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Sample records for sex gland function

  1. [Functional state of the sex glands in men with encephaloophthalmopathies pathogenetically associated with thyrotoxicosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezverkhaia, T P; Babicheva, Z I

    1983-01-01

    In 36 young males with encephaloophthalmopathy, resultant of thyrotoxicosis, androgen and estrogen concentrations were studied using radioimmunoassay (for the blood determination) and physico-chemical methods (for the urine detection). The blood plasma and urine androgen levels decreased in the patients examined. The total 17-ketosteroid excretion remained unchanged, whereas the fraction ratio was disordered. The blood plasma and urine estrogen content increased. A tendency of normalizing the changed sex hormone levels was observed in patients with encephaloophthalmopathy after recovery.

  2. Epididymal and sex accessory gland secretions in transfusion-dependent beta-thalassemic patients: evidence of an impaired prostatic function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpino, A; De Sanctis, V; Siciliano, L; Maggiolini, M; Vivacqua, A; Pinamonti, A; Sisci, D; Andó, S

    1997-01-01

    Neutral alpha-glucosidase levels as epididymal marker, fructose levels as vesicular marker, zinc, citric acid and prostate specific antigen levels as prostatic markers were measured in the seminal plasma of eight transfusion-dependent beta-thalassemic patients in order to study epididymal and sex accessory gland secretions (eighteen subjects served as controls). FSH and LH as well as total and free testosterone were detected displaying unaltered serum values. Ejaculate of patients showed normal sperm count and low sperm motility, in the meantime seminal plasma exhibited unaltered both neutral alpha-glucosidase and fructose values but low levels of zinc, citric acid and prostate specific antigen were noticed as well. These data suggest an impaired prostatic secretion in the thalassemic patients studied. A local iron toxicity on the prostatic tissue could be supported by the decrease of its specific markers observed only in the subgroup of patients with high ferritin serum levels.

  3. Parotid gland function after radiotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roesink, Judith Maria

    2005-01-01

    Radiotherapy is a common treatment for head and neck cancer patients. Unfortunately, it produces serious acute and long-term side effects to the oral cavity. One severe complication is the loss of salivary gland function, which can persists for many years. Saliva has multiple functions relating to

  4. Sex-specific changes in thyroid gland function and circulating thyroid hormones in nestling American kestrels (Falco sparverius) following embryonic exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers by maternal transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernie, Kim J; Marteinson, Sarah C

    2016-08-01

    High concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) accumulate in predatory birds. Several PBDE congeners are considered thyroid disruptors; however, avian studies are limited. The authors examined circulating thyroid hormones and thyroid gland function of nestling American kestrels (Falco sparverius) at 17 d to 20 d of age, following embryonic exposure by maternal transfer only to environmentally relevant levels of PBDEs (DE-71 technical mixture). Nestlings were exposed to in ovo sum (Σ) PBDE concentrations of 11 301 ± 95 ng/g wet weight (high exposure), 289 ± 33 ng/g wet weight (low exposure), or 3.0 ± 0.5 ng/g wet weight (controls, background exposure). Statistical comparisons are made to controls of the respective sexes and account for the relatedness of siblings within broods. Circulating concentrations of plasma total thyroxine (TT4 ) and total triiodothyronine (TT3 ) in female nestlings were significantly influenced overall by the exposure to DE-71. Following intramuscular administration of thyroid-stimulating hormone, the temporal response of the thyroid gland in producing and/or releasing TT4 was also significantly affected by the females' exposure to DE-71. The altered availability of T4 for conversion to T3 outside of the gland and/or changes in thyroid-related enzymatic activity may explain the lower TT3 concentrations (baseline, overall) and moderately altered temporal TT3 patterns (p = 0.06) of the treatment females. Controlling for the significant effect on TT3 levels of the delayed hatching of treatment females, baseline TT3 levels were significantly and positively correlated with body mass (10 d, 15 d, 20 d), with PBDE-exposed females generally being smaller and having lower TT3 concentrations. Given that exposure concentrations were environmentally relevant, similar thyroidal changes and associated thyroid-mediated processes relating to growth may also occur in wild female nestlings. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016

  5. Prognosis and submandibular gland function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ino, Chiyonori; Yamashita, Toshio; Hanaoka, Mako; Kumazawa, Tadami

    1984-01-01

    Submandibular gland function was tested with sup(99m)Tc-pertechnetate scan 10 days and 3-4 weeks after the onset Bell's palsy, and the results and prognoses were correlated. In the first report we divided the cases into groups A, B and C, and this time group D classified in S.S.R. was poor. Groups A and D can be differentiated by submandibular gland scan within 10 days after the onset; that is to say, the prognosis of more than half the cases can be determined in this early phase. Especially, it is noticeable that group D showing the poor prognosis is differentiated within 10 days after the onset. This method was compared with other tests of facial palsy. Four to five weeks after the onset all tests were of equal accuracy in predicting the prognosis of each group. Within 10 days after the onset, however, submandibular gland scan seems to be more useful than the other tests. (author)

  6. Submandibular gland function and parotid gland function in Bell's palsy, 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ino, Chiyonori; Yamashita, Toshio; Kato, Mako; Kumazawa, Tadami

    1986-01-01

    With the use of sup(99m)Tc, we attempted to measure simultaneously submandibular gland function and parotid gland function, which is thought not to be controlled by the facial nerve, in patients with unilateral Bell's palsy. For comparison, the lachrymal gland function of some patients was measured by the thread method. We found that facial palsy sometimes affects parotid gland function as well as submandibular gland function. In 60 % of the patients the function of the two glands tended to be affected in the same way. Lachrymal gland function tended to be affected in a similar way to parotid gland function. We conclude that the chorda tympani and the greater petrosal nerve may influence parotid gland function. (author)

  7. Regucalcin expression in bovine tissues and its regulation by sex steroid hormones in accessory sex glands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Starvaggi Cucuzza

    Full Text Available Regucalcin (RGN is a mammalian Ca2+-binding protein that plays an important role in intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis. Recently, RGN has been identified as a target gene for sex steroid hormones in the prostate glands and testis of rats and humans, but no studies have focused on RGN expression in bovine tissues. Thus, in the present study, we examined RGN mRNA and protein expression in the different tissues and organs of veal calves and beef cattle. Moreover, we investigated whether RGN expression is controlled through sex steroid hormones in bovine target tissues, namely the bulbo-urethral and prostate glands and the testis. Sex steroid hormones are still illegally used in bovine husbandry to increase muscle mass. The screening of the regulation and function of anabolic sex steroids via modified gene expression levels in various tissues represents a new approach for the detection of illicit drug treatments. Herein, we used quantitative PCR, western blot and immunohistochemistry analyses to demonstrate RGN mRNA and protein expression in bovine tissues. In addition, estrogen administration down-regulated RGN gene expression in the accessory sex glands of veal calves and beef cattle, while androgen treatment reduced RGN gene expression only in the testis. The confirmation of the regulation of RGN gene expression through sex steroid hormones might facilitate the potential detection of hormone abuse in bovine husbandry. Particularly, the specific response in the testis suggests that this tissue is ideal for the detection of illicit androgen administration in veal calves and beef cattle.

  8. Sexual Differentiation of Circadian Clock Function in the Adrenal Gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloehn, Ian; Pillai, Savin B; Officer, Laurel; Klement, Claire; Gasser, Paul J; Evans, Jennifer A

    2016-05-01

    Sex differences in glucocorticoid production are associated with increased responsiveness of the adrenal gland in females. However, the adrenal-intrinsic mechanisms that establish sexual dimorphic function remain ill defined. Glucocorticoid production is gated at the molecular level by the circadian clock, which may contribute to sexual dimorphic adrenal function. Here we examine sex differences in the adrenal gland using an optical reporter of circadian clock function. Adrenal glands were cultured from male and female Period2::Luciferase (PER2::LUC) mice to assess clock function in vitro in real time. We confirm that there is a pronounced sex difference in the intrinsic capacity to sustain PER2::LUC rhythms in vitro, with higher amplitude rhythms in adrenal glands collected from males than from females. Changes in adrenal PER2::LUC rhythms over the reproductive life span implicate T as an important factor in driving sex differences in adrenal clock function. By directly manipulating hormone levels in adult mice in vivo, we demonstrate that T increases the amplitude of PER2::LUC rhythms in adrenal glands of both male and female mice. In contrast, we find little evidence that ovarian hormones modify adrenal clock function. Lastly, we find that T in vitro can increase the amplitude of PER2::LUC rhythms in male adrenals but not female adrenals, which suggests the existence of sex differences in the mechanisms of T action in vivo. Collectively these results reveal that activational effects of T alter circadian timekeeping in the adrenal gland, which may have implications for sex differences in stress reactivity and stress-related disorders.

  9. Effects of first radioiodine ablation on functions of salivary glands in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyaya, Arun; Meng, Zhaowei; Wang, Peng; Zhang, Guizhi; Jia, Qiang; Tan, Jian; Li, Xue; Hu, Tianpeng; Liu, Na; Zhou, Pingping; Wang, Sen; Liu, Xiaoxia; Wang, Huiying; Zhang, Chunmei; Zhao, Fengxiao; Yan, Ziyu

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the first radioactive iodine (I) therapy on functions of salivary glands in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC).There were 36 consented patients with DTC enrolled in this study, who received 3.7 GBq (100mCi) I for ablation after total thyroidectomy. Salivary gland function was assessed using salivary gland scintigraphy in two phases, one 4 hours before and the other 6 months after I therapy (both under thyrotropin stimulation condition). Quantitative parameters including uptake fraction (UF), uptake index (UI), excretion fraction (EF), and excretion ratio (ER) were measured and compared. Blood parameters were also compared. Associations between sex and outcome of the first I therapy as well as individual salivary gland function were measured. Wilcoxon Signed Rank Sum test and χ test were used for statistical analysis.When compared between pre-ablation and post-ablation, UF of bilateral parotid and submandibular glands were significantly increased (all P glands were significantly increased (P salivary gland, which indicated a possible intermediate state after radiation. But salivary glands' secretory function had not changed significantly except for left submandibular gland; we demonstrated that only left submandibular gland showed significantly decreased ER (P salivary gland dysfunctions after the first I therapy. Salivary gland of both males and females could be affected by I therapy.The first I ablative therapy may impair the salivary uptake and secretory function of patients with DTC. There was no association between sex and salivary gland dysfunction.

  10. Effects of first radioiodine ablation on functions of salivary glands in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyaya, Arun; Meng, Zhaowei; Wang, Peng; Zhang, Guizhi; Jia, Qiang; Tan, Jian; Li, Xue; Hu, Tianpeng; Liu, Na; Zhou, Pingping; Wang, Sen; Liu, Xiaoxia; Wang, Huiying; Zhang, Chunmei; Zhao, Fengxiao; Yan, Ziyu

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the first radioactive iodine (131I) therapy on functions of salivary glands in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC). There were 36 consented patients with DTC enrolled in this study, who received 3.7 GBq (100mCi) 131I for ablation after total thyroidectomy. Salivary gland function was assessed using salivary gland scintigraphy in two phases, one 4 hours before and the other 6 months after 131I therapy (both under thyrotropin stimulation condition). Quantitative parameters including uptake fraction (UF), uptake index (UI), excretion fraction (EF), and excretion ratio (ER) were measured and compared. Blood parameters were also compared. Associations between sex and outcome of the first 131I therapy as well as individual salivary gland function were measured. Wilcoxon Signed Rank Sum test and χ2 test were used for statistical analysis. When compared between pre-ablation and post-ablation, UF of bilateral parotid and submandibular glands were significantly increased (all P submandibular glands were significantly increased (P gland, which indicated a possible intermediate state after radiation. But salivary glands’ secretory function had not changed significantly except for left submandibular gland; we demonstrated that only left submandibular gland showed significantly decreased ER (P gland dysfunctions after the first 131I therapy. Salivary gland of both males and females could be affected by 131I therapy. The first 131I ablative therapy may impair the salivary uptake and secretory function of patients with DTC. There was no association between sex and salivary gland dysfunction. PMID:28640094

  11. Radiation induced cell loss in rat submandibular gland and its relation to gland function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeilstra, LJW; Vissink, A; Konings, AWT; Coppes, RP

    Purpose: To understand early and late radiation-induced loss of function of the submandibular gland, changes in cell number were documented and correlated with data on gland function. Modulation of the radiation effect by sialogogues was used to investigate possible mechanisms of action. Materials

  12. Rescue of salivary gland function after stem cell transplantation in irradiated glands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle M A Lombaert

    Full Text Available Head and neck cancer is the fifth most common malignancy and accounts for 3% of all new cancer cases each year. Despite relatively high survival rates, the quality of life of these patients is severely compromised because of radiation-induced impairment of salivary gland function and consequential xerostomia (dry mouth syndrome. In this study, a clinically applicable method for the restoration of radiation-impaired salivary gland function using salivary gland stem cell transplantation was developed. Salivary gland cells were isolated from murine submandibular glands and cultured in vitro as salispheres, which contained cells expressing the stem cell markers Sca-1, c-Kit and Musashi-1. In vitro, the cells differentiated into salivary gland duct cells and mucin and amylase producing acinar cells. Stem cell enrichment was performed by flow cytrometric selection using c-Kit as a marker. In vitro, the cells differentiated into amylase producing acinar cells. In vivo, intra-glandular transplantation of a small number of c-Kit(+ cells resulted in long-term restoration of salivary gland morphology and function. Moreover, donor-derived stem cells could be isolated from primary recipients, cultured as secondary spheres and after re-transplantation ameliorate radiation damage. Our approach is the first proof for the potential use of stem cell transplantation to functionally rescue salivary gland deficiency.

  13. Association between exposure to persistent organohalogen pollutants and epididymal and accessory sex gland function: Multicentre study in Inuit and European populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elzanaty, Saad; Rignell-Hydbom, Anna; Jönsson, Bo A.G.

    2006-01-01

    of epididymal [neutral-α glucosidase (NAG)], prostatic [prostate specific-antigen (PSA)] and zinc, and seminal vesicle function (fructose) were measured from 135 Swedish fishermen and fertile men from Greenland (n = 163), Warsaw, Poland (n = 167) and Kharkiv, Ukraine (n = 158). Multiple linear regression...... with the activity of NAG were found among Greenlandic men (mean difference 7.0 mU/ejaculate, 95% CI 3.0, 34), and in the aggregated cohort (mean difference 4.0 mU/ejaculate, 95% CI -0.2, 8.0). A positive association was observed between CB-153 and PSA as well as zinc among Kharkiv men. In the Swedish cohort...

  14. Impact of submandibular gland excision on salivary gland function in head and neck cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaguar, G C; Lima, E N P; Kowalski, L P; Pellizon, A C; Carvalho, A L; Alves, F A

    2010-05-01

    Head and neck cancer surgery is often associated with neck dissection and usually includes the submandibular glands. Literature data related to remaining salivary gland function after surgery is scarce and controversial. A reduction in salivary output and increase in complaints of xerostomia have been suggested. However, a compensatory salivary mechanism has also been reported. The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the effect of neck dissection (with submandibular excision) on salivary gland function measured by salivary flow rate and salivary gland scintigraphy. A total of 80 patients with head and neck tumors were evaluated. The surgery group was composed of 37 patients, who underwent submandibular gland resection, and the non-surgery group of 43 patients evaluated prior to radiation and/or chemotherapy treatment. Whole unstimulated and stimulated saliva collection and salivary gland scintigraphy were performed in all patients. Twenty-one percent of patients in the surgery group reported xerostomia, whereas 7% in the non-surgery group. The mean unstimulated salivary flow was 0.60 and 0.94 m/min for the surgery and non-surgery groups, respectively (p=0.008). Nevertheless, no statistical difference in the stimulated salivary flow was observed between the groups (p=0.26). In addition, the mean uptake and excretion rates for parotid and remaining submandibular glands also showed no statistical difference. The data of the present study support the contention that submandibular gland resection causes a decrease in unstimulated salivary volume. However, the residual submandibular glands in the surgery group showed similar function to that of submandibular glands in the non-surgery group. Consequently, the compensatory salivary mechanism seems not to be a possibility. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. [Application scintigraphy in evaluation of salivary gland function].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojsak, Małgorzata Natalia; Rogowski, Franciszek

    2010-03-01

    The salivary glands belong to the exocrine glands. There are tree main pairs of salivary glands: parotid, submandibular, sublingual. Several modalities are used for salivary gland imaging, such as sonography, computer tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. The aim of these methods is mainly to present morphological impairment. Parenchymal function and excretion function of all salivary glands can be quantified by scintigraphy. After single intravenous injection of 99mTc-pertechnetate sequential images are acquired up to 25-40 minutes. Usually about fifteen minutes postinjection 3 ml of lemon juice are administered intraorally as sialogogue. Salivary scintigraphy can estimate the severity of salivary gland involvement and function disorders, which may not be accurately reflected by the morphological damage. The clinical impact of scintigraphy has been reported in multiple salivary glands diseases, such as Sjogren's syndrome, sialolithiasis with or without parenchymal damage, iatrogenic irradiation of the salivary glands for therapy of head and neck tumors or radioiodine treatment of thyroid cancer. No other method can give so much information about function of salivary glands. Scintigraphy is noninvasive examination, easy to perform, reproducible and well-tolerated by the patient.

  16. Transcriptome exploration of the sex pheromone gland of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Caballero, Natalia; Valenzuela, Jesus G; Ribeiro, José M C; Cuervo, Patricia; Brazil, Reginaldo P

    2013-03-07

    Molecules involved in pheromone biosynthesis may represent alternative targets for insect population control. This may be particularly useful in managing the reproduction of Lutzomyia longipalpis, the main vector of the protozoan parasite Leishmania infantum in Latin America. Besides the chemical identity of the major components of the L. longipalpis sex pheromone, there is no information regarding the molecular biology behind its production. To understand this process, obtaining information on which genes are expressed in the pheromone gland is essential. In this study we used a transcriptomic approach to explore the pheromone gland and adjacent abdominal tergites in order to obtain substantial general sequence information. We used a laboratory-reared L. longipalpis (one spot, 9-Methyl GermacreneB) population, captured in Lapinha Cave, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil for this analysis. From a total of 3,547 cDNA clones, 2,502 high quality sequences from the pheromone gland and adjacent tissues were obtained and assembled into 1,387 contigs. Through blast searches of public databases, a group of transcripts encoding proteins potentially involved in the production of terpenoid precursors were identified in the 4th abdominal tergite, the segment containing the pheromone gland. Among them, protein-coding transcripts for four enzymes of the mevalonate pathway such as 3-hydroxyl-3-methyl glutaryl CoA reductase, phosphomevalonate kinase, diphosphomevalonate descarboxylase, and isopentenyl pyrophosphate isomerase were identified. Moreover, transcripts coding for farnesyl diphosphate synthase and NADP+ dependent farnesol dehydrogenase were also found in the same tergite. Additionally, genes potentially involved in pheromone transportation were identified from the three abdominal tergites analyzed. This study constitutes the first transcriptomic analysis exploring the repertoire of genes expressed in the tissue containing the L. longipalpis pheromone gland as well as the

  17. Salivary gland NK cells are phenotypically and functionally unique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlowe S Tessmer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural killer (NK cells and CD8(+ T cells play vital roles in containing and eliminating systemic cytomegalovirus (CMV. However, CMV has a tropism for the salivary gland acinar epithelial cells and persists in this organ for several weeks after primary infection. Here we characterize a distinct NK cell population that resides in the salivary gland, uncommon to any described to date, expressing both mature and immature NK cell markers. Using RORγt reporter mice and nude mice, we also show that the salivary gland NK cells are not lymphoid tissue inducer NK-like cells and are not thymic derived. During the course of murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV infection, we found that salivary gland NK cells detect the infection and acquire activation markers, but have limited capacity to produce IFN-γ and degranulate. Salivary gland NK cell effector functions are not regulated by iNKT or T(reg cells, which are mostly absent in the salivary gland. Additionally, we demonstrate that peripheral NK cells are not recruited to this organ even after the systemic infection has been controlled. Altogether, these results indicate that viral persistence and latency in the salivary glands may be due in part to the presence of unfit NK cells and the lack of recruitment of peripheral NK cells.

  18. Rescue of Salivary Gland Function after Stem Cell Transplantation in Irradiated Glands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lombaert, Isabelle M. A.; Brunsting, Jeanette F.; Wierenga, Pieter K.; Faber, Hette; Stokman, Monique A.; Kok, Tineke; Visser, Willy H.; Kampinga, Harm H.; de Haan, Gerald; Coppes, Robert P.

    2008-01-01

    Head and neck cancer is the fifth most common malignancy and accounts for 3% of all new cancer cases each year. Despite relatively high survival rates, the quality of life of these patients is severely compromised because of radiation-induced impairment of salivary gland function and consequential

  19. Human Salivary Gland Stem Cells Functionally Restore Radiation Damaged Salivary Glands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pringle, Sarah; Maimets, Martti; van der Zwaag, Marianne; Stokman, Monique A.; van Gosliga, Djoke; Zwart, Erik; Witjes, Max J. H.; de Haan, Gerald; van Os, Ronald; Coppes, Rob P.

    Adult stem cells are often touted as therapeutic agents in the regenerative medicine field, however data detailing both the engraftment and functional capabilities of solid tissue derived human adult epithelial stem cells is scarce. Here we show the isolation of adult human salivary gland (SG)

  20. Sjoegren's syndrome. A functional scintigraphic study of salivary glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arrago, J.P.; Rain, J.D.; Rocher, F.; Vigneron, N.; Pecking, A.; Najean, Y.

    1984-01-01

    One-hundred and twenty patients with sicca syndrome, connective tissue disease or chronic graft-versus-host disease were investigated in the Saint-Louis Hospital Department of Nuclear Medicine. Technetium scanning of the salivary glands was performed in all patients. The results of the scintigraphic study were closely correlated with clinical and histological data in patients with Sjoegren's syndrome. This method, which accurately quantifies the salivary function without danger nor discomfort to the patients, has a number of advantages: (a) it is sensitive enough to detect minimal salivary gland dysfunction; (b) it differentiates between parotid gland and submandibular gland involvement demonstrates assymetry in pathological processes; (c) it helps in following up patients with Sjoegren's disease and in assessing the results of immunosuppressive or anti-inflammatory treatment [fr

  1. Establishing Human Lacrimal Gland Cultures with Secretory Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Shubha; Ali, Mohammad Javed; Balla, Murali M. S.; Naik, Milind N.; Honavar, Santosh G.; Reddy, Vijay Anand P.; Vemuganti, Geeta K.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Dry eye syndrome is a multifactorial chronic disabling disease mainly caused by the functional disruptions in the lacrimal gland. The treatment involves palliation like ocular surface lubrication and rehydration. Cell therapy involving replacement of the gland is a promising alternative for providing long-term relief to patients. This study aimed to establish functionally competent lacrimal gland cultures in–vitro and explore the presence of stem cells in the native gland and the established in-vitro cultures. Methods Fresh human lacrimal gland from patients undergoing exenteration was harvested for cultures after IRB approval. The freshly isolated cells were evaluated by flow cytometry for expression of stem cell markers ABCG2, high ALDH1 levels and c-kit. Cultures were established on Matrigel, collagen and HAM and the cultured cells evaluated for the presence of stem cell markers and differentiating markers of epithelial (E-cadherin, EpCAM), mesenchymal (Vimentin, CD90) and myofibroblastic (α-SMA, S-100) origin by flow cytometry and immunocytochemistry. The conditioned media was tested for secretory proteins (scIgA, lactoferrin, lysozyme) post carbachol (100 µM) stimulation by ELISA. Results Native human lacrimal gland expressed ABCG2 (mean±SEM: 3.1±0.61%), high ALDH1 (3.8±1.26%) and c-kit (6.7±2.0%). Lacrimal gland cultures formed a monolayer, in order of preference on Matrigel, collagen and HAM within 15–20 days, containing a heterogeneous population of stem-like and differentiated cells. The epithelial cells formed ‘spherules’ with duct like connections, suggestive of ductal origin. The levels of scIgA (47.43 to 61.56 ng/ml), lysozyme (24.36 to 144.74 ng/ml) and lactoferrin (32.45 to 40.31 ng/ml) in the conditioned media were significantly higher than the negative controls (p<0.05 for all comparisons). Conclusion The study reports the novel finding of establishing functionally competent human lacrimal gland cultures in-vitro. It also

  2. Establishing human lacrimal gland cultures with secretory function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shubha Tiwari

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Dry eye syndrome is a multifactorial chronic disabling disease mainly caused by the functional disruptions in the lacrimal gland. The treatment involves palliation like ocular surface lubrication and rehydration. Cell therapy involving replacement of the gland is a promising alternative for providing long-term relief to patients. This study aimed to establish functionally competent lacrimal gland cultures in-vitro and explore the presence of stem cells in the native gland and the established in-vitro cultures. METHODS: Fresh human lacrimal gland from patients undergoing exenteration was harvested for cultures after IRB approval. The freshly isolated cells were evaluated by flow cytometry for expression of stem cell markers ABCG2, high ALDH1 levels and c-kit. Cultures were established on Matrigel, collagen and HAM and the cultured cells evaluated for the presence of stem cell markers and differentiating markers of epithelial (E-cadherin, EpCAM, mesenchymal (Vimentin, CD90 and myofibroblastic (α-SMA, S-100 origin by flow cytometry and immunocytochemistry. The conditioned media was tested for secretory proteins (scIgA, lactoferrin, lysozyme post carbachol (100 µM stimulation by ELISA. RESULTS: Native human lacrimal gland expressed ABCG2 (mean±SEM: 3.1±0.61%, high ALDH1 (3.8±1.26% and c-kit (6.7±2.0%. Lacrimal gland cultures formed a monolayer, in order of preference on Matrigel, collagen and HAM within 15-20 days, containing a heterogeneous population of stem-like and differentiated cells. The epithelial cells formed 'spherules' with duct like connections, suggestive of ductal origin. The levels of scIgA (47.43 to 61.56 ng/ml, lysozyme (24.36 to 144.74 ng/ml and lactoferrin (32.45 to 40.31 ng/ml in the conditioned media were significantly higher than the negative controls (p<0.05 for all comparisons. CONCLUSION: The study reports the novel finding of establishing functionally competent human lacrimal gland cultures in-vitro. It also

  3. The Rapalogue, CCI-779, improves salivary gland function following radiation.

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    Maria Morgan-Bathke

    Full Text Available The standard of care for head and neck cancer typically includes surgical resection of the tumor followed by targeted head and neck radiation. However depending on tumor location and stage, some cases may not require surgical resection while others may be treated with chemoradiation. Unfortunately, these radiation treatments cause chronic negative side effects for patients. These side effects are associated with damage to surrounding normal salivary gland tissue and include xerostomia, changes in taste and malnutrition. The underlying mechanisms of chronic radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction are unknown, however, in rodent models persistently elevated proliferation is correlated with reduced stimulated salivary flow. The rapalogue, CCI-779, has been used in other cell systems to induce autophagy and reduce proliferation, therefore the aim of this study was to determine if CCI-779 could be utilized to ameliorate chronic radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction. Four to six week old Atg5f/f; Aqp5-Cre, Atg5+/+; Aqp5-Cre and FVB mice were treated with targeted head and neck radiation. FVB mice were treated with CCI-779, chloroquine, or DMSO post-radiation. Stimulated salivary flow rates were determined and parotid and submandibular salivary gland tissues were collected for analyses. Mice with a defect in autophagy, via a conditional knockout of Atg5 in the salivary glands, display increased compensatory proliferation in the acinar cell compartment and hypertrophy at 24-72 hours following radiation. FVB mice treated with post-therapy CCI-779 have significant improvements in salivary gland physiology as determined by stimulated salivary flow rates, proliferation indices and amylase production and secretion. Consequently, post-radiation use of CCI-779 allows for improvement of salivary gland function and reestablishment of glandular homeostasis. As CCI-779 is already FDA approved for other uses, it could have a secondary use to alleviate

  4. Facial nerve function in carcinoma of the parotid gland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terhaard, Chris; Lubsen, Herman; Tan, Bing; Merkx, Thijs; van der Laan, Bernard; Jong, Rob Baatenburg-de; Manni, Hans; Kneght, Paul

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To analyse, for patients with carcinoma of the parotid gland, the prognostic value for treatment outcome of the function of the facial nerve (NVII), and determining facial nerve dysfunction after treatment. Methods and materials: In a retrospective study of the Dutch head and Neck cooperative

  5. Assessment of parotid salivary gland function in head and neck cancer patients receiving radiation therapy using quantitative salivary gland scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakshmana, B.; Preethi, G.; Naveen, T.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Radiation therapy for cancer of the head and neck region often causes salivary gland dysfunction and xerostomia. Several reports suggest that the submandibular and sublingual glands may be less radiosensitive than the parotid glands. The effect of radiotherapy on parotid gland function was studied by salivary scintigraphy in patients irradiated with different doses of radiation in the head and neck region. The purpose of this study was to evaluate differential dose of radiation effects on the parotid glands using quantitative salivary gland scintigraphy (QSGS). Methods: Thirty-five patients with head and neck tumours were enrolled in a prospective salivary function study using Scintigraphy. Twenty-seven of thirty-five patients received different doses of radiation and remaining 8 patients did not receive radiation and they were considered as control. Stimulated parotid flow rate was measured in all the patients from scintigraphy of parotid glands. Results: Patients who received radiation dose of =50 Gy showed severe salivary dysfunction when compared to patients who received radiation dose <50 Gy. Overall, patients who received radiation showed significant dysfunction of parotid gland when compared to patients who did not receive radiotherapy. Conclusion: Dysfunction of the parotid salivary gland increases as the radiation dose increases . QSGS appears to be a useful toll in qualitatively and quantitatively evaluating the grade of dysfunction following radiotherapy. (author)

  6. Thymus’ gland. Clinical, morphological and functional aspects.

    OpenAIRE

    Dunia Reyes Hernández; Mayra Gil León; Galia Ivis Pérez Rumbaut; Carmen Niurka Piña Loyola

    2004-01-01

    This article contains an updated review about the thymus making references to aspects related to its embriologic development, functions, morphology, and hormones the thymus produces and its principal effects, as well as the thymus; involution and its structural alterations, with the aim of offering enough information that allows the comprehension of the functional importance of this organ which has been considered as a non-functional organ for a long time.

  7. Human Salivary Gland Stem Cells Functionally Restore Radiation Damaged Salivary Glands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pringle, Sarah; Maimets, Martti; van der Zwaag, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    Adult stem cells are often touted as therapeutic agents in the regenerative medicine field, however data detailing both the engraftment and functional capabilities of solid tissue derived human adult epithelial stem cells is scarce. Here we show the isolation of adult human salivary gland (SG) st...... for the first time that salispheres cultured from human SGs contain stem/progenitor cells capable of self-renewal and differentiation and rescue of saliva production. Our study underpins the therapeutic promise of salisphere cell therapy for the treatment of xerostomia....

  8. Molecular regulation of thyroid gland function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggo, Margaret C

    2010-10-01

    For de-novo thyroid hormone synthesis ex vivo, thyroid follicular cells require a serum-free medium supplying nutrients, iodide, thyroid-stimulating hormone and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) (or insulin). Under these conditions, T3 and T4 are secreted but so are other factors such as growth factors, plasminogen activators, their inhibitors known as serpins, and so on. What is the function of these factors? Do thyroid cells respond to them or are these paracrine/endocrine factors? The purpose of this review is to highlight the current developments in the identification and role of the signalling pathways that regulate thyroid growth and function and the putative role of endogenous thyroid proteases in regulating this. The roles of the mitogen-activated protein kinases and phosphoinositol 3 kinases and integrins in mediating growth and function in thyroid cancer cells and the roles of plasminogen activators, their receptors and the downstream signalling pathways they modulate have been developed. Discoveries of novel proteases, expressed in thyroid cancers, may be useful in diagnosis. The signalling pathways regulating thyroid activity are examined and the roles of follicular cell products in maintaining thyroid homeostasis evaluated. The possibility that thyroid cell products other than T3 and T4 may circulate and have extrathyroidal effects is proposed.

  9. Assessment of the Effect of Interferon-Beta1a Therapy on Thyroid and Salivary Gland Functions in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis Using Quantitative Salivary Gland Scintigraphy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seval Erhamamcı

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Interferon-beta (IFN-β is widely used in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS, a demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. High incidence of thyroid dysfunction has been reported after administration of IFN-β in MS patients. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of IFN-β1a therapy on simultaneous thyroid and salivary gland function in patients with MS using quantitative salivary gland scintigraphy (QSGS. Methods: Fifteen relapsing-remitting (RR MS patients treated with IFN-β1a and two control groups consisting of 15 untreated RRMS patients and 20 healthy age and sex-matched individuals were included in the study. The functional status of the salivary and thyroid glands was analysed with the QSGS and laboratory tests, including thyroid function and thyroid antibody. After intravenous administration of 150 MBq Tc-99m pertechnetate, dynamic study was performed for 25 minutes. Salivary gland secretion was stimulated with oral lemon juice at 15 minutes. At the end of dynamic study, a static image in the same projection was taken. Uptake ratios at 12-14 min (UR% and stimulated excretion fraction (EF% of each parotid and submandibular gland were calculated automatically from SGS. Thyroid uptake ratio (TUR of thyroid gland was calculated from the static image. Results: All MS patients treated and untreated with IFN-β1a, and healthy individuals were euthyroid. Anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody (anti-TPO was detected in 4 out of 15 MS patients (26.6% treated with IFN-β1a. There was no significant differences in the UR, EF and TUR values among MS patients treated and untreated with IFN-β1a, and healthy controls (p>0.05. Although the TUR values in MS patients treated with IFN-β1a were less than those of the both control group, the difference was not statistically significant (p>0.05. Conclusion: IFN-β1a therapy was demonstrated to have no effect on thyroid and salivary gland functions using QSGS in patients with MS

  10. Pituitary gland height evaluated by MR in patients with {beta}-thalassemia major: a marker of pituitary gland function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Argyropoulou, M.I.; Metafratzi, Z.; Efremidis, S.C. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of Ioannina (Greece); Kiortsis, D.N. [Dept. of Physiology, Univ. of Ioannina (Greece); Bitsis, S.; Tsatoulis, A. [Dept. of Internal Medicine, Univ. of Ioannina (Greece)

    2001-12-01

    In transfusion-dependent {beta}-thalassemia major, increased iron deposition in the pituitary gland has a cytotoxic effect leading mainly to hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Our purpose was to assess in these patients the height of the pituitary gland and to evaluate whether it represents a marker of pituitary gland function. In 29 patients with {beta}-thalassemia major and 35 age- and gender-matched controls the pituitary gland height was evaluated in a midline sagittal scan using a spin echo T1-weighted (500/20 TR/TE) sequence. In all patients, an extensive endocrine evaluation was performed, including measurements of spontaneous and stimulated levels of gonadotropins, thyroid hormones, growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor, and adrenal hormones. The pituitary gland height was lower in thalassemic patients with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (n=15) (mean 3.48; SD 0.46) than in the age- and gender-matched controls (mean 6.29; SD 0.77), (P<0.001). No statistically significant difference was found between thalassemic patients without hormone dysfunction (n=14) (mean 5.34; SD 1.52) and age- and gender-matched controls (mean 5.91; SD 1.06). We conclude that in thalassemic patients the pituitary gland height is an additional marker of pituitary gland function and might be useful in clinical management. (orig.)

  11. Pituitary gland height evaluated by MR in patients with β-thalassemia major: a marker of pituitary gland function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argyropoulou, M.I.; Metafratzi, Z.; Efremidis, S.C.; Kiortsis, D.N.; Bitsis, S.; Tsatoulis, A.

    2001-01-01

    In transfusion-dependent β-thalassemia major, increased iron deposition in the pituitary gland has a cytotoxic effect leading mainly to hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Our purpose was to assess in these patients the height of the pituitary gland and to evaluate whether it represents a marker of pituitary gland function. In 29 patients with β-thalassemia major and 35 age- and gender-matched controls the pituitary gland height was evaluated in a midline sagittal scan using a spin echo T1-weighted (500/20 TR/TE) sequence. In all patients, an extensive endocrine evaluation was performed, including measurements of spontaneous and stimulated levels of gonadotropins, thyroid hormones, growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor, and adrenal hormones. The pituitary gland height was lower in thalassemic patients with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (n=15) (mean 3.48; SD 0.46) than in the age- and gender-matched controls (mean 6.29; SD 0.77), (P<0.001). No statistically significant difference was found between thalassemic patients without hormone dysfunction (n=14) (mean 5.34; SD 1.52) and age- and gender-matched controls (mean 5.91; SD 1.06). We conclude that in thalassemic patients the pituitary gland height is an additional marker of pituitary gland function and might be useful in clinical management. (orig.)

  12. Evaluation of mammary gland development and function in mouse models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plante, Isabelle; Stewart, Michael K G; Laird, Dale W

    2011-07-21

    The human mammary gland is composed of 15-20 lobes that secrete milk into a branching duct system opening at the nipple. Those lobes are themselves composed of a number of terminal duct lobular units made of secretory alveoli and converging ducts. In mice, a similar architecture is observed at pregnancy in which ducts and alveoli are interspersed within the connective tissue stroma. The mouse mammary gland epithelium is a tree like system of ducts composed of two layers of cells, an inner layer of luminal cells surrounded by an outer layer of myoepithelial cells denoted by the confines of a basement membrane. At birth, only a rudimental ductal tree is present, composed of a primary duct and 15-20 branches. Branch elongation and amplification start at the beginning of puberty, around 4 weeks old, under the influence of hormones. At 10 weeks, most of the stroma is invaded by a complex system of ducts that will undergo cycles of branching and regression in each estrous cycle until pregnancy. At the onset of pregnancy, a second phase of development begins, with the proliferation and differentiation of the epithelium to form grape-shaped milk secretory structures called alveoli. Following parturition and throughout lactation, milk is produced by luminal secretory cells and stored within the lumen of alveoli. Oxytocin release, stimulated by a neural reflex induced by suckling of pups, induces synchronized contractions of the myoepithelial cells around the alveoli and along the ducts, allowing milk to be transported through the ducts to the nipple where it becomes available to the pups. Mammary gland development, differentiation and function are tightly orchestrated and require, not only interactions between the stroma and the epithelium, but also between myoepithelial and luminal cells within the epithelium. Thereby, mutations in many genes implicated in these interactions may impair either ductal elongation during puberty or alveoli formation during early pregnancy

  13. Function of the Dufour’s gland in solitary and social Hymenoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aniruddha Mitra

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The poison gland and Dufour’s gland are the two glands associated with the sting apparatus in female Apocrita (Hymenoptera. While the poison gland usually functions as an integral part of the venom delivery system, the Dufour’s gland has been found to differ in its function in various hymenopteran groups. Like all exocrine glands, the function of the Dufour’s gland is to secrete chemicals, but the nature and function of the secretions varies in different taxa. Functions of the Dufour’s gland secretions range from serving as a component of material used in nest building, larval food, and pheromones involved in communicative functions that are important for both solitary and social species. This review summarizes the different functions reported for the Dufour’s gland in hymenopterans, illustrating how the Dufour’s gland secretions can be adapted to give rise to various functions in response to different challenges posed by the ways of life followed by different taxa. Aspects of development, structure, chemistry and the evolution of different functions are also touched upon briefly.

  14. The role of tight junctions in mammary gland function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelwagen, Kerst; Singh, Kuljeet

    2014-03-01

    Tight junctions (TJ) are cellular structures that facilitate cell-cell communication and are important in maintaining the three-dimensional structure of epithelia. It is only during the last two decades that the molecular make-up of TJ is becoming unravelled, with two major transmembrane-spanning structural protein families, called occludin and claudins, being the true constituents of the TJ. These TJ proteins are linked via specific scaffolding proteins to the cell's cytoskeleton. In the mammary gland TJ between adjacent secretory epithelial cells are formed during lactogenesis and are instrumental in establishing and maintaining milk synthesis and secretion, whereas TJ integrity is compromised during mammary involution and also as result of mastitis and periods of mammary inflamation (including mastitis). They prevent the paracellular transport of ions and small molecules between the blood and milk compartments. Formation of intact TJ at the start of lactation is important for the establishment of the lactation. Conversely, loss of TJ integrity has been linked to reduced milk secretion and mammary function and increased paracellular transport of blood components into the milk and vice versa. In addition to acting as a paracellular barrier, the TJ is increasingly linked to playing an active role in intracellular signalling. This review focusses on the role of TJ in mammary function of the normal, non-malignant mammary gland, predominantly in ruminants, the major dairy producing species.

  15. 131I-induced changes in rat thyroid gland function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Torlak

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Therapeutic doses of 131I administered to thyrotoxic patients may cause thyroid failure. The present study used a rat model to determine thyroid function after the administration of different doses of 131I (64-277 µCi. Thirty male Fisher rats in the experimental group and 30 in the control group (untreated were followed for 6 months. The animals were 4 months old at the beginning of the experiment and were sacrificed at an age of 9 months. Hormone concentration was determined before 131I administration (4-month-old animals and three times following 131I administration, when the animals were 7, 8, and 9 months old. The thyroid glands were removed and weighed, their volume was determined and histopathological examination was performed at the end of the experiment. Significant differences in serum triiodothyronine and thyroid-stimulating hormone concentration, measured at the age of 7, 8, and 9 months, were found in the experimental group. During aging of the animals, the concentration of thyroxin fell from 64.8 ± 8.16 to 55.0 ± 6.1 nM in the control group and from 69.4 ± 6.9 to 25.4 ± 3.2 nM in the experimental group. Thyroid gland volume and weight were significantly lower in the experimental than in the control group. Thyroid glands from the experimental group showed hyaline thickness of the blood vessel wall, necrotic follicles, a strong inflammatory reaction, and peeling of necrotic cells in the follicles. In conclusion, significant differences in hormone levels and histopathological findings indicated prolonged hypothyroidism after 131I administration to rats, which was not 131I dose dependent.

  16. Sex differences in cardiovascular function

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kolář, František; Ošťádal, Bohuslav

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 207, č. 4 (2013), s. 584-587 ISSN 1748-1708 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : heart * vascular * risk factors * sex Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery Impact factor: 4.251, year: 2013

  17. Factors of salivary gland tumor influence on salivary gland function. Studies on salivary scintigraphy using 99mTcO4-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyama, Michio; Katada, Tsutomu; Sasaki, Yoshihiko; Togashi, Masatoshi; Tsuchimochi, Makoto

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to show clearly what factors such as tumor size, duration of illness, location, and tumor invasion in salivary gland tumor affect salivary gland function. The study cases were 42 salivary gland tumor patients who underwent computed tomography (CT) and sialoscintigraphy. Salivary gland tumor was confirmed histopathologically. The patients were 24 males and 18 females, aged from 16 to 82 years old (mean age: 52.8 years old). There were 23 patients with parotid gland tumors and 19 patients with submandibular gland tumors (27 benign tumors, 15 malignant tumors). By using 99m TcO 4 - sialoscintigraphy, the salivary gland function was classified into three different types according to stimulatory selection ratio which was expressed as the ratio of pre- to post-stimulation counts on the salivary gland, namely, normal, lower functional, and no functional types. Then the normal type was judged abnormal function, and the lower and no functional types were judged as abnormal function. The results were as follows: There was a significant difference between malignant tumor and benign tumor in salivary gland function (P<0.0001). Depending on tumor size, abnormal function was significantly higher than normal function (P<0.05). There was no statistical significant difference among duration of illness, location of tumor, and salivary gland function. There was a significant difference between tumor invasion and salivary gland function (P<0.0001). The results showed that salivary gland function was disturbed in salivary gland tumor with larger size and positive invasion. (author)

  18. Functional salivary gland regeneration by transplantation of a bioengineered organ germ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Miho; Oshima, Masamitsu; Imamura, Aya; Sekine, Yurie; Ishida, Kentaro; Yamashita, Kentaro; Nakajima, Kei; Hirayama, Masatoshi; Tachikawa, Tetsuhiko; Tsuji, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    Salivary gland hypofunction, also known as xerostomia, occurs as a result of radiation therapy for head cancer, Sjögren’s syndrome or aging, and can cause a variety of critical oral health issues, including dental decay, bacterial infection, mastication dysfunction, swallowing dysfunction and reduced quality of life. Here we demonstrate the full functional regeneration of a salivary gland that reproduces the morphogenesis induced by reciprocal epithelial and mesenchymal interactions through the orthotopic transplantation of a bioengineered salivary gland germ as a regenerative organ replacement therapy. The bioengineered germ develops into a mature gland through acinar formations with a myoepithelium and innervation. The bioengineered submandibular gland produces saliva in response to the administration of pilocarpine and gustatory stimulation by citrate, protects against oral bacterial infection and restores normal swallowing in a salivary gland-defective mouse model. This study thus provides a proof-of-concept for bioengineered salivary gland regeneration as a potential treatment of xerostomia. PMID:24084982

  19. Sweat gland function as a measure of radiation change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pigott, K.H.; Dische, S.; Saunders, M.I.; Vojnovic, B.

    2000-01-01

    Radiotherapy may result in dryness of the skin even when no other change can be detected. We describe a system for recording the electrical conductance of skin as a measure of sweat gland function. In 22 normal volunteers close agreement was obtained between measurements obtained from comparable sites on both sides of the chest. Measurements were subsequently made in 38 patients treated by radiotherapy to one side of the chest for tumours of the breast or lung using one of five different fractionation schedules. Simultaneous readings were obtained from both sides of the chest with the non irradiated side acting as a control. A dose response relationship was demonstrated: five patients who received the equivalent total dose of 15 Gy in 2-Gy fractions showed no change in conductance. Sixteen out of 23 who received an equivalent total dose of 42-46 Gy in 2-Gy fractions had a greater than 22% reduction in mean skin conductance compared with that of the control areas despite the skin appearing normal in the large majority. Marked changes in skin conductance were seen after higher total doses. In a prospective study 18 women receiving breast irradiation underwent weekly readings during treatment. A mean reduction of 40% in skin conductance was noted by the end of the second week of treatment prior to any clinical evidence of radiation change. Skin conductance returned to normal in 44% of patients by 6 months. In the remainder, those patients who showed the greatest reduction in skin conductance during treatment demonstrated the least recovery. Changes in sweat gland function can be detected and quantified in skin which may otherwise appear normal. Differences may so be demonstrated between areas treated using different fractionation schedules and the method may be applied to the detection during radiotherapy of unusually sensitive patient. (author)

  20. Radioimmunological study of the gonadotropic function of the pituitary gland in women during menstrual cycle recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemodanov, V.I.; Likhacheva, T.M.; Sel'verova, N.B.

    1985-01-01

    The gonadotropic function of the pituitary gland in women atan early stage of pregnancy and a month after abortion has been studied. The results of the investigation testify to the fact that radioimmunoassay of horiones in blood plasma is rather a precise criterion for estimat+on of the gonadotropic function of the pituitary gland at an earby stage of pregnancy and after abortion

  1. Physiological Changes of the Thyroid Gland Function in Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.S. Prylutskyi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The literature data regarding changes in thyroid function during pregnancy were analyzed. There has been described a number of factors (increased levels of human chorionic gonadotropin, estrogen, changes in deiodination processese, the need for iodine, etc. influencing the synthesis of free and bound fractions of thyroid hormones. Characteristic differences of the above data in different trimesters of pregnancy are presented. It is shown that some pregnant women may have thyroid hormone levels beyond the normal range. According to the literature, in 9.7–30 % of women, thyroid-stimulating hormone level does not meet the trimester-specific intervals. The intense functioning of the thyroid gland in the mother increases the risk of pathological changes in it, and a violation of its functions is the risk of thyroid disease in the fetus too. In view of the above, timely diagnosis of thyroid function, control of the activity of adaptive processes in the pituitary-thyroid system in pregnant women are important.

  2. Identification of factors that function in Drosophila salivary gland cell death during development using proteomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhee, C K; Balgley, B M; Nelson, C; Hill, J H; Batlevi, Y; Fang, X; Lee, C S; Baehrecke, E H

    2013-01-01

    Proteasome inhibitors induce cell death and are used in cancer therapy, but little is known about the relationship between proteasome impairment and cell death under normal physiological conditions. Here, we investigate the relationship between proteasome function and larval salivary gland cell death during development in Drosophila. Drosophila larval salivary gland cells undergo synchronized programmed cell death requiring both caspases and autophagy (Atg) genes during development. Here, we show that ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) function is reduced during normal salivary gland cell death, and that ectopic proteasome impairment in salivary gland cells leads to early DNA fragmentation and salivary gland condensation in vivo. Shotgun proteomic analyses of purified dying salivary glands identified the UPS as the top category of proteins enriched, suggesting a possible compensatory induction of these factors to maintain proteolysis during cell death. We compared the proteome following ectopic proteasome impairment to the proteome during developmental cell death in salivary gland cells. Proteins that were enriched in both populations of cells were screened for their function in salivary gland degradation using RNAi knockdown. We identified several factors, including trol, a novel gene CG11880, and the cop9 signalsome component cop9 signalsome 6, as required for Drosophila larval salivary gland degradation. PMID:22935612

  3. Identification of factors that function in Drosophila salivary gland cell death during development using proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhee, C K; Balgley, B M; Nelson, C; Hill, J H; Batlevi, Y; Fang, X; Lee, C S; Baehrecke, E H

    2013-02-01

    Proteasome inhibitors induce cell death and are used in cancer therapy, but little is known about the relationship between proteasome impairment and cell death under normal physiological conditions. Here, we investigate the relationship between proteasome function and larval salivary gland cell death during development in Drosophila. Drosophila larval salivary gland cells undergo synchronized programmed cell death requiring both caspases and autophagy (Atg) genes during development. Here, we show that ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) function is reduced during normal salivary gland cell death, and that ectopic proteasome impairment in salivary gland cells leads to early DNA fragmentation and salivary gland condensation in vivo. Shotgun proteomic analyses of purified dying salivary glands identified the UPS as the top category of proteins enriched, suggesting a possible compensatory induction of these factors to maintain proteolysis during cell death. We compared the proteome following ectopic proteasome impairment to the proteome during developmental cell death in salivary gland cells. Proteins that were enriched in both populations of cells were screened for their function in salivary gland degradation using RNAi knockdown. We identified several factors, including trol, a novel gene CG11880, and the cop9 signalsome component cop9 signalsome 6, as required for Drosophila larval salivary gland degradation.

  4. Function of the parotid gland following radiation therapy for head and neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, V.S.T.; Downs, J.; Herbert, D.; Aramany, M.

    1981-01-01

    The parotid gland was selected for study of its salivary output before and after radiation therapy for head and neck cancer. Before radiation therapy, a sialogram of the parotid gland was performed with the patient's head positioned for radiation therapy; a lateral radiographic view of the parotid gland was used to compare with the radiation treatment portal to determine the portion of the parotid gland to be irradiated. Samples of stimulated saliva were collected from the parotid gland before and at 1 and 6 months post-radiation. Eighteen patients with head and neck cancer who received radiation therapy were studied. The data showed that in the irradiation of nasopharyngeal, advanced oropharyngeal and Waldeyer's ring lesions, 100% of the parotid gland was irradiated; for the early oropharyngeal and hypopharyngeal lesions, from 30 to 90% of the parotid gland was irradiated and for the supraglottic and oral cavity lesions, 25 to 30% of the parotid gland was irradiated. When 100% of the parotid gland was irradiated, no saliva was produced at 1 month post-radiation; this remained the same when re-tested at 4 to 8 months, however, when any portion of the parotid gland was not irradiated, there was residual salivary function

  5. Minor salivary glands function is decreased in hyposalivation-related diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhen; Li, Wei; Hong, Xia; Su, Jia-Zeng; Hua, Hong; Peng, Xin; Lv, Lan; Yu, Guang-Yan

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the relationship between minor salivary gland (MSG) flow rates and oral dryness degrees in patients with xerostomia induced by primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS), IgG4-related sialadenitis (IgG4-RS), radiation therapy-induced dry mouth (RTDM), or Steven-Johnson syndrome (SJS). 160 patients with pSS, IgG4-RS, RTDM, or SJS and their age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects were enrolled. The whole saliva flow rates and MSG flow rates were measured in four locations, including the upper labial, lower labial, buccal, and palatal mucosae. The degree of oral dryness was assessed in patient groups using the summated xerostomia inventory (SXI). The flow rates of whole saliva and most MSGs in patient groups were significantly lower than the flow rates in healthy control groups (P0.05). MSG function is significantly reduced in pSS, RTDM, IgG4-RS, and SJS patients, but this reduction is more pronounced in the major salivary glands. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. ACUTE IRRADIATION EFFECTS ON MORPHOLOGY AND FUNCTION OF RAT SUBMANDIBULAR GLANDS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VISSINK, A; KALICHARAN, D; GRAVENMADE, EJ; JONGEBLOED, WL; LIGEON, EE; NIEUWENHUIS, P; KONINGS, AWT

    1991-01-01

    In this study the morphologic and functional changes were compared after irradiation (single dose, 15 Gy) of rat submandibular salivary glands. Before and 1-10 days after local irradiation of the gland region, samples of submandibular saliva were collected after stimulation by pilocarpine. At the

  7. Radiation-induced apoptosis in relation to acute impairment of rat salivary gland function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paardekooper, GMRM; Cammelli, S; Zeilstra, LJW; Coppes, RP; Konings, AWT

    Purpose: To find an answer to the question: Are the acute radiation effects on salivary gland function, as seen in earlier studies, causally related to radiation-induced apoptosis? Materials and methods: Rat parotid and submandibular glands were X-irradiated with doses up to 25 Gy and morphological

  8. Radonuclide sialoscentigraphy in assessment of parotid salivary glands function after radioiodinetherapy in thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prikhod'ko, A.G.; Sorokin, I.N.

    1987-01-01

    Function of parotid salivary glands in patients subjected to radiotherapy with radioactive iodine using radionuclide sialoscintigraphy was studied. 28 patients with thyroid cancer subjected to 131 I therapy were examined. It was stated that in patients receiving 1.2-1.6 GBq 131 I disturbances of parotid salivary gland function, manifested in decrease of excretory function without secretory deficiency of parenchymatous cells were developed. When radioactive iodine dose was above 4 GBq, secretory function of parotid salivary glands, which degree depended on introduced 131 I medical activities, was disturbed

  9. Leg tendon glands in male bumblebees (Bombus terrestris): structure, secretion chemistry, and possible functions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jarau, S.; Žáček, Petr; Šobotník, Jan; Vrkoslav, Vladimír; Hadravová, Romana; Coppée, Audrey; Vašíčková, Soňa; Jiroš, Pavel; Valterová, Irena

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 99, č. 12 (2012), s. 1039-1049 ISSN 0028-1042 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA01020969 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : bumblebee * hydrocarbons * leg tendon gland s * sex specific secretion * wax esters Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.144, year: 2012

  10. HORMONAL CONTROL OF OVARIAN FUNCTION FOLLOWING CHLOROTRIAZINE EXPOSURE: EFFECT ON REPRODUCTIVE FUNCTION AND MAMMARY GLAND TUMOR DEVELOPMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hormonal Control of Ovarian Function Following Chlorotriazine Exposure: Effect on Reproductive Function and Mammary Gland Tumor Development. Ralph L. Cooper, Susan C. Laws, Michael G. Narotsky, Jerome M. Goldman, and Tammy E. StokerAbstractThe studies review...

  11. Sex chromosome complement influences functional callosal myelination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, S; Patel, R; Hannsun, G; Yang, J; Tiwari-Woodruff, S K

    2013-08-15

    In addition to androgen differences between males and females, there are genetic differences that are caused by unequal dosage of sex chromosome genes. Using the cuprizone-induced demyelination model, we recently showed that surgical gonadectomy of adult mice resulted in decreased normal myelination and remyelination compared to gonadally intact animals, suggesting a supporting role for sex hormones in the maintenance of myelination. However, inherent sex differences in normal myelination and remyelination persisted even after gonadectomy, with males consistently remyelinating to a lesser extent relative to normal myelination as assayed by axon conduction and immunohistochemistry. This suggests a potential role for the sex chromosome complement in mediating the differential rates of remyelination observed in males and females. The present study focuses on the impact that sex chromosomes might have on these myelination differences. Making use of the four core-genotype mice and cuprizone-diet induced demyelination/remyelination paradigm, our results demonstrate sex chromosome-mediated asymmetry between XX and XY mice. The rate of functional remyelination following cuprizone diet-induced callosal demyelination in four core-genotype mice is attenuated in XY compared to XX animals of both gonadal sexes. Importantly, this difference arises only in the absence of circulating sex hormones following gonadectomy and confirms the role of sex hormones in the remyelination process reported earlier by our group. Because a genotype-mediated difference only arises following gonadectomy, the chromosomal contribution to myelination and remyelination is subtle yet significant. To explain this difference, we propose a possible asymmetry in the expression of myelination-related genes in XX vs. XY mice that needs to be investigated in future studies. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Functional morphology of the postpharyngeal gland of queens and workers of the ant Monomorium pharaonis (L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eelen, Dieter; Børgesen, Lisbeth W.; Billen, Johan

    2006-01-01

    The postpharyngeal gland (PPG) is unique to ants and is the largest exocrine gland in their head. In queens of the pharaoh's ant, Monomorium pharaonis, the gland contains approximately 15 finger-like epithelial extensions on each side and opens dorsolaterally in the posterior pharynx. In these ants...... nurses and foragers. We suggest the PPG serves different purposes in pharaoh's ants: it is likely that the PPG of workers and virgin queens is used to feed larvae. In mated queens the gland probably plays a role in providing the queen with nutritious oils for egg production. The PPG may also function...... their secretion into the gland lumen from an age of 7 days, whereas mated queens accumulate large amounts of secretion in their epithelium. The increasing epithelial thickness, together with the increasing lumen diameter, the presence of numerous inclusions in the epithelium and the release of secretion...

  13. Functional unity of the thymus and pineal gland and study of the mechanisms of aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyakova, V O; Linkova, N S; Kvetnoy, I M; Khavinson, V Kh

    2011-09-01

    The data on the morphology and functions of the thymus and pineal gland in individuals of different age are analyzed and common mechanisms of involution of these organs during aging and the consequencies of this process are discussed. Based on the data on the molecular changes in the thymus and pineal gland during aging, the authors hypothesize the functional unity of these organs and their mutual complementarity in the maintenance of normal immune and endocrine status during aging.

  14. Effect of Cisplatin on Parotid Gland Function in Concomitant Radiochemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hey, Jeremias; Setz, Juergen; Gerlach, Reinhard; Vordermark, Dirk; Gernhardt, Christian R.; Kuhnt, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the influence of concomitant radiochemotherapy with cisplatin on parotid gland tissue complication probability. Methods and Materials: Patients treated with either radiotherapy (n = 61) or concomitant radiochemotherapy with cisplatin (n = 36) for head-and-neck cancer were prospectively evaluated. The dose and volume distributions of the parotid glands were noted in dose-volume histograms. Stimulated salivary flow rates were measured before, during the 2nd and 6th weeks and at 4 weeks and 6 months after the treatment. The data were fit using the normal tissue complication probability model of Lyman. Complication was defined as a reduction of the salivary flow rate to less than 25% of the pretreatment flow rate. Results: The normal tissue complication probability model parameter TD 50 (the dose leading to a complication probability of 50%) was found to be 32.2 Gy at 4 weeks and 32.1 Gy at 6 months for concomitant radiochemotherapy and 41.1 Gy at 4 weeks and 39.6 Gy at 6 months for radiotherapy. The tolerated dose for concomitant radiochemotherapy was at least 7 to 8 Gy lower than for radiotherapy alone at TD 50 . Conclusions: In this study, the concomitant radiochemotherapy tended to cause a higher probability of parotid gland tissue damage. Advanced radiotherapy planning approaches such as intensity-modulated radiotherapy may be partiticularly important for parotid sparing in radiochemotherapy because of cisplatin-related increased radiosensitivity of glands.

  15. Sex steroids and epidermal glands in two species of gekkonine lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, K W; Maderson, P F; Alexander, S A; Wong, K L

    1975-09-01

    In vivo and in vitro experiments on the endocrine relationships of epidermal glands in the tokay Gekko gecko, and the common house gecko Hemidactylus bowringii are reported. The results show that certain aspects of beta-gland differentiation involve a synergistic action between androgens and those hormones responsible for controlling the normal shedding cycle, while other aspects are solely under androgenic control. Pre-anal organ activity appears to be solely under androgenic control.

  16. Bottom-up assembly of salivary gland microtissues for assessing myoepithelial cell function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, Tugba; Srinivasan, Padma Pradeepa; Zakheim, Daniel R; Harrington, Daniel A; Witt, Robert L; Farach-Carson, Mary C; Jia, Xinqiao; Pradhan-Bhatt, Swati

    2017-10-01

    Myoepithelial cells are flat, stellate cells present in exocrine tissues including the salivary glands. While myoepithelial cells have been studied extensively in mammary and lacrimal gland tissues, less is known of the function of myoepithelial cells derived from human salivary glands. Several groups have isolated tumorigenic myoepithelial cells from cancer specimens, however, only one report has demonstrated isolation of normal human salivary myoepithelial cells needed for use in salivary gland tissue engineering applications. Establishing a functional organoid model consisting of myoepithelial and secretory acinar cells is therefore necessary for understanding the coordinated action of these two cell types in unidirectional fluid secretion. Here, we developed a bottom-up approach for generating salivary gland microtissues using primary human salivary myoepithelial cells (hSMECs) and stem/progenitor cells (hS/PCs) isolated from normal salivary gland tissues. Phenotypic characterization of isolated hSMECs confirmed that a myoepithelial cell phenotype consistent with that from other exocrine tissues was maintained over multiple passages of culture. Additionally, hSMECs secreted basement membrane proteins, expressed adrenergic and cholinergic neurotransmitter receptors, and released intracellular calcium [Ca 2+ i ] in response to parasympathetic agonists. In a collagen I contractility assay, activation of contractile machinery was observed in isolated hSMECs treated with parasympathetic agonists. Recombination of hSMECs with assembled hS/PC spheroids in a microwell system was used to create microtissues resembling secretory complexes of the salivary gland. We conclude that the engineered salivary gland microtissue complexes provide a physiologically relevant model for both mechanistic studies and as a building block for the successful engineering of the salivary gland for restoration of salivary function in patients suffering from hyposalivation. Copyright © 2017

  17. Functional male accessory glands and fertility in Drosophila require novel ecdysone receptor.

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    Vandana Sharma

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In many insects, the accessory gland, a secretory tissue of the male reproductive system, is essential for male fertility. Male accessory gland is the major source of proteinaceous secretions, collectively called as seminal proteins (or accessory gland proteins, which upon transfer, manipulate the physiology and behavior of mated females. Insect hormones such as ecdysteroids and juvenoids play a key role in accessory gland development and protein synthesis but little is known about underlying molecular players and their mechanism of action. Therefore, in the present study, we examined the roles of hormone-dependent transcription factors (Nuclear Receptors, in accessory gland development, function and male fertility of a genetically tractable insect model, Drosophila melanogaster. First, we carried out an RNAi screen involving 19 hormone receptors, individually and specifically, in a male reproductive tissue (accessory gland for their requirement in Drosophila male fertility. Subsequently, by using independent RNAi/ dominant negative forms, we show that Ecdysone Receptor (EcR is essential for male fertility due to its requirement in the normal development of accessory glands in Drosophila: EcR depleted glands fail to make seminal proteins and have dying cells. Further, our data point to a novel ecdysone receptor that does not include Ultraspiracle but is probably comprised of EcR isoforms in Drosophila male accessory glands. Our data suggest that this novel ecdysone receptor might act downstream of homeodomain transcription factor paired (prd in the male accessory gland. Overall, the study suggests novel ecdysone receptor as an important player in the hormonal regulation of seminal protein production and insect male fertility.

  18. Exocrine gland dysfunction in MC5-R-deficient mice: evidence for coordinated regulation of exocrine gland function by melanocortin peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, W; Kelly, M A; Opitz-Araya, X; Thomas, R E; Low, M J; Cone, R D

    1997-12-12

    The effects of pituitary-derived melanocortin peptides are primarily attributed to ACTH-mediated adrenocortical glucocorticoid production. Identification of a widely distributed receptor for ACTH/MSH peptides, the melanocortin-5 receptor (MC5-R), suggested non-steroidally mediated systemic effects of these peptides. Targeted disruption of the MC5-R produced mice with a severe defect in water repulsion and thermoregulation due to decreased production of sebaceous lipids. High levels of MC5-R was found in multiple exocrine tissues, including Harderian, preputial, lacrimal, and sebaceous glands, and was also shown to be required for production and stress-regulated synthesis of porphyrins by the Harderian gland and ACTH/MSH-regulated protein secretion by the lacrimal gland. These data show a requirement for the MC5-R in multiple exocrine glands for the production of numerous products, indicative of a coordinated system for regulation of exocrine gland function by melanocortin peptides.

  19. Radioiodine treatment effects of lacrimal glands function in patients with thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fard Esfahani, A.; Akhzari, F.; Mirshekarpour, H.; Saghari, M.; Izadyar, S.; Esmaili, J.; Fallahi, B.; Beiki, D.; Takavar, A.

    2005-01-01

    There is a limited number of case reports published in the past decade confirming the radio-iodine presence in the tear. These observations as well as reported cases of salivary and lacrimal gland dysfunction after radioiodine therapy stimulated investigators to clarify whether lacrimal gland function can be affected post-radioiodine therapy. Hence we planned a historical cohort study to evaluate this effect. Methods: we studied 100 eyes of 50 patients who were referred to the nuclear medicine department of Dr. Shariati hospital from 01.1383 to 02.1384 and had received high doses (accumulative dose: 100-450mCi) of 1-131 treatment of differentiated thyroid carcinoma with their latest admission at least 3 months previously. Dry eye symptoms (obtained via a standard questionnaire) and Schirmer I test results (mm/5min) of this group were compared with those of an unexposed group (1 00 eyes of 50 individuals) matched by sex and age. Cases with another known cause(s) of dry eye were not included in either group. Results: 51% of the exposed eyes and 50% of the unexposed ones revealed at least one of the dry eye symptoms in the questionnaire. Data analysis showed no significant difference between the number of symptoms of two groups, but 2 symptoms (burning, unrelated to light and rythema) were significantly higher in the exposed eyes. From 9 exposed eyes complaining of erythema, Schirmer test result was abnormal only in 2 (one patient). Also among the 10 eyes with burning symptom (unrelated to light) one patient (2 eyes) revealed abnormal Schirmer test result. The study also demonstrated a significantly lower wetting amount of the Schirmer paper in exposed group compared to others. In the patients undergone radio-iodine therapy, results were 0-4 mm in 21%, 5-9 mm in 20% and 10 mm or more in 59%. These results were seen in the unexposed group in 6%, 17% and 77%, respectively. File review of the 21 exposed eyes with 0-4 mm Schirmer test results revealed presence of the

  20. Laminin-111-derived peptide conjugated fibrin hydrogel restores salivary gland function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kihoon Nam

    Full Text Available Hyposalivation reduces the patient quality of life, as saliva is important for maintaining oral health. Current treatments for hyposalivation are limited to medications such as the muscarinic receptor agonists, pilocarpine and cevimeline. However, these therapies only provide temporary relief. Therefore, alternative therapies are essential to restore salivary gland function. An option is to use bioengineered scaffolds to promote functional salivary gland regeneration. Previous studies demonstrated that the laminin-111 protein is critical for intact salivary gland cell cluster formation and organization. However, laminin-111 protein as a whole is not suitable for clinical applications as some protein domains may contribute to unwanted side effects such as degradation, tumorigenesis and immune responses. Conversely, the use of synthetic laminin-111 peptides makes it possible to minimize the immune reactivity or pathogen transfer. In addition, it is relatively simple and inexpensive as compared to animal-derived proteins. Therefore, the goal of this study was to demonstrate whether a 20 day treatment with laminin-111-derived peptide conjugated fibrin hydrogel promotes tissue regeneration in submandibular glands of a wound healing mouse model. In this study, laminin-111-derived peptide conjugated fibrin hydrogel significantly accelerated formation of salivary gland tissue. The regenerated gland tissues displayed not only structural but also functional restoration.

  1. Effect of Gamma Irradiation on Sex Pheromone Gland and Reproduction of Female Cotton Leaf Worm Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd-El Rahman, H.A.; Sallam, H.; El-Shall, S.S.A.; Hazaa, M.A.E.

    1999-01-01

    Female pupae of the cotton leaf worm were gamma irradiated at different ages with different doses to study the histology of the female sex pheromone gland in normal and irradiated produced moths. Reproduction of adult produced from irradiated full grown pupae was also investigated. The gland of normal female moth is found in the ninth abdominal segment, which is usually invaginated in the 8 th segment. It is formed of enlarged glandular epithelial cells under the cuticle. These epithelial cells are deeply invaginated in side the body cavity to form paired pouches and a sac-like structure. From each glandular cell there grows one long hair. in females emerging from 3 day-old pupae irradiated with 60 Gy, the glandular epithelial cells, became loose and were separated from each other, their nuclei were not clear. The pouches were randomly distributed. Gamma radiation effects were also noticed in case of 6 day-old pupae irradiated with 120 Gy. In addition, the glandular epithelial cells lost their peculiar shape, with the appearance of some vacuoles between them. When full grown pupae were irradiated with 200 or 350 Gy the glands of emerged adult showed increasing vacuoles, cytoplasm deterioration and more destruction of pouches. Irradiating full-grown female pupae with 200 and 350 Gy decreased significantly the fecundity and egg hatch ability of the emerging adult females. The effect was dose dependent and the dose of 350 Gy almost prevented egg hatching

  2. Histological Changes in Sex Pheromone Gland of the Black Cutworm, Agrotis ipsilon (Hufn.) Females Induced by Gamma Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, S.M.; Abd El Hamid, W.A.; Elbolok, M.M.; Elshabrawy, H.A.

    2008-01-01

    The pheromone gland of Agrotis ipsilon(Hufn.) untreated adult female is simple closed ring shaped where the glandular epithelium of the abdomen of abdominal fold between the 8th and 9th segment is slightly investigate inside the body cavity. The scent gland as a characteristic tuft of modified scales or hairs which are thin and smooth covering the whole surface of the 9th of the abdominal segment in which the scent gland is located. The histological study of gamma irradiated sex pheromone of the black cut worm female showed that: 1. When 50 Gy was applied, the glandular epithelium began to be separated from each other, vacuoles where appeared among them. 2. When 100 Gy was applied, the glandular epithelium began to be irregular in shape and some vacuoles were found, the cuticle was also ruptured in some parts. 3. When 150 Gy was applied, the glandular epithelium was irregular and vacuoles were obviously found. The cuticle appeared abnormal in some parts and oil drops were decreased

  3. Expression and Functions of Fibroblast Growth Factor 10 in the Mouse Mammary Gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingzhang Li

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Fibroblast growth factor 10 (FGF10 is important as a mesenchymal mediator of epithelial growth and morphogenesis. In this study, the expression and localization of the FGF10 protein were detected by laser scanning confocal microscopy during mouse postnatal mammary gland development. Mammary explants were cultured to investigate the functions of FGF10. The results revealed that FGF10 localizes mainly in the mesenchyme near the ductal epithelial cells and the alveolar epithelial cells of the mammary gland. Peak FGF10 expression levels were observed at lactation day 10. FGF10 induced FGFR2-IIIb expression in the mammary epithelium, except in virgin or pregnant mice. FGF10 promoted the proliferation of mammary gland epithelial cells and reduced apoptosis. FGF10 is important during the mouse mammary gland growth, development, and reconstruction, and its effects are mediated by FGFR2-IIIb.

  4. The effects of intra-abdominal hypertension on the secretory function of canine adrenal glands.

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    Jian Yu

    Full Text Available Intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH can damage multiple organ systems, but the explicit impact on the adrenal gland is unclear. To evaluate the effects of intra-abdominal pressure (IAP on the secretory function of the adrenal glands, we established canine models of IAH. By comparing morphology; hemodynamics; plasma cortisol, aldosterone, epinephrine, and norepinephrine concentrations; and the expression of IL-1, IL-6, and TNF-α in adrenal gland tissue from these dogs, we found that hemodynamic instability occurred after IAH and that IAH increased the plasma cortisol, aldosterone, epinephrine, and norepinephrine concentrations. Higher IAPs resulted in more significant changes, and the above indicators gradually returned to normal 2 h after decompression. Compared with the sham-operated group, IAH significantly increased IL-1, IL-6, and TNF-α levels in adrenal tissue, with larger increases in the presence of higher IAPs. However, the concentrations of these markers remained higher than those in the sham-operated group despite their decrease after 2 h of decompression. Histopathological examination revealed congestion, red blood cell exudation, and neutrophil infiltration in the adrenal glands when IAP was elevated; these conditions became more significant with more severe IAH. These results suggest that the secretion of adrenal hormones and adrenal gland inflammation are positively correlated with IAP and that abdominal decompression effectively corrects adrenal gland function.

  5. A comparison of mean parotid gland dose with measures of parotid gland function after radiotherapy for head-and-neck cancer: Implications for future trials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roesink, Judith M.; Schipper, Maria; Busschers, Wim; Raaijmakers, Cornelis P.J.; Terhaard, Chris H.J.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the most adequate parameter to measure the consequences of reducing the parotid gland dose. Methods and Materials: One hundred eight patients treated with radiotherapy for various malignancies of the head and neck were prospectively evaluated using three methods. Parotid gland function was objectively determined by measuring stimulated parotid flow using Lashley cups and scintigraphy. To assess xerostomia-related quality of life, the head-and-neck cancer module European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer QLQ (Quality of Life Questionnaire) H and N35 was used. Measurements took place before radiotherapy and 6 weeks and 12 months after the completion of radiotherapy. Complication was defined for each method using cutoff values. The correlation between these complications and the mean parotid gland dose was investigated to find the best measure for parotid gland function. Results: For both flow and scintigraphy data, the best definition for objective parotid gland toxicity seemed to be reduction of stimulated parotid flow to ≤25% of the preradiotherapy flow. Of all the subjective variables, only the single item dry mouth 6 weeks after radiotherapy was found to be significant. The best correlation with the mean parotid gland dose was found for the stimulated flow measurements. The predictive ability was the highest for the time point 1 year after radiotherapy. Subjective findings did not correlate with the mean parotid dose. Conclusions: Stimulated flow measurements using Lashley cups, with a complication defined as flow ≤25% of the preradiotherapy output, correlated best with the mean parotid gland dose. When reduction of the mean dose to the parotid gland is intended, the stimulated flow measurement is the best method for evaluating parotid gland function

  6. Leg tendon glands in male bumblebees ( Bombus terrestris): structure, secretion chemistry, and possible functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarau, Stefan; Žáček, Petr; Šobotník, Jan; Vrkoslav, Vladimír; Hadravová, Romana; Coppée, Audrey; Vašíčková, Soňa; Jiroš, Pavel; Valterová, Irena

    2012-12-01

    Among the large number of exocrine glands described in bees, the tarsal glands were thought to be the source of footprint scent marks. However, recent studies showed that the compounds used for marking by stingless bees are secreted by leg tendon instead of tarsal glands. Here, we report on the structure of leg tendon glands in males of Bombus terrestris, together with a description of the chemical composition of their secretions and respective changes of both during the males' lives. The ultrastructure of leg tendon glands shows that the secretory cells are located in three independent regions, separated from each other by unmodified epidermal cells: in the femur, tibia, and basitarsus. Due to the common site of secretion release, the organ is considered a single secretory gland. The secretion of the leg tendon glands of B. terrestris males differs in its composition from those of workers and queens, in particular by (1) having larger proportions of compounds with longer chain lengths, which we identified as wax esters; and (2) by the lack of certain hydrocarbons (especially long chain dienes). Other differences consist in the distribution of double bond positions in the unsaturated hydrocarbons that are predominantly located at position 9 in males but distributed at seven to nine different positions in the female castes. Double bond positions may change chemical and physical properties of a molecule, which can be recognized by the insects and, thus, may serve to convey specific information. The function of male-specific compounds identified from their tendon glands remains elusive, but several possibilities are discussed.

  7. Adrenal Gland Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... stress and has many other important functions. With adrenal gland disorders, your glands make too much or not enough ... born unable to make enough cortisol. Causes of adrenal gland disorders include Genetic mutations Tumors including pheochromocytomas Infections A ...

  8. A Method for the Measurement of Salivary Gland Function in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagavant, Harini; Trzeciak, Marta; Papinska, Joanna; Biswas, Indranil; Dunkleberger, Micah L; Sosnowska, Anna; Deshmukh, Umesh S

    2018-01-25

    Patients with Sjögren's syndrome, an autoimmune disease affecting the exocrine glands, develop salivary gland inflammation and have reduced saliva production. Similarly, saliva production is severely compromised in patients receiving radiation treatment for head and neck cancers. Rodent models, developed to mimic these clinical conditions, facilitate an understanding of the disease pathogenesis and allow for the development of new therapeutic strategies. Therefore, the ability to accurately, reproducibly, and repeatedly measure salivary gland function in animal models is critical. Building on procedures previously described in the literature, a method was developed that meets these criteria and was used to evaluate salivary gland function in mice. An additional advantage of this new method is that it is easily mastered, and has little inter-operator variation. Salivary gland function is evaluated as the amount (weight or volume) or rate (mL/min) of saliva produced in response to pilocarpine stimulation. The collected saliva is a good source for the analyses of protein content, immunoglobulin concentrations, and other biomolecules.

  9. Sex differences in tendon structure and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarver, Dylan C; Kharaz, Yalda Ashraf; Sugg, Kristoffer B; Gumucio, Jonathan P; Comerford, Eithne; Mendias, Christopher L

    2017-10-01

    Tendons play a critical role in the transmission of forces between muscles and bones, and chronic tendon injuries and diseases are among the leading causes of musculoskeletal disability. Little is known about sex-based differences in tendon structure and function. Our objective was to evaluate the mechanical properties, biochemical composition, transcriptome, and cellular activity of plantarflexor tendons from 4 month old male and female C57BL/6 mice using in vitro biomechanics, mass spectrometry-based proteomics, genome-wide expression profiling, and cell culture techniques. While the Achilles tendons of male mice were approximately 6% larger than female mice (p  0.05) of plantaris tendons were observed. Mass spectrometry proteomics analysis revealed no significant difference between sexes in the abundance of major extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins such as collagen types I (p = 0.30) and III (p = 0.68), but female mice had approximately twofold elevations (p tendons differed by only 1%. In vitro, neither the sex of the serum that fibroblasts were cultured in, nor the sex of the ECM in which they were embedded, had profound effects on the expression of collagen and cell proliferation genes. Our results indicate that while male mice expectedly had larger tendons, male and female tendons have very similar mechanical properties and biochemical composition, with small increases in some ECM proteins and proteoglycans evident in female tendons. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:2117-2126, 2017. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Immunolocalization and distribution of functional temperature-sensitive TRP channels in salivary glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobhan, Ubaidus; Sato, Masaki; Shinomiya, Takashi; Okubo, Migiwa; Tsumura, Maki; Muramatsu, Takashi; Kawaguchi, Mitsuru; Tazaki, Masakazu; Shibukawa, Yoshiyuki

    2013-11-01

    Transient receptor potential (TRP) cation channels are unique cellular sensors involved in multiple cellular functions. Their role in salivary secretion remains to be elucidated. The expression and localization of temperature-sensitive TRP channels in salivary (submandibular, sublingual and parotid) glands were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and quantitative real-time reverse transcription plus the polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The effects of various TRP channel agonists on carbachol (CCh)-induced salivary secretion in the submandibular gland and on the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) in a submandibular epithelial cell line were also investigated. Immunohistochemistry revealed the expression of TRP-melastatin subfamily member 8 (TRPM8) and TRP-ankyrin subfamily member 1 (TRPA1) in myoepithelial, acinar and ductal cells in the sublingual, submandibular and parotid glands. In addition, TRP-vanilloid subfamily member 1 (TRPV1), TRPV3 and TRPV4 were also expressed in myoepithelial, acinar and ductal cells in all three types of gland. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR results demonstrated the mRNA expression of TRPV1, TRPV3, TRPV4, TRPM8 and TRPA1 in acinar and ductal cells in these salivary glands. Perfusion of the entire submandibular gland with the TRPV1 agonist capsaicin (1 μM) via the submandibular artery significantly increased CCh-induced salivation, whereas perfusion with TRPM8 and TRPA1 agonists (0.5 μM WS12 and 100 μM allyl isothiocyanate) decreased it. Application of agonists for each of the thermosensitive TRP channels increased [Ca(2+)]i in a submandibular epithelial cell line. These results indicate that temperature-sensitive TRP channels are localized and distributed in acinar, ductal and myoepithelial cells in salivary glands and that they play a functional role in the regulation and/or modulation of salivary secretion.

  11. IL-22 regulation of functional gene expression in salivary gland cells

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    Tegan N. Lavoie

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available TH17 cells and their associated signature cytokines, IL-17 and IL-22, are highly elevated in primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSjS. The levels of IL-22 present in sera showed significant correlations with many disease parameters, specifically hyposalivation, anti-SSB, anti-SSA/SSB, hypergammaglobulinemia and rheumatoid factor. The present study aims to examine the biological function of IL-22 on human salivary glands. To accomplish the goal, microarray analysis using the HumanHT-12 v4 Expression BeadChip was utilized to determine the biological function of IL-22. Differential expression analyses were conducted using the LIMMA package from the Bioconductor project. MTT assay, flow cytometry and Western blotting were used to identify the function of IL-22 on human salivary gland cells. Results indicate an extensive effect of IL-22 on many major molecular functions including activation of antimicrobial genes and downregulation of immune-associated pathways. Functional studies performed in-vitro using human salivary gland cells treated with IL-22 indicated a direct effect of IL-22 on cell cycling, specifically reducing cellular proliferation at the G2-M phase by activation of STAT3. These results suggest the important role of IL-22 in the salivary gland function. The present study suggests that IL-22 might be involved in regulating inflammation and controlling the cell proliferation in SjS.

  12. The importance of background correction during calculation of the major salivary gland function in salivary gland scintigraphy

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    Bekir Taşdemir

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the parotid (P and submandibular (SM glands uptake and excretion ratios of 99mTc-pertechnetate, which were calculated by using the backgrounds drawn on five different areas. Methods: Ninety-eight P and 98 SM glands of totally 48 patients were included in the study. 99mTc-pertechnetate salivary gland scintigraphy was performed in all patients. Oral stimulation with lemon juice was made at 15th minute of the imaging. The 99mTc-pertechnetate uptake and excretion ratios of the P and SM glands were calculated separately without using any background, and by using the backgrounds drawn on wide frontal, narrow frontal, temporal, cervical and shoulder regions. These values were statistically compared with each other in pairwise manner. Results: The radioactivity uptake and excretion ratios of the P and SM glands calculated without using any background correction were statistically different from that calculated by using any background correction. In addition, the radioactivity uptake and excretion ratios of the P and SM glands calculated by using the backgrounds drawn on five different areas were mostly found statistically different from each other (p<0.05. Conclusion: Background correction is important during the calculation of the uptake and excretion ratios of P and SM glands. This study demonstrates that calculated uptake and excretion ratios of P and SM glands may differ according to the used background area.

  13. Aquaporins and Gland Secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delporte, Christine

    2017-01-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs ) are expressed in most exocrine and endocrine secretory glands. Consequently, summarizing the expression and functions of AQPs in secretory glands represents a daunting task considering the important number of glands present in the body, as well as the number of mammalian AQPs - thirteen. The roles played by AQPs in secretory processes have been investigated in many secretory glands. However, despite considerable research, additional studies are clearly needed to pursue our understanding of the role played by AQPs in secretory processes. This book chapter will focus on summarizing the current knowledge on AQPs expression and function in the gastrointestinal tract , including salivary glands, gastric glands, Duodenal Brunner's gland, liver and gallbladder, intestinal goblets cells, exocrine and endocrine pancreas, as well as few other secretory glands including airway submucosal glands, lacrimal glands, mammary glands and eccrine sweat glands.

  14. Parotid gland function during and following radiotherapy of malignancies in the head and neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franzen, L.; Funegaard, U.; Ericson, T.; Henriksson, R.

    1992-01-01

    Radiotherapy of tumours in the head and neck region usually involves the salivary glands in the treatment volume with ensuing dryness and discomfort. A prospective evaluation of the same patients was performed before, during radiotherapy and 6, 12 and 18 months after the end of treatment. All but one of the patients receiving doses less than 52 Gy showed a recovery of secretion beginning after 2 months with a continuous improvement of the salivary flow up to 18 months. Doses exceeding 64 Gy caused irreversibly depressed parotid function in the vast majority of glands. The subjective experience of discomfort with dry mouth was not at all correlated to the initial flow rate. Treatment with unilateral technique and doses below 52 Gy caused just no or slight dryness and 3 out of 4 patients with bilateral involvement of the glands displayed problem with subjective dryness even after 18 months. Doses over 64 Gy with one gland involved had only slight dryness, however, patients with both glands affected showed severe problems with dryness. There were relatively large interindividual differences with respect to salivary flow and discomfort of dryness. These patients need a careful dose planning and a close follow up with co-operation between radiotherapeutists and dentists. (author)

  15. Radioprotective Effect of Lidocaine on Function and Ultrastructure of Salivary Glands Receiving Fractionated Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakim, Samer George; Benedek, Gèza Attila; Su Yuxiong; Jacobsen, Hans Christian; Klinger, Matthias; Dendorfer, Andreas; Hemmelmann, Claudia; Meller, Birgit; Nadrowitz, Roger; Rades, Dirk; Sieg, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Radiation-induced xerostomia still represents a common side effect after radiotherapy for head-and-neck malignancies. The aim of the present study was to examine the radioprotective effect of lidocaine hydrochloride during fractionated radiation in an experimental animal model. Methods and Materials: To evaluate the influence of different radiation doses on salivary gland function and the radioprotective effect of lidocaine, rabbits were irradiated with 15, 25, 30, and 35 Gy (equivalent doses in 2-Gy fractions equivalent to 24, 40, 48, and 56 Gy, respectively). Lidocaine hydrochloride (10 and 12 mg/kg) was administered before every radiation fraction in the treatment groups. Salivary gland function was assessed by flow sialometry and sialoscintigraphy, and the morphologic changes were evaluated using transmission electron microscopy. Results: Functional impairment was first observed after 35 Gy and pretreatment with lidocaine improved radiation tolerance of both parotid and submandibular glands. The use of 12 mg/kg lidocaine was superior and displayed significant radioprotection with regard to flow sialometry and sialoscintigraphy. The ultrastructure was largely preserved after pretreatment with both lidocaine doses. Conclusions: Lidocaine represents an effective radioprotective agent and a promising approach for clinical application to avoid radiation-induced functional impairment of salivary glands.

  16. Radioprotective Effect of Lidocaine on Function and Ultrastructure of Salivary Glands Receiving Fractionated Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakim, Samer George, E-mail: samer.hakim@mkg-chir.mu-luebeck.de [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Luebeck, Luebeck (Germany); Benedek, Geza Attila [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Luebeck, Luebeck (Germany); Su Yuxiong [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Luebeck, Luebeck (Germany); Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guanghua School of Stomatology, Guanghua (China); Jacobsen, Hans Christian [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Luebeck, Luebeck (Germany); Klinger, Matthias [Institute of Anatomy, University of Luebeck, Luebeck (Germany); Dendorfer, Andreas [Institute of Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Luebeck, Luebeck (Germany); Hemmelmann, Claudia [Institute of Medical Biometry and Statistics, University of Luebeck, Luebeck (Germany); Meller, Birgit [Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University of Luebeck, Luebeck (Germany); Nadrowitz, Roger; Rades, Dirk [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Luebeck, Luebeck (Germany); Sieg, Peter [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Luebeck, Luebeck (Germany)

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: Radiation-induced xerostomia still represents a common side effect after radiotherapy for head-and-neck malignancies. The aim of the present study was to examine the radioprotective effect of lidocaine hydrochloride during fractionated radiation in an experimental animal model. Methods and Materials: To evaluate the influence of different radiation doses on salivary gland function and the radioprotective effect of lidocaine, rabbits were irradiated with 15, 25, 30, and 35 Gy (equivalent doses in 2-Gy fractions equivalent to 24, 40, 48, and 56 Gy, respectively). Lidocaine hydrochloride (10 and 12 mg/kg) was administered before every radiation fraction in the treatment groups. Salivary gland function was assessed by flow sialometry and sialoscintigraphy, and the morphologic changes were evaluated using transmission electron microscopy. Results: Functional impairment was first observed after 35 Gy and pretreatment with lidocaine improved radiation tolerance of both parotid and submandibular glands. The use of 12 mg/kg lidocaine was superior and displayed significant radioprotection with regard to flow sialometry and sialoscintigraphy. The ultrastructure was largely preserved after pretreatment with both lidocaine doses. Conclusions: Lidocaine represents an effective radioprotective agent and a promising approach for clinical application to avoid radiation-induced functional impairment of salivary glands.

  17. Intrathoracic toxic thyroid nodule causing hyperthyroidism with a multinodular normal functional cervical thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serim, Burcu Dirlik; Korkmaz, Ulku; Can, Unal; Altun, Gulay Durmus

    2016-01-01

    Radionuclide scintigraphy with I-131 and Tc-99m pertechnetate ( 99 mTc0 4 ) has been widely used in detecting toxic nodules. Intrathoracic goiter usually presents as an anterior mediastinal mass. Mostly the connection between intrathoracic mass and the cervical thyroid gland is clearly and easily identified occurring as a result of inferior extension of thyroid tissue in the neck, which is called as secondary intrathoracic goiter. Completely separated, aberrant or in other words primary intrathoracic goiters arise as a result of abnormal embryologic migration of ectopic thyroid closely associated with aortic sac and descend into the mediastinum. Intrathoracic goiters are generally nontoxic nodules existing with mass effect without causing hyperthyroidism. However, mostly reported cases had enlarged thyroid glands in the neck. This report demonstrates the usefulness of I-131 and 99 mTc0 4 scintigraphy for detecting intrathoracic goiter causing hyperthyroidism with a normal functioned cervical thyroid gland

  18. Functional Analyse of GLUT1 and GLUT12 in Glucose Uptake in Goat Mammary Gland Epithelial Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Qinghua; Zhu, Liqi; Lin, Jian; Zhang, Qiang; Tian, Qi; Hu, Weiwei; Yang, Qian

    2013-01-01

    Glucose transport, mediated by glucose transporters, is necessary for mammary gland development and lactation. GLUT1 and GLUT12 could both be expressed in the pregnant and lactating mammary gland to participate in the glucose uptake process. In this study, the goat GLUT1 and GLUT12 genes were cloned from Saanen dairy goats and transfected into goat mammary gland epithelial cells to assess their biological functions and distributions. The results showed that both goat GLUT1 and GLUT12 had 12 p...

  19. Restoring the secretory function of irradiation-damaged salivary gland by administrating deferoxamine in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junye Zhang

    Full Text Available One of the major side effects of radiotherapy for treatments of the head and neck cancer is the radiation-induced dysfunction of salivary glands. The aim of the present study is to investigate the efficacy of deferoxamine (DFO to restore the secretory function of radiation-damaged salivary glands in mice.DFO (50 mg/kg/d was administered intraperitoneally in C57BL/6 mice for 3 days before and/or after point-fixed irradiation (18 Gy of submandibular glands. The total 55 mice were randomly divided into: (1 Normal group: mice received no treatment (n = 5; (2 Irradiation group (IR: mice only received irradiation (n = 5; (3 Pre-DFO group (D+IR (n = 10; (4 Pre+Post DFO group (D+IR+D (n = 10; (5 Post-DFO group (IR+D (n = 10; (6 For each DFO-treated group, the mice were intraperitoneally injected with 0.1 ml sterilized water alone (by which DFO was dissolved for 3 days before and/or after irradiation, and served as control. Sham1: Pre-sterilized water group (n = 5; sham2: Pre+Post sterilized water group (n = 5; sham3: Post-sterilized water group (n = 5. The salivary flow rate (SFR was assessed at 30th, 60th and 90th day after irradiation, respectively. After 90 days, all mice were sacrificed and their submandibular glands were removed for further examinations.The salivary glands showed remarkable dysfunction and tissue damage after irradiation. DFO restored SFR in the irradiated glands to a level comparable to that in normal glands and angiogenesis in damaged tissue was greatly increased. DFO also increased the expression levels of HIF-1α and VEGF while reduced apoptotic cells. Furthermore, Sca-1+cells were preserved in the salivary glands treated with DFO before IR.Our results indicate DFO could prevent the radiation-induced dysfunction of salivary glands in mice. The mechanism of this protective effect may involve increased angiogenesis, reduced apoptosis of acinar cells and more preserved stem cells.

  20. Optimisation of conformal radiation therapy by intensity modulation Cancer of the larynx and salivary gland function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braaksma, Mirjam M.J.; Wijers, Oda B.; Soernsen de Koste, John R. van; Est, Henrie van der; Schmitz, Paul I.M.; Nowak, Peter J.C.M.; Levendag, Peter C.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: Prevention of damage to critical normal tissues is of paramount importance for the quality of life of patients irradiated for cancers in the head and neck. The purpose of this paper was to evaluate the parotid gland sparing 3D conformal radiation therapy technique (3DCRT) in a prospective study in node negative cancer of the larynx. Materials and methods: Twenty-six patients with node negative squamous cell cancer of the larynx were irradiated by a 3DCRT technique (class solution) to both sides of the neck (elective dose 46 Gy to levels II, III and IV) and primary tumour (70 Gy). Dose distributions of the major salivary glands were correlated with objective (stimulated whole saliva flow, WS) and subjective (questionnaire; visual analogue scale, VAS) salivary gland function. Apart from the clinically used 3DCRT technique, in order to optimise 3DCRT dose distributions, intensity modulated (IMRT) treatment plans were generated for the same patient population. Dose-volume histograms of 3DCRT and IMRT treatment plans were analysed and compared. Results: For the 26 patients irradiated with the 3DCRT class solution technique: VAS scores and questionnaires reached their nadir 3 months post-radiotherapy; WS reached its nadir 6 months post-radiotherapy. WS flow rates improved significantly, but never normalised; 2 years post-treatment WS measurements were 48% of the pre-treatment values. VAS scores deteriorated during ERT from 0 pre-treatment to 6.1 immediately post-treatment. Compared to pre-treatment, questionnaires were answered affirmative by increasing numbers of patients. For all patients, IMRT treatment plans resulted in a significant reduction of the dose delivered to the parotid glands compared to the 3DCRT-treatment technique. Conclusions: The class solution for the 3DCRT salivary gland sparing technique is inadequate for fully preserving salivary gland function, given the dose distributions (DVHs) as well as the subjective- and objective salivary gland

  1. Pancreatic endocrine and exocrine function and salivary gland function in autoimmune pancreatitis before and after steroid therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamisawa, Terumi; Egawa, Naoto; Inokuma, Shigeko; Tsuruta, Kouji; Okamoto, Atsutake; Kamata, Noriko; Nakamura, Teruo; Matsukawa, Masakatsu

    2003-10-01

    Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) is a distinct clinical entity in which an autoimmune mechanism may be involved in pathogenesis. To investigate salivary gland function in addition to pancreatic endocrine and exocrine function in patients with AIP, and to determine changes occurring after steroid therapy. Fasting serum glucose levels, oral glucose tolerance tests or glycosylated hemoglobin values were examined in 19 patients with AIP. N-benzoyl-L-tyrosyl-p-aminobenzoic acid excretion test, sialochemistry and parotid gland scintigraphy were performed in 8 patients. Eight patients had evidence of DM. Steroid therapy subsequently improved insulin secretion and glycemic control in 3 of 5 patients treated. Pancreatic exocrine function was reduced in 88% of patients. Impaired pancreatic exocrine function improved after steroid therapy in 3 of 6 patients treated. The 3 patients also showed treatment-related improvement in endocrine function. Concentration of beta2-microglobulin in saliva was significantly raised in patients with AIP compared with controls (P gland dysfunction improved after steroid therapy in all 5 patients treated. Pancreatic endocrine and exocrine and salivary gland function were frequently impaired in patients with AIP, and steroid therapy was occasionally effective for these dysfunctions.

  2. Functional imaging of parotid glands: Diffusion-weighted echo-planar MRI before and after stimulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habermann, C.R.; Cramer, M.C.; Gossrau, P.; Adam, G. [University Hospital Hamburg-Eppendorf (Germany). Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Graessner, J. [Siemens AG, Hamburg (Germany). Medical Solutions; Reitmeier, F.; Jaehne, M. [University Hospital Hamburg-Eppendorf (Germany). Department of Oto-, Rhino-, Laryngology; Fiehler, J. [University Hospital Hamburg-Eppendorf (Germany). Department of Neuroradiology; Schoder, V. [University Hospital Hamburg-Eppendorf (Germany). Institute for Medical Biometry and Epidemiology

    2004-10-01

    Purpose: To investigate the feasibility of diffusion-weighted (DW) echo-planar imaging (EPI) for measuring different functional conditions of the parotid gland and to compare different measurement approaches. Materials and Methods: Parotid glands of 27 healthy volunteers were examined with a DW EPI sequence (TR 1,500 msec, TE 77 msec, field-of-view 250 x 250 mm, pixel size 2.10 x 1.95 mm, section thickness 5 mm) before and after oral stimulation with commercially available lemon juice. The b factors used were 0, 500, and 1,000 sec/mm{sup 2}. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps were digitally transferred to MRIcro (Chris Rorden, University of Nottingham, Great Britain) and evaluated with a manually placed circular region of interest (ROI) containing 100-200 pixel. Additional ROIs including the entire parotid gland were placed on either side. The results of both measurements were compared, using the Student's t test based on the median ADC values for each person. A two-tailed p-value of less than.05 was determined to indicate statistical significance. To compare both measurement approaches, the Pearson's correlation coefficient (r) was calculated. Results: Diffusion-weighted echo-planar MR imaging successfully visualized the parotid gland of all volunteers. In a first step, the median ADC value per person was computed. Using ROIs of 100-200 pixels, the mean was calculated to be 1.08 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/sec{+-}0.12 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/sec for both parotid glands prior to simulation. After stimulation, the mean ADC was measured at 1.15 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/sec{+-}0.11 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/sec for both parotid glands. Evaluating the entire parotid gland, the ADC was 1.12 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/sec{+-}0.08 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/sec prior to simulation, whereas the ADC increased to 1.18 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/sec{+-}0.09 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/sec after simulation with lemon juice. For both types of measurements, the increase in ADC after

  3. Parathyroid gland angiography with indocyanine green fluorescence to predict parathyroid function after thyroid surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal Fortuny, J; Belfontali, V; Sadowski, S M; Karenovics, W; Guigard, S; Triponez, F

    2016-04-01

    Postoperative hypoparathyroidism remains the most common complication following thyroidectomy. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the use of intraoperative parathyroid gland angiography in predicting normal parathyroid gland function after thyroid surgery. Angiography with the fluorescent dye indocyanine green (ICG) was performed in patients undergoing total thyroidectomy, to visualize vascularization of identified parathyroid glands. Some 36 patients underwent ICG angiography during thyroidectomy. All patients received standard calcium and vitamin D supplementation. At least one well vascularized parathyroid gland was demonstrated by ICG angiography in 30 patients. All 30 patients had parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels in the normal range on postoperative day (POD) 1 and 10, and only one patient exhibited asymptomatic hypocalcaemia on POD 1. Mean(s.d.) PTH and calcium levels in these patients were 3·3(1·4) pmol/l and 2·27(0·10) mmol/l respectively on POD 1, and 4·0(1.6) pmol/l and 2·32(0·08) mmol/l on POD 10. Two of the six patients in whom no well vascularized parathyroid gland could be demonstrated developed transient hypoparathyroidism. None of the 36 patients presented symptomatic hypocalcaemia, and none received treatment for hypoparathyroidism. PTH levels on POD 1 were normal in all patients who had at least one well vascularized parathyroid gland demonstrated during surgery by ICG angiography, and none required treatment for hypoparathyroidism. © 2016 The Authors. BJS published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of BJS Society Ltd.

  4. Influence of physical factors on sexual function and pituitary gland-gonads system. Chapter 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    In the Chapter 3 it is noted, that different physical factors even with low intensity (vibration, noise, electromagnetic oscillations of s.h.f. and u.h.f range, laser radiation, temperature changes) predictably lead to spermatogenesis dysfunctions and functional shift in hypothalamus-pituitary gland-gonads system with examined animals and man. The sexual function of men changing in the result of contact with unfavourable physical factors arise early and quite often they preceding the manifestation of occupational diseases pattern

  5. Changes in salivary gland immunohistology and function after rituximab monotherapy in a patient with Sjogren's syndrome and associated MALT lymphoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijpe, J; van Imhoff, GW; Vissink, A; van der Wal, JE; Kluin, PM; Spijkervet, FKL; Kallenberg, CGM; Bootsma, H

    Objectives: To report the successful use of rituximab on salivary gland immunohistology and function in a patient with Sjogren's syndrome ( SS) and associated MALT lymphoma. Case report: The patient was a 42 year old woman with primary SS and associated MALT lymphoma located in the parotid gland and

  6. A prospective cohort study of novel functional types of parathyroid glands in thyroidectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Qiuxia; Li, Zhihua; Kong, Deguang; Wang, Kun; Wu, Gaosong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The best method of preventing hypoparathyroidism after thyroidectomy is to keep parathyroid glands in situ. However, hypoparathyroidism still regularly occurs with the existing parathyroid classification system, and the incidence of permanent hypoparathyroidism has not been reduced. We created a novel system for classifying parathyroid glands that can guide parathyroid preservation in thyroidectomy. We prospectively observed parathyroid glands using the new system in 218 neck surgeries, compared with 132 under the traditional system from January 2014 to September 2015 at a single clinic center. Briefly, we classified parathyroid glands as follows: Type A, no dependency on the thyroid; B1, partial blood supply from the thyroid but retains adequate blood supply after removal of the thyroid; B2, partial blood supply from the thyroid and becomes devascularized after the removal of the thyroid; B3, blood supply mostly from the thyroid; and C, blood supply completely dependent on the thyroid. The classifications were used to decide between in situ preservation or auto-transplantation. The most common type of parathyroid gland was type B1 (53.77%), followed by type A (20.89%), which are the perfect categories for in situ preservation. Type B2 (17.52%) and type B3 (1.21%) have a chance to be kept in situ. For type C (6.61%), in situ preservation is impossible. When in-situ preservation is ruled out, parathyroid auto-transplantation is an alternative, with partial or total gland tissue, depending on the classification and the surgeon's discretion. Among the patients who were classified under the new system, 43.6% presented with transient hypoparathyroidism (symptoms lasting ≤6 months) after surgery, versus 42.4% in the old system, which was not a significant difference. However, permanent hypothyroidism (symptoms lasting >6 months) was not detected in the applied group, but in 3.0% of patients in the nonapplied group (P = 0.01). Our novel functional

  7. Uropygial gland volatiles may code for olfactory information about sex, individual, and species in Bengalese finches Lonchura striata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Xu ZHANG et al.

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Over-shadowed by eye-catching vocal and visual signals, chemical communication has long been overlooked in birds. This study aimed at exploring whether volatile composition of the uropygial gland secretion (UGS of birds was associated with the information about sex, individual and species. By using dichloromethane extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS, we analyzed the UGS volatiles of domesticated Bengalese finches (Lonchura striata, Estrildiea which is also known as white-rumped munias. We characterized 16 volatile molecules from the UGS, including eight n-alkanols, five diesters, an ester, an aldehyde and a fatty acid, and quantified them in terms of GC peak area percentages (relative abundances. Among these compounds, hexadecanol and octadecanol were major components in both sexes. The former was richer in males than females and the latter richer in females than males, suggesting that they might be male and female pheromone candidates, respectively. The high inter-individual variations, in relative abundance, of the UGS volatiles implied that they might carry information about individuality. The similarity between GC profiles of the UGS and wing feather from same individuals indicates that the birds might preen the secretion to their feathers to transmit chemical cues. Additionally, by comparing with three sympatric passerine species,i.e., zebra finches Taeniopygia guttata, yellow-bowed buntings Emberiza chrysophrys and rooks Corvus frugilegus, we found that the composition of C13-C18 alkanols in the UGS might contain information about species. Our study also show that quantitative differences (degree of same UGS volatiles might be the key for the Bengalese finch to code for information about sex and individuality whereas both the kind and degree of UGS constituents could be utilized to code for information about species [Current Zoology 55 (5:–2009].

  8. [Features of the functioning of the thyroid gland in HIV-infected].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timofeeva, E V; Liashchenko, O Ia

    2013-01-01

    In the article analyzed the current literature, devoted to the peculiarities of functioning of the thyroid gland in patients with HIV infection. Based on the analysis of literature data bases demonstrated the structure of thyroid function disorders in HIV-infected, as well as the mechanisms of the pathogenesis of these disorders. In the structure of thyroid function is dominated by hypothyroidism, euthyroid pathological syndrome, Graves' disease, for which the opportunistic infections are triggers immune activation. It should be noted that the step of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome is accompanied by the development of inflammatory and neoplastic processes in the thyroid gland. Convincingly demonstrated the negative impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy in HIV-positive for the development of thyroid dysfunction, in connection which the expediency of forming risk groups and the timely correction of the projected thyroid diseases.

  9. Responsiveness of beta-escin-permeabilized rabbit gastric gland model: effects of functional peptide fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akagi, K; Nagao, T; Urushidani, T

    1999-09-01

    We established a beta-escin-permeabilized gland model with the use of rabbit isolated gastric glands. The glands retained an ability to secrete acid, monitored by [14C]aminopyrine accumulation, in response to cAMP, forskolin, and histamine. These responses were all inhibited by cAMP-dependent protein kinase inhibitory peptide. Myosin light-chain kinase inhibitory peptide also suppressed aminopyrine accumulation, whereas the inhibitory peptide of protein kinase C or that of calmodulin kinase II was without effect. Guanosine-5'-O-(3-thiotriphosphate) (GTPgammaS) abolished cAMP-stimulated acid secretion concomitantly, interfering with the redistribution of H+-K+-ATPase from tubulovesicles to the apical membrane. To identify the targets of GTPgammaS, effects of peptide fragments of certain GTP-binding proteins were examined. Although none of the peptides related to Rab proteins showed any effect, the inhibitory peptide of Arf protein inhibited cAMP-stimulated secretion. These results demonstrate that our new model, the beta-escin-permeabilized gland, allows the introduction of relatively large molecules, e.g., peptides, into the cell, and will be quite useful for analyzing signal transduction of parietal cell function.

  10. Lyophilized bone marrow cell extract functionally restores irradiation-injured salivary glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, X; Fang, D; Liu, Y; Ruan, G; Seuntjens, J; Kinsella, J M; Tran, S D

    2018-03-01

    Bone marrow cell extract (BMCE) was previously reported to restore salivary gland hypofunction caused by irradiation injury. Proteins were shown to be the main active factors in BMCE. However, BMCE therapy requires multiple injections and protein denaturation is a concern during BMCE storage. This study aimed to preserve, by lyophilization (freeze-drying), the bioactive factors in BMCE. We developed a method to freeze-dry BMCE and then to analyze its ingredients and functions in vivo. Freeze-dried (FD) BMCE, freshly prepared BMCE (positive control), or saline (vehicle control) was injected into the tail vein of mice that had received irradiation to damage their salivary glands. Results demonstrated that the presence of angiogenesis-related factors and cytokines in FD-BMCE remained comparable to those found in fresh BMCE. Both fresh and FD-BMCE restored comparably saliva secretion, increased cell proliferation, upregulated regenerative/repair genes, protected salivary acinar cells, parasympathetic nerves, and blood vessels from irradiation-damaged salivary glands. Lyophilization of BMCE maintained its bioactivity and therapeutic effect on irradiation-injured salivary glands. The advantages of freeze-drying BMCE are its storage and transport at ambient temperature. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Alarm communication: a new function for the scent-gland secretion in harvestmen (Arachnida: Opiliones)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Glauco; Bonato, Vinícius; Oliveira, Paulo

    2002-05-01

    Most harvestmen are nocturnal, nonacoustical, and nonvisual arthropods. They have a pair of exocrine glands on the cephalothorax that produce defensive volatile secretions. We investigated in the field the possible alarm effect of these secretions in the gregarious harvestman Goniosoma aff. proximum. A cotton swab soaked with the species' own exudate (treatment), or with water (control), was held 1-2 cm from the center of harvestmen aggregations. The results showed that the gland secretion elicits an alarm response in Goniosoma: whereas 73.3% of the aggregations dispersed after being stimulated with the gland exudate, only 3.3% responded to the water control. Respondent groups are larger than non-respondent groups, and the time of reaction to the secretion was inversely related to group size. This is the first demonstration of a chemically-mediated alarm effect in harvestmen. The alarm response in gregarious harvestmen has possibly evolved as a by-product of a primarily defensive reaction in the context of predator avoidance. The discovery of this novel function of scent-gland secretion is meaningful in view of the widespread occurrence of gregarious habit among species of the order Opiliones.

  12. Pharmacological activation of the EDA/EDAR signaling pathway restores salivary gland function following radiation-induced damage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace Hill

    Full Text Available Radiotherapy of head and neck cancers often results in collateral damage to adjacent salivary glands associated with clinically significant hyposalivation and xerostomia. Due to the reduced capacity of salivary glands to regenerate, hyposalivation is treated by substitution with artificial saliva, rather than through functional restoration of the glands. During embryogenesis, the ectodysplasin/ectodysplasin receptor (EDA/EDAR signaling pathway is a critical element in the development and growth of salivary glands. We have assessed the effects of pharmacological activation of this pathway in a mouse model of radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction. We report that post-irradiation administration of an EDAR-agonist monoclonal antibody (mAbEDAR1 normalizes function of radiation damaged adult salivary glands as determined by stimulated salivary flow rates. In addition, salivary gland structure and homeostasis is restored to pre-irradiation levels. These results suggest that transient activation of pathways involved in salivary gland development could facilitate regeneration and restoration of function following damage.

  13. Salivary gland-sparing helical tomotherapy for head and neck cancer: Preserved salivary function on quantitative salivary gland scintigraphy after tomotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreps, S; Berges, O; Belin, L; Zefkili, S; Petras, S; Giraud, P

    2016-09-01

    Prospective evaluation of salivary gland preservation, overall survival and local recurrence-free survival after head and neck cancer treated by helical tomotherapy (HT). From March 2007 to February 2009, 30 patients with head and neck cancer were treated by HT. The salivary excretion fraction (SEF) was assessed by technetium salivary gland scintigraphy before, and 6, 12 and 18 months after HT to define salivary gland preservation rates. Patients were reviewed every 3 months to assess clinical toxicity. The median follow-up was 4.3 years. The mean dose to the ipsilateral parotid gland (IPG) was 25.4Gy. Good preservation of parotid gland function was observed in 84% of the 19 patients evaluated by scintigraphy at 18 months. The 5-year local recurrence-free survival (LRFS) was 100% among the 6 patients who received a dose of more than 26Gy to the parotid gland. The 28-month LRFS was 33% in the group that received a dose of less than 20Gy versus 91% in the group that received a dose of more than 20Gy to the IPG. Helical tomotherapy reduced the incidence and severity of xerostomia. A mean dose to the parotid between 20 and 26Gy allowed preservation of salivary function without compromising treatment efficacy. However, parotid-sparing HT requiring a mean dose less than 20Gy is associated with an increased risk of recurrence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Sex dependency of inhibitory control functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansouri, Farshad A; Fehring, Daniel J; Gaillard, Alexandra; Jaberzadeh, Shapour; Parkington, Helena

    2016-01-01

    Inhibition of irrelevant responses is an important aspect of cognitive control of a goal-directed behavior. Females and males show different levels of susceptibility to neuropsychological disorders such as impulsive behavior and addiction, which might be related to differences in inhibitory brain functions. We examined the effects of 'practice to inhibit', as a model of rehabilitation approach, and 'music', as a salient contextual factor in influencing cognition, on the ability of females and males to perform a stop-signal task that required inhibition of initiated or planned responses. In go trials, the participants had to rapidly respond to a directional go cue within a limited time window. In stop trials, which were presented less frequently, a stop signal appeared immediately after the go-direction cue and the participants had to stop their responses. We found a significant difference between females and males in benefiting from practice in the stop-signal task: the percentage of correct responses in the go trials increased, and the ability to inhibit responses significantly improved, after practice in females. While listening to music, females became faster but males became slower in responding to the go trials. Both females and males became slower in performing the go trials following an error in the stop trials; however, music significantly affected this post-error slowing depending on the sex. Listening to music decreased post-error slowing in females but had an opposite effect in males. Here, we show a significant difference in executive control functions and their modulation by contextual factors between females and males that might have implications for the differences in their propensity for particular neuropsychological disorders and related rehabilitation approaches.

  15. 11C-methionine PET, a novel method for measuring regional salivary gland function after radiotherapy of head and neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buus, Simon; Grau, Cai; Munk, Ole Lajord; Bender, Dirk; Jensen, Kenneth; Keiding, Susanne

    2004-01-01

    Background and purpose: Loss of salivary gland function is a distressing side-effect of radiotherapy (RT) for head and neck cancer. The aim of this study was to develop a positron emission tomography (PET) method for measuring regional salivary gland function in the major salivary glands irradiated during RT. Patients and methods: Eight head and neck cancer patients were included; two were examined before RT and six after parotid sparing RT. Patients were examined by dynamic 11 C-methionine PET of the major salivary glands and parotid gland salivary flow measurements. PET data were analysed using a kinetic model of salivary gland 11 C-methionine metabolism, in which salivary gland function was quantified by the net metabolic clearance of 11 C-methionine, K. Functional voxel-wise images of K were calculated and matched with the CT-dose-plan for comparing regional salivary gland function with the regional radiation dose. Results: Parotid gland K correlated positively with parotid gland salivary flow, indicating that K can be used as an index of salivary gland function. K of parotid and submandibular glands was reduced dependent on the median radiation dose. In one patient, receiving a heterogeneous radiation dose to the parotid glands, regional salivary gland function was inversely correlated to the regional radiation dose. Conclusions: Salivary gland function can be measured by dynamic 11 C-methionine PET. The net metabolic clearance of 11 C-methionine of salivary glands was reduced dependent on the radiation dose. Dynamic 11 C-methionine PET offers a method for studying the individual response of the major salivary glands to irradiation

  16. Shotgun proteomics deciphered age/division of labor-related functional specification of three honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) exocrine glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Toshiyuki; Kozuka-Hata, Hiroko; Hori, Yutaro; Takeuchi, Jun; Kubo, Takeo; Oyama, Masaaki

    2018-01-01

    The honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) uses various chemical signals produced by the worker exocrine glands to maintain the functioning of its colony. The roles of worker postcerebral glands (PcGs), thoracic glands (TGs), and mandibular glands (MGs) and the functional changes they undergo according to the division of labor from nursing to foraging are not as well studied. To comprehensively characterize the molecular roles of these glands in workers and their changes according to the division of labor of workers, we analyzed the proteomes of PcGs, TGs, and MGs from nurse bees and foragers using shotgun proteomics technology. We identified approximately 2000 proteins from each of the nurse bee or forager glands and highlighted the features of these glands at the molecular level by semiquantitative enrichment analyses of frequently detected, gland-selective, and labor-selective proteins. First, we found the high potential to produce lipids in PcGs and MGs, suggesting their relation to pheromone production. Second, we also found the proton pumps abundant in TGs and propose some transporters possibly related to the saliva production. Finally, our data unveiled candidate enzymes involved in labor-dependent acid production in MGs.

  17. Expression and Functions of Fibroblast Growth Factor 10 in the Mouse Mammary Gland

    OpenAIRE

    Cui, Yingjun; Li, Qingzhang

    2013-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 10 (FGF10) is important as a mesenchymal mediator of epithelial growth and morphogenesis. In this study, the expression and localization of the FGF10 protein were detected by laser scanning confocal microscopy during mouse postnatal mammary gland development. Mammary explants were cultured to investigate the functions of FGF10. The results revealed that FGF10 localizes mainly in the mesenchyme near the ductal epithelial cells and the alveolar epithelial cells of the m...

  18. The effects of ionizing radiation on the function and vascular structure of the rat submandibular gland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawamata, Fumio (Nippon Dental Univ., Tokyo (Japan))

    1991-06-01

    In radiotherapy for the jaw and face, the irradiation field frequently affects the salivary gland, in an aduerse way. In the present study, I assessed the functional influence of radiation on the submandibular gland by RI, with inspection of both the vascular distribution of the submandibular gland by India ink and resin molding methods, and of the histological changes by HE and PAS staining. Each experimental group consisted of 9 male Wistar strain rats aged 8 weeks. Single irradiation was performed at 10 Gy and 50 Gy doses by {sup 60}Co-{gamma} ray. The changes at 6 hours, 3, 7, 14, and 28 days after irradiation were determined and compared with those in the control group. Function tests for uptake and clearance were performed using {sup 99m}TcO{sub 4}{sup -}. Results showed the uptake and clearance value in the irradiation group was higher than that in the control group. With respect to the effect of irradiation on blood vessels, vasodilation, flexion, and destruction of the blood wall were observed. In addition, various histological changes appeared. In each examination, the irradiation effects in the 50 Gy group were greater than those in the 10 Gy group. In conclusion, the decline in submandibular function after 10 Gy and 50 Gy irradiation is related to histological changes in the vascular system and glandular tissues. (author) 63 refs.

  19. Sex Discrimination in Student Personnel Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Edward H.

    1974-01-01

    Discusses sex discrimination and how it relates to student personnel work. Deals specifically with co-curricular activities that are a part of higher educational institutions, and examines pertinent court decisions. (HMV)

  20. Potential chemosignals in the anogenital gland secretion of giant pandas, Ailuropoda melanoleuca, associated with sex and individual identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian-Xu; Liu, Dingzhen; Sun, Lixing; Wei, Rongping; Zhang, Guiquan; Wu, Honglin; Zhang, Hemin; Zhao, Chenghua

    2008-03-01

    With a combination of dichloromethane extraction and analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), we found 39 compounds (corresponding to 38 GC peaks) in the anogenital gland secretion (AGS) of captive adult giant pandas, Ailuropoda melanoleuca, during the non-mating season. In addition to indole, squalene, and some of the straight-chain fatty acids that had been characterized previously from the AGS of giant pandas, we identified several new compounds such as decenal, two isomers of decadienal, phenylacetic acid, 5-methylhydantoin, hydroquinone, phenylpropanoic acid, and erucic acid. Quantitative comparison of the relative abundances of the 20 main GC peaks revealed that 5-methylhydantoin, indole, and erucic acid are putative female pheromones, whereas squalene and hydroquinone are putative male pheromones. In addition to the presence of a few individual-specific compounds, the relative abundances of most of the 21 constituents varied more among individuals than within individuals. This suggests that individual identity might be coded in both digital and analog form. The chemical composition of different AGS samples from the same pandas consistently displayed a minimum cluster distance, much smaller than that between samples from different individuals in a hierarchical linkage cluster (average linkage) dendrogram. Our results indicate that the AGS might contain an "odor fingerprint." Although putative sex pheromones such as squalene and erucic acid should be assessed further by bioassay, our study suggests that synthetic chemosignals might be useful in modulating the behavior and physiology of giant pandas.

  1. Functional development of the adult ovine mammary gland--insights from gene expression profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paten, Amy M; Duncan, Elizabeth J; Pain, Sarah J; Peterson, Sam W; Kenyon, Paul R; Blair, Hugh T; Dearden, Peter K

    2015-10-05

    The mammary gland is a dynamic organ that undergoes dramatic physiological adaptations during the transition from late pregnancy to lactation. Investigation of the molecular basis of mammary development and function will provide fundamental insights into tissue remodelling as well as a better understanding of milk production and mammary disease. This is important to livestock production systems and human health. Here we use RNA-seq to identify differences in gene expression in the ovine mammary gland between late pregnancy and lactation. Between late pregnancy (135 days of gestation ± 2.4 SD) and lactation (15 days post partum ± 1.27 SD) 13 % of genes in the sheep genome were differentially expressed in the ovine mammary gland. In late pregnancy, cell proliferation, beta-oxidation of fatty acids and translation were identified as key biological processes. During lactation, high levels of milk fat synthesis were mirrored by enrichment of genes associated with fatty acid biosynthesis, transport and lipogenesis. Protein processing in the endoplasmic reticulum was enriched during lactation, likely in support of active milk protein synthesis. Hormone and growth factor signalling and activation of signal transduction pathways, including the JAK-STAT and PPAR pathways, were also differently regulated, indicating key roles for these pathways in functional development of the ovine mammary gland. Changes in the expression of epigenetic regulators, particularly chromatin remodellers, indicate a possible role in coordinating the large-scale transcriptional changes that appear to be required to switch mammary processes from growth and development during late pregnancy to synthesis and secretion of milk during lactation. Coordinated transcriptional regulation of large numbers of genes is required to switch between mammary tissue establishment during late pregnancy, and activation and maintenance of milk production during lactation. Our findings indicate the remarkable

  2. Functional flexibility of the honey bee hypopharyngeal gland in a dequeened colony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohashi, K; Sasaki, M; Sasagawa, H; Nakamura, J; Natori, S; Kubo, T

    2000-11-01

    The role of the worker honey bee Apis mellifera L. changes depending on age after eclosion (age polyethism): young workers (nurse bees) take care of their brood by synthesizing and secreting brood food (royal jelly), while older workers (foragers) forage for nectar and process it into honey. Previously, we showed that the major proteins synthesized in the hypopharyngeal gland of the worker change from brood food proteins to alpha-glucosidase at the single secretory cell level in parallel with this age polyethism [Kubo et al., J. Biochem. 119, 291-295 (1996); Ohashi et al., Eur. J. Biochem. 249, 797-802 (1997)]. Here, we examined whether the function of the hypopharyngeal gland has flexibility depending on the colony conditions, by creating a dequeened colony in which the older workers were compelled to feed the drone larvae. It was found that most of the older workers in the dequeened colony synthesized brood food proteins as did nurse bees. Furthermore, the percentage of workers that synthesized brood food proteins was maintained at 80-90% of the total workers for at least two months, as in a normal colony. These results indicate that the function of the hypopharyngeal gland cells of the worker has flexibility and can, if necessary, be maintained as that of the nurse bee, depending on the condition of the colony.

  3. Does the number of parathyroid glands autotransplanted affect the incidence of hypoparathyroidism and recovery of parathyroid function?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Anping; Gong, Yanping; Wu, Wenshuang; Gong, Rixiang; Li, Zhihui; Zhu, Jingqiang

    2018-02-02

    The relationship between the number of parathyroid glands autotransplanted and hypoparathyroidism as well as recovery of parathyroid function is not understood fully. The aim was to ascertain whether the number of autotransplanted glands affected the incidence of hypoparathyroidism and recovery of parathyroid function in long-term follow-up after thyroidectomy. A retrospective cohort study included all patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma who underwent first-time total thyroidectomy with central neck dissection between June 2012 and June 2015. The patients were divided into 4 groups (0, 1, 2, and 3) on the basis of the number of parathyroid glands autotransplanted. Of the 766 patients, 283 (36.9%) had no gland autotransplanted, and 373 (48.7%), 97 (12.7%), and 13 (1.7%) had 1, 2, and 3 glands autotransplanted, respectively. More lymph nodes and more metastatic ones in the central compartment were retrieved in groups 2 and 3 (P  .05). The recovery rates of serum parathyroid hormone concentration were 84.7%, 82.2%, 82.0%, and 79.2% after 2-year follow-up (P > .05). Autotransplantation is an effective strategy for restoration of parathyroid function. Transient hypoparathyroidism is positively correlated to the number of autotransplanted parathyroid glands during total thyroidectomy with central neck dissection. There is no increase in permanent hypoparathyroidism in patients with a higher number of autotransplanted glands, despite more extensive lymph node disease. (Surgery 2018;161:XXX-XXX.). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Suppressive subtractive hybridisation transcriptomics provides a novel insight into the functional role of the hypobranchial gland in a marine mollusc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laffy, Patrick W; Benkendorff, Kirsten; Abbott, Catherine A

    2013-06-01

    The hypobranchial gland present in gastropods is an organ whose function is not clearly understood. Involved in mucus production, within members of the family Muricidae it is also the source of the ancient dye Tyrian purple and its bioactive precursors. To gain further insights into hypobranchial gland biology, suppressive subtractive hybridisation was performed on hypobranchial gland and mantle tissue from the marine snail Dicathais orbita creating a differentially expressed cDNA library. 437 clones were randomly sequenced, analysed and annotated and 110 sequences had their functions putatively identified. Importantly this approach identified a putative gene involved in Tyrian purple biosynthesis, an arylsulphatase gene. Confirmation of the upregulation of arylsulphatase in the hypobranchial gland compared to the mantle was demonstrated using quantitative real-time PCR. Other genes identified as playing an important role in the hypobranchial gland were those involved in mucus protein synthesis, choline ester regulation, protein and energy production. This study confirms that the hypobranchial gland is involved in the production of mucus secretion and also identifies it as a site of chemical interaction and biosynthesis. This study lays the foundation for a better understanding of the enzymatic production of Tyrian purple precursors within the gland. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. [Rare abnormalities of parathyroid gland function and parathyroid hormone receptor action].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krysiak, Robert; Bartecka, Anna; Okopień, Bogusław

    2014-01-01

    The parathyroid glands, located near or within the posterior surface of the thyroid gland and secreting parathyroid hormone, are essential organs for the regulation of calcium and phosphate metabolism. As they are necessary to sustain life and maintain homeostasis, undetected or misdiagnosed parathyroid disorders may pose a significant threat to health outcomes, as their presence may increase morbidity and mortality in affected individuals. The clinical picture of some disorders associated with abnormal parathyroid hormone secretion and receptor action is sometimes complicated by coexisting abnormalities, and in these cases establishing the correct diagnosis is challenging. The remarkable progress of recent years in the area of hormonal assessment, imaging procedures and molecular biology, has resulted in a great improvement in the identification, differentiation and treatment of various parathyroid disorders and has made it possible to identify several new clinical entities. In this paper, we discuss the present state-of-art on the etiopathogenesis, clinical manifestations, diagnosis and treatment of chosen rare abnormalities of parathyroid gland function and parathyroid hormone receptor action.

  6. Biological and Histological Studies on The Effect of Gamma Irradiation on Sex Pheromone Gland of Female Spiny Bollworm Earias Insulana Boisd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohhamed, H.F.

    2012-01-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the effect of sex pheromone extraction and bioassay production male attractiveness to alive females on male response and the histological structure of pheromone glands in normal and irradiated females of the spiny bollworm, Earias insulana Boisd. with 100 and 150 Gy. Reproduction of adults irradiated as moths less than 24 hours old or three days was also investigated. Sex pheromone extracts from 1 day old females were less active than those from 3 day old females. The percentage of male moths response to alive female moths at 1 day old was lower than at 3 days old. The sex pheromone production by females was increased as the females became older (from 3 days old to up). The gland of normal female moths is found between 8th and 9th abdominal segments travelling deep inside the body cavity and has large, darkly stained and well defined epithelial cells. The scent gland is of the well developed, tubular and closed ring shaped type. In parental females less than 24 hours old irradiated with 100 Gy, the glandular epithelial cells became loose, rupture, disappeared, shrink, irregular, abnormal or broken and were separated from each other and their nuclei were not clear. The scales were abnormal or loose and there are many vacuoles. The histological effects following gamma irradiation were also noticed in case of parental moths irradiated with 150 Gy. The glandular epithelial cells lost their peculiar shape with the appearance of some vacuoles between them, broken and disappeared in another place and also many secretory cells disappeared and the glands showed increasing. The effects of radiation were continued among females of F1 , generation moths less than 24 hours old descendant of irradiated parental male with 100 and 150 Gy and decreased the fecundity and egg hatch ability significantly. The effect was dose dependent

  7. Romantic Attachment and Relationship Functioning in Same-Sex Couples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Jonathan J.; Selterman, Dylan; Fassinger, Ruth E.

    2013-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate links between dimensions of romantic attachment and relationship functioning in a cross-sectional sample of people in same-sex relationships, with the goals of replicating basic findings from research on heterosexual couples and advancing understanding of unique issues faced by same-sex couples. The…

  8. Functional anatomy and ion regulatory mechanisms of the antennal gland in a semi-terrestrial crab, Ocypode stimpsoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyuan-Ru Tsai

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Brachyuran crabs from diverse habitats show great differences in their osmoregulatory processes, especially in terms of the structural and physiological characteristics of the osmoregulatory organs. In crustaceans, the antennal glands are known to be important in osmoregulation, and they play a functional role analogous to that of the vertebrate kidney. Nevertheless, the detailed structure and function of the antennal glands in different species have rarely been described. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of the antennal gland in ion regulation by examining the ultrastructure of the cells and the distribution of the ion regulatory proteins in each cell type in the antennal gland of a semi-terrestrial crab. The results showed that Na+, K+-ATPase activity significantly increased in the antennal gland after a 4-day acclimation in dilute seawater and returned to its original (day 0 level after 7 days. Three major types of cells were identified in the antennal gland, including coelomic cells (COEs, labyrinthine cells (LBRs and end-labyrinthine cells (ELBRs. The proximal tubular region (PT and distal tubular region (DT of the antennal gland consist of LBRs and COEs, whereas the end tubular region (ET consists of all three types of cells, with fewer COEs and more ELBRs. We found a non-uniform distribution of NKA immunoreactivity, with increasing intensity from the proximal to the distal regions of the antennal gland. We summarise our study with a proposed model for the urine reprocessing pathway and the role of each cell type or segment of the antennal gland.

  9. Lysosomal Exoglycosidase Profile and Secretory Function in the Salivary Glands of Rats with Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateusz Maciejczyk

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Before this study, there had been no research evaluating the relationship between a lysosomal exoglycosidase profile and secretory function in the salivary glands of rats with streptozotocin- (STZ- induced type 1 diabetes. In our work, rats were divided into 4 groups of 8 animals each: control groups (C2, C4 and diabetic groups (STZ2, STZ4. The secretory function of salivary glands—nonstimulated and stimulated salivary flow, α-amylase, total protein—and salivary exoglycosidase activities—N-acetyl-β-hexosaminidase (HEX, HEX A, and HEX B, β-glucuronidase, α-fucosidase, β-galactosidase, and α-mannosidase—was estimated both in the parotid and submandibular glands of STZ-diabetic and control rats. The study has demonstrated that the activity of most salivary exoglycosidases is significantly higher in the parotid and submandibular glands of STZ-diabetic rats as compared to the healthy controls and that it increases as the disease progresses. Reduced secretory function of diabetic salivary glands was also observed. A significant inverse correlation between HEX B, α-amylase activity, and stimulated salivary flow in diabetic parotid gland has also been shown. Summarizing, STZ-induced diabetes leads to a change in the lysosomal exoglycosidase profile and reduced function of the salivary glands.

  10. A modulatory role of the Rax homeobox gene in mature pineal gland function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohde, Kristian; Bering, Tenna; Furukawa, Takahisa

    2017-01-01

    to investigate the role of Rax in pineal function while circumventing forebrain abnormalities of the global Rax knockout, we generated an eye and pineal-specific Rax conditional knockout mouse. Deletion of Rax in the pineal gland did not affect morphology of the gland, suggesting that Rax is not essential......The retinal and anterior neural fold homeobox gene (Rax) controls development of the eye and the forebrain. Postnatal expression of Rax in the brain is restricted to the pineal gland, a forebrain structure devoted to melatonin synthesis. The role of Rax in pineal function is unknown. In order...... for pineal gland development. In contrast, deletion of Rax in the eye generated an anophthalmic phenotype. In addition to the loss of central visual pathways, the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus housing the circadian clock was absent, indicating that the retinohypothalamic tract is required...

  11. Haploinsufficiency of the corepressor of estrogen receptor activity (REA) enhances estrogen receptor function in the mammary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mussi, Paola; Liao, Lan; Park, Seong-Eun; Ciana, Paolo; Maggi, Adriana; Katzenellenbogen, Benita S; Xu, Jianming; O'Malley, Bert W

    2006-11-07

    Estrogen receptor (ER)-mediated gene expression plays an essential role in mammary gland morphogenesis, function, and carcinogenesis. The repressor of ER activity (REA) is an ER-interactive protein that counterbalances estrogen-induced ER transcriptional activity. Our previous study showed that genetic deletion of both REA alleles resulted in embryonic lethality. This study demonstrates that REA and ERalpha are coexpressed in mammary epithelial cells. REA heterozygous (REA(+/-)) mutant mice exhibit faster mammary ductal elongation in virgin animals, increased lobuloalveolar development during pregnancy, and delayed mammary gland involution after weaning. These morphological phenotypes of REA(+/-) mice are associated with significantly increased cell proliferation and ER transcriptional activities, as indicated by the estrogen response element (ERE)-luciferase reporter in the WT/ERE-Luc and REA(+/-)/ERE-Luc bigenic mice and by the higher expression levels of estrogen-responsive genes such as progesterone receptor and cyclin D1 in the mammary gland. Our analysis also revealed that REA is an important repressor of ER transcriptional activity in the mammary gland under natural, as well as ovariectomized and estrogen-replaced, hormonal conditions. Our results indicate that REA is a physiological modulator of ER function in the mammary gland and that its correct gene dosage is required for maintenance of normal ER activity and normal mammary gland development. Consequently, a reduction or loss of REA function may cause overactivation of ER and increase breast cancer risk in humans.

  12. Salivary gland acinar cells regenerate functional glandular structures in modified hydrogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Swati

    Xerostomia, a condition resulting from irradiation of the head and neck, affects over 40,000 cancer patients each year in the United States. Direct radiation damage of the acinar cells that secrete fluid and protein results in salivary gland hypofunction. Present medical management for xerostomia for patients treated for upper respiratory cancer is largely ineffective. Patients who have survived their terminal diagnosis are often left with a diminished quality of life and are unable to enjoy the simple pleasures of eating and drinking. This project aims to ultimately reduce human suffering by developing a functional implantable artificial salivary gland. The goal was to create an extracellular matrix (ECM) modified hyaluronic acid (HA) based hydrogel culture system that allows for the growth and differentiation of salivary acinar cells into functional acini-like structures capable of secreting large amounts of protein and fluid unidirectionally and to ultimately engineer a functional artificial salivary gland that can be implanted into an animal model. A tissue collection protocol was established and salivary gland tissue was obtained from patients undergoing head and neck surgery. The tissue specimen was assessed by histology and immunohistochemistry to establish the phenotype of normal salivary gland cells including the native basement membranes. Hematoxylin and eosin staining confirmed normal glandular tissue structures including intercalated ducts, striated ducts and acini. alpha-Amylase and periodic acid schiff stain, used for structures with a high proportion of carbohydrate macromolecules, preferentially stained acinar cells in the tissue. Intercalated and striated duct structures were identified using cytokeratins 19 and 7 staining. Myoepithelial cells positive for cytokeratin 14 were found wrapped around the serous and mucous acini. Tight junction components including ZO-1 and E-cadherin were present between both ductal and acinar cells. Ductal and acinar

  13. Sex differences in normal age trajectories of functional brain networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheinost, Dustin; Finn, Emily S; Tokoglu, Fuyuze; Shen, Xilin; Papademetris, Xenophon; Hampson, Michelle; Constable, R Todd

    2015-04-01

    Resting-state functional magnetic resonance image (rs-fMRI) is increasingly used to study functional brain networks. Nevertheless, variability in these networks due to factors such as sex and aging is not fully understood. This study explored sex differences in normal age trajectories of resting-state networks (RSNs) using a novel voxel-wise measure of functional connectivity, the intrinsic connectivity distribution (ICD). Males and females showed differential patterns of changing connectivity in large-scale RSNs during normal aging from early adulthood to late middle-age. In some networks, such as the default-mode network, males and females both showed decreases in connectivity with age, albeit at different rates. In other networks, such as the fronto-parietal network, males and females showed divergent connectivity trajectories with age. Main effects of sex and age were found in many of the same regions showing sex-related differences in aging. Finally, these sex differences in aging trajectories were robust to choice of preprocessing strategy, such as global signal regression. Our findings resolve some discrepancies in the literature, especially with respect to the trajectory of connectivity in the default mode, which can be explained by our observed interactions between sex and aging. Overall, results indicate that RSNs show different aging trajectories for males and females. Characterizing effects of sex and age on RSNs are critical first steps in understanding the functional organization of the human brain. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Maintained Salivary Function after Brachytherapy in Patients with Head and Neck Carcinomas Evaluation Using Quantitative Salivary Gland Scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murata, Yuji; Zhang, Lin; Ishida, Ryuji [Tokyo Medical and Dental Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Radiology] [and others

    2002-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether or not salivary gland dysfunction occurs within the first three months after brachytherapy in patients with head and neck carcinoma. Of the 20 patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma included in this study, 11 were treated with brachytherapy and the remaining 9 patients received external irradiation. All the patients underwent a salivary gland scintigraphy before and after radiotherapy. The scintigraphic parameters of each major salivary gland were then compared before and after the radiotherapy. In the brachytherapy group, none of the scintigraphic functional parameters showed a significant change before and after the radiotherapy. In contrast, all of the parameters with the exception of the uptake ratio (UR) of the submandibular glands significantly decreased after external irradiation. This observation was to be expected owing to the different irradiation doses administered by the two techniques. The scintigraphic technique used to evaluate salivary gland function should be used in future intensity-modulated radiation therapy salivary-gland-sparing studies in order to evaluate both the acute and chronic effects of irradiation in head and neck cancer patients.

  15. Structure and function of defensive glands in soldiers of Glossotermes oculatus (Isoptera: Serritermitidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šobotník, Jan; Bourguignon, T.; Hanus, Robert; Weyda, František; Roisin, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 99, č. 4 (2010), s. 839-848 ISSN 0024-4066 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/10/1570 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506; CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : autothysis * behaviour * frontal gland * labial glands * labral gland Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.166, year: 2010

  16. {sup 131}I-induced changes in rat thyroid gland function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torlak, V.; Capkun, V.; Stanicic, A. [Clinical Hospital Split, Split (Croatia). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Zemunik, T. [University of Split, Split (Croatia). Dept. of Medical Biology]. E-mail: tzemunik@bsb.mefst.hr; Modun, D. [University of Split, Split (Croatia). Dept. of Pharmacology; Pesutic-Pisac, V. [Clinical Hospital Split, Split (Croatia). Dept. of Pathology; Markotic, A. [University of Split, Split (Croatia). School of Medicine. Dept. of Biochemistry; Pavela-Vrancic, M. [University of Split, Split (Croatia). Faculty of Natural Sciences. Dept. of Chemistry

    2007-08-15

    Therapeutic doses of {sup 131}I administered to thyrotoxic patients may cause thyroid failure. The present study used a rat model to determine thyroid function after the administration of different doses of {sup 131}I (64-277 {mu}Ci). Thirty male Fisher rats in the experimental group and 30 in the control group (untreated) were followed for 6 months. The animals were 4 months old at the beginning of the experiment and were sacrificed at an age of 9 months. Hormone concentration was determined before {sup 131}I administration (4-month-old animals) and three times following {sup 131}I administration, when the animals were 7, 8, and 9 months old. The thyroid glands were removed and weighed, their volume was determined and histopathological examination was performed at the end of the experiment. Significant differences in serum triiodothyronine and thyroid-stimulating hormone concentration, measured at the age of 7, 8, and 9 months, were found in the experimental group. During aging of the animals, the concentration of thyroxin fell from 64.8 {+-} 8.16 to 55.0 {+-} 6.1 nM in the control group and from 69.4 {+-} 6.9 to 25.4 {+-} 3.2 nM in the experimental group. Thyroid gland volume and weight were significantly lower in the experimental than in the control group. Thyroid glands from the experimental group showed hyaline thickness of the blood vessel wall, necrotic follicles, a strong inflammatory reaction, and peeling of necrotic cells in the follicles. In conclusion, significant differences in hormone levels and histopathological findings indicated prolonged hypothyroidism after {sup 131}I administration to rats, which was not {sup 131}I dose dependent. (author)

  17. The effect of X-ray irradiation on the function and saliva composition of rat parotid and submandibular/sublingual glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashida, Tatsuo; Kamemoto, Hiromasa; Fuchihata, Hajime; Ooshima, Takashi

    1999-01-01

    Radiation therapy to the head and neck area frequently causes severe salivary gland dysfunction and xerostomia. Morphological studies of irradiated salivary glands have suggested that the submandibular/sublingual gland may be less radiosensitive than the parotid gland. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of radiation on major salivary gland functions in rats with radiation-induced xerostomia. The effect of salivary gland irradiation on salivary function was examined in specific pathogen-free Sprague-Dawley rats. The animals were irradiated with a single exposure of either 22 Gy or 32 Gy. Stimulated saliva excretion time was measured for the parotid and submandibular/sublingual glands, and the total protein in saliva was analysed. Our results showed that the saliva flow rate and protein concentration of parotid saliva were significantly reduced in the 32 Gy-irradiated rats. (author)

  18. Functional analyse of GLUT1 and GLUT12 in glucose uptake in goat mammary gland epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinghua Yu

    Full Text Available Glucose transport, mediated by glucose transporters, is necessary for mammary gland development and lactation. GLUT1 and GLUT12 could both be expressed in the pregnant and lactating mammary gland to participate in the glucose uptake process. In this study, the goat GLUT1 and GLUT12 genes were cloned from Saanen dairy goats and transfected into goat mammary gland epithelial cells to assess their biological functions and distributions. The results showed that both goat GLUT1 and GLUT12 had 12 predicted membrane-spanning helices. Goat GLUT1 and GLUT12 each influenced the mRNA expression of the other transporter and increased the glucose consumption and lactose yield in GLUT1- and GLUT12-transfected goat mammary gland epithelial cells, respectively. The overexpression of GLUT1 or GLUT12 also increased the expression of amino acid transporters SLC1A5, SLC3A2 and SLC7A5 and affected genes expressions in GMGE cells. Using immunofluorescence staining, GLUT1 was detected throughout the cytoplasm and localized to the Golgi apparatus around the nuclear membrane, whereas GLUT12 was mainly distributed in the perinuclear region and cytoplasm. This study contributes to the understanding of how GLUT1 and GLUT12 cooperate in the incorporation of nutrient uptake into mammary gland epithelial cells and the promotion of milk synthesis in the goat mammary gland during lactation.

  19. Making Plants Break a Sweat: the Structure, Function, and Evolution of Plant Salt Glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dassanayake, Maheshi; Larkin, John C

    2017-01-01

    Salt stress is a complex trait that poses a grand challenge in developing new crops better adapted to saline environments. Some plants, called recretohalophytes, that have naturally evolved to secrete excess salts through salt glands, offer an underexplored genetic resource for examining how plant development, anatomy, and physiology integrate to prevent excess salt from building up to toxic levels in plant tissue. In this review we examine the structure and evolution of salt glands, salt gland-specific gene expression, and the possibility that all salt glands have originated via evolutionary modifications of trichomes. Salt secretion via salt glands is found in more than 50 species in 14 angiosperm families distributed in caryophyllales, asterids, rosids, and grasses. The salt glands of these distantly related clades can be grouped into four structural classes. Although salt glands appear to have originated independently at least 12 times, they share convergently evolved features that facilitate salt compartmentalization and excretion. We review the structural diversity and evolution of salt glands, major transporters and proteins associated with salt transport and secretion in halophytes, salt gland relevant gene expression regulation, and the prospect for using new genomic and transcriptomic tools in combination with information from model organisms to better understand how salt glands contribute to salt tolerance. Finally, we consider the prospects for using this knowledge to engineer salt glands to increase salt tolerance in model species, and ultimately in crops.

  20. The clypeal gland: a new exocrine gland in termite imagoes (Isoptera: Serritermitidae, Rhinotermitidae, Termitidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Křížková, Barbora; Bourguignon, Thomas; Vytisková, Blahoslava; Sobotník, Jan

    2014-11-01

    Social insects possess a rich set of exocrine organs producing diverse pheromones and defensive compounds. This is especially true for termite imagoes, which are equipped with several glands producing, among others, sex pheromones and defensive compounds protecting imagoes during the dispersal flight and colony foundation. Here, we describe the clypeal gland, a new termite exocrine organ occurring in the labro-clypeal region of imagoes of most Rhinotermitidae, Serritermitidae and Termitidae species. The clypeal gland of Coptotermes testaceus consists of class 1 (modified epidermal cell) and class 3 (bicellular gland unit) secretory cells. Ultrastructural features suggest that the gland secretes volatile compounds and proteins, probably after starting the reproduction. One peculiar feature of the gland is the presence of multiple secretory canals in a single canal cell, a feature never observed before in other insect glands. Although the function of the gland remains unknown, we hypothesize that it could produce secretion signalling the presence of functional reproductives or their need to be fed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Pheromones and exocrine glands in Isoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Leonardo, Ana Maria; Haifig, Ives

    2010-01-01

    Termites are eusocial insects that have a peculiar and intriguing system of communication using pheromones. The termite pheromones are composed of a blend of chemical substances and they coordinate different social interactions or activities, including foraging, building, mating, defense, and nestmate recognition. Some of these sociochemicals are volatile, spreading in the air, and others are contact pheromones, which are transmitted by trophallaxis and grooming. Among the termite semiochemicals, the most known are alarm, trail, sex pheromones, and hydrocarbons responsible for the recognition of nestmates. The sources of the pheromones are exocrine glands located all over the termite body. The principal exocrine structures considered pheromone-producing glands in Isoptera are the frontal, mandibular, salivary or labial, sternal, and tergal glands. The frontal gland is the source of alarm pheromone and defensive chemicals, but the mandibular secretions have been little studied and their function is not well established in Isoptera. The secretion of salivary glands involves numerous chemical compounds, some of them without pheromonal function. The worker saliva contains a phagostimulating pheromone and probably a building pheromone, while the salivary reservoir of some soldiers contains defensive chemicals. The sternal gland is the only source of trail-following pheromone, whereas sex pheromones are secreted by two glandular sources, the sternal and tergal glands. To date, the termite semiochemicals have indicated that few molecules are involved in their chemical communication, that is, the same compound may be secreted by different glands, different castes and species, and for different functions, depending on the concentration. In addition to the pheromonal parsimony, recent studies also indicate the occurrence of a synergic effect among the compounds involved in the chemical communication of Isoptera. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. CHARACTERIZATION OF MAMMARY GLAND TISSUE USING JOINT ESTIMATORS OF MINKOWSKI FUNCTIONALS

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    Torsten Mattfeldt

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A theoretical approach to estimate the Minkowski functionals, i.e., area fraction, specifc boundary length and specifc Euler number in 2D, and their asymptotic covariance matrix proposed by Spodarev and Schmidt (2005 and Pantle et al. (2006a;b is applied to real image data. These two-dimensional images show mammary gland tissue and should be classifed automatically as tumor-free or mammary cancer, respectively. The estimation procedure is illustrated step-by-step and the calculations are described in detail. To reduce dependencies from chosen parameters, a least-squares approach is considered as recommended by Klenk et al. (2006. Emphasis is placed on the detailed description of the estimation procedure and the application of the theory to real image data.

  3. Exposure to the endocrine disruptor nonylphenol alters structure and function of thyroid gland in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Yue; Li, Dehua; San, Wei

    2013-08-10

    Nonylphenol (NP) is an estrogenic-like compound which can induce vitellogenin synthesis in males and immature teleostean species. Known as an endocrine disruptor, it has been reported to affect endocrine glands; however, little is known about its effects on thyroid function. The present study aimed to evaluate whether exposure to NP alters the structure and function of the thyroid gland of rats and/or the underlying mechanisms. Rats were gavaged with NP (40, 80 and 200 mg/kg/d) for 15 days. Serum levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone were determined by radioimmunoassay. Ultramicroscopic structure of follicular cells was examined by a transmission electron microscope. Histopathology was conducted with hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining. We found that NP exposure induced a decrease in serum levels of free tetraiodothyronine (FT) 3 and FT4 while it induced an increase in serum levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) in a dose-dependent manner. There was a negative correlation between different doses of NP with serum levels of FT3 and FT4 (FT4 r=-0.932; FT3 r=-0.926) and a positive correlation with serum levels of TSH (r=0.967). Histological and morphometric study in the NP-exposed group revealed dilation of endoplasmic reticulum into cystic in thyroid follicular cells. Mitochondrion was damaged in the 80 and 200 mg/kg/d groups. Exposure to NP may lead to thyroid dysfunction. It may be a potential contributor to thyroid disruption. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. STRUCTURAL AND FUNCTIONAL DISORDERS OF THE THYROID GLAND IN DIFFERENT TYPES OF LARYNGEAL CANCER TREATMENT

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    I. N. Vorozhtsova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The thyroid gland is an important endocrine organ, which has a significant influence on human organism from the perinatal period and throughout the whole life, participating in the regulation of metabolism. The most common variant of thyroid dysfunction is hypothyroidism, which causes different disorders in various organs and systems, including psycho-emotional sphere. This can burden comorbidities and particularly malignant processes.Laryngeal cancer is the most common type of head and neck cancer. Despite the visual availability of this localization for diagnosis, more than 50% of cases stay timely unrecognized. Many cases are found out at stages III and IV, which requires expanded operations and causes traumatization because of disruption or loss of such important functions as breathing, swallowing, speech, causing long-term or permanent disability. This makes laryngeal cancer significant medical and social and economic problem.One of the leading treatments for cancer of the larynx is external beam radiotherapy. Thyroid gland gets into the radiation area and may take more than 50% of the total focal dose. The most common outcome of post-radiation inflammation is fibrosis of thyroid tissue due to lesions of the blood vessels and destruction of thyrocytes. It causes the development of hypothyroidism, which exacerbate stress caused by cancer and by aggressive antitumor therapy. Also, hypothyroidism adversely affects the patients’ condition during the postoperative period.Despite the fact that the diagnosis of hypothyroidism is pretty simple, and replacement therapy with L-thyroxine is cheap and available, many doctors don’t monitorthyroid function in cancer patients at all or don’t make all necessary tests.Thus, timely detection of hypothyroidism is extremely important during and after the treatment of laryngeal cancer. Early prescribing adequate treatment helps to reduce the incidence of complications.

  5. Serotonin hormonally regulates lacrimal gland secretory function via the serotonin type 3a receptor

    OpenAIRE

    Imada, Toshihiro; Nakamura, Shigeru; Hisamura, Ryuji; Izuta, Yusuke; Jin, Kai; Ito, Masataka; Kitamura, Naoki; Tanaka, Kenji F.; Mimura, Masaru; Shibuya, Izumi; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2017-01-01

    Tears are extracellular fluid secreted from the lacrimal gland (LG). Tears consist of a dynamic tri-layered film composed of secretions from the LG, Meibomian gland, and conjunctival goblet cells. The LG secretes the aqueous component of the tear, the Meibomian gland secretes the lipid component, and conjunctival goblet cells secrete mucin. The regulation of LG activity via the autonomic nervous system has been recognized as fundamental to maintaining aqueous tear flow. Here, we describe the ...

  6. Effect of incomplete parathyroidectomy preserving entire parathyroid glands on renal graft function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäger, Mark D; Kaaden, Stephan; Emmanouilidis, Nikos; Lück, Rainer; Beckmann, Jan H; Güner, Zeynep; Kespohl, Holger; Glockzin, Kristina; Aselmann, Heiko; Kaudel, Christian P; Schwarz, Anke; Zapf, Antonia; Klempnauer, Jürgen; Scheumann, Georg F W

    2011-06-01

    Parathyroidectomy (PT) corrects tertiary hyperparathyroidism in patients who have received renal grafts but can result in deterioration of renal function. To compare different surgical procedures for their effect on renal function and efficacy to cure tertiary hyperparathyroidism. A retrospective cohort study. University clinic. Eighty-three patients with functioning renal grafts receiving PT for the first time. Group 1 received an incomplete PT, with at least 1 entire parathyroid gland (PG) remaining in situ (n = 12). Group 2 received an incomplete PT, with the most morphologically conserved PG partially resected (n = 22). Group 3 received a complete PT, with autotransplantation of PG tissue (n = 49). The primary end point was the postoperative change in glomerular filtration rate. Secondary end points were rates of redialysis, hypercalcemia, and hyperparathyroidism within 5 years. A decrease in glomerular filtration rate occurred postoperatively in 75 patients (90%) and correlated significantly with the extent of PG resection. Recovery of renal function at month 6 was observed in group 1, but not in groups 2 and 3 (P parathyroid hormone levels in accordance with target ranges from the Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative guidelines did not reveal significant differences in the rates of recurrent hyperparathyroidism. Incomplete PT preserving at least 1 entire PG does not cause deterioration of renal graft function and provides long-term correction of hypercalcemia and tertiary hyperparathyroidism.

  7. c-Myc affects mRNA translation, cell proliferation and progenitor cell function in the mammary gland

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    Trumpp Andreas

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The oncoprotein c-Myc has been intensely studied in breast cancer and mouse mammary tumor models, but relatively little is known about the normal physiological role of c-Myc in the mammary gland. Here we investigated functions of c-Myc during mouse mammary gland development using a conditional knockout approach. Results Generation of c-mycfl/fl mice carrying the mammary gland-specific WAPiCre transgene resulted in c-Myc loss in alveolar epithelial cells starting in mid-pregnancy. Three major phenotypes were observed in glands of mutant mice. First, c-Myc-deficient alveolar cells had a slower proliferative response at the start of pregnancy, causing a delay but not a block of alveolar development. Second, while milk composition was comparable between wild type and mutant animals, milk production was reduced in mutant glands, leading to slower pup weight-gain. Electron microscopy and polysome fractionation revealed a general decrease in translational efficiency. Furthermore, analysis of mRNA distribution along the polysome gradient demonstrated that this effect was specific for mRNAs whose protein products are involved in milk synthesis. Moreover, quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed decreased levels of ribosomal RNAs and ribosomal protein-encoding mRNAs in mutant glands. Third, using the mammary transplantation technique to functionally identify alveolar progenitor cells, we observed that the mutant epithelium has a reduced ability to repopulate the gland when transplanted into NOD/SCID recipients. Conclusion We have demonstrated that c-Myc plays multiple roles in the mouse mammary gland during pregnancy and lactation. c-Myc loss delayed, but did not block proliferation and differentiation in pregnancy. During lactation, lower levels of ribosomal RNAs and proteins were present and translation was generally decreased in mutant glands. Finally, the transplantation studies suggest a role

  8. Salivary gland function 5 years after radioactive iodine ablation in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer: direct comparison of pre- and postablation scintigraphies and their relation to xerostomia symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Shin Young; Kim, Hae Won; Lee, Sang-Woo; Ahn, Byeong-Cheol; Lee, Jaetae

    2013-05-01

    Chronic sialadenitis is one of the most frequent chronic complications after radioactive iodine (RAI) therapy for thyroid cancer. To evaluate the long-term effects of RAI ablation on salivary gland function, we investigated scintigraphic changes in salivary glands by direct comparison of two salivary gland scintigraphies (SGSs) taken before and at 5 years after an RAI ablation. SGS was performed just before RAI ablation (pre-SGS) and ∼5 years after RAI ablation (F/U SGS) in 213 subjects who underwent thyroidectomy for thyroid cancer. The uptake score (U score) was graded, and the ejection fraction (EF) was quantified for the parotid and submandibular glands at pre-SGS and F/U SGS. Changes in salivary gland function were graded as mild, moderate, or severe according to the differences in U score and EF between the two SGSs. Xerostomia was assessed and compared with the SGS findings. Worsening of the U score was observed in 182 of 852 salivary glands (total: 21.3%; mild: 4.2%, moderate: 7.4%, severe: 9.7%), and 47.4% of the patients had a worsening U score for at least one of four salivary glands. A decrease in EF was observed in 173 of 852 salivary glands (total: 20.3%; mild: 5.4%, moderate: 6.8%, severe: 8.1%), and 43.7% of the patients experienced a decrease in the EF of at least one of the four salivary glands. Bilateral parotid gland dysfunction was the most commonly observed condition. Thirty-five (16.4%) patients complained of xerostomia at 5 years after RAI ablation. Scintigraphic changes in salivary gland function and xerostomia were more common in patients receiving 5.55 GBq, compared with 3.7 GBq. Xerostomia was more common in patients with submandibular gland dysfunction than those with parotid gland dysfunction (68.8% vs. 33.3%, psalivary glands was correlated with xerostomia (psalivary glands were dysfunctional on SGS 5 years after a single RAI ablation, especially in patients who received higher doses of RAI. While parotid glands are more

  9. Scintigraphic assessment of salivary function and excretion response in radiation-induced injury of the major salivary glands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valdés Olmos, R. A.; Keus, R. B.; Takes, R. P.; van Tinteren, H.; Baris, G.; Hilgers, F. J.; Hoefnagel, C. A.; Balm, A. J.

    1994-01-01

    Both loss of the secretory function and impairment of the excretion may play a role in radiation-induced injury of the major salivary glands after radiotherapy for head and neck malignancies. Therefore, quantitative 99mTc-pertechnetate (99mTc) salivary scintigraphy to assess trapping, secretion, and

  10. Visualizing form and function in organotypic slices of the adult mouse parotid gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Jennifer D; Peters, Christian G; Saunders, Rudel; Won, Jong Hak; Betzenhauser, Matthew J; Gunning, William T; Yule, David I; Giovannucci, David R

    2008-09-01

    An organotypic slice preparation of the adult mouse parotid salivary gland amenable to a variety of optical assessments of fluid and protein secretion dynamics is described. The semi-intact preparation rendered without the use of enzymatic treatment permitted live-cell imaging and multiphoton analysis of cellular and supracellular signals. Toward this end we demonstrated that the parotid slice is a significant addition to the repertoire of tools available to investigators to probe exocrine structure and function since there is currently no cell culture system that fully recapitulates parotid acinar cell biology. Importantly, we show that a subpopulation of the acinar cells of parotid slices can be maintained in short-term culture and retain their morphology and function for up to 2 days. This in vitro model system is a significant step forward compared with enzymatically dispersed acini that rapidly lose their morphological and functional characteristics over several hours, and it was shown to be long enough for the expression and trafficking of exogenous protein following adenoviral infection. This system is compatible with a variety of genetic and physiological approaches used to study secretory function.

  11. The inhibiting effect of intravenous anesthesia on adrenal gland functions under the sepsis condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Te; Liu, Changdong; Wei, Pihong; Lv, Lili; Yang, Zaiqi

    2017-06-01

    This study aims to explore the effect of intravenous anesthesia on the adrenal gland functions of rats with sepsis as well as on their lungs and adrenal gland tissues in order to provide a theoretical reference for the cure of sepsis. Female Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were taken as the research objects in this study. Venous channels of rats were constructed by catheterization through the external jugular vein, and the cecal ligation and puncture technique was adopted to duplicate the sepsis rat models. The level of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in serum was detected using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and necrocytosis was observed by the fluorescent staining method. The results showed that the survival rates of groups A, B, C, and D were 100%, 60%, 60%, and 50%, respectively, while their concentrations of TNF-α in serum were101.26 ± 43.38, 1398.68 ± 178.56, 451.16 ± 78.68, and 649.83 ± 98.56 pg/mL, respectively. Results of fluorescent staining showed that the number of living cells per unit view in group A was 1428 ± 166 and those of groups B, C and D were 175 ± 56, 618 ± 76, and 468 ± 55, respectively. Besides, it was found that changes of inflammatory pathology of lung tissues of each group were significant. In conclusion, etomidate does not affect the survival of sepsis rats and does not exacerbate lung tissue inflammation in sepsis rats. Instead, it can inhibit TNF-α in serum of sepsis rats, as well as the apoptosis of adrenal cells in sepsis rats.

  12. Parathyroid Gland Function in Kidney Transplanted Patient: A single Center Experience

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    Azar BARADARAN

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Information on the time course of serum parathormone levels after renal transplantation is scanty. Both the abrupt cessation of calcium-containing phosphorus binders and vitamin D (analogs at the time of surgery and the recovery of renal function may be hypothesized to affect parathyroid gland. This study firstly examined frequency distribution of various biochemical parameters such as alkaline phosphatase (ALP, phosphorus (P, intact parathormone (iPTH and calcium (Ca in renal transplanted patients and secondly examined the relationship between these parameters and various demographic data of renal transplanted recipients. Material and Methods: we studied 72 renal transplanted patients (47 men and 25 women with mean ages of 44 ± 12 years and mean body mass index of 24.2 ± 3.9. Serum Ca, P, ALP and serum iPTH were measured. Results: In this study, mean serum Ca and iPTH were 9.5 ± 0.7mg/dL and18.4 ± 8.2 Pg/mL (median=16.5. Mean serum ALP was 169 ± 133 IU/L (median=131. In this study, there was a negative relationship between serum iPTH and creatinine clearance (r=-0.44 P 0.05. There were inverse correlations of serum ALP with age (r=-0.35 P= 0.02 and duration of kidney transplantation (r=-0.29 P= 0.01. Conclusions: In contrast to previous findings, in this group of patients, there was not secondary hyperparathyroism or significantly increased bone activity. The results showed suppressed parathormone secretion. The reason may be due to excessive intake of calcium and Vitamin D analogues, which suppress the parathyroid gland, and may prone these patients to adynamic bone disease.

  13. [Influence of peptides from pineal gland on thymus function at aging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin'kova, N S; Poliakova, V O; Trofimov, A V; Sevost'ianova, N N; Kvetnoĭ, I M

    2010-01-01

    The interference between thymus and pineal gland during their involution is considered in this review. The research data about influence of thymus peptides on pineal gland and pineal peptides on thymus is summarized. Analysis of these data showed that pineal peptides (epithalamin, epitalon) had more effective geroprotective effect on thymus involution in comparison with geroprotective effect of thymic peptides (thymalin, thymogen) on involution of pineal gland. The key mechanisms of pineal peptides effect on thymus dystrophy is immunoendocrine cooperation, which is realized as transcription's activation of various proteins.

  14. Sex differences in intrinsic brain functional connectivity underlying human shyness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xun; Wang, Siqi; Kendrick, Keith Maurice; Wu, Xi; Yao, Li; Lei, Du; Kuang, Weihong; Bi, Feng; Huang, Xiaoqi; He, Yong; Gong, Qiyong

    2015-12-01

    Shyness is a fundamental trait associated with social-emotional maladaptive behaviors, including many forms of psychopathology. Neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that hyper-responsivity to social and emotional stimuli occurs in the frontal cortex and limbic system in shy individuals, but the relationship between shyness and brain-wide functional connectivity remains incompletely understood. Using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging, we addressed this issue by exploring the relationship between regional functional connectivity strength (rFCS) and scores of shyness in a cohort of 61 healthy young adults and controlling for the effects of social and trait anxiety scores. We observed that the rFCS of the insula positively correlated with shyness scores regardless of sex. Furthermore, we found that there were significant sex-by-shyness interactions in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex and insula (two core nodes of the salience network) as well as the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex: the rFCS values of these regions positively correlated with shyness scores in females but negatively correlated in males. Taken together, we provide evidence for intrinsic functional connectivity differences in individuals with different degrees of shyness and that these differences are sex-dependent. These findings might have important implications on the understanding of biological mechanisms underlying emotional and cognitive processing associated with shyness. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. A prospective cohort study of novel functional types of parathyroid glands in thyroidectomy: In situ preservation or auto-transplantation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Qiuxia; Li, Zhihua; Kong, Deguang; Wang, Kun; Wu, Gaosong

    2016-12-01

    The best method of preventing hypoparathyroidism after thyroidectomy is to keep parathyroid glands in situ. However, hypoparathyroidism still regularly occurs with the existing parathyroid classification system, and the incidence of permanent hypoparathyroidism has not been reduced. We created a novel system for classifying parathyroid glands that can guide parathyroid preservation in thyroidectomy.We prospectively observed parathyroid glands using the new system in 218 neck surgeries, compared with 132 under the traditional system from January 2014 to September 2015 at a single clinic center. Briefly, we classified parathyroid glands as follows: Type A, no dependency on the thyroid; B1, partial blood supply from the thyroid but retains adequate blood supply after removal of the thyroid; B2, partial blood supply from the thyroid and becomes devascularized after the removal of the thyroid; B3, blood supply mostly from the thyroid; and C, blood supply completely dependent on the thyroid. The classifications were used to decide between in situ preservation or auto-transplantation.The most common type of parathyroid gland was type B1 (53.77%), followed by type A (20.89%), which are the perfect categories for in situ preservation. Type B2 (17.52%) and type B3 (1.21%) have a chance to be kept in situ. For type C (6.61%), in situ preservation is impossible. When in-situ preservation is ruled out, parathyroid auto-transplantation is an alternative, with partial or total gland tissue, depending on the classification and the surgeon's discretion. Among the patients who were classified under the new system, 43.6% presented with transient hypoparathyroidism (symptoms lasting ≤6 months) after surgery, versus 42.4% in the old system, which was not a significant difference. However, permanent hypothyroidism (symptoms lasting >6 months) was not detected in the applied group, but in 3.0% of patients in the nonapplied group (P = 0.01).Our novel functional nomenclature system

  16. Queen Specific Exocrine Glands in Legionary Ants and Their Possible Function in Sexual Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hölldobler, Bert

    2016-01-01

    The colonies of army ants and some other legionary ant species have single, permanently wingless queens with massive post petioles and large gasters. Such highly modified queens are called dichthadiigynes. This paper presents the unusually rich exocrine gland endowment of dichthadiigynes, which is not found in queens of other ant species. It has been suggested these kinds of glands produce secretions that attract and maintain worker retinues around queens, especially during migration. However, large worker retinues also occur in non-legionary species whose queens do not have such an exuberance of exocrine glands. We argue and present evidence in support of our previously proposed hypothesis that the enormous outfit of exocrine glands found in dichthadiigynes is due to sexual selection mediated by workers as the main selecting agents.

  17. Queen Specific Exocrine Glands in Legionary Ants and Their Possible Function in Sexual Selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bert Hölldobler

    Full Text Available The colonies of army ants and some other legionary ant species have single, permanently wingless queens with massive post petioles and large gasters. Such highly modified queens are called dichthadiigynes. This paper presents the unusually rich exocrine gland endowment of dichthadiigynes, which is not found in queens of other ant species. It has been suggested these kinds of glands produce secretions that attract and maintain worker retinues around queens, especially during migration. However, large worker retinues also occur in non-legionary species whose queens do not have such an exuberance of exocrine glands. We argue and present evidence in support of our previously proposed hypothesis that the enormous outfit of exocrine glands found in dichthadiigynes is due to sexual selection mediated by workers as the main selecting agents.

  18. Myoepithelial Cells: Their Origin and Function in Lacrimal Gland Morphogenesis, Homeostasis, and Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarenkova, Helen P; Dartt, Darlene A

    2015-09-01

    Lacrimal gland (LG) is an exocrine tubuloacinar gland that secretes the aqueous layer of the tear film. LG epithelium is composed of ductal, acinar, and myoepithelial cells (MECs) bordering the basal lamina and separating the epithelial layer from the extracellular matrix. Mature MECs have contractile ability and morphologically resemble smooth muscle cells; however, they exhibit features typical for epithelial cells, such as the presence of specific cytokeratin filaments. Increasing evidence supports the assertion that myoepithelial cells (MECs) play key roles in the lacrimal gland development, homeostasis, and stabilizing the normal structure and polarity of LG secretory acini. MECs take part in the formation of extracellular matrix gland and participate in signal exchange between epithelium and stroma. MECs have a high level of plasticity and are able to differentiate into several cell lineages. Here, we provide a review on some of the MEC characteristics and their role in LG morphogenesis, maintenance, and repair.

  19. Sex Hormones Function as Sex Attractant Pheromones in House Mice and Brown Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takács, Stephen; Gries, Regine; Gries, Gerhard

    2017-07-18

    Sex hormones of mammals control the expression of sexual characteristics and bodily functions. The male hormone testosterone and the female hormones progesterone and estradiol are known to occur in urine markings of mice. Here, we show that all three hormones are also present in urine of brown rats, and that they are effective sexual communication signals (pheromones) that elicit attraction behavior of prospective mates in both brown rats and house mice. When added as lures to trap boxes in field experiments, synthetic testosterone, for example, increased captures of adult female mice 15-fold, and a blend of progesterone and estradiol increased captures of male mice eightfold and male rats 13-fold. Remarkably, these hormones increased captures even though the food- and pheromone-based baits to which they were added had previously been shown to be superior to current commercial rodent attractants. We predict that these sex hormones will function as sex attractant pheromones in diverse taxa. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Akt1 is essential for postnatal mammary gland development, function, and the expression of Btn1a1.

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    Jessica LaRocca

    Full Text Available Akt1, a serine-threonine protein kinase member of the PKB/Akt gene family, plays critical roles in the regulation of multiple cellular processes, and has previously been implicated in lactation and breast cancer development. In this study, we utilized Akt1+/+ and Akt1-/- C57/Bl6 female mice to assess the role that Akt1 plays in normal mammary gland postnatal development and function. We examined postnatal morphology at multiple time points, and analyzed gene and protein expression changes that persist into adulthood. Akt1 deficiency resulted in several mammary gland developmental defects, including ductal outgrowth and defective terminal end bud formation. Adult Akt1-/- mammary gland composition remained altered, exhibiting fewer alveolar buds coupled with increased epithelial cell apoptosis. Microarray analysis revealed that Akt1 deficiency altered expression of genes involved in numerous biological processes in the mammary gland, including organismal development, cell death, and tissue morphology. Of particular importance, a significant decrease in expression of Btn1a1, a gene involved in milk lipid secretion, was observed in Akt1-/- mammary glands. Additionally, pseudopregnant Akt1-/- females failed to induce Btn1a1 expression in response to hormonal stimulation compared to their wild-type counterparts. Retroviral-mediated shRNA knockdown of Akt1 and Btn1a1 in MCF-7 human breast epithelial further illustrated the importance of Akt1 in mammary epithelial cell proliferation, as well as in the regulation of Btn1a1 and subsequent expression of ß-casein, a gene that encodes for milk protein. Overall these findings provide mechanistic insight into the role of Akt1 in mammary morphogenesis and function.

  1. Indocyanine green fluorescence angiography for quantitative evaluation of in situ parathyroid gland perfusion and function after total thyroidectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Brian Hung-Hin; Wong, Carlos K H; Hung, Hing Tsun; Wong, Kai Pun; Mak, Ka Lun; Au, Kin Bun

    2017-01-01

    Because the fluorescent light intensity on an indocyanine green fluorescence angiography reflects the blood perfusion within a focused area, the fluorescent light intensity in the remaining in situ parathyroid glands may predict postoperative hypocalcemia risk after total thyroidectomy. Seventy patients underwent intraoperative indocyanine green fluorescence angiography after total thyroidectomy. Any parathyroid glands with a vascular pedicle was left in situ while any parathyroid glands without pedicle or inadvertently removed was autotransplanted. After total thyroidectomy, an intravenous 2.5 mg indocyanine green fluorescence angiography was given and real-time fluorescent images of the thyroid bed were recorded using the SPY imaging system (Novadaq, Ontario, Canada). The fluorescent light intensity of each indocyanine green fluorescence angiography as well as the average and greatest fluorescent light intensity in each patient were calculated. Postoperative hypocalcemia was defined as adjusted calcium 150% developed postoperative hypocalcemia while 9 (81.8%) patients with a greatest fluorescent light intensity ≤150% did. Similarly, no patients with an average fluorescent light intensity >109% developed PH while 9 (30%) with an average fluorescent light intensity ≤109% did. The greatest fluorescent light intensity was more predictive than day-0 postoperative hypocalcemia (P = .027) and % PTH drop day-0 to 1 (P parathyroid glands function and predicting postoperative hypocalcemia risk after total thyroidectomy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Triazole Fungicides Inhibit Zebrafish Hatching by Blocking the Secretory Function of Hatching Gland Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De la Paz, Javiera F; Beiza, Natalia; Paredes-Zúñiga, Susana; Hoare, Misque S; Allende, Miguel L

    2017-04-04

    In animals, hatching represents the transition point from a developing embryo to a free-living individual, the larva. This process is finely regulated by many endogenous and environmental factors and has been shown to be sensitive to a variety of chemical agents. It is commonly evaluated in bioassays in order to establish the effects of different agents on early development and reproductive capabilities in fish and other aquatic animals. In fish, the breakdown of the chorion is achieved by the secretion of choriolysin by hatching gland cells (HGCs) into the perivitelline space (PVS), coupled with spontaneous movements of the developing larva. In this work, we used zebrafish to assay the effects of a family of widely used agrochemicals-triazoles Triadimefon (FON), Triadimenol (NOL) and free triazole (1,2,4-T)-on hatching success. We found a strong inhibition of hatching by triazole exposure which was correlated with morphological changes and a reduction in the secretory function of the HGCs. As a consequence, the release of choriolytic enzymes by HGCs was reduced. We also found that HGC secretion reduction after exposure to FON can be rescued by co-incubation with a dopamine D2 receptor antagonist but not by antagonists of the D1-like receptors. This suggests a specific pathway through which this family of fungicides may be impairing a critical event in the fish life cycle.

  3. Early life stress and post-weaning high fat diet alter tyrosine hydroxylase regulation and AT1 receptor expression in the adrenal gland in a sex dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobrovskaya, Larisa; Maniam, Jayanthi; Ong, Lin Kooi; Dunkley, Peter R; Morris, Margaret J

    2013-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that early life stress induced by maternal separation or non-handling can lead to behavioural deficits in rats and that these deficits can be alleviated by providing palatable cafeteria high-fat diet (HFD). In these studies we investigated the effects of maternal separation or non-handling and HFD on tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) protein and TH phosphorylation at Ser40 (pSer40TH) and the expression of angiotensin II receptor type 1 (AT1R) protein in the adrenal gland as markers of sympatho-adrenomedullary activation. After littering, Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to short maternal separation, S15 (15 min), prolonged maternal separation, S180 (180 min) daily from postnatal days 2-14 or were non-handled (NH) until weaning. Siblings were exposed to HFD or chow from day 21 until 19 weeks when adrenals were harvested. Maternal separation and non-handling had no effects on adrenal TH protein in both sexes. We found an effect of HFD only in the females; HFD significantly increased TH levels in NH rats and pSer40TH in S180 rats (relative to corresponding chow-fed groups), but had no effect on AT1R expression in any group. In contrast, in male rats HFD had no effect on TH protein levels, but significantly increased pSer40TH across all treatment groups. There was no effect of HFD on AT1R expression in male rats; however, maternal separation (for 15 or 180 min) caused significant increases in AT1R expression (relative to NH group regardless of diet). This is the first study to report that early life stress and diet modulate TH protein, pSer40TH and AT1R protein levels in the adrenal gland in a sex dependent manner. These results are interpreted in respect to the potential adverse effects that these changes in the adrenal gland may have in males and females in adult life.

  4. Functional sex differences in human primary auditory cortex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruytjens, Liesbet; Georgiadis, Janniko R.; Holstege, Gert; Wit, Hero P.; Albers, Frans W.J.; Willemsen, Antoon T.M.

    2007-01-01

    We used PET to study cortical activation during auditory stimulation and found sex differences in the human primary auditory cortex (PAC). Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured in 10 male and 10 female volunteers while listening to sounds (music or white noise) and during a baseline (no auditory stimulation). We found a sex difference in activation of the left and right PAC when comparing music to noise. The PAC was more activated by music than by noise in both men and women. But this difference between the two stimuli was significantly higher in men than in women. To investigate whether this difference could be attributed to either music or noise, we compared both stimuli with the baseline and revealed that noise gave a significantly higher activation in the female PAC than in the male PAC. Moreover, the male group showed a deactivation in the right prefrontal cortex when comparing noise to the baseline, which was not present in the female group. Interestingly, the auditory and prefrontal regions are anatomically and functionally linked and the prefrontal cortex is known to be engaged in auditory tasks that involve sustained or selective auditory attention. Thus we hypothesize that differences in attention result in a different deactivation of the right prefrontal cortex, which in turn modulates the activation of the PAC and thus explains the sex differences found in the activation of the PAC. Our results suggest that sex is an important factor in auditory brain studies. (orig.)

  5. Functional sex differences in human primary auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruytjens, Liesbet; Georgiadis, Janniko R; Holstege, Gert; Wit, Hero P; Albers, Frans W J; Willemsen, Antoon T M

    2007-12-01

    We used PET to study cortical activation during auditory stimulation and found sex differences in the human primary auditory cortex (PAC). Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured in 10 male and 10 female volunteers while listening to sounds (music or white noise) and during a baseline (no auditory stimulation). We found a sex difference in activation of the left and right PAC when comparing music to noise. The PAC was more activated by music than by noise in both men and women. But this difference between the two stimuli was significantly higher in men than in women. To investigate whether this difference could be attributed to either music or noise, we compared both stimuli with the baseline and revealed that noise gave a significantly higher activation in the female PAC than in the male PAC. Moreover, the male group showed a deactivation in the right prefrontal cortex when comparing noise to the baseline, which was not present in the female group. Interestingly, the auditory and prefrontal regions are anatomically and functionally linked and the prefrontal cortex is known to be engaged in auditory tasks that involve sustained or selective auditory attention. Thus we hypothesize that differences in attention result in a different deactivation of the right prefrontal cortex, which in turn modulates the activation of the PAC and thus explains the sex differences found in the activation of the PAC. Our results suggest that sex is an important factor in auditory brain studies.

  6. Functional sex differences in human primary auditory cortex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruytjens, Liesbet [University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Groningen (Netherlands); University Medical Center Utrecht, Department Otorhinolaryngology, P.O. Box 85500, Utrecht (Netherlands); Georgiadis, Janniko R. [University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Anatomy and Embryology, Groningen (Netherlands); Holstege, Gert [University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Center for Uroneurology, Groningen (Netherlands); Wit, Hero P. [University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Groningen (Netherlands); Albers, Frans W.J. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department Otorhinolaryngology, P.O. Box 85500, Utrecht (Netherlands); Willemsen, Antoon T.M. [University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2007-12-15

    We used PET to study cortical activation during auditory stimulation and found sex differences in the human primary auditory cortex (PAC). Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured in 10 male and 10 female volunteers while listening to sounds (music or white noise) and during a baseline (no auditory stimulation). We found a sex difference in activation of the left and right PAC when comparing music to noise. The PAC was more activated by music than by noise in both men and women. But this difference between the two stimuli was significantly higher in men than in women. To investigate whether this difference could be attributed to either music or noise, we compared both stimuli with the baseline and revealed that noise gave a significantly higher activation in the female PAC than in the male PAC. Moreover, the male group showed a deactivation in the right prefrontal cortex when comparing noise to the baseline, which was not present in the female group. Interestingly, the auditory and prefrontal regions are anatomically and functionally linked and the prefrontal cortex is known to be engaged in auditory tasks that involve sustained or selective auditory attention. Thus we hypothesize that differences in attention result in a different deactivation of the right prefrontal cortex, which in turn modulates the activation of the PAC and thus explains the sex differences found in the activation of the PAC. Our results suggest that sex is an important factor in auditory brain studies. (orig.)

  7. A comparison of mean parotid gland dose with measures of parotid gland function after radiotherapy for head-and-neck cancer : Implications for future trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roesink, JM; Schipper, M; Busschers, W; Raaijmakers, CPJ; Terhaard, CHJ

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the most adequate parameter to measure the consequences of reducing the parotid gland dose. Methods and Materials: One hundred eight patients treated with radiotherapy for various malignancies of the head and neck were prospectively evaluated using three methods. Parotid gland

  8. Modeling mixtures of thyroid gland function disruptors in a vertebrate alternative model, the zebrafish eleutheroembryo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thienpont, Benedicte; Barata, Carlos [Department of Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA, CSIC), Jordi Girona, 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Raldúa, Demetrio, E-mail: drpqam@cid.csic.es [Department of Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA, CSIC), Jordi Girona, 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Maladies Rares: Génétique et Métabolisme (MRGM), University of Bordeaux, EA 4576, F-33400 Talence (France)

    2013-06-01

    Maternal thyroxine (T4) plays an essential role in fetal brain development, and even mild and transitory deficits in free-T4 in pregnant women can produce irreversible neurological effects in their offspring. Women of childbearing age are daily exposed to mixtures of chemicals disrupting the thyroid gland function (TGFDs) through the diet, drinking water, air and pharmaceuticals, which has raised the highest concern for the potential additive or synergic effects on the development of mild hypothyroxinemia during early pregnancy. Recently we demonstrated that zebrafish eleutheroembryos provide a suitable alternative model for screening chemicals impairing the thyroid hormone synthesis. The present study used the intrafollicular T4-content (IT4C) of zebrafish eleutheroembryos as integrative endpoint for testing the hypotheses that the effect of mixtures of TGFDs with a similar mode of action [inhibition of thyroid peroxidase (TPO)] was well predicted by a concentration addition concept (CA) model, whereas the response addition concept (RA) model predicted better the effect of dissimilarly acting binary mixtures of TGFDs [TPO-inhibitors and sodium-iodide symporter (NIS)-inhibitors]. However, CA model provided better prediction of joint effects than RA in five out of the six tested mixtures. The exception being the mixture MMI (TPO-inhibitor)-KClO{sub 4} (NIS-inhibitor) dosed at a fixed ratio of EC{sub 10} that provided similar CA and RA predictions and hence it was difficult to get any conclusive result. There results support the phenomenological similarity criterion stating that the concept of concentration addition could be extended to mixture constituents having common apical endpoints or common adverse outcomes. - Highlights: • Potential synergic or additive effect of mixtures of chemicals on thyroid function. • Zebrafish as alternative model for testing the effect of mixtures of goitrogens. • Concentration addition seems to predict better the effect of

  9. Estradiol and tamoxifen regulate NRF-1 and mitochondrial function in mouse mammary gland and uterus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Margarita M.; Radde, Brandie N.; Son, Jieun; Mehta, Fabiola F.; Chung, Sang-Hyuk; Klinge, Carolyn M.

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear respiratory factor-1 (NRF-1) stimulates the transcription of nuclear-encoded genes that regulate mitochondrial genome transcription and biogenesis. We reported that estradiol (E2) and 4-hydroxytamoxifen (4-OHT) stimulate NRF-1 transcription in an estrogen receptor α- and β- (ERα, ERβ) dependent manner in human breast cancer cells. The aim of this study was to determine if E2 and 4-OHT increase NRF-1 in vivo. Here we report that E2 and 4-OHT increase NRF-1 expression in mammary gland and uterus of ovariectomized C57BL/6 mice in a time-dependent manner. E2 increased NRF-1 protein in the uterus and mammary gland; however, in mammary gland, 4-OHT increased Nrf1 mRNA but not protein. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays revealed increased in vivo recruitment of ERα to the Nrf1 promoter and intron 3 in mammary gland and uterus 6 h after E2 and 4-OHT treatment, commensurate with increased NRF-1 expression. E2 and 4-OHT- induced increases in NRF-1 and its target genes Tfam, Tfb1m, and Tfb2m were coordinated in mammary gland but not uterus, due to uterine-selective inhibition of the expression of the NRF-1 coactivators Ppargc1a and Ppargc1b by E2 and 4-OHT. E2 transiently increased NRF-1 and PGC-1α nuclear staining while reducing PGC-1α in uterus. E2, not 4-OHT, activates mitochondrial biogenesis in mammary gland and uterus in a time-dependent manner. E2 increased mitochondrial outer membrane Tom40 protein levels in mammary gland and uterus whereas 4-OHT increased Tom40 only in uterus. These data support the hypothesis of tissue-selective regulation of NRF-1 and its downstream targets by E2 and 4-OHT in vivo. PMID:23892277

  10. Measurement by means of sup(99m)Tc-pertechnetate of the function of salivary glands before and after stimulation with pilocarpine in cases of sicca-syndrome of the parotidic glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelinsky, P.

    1979-01-01

    Judgement on xerostomia in systemic diseases of the salivary glands and on the sicca-syndrome as a side-effect of radiation therapy or of a treatment with psychopharmaca has been improved by the function test of the parotidic glands for each side individually with sup(99m)Tc-pertechnetate, particularly in view of the detection of lateral differences. Measurements of the salivation volume and activity are completive of the function test, yielding knowledge of the total excretory power of all the salivary glands. Functional remainders and reserves can be visualized objectively by additional utilization of the pilocarpine stimulation test (today performed with carbachol). The findings will be still more precise if the parotide salivation is collected and measured for each side separately. This exploration method is appropriate for frequent controls in the course of a disease and for the forming of an opinion upon therapeutic effects of sialogogic agents. (orig.) [de

  11. Effect of N-Acetylcysteine on Antioxidant Defense, Oxidative Modification, and Salivary Gland Function in a Rat Model of Insulin Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Żukowski

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress plays a crucial role in the salivary gland dysfunction in insulin resistance (IR. It is not surprising that new substances are constantly being sought that will protect against the harmful effects of IR in the oral cavity environment. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of N-acetylcysteine (NAC on oxidative stress and secretory function of salivary glands in a rat model of insulin resistance. Rats were divided into 4 groups: C—normal diet, C + NAC—normal diet + NAC, HFD—high-fat diet, and HFD + NAC. We have demonstrated that NAC elevated enzymatic (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and peroxidase and nonenzymatic antioxidants (reduced glutathione (GSH and total antioxidant capacity (TAS in the parotid glands of HFD + NAC rats, while in the submandibular glands increased only GSH and TAS levels. NAC protects against oxidative damage only in the parotid glands and increased stimulated salivary secretion; however, it does not increase the protein secretion in the both salivary glands. Summarizing, NAC supplementation prevents the decrease of stimulated saliva secretion, seen in the HFD rats affected. NAC improves the antioxidative capacity of the both glands and protects against oxidative damage to the parotid glands of IR rats.

  12. Multi-tissue transcriptomics of the black widow spider reveals expansions, co-options, and functional processes of the silk gland gene toolkit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Thomas H; Garb, Jessica E; Hayashi, Cheryl Y; Haney, Robert A; Lancaster, Alexander K; Corbett, Susan; Ayoub, Nadia A

    2014-05-23

    Spiders (Order Araneae) are essential predators in every terrestrial ecosystem largely because they have evolved potent arsenals of silk and venom. Spider silks are high performance materials made almost entirely of proteins, and thus represent an ideal system for investigating genome level evolution of novel protein functions. However, genomic level resources remain limited for spiders. We de novo assembled a transcriptome for the Western black widow (Latrodectus hesperus) from deeply sequenced cDNAs of three tissue types. Our multi-tissue assembly contained ~100,000 unique transcripts, of which > 27,000 were annotated by homology. Comparing transcript abundance among the different tissues, we identified 647 silk gland-specific transcripts, including the few known silk fiber components (e.g. six spider fibroins, spidroins). Silk gland specific transcripts are enriched compared to the entire transcriptome in several functions, including protein degradation, inhibition of protein degradation, and oxidation-reduction. Phylogenetic analyses of 37 gene families containing silk gland specific transcripts demonstrated novel gene expansions within silk glands, and multiple co-options of silk specific expression from paralogs expressed in other tissues. We propose a transcriptional program for the silk glands that involves regulating gland specific synthesis of silk fiber and glue components followed by protecting and processing these components into functional fibers and glues. Our black widow silk gland gene repertoire provides extensive expansion of resources for biomimetic applications of silk in industry and medicine. Furthermore, our multi-tissue transcriptome facilitates evolutionary analysis of arachnid genomes and adaptive protein systems.

  13. Stereology of the thyroid gland in Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops aduncus in comparison with human (Homo sapiens: quantitative and functional implications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Chin Wing Kot

    Full Text Available The mammalian thyroid gland maintains basal metabolism in tissues for optimal function. Determining thyroid volume is important in assessing growth and involution. Volume estimation is also important in stereological studies. Direct measurements of colloid volume and nuclear-to-cytoplasmic ratio of the follicular cells may provide important information about thyroid gland function such as hormone storage and secretion, which helps understand the changes at morphological and functional levels. The present study determined the colloid volume using simple stereological principle and the nuclear-to-cytoplasmic ratio of 4 Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins and 2 human thyroid glands. In both dolphin and human thyroid glands, the size of the follicles tended to be quite variable. The distribution of large and small follicles within the thyroid gland was also found to be random in both the dolphin and human thyroid gland; however, the size of follicles appeared to decrease as a function of increasing age in the dolphin thyroid gland. The mean colloid volume of the dolphin thyroid gland and human thyroid gland was 1.22×10(5 µm(3 and 7.02×10(5 µm(3 respectively. The dolphin and human subjects had a significant difference in the mean colloid volume. The mean N/C ratio of the dolphin thyroid follicular epithelia and human follicular epithelia was 0.50 and 0.64 respectively. The dolphin and human subjects had a significant difference in the mean N/C ratio. This information contributes to understanding dolphin thyroid physiology and its structural adaptations to meet the physical demands of the aquatic environment, and aids with ultrasonography and corrective therapy in live subjects.

  14. Stereology of the thyroid gland in Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops aduncus) in comparison with human (Homo sapiens): quantitative and functional implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kot, Brian Chin Wing; Lau, Thomas Yue Huen; Cheng, Sammy Chi Him

    2013-01-01

    The mammalian thyroid gland maintains basal metabolism in tissues for optimal function. Determining thyroid volume is important in assessing growth and involution. Volume estimation is also important in stereological studies. Direct measurements of colloid volume and nuclear-to-cytoplasmic ratio of the follicular cells may provide important information about thyroid gland function such as hormone storage and secretion, which helps understand the changes at morphological and functional levels. The present study determined the colloid volume using simple stereological principle and the nuclear-to-cytoplasmic ratio of 4 Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins and 2 human thyroid glands. In both dolphin and human thyroid glands, the size of the follicles tended to be quite variable. The distribution of large and small follicles within the thyroid gland was also found to be random in both the dolphin and human thyroid gland; however, the size of follicles appeared to decrease as a function of increasing age in the dolphin thyroid gland. The mean colloid volume of the dolphin thyroid gland and human thyroid gland was 1.22×10(5) µm(3) and 7.02×10(5) µm(3) respectively. The dolphin and human subjects had a significant difference in the mean colloid volume. The mean N/C ratio of the dolphin thyroid follicular epithelia and human follicular epithelia was 0.50 and 0.64 respectively. The dolphin and human subjects had a significant difference in the mean N/C ratio. This information contributes to understanding dolphin thyroid physiology and its structural adaptations to meet the physical demands of the aquatic environment, and aids with ultrasonography and corrective therapy in live subjects.

  15. Purification and Ex Vivo Expansion of Fully Functional Salivary Gland Stem Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nanduri, Lalitha S Y; Baanstra, Mirjam; Faber, Hette; Rocchi, Cecilia; Zwart, Erik; de Haan, Gerald; van Os, Ronald; Coppes, Robert P

    2014-01-01

    Hyposalivation often leads to irreversible and untreatable xerostomia. Salivary gland (SG) stem cell therapy is an attractive putative option to salvage these patients but is impeded by the limited availability of adult human tissue. Here, using murine SG cells, we demonstrate single-cell

  16. Sialogogue-related radioprotection of salivary gland function : The degranulation concept revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coppes, RP; Zeilstra, LJW; Vissink, A; Konings, AWT

    To investigate whether secretory granules play a role in the radiosensitivity of the salivary glands of rats, parotid acinar cells, submandibular acinar cells and/or submandibular granular convoluted tubule (GCT) cells were degranulated prior to irradiation. Degranulation of GCT cells was obtained

  17. Muscarinic receptor stimulation increases tolerance of rat salivary gland function to radiation damage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coppes, RP; Vissink, A; Zeilstra, LJW; Konings, AWT

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate if muscarinic receptor-stimulated activation of the PLC/PIP2 second messenger pathway prior to irradiation increases the radiotolerance of rat salivary gland. Materials and methods: Rats were treated with pilocarpine, methacholine, reserpine, methacholine plus reserpine, or

  18. On approaches to the functional restoration of salivary glands damaged by radiation therapy for head and neck cancer, with a review of related aspects of salivary gland morphology and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redman, R S

    2008-06-01

    Radiation therapy for cancer of the head and neck can devastate the salivary glands and partially devitalize the mandible and maxilla. As a result, saliva production is drastically reduced and its quality adversely altered. Without diligent home and professional care, the teeth are subject to rapid destruction by caries, necessitating extractions with attendant high risk of necrosis of the supporting bone. Innovative techniques in delivery of radiation therapy and administration of drugs that selectively protect normal tissues can reduce significantly the radiation effects on salivary glands. Nonetheless, many patients still suffer severe oral dryness. I review here the functional morphology and development of salivary glands as these relate to approaches to preventing and restoring radiation-induced loss of salivary function. The acinar cells are responsible for most of the fluid and organic material in saliva, while the larger ducts influence the inorganic content. A central theme of this review is the extent to which the several types of epithelial cells in salivary glands may be pluripotential and the circumstances that may influence their ability to replace cells that have been lost or functionally inactivated due to the effects of radiation. The evidence suggests that the highly differentiated cells of the acini and large ducts of mature glands can replace themselves except when the respective pools of available cells are greatly diminished via apoptosis or necrosis owing to severely stressful events. Under the latter circumstances, relatively undifferentiated cells in the intercalated ducts proliferate and redifferentiate as may be required to replenish the depleted pools. It is likely that some, if not many, acinar cells may de-differentiate into intercalated duct-like cells and thus add to the pool of progenitor cells in such situations. If the stress is heavy doses of radiation, however, the result is not only the death of acinar cells, but also a marked

  19. Sex hormones and psychological functioning in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwin, B B

    1994-01-01

    Women who seek medical care around the time of menopause frequently report changes in one or more aspects of psychological functioning. The etiology of these symptoms is likely multifactorial and, undoubtedly, individual and sociocultural factors are important determinants. The known psychotropic properties of the sex hormones provide reason to believe that the drastic decrease in sex steroid production at menopause is also causally related to the development of psychological symptoms in some women. Indeed, prospective, controlled studies show that exogenous estrogen administered to postmenopausal women alleviates depressive symptoms in a dose-dependent manner. Second, accumulating evidence is beginning to suggest that estrogen helps to maintain verbal memory in aging women to the exclusion of effects on visual memory or on other cognitive functions. Finally, whereas exogenous estrogen is important for the integrity of genital tissues, it would now seem that testosterone is the hormone most critically implicated in the maintenance of libido, or sexual desire, in women just as it is in men.

  20. Excretory function of salivary gland during static salivary scintigraphy using technetium-99m pertechnetate: a correlation study with salivary flow rate in sjogrens syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, S. J.; Lee, W. W.; Lee, Y. J.; So, Y.; Jeong, J. G.; Lee, M. C.; Kim, S. E.

    2005-01-01

    Salivary scintigraphy is useful in the evaluation of xerostomia. To identify the relevant and clinically applicable parameter for the evaluation of xerostomia, we performed static salivary scintigraphy using Tc-99m and compared it with salivary flow rate in patients with xerostomia. Twenty-three female patients (age 51.2±10.4 years) who suffered from xerostomia were investigated. Nine patients were classified as Sjogrens syndrome (SS) by clinical criteria, and 14 patients were classified as non-Sjogrens syndrome. Un-stimulated salivary flow rate and simulated salivary flow rate were checked. Salivary scintigraphy was performed with injection of 25 mCi Tc-99m pertechnetate after injection anterior static image was obtained over face as basal uptake. ROIs were drawn over each salivary gland with background subtraction by square ROI drawn over skull. We used the mean data of right and left salivary glands for analysis. Percent excretion of salivary gland was calculated. Un-stimulated salivary flow rates(SFR) were different between groups (p 0.05): 5.88±4.07 ml/15 min in SS, and 10.31±6.49 ml/15 min in non-SS. The uptake value in submandibular gland revealed significant difference between the groups. The percent excretion of submandibular gland had positive correlation with un-stimulated salivary flow rate (r=0.534, p=0.009), and that of parotid gland was also positive correlation (r=0.437, p=0.037). The result of multiple regression analysis revealed only percent excretion of submandibular gland was single determinant of unstimulated SFR. Percent excretion of submandibular gland had positive correlation with un-stimulated SFR. Thus, excretory function of submandibular gland assessed by salivary scintigraphy appears more related with xerostomia than parotid gland

  1. Sialoscintigraphy with Tc-99m pertechnetate in the evaluation of salivary gland function in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer after radioiodine therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korol, P.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was an evaluation of salivary gland function after radioiodine therapy (RIT) in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) using sialoscintigraphy with Tc-99m pertechnetate. We investigated 97 patients with thyroid cancer aged from 35 to 65 years. The patients were divided into two groups. First group consisted of 30 patients after total or subtotal thyroidectomy without RIT and symptoms of functional activity changes of salivary glands. Second group included 67 patients after thyroidectomy and following RIT. Administered therapeutic activities varied ranging from 1100 to 4720 MBq. We performed sialoscintigraphy in dynamic mode over a period of 30 minutes (1 frame per 20 sec) with stimulation of gland function at 20 min of study using lemon juice. For evaluation of salivary gland function we used wide spectrum of indices and activity-time curves obtained from zones of interest 'salivary glands'. From among the large number of indices determined in the study we could identify three most informative indices. These are 1. Coefficient of concentration (Cc), coefficient of excretion (Ce) and T-max. The mean values of all of these indices were significantly decreased in the patients belonging to the second group in comparison with first group. These are presented. Overall significant decrease in salivary gland function was detected (P < 0.05) following radioiodine therapy as compared to the control group

  2. Production of functional human nerve growth factor from the saliva of transgenic mice by using salivary glands as bioreactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Fang; Li, Zicong; Zhu, Qingchun; Dong, Rui; Zhao, Chengcheng; Li, Guoling; Li, Guo; Gao, Wenchao; Jiang, Gelong; Zheng, Enqin; Cai, Gengyuan; Moisyadi, Stefan; Urschitz, Johann; Yang, Huaqiang; Liu, Dewu; Wu, Zhenfang

    2017-01-01

    The salivary glands of animals have great potential to act as powerful bioreactors to produce human therapeutic proteins. Human nerve growth factor (hNGF) is an important pharmaceutical protein that is clinically effective in the treatment of many human neuronal and non-neuronal diseases. In this study, we generated 18 transgenic (TG) founder mice each carrying a salivary gland specific promoter-driven hNGF transgene. A TG mouse line secreting high levels of hNGF protein in its saliva (1.36 μg/mL) was selected. hNGF protein was successfully purified from the saliva of these TG mice and its identity was verified. The purified hNGF was highly functional as it displayed the ability to induce neuronal differentiation of PC12 cells. Furthermore, it strongly promoted proliferation of TF1 cells, above the levels observed with mouse NGF. Additionally, saliva collected from TG mice and containing unpurified hNGF was able to significantly enhance the growth of TF1 cells. This study not only provides a new and efficient approach for the synthesis of therapeutic hNGF but also supports the concept that salivary gland from TG animals is an efficient system for production of valuable foreign proteins. PMID:28117418

  3. Same-sex marriage, autoimmune thyroid gland dysfunction and other autoimmune diseases in Denmark 1989-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisch, Morten; Nielsen, Nete Munk; Pedersen, Bo Vestergaard

    2014-01-01

    Autoimmune diseases have been little studied in gay men and lesbians. We followed 4.4 million Danes, including 9,615 same-sex married (SSM) persons, for 47 autoimmune diseases in the National Patient Registry between 1989 and 2008. Poisson regression analyses provided first hospitalization rate ratios (RRs) comparing rates between SSM individuals and persons in other marital status categories. SSM individuals experienced no unusual overall risk of autoimmune diseases. However, the risk of autoimmune thyroid dysfunction was increased, notably Hashimoto's thyroiditis (women(SSM), RR = 2.92; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.74-4.55) and Graves' disease (men(SSM), RR = 1.88; 95% CI 1.08-3.01). There was also an excess of primary biliary cirrhosis (women(SSM), RR = 4.09; 95% CI 1.01-10.7), and of psoriasis (men(SSM), RR = 2.48; 95% CI 1.77-3.36), rheumatic fever (men(SSM), RR = 7.55; 95% CI 1.87-19.8), myasthenia gravis (men(SSM), RR = 5.51; 95% CI 1.36-14.4), localized scleroderma (men(SSM), RR = 7.16; 95% CI 1.18-22.6) and pemphigoid (men(SSM), RR = 6.56; 95% CI 1.08-20.6), while Dupuytren's contracture was reduced (men(SSM), RR = 0.64; 95% CI 0.39-0.99). The excess of psoriasis was restricted to same-sex married men with HIV/AIDS (men(SSM), RR = 10.5; 95% CI 6.44-15.9), whereas Graves' disease occurred in excess only among same-sex married men without HIV/AIDS (men(SSM), RR = 1.99; 95% CI 1.12-3.22). Lesbians and immunologically competent gay men in same-sex marriage face no unusual overall risk of autoimmune diseases. However, the observed increased risk of thyroid dysfunction in these lesbians and gay men deserves further study.

  4. Pygidial gland chemistry and potential alarm-recruitment function in column foraging, but not solitary, Nearctic Messor harvesting ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Myrmicinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hölldobler, Bert; Plowes, Nicola J R; Johnson, Robert A; Nishshanka, Upul; Liu, Chongming; Attygalle, Athula B

    2013-09-01

    We investigated the role of the pygidial gland on foraging behavior in two ecologically dominant column foraging Nearctic harvesting ants (Messor pergandei and Messor andrei). Using chemical analyses and behavioral tests, we show that n-tridecane is the major biologically active compound of pygidial gland secretions in both species, and that this chemical functions as a powerful alarm-recruitment pheromone. Another major compound of pygidial gland contents is benzaldehyde; this substance does not release behavioral reactions in M. pergandei workers but might function as a defensive secretion. Six solitary foraging Nearctic Messor and two column foraging Palearctic Messor species, did not have large pygidial gland reservoirs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Establishing a framework for the functional mammary gland: from endocrinology to morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovey, Russell C; Trott, Josephine F; Vonderhaar, Barbara K

    2002-01-01

    From its embryonic origins, the mammary gland in females undergoes a course of ductal development that supports the establishment of alveolar structures during pregnancy prior to the onset of lactogenesis. This development includes multiple stages of proliferation and morphogenesis that are largely directed by concurrent alterations in key hormones and growth factors across various reproductive states. Ductal elongation is directed by estrogen, growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor-I, and epidermal growth factor, whereas ductal branching and alveolar budding is influenced by additional factors such as progesterone, prolactin, and thyroid hormone. The response by the ductal epithelium to various hormones and growth factors is influenced by epithelial-stromal interactions that differ between species, possibly directing species-specific morphogenesis. Evolving technologies continue to provide the opportunity to further delineate the regulation of ductal development. Defining the hormonal control of ductal development should facilitate a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying mammary gland tumorigenesis.

  6. Current knowledge on exocrine glands in carabid beetles: structure, function and chemical compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Giglio

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Many exocrine products used by ground beetles are pheromones and allomones that regulate intra- and interspecific interactions and contribute to their success in terrestrial ecosystems. This mini-review attempts to unify major themes related to the exocrine glands of carabid beetles. Here we report on both glandular structures and the role of secretions in carabid adults, and that little information is available on the ecological significance of glandular secretions in pre-imaginal stages.

  7. Current knowledge on exocrine glands in carabid beetles: structure, function and chemical compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giglio, Anita; Brandmayr, Pietro; Talarico, Federica; Brandmayr, Tullia Zetto

    2011-01-01

    Many exocrine products used by ground beetles are pheromones and allomones that regulate intra- and interspecific interactions and contribute to their success in terrestrial ecosystems. This mini-review attempts to unify major themes related to the exocrine glands of carabid beetles. Here we report on both glandular structures and the role of secretions in carabid adults, and that little information is available on the ecological significance of glandular secretions in pre-imaginal stages.

  8. Function of the Membrane Water Channel Aquaporin-5 in the Salivary Gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuzaki, Toshiyuki; Susa, Taketo; Shimizu, Kinue; Sawai, Nobuhiko; Suzuki, Takeshi; Aoki, Takeo; Yokoo, Satoshi; Takata, Kuniaki

    2012-01-01

    The process of saliva production in the salivary glands requires transepithelial water transfer from the interstitium to the acinar lumen. There are two transepithelial pathways: the transcellular and paracellular. In the transcellular pathway, the aquaporin water channels induce passive water diffusion across the membrane lipid bilayer. It is well known that aquaporin-5 (AQP5) is expressed in the salivary glands, in which it is mainly localized at the apical membrane of the acinar cells. This suggests the physiological importance of AQP5 in transcellular water transfer. Reduced saliva secretion under pilocarpine stimulation in AQP5-null mice compared with normal mice further indicates the importance of AQP5 in this process, at least in stimulated saliva secretion. Questions remain therefore regarding the role and importance of AQP5 in basal saliva secretion. It has been speculated that there would be some short-term regulation of AQP5 such as a trafficking mechanism to regulate saliva secretion. However, no histochemical evidence of AQP5-trafficking has been found, although some of biochemical analyses suggested that it may occur. There are no reports of human disease caused by AQP5 mutations, but some studies have revealed an abnormal subcellular distribution of AQP5 in patients or animals with xerostomia caused by Sjögren’s syndrome and X-irradiation. These findings suggest the possible pathophysiological importance of AQP5 in the salivary glands

  9. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging for evaluation of salivary gland function in head and neck cancer patients treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loimu, Venla; Seppälä, Tiina; Kapanen, Mika; Tuomikoski, Laura; Nurmi, Heidi; Mäkitie, Antti; Tenhunen, Mikko; Saarilahti, Kauko

    2017-02-01

    Permanent xerostomia as a result of radiation-induced salivary gland damage remains a common side effect of radiotherapy (RT) of the head and neck. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) in assessing the post-RT salivary gland function in patients with head and neck cancer (HNC). In this prospective study, 20 HNC patients scheduled for bilateral neck chemoradiotherapy (CRT) with weekly cisplatin went through diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) and salivary gland scintigraphy (SGS) prior to and at a mean of six months after completing the treatment. The changes in apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) before and after treatment were compared with ejection fraction (EF) measured with SGS and the radiation dose absorbed by the salivary glands. As a result of gustatory stimulation with ascorbic acid, the ADC showed a biphasic response with an initial increase and subsequent decrease. This pattern was seen both before and after RT. Post-RT ADC increased as a function of RT dose absorbed by the salivary glands. A moderate statistical correlation between pre- and post-RT ADCs at rest and EF measured with SGS was found. DW-MRI seems a promising tool for detection of physiological and functional changes in major salivary glands after RT. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Person (mis)perception: functionally biased sex categorization of bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kerri L; Iida, Masumi; Tassinary, Louis G

    2012-12-22

    Social perception is among the most important tasks that occur in daily life, and perceivers readily appreciate the social affordances of others. Here, we demonstrate that sex categorizations are functionally biased towards a male percept. Perceivers judged body shapes that varied in waist-to-hip ratio to be men if they were not, in reality, exclusive to women, and male categorizations occurred more quickly than female categorizations (studies 1 and 4). This pattern was corroborated when participants identified the average body shapes of men and women (study 2) and when we assessed participants' cognitive representations (study 3). Moreover, these tendencies were modulated by emotion context (study 4). Thus, male categorizations occurred readily and rapidly, demonstrating a pronounced categorization bias and temporal advantage for male judgements.

  11. Structural and functional sex differences in the human hypothalamus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swaab, D. F.; Chung, W. C.; Kruijver, F. P.; Hofman, M. A.; Ishunina, T. A.

    2001-01-01

    Sex differences in the brain may be the basis not only for sex differences in reproduction, gender identity (the feeling of being male or female), and sexual orientation (heterosexuality vs homosexuality), but also for the sex difference in prevalence of psychiatric and neurological diseases ( Swaab

  12. Quantitative assessment of salivary gland function by radioisotopic scanning in a randomized trial of pilocarpine for prevention of radiation Induced Xerostomia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fard-Esfahani, A.; Modarress-Mosalla, M.; Haddad, P.; Eftekhari, M.; Saghari, M.

    2001-01-01

    Radioisotope scanning is the best method for objective assessment of salivary gland function. Thus, it was used in a randomized trial of concomitant pilocarpine for assessment of radiation-induced xerostomia, in addition to subjective evaluation by an approved questionnaire and objective standard xerostomia grading. Patients randomized in a placebo-controlled trial of pilocarpine concurrent with irradiation for prevention of radiation-induced xerostomia were evaluated by salivary gland scintigraphy immediately before and 6 months after the end of head and neck radiotherapy. Salivary gland function was measured by ejection fraction (E F) of Technetium-99 m pertechnetate. The mean values for pre-and post-radiotherapy scans were calculated and compared. Also post-radiotherapy scan findings in the two groups of pilocarpine and placebo were compared using the Student's t-test. In addition, comparison was made between the scan results and the subjective findings and objective grading s.Twenty patients underwent the pre-radiotherapy salivary scintigraphy, and also 20 post-radiotherapy scans were performed . Mean parotid E F was 60.85% in the pre-radiotherapy and 9.08% in the post-radiotherapy scans (p<0.01). The means for submandibular glands in the pre-and post-radiotherapy scans were 41% and 11.2%, respectively (p<0.01). Also the mean E F was 14.5% in the pilocarpine group and 3.65 in the placebo group for parotid glands (p=0.07) and 18.3% and 4.1% respectively for submandibular glands (p<0.05). The salivary scans confirmed the subjective and objective xerostomia findings. Salivary gland scintigraphy is a valuable method for evaluation of xerostomia after head and neck radiotherapy, quantitatively demonstrating the protective effect of pilocarpine compared to placebo on salivary glands

  13. Expression and localisation of oestrogen and progesterone receptors in the bovine mammary gland during development, function and involution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schams, D; Kohlenberg, S; Amselgruber, W; Berisha, B; Pfaffl, M W; Sinowatz, F

    2003-05-01

    It is now well established that oestrogen and progesterone are absolutely essential for mammary gland development. Lactation can be induced in non-pregnant animals by sex steroid hormone treatment. Most of the genomic actions of oestrogens are mediated by two oestrogen receptors (ER)-alpha and ERbeta, and for gestagens in ruminants by the progesterone receptor (PR). Our aim was the evaluation of mRNA expression and protein (localisation and Western blotting) during mammogenesis, lactogenesis, galactopoiesis (early, middle and late) and involution (8, 24, 28, 96-108 h and 14-28 days after the end of milking) in the bovine mammary gland (total no. 53). During these stages, the mRNA was assessed by means of real-time RT-PCR (LightCycler). The protein for ERalpha, ERbeta and PR was localised by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. The mRNA expression results indicated the existence of ERalpha, ERbeta and PR in bovine mammary gland. Both ERalpha and PR are expressed in fg/ micro g total RNA range. The highest mRNA expression was found for ERalpha and PR in the tIssue of non-pregnant heifers, followed by a significant decrease to a lower level at the time of lactogenesis with low concentrations remaining during lactation and the first 4 weeks of involution. In contrast, the expression of ERbeta was about 1000-fold lower (ag/ micro g total RNA) and showed no clear difference during the stages examined, with a significant increase only 2-4 weeks after the end of milking. Immunolocalisation for ERalpha revealed a strong positive staining in nuclei of lactocytes in non-pregnant heifers, became undetectable during pregnancy, lactogenesis and lactation, and was again detectable 14-28 days after the end of milking. In contrast, PR was localised in the nuclei of epithelial cells in the mammary tIssue of non-pregnant heifers, in primigravid animals, and during late lactation and involution. During lactogenesis, peak and mid lactation, fewer nuclei of epithelial cells were

  14. Sex Dependence of Cognitive Functions in Bipolar Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Suwalska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to assess the performance of lithium treated euthymic bipolar patients in tests measuring spatial working memory (SWM, planning, and verbal fluency and to delineate the influence of gender on cognitive functioning. Fifty-nine euthymic bipolar patients, treated with lithium carbonate for at least 5 yr, were studied. Patients and controls underwent a neuropsychological assessment. Bipolar patients had significantly worse results than the healthy controls in the spatial memory and planning as well as verbal fluency tests. We detected a gender-related imbalance in the SWM results. Deficits in SWM were observed in male-only comparisons but not in female-only comparisons. The SWM scores were significantly poorer in male patients than in male controls. In female-only comparisons, female patients did not have significantly poorer SWM results in any category than their controls. Bipolar women scored worse in some other tests. The present study points to the different patterns of neuropsychological disturbances in female and male patients and suggests that sex-dependent differences should be taken into account in order to tailor the therapeutic intervention aimed at the improvement of cognitive functions.

  15. Human Lacrimal Gland Gene Expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinay Kumar Aakalu

    Full Text Available The study of human lacrimal gland biology and development is limited. Lacrimal gland tissue is damaged or poorly functional in a number of disease states including dry eye disease. Development of cell based therapies for lacrimal gland diseases requires a better understanding of the gene expression and signaling pathways in lacrimal gland. Differential gene expression analysis between lacrimal gland and other embryologically similar tissues may be helpful in furthering our understanding of lacrimal gland development.We performed global gene expression analysis of human lacrimal gland tissue using Affymetrix ® gene expression arrays. Primary data from our laboratory was compared with datasets available in the NLM GEO database for other surface ectodermal tissues including salivary gland, skin, conjunctiva and corneal epithelium.The analysis revealed statistically significant difference in the gene expression of lacrimal gland tissue compared to other ectodermal tissues. The lacrimal gland specific, cell surface secretory protein encoding genes and critical signaling pathways which distinguish lacrimal gland from other ectodermal tissues are described.Differential gene expression in human lacrimal gland compared with other ectodermal tissue types revealed interesting patterns which may serve as the basis for future studies in directed differentiation among other areas.

  16. MO-F-CAMPUS-I-01: EIT Imaging to Monitor Human Salivary Gland Functionality: A Feasibility Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohli, K; Karvat, A; Liu, J; Krishnan, K

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Clinically, there exists a need to develop a non-invasive technique for monitoring salivary activity. In this study, we investigate the feasibility of a using the electrical conductivity information from Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) to monitor salivary flow activity. Methods: To acquire EIT data, eight Ag/AgCl ECG electrodes were placed around the mandible of the subject. An EIT scan was obtained by injecting current at 50 KHz, 0.4 mA through each pair of electrodes and recording voltage across other electrode pairs. The functional conductivity image was obtained through reconstruction of the voltage data, using Electrical Impedance Tomography and Diffuse Optical Tomography Reconstruction Software (EIDORS) in Matlab. In using EIDORS, forward solution was obtained using a user-defined finite element model shape and inverse solution was obtained using one-step Gaussian solver. EIT scans of volunteer research team members were acquired for three different physiological states: pre-stimulation, stimulation and post-stimulation. For pre-stimulation phase, data were collected in intervals of 5 minutes for 15 minutes. The salivary glands were then stimulated in the subject using lemon and the data were collected immediately. Post-stimulation data were collected at 4 different timings after stimulation. Results: Variations were observed in the electrical conductivity patterns near parotid regions between the pre- and post-stimulation stages. The three images acquired during the 15 minute pre-stimulation phase showed no major changes in the conductivity. Immediately after stimulation, electrical conductivity increased near parotid regions and 15 minutes later slowly returned to pre-stimulation level. Conclusion: In the present study involving human subjects, the change in electrical conductivity pattern shown in the EIT images, acquired at different times with and without stimulation of salivary glands, appeared to be consistent with the change in salivary

  17. MO-F-CAMPUS-I-01: EIT Imaging to Monitor Human Salivary Gland Functionality: A Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohli, K; Karvat, A; Liu, J; Krishnan, K [BC Cancer Agency, Surrey, BC (United Kingdom)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Clinically, there exists a need to develop a non-invasive technique for monitoring salivary activity. In this study, we investigate the feasibility of a using the electrical conductivity information from Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) to monitor salivary flow activity. Methods: To acquire EIT data, eight Ag/AgCl ECG electrodes were placed around the mandible of the subject. An EIT scan was obtained by injecting current at 50 KHz, 0.4 mA through each pair of electrodes and recording voltage across other electrode pairs. The functional conductivity image was obtained through reconstruction of the voltage data, using Electrical Impedance Tomography and Diffuse Optical Tomography Reconstruction Software (EIDORS) in Matlab. In using EIDORS, forward solution was obtained using a user-defined finite element model shape and inverse solution was obtained using one-step Gaussian solver. EIT scans of volunteer research team members were acquired for three different physiological states: pre-stimulation, stimulation and post-stimulation. For pre-stimulation phase, data were collected in intervals of 5 minutes for 15 minutes. The salivary glands were then stimulated in the subject using lemon and the data were collected immediately. Post-stimulation data were collected at 4 different timings after stimulation. Results: Variations were observed in the electrical conductivity patterns near parotid regions between the pre- and post-stimulation stages. The three images acquired during the 15 minute pre-stimulation phase showed no major changes in the conductivity. Immediately after stimulation, electrical conductivity increased near parotid regions and 15 minutes later slowly returned to pre-stimulation level. Conclusion: In the present study involving human subjects, the change in electrical conductivity pattern shown in the EIT images, acquired at different times with and without stimulation of salivary glands, appeared to be consistent with the change in salivary

  18. Dose-response analysis of parotid gland function: what is the best measure of xerostomia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miah, Aisha B; Gulliford, Sarah L; Clark, Catharine H; Bhide, Shreerang A; Zaidi, Shane H; Newbold, Kate L; Harrington, Kevin J; Nutting, Christopher M

    2013-03-01

    To describe the dose-response relationships for the different measures of salivary gland recovery following radical radiotherapy for locally advanced head and neck squamous cell cancers (LA-HNSCC). Dosimetric analysis of data from the PARSPORT trial, a Phase III study of conventional RT (RT) and intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for LA-HNSCC was undertaken to determine the relationship between parotid gland mean dose and toxicity endpoints: high-grade subjective and objective xerostomia and xerostomia-related quality of life scores. LKB-NTCP parameters (TD50, m and n) were generated and tolerance doses (D50) reported using non-linear logistic regression analysis. Data were available on 63 patients from the PARSPORT trial. Parotid saliva flow rate provided the strongest association between mean dose and recovery, D50=23.4 Gy (20.6-26.2) and k=3.2 (1.9-4.5), R(2)=0.85. Corresponding LKB parameters were TD50=26.3 Gy (95% CI: 24.0-30.1), m=0.25 (0.18-1.0 and n=1). LENTSOMA subjective xerostomia also demonstrated a strong association D50=33.3 Gy (26.7-39.8), k=2.8 (91.4-4.4), R(2)=0.77). We recommend using the LENT SOMA subjective xerostomia score to predict recovery of salivation due to its strong association with dosimetry and ease of recording. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Isoform-specific functions of Mud/NuMA mediate binucleation of Drosophila male accessory gland cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Kiichiro; Kokuryo, Akihiko; Imano, Takao; Minami, Ryunosuke; Nakagoshi, Hideki; Adachi-Yamada, Takashi

    2014-12-20

    In standard cell division, the cells undergo karyokinesis and then cytokinesis. Some cells, however, such as cardiomyocytes and hepatocytes, can produce binucleate cells by going through mitosis without cytokinesis. This cytokinesis skipping is thought to be due to the inhibition of cytokinesis machinery such as the central spindle or the contractile ring, but the mechanisms regulating it are unclear. We investigated them by characterizing the binucleation event during development of the Drosophila male accessory gland, in which all cells are binucleate. The accessory gland cells arrested the cell cycle at 50 hours after puparium formation (APF) and in the middle of the pupal stage stopped proliferating for 5 hours. They then restarted the cell cycle and at 55 hours APF entered the M-phase synchronously. At this stage, accessory gland cells binucleated by mitosis without cytokinesis. Binucleating cells displayed the standard karyokinesis progression but also showed unusual features such as a non-round shape, spindle orientation along the apico-basal axis, and poor assembly of the central spindle. Mud, a Drosophila homolog of NuMA, regulated the processes responsible for these three features, the classical isoform Mud(PBD) and the two newly characterized isoforms Mud(L) and Mud(S) regulated them differently: Mud(L) repressed cell rounding, Mud(PBD) and Mud(S) oriented the spindle along the apico-basal axis, and Mud(S) and Mud(L) repressed central spindle assembly. Importantly, overexpression of Mud(S) induced binucleation even in standard proliferating cells such as those in imaginal discs. We characterized the binucleation in the Drosophila male accessory gland and examined mechanisms that regulated unusual morphologies of binucleating cells. We demonstrated that Mud, a microtubule binding protein regulating spindle orientation, was involved in this binucleation. We suggest that atypical functions exerted by three structurally different isoforms of Mud regulate

  20. The histology of dermal glands of mating Breviceps with comments ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    During mating male and female Breviceps become 'glued' together. The distribution of multicellular dermal glands varies between the sexes. The mate has a large number of holocrine glands on the ventrum, while the female has similar glands on the dorsum of the back. II thus appears that both sexes contribute to the ...

  1. Sex Hormone-Related Functions in Regenerating Male Rat Liver

    Science.gov (United States)

    FRANCAVILLA, ANTONIO; EAGON, PATRICIA K.; DiLEO, ALFREDO; POLIMENO, LORENZO; PANELLA, CARMINE; AQUILINO, A. MARIA; INGROSSO, MARCELLO; Van THIEL, DAVID H.; STARZL, THOMAS E.

    2011-01-01

    Sex hormone receptors were quantitated in normal male rat liver and in regenerating liver at several different times after partial (70%) hepatectomy. Both estrogen and androgen receptor content were altered dramatically by partial hepatectomy. Total hepatic content and nuclear retention of estrogen receptors increased, with the zenith evident 2 days after partial hepatectomy, corresponding to the zenith of mitotic index. Serum estradiol increased after 1 day, and reached a maximum at 3 days after surgery. In contrast, total and nuclear androgen receptor content demonstrated a massive decline at 1, 2, and 3 days after resection. Serum testosterone displayed a parallel decline. In addition, hepatic content of two androgen-responsive proteins was reduced to 15% and 13% of normal values during this period. The activity of these various proteins during regeneration of male rat liver is comparable to that observed in the liver of normal female rats. Taken together, these results indicate that partial hepatectomy induces a feminization of certain sexually dimorphic aspects of liver function in male rats. Furthermore, these data provide evidence that estrogens, but not androgens, may have an important role in the process of liver regeneration. PMID:3758617

  2. Pilot study using technetium-99m pertechnetate sequential radionuclide-sialography for assessing salivary gland function of nasopharyngeal cancer patients on radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, K.S.; Sundram, F.; Somanesan, S.; Tan, H.S.K.; Gao, F.; Chung, B.; Machin, D.

    2003-01-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is mainly treated by radiation therapy. A common complication of radiotherapy is xerostomia. Direct measurements of the amount of saliva produced using suction cups and volumetric assessments are cumbersome and time consuming. Sequential radionuclide sialography is a reproducible and convenient method of measuring salivary function. Patients with newly diagnosed NPC underwent a pilot study using technetium-99m pertechnetate sequential radionuclide sialography to assess their salivary function before and at 3 months post radiation therapy. From the sialography, time-activity-curves were obtained for analysis of salivary function. The shape of the time-activity-curve with citric acid stimulation was classified into 4 types according to the degree of radiation-induced dysfunction. All 14 patients had worse time-activity curves for both parotids and submandibular glands after radiation therapy. The P values for the change in time-activity-curves for all the salivary glands were less than 0.005. All patients with abnormal type of curves before radiation therapy presented type IV(non-functioning) curve after radiation therapy. A ratio (Rc) of pre- and post-stimulation counts allowed for quantification of the degree of stimulatory response. We found a significant decrease in Rc before and after radiation therapy for all the salivary glands (P < 0.001). The salivary gland to background ratio, which is a reflection of the degree of salivary gland functional uptake, also had a significant reduction after radiation. It is feasible to use technetium 99m pertechnetate in the measurement of salivary gland function in nasopharyngeal cancer patients treated with radiation therapy

  3. Dose–response analysis of parotid gland function: What is the best measure of xerostomia?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miah, Aisha B.; Gulliford, Sarah L.; Clark, Catharine H.; Bhide, Shreerang A.; Zaidi, Shane H.; Newbold, Kate L.; Harrington, Kevin J.; Nutting, Christopher M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the dose–response relationships for the different measures of salivary gland recovery following radical radiotherapy for locally advanced head and neck squamous cell cancers (LA-HNSCC). Methods and materials: Dosimetric analysis of data from the PARSPORT trial, a Phase III study of conventional RT (RT) and intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for LA-HNSCC was undertaken to determine the relationship between parotid gland mean dose and toxicity endpoints: high-grade subjective and objective xerostomia and xerostomia-related quality of life scores. LKB-NTCP parameters (TD50, m and n) were generated and tolerance doses (D50) reported using non-linear logistic regression analysis. Results: Data were available on 63 patients from the PARSPORT trial. Parotid saliva flow rate provided the strongest association between mean dose and recovery, D50 = 23.4 Gy (20.6–26.2) and k = 3.2 (1.9–4.5), R 2 = 0.85. Corresponding LKB parameters were TD50 = 26.3 Gy (95% CI: 24.0–30.1), m = 0.25 (0.18–1.0 and n = 1). LENTSOMA subjective xerostomia also demonstrated a strong association D50 = 33.3 Gy (26.7–39.8), k = 2.8 (91.4–4.4), R 2 = 0.77). Conclusion: We recommend using the LENT SOMA subjective xerostomia score to predict recovery of salivation due to its strong association with dosimetry and ease of recording

  4. The effect of concomitant chemotherapy on parotid gland function following head and neck IMRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miah, Aisha B.; Gulliford, Sarah L.; Bhide, Shreerang A.; Zaidi, Shane H.; Newbold, Kate L.; Harrington, Kevin J.; Nutting, Christopher M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether concomitant chemotherapy increases the incidence of high grade xerostomia following parotid-sparing intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in patients with locally advanced head and neck squamous cell cancer. Materials and methods: The incidence of high grade (⩾G2) acute (CTCAEv3.0) and late (LENTSOMA and RTOG) xerostomia was compared between patients treated with either IMRT or concomitant chemo-IMRT (c-IMRT) in 2 prospective studies. Parotid gland mean tolerance doses (D 50 ) were reported using non-linear logistic regression analysis. Results: Thirty-six patients received IMRT alone and 60 patients received c-IMRT. Patients received 65 Gy in 30 daily fractions to the primary site and involved nodal groups and 54 Gy in 30 fractions to elective nodal groups, mean doses to the parotid glands were comparable. Concomitant cisplatin 100 mg/m 2 was administered on days 1 and 29 of IMRT. The incidence of ⩾G2 subjective xerostomia was similar in both groups; acute-64.7% (IMRT) versus 60.3% (c-IMRT), p = 0.83; late-43% (IMRT) versus 34% (c-IMRT), p = 0.51. Recovery of parotid salivary flow at 1 year was higher with IMRT (64% vs 50%), but not statistically significant (p = 0.15). D 50 for absence of parotid saliva flow at 1 year was 23.2 Gy (95% CI: 17.7–28.7) for IMRT and 21.1 Gy (11.8–30.3) for c-IMRT. Conclusion: Concomitant c-IMRT does not increase the incidence of acute or late xerostomia relative to IMRT alone

  5. The effect of concomitant chemotherapy on parotid gland function following head and neck IMRT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miah, Aisha B; Gulliford, Sarah L; Bhide, Shreerang A; Zaidi, Shane H; Newbold, Kate L; Harrington, Kevin J; Nutting, Christopher M

    2013-03-01

    To determine whether concomitant chemotherapy increases the incidence of high grade xerostomia following parotid-sparing intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in patients with locally advanced head and neck squamous cell cancer. The incidence of high grade (≥G2) acute (CTCAEv3.0) and late (LENTSOMA and RTOG) xerostomia was compared between patients treated with either IMRT or concomitant chemo-IMRT (c-IMRT) in 2 prospective studies. Parotid gland mean tolerance doses (D₅₀) were reported using non-linear logistic regression analysis. Thirty-six patients received IMRT alone and 60 patients received c-IMRT. Patients received 65 Gy in 30 daily fractions to the primary site and involved nodal groups and 54 Gy in 30 fractions to elective nodal groups, mean doses to the parotid glands were comparable. Concomitant cisplatin 100mg/m(2) was administered on days 1 and 29 of IMRT. The incidence of ≥G2 subjective xerostomia was similar in both groups; acute-64.7% (IMRT) versus 60.3% (c-IMRT), p=0.83; late-43% (IMRT) versus 34% (c-IMRT), p=0.51. Recovery of parotid salivary flow at 1 year was higher with IMRT (64% vs 50%), but not statistically significant (p=0.15). D₅₀ for absence of parotid saliva flow at 1 year was 23.2 Gy (95% CI: 17.7-28.7) for IMRT and 21.1 Gy (11.8-30.3) for c-IMRT. Concomitant c-IMRT does not increase the incidence of acute or late xerostomia relative to IMRT alone. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. [The sexual peculiarities of aging changes in circannual rhythms of pineal gland, hypophysis, adrenal cortex and thymus functions in healthy subjects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labunets, I F

    2013-01-01

    The interrelations of circannual rhythms of the functional state of pineal gland, hypophysis, adrenal cortex, thymus in healthy women and men from 20 to 79 years were studied. Fluctuations of melatonin, ACTH, cortisol and thymic serum factor, which were exchanged in aging (the season peaks of hormones and its acrophase) were found in blood of healthy 20-29 years old people. The changes of rhythmicity of indices were in male earlier (pineal gland and hypophysis over 30 years, thymus and adrenal cortex over 40 years) and more impressive than in women. The aging changes of pineal gland function's rhythm in healthy subjects have important role for changes of interrelations of circannual rhythms hypophysis, adrenal cortex and thymus.

  7. Absence of heat intolerance (panting) syndrome in foot-and-mouth disease-affected Indian cattle (Bos indicus) is associated with intact thyroid gland function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddur, M S; Rao, S; Chockalingam, A K; Kishore, S; Gopalakrishna, S; Singh, N; Suryanarayana, V V S; Gajendragad, M R

    2011-06-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious and economically important viral disease with high morbidity and reduced productivity of affected animals. We studied the heat intolerance (HI) (panting) syndrome and the effect of FMD virus (FMDV) infection on thyroid gland function in Indian cattle (Bos indicus). Experimental infection with FMDV Asia 1 resulted in a mild form of disease with superficial lesions. Heat intolerance syndrome and its signs were not observed among the recovered animals. Subtle changes in the serum level of thyroid hormones, triiodothyronine (T₃) and thyroxine (T₄) were observed. However, there were no distinct histological changes in the thyroid gland, and FMDV antigens were not detected in the thyroid tissues. Our results thus suggest that the absence of panting syndrome in FMD-affected Bos indicus cattle may be associated with intact thyroid gland function.

  8. Romanticism as a function of age, sex, and ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, Pamela C; Anguiano, Carlos

    2010-12-01

    This study examined the association between romanticism (operationalized as mean score on the Romantic Beliefs Scale) and age, sex, and ethnicity in a large community sample (N = 436). Age was negatively correlated with romanticism scores; as age increased, romanticism scores decreased. No sex differences were found; men and women had similar, moderate scores. Although ethnicity largely was unrelated to romanticism, Asian/Pacific Islander participants were significantly more romantic than were African-American participants.

  9. The effect of low-dose ionizing radiation on structural functional state of thyroid gland. Communication 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukashova, O.P.

    1999-01-01

    Twelve rabbits were used to study the ultrastructure of thyroid cells after mercazolilum administration during 2.5 month (1 mg/kg of the body mass) to intact and exposed to total x-ray radiation at the total dose of 0.75 Gy animals. Prolonged administration of mercazolilum to intact rabbits causes the development of considerable morpho functional changes in the thyroid gland suggesting disturbances of thyroid secretion. 2-3 month after the preparation withdrawal thyroid 's ultrastructure restores almost completely. Mercazolilum administration to the irradiated rabbits prevents the development of structural disturbances in the thyroid epithelium characteristic for the action of separate factors. Thyroid ultrastructure in rabbits 2-3 month after the preparation withdrawal in similar to that observed at irradiation only. Normalization of thyroid ultrastructure at administration of mercazolilum to the irradiated animals suggest that inhibition of thyroid activity after the exposure to radiation is reversible and can be due to disturbances in thyroid homeostasis regulation

  10. Sex Differences in Cognitive Domains and Their Clinical Correlates in Higher-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolte, Sven; Duketis, Eftichia; Poustka, Fritz; Holtmann, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Despite the skewed sex ratio, few studies have addressed possible cognitive sex differences in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). This study compared visual attention to detail (ATTD) and selected executive functions (EF) in 35 males and 21 females with higher-functioning ASD and unaffected sibling controls. Females with ASD outperformed males on…

  11. Changes in the function of the thyroid gland and the connection of the appearance of thyroid gland carcinoma after irradiation of the neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vellinga, M.A.

    1979-06-01

    A programme of examinations has been carried out on adults to discover the connection between irradiation of the neck or head and the development of aberrations of the thyroid gland. Two patient groups were studied, 26 men between 41 and 79 and 8 men between 51 and 75 years of age who received radiation treatment for carcinoma of the larynx during 1967-1971 and 1972-1976 respectively. The examination included an E.C.G., and a technetium scan. In the former group two cases of hypothyroidism and one case of hyperthyroidism were found. In general it was found that the radiation treatment had a high curative effect. (C.F.)

  12. The mammary gland in small ruminants: major morphological and functional events underlying milk production – a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lérias, Joana R; Hernandez Castellano, Lorenzo E; Suárez-Trujillo, Aridany

    2014-01-01

    the modifications occurring in the mammary gland through the lactation period in production animals, particularly in the small ruminants, sheep (Ovis aries) and goat (Capra hircus). Nevertheless, understanding the different mammary gland patterns throughout lactation is essential to improve dairy production......, as well as a reduction of stroma, corresponding macroscopically to the increase in mammary gland volume. Throughout late lactation, the mammary gland volume decreases owing to the regression of the secretory structure. In general, common mammary gland patterns have been shown for both goats and sheep...... throughout the several lactation stages, although the number of studies is limited. The main objective of this manuscript is to review the colostrogenesis and lactogenesis processes as well as to highlight the mammary gland morphological patterns underlying milk production during the lactation cycle...

  13. A new type of exocrine gland and its function in mass recruitment in the ant Cylindromyrmex whymperi (Formicidae, Cerapachyinae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobin, Bruno; Rüppell, Olav; Hartmann, Annegret; Jungnickel, Harald; Morgan, David; Billen, Johan

    2001-08-01

    Workers of the ant Cylindromyrmex whymperi display mass trail recruitment. Bioassays show that the trail pheromone originates from a unique gland between abdominal sternites 6 and 7. The gland has a hitherto unknown structural organization. Upon leaving the secretory cell, the duct cell widens to form a sclerotized pear-shaped reservoir chamber, lined with multiple duct cells. Each duct thus forms a miniature reservoir for the secretions of each single secretory cell, a novel structural arrangement in exocrine glands of social Hymenoptera.

  14. Radionuclide salivary gland imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishkin, F.S.

    1981-10-01

    Salivary gland imaging with 99mTc as pertechnetate provides functional information concerning trapping and excretion of the parotid and submandibular glands. Anatomic information gained often adds little to clinical evaluation. On the other hand, functional information may detect subclinical involvement, which correlates well with biopsy of the minor labial salivary glands. Salivary gland abnormalities in systemic disease such as sarcoidosis, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus erythematosus, and other collagenvascular disorders may be detected before they result in the clinical manifestaions of Sjoegren's syndrome. Such glands, after initially demonstrating increased trapping in the acute phase, tend to have decreased trapping and failure to discharge pertechnetate in response to an appropriate physiologic stimulus. Increased uptake of gallium-67 citrate often accompanies these findings. Inflammatory parotitis can be suspected when increased perfusion is evident on radionuclide angiography with any agent. The ability of the salivary gland image to detect and categorize mass lesions, which result in focal areas of diminished activity such as tumors, cysts, and most other masses, is disappointing, while its ability to detect and categorize Warthin's tumor, which concentrates pertechnetate, is much more valuable, although not specific.

  15. Effect of P2X(7) receptor knockout on exocrine secretion of pancreas, salivary glands and lacrimal glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Ivana; Jans, Ida M; Wohlfahrt, Louise

    2010-09-15

    The purinergic P2X(7) receptors are expressed in different cell types where they have varied functions, including regulation of cell survival. The P2X(7) receptors are also expressed in exocrine glands, but their integrated role in secretion is unclear. The aim of our study was to determine whether the P2X(7) receptors affect fluid secretion in pancreas, salivary glands and tear glands. We monitored gland secretions in in vivo preparations of wild-type and P2X(7)(-/-) (Pfizer) mice stimulated with pilocarpine. In cell preparations from pancreas, parotid and lacrimal glands we measured ATP release and intracellular Ca(2+) activity using Fura-2. The data showed that pancreatic secretion and salivary secretions were reduced in P2X(7)(-/-) mice, and in contrast, tear secretion was increased in P2X(7)(-/-) mice. The secretory phenotype was also dependent on the sex of the animal, such that males were more dependent on the P2X(7) receptor expression. ATP release in all cell preparations could be elicited by carbachol and other agonists, and this was independent of the P2X(7) receptor expression. ATP and carbachol increased intracellular Ca(2+) activity, but responses depended on the gland type, presence of the P2X(7) receptor and the sex of the animal. Together, these results demonstrate that cholinergic stimulation leads to release of ATP that can via P2X(7) receptors up-regulate pancreatic and salivary secretion but down-regulate tear secretion. Our data also indicate that there is an interaction between purinergic and cholinergic receptor signalling and that function of the P2X(7) receptor is suppressed in females. We conclude that the P2X(7) receptors are important in short-term physiological regulation of exocrine gland secretion.

  16. Effect of P2X7 receptor knockout on exocrine secretion of pancreas, salivary glands and lacrimal glands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Ivana; Jans, Ida M; Wohlfahrt, Louise

    2010-01-01

    The purinergic P2X7 receptors are expressed in different cell types where they have varied functions, including regulation of cell survival. The P2X7 receptors are also expressed in exocrine glands, but their integrated role in secretion is unclear. The aim of our study was to determine whether the P2X7 receptors affect fluid secretion in pancreas, salivary glands and tear glands. We monitored gland secretions in in vivo preparations of wild-type and P2X7−/− (Pfizer) mice stimulated with pilocarpine. In cell preparations from pancreas, parotid and lacrimal glands we measured ATP release and intracellular Ca2+ activity using Fura-2. The data showed that pancreatic secretion and salivary secretions were reduced in P2X7−/− mice, and in contrast, tear secretion was increased in P2X7−/− mice. The secretory phenotype was also dependent on the sex of the animal, such that males were more dependent on the P2X7 receptor expression. ATP release in all cell preparations could be elicited by carbachol and other agonists, and this was independent of the P2X7 receptor expression. ATP and carbachol increased intracellular Ca2+ activity, but responses depended on the gland type, presence of the P2X7 receptor and the sex of the animal. Together, these results demonstrate that cholinergic stimulation leads to release of ATP that can via P2X7 receptors up-regulate pancreatic and salivary secretion but down-regulate tear secretion. Our data also indicate that there is an interaction between purinergic and cholinergic receptor signalling and that function of the P2X7 receptor is suppressed in females. We conclude that the P2X7 receptors are important in short-term physiological regulation of exocrine gland secretion. PMID:20643770

  17. Redefining the expression and function of the inhibitor of differentiation 1 in mammary gland development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhika Nair

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The accumulation of poorly differentiated cells is a hallmark of breast neoplasia and progression. Thus an understanding of the factors controlling mammary differentiation is critical to a proper understanding of breast tumourigenesis. The Inhibitor of Differentiation 1 (Id1 protein has well documented roles in the control of mammary epithelial differentiation and proliferation in vitro and breast cancer progression in vivo. However, it has not been determined whether Id1 expression is sufficient for the inhibition of mammary epithelial differentiation or the promotion of neoplastic transformation in vivo. We now show that Id1 is not commonly expressed by the luminal mammary epithelia, as previously reported. Generation and analysis of a transgenic mouse model of Id1 overexpression in the mammary gland reveals that Id1 is insufficient for neoplastic progression in virgin animals or to prevent terminal differentiation of the luminal epithelia during pregnancy and lactation. Together, these data demonstrate that there is no luminal cell-autonomous role for Id1 in mammary epithelial cell fate determination, ductal morphogenesis and terminal differentiation.

  18. Essential Role for Zinc Transporter 2 (ZnT2)-mediated Zinc Transport in Mammary Gland Development and Function during Lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sooyeon; Hennigar, Stephen R; Alam, Samina; Nishida, Keigo; Kelleher, Shannon L

    2015-05-22

    The zinc transporter ZnT2 (SLC30A2) imports zinc into vesicles in secreting mammary epithelial cells (MECs) and is critical for zinc efflux into milk during lactation. Recent studies show that ZnT2 also imports zinc into mitochondria and is expressed in the non-lactating mammary gland and non-secreting MECs, highlighting the importance of ZnT2 in general mammary gland biology. In this study we used nulliparous and lactating ZnT2-null mice and characterized the consequences on mammary gland development, function during lactation, and milk composition. We found that ZnT2 was primarily expressed in MECs and to a limited extent in macrophages in the nulliparous mammary gland and loss of ZnT2 impaired mammary expansion during development. Secondly, we found that lactating ZnT2-null mice had substantial defects in mammary gland architecture and MEC function during secretion, including fewer, condensed and disorganized alveoli, impaired Stat5 activation, and unpolarized MECs. Loss of ZnT2 led to reduced milk volume and milk containing less protein, fat, and lactose compared with wild-type littermates, implicating ZnT2 in the regulation of mammary differentiation and optimal milk production during lactation. Together, these results demonstrate that ZnT2-mediated zinc transport is critical for mammary gland function, suggesting that defects in ZnT2 not only reduce milk zinc concentration but may compromise breast health and increase the risk for lactation insufficiency in lactating women. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  19. Estradiol and tamoxifen regulate NRF-1 and mitochondrial function in mouse mammary gland and uterus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Margarita M; Radde, Brandie N; Son, Jieun; Mehta, Fabiola F; Chung, Sang-Hyuk; Klinge, Carolyn M

    2013-10-01

    Nuclear respiratory factor-1 (NRF-1) stimulates the transcription of nuclear-encoded genes that regulate mitochondrial (mt) genome transcription and biogenesis. We reported that estradiol (E2) and 4-hydroxytamoxifen (4-OHT) stimulate NRF-1 transcription in an estrogen receptor α (ERα)- and ERβ-dependent manner in human breast cancer cells. The aim of this study was to determine whether E2 and 4-OHT increase NRF-1 in vivo. Here, we report that E2 and 4-OHT increase NRF-1 expression in mammary gland (MG) and uterus of ovariectomized C57BL/6 mice in a time-dependent manner. E2 increased NRF-1 protein in the uterus and MG; however, in MG, 4-OHT increased Nrf1 mRNA but not protein. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays revealed increased in vivo recruitment of ERα to the Nrf1 promoter and intron 3 in MG and uterus 6 h after E2 and 4-OHT treatment, commensurate with increased NRF-1 expression. E2- and 4-OHT-induced increases in NRF-1 and its target genes Tfam, Tfb1m, and Tfb2m were coordinated in MG but not in uterus due to uterine-selective inhibition of the expression of the NRF-1 coactivators Ppargc1a and Ppargc1b by E2 and 4-OHT. E2 transiently increased NRF-1 and PGC-1α nuclear staining while reducing PGC-1α in uterus. E2, not 4-OHT, activates mt biogenesis in MG and uterus in a time-dependent manner. E2 increased mt outer membrane Tomm40 protein levels in MG and uterus whereas 4-OHT increased Tomm40 only in uterus. These data support the hypothesis of tissue-selective regulation of NRF-1 and its downstream targets by E2 and 4-OHT in vivo.

  20. Mammary Gland Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macias, Hector

    2012-01-01

    The mammary gland develops through several distinct stages. The first transpires in the embryo as the ectoderm forms a mammary line that resolves into placodes. Regulated by epithelial/mesenchymal interactions, the placodes descend into the underlying mesenchyme and produce the rudimentary ductal structure of the gland present at birth. Subsequent stages of development – pubertal growth, pregnancy, lactation and involution – occur postnatally under the regulation of hormones. Puberty initiates branching morphogenesis, which requires growth hormone and estrogen, as well as IGF1, to create a ductal tree that fills the fat pad. Upon pregnancy the combined actions of progesterone and prolactin generate alveoli, which secrete milk during lactation. Lack of demand for milk at weaning initiates the process of involution whereby the gland is remodeled back to its pre-pregnancy state. These processes require numerous signaling pathways that have distinct regulatory functions at different stages of gland development. Signaling pathways also regulate a specialized subpopulation of mammary stem cells that fuel the dramatic changes in the gland occurring with each pregnancy. Our knowledge of mammary gland development and mammary stem cell biology has significantly contributed to our understanding of breast cancer and has advanced the discovery of therapies to treat this disease. PMID:22844349

  1. Metapleural gland secretion of the leaf-cutter ant Acromyrmex octospinosus: New compounds and their functional significance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ortius-Lechner, Diethe; Maile, Roland; Morgan, E. David

    2000-01-01

    formicidae, leaf-cutter ants, Acromyrmex octospinosus, gas chromatography, mass spectrometry, metapleural gland, carboxylic and fatty acids, lactones, keto acids, antibiotics.......formicidae, leaf-cutter ants, Acromyrmex octospinosus, gas chromatography, mass spectrometry, metapleural gland, carboxylic and fatty acids, lactones, keto acids, antibiotics....

  2. Hyperactivity, Shyness, and Sex: Development and Socio-Emotional Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydell, Ann-Margret; Diamantopoulou, Sofia; Thorell, Lisa B.; Bohlin, Gunilla

    2009-01-01

    Based on formulations about the possible consequences for adaptation of gender non-normative behaviour, we investigated predictive and concurrent relations of hyperactivity and shyness to various aspects of adaptation focusing on possible effects of sex. At ages 5-6, parents and preschool teachers rated hyperactivity and shyness for 151 children…

  3. Structural, functional, and evolutionary features of plant sex chromosomes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vyskot, Boris; Hobza, Roman; Kejnovský, Eduard; Žlůvová, Jitka; Janoušek, Bohuslav

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 4 (2009), s. 547 ISSN 0967-3849. [17th International Chromosome Conference. 23.06.2009-26.06.2009, Boone ] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06004 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : sex chromosomes * Silene latifolia * epigenetic Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics

  4. Functional sex differences in human primary auditory cortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruytjens, Liesbet; Georgiadis, Janniko R.; Holstege, Gert; Wit, Hero P.; Albers, Frans W. J.; Willemsen, Antoon T. M.

    2007-01-01

    Background We used PET to study cortical activation during auditory stimulation and found sex differences in the human primary auditory cortex (PAC). Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured in 10 male and 10 female volunteers while listening to sounds (music or white noise) and during a

  5. The reliability of morphometric discriminant functions in determining the sex of Chilean flamingos Phoenicopterus chilensis

    OpenAIRE

    Diego MONTALTI et al

    2012-01-01

    Monomorphic birds cannot be sexed visually and discriminant functions on the basis of external morphological variations are frequently used. Our objective was to evaluate the reliability of sex classification functions created from structural measurements of Chilean flamingos Phoenicopterus chilensis museum skins for the gender assignment of live birds. Five measurements were used to develop four discriminant functions: culmen, bill height and width, tarsus length and middle toe claw. The fun...

  6. A temporal comparison of sex-aggregation pheromone gland content and dynamics of release in three members of the Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) species complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Mikel A; Bandi, Krishna K; Bell, Melissa J; Brazil, Reginaldo P; Dilger, Erin; Guerrero, Angel; Courtenay, Orin; Hamilton, James G C

    2017-12-01

    Lutzomyia longipalpis is the South American vector of Leishmania infantum, the etiologic agent of visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Male L. longipalpis produce a sex-aggregation pheromone that is critical in mating, yet very little is known about its accumulation over time or factors involved in release. This laboratory study aimed to compare accumulation of pheromone over time and determine factors that might influence release in three members of the L. longipalpis species complex. We investigated male sex-aggregation pheromone gland content at different ages and the release rate of pheromone in the presence or absence of females under different light conditions by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Pheromone gland content was determined by extraction of whole males and pheromone release rate was determined by collection of headspace volatiles. Pheromone gland content appeared age-related and pheromone began to accumulate between 6 to 12 h post eclosion and gradually increased until males were 7-9 days old. The greatest amount was detected in 9-day old Campo Grande males ((S)-9-methylgermacrene-B; X ± SE: 203.5 ± 57.4 ng/male) followed by Sobral 2S males (diterpene; 199.9 ± 34.3) and Jacobina males ((1S,3S,7R)-3-methyl-α-himachalene; 128.8 ± 30.3) at 7 days old. Pheromone release was not continuous over time. During a 4-hour period, the greatest quantities of pheromone were released during the first hour, when wing beating activity was most intense. It was then substantially diminished for the remainder of the time. During a 24 h period, 4-5 day old male sand flies released approximately 63 ± 11% of the pheromone content of their glands, depending on the chemotype. The presence of females significantly increased pheromone release rate. The light regime under which the sand flies were held had little influence on pheromone release except on Sobral 2S chemotype. Accumulation of pheromone appears to occur at different rates in the different chemotypes

  7. `Sex' – It's not only Women's Work: A Case for Refocusing on the Functional Role that Sex Plays in Work for both Women and Men

    OpenAIRE

    Uretsky, Elanah

    2014-01-01

    Mention of the term sex work often invokes images of marginalized women at risk for HIV infection. Such images, however, are counterintuitive to the functional role intended by the movement that spawned use of the terms `sex work' and `sex worker'. This article looks at the sexual practices of men in urban China to argue for a return to a functional definition of `sex work', which was originally meant to legitimize the role sex plays in work. The progenitors of this movement intended to use `...

  8. Characterisation of Acetyl-CoA Thiolase: The First Enzyme in the Biosynthesis of Terpenic Sex Pheromone Components in the Labial Gland of Bombus terrestris

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brabcová, Jana; Demianová, Z.; Kindl, Jiří; Pichová, Iva; Valterová, Irena; Zarevúcka, Marie

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 7 (2015), s. 1047-1051 ISSN 1439-4227 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA01020969 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : acetyl-CoA thiolase * biosynthesis * Bombus terrestris * labial gland * pheromones * terpenoids Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.850, year: 2015

  9. `Sex' - It's not only Women's Work: A Case for Refocusing on the Functional Role that Sex Plays in Work for both Women and Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uretsky, Elanah

    2015-01-01

    Mention of the term sex work often invokes images of marginalized women at risk for HIV infection. Such images, however, are counterintuitive to the functional role intended by the movement that spawned use of the terms `sex work' and `sex worker'. This article looks at the sexual practices of men in urban China to argue for a return to a functional definition of `sex work', which was originally meant to legitimize the role sex plays in work. The progenitors of this movement intended to use `sex work' as a means to legitimize sex as an income generating activity for women involved in prostitution. I show that sex can also serve a functional role in the work-related duties of men seeking economic and political success in contemporary urban China. Men in China utilize sex as one way for demonstrating the loyalty necessary to access state-owned and controlled resources in a market economy governed under a Leninist system. Overall the article demonstrates that reclaiming perception of sex work as a functional rather than behavioral category can expand its use for preventing HIV among the broad subset of people who engage in sex as part of their work.

  10. `Sex' – It's not only Women's Work: A Case for Refocusing on the Functional Role that Sex Plays in Work for both Women and Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uretsky, Elanah

    2014-01-01

    Mention of the term sex work often invokes images of marginalized women at risk for HIV infection. Such images, however, are counterintuitive to the functional role intended by the movement that spawned use of the terms `sex work' and `sex worker'. This article looks at the sexual practices of men in urban China to argue for a return to a functional definition of `sex work', which was originally meant to legitimize the role sex plays in work. The progenitors of this movement intended to use `sex work' as a means to legitimize sex as an income generating activity for women involved in prostitution. I show that sex can also serve a functional role in the work-related duties of men seeking economic and political success in contemporary urban China. Men in China utilize sex as one way for demonstrating the loyalty necessary to access state-owned and controlled resources in a market economy governed under a Leninist system. Overall the article demonstrates that reclaiming perception of sex work as a functional rather than behavioral category can expand its use for preventing HIV among the broad subset of people who engage in sex as part of their work. PMID:25642103

  11. Salivary Gland Hypofunction in tyrosylprotein sulfotransferase-2 Knockout Mice Is Due to Primary Hypothyroidism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westmuckett, Andrew D.; Siefert, Joseph C.; Tesiram, Yasvir A.; Pinson, David M.; Moore, Kevin L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Protein-tyrosine sulfation is a post-translational modification of an unknown number of secreted and membrane proteins mediated by two known Golgi tyrosylprotein sulfotransferases (TPST-1 and TPST-2). We reported that Tpst2-/- mice have mild-moderate primary hypothyroidism, whereas Tpst1-/- mice are euthyroid. While using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to look at the thyroid gland we noticed that the salivary glands in Tpst2-/- mice appeared smaller than in wild type mice. This prompted a detailed analysis to compare salivary gland structure and function in wild type, Tpst1-/-, and Tpst2 -/- mice. Methodology/Principal Findings Quantitative MRI imaging documented that salivary glands in Tpst2-/- females were ≈ 30% smaller than wild type or Tpst1-/- mice and that the granular convoluted tubules in Tpst2-/- submandibular glands were less prominent and were almost completely devoid of exocrine secretory granules compared to glands from wild type or Tpst1-/- mice. In addition, pilocarpine–induced salivary flow and salivary α-amylase activity in Tpst2-/- mice of both sexes was substantially lower than in wild type and Tpst1-/- mice. Anti-sulfotyrosine Western blots of salivary gland extracts and saliva showed no differences between wild type, Tpst1-/-, and Tpst2-/- mice, suggesting that the salivary gland hypofunction is due to factor(s) extrinsic to the salivary glands. Finally, we found that all indicators of hypothyroidism (serum T4, body weight) and salivary gland hypofunction (salivary flow, salivary α-amylase activity, histological changes) were restored to normal or near normal by thyroid hormone supplementation. Conclusions/Significance Our findings conclusively demonstrate that low body weight and salivary gland hypofunction in Tpst2-/- mice is due solely to primary hypothyroidism. PMID:23951251

  12. Salivary gland hypofunction in tyrosylprotein sulfotransferase-2 knockout mice is due to primary hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westmuckett, Andrew D; Siefert, Joseph C; Tesiram, Yasvir A; Pinson, David M; Moore, Kevin L

    2013-01-01

    Protein-tyrosine sulfation is a post-translational modification of an unknown number of secreted and membrane proteins mediated by two known Golgi tyrosylprotein sulfotransferases (TPST-1 and TPST-2). We reported that Tpst2-/- mice have mild-moderate primary hypothyroidism, whereas Tpst1-/- mice are euthyroid. While using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to look at the thyroid gland we noticed that the salivary glands in Tpst2-/- mice appeared smaller than in wild type mice. This prompted a detailed analysis to compare salivary gland structure and function in wild type, Tpst1-/-, and Tpst2 -/- mice. Quantitative MRI imaging documented that salivary glands in Tpst2-/- females were (≈) 30% smaller than wild type or Tpst1-/- mice and that the granular convoluted tubules in Tpst2-/- submandibular glands were less prominent and were almost completely devoid of exocrine secretory granules compared to glands from wild type or Tpst1-/- mice. In addition, pilocarpine-induced salivary flow and salivary α-amylase activity in Tpst2-/- mice of both sexes was substantially lower than in wild type and Tpst1-/- mice. Anti-sulfotyrosine Western blots of salivary gland extracts and saliva showed no differences between wild type, Tpst1-/-, and Tpst2-/- mice, suggesting that the salivary gland hypofunction is due to factor(s) extrinsic to the salivary glands. Finally, we found that all indicators of hypothyroidism (serum T4, body weight) and salivary gland hypofunction (salivary flow, salivary α-amylase activity, histological changes) were restored to normal or near normal by thyroid hormone supplementation. Our findings conclusively demonstrate that low body weight and salivary gland hypofunction in Tpst2-/- mice is due solely to primary hypothyroidism.

  13. Salivary gland hypofunction in tyrosylprotein sulfotransferase-2 knockout mice is due to primary hypothyroidism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew D Westmuckett

    Full Text Available Protein-tyrosine sulfation is a post-translational modification of an unknown number of secreted and membrane proteins mediated by two known Golgi tyrosylprotein sulfotransferases (TPST-1 and TPST-2. We reported that Tpst2-/- mice have mild-moderate primary hypothyroidism, whereas Tpst1-/- mice are euthyroid. While using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI to look at the thyroid gland we noticed that the salivary glands in Tpst2-/- mice appeared smaller than in wild type mice. This prompted a detailed analysis to compare salivary gland structure and function in wild type, Tpst1-/-, and Tpst2 -/- mice.Quantitative MRI imaging documented that salivary glands in Tpst2-/- females were (≈ 30% smaller than wild type or Tpst1-/- mice and that the granular convoluted tubules in Tpst2-/- submandibular glands were less prominent and were almost completely devoid of exocrine secretory granules compared to glands from wild type or Tpst1-/- mice. In addition, pilocarpine-induced salivary flow and salivary α-amylase activity in Tpst2-/- mice of both sexes was substantially lower than in wild type and Tpst1-/- mice. Anti-sulfotyrosine Western blots of salivary gland extracts and saliva showed no differences between wild type, Tpst1-/-, and Tpst2-/- mice, suggesting that the salivary gland hypofunction is due to factor(s extrinsic to the salivary glands. Finally, we found that all indicators of hypothyroidism (serum T4, body weight and salivary gland hypofunction (salivary flow, salivary α-amylase activity, histological changes were restored to normal or near normal by thyroid hormone supplementation.Our findings conclusively demonstrate that low body weight and salivary gland hypofunction in Tpst2-/- mice is due solely to primary hypothyroidism.

  14. Functional Disruption of Netrin-1 Guidance Cue Leads to Disruption in Mammary Gland Development and Increased Tumor Incidence

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hinck, Lindsay

    2003-01-01

    .... During this funding period, we discovered that netrin-1 is expressed in mammary gland prelumenal cells and its receptor, neogenin, in a complementary pattern in adjacent cap cells of terminal end buds...

  15. Salivary gland tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and neck glands References National Cancer Institute. PDQ salivary gland cancer treatment. Bethesda, MD: National Cancer Institute. Last modified ... and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team. Salivary Gland Cancer Read more Salivary Gland Disorders Read more NIH ...

  16. Histopathological Characterization and Whole Exome Sequencing of Ectopic Thyroid: Fetal Architecture in a Functional Ectopic Gland from Adult Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalinda Yasato Camargo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Ectopic thyroid results from a migration defect of the developing gland during embryogenesis causing congenital hypothyroidism. But it has also been detected in asymptomatic individuals. This study aimed to investigate the histopathological, functional, and genetic features of human ectopic thyroids. Six samples were histologically examined, and the expression of the specific thyroid proteins was assessed by immunohistochemistry. Two samples were submitted to whole exome sequencing. An oropharynx sample showed immature fetal architecture tissue with clusters or cords of oval thyrocytes and small follicles; one sample exhibited a normal thyroid pattern while four showed colloid goiter. All ectopic thyroids expressed the specific thyroid genes and T4 at similar locations to those observed in normal thyroid. No somatic mutations associated with ectopic thyroid were found. This is the first immature thyroid fetal tissue observed in an ectopic thyroid due to the arrest of structural differentiation early in the colloid stage of development that proved able to synthesize thyroid hormone but not to respond to TSH. Despite the ability of all ectopic thyroids to synthetize specific thyroid proteins and T4, at some point in life, it may be insufficient to support body growth leading to hypothyroidism, as observed in some of the patients.

  17. RNA interference and functional characterization of a tergal gland alpha amylase in the German cockroach, Blattella germanica L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, A J; Gondhalekar, A D; Fardisi, M; Pluchar, K D; Saltzmann, K D; Bennett, G W; Scharf, M E

    2018-04-01

    German cockroach males possess tergal glands that secrete a combination of oligosaccharides, lipids and proteins. Four major proteins occur in the secretion, with one being the 63 kDa alpha-amylase Blattella germanica Tergal Gland protein-1 (BGTG-1). Denaturing and starch gel electrophoresis coupled with peptide sequencing verified amylase activity for the BGTG-1 protein. BGTG-1 gene expression profiles were determined by using quantitative real-time PCR to compare messenger RNA abundance among isolated tissues of males, females and gravid females. Differences in BGTG-1 gene expression occurred among male tissues, with tergal gland tissue showing the highest expression. Tissues of nongravid and gravid females had significantly lower expression in comparison with male tergal glands (gravid females lowest). RNA interference (RNAi) was used to silence BGTG-1 gene expression by injecting BGTG-1 homologous double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) into male cockroaches. Groups injected with BGTG-1 dsRNA showed ∼90% lower BGTG-1 gene and protein expression compared to controls, which correlated with lower amylase activity in colorimetric assays. However, behavioural assays comparing precopulatory behaviour and mating success between RNAi and control males did not reveal differences. These results connect amylase gene expression and activity in tergal gland tissue but suggest other factors, such as other tergal gland components, may contribute more strongly to mating success. © 2017 The Royal Entomological Society.

  18. Correlation Between Computed Tomography Density and Functional Status of the Thyroid Gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Vivek; Reis, Martin; Zhou, Yihua

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the correlation between thyroid computed tomography (CT) density and thyroid functional status. Thyroid CT densities were determined in patients who had a noncontrast CT of the cervical spine and a recent thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) measurement in a cohort of 157 patients. Thyroid CT densities of patients with abnormally low TSH and high TSH were compared to those with normal TSH. A correlation analysis was performed to determine the correlation between TSH levels and CT densities. Both low and high TSH groups demonstrated significantly decreased thyroid CT densities (P thyroid CT densities and TSH levels (r = 0.40; P thyroid CT density and serum TSH levels. A low thyroid CT density indicates abnormal thyroid function.

  19. The Micromorphology Of Hepatoid Circumanal Gland In Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The hepatoid circumanal glands (HCGs) were found in dogs of all age group, in both sexes and appeared to be ductless. There were usually two glands separated by a hair follicle. A lobe of a gland was made of 20 lobules or more. Each lobule consisted of polygonal or polyhedral non-vacuolated cells with one or more ...

  20. Features of Mineral Metabolism and Parathyroid Glands Functioning in Chronic Renal Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.P. Martynyuk

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The calcium phosphoric metabolism was analyzed depending on the severity of renal functioning disorders. Chronic renal disease is known to be associated with impaired mineral metabolism in terms of hypocalcaemia, hyperphosphatemia and enhanced level of Ca × P product that aggravates in chronic renal failure progression. The majority of patients with nephropathy have parathyroid hormone concentration to be different from target one recommended by NKF-K/DOQI (2003, at that secondary hyperparathyroidism prevails on pre-dialysis stage of chronic renal disease, the relative hypoparathyroidism is common among the patients received dialysis.

  1. Cdh1 Is Essential for Endometrial Differentiation, Gland Development, and Adult Function in the Mouse Uterus1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reardon, Sarah N.; King, Mandy L.; MacLean, James A.; Mann, Jordan L.; DeMayo, Francesco J.; Lydon, John P.; Hayashi, Kanako

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT CDH1 is a cell-cell adhesion molecule expressed in the epithelium to coordinate key morphogenetic processes, establish cell polarity, and regulate epithelial differentiation and proliferation. To determine the role of CDH1 in the mouse uterus, Cdh1 was conditionally ablated by crossing Pgr-Cre and Cdh1-flox mice, and the phenotype was characterized. We found that loss of Cdh1 results in a disorganized cellular structure of the epithelium and ablation of endometrial glands in the neonatal uterus. Cdh1d/d mice lost adherens junctions (CTNNB1 and CTNNA1) and tight junctions (claudin, occludin, and ZO-1 proteins) in the neonatal uterus, leading to loss of epithelial cell-cell interaction. Ablation of Cdh1 induced abnormal epithelial proliferation and massive apoptosis, and disrupted Wnt and Hox gene expression in the neonatal uterus. Although the uteri of Cdh1d/d mice did not show any myometrial defects, ablation of Cdh1 inhibited expression of epithelial (cytokeratin 8) and stromal (CD10) markers. Cdh1d/d mice were infertile because of defects during implantation and decidualization. Furthermore, we showed in the model of conditional ablation of both Cdh1 and Trp53 in the uterus that interrupting cell cycle regulation through the loss of Cdh1 leads to abnormal uterine development. The uteri of Cdh1d/d Trp53d/d mice exhibited histological features of endometrial carcinomas with myometrial invasion. Collectively, these findings suggest that CDH1 has an important role in structural and functional development of the uterus as well as adult uterine function. CDH1 has a capacity to control cell fate by altering directional cell proliferation and apoptosis. PMID:22378759

  2. A novel aldehyde dehydrogenase-3 activator (Alda-89) protects submandibular gland function from irradiation without accelerating tumor growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Nan; Cao, Hongbin; Chen, Che-Hong; Kong, Christina S; Ali, Rehan; Chan, Cato; Sirjani, Davud; Graves, Edward; Koong, Albert; Giaccia, Amato; Mochly-Rosen, Daria; Le, Quynh-Thu

    2013-08-15

    To determine the effect of Alda-89 (an ALDH3 activitor) on (i) the function of irradiated (radiotherapy) submandibular gland (SMG) in mice, (ii) its toxicity profile, and (iii) its effect on the growth of head and neck cancer (HNC) in vitro and in vivo. Adult mice were infused with Alda-89 or vehicle before, during, and after radiotherapy. Saliva secretion was monitored weekly. Hematology, metabolic profile, and postmortem evaluation for toxicity were examined at the time of sacrifice. Alda-89 or vehicle was applied to HNC cell lines in vitro, and severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice transplanted with HNC in vivo with or without radiation; HNC growth was monitored. The ALDH3A1 and ALDH3A2 protein expression was evaluated in 89 patients with HNC and correlated to freedom from relapse (FFR) and overall survival (OS). Alda-89 infusion significantly resulted in more whole saliva production and a higher percentage of preserved acini after radiotherapy compared with vehicle control. There was no difference in the complete blood count, metabolic profile, and major organ morphology between the Alda-89 and vehicle groups. Compared with vehicle control, Alda-89 treatment neither accelerated HNC cell proliferation in vitro, nor did it affect tumor growth in vivo with or without radiotherapy. Higher expression of ALDH3A1 or ALDH3A2 was not significantly associated with worse FFR or OS in either human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive or HPV-negative group. Alda-89 preserves salivary function after radiotherapy without affecting HNC growth or causing measurable toxicity in mice. It is a promising candidate to mitigate radiotherapy-related xerostomia. ©2013 AACR.

  3. Five-year change in morphological and functional alterations of the thyroid gland: the Study of Health in Pomerania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Völzke, Henry; Ittermann, Till; Albers, Martin; Friedrich, Nele; Nauck, Matthias; Below, Harald; Kramer, Axel

    2012-07-01

    While cross-sectional data on thyroid epidemiology are common, few longitudinal data on the incidence and progression of thyroid disorders exist. The aim of this study was to analyze the 5-year change and the incidence of morphological and functional alterations of the thyroid gland in a previously iodine-deficient area. We used 5-year follow-up data based on 2941 participants (20-79 years) of the population-based Study of Health in Pomerania. The thyroid structure and size were measured by ultrasonography. Thyroid function and serum autoantibodies to thyroperoxidase (anti-TPO-Ab) were evaluated. During follow-up, the median iodine/creatinine ratio decreased slightly from 134.2 to 130.4 μg/g. The mean thyroid volume was nonsignificantly increased by 0.73 mL [confidence interval (CI) -1.68-3.41 mL]. The incidence rate of goiter was 34.0 [CI 30.7-37.7] per 1000 person-years (py), the incident rate of nodules was 16.6 [CI 14.5-19.1] per 1000 py. Median serum thyrotropin levels increased slightly (0.10 [CI -0.10-0.34 mIU/L]). The incidence of positive anti-TPO-Ab was 3.4 [CI 2.6-4.7] per 1000 py. For all thyroid parameters, the regression rates were higher than the incidence rates. After iodine fortification became effective in this previously iodine-deficient region, there is a negative net balance between occurring and reverting goiter and nodules. Along with balanced incidences of hyper- and hypothyroid dysfunction and the low incidence of autoimmune-related findings, these findings indicate that the current iodine status is sufficient to prevent iodine deficiency-related disorders in the adult population of the study region.

  4. The reptilian thyroid and parathyroid glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Sam; Lock, Brad

    2008-01-01

    The field of reptilian clinical endocrinology is still in its infancy. The thyroid and parathyroid glands are intimately involved with many basic metabolic functions. These glands have been the subject of extensive research studies in reptilian species; however, the effects of abnormal gland function have been poorly documented in clinical cases. These glands play a major role in maintaining physiologic homeostasis in all vertebrates. With the advent of more sensitive assays, it should be possible to measure the small amounts of hormones found in reptilian species. The purpose of this article is to review the literature regarding clinical endocrinology of the thyroid and parathyroid glands in reptiles.

  5. Functional effects of proinflammatory factors present in Sjögren's syndrome salivary microenvironment in an in vitro model of human salivary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arce-Franco, Mayte; Dominguez-Luis, María; Pec, Martina K; Martínez-Gimeno, Carlos; Miranda, Pablo; Alvarez de la Rosa, Diego; Giraldez, Teresa; García-Verdugo, José María; Machado, José David; Díaz-González, Federico

    2017-09-19

    Primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) is an autoimmune exocrinopathy in which the role that the immune response plays in reducing exocrine gland function, including the glandular microenvironment of cytokines, has not been fully understood. Epithelial cells from biopsies of human parotid gland (HPG) were used to establish a model of human salivary gland in vitro. In this model, the functional consequences of several proinflammatory soluble factors present in the pSS glandular microenvironment were assessed. Stimulation with isoproterenol and calcium produced a significant increase in the basal activity of amylase in the HPG cell supernatants. Under these conditions, the presence of TNF-α and CXCL12 increased amylase mRNA cellular abundance, but reduced the amylase activity in the cell-free supernatant in a dose-dependent manner. IL-1β and IFN-γ, but not TGF-β, also diminished amylase secretion by HPG cells. These results suggest that the glandular microenvironment of cytokine, by acting post-transcriptionally, may be responsible, at least in part, for the reduced exocrine function observed in pSS patients. These data may help to a better understanding of the pathogenesis of SS, which in turn would facilitate the identification of new therapeutic targets for this disorder.

  6. Aluminium effects on thyroid gland function: iodide uptake, hormone biosynthesis and secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orihuela, Daniel

    2011-11-01

    The effects of aluminium (Al) on thyroid function were evaluated in adult Wistar rats intraperitoneally (i.p) injected with 7 mg Al (as lactate)/kg body weight (b.w) per day during a six week period. The time-course kinetics of Na(125)I (3 μCi per 100 g b.w, i.p) was analysed by measuring gamma-radioactivity of thyroid, serum, serum protein precipitate and bile, at times ranging from 2 to 96 h post-dosing. In Al-treated group the (125)I(-) thyroid uptake at 24 h (15,840 ± 570 vs. 18,030 ± 630 dpm/mg, Pthyroid tissue were increased in Al-treated rats. The serum concentrations of total thyroxine (T4, 3.78 ± 0.14 vs. 4.68 ± 0.12 μg/dL, Pthyroid iodide uptake and hormones secretion by a mechanism involving the induction of an oxidative stress state, however, these changes could be managed by the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid endocrine axis. We can conclude that in adult rats the Al would not act as a thyroid disruptor. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Sex differences and functional hemispheric asymmetries during number comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, TiAnni; Scheuringer, Andrea; Pletzer, Belinda

    2018-01-08

    Global-local stimuli are hierarchical structures consisting of a larger global structure which is composed of smaller local stimuli. Numbers are also constructed hierarchically, with multi-digit numbers being made up from single digits. During two-digit number comparison, compatible items (larger number contains larger unit digit, e.g., 53 vs. 68) are processed faster and more accurately than incompatible items (smaller number contains larger unit digit, e.g., 58 vs. 63). This so-called unit-decade-compatibility effect has challenged the holistic model of number processing and suggests that the processing of number magnitudes occurs at least in part, decomposed, i.e., separately for each digit. Thus, the compatibility effect is indicative of how decomposed numbers are processed, thereby sharing similarities with traditional global-local processing of hierarchical stimuli. The goal of this study was to investigate whether factors that have been shown to reliably influence global-local processing also affect the compatibility effect during number comparison. Those include visual hemifield, sex, and menstrual cycle phase in women. One hundred sixty participants, 77 naturally cycling women and 83 men, completed a two-digit number comparison task twice, with test-sessions time-locked to the early follicular or mid-luteal cycle phase in women. Number comparison stimuli were presented to the right or left hemifield, respectively. We observed a stronger compatibility effect in the right visual hemifield compared to left visual hemifield and in women compared to men, but no evidence for an influence of menstrual cycle phase in women could be found. Hemispheric asymmetries in holistic versus decomposed number processing could be demonstrated for the first time, suggesting a similar hemispheric modulation for number magnitude processing as for global-local processing.

  8. Sex differences in kappa opioid receptor function and their potential impact on addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena eChartoff

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral, biological and social sequelae that lead to drug addiction differ between men and women. Our efforts to understand addiction on a mechanistic level must include studies in both males and females. Stress, anxiety, and depression are tightly linked to addiction, and whether they precede or result from compulsive drug use depends on many factors, including biological sex. The neuropeptide dynorphin (DYN, an endogenous ligand at kappa opioid receptors (KORs, is necessary for stress-induced aversive states and is upregulated in the brain after chronic exposure to drugs of abuse. KOR agonists produce signs of anxiety, fear, and depression in laboratory animals and humans, findings that have led to the hypothesis that drug withdrawal-induced DYN release is instrumental in negative reinforcement processes that drive addiction. However, these studies were almost exclusively conducted in males. Only recently is evidence available that there are sex differences in the effects of KOR activation on affective state. This review focuses on sex differences in DYN and KOR systems and how these might contribute to sex differences in addictive behavior. Much of what is known about how biological sex influences KOR systems is from research on pain systems. The basic molecular and genetic mechanisms that have been discovered to underlie sex differences in KOR function in pain systems may apply to sex differences in KOR function in reward systems. Our goals are to discuss the current state of knowledge on how biological sex contributes to KOR function in the context of pain,mood and addiction and to explore potential mechanisms for sex differences in KOR function. We will highlight evidence that the function of DYN-KOR systems is influenced in a sex-dependent manner by: polymorphisms in the prodynorphin (pDYN gene, genetic linkage with the melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R, heterodimerization of KORs and mu opioid receptors (MORs, and gonadal hormones

  9. Sex Differences in Kappa Opioid Receptor Function and Their Potential Impact on Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chartoff, Elena H; Mavrikaki, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral, biological, and social sequelae that lead to drug addiction differ between men and women. Our efforts to understand addiction on a mechanistic level must include studies in both males and females. Stress, anxiety, and depression are tightly linked to addiction, and whether they precede or result from compulsive drug use depends on many factors, including biological sex. The neuropeptide dynorphin (DYN), an endogenous ligand at kappa opioid receptors (KORs), is necessary for stress-induced aversive states and is upregulated in the brain after chronic exposure to drugs of abuse. KOR agonists produce signs of anxiety, fear, and depression in laboratory animals and humans, findings that have led to the hypothesis that drug withdrawal-induced DYN release is instrumental in negative reinforcement processes that drive addiction. However, these studies were almost exclusively conducted in males. Only recently is evidence available that there are sex differences in the effects of KOR activation on affective state. This review focuses on sex differences in DYN and KOR systems and how these might contribute to sex differences in addictive behavior. Much of what is known about how biological sex influences KOR systems is from research on pain systems. The basic molecular and genetic mechanisms that have been discovered to underlie sex differences in KOR function in pain systems may apply to sex differences in KOR function in reward systems. Our goals are to discuss the current state of knowledge on how biological sex contributes to KOR function in the context of pain, mood, and addiction and to explore potential mechanisms for sex differences in KOR function. We will highlight evidence that the function of DYN-KOR systems is influenced in a sex-dependent manner by: polymorphisms in the prodynorphin (pDYN) gene, genetic linkage with the melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R), heterodimerization of KORs and mu opioid receptors (MORs), and gonadal hormones. Finally, we

  10. Paratireóides: estrutura, funções e patologia Parathyroid glands: structure, functions and pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Donato de Prospero

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Os autores tecem considerações sobre a estrutura e funções normais das glândulas paratireóides como introdução à patologia e as repercussões clinico - patológicas tanto do excesso como da redução do paratormônio. Maior ênfase é dedicada ao hiperparatireoidismo primário quanto às causas, a fisiopatologia das alterações, os aspectos anatomopatológicos macro e microscópicos das lesões e sua patogenia, na "Osteite fibrocistica" ou "doença de von Recklinghausen dos ossos" com a correlação aos aspectos radiográficos. Apresentam caso de paciente, cuja história clinica demonstra as dificuldades encontradas para o diagnóstico da doença. Referem-se ainda às alterações e patogenia das formas de hiperparatireoidismo secundário e terciário e ao hipoparatireoidismo.The authors present a summary on the normal anatomy and function of the parathyroid glands as well as a brief review of clinical and pathological repercussions of higher and lower parathyroid hormone production. The emphasis is given on the causes, physiopathology, anatomy, macroscopy and microscopy of the lesions and their role in the genesis of fibrocystic osteitis, also known as Von Recklinhausen disease of the bones. Radiological correlation is also given. The authors show the challenges for the diagnosis in the same cases. We also write about secondary and tertiary hyperparathyroidism, as well as hypoparathyroidism.

  11. Beyond sex differences: new approaches for thinking about variation in brain structure and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joel, Daphna; Fausto-Sterling, Anne

    2016-02-19

    In the study of variation in brain structure and function that might relate to sex and gender, language matters because it frames our research questions and methods. In this article, we offer an approach to thinking about variation in brain structure and function that pulls us outside the sex differences formulation. We argue that the existence of differences between the brains of males and females does not unravel the relations between sex and the brain nor is it sufficient to characterize a population of brains. Such characterization is necessary for studying sex effects on the brain as well as for studying brain structure and function in general. Animal studies show that sex interacts with environmental, developmental and genetic factors to affect the brain. Studies of humans further suggest that human brains are better described as belonging to a single heterogeneous population rather than two distinct populations. We discuss the implications of these observations for studies of brain and behaviour in humans and in laboratory animals. We believe that studying sex effects in context and developing or adopting analytical methods that take into account the heterogeneity of the brain are crucial for the advancement of human health and well-being. © 2016 The Author(s).

  12. Vitamin D metabolism, sex hormones, and male reproductive function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomberg Jensen, Martin

    2012-01-01

    The spectrum of vitamin D (VD)-mediated effects has expanded in recent years, and VD is now recognized as a versatile signaling molecule rather than being solely a regulator of bone health and calcium homeostasis. One of the recently identified target areas of VD is male reproductive function...

  13. Sex Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sex therapy Overview Sex therapy is a type of psychotherapy — a general term for treating mental health problems by talking with a mental health professional. Through sex therapy, you can address concerns about sexual function, ...

  14. Assessment of the effects of aging and medication on salivary gland function in patients with xerostomia using 99mTc-scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kagami, Hideaki; Hayashi, Tsunetoshi; Shigetomi, Toshio; Ueda, Minoru

    1995-01-01

    To examine the effect of aging and medication on xerostomia, the salivary gland function was evaluated in 20 patients with xerostomia using 99m Tc-scintigraphy and the measurement of unstimulated whole saliva (USWS). All of the patients showed USWS volume of less than 2ml/10min. The patients were divided into 2 subgroups based on age (under 65 and 65 and older) and medication status (patients who were on medication which reduced salivary secretion and patients who were not on such medication). The scintigraphic results, such as the maximum radioisotope (RI) count, RI secretion velocity and the volume of USWS, were compared between the subgroups. The maximum RI count and the RI secretory velocity in the submandibular gland and the volume of USWS revealed significantly different functional disturbances between relatively younger patients (under 65) and older patients (65 and older). There was no difference when the scintigraphic results and the volume of USWS measurements in medicated patients were compared with the results of similar tests performed on non-medicated patients. When the medicated and non-medicated groups were separated by age, an increase in age still diminished the volume of USWS in medicated patients. This result might be related to an organic change in the submandibular gland in older patients which was suggested by the scintigraphic results. (author)

  15. Apocrine sweat glands in the circumanal glands of the dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atoji, Y; Yamamoto, Y; Suzuki, Y

    1998-11-01

    Apocrine sweat glands in the circumanal glands of the dog are not connected morphologically with the lobules of the circumanal glands. However, an apparent functional association has been demonstrated and it is possible that the apocrine sweat glands might serve as excretory ducts for degenerated polyhedral cells of the circumanal glands. In this study, we examined the ultrastructure of the apocrine sweat glands in the circumanal glands of the dog in an effort to define more precisely the relationship between the apocrine sweat glands and the circumanal glands. Paraffin sections stained with azan and sections after immunohistochemical staining with antibodies against actin were examined by light microscopy. Samples fixed by aldehyde perfusion were examined with the electron microscope. Diameters of apocrine sweat glands and height of cells in the secretory epithelium varied considerably. Immunohistochemical staining for actin was weakly positive in the supranuclear regions of secretory cells and very intense in myoepithelial cells. In secretory cells, the endoplasmic reticulum was well-developed. Multivesicular bodies were abundant and were discharged into lumens. Apocrine secretion and exocytosis were observed at luminal surfaces of secretory cells. There were three types of large granule in the cytoplasm: giant mitochondria without cristae; membrane-enclosed globules with or without myelin-like contents; and electron-dense, homogeneous, globular structures. Luminal surfaces were always covered with microvilli, and extensive folding of the cell membrane was found in basal regions. Bundles of actin filaments were dispersed throughout the cytoplasm. In the lumens of apocrine tubules, we observed shed secretory cells with well-preserved normal fine structures. We also noted the differentiation of secretory cells that was due to cell renewal. Apocrine sweat glands in the circumanal glands of the dog appear to be more active than those on the general body surface in

  16. Restoration of CFTR Activity in Ducts Rescues Acinar Cell Function and Reduces Inflammation in Pancreatic and Salivary Glands of Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Mei; Szymczak, Mitchell; Ahuja, Malini; Zheng, Changyu; Yin, Hongen; Swaim, William; Chiorini, John A; Bridges, Robert J; Muallem, Shmuel

    2017-10-01

    Sjögren's syndrome and autoimmune pancreatitis are disorders with decreased function of salivary, lacrimal glands, and the exocrine pancreas. Nonobese diabetic/ShiLTJ mice and mice transduced with the cytokine BMP6 develop Sjögren's syndrome and chronic pancreatitis and MRL/Mp mice are models of autoimmune pancreatitis. Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is a ductal Cl -  channel essential for ductal fluid and HCO 3 - secretion. We used these models to ask the following questions: is CFTR expression altered in these diseases, does correction of CFTR correct gland function, and most notably, does correcting ductal function correct acinar function? We treated the mice models with the CFTR corrector C18 and the potentiator VX770. Glandular, ductal, and acinar cells damage, infiltration, immune cells and function were measured in vivo and in isolated duct/acini. In the disease models, CFTR expression is markedly reduced. The salivary glands and pancreas are inflamed with increased fibrosis and tissue damage. Treatment with VX770 and, in particular, C18 restored salivation, rescued CFTR expression and localization, and nearly eliminated the inflammation and tissue damage. Transgenic overexpression of CFTR exclusively in the duct had similar effects. Most notably, the markedly reduced acinar cell Ca 2+ signaling, Orai1, inositol triphosphate receptors, Aquaporin 5 expression, and fluid secretion were restored by rescuing ductal CFTR. Our findings reveal that correcting ductal function is sufficient to rescue acinar cell function and suggests that CFTR correctors are strong candidates for the treatment of Sjögren's syndrome and pancreatitis. Copyright © 2017 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The PI3K/AKT/mTOR signalling pathway is active in salivary gland cancer and implies different functions and prognoses depending on cell localisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettl, Tobias; Schwarz-Furlan, Stephan; Haubner, Frank; Müller, Steffen; Zenk, Johannes; Gosau, Martin; Reichert, Torsten E; Zeitler, Katharina

    2012-09-01

    The PI3K/AKT/mTOR signalling axis controls cell proliferation and survival and has achieved major importance as a target for cancer therapy. This investigation evaluated the expression of the major components P-AKT, P-mTOR, PI3K and P-S6rp in salivary gland cancer. Immunohistochemical expression of P-AKT, P-mTOR, PI3K and P-S6rp was evaluated and correlated to clinicopathological parameters and survival of 272 patients with salivary gland carcinomas. Analysis of all tumours together revealed an increased expression of all components of the pathway in comparison to normal salivary gland control tissue. Nuclear expression of P-AKT was associated with young age, localised tumour stage, absence of lymph node metastases and favourable prognosis. On the contrary, cytoplasmic P-AKT displayed unfavourable tumour characteristics like high-grade malignancy, and worse overall survival. In comparison to cytoplasmic/membrane mTOR expression, nuclear P-mTOR was associated with absence of lymph node metastases and higher survival rates. PI3K and P-S6rp were exclusively found in the cytoplasm. Expression of P-S6rp was correlated to increased age, advanced tumour size and lymph node metastases. In all tumours together, nuclear P-AKT positively correlated with nuclear P-mTOR, whereas P-S6rp was associated with expression of PI3K and cytoplasmic P-AKT. In acinic cell carcinoma, cytoplasmic expression of P-AKT, P-mTOR, PI3K and P-S6rp was positively associated with each other. In conclusion, PI3K/AKT/mTOR signalling is active in salivary gland cancer and might function as a target for personalised therapy. P-AKT and P-mTOR possess distinct molecular functions with impact on prognosis depending on their cellular localisation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interferon-gamma alter tight junction structure and function in the rat parotid gland Par-C10 cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Olga J; Camden, Jean M; Redman, Robert S; Jones, Jonathan E; Seye, Cheikh I; Erb, Laurie; Weisman, Gary A

    2008-11-01

    Sjögren's syndrome (SS) is an autoimmune disorder characterized by inflammation and dysfunction of salivary glands, resulting in impaired secretory function. The production of the proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) is elevated in exocrine glands of patients with SS, although little is known about the effects of these cytokines on salivary epithelial cell functions necessary for saliva secretion, including tight junction (TJ) integrity and the establishment of transepithelial ion gradients. The present study demonstrates that chronic exposure of polarized rat parotid gland (Par-C10) epithelial cell monolayers to TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma decreases transepithelial resistance (TER) and anion secretion, as measured by changes in short-circuit current (I(sc)) induced by carbachol, a muscarinic cholinergic receptor agonist, or UTP, a P2Y(2) nucleotide receptor agonist. In contrast, TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma had no effect on agonist-induced increases in the intracellular calcium concentration [Ca(2+)](i) in Par-C10 cells. Furthermore, treatment of Par-C10 cell monolayers with TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma increased paracellular permeability to normally impermeant proteins, altered cell and TJ morphology, and downregulated the expression of the TJ protein, claudin-1, but not other TJ proteins expressed in Par-C10 cells. The decreases in TER, agonist-induced transepithelial anion secretion, and claudin-1 expression caused by TNF-alpha, but not IFN-gamma, were reversible by incubation of Par-C10 cell monolayers with cytokine-free medium for 24 h, indicating that IFN-gamma causes irreversible inhibition of cellular activities associated with fluid secretion in salivary glands. Our results suggest that cytokine production is an important contributor to secretory dysfunction in SS by disrupting TJ integrity of salivary epithelium.

  19. Anatomy, biogenesis and regeneration of salivary glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmberg, Kyle V; Hoffman, Matthew P

    2014-01-01

    An overview of the anatomy and biogenesis of salivary glands is important in order to understand the physiology, functions and disorders associated with saliva. A major disorder of salivary glands is salivary hypofunction and resulting xerostomia, or dry mouth, which affects hundreds of thousands of patients each year who suffer from salivary gland diseases or undergo head and neck cancer treatment. There is currently no curative therapy for these patients. To improve these patients' quality of life, new therapies are being developed based on findings in salivary gland cell and developmental biology. Here we discuss the anatomy and biogenesis of the major human salivary glands and the rodent submandibular gland, which has been used extensively as a research model. We also include a review of recent research on the identification and function of stem cells in salivary glands, and the emerging field of research suggesting that nerves play an instructive role during development and may be essential for adult gland repair and regeneration. Understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in gland biogenesis provides a template for regenerating, repairing or reengineering diseased or damaged adult human salivary glands. We provide an overview of 3 general approaches currently being developed to regenerate damaged salivary tissue, including gene therapy, stem cell-based therapy and tissue engineering. In the future, it may be that a combination of all three will be used to repair, regenerate and reengineer functional salivary glands in patients to increase the secretion of their saliva, the focus of this monograph.

  20. Morphological and functional diversity of minor ampullate glands in spiders from the superfamily Amaurobioidea (Entelegynae: RTA clade)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Řezáč, M.; Krejčí, T.; Goodacre, S.L.; Haddad, C. R.; Řezáčová, Veronika

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 2 (2017), s. 198-208 ISSN 0161-8202 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Cribellate capturing threads * major ampullate * silk glands Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology Impact factor: 0.988, year: 2016

  1. Role of inward rectifier potassium channels in salivary gland function and sugar feeding of the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    The arthropod salivary gland is of critical importance for horizontal transmission of pathogens, yet a detailed understanding of the ion conductance pathways responsible for saliva production and excretion is lacking. A superfamily of potassium ion channels, known as inward rectifying potassium (Ki...

  2. Laminin in the anterior pituitary gland of the rat. Laminin in the gonadotrophic cells correlates with their functional state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holck, S; Albrechtsen, R; Wewer, U M

    1987-01-01

    The distribution pattern of laminin in the rat anterior pituitary gland under physiological and hormonally altered conditions was studied immunohistochemically. Intense immunoreactivity of the capillaries and of the basement membranes surrounding parenchymal cells was found. Five to 10% of the pa...

  3. Sex determination from the talus in a contemporary Greek population using discriminant function analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peckmann, Tanya R; Orr, Kayla; Meek, Susan; Manolis, Sotiris K

    2015-07-01

    The determination of sex is an important part of building the biological profile for unknown human remains. Many of the bones traditionally used for the determination of sex are often found fragmented or incomplete in forensic and archaeological cases. The goal of the present research was to derive discriminant function equations from the talus, a preservationally favoured bone, for sexing skeletons from a contemporary Greek population. Nine parameters were measured on 182 individuals (96 males and 86 females) from the University of Athens Human Skeletal Reference Collection. The individuals ranged in age from 20 to 99 years old. The statistical analyses showed that all measured parameters were sexually dimorphic. Discriminant function score equations were generated for use in sex determination. The average accuracy of sex classification ranged from 65.2% to 93.4% for the univariate analysis, 90%-96.5% for the direct method and 86.7% for the stepwise method. Comparisons to other populations were made. Overall, the cross-validated accuracies ranged from 65.5% to 83.2% and males were most often correctly identified. The talus was shown to be useful for sex determination in the modern Greek population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  4. Sex determination from the calcaneus in a 20th century Greek population using discriminant function analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peckmann, Tanya R; Orr, Kayla; Meek, Susan; Manolis, Sotiris K

    2015-12-01

    The skull and post-cranium have been used for the determination of sex for unknown human remains. However, in forensic cases where skeletal remains often exhibit postmortem damage and taphonomic changes the calcaneus may be used for the determination of sex as it is a preservationally favored bone. The goal of the present research was to derive discriminant function equations from the calcaneus for estimation of sex from a contemporary Greek population. Nine parameters were measured on 198 individuals (103 males and 95 females), ranging in age from 20 to 99 years old, from the University of Athens Human Skeletal Reference Collection. The statistical analyses showed that all variables were sexually dimorphic. Discriminant function score equations were generated for use in sex determination. The average accuracy of sex classification ranged from 70% to 90% for the univariate analysis, 82.9% to 87.5% for the direct method, and 86.2% for the stepwise method. Comparisons to other populations were made. Overall, the cross-validated accuracies ranged from 48.6% to 56.1% with males most often identified correctly and females most often misidentified. The calcaneus was shown to be useful for sex determination in the twentieth century Greek population. Copyright © 2015 The Chartered Society of Forensic Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Morphology, chemistry and function of the postpharyngeal gland in the South American digger wasps Trachypus boharti and Trachypus elongatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudrun Herzner

    Full Text Available Microbes pose severe threats to animals as competitors or pathogens and strongly affect the evolution of life history traits like parental care. Females of the European beewolf Philanthus triangulum, a solitary digger wasp, provision their offspring with paralyzed honeybees and embalm them with the secretion from large postpharyngeal glands (PPG that contain mainly unsaturated hydrocarbons. This coating changes the physico-chemical properties of the prey surface, causes a reduction of water condensation and retards growth of mold fungi. Here we examined the closely related South American genus Trachypus, which shows a life-history similar to Philanthus. We investigated whether Trachypus spp. also possess PPGs and embalm larval provisions. Using histological methods and 3D reconstructions we show that Trachypus boharti and T. elongatus possess PPGs that are similar to P. triangulum but somewhat smaller. The ultrastructure of the gland epithelium suggests that the gland content is at least partly sequestered from the hemolymph. Chemical analyses using gas chromatography / mass spectrometry revealed that both the cuticle and PPGs of Trachypus contain mainly unsaturated long-chain hydrocarbons. The gland of T. boharti additionally contains long-chain ketones. The hydrocarbons from the PPG of T. elongatus occurred on prey bees excavated from nests in the field but not on conspecific control bees. While the embalming only slightly elevated the amount of hydrocarbons on prey bees, the proportion of unsaturated hydrocarbons, which is crucial for the antifungal effect, was significantly increased. The Trachypus species under study possess PPGs that are very similar to the PPG of P. triangulum with regard to morphology, ultrastructure and chemistry. Moreover, we provide clear evidence that T. elongatus females embalm their prey, presumably as a means of prey preservation. The observed differences among Trachypus and Philanthus in gland size and prey

  6. Morphology, Chemistry and Function of the Postpharyngeal Gland in the South American Digger Wasps Trachypus boharti and Trachypus elongatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzner, Gudrun; Kaltenpoth, Martin; Poettinger, Theodor; Weiss, Katharina; Koedam, Dirk; Kroiss, Johannes; Strohm, Erhard

    2013-01-01

    Microbes pose severe threats to animals as competitors or pathogens and strongly affect the evolution of life history traits like parental care. Females of the European beewolf Philanthus triangulum, a solitary digger wasp, provision their offspring with paralyzed honeybees and embalm them with the secretion from large postpharyngeal glands (PPG) that contain mainly unsaturated hydrocarbons. This coating changes the physico-chemical properties of the prey surface, causes a reduction of water condensation and retards growth of mold fungi. Here we examined the closely related South American genus Trachypus, which shows a life-history similar to Philanthus. We investigated whether Trachypus spp. also possess PPGs and embalm larval provisions. Using histological methods and 3D reconstructions we show that Trachypus boharti and T. elongatus possess PPGs that are similar to P. triangulum but somewhat smaller. The ultrastructure of the gland epithelium suggests that the gland content is at least partly sequestered from the hemolymph. Chemical analyses using gas chromatography / mass spectrometry revealed that both the cuticle and PPGs of Trachypus contain mainly unsaturated long-chain hydrocarbons. The gland of T. boharti additionally contains long-chain ketones. The hydrocarbons from the PPG of T. elongatus occurred on prey bees excavated from nests in the field but not on conspecific control bees. While the embalming only slightly elevated the amount of hydrocarbons on prey bees, the proportion of unsaturated hydrocarbons, which is crucial for the antifungal effect, was significantly increased. The Trachypus species under study possess PPGs that are very similar to the PPG of P. triangulum with regard to morphology, ultrastructure and chemistry. Moreover, we provide clear evidence that T. elongatus females embalm their prey, presumably as a means of prey preservation. The observed differences among Trachypus and Philanthus in gland size and prey embalming may have

  7. B chromosomes have a functional effect on female sex determination in Lake Victoria cichlid fishes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohta Yoshida

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The endemic cichlid fishes in Lake Victoria are a model system for speciation through adaptive radiation. Although the evolution of the sex-determination system may also play a role in speciation, little is known about the sex-determination system of Lake Victoria cichlids. To understand the evolution of the sex-determination system in these fish, we performed cytogenetic analysis in 11 cichlid species from Lake Victoria. B chromosomes, which are present in addition to standard chromosomes, were found at a high prevalence rate (85% in these cichlids. In one species, B chromosomes were female-specific. Cross-breeding using females with and without the B chromosomes demonstrated that the presence of the B chromosomes leads to a female-biased sex ratio in this species. Although B chromosomes were believed to be selfish genetic elements with little effect on phenotype and to lack protein-coding genes, the present study provides evidence that B chromosomes have a functional effect on female sex determination. FISH analysis using a BAC clone containing B chromosome DNA suggested that the B chromosomes are derived from sex chromosomes. Determination of the nucleotide sequences of this clone (104.5 kb revealed the presence of several protein-coding genes in the B chromosome, suggesting that B chromosomes have the potential to contain functional genes. Because some sex chromosomes in amphibians and arthropods are thought to be derived from B chromosomes, the B chromosomes in Lake Victoria cichlids may represent an evolutionary transition toward the generation of sex chromosomes.

  8. The reliability of morphometric discriminant functions in determining the sex of Chilean flamingos Phoenicopterus chilensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego MONTALTI et al

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Monomorphic birds cannot be sexed visually and discriminant functions on the basis of external morphological variations are frequently used. Our objective was to evaluate the reliability of sex classification functions created from structural measurements of Chilean flamingos Phoenicopterus chilensis museum skins for the gender assignment of live birds. Five measurements were used to develop four discriminant functions: culmen, bill height and width, tarsus length and middle toe claw. The functions were tested on a sample of live flamingos from a zoo. The best classification for museum flamingos was given by a function using tarsus length, bill width and middle toe claw (97%. However, this function did not give the best classification for the zoo-based flamingos (81% which had the best sex assignment by a function including measurements of tarsus, culmen and bill height and width (85%. This shows that a function giving good results in the sample from which it originated may not be as good when applied to another group of animals. Our study emphasizes the need for assessing the accuracy of a function by testing it with other methods to ensure its suitability when being applied [Current Zoology 59 (6: 851–855, 2012].

  9. Morphology and diversity of exocrine glands in lepidopteran larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vegliante, Francesca; Hasenfuss, Ivar

    2012-01-01

    The morphology of 21 exocrine glands and 13 supposedly exocrine structures recorded for lepidopteran larvae is reviewed. The epitracheal glands, for which a double role (exocrine and endocrine) has been demonstrated, are examined as well. Function is well known for at least 8 glands but completely unknown for 6 glands, for 10 putative glandular structures, and for the exocrine component of the epitracheal glands. Functional studies on the remaining structures are insufficient; in some cases (mandibular gland and adenosma) homologous glands may play a different role depending on the species, and only a few taxa have been examined. The secretions of 13 glandular types have been analyzed chemically. The histology of 11 glands is known at the ultrastructural level, whereas that of 6 glands and 7 putative glandular structures is completely unknown. Comparative anatomical studies of the osmeterium, adenosma, and Verson's glands may yield useful information for phylogenetic reconstructions. Copyright © 2012 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

  10. Sex determination by discriminant function analysis of palatal rugae from a population of coastal Andhra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharath, Sreenivasa T; Kumar, Govind Raj; Dhanapal, Raghu; Saraswathi, Tr

    2011-07-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate differences in the palatal rugae patterns in males and females of a cross-sectional hospital-based coastal Andhra population and application of discriminant function analysis in sex identification. One hundred pre-orthodontic plaster casts, equally distributed between males and females belonging to an age range of 15-30 years, were examined for different rugae patterns. Thomas classification was adopted for analysis. Association between rugae patterns and sexual dimorphism were tested using Unpaired t test, Chi square test and discriminant function analysis developed using SAS package. Difference in unification pattern among males and females was found to be statistically significant. The total number of the rugae was not statistically significant between the sexes. Association between rugae length and shape with sex determination was computed using discriminant analysis which enabled sex differentiation in this population with an accuracy of 78%. Palatal rugae revealed a specific pattern in unification among males and females of the coastal Andhra population. Discriminant function analysis enabled sex determination of individuals. However, these interpretations were precluded by the small sample size and further research work on larger samples and use of different classification systems is required to validate its use in forensic science.

  11. Distribution of sex steroid hormone receptors in the avian brain: functional implications for neural sex differences and sexual behaviors.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gahr, M.

    2001-01-01

    Developmental and seasonal changes in the production of androgens, estrogens, and progestins seem to control sex-specific differentiation and seasonal changes in appetitive and consummatory sexual behaviors of birds. This results in profound sex differences in the quality (sex-specific) or quantity

  12. Adrenal Gland Tumors: Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Gland Tumor: Statistics Request Permissions Adrenal Gland Tumor: Statistics Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 03/ ... primary adrenal gland tumor is very uncommon. Exact statistics are not available for this type of tumor ...

  13. GC x GC/TOF MS technique - A new tool in identification of insect pheromones: Analysis of the persimmon bark borer sex pheromone gland

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalinová, Blanka; Jiroš, Pavel; Žďárek, Jan; Wen, X.; Hoskovec, Michal

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 99, č. 11 (2005), s. 843 ISSN 0009-2770. [Pokroky v organické, bioorganické a farmaceutické chemii /40./. 18.11.2005-20.11.2005, Nymburk] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : sex pheromone * persimmon bark borer * two-dimensional (GC x GC) system Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  14. FMRI to probe sex-related differences in brain function with multitasking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Tschernegg

    Full Text Available Although established as a general notion in society, there is no solid scientific foundation for the existence of sex-differences in multitasking. Reaction time and accuracy in dual task conditions have an inverse relationship relative to single task, independently from sex. While a more disseminated network, parallel to decreasing accuracy and reaction time has been demonstrated in dual task fMRI studies, little is known so far whether there exist respective sex-related differences in activation.We subjected 20 women (mean age = 25.45; SD = 5.23 and 20 men (mean age = 27.55; SD = 4.00 to a combined verbal and spatial fMRI paradigm at 3.0T to assess sex-related skills, based on the assumption that generally women better perform in verbal tasks while men do better in spatial tasks. We also obtained behavioral tests for verbal and spatial intelligence, attention, executive functions, and working memory.No differences between women and men were observed in behavioral measures of dual-tasking or cognitive performance. Generally, brain activation increased with higher task load, mainly in the bilateral inferior and prefrontal gyri, the anterior cingulum, thalamus, putamen and occipital areas. Comparing sexes, women showed increased activation in the inferior frontal gyrus in the verbal dual-task while men demonstrated increased activation in the precuneus and adjacent visual areas in the spatial task.Against the background of equal cognitive and behavioral dual-task performance in both sexes, we provide first evidence for sex-related activation differences in functional networks for verbal and spatial dual-tasking.

  15. FMRI to probe sex-related differences in brain function with multitasking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschernegg, Melanie; Neuper, Christa; Schmidt, Reinhold; Wood, Guilherme; Kronbichler, Martin; Fazekas, Franz; Enzinger, Christian; Koini, Marisa

    2017-01-01

    Although established as a general notion in society, there is no solid scientific foundation for the existence of sex-differences in multitasking. Reaction time and accuracy in dual task conditions have an inverse relationship relative to single task, independently from sex. While a more disseminated network, parallel to decreasing accuracy and reaction time has been demonstrated in dual task fMRI studies, little is known so far whether there exist respective sex-related differences in activation. We subjected 20 women (mean age = 25.45; SD = 5.23) and 20 men (mean age = 27.55; SD = 4.00) to a combined verbal and spatial fMRI paradigm at 3.0T to assess sex-related skills, based on the assumption that generally women better perform in verbal tasks while men do better in spatial tasks. We also obtained behavioral tests for verbal and spatial intelligence, attention, executive functions, and working memory. No differences between women and men were observed in behavioral measures of dual-tasking or cognitive performance. Generally, brain activation increased with higher task load, mainly in the bilateral inferior and prefrontal gyri, the anterior cingulum, thalamus, putamen and occipital areas. Comparing sexes, women showed increased activation in the inferior frontal gyrus in the verbal dual-task while men demonstrated increased activation in the precuneus and adjacent visual areas in the spatial task. Against the background of equal cognitive and behavioral dual-task performance in both sexes, we provide first evidence for sex-related activation differences in functional networks for verbal and spatial dual-tasking.

  16. Sex differences in vascular endothelial function and health in humans: impacts of exercise.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Green, D.J.; Hopkins, N.D.; Jones, H.; Thijssen, D.H.J.; Eijsvogels, T.M.H.; Yeap, B.B.

    2016-01-01

    NEW FINDINGS: What is the topic of this review? This brief review discusses potential sex differences in arterial function across the age span, with special emphasis on the effects of oestrogen and testosterone on the vascular endothelium. What advances does it highlight? We discuss the relationship

  17. Sex-specific cardiovascular structure and function in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gori, Mauro; Lam, Carolyn S. P.; Gupta, Deepak K.; Santos, Angela B. S.; Cheng, Susan; Shah, Amil M.; Claggett, Brian; Zile, Michael R.; Kraigher-Krainer, Elisabeth; Pieske, Burkert; Voors, Adriaan A.; Packer, Milton; Bransford, Toni; Lefkowitz, Martin; McMurray, John J. V.; Solomon, Scott D.

    Aims Women are more likely to develop heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) than men. We studied the relationship between sex and cardiovascular structure and function in patients with HFpEF. Methods and resultsThe study included 279 participants from the PARAMOUNT study (57% women)

  18. Antisocial Behavior, Psychopathology and Functional Impairment: Association with Sex and Age in Clinical Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, Juan; Ezpeleta, Lourdes; Granero, Roser; de la Osa, Nuria

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence, degree of association and differential effect, by sex and age, of conduct disorder symptoms on psychopathology and functioning. Participants included 680 Spanish children and adolescents between 8 and 17 years and their parents, attending to psychiatric outpatient consultation. Data were obtained through…

  19. Her versus his migraine: multiple sex differences in brain function and structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnman, Clas; Brawn, Jennifer; Burstein, Rami; Becerra, Lino; Borsook, David

    2012-01-01

    Migraine is twice as common in females as in males, but the mechanisms behind this difference are still poorly understood. We used high-field magnetic resonance imaging in male and female age-matched interictal (migraine free) migraineurs and matched healthy controls to determine alterations in brain structure. Female migraineurs had thicker posterior insula and precuneus cortices compared with male migraineurs and healthy controls of both sexes. Furthermore, evaluation of functional responses to heat within the migraine groups indicated concurrent functional differences in male and female migraineurs and a sex-specific pattern of functional connectivity of these two regions with the rest of the brain. The results support the notion of a ‘sex phenotype’ in migraine and indicate that brains are differentially affected by migraine in females compared with males. Furthermore, the results also support the notion that sex differences involve both brain structure as well as functional circuits, in that emotional circuitry compared with sensory processing appears involved to a greater degree in female than male migraineurs. PMID:22843414

  20. Functional Neuroanatomy of Human Cortex Cerebri in Relation to Wanting Sex and Having It

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Georgiadis, Janniko R.

    Neuroanatomical textbooks typically restrict the central nervous system control of sexual responsiveness to the hypothalamus, brainstem and spinal cord. However, for all its primitive functions human sex is surprisingly complex and versatile. This review aims to extend the neuroanatomy of sexual

  1. Her versus his migraine: multiple sex differences in brain function and structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maleki, Nasim; Linnman, Clas; Brawn, Jennifer; Burstein, Rami; Becerra, Lino; Borsook, David

    2012-08-01

    Migraine is twice as common in females as in males, but the mechanisms behind this difference are still poorly understood. We used high-field magnetic resonance imaging in male and female age-matched interictal (migraine free) migraineurs and matched healthy controls to determine alterations in brain structure. Female migraineurs had thicker posterior insula and precuneus cortices compared with male migraineurs and healthy controls of both sexes. Furthermore, evaluation of functional responses to heat within the migraine groups indicated concurrent functional differences in male and female migraineurs and a sex-specific pattern of functional connectivity of these two regions with the rest of the brain. The results support the notion of a 'sex phenotype' in migraine and indicate that brains are differentially affected by migraine in females compared with males. Furthermore, the results also support the notion that sex differences involve both brain structure as well as functional circuits, in that emotional circuitry compared with sensory processing appears involved to a greater degree in female than male migraineurs.

  2. Sex steroid hormones and brain function : PET imaging as a tool for research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moraga-Amaro, R; van Waarde, A; Doorduin, J; de Vries, E F J

    Sex steroid hormones are major regulators of sexual characteristic among species. These hormones, however, are also produced in the brain. Steroidal hormone-mediated signalling via the corresponding hormone receptors can influence brain function at the cellular level and thus affect behaviour and

  3. Modifications of the defense and remodeling functionalities of bovine neutrophils inside the mammary gland of milk stasis cows received a commercial dry-cow treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ting-Chieh; Chang, Chai-Ju; Ho, Chin-Han; Peh, Huo-Cheng; Chen, Shuen-Ei; Liu, Wen-Bor; Peng, Hsin-Yi; Piamya, Piya; Chen, Ming-Tsao; Nagahata, Hajime

    2011-12-15

    An appropriate length of milk stasis between two consecutive lactations of dairy cows is crucial for sustainable milk production. This dry period of cows allows extensive remodeling and sufficient cell renewal in mammary gland. Nevertheless, early dry period is one of the most risky stages in cow lactation cycle to intramammary infection. Dry-cow treatment through teats is, therefore, widely practiced at the commencement of milk stasis. Neutrophils are the most abundant cellular components in cow mammary secretion during early dry period, which in turn attribute to the meanwhile elevation of somatic cell counts and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) level. This study used bovine peripheral neutrophils as a cell model to examine the mode of modifications in their defense and remodeling functionalities after infiltration into mammary gland during early dry period. Results indicate a dose-dependent suppression of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-stimulated free radical production and induction of MMP 9 degranulation in bovine peripheral neutrophils exposure to the d 7-dry secretion of cows received dry cow treatment at d 0 in milk stasis. Meanwhile, an enhancement of plasminogen activation and TNF-α shedding on bovine peripheral neutrophils were also observed. These two cellular events might be involved in the functional modifications on infiltrated neutrophils during early dry period. In conclusion, the opposite trend of modifications in the defense and matrix remodeling functionalities of neutrophils inside the mammary gland of cows at early dry period reflect the collaboration of infiltrated neutrophils for promoting extensive glandular remodeling at minimum compromise of local defense during the acute involution period without apparent disturbance by dry cow treatment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Functional imaging of submandibular glands: diffusion-weighted echo-planar MRI before and after stimulation; Diffusionsgewichtete MRT zur Funktionsdiagnostik der Glandula submandibularis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arndt, C.; Cramer, M.C.; Weiss, F.; Kaul, M.G.; Adam, G.; Habermann, C.R. [Zentrum fuer Bildgebende Diagnostik und Intervention, Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Universitaetsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf (Germany); Graessner, J. [Siemens Medical Solutions (Germany); Petersen, K. [Zentrum fuer Psychosoziale Medizin, Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie, Universitaetsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf (Germany); Reitmeier, F.; Jaehne, M. [Kopf und Hautzentrum, Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Hals-, Nasen- und Ohrenheilkunde, Universitaetsklinikum Hamburg Eppendorf (Germany)

    2006-09-15

    Purpose: To investigate the feasibility of diffusion-weighted (DWI) echo-planar imaging (EPI) to depict the submandibular glands and to measure different functional conditions. Materials and Methods: Twenty-seven healthy volunteers were examined. Diffusion weighted sequence was performed prior to stimulation. Exactly 30 seconds after a commercially available lemon juice was given orally, the diffusion weighted sequence was repeated. All examinations were performed by using a 1.5-T superconducting system with a 30 mT/m maximum gradient capability and maximum slew rate of 125 mT/m/sec (Magnetom Symphony, Siemens, Erlangen, Germany). The lower part of the circularly polarized (CP) head coil and a standard two-element CP neck array coil were used. The flexibility of the neck array coil allowed positioning the N1 element (upper part of the coil) right next to the submandibular gland. The axial diffusion-weighted EPI (echo planar imaging) sequence was performed using a matrix of 119 x 128, a field of view of 250 x 250 mm (pixel size 2.1 x 1.95 mm), a section thickness of 5 mm with an interslice gap of 1 mm. The b factors used were 0 sec/mm{sup 2}, 500 sec/mm{sup 2} and 1000 sec/mm{sup 2}. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps were digitally transferred to MRIcro (Chris Rorden, University of Nottingham, Great Britain). After detecting the submandibular glands a region of interest (ROI) was placed manually exactly within the boarder of both submandibular glands, excluding the external carotid artery on ADC maps. These procedures were performed on all ADC slices the submandibular glands could be differentiated in before and after oral stimulation. For statistical comparison of results, a student's t-test was performed with an overall two-tailed significance level of p=0.05. Results: The visualization of the submandibular glands using the diffusion-weighted EPI sequence was possible in all of the 27 volunteers. Prior to oral stimulation an ADC of 1.31 x 10{sup -3

  5. Expression of the mevalonate pathway enzymes in the Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) sex pheromone gland demonstrated by an integrated proteomic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Caballero, Natalia; Rodríguez-Vega, Andrés; Dias-Lopes, Geovane; Valenzuela, Jesus G; Ribeiro, Jose M C; Carvalho, Paulo Costa; Valente, Richard H; Brazil, Reginaldo P; Cuervo, Patricia

    2014-01-16

    In Latin America, Lutzomyia longipalpis is the main vector of the protozoan parasite Leishmania infantum, which is the causal agent of American Visceral Leishmaniasis. This insect uses male-produced pheromones for mate recognition. Elucidation of pheromone biogenesis or its regulation may enable molecular strategies for mating disruption and, consequently, the vector's population management. Motivated by our recent results of the transcriptomic characterization of the L. longipalpis pheromone gland, we performed a proteomic analysis of this tissue combining SDS-PAGE, and mass spectrometry followed by an integrative data analysis. Considering that annotated genome sequences of this sand fly are not available, we designed an alternative workflow searching MS/MS data against two customized databases using three search engines: Mascot, OMSSA and ProLuCID. A total of 542 proteins were confidently characterized, 445 of them using a Uniref100-insect protein database, and 97 using a transcript translated database. In addition, use of PEAKS for de novo peptide sequencing of MS/MS data confirmed ~90% identifications made with the combination of the three search engines. Our results include the identification of six of the seven enzymes of the mevalonate-pathway, plus the enzymes involved in sesquiterpenoid biosynthesis, all of which are proposed to be involved in pheromone production in L. longipalpis. L. longipalpis is the main vector of the protozoan parasite L. infantum, which is the causal agent of American Visceral Leishmaniasis. One of the control measures of such disease is focused on vector population control. As this insect uses male-produced pheromones for mate recognition, the elucidation of pheromone biogenesis or its regulating process may enable molecular strategies for mating disruption and, consequently, this vector's population management. On this regard, in this manuscript we report expression evidence, at the protein level, of several molecules potentially

  6. Diversification of doublesex function underlies morph-, sex-, and species-specific development of beetle horns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kijimoto, Teiya; Moczek, Armin P; Andrews, Justen

    2012-12-11

    Sex-specific trait expression is frequently associated with highly variable, condition-dependent expression within sexes and rapid divergence among closely related species. Horned beetles are an excellent example for studying the molecular basis of these phenomena because horn morphology varies markedly among species, between sexes, and among alternative, nutritionally-cued morphs within sexes. In addition, horns lack obvious homology to other insect traits and provide a good opportunity to explore the molecular basis of the rapid diversification of a novel trait within and between species. Here we show that the sex-determination gene doublesex (dsx) underlies important aspects of horn development, including differences between sexes, morphs, and species. In male Onthophagus taurus, dsx transcripts were preferentially expressed in the horns of the large, horned morph, and RNAi-mediated knockdown of dsx dramatically altered male horn allometry by massively reducing horn development in large males, but not in smaller males. Conversely, dsx RNAi induced ectopic, nutrition-sensitive horn development in otherwise hornless females. Finally, in a closely related species (Onthophagus sagittarius) that has recently evolved a rare reversed sexual dimorphism, dsx RNAi revealed reversed as well as novel dsx functions despite an overall conservation of dsx expression. This suggests that rapid evolution of dsx functions has facilitated the transition from a regular sexual dimorphism to a reversed sexual dimorphism in this species. Our findings add beetle horns to existing examples of a close relationship between dsx and sexual trait development, and suggest that dsx function has been coopted to facilitate both the evolution of environmentally-cued intrasexual dimorphisms and rapid species divergences in a novel trait.

  7. Sex differences in sensitivity to prenatal and early childhood manganese exposure on neuromotor function in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Yueh-Hsiu Mathilda; Claus Henn, Birgit; Hsu, Hsiao-Hsien Leon; Pendo, Mathew P; Coull, Brent A; Austin, Christine; Cagna, Giuseppa; Fedrighi, Chiara; Placidi, Donatella; Smith, Donald R; Wright, Robert O; Lucchini, Roberto G; Arora, Manish

    2017-11-01

    While studies have suggested that exposure to manganese (Mn) may be associated with neurodevelopment in school-age children, there is limited information on prenatal and postnatal Mn exposures and tremor or motor function in children. We measured Mn levels in dentine of shed teeth, representing prenatal, early postnatal, and cumulative childhood exposure windows, from 195 children (predominantly right-handed, 92%) in Italy. Pursuit Aiming, Luria Nebraska Motor Battery, as well as Tremor and Sway system from Computerized Adaptive Testing System (CATSYS) were administered at 11-14 years old. We examined the relationships of tooth Mn (ln-transformed) with motor function using multivariable linear regressions and generalized additive models, adjusting for age, sex, and socioeconomic status index. Effect modification by sex was also examined. We found that higher prenatal Mn was associated with better body stability in boys in a number of sway tests (including mean sway, transversal sway, sagittal sway, sway area, and sway intensity), while Mn was associated with poorer performance in girls on all of these metrics (all p for Mn × sex interaction hand/finger and eye-hand coordination in boys compared to girls in sex-stratified analyses, although interaction models did not reach statistical significance. For tremor, on the other hand, higher early postnatal Mn was associated with increased right-hand center frequency in girls (p for interaction < 0.01), but increased Mn level at the later postnatal period was associated with increased center frequency in boys (p for interaction = 0.01). This study, which used a direct measure of prenatal and childhood Mn exposure, suggested sex-specific critical windows of early life Mn exposure in relation to neuromotor function in adolescents. The sex-specific associations might be strongest with measures of whole body stability, for which the critical exposure window was during the prenatal period. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All

  8. Sex assessment from carpals bones: discriminant function analysis in a contemporary Mexican sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastrangelo, Paola; De Luca, Stefano; Sánchez-Mejorada, Gabriela

    2011-06-15

    Sex assessment is one of the first essential steps in human identification, in both medico-legal cases and bio-archaeological contexts. Fragmentary human remains compromised by different types of burial or physical insults may frustrate the use of the traditional sex estimation methods, such as the analysis of the skull and pelvis. Currently, the application of discriminant functions to sex unidentified skeletal remains is steadily increasing. However, several studies have demonstrated that, due to variation in size and patterns of sexual dimorphism, discriminant functions are population-specific. In this study, in order to improve sex assessment from skeletal remains and to establish population-specific discriminant functions, the diagnostic values of the carpal bones were considered. A sample of 136 individuals (78 males, 58 females) of known sex and age was analyzed. They belong to a contemporary identified collection from the Laboratory of Physical Anthropology, Faculty of Medicine, UNAM (Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico City). The age of the individuals ranged between 25 and 85 years. Between four and nine measurements of each carpal bone were taken. Independent t-tests confirm that all carpals are sexually dimorphic. Univariate measurements produce accuracy levels that range from 61.8% to 90.8%. Classification accuracies ranged between 81.3% and 92.3% in the multivariate stepwise discriminant analysis. In addition, intra- and inter-observer error tests were performed. These indicated that replication of measurements was satisfactory for the same observer over time and between observers. These results suggest that carpal bones can be used for assessing sex in both forensic and bio-archaeological identification procedures and that bone dimensions are population specific. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Sex-related differences in joint-angle-specific functional hamstring-to-quadriceps strength ratios

    OpenAIRE

    El-Ashker, Said; Carson, Brian P.; Ayala, Francisco; De Ste Croix, Mark B

    2017-01-01

    Purpose\\ud To examine and compare sex-related differences in the functioning of the hamstrings and quadriceps muscles and the isokinetic hamstrings eccentric-to-quadriceps concentric functional ratio (H/Q FUNC).\\ud Methods\\ud Fifty male and 46 female young adults completed this study. Each participant carried out an isokinetic assessment to determine isokinetic concentric and eccentric torques during knee extension and flexion actions at 3 different angular velocities (60, 180 and 300°/s) ado...

  10. Female disability disadvantage: a global perspective on sex differences in physical function and disability

    OpenAIRE

    WHEATON, FELICIA V.; CRIMMINS, EILEEN M.

    2015-01-01

    The objectives were to determine whether women always fare more poorly in terms of physical function and disability across countries that vary widely in terms of their level of development, epidemiologic context and level of gender equality. Sex differences in self-reported and objective measures of disability and physical function were compared among older adults aged 55–85 in the United States of America, Taiwan, Korea, Mexico, China, Indonesia and among the Tsimane of Bolivia using populat...

  11. Variations in body morphology explain sex differences in thermoeffector function during compensable heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notley, Sean R; Park, Joonhee; Tagami, Kyoko; Ohnishi, Norikazu; Taylor, Nigel A S

    2017-05-01

    What is the central question of this study? Can sex-related differences in cutaneous vascular and sudomotor responses be explained primarily by variations in the ratio between body surface area and mass during compensable exercise that elicits equivalent heat-loss requirements and mean body temperature changes across participants? What is the main finding and its importance? Mass-specific surface area was a significant determinant of vasomotor and sudomotor responses in men and women, explaining 10-48% of the individual thermoeffector variance. Nonetheless, after accounting for changes in mean body temperature and morphological differences, sex explained only 5% of that inter-individual variability. It was concluded that sex differences in thermoeffector function are morphologically dependent, but not sex dependent. Sex is sometimes thought to be an independent modulator of cutaneous vasomotor and sudomotor function during heat exposure. Nevertheless, it was hypothesized that, when assessed during compensable exercise that evoked equal heat-loss requirements across participants, sex differences in those thermoeffectors would be explained by variations in the ratio between body surface area and mass (specific surface area). To evaluate that possibility, vasomotor and sudomotor functions were assessed in 60 individuals (36 men and 24 women) with widely varying (overlapping) specific surface areas (range, 232.3-292.7 and 241.2-303.1 cm 2  kg -1 , respectively). Subjects completed two trials in compensable conditions (28°C, 36% relative humidity) involving rest (20 min) and steady-state cycling (45 min) at fixed, area-specific metabolic heat-production rates (light, ∼135 W m -2 ; moderate, ∼200 W m -2 ). Equivalent heat-loss requirements and mean body temperature changes were evoked across participants. Forearm blood flow and vascular conductance were positively related to specific surface area during light work in men (r = 0.67 and r = 0

  12. Adrenal Gland Disorders: Condition Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About Share Facebook Twitter Pinterest Email Print About Adrenal Gland Disorders The adrenal glands, located on the top of ... as estrogen and testosterone. What are adrenal gland disorders? Adrenal gland disorders occur when the adrenal glands do not ...

  13. Dysregulation of the Bmi-1/p16Ink4a pathway provokes an aging-associated decline of submandibular gland function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamakoshi, Kimi; Katano, Satoshi; Iida, Mayu; Kimura, Hiromi; Okuma, Atsushi; Ikemoto-Uezumi, Madoka; Ohtani, Naoko; Hara, Eiji; Maruyama, Mitsuo

    2015-01-01

    Bmi-1 prevents stem cell aging, at least partly, by blocking expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p16Ink4a. Therefore, dysregulation of the Bmi-1/p16Ink4a pathway is considered key to the loss of tissue homeostasis and development of associated degenerative diseases during aging. However, because Bmi-1 knockout (KO) mice die within 20 weeks after birth, it is difficult to determine exactly where and when dysregulation of the Bmi-1/p16Ink4a pathway occurs during aging in vivo. Using real-time in vivo imaging of p16Ink4a expression in Bmi-1-KO mice, we uncovered a novel function of the Bmi-1/p16Ink4a pathway in controlling homeostasis of the submandibular glands (SMGs), which secrete saliva into the oral cavity. This pathway is dysregulated during aging in vivo, leading to induction of p16Ink4a expression and subsequent declined SMG function. These findings will advance our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the aging-related decline of SMG function and associated salivary gland hypofunction, which is particularly problematic among the elderly. PMID:25832744

  14. Discriminant function analysis for sex assessment in pelvic girdle bones: sample from the contemporary Mexican population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Valdés, Jorge Alfredo; Torres Ramírez, Guillermo; Báez Molgado, Socorro; Herrera Sain-Leu, Patricia; Castrejón Caballero, José Luis; Sánchez-Mejorada, Gabriela

    2011-03-01

    Sex assessment of skeletal remains plays an important role in forensic anthropology. The pelvic bones are the most studied part of the postcranial skeleton for the assessment of sex. It is evident that a population-specific approach improves rates of accuracy within the group. The present study proposes a discriminant function method for the sex assessment of skeletal remains from a contemporary Mexican population. A total of 146 adult human pelvic bones (61 females and 85 males) from the skeletal series pertaining to the National Autonomous University of Mexico were evaluated. Twenty-four direct metrical parameters of coxal and sacral bones were measured and subsequently, sides and sex differences were evaluated, applying a stepwise discriminant function analysis. Coxal and sacra functions achieved accuracies of 99% and 87%, respectively. These analyses follow a population-specific approach; nevertheless, we consider that our results are applicable to any other Hispanic samples for purposes of forensic human identification. © 2011 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  15. Sex, hormones and neurogenesis in the hippocampus: hormonal modulation of neurogenesis and potential functional implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galea, L A M; Wainwright, S R; Roes, M M; Duarte-Guterman, P; Chow, C; Hamson, D K

    2013-11-01

    The hippocampus is an area of the brain that undergoes dramatic plasticity in response to experience and hormone exposure. The hippocampus retains the ability to produce new neurones in most mammalian species and is a structure that is targeted in a number of neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric diseases, many of which are influenced by both sex and sex hormone exposure. Intriguingly, gonadal and adrenal hormones affect the structure and function of the hippocampus differently in males and females. Adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus is regulated by both gonadal and adrenal hormones in a sex- and experience-dependent way. Sex differences in the effects of steroid hormones to modulate hippocampal plasticity should not be completely unexpected because the physiology of males and females is different, with the most notable difference being that females gestate and nurse the offspring. Furthermore, reproductive experience (i.e. pregnancy and mothering) results in permanent changes to the maternal brain, including the hippocampus. This review outlines the ability of gonadal and stress hormones to modulate multiple aspects of neurogenesis (cell proliferation and cell survival) in both male and female rodents. The function of adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus is linked to spatial memory and depression, and the present review provides early evidence of the functional links between the hormonal modulation of neurogenesis that may contribute to the regulation of cognition and stress. © 2013 British Society for Neuroendocrinology.

  16. Sex, Symptom, and Premorbid Social Functioning Associated with Perceptual Organization Dysfunction in Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie eJoseph

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Impairments in visual perceptual organization abilities are a repeatedly observed cognitive deficit in schizophrenia. These impairments have been found to be most prominent among patients with histories of poor premorbid social functioning, disorganized symptoms, and poor clinical outcomes. Despite the demonstration of significant sex differences for these clinical factors in schizophrenia, the extent of sex differences for visual perceptual organization in schizophrenia is unknown. Therefore, we investigated the extent to which previously known correlates (premorbid social sexual functioning and disorganized symptoms and a novel factor (participant sex accounted for performance on two perceptual organization tasks (contour integration and Ebbinghaus illusion that have previously demonstrated sensitivity to schizophrenia. We also determined the relative degree to which each of these factors predicted task scores over and above the others. Schizophrenia patients (N = 109, 43 female from different levels of care were ascertained. Female patients demonstrated higher contour integration scores, but lower performance on the context sensitivity index of the Ebbinghaus illusion, compared to males. Contour integration performance was significantly associated with poorer premorbid adolescent social sexual functioning and higher levels of disorganized symptoms, supporting past results that indicate a relationship among poor premorbid social sexual functioning, disorganized symptoms, and visual perceptual abnormalities in schizophrenia. However, analyses of Ebbinghaus illusion performance suggests there is a complex relationship among patient sex, clinical factors and perceptual abilities with relatively intact bottom-up grouping processes in females, but greater problems, compared to males with more top-down mediated context sensitivity. Therefore, sex differences may be an important consideration for future studies of visual perceptual organization in

  17. Sex on the brain: Are gender-dependent structural and functional differences associated with behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowska, Anna

    2017-01-02

    A substantial number of studies provide evidence documenting a variety of sex differences in the brain. It remains unclear whether sexual differentiation at the neural level is related to that observed in daily behavior, cognitive function, and the risk of developing certain psychiatric and neurological disorders. Some investigators have questioned whether the brain is truly sexually differentiated and support this view with several arguments including the following: (1) brain structural or functional differences are not necessarily reflected in appropriate differences at the behavioral level, which might suggest that these two phenomena are not linked to each other; and (2) sex-related differences in the brain are rather small and concern features that significantly overlap between males and females. This review polemicizes with those opinions and presents examples of sex-related local neural differences underpinning a variety of sex differences in behaviors, skills, and cognitive/emotional abilities. Although male/female brain differentiation may vary in pattern and scale, nonetheless, in some respects (e.g., relative local gray matter volumes) it can be substantial, taking the form of sexual dimorphism and involving large areas of the brain (the cortex in particular). A significant part of this review is devoted to arguing that some sex differences in the brain may serve to prevent (in the case where they are maladaptive), rather than to produce, differences at the behavioral/skill level. Specifically, some differences might result from compensatory mechanisms aimed at maintaining similar intellectual capacities across the sexes, despite the smaller average volume of the brain in females compared with males. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Evaluation of serum concentrations of cortisol and sex hormones of adrenal gland origin after stimulation with two synthetic ACTH preparations in clinically normal dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginel, Pedro J; Sileo, Maria T; Blanco, Beatriz; Garfia, Bartolomé; Quintavalla, Fausto

    2012-02-01

    To compare the adrenocortical response of healthy dogs to a commonly used dose of a nonadsorbed tetracosactide product (tetracosactide) with responses to 2 doses of a depot formulation of tetracosactide (depot tetracosactide). 14 dogs. Dogs were randomly assigned to receive tetracosactide (5 mg/kg, IV) or depot tetracosactide (250 μg, IM, or 5 μg/kg, IM). Dogs received each treatment once with a 2-week interval between treatments. Blood samples were assayed for cortisol, progesterone, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, androstenedione, and estradiol concentrations. Serum cortisol concentrations were significantly higher than the preadministration (baseline) concentrations for all treatments 60 minutes after administration of ACTH. Peak cortisol concentration was detected 180 minutes after IM administration of 250 μg of the depot tetracosactide. Serum concentrations of progesterone, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, and androstenedione did not differ significantly from baseline concentrations after stimulation with the 5 μg/kg dose of depot tetracosactide. Adrenal gland progesterone response was significantly higher than baseline concentrations at 60 minutes after administration of the 250-μg dose of depot tetracosactide, and the 17-hydroxyprogesterone and androstenedione responses were significantly higher than baseline concentrations at 120 minutes. Compared with the response to tetracosactide, adrenocortical response was higher and more sustained following administration of the depot tetracosactide, except for androstenedione concentration, which had a nonsignificant response. Except for androstenedione concentrations, a high dose of the depot tetracosactide (250 μg, IM) induced an adrenocortical response similar to that after administration of tetracosactide. Thus, depot tetracosactide may represent an alternative to the nonadsorbed tetracosactide product.

  19. Anatomy, biogenesis, and regeneration of salivary glands

    OpenAIRE

    Holmberg, Kyle V.; Hoffman, Matthew P.

    2014-01-01

    An overview of the anatomy and biogenesis of salivary glands is important in order to understand the physiology, functions and disorders associated with saliva. A major disorder of salivary glands is salivary hypofunction and resulting xerostomia, or dry mouth, which affects hundreds of thousands of patients per year who suffer from salivary gland diseases or undergo head and neck cancer treatment. There is currently no curative therapy for these patients. To improve these patients’ quality o...

  20. Mammary-specific inactivation of E-cadherin and p53 impairs functional gland development and leads to pleomorphic invasive lobular carcinoma in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick W. B. Derksen

    2011-05-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women of the Western world. Even though a large percentage of breast cancer patients show pathological complete remission after standard treatment regimes, approximately 30–40% are non-responsive and ultimately develop metastatic disease. To generate a good preclinical model of invasive breast cancer, we have taken a tissue-specific approach to somatically inactivate p53 and E-cadherin, the cardinal cell-cell adhesion receptor that is strongly associated with tumor invasiveness. In breast cancer, E-cadherin is found mutated or otherwise functionally silenced in invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC, which accounts for 10–15% of all breast cancers. We show that mammary-specific stochastic inactivation of conditional E-cadherin and p53 results in impaired mammary gland function during pregnancy through the induction of anoikis resistance of mammary epithelium, resulting in loss of epithelial organization and a dysfunctional mammary gland. Moreover, combined inactivation of E-cadherin and p53 induced lactation-independent development of invasive and metastatic mammary carcinomas, which showed strong resemblance to human pleomorphic ILC. Dissemination patterns of mouse ILC mimic the human malignancy, showing metastasis to the gastrointestinal tract, peritoneum, lung, lymph nodes and bone. Our results confirm that loss of E-cadherin contributes to both mammary tumor initiation and metastasis, and establish a preclinical mouse model of human ILC that can be used for the development of novel intervention strategies to treat invasive breast cancer.

  1. Functional role of phenylacetic acid from metapleural gland secretions in controlling fungal pathogens in evolutionarily derived leaf-cutting ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Marín, Hermógenes; Nash, David R; Higginbotham, Sarah; Estrada, Catalina; van Zweden, Jelle S; d'Ettorre, Patrizia; Wcislo, William T; Boomsma, Jacobus J

    2015-05-22

    Fungus-farming ant colonies vary four to five orders of magnitude in size. They employ compounds from actinomycete bacteria and exocrine glands as antimicrobial agents. Atta colonies have millions of ants and are particularly relevant for understanding hygienic strategies as they have abandoned their ancestors' prime dependence on antibiotic-based biological control in favour of using metapleural gland (MG) chemical secretions. Atta MGs are unique in synthesizing large quantities of phenylacetic acid (PAA), a known but little investigated antimicrobial agent. We show that particularly the smallest workers greatly reduce germination rates of Escovopsis and Metarhizium spores after actively applying PAA to experimental infection targets in garden fragments and transferring the spores to the ants' infrabuccal cavities. In vitro assays further indicated that Escovopsis strains isolated from evolutionarily derived leaf-cutting ants are less sensitive to PAA than strains from phylogenetically more basal fungus-farming ants, consistent with the dynamics of an evolutionary arms race between virulence and control for Escovopsis, but not Metarhizium. Atta ants form larger colonies with more extreme caste differentiation relative to other attines, in societies characterized by an almost complete absence of reproductive conflicts. We hypothesize that these changes are associated with unique evolutionary innovations in chemical pest management that appear robust against selection pressure for resistance by specialized mycopathogens. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  2. Functional role of phenylacetic acid from metapleural gland secretions in controlling fungal pathogens in evolutionarily derived leaf-cutting ants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Marín, Hermógenes; Nash, David R.; Higginbotham, Sarah; Estrada, Catalina; van Zweden, Jelle S.; d'Ettorre, Patrizia; Wcislo, William T.; Boomsma, Jacobus J.

    2015-01-01

    Fungus-farming ant colonies vary four to five orders of magnitude in size. They employ compounds from actinomycete bacteria and exocrine glands as antimicrobial agents. Atta colonies have millions of ants and are particularly relevant for understanding hygienic strategies as they have abandoned their ancestors' prime dependence on antibiotic-based biological control in favour of using metapleural gland (MG) chemical secretions. Atta MGs are unique in synthesizing large quantities of phenylacetic acid (PAA), a known but little investigated antimicrobial agent. We show that particularly the smallest workers greatly reduce germination rates of Escovopsis and Metarhizium spores after actively applying PAA to experimental infection targets in garden fragments and transferring the spores to the ants' infrabuccal cavities. In vitro assays further indicated that Escovopsis strains isolated from evolutionarily derived leaf-cutting ants are less sensitive to PAA than strains from phylogenetically more basal fungus-farming ants, consistent with the dynamics of an evolutionary arms race between virulence and control for Escovopsis, but not Metarhizium. Atta ants form larger colonies with more extreme caste differentiation relative to other attines, in societies characterized by an almost complete absence of reproductive conflicts. We hypothesize that these changes are associated with unique evolutionary innovations in chemical pest management that appear robust against selection pressure for resistance by specialized mycopathogens. PMID:25925100

  3. AVALIAÇÃO ULTRASSONOGRÁFICA DOS TESTÍCULOS E DAS GLÂNDULAS SEXUAIS ANEXAS DE CARNEIROS SANTA INÊS ULTRASONOGRAPHIC EVALUATION OF TESTICLES AND ANNEXES SEX GLANDS OF SANTA INES RAMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana de Farias Jucá

    2009-07-01

    and the evaluations performed according to CBRA (1998. The ultrasonographic analyses were performed, before and after ejaculation, beginning with the testicles (parenchyma and mediastinum. The slight testicle calcification was found in high frequency independently of the age. The predominant echotexture of bulbourethral and vesicular glands was hypoechoic with low density. In summary, ultrasonography has shown itself as an efficient tool for parenchyma and testicular mediastinum visualization and classification, as well as for the study of annexes sex glands of Santa Ines rams.

    KEY WORDS: Annexes sexual glands, ram, Santa Ines, testicles, ultrasonography.

  4. Surgical anatomy of the thyroid and parathyroid glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fancy, Tanya; Gallagher, Daniel; Hornig, Joshua D

    2010-04-01

    This article describes the anatomy and embryology of the thyroid and parathyroid glands and the recurrent laryngeal nerve, discussing how the anatomy affects function and dysfunction of the glands. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Memory for faces and voices varies as a function of sex and expressed emotion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana S Cortes

    Full Text Available We investigated how memory for faces and voices (presented separately and in combination varies as a function of sex and emotional expression (anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness, and neutral. At encoding, participants judged the expressed emotion of items in forced-choice tasks, followed by incidental Remember/Know recognition tasks. Results from 600 participants showed that accuracy (hits minus false alarms was consistently higher for neutral compared to emotional items, whereas accuracy for specific emotions varied across the presentation modalities (i.e., faces, voices, and face-voice combinations. For the subjective sense of recollection ("remember" hits, neutral items received the highest hit rates only for faces, whereas for voices and face-voice combinations anger and fear expressions instead received the highest recollection rates. We also observed better accuracy for items by female expressers, and own-sex bias where female participants displayed memory advantage for female faces and face-voice combinations. Results further suggest that own-sex bias can be explained by recollection, rather than familiarity, rates. Overall, results show that memory for faces and voices may be influenced by the expressions that they carry, as well as by the sex of both items and participants. Emotion expressions may also enhance the subjective sense of recollection without enhancing memory accuracy.

  6. Sex differences and autism: brain function during verbal fluency and mental rotation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix D C C Beacher

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum conditions (ASC affect more males than females. This suggests that the neurobiology of autism: 1 may overlap with mechanisms underlying typical sex-differentiation or 2 alternately reflect sex-specificity in how autism is expressed in males and females. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to test these alternate hypotheses. Fifteen men and fourteen women with Asperger syndrome (AS, and sixteen typically developing men and sixteen typically developing women underwent fMRI during performance of mental rotation and verbal fluency tasks. All groups performed the tasks equally well. On the verbal fluency task, despite equivalent task-performance, both males and females with AS showed enhanced activation of left occipitoparietal and inferior prefrontal activity compared to controls. During mental rotation, there was a significant diagnosis-by-sex interaction across occipital, temporal, parietal, middle frontal regions, with greater activation in AS males and typical females compared to AS females and typical males. These findings suggest a complex relationship between autism and sex that is differentially expressed in verbal and visuospatial domains.

  7. Memory for faces and voices varies as a function of sex and expressed emotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laukka, Petri; Lindahl, Christina; Fischer, Håkan

    2017-01-01

    We investigated how memory for faces and voices (presented separately and in combination) varies as a function of sex and emotional expression (anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness, and neutral). At encoding, participants judged the expressed emotion of items in forced-choice tasks, followed by incidental Remember/Know recognition tasks. Results from 600 participants showed that accuracy (hits minus false alarms) was consistently higher for neutral compared to emotional items, whereas accuracy for specific emotions varied across the presentation modalities (i.e., faces, voices, and face-voice combinations). For the subjective sense of recollection (“remember” hits), neutral items received the highest hit rates only for faces, whereas for voices and face-voice combinations anger and fear expressions instead received the highest recollection rates. We also observed better accuracy for items by female expressers, and own-sex bias where female participants displayed memory advantage for female faces and face-voice combinations. Results further suggest that own-sex bias can be explained by recollection, rather than familiarity, rates. Overall, results show that memory for faces and voices may be influenced by the expressions that they carry, as well as by the sex of both items and participants. Emotion expressions may also enhance the subjective sense of recollection without enhancing memory accuracy. PMID:28570691

  8. Memory for faces and voices varies as a function of sex and expressed emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    S Cortes, Diana; Laukka, Petri; Lindahl, Christina; Fischer, Håkan

    2017-01-01

    We investigated how memory for faces and voices (presented separately and in combination) varies as a function of sex and emotional expression (anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness, and neutral). At encoding, participants judged the expressed emotion of items in forced-choice tasks, followed by incidental Remember/Know recognition tasks. Results from 600 participants showed that accuracy (hits minus false alarms) was consistently higher for neutral compared to emotional items, whereas accuracy for specific emotions varied across the presentation modalities (i.e., faces, voices, and face-voice combinations). For the subjective sense of recollection ("remember" hits), neutral items received the highest hit rates only for faces, whereas for voices and face-voice combinations anger and fear expressions instead received the highest recollection rates. We also observed better accuracy for items by female expressers, and own-sex bias where female participants displayed memory advantage for female faces and face-voice combinations. Results further suggest that own-sex bias can be explained by recollection, rather than familiarity, rates. Overall, results show that memory for faces and voices may be influenced by the expressions that they carry, as well as by the sex of both items and participants. Emotion expressions may also enhance the subjective sense of recollection without enhancing memory accuracy.

  9. SMase II, a new sphingomyelinase D from Loxosceles laeta venom gland: molecular cloning, expression, function and structural analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Santi Ferrara, Guilherme I; Fernandes-Pedrosa, Matheus de F; Junqueira-de-Azevedo, Inácio de L M; Gonçalves-de-Andrade, Rute M; Portaro, Fernanda C V; Manzoni-de-Almeida, Daniel; Murakami, Mário T; Arni, Raghuvir K; van den Berg, Carmen W; Ho, Paulo L; Tambourgi, Denise V

    2009-06-01

    Sphingomyelinase D (SMase D) present in the venoms of Loxosceles spiders is the principal component responsible for local and systemic effects observed in the loxoscelism. By using "expressed sequencing tag", it was possible to identify, in a L. laeta venom gland library, clones containing inserts coding for proteins with similarity to SMase D. One of these clones was expressed and the recombinant protein compared with the previously characterized SMase I from L. laeta, in terms of their biological, biochemical and structural properties. The new recombinant protein, SMase II, possesses all the biological properties ascribed to the whole venom and SMase I. SMase II shares 40% and 77% sequence similarity with SMase I and Lb3, respectively; the latter, a SMase D isoform from L. boneti, catalytically inactive. Molecular modeling and molecular dynamics simulations were employed to understand the structural basis, especially the presence of an additional disulfide bridge, in an attempt to account for the observed differences in SMases D activity.

  10. [The morphogenesis of mammalian cutaneous glands in evolutionary perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernova, O F

    2012-01-01

    The morphogenesis of mammalian cutaneous glands is considered based on the analysis of the literature and our own original data with the focus on the issues of gland polymorphism and specific features in postnatal development (from the case study of circumanal hepatoid glands of newborn domestic dogs), including the features reflecting the evolutionary relationships of various types of cutaneous glands. The hepatoid glands are a component of the glandular complex ofthe hair follicle, which also includes sebaceous and sweat glands; have a specific structure; and produce protein secretion by a merocrine pathway. Characteristic of these glands are wide polymorphism, sex- and age-related differences in the degree of development, occurrence in only a few phylogenetically related mammalian taxa (even-toed ungulates and carnivores); and a signaling type of their secretion. The data support the "generative concept," relying on the idea of a separate and independent origination of diverse derivatives of the external integuments.

  11. Gordon Research Conference on Mammary Gland Biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The 1989 conference was the tenth in the series of biennial Gordon Research Conferences on Mammary Gland Biology. Traditionally this conference brings together scientists from diverse backgrounds and experience but with a common interest in the biology of the mammary gland. Investigators from agricultural and medical schools, biochemists, cell and molecular biologists, endocrinologists, immunologists, and representatives from the emerging biotechnology industries met to discuss current concepts and results on the function and regulation of the normal and neoplastic mammary gland in a variety of species. Of the participants, approximately three-fourths were engaged in studying the normal mammary gland function, whereas the other quarter were engaged in studying the neoplastic gland. The interactions between scientists, clinicians, veterinarians examining both normal and neoplastic cell function serves to foster the multi-disciplinary goals of the conference and has stimulated many cooperative projects among participants in previous years

  12. Comparative ultrasound measurement of normal thyroid gland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-08-31

    Aug 31, 2011 ... the normal thyroid gland has a homogenous increased medium level echo texture. The childhood thyroid gland dimension correlates linearly with age and body surface unlike adults. [14] Iodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) are thyroid hormones which function to control the basal metabolic rate (BMR).

  13. Mental health functioning among men who use the Internet specifically to find partners for unprotected sex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugh Klein

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown a link between mental health functioning and involvement in HIV risk practices. The present research examines how well one specific group of men who have sex with other men (MSM fare in terms of their mental health functioning, and then focuses on how mental health functioning relates to HIV risk practices in this population. The study was based on a national random sample of 332 MSM who use the Internet to seek men with whom they can engage in unprotected sex. Data collection was conducted via telephone interviews between January 2008 and May 2009. Depression is more common among men in this population than in the adult male population-at-large. All other measures of mental health functioning that were examined (self-esteem, impulsivity, current life satisfaction, optimism about the future indicated low rates of mental health problem. Contrary to expectations, in nearly all instances, mental health functioning was not related to HIV risk practices. More work needs to be done to understand the causes of depression among these men, and to assess how, if at all, depression relates to risk practices in this population. These findings suggest that factors other than mental health problems must be considered if one wishes to understand HIV risk taking in this population.

  14. Mental Health Functioning Among Men who Use the Internet Specifically to Find Partners for Unprotected Sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Hugh

    2013-02-11

    Previous studies have shown a link between mental health functioning and involvement in HIV risk practices. The present research examines how well one specific group of men who have sex with other men (MSM) fare in terms of their mental health functioning, and then focuses on how mental health functioning relates to HIV risk practices in this population. The study was based on a national random sample of 332 MSM who use the Internet to seek men with whom they can engage in unprotected sex. Data collection was conducted via telephone interviews between January 2008 and May 2009. Depression is more common among men in this population than in the adult male population-at-large. All other measures of mental health functioning that were examined (self-esteem, impulsivity, current life satisfaction, optimism about the future) indicated low rates of mental health problem. Contrary to expectations, in nearly all instances, mental health functioning was not related to HIV risk practices. More work needs to be done to understand the causes of depression among these men, and to assess how, if at all, depression relates to risk practices in this population. These findings suggest that factors other than mental health problems must be considered if one wishes to understand HIV risk taking in this population.

  15. Sex differences in physical and mental functioning of Japanese civil servants: explanations from work and family characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekine, Michikazu; Chandola, Tarani; Martikainen, Pekka; Marmot, Michael; Kagamimori, Sadanobu

    2010-12-01

    Poor physical and mental functioning are more common among women than men and those with disadvantaged work and family characteristics. This study aims to clarify whether sex differences in health functioning can be explained by sex differences in work and family characteristics. The subjects were 3787 civil servants (2525 men and 1262 women), aged 20-65, working in a local government on the west coast of Japan. A questionnaire survey was conducted in January 2003. Low employment grade, high demands, long work hours, shift work, being unmarried, having no young children, high family-to-work conflict and high work-to-family conflict were more common among women than men and were independently associated with poor physical and mental functioning. The age-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) of women for poor health functioning were 1.80 for poor physical functioning and 1.77 for poor mental functioning. When adjusted for employment grade and work characteristics (control, demand, support, work hours, and shift work), the sex differences in health functioning attenuated. When adjusted for family characteristics (family structure and work-family conflicts), the sex differences in health functioning further attenuated and were no longer statistically significant. Sex differences in family characteristics contributed more to sex difference in mental functioning than sex differences in work characteristics. Japan belongs to conservative welfare regimes. In such countries, men are able to concentrate on their work with relative freedom from their family tasks and responsibilities, whereas women feel difficulties in maintaining their work-life balances. Such sex differences in work- and family-related stresses may contribute to sex difference in health. Longitudinal research is necessary to clarify the causal nature of these associations. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Mental Health and Functioning of Female Sex Workers in Chittagong, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hengartner, Michael P; Islam, Md Nazrul; Haker, Helene; Rössler, Wulf

    2015-01-01

    To examine the mental health and functioning of female sex workers (FSW) in Chittagong, Bangladesh, a population that has commonly been neglected in mental health policy and research. We included 259 women in the study (M age: 23.2 years; range: 11-48). The comprehensive Composite International Diagnostic Interview was used to assess their 12-month prevalence rates of DSM-IV mental disorders, and a comprehensive questionnaire was adapted to explore various factors, such as socio-demographics, working and living conditions, or experiences of abuse. On average, participants began their commercial sex work at 18.5 years old (range: 10-45). Their main motives for sex work were coercion (49.4%) and the necessity to financially support families (54.8%). In total, 224 FSW (86.5%) wanted to quit commercial sex work. A mental disorder within the past 12 months was reported by 100 FSW (38.6%), with drug abuse clearly being the most prevalent diagnosis (15.4%). Sexual, physical, and emotional abuse were very common among the FSW, and substance use disorders (SUD) were significantly more prevalent in persons who experienced emotional abuse (OR = 2.2). Prevalence rates of any mental disorder and SUD were higher in women who did sex work to support their family, whereas mood disorders were more frequent in those who needed the money to pay debts. Participants with any disorder were significantly older than those without (M age: 24.4 vs. 22.5 years) and had started significantly later in the sex business (M age: 19.7 vs. 17.7 years). Our study revealed that FSW in Chittagong are very vulnerable and highly impaired, as expressed by high rates of abuse and mental disorders. Coercion is very common and many FSW are required to work in the sex business because they need the money to support their families. FSW are a very marginalized population, especially in the developing countries where awareness for mental health is low and the availability of mental health services

  17. Mental health and functioning of female sex workers in Chittagong, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Pascal Hengartner

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To examine the mental health and functioning of female sex workers (FSW in Chittagong, Bangladesh, a population that has commonly been neglected in mental health policy and research.Methods: We included 259 women in the study (M age: 23.2 years; range: 11-48. The comprehensive Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI was used to assess their 12-month prevalence rates of DSM-IV mental disorders and a comprehensive questionnaire was adapted to explore various factors such as socio-demographics, working and living conditions, or experiences of abuse. Results: On average, participants began their commercial sex work at 18.5 years old (range: 10-45. Their main motives for sex work were coercion (49.4% and the necessity to financially support families (54.8%. In total, 224 FSW (86.5% wanted to quit commercial sex work. A mental disorder within the past 12 months was reported by 100 FSW (38.6%, with drug abuse clearly being the most prevalent diagnosis (15.4%. Sexual, physical and emotional abuse were very common among the FSW, and substance use disorders (SUD were significantly more prevalent in persons who experienced emotional abuse (OR=2.2. Prevalence rates of any mental disorder and SUD were higher in women who did sex work to support their family while mood disorders were more frequent in those who needed the money to pay debts. Participants with any disorder were significantly older than those without (M age: 24.4 vs. 22.5 years and had started significantly later in the sex business (M age: 19.7 vs. 17.7 years. Conclusions: Our study revealed that FSW in Chittagong are very vulnerable and highly impaired, as expressed by high rates of abuse and mental disorders. Coercion is very common and many FSW are required to work in the sex business because they need the money to support their families. FSW are a very marginalized population, especially in developing countries where awareness for mental health is low and the availability of

  18. Descriptive pattern of Benign Salivary Gland Tumours in Jos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Descriptive pattern of Benign Salivary Gland Tumours in Jos University Teaching Hospital (JUTH), Jos: A ten-year retrospective study. ... Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... Objectives: This study is aimed at describing the histological pattern, age, sex and site distribution of benign salivary gland

  19. Brain functional connectivity patterns in children and adolescents with gender dysphoria: Sex-atypical or not?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nota, Nienke M; Kreukels, Baudewijntje P C; den Heijer, Martin; Veltman, Dick J; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T; Burke, Sarah M; Bakker, Julie

    2017-12-01

    Various previous studies have reported that brains of people diagnosed with gender dysphoria (GD) show sex-atypical features. In addition, recent functional magnetic resonance imaging studies found that several brain resting-state networks (RSNs) in adults with GD show functional connectivity (FC) patterns that are not sex-atypical, but specific for GD. In the current study we examined whether FC patterns are also altered in prepubertal children and adolescents with GD in comparison with non-gender dysphoric peers. We investigated FC patterns within RSNs that were previously examined in adults: visual networks (VNs), sensorimotor networks (SMNs), default mode network (DMN) and salience network. Thirty-one children (18 birth assigned males; 13 birth assigned females) and 40 adolescents with GD (19 birth assigned males or transgirls; 21 birth assigned females or transboys), and 39 cisgender children (21 boys; 18 girls) and 41 cisgender adolescents (20 boys; 21 girls) participated. We used independent component analysis to obtain the network maps of interest and compared these across groups. Within one of the three VNs (VN-I), adolescent transgirls showed stronger FC in the right cerebellum compared with all other adolescent groups. Sex differences in FC between the cisgender adolescent groups were observed in the right supplementary motor area within one of the two SMNs (SMN-II; girls>boys) and the right posterior cingulate gyrus within the posterior DMN (boys>girls). Within these networks adolescent transgirls showed FC patterns similar to their experienced gender (female). Also adolescent transboys showed a FC pattern similar to their experienced gender (male), but within the SMN-II only. The prepubertal children did not show any group differences in FC, suggesting that these emerge with aging and during puberty. Our findings provide evidence for the existence of both GD-specific and sex-atypical FC patterns in adolescents with GD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd

  20. Complex Association of Sex Hormones on Left Ventricular Systolic Function: Insight into Sexual Dimorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Joe-Elie; Nguyen, Lee S; Hammoudi, Nadjib; Preud'homme, Gisèle; Hulot, Jean-Sebastien; Leban, Monique; Funck-Brentano, Christian; Touraine, Philippe; Isnard, Richard; Bachelot, Anne

    2018-02-01

    Normal values of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and absolute values of global longitudinal strain (GLS) are lower in men than in women. Data concerning the association of sex hormone levels on these left ventricular systolic function surrogates are scarce. The aim of this study was to determine the association of sex hormones with systolic left ventricular function in healthy subjects and patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) as a model of testosterone dysregulation. Eighty-four adult patients with CAH (58 women; median age, 27 years; interquartile range, 23-36 years) and 84 healthy subjects matched for sex and age were prospectively included. Circulating concentrations of sex hormones were measured within 48 hours of echocardiography with assessment of LVEF and left ventricular longitudinal, radial, and circumferential strain. LVEF and GLS were higher in healthy women than in healthy men (63.9 ± 4.2% vs 60.9 ± 5.1% [P interquartile range, 0.04-0.14 ng/mL] vs 0.16 ng/mL [interquartile range, 0.04-0.3 ng/mL], P interquartile range, 1.3-3 ng/mL] vs 2.9 ng/mL [interquartile range, 2.5-3.4 ng/mL], P < .05). In men, LVEF and GLS were negatively correlated with bioavailable testosterone levels (r = -0.3, P ≤ .05, and r = -0.45, P < .01, respectively), while midventricular radial strain was positively correlated with bioavailable testosterone level (r = 0.38, P < .05). The absolute value of circumferential strain was positively correlated with follicle-stimulating hormone (r = 0.65, P < .0001). These data support that the existence of sex dimorphism concerning left ventricular systolic cardiac function is significantly associated with testosterone levels. Copyright © 2017 American Society of Echocardiography. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Salivary gland doses from dental radiographic exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshi, Masaharu; Kato, Kazuo; Wada, Takuro; Antoku, Shigetoshi; Russell, W.J.

    1989-01-01

    Salivary gland doses incurred during dental radiography were measured by phantom dosimetry, and these dose data and data obtained during a two-week survey of Hiroshima and Nagasaki dental hospitals and clinics were used to estimate the respective doses to members of the populations of the two cities. The results obtained were used to supplement previously determined doses to the thyroid gland, lens, and pituitary gland from dental radiography. No significant differences in doses were observed by age, sex or city. Doses to the salivary glands during dental radiography are probably not sufficiently large to cause bias in assessments of atomic bomb survivors for late radiation effects. However, the steadily increasing use of dental radiography underscores the need for continued monitoring of dental radiography doses in the interests of these assessments. (author)

  2. Prospective longitudinal assessment of parotid gland function using dynamic quantitative pertechnate scintigraphy and estimation of dose-response relationship of parotid-sparing radiotherapy in head-neck cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Tejpal; Hotwani, Chandni; Kannan, Sadhana; Master, Zubin; Rangarajan, Venkatesh; Murthy, Vedang; Budrukkar, Ashwini; Ghosh-Laskar, Sarbani; Agarwal, Jai Prakash

    2015-03-15

    To estimate dose-response relationship using dynamic quantitative (99m)Tc-pertechnate scintigraphy in head-neck cancer patients treated with parotid-sparing conformal radiotherapy. Dynamic quantitative pertechnate salivary scintigraphy was performed pre-treatment and subsequently periodically after definitive radiotherapy. Reduction in salivary function following radiotherapy was quantified by salivary excretion fraction (SEF) ratios. Dose-response curves were modeled using standardized methodology to calculate tolerance dose 50 (TD50) for parotid glands. Salivary gland function was significantly affected by radiotherapy with maximal decrease in SEF ratios at 3-months, with moderate functional recovery over time. There was significant inverse correlation between SEF ratios and mean parotid doses at 3-months (r = -0.589, pparotid gland was 35.1Gy (23.6-42.6Gy), 41.3Gy (34.6-48.8Gy), 55.9Gy (47.4-70.0Gy) and 64.3Gy (55.8-70.0Gy) at 3, 12, 24, and 36-months respectively. There is consistent decline in parotid function even after conformal radiotherapy with moderate recovery over time. Dynamic quantitative pertechnate scintigraphy is a simple, reproducible, and minimally invasive test of major salivary gland function.

  3. Thymus Gland Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Thymus Gland, Adult, Anatomy Add to My Pictures View / ... 1500x1200 View Download Large: 3000x2400 View Download Title: Thymus Gland, Adult, Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the thymus ...

  4. Adrenal Gland Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... either benign or malignant. Benign tumors aren't cancer. Malignant ones are. Most adrenal gland tumors are ... and may not require treatment. Malignant adrenal gland cancers are uncommon. Types of tumors include Adrenocortical carcinoma - ...

  5. Homeobox Genes in the Rodent Pineal Gland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rath, Martin Fredensborg; Rohde, Kristian; Klein, David C

    2013-01-01

    The pineal gland is a neuroendocrine gland responsible for nocturnal synthesis of melatonin. During early development of the rodent pineal gland from the roof of the diencephalon, homeobox genes of the orthodenticle homeobox (Otx)- and paired box (Pax)-families are expressed and are essential...... for normal pineal development consistent with the well-established role that homeobox genes play in developmental processes. However, the pineal gland appears to be unusual because strong homeobox gene expression persists in the pineal gland of the adult brain. Accordingly, in addition to developmental...... functions, homeobox genes appear to be key regulators in postnatal phenotype maintenance in this tissue. In this paper, we review ontogenetic and phylogenetic aspects of pineal development and recent progress in understanding the involvement of homebox genes in rodent pineal development and adult function...

  6. Rac1 Controls Both the Secretory Function of the Mammary Gland and Its Remodeling for Successive Gestations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Nasreen; Li, Weiping; Mironov, Aleksander; Streuli, Charles H

    2016-09-12

    An important feature of the mammary gland is its ability to undergo repeated morphological changes during each reproductive cycle with profound tissue expansion in pregnancy and regression in involution. However, the mechanisms that determine the tissue's cyclic regenerative capacity remain elusive. We have now discovered that Cre-Lox ablation of Rac1 in mammary epithelia causes gross enlargement of the epithelial tree and defective alveolar regeneration in a second pregnancy. Architectural defects arise because loss of Rac1 disrupts clearance in involution following the first lactation. We show that Rac1 is crucial for mammary alveolar epithelia to switch from secretion to a phagocytic mode and rapidly remove dying neighbors. Moreover, Rac1 restricts the extrusion of dying cells into the lumen, thus promoting their eradication by live phagocytic neighbors while within the epithelium. Without Rac1, residual milk and cell corpses flood the ductal network, causing gross dilation, chronic inflammation, and defective future regeneration. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Measuring short-term gamma-irradiation effects on mouse salivary gland function using a new saliva collection device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, A L; Johnson, D A; Wu, Y; Wong, G; Ebersole, J L; Yeh, C K

    2001-11-01

    A restraining device was designed specifically for the collection of whole saliva from mice without using anesthesia. As the procedure does not involve surgical cannulation of the salivary glands, saliva can be collected from the same mouse at different times. The time between the injection of a secretory stimulant (pilocarpine) and the appearance of saliva in the mouth (lag time) was 100.5 +/-8.5 s (mean+/-S.E.M., n=10) for control mice. The volume of saliva collected in the first 5 min was three times greater than that collected between 15 and 20 min. The average flow rate for a collection period of 15 min was 16.7 +/-1.8 microl/min (n=10). The flow rate was decreased 50% (P<0.005) whereas the lag time was increased more than 300% (P<0.05) at 24 h after irradiation. The concentrations of a 23.5-kDa protein and a mucin were decreased after irradiation whereas there was no significant effect on the concentration of amylase or peroxidase.

  8. The presence of monoiodinated derivates of daidzein and genistein in human urine and its effect on thyroid gland function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosvorová, Lucie; Mikšátková, Petra; Bičíková, Marie; Kaňová, Nataša; Lapčík, Oldřich

    2012-08-01

    Dietary supplements used by women during menopause are usually based on plant extracts containing isoflavonoids, daidzein and genistein. Genistein is a known inhibitor of many enzymes, including thyroid peroxidase (TPO). In the thyroid follicle, genistein acts as its alternate substrate for the formation of genistein iodinated derivatives. The aim of this study was to search for daidzein- and genistein-iodinated derivatives in urine of isoflavonoid-supplemented women. Additionally, selected phytoestrogens, steroid and thyroid hormones before and after three months of phytoestrogen supplementation were estimated. Urinary levels of free phytoestrogen increased significantly after therapy. They ranged between 0.3-1600, 0.6-670 and 0-206 nmol/L for daidzein, genistein and S-equol, respectively. Monoiodinated derivatives of genistein were observed (0-504 pmol/L) in 60% of the investigated samples. Steroid and thyroid hormone levels were within the normal range and were not significantly altered. The presence of monoiodinated derivates in human urine confirmed that genistein and daidzein may enter human thyroid follicles and influence TPO. Since the levels of the free thyroid hormones were not affected, we propose that the use of phytoestrogen dietary supplements is not associated with the development of thyroid-gland disorders in subjects with adequate iodine intake. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. PPS, a large multidomain protein, functions with sex-lethal to regulate alternative splicing in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Matthew L; Nagengast, Alexis A; Salz, Helen K

    2010-03-05

    Alternative splicing controls the expression of many genes, including the Drosophila sex determination gene Sex-lethal (Sxl). Sxl expression is controlled via a negative regulatory mechanism where inclusion of the translation-terminating male exon is blocked in females. Previous studies have shown that the mechanism leading to exon skipping is autoregulatory and requires the SXL protein to antagonize exon inclusion by interacting with core spliceosomal proteins, including the U1 snRNP protein Sans-fille (SNF). In studies begun by screening for proteins that interact with SNF, we identified PPS, a previously uncharacterized protein, as a novel component of the machinery required for Sxl male exon skipping. PPS encodes a large protein with four signature motifs, PHD, BRK, TFS2M, and SPOC, typically found in proteins involved in transcription. We demonstrate that PPS has a direct role in Sxl male exon skipping by showing first that loss of function mutations have phenotypes indicative of Sxl misregulation and second that the PPS protein forms a complex with SXL and the unspliced Sxl RNA. In addition, we mapped the recruitment of PPS, SXL, and SNF along the Sxl gene using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP), which revealed that, like many other splicing factors, these proteins bind their RNA targets while in close proximity to the DNA. Interestingly, while SNF and SXL are specifically recruited to their predicted binding sites, PPS has a distinct pattern of accumulation along the Sxl gene, associating with a region that includes, but is not limited to, the SxlPm promoter. Together, these data indicate that PPS is different from other splicing factors involved in male-exon skipping and suggest, for the first time, a functional link between transcription and SXL-mediated alternative splicing. Loss of zygotic PPS function, however, is lethal to both sexes, indicating that its role may be of broad significance.

  10. Role of Sex Hormones on Brain Mitochondrial Function, with Special Reference to Aging and Neurodegenerative Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline Gaignard

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The mitochondria have a fundamental role in both cellular energy supply and oxidative stress regulation and are target of the effects of sex steroids, particularly the neuroprotective ones. Aging is associated with a decline in the levels of different steroid hormones, and this decrease may underline some neural dysfunctions. Besides, modifications in mitochondrial functions associated with aging processes are also well documented. In this review, we will discuss studies that describe the modifications of brain mitochondrial function and of steroid levels associated with physiological aging and with neurodegenerative diseases. A special emphasis will be placed on describing and discussing our recent findings concerning the concomitant study of mitochondrial function (oxidative phosphorylation, oxidative stress and brain steroid levels in both young (3-month-old and aged (20-month-old male and female mice.

  11. Age and sex related changes in episodic memory function in middle aged and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundervold, Astri J; Wollschläger, Daniel; Wehling, Eike

    2014-06-01

    Age-related change in episodic memory function is commonly reported in older adults. When detected on neuropsychological tests, it may still be difficult to distinguish normal from pathological changes. The present study investigates age-and sex-related changes in a group of healthy middle-aged and older adults, participating in a three-wave study on cognitive aging. The California Verbal Learning test (CVLT-II) was used to assess their episodic memory function. A cross-sectional analysis of results from the first wave showed higher performance in females than males, with a steeper age-related decline in males. This was confirmed in a longitudinal analysis using a mixed effects regression model, but with a lower age-related change and smaller difference between the sexes. Information about learning strategies and errors in the third wave turned out to contribute significantly to explain change in episodic memory function across the three waves. We argue that the results from the longitudinal analyses are generalizable to the population of healthy middle-aged and older individuals, and that they could be useful in guiding clinicians when evaluating individuals with respect to cognitive change. © 2014 The Authors Scandinavian Journal of Psychology published by Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Mammary gland stem cells

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mammary gland stem cells (MaSC) have not been identified in spite of extensive research spanning over several decades. This has been primarily due to the complexity of mammary gland structure and its development, cell heterogeneity in the mammary gland and the insufficient knowledge about MaSC markers.

  13. Stress and Salivary Glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keremi, Beata; Beck, Anita; Fabian, Tibor Karoly; Fabian, Gabor; Szabo, Geza; Nagy, Akos; Varga, Gabor

    2017-10-30

    Salivary glands produce a bicarbonate-rich fluid containing digestive and protective proteins and other components to be delivered into the gastrointestinal tract. Its function is under strict control of the autonomic nervous system. Salivary electrolyte and fluid secretion are primarily controlled by parasympathetic activity, while protein secretion is primaily triggered by sympathetic stimulation. Stress activates the hypothalamic - pituitary - adrenal axis. The peripheral limb of this axis is the efferent sympathetic/adrenomedullary system. Stress reaction, even if it is sustained for long, does not cause obvious damage to salivary glands. However, stress induces dramatic changes in the constituents of secreted saliva. Since salivary protein secretion is strongly dependent on sympathetic control, changes in saliva can be utilized as sensitive stress indicators. Some of the secreted compounds are known for their protective effect in the mouth and the gut, while others may just pass through the glands from blood plasma because of their chemical nature and the presence of transcellular salivary transporting systems. Indeed, most compounds that appear in blood circulation can also be identified in saliva, although at different concentrations. This work overviews the presently recognized salivary stress biosensors, such as amylase, cortisol, heat shock proteins and other compounds. It also demonstrates that saliva is widely recognised as a diagnostic tool for early and sensitive discovery of salivary and systemic conditions and disorders. At present it may be too early to introduce most of these biomarkers in daily routine diagnostic applications, but advances in salivary biomarker standardisation should permit their wide-range utilization in the future including safe, reliable and non-invasive estimation of acute and chronic stress levels in patients. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  14. Identifying Parathyroid Glands With Carbon Nanoparticle Suspension Does Not Help Protect Parathyroid Function in Thyroid Surgery: A Prospective, Randomized Control Clinical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xu; Chang, Shi; Jiang, Xiaolin; Huang, Peng; Yuan, Zhengtai

    2016-08-01

    Objective We aim to evaluate the technique of identifying parathyroid glands with carbon nanoparticle suspension (CNPS) in thyroid surgeries from the perspectives of degrees of declining intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH), operation time, and time of postoperative stay. Methods A total of 156 patients who underwent thyroid surgeries in General Surgical Department of Xiangya Hospital between May 2012 and May 2015 were involved in the study. A total of 78 patients were injected with CNPS during the surgery (CNPS group); the other 78 patients received normal saline (control group). Cases were classified into 3 surgical approaches: conventional partial thyroidectomy, conventional total thyroidectomy, and endoscopic partial thyroidectomy. Degrees of declining iPTH were tested to determine the severity of parathyroid injury. Operation time and postoperative hospital stay time were recorded. A P value of less than .05 was considered statistically significant. Results For levels of declining iPTH, there was no statistically significant (ss) difference in conventional thyroid surgery. In endoscopic partial thyroidectomy, it was 23.37 ± 16.20 versus 11.94 ± 11.23 pg/mL (P = .02, ss). The operation time of conventional total thyroidectomy was 210.10 ± 83.75 versus 164.84 ± 69.22 minutes (P = .03, ss), while it was 193.04 ± 75.53 versus 127.67 ± 60.06 minutes (P = .007, ss) in endoscopic thyroidectomy. Conclusions CNPS is not beneficial for protecting the function of parathyroid gland in thyroid surgery from the perspective of declining iPTH. Applying CNPS in conventional total thyroidectomy and endoscopic partial thyroidectomy will also lead to significantly prolonged operation time. © The Author(s) 2016.

  15. Indicators of physical and sexual development of adolescent boys, depending on the functional state of the thyroid gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. G. Kamalov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Republic of Dagestan is a region with medium and severe iodine deficiency, which is associated with the development of endemic goiter and subclinical hypothyroidism. Children with goiter with or without it with SG had the worst indicators of physical, psychological and sexual development, tended to chronic somatic pathology.Objective. To examine the connection between the elevated TSH level with indicators of physical and sexual health of boys.Material and methodThere were examined 297 adolescents aged 11-13 years (76 persons in the beginning of puberty and 14-17 years (221 people in the middle and the end of puberty. The anthropometric studies of height, weight were conducted, body mass index BMI was calculated, the degree of sexual development: R - pubic body hair, G-degree sexual development, testicular volume by Prader and the size of the penis, index of virilization, level tireotroponogo hormone (TSH were assessed.Results showed that physical development of boys already in the early stages of dysfunction of the thyroid gland tends to lag behind. This is more evident in the mid to completion of puberty (boys and adolescents 14-17 years of age, secondary sexual characteristics in boys 11-13 years more marked in those with a TSH level of 0.5 to 2.6 IU/l compared with peers with TSH levels from 4.2 to 10.0 IU/l In the subgroup of 14-17 year old boys and teenagers, there is a tendency to the phenomenon of "macroorchidism" beginning at the stage of subclinical hypothyroidism.

  16. Safety and Efficacy of Botulinum Toxin to Preserve Gland Function after Radiotherapy in Patients with Head and Neck Cancer: A Prospective, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blinded Phase I Clinical Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshin Teymoortash

    Full Text Available This prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded phase I clinical trial investigates safety and efficacy of botulinum toxin (BoNT to preserve gland function after radiotherapy in patients with head and neck cancer. Twelve patients with advanced head and neck cancer were injected with BoNT into the submandibular glands prior to primary radiochemotherapy. Six patients received BoNT/A and 6 patients BoNT/A and B, half of each subgroup into their left and the other half into their right gland. As an internal control, sodium chloride was injected into the respective contralateral gland (placebo. For the evaluation of the salivary gland function, technetium pertechnetate salivary gland scintigraphy was performed before and after the end of radiotherapy. BoNT/A and B were well tolerated. Analysis of the scintigraphic data revealed no statistically significant difference between BoNT and placebo regarding the scintigraphic uptake difference (pBoNT/A = 0.84 and pBoNT/A-B = 0.56 for BoNT/A vs. placebo and BoNT/A-B vs. placebo, respectively. We also found no significant difference in treatment between BoNT and placebo in terms of salivary excretion fraction (pBoNT/A = 0.44; pBoNT/A-B = 0.44. This study demonstrates that BoNT can be safely combined with radiochemotherapy. Dosing and timing of BoNT injection should be further investigated for efficacy analysis. Trial Registration German Registry for Clinical Trails DRKS00004595.

  17. Safety and Efficacy of Botulinum Toxin to Preserve Gland Function after Radiotherapy in Patients with Head and Neck Cancer: A Prospective, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blinded Phase I Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teymoortash, Afshin; Pfestroff, Andreas; Wittig, Andrea; Franke, Nora; Hoch, Stephan; Harnisch, Susanne; Schade-Brittinger, Carmen; Hoeffken, Helmut; Engenhart-Cabillic, Rita; Brugger, Markus; Strauch, Konstantin

    2016-01-01

    This prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded phase I clinical trial investigates safety and efficacy of botulinum toxin (BoNT) to preserve gland function after radiotherapy in patients with head and neck cancer. Twelve patients with advanced head and neck cancer were injected with BoNT into the submandibular glands prior to primary radiochemotherapy. Six patients received BoNT/A and 6 patients BoNT/A and B, half of each subgroup into their left and the other half into their right gland. As an internal control, sodium chloride was injected into the respective contralateral gland (placebo). For the evaluation of the salivary gland function, technetium pertechnetate salivary gland scintigraphy was performed before and after the end of radiotherapy. BoNT/A and B were well tolerated. Analysis of the scintigraphic data revealed no statistically significant difference between BoNT and placebo regarding the scintigraphic uptake difference (pBoNT/A = 0.84 and pBoNT/A-B = 0.56 for BoNT/A vs. placebo and BoNT/A-B vs. placebo, respectively). We also found no significant difference in treatment between BoNT and placebo in terms of salivary excretion fraction (pBoNT/A = 0.44; pBoNT/A-B = 0.44). This study demonstrates that BoNT can be safely combined with radiochemotherapy. Dosing and timing of BoNT injection should be further investigated for efficacy analysis. Trial Registration German Registry for Clinical Trails DRKS00004595 PMID:26991494

  18. Sex differences in the intellectual functioning of early school-aged children in rural China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Li

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gender disparities in China are concentrated in poor rural areas and among poor households. The difference in intelligence between boys and girls is less clear in rural China. The purpose of this paper was to assess sex differences in the intellectual function of early school-aged children in rural China. Methods One thousand seven hundred forty four early school-aged offspring of women who had participated in a prenatal supplementation trial with different combinations of micronutrients and continued to reside in two rural counties in China were followed. We measured their Full-Scale IQ (FSIQ, Verbal Comprehension Index (VCI, Working Memory Index (WMI, Perceptual Reasoning Index (PRI and Processing Speed Index (PSI using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-IV. Multilevel analyses were used to assess sex differences in intellectual functioning in 7-10-year-old children in rural China. Results Boys’ adjusted mean FSIQ score was 0.97 points higher (95 % CI: -2.22 − 0.28 than that of girls. Girls obtained higher mean WMI and PSI scores, with 1.32 points (95 % CI: 0.14 − 2.51 and 3.10 points (95 % CI: 1.82–4.38 higher adjusted means, respectively. Boys’ adjusted mean VCI and PRI scores were significantly higher than those of girls, and the mean differences were 2.44 points (95 % CI: 0.95 − 3.94 and 3.68 points (95 % CI: 2.36 − 5.01, respectively. Conclusions There is no evidence to suggest sex differences in the general intelligence of early school-aged children in rural China. However, a difference in general intelligence between 10-year-old boys and girls was evident. Girls and boys in rural China tended to show different specific cognitive abilities.

  19. Normal tissue tolerance to external beam radiation therapy: Salivary glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortholan, C.; Benezery, K.; Bensadoun, R.J.

    2010-01-01

    Xerostomia is one of the most a common complication of radiotherapy for head and neck cancers, affecting quality of life. Parotid glands produce approximately 60% of saliva and submandibular glands 20% of saliva while the rest is secreted by sublingual and accessory salivary glands. Methods of measuring the salivary output are collection of unstimulated or stimulated saliva or 99m Tc-pertechnate scintigraphy. Several studies demonstrated that late salivary dysfunction after radiotherapy has been correlated to the mean parotid gland dose, with recovery occurring with time. Severe xerostomia could be avoided if at one parotid gland is spared to a mean dose of less than approximately 25-30 Gy. Clinical benefit of submandibular gland sparing is more controversial. A mean dose less than 39 Gy could preserve submandibular gland function. This paper aims to review main studies evaluating tolerance dose of salivary glands. (authors)

  20. The Comparison of Sex Education with and without Religious Thoughts in Sexual Function of Married Women

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    Sedigheh Yousefzadeh

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: One of the most important events in human life is marriage. Sexual satisfaction is one of the effective factors in a successful marriage. Accordingly, sexual health education is necessary. Sex education should be in line with the cultural, religious, and social infrastructures of the society. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of sex education with and without religious teachings on sexual performance of married women. Methods: This clinical trial with a pretest-posttest design was performed in four health centers that were selected through multi-stage cluster sampling, in 2013. A total of 64 women were chosen with regard to the inclusion criteria, such as formal marriage and first marriage, age of marriage ≥ 1, married life with husband, monogamous marriage, and participating in training sessions (sexual health education and sexual health based on religious teachings that were held for six weeks. Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI and a demographic characteristics form were used to collect the data. Data analysis was performed using descriptive statistics, t-test, and Pearson's correlation coefficient in SPSS, version 16. Results: In the intervention group, the mean score of Female Sexual Function Index was significantly different before and after the training program (P=0.03. The subgroups of sexual desire, orgasm, and sexual satisfaction in the intervention group and subgroups of arousal and sexual satisfaction in the control group were significantly different after the intervention (P

  1. Sex versus parthenogenesis; immune function in a facultatively parthenogenetic phasmatid (Extatosoma tiaratum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavi, Yasaman; Elgar, Mark Adrian; Jones, Therésa Melanie

    2017-07-01

    Facultative parthenogenetic species, in which females can alternate between sex and parthenogenesis, are useful models to investigate the costs and benefits of sex and parthenogenesis, an ongoing issue in biology. The necessary empirical studies comparing the outcomes of alternative reproductive modes on life history traits are rare and focus mainly on traits directly associated with reproductive fitness. Immune function determines the ability of individuals to defend themselves against injury and disease and is therefore likely to have a significant impact on fitness. Here, we used the facultatively parthenogenetic Australian phasmatid, Extatosoma tiaratum, to investigate the effect of both maternal and offspring mode of conception (sexual or parthenogenetic) on offspring immune function (haemocyte concentration, lytic activity and phenoloxidase activity). We show that when parthenogenesis persists beyond one generation, it has negative effects on immune response in terms of haemocyte concentration and lytic activity. Phenoloxidase activity positively correlates with the level of microsatellite heterozygosity. Moreover, immune response decreases across consecutive sampling weeks, suggesting there are physiological constraints with respect to mounting immune responses in close time intervals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluation of discriminant functions for sexing skulls from visually assessed traits applied in the Rainer Osteological Collection (Bucharest, Romania).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soficaru, A; Constantinescu, M; Culea, M; Ionică, C

    2014-12-01

    The sexing of human skeletal remains based on visual scoring of descriptive traits on the skull is useful for both forensic and bioarchaeological studies, given that many such features preserve well in the field and can be assessed quickly. The goal of our work is to evaluate the accuracy of this method on an age-balanced, known sex, random sample of 360 modern adult crania in the Rainer Osteological Collection. Consistent with Walker (2008), we scored glabella area (G), the mastoid process (Ma), the mental eminence (M), the orbital edge (O) and the nuchal crest (N), on a five-point scale. We generated sex discriminant functions (logistic), selected the most accurate of them, and subsequently applied them to archaeological samples from Romania. Each skull feature showed significant score differences by sex. Eight out of 31 discriminant functions passed criteria of high accuracy (∼90%), sex bias (±2%), and ease of use (direct calculation of sex). The best estimates were obtained for the 30-60 age groups. Further testing these functions on six archaeological samples showed high percentages of agreement with the sex assessed on the coxal bone. The study also indicated that, although easy to learn by novices, the method of visually scoring the skull traits depends on prior experience with human osteology. The accuracy of the method may be influenced by geographical and historical differences which are bound to exist between populations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. The nasus gland: a new gland in soldiers of Angularitermes (Termitidae, Nasutitermitinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šobotník, Jan; Bourguignon, Thomas; Carrijo, Tiago F; Bordereau, Christian; Robert, Alain; Křížková, Barbora; Constantini, Joice P; Cancello, Eliana M

    2015-09-01

    Termites have developed many exocrine glands, generally dedicated to defence or communication. Although a few of these glands occur in all termite species, or represent synapomorphies of larger clades, others are morphological innovations of a single species, or a few related species. Here, we describe the nasus gland, a new gland occurring at the base of the nasus of Angularitermes soldiers. The nasus gland is composed of class 1, 2, and 3 secretory cells, a rare combination that is only shared by the sternal and tergal glands of some termites and cockroaches. The ultrastructural observations suggest that the secretion is produced by class 2 and 3 secretory cells, and released mostly by class 3 cells. The base of the nasus has a rough appearance due to numerous pits bearing openings of canals conducting the secretion from class 3 secretory cells to the exterior. We tentatively assign a defensive function to the nasus gland, although further research is needed to confirm this function. Although the gland is described only from species of Angularitermes, other genera of Nasutitermitinae also present a rough nasus base, suggesting the presence of a similar, possibly homologous, gland. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Left ventricular remodeling and fibrosis: Sex differences and relationship with diastolic function in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

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    Chen, You-Zhou [Department of Cardiology, State Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Disease, Fuwai Hospital, National Center for Cardiovascular Disease, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China); Qiao, Shu-Bin, E-mail: qsbfw@sina.com [Department of Cardiology, State Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Disease, Fuwai Hospital, National Center for Cardiovascular Disease, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China); Hu, Feng-Huan; Yuan, Jian-Song; Yang, Wei-Xian; Cui, Jin-Gang [Department of Cardiology, State Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Disease, Fuwai Hospital, National Center for Cardiovascular Disease, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China); Zhang, Yan [Department of Radiology, State Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Disease, Fuwai Hospital, National Center for Cardiovascular Disease, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China); Zhang, Chang-Lin [Department of Cardiology, State Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Disease, Fuwai Hospital, National Center for Cardiovascular Disease, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • There are significant differences in LV remodeling and fibrosis as divided by sex. • Women have worse diastolic dysfunction compared to men measured by CMR. • LV remodeling and fibrosis correlate with markers of diastolic dysfunction. - Abstract: Objectives: We investigated sex differences in left ventricular (LV) remodeling and fibrosis and their relationship with LV diastolic dysfunction by cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR). Methods: CMR imaging was performed simultaneously in 152 age-matched patients (76 men, 76 women; mean age: 49 ± 9 years) without LV systolic dysfunction. LV remodeling index (LVRI) was calculated as the ratio of LV mass and end-diastolic volume. Diastolic function indexes including peak filling rate (PFR) and time to PFR (tPFR) were evaluated. Extent of late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) was measured. Results: LVRI and extent of LGE were greater in women compared with men (1.48 ± 0.22 vs. 1.36 ± 0.28 g/ml; 13.15 ± 2.48 vs. 11.35 ± 2.34 g, respectively, both P < 0.001). Women had lower PFR and higher tPFR (both P < 0.001) than men. LVRI and the extent of LGE showed significant relationships with parameters of diastolic function in both sex. In a multivariate analysis, LVRI remained a strong independent predictor of PFR and TPFR in women (β = −0.272, P = 0.032; β = 0.348, P = 0.016, respectively), and in men (β = −0.374, P < 0.001; β = 0.660, P < 0.001, respectively). Furthermore, the extent of LGE also remained an independent predictor of PFR in women (β = −0.283, P = 0.033) and men (β = −0.492, P < 0.001). Conclusions: There are prominent sex differences in LV remodeling and myocardial fibrosis. We suggest that the effects of LV remodeling and fibrosis may lead to diastolic dysfunction with greater susceptibility to worse clinical outcome in women.

  5. Left ventricular remodeling and fibrosis: Sex differences and relationship with diastolic function in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, You-Zhou; Qiao, Shu-Bin; Hu, Feng-Huan; Yuan, Jian-Song; Yang, Wei-Xian; Cui, Jin-Gang; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Chang-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • There are significant differences in LV remodeling and fibrosis as divided by sex. • Women have worse diastolic dysfunction compared to men measured by CMR. • LV remodeling and fibrosis correlate with markers of diastolic dysfunction. - Abstract: Objectives: We investigated sex differences in left ventricular (LV) remodeling and fibrosis and their relationship with LV diastolic dysfunction by cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR). Methods: CMR imaging was performed simultaneously in 152 age-matched patients (76 men, 76 women; mean age: 49 ± 9 years) without LV systolic dysfunction. LV remodeling index (LVRI) was calculated as the ratio of LV mass and end-diastolic volume. Diastolic function indexes including peak filling rate (PFR) and time to PFR (tPFR) were evaluated. Extent of late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) was measured. Results: LVRI and extent of LGE were greater in women compared with men (1.48 ± 0.22 vs. 1.36 ± 0.28 g/ml; 13.15 ± 2.48 vs. 11.35 ± 2.34 g, respectively, both P < 0.001). Women had lower PFR and higher tPFR (both P < 0.001) than men. LVRI and the extent of LGE showed significant relationships with parameters of diastolic function in both sex. In a multivariate analysis, LVRI remained a strong independent predictor of PFR and TPFR in women (β = −0.272, P = 0.032; β = 0.348, P = 0.016, respectively), and in men (β = −0.374, P < 0.001; β = 0.660, P < 0.001, respectively). Furthermore, the extent of LGE also remained an independent predictor of PFR in women (β = −0.283, P = 0.033) and men (β = −0.492, P < 0.001). Conclusions: There are prominent sex differences in LV remodeling and myocardial fibrosis. We suggest that the effects of LV remodeling and fibrosis may lead to diastolic dysfunction with greater susceptibility to worse clinical outcome in women

  6. Association of bone morphogenetic protein 6 with exocrine gland dysfunction in patients with Sjögren's syndrome and in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Hongen; Cabrera-Perez, Javier; Lai, Zhenan; Michael, Drew; Weller, Melodie; Swaim, William D; Liu, Xibao; Catalán, Marcelo A; Rocha, Eduardo M; Ismail, Nevien; Afione, Sandra; Rana, Noreen A; Di Pasquale, Giovanni; Alevizos, Ilias; Ambudkar, Indu; Illei, Gabor G; Chiorini, John A

    2013-12-01

    Primary Sjögren's syndrome (SS) is characterized by autoimmune activation and loss of function in secretory epithelia. The present study was undertaken to investigate and characterize changes in the epithelia associated with the loss of gland function in primary SS. To identify changes in epithelial gene expression, custom microarrays were probed with complementary RNA (cRNA) isolated from minor salivary glands (MSGs) of female patients with primary SS who had low focus scores and low salivary flow rates, and the results were compared with those obtained using cRNA from the MSGs of sex-matched healthy volunteers. The effect of bone morphogenetic protein 6 (BMP-6) on salivary gland function was tested using adeno-associated virus-mediated gene transfer to the salivary glands of C57BL/6 mice. A significant increase in expression of BMP-6 was observed in RNA isolated from SS patients compared with healthy volunteers. Overexpression of BMP-6 locally in the salivary or lacrimal glands of mice resulted in the loss of fluid secretion as well as changes in the connective tissue of the salivary gland. Assessment of the fluid movement in either isolated acinar cells from mice overexpressing BMP-6 or a human salivary gland cell line cultured with BMP-6 revealed a loss in volume regulation in these cells. Lymphocytic infiltration in the submandibular gland of BMP-6 vector-treated mice was increased. No significant changes in the production of proinflammatory cytokines or autoantibodies associated with SS (anti-Ro/SSA and anti-La/SSB) were found after BMP-6 overexpression. In addition to identifying BMP-6 expression in association with xerostomia and xerophthalmia in primary SS, the present results suggest that BMP-6-induced salivary and lacrimal gland dysfunction in primary SS is independent of the autoantibodies and immune activation associated with the disease. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  7. Association of Bone Morphogenetic Protein 6 With Exocrine Gland Dysfunction in Patients With Sjögren’s Syndrome and in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Hongen; Cabrera-Perez, Javier; Lai, Zhenan; Michael, Drew; Weller, Melodie; Swaim, William D.; Liu, Xibao; Catalán, Marcelo A.; Rocha, Eduardo M.; Ismail, Nevien; Afione, Sandra; Rana, Noreen A.; Di Pasquale, Giovanni; Alevizos, Ilias; Ambudkar, Indu; Illei, Gabor G.; Chiorini, John A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Primary Sjögren’s syndrome (SS) is characterized by autoimmune activation and loss of function in secretory epithelia. The present study was undertaken to investigate and characterize changes in the epithelia associated with the loss of gland function in primary SS. Methods To identify changes in epithelial gene expression, custom microarrays were probed with complementary RNA (cRNA) isolated from minor salivary glands (MSGs) of female patients with primary SS who had low focus scores and low salivary flow rates, and the results were compared with those obtained using cRNA from the MSGs of sex-matched healthy volunteers. The effect of bone morphogenetic protein 6 (BMP-6) on salivary gland function was tested using adeno-associated virus–mediated gene transfer to the salivary glands of C57BL/6 mice. Results A significant increase in expression of BMP-6 was observed in RNA isolated from SS patients compared with healthy volunteers. Overexpression of BMP-6 locally in the salivary or lacrimal glands of mice resulted in the loss of fluid secretion as well as changes in the connective tissue of the salivary gland. Assessment of the fluid movement in either isolated acinar cells from mice overexpressing BMP-6 or a human salivary gland cell line cultured with BMP-6 revealed a loss in volume regulation in these cells. Lymphocytic infiltration in the submandibular gland of BMP-6 vector–treated mice was increased. No significant changes in the production of proinflammatory cytokines or autoantibodies associated with SS (anti-Ro/SSA and anti-La/SSB) were found after BMP-6 overexpression. Conclusion In addition to identifying BMP-6 expression in association with xerostomia and xerophthalmia in primary SS, the present results suggest that BMP-6–induced salivary and lacrimal gland dysfunction in primary SS is independent of the autoantibodies and immune activation associated with the disease. PMID:23982860

  8. Transcriptional profiling reveals gland-specific differential expression in the three major salivary glands of the adult mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xin; Oei, Maria S; Ovitt, Catherine E; Sincan, Murat; Melvin, James E

    2018-04-01

    RNA-Seq was used to better understand the molecular nature of the biological differences among the three major exocrine salivary glands in mammals. Transcriptional profiling found that the adult murine parotid, submandibular, and sublingual salivary glands express greater than 14,300 protein-coding genes, and nearly 2,000 of these genes were differentially expressed. Principle component analysis of the differentially expressed genes revealed three distinct clusters according to gland type. The three salivary gland transcriptomes were dominated by a relatively few number of highly expressed genes (6.3%) that accounted for more than 90% of transcriptional output. Of the 912 transcription factors expressed in the major salivary glands, greater than 90% of them were detected in all three glands, while expression for ~2% of them was enriched in an individual gland. Expression of these unique transcription factors correlated with sublingual and parotid specific subsets of both highly expressed and differentially expressed genes. Gene ontology analyses revealed that the highly expressed genes common to all glands were associated with global functions, while many of the genes expressed in a single gland play a major role in the function of that gland. In summary, transcriptional profiling of the three murine major salivary glands identified a limited number of highly expressed genes, differentially expressed genes, and unique transcription factors that represent the transcriptional signatures underlying gland-specific biological properties.

  9. The development of functional mapping by three sex-related loci on the third whorl of different sex types of Carica papaya L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Yu Lee

    Full Text Available Carica papaya L. is an important economic crop worldwide and is used as a model plant for sex-determination research. To study the different flower sex types, we screened sex-related genes using alternative splicing sequences (AS-seqs from a transcriptome database of the three flower sex types, i.e., males, females, and hermaphrodites, established at 28 days before flowering using 15 bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs of C. papaya L. After screening, the cDNA regions of the three sex-related loci, including short vegetative phase-like (CpSVPL, the chromatin assembly factor 1 subunit A-like (CpCAF1AL, and the somatic embryogenesis receptor kinase (CpSERK, which contained eight sex-related single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs from the different sex types of C. papaya L., were genotyped using high-resolution melting (HRM. The three loci were examined regarding the profiles of the third whorl, as described below. CpSVPL, which had one SNP associated with the three sex genotypes, was highly expressed in the male and female sterile flowers (abnormal hermaphrodite flowers that lacked the fourth whorl structure. CpCAF1AL, which had three SNPs associated with the male genotype, was highly expressed in male and normal hermaphrodite flowers, and had no AS-seqs, whereas it exhibited low expression and an AS-seqs in intron 11 in abnormal hermaphrodite flowers. Conversely, carpellate flowers (abnormal hermaphrodite flowers showed low expression of CpSVPL and AS-seqs in introns 5, 6, and 7 of CpSERK, which contained four SNPs associated with the female genotype. Specifically, the CpSERK and CpCAF1AL loci exhibited no AS-seq expression in the third whorl of the male and normal hermaphrodite flowers, respectively, and variance in the AS-seq expression of all other types of flowers. Functional mapping of the third whorl of normal hermaphrodites indicated no AS-seq expression in CpSERK, low CpSVPL expression, and, for CpCAF1AL, high expression and no AS

  10. Sex differences in peripheral arterial disease: leg symptoms and physical functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Mary McGrae; Greenland, Philip; Liu, Kiang; Criqui, Michael H; Guralnik, Jack M; Celic, Lillian; Chan, Cheeling

    2003-02-01

    To compare lower extremity functioning and leg symptoms between women and men with peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Cross-sectional. Three Chicago-area medical centers. One hundred eighty-seven women and 273 men with PAD identified consecutively in patients in the noninvasive vascular laboratories and a general medicine practice at the three medical centers. Walking speed, 6-minute walk, accelerometer-measured 7-day physical activity, and a summary performance score. The summary performance score combines data on walking velocity, time for five repeated chair rises, and standing balance to achieve a score on a 0 to 12 scale (12 = best). Women with PAD were older and had a lower prevalence of prior leg revascularization, a higher prevalence of spinal stenosis, and a lower prevalence of other cardiovascular disease than men with PAD. Mean ankle brachial index (ABI) values +/- standard deviation were similar in women and men with PAD (0.64 +/- 0.15 vs 0.66 +/- 0.14, P =.15). Women with PAD were significantly more likely than men with PAD to have exertional leg pain that sometimes begins at rest (27.8% vs 13.2%, P speed (0.81 vs 0.92 m/s, P vs 1,182 feet, P vs 9.8, P leg symptoms. After adjusting for leg strength, sex differences in 6-minute walk performance and summary performance score were attenuated modestly (1,089 vs 1,177 feet for 6-minute walk, P =.022 and 9.2 vs 9.8 for summary performance score, P =.027). Women with PAD had a higher prevalence of leg pain on exertion and rest, poorer functioning, and greater walking impairment from leg symptoms than men with PAD. A higher prevalence of spinal stenosis in women may explain the observed sex differences in leg symptoms. Poorer leg strength in women may contribute to poorer lower extremity functioning in women with PAD than in men with PAD.

  11. Exocrine glands in the legs of the social wasp Vespula vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijs, Catherine; Billen, Johan

    2015-09-01

    This study brings a survey of the exocrine glands in the legs of Vespula vulgaris wasps. We studied workers, males, virgin queens as well as mated queens. A variety of 17 glands is found in the different leg segments. Among these, five glands are novel exocrine structures for social insects (trochanter-femur gland, ventrodistal tibial gland, distal tibial sac gland, ventral tibial gland, and ventral tarsomere gland). Most leg glands are present in the three leg pairs of all castes. This may indicate a mechanical function. This is likely for the numerous glands that occur near the articulation between the various leg segments, where lubricant production may be expected. Other possible functions include antenna cleaning, acting as a hydraulic system, or pheromonal. Further research including leg-related behavioural observations and chemical analyses may help to clarify the functions of these glandular structures in the legs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. [Serotonine and sex steroids in the system of neuroendocrine regulation of amygdala functions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhmadeev, A V; Kalimullina, L B

    2013-01-01

    This review contains modern information about the representation of serotoninergic system in the Amygdala with detailed characteristics of the localization of serotonine fibers and serotonine receptors in nuclear and paleocortical structures. These data indicate the joint participation of serotonine and sex steroids in the regulation of the neuroedocrine function of Amygdala, which have a modulating effect on the secretion and release gonadotropine centers and sexual behavior centers in the hypothalamic area of the brain. The survey also gives information about changes in the exchange of serotonine in the Amygdala's structures in the process of alimentary, maternal, aggressive-defensive and emotional behavior. Systematizes the data on the role of serotonin and sex steroids in the mechanisms involved in the stress response of Amygdala, and its participation in the formation of mood, emotions and the genesis of depression. Presented data on changes in morphometric characteristics of brain structures caused by polymorphic variants of genes of serotoninergic systems and data on the asymmetry of its content.

  13. The influence of abnormal thyroid function on sex hormones and bone metabolism in female patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiaohong; Chu Shaolin; Lei Qiufang; Ye Peihong; Chai Luhua

    2001-01-01

    Objectives: To explore the influence of hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism on sex hormones and bone metabolism in female patients. Method: A single photon bone absorptiometry was used to measure calcareous bone mineral density (BMD) in 91 female patients with hyperthyroidism, and 37 female patients with hypothyroidism caused by Hashimoto's thyroiditis and 51 healthy female subjects with euthyroid. In addition the serum levels of BGP and PTH were determined by means of IRMA. Serum levels of FSH and E 2 were determined by RIA. Results: Serum levels of FSH , E 2 and BGP in hyperthyroidism group were significantly higher than those in control group. The serum levels of PTH were slightly lower than that in control group (P 2 and BGP were significantly lower than those in control group. The assessment of BMD showed that the prevalence rate of osteoporosis (OP) both in hyperthyroidism groups and in hypothyroidism groups was significantly higher than control group. The peak bone density in young and middle-aged female was decreased, and OP was more common in over 60-year-aged female with hypothyroidism. Conclusions: Female patients with abnormal thyroid function are often associated with abnormality of sex hormones. It leads to increasing the incidence of OP. The attack age of OP tends to be younger, especially aged patients with lymphocytic hypothyroidism increases more markedly. Therefore, BMD should be measured in all female patients with a variety of thyroid diseases

  14. Oxytocin Modulates Meta-Mood as a Function of Age and Sex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie eEbner

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Attending to and understanding one’s own feelings are components of meta-mood and constitute important socio-affective skills across the entire lifespan. Growing evidence suggests a neuromodulatory role of the neuropeptide oxytocin on various socio-affective processes. Going beyond previous work that almost exclusively examined young men and perceptions of emotions in others, the current study investigated effects of intranasal oxytocin on meta-mood in young and older men and women. In a double-blind between-group design, participants were randomly assigned to self-administer either intranasal oxytocin or a placebo before responding to items from the Trait Meta-Mood Scale about attention to feelings and clarity of feelings. In contrast to older women, oxytocin relative to placebo increased attention to feelings in older men. Oxytocin relative to placebo enhanced meta-mood in young female participants but reduced it in older female participants. This pattern of findings supports an age- and sex-differential modulatory function of the neuropeptide oxytocin on meta-mood, possibly associated with neurobiological differences with age and sex.

  15. Pain modality- and sex-specific effects of COMT genetic functional variants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belfer, Inna; Segall, Samantha K.; Lariviere, William R.; Smith, Shad B.; Dai, Feng; Slade, Gary G.; Rashid, Naim U.; Mogil, Jeffrey S.; Campbell, Claudia; Edwards, Robert; Liu, Qian; Bair, Eric; Maixner, William; Diatchenko, Luda

    2013-01-01

    The enzyme catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) metabolizes catecholamine neurotransmitters involved in a number of physiological functions including pain perception. Both human and mouse COMT genes possess functional polymorphisms contributing to inter-individual variability in pain phenotypes such as sensitivity to noxious stimuli, severity of clinical pain and response to pain treatment. In this study, we found that the effects of Comt functional variation in mice are modality-specific. Spontaneous inflammatory nociception and thermal nociception behaviors were correlated the most with the presence of the B2 SINE transposon insertion residing in the 3’UTR mRNA region. Similarly, in humans, COMT functional haplotypes were associated with thermal pain perception and with capsaicin-induced pain. Furthermore, COMT genetic variations contributed to pain behaviors in mice and pain ratings in humans in a sex-specific manner. The ancestral Comt variant, without a B2 SINE insertion, was more strongly associated with sensitivity to capsaicin in female versus male mice. In humans, the haplotype coding for low COMT activity increased capsaicin-induced pain perception in women, but not men. These findings reemphasize the fundamental contribution of COMT to pain processes, and provide a fine-grained resolution of this contribution at the genetic level that can be used to guide future studies in the area of pain genetics. PMID:23701723

  16. Injury history, sex, and performance on the functional movement screen and Y balance test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimera, Nicole J; Smith, Craig A; Warren, Meghan

    2015-05-01

    Research is limited regarding the effects of injury or surgery history and sex on the Functional Movement Screen (FMS) and Y Balance Test (YBT). To determine if injury or surgery history or sex affected results on the FMS and YBT. Cross-sectional study. Athletic training facilities. A total of 200 National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I female (n = 92; age = 20.0 ± 1.4 years, body mass index = 22.8 ± 3.1 kg/m(2)) and male (n = 108; age = 20.0 ± 1.5 years, body mass index = 27.0 ± 4.6 kg/m(2)) athletes were screened; 170 completed the FMS, and 190 completed the YBT. A self-reported questionnaire identified injury or surgery history and sex. The FMS assessed movement during the patterns of deep squat, hurdle step, in-line lunge, shoulder mobility, impingement-clearing test, straight-leg raise, trunk stability push-up, press-up clearing test, rotary stability, and posterior-rocking clearing test. The YBT assessed balance while participants reached in anterior, posteromedial, and posterolateral directions. The FMS composite score (CS; range, 0-21) and movement pattern score (range, 0-3), the YBT CS (% lower extremity length), and YBT anterior, posteromedial, and posterolateral asymmetry (difference between limbs in centimeters). Independent-samples t tests established differences in mean FMS CS, YBT CS, and YBT asymmetry. The Mann-Whitney U test identified differences in FMS movement patterns. We found lower overall FMS CSs for the following injuries or surgeries: hip (injured = 12.7 ± 3.1, uninjured = 14.4 ± 2.3; P = .005), elbow (injured = 12.1 ± 2.8, uninjured = 14.3 ± 2.4; P = .02), and hand (injured = 12.3 ± 2.9, uninjured = 14.3 ± 2.3; P = .006) injuries and shoulder surgery (surgery = 12.0 ± 1.0, no surgery = 14.3 ± 2.4; P lunge: P lunge: P = .01). Female athletes performed worse in FMS movement patterns for trunk (P in the lunge (P = .008), shoulder mobility (P < .001), and straight-leg raise (P < .001). Anterior asymmetry was greater

  17. Nuclear localization and function of polypeptide ligands and their receptors: a new paradigm for hormone specificity within the mammary gland?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clevenger, Charles V

    2003-01-01

    The specific effects triggered by polypeptide hormone/growth factor stimulation of mammary cells were considered mediated solely by receptor-associated signaling networks. A compelling body of new data, however, clearly indicates that polypeptide ligands and/or their receptors are transported into the nucleus, where they function directly to regulate the expression of specific transcription factors and gene loci. The intranuclear function of these complexes may contribute to the explicit functions associated with a given ligand, and may serve as new targets for pharmacologic intervention

  18. Chapter 13. Adrenal glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roux, H.; Paulin, R.

    1975-01-01

    The condition of isotopic methods to the functional and morphological exploration of the adrenal glands is shown, with emphasis on the fact that althought the cortico-adrenal responds to these methods the same does not apply to the medullo-adrenal, which expresses its morphological changes by producing deformations on the cortical image. Funtional tests, mainly directed at the cortico-adrenal, are described first: study of exchangeable sodium and potassium; determination of the plasma concentration and metabolic clearance of some steroid hormones (cortisol, corticosterone, aldosterone); evaluation of the renin activity. These tests are based on competitive analysis and radioimmunological methods. Morphological tests are examined next. Adrenal scintigraphy uses a simple technique (intraveinous administration of 131 I 19-iodocholesterol with no special preliminary preparation) which gives good images and is only limited now by the need to avoid over exposure of the gonads to ionising radiations [fr

  19. Cryopreservation of Parathyroid Glands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlon A. Guerrero

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The risk of permanent hypoparathyroidism following thyroid and parathyroid surgery is around 1% in the hands of experienced endocrine surgeons. Although this complication is rare, rendering a patient permanently aparathyroid has significant consequences on the health and quality of life of the patient. Immediate autotransplantation of parathyroid glands that are injured or unintentionally removed offers the best possibility of graft viability and functionality. However, since the majority of cases of hypoparathyroidism are transient, immediate autotransplantation can complicate postoperative surveillance in certain patients, especially those with primary hyperparathyroidism. Cryopreservation of parathyroid tissue is an alternate technique that was developed to treat patients with permanent hypoparathyroidism. This method allows for parathyroid tissue to be stored and then autotransplanted in a delayed fashion once permanent hypoparathyroidism is confirmed. This article provides a contemporary review on cryopreservation of parathyroid tissue and its current role in thyroid and parathyroid surgery.

  20. Sex-related differences in joint-angle-specific functional hamstring-to-quadriceps strength ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Ashker, Said; Carson, Brian P; Ayala, Francisco; De Ste Croix, Mark

    2017-03-01

    To examine and compare sex-related differences in the functioning of the hamstrings and quadriceps muscles and the isokinetic hamstrings eccentric-to-quadriceps concentric functional ratio (H/Q FUNC ). Fifty male and 46 female young adults completed this study. Each participant carried out an isokinetic assessment to determine isokinetic concentric and eccentric torques during knee extension and flexion actions at 3 different angular velocities (60, 180 and 300°/s) adopting a lying position. The H/Q FUNC was calculated using peak torque (PT) values and 3 different joint-angle-specific torque values (15°, 30° and 45° of knee extension). A repeated measures analysis of variance was used to compare the results, and post hoc analyses using Friedman correction were employed. There were statistically significant effects of angular velocity, joint angle and sex on the H/Q FUNC (p ratio in both males and females decreases closer to full knee extension and with increasing movement velocity. The H/Q FUNC was also significantly lower in females compared to males, irrespective of moment velocity and joint angle. The findings of the current study reinforce the need to examine the H/Q FUNC ratio closer to full knee extension (where knee injury is most likely to occur) rather than using PT values which may not be as informative, as well as to focus preventive and rehabilitation training programmes on reducing quadriceps dominance by enhancing eccentric hamstring strength (especially in females who are at higher risk of injury). III.

  1. Identification and functional characterization of sex pheromone receptors in the common cutworm (Spodoptera litura).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin; Yan, Shuwei; Liu, Yang; Jacquin-Joly, Emmanuelle; Dong, Shuanglin; Wang, Guirong

    2015-01-01

    Male moths can finely discriminate the sex pheromone emitted by conspecific females from similar compounds. Pheromone receptors, expressed on the dendritic membrane of sensory neurons housed in the long trichoid sensilla of antennae, are thought to be associated with the pheromone reception. In this study, we identified and functionally characterized 4 pheromone receptors from the antennae of Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). A tissue distribution analysis showed that the expression of the 4 SlituPRs was restricted to antennae. In addition, SlituOR6 and SlituOR13 were specifically expressed in male antennae whereas SlituOR11 and SlituOR16 were male-biased. Functional investigation by heterologous expression in Xenopus oocytes revealed that SlituOR6 was specifically tuned to the second major pheromone component, Z9,E12-14:OAc, SlituOR13 was equally tuned to Z9,E12-14:OAc and Z9-14:OAc, with a small response to the major pheromone component Z9,E11-14:OAc, SlituOR16 significantly responded to the behavioral antagonist Z9-14:OH, whereas SlituOR11 did not show response to any of the pheromone compounds tested in this study. Our results provide molecular data to better understand the mechanisms of sex pheromone detection in the moth S. litura and bring clues to investigate the evolution of the sexual communication channel in closely related species through comparison with previously reported pheromone receptors in other Spodoptera species. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. [Efficacy of calcium antagonists depending on the functional state of parathyroid glands in patients with hypertensive disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskenderov, B G; Burmistrova, L F; Sisina, O N; Lokhina, T V

    2009-01-01

    Hypotensive and cardioprotective effects of amlodipine (normodipine) were evaluated in 65 patients (35 men and 30 women) with grade II essential arterial hypertension treated with regard for calcium-controlling parathyroid function. 24 hour Holter monitoring, Doppler-cardiography, and blood PTH measurement were performed before and 6 months after the onset of therapy. The patients were divided into 3 groups depending on PTH levels (0-25, 26-50, and over 51 pg/ml). Changes of structural and functional cardiac parameters and AD were most prominent in group 3 in the form of decreased left ventricular hypertrophy, improved ventricular diastolic function, and marked hypotensive effect. The group was significantly different from group 1 in terms of these characteristics. Univariate analysis revealed correlation of PTH levels with left ventricular mass, mean daily systolic and diastolic AD, and left ventricular diastolic function. It is concluded that evaluation of calcium-regulating parathyroid function is necessary for optimization of antihypertensive therapy with calcium antagonists.

  3. Sex differences in associations of cardio-ankle vascular index with left ventricular function and geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Zi; Pellikka, Patricia A; Kullo, Iftikhar J

    2017-12-01

    The cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI) is a measure of global arterial stiffness. We hypothesized that CAVI is associated with left ventricular (LV) function and geometry in individuals without structural heart disease. We measured CAVI in 600 participants (mean age 60.3±14.6 years, 54% men) without history of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease who were referred for transthoracic echocardiography. Linear regression analysis was used to assess the association of CAVI with LV function (peak mitral annular systolic s' and early diastolic velocity e') and structure (LV mass index (LVMI) and relative wall thickness (RWT)). Older age, male sex, lower body mass index, history of hypertension, diabetes and chronic kidney disease were each associated with a higher CAVI (adjusted R 2 = 0.56, all p 0.1 in men). In conclusion, a higher CAVI, a measure of global arterial stiffness, is associated with worse LV systolic function, worse diastolic relaxation, and greater LV RWT in both men and women, and with LVMI in women.

  4. Does 131I-treatment of goitre result in an acute increase in the volume a function of the thyroid gland?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nygaard, B.; Faber, J.O.; Hegedues, L.

    1995-01-01

    Many textbooks claim that radioiodine ( 131 I) treatment should be avoided in treatment of a goitre with substernal extension, due to fear of acute swelling of the gland with resulting respiratory problems. We examined patients with multinodular goitre, either nontoxic (n=20) or toxic (n=10) after treatment with 131 I. An ultrasonically determined thyroid volume and thyroid function variables were investigated before and two, seven, 14, 21, 28 and 35 days after treatment. In nontoxic goitres the thyroid volume did not increase significantly, the maximum increase in the median volume being 4% on day 7. Serum levels of free T 3 and free T 4 indices increased by 20% (day 7) and 13% (day 14) (p=0.002), respectively. Likewise thyroid volume in toxic nodular goitre did not change significantly after 131 I treatment. None of the patients presented symptoms of tracheal compression. We conclude that 131 I treatment of nontoxic as well as toxic multinodular goitre does not seem to increase thyroid volume. (au) 18 refs

  5. Ligation of the left renal vein in epm1-wistar rats: functional and morphologic alterations in the kidneys, testes and suprarenal glands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Costa Baptista-Silva

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The ligation of the left renal vein (LLVR in man is a contraversial procedure in view of the risks of lesion to the renal parenchyma. With the objective of studying the morphologic and functional alterations caused by these lesions, we conducted experimental research with rats. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 64 male adult EPM1-WISTAR rats were used, divided into 8 groups - 4 for LLRV and four for control. Each LLRV group and corresponding control group were sacrificed progressively on the 7th, 15th, 30th and 60th day after the initial surgery. RESULTS: We found morphofunctional alterations only in animals that underwent LLRV in the four periods of sacrifice.The proteinuria creatinine in serum, testosterone in serum and serum corticosterone in serum showed practically no alteration in relation to the normal values for rats. Statistically significant severe histological lesions were found in the kidneys and testes of the LLRV groups. Lesions in the suprarenal glands were also present in these groups, but no sufficient to demonstrate statistical significance CONCLUSION: Based on these results we can conclude that the ligation of the left renal vein is a procedure of high risk in these animals.

  6. Histone demethylase JMJD2B functions as a co-factor of estrogen receptor in breast cancer proliferation and mammary gland development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahito Kawazu

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Estrogen is a key regulator of normal function of female reproductive system and plays a pivotal role in the development and progression of breast cancer. Here, we demonstrate that JMJD2B (also known as KDM4B constitutes a key component of the estrogen signaling pathway. JMJD2B is expressed in a high proportion of human breast tumors, and that expression levels significantly correlate with estrogen receptor (ER positivity. In addition, 17-beta-estradiol (E2 induces JMJD2B expression in an ERα dependent manner. JMJD2B interacts with ERα and components of the SWI/SNF-B chromatin remodeling complex. JMJD2B is recruited to ERα target sites, demethylates H3K9me3 and facilitates transcription of ER responsive genes including MYB, MYC and CCND1. As a consequence, knockdown of JMJD2B severely impairs estrogen-induced cell proliferation and the tumor formation capacity of breast cancer cells. Furthermore, Jmjd2b-deletion in mammary epithelial cells exhibits delayed mammary gland development in female mice. Taken together, these findings suggest an essential role for JMJD2B in the estrogen signaling, and identify JMJD2B as a potential therapeutic target in breast cancer.

  7. Effects of Sex Education and Kegel Exercises on the Sexual Function of Postmenopausal Women: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazarpour, Soheila; Simbar, Masoumeh; Ramezani Tehrani, Fahimeh; Alavi Majd, Hamid

    2017-07-01

    The sex lives of women are strongly affected by menopause. Non-pharmacologic approaches to improving the sexual function of postmenopausal women might prove effective. To compare two methods of intervention (formal sex education and Kegel exercises) with routine postmenopausal care services in a randomized clinical trial. A randomized clinical trial was conducted of 145 postmenopausal women residing in Chalus and Noshahr, Iran. Their sexual function statuses were assessed using the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) questionnaire. After obtaining written informed consents, they were randomly assigned to one of three groups: (i) formal sex education, (ii) Kegel exercises, or (iii) routine postmenopausal care. After 12 weeks, all participants completed the FSFI again. Analysis of covariance was used to compare the participants' sexual function before and after the interventions, and multiple linear regression analysis was used to determine the predictive factors for variation in FSFI scores in the postintervention stage. Sexual function was assessed using the FSFI. There were no statistically significant differences in demographic and socioeconomic characteristics and FSFI total scores among the three study groups at the outset of the study. After 12 weeks, the scores of arousal in the formal sex education and Kegel groups were significantly higher compared with the control group (3.38 and 3.15 vs 2.77, respectively). The scores of orgasm and satisfaction in the Kegel group were significantly higher compared with the control group (4.43 and 4.88 vs 3.95 and 4.39, respectively). Formal sex education and Kegel exercises were used as two non-pharmacologic approaches to improve the sexual function of women after menopause. The main strength of this study was its design: a well-organized randomized trial using precise eligibility criteria with a small sample loss. The second strength was the methods of intervention used, namely non-pharmacologic approaches that are

  8. Iatrogenic causes of salivary gland dysfunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schubert, M.M.; Izutsu, K.T.

    1987-01-01

    Saliva is important for maintaining oral health and function. There are instances when medical therapy is intended to decrease salivary flow, such as during general anesthesia, but most instances of iatrogenic salivary gland dysfunction represent untoward or unavoidable side-effects. The clinical expression of the salivary dysfunction can range from very minor transient alteration in saliva flow to a total loss of salivary function. The most common forms of therapy that interfere with salivation are drug therapies, cancer therapies (radiation or chemotherapy), and surgical therapy. These therapies can affect salivation by a number of different mechanisms that include: disruption of autonomic nerve function related to salivation, interference with acinar or ductal cell functions related to salivation, cytotoxicity, indirect effects (vasoconstriction/dilation, fluid and electrolyte balance, etc.), and physical trauma to salivary glands and nerves. A wide variety of drugs is capable of increasing or decreasing salivary flow by mimicking autonomic nervous system actions or by directly acting on cellular processes necessary for salivation: drugs can also indirectly affect salivation by altering fluid and electrolyte balance or by affecting blood flow to the glands. Ionizing radiation can cause permanent damage to salivary glands, damage that is manifest as acinar cell destruction with subsequent atrophy and fibrosis of the glands. Cancer chemotherapy can cause changes in salivation, but the changes are usually much less severe and only transient. Finally, surgical and traumatic injuries interfere with salivation because of either disruption of gland innervation or gross physical damage (or removal) of glandular tissue (including ducts)

  9. Prospective longitudinal assessment of parotid gland function using dynamic quantitative pertechnate scintigraphy and estimation of dose–response relationship of parotid-sparing radiotherapy in head-neck cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Tejpal; Hotwani, Chandni; Kannan, Sadhana; Master, Zubin; Rangarajan, Venkatesh; Murthy, Vedang; Budrukkar, Ashwini; Ghosh-Laskar, Sarbani; Agarwal, Jai Prakash

    2015-01-01

    To estimate dose–response relationship using dynamic quantitative 99m Tc-pertechnate scintigraphy in head-neck cancer patients treated with parotid-sparing conformal radiotherapy. Dynamic quantitative pertechnate salivary scintigraphy was performed pre-treatment and subsequently periodically after definitive radiotherapy. Reduction in salivary function following radiotherapy was quantified by salivary excretion fraction (SEF) ratios. Dose–response curves were modeled using standardized methodology to calculate tolerance dose 50 (TD50) for parotid glands. Salivary gland function was significantly affected by radiotherapy with maximal decrease in SEF ratios at 3-months, with moderate functional recovery over time. There was significant inverse correlation between SEF ratios and mean parotid doses at 3-months (r = −0.589, p < 0.001); 12-months (r = −0.554, p < 0.001); 24-months (r = −0.371, p = 0.002); and 36-months (r = −0.350, p = 0.005) respectively. Using a post-treatment SEF ratio <45% as the scintigraphic criteria to define severe salivary toxicity, the estimated TD50 value with its 95% confidence interval (95% CI) for the parotid gland was 35.1Gy (23.6-42.6Gy), 41.3Gy (34.6-48.8Gy), 55.9Gy (47.4-70.0Gy) and 64.3Gy (55.8-70.0Gy) at 3, 12, 24, and 36-months respectively. There is consistent decline in parotid function even after conformal radiotherapy with moderate recovery over time. Dynamic quantitative pertechnate scintigraphy is a simple, reproducible, and minimally invasive test of major salivary gland function. The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s13014-015-0371-2) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users

  10. Separate effects of sex hormones and sex chromosomes on brain structure and function revealed by high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging and spatial navigation assessment of the Four Core Genotype mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corre, Christina; Friedel, Miriam; Vousden, Dulcie A; Metcalf, Ariane; Spring, Shoshana; Qiu, Lily R; Lerch, Jason P; Palmert, Mark R

    2016-03-01

    Males and females exhibit several differences in brain structure and function. To examine the basis for these sex differences, we investigated the influences of sex hormones and sex chromosomes on brain structure and function in mice. We used the Four Core Genotype (4CG) mice, which can generate both male and female mice with XX or XY sex chromosome complement, allowing the decoupling of sex chromosomes from hormonal milieu. To examine whole brain structure, high-resolution ex vivo MRI was performed, and to assess differences in cognitive function, mice were trained on a radial arm maze. Voxel-wise and volumetric analyses of MRI data uncovered a striking independence of hormonal versus chromosomal influences in 30 sexually dimorphic brain regions. For example, the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and the parieto-temporal lobe of the cerebral cortex displayed steroid-dependence while the cerebellar cortex, corpus callosum, and olfactory bulbs were influenced by sex chromosomes. Spatial learning and memory demonstrated strict hormone-dependency with no apparent influence of sex chromosomes. Understanding the influences of chromosomes and hormones on brain structure and function is important for understanding sex differences in brain structure and function, an endeavor that has eventual implications for understanding sex biases observed in the prevalence of psychiatric disorders.

  11. Anatomy and Histology of Rodent and Human Major Salivary Glands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Osamu; Mizobe, Kenichi; Bando, Yasuhiko; Sakiyama, Koji

    2012-01-01

    Major salivary glands of both humans and rodents consist of three pairs of macroscopic glands: parotid, submandibular, and sublingual. These glands secrete serous, mucous or mixed saliva via the proper main excretory ducts connecting the glandular bodies with the oral cavity. A series of discoveries about the salivary ducts in the 17th century by Niels Stensen (1638–1686), Thomas Wharton (1614–1673), and Caspar Bartholin (1655–1738) established the concept of exocrine secretion as well as salivary glands. Recent investigations have revealed the endocrine functions of parotin and a variety of cell growth factors produced by salivary glands. The present review aims to describe macroscopic findings on the major salivary glands of rodents and the microscopic differences between those of humans and rodents, which review should be of interest to those researchers studying salivary glands. PMID:23209333

  12. Imaging of the major salivary glands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afzelius, Pia; Nielsen, Ming-Yuan; Ewertsen, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    dental caries or swelling. Imaging plays an important role in visualization of morphology and function, to establish a diagnosis, for treatment, and for surgical planning. There are several options for diagnostic imaging: plain radiography, sialography, ultrasound (US), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI......), computed tomography (CT), salivary gland scintigraphy and (18) F-FDG positron emission tomography (PET). We present an overview of the modalities in relation to common salivary gland disease....

  13. Dysfunctional ectopic thyroid gland: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokić, Edita; Kljajić, Vladimir; Idjuški, Stevan; Benc, Damir; Popović, Djordje; Protić, Mladjan; Crnobrnja, Veljko

    2014-01-01

    Lingual thyroid gland is a rare anomaly of thyroid gland development, occurring more frequently in females. If it causes local symptomatology such as dysphagia, dysphonia or dyspnea it is diagnosed in childhood, however, if it is asymptomatic it is usually diagnosed in adulthood. We present a 23-year-old female patient in whom we diagnosed lingual thyroid gland coincidentally during diagnostic procedures of a concomitant disease. The application of 131I scintigraphy showed an oval field of intensive accumulation of radio markers in the zone of medial face line, around tongue base, with the absence of thyroid gland in its physiological position. Functional testing proved primary hypothyroidism and we started the application of substitution therapy. The application of levothyroxine resulted in reaching euthyroid state and the reduction of thyroid gland size. We present a very rare anomaly of the thyroid gland, and so far there have been no clear attitudes about further treatment. The general condition of the patient, age, the size of ectopic thyroid gland and the existence of local symptomatology or complications represent the factors that have influence on the choice of treatment method.

  14. Not all about sex: neural and biobehavioral functions of human dance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Julia F; Cela-Conde, Camilo José; Gomila, Antoni

    2017-07-01

    This paper provides an integrative review of neuroscientific and biobehavioral evidence about the effects of dance on the individual across cultural differences. Dance moves us, and many derive aesthetic pleasure from it. However, in addition-and beyond aesthetics-we propose that dance has noteworthy, deeper neurobiological effects. We first summarize evidence that illustrates the centrality of dance to human life indirectly from archaeology, comparative psychology, developmental psychology, and cross-cultural psychology. Second, we review empirical evidence for six neural and biobehavioral functions of dance: (1) attentional focus/flow, (2) basic emotional experiences, (3) imagery, (4) communication, (5) self-intimation, and (6) social cohesion. We discuss the reviewed evidence in relation to current debates in the field of empirical enquiry into the functions of human dance, questioning the positions that dance is (1) just for pleasure, (2) all about sex, (3) just for mood management and well-being, and (4) for experts only. Being a young field, evidence is still piecemeal and inconclusive. This review aims to take a step toward a systematization of an emerging avenue of research: a neuro- and biobehavioral science of dance. © 2017 New York Academy of Sciences.

  15. Molecular cloning, expression, function and immunoreactivities of members of a gene family of sphingomyelinases from Loxosceles venom glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambourgi, Denise V; de F Fernandes Pedrosa, Matheus; van den Berg, Carmen W; Gonçalves-de-Andrade, Rute M; Ferracini, Matheus; Paixão-Cavalcante, Danielle; Morgan, B Paul; Rushmere, Neil K

    2004-07-01

    Loxoscelism is the clinical condition produced by the venom of spiders belonging to the genus Loxosceles, which can be observed as two well-defined clinical variants: cutaneous loxoscelism and systemic or viscerocutaneous loxoscelism. We have recently identified, purified and characterised the toxins (sphingomyelinases) from Loxosceles intermedia venom that are responsible for all the local (dermonecrosis) and systemic effects (complement dependent haemolysis) induced by whole venom. In the present study, we have cloned and expressed the two functional sphingomyelinases isoforms, P1 and P2, and shown that the recombinant proteins display all the functional characteristics of whole L. intermedia venom, e.g., dermonecrotic and complement-dependent hemolytic activities and ability of hydrolyzing sphingomyelin. We have also compared the cross-reactivities of antisera raised against the toxins from different Loxosceles species and show here that the cross-reactivity is high when toxins are from the same species (P1 and P2 from L. intermedia) but low when the toxins are from different species (L. intermedia versus L. laeta). These data suggest that in order to obtain a suitable comprehensive neutralizing antiserum using the recombinant toxin as an immunogen, a mixture of the recombinant toxins from the different species has to be used. The use of anti-recombinant toxin antisera may have clinical benefits to those individuals displaying acute loxoscelic lesions. Copyright 2004 Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Salivary gland infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... infections will return. Complications are not common. Possible Complications Complications may include: Abscess of salivary gland Infection returns ... cases, salivary gland infections cannot be prevented. Good oral hygiene may prevent some cases of bacterial infection. ... BH, Lund LJ, et al, eds. Cummings Otolaryngology: Head & Neck Surgery . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap ...

  17. Parotid gland sparing radiotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braam, P.M.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Radiotherapy is a common form of treatment for head-and-neck malignancies. One of the most prominent complaints after radiotherapy is a dry mouth, which is caused by irradiation of the salivary glands. The main contributors of saliva during stimulation are the parotid glands, which are

  18. Salivary Gland Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... contains antibodies that can kill germs. Salivary gland cancer is a type of head and neck cancer. It is rare. It may not cause any ... pain in your face Doctors diagnose salivary gland cancer using a physical exam, imaging tests, and a ...

  19. Effect of gold and silver nanoparticles on the morpho-functional state of the epididymis and prostate gland in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Y. Kalynovskyi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Metals are widely used in modern medicine: iron, copper, zinc, vanadium, titanium – all of them are vital for treatment of different diseases. Recently a new field of medical technology has emerged, which focuses on the biomedical application of metallic nanoparticles, with a particular interest in a gold and silver-based materials. These structures are already used for photothermal anticancer therapy, drug delivery, bioimaging, radiosensitizers and as drugs themselves. Despite the wide usage of nanoparticles, we still don’t know much about the toxicity of nanomaterials. Nanotoxicological studies are mainly carried out in vitro, but in vivo effects are still elusive. Hence, we focused on the reproductive toxicity of gold and silver nanosized particles. Spherical 10–15 nm gold and silver nanoparticles were synthesized through the reduction of sodium tetrachloroaurate (III and silver nitrate respectively with ascorbic acid in the presence of sodium polyphosphate as a coating and stabilizing agent. Next, these particles were administered intraperitoneally to the young and adult animals (1- and 6-months old respectively at 1 mg/kg dose for 10 days. As quantitative markers of functional activity, we used the diameter of epididymal tubules, height and the nuclear cross-section of epididymal epitheliocytes and relative volume of the prostatic epithelium. We showed that intraperitoneal administrations of nanogold to young animals caused no significant histological changes, although we found a decrease in the nuclear cross-sectional area of epididymal epitheliocytes. At the same time, nanogold caused more morphometric changes in adult animals. Similar results were obtained from the nanosilver groups. Silver nanoparticles caused an observable decrease of sperm quantity in the lumen of epididymal tubules with a simultaneous increase in the number of extraepididymal cells in young animals. Morphometric parameters of the epididymis and prostate also

  20. Anatomy and histology of rodent and human major salivary glands: -overview of the Japan salivary gland society-sponsored workshop-.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Osamu; Mizobe, Kenichi; Bando, Yasuhiko; Sakiyama, Koji

    2012-10-31

    MAJOR SALIVARY GLANDS OF BOTH HUMANS AND RODENTS CONSIST OF THREE PAIRS OF MACROSCOPIC GLANDS: parotid, submandibular, and sublingual. These glands secrete serous, mucous or mixed saliva via the proper main excretory ducts connecting the glandular bodies with the oral cavity. A series of discoveries about the salivary ducts in the 17th century by Niels Stensen (1638-1686), Thomas Wharton (1614-1673), and Caspar Bartholin (1655-1738) established the concept of exocrine secretion as well as salivary glands. Recent investigations have revealed the endocrine functions of parotin and a variety of cell growth factors produced by salivary glands.The present review aims to describe macroscopic findings on the major salivary glands of rodents and the microscopic differences between those of humans and rodents, which review should be of interest to those researchers studying salivary glands.

  1. Histopathological Pattern of Salivary Gland Tumors

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    S Shrestha

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The tumors of the salivary glands are uncommon head and neck neoplasms. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relative frequencies, types, site distribution and the histopathological features of salivary gland tumors. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective study of 176 cases of salivary gland tumors collected from medical record section and department of pathology at B.P.Koirala Memorial Cancer Hospital from Jan. 2005 to Dec. 2010. Tumors were analyzed based on demographics, anatomic location and histopathological type. Results: Out of 176 cases, 66 (37.5 % were benign and 110 (62.5 % were malignant with M:F ratio of 1.7:1. The mean age observed was 44.76 years with age range of 12 to 75 years. Pleomorphic adenoma was found to be the commonest benign tumor (72.7 %, followed by Warthin tumor (15.1%, monomorphic adenoma (3.0 % and basal cell adenoma (3.0 %. The mucoepidermoid carcinoma was the most common malignant tumor (38.1 %, followed by adenoid cystic carcinoma (25.4%, acinic cell carcinoma (10.9%, adenocarcinoma NOS (6.3%, carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma (5.4% and unclassified malignant tumor (4.5 %. Parotid was the most common site for the location of tumors (70.4% followed by submandibular (19.3% and minor salivary glands (10.2 %. Conclusion: Pleomorphic adenoma was the commonest salivary gland tumor observed in both sexes. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma was the most common malignant salivary gland tumor. The parotid gland was the most common site of origin in both benign and malignant tumors. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jpn.v4i7.10291 Journal of Pathology of Nepal (2014 Vol. 4, 520-524

  2. Gene Expression in Human Accessory Lacrimal Glands of Wolfring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubels, John L.; Gipson, Ilene K.; Spurr-Michaud, Sandra J.; Tisdale, Ann S.; Van Dyken, Rachel E.; Hatton, Mark P.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. The accessory lacrimal glands are assumed to contribute to the production of tear fluid, but little is known about their function. The goal of this study was to conduct an analysis of gene expression by glands of Wolfring that would provide a more complete picture of the function of these glands. Methods. Glands of Wolfring were isolated from frozen sections of human eyelids by laser microdissection. RNA was extracted from the cells and hybridized to gene expression arrays. The expression of several of the major genes was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Results. Of the 24 most highly expressed genes, 9 were of direct relevance to lacrimal function. These included lysozyme, lactoferrin, tear lipocalin, and lacritin. The glands of Wolfring are enriched in genes related to protein synthesis, targeting, and secretion, and a large number of genes for proteins with antimicrobial activity were detected. Ion channels and transporters, carbonic anhydrase, and aquaporins were abundantly expressed. Genes for control of lacrimal function, including cholinergic, adrenergic, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, purinergic, androgen, and prolactin receptors were also expressed in gland of Wolfring. Conclusions. The data suggest that the function of glands of Wolfring is similar to that of main lacrimal glands and are consistent with secretion electrolytes, fluid, and protein under nervous and hormonal control. Since these glands secrete directly onto the ocular surface, their location may allow rapid response to exogenous stimuli and makes them readily accessible to topical drugs. PMID:22956620

  3. Sex-specific differences in mitochondria biogenesis, morphology, respiratory function, and ROS homeostasis in young mouse heart and brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalifa, Abdel Rahman M; Abdel-Rahman, Engy A; Mahmoud, Ali M; Ali, Mohamed H; Noureldin, Maha; Saber, Saber H; Mohsen, Mahmoud; Ali, Sameh S

    2017-03-01

    Sex-specific differences in mitochondrial function and free radical homeostasis are reported in the context of aging but not well-established in pathogeneses occurring early in life. Here, we examine if sex disparity in mitochondria function, morphology, and redox status starts early and hence can be implicated in sexual dimorphism in cardiac as well as neurological disorders prevalent at young age. Although mitochondrial activity in the heart did not significantly vary between sexes, female brain exhibited enhanced respiration and higher reserve capacity. This was associated with lower H 2 O 2 production in female cardiac and brain tissues. Using transmission electron microscopy, we found that the number of female cardiac mitochondria is moderately greater (117 ± 3%, P  = 0.049, N  = 4) than male's, which increased significantly for cortical mitochondria (134 ± 4%, P  = 0.001, N  = 4). However, male's cardiac mitochondria exhibited fragmented, circular, and smaller mitochondria relative to female's mitochondria, while no morphologic sex-dependent differences were observed in cortical mitochondria. No sex differences were detected in Nox2 and Nox4 proteins or O 2 -consuming/H 2 O 2 -producing activities in brain homogenate or synaptosomes. However, a strong trend of increased EPR-detected NOX superoxide in male synaptosomes hinted at higher superoxide dismutase activity in female brains, which was confirmed by two independent protocols. We also provide direct evidence that respiring mitochondria generally produce an order-of-magnitude lower reactive oxygen species (ROS) proportions than currently estimated. Our results indicate that sex differences in mitochondrial biogenesis, bioenergetics, and morphology may start at young age and that sex-dependent SOD capacity may be responsible for differences in ROS homeostasis in heart and brain. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological

  4. Sex Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Susan

    1991-01-01

    This paper on the problem of sex offending among individuals with intellectual disabilities examines the incidence of this problem, characteristics of intellectually disabled sex offenders, determination of whether the behavior is a paraphilia or functional age-related behavior, and treatment options, with emphasis on the situation in New South…

  5. Thyroid gland development and defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratzsch, Juergen; Pulzer, Ferdinand

    2008-02-01

    During the functional ontogenesis of the thyroid gland an increasing number of transcription factors play fundamental roles in thyroid-cell differentiation, maintenance of the differentiated state, and thyroid-cell proliferation. The early growth and development of the fetal thyroid appears to be generally independent of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). TSH and thyroxine (T4) levels increase from the 12th week of gestation until delivery, whereas triiodothyronine (T3) levels remain relatively low. At birth, a cold-stimulated short-lived TSH surge is observed, followed by a TSH decrease until day 3 or 4 of life by T4 feedback inhibition. Disorders of thyroid gland development and/or function are relatively common, affecting approximately one newborn infant in 2000-4000. The most prevalent disease, congenital hypothyroidism, is frequently caused by genetic defects of transcription factors involved in the development of the thyroid or pituitary gland. A major cause of congenital hyperthyroidism is the transplacental passage of stimulating thyrotropin antibodies from the mother to the fetus. Hypothyroxinaemia or hypotriiodthyroninaemia is frequently observed in preterm infants with or without severe non-thyroidal illness. Whereas congenital hypo- and hyperthyroidism may be treated successfully with T4 or thyrostatic drugs, there is still insufficient evidence on whether the use of T4 for treatment of the latter condition results in changes in neonatal morbidity or reductions in neurodevelopmental impairment.

  6. Defense Mechanisms in Females as a Function of Sex-Role Orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Ronald G.

    1982-01-01

    Studied influence of sex roles on defense mechanisms. Females completed Defense Mechanisms Inventory (DMI) and Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI). Low masculinity on the BSRI was associated with high Turning Against Self on the DMI. High masculine subjects indicated greater willingness to attack objects of frustration. (Author)

  7. Development of the thyroid gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Mikael; Fagman, Henrik

    2017-06-15

    Thyroid hormones are crucial for organismal development and homeostasis. In humans, untreated congenital hypothyroidism due to thyroid agenesis inevitably leads to cretinism, which comprises irreversible brain dysfunction and dwarfism. Elucidating how the thyroid gland - the only source of thyroid hormones in the body - develops is thus key for understanding and treating thyroid dysgenesis, and for generating thyroid cells in vitro that might be used for cell-based therapies. Here, we review the principal mechanisms involved in thyroid organogenesis and functional differentiation, highlighting how the thyroid forerunner evolved from the endostyle in protochordates to the endocrine gland found in vertebrates. New findings on the specification and fate decisions of thyroid progenitors, and the morphogenesis of precursor cells into hormone-producing follicular units, are also discussed. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  8. Understanding sex differences in form and function of bird song: The importance of studying song learning processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina eRiebel

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Birdsong is a culturally transmitted mating signal. Due to historical and geographical biases, song (learning has been predominantly studied in the temperate zones, where female song is rare. Consequently, mechanisms and function of song learning have been almost exclusively studied in male birds and under the premise that inter- and intrasexual selection favoured larger repertoires and complex songs in males. However, female song is not rare outside the temperate zones and song in both sexes probably is the ancestral state in songbirds. Some song dimorphisms seen today might therefore be manifestations of secondary losses of female song. What selection pressures have favoured such losses and other sexual dimorphisms in song? Combined mapping of phylogenetic and ecological correlates of sex differences in song structure and function might provide important clues to the evolution of male and female song. This requires parameterization of the degree of sexual dimorphism. Simple comparison of male-female song might not provide enough resolution, because the same magnitude of difference (e.g. repertoire overlap could result from different processes: the sexes could differ in how well they learn (‘copying fidelity’ or from whom they learn (‘model selection’. Different learning mechanisms might provide important pointers towards different selection pressures. Investigating sex-specific learning could therefore help to identify the social and ecological selection pressures contributing to sex differences in adult song. The study of female song learning in particular could be crucial to our understanding of i song function in males and females and ii the evolution of sex-specific song.

  9. Ca2+-dependent K+ Channels in Exocrine Salivary Glands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalán, Marcelo A.; Peña-Munzenmayer, Gaspar; Melvin, James E.

    2014-01-01

    In the last 15 years, remarkable progress has been realized in identifying the genes that encode the ion-transporting proteins involved in exocrine gland function, including salivary glands. Among these proteins, Ca2+-dependent K+ channels take part in key functions including membrane potential regulation, fluid movement and K+ secretion in exocrine glands. Two K+ channels have been identified in exocrine salivary glands: 1) a Ca2+-activated K+ channel of intermediate single channel conductance encoded by the KCNN4 gene; and, 2) a voltage- and Ca2+-dependent K+ channel of large single channel conductance encoded by the KCNMA1 gene. This review focuses on the physiological roles of Ca2+-dependent K+ channels in exocrine salivary glands. We also discuss interesting recent findings on the regulation of Ca2+-dependent K+ channels by protein-protein interactions that may significantly impact exocrine gland physiology. PMID:24559652

  10. How Do Sleep-Related Health Problems Affect Functional Status According to Sex?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccabella, Allegra; Malouf, John

    2017-05-15

    To measure differences in functional status between men and women presenting with sleep-related health problems. A retrospective clinical audit of 744 Australian patients across 7 private general practices between April 2013 and January 2015 was conducted. Patients completed an electronic survey as part of their routine consultation, which included the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), the Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire 10 (FOSQ-10), and other questions relating to the effect of their sleep problem. The proportion of males and females with ESS and FOSQ-10 scores associated with disorders of daytime sleepiness and burden of symptoms due to sleepiness, respectively, were compared, as well as reported differences between the sexes in memory, concentration, issues with relationships, feeling depressed, and trouble sleeping. On presentation, females were more likely to have sleeping disorders associated with daytime sleepiness (median ESS score of 9 for females versus 8 for males, P = .038; proportion ESS > 9 was 49.0% for females versus 36.9% for males, P = .003). Women were also more likely to report an increased burden of symptoms due to sleepiness compared to men, as shown by lower FOSQ-10 scores ( P memory and concentration, and have trouble sleeping at night. Snoring kept partners awake in roughly the same proportion of males and females, and a larger proportion of the partners of males were forced out of the room. Sleep-related health issues both manifest in and affect the lives of males and females differently. Sleep health professionals should recognize these differences on all levels of disease prevention and health promotion from patient education, to diagnosis and management to improve quality of life for those with sleep-related health problems. © 2017 American Academy of Sleep Medicine

  11. Sleep and cognitive functioning in childhood: Ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and sex as moderators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philbrook, Lauren E; Hinnant, J Benjamin; Elmore-Staton, Lori; Buckhalt, Joseph A; El-Sheikh, Mona

    2017-07-01

    We examined children's sleep at age 9 as a predictor of developmental trajectories of cognitive performance from ages 9 to 11 years. The effects of sleep on cognition are not uniform and thus we tested race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status (SES), and sex as moderators of these associations. At the first assessment, 282 children aged 9.44 years (52% boys, 65% European American [EA], 35% African American [AA]) participated. Two more waves of data collection spaced 1 year apart followed. The majority of children (63%) were living at or below the poverty line. Children's sleep was measured objectively with actigraphy and 2 well-established sleep parameters were derived: duration, indexed by sleep minutes between sleep onset and wake time, and quality, indexed by efficiency. Multiple cognitive functioning domains were examined with the Woodcock Johnson Tests of Cognitive Abilities (WJ III). Across the sample, higher sleep efficiency, but not duration, was associated with better cognitive performance. Significant moderation effects emerged. Controlling for SES, AA children scored lower on general intellectual ability and working memory (WM) at age 11 only if they experienced lower sleep efficiency at age 9. Further, boys scored lower on general abilities and processing speed (PS) at age 11 only if their sleep efficiency was lower at age 9. Findings indicate that lower sleep efficiency may contribute to lower cognitive functioning especially for AA children and boys. These vulnerabilities appear to emerge early in development and are maintained over time. Results underscore the importance of individual differences in explicating relations between sleep and children's cognitive performance. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Associations between race-based and sex-based discrimination, health, and functioning: a longitudinal study of Marines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foynes, Melissa M; Smith, Brian N; Shipherd, Jillian C

    2015-04-01

    Only a few studies have examined race-based discrimination (RBD) and sex-based discrimination (SBD) in military samples and all are cross-sectional. The current study examined associations between both RBD and SBD experienced during Marine recruit training and several health and functioning outcomes 11 years later in a racially/ethnically diverse sample of men and women. Linear multiple regression models were used to examine associations between sex, race/ethnicity, RBD and SBD, and later outcomes (physical health, self-esteem, and occupational/vocational functioning), accounting for baseline levels and covariates. Data were drawn from a larger longitudinal investigation of US Marine Corps recruits. The sample (N=471) was comprised of white men (34.6%), white women (37.6%), racial/ethnic minority men (12.7%), and racial/ethnic minority women (15.1%). Self-report measures of sex and race (T1), RBD and SBD (T2), social support (T2), mental health (T2), physical health (T2 and T5), self-esteem (T2 and T5), and occupational/vocational functioning (T5) were included. Over a decade later, experiences of RBD were negatively associated with physical health and self-esteem. Social support was the strongest predictor of occupational/vocational functioning. Effects of sex, SBD, and minority status were not significant in regressions after accounting for other variables. Health care providers can play a key role in tailoring care to the needs of these important subpopulations of veterans by assessing and acknowledging experiences of discrimination and remaining aware of the potential negative associations between discrimination and health and functioning above and beyond the contributions of sex and race/ethnicity.

  13. Vulvar sweat gland carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wick, M R; Goellner, J R; Wolfe, J T; Su, W P

    1985-01-01

    Sweat gland carcinomas constitute less than 10% of all malignant tumors of the vulva, including those associated with extramammary Paget's disease (EPD). The histopathologic diagnosis of vulvar sweat gland carcinomas is difficult because of their rarity; their resemblance to metastatic carcinomas of the internal female genitalia, kidneys, and other sites; and their diversity of microscopic appearances. We report five examples of vulvar sweat gland carcinomas, two of which were associated with EPD. The other tumors included one example each of ductal eccrine adenocarcinoma, eccrine porocarcinoma, and clear cell hidradenocarcinoma. The clinical behavior of these neoplasms is correlated with their histologic types; we also discuss differential diagnosis and treatment recommendations.

  14. Effect of P2X(7) receptor knockout on exocrine secretion of pancreas, salivary glands and lacrimal glands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novak, Ivana; Jans, Ida M; Wohlfahrt, Louise

    2010-01-01

    The purinergic P2X(7) receptors are expressed in different cell types where they have varied functions, including regulation of cell survival. The P2X(7) receptors are also expressed in exocrine glands, but their integrated role in secretion is unclear. The aim of our study was to determine whether...... between purinergic and cholinergic receptor signalling and that function of the P2X(7) receptor is suppressed in females. We conclude that the P2X(7) receptors are important in short-term physiological regulation of exocrine gland secretion....... the P2X(7) receptors affect fluid secretion in pancreas, salivary glands and tear glands. We monitored gland secretions in in vivo preparations of wild-type and P2X(7)(-/-) (Pfizer) mice stimulated with pilocarpine. In cell preparations from pancreas, parotid and lacrimal glands we measured ATP release...

  15. Quality of college students' same-sex friendships as a function of personality and interpersonal competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Festa, Candice C; Barry, Carolyn McNamara; Sherman, Martin F; Grover, Rachel L

    2012-02-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate personality traits and interpersonal competencies as predictors of the quality of same-sex friendships in young adulthood. Undergraduate students (N = 176), who attended a mid-Atlantic U.S., medium-sized university, completed self-report surveys on their personality, interpersonal competence, and friendship quality. Sex, class status, extraversion, agreeableness, and interpersonal competencies were associated with higher friendship quality, but only the interpersonal competence of self-disclosure significantly predicted friendship quality after controlling for sex, class status, and the five personality factors.

  16. Thyroid gland removal - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000293.htm Thyroid gland removal - discharge To use the sharing features ... surgery. This will make your scar show less. Thyroid Hormone Replacement You may need to take thyroid ...

  17. Salivary gland biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... biopsy References Miloro M, Kolokythas A. Diagnosis and management of salivary gland disorders. In: Hupp JR, Ellis E, Tucker MR, eds. Contemporary Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery . 6th ed. St Louis, ...

  18. Sex-based differences in immune function and responses to vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Sabra L; Marriott, Ian; Fish, Eleanor N

    2015-01-01

    Females typically develop higher antibody responses and experience more adverse reactions following vaccination than males. These differences are observed in response to diverse vaccines, including the bacillus Calmette-Guerin vaccine, the measles, mumps and rubella vaccine, the yellow fever virus vaccine and influenza vaccines. Sex differences in the responses to vaccines are observed across diverse age groups, ranging from infants to aged individuals. Biological as well as behavioral differences between the sexes are likely to contribute to differences in the outcome of vaccination between the sexes. Immunological, hormonal, genetic and microbiota differences between males and females may also affect the outcome of vaccination. Identifying ways to reduce adverse reactions in females and increase immune responses in males will be necessary to adequately protect both sexes against infectious diseases. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Partial irradiation of the parotid gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisbruch, A; Ship, J A; Kim, H M; Ten Haken, R K

    2001-07-01

    Recent efforts to reduce xerostomia associated with irradiation (RT) of head and neck cancer include the use of conformal and intensity-modulated RT (IMRT) to partly spare the major salivary glands, notably the parotid glands, from a high radiation dose while treating adequately all the targets at risk of disease. Knowledge of the dose-volume-response relationships in the salivary glands would determine treatment planning goals and facilitate optimization of the RT plans. Recent prospective studies of salivary flows following inhomogeneous irradiation of the parotid glands have utilized dose-volume histograms (DVHs) and various models to assess these relationships. These studies found that the mean dose to the gland is correlated with the reduction of the salivary output. This is consistent with a pure parallel architecture of the functional subunits (FSUs) of the salivary glands. The range of the mean doses, which have been found in these studies to cause significant salivary flow reduction is 26 to 39 Gy. Copyright 2001 by W.B. Saunders Company

  20. Construction of an in vivo system for functional analysis of the genes involved in sex pheromone production in the silkmoth, Bombyx mori.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken-Ichi eMoto

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Moths produce species-specific sex pheromones to attract conspecific mates. The biochemical processes that comprise sex pheromone biosynthesis are precisely regulated and a number of gene products are involved in this biosynthesis and regulation. In recent years, at least 300 EST clones have been isolated from Bombyx mori pheromone gland (PG specific cDNA libraries with some of those clones (i.e., B. mori PG-specific desaturase1 (Bmpgdesat1, PG-specific fatty-acyl reductase (pgFAR, PG-specific acyl-CoA-binding protein (pgACBP, B. mori fatty acid transport protein (BmFATP, B. mori lipid storage droplet protein-1 (BmLsd1 characterized and demonstrated to play a role in sex pheromone production. However, most of the EST clones have yet to be fully characterized and identified. To develop an efficient system for analyzing sex pheromone production-related genes, we investigated the feasibility of a novel gene analysis system using the upstream region of Bmpgdesat1 that should contain a PG-specific gene promoter in conjunction with piggyBac vector-mediated germ-line transformation. As a result, we have been able to obtain expression of our reporter gene (enhanced green fluorescent protein in the PG but not in other tissues of transgenic B. mori. Current results indicate that we have successfully constructed a novel in vivo gene analysis system for sex pheromone production in B. mori.

  1. Modification of the submandibular gland transfer procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzouki, Hani Z; Elkhalidy, Youness; Jha, Naresh; Scrimger, Rufus; Debenham, Brock J; Harris, Jeffrey R; O'Connell, Daniel A; Seikaly, Hadi

    2016-11-01

    The treatment for most advanced head and neck cancers (stage III and IV) usually includes radiation, and the most common side effect of this treatment modality is a permanent decrease in salivary production. Xerostomia is a devastating complication that significantly affects patients' quality of life by interfering with functions of taste, mastication, deglutition, and speech production. Treatment of xerostomia is varied, but one of the strategies developed by our group was to preserve one submandibular gland by surgically transferring it to the submental space and shielding it from the full dose of radiation. This procedure is proven to reduce the rate of radiation-induced xerostomia, but its main disadvantage is that it is contraindicated in oral cavity cancer. This study describes and evaluates a modification of the submandibular gland transfer (SGT) procedure, where the submandibular gland contralateral to the disease process is relocated to the parotid region. This modification has the potential of expanding the benefits of submandibular gland transfer procedures to patients with oral cavity cancers. Prospective feasibility study. This study involved nine patients with a new diagnosis of advanced head and neck cancer undergoing major head and neck cancer resection with postoperative adjuvant radiation therapy. The new modified salivary gland transfer procedure was performed on all nine patients, and the glands total dose received with radiation therapy was assessed. All the modified SGT procedures were successful with no post-operative complications. The radiation oncology team has been able to successfully localize the transferred submandibular glands and shield them from the radiation beam postoperatively. We have successfully demonstrated that surgical transfer of a submandibular salivary gland to the parotid region is feasible, surgically viable, oncologically sound, and does not interfere with radiation therapy. 4 Laryngoscope, 126:2492-2496, 2016.

  2. Comparison of radiosensitivity of rat parotid and submandibular glands after different radiation schedules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coppes, RP; Vissink, A; Konings, AWT

    Background and purpose: To investigate the radiosensitivity of rat parotid and submandibular gland functioning after local single dose, conventional fractionated and accelerated fractionated irradiation. Methods: The salivary glands of male albino Wistar rats were locally irradiated with a single

  3. Requirement of fatty acid transport protein 4 for development, maturation, and function of sebaceous glands in a mouse model of ichthyosis prematurity syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Meei-Hua; Hsu, Fong-Fu; Miner, Jeffrey H

    2013-02-08

    Fatty acid transport protein 4 (FATP4) is one of a family of six transmembrane proteins that facilitate long- and very long-chain fatty acid uptake. FATP4 is expressed in several tissues, including skin. Mutations in human SLC27A4, which encodes FATP4, cause ichthyosis prematurity syndrome, characterized by a thick desquamating epidermis and premature birth. Mice lacking FATP4, which genetically model the human disease, are born with tight, thick skin and a defective skin barrier; they die neonatally due to dehydration and restricted movements. Both the skin phenotype and the lethality are rescued by transgene expression of FATP4 in suprabasal keratinocytes. Sebaceous glands in Fatp4 null skin grafted onto nude mice were found to be dystrophic and enwrapped by thick layers of epithelial cells. Consistent with these results, transgene-rescued Fatp4 null mice showed a subnormal level of FATP4 expression in sebocytes and exhibited abnormal development of both sebaceous glands and meibomian glands, specialized sebaceous glands of the eyelids. Sebum from these mice contained a reduced level of type II diester wax, a major mouse sebum lipid species, and showed perturbations in mass spectrometric profiles of diester wax and cholesteryl ester species. In addition, these mice showed an impaired ability to repel water and regulate body temperature after water immersion. Taken together, our results suggest that FATP4 plays crucial roles in the development and maturation of both sebaceous and meibomian glands, as well as in the formation and composition of sebum, likely by regulating the trafficking of fatty acids necessary for proper synthesis of sebum lipids.

  4. Radioiodine and thyroid gland

    OpenAIRE

    Takavar A

    1994-01-01

    Administration of a precise amount of activity in thyroid gland radioiodine (¹³¹I) therapy is of prime importance. Several methods for this purpose have been suggested and used over many years. In this paper, a method for required ¹³¹I activity calculation for each case has been proposed. Major factors affecting ¹³¹I calculation such as gland volume, integral dose, and prescription index have been described. Usin...

  5. Topological organization of functional brain networks in healthy children: differences in relation to age, sex, and intelligence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Wu

    Full Text Available Recent studies have demonstrated developmental changes of functional brain networks derived from functional connectivity using graph theoretical analysis, which has been rapidly translated to studies of brain network organization. However, little is known about sex- and IQ-related differences in the topological organization of functional brain networks during development. In this study, resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI was used to map the functional brain networks in 51 healthy children. We then investigated the effects of age, sex, and IQ on economic small-world properties and regional nodal properties of the functional brain networks. At a global level of whole networks, we found significant age-related increases in the small-worldness and local efficiency, significant higher values of the global efficiency in boys compared with girls, and no significant IQ-related difference. Age-related increases in the regional nodal properties were found predominately in the frontal brain regions, whereas the parietal, temporal, and occipital brain regions showed age-related decreases. Significant sex-related differences in the regional nodal properties were found in various brain regions, primarily related to the default mode, language, and vision systems. Positive correlations between IQ and the regional nodal properties were found in several brain regions related to the attention system, whereas negative correlations were found in various brain regions primarily involved in the default mode, emotion, and language systems. Together, our findings of the network topology of the functional brain networks in healthy children and its relationship with age, sex, and IQ bring new insights into the understanding of brain maturation and cognitive development during childhood and adolescence.

  6. SIALOGRAFIA DE PARÓTIDAS CLINICAMENTE NORMAIS: CLASSIFICAÇÃO ANATÔMICA E CORRELAÇÃO COM A FUNÇÃO GLANDULAR SIALOGRAPHY OF CLINICALLY NORMAL PAROTID GLANDS: ANATOMICAL CLASSIFICATION AND CORRELATION WITH GLANDULAR FUNCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo DI HIPÓLITO JUNIOR

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve por finalidade analisar e correlacionar as características anatômicas e a atividade funcional de glândulas parótidas saudáveis, empregando técnica sialográfica. O estudo anatômico foi realizado em 55 indivíduos, dos quais 37 participaram do exame funcional, que consistiu na verificação da eliminação da substância de contraste Lipiodol UF,, em glândulas estimuladas e não estimuladas. Os resultados demonstraram que a análise das imagens sialográficas pela observação do sistema de ductos glandulares permitiu a constituição de 5 grupos anatômicos distintos. Na avaliação funcional, as glândulas estimuladas levaram períodos de tempo mais uniformes e curtos para a eliminação do Lipiodol UF em relação às não estimuladas. A correlação dos achados anatômicos e funcionais mostrou que a média do tempo de eliminação da substância de contraste em glândulas estimuladas no Grupo I foi significantemente maior que as médias dos Grupos II e III; o tempo máximo para o esvaziamento de glândulas estimuladas foi de 5 minutos em todos os Grupos, enquanto que as glândulas não estimuladas não apresentaram diferença estatística entre os Grupos. Ao final, concluiu-se que a avaliação conjunta do modelo anatômico e da função excretora de glândulas deve ser realizada com a utilização de estímulo.The aim of the present study was to analyze and correlate anatomical features and the functional activity of healthy parotid glands using a sialographic technic. The anatomical study was performed in 55 subjects, from which 37 took part in the functional exam, which was to verify the elimination of the contrast substance, Lipiodol UF, in stimulated and non-stimulated glands. The results showed that the analysis of the sialographic image by the observation of the glandular duct system allowed the formation of 5 distinct anatomical groups. In the functional evaluation, stimulated glands presented more

  7. Transcriptome Sequencing Analysis and Functional Identification of Sex Differentiation Genes from the Mosquito Parasitic Nematode, Romanomermis wuchangensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingyue Duan

    Full Text Available Mosquito-transmitted diseases like malaria and dengue fever are global problem and an estimated 50-100 million of dengue or dengue hemorrhagic fever cases are reported worldwide every year. The mermithid nematode Romanomermis wuchangensis has been successfully used as an ecosystem-friendly biocontrol agent for mosquito prevention in laboratory studies. However, this nematode can not undergo sex differentiation in vitro culture, which has seriously affected their application of biocontrol in the field. In this study, based on transcriptome sequencing analysis of R. wuchangensis, Rwucmab-3, Rwuclaf-1 and Rwuctra-2 were cloned and used to investigate molecular regulatory function of sex differentiation. qRT-PCR results demonstrated that the expression level of Rwucmab-3 between male and female displayed obvious difference on the 3rd day of parasitic stage, which was earlier than Rwuclaf-1 and Rwuctra-2, highlighting sex differentiation process may start on the 3rd day of parasitic stage. Besides, FITC was used as a marker to test dsRNA uptake efficiency of R. wuchangensis, which fluorescence intensity increased with FITC concentration after 16 h incubation, indicating this nematode can successfully ingest soaking solution via its cuticle. RNAi results revealed the sex ratio of R. wuchangensis from RNAi treated groups soaked in dsRNA of Rwucmab-3 was significantly higher than gfp dsRNA treated groups and control groups, highlighting RNAi of Rwumab-3 may hinder the development of male nematodes. These results suggest that Rwucmab-3 mainly involves in the initiation of sex differentiation and the development of male sexual dimorphism. Rwuclaf-1 and Rwuctra-2 may play vital role in nematode reproductive and developmental system. In conclusion, transcript sequences presented in this study could provide more bioinformatics resources for future studies on gene cloning and other molecular regulatory mechanism in R. wuchangensis. Moreover, identification

  8. Cells have sex chromosomes and circadian clocks: Implications for organismal level functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Rae

    2018-04-01

    A great number of stakeholders have a keen interest in issues surrounding sex differences. These participants in the discourse often use the same evidence to draw opposite conclusions, with implications for individuals and society as a whole. One part of the maelstrom and associated emotionality derives from confounds between the concepts of "sex" vs. "gender", even among professionals. Here, the oft-repeated point is made that evidence for gender differences can't be derived from the animal research, once the generally accepted conception of gender as a process unique to humans, is acknowledged. Nevertheless, considered at a more general level, the developmental and epigenetic mechanisms that give rise to differences in behavior among individuals and groups is exquisitely explored in animal studies but relatively poorly in research on humans. The focus on animal research here, starts with the fact that virtually each cell of the body has sex chromosomes (XX and XY), along with the intracellular genetic and cytoplasmic mechanisms associated with circadian (circa-about, dies-day) timing. The consequences of these sex×circadian interactions for physiology and behavior at cellular and higher levels of organization are considered in systems where compelling evidence is available. These include sex differences in the circadian timing system, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, and in metabolism. The evidence highlights sex differences in cells throughout the body and thus has implications for higher level processes and systems such as sleep/wake patterns. In a more general sense, they point to mechanisms that could give rise to gender differences. In summary, the viewpoint presented here is that the circadian timing system can be used very elegantly to explore the contributions of genetic and hormonal sex differences on biological systems at many levels. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Physiological and biochemical aspects of the avian uropygial gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Salibian

    Full Text Available This review discusses different aspects of the uropygial gland of birds. The gland exhibits a striking morphological diversity in size, shape and presence/absence of tufts of feathers. It was shown that acidic mucins, neutral lipids, glycolipids and phospholipids are normal components of secretion. Several morphological and physiological aspects of the gland were studied on Rock Pigeon Columba livia Gmelin, 1879. The amount of the uropygial gland secretion, its lipid content and fatty acids profile were determined. The extracted lipid mixture contained of C14 to C20 fatty acids, mostly unsaturated; the saturated fatty acids were mainly 14:0, 16:0 and 18:0. No correlation was found between the size of the gland and the aquatic/terrestrial nature of the species. Ablation of the gland did not affect survival, body weight, feeding rate and serum cholesterol, total lipids or calcium levels after 32-120 days. The possible role of the gland in the protection against lipophilic compounds was discussed. The function of the gland is still a subject of controversy. It is accepted that its secretion confers water-repellent properties on the feather coat and maintain the suppleness of the feathers. Other physiological roles of the gland secretion may be associated to pheromone production, control of plumage hygiene, thermal insulation and defence against predators. Concerning the endocrine regulation of the uropygial function, there is scarce information presenting evidence for steroid regulated mechanisms.

  10. Sexual Pleasure and Function, Coital Trauma, and Sex Behaviors After Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision Among Men in the Dominican Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Maximo O; Khosla, Shaveta; Pananookooln, Sheewin; Fleming, Paul J; Lerebours, Leonel; Donastorg, Yeycy; Bailey, Robert C

    2017-04-01

    Voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) is effective in decreasing the risk of HIV acquisition. As men resume sexual activity after circumcision, it will be important to study their satisfaction with the procedure, sexual pleasure and function, coital trauma, and risk compensation (RC), which can hamper or facilitate the long-term success of VMMC programs. To assess men's satisfaction with VMMC, sexual pleasure and function, coital trauma, and RC after VMMC. This is a cohort study of circumcised men who presented for follow-up 6 to 24 months after VMMC. Logarithmic binomial regression was performed to explore factors associated with any increase in the number of sex partners after VMMC as a measurement of RC. (i) Men's satisfaction with their VMMC; (ii) sexual pleasure and function after VMMC; (iii) coital trauma; and (iv) RC. Of 454 circumcised men, 362 (80%) returned for a follow-up visit 6 to 24 months after VMMC. Almost all (98%) were satisfied with the outcome of their VMMC; most (95%) reported that their female partners were satisfied with their circumcision. Two thirds (67%) reported enjoying sex more after VMMC and most were very satisfied or somewhat satisfied (94%) with sexual intercourse after VMMC. Sexual function improved and reported sex-induced coital injuries decreased significantly in most men after VMMC. There was an increase in the proportion of men who reported at least two sexual partners after VMMC compared with baseline. In multivariate analysis, having sex with a woman they met the same day (adjusted relative risk = 1.7, 95% CI = 1.2-2.4) and having at least two sexual partners at baseline (adjusted relative risk = 0.5, 95% CI = 0.3-0.8) were associated with the outcome of any increase in the number of partners after VMMC. VMMC can be offered to Dominican men for HIV prevention without adversely affecting sexual pleasure or function. The procedure substantially reduces coital trauma. This is the first report of long-term overall

  11. Maths performance as a function of sex, laterality, and age of pubertal onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sappington, John; Topolski, Richard

    2005-07-01

    Sex differences in math/spatial performance demand explanations. Within the biological view, the complexity and number of variables make the explanation difficult at best. Laterality and age of pubertal onset have been investigated prominently in this context but rarely considered as interactions in the same study. Some 468 college subjects with SAT MATH (SAT M) scores were divided into 12 groups defined by sex, laterality, and age (early, middle, and late) of pubertal onset. Significant main effects for sex and age of onset emerged, as did an interaction between lateral preference and pubertal onset. Generally males outperformed females. The combination of maleness, sinistrality, and early maturation was associated with high SAT M scores. Sinistrality and late maturation among females predicted very poor math performance.

  12. Assessment of salivary gland dysfunction following chemoradiotherapy using quantitative salivary gland scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosuda, Shigeru; Satoh, Michinao; Yamamoto, Fuyumi; Uematsu, Minoru; Kusano, Shoichi

    1999-01-01

    Purpose:To assess chemoradiotherapy-induced salivary gland dysfunction using quantitative salivary gland scintigraphy (QSGS), and whether QSGS is capable of predicting the grade of persistent salivary dysfunction after chemoradiotherapy. Methods: From a time-activity curve using a stimulation test, the washout rate (WR) calculated was assessed. All glands (n = 155) were classified into four groups: a no-therapy group (n = 18), a chemotherapy alone group (n = 31), a radiotherapy alone group (n = 50), and a chemoradiotherapy group (n = 56). Subjective descriptions of xerostomia were recorded 1 year after the completion of the treatment period, and the 32 glands subjected to irradiation with or without chemotherapy were assessed. Results: The WR values were significantly lower in glands that received chemoradiotherapy than in glands treated with radiotherapy alone (mean: 0.75 x 10 -3 , n = 40 vs. 0.22, n = 36, p < 0.015), but there was no significant difference in the WR values between the no-therapy group and the chemotherapy alone group. The mean values of WR were lower in the chemoradiotherapy glands than in the radiotherapy alone glands in each of cumulative dose ranges of 1-20, 21-30, and 31-60 Gy. With regard to recovery from xerostomia, the WR values at a cumulative dose range of 20 to 40 Gy were significantly lower in the not improved group (-0.418, n = 16) than in the improved group (0.245, n = 16) (p < 0.0001). Conclusion: Chemotherapy per se has no or little adverse effect on salivary function, but combination chemotherapy can deteriorate radiation-induced injury of the salivary glands. QSGS appears useful in predicting the grade of persistent xerostomia following chemoradiotherapy

  13. Observations on the oesophageal glands in some Tanzanian anurans

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Zoology and Marine Biology, University of Dar es Salaam, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The occurrence and function of oesophageal glands in some anurans from Tanzania was investigated. The compound glands were present in the oesophageal submucosa of. Ptychadena oxyrhynchus Smith, Ptychadena ...

  14. Regeneration of irradiated salivary glands by stem cell therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lombaert, Isabelle Madeleine Armand

    2008-01-01

    Yearly, worldwide more than 500.000 new head and neck cancer patients are treated with radiotherapy. Co-irradiation of salivary glands may lead to xerostomia (=dry mouth syndrome), resulting in permanent loss of saliva production. This loss of gland function after radiation is thought to be due to a

  15. Diagnosis and management of endocrine gland neoplasmas. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weller, R.E.

    1994-03-01

    Functional and nonfunctional neoplasms of the endocrine glands constitute some of the more challenging diagnostic and therapeutic problems in veterinary cancer medicine. This discussion will focus on the clinical signs and syndromes associated with neoplasms of the thyroid, adrenal, and parathyroid glands, and pancreas in companion animals and will concentrate on the mechanisms producing the clinical signs, diagnosis, staging, therapy and prognosis.

  16. Progression of salivary gland dysfunction in patients with Sjogren's syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijpe, J.; Kalk, W. W. I.; Bootsma, H.; Spijkervet, F. K. L.; Kallenberg, C. G. M.; Vissink, A.

    Background: Salivary gland dysfunction is one of the key manifestations of Sjogren's syndrome. Objectives: (1) To assess prospectively loss of function of individual salivary glands in patients with primary and secondary Sjogren's syndrome in relation to disease duration and use of immunomodulatory

  17. Normal tissue tolerance to external beam radiation therapy: Salivary glands; Dose de tolerance a l'irradiation des tissus sains: les glandes salivaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortholan, C.; Benezery, K. [Service de radiotherapie, centre Antoine-Lacassagne, 06 - Nice (France); Bensadoun, R.J. [Service de radiotherapie, CHU de Poitiers, 86 - Poitiers (France)

    2010-07-15

    Xerostomia is one of the most a common complication of radiotherapy for head and neck cancers, affecting quality of life. Parotid glands produce approximately 60% of saliva and submandibular glands 20% of saliva while the rest is secreted by sublingual and accessory salivary glands. Methods of measuring the salivary output are collection of unstimulated or stimulated saliva or {sup 99m}Tc-pertechnate scintigraphy. Several studies demonstrated that late salivary dysfunction after radiotherapy has been correlated to the mean parotid gland dose, with recovery occurring with time. Severe xerostomia could be avoided if at one parotid gland is spared to a mean dose of less than approximately 25-30 Gy. Clinical benefit of submandibular gland sparing is more controversial. A mean dose less than 39 Gy could preserve submandibular gland function. This paper aims to review main studies evaluating tolerance dose of salivary glands. (authors)

  18. The first venomous crustacean revealed by transcriptomics and functional morphology: remipede venom glands express a unique toxin cocktail dominated by enzymes and a neurotoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Reumont, Björn M; Blanke, Alexander; Richter, Sandy; Alvarez, Fernando; Bleidorn, Christoph; Jenner, Ronald A

    2014-01-01

    Animal venoms have evolved many times. Venomous species are especially common in three of the four main groups of arthropods (Chelicerata, Myriapoda, and Hexapoda), which together represent tens of thousands of species of venomous spiders, scorpions, centipedes, and hymenopterans. Surprisingly, despite their great diversity of body plans, there is no unambiguous evidence that any crustacean is venomous. We provide the first conclusive evidence that the aquatic, blind, and cave-dwelling remipede crustaceans are venomous and that venoms evolved in all four major arthropod groups. We produced a three-dimensional reconstruction of the venom delivery apparatus of the remipede Speleonectes tulumensis, showing that remipedes can inject venom in a controlled manner. A transcriptomic profile of its venom glands shows that they express a unique cocktail of transcripts coding for known venom toxins, including a diversity of enzymes and a probable paralytic neurotoxin very similar to one described from spider venom. We screened a transcriptomic library obtained from whole animals and identified a nontoxin paralog of the remipede neurotoxin that is not expressed in the venom glands. This allowed us to reconstruct its probable evolutionary origin and underlines the importance of incorporating data derived from nonvenom gland tissue to elucidate the evolution of candidate venom proteins. This first glimpse into the venom of a crustacean and primitively aquatic arthropod reveals conspicuous differences from the venoms of other predatory arthropods such as centipedes, scorpions, and spiders and contributes valuable information for ultimately disentangling the many factors shaping the biology and evolution of venoms and venomous species.

  19. Sex Differential Item Functioning in the Inventory of Early Development III Social-Emotional Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaver, Jessica L.; French, Brian F.; Finch, W. Holmes; Ullrich-French, Sarah C.

    2014-01-01

    Social-emotional (SE) skills in the early developmental years of children influence outcomes in psychological, behavioral, and learning domains. The adult ratings of a child's SE skills can be influenced by sex stereotypes. These rating differences could lead to differential conclusions about developmental progress or risk. To ensure that…

  20. Sex determination in skeletal remains from the medieval Eastern Adriatic coast - discriminant function analysis of humeri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bašić, Željana; Anterić, Ivana; Vilović, Katarina; Petaros, Anja; Bosnar, Alan; Madžar, Tomislav; Polašek, Ozren; Anđelinović, Šimun

    2013-06-01

    To investigate the usefulness of humerus measurement for sex determination in a sample of medieval skeletons from the Eastern Adriatic Coast. Additional aim was to compare the results with contemporary female population. Five humerus measurements (maximum length, epicondylar width, maximum vertical diameter of the head, maximum and minimum diameter of the humerus at midshaft) for 80 male and 35 female medieval and 19 female contemporary humeri were recorded. Only sufficiently preserved skeletons and those with no obvious pathological or traumatic changes that could affect the measurements were included. For ten samples, analysis of DNA was performed in order to determine sex using amelogenin. The initial comparison of men and women indicated significant differences in all five measures (Pmedieval and contemporary women did not show significant difference in any of the measured features. Sex results obtained by anthropological and DNA analysis matched in all 10 cases. The results indicate that humerus measurement in Croatian medieval population may be sufficient to determine the sex of the skeleton. Furthermore, it seems that secular changes have not substantially affected contemporary population, suggesting that the results of this study are transferable to contemporary population as well.

  1. The role of sex, attachment and autonomy-connectedness in personality functioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bachrach, N.; Croon, M.A.; Bekker, M.H.J.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have found significant relationships among sex, attachment and autonomy-connectedness and DSM-IV personality characteristics. In the present study, we aimed to add to the current knowledge about attachment-related aspects of personality pathology, by examining the relationships of

  2. Sex differences in cognitive functioning in at-risk mental state for psychosis, first episode psychosis and healthy control subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ittig, S; Studerus, E; Papmeyer, M; Uttinger, M; Koranyi, S; Ramyead, A; Riecher-Rössler, A

    2015-02-01

    Several sex differences in schizophrenia have been reported including differences in cognitive functioning. Studies with schizophrenia patients and healthy controls (HC) indicate that the sex advantage for women in verbal domains is also present in schizophrenia patients. However, findings have been inconsistent. No study focused on sex-related cognitive performance differences in at-risk mental state for psychosis (ARMS) individuals yet. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate sex differences in cognitive functioning in ARMS, first episode psychosis (FEP) and HC subjects. We expected a better verbal learning and memory performance of women in all groups. The neuropsychological data analysed in this study were collected within the prospective Früherkennung von Psychosen (FePsy) study. In total, 118 ARMS, 88 FEP individuals and 86 HC completed a cognitive test battery covering the domains of executive functions, attention, working memory, verbal learning and memory, IQ and speed of processing. Women performed better in verbal learning and memory regardless of diagnostic group. By contrast, men as compared to women showed a shorter reaction time during the working memory task across all groups. The results provide evidence that women generally perform better in verbal learning and memory, independent of diagnostic group (ARMS, FEP, HC). The finding of a shorter reaction time for men in the working memory task could indicate that men have a superior working memory performance since they responded faster during the target trials, while maintaining a comparable overall working memory performance level. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Submandibular gland excision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Sanfurgo de Carvalho

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to analyze the value of fine needle aspiration and the rates of postoperative complications in patients undergoing resection of the submandibular gland. METHODS: we analyzed the records of patients treated with resection of the gland from January 1995 to December 2008. The data collected included age, gender, findings on clinical history, surgical procedure, results of fine needle aspiration (FNA, pathological diagnosis and complications. RESULTS: 117 patients were studied, aged 12-89 years (mean 48, 70 women and 47 men. Thirty-nine patients (33.3% were affected by inflammatory diseases (28 patients with lithiasis, 70 had benign tumors, and malignant tumors, eight. Regarding FNA, the sensitivity and specificity were 85.7% and 100%, respectively. Nine patients (7.7% had temporary paralysis of the marginal mandibular nerve and one had permanent paralysis. CONCLUSION: resection of the submandibular gland is a safe procedure, with low complication rates.

  4. Mammary gland stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fridriksdottir, Agla J R; Petersen, Ole W; Rønnov-Jessen, Lone

    2011-01-01

    Distinct subsets of cells, including cells with stem cell-like properties, have been proposed to exist in normal human breast epithelium and breast carcinomas. The cellular origins of epithelial cells contributing to gland development, tissue homeostasis and cancer are, however, still poorly...... understood. The mouse is a widely used model of mammary gland development, both directly by studying the mouse mammary epithelial cells themselves and indirectly, by studying development, morphogenesis, differentiation and carcinogenesis of xenotransplanted human breast epithelium in vivo. While in early...... studies, human or mouse epithelium was implanted as fragments into the mouse gland, more recent technical progress has allowed the self-renewal capacity and differentiation potential of distinct cell populations or even individual cells to be interrogated. Here, we review and discuss similarities...

  5. Radioiodine and thyroid gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takavar A

    1994-05-01

    Full Text Available Administration of a precise amount of activity in thyroid gland radioiodine (¹³¹I therapy is of prime importance. Several methods for this purpose have been suggested and used over many years. In this paper, a method for required ¹³¹I activity calculation for each case has been proposed. Major factors affecting ¹³¹I calculation such as gland volume, integral dose, and prescription index have been described. Using the method, ¹³¹I activity or any other radioisotope activity required for a certain case can be determined with a good estimate.

  6. First extensive characterization of the venom gland from an egg parasitoid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cusumano, Antonino; Duvic, Bernard; Jouan, Véronique; Ravallec, Marc; Legeai, Fabrice; Peri, Ezio; Colazza, Stefano; Volkoff, Anne Nathalie

    2018-01-01

    The venom gland is a ubiquitous organ in Hymenoptera. In insect parasitoids, the venom gland has been shown to have multiple functions including regulation of host immune response, host paralysis, host castration and developmental alteration. However, the role played by the venom gland has been

  7. Parotid gland tumours: a six years experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, K.A.

    2006-01-01

    To find out the different types of Parotid tumours in out setup and their prevalence in different age groups. All patients admitted with Parotid swellings, irrespective of age and sex. The detailed data of the patients was collected and analyzed. A total of 27 patients, 15 males and 12 females, with ages ranging from 15 to 65 years were included in the study. Most of the patients were in the 31-50 years of age group. Pleomorphic adenoma was the commonest benign tumour with an incidence of 66.6%, while Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma with an incidence of 11.11% was the most common malignant tumour. Parotid gland is the principal site of salivary gland tumours. Males are affected more and Pleomorphic adenoma is the most common benign and Mucoepidermoid carcinoma the most common malignant tumour. (author)

  8. Pharmacologically Induced Sex Hormone Fluctuation Effects on Resting-State Functional Connectivity in a Risk Model for Depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisher, Patrick MacDonald; Larsen, Camilla Borgsted; Beliveau, Vincent

    2017-01-01

    Women are at relatively greater lifetime risk for depression than men. This elevated risk in women is partly due to heightened risk during time periods characterized by marked fluctuations in sex hormones, including postpartum and perimenopausal periods. How sex hormone fluctuations contribute......RHa-provoked depressive symptoms associations with change in resting-state functional connectivity (rs-FC) in 58 healthy women for six seeds (amygdala, hippocampus, anterior cingulate cortex, dorsal raphe, median raphe, and posterior cingulate cortex). GnRHa intervention did not significantly affect rs-FC in any seeds....... Considering the GnRHa group only, the emergence of depressive symptoms following intervention was positively associated with amygdala-right temporal cortex and negatively associated with hippocampus-cingulate rs-FC. A test for mediation suggested that rs-FC changes in these networks marginally mediated...

  9. Sex differences in succumbing to sexual temptations: a function of impulse or control?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tidwell, Natasha D; Eastwick, Paul W

    2013-12-01

    Men succumb to sexual temptations (e.g., infidelity, mate poaching) more than women. Explanations for this effect vary; some researchers propose that men and women differ in sexual impulse strength, whereas others posit a difference in sexual self-control. These studies are the first to test such underlying mechanisms. In Study 1, participants reported on their impulses and intentional control exertion when they encountered a real-life tempting but forbidden potential partner. Study 2 required participants to perform a reaction-time task in which they accepted/rejected potential partners, and we used process dissociation to separate the effects of impulse and control. In both studies, men succumbed to the sexual temptations more than women, and this sex difference emerged because men experienced stronger impulses, not because they exerted less intentional control. Implications for the integration of evolutionary and self-regulatory perspectives on sex differences are discussed.

  10. Radioprotective Effect of Thymol Against Salivary Glands Dysfunction Induced by Ionizing Radiation in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Abedi, Seyed Mohammad; Yarmand, Fateme; Motallebnejad, Mina; Seyedmajidi, Maryam; Moslemi, Dariush; Bijani, Ali; Hosseinimehr, Seyed Jalal

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the radioprotective effect of thymol as a natural product against salivary glands dysfunction induced by ionizing radiation in rats. The rats were treated with thymol at dose of 50 mg/Kg before exposure to ionizing radiation at dose 15 Gy. Salivary gland function was evaluated with radioisotope scintigraphy and then salivary gland to background counts ratio was calculated. Ionizing radiation caused significant salivary glands dysfunction at the 3th and...

  11. Sex Differences in Self-Reported Hip Function Up to 2 Years After Arthroscopic Surgery for Femoroacetabular Impingement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Roody; Pan, Xueliang; Cenkus, Kathleen; Brown, Lindsey; Ellis, Thomas; Di Stasi, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    Femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) is a significant cause of disability in young adults. Hip arthroscopic surgery restores bony congruence and improves function in the majority of patients, but recent evidence indicates that women may experience worse pre- and postoperative function than men. The purpose of this study was to identify whether self-reported hip function differed between men and women with symptomatic FAI. The hypothesis was that mean self-reported hip function scores would improve after arthroscopic surgery but that women would report poorer function than men both before and up to 2 years after arthroscopic surgery. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. A total of 229 patients (68.4% women; mean [±SD] age, 31.6 ± 10.8 years; mean [±SD] body mass index, 26.8 ± 11.9 kg/m(2)) underwent hip arthroscopic surgery for unilateral symptomatic FAI. All eligible and consenting patients with radiologically and clinically confirmed FAI completed the International Hip Outcome Tool (iHOT-33) and the Hip Outcome Score activities of daily living subscale (HOS-ADL) before hip arthroscopic surgery and at 3, 6, 12, and 24 months after arthroscopic surgery. A linear mixed model for repeated measures was used to test for differences in self-reported hip function between men and women over the study period (P ≤ .05). There were no significant time × sex interactions for either the HOS-ADL (P = .12) or iHOT-33 (P = .64), but both measures showed significant improvements between the preoperative time point and each of the 4 follow-up points (P < .0001); however, self-reported hip function did not improve between 6 and 24 months after arthroscopic surgery (P ≥ .11). Post hoc independent t tests indicated that women reported poorer hip function than did men before surgery (P ≤ .003) both on the HOS-ADL (mean ± standard error of the mean [SEM], 67.4 ± 1.9 [men] vs 60.5 ± 1.3 [women]) and iHOT-33 (mean ± SEM, 38.0 ± 1.9 [men] vs 30.9 ± 1.3 [women]); scores were

  12. Sex Differences in Kappa Opioid Receptor Function and Their Potential Impact on Addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Chartoff, Elena H.; Mavrikaki, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral, biological, and social sequelae that lead to drug addiction differ between men and women. Our efforts to understand addiction on a mechanistic level must include studies in both males and females. Stress, anxiety, and depression are tightly linked to addiction, and whether they precede or result from compulsive drug use depends on many factors, including biological sex. The neuropeptide dynorphin (DYN), an endogenous ligand at kappa opioid receptors (KORs), is necessary for stress...

  13. The metapleural gland of ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yek, Sze Huei; Mueller, Ulrich G

    2011-01-01

    The metapleural gland (MG) is a complex glandular structure unique to ants, suggesting a critical role in their origin and ecological success. We synthesize the current understanding of the adaptive function, morphology, evolutionary history, and chemical properties of the MG. Two functions......-compressible invagination of the integument and the secretion is thought to ooze out passively through the non-closable opening of the MG or is groomed off by the legs and applied to target surfaces. MG loss has occurred repeatedly among the ants, particularly in the subfamilies Formicinae and Myrmicinae, and the MG...... is more commonly absent in males than in workers. MG chemistry has been characterized mostly in derived ant lineages with unique biologies (e.g. leafcutter ants, fire ants), currently precluding any inferences about MG chemistry at the origin of the ants. A synthetic approach integrating functional...

  14. Emotional and sexual jealousy as a function of sex and sexual orientation in a Brazilian sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Altay Alves Lino; Verderane, Michele Pereira; Taira, Juliana Tieme; Otta, Emma

    2006-04-01

    The goal of the present study was to compare the relative distress of homosexual and heterosexual Brazilian men and women on scenarios in which they imagined their partners sexually or emotionally involved with another person, using a forced-choice paradigm and continuous measures. Participants were 68 heterosexual men, 72 heterosexual women, 42 homosexual men, and 35 homosexual women. On the forced-choice questions heterosexual men (39 on one question and 37 on the other) were more upset than their female counterparts (21 on one question and 15 on the other) by scenarios of sexual infidelity than those of emotional infidelity. On questions using continuous measures no significant difference was found between pleasurable sex and attachment scenarios for heterosexual women or heterosexual men. On the highly upsetting scenarios heterosexual men discriminated between flirting and both pleasurable sex and attachment scenarios, being less disturbed by the former. In contrast, heterosexual women were equally distressed by the three scenarios. Scores for the homosexual men and homosexual women fell in between those of the heterosexual men and heterosexual women and did not show a clear cut preference for the sexual infidelity or the emotional alternative on the forced-choice paradigm. However, on the continuous measures of jealousy homosexuals resembled heterosexuals of the opposite sex. There was no evidence that jealousy would be less intense among homosexuals although reproductive outcomes were not at risk.

  15. Safe sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sex; Sexually transmitted - safe sex; GC - safe sex; Gonorrhea - safe sex; Herpes - safe sex; HIV - safe sex; ... contact. STIs include: Chlamydia Genital herpes Genital warts Gonorrhea Hepatitis HIV HPV Syphilis STIs are also called ...

  16. 1,25(OH)2 vitamin D3 binding sites in male sex organs of the Siberian hamster (Phodopus sungorus). An autoradiographic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schleicher, G.; Bartke, A.; Bidmon, H.J.; Stumpf, W.E.

    1993-01-01

    Using autoradiography, binding sites for 1,25(OH)2 vitamin D3 are found in certain genital organs of male Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus), in particular in basal epithelial cells and fibroblasts of the lamina propria of prostate glands. Scattered labeled cells are also present in the epithelium of coagulation and urethral glands. In contrast to the findings in mice, under the conditions of the experiment, 1,25(OH)2 vitamin D3 binding sites are not recognizable in other accessory sex glands and gonads. The frequency of basal epithelial cells with [3H]1,25(OH)2 vitamin D3 nuclear binding is higher in regressed dorsal prostate glands of animals living in short photoperiods. The data suggest that 1,25(OH)2 vitamin D3 may promote proliferation and differentiation in basal epithelial cells, modulated by the seasonal and functional status of the animal

  17. Experimental autotransplantation of the parathyroid gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prigouris, S; Lorentziadis, M; Stylogiannis, S; Nafas, R; Masouras, A; Poulantzas, I

    1996-03-01

    The lateral parathyroid gland of the rabbit was resected and autotransplanted under an ear skin flap. A skin flap at the opposite side was used as control. The success of autotransplantation was established by microangiography of the transplant and by measuring plasma concentrations of parathyroid hormone (PTH), calcium and phosphorus. After 4 months the animals were killed and the transplant was studied histologically and by electron microscopy. Fourteen animals were included in the study. There was an increase in PTH derived from the transplanted gland after 4-6 postoperative days. All animals developed hypocalcaemia during the 3 days after transplantation. There were no significant changes in serum phosphorus. Transplantation did not alter the morphology of the distribution of the cells in the transplanted gland, which functioned normally after the fourth postoperative day.

  18. STUDENTS JUDGMENTS OF THE RISKS OF HIV-INFECTION AS A FUNCTION OF SEXUAL PRACTICE, SEX OF TARGET AND PARTNER, AND AGE AND SEX OF STUDENT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SPEARS, R; ABRAHAM, C; SHEERAN, P; ABRAMS, D

    1995-01-01

    Two age cohorts of male and female students (n = 311) were investigated concerning their perceptions of the HIV-related risks of various sex-related practices (unprotected vaginal, oral, and anal sex, and mutual masturbation and kissing). Participants judged the risk of these activities for either a

  19. Anatomy of the thymus gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safieddine, Najib; Keshavjee, Shaf

    2011-05-01

    In the case of the thymus gland, the most common indications for resection are myasthenia gravis or thymoma. The consistency and appearance of the thymus gland make it difficult at times to discern from mediastinal fatty tissues. Having a clear understanding of the anatomy and the relationship of the gland to adjacent structures is important. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. COX2 inhibition during nephrogenic period induces ANG II hypertension and sex-dependent changes in renal function during aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reverte, Virginia; Tapia, Antonio; Loria, Analia; Salazar, Francisco; Llinas, M Teresa; Salazar, F Javier

    2014-03-01

    This study was performed to test the hypothesis that ANG II contributes to the hypertension and renal functional alterations induced by a decrease of COX2 activity during the nephrogenic period. It was also examined whether renal functional reserve and renal response to volume overload and high sodium intake are reduced in 3-4- and 9-11-mo-old male and female rats treated with vehicle or a COX2 inhibitor during nephrogenic period (COX2np). Our data show that this COX2 inhibition induces an ANG II-dependent hypertension that is similar in male and female rats. Renal functional reserve is reduced in COX2np-treated rats since their renal response to an increase in plasma amino acids levels is abolished, and their renal ability to eliminate a sodium load is impaired (P renal excretory ability is similar in both sexes during aging but does not induce the development of a sodium-sensitive hypertension. However, the prolonged high-sodium intake at 9-11 mo of age leads to a greater proteinuria in male than in female (114 ± 12 μg/min vs. 72 ± 8 μg/min; P Renal hemodynamic sensitivity to acute increments in ANG II is unaltered in both sexes and at both ages in COX2np-treated rats. In summary, these results indicate that the reduction of COX2 activity during nephrogenic period programs for the development of an ANG II-dependent hypertension, reduces renal functional reserve to a similar extent in both sexes, and increases proteinuria in males but not in females when there is a prolonged increment in sodium intake.

  1. [MR sialography: evaluation of an ultra-fast sequence in consideration of a parallel acquisition technique and different functional conditions in patients with salivary gland diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petridis, C; Ries, T; Cramer, M C; Graessner, J; Petersen, K U; Reitmeier, F; Jaehne, M; Weiss, F; Adam, G; Habermann, C R

    2007-02-01

    To evaluate an ultra-fast sequence for MR sialography requiring no post-processing and to compare the acquisition technique regarding the effect of oral stimulation with a parallel acquisition technique in patients with salivary gland diseases. 128 patients with salivary gland disease were prospectively examined using a 1.5-T superconducting system with a 30 mT/m maximum gradient capability and a maximum slew rate of 125 mT/m/sec. A single-shot turbo-spin-echo sequence (ss-TSE) with an acquisition time of 2.8 sec was used in transverse and oblique sagittal orientation. All images were obtained with and without a parallel imaging technique. The evaluation of the ductal system of the parotid and submandibular gland was performed using a visual scale of 1-5 for each side. The images were assessed by two independent experienced radiologists. An ANOVA with post-hoc comparisons and an overall two tailed significance level of p = 0.05 was used for the statistical evaluation. An intraclass correlation was computed to evaluate interobserver variability and a correlation of > 0.8 was determined, thereby indicating a high correlation. Depending on the diagnosed diseases and the absence of abruption of the ducts, all parts of excretory ducts were able to be visualized in all patients using the developed technique with an overall rating for all ducts of 2.70 (SD +/- 0.89). A high correlation was achieved between the two observers with an intraclass correlation of 0.73. Oral application of a sialogogum improved the visibility of excretory ducts significantly (p parallel imaging technique led to a significant decrease in image quality (p = 0,011). The applied ss-TSE for MR sialography allows fast and sufficient visualization of the excretory ducts of the main salivary glands in patients, and no elaborate post-processing is required. Use of an oral sialogogum is suggested to improve the results of MR sialography.

  2. Applications of and limitations to salivary gland scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spiegel, W.; Boerner, W.

    1987-04-01

    Salivary gland functional imaging is a simple, non-invasive procedure which requires little in terms of time and money to clarify disorders of saliva production and elimination. With relatively low levels of radiation exposure, there is no reason to expect side effects to the patient, provided that a physiological taste stimulant such as lemon juice is used to stimulate saliva production. From a dynamic study we derived functional curves for the parotides and the submandibular glands using the ROI-technique. Typical curves allow to differentiate between inflammatory, degenerative and obstructive diseases of the salivary glands. In cases of salivary gland tumours, additional information of pre- or posttherapeutic relevance may be expected e.g. concerning the saliva flow patterns. However, for primary diagnosis, other imaging procedures are more useful. In combination with sonography, swellings and pain of the salivary glands may be reliably clarified. Except for time activity curves for the salivary glands, quantitative analysis of pertechnetate uptake is only of secondary importance. This is due to methodological problems (e.g. definition of ROI) on the one hand and to a considerable inter- and intra-individual variability of the secretory gland outputs of the parotides and submandibular glands on the other hand.

  3. Sweat gland carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brichkov, Igor; Daskalakis, Theodoros; Rankin, Linda; Divino, Celia

    2004-01-01

    Sweat gland carcinoma is a rare malignant tumor of the skin adnexa that can occur in a variety of locations. It is a slow-growing tumor that metastasizes early and often. The rarity of this tumor has led to a relative lack of adequate evidence with regard to treating this entity. Recent advances in immunohistochemical staining have better defined this tumor and have aided in diagnosing its subtypes though histologic grade and presence of regional lymph nodes at the time of diagnosis. These are the best indicators for prognosis and management currently available. Indications for sentinel node biopsy are currently not well defined. Because of the poor prognosis of high-grade sweat gland carcinoma, clinicians should be aware of this entity and be prepared to treat aggressively. Management of sweat gland carcinoma is difficult because extensive study into both surgical and nonsurgical treatment has not been done. We present a case of sweat gland carcinoma of the lower extremity and a review of the clinicopathologic literature of these rare neoplasms, including diagnosis and surgical management.

  4. Salivary Gland Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... taste in your mouth Difficulty opening your mouth Dry mouth Pain in your face or mouth Swelling of your face or neck Causes of salivary gland problems include infections, obstruction, or cancer. Problems can also be due to other disorders, such as mumps or Sjogren's syndrome.

  5. Undifferentiated salivary gland carcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbst, H.; Hamilton-Dutoit, S.; Jakel, K.T.

    2004-01-01

    Undifferentiated salivary gland carcinomas may be divided into small cell and large cell types. Among large cell undifferentiated carcinomas, lymphoepithelial carcinomas have to be distinguished, the latter of which are endemic in the Arctic regions and southern China where virtually all cases of...... at other primary sites, particularly when expressing the thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1) Udgivelsesdato: 2004...

  6. Concentrations of the adrenocorticotropic hormone, corticosterone and sex steroid hormones and the expression of the androgen receptor in the pituitary and adrenal glands of male turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) during growth and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiezun, J; Kaminska, B; Jankowski, J; Dusza, L

    2015-01-01

    Androgens take part in the regulation of puberty and promote growth and development. They play their biological role by binding to a specific androgen receptor (AR). The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of AR mRNA and protein in the pituitary and adrenal glands, to localize AR protein in luteinizing hormone (LH)-producing pituitary and adrenocortical cells, to determine plasma concentrations of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone and the concentrations of corticosterone, testosterone (T), androstenedione (A4) and oestradiol (E2) in the adrenal glands of male turkeys at the age of 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24 and 28weeks. The concentrations of hormones and the expression of AR varied during development. The expression of AR mRNA and protein in pituitary increased during the growth. The increase of AR mRNA levels in pituitary occurred earlier than increase of AR protein. The percentage of pituitary cells expressing ARs in the population of LH-secreting cells increased in week 20. It suggests that AR expression in LH-producing pituitary cells is determined by the phase of development. The drop in adrenal AR mRNA and protein expression was accompanied by an increase in the concentrations of adrenal androgens. Those results could point to the presence of a compensatory mechanism that enables turkeys to avoid the potentially detrimental effects of high androgen concentrations. Our results will expand our knowledge of the role of steroids in the development of the reproductive system of turkeys from the first month of age until maturity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Transcriptome Analysis of Drosophila melanogaster Third Instar Larval Ring Glands Points to Novel Functions and Uncovers a Cytochrome p450 Required for Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Christesen

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In Drosophila melanogaster larvae, the ring gland (RG is a control center that orchestrates major developmental transitions. It is a composite organ, consisting of the prothoracic gland, the corpus allatum, and the corpora cardiaca, each of which synthesizes and secretes a different hormone. Until now, the RG’s broader developmental roles beyond endocrine secretion have not been explored. RNA sequencing and analysis of a new transcriptome resource from D. melanogaster wandering third instar larval RGs has provided a fascinating insight into the diversity of developmental signaling in this organ. We have found strong enrichment of expression of two gene pathways not previously associated with the RG: immune response and fatty acid metabolism. We have also uncovered strong expression for many uncharacterized genes. Additionally, RNA interference against RG-enriched cytochrome p450s Cyp6u1 and Cyp6g2 produced a lethal ecdysone deficiency and a juvenile hormone deficiency, respectively, flagging a critical role for these genes in hormone synthesis. This transcriptome provides a valuable new resource for investigation of roles played by the RG in governing insect development.

  8. [Roles of protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2), a G protein-coupled receptor, in modulation of exocrine gland functions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, Hiroyuki

    2006-07-01

    Protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2), a G protein-coupled receptor, is activated by proteolytic unmasking of the N-terminal extracellular tethered ligand that presumably binds to the extracellular loop 2 of the receptor itself. PAR-2 is widely distributed in the mammalian body and plays various roles in biological events in the cardiovascular, respiratory, alimentary, and central neurons systems. PAR-2-activating peptides administered systemically to mice and rats trigger prompt salivation in vivo. In an in vitro study, PAR-2 agonists including the endogenous PAR-2 activator trypsin induce secretion of amylase and mucin from isolated rat parotid glands and sublingual glands, respectively. PAR-2-activating peptides administered systemically also modulate pancreatic exocrine secretion in vivo as well as in vitro. In the gastric mucosa, PAR-2 stimulation enhances secretion of mucus and pepsinogen and suppresses acid secretion. Tear secretion can also be caused by PAR-2-related peptides in PAR-2-dependent and -independent manners. PAR-2 thus plays a general or key role in the regulation of exocrine secretion. This review focuses on the physiologic and/or pathophysiologic roles of PAR-2 in glandular exocrine secretion. The possibility of PAR-2 as a target for drug development is also discussed.

  9. Biokinetics and dose estimation of {sup 65}Zn in the salivary gland and male reproductive organs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, M. [Research Center for Radiation Emergency Medicine, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1, Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba-shi 263-8555 (Japan); Homma-Takeda, S. [Research Center for Radiation Protection, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1, Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba-shi 263-8555 (Japan); Nishimura, Y. [Fundamental Technology Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1, Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba-shi 263-8555 (Japan)

    2007-07-01

    ICRP is revising its recommendations for radiological protection and has added salivary and secretory glands as new target organs. However, little information is available on the distributions of radionuclides in the salivary gland, secretory glands and male reproductive organs. This study deals with the distribution of {sup 65}Zn in the salivary gland and male reproductive organs as a function of time after a single intravenous and oral administration. For the study, 64 Wistar strain male rats, eight weeks of age were used. The rats were periodically sacrificed, the liver, kidney, spleen, pancreas, thymus, salivary gland, testis, epididymitis and prostate gland sampled and the radioactivity of these organs measured with an NaI scintillation counter. The relative concentration of {sup 65}Zn was highest in the prostate gland. We estimated the radiation dose in humans using rat data for the salivary and secretory glands as well as reproductive organs after intake of {sup 65}Zn. (authors)

  10. Transcriptomic analysis of the salivary glands of an invasive whitefly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yun-Lin; Li, Jun-Min; Li, Meng; Luan, Jun-Bo; Ye, Xiao-Dong; Wang, Xiao-Wei; Liu, Shu-Sheng

    2012-01-01

    Some species of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci complex cause tremendous losses to crops worldwide through feeding directly and virus transmission indirectly. The primary salivary glands of whiteflies are critical for their feeding and virus transmission. However, partly due to their tiny size, research on whitefly salivary glands is limited and our knowledge on these glands is scarce. We sequenced the transcriptome of the primary salivary glands of the Mediterranean species of B. tabaci complex using an effective cDNA amplification method in combination with short read sequencing (Illumina). In a single run, we obtained 13,615 unigenes. The quantity of the unigenes obtained from the salivary glands of the whitefly is at least four folds of the salivary gland genes from other plant-sucking insects. To reveal the functions of the primary glands, sequence similarity search and comparisons with the whole transcriptome of the whitefly were performed. The results demonstrated that the genes related to metabolism and transport were significantly enriched in the primary salivary glands. Furthermore, we found that a number of highly expressed genes in the salivary glands might be involved in secretory protein processing, secretion and virus transmission. To identify potential proteins of whitefly saliva, the translated unigenes were put into secretory protein prediction. Finally, 295 genes were predicted to encode secretory proteins and some of them might play important roles in whitefly feeding. The combined method of cDNA amplification, Illumina sequencing and de novo assembly is suitable for transcriptomic analysis of tiny organs in insects. Through analysis of the transcriptome, genomic features of the primary salivary glands were dissected and biologically important proteins, especially secreted proteins, were predicted. Our findings provide substantial sequence information for the primary salivary glands of whiteflies and will be the basis for future studies on whitefly

  11. Sub-acute administration of lower doses of nicotine caused sex-dependent improvement of renal function in Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ojo Rufus Akomolafe

    Full Text Available The adverse and beneficial health effects of nicotine (NIC, the major alkaloid found in cigarettes and tobacco, are controversial. Most studies on NIC have focused on its effects on cardiovascular and nervous functions. This study aimed at determining dose- and sex-specific effects of sub-acute (28 days NIC administration on some indices of kidney function in Wistar rats. Forty rats (20 males and 20 females, 8–9 weeks old (each housed in separate metabolic cage, were used for this study such that graded doses of NIC (1, 2 and 4 mg/kg i.p. for 28 days were administered to both sexes while each control received distilled water at 0.2 mL/100 g i.p. Blood was collected under ketamine anesthesia (10 mg/kg i.m for analyses and results obtained were compared at p < 0.05. The result showed beneficial alterations in plasma and urine level of creatinine, urea and uric acid (p < 0.05 as well as plasma and urine electrolyte level (Na+ and K+ in both sexes (p < 0.05. Also, there was significant improvement in creatinine clearance (p < 0.05 with no appreciable difference in their histological examination. Although these beneficial effects were more pronounced in the female than in the male (p < 0.05, administration at the highest dose showed potentially deleterious alterations from normal beneficial trend (p < 0.05 in both sexes. It was concluded that sub-acute administration of lower doses of NIC improves kidney function of Wistar rats; an effect that was more pronounced in the females than their male counterparts. Keywords: Nicotine, Wistar rats, Creatinine clearance, Plasma and urine electrolytes, Renal function

  12. Dynamic salivary gland scintigraphy in clinical sicca syndrome: comparison with static images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Euy Neyng; Shon, Hyung Sun; Choi, Jung Eun; Kim, Sung Hoon; Chung, Young An; Chung, Soo Kyo; Kim, Choon Yul [College of Medicine, The Catholic Univ. of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-02-01

    In this study, we compared the quantitative characteristics of dynamic salivary gland scintigraphy with static scintigraphy in patients with clinical sicca syndrome using Tc-99m pertechnetate. Fifty-two parotid glands and 52 submandibular glands out of 26 patients with clinical sicca syndrome were studied by dynamic and static salivary gland scintigraphy. Ten normal volunteers were also studied as a control group for comparison of scintigraphic parameters. Ten minutes after injection of 370 MBq Tc-99m pertechnetate, we obtained pre-stimulus static images for a few minutes. Then dynamic salivary gland scintigraphy with lemon juice stimulation was performed for 20 minutes. Finally we obtained post-stimulus static images after dynamic images. On dynamic study, functional parameters such as uptake rate, secretion rate and re-uptake rate were calculated. The results of dynamic study and static images were compared. On dynamic study, we could obtain functional parameters of salivary glands successfully. On dynamic study, 22 parotid glands and 22 submandibular glands out of each 52 glands are abnormal. The static images demonstrated somewhat different results, of which reasons we could assume via dynamic study. Dynamic salivary gland scintigraphy using Tc-99m perechnetate were more functional than static images and might be useful in the assessment of the functional change of the salivary gland in patients with clinical sicca syndrome.

  13. Oral administration of royal jelly restores tear secretion capacity in rat blink-suppressed dry eye model by modulating lacrimal gland function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshihiro Imada

    Full Text Available Tears are secreted from the lacrimal gland (LG, a dysfunction in which induces dry eye, resulting in ocular discomfort and visual impairment. Honey bee products are used as a nutritional source in daily life and medicine; however, little is known about their effects on dry eye. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of honey bee products on tear secretion capacity in dry eye. We selected raw honey, propolis, royal jelly (RJ, pollen, or larva from commercially available honey bee products. Tear secretion capacity was evaluated following the oral administration of each honey bee product in a rat blink-suppressed dry eye model. Changes in tear secretion, LG ATP content, and LG mitochondrial levels were measured. RJ restored the tear secretion capacity and decrease in LG ATP content and mitochondrial levels to the largest extent. Royal jelly can be used as a preventative intervention for dry eye by managing tear secretion capacity in the LG.

  14. Backstroke organization in physical education students as a function of skill and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerda, Robert; Cardelli, Chantal; Coudereau, Jean-Pierre

    2005-06-01

    This study assessed how stroking in backstroke varies with performance status and sex. A total of 36 subjects were separated into two groups of 18 by sex and further divided into two subgroups of nine, faster and slower, based on velocity in the 100-m event. Stroking parameters and coordination indexes were measured at this 100-m pace. Index 1 characterizes the continuity between propulsive phases of each arm and Index 2, the simultaneity between the beginning of the pull of one arm and of the recovery of the other arm. It is shown that the entry-catch and clearing vary (p<.05) between men (4.5%+/-3.7 and 27.1%+/-9.0) and women (8.3%+/-8.5 and 20.0%+/-4.6). Index 1 indicates that women have a better continuity than men (7.4%+/-6.3 vs -10.7%+/-3.6; p<.05). Performance is mainly explained (p<.05) by the increase in the entry and catch (r=.58 for men and .75 for women) at the expense of clearing (respectively, r=-.70 and -.53, p<.05). For men, Index 2 indicates that the simultaneity is higher in faster than in slower swimmers (10.6+/-7.0% vs 15.5+/-7.4%; p<.05) and is correlated with performance (r=-.47, p<.05). Index 2 is related to the clearing (r=.71), the number of kicks per cycle (K x C(-1), r=-.61), and the pull (r=.60). For women, the performance is explained by Index 1 (r=.48, p<.05). Index 1 is related (p<.05) to stroke rate (r=.84), the clearing (r=-.70), and K x C(-1) (r=-.61). K x C(-1) increases from 6.4+/-.70 for the faster to 7.8+/-2.0 for the slower group (p<.05).

  15. Sex determination using discriminant function analysis in Indigenous (Kurubas) children and adolescents of Coorg, Karnataka, India: A lateral cephalometric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devang Divakar, Darshan; John, Jacob; Al Kheraif, Abdulaziz Abdullah; Mavinapalla, Seema; Ramakrishnaiah, Ravikumar; Vellappally, Sajith; Hashem, Mohamed Ibrahim; Dalati, M H N; Durgesh, B H; Safadi, Rima A; Anil, Sukumaran

    2016-11-01

    Aim: To test the validity of sex discrimination using lateral cephalometric radiograph and discriminant function analysis in Indigenous (Kuruba) children and adolescents of Coorg, Karnataka, India. Methods and materials: Six hundred and sixteen lateral cephalograms of 380 male and 236 females of age ranging from 6.5 to 18 years of Indigenous population of Coorg, Karnataka, India called Kurubas having a normal occlusion were included in the study. Lateral cephalograms were obtained in a standard position with teeth in centric occlusion and lips relaxed. Each radiograph was traced and cephalometric landmarks were measured using digital calliper. Calculations of 24 cephalometric measurements were performed. Results: Males exhibited significantly greater mean angular and linear cephalometric measurements as compared to females ( p  gender. The reliability of the derived discriminant function was assessed among study subjects; 100% of males and females were recognized correctly. Conclusion: The final outcome of this study validates the existence of sexual dimorphism in the skeleton as early as 6.5 years of age. There is a need for further research to determine other landmarks that can help in sex determination and norms for Indigenous (Kuruba) population and also other Indigenous population of Coorg, Karnataka, India.

  16. Effect of Meibomian gland massage before phacoemulsification on ocular surface after surgery in patients with Meibomian gland dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bang-Tao Yao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To study the changes of ocular surface in cataract patients with Meibomian gland dysfunction(MGDwho treated with Meibomian gland massage before surgery. METHODS: Totally 90 patients(93 eyeswith cataract and MGD were randomly divided into two groups. Patients in experimental group were treated with hot compress and Meibomian gland massage every day before surgery, while the patients in the control group were not taken. Two groups of patients received phacoemulsification combined with intraocular lens implantation. Lid margin abnormalities, secretion characteristics, Schimer I test(SⅠtand tear film break-up time(BUTwere recorded and compared between two groups using slit lamp microscope inspection preoperatively and postoperatively 1wk. RESULTS: In the control group, the postoperative score of eyelid margin and Meibomian gland secretion was increased significantly than preoperative, while the value of BUT and SⅠt was down significantly. Compared with control group, the postoperative score of eyelid margin shape and Meibomian gland secretion in the experimental group was decreased significantly, while the value of BUT and SIT improved significantly(PCONCLUSION: Phacoemulsification can aggravate the Meibomian gland dysfunction and have some extent of effects on the ocular surface. Meibomian gland massage before surgery can significantly improve the function of Meibomian gland and the state of ocular surface in patients with MDG.

  17. Tumors of the Major Salivary Glands. A Case Series Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yordany Boza Mejías

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: the study of salivary gland neoplasms is one of the most complex issues of cancer of the head and neck. Objective: to determine the behavior of tumors of the major salivary glands. Method: an observational-descriptive-retrospective case series in the Maxillofacial Surgery Department of the Hospital General Universitario Dr. Gustavo Lima Aldereguía of Cienfuegos, in the period from January 2000 through December 2009. Results: tumors of the major salivary glands occurred in the study population with a similarity between the sexes, with a slight predominance in males. The parotid gland was the most affected (93,55 %, pleomorphic adenoma was the most represented the benign tumor (58,06 %, while within the most frequent malignant adenocarcinoma (3,23 %. The most common surgical technique was subtotal parotidectomy. The (85,5 % of clinical diagnoses corresponded with histopathological and the type of tumor is found that of the 51 benign lesions (82,26 % are the largest percentage of agreement presented. In the present series were 61 patients (98,39 % alive without disease, only 1 patient (1,61 % had recurrence of their disease. We found no patient died during the study period. Conclusions: salivary gland tumors in the parotid gland predominate and are the most common benign tumors usually occur in adults.

  18. Cognitive functions of regularly cycling women may differ throughout the month, depending on sex hormone status; A possible explanation to conflicting results of studies of ADHD in females.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronit eHaimov-Kochman

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD is considered as a model of neuro-developmental cognitive function. ADHD research previously studied mainly males. A major biological distinction between the genders is the presence of a menstrual cycle, which is associated with variations in sex steroid hormone levels. There is a growing body of literature showing that sex hormones have the ability to regulate intracellular signaling systems that are thought to be abnormal in ADHD. Thus, it is conceivable to believe that this functional interaction between sex hormones and molecules involved with synaptic plasticity and neurotransmitter systems may be associated with some of the clinical characteristics of women with ADHD. In spite of the impact of sex hormones on major neurotransmitter systems of the brain in a variety of clinical settings, the menstrual cycle is usually entered to statistical analyses as a nuisance or controlled for by only testing male samples. Evaluation of brain structure, function and chemistry over the course of the menstrual cycle as well as across the lifespan of women (premenarche, puberty, cycling period, premenopause, postmenopause is critical to understanding sex differences in both normal and aberrant mental function and behavior. The studies of ADHD in females suggest confusing and non-consistent conclusions. None of these studies examined the possible relationship between phase of the menstrual cycle, sex hormones levels and ADHD symptoms. The menstrual cycle should therefore be taken into consideration in future studies in the neurocognitive field since it offers a unique opportunity to understand whether and how subtle fluctuations of sex hormones and specific combinations of sex hormones influence neuronal circuits implicated in the cognitive regulation of emotional processing. The investigation of biological models involving the role of estrogen, progesterone, and other sex steroids has the potential to generate

  19. Cognitive functions of regularly cycling women may differ throughout the month, depending on sex hormone status; a possible explanation to conflicting results of studies of ADHD in females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haimov-Kochman, Ronit; Berger, Itai

    2014-01-01

    Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is considered as a model of neuro-developmental cognitive function. ADHD research previously studied mainly males. A major biological distinction between the genders is the presence of a menstrual cycle, which is associated with variations in sex steroid hormone levels. There is a growing body of literature showing that sex hormones have the ability to regulate intracellular signaling systems that are thought to be abnormal in ADHD. Thus, it is conceivable to believe that this functional interaction between sex hormones and molecules involved with synaptic plasticity and neurotransmitter systems may be associated with some of the clinical characteristics of women with ADHD. In spite of the impact of sex hormones on major neurotransmitter systems of the brain in a variety of clinical settings, the menstrual cycle is usually entered to statistical analyses as a nuisance or controlled for by only testing male samples. Evaluation of brain structure, function and chemistry over the course of the menstrual cycle as well as across the lifespan of women (premenarche, puberty, cycling period, premenopause, postmenopause) is critical to understanding sex differences in both normal and aberrant mental function and behavior. The studies of ADHD in females suggest confusing and non-consistent conclusions. None of these studies examined the possible relationship between phase of the menstrual cycle, sex hormones levels and ADHD symptoms. The menstrual cycle should therefore be taken into consideration in future studies in the neurocognitive field since it offers a unique opportunity to understand whether and how subtle fluctuations of sex hormones and specific combinations of sex hormones influence neuronal circuits implicated in the cognitive regulation of emotional processing. The investigation of biological models involving the role of estrogen, progesterone, and other sex steroids has the potential to generate new and improved

  20. Rat pancreatic islet function during prolonged glucose stimulation in vitro : Effect of sex and reproductive state

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moes, H; Koiter, TR

    Prolonged stimulation with glucose may induce desensitisation of pancreatic beta-cell function in male rats. The effects of such a treatment on pancreatic islets of pregnant (P) rats, in which beta-cell function is enhanced, were studied in a perifusion design and compared with the effects on islets

  1. [Thyroid gland nodules registered at the Endocrinology Department of the Medical Center in Prokuplje].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obradović, L

    2000-01-01

    Thyroid nodules are often found in clinical practice. General population prevalence is about 4%, whereas in women it is over 6%. The basic disorder of cell kinetics of thyroid tumors is inappropriate growth response to corresponding thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) concentration. At the Endocrinology Department of Medical Centre in Prokuplje, during the first year of practice (1997), 430 patients with thyroid gland disease were registered, both male and female belonging to different age groups. Patients were examined in regard to: sex, age, heredity, symptoms. Basic laboratory analyses were done with the aim to establish inflammatory syndromes: sedimentation, leukocytes, differential blood picture, cholesterolemia and fibrinogenemia; hormones of thyroid glands (T3, T4, TSH) with corresponding radioimmunoassay (RIA) technique. In the aim of identifying the nodules in the thyroid gland and perceiving nodular features, an ultrasound examining was done and scintigraphy of thyroid gland if necessary. Scintigraphy was done with radioactive technicium-99 mTc. From the total number of registered patients (430) with thyroid gland disease, nodules were found in 172 glands (40%). The presence of thyroid nodules is more frequent in women (91.3%). The average age of thyroid gland patients is 50.33 years, of which men aged 52 and women aged 50.17. The following risk factors are stated as the most frequent: chronic stress 58.13%, consuming goiter substances 46.51% (cabbage, kale, sulphonamide). Swollen thyroid gland--goiter occurred in 105 cases (61.07%), whereas in 120 patients (69.32%) normal function was registered. In most cases the nodules are solitary 90 (52.32%). In 71.01% of patients cold nodules were found. In 36.04% of patients nodules were 1 to 1.9 cm in size. The greatest number of patients--83 (36.61%) complained of heart disorder as a symptom. 2.9% out of 172 patients with thyroid nodules underwent operation. The obtained data mostly coincide with the findings of

  2. Cryopreservation of semen from functional sex-reversed genotypic females of the rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Ninhaus-Silveira

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Cryopreservation of semen from sex-reversed females of rainbow trout aims at rationalizing the production of stocks composed by 100% females. Semen from normal males (M and two types of genotypic females (R and G, sex-reversed by the oral administration of 17alpha-methyltestosterone, were used. R was obtained by the fertilization of normal eggs with semen of sex-reversed females while G via gynogenetic reproduction. Semen was diluted in an extender solution (glucose 5,4 g, egg yolk 10 ml, dimetil sulfoxide 10 ml, water 80 ml at 1:3 ratio (semen/extender, stored in straws of 0.5 ml and freezed in a dry container Cryopac CP-65, at -180ºC. Thawing was performed with water at 70ºC for 3 seconds. There were no significant fertilization rate differences (P>0.05 among thawed semen groups (M = 73.1±11.5%; R = 67.2±23.6%; G = 64±5.8%, confirming that the freezing methodology used was efficient to cryopreserve semen of all three trout groups.A criopreservação do sêmen de fêmeas masculinizadas de truta arco-íris tem como objetivo a racionalização do processo de produção de estoques 100% femininos. Para tal, foi coletado sêmen de machos normais (M e de dois tipos de fêmeas genotípicas (R e G, masculinizadas pela administração oral de 17alfa-metiltestosterona. R foi obtido pela fertilização de ovócitos normais com sêmen de fêmeas masculinizadas enquanto G foi através de reprodução ginogenética. O sêmen foi diluído em uma solução crioprotetora (glicose 5,4 g, gema de ovo de galinha 10 ml, dimetil sulfóxido 10 ml, água destilada 80 ml na razão de 1:3 (sêmen/diluidor, envasado em palhetas de 0,5 ml e congelado em um "container" tipo "seco" Cryopac CP-65, à temperatura de -180ºC. A descongelação foi feita em água a 70ºC por 3 segundos. As taxas de fertilização obtidas, não revelaram diferença estatística significativa (P<0.05 entre os três grupos de sêmen descongelados (M = 73,1±11,5%; R = 67,2±23,6%; G = 64±5

  3. Cross-sex hormone use, functional health and mental well-being among transgender men (Toms) and Transgender Women (Kathoeys) in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooren, Louis J; Sungkaew, Tanapong; Giltay, Erik J; Guadamuz, Thomas E

    2015-01-01

    There exists limited understanding of cross-sex hormone use and mental well-being among transgender women and, particularly, among transgender men. Moreover, most studies of transgender people have taken place in the Global North and often in the context of HIV. This exploratory study compared 60 transgender men (toms) with 60 transgender women (kathoeys) regarding their use of cross-sex hormones, mental well-being and acceptance by their family. Participants also completed a dispositional optimism scale (the Life Orientation Test Revised), the Social Functioning Questionnaire and the Short Form Health Survey 36 assessing their profile of functional health and mental well-being. Cross-sex hormones were used by 35% of toms and 73% of kathoeys and were largely unsupervised by health-related personnel. There were no differences in functional health and mental well-being among toms and kathoeys. However, toms currently using cross-sex hormones scored on average poorer on bodily pain and mental health, compared to non-users. Furthermore, compared to non-users, cross-sex hormone users were about eight times and five times more likely to be associated with poor parental acceptance among toms and kathoeys, respectively. This study was the first to compare cross-sex hormone use, functional health and mental well-being among transgender women and transgender men in Southeast Asia.

  4. A complex set of sex pheromones identified in the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérémy Enault

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The cephalopod mollusk Sepia officinalis can be considered as a relevant model for studying reproduction strategies associated to seasonal migrations. Using transcriptomic and peptidomic approaches, we aim to identify peptide sex pheromones that are thought to induce the aggregation of mature cuttlefish in their egg-laying areas. RESULTS: To facilitate the identification of sex pheromones, 576 5'-expressed sequence tags (ESTs were sequenced from a single cDNA library generated from accessory sex glands of female cuttlefish. Our analysis yielded 223 unique sequences composed of 186 singletons and 37 contigs. Three major redundant ESTs called SPα, SPα' and SPβ were identified as good candidates for putative sex pheromone transcripts and are part of the 87 unique sequences classified as unknown. The alignment of translated SPα and SPα' revealed a high level of conservation, with 98.4% identity. Translation led to a 248-amino acid precursor containing six peptides with multiple putative disulfide bonds. The alignment of SPα-α' with SPβ revealed a partial structural conservation, with 37.3% identity. Translation of SPβ led to a 252-amino acid precursor containing five peptides. The occurrence of a signal peptide on SPα, SPα' and SPβ showed that the peptides were secreted. RT-PCR and mass spectrometry analyses revealed a co-localization of transcripts and expression products in the oviduct gland. Preliminary in vitro experiments performed on gills and penises revealed target organs involved in mating and ventilation. CONCLUSIONS: The analysis of the accessory sex gland transcriptome of Sepia officinalis led to the identification of peptidic sex pheromones. Although preliminary functional tests suggested the involvement of the α3 and β2 peptides in ventilation and mating stimulation, further functional investigations will make it possible to identify the complete set of biological activities expected from waterborne pheromones.

  5. Childhood maltreatment is associated with a sex-dependent functional reorganization of a brain inhibitory control network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elton, Amanda; Tripathi, Shanti P; Mletzko, Tanja; Young, Jonathan; Cisler, Josh M; James, G Andrew; Kilts, Clinton D

    2014-04-01

    Childhood adversity represents a major risk factor for drug addiction and other mental disorders. However, the specific mechanisms by which childhood adversity impacts human brain organization to confer greater vulnerability for negative outcomes in adulthood is largely unknown. As an impaired process in drug addiction, inhibitory control of behavior was investigated as a target of childhood maltreatment (abuse and neglect). Forty adults without Axis-I psychiatric disorders (21 females) completed a Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) and underwent functional MRI (fMRI) while performing a stop-signal task. A group independent component analysis identified a putative brain inhibitory control network. Graph theoretical analyses and structural equation modeling investigated the impact of childhood maltreatment on the functional organization of this neural processing network. Graph theory outcomes revealed sex differences in the relationship between network functional connectivity and inhibitory control which were dependent on the severity of childhood maltreatment exposure. A network effective connectivity analysis indicated that a maltreatment dose-related negative modulation of dorsal anterior cingulate (dACC) activity by the left inferior frontal cortex (IFC) predicted better response inhibition and lesser attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in females, but poorer response inhibition and greater ADHD symptoms in males. Less inhibition of the right IFC by dACC in males with higher CTQ scores improved inhibitory control ability. The childhood maltreatment-related reorganization of a brain inhibitory control network provides sex-dependent mechanisms by which childhood adversity may confer greater risk for drug use and related disorders and by which adaptive brain responses protect individuals from this risk factor. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Primary cutaneous sweat gland carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao-Xia Wang; Hai-Yan Wang; Jun-Nian Zheng; Jian-Chao Sui

    2014-01-01

    Primary cutaneous sweat gland carcinoma is a rare neoplasm of malignant sweat gland lesions. It is characterized clinically with non-symptomatic, slow-growing nodules. We report the case of a patient with cutaneous sweat gland carcinoma with local recurrence and metastasis to the lung that was treated with surgical resection therapy and chemotherapy. The initial neoplasm was excised but biopsy was not performed. The tumor then recurred 7 years later, was re-excised, biopsy was performed, and ...

  7. Adults' perceptions of children's independence and other sex-role characteristics as a function of child's gender label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, N J; Hibbs, K; Milholland, T

    1978-12-01

    Male and female college students were presented with a photograph labeled as a 5-yr.-old boy or girl and heard statements attributed to the child. They then rated the child on sex-role traits and responded to open-ended questions about the child. The primary findings involved sex of child by sex of adult interactions on ratings of independence and leadership: in both cases, same-sex children were rated higher than opposite-sex children. There was also some evidence that women having high contact with children rated the child more extremely on opposite-sex traits than did those with little contact.

  8. Regeneration of irradiated salivary glands by stem cell therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Lombaert, Isabelle Madeleine Armand

    2008-01-01

    Yearly, worldwide more than 500.000 new head and neck cancer patients are treated with radiotherapy. Co-irradiation of salivary glands may lead to xerostomia (=dry mouth syndrome), resulting in permanent loss of saliva production. This loss of gland function after radiation is thought to be due to a loss of stem cells that are no longer able to replenish saliva-producing acinar cells. Therefore, stem cell therapy could be utilized to prevent radiation-induced damage to the salivary gland. Bon...

  9. Aplasia of the parotid gland in Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, M M; Ponnambalam, Y

    2005-04-01

    Salivary gland aplasia has not to our knowledge been previously reported in association with Down syndrome. We present a case of bilateral parotid aplasia in a patient with Down syndrome. Clinically he had aplasia of the major salivary glands and symptoms of xerostomia. Thirteen other family members over three generations were examined, and all had functional parotid glands. We reviewed publications about Down syndrome and salivary aplasia, together with the data regarding his other clinical problems and family background. His oral problems were inadequate plaque control, dental caries, and erosion of the teeth.

  10. The impact of joint angle and movement velocity on sex differences in the functional hamstring/quadriceps ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Ste Croix, Mark; ElNagar, Youssif O; Iga, John; Ayala, Francisco; James, David

    2017-08-01

    Females are two to eight times more likely to suffer a non-contact injury compared with males thus the purpose of this study was to explore the influence of joint angle and movement velocity on sex differences in the functional hamstring to quadriceps ratio (H/Q FUNC ). Isokinetic concentric and eccentric torque were determined in 110 participants (55 males and 55 females) through a 90° range of movement at 60, 120, and 240°/s. Testing was performed with the hip flexed at 10°. The H/Q FUNC was determined at three specific joint angles (15, 30 and 45° flexion) and where peak torque occurred for concentric knee extension. A significant interaction effect (Pvelocity interaction (Pvelocity increased. Significant main effects (Pvelocity increases. Given the reduced H/Q FUNC in females compared to males at more extended knee positions and faster velocities, this may contribute to the observed sex bias in reported injury rates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Sex differences in long-term quality of life after stroke: Influence of mood and functional status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Espuela, F; Portilla Cuenca, J C; Leno Díaz, C; Párraga Sánchez, J M; Gamez-Leyva, G; Casado Naranjo, I

    2017-12-19

    To evaluate long-term quality of life (QoL) in patients who have experienced a stroke and to analyse differences in QoL between sexes. We conducted a descriptive, cross-sectional, observational study to gather sociodemographic variables and risk factors; data were also obtained on QoL, mood, and functional status using validated scales. The study was approved by our centre's ethics committee. Our final sample included 124 patients; mean age was 71.30±11.99 years. In the QoL study, the EuroQol-5D dimensions in which participants presented most problems were anxiety/depression (66.7%) and pain/discomfort (62.2%). We found significant inter-sex differences in the dimensions of mobility and usual activities (P=.016 and P=.005, respectively). Women also achieved substantially poorer EuroQoL-5D index values than men (0.45±0.45 vs. 0.65±0.38; P=.013). QoL was found to be associated with dependence for the activities of daily living (r=0.326; P=.001) and depressed mood (r=-0.514; Pde Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Inventory and function of yeast ABC proteins: about sex, stress, pleiotropic drug and heavy metal resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, B E; Wolfger, H; Kuchler, K

    1999-12-06

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae was the first eukaryotic organism whose complete genome sequence has been determined, uncovering the existence of numerous genes encoding proteins of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) family. Fungal ABC proteins are implicated in a variety of cellular functions, ranging from clinical drug resistance development, pheromone secretion, mitochondrial function, peroxisome biogenesis, translation elongation, stress response to cellular detoxification. Moreover, some yeast ABC proteins are orthologues of human disease genes, which makes yeast an excellent model system to study the molecular mechanisms of ABC protein-mediated disease. This review provides a comprehensive discussion and update on the function and transcriptional regulation of all known ABC genes from yeasts, including those discovered in fungal pathogens.

  13. Sex-Related Differences in Pulmonary Function following 6 Months of Cigarette Exposure: Implications for Sexual Dimorphism in Mild COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Anthony; Bates, Jason H T; Churg, Andrew; Wright, Joanne L; Man, S F Paul; Sin, Don D

    2016-01-01

    Female smokers have increased risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) compared with male smokers who have a similar history of cigarette smoke exposure. We have shown previously that chronic smoke exposure for 6 months leads to increased airway wall remodeling in female C57BL/6 mice compared with male C57BL/6 mice. These differences, however, were not evident in female ovariectomized mice exposed to cigarette smoke. Herein, we report on the pulmonary function test results from the flexiVent system, which was used to determine the potential functional consequences of the histologic changes observed in these mice. We found that tissue damping (G) was increased in female compared to male or ovariectomized female mice after smoke exposure. At low oscillating frequencies, complex input resistance (Zrs) and impedance (Xrs) of the respiratory system was increased and decreased, respectively, in female but not in male or ovariectomized female mice after smoke exposure. Quasistatic pressure-volume curves revealed a reduction in inspiratory capacity in female mice but not in male or ovariectomized female mice after smoke exposure. The remaining lung function measurements including quasistatic compliance were similar amongst all groups. This is the first study characterizing a sexual dimorphism in respiratory functional properties in a mouse model of COPD. These findings demonstrate that increased airway remodeling in female mice following chronic smoke exposure is associated with increased tissue resistance in the peripheral airways. These data may explain the importance of female sex hormones and the increased risk of airway disease in female smokers.

  14. Accessory gland as a site for prothoracicotropic hormone controlled ecdysone synthesis in adult male insects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie L Hentze

    Full Text Available Insect steroid hormones (ecdysteroids are important for female reproduction in many insect species and are required for the initiation and coordination of vital developmental processes. Ecdysteroids are also important for adult male physiology and behavior, but their exact function and site of synthesis remains unclear, although previous studies suggest that the reproductive system may be their source. We have examined expression profiles of the ecdysteroidogenic Halloween genes, during development and in adults of the flour beetle Tribolium castaneum. Genes required for the biosynthesis of ecdysone (E, the precursor of the molting hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E, are expressed in the tubular accessory glands (TAGs of adult males. In contrast, expression of the gene encoding the enzyme mediating 20E synthesis was detected in the ovaries of females. Further, Spookiest (Spot, an enzyme presumably required for endowing tissues with competence to produce ecdysteroids, is male specific and predominantly expressed in the TAGs. We also show that prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH, a regulator of E synthesis during larval development, regulates ecdysteroid levels in the adult stage in Drosophila melanogaster and the gene for its receptor Torso seems to be expressed specifically in the accessory glands of males. The composite results suggest strongly that the accessory glands of adult male insects are the main source of E, but not 20E. The finding of a possible male-specific source of E raises the possibility that E and 20E have sex-specific roles analogous to the vertebrate sex steroids, where males produce primarily testosterone, the precursor of estradiol. Furthermore this study provides the first evidence that PTTH regulates ecdysteroid synthesis in the adult stage and could explain the original finding that some adult insects are a rich source of PTTH.

  15. A syringe-like love dart injects male accessory gland products in a tropical hermaphrodite.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joris M Koene

    Full Text Available Sexual conflict shapes the evolution of many behaviours and processes involved in reproduction. Nearly all evidence supporting this comes from species where the sexes are separated. However, a substantial proportion of animals and most plants are hermaphroditic, and theoretical work predicts that sexual conflict plays an important role even when the sexes are joined within one individual. This seems to have resulted in bizarre mating systems, sophisticated sperm packaging and complex reproductive morphologies. By far the best-known example of such a strategy in hermaphrodites is the shooting of so-called love-darts in land snails. All known love darts carry a gland product on their outside and enter this into the partner's hemolymph by stabbing. Here, we show that species of the snail genus Everettia possess a syringe-like dart that serves as a real injection needle. Their dart is round in cross-section, contains numerous channels, and has perforations along its side. Histology and electron microscopy show that these holes connect to the channels inside the dart and run all the way up to the elaborate mucus glands that are attached to the dart sac. This is the first report on a love dart that is used as a syringe to directly inject the gland product into the partner's hemolymph. Although the exact use and function of this dart remains to be demonstrated, this clearly adds to the complexity of the evolution of reproductive strategies in hermaphrodites in general. Moreover, the perforations on the outside of the love dart resemble features of other injection devices, thus uncovering common design and repeated evolution of such features in animals.

  16. A syringe-like love dart injects male accessory gland products in a tropical hermaphrodite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koene, Joris M; Liew, Thor-Seng; Montagne-Wajer, Kora; Schilthuizen, Menno

    2013-01-01

    Sexual conflict shapes the evolution of many behaviours and processes involved in reproduction. Nearly all evidence supporting this comes from species where the sexes are separated. However, a substantial proportion of animals and most plants are hermaphroditic, and theoretical work predicts that sexual conflict plays an important role even when the sexes are joined within one individual. This seems to have resulted in bizarre mating systems, sophisticated sperm packaging and complex reproductive morphologies. By far the best-known example of such a strategy in hermaphrodites is the shooting of so-called love-darts in land snails. All known love darts carry a gland product on their outside and enter this into the partner's hemolymph by stabbing. Here, we show that species of the snail genus Everettia possess a syringe-like dart that serves as a real injection needle. Their dart is round in cross-section, contains numerous channels, and has perforations along its side. Histology and electron microscopy show that these holes connect to the channels inside the dart and run all the way up to the elaborate mucus glands that are attached to the dart sac. This is the first report on a love dart that is used as a syringe to directly inject the gland product into the partner's hemolymph. Although the exact use and function of this dart remains to be demonstrated, this clearly adds to the complexity of the evolution of reproductive strategies in hermaphrodites in general. Moreover, the perforations on the outside of the love dart resemble features of other injection devices, thus uncovering common design and repeated evolution of such features in animals.

  17. Pilates for Better Sex: Changes in Sexual Functioning in Healthy Turkish Women After Pilates Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halis, Fikret; Yildirim, Pelin; Kocaaslan, Ramazan; Cecen, Kursat; Gokce, Ahmet

    2016-05-18

    Although a large number of studies report the impact of daily exercise on many aspects of women's health, none of them address the relationship between Pilates exercise and sexual function prospectively. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of Pilates exercise on sexual function in healthy young women using a validated questionnaire. In total, 34 premenopausal healthy Turkish women aged between 20 and 50 years who had regular menstrual cycles and sexual relationships were included in the study. Women were asked to complete Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) questionnaires. Questionnaires were completed before and after 12 weeks of Pilates exercise. Primary endpoints were changes in total and individual domain scores on the FSFI and BDI. After the 12-week Pilates intervention, BDI scores were decreased and all domains of the FSFI were significantly improved with mean ± SD total FSFI scores increasing from 25.9 ± 7.4 to 32.2 ± 3.6 (p Pilates program. Our findings suggest that Pilates may improve sexual function in healthy women. However, further studies with a larger sample size are needed in this field.

  18. Sex Differences in Salivary Cortisol, Alpha-Amylase, and Psychological Functioning Following Hurricane Katrina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigil, Jacob M.; Geary, David C.; Granger, Douglas A.; Flinn, Mark V.

    2010-01-01

    The study examines group and individual differences in psychological functioning and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity among adolescents displaced by Hurricane Katrina and living in a U.S. government relocation camp (n = 62, ages 12-19 years) 2 months postdisaster. Levels of salivary cortisol, salivary…

  19. Sex Differences in Neuropsychological Function and Manganese in Air, Blood, Hair, and Toenails in Ohio Residents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: This study compares manganese (Mn) in air, blood, hair, and toenails and neuropsychological function of 110 women and 76 men, environmentally exposed to Mn in air (Mn-air) in two Ohio towns from a ferromanganese smelter and a soil Mn-packaging facility.Method: Biomark...

  20. Psychological aspects of sexual functioning among cleric and noncleric alleged sex offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haywood, T W; Kravitz, H M; Grossman, L S; Wasyliw, O E; Hardy, D W

    1996-06-01

    Cleric sexual misconduct with minors is a problem receiving increased attention from the media, victims groups, and church authorities. Mental health professionals are increasingly being asked to assist church and civil authorities to help better understand the problem of cleric sexual misconduct with minors. In the current study we compared self-reported sexual functioning among cleric alleged child molesters, noncleric alleged child molesters, and normal control subjects. We hypothesized clerics would differ from nonclerics and normals in reported sexual functioning. Our sample included 30 Roman Catholic clerics and 39 nonclerics who were alleged to have engaged in sexual misconduct with minors, and 38 normal control subjects, all of whom took the Derogatis Sexual Functioning Inventory (DSFI) as part of their forensic psychiatric evaluation. Our results indicated clerics were more likely to report fewer victims, older victims, and victims of male gender than noncleric alleged child molesters. Clerics differed from nonclerics and normal control subjects on several dimensions of self-reported sexual functioning. Lower offense rate histories among clerics suggest that, as a group, clerics may be less seriously psychologically disordered than noncleric child molesters. Low DSFI scores among Roman Catholic clerics may be accounted for in part by their unique training and socialization process. Future studies should attempt to study the influence of social desirability on DSFI scores. Normative data from nonoffending celibate clergy are needed.

  1. Sex Differences in the Generalization of Fear as a Function of Retention Intervals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Joseph, III; Cullen, Patrick K.; Jasnow, Aaron M.; Riccio, David C.

    2013-01-01

    In previous studies using male rodents, context change disrupted a fear response at a short, but not a long, retention interval. Here, we examined the effects of context changes on fear responses as a function of time in male and female rats. Males displayed context discrimination at all intervals, whereas females exhibited generalization by 5 d.…

  2. Cerebral Asymmetries in the Processing of Dichotic Materials as a Function of Sex, Handedness, and Instructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iaccino, James F.; Sowa, Stephen J.

    Since past studies have shown that females as well as left-handers do not demonstrate a right-ear advantage for verbal materials, suggesting that linguistic functions may not be handled in the left hemisphere exclusively, a study was conducted to examine these laterality effects more closely. Subjects, 24 undergraduate students at a small college…

  3. Sternal gland structures in males of bean flower thrips, Megalurothrips sjostedti, and Poinsettia thrips, Echinothrips americanus, in comparison with those of western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Stephanie; Subramanian, Sevgan; Niassy, Saliou; Moritz, Gerald B

    2015-09-01

    Sternal pores are important features for identification of male thrips, especially within the subfamily Thripinae. They vary in shape, size and distribution even between species of one genus. Their functional role is speculated to be that of sex- and/or aggregation pheromone production. Yet, sexual aggregations are not reported in Echinothrips americanus, known to have sternal pores, while we observed aggregations in Megalurothrips sjostedti, previously reported to lack them. We examined the sternal glands and pores of the thripine species E. americanus and M. sjostedti males, in comparison with those of Frankliniella occidentalis using light microscopy, as well as scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Pore plates of F. occidentalis were ellipsoid and medial on sternites III-VII, while in E. americanus they were distributed as multiple micro pore plates on sternites III-VIII. In M. sjostedti they appeared as an extremely small pore in front of the posterior margin of each of sternites IV-VII. Pore plate and pore plate area were distributed similarly on sternites III-VII in F. occidentalis. However, in E. americanus the total pore plate area increased significantly from sternites III to VIII. Ultrastructure of cells associated with sternal glands showed typical characteristics of gland cells that differ in size, shape and number. The function of sternal glands is further discussed on the basis of morphological comparisons with other thrips species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Arterial Spin Labeling Imaging for the Parotid Glands of Patients with Sjögren’s Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kami, Yukiko N.; Sumi, Misa; Takagi, Yukinori; Sasaki, Miho; Uetani, Masataka; Nakamura, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Sjögren’s syndrome (SS) is characterized by hypofunction of the salivary and lacrimal glands. The salivary function is largely dependent upon the blood supply in the glands. However, the diseased states of the gland perfusion are not well understood. The arterial spin labeling (ASL) technique allows noninvasive quantitative assessment of tissue perfusion without the need for contrast agent. Here, we prospectively compared the perfusion properties of the parotid glands between patients with SS and those with healthy glands using ASL MR imaging. We analyzed salivary blood flow (SBF) kinetics of 22 healthy parotid glands from 11 volunteers and 28 parotid glands from 14 SS patients using 3T pseudo-continuous ASL imaging. SBF was determined in resting state (base SBF) and at 3 sequential segments after gustatory stimulation. SBF kinetic profiles were characterized by base SBF level, increment ratio at the SBF peak, and the differences in segments where the peak appeared (SBF types). Base SBFs of the SS glands were significantly higher than those of healthy glands (59.2 ± 22.8 vs. 46.3 ± 9.0 mL/min/100 g, p = 0.01). SBF kinetic profiles of the SS glands also exhibited significantly later SBF peaks (p parotid glands were mostly hyperemic and the SS gland responses to gustatory stimulation were stronger and more prolonged than those of the healthy glands. The ASL may be a promising technique for assessing the diseased salivary gland vascularization of SS patients. PMID:26959680

  5. The metapleural gland of ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yek, Sze Huei; Mueller, Ulrich G

    2011-11-01

    The metapleural gland (MG) is a complex glandular structure unique to ants, suggesting a critical role in their origin and ecological success. We synthesize the current understanding of the adaptive function, morphology, evolutionary history, and chemical properties of the MG. Two functions of the MG, sanitation and chemical defence, have received the strongest empirical support; two additional possible functions, recognition odour and territorial marking, are less well supported. The design of the MG is unusual for insects; glandular secretions are stored in a rigid, non-compressible invagination of the integument and the secretion is thought to ooze out passively through the non-closable opening of the MG or is groomed off by the legs and applied to target surfaces. MG loss has occurred repeatedly among the ants, particularly in the subfamilies Formicinae and Myrmicinae, and the MG is more commonly absent in males than in workers. MG chemistry has been characterized mostly in derived ant lineages with unique biologies (e.g. leafcutter ants, fire ants), currently precluding any inferences about MG chemistry at the origin of the ants. A synthetic approach integrating functional morphology, phylogenetic transitions and chemical ecology of the MGs of both the derived and the unstudied early-branching (basal) ant lineages is needed to elucidate the evolutionary origin and diversification of the MG of ants. © 2010 The Authors. Biological Reviews © 2010 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  6. Sex differences in parent-reported executive functioning and adaptive behavior in children and young adults with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Emily I; Wallace, Gregory L; Bascom, Julia; Armour, Anna C; Register-Brown, Kelly; Popal, Haroon S; Ratto, Allison B; Martin, Alex; Kenworthy, Lauren

    2017-10-01

    This study is the largest to date examining executive function and adaptive skills in females with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Its primary aim was to utilize parent ratings of real-world executive functioning and adaptive behavior to better understand whether females with ASD differ from males with ASD in these areas of everyday functioning. We compared 79 females with ASD to 158 males with ASD (ages 7-18) who were statistically matched on age, IQ, and level of ADHD or ASD traits. All participants were assessed using the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) and a subset (56 females and 130 males) also received the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS). Females were rated by parents as having greater problems with executive function on the BRIEF. Parents also rated females as exhibiting more difficulties than males on the Daily Living Skills domain of the VABS. There was a correlation between increased global EF difficulty and decreased adaptive ability in both males and females. Our results indicate relative weaknesses for females compared to males diagnosed with ASD on executive function and daily living skills. These differences occur in the absence of sex differences in our sample in age, IQ, clinician ratings of core ASD symptomatology, parent ratings of ADHD symptoms, and parent-reported social and communication adaptive skills on the VABS. These findings indicate specific liabilities in real world EF and daily living skills for females with ASD and have important implications for targeting their treatments. Autism Res 2017, 10: 1653-1662. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Thermal panting in dogs: the lateral nasal gland, a source of water for evaporative cooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatt, C M; Taylor, C R; Habal, M B

    1972-09-01

    Two lateral nasal glands appear to provide a large part of the water for evaporative cooling in the panting dog; their function is analogous to that of sweat glands in man. Each gland drains through a single duct which opens about 2 centimeters inside the opening of the nostril. This location may be essential to avoid desiccation of the nasal mucosa during thermal panting. The rate of secretion from one gland increased from 0 to an average of 9.6 g (gland . hour)(-1) as air temperature was increased from 10 degrees to 50 degrees C. Evaporation of the fluid from the paired glands could account for between 19 and 36 percent of the increase in respiratory evaporation associated with thermal panting. The fluid secreted by the gland was hypoosmotic to plasma.

  8. Positional Variations in Mammary Gland Development and Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Veltmaat, Jacqueline M.; Ramsdell, Ann F.; Sterneck, Esta

    2013-01-01

    Most mammals develop their mammary glands in pairs of which the two counterparts are symmetrically displaced away from the ventral midline. Based on this symmetry and the same functional outcome as a milk-producing organ, the mammary glands are easily presumed to be mere copies of one another. Based on our analysis of published data with inclusion of new results related to mammary development and pathology in mice, we argue that this presumption is incorrect: Between and within pairs, mammary...

  9. Biomacromolecule conjugated nanofiber scaffold for salivary gland tissue engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayarathanam, Kavitha

    Xerostomia or dry mouth, resulting from loss of salivary gland secretion can be alleviated by tissue engineering approaches to restore glandular cell function. Engineering an artificial salivary gland structure requires closely mimicking the natural environment, both physically and functionally, to promote epithelial cell proliferation, monolayer formation and apico-basal polarization. While the physical structure of the salivary gland extracellular matrix (ECM) can be reconstructed using biocompatible nanofiber scaffolds, the chemical signals from ECM macromolecules are equally involved in the gland morphogenesis. In these glands, Hyaluronic acid (HA), a biomacromolecule that is a major component of the ECM, plays a crucial role in recruiting growth factors to improve cell viability and growth in these glands. Another molecule of interest that improved salivary epithelial cell viability and apico-basal differentiation is laminin, a major protein found in the basement membrane. We hypothesize that these biomacromolecules, when conjugated nanofiber scaffolds, will provide the essential chemical signals that promote cell viability, proliferation, polarity in the salivary cell line of interest. These morphological changes will in turn promote the secretory function (salivary production). The nanofiber scaffold consisting of poly(lactic-co-glycolic)acid is conjugated with HA using a polyethylene glycol (PEG) diamine crosslinker. This conjugation was confirmed using fluorescence spectrometry, water contact angle test and immunocytochemistry analysis using confocal microscopy. The effect of HA in promoting cell survival in-vitro was established with MTT assay using SIMS (mouse submandibular immortalized ductal SIMS cells) cells. The effect of HA in improving the apico - basal polarity of SIMS cells will be assessed. Chemical modification of synthetic nanopolymeric scaffolds with ECM molecules e.g., HA, laminin are the next step towards developing "smart scaffolds", that

  10. Chloride secretion by cultures of pig tracheal gland cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borthwell, Rachel M.; Hajighasemi-Ossareh, Mohammad; Lachowicz-Scroggins, Marrah E.; Finkbeiner, W. E.; Stevens, Jeremy E.; Modlin, Sara

    2012-01-01

    Malfunction of airway submucosal glands contributes to the pathology of cystic fibrosis (CF), and cell cultures of CF human airway glands show defects in Cl− and water transport. Recently, a transgenic pig model of CF (the CF pig) has been developed. Accordingly, we have developed cell cultures of pig airway gland epithelium for use in investigating alterations in gland function in CF. Our cultures form tight junctions (as evidenced by high transepithelial electrical resistance) and show high levels of active anion secretion (measured as amiloride-insensitive short-circuit current). In agreement with recent results on human airway glands, neurohumoral agents that elevate intracellular Ca2+ potently stimulated anion secretion, while elevation of cAMP was comparatively ineffective. Our cultures express lactoferrin and lysozyme (serous gland cell markers) and MUC5B (the main mucin of airway glands). They are, therefore, potentially useful in determining if CF-related alterations in anion transport result in altered secretion of serous cell antimicrobial agents or mucus. PMID:22367783

  11. Mammary gland stem cells: more puzzles than explanations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaimala, Suneesh; Bisana, Swathi; Kumar, Satish

    2012-06-01

    Mammary gland stem cells (MaSC) have not been identified in spite of extensive research spanning over several decades. This has been primarily due to the complexity of mammary gland structure and its development, cell heterogeneity in the mammary gland and the insufficient knowledge about MaSC markers. At present, Lin (-) CD29 (i) CD49f (i) CD24 (+/mod) Sca- 1 (-) cells of the mammary gland have been reported to be enriched with MaSCs. We suggest that the inclusion of stem cell markers like Oct4, Sox2, Nanog and the mammary gland differentiation marker BRCA-1 may further narrow down the search for MaSCs. In addition, we have discussed some of the other unresolved puzzles on the mammary gland stem cells, such as their similarities and/or differences with mammary cancer stem cells, use of milk as source of mammary stem cells and the possibility of in vitro differentiation of embryonic stem (ES) cells into functional mammary gland structures in this review. Nevertheless, it is the lack of identity for a MaSC that is curtailing the advances in some of the above and other related areas.

  12. Current treatment of lacrimal gland carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Kyung In; Kim, Yoon-Duck; Sa, Ho-Seok; Esmaeli, Bita

    2016-09-01

    The traditional treatment for lacrimal gland carcinoma is orbital exenteration followed by radiation therapy. However, orbital exenteration does not prevent distant relapse and death, and some patients experience local-regional recurrence after exenteration. More recently, eye-sparing surgery and adjuvant radiation therapy and chemotherapy have gained popularity in the treatment of lacrimal gland carcinoma. Preliminary studies show that these approaches are associated with reasonable local control rates and ocular toxicity profiles. In this review, we discuss recent studies of treatment of lacrimal gland carcinoma, including studies of potential molecular treatment targets. Recent studies suggest promising results for neoadjuvant intra-arterial chemotherapy followed by orbital exenteration and adjuvant intravenous chemotherapy, but only in patients with an 'intact lacrimal artery'. Recent studies of globe-sparing surgery followed by adjuvant proton radiation therapy or concurrent chemoradiation suggest good local control, reasonable rates of eye preservation, and low risk of serious ocular toxic effects. Larger tumor size and predominant basaloid histology seem to be associated with higher risk of local-regional recurrence and distant metastasis. One study showed oncogenic mutations in more than half of cases of lacrimal gland adenoid cystic carcinoma, with KRAS mutations in 10 of 24 patients, suggesting potential benefit of treatments targeting the EGFR-RAS-RAF cascade. In selected patients with lacrimal gland carcinoma, eye-sparing surgery with eye-sparing radiation therapy offers preservation of visual function with good local control and minimal radiation-induced ocular toxic effects. In patients with recurrent or metastatic disease, a search for actionable cancer-associated mutations may be prudent.

  13. Deposition in the human thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Giichiro

    1979-01-01

    Deposition of radioiodine in the thyroid gland of the Japanese has been described, especially on the following aspects of metabolic and radiological importance. 1) The measurements of radioiodine, essentially 131 I, in milk, thyroid glands of humans and cattles, and human urine are presented which were obtained at times following major Chinese nuclear tests. Highest observed 131 I concentration in cattle milk was 437 pCi per liter, and the transfer of 131 I in the environment to the thyroid gland was demonstrated. 2) Thyroidal uptake rate of radioiodine in the Japanese was estimated to be in a range 0.15 - 0.20 for f sub(w), lower than the reference value of 0.30 for the European and North Americans. The effect of stable isotope intake in the Japanese diet, estimated as 1.5 - 2.0 mg per day, which is one order of magnitude higher than the level in the latter populations, 0.2 mg per day, is demonstrated. This is based on uptake study data, obtained by the author et al. and also reported in the field of nuclear medicine. 3) Mass and dimensions of the thyroid gland in the Japanese male and female are described as a function of age and total body weight. The data reasonably assumed to be valid as reference values for the Japanese as of 1980s. 4) In vivo measurement of radioiodine in the human thyroid gland in case of any unplanned or accidental release of gaseous radionuclides from nuclear facilities is described using a Ge(Li) gamma spectrometry and also a scintillation surveymeter. The high-resolution gamma energy spectroscopy does not seem to be employed before for the present purpose. (author)

  14. A comparison of the effects of estrogen and Cimicifuga racemosa on the lacrimal gland and submandibular gland in ovariectomized rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunmeng Da

    Full Text Available This study aims to observe the effects of estradiol and Cimicifuga racemosa on the lacrimal gland and submandibular gland of ovariectomized rats. We randomly divided 20 adult female SD rats into four groups-a sham-operated group (SHAM, ovariectomized (OVX group, ovariectomized group treated with estradiol (OVX+ E, and ovariectomized group treated with the isopropanolic extract of Cimicifuga racemosa (OVX+ iCR. The SHAM group and OVX group used distilled water to instead the drugs. Two weeks after ovariectomy, the estradiol and iCR were administered for 4 weeks. Next, we used H&E staining and electron microscopy to observe any histological changes in the lacrimal and submandibular glands and immunohistochemical staining to observe the expressions of cleaved caspase-3 (Casp-3 and Cu-Zn SOD (superoxide dismutase. The H&E staining find that both drugs can prevent the cells of area from shrinkage in the two kinds of gland. But under the electron microscopy, estradiol and iCR have different efficacy. Estradiol is more effective at protecting mitochondria in lacrimal gland acinar cells than iCR, and iCR is more effective at suppressing endoplasmic reticulum expansion than estradiol. Both estradiol and iCR have a similar protective function on mitochondria in the submandibular gland. The protective function of the two glands may inhibit apoptosis by suppressing the expression of Casp-3. In addition, iCR increases the expression of Cu-Zn SOD in duct system of submandibular gland. The results suggest that both estradiol and iCR confer a protective effect on the lacrimal and submandibular glands of ovariectomized rats via different mechanisms.

  15. A comparison of the effects of estrogen and Cimicifuga racemosa on the lacrimal gland and submandibular gland in ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da, Yunmeng; Niu, Kaiyu; Wang, Ke; Cui, Guangxia; Wang, Wenjuan; Jin, Biao; Sun, Yu; Jia, Jing; Qin, Lihua; Bai, Wenpei

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to observe the effects of estradiol and Cimicifuga racemosa on the lacrimal gland and submandibular gland of ovariectomized rats. We randomly divided 20 adult female SD rats into four groups-a sham-operated group (SHAM), ovariectomized (OVX) group, ovariectomized group treated with estradiol (OVX+ E), and ovariectomized group treated with the isopropanolic extract of Cimicifuga racemosa (OVX+ iCR). The SHAM group and OVX group used distilled water to instead the drugs. Two weeks after ovariectomy, the estradiol and iCR were administered for 4 weeks. Next, we used H&E staining and electron microscopy to observe any histological changes in the lacrimal and submandibular glands and immunohistochemical staining to observe the express