglycerides directly correlate with elevated remnant cholesterol. In the general population, 38% of men have non......-fasting/postprandial triglycerides > 2mmol/L (>176 mg/dL) while 45% of men have non-fasting/postprandial triglyceride levels of 1-2 mmol/L (89-176 mg/dL); corresponding fractions in women are 20% and 47%. Also, 31% of men have remnant cholesterol levels > 1mmol/L (>39 mg/dL) while 46% of men have remnant cholesterol levels of 0...

  6. Modulation of cholesterol transport by maternal hypercholesterolemia in human full-term placenta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ran Zhang

    Full Text Available The significance of maternal cholesterol transporting to the fetus under normal as well as pathological circumstances is less understood. The objective of this study was to observe the effects of maternal hypercholesterolemia on placental cholesterol transportation. Human full-time placenta, maternal and venous cord blood were sampled at delivery from the pregnant women with serum total cholesterol (TC concentrations at third trimester higher than 7.25 mM (n = 19 and the pregnant women with normal TC concentrations (n = 19. Serum lipids and expression of genes related to cholesterol transportation were measured by western blot or real-time PCR. The results indicated that serum TC, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C levels were significantly increased, in pregnancies, but decreased in cord blood in hypercholesterolemic group compared to the matched control group. All the subjects were no-drinking, non-smoker, and gestational disease free. The mRNA expression of lipoprotein receptors, including LDLR and VLDLR were significantly increased, while the protein expression of PCSK9 was significantly increased in hypercholesterolemic placenta. In conclusion, maternal hypercholesterolemia might decrease the transportation of cholesterol from mother to fetus because of the high levels of PCSK9 protein expression.