WorldWideScience

Sample records for sex family structure

  1. Family Structure and Child Health: Does the Sex Composition of Parents Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reczek, Corinne; Spiker, Russell; Liu, Hui; Crosnoe, Robert

    2016-10-01

    The children of different-sex married couples appear to be advantaged on a range of outcomes relative to the children of different-sex cohabiting couples. Despite the legalization of same-sex marriage in the United States, whether and how this general pattern extends to the children of same-sex married and cohabiting couples is unknown. This study examines this question with nationally representative data from the 2004-2013 pooled National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). Results reveal that children in cohabiting households have poorer health outcomes than children in married households regardless of the sex composition of their parents. Children in same-sex and different-sex married households are relatively similar to each other on health outcomes, as are children in same-sex and different-sex cohabiting households. These patterns are not fully explained by socioeconomic differences among the four different types of families. This evidence can inform general debates about family structure and child health as well as policy interventions aiming to reduce child health disparities.

  2. The development of structural complexity in the child's concept of family: the effect of cognitive stage, sex, and intactness of family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedemeyer, N V; Bickhard, M H; Cooper, R G

    1989-12-01

    Twenty-eight boys and 28 girls at each of the Piagetian preoperational, concrete operational, and formal operational cognitive stages were given an interview focusing on their concepts of family. Half of each group were from intact families, and half were from divorced families. Interviews were scored for two structural aspects of the concept of family: conceptual level, and use of dimensions that structure the concept. The complexity of children's concepts was strongly related to cognitive stage and, to a lesser degree, to sex. Frequency of use of concept dimensions was strongly affected by general developmental level, though not specifically cognitive stage, and by intactness of family, but to a lesser degree by sex. Specific information is provided on the effect of these factors on perceptions of family composition, parental roles, and breadth of family activities.

  3. Impact of family structure and socio-demographic characteristics on child health and wellbeing in same-sex parent families: A cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouch, Simon Robert; McNair, Ruth; Waters, Elizabeth

    2016-05-01

    Children with same-sex attracted parents develop well in terms of their health and wellbeing. There are many recognised factors that have an impact on child health, in general, including individual, family and wider social mediators. The aim of this study is to determine the impact of family structure and socio-demographic characteristics on child health and wellbeing in Australian same-sex parent families. A cross-sectional survey of self-identified same-sex attracted parents from across Australia was used to collect information on child health and wellbeing between May and December 2012. Mixed-effects multiple linear regression models were used to identify associations between family structure/socio-demographic characteristics and child wellbeing. Child health outcomes were measured using the Child Health Questionnaire and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. In same-sex parent families, biological relationships, parental gender and parental education were not significantly associated with health and wellbeing. Parental income, rurality and stable parental relationships were associated with health and wellbeing, and living in a single-parent household was associated with poorer wellbeing. Stable dual parent families offer good outcomes for children with same-sex attracted parents. Family processes are most important. This study does not support the assertion that children require both male and female parents, nor that biological relationships are essential to health and wellbeing. This study provides scientific data from a cross-sectional Australian-based study to describe and understand health determinants for children in family contexts that comprise same-sex parent and all family contexts. It recommends equitable, stigma-free family support. © 2016 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  4. Same sex families and children

    OpenAIRE

    Mršević Zorica

    2009-01-01

    Introduction comprises the information on two main forms of same sex families, civic partnership (same sex partnership) and same sex marriage. Countries and various status modalities of legal regulations are mentioned. The main part of the text is dedicated to presentation of the findings of the most recent research on various aspects regarding children of same sex partnerships. It comprises presentations grouped in four main chapters: acceptance of same sex partnerships, acceptance of legal ...

  5. Same sex families and children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mršević Zorica

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction comprises the information on two main forms of same sex families, civic partnership (same sex partnership and same sex marriage. Countries and various status modalities of legal regulations are mentioned. The main part of the text is dedicated to presentation of the findings of the most recent research on various aspects regarding children of same sex partnerships. It comprises presentations grouped in four main chapters: acceptance of same sex partnerships, acceptance of legal recognition of the same sex partnerships, family plans of homosexual teenagers, and raising children within and by the same sex partners. Also the real life cases mirroring legal changes through their life destinies are presented, such is e.g. the Irish way to legalization of the same sex partnerships. In addition, a love story of two women crowned by giving birth of their four children is mentioned. Reasons against and negative reactions the author puts under the title Homophobia. In the Concluding remarks, the author presents the most recent examples of legal changes happened in Norway, Ecuador, and in the American states of California and Connecticut. It was also stated that in European countries of low birth rate, the same sex families are inevitably identified as one of demographically valuable source of creating and raising children, which is worthy to be supported, rather than being hindered without reason and discriminated. Although different than a model of heterosexual family, same sex partnerships neither are harrowing to traditional family values, nor reflex of any kind of promiscuous, antisocial behavior, avoidance of parenthood, and negation of family. Quite opposite, these families are an outcome of endeavors of homosexuals not to be deprived of family, parenthood and all of other values of stabile, monogamous, emotional/sexual socially accepted and legally recognized and regulated conventional family. .

  6. Social-structural properties and HIV prevention among young men who have sex with men in the ballroom house and independent gay family communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Lindsay E; Jonas, Adam B; Michaels, Stuart; Jackson, Joel D; Pierce, Mario L; Schneider, John A

    2017-02-01

    The endogenous social support systems of young Black men who have sex with men (YBMSM), like surrogate families and social networks, are considered crucial assets for HIV prevention in this population. Yet, the extent to which these social systems foster sexual health protections or risks remains unclear. We examine the networked patterns of membership in ballroom houses and independent gay families, both Black gay subcultures in the United States, and how these memberships are related to HIV protective and risk traits of members. Drawing from a population-based sample of 618 YBMSM living in Chicago between June 2013 and July 2014, we observe a suite of protective and risk traits and perform bivariate analyses to assess each of their associations with being a member of a house or family. We then present an analysis of the homophilous and heterophilous mixing on these traits that structures the patterns of house and family affiliations among members. The bivariate analyses show that members of the house and family communities were more likely than non-members to report protective traits like being aware of PrEP, having health coverage, having a primary care doctor, and discouraging sex drug use among peers. However, members were also more likely to engage in the use of sex drugs. With respect to how these traits inform specific house/family affiliations, results show that members who had a recent HIV test, who were PrEP aware, or who engaged in exchange sex were more likely to belong to the same house or family, while HIV positive individuals were less likely to cluster within houses or families. These findings provide insights regarding the strengths and vulnerabilities of the house and gay family communities that can inform more culturally specific interventions that build on the existing human and social capital in this milieu. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Family planning / sex education / teenage pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-02-01

    The Alan Guttmacher Institute's State Reproductive Health Monitor provides legislative information on family planning, sex education, and teenage pregnancy. The listing contains information on pending bills; the state, the identifying legislation number, the sponsor, the committee, the date the bill was introduced, a description of the bill, and when available, the bill's status. From January through February, 1993, the bills cover a wide range of regulation and social policy including: appropriations for family planning services; Norplant implants for women receiving AFDC benefits; the requirement that health insurance policies provide coverage for contraception services; the repeal of the sterilization procedure review committee; since a need for such a committee has vanished; requiring hotels, motels, and innkeepers to offer condoms for sale to registered guests; allowing male and female public assistance recipients between ages 18-35 who submit to sterilization operations to be eligible to receive a $2,000 grant; a provision that no more children may be included in the size of the family, for the purpose of determining the amount of AFDC benefits that a family may receive, than at the time that eligibility was determined, and that before a family with 2 or more children can receive AFDC benefits, the woman must consent to and have surgically implanted Norplant or a similar reversible birth control device with a 5-year or longer effectiveness.

  8. Family Structure and Family Processes in Mexican American Families

    OpenAIRE

    Zeiders, Katharine H.; Roosa, Mark W.; Tein, Jenn-Yun

    2011-01-01

    Despite increases in single-parent families among Mexican Americans (MA), few studies have examined the association of family structure and family adjustment. Utilizing a diverse sample of 738 Mexican American families (21.7% single parent), the current study examined differences across family structure on early adolescent outcomes, family functioning, and parent-child relationship variables. Results revealed that early adolescents in single parent families reported greater school misconduct,...

  9. Legal recognition of same-sex couples and family formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trandafir, Mircea

    2015-01-01

    It has long been debated how legalizing same-sex marriage would impact (different-sex) family formation. In this paper, I use data on OECD member countries for the period 1980–2009 to examine the effects of the legal recognition of same-sex couples (through marriage or an alternative institution......) on different-sex marriage, divorce, and extramarital births. Estimates from difference-in-difference models indicate that the introduction of same-sex marriage or of alternative institutions has no negative effects on family formation. These findings are robust to a multitude of specification checks, including...

  10. Impact of the Family on the Sex Lives of Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pick, Susan; Palos, Patricia Andrade

    1995-01-01

    Presents results of three studies as they relate to family influence on adolescents' sex lives. The studies' results support the hypothesis that the family has a substantial influence on adolescents' sexual and contraceptive behavior, justifying the incorporation of such issues as parent-child communication into sex education programs. (RJM)

  11. Patterns of Family Formation in Response to Sex Ratio Variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schacht, Ryan; Kramer, Karen L

    2016-01-01

    The impact that unbalanced sex ratios have on health and societal outcomes is of mounting contemporary concern. However, it is increasingly unclear whether it is male- or female-biased sex ratios that are associated with family and social instability. From a socio-demographic perspective, male-biased sex ratios leave many men unable to find a mate, elevating competition among males, disrupting family formation and negatively affecting social stability. In contrast, from a mating-market perspective, males are expected to be less willing to marry and commit to a family when the sex ratio is female-biased and males are rare. Here we use U.S. data to evaluate predictions from these competing frameworks by testing the relationship between the adult sex ratio and measures of family formation. We find that when women are rare men are more likely to marry, be part of a family and be sexually committed to a single partner. Our results do not support claims that male-biased sex ratios lead to negative family outcomes due to a surplus of unmarried men. Rather, our results highlight the need to pay increased attention to female-biased sex ratios.

  12. 'Legal Family Formats for (Same-Sex) Couples', chapter 4

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waaldijk, C.; Thevenon, O. & Neyer G.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes in a comprehensive but compact manner the legal recognition that same-sex couples have been gaining in Europe. In 40 years a growing number of European countries has started to make marriage and/or other ‘legal family formats' available to same-sex couples. Simultaneously the

  13. Family emotional expressiveness and family structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čotar-Konrad Sonja

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper scrutinizes the relationship between family emotional expressiveness (i.e., the tendency to express dominant and/or submissive positive and negative emotions and components of family structure as proposed in Olson’s Circumplex model (i.e., cohesion and flexibility, family communication, and satisfaction in families with adolescents. The study was conducted on a sample of 514 Slovenian adolescents, who filled out two questionnaires: the Slovenian version of Family Emotional Expressiveness - FEQ and FACES IV. The results revealed that all four basic dimensions of family functioning were significantly associated with higher/more frequent expressions of positive submissive emotions, as well as with lower/less frequent expressions of negative dominant emotions. Moreover, expressions of negative submissive emotions explained a small, but significant amount of variance in three out of four family functioning variables (satisfaction, flexibility, and communication. The importance of particular aspects of emotional expressiveness for family cohesion, flexibility, communication, and satisfaction is discussed, and the relevance of present findings for family counselling is outlined.

  14. The ethics of sex selection and family balancing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macklin, Ruth

    2010-07-01

    Ethical concerns about the ethics of selecting the sex of a child predate current techniques of prenatal genetic diagnosis (PGD) and sperm sorting. The only methods previously available were highly problematic, as they involved infanticide or abortion of an unwanted sex. PGD is less problematic than the earlier methods, yet still troubling to some because it involves destruction of a healthy embryo and risks to women. The technique of sperm sorting, still in an experimental phase, is the least ethically problematic method, yet opponents argue that sex selection by any means involves sex discrimination and can have undesirable consequences. One such consequence is an imbalance in the sex ratio. This imbalance already exists in some Asian countries that favor male children, but is less likely in Western Europe and North America. There is increasing acceptance of family balancing as a reason for sex selection, but some people remain opposed to broadening the indications for sex selection of offspring beyond family balancing. Nevertheless, parents may have good reasons other than family balancing for choosing the sex of a future child. Such reasons may be justified by the principle of reproductive liberty. Thieme Medical Publishers.

  15. Do Family Structure and Poverty Affect Sexual Risk Behaviors of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    Family Structure, Poverty and Sexual Risk Behaviors ... Johannesburg, South Africa; 2Demography and Social Statistics Department, .... to high rate of adolescent sexual promiscuity as a ..... birth control and consequences of premarital sex.

  16. Sex, Preference, and Family - Essays on Law and Nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estlund, David M.; Nussbaum, Marth C.

    1998-06-01

    The public furor over issues of same sex marriages, gay rights, pornography, and single-parent families has erupted with a passion not seen since the 1960s. This book gathers seventeen eminent philosophers and legal scholars who offer commentary on sexuality (including sexual behavior, sexual orientation, and the role of pornography in shaping sexuality), on the family (including both same-sex and single-parent families), and on the proper role of law in these areas. The essayists are all fiercely independent thinkers and offer the reader a range of bold and thought-provoking proposals. Susan Moller Okin argues, for instance, that gender ought to be done away with--that differences in biological sex ought to have "no more social relevance than one's eye color or the length of one's toes"--and she urges that we look to same-sex couples as a model for households and families in a gender-free society. And Cass Sunstein suggests that the Supreme Court case Loving vs. Virginia (which overthrew the ban on interracial marriages in Virginia) might be a precedent for overturning laws that bar same-sex marriage: just as Loving overturned miscegenation laws because they were at the service of white supremacy, Sunstein shows, the laws against same-sex marriages and homosexuality are at the service of male supremacy, and might also be overturned. Of vital importance to anyone interested in sexuality, homosexuality, gender, feminism, and the family. Sex, Preference, and the Family both clarifies the current debate and points the way toward a less divisive future.

  17. Sex preference and its effect on family size and child welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, N E

    1982-12-01

    . A cross-cultural study including data from Bangladesh, India, and Morocco found that families starting out with a string on sons were as likely to have more children as those families who began with a string of daughters. Approaches to changing attitudes about sex preference include attempting to reorganize society and reform the partriarchal family, emphasize economic development, and ignoring the problem. Sex preference is the result of social organization, family structure, economic activities, religious beliefs, and tradition.

  18. Family Migration and Labor Force Outcomes: Sex Differences in Occupational Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shauman, Kimberlee A.; Noonan, Mary C.

    2007-01-01

    Empirical analyses of sex differences in the career consequences of family migration have focused on adjudicating between the human capital and the gender-role explanations but have ignored the potential influence of gender inequality in the structure of the labor market. In this paper we estimate conditional difference-in-difference models with…

  19. Stress experiences of family members of registered sex offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewksbury, Richard; Levenson, Jill

    2009-01-01

    The collateral consequences of sex offender registration and notification (SORN) have been well established, although little evidence has supported the efficacy of SORN. Based on the belief that family members provide some of the most consistent, important, and intense forms of support for criminal offenders in general and registered sex offenders (RSOs) more specifically, the experiences of sanctions, losses, and stresses of these individuals is examined. Using survey responses from 584 individuals known to visit online support and advocacy groups for RSOs and their loved ones, this study identifies the stress levels and stressors experienced by this population. Findings show that family members of RSOs experience high levels of social isolation, fear, shame, property damage, and forced residential relocation. Perceived stress is significantly higher for those who are of lower economic means, feel isolated, have high levels of fear and shame/embarrassment, or were forced to move. (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Same-sex family unions in Israeli law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talia Einhorn

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The legal problems encountered by same-sex spouses in Israeli law are more complicated than those encountered in other democratic, developed countries. This stems from the fact that under Israeli law many areas of family law, first and foremost marriage and divorce, are governed by religious law, which is opposed to the legal recognition of such relationships. It is also not possible for such couples to establish a registered partnership in Israel, since partnerships can only be established for commercial purposes. A spectrum of family unions has nonetheless developed, gaining state recognition in various respects, mostly owing to the liberal approach of the Israel Supreme Court. Yet, it would appear that only legislation will be able resolve the outstanding problems. In its absence, a legal status is not conferred upon same-sex family unions and as such they are regarded as purely contractual arrangements. Other subject-matters in this article include: the extent of recognition granted to such family unions established abroad, by marriage or registered partnership; spouses’ rights and obligations regarding maintenance obligations and property relations; child adoption in Israel, especially if the child is unrelated to the spouses; parenthood if one spouse is the biological mother and the other a surrogate; the extent of recognition of foreign adoption orders; the dissolution of such family unions and succession.

  1. Sex Differences in Familiality Effects on Neurocognitive Performance in Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calkins, Monica E.; Ray, Amrita; Gur, Ruben C.; Freedman, Robert; Green, Michael F.; Greenwood, Tiffany A.; Light, Gregory A.; Nuechterlein, Keith H.; Olincy, Ann; Radant, Allen D.; Seidman, Larry J.; Siever, Larry J.; Silverman, Jeremy M.; Stone, William S.; Sugar, Catherine; Swerdlow, Neal R.; Tsuang, Debby W.; Tsuang, Ming T.; Turetsky, Bruce I.; Braff, David L.; Lazzeroni, Laura C.; Gur, Raquel E.

    2013-01-01

    Background Numerous studies have documented that patients with schizophrenia show neurocognitive impairments, which are also heritable in schizophrenia families. In view of these findings, the current investigation tested the hypothesis that neurocognitive performance of schizophrenia probands can predict the neurocognitive performance of their unaffected family members. Methods Participants (n=1,967; schizophrenia=369; first-degree relatives=1,072; community comparison subjects=526) in the Consortium on the Genetics of Schizophrenia (COGS) were administered the Penn Computerized Neurocognitive Battery (CNB). Results Consistent with prior work, probands showed significant neurocognitive impairment, and neurocognitive ability was significantly heritable, across domains. On average, unaffected relatives did not differ from community comparison subjects in their neurocognitive performance. However, in 6 of 7 domains, probands’ score predicted the performance of their unaffected siblings. Male, but not female, probands’ performance was predictive of their unaffected relatives (siblings and mothers) performance, most consistently in face memory and spatial processing. Conclusions Using a novel approach in which individual probands are paired with their respective unaffected relatives within each family, we found that male probands’ performance predicted both sister and brother performance, an effect that was most powerfully observed for face memory and spatial processing. Results suggest that the familial transmission of sexually dimorphic neurocognitive domains, in which a particular sex tends to show a performance advantage over the other, may not itself be sex specific in schizophrenia families. PMID:23395246

  2. Sex differences in familiality effects on neurocognitive performance in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calkins, Monica E; Ray, Amrita; Gur, Ruben C; Freedman, Robert; Green, Michael F; Greenwood, Tiffany A; Light, Gregory A; Nuechterlein, Keith H; Olincy, Ann; Radant, Allen D; Seidman, Larry J; Siever, Larry J; Silverman, Jeremy M; Stone, William S; Sugar, Catherine; Swerdlow, Neal R; Tsuang, Debby W; Tsuang, Ming T; Turetsky, Bruce I; Braff, David L; Lazzeroni, Laura C; Gur, Raquel E

    2013-05-15

    Numerous studies have documented that patients with schizophrenia show neurocognitive impairments, which are also heritable in schizophrenia families. In view of these findings, the current investigation tested the hypothesis that neurocognitive performance of schizophrenia probands can predict the neurocognitive performance of their unaffected family members. Participants (n=1967; schizophrenia=369; first-degree relatives=1072; community comparison subjects=526) in the Consortium on the Genetics of Schizophrenia were administered the Penn Computerized Neurocognitive Battery. Consistent with prior work, probands showed significant neurocognitive impairment, and neurocognitive ability was significantly heritable across domains. On average, unaffected relatives did not differ from community comparison subjects in their neurocognitive performance. However, in six of seven domains, proband scores predicted the performance of their unaffected siblings. Male, but not female, proband performance was predictive of their unaffected relatives' (siblings and mothers) performance, most consistently in face memory and spatial processing. Using a novel approach in which individual probands are paired with their respective unaffected relatives within each family, we found that male proband performance predicted both sister and brother performance, an effect that was most powerfully observed for face memory and spatial processing. Results suggest that the familial transmission of sexually dimorphic neurocognitive domains, in which a particular sex tends to show a performance advantage over the other, may not itself be sex specific in schizophrenia families. Copyright © 2013 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Sex differences in physical and mental functioning of Japanese civil servants: explanations from work and family characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekine, Michikazu; Chandola, Tarani; Martikainen, Pekka; Marmot, Michael; Kagamimori, Sadanobu

    2010-12-01

    Poor physical and mental functioning are more common among women than men and those with disadvantaged work and family characteristics. This study aims to clarify whether sex differences in health functioning can be explained by sex differences in work and family characteristics. The subjects were 3787 civil servants (2525 men and 1262 women), aged 20-65, working in a local government on the west coast of Japan. A questionnaire survey was conducted in January 2003. Low employment grade, high demands, long work hours, shift work, being unmarried, having no young children, high family-to-work conflict and high work-to-family conflict were more common among women than men and were independently associated with poor physical and mental functioning. The age-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) of women for poor health functioning were 1.80 for poor physical functioning and 1.77 for poor mental functioning. When adjusted for employment grade and work characteristics (control, demand, support, work hours, and shift work), the sex differences in health functioning attenuated. When adjusted for family characteristics (family structure and work-family conflicts), the sex differences in health functioning further attenuated and were no longer statistically significant. Sex differences in family characteristics contributed more to sex difference in mental functioning than sex differences in work characteristics. Japan belongs to conservative welfare regimes. In such countries, men are able to concentrate on their work with relative freedom from their family tasks and responsibilities, whereas women feel difficulties in maintaining their work-life balances. Such sex differences in work- and family-related stresses may contribute to sex difference in health. Longitudinal research is necessary to clarify the causal nature of these associations. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The dynamics of male brooding, mating patterns, and sex roles in pipefishes and seahorses (family Syngnathidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Anthony B; Ahnesjö, Ingrid; Vincent, Amanda C J; Meyer, Axel

    2003-06-01

    Modern theory predicts that relative parental investment of the sexes in their young is a key factor responsible for sexual selection. Seahorses and pipefishes (family Syngnathidae) are extraordinary among fishes in their remarkable adaptations for paternal care and frequent occurrences of sex-role reversals (i.e., female-female competition for mates), offering exceptional opportunities to test predictions of sexual selection theory. During mating, the female transfers eggs into or onto specialized egg-brooding structures that are located on either the male's abdomen or its tail, where they are osmoregulated, aerated, and nourished by specially adapted structures. All syngnathid males exhibit this form of parental care but the brooding structures vary, ranging from the simple ventral gluing areas of some pipefishes to the completely enclosed pouches found in seahorses. We present a molecular phylogeny that indicates that the diversification of pouch types is positively correlated with the major evolutionary radiation of the group, suggesting that this extreme development and diversification of paternal care may have been an important evolutionary innovation of the Syngnathidae. Based on recent studies that show that the complexity of brooding structures reflects the degree of paternal investment in several syngnathid species, we predicted sex-role reversals to be more common among species with more complex brooding structures. In contrast to this prediction, however, both parsimony- and likelihood-based reconstructions of the evolution of sex-role reversal in pipefishes and seahorses suggest multiple shifts in sex roles in the group, independent from the degree of brood pouch development. At the same time, our data demonstrate that sex-role reversal is positively associated with polygamous mating patterns, whereas most nonreversed species mate monogamously, suggesting that selection for polygamy or monogamy in pipefishes and seahorses may strongly influence sex

  5. Multiple Blockholder Structures and Family Firm Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fattoum-Guedri, Asma; Guedri, Zied; Delmar, Frédéric

    2018-01-01

    This study examines how multiple blockholder structures affect family firm performance. Building on arguments from both principal–principal agency and familiness perspectives, we suggest that asymmetrical distribution of voting power among family and nonfamily blockholders hurts firm performance....

  6. Sex Role Development of Preschoolers from Two-Parent and One-Parent Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenes, Margarita Elena; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Examines sex-role development in families in which parents were divorced or separated, specifically assessing children's understanding of gender identity and sex-role stereotypes and indicating toy choices during play. (Author/KS)

  7. Work-family conflict and family-work conflict in aspects of sex and intergenerational differences

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Sylwia Lubrańska

    2014-01-01

    Background: This paper presents the results of the study concerning mutual relations between work–family conflict and family– work conflict in the context of age and sex. Material and Methods: The study included 223 subjects (115 women, 108 men, 74 mothers and 61 fathers), aged 21–63. The Work–Family and Family–Work Conflicts Questionnaire and socio-demographic questionnaire were used as the survey tools. To verify hypotheses the correlation analysis and the Mann-Whitney U-test were used. Res...

  8. Family Structure and Social Influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Dawn R.

    Regardless of family form, there is a universal belief that one's family is the most powerful agent of socialization. A sample of 38 junior high school students from single parent and nuclear families completed a questionnaire in order to examine the relative effects of peer influence and family influence in single parent and nuclear families.…

  9. Irregular breakfast consumption in adolescence and the family environment: underlying causes by family structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Kate A; Kirby, Joanna

    2012-08-01

    Data from the 2002, 2006 and 2010 Scottish Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) surveys were analysed using logistic multilevel regression for outcome variable irregular breakfast consumption (IBC). IBC prevalence in Scotland was higher among young people from reconstituted and single parent families, and particularly single father families. Family characteristics, found previously to be associated with breakfast consumption, such as number of siblings, perceived parenting, parental involvement and family affluence, differed by family structure. Family structure inequalities in IBC existed, also after adjustment for year and child's sex, age, grade and ethnicity. Across all family structures, IBC was more prevalent at the older age groups, among those who had difficult communication with their parents, and where household routines were infrequent. Greater number of siblings and lower family affluence were associated with higher odds of IBC in single mother and both parent families, while having a second home was associated with higher odds in reconstituted households. Fair parenting and being close to at least one parent was associated with reduced odds of IBC in single mother households, while being close to all parents was in single father households. In single mother homes, having a working mother was also positively associated with IBC. Family structure differences should be considered when addressing irregular breakfast consumption in adolescence. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The Dyadic Effects of Family Cohesion and Communication on Health-Related Quality of Life: The Moderating Role of Sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jung-Won; Shon, En-Jung

    Spouses' ability to care for survivors can be particularly challenging because patients and spouses are interdependent and mutually influence one another. Family functioning such as family cohesion and communication may play a primary role in improving the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of couples, given that cancer can influence family dynamics. The aims of this study were to investigate the mediating effect of family communication on the relationship between family cohesion and HRQOL and examine the moderating effect of sex on this relationship among cancer survivor-spouse dyads. A total of 91 cancer survivors with a diagnosis of breast, colorectal, or prostate cancer and their spouses were recruited from the University Hospital Registry in Cleveland, Ohio. The dyadic data were analyzed using structural equation modeling with the actor-partner interdependence mediation model. Findings demonstrated that the spouses' own perceived family communication mediated the associations between their own family cohesion and physical HRQOL and between the survivors' family cohesion and physical HRQOL. The spouse actor effects between family communication and HRQOL significantly differed by sex. Enhancing family cohesion and communication within the family can improve the spouses' HRQOL. Findings regarding sex differences serve as a rationale for gender-based approaches to improving HRQOL in survivorship care in the family context. Couple- and/or family-based interventions should be designed to enhance family cohesion and improve family communication skills for effective adjustments within couples and families. Supportive care within the family context can be promoted to address the diverse challenges of survivorship care.

  11. Family structure and children's television viewing and physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagley, Sarah; Salmon, Jo; Crawford, David

    2006-05-01

    This study aimed to examine how physical activity (PA) and television (TV) viewing time of children varied according to family structure. In 2001, 5- to 6-yr-old (N = 296) and 10- to 12-yr-old (N = 919) children and their parents were recruited from 19 state elementary schools in Melbourne, Australia. Children's PA was objectively assessed using accelerometers worn for 8 d. Sociodemographic and family structure information and time spent watching TV was collected via questionnaire completed by parents. ANCOVA revealed that, after controlling for socioeconomic status and age of child, boys without any siblings spent more minutes per day watching TV (153.2 +/- 71.3) compared with those who have siblings (129.0 +/- 64.4, P s sex with PA and between number of siblings and sex with TV viewing. Family structure may be an important source of influence on children's PA and TV viewing time. Aspects of family structure interact differently with PA and TV viewing, suggesting interventions may need to be tailored with consideration of the family structure of children.

  12. Protective Effects of Middle School Comprehensive Sex Education with Family Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Jennifer M.; Tracy, Allison J.; Charmaraman, Linda; Ceder, Ineke; Erkut, Sumru

    2014-01-01

    Background: School-based comprehensive sex education programs can reduce early adolescents' risky sexual behavior. The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a 3-year comprehensive sex education program in delaying vaginal sex for middle school students and whether the family component of the intervention contributes to its…

  13. Phylogeny determines flower size-dependent sex allocation at flowering in a hermaphroditic family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixido, A L; Guzmán, B; Staggemeier, V G; Valladares, F

    2017-11-01

    In animal-pollinated hermaphroditic plants, optimal floral allocation determines relative investment into sexes, which is ultimately dependent on flower size. Larger flowers disproportionally increase maleness whereas smaller and less rewarding flowers favour female function. Although floral traits are considered strongly conserved, phylogenetic relationships in the interspecific patterns of resource allocation to floral sex remain overlooked. We investigated these patterns in Cistaceae, a hermaphroditic family. We reconstructed phylogenetic relationships among Cistaceae species and quantified phylogenetic signal for flower size, dry mass and nutrient allocation to floral structures in 23 Mediterranean species using Blomberg's K-statistic. Lastly, phylogenetically-controlled correlational and regression analyses were applied to examine flower size-based allometry in resource allocation to floral structures. Sepals received the highest dry mass allocation, followed by petals, whereas sexual structures increased nutrient allocation. Flower size and resource allocation to floral structures, except for carpels, showed a strong phylogenetic signal. Larger-flowered species allometrically allocated more resources to maleness, by increasing allocation to corollas and stamens. Our results suggest a major role of phylogeny in determining interspecific changes in flower size and subsequent floral sex allocation. This implies that flower size balances the male-female function over the evolutionary history of Cistaceae. While allometric resource investment in maleness is inherited across species diversification, allocation to the female function seems a labile trait that varies among closely related species that have diversified into different ecological niches. © 2017 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  14. Family Structure, Residential Mobility, and Environmental Inequality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, Liam; Crowder, Kyle; Kemp, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    This study combines micro-level data on families with children from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics with neighborhood-level industrial hazard data from the Environmental Protection Agency and neighborhood-level U.S. census data to examine both the association between family structure and residential proximity to neighborhood pollution and the micro-level, residential mobility processes that contribute to differential pollution proximity across family types. Results indicate the existence of significant family structure differences in household proximity to industrial pollution in U.S. metropolitan areas between 1990 and 1999, with single-mother and single-father families experiencing neighborhood pollution levels that are on average 46% and 26% greater, respectively, than those experienced by two-parent families. Moreover, the pollution gap between single-mother and two-parent families persists with controls for household and neighborhood socioeconomic, sociodemographic, and race/ethnic characteristics. Examination of underlying migration patterns reveals that single-mother, single-father, and two-parent families are equally likely to move in response to pollution. However, mobile single-parent families move into neighborhoods with significantly higher pollution levels than do mobile two-parent families. Thus, family structure differences in pollution proximity are maintained more by these destination neighborhood differences than by family structure variations in the likelihood of moving out of polluted neighborhoods. PMID:28348440

  15. Family structure and eating behavior disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateos-Agut, Manuel; García-Alonso, Isabel; De la Gándara-Martín, Jesús J; Vegas-Miguel, María I; Sebastián-Vega, Carlota; Sanz-Cid, Beatriz; Martínez-Villares, Ana; Martín-Martínez, Esther

    2014-01-01

    The modern way of life, characterized by the cult of individualism, discredited authority, and a proliferation of points of view about reality, has modified family structure. This social structure imbues families and the way that its members become ill, in such a way that eating behavior disorders (EDs) have become a typically postmodern way of becoming ill. The aim is to understand the systemic structure and vulnerability of families by comparing 108 families with members who have ED to 108 families without pathology. A questionnaire administered by an interview with trained personnel was used. Families with ED have a different structure from the families in the control group. They have more psychiatric history and poor coping skills. The family hierarchy is not clearly defined and the leadership is diffuse, with strict and unpredictable rules, more intergenerational coalitions, and fewer alliances. The relationship between the parents is distant or confrontational, and their attitudes towards their children are complacent and selfish, with ambivalent and unaffectionate bonds. In the case of mothers, this is manifested by separation anxiety and dyadic dependence. Their expectations concerning their offspring are either very demanding and unrealistic, or indifferent, and there is less control of their behavior, in addition to poor organization of the family meals. The structural differences between the two groups of families seem to be important for the occurrence and maintenance of EDs, although they may not be the only cause. The results suggest strategies for clinical intervention in EDs.

  16. Young men's perspectives on family support and disclosure of same-sex attraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpineto, Julie; Kubicek, Katrina; Weiss, George; Iverson, Ellen; Kipke, Michele D

    2008-06-01

    Young men who have sex with men (YMSM) face myriad challenges when deciding to disclose their sexual orientation to family members. Key to this decision is consideration of how disclosure may influence the support they receive from family. This paper explores a diverse sample of YMSM's (N = 43) perspectives on disclosure of their same-sex attractions to key family members and its impact on family support. Several stages/categories of disclosure are described and some YMSM seemed to continue to move between categories. Additionally, relationships after disclosure included negotiations between the expression of their sexual orientation and the maintenance of family support.

  17. [Changes in structure and function of the family of the adolescent in the last decade (1997-2007)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Milena, Alejandro; Martínez Fernández, María Luz; Mesa Gallardo, Inmaculada; Pérez Milena, Rafael; Leal Helmling, Francisco Javier; Jiménez Pulido, Idoia

    2009-09-01

    To find out the structure and functioning of the family of the adolescent and its changes in the last decade. Cross-sectional descriptive study using questionnaires. Pupils in obligatory secondary education and high-school in one rural (Granada) and one urban (Jaén) area. Self-administered questionnaire (years 1997-2001-2004-2007) in which details of age, sex, family structure and family-Apgar test were recorded. A total of 1356 adolescents participated, 1271 questionnaires valid (259, 386, 246 and 380 respectively per year). Ages 12-18 years, equality of sexes. The nuclear family structure was predominant (78-84%), followed by single parent family in (7-11%), extended (6-7%) and reconstituted (2%). The family function was mainly normal (70-76%), with 30% dysfunction (slight dysfunction 18-21% and severe dysfunction 5-10%). The structure and family function does not vary by sex or the year of study, it is influenced by age: adolescents 16 years with a higher percentage of family dysfunction in 1997/2001 than the rest of ages, declining in the years 2004/2007 (P family in 1997 had a greater number of adolescents with normal family function (P family structures. The perception of family function in adolescents has changed and now does not depend on sex, age and structure. Family care during adolescence should focus on promoting positive family dynamics, regardless of family structure.

  18. Sex education and family planning services for young adults: alternative urban strategies in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, J W; Diaz de May, E; Sepúlveda, Y; Santos de Garza, Y; Rosenhouse, S

    1987-01-01

    In Mexico, youth face difficulties in obtaining reliable information on sex education and family planning through existing community programs. Two alternative strategies to provide these services are being tested in poor urban areas of Monterrey. In one experimental area, Integrated Youth Centers were established, which provide sex education and family planning services as well as counseling, academic tutoring, and recreational activities. In another area, trained young adults and community counselors work through informal networks to provide sex education and family planning information. Both utilization and the cost of these services are examined in the context of plans for expanding coverage in Mexico-U.S. border areas.

  19. Contact networks structured by sex underpin sex-specific epidemiology of infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silk, Matthew J; Weber, Nicola L; Steward, Lucy C; Hodgson, David J; Boots, Mike; Croft, Darren P; Delahay, Richard J; McDonald, Robbie A

    2018-02-01

    Contact networks are fundamental to the transmission of infection and host sex often affects the acquisition and progression of infection. However, the epidemiological impacts of sex-related variation in animal contact networks have rarely been investigated. We test the hypothesis that sex-biases in infection are related to variation in multilayer contact networks structured by sex in a population of European badgers Meles meles naturally infected with Mycobacterium bovis. Our key results are that male-male and between-sex networks are structured at broader spatial scales than female-female networks and that in male-male and between-sex contact networks, but not female-female networks, there is a significant relationship between infection and contacts with individuals in other groups. These sex differences in social behaviour may underpin male-biased acquisition of infection and may result in males being responsible for more between-group transmission. This highlights the importance of sex-related variation in host behaviour when managing animal diseases. © 2017 The Authors. Ecology Letters published by CNRS and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Family Structure and Youths' Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, Gary; Levine, David I.

    2000-01-01

    National Education Longitudinal Study data were used to examine whether parents' divorce/remarriage or existing family disadvantages caused such outcomes as teens' lower educational attainment or higher rates of parenthood. Neither divorce nor remarriage during a youth's high school years was strongly correlated with preexisting characteristics of…

  1. Family structure and child anemia in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeer, Kammi K

    2013-10-01

    Utilizing longitudinal data from the nationally-representative Mexico Family Life Survey, this study assesses the association between family structure and iron-deficient anemia among children ages 3-12 in Mexico. The longitudinal models (n = 4649), which control for baseline anemia status and allow for consideration of family structure transitions, suggest that children living in stable-cohabiting and single-mother families and those who have recently experienced a parental union dissolution have higher odds of anemia than those in stable-married, father-present family structures. Interaction effects indicate that unmarried family contexts have stronger associations with anemia in older children (over age five); and, that the negative effects of parental union dissolution are exacerbated in poorer households. Resident maternal grandparents have a significant beneficial effect on child anemia independent of parental family structure. These results highlight the importance of family structure for child micronutrient deficiencies and suggest that understanding social processes within households may be critical to preventing child anemia in Mexico. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Jamaican family structure: the paradox of normalcy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dechesnay, M

    1986-06-01

    The relationship between basic research, theory, and clinical work with families is conceptualized during a discussion of Jamaican family structure and the application of change theory to a clinical case of depression in a Jamaican woman. It was found that three types of family structure are prevalent in Jamaica. The European ideal of a patriarchal-patrifocal structure creates problems for working-class Jamaicans. General system theory provides support for a different model. Change theory is applied to resolve the paradox created by the European model.

  3. Marriage and Family: LGBT Individuals and Same-Sex Couples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Gary J.

    2015-01-01

    Though estimates vary, as many as 2 million to 3.7 million U.S. children under age 18 may have a lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender parent, and about 200,000 are being raised by same-sex couples. Much of the past decade's legal and political debate over allowing same-sex couples to marry has centered on these couples' suitability as parents,…

  4. Sex differences in factors contributing to family-to-work and work-to-family conflict in Japanese civil servants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimura, Yuko; Sekine, Michikazu; Tatsuse, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    As the number of dual-earner couples in Japan has increased, work-life balance has become important. This study aimed to examine the factors that contribute to work-family conflict. The participants included 3,594 (2,332 men and 1,262 women) civil servants aged 20-59 working for local government on the west coast of Japan. Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate whether work, family, or lifestyle characteristics were associated with work-family conflict. For men, family-to-work conflict was associated with being elderly, having low-grade employment, working long hours, raising children, and sleeping shorter hours. For women, being married and raising children were strong determinants of family-to-work conflict, and being middle-aged, working long hours, and sleeping shorter hours were also associated with this type of conflict. Regarding work-to-family conflict, working long hours was the strongest determinant of conflict in both sexes. In men, being elderly, living with family, eating dinner late, and sleeping shorter hours were also associated with work-to-family conflict. In women, having high-grade employment, being married, raising children, and eating dinner late were associated with work-to-family conflict. This study showed that working long hours was the primary determinant of work-to-family conflict in both sexes and that being married and raising children were strong factors of family-to-work conflict in women only. Sex differences may reflect divergence of the social and domestic roles of men and women in Japanese society. To improve the work-life balance, general and sex-specific health policies may be required.

  5. A Review of Parental Involvement in Sex Education: The Role for Effective Communication in British Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnbull, Triece; van Wersch, Anna; van Schaik, Paul

    2008-01-01

    A review of recent literature (2000--2006) has been undertaken to investigate the role of sex education within the family context, in order to engage with the problems of sexual health in British society. The findings which emerged were categorized under the following five themes: (1) Parental roles regarding sex education; (2) The importance of…

  6. Flight of the Stork: What Children Think (and When) about Sex and Family Building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Anne C.

    This book provides parents with some insight on how children come to understand sex and reproduction. Chapter 1 discusses some of the ways children think differently from adults and chapter 2 offers suggestions for talking with children about sex and birth and forming families. In chapters 3-8, children's explanations of the origins of babies are…

  7. Four RNA families with functional transient structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jing Yun A; Meyer, Irmtraud M

    2015-01-01

    Protein-coding and non-coding RNA transcripts perform a wide variety of cellular functions in diverse organisms. Several of their functional roles are expressed and modulated via RNA structure. A given transcript, however, can have more than a single functional RNA structure throughout its life, a fact which has been previously overlooked. Transient RNA structures, for example, are only present during specific time intervals and cellular conditions. We here introduce four RNA families with transient RNA structures that play distinct and diverse functional roles. Moreover, we show that these transient RNA structures are structurally well-defined and evolutionarily conserved. Since Rfam annotates one structure for each family, there is either no annotation for these transient structures or no such family. Thus, our alignments either significantly update and extend the existing Rfam families or introduce a new RNA family to Rfam. For each of the four RNA families, we compile a multiple-sequence alignment based on experimentally verified transient and dominant (dominant in terms of either the thermodynamic stability and/or attention received so far) RNA secondary structures using a combination of automated search via covariance model and manual curation. The first alignment is the Trp operon leader which regulates the operon transcription in response to tryptophan abundance through alternative structures. The second alignment is the HDV ribozyme which we extend to the 5' flanking sequence. This flanking sequence is involved in the regulation of the transcript's self-cleavage activity. The third alignment is the 5' UTR of the maturation protein from Levivirus which contains a transient structure that temporarily postpones the formation of the final inhibitory structure to allow translation of maturation protein. The fourth and last alignment is the SAM riboswitch which regulates the downstream gene expression by assuming alternative structures upon binding of SAM. All

  8. Family structure and park use among parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yingling; French, Simone A; Das, Kirti V

    2012-11-01

    Despite the increasingly diversified family structure in the U.S., little research examines differences in park use between nontraditional and traditional family structures. This study examines family-structure differences in parent park use. It was hypothesized that working single parents and dual-worker parents have lower levels of park use than parents in two-parent, single-worker families. Data from a 2010 park-use survey in three urban neighborhoods in Minneapolis MN (N=261 parents) were analyzed in 2012. Multiple variables of park use were developed, including recalled measures over the past 3 days and over the past year. Family-structure differences in these variables were examined using multivariate regression analyses. After controlling for spatial clustering effects and confounding factors, working single parents reported 32.6% (pparents in two-parent, single-worker families. Dual-worker parents did not report fewer park visits in the past 3 days than parents in two-parent, single-worker families, yet the length of time they spent in parks during these visits was 41.5% (psingle parents and dual-worker parents is needed in descriptive and intervention research aiming to promote park use among families with children. Copyright © 2012 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Family structure and its relationship to travel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christine Cornell McCreedy; Joseph T. O' Leary; Daniel Fesenmaier

    1992-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between family structure and travel to further understand what differences exist between family groups. Results indicate that the absence of a husband delays travel for single mothers and that they are not as well-off as their married counterparts. We examine other travel and leisure studies to make comparisons with these data,...

  10. Family Structure Transitions and Maternal Parenting Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Carey E.; McLanahan, Sara S.; Meadows, Sarah O.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2009-01-01

    Data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 4,176) are used to examine family structure transitions and maternal parenting stress. Using multilevel modeling, we found that mothers who exit coresidential relationships with biological fathers or enter coresidential relationships with nonbiological fathers reported higher levels of…

  11. Family homework and school-based sex education: delaying early adolescents' sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Jennifer M; Frye, Alice; Charmaraman, Linda; Erkut, Sumru

    2013-11-01

    Early sexual activity can undermine adolescents' future school success and health outcomes. The purpose of this study was to assess the role of a family homework component of a comprehensive sex education intervention in delaying sexual initiation for early adolescents and to explore what social and contextual factors prevent adolescents from completing these family homework activities. This mixed methods study included 6th- and 7th-grade survey responses from 706 students at 11 middle school schools receiving a sex education intervention, as well as interviews from a subset of 33, 7th-grade students from the larger sample. Adolescents who completed more family homework assignments were less likely to have vaginal intercourse in 7th grade than those who completed fewer assignments, after controlling for self-reports of having had vaginal intercourse in 6th grade and demographic variables. Participants' explanations for not completing assignments included personal, curriculum, and family-based reasons. Family homework activities designed to increase family communication about sexual issues can delay sex among early adolescents and contribute to school-based sex education programs. Successful sex education programs must identify and address barriers to family homework completion. © 2013, American School Health Association.

  12. China's marriage squeeze: A decomposition into age and sex structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Quanbao; Li, Xiaomin; Li, Shuzhuo; Feldman, Marcus W

    2016-06-01

    Most recent studies of marriage patterns in China have emphasized the male-biased sex ratio but have largely neglected age structure as a factor in China's male marriage squeeze. In this paper we develop an index we call "spousal sex ratio" (SSR) to measure the marriage squeeze, and a method of decomposing the proportion of male surplus into age and sex structure effects within a small spousal age difference interval. We project that China's marriage market will be confronted with a relatively severe male squeeze. For the decomposition of the cohort aged 30, from 2010 to 2020 age structure will be dominant, while from 2020 through 2034 the contribution of age structure will gradually decrease and that of sex structure will increase. From then on, sex structure will be dominant. The index and decomposition, concentrated on a specific female birth cohort, can distinguish spousal competition for single cohorts which may be covered by a summary index for the whole marriage market; these can also be used for consecutive cohorts to reflect the situation of the whole marriage market.

  13. Family Structure, Maternal Dating, and Sexual Debut: Extending the Conceptualization of Instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zito, Rena Cornell; De Coster, Stacy

    2016-05-01

    Family structure influences the risk of early onset of sexual intercourse. This study proposes that the family structures associated with risk-single-mother, step-parent, and cohabiting-influence early sexual debut due to family instability, including shifts in family structure and maternal dating, which can undermine parental control and transmit messages about the acceptability of nonmarital sex. Previous research has not considered maternal dating as a component of family instability, assuming single mothers who date and those who do not date experience comparable levels of family disruption and transmit similar messages about the acceptability of nonmarital sex. Hypotheses are assessed using logistic regression models predicting the odds of early onset of sexual intercourse among 9959 respondents (53 % female, 47 % male) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health. Respondents were ages 12-17 at the first wave of data collection and 18-26 at the third wave, when respondents reported the age at which they first had sexual intercourse. Results show that maternal dating is a source of family instability with repercussions for early sexual debut. Parental control and permissive attitudes towards teenage sex and pregnancy link at-risk family structures and maternal dating to early sexual initiation among females, though these variables do not fully explain family structure and maternal dating effects. Among males, the influence of maternal dating on early sexual debut is fully explained by the learning of permissive sexual attitudes.

  14. Perceived control and communication about sex: a study of South African families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodnight, Bradley; Salama, Christina; Grim, Elizabeth C; Anthony, Elizabeth R; Armistead, Lisa; Cook, Sarah L; Skinner, Donald; Toefy, Yoesrie

    2014-01-01

    Caregiver-youth communication about sex protects youth against HIV/AIDS, and caregivers who believe that sex knowledge is important are more likely to talk to their youth about sex. However, caregivers who experience barriers to communication about sex may not talk to their youth about sex even if the caregiver believes that sex education is important. The Theory of Planned Behaviour predicts that an actor has perceived control is necessary for behavioural change. This study therefore hypothesised that caregivers' perceived control moderates the relationship between caregiver attitudes about youth sex knowledge and caregiver-youth communication about sex. Results from a sample of 99 female South African caregivers of adolescent (10-14 year old) youth supported our hypothesis, indicating that caregiver attitudes about providing youth with sex knowledge positively predict communication about sex only when caregivers have perceived control. This finding illustrates the importance of perceived control in predicting caregiver-youth communication, and therefore has implications for family-based interventions aimed at improving caregiver-youth communication about sex.

  15. Sex Effects of Marijuana on Brain Structure and Function

    OpenAIRE

    Ketcherside, Ariel; Baine, Jessica; Filbey, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    Background Tetrahydrocannabinol (?9-THC), the primary ingredient in marijuana, exerts its effects across several neurological and biological systems that interact with the endocrine system. Thus, differential effects of ?9-THC are likely to exist based on sex and hormone levels. Methods We reviewed the existing literature to determine sex-based effects of ?9-THC on neural structure and functioning. Results The literature demonstrates differences in male and female marijuana users on brain str...

  16. Familial identification: population structure and relationship distinguishability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohlfs, Rori V; Fullerton, Stephanie Malia; Weir, Bruce S

    2012-02-01

    With the expansion of offender/arrestee DNA profile databases, genetic forensic identification has become commonplace in the United States criminal justice system. Implementation of familial searching has been proposed to extend forensic identification to family members of individuals with profiles in offender/arrestee DNA databases. In familial searching, a partial genetic profile match between a database entrant and a crime scene sample is used to implicate genetic relatives of the database entrant as potential sources of the crime scene sample. In addition to concerns regarding civil liberties, familial searching poses unanswered statistical questions. In this study, we define confidence intervals on estimated likelihood ratios for familial identification. Using these confidence intervals, we consider familial searching in a structured population. We show that relatives and unrelated individuals from population samples with lower gene diversity over the loci considered are less distinguishable. We also consider cases where the most appropriate population sample for individuals considered is unknown. We find that as a less appropriate population sample, and thus allele frequency distribution, is assumed, relatives and unrelated individuals become more difficult to distinguish. In addition, we show that relationship distinguishability increases with the number of markers considered, but decreases for more distant genetic familial relationships. All of these results indicate that caution is warranted in the application of familial searching in structured populations, such as in the United States.

  17. Familial identification: population structure and relationship distinguishability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rori V Rohlfs

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available With the expansion of offender/arrestee DNA profile databases, genetic forensic identification has become commonplace in the United States criminal justice system. Implementation of familial searching has been proposed to extend forensic identification to family members of individuals with profiles in offender/arrestee DNA databases. In familial searching, a partial genetic profile match between a database entrant and a crime scene sample is used to implicate genetic relatives of the database entrant as potential sources of the crime scene sample. In addition to concerns regarding civil liberties, familial searching poses unanswered statistical questions. In this study, we define confidence intervals on estimated likelihood ratios for familial identification. Using these confidence intervals, we consider familial searching in a structured population. We show that relatives and unrelated individuals from population samples with lower gene diversity over the loci considered are less distinguishable. We also consider cases where the most appropriate population sample for individuals considered is unknown. We find that as a less appropriate population sample, and thus allele frequency distribution, is assumed, relatives and unrelated individuals become more difficult to distinguish. In addition, we show that relationship distinguishability increases with the number of markers considered, but decreases for more distant genetic familial relationships. All of these results indicate that caution is warranted in the application of familial searching in structured populations, such as in the United States.

  18. Civic Competence of Dutch Children in Female Same-Sex Parent Families: A Comparison With Children of Opposite-Sex Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Henny; Gartrell, Nanette; Roeleveld, Jaap; Ledoux, Guuske

    2016-01-01

    This study examined whether Dutch children reared in families headed by female same-sex parents differ in civic competence from Dutch children reared by opposite-sex parents. The participants, drawn from a national sample, included 32 children (11-13 years old) parented by female same-sex couples who were matched on demographic characteristics…

  19. The Development of Sex Role Stereotypes in the Third Year: Relationships to Gender Labeling, Gender Identity, Sex-Typed Toy Preference, and Family Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinraub, Marsha; And Others

    1984-01-01

    The onset and development of preschoolers' awareness of sex role stereotypes, gender labeling, gender identity, and sex-typed toy preference were explored in 26-, 31-, and 36-month-old children. Family characteristics that affect early sex role development also were investigated. (Author/RH)

  20. Does more mean better? Sibling sex composition and the link between family size and children's quality

    OpenAIRE

    Baez, Javier E.

    2008-01-01

    Exogenous variation in fertility from parental preferences for sex-mix among their children is used to identify the causal effect of family size on several measures associated with either the allocation of resources towards children within the household or the outcomes of these investments. Results using data from Colombia suggest that family size has negative effects on average child quality. Children from larger families have accumulated almost 1 year less of education, are less likely to e...

  1. Perceived Parental Acceptance Related to Self-Esteem, GPA, Sex-Role Identity, and Substance Use of Adolescents From Intact and Reconstituted Families

    OpenAIRE

    Sniteman, Stephen B.

    1993-01-01

    This investigation assessed the relationship between adolescents of intact families and adolescents in reconstituted families with regard to the effects of perception of parental acceptance on the variables of self-esteem, academic performance, sex role identity, and use o f substances. Observed differences between adolescents of intact and reconstituted families from a structural perspective, eliminating process variables, were also examined. Participants included two hundred fifty-six high ...

  2. Protective effects of middle school comprehensive sex education with family involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Jennifer M; Tracy, Allison J; Charmaraman, Linda; Ceder, Ineke; Erkut, Sumru

    2014-11-01

    School-based comprehensive sex education programs can reduce early adolescents' risky sexual behavior. The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a 3-year comprehensive sex education program in delaying vaginal sex for middle school students and whether the family component of the intervention contributes to its effectiveness. This longitudinal evaluation followed a cohort of 6th graders (N = 2453) through the end of 8th grade. The design used random assignment of 24 schools into treatment and comparison conditions. The analysis included multiple-group logistic regression to assess differences in delay of sex between intervention and comparison groups. In schools where the program was taught, 16% fewer boys and 15% fewer girls had had sex by the end of 8th grade compared to boys and girls at comparison schools. Completing family activities during the first year of the program predicted delayed sexual debut for boys. Theory-based, developmentally appropriate, comprehensive sex education programs that include parent involvement can be effective in delaying vaginal sex for middle school students. Parent involvement is particularly important for boys, as family activities may encourage parents to talk with their sons earlier and more frequently. © 2014, American School Health Association.

  3. A Teacher's Point of View on Family Life (Sex) Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawlinski, Judy R.

    2007-01-01

    As a Family and Consumer Science educator at Union City High School in Union City, Pennsylvania, I have heard and seen a great deal. I have been teaching for 24 years at this rural Pennsylvania Middle/High School where teen pregnancy has always been a problem. Teaching students abstinence as the only method of birth control has been a major…

  4. Female same-sex families in the dialectics of marginality and conformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobočan, Ana Marija

    2011-01-01

    The article discusses the continuum between the personal and public roles of families, where two women parent together in Slovenia, against the background of the current marginal position of same-sex families in regard to rights and symbolic status, in claiming the position of same-sex parenting in the context of family models as well as in the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) movement agendas. It briefly outlines the situation in Slovenia in regard to homosexuality, and then moves to discussing the outcomes of the processes and experiences of lesbian mothers that are transgressing the borders of parental and homosexual identities. These outcomes are: "justifying" and demonstrating the "appropriateness" of family life in non-heteronormative families, constructing strategies for claiming a joint parental identity, and building a sense of belonging by forming a community that is both homosexual and parental. The article draws extensively on the lived (motherhood) experiences and stories of families where parents are two female partners and reads them as negotiating a constantly shifting place between a marginal status in the broader society and a conformist character in the perspective of their non-normative sexuality. In the article, it is recognized that same-sex families in Slovenia are entering the political agenda and are thus involved in transforming both contexts-the family and homosexual identities.

  5. Effect of Family Structure on Marital Attitudes of Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganong, Lawrence; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Assesses the effect of exposure to different family structures (single parent families, reconstituted families, intact families) on the marital socialization of 127 males and 194 female adolescents. (Author/CM)

  6. The Dynamics of Male Brooding, Mating Patterns, ad Sex Roles in Pipefishes and Seahorses (Family Syngnathidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Anthony Bruce; Ahnesjö, Ingrid; Vincent, Amanda C. J.; Meyer, Axel

    2003-01-01

    Modern theory predicts that relative parental investment of the sexes in their young is a key factor responsible for sexual selection. Seahorses and pipefishes (family Syngnathidae) are extraordinary among fishes in their remarkable adaptations for paternal care and frequent occurrences of sex-role reversals (i.e., female-female competition for mates), offering exceptional opportunities to test predictions of sexual selection theory. During mating, the female transfers eggs into or onto speci...

  7. Family functioning in the context of parental bipolar disorder: associations with offspring age, sex, and psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freed, Rachel D; Tompson, Martha C; Wang, Christine H; Otto, Michael W; Hirshfeld-Becker, Dina R; Nierenberg, Andrew A; Henin, Aude

    2015-02-01

    Previous research has shown that families with a parent who has bipolar disorder (BD) may experience family functioning difficulties. However, the association between family functioning and psychopathology among offspring of parents with BD, and offspring characteristics that may moderate this association, remains poorly understood. This study examined the cross-sectional associations between family functioning (cohesion, expressiveness, and conflict) and psychopathology in 117 offspring (ages 5-18) of 75 parents with BD. We also examined whether age and sex differences moderated these associations. We measured offspring psychopathology by examining current dimensional symptoms and DSM-IV emotional and behavioral disorders. Correlational analyses indicated that higher family conflict and lower cohesion were associated with higher internalizing and externalizing symptoms in offspring. Lower family cohesion was also associated with current offspring mood disorders. Moderation analyses indicated, first, that the link between lower family cohesion and internalizing symptoms was stronger for younger offspring compared to older offspring. Second, higher family conflict and current mood disorder were associated in younger males but not in older males or in females. Results remained the same after controlling for parental anxiety or substance use disorder comorbidity. Our study highlights the importance of accounting for family functioning when working with offspring at risk for BD, while also recognizing that the connections between family functioning and offspring outcomes are complex and differ based on offspring sex and developmental stage. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  8. Childhood-Onset Essential Hypertension and the Family Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta-Malhotra, Monesha; Hashmi, Syed Shahrukh; Barratt, Michelle S; Milewicz, Dianna M; Shete, Sanjay

    2016-05-01

    The prevalence and effect of single-parent families in childhood-onset essential hypertension (EH) is unknown. Children with EH and age-, sex-, and ethnicity-matched controls were enrolled. Family structure data were obtained by in-person interview. A total of 148 families (76 hypertension probands, 72 control probands; median 14 years) were prospective-ly enrolled in the study. Single-parent status was seen in 42% of the families--with and without EH (38% vs 46%, P=.41; odds ratio, 0.7; 95% confidence interval, 0.4-1.4). After multivariable analysis, a statistically significant sociofamilial contributor to the development of childhood-onset EH was not identified. A significant number of single-parent families (42%), the majority with single mothers, were found in our pedigree study. Sociofamilial factors are known to contribute to the expression of adult-onset EH, but findings in our study suggest that they appear to contribute less in the expression of childhood-onset EH. ©2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Family Structure and Children's Psychosocial Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zheng; Hou, Feng; Schimmele, Christoph M.

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the influence of family structure on children's short-term psychosocial behavioral outcomes, including emotional disorder, conduct disorder, and prosocial behavior. The analysis uses five waves of data (1994-2003) from Canada's National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth to model how living in a cohabitational…

  10. Evaluating the welfare of the child in same-sex families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennings, Guido

    2011-07-01

    Within the field of medically assisted reproduction, the welfare of the child is advanced as the major argument to decide the acceptability of certain applications. This argument, however, needs a complex framework in order to be understood and used properly. The effect of empirical evidence regarding the welfare of the child on people's judgments about the acceptability of same-sex families will differ for utilitarians and deontologists. Deontologists who are opposed to same-sex families will not change their mind when confronted with reassuring evidence. However, utilitarians also frequently use the evidence wrongly or draw the wrong conclusions. The reasonable welfare standard is put forward to avoid counterintuitive judgments and to block comparative reasoning that may follow from the use of heterosexual families as a control in follow-up research. Finally, a number of problems related to the use of parental sexual orientation as a criterion are discussed. The discrimination against same-sex families will not be overturned by empirical evidence about the welfare of the children. Children in same-sex families are generally doing well but their situation could be improved if their parents' relationship were to be socially and legally recognized.

  11. Parentification, substance use, and sex among adolescent daughters from ethnic minority families: the moderating role of monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Jina; Cederbaum, Julie A; Hurlburt, Michael S

    2014-06-01

    Guided by structural family systems theory, this study explored the relationship between parentification and adolescent daughters' sexual risk engagement and substance use. We also explored how adolescent reports of parental monitoring moderated the relationship between parentification and adolescent risk. Data were from a cross-sectional, cross-generational study of 176 mother-daughter dyads from low-income, inner-city, ethnic minority families. In this sample, which included a subset of mothers with HIV, parental physical symptoms were associated with slightly higher levels of parentification. Parentification was associated with adolescent daughters' intention to have sex (but not substance use) in a direction opposite to prediction. Higher parentification was associated with lower intention to have sex. Parental monitoring did not moderate relationships between parentification and adolescent risk. These findings highlight that despite the negative influence hypothesized in structural family systems theory, parentification was not associated with risk engagement of high-risk adolescent daughters in ethnic minority families with low income. © 2013 FPI, Inc.

  12. Genotype by sex and genotype by age interactions with sedentary behavior: the Portuguese Healthy Family Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel M V Santos

    Full Text Available Sedentary behavior (SB expression and its underlying causal factors have been progressively studied, as it is a major determinant of decreased health quality. In the present study we applied Genotype x Age (GxAge and Genotype x Sex (GxSex interaction methods to determine if the phenotypic expression of different SB traits is influenced by an interaction between genetic architecture and both age and sex. A total of 1345 subjects, comprising 249 fathers, 327 mothers, 334 sons and 325 daughters, from 339 families of The Portuguese Healthy Family Study were included in the analysis. SB traits were assessed by means of a 3-d physical activity recall, the Baecke and IPAQ questionnaires. GxAge and GxSex interactions were analyzed using SOLAR 4.0 software. Sedentary behaviour heritability estimates were not always statistically significant (p>0.05 and ranged from 3% to 27%. The GxSex and GxAge interaction models were significantly better than the single polygenic models for TV (min/day, EEsed (kcal/day, personal computer (PC usage and physical activty (PA tertiles. The GxAge model is also significantly better than the polygenic model for Sed (min/day. For EEsed, PA tertiles, PC and Sed, the GxAge interaction was significant because the genetic correlation between SB environments was significantly different from 1. Further, PC and Sed variance heterogeneity among distinct ages were observed. The GxSex interaction was significant for EEsed due to genetic variance heterogeneity between genders and for PC due to a genetic correlation less than 1 across both sexes. Our results suggest that SB expression may be influenced by the interactions between genotype with both sex and age. Further, different sedentary behaviors seem to have distinct genetic architectures and are differentially affected by age and sex.

  13. Sex Differences and Within-Family Associations in the Broad Autism Phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klusek, Jessica; Losh, Molly; Martin, Gary E.

    2014-01-01

    While there is a strong sex bias in the presentation of autism, it is unknown whether this bias is also present in subclinical manifestations of autism among relatives, or the broad autism phenotype. This study examined this question and investigated patterns of co-occurrence of broad autism phenotype traits within families of individuals with…

  14. Family Life and Human Development (Sex Education): The Prince George's County Public Schools Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, Michael J.

    1981-01-01

    The Prince George's County schools' sex education program for grades K-12 was developed and implemented in the late 1960s and has three focus areas: family life and interpersonal relationships; the physiological and personality changes during puberty; and advanced physiology and psychology of human sexual behavior. The program augments what the…

  15. Family Homework and School-Based Sex Education: Delaying Early Adolescents' Sexual Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Jennifer M.; Frye, Alice; Charmaraman, Linda; Erkut, Sumru

    2013-01-01

    Background: Early sexual activity can undermine adolescents' future school success and health outcomes. The purpose of this study was to assess the role of a family homework component of a comprehensive sex education intervention in delaying sexual initiation for early adolescents and to explore what social and contextual factors prevent…

  16. 'They have embraced a different behaviour': transactional sex and family dynamics in eastern Congo's conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclin, Beth; Kelly, Jocelyn; Kabanga, Justin; VanRooyen, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The decades-long conflict in eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) has resulted in major changes to local economies, strained social networks and insecurity. This environment forces many to pursue unconventional and, at times, socially stigmatised avenues for income. This paper explores the ways in which individuals in eastern DRC engage in, and are affected by, the commoditisation of sex within the context of decades of violent conflict. Focus group discussions conducted with men and women in 2009-2010 highlight how the war in the region has placed individuals, particularly women, in dire economic circumstances, while also changing their roles within families. In the face of severe poverty, women and girls may choose to engage in transactional sex in order to support themselves and their families. Discussants detailed how engaging in transactional sex due to an economic imperative has nonetheless damaged women's relationships with family members between spouses as well as parents and their children through breach of trust and failure to provide. These focus group discussions elucidate how transactional sex is both a symptom of, and a catalyst for, changes within family dynamics in eastern DRC.

  17. Sibship size, birth order, family structure and childhood mental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carballo, Juan J; García-Nieto, Rebeca; Alvarez-García, Raquel; Caro-Cañizares, Irene; López-Castromán, Jorge; Muñoz-Lorenzo, Laura; de Leon-Martinez, Victoria; Baca-García, Enrique

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the role that birth order, sibship size and family structure have as risk factors in the development of common childhood mental disorders. A case-control study design was conducted (N = 16,823). The group under study consisted of all those subjects who had consulted with a psychiatrist/psychologist and had received a clinical diagnosis at public mental health centres within the Region of Madrid (Spain), between 1980 and 2008. A multiple logistic regression was used to explore the independent association with each diagnosis: emotional disorders (ED) with onset specific to childhood, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), conduct disorder (CD), mental retardation (MR), and pervasive developmental disorder (PDD). Birth order and family structure significantly predicted the risk of being diagnosed with ED or ADHD. In addition, sibship size and sex predicted the risk of being diagnosed with a childhood mental disorder. We concluded that being the middle child and living with both biological parents appear to be protective factors against the development of ED or ADHD. Living in large families appears to increase the risk of receiving a CD, MR, or PDD diagnosis. Further research is warranted.

  18. Understanding resilience in same-sex parented families: the work, love, play study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Jennifer J; Perlesz, Amaryll; Schofield, Margot J; Pitts, Marian K; Brown, Rhonda; McNair, Ruth; Barrett, Anna; Bickerdike, Andrew

    2010-03-09

    While families headed by same-sex couples have achieved greater public visibility in recent years, there are still many challenges for these families in dealing with legal and community contexts that are not supportive of same-sex relationships. The Work, Love, Play study is a large longitudinal study of same-sex parents. It aims to investigate many facets of family life among this sample and examine how they change over time. The study focuses specifically on two key areas missing from the current literature: factors supporting resilience in same-sex parented families; and health and wellbeing outcomes for same-sex couples who undergo separation, including the negotiation of shared parenting arrangements post-separation. The current paper aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the design and methods of this longitudinal study and discuss its significance. The Work, Love, Play study is a mixed design, three wave, longitudinal cohort study of same-sex attracted parents. The sample includes lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender parents in Australia and New Zealand (including single parents within these categories) caring for any children under the age of 18 years. The study will be conducted over six years from 2008 to 2014. Quantitative data are to be collected via three on-line surveys in 2008, 2010 and 2012 from the cohort of parents recruited in Wave1. Qualitative data will be collected via interviews with purposively selected subsamples in 2012 and 2013. Data collection began in 2008 and 355 respondents to Wave One of the study have agreed to participate in future surveys. Work is currently underway to increase this sample size. The methods and survey instruments are described. This study will make an important contribution to the existing research on same-sex parented families. Strengths of the study design include the longitudinal method, which will allow understanding of changes over time within internal family relationships and social supports. Further

  19. Understanding resilience in same-sex parented families: the work, love, play study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McNair Ruth

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While families headed by same-sex couples have achieved greater public visibility in recent years, there are still many challenges for these families in dealing with legal and community contexts that are not supportive of same-sex relationships. The Work, Love, Play study is a large longitudinal study of same-sex parents. It aims to investigate many facets of family life among this sample and examine how they change over time. The study focuses specifically on two key areas missing from the current literature: factors supporting resilience in same-sex parented families; and health and wellbeing outcomes for same-sex couples who undergo separation, including the negotiation of shared parenting arrangements post-separation. The current paper aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the design and methods of this longitudinal study and discuss its significance. Methods/Design The Work, Love, Play study is a mixed design, three wave, longitudinal cohort study of same-sex attracted parents. The sample includes lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender parents in Australia and New Zealand (including single parents within these categories caring for any children under the age of 18 years. The study will be conducted over six years from 2008 to 2014. Quantitative data are to be collected via three on-line surveys in 2008, 2010 and 2012 from the cohort of parents recruited in Wave1. Qualitative data will be collected via interviews with purposively selected subsamples in 2012 and 2013. Data collection began in 2008 and 355 respondents to Wave One of the study have agreed to participate in future surveys. Work is currently underway to increase this sample size. The methods and survey instruments are described. Discussion This study will make an important contribution to the existing research on same-sex parented families. Strengths of the study design include the longitudinal method, which will allow understanding of changes over time

  20. Sex differences in the development of perceived family cohesion and depressive symptoms in Taiwanese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sze, Tat-Ming; Hsieh, Pei-Jung; Lin, Sieh-Hwa; Chen, I-Jung

    2013-08-01

    This study investigates the progression of family cohesion perceptions and depressive symptoms during the character development stage in adolescents. Data were used from the Taiwan Youth Project. The final sample comprised 2,690 adolescents with 1,312 girls (48.8%; M age = 13.0 yr., SD = 0.5). Latent curve growth analysis was employed to explore these developments. Seventh-grade girls reported greater family cohesion and more depressive symptoms than boys, and boys reported greater growth in family cohesion than girls. However, progression of depressive symptoms was not associated with the child's sex. Higher perceived family cohesion in Grade 7 correlated with less increase of depressive symptoms from Grades 9 to 11. The long-term positive influence of family cohesion on depressive symptoms is discussed.

  1. The Influence of Family Structure on Sexual Activity in a Randomized Effectiveness Trial for Minority Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherr, Michael E.; Crow, Janet; Stamey, James; Jones, Johnny; Dyer, Preston

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the influence of family structure on the outcomes of a sex education program in Miami, Florida. Using an experimental design, data collection occurred at pretest, 3-month, and 6-month follow-up with a sample of teenagers from high schools with a large majority of minority youth, assigned into treatment (n = 549) and control (n…

  2. The Impact Of Family Structure On Psychosocial Adjustment Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper x-ray the psychosocial adjustment of adolescences based on their families structure, hence families were further revealed to include intact family, divorced family, separated family, psychological and none psychological broken homes, as it influence adolescence generally. Under the definition of terms ...

  3. Sex differences in the structural connectome of the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingalhalikar, Madhura; Smith, Alex; Parker, Drew; Satterthwaite, Theodore D; Elliott, Mark A; Ruparel, Kosha; Hakonarson, Hakon; Gur, Raquel E; Gur, Ruben C; Verma, Ragini

    2014-01-14

    Sex differences in human behavior show adaptive complementarity: Males have better motor and spatial abilities, whereas females have superior memory and social cognition skills. Studies also show sex differences in human brains but do not explain this complementarity. In this work, we modeled the structural connectome using diffusion tensor imaging in a sample of 949 youths (aged 8-22 y, 428 males and 521 females) and discovered unique sex differences in brain connectivity during the course of development. Connection-wise statistical analysis, as well as analysis of regional and global network measures, presented a comprehensive description of network characteristics. In all supratentorial regions, males had greater within-hemispheric connectivity, as well as enhanced modularity and transitivity, whereas between-hemispheric connectivity and cross-module participation predominated in females. However, this effect was reversed in the cerebellar connections. Analysis of these changes developmentally demonstrated differences in trajectory between males and females mainly in adolescence and in adulthood. Overall, the results suggest that male brains are structured to facilitate connectivity between perception and coordinated action, whereas female brains are designed to facilitate communication between analytical and intuitive processing modes.

  4. Roles of sex and ethnicity in procurement coordinator--family communication during the organ donation discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baughn, Daniel; Auerbach, Stephen M; Siminoff, Laura A

    2010-09-01

    Interpersonal relations with health care providers influence families' decisions to consent to solid-organ donation. However, previous research has been based on retrospective interviews with donation-eligible families and has not directly examined the interpersonal interactions between families and organ procurement coordinators. To increase understanding of the interpersonal interaction between procurement coordinators and families during the organ donation discussion, with special attention to the influence of the sex and race of the procurement coordinator and the race of the potential donor's family. A descriptive study in which standardized patients portrayed family members interacting with actual procurement coordinators in simulated donation request scenarios. Thirty-three videotaped interactions between standardized patients and 17 procurement coordinators involving 2 different scenarios depicting deceased donation were evaluated. Video recordings were rated by independent coders. Coders completed the Impact Message Inventory-Form C, the Participatory Style of Physician Scale, and the Siminoff Communication and Content and Affect Program-Global Observer Ratings scale. African American procurement coordinators, particularly African American women, were rated as more controlling and work-oriented than white procurement coordinators. Male procurement coordinators were more affiliative with the white family than the African American family, whereas female procurement coordinators were slightly less affiliative with the white family. African American procurement coordinators expressed more positive affect when interacting with the African American family than the white family, whereas the opposite was true for white procurement coordinators. Research is needed to cross-validate these exploratory findings and further examine cultural mistrust between procurement coordinators and families of ethnic minorities, especially given the negative attitudes of many

  5. The Influence of Constructed Family Membership on HIV Risk Behaviors among Gay, Bisexual, and Other Men Who Have Sex with Men in New Orleans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarwell, Meagan C; Robinson, William T

    2018-04-01

    Gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM) represent more new HIV infections than all other at-risk populations. Many young black MSM belong to constructed families (i.e., the house ball community, gay families, and pageant families) which are often organized in a family structure with members referred to as parents and children. Many constructed families are associated with a family surname which is informally adopted by members. In some cases, however, constructed families do not identify with a collective family name. In 2014, 553 MSM were recruited through venue-based time-space sampling during the National HIV Behavioral Surveillance (NHBS) in New Orleans to complete a structured survey and HIV test. Black, Latino, and other race MSM were more likely to belong to constructed families in comparison to white MSM. In addition, participants who belonged to constructed families with a family name were more likely to engage in protective behaviors including wearing condoms at last sexual intercourse. Overall, younger, white MSM who did not belong to any social groups were more likely to engage in at least one risk behavior. These findings significantly contribute to understanding variations in HIV risk behavior among members of constructed families.

  6. A reconfiguration of the sex trade: How social and structural changes in eastern Zimbabwe left women involved in sex work and transactional sex more vulnerable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmes, Jocelyn; Skovdal, Morten; Nhongo, Kundai; Ward, Helen; Campbell, Catherine; Hallett, Timothy B; Nyamukapa, Constance; White, Peter J; Gregson, Simon

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the dynamic nature of sex work is important for explaining the course of HIV epidemics. While health and development interventions targeting sex workers may alter the dynamics of the sex trade in particular localities, little has been done to explore how large-scale social and structural changes, such as economic recessions-outside of the bounds of organizational intervention-may reconfigure social norms and attitudes with regards to sex work. Zimbabwe's economic collapse in 2009, following a period (2000-2009) of economic decline, within a declining HIV epidemic, provides a unique opportunity to study community perceptions of the impact of socio-economic upheaval on the sex trade. We conducted focus group discussions with 122 community members in rural eastern Zimbabwe in January-February 2009. Groups were homogeneous by gender and occupation and included female sex workers, married women, and men who frequented bars. The focus groups elicited discussion around changes (comparing contemporaneous circumstances in 2009 to their memories of circumstances in 2000) in the demand for, and supply of, paid sex, and how sex workers and clients adapted to these changes, and with what implications for their health and well-being. Transcripts were thematically analyzed. The analysis revealed how changing economic conditions, combined with an increased awareness and fear of HIV-changing norms and local attitudes toward sex work-had altered the demand for commercial sex. In response, sex work dispersed from the bars into the wider community, requiring female sex workers to employ different tactics to attract clients. Hyperinflation meant that sex workers had to accept new forms of payment, including sex-on-credit and commodities. Further impacting the demand for commercial sex work was a poverty-driven increase in transactional sex. The economic upheaval in Zimbabwe effectively reorganized the market for sex by reducing previously dominant forms of commercial sex

  7. A reconfiguration of the sex trade: How social and structural changes in eastern Zimbabwe left women involved in sex work and transactional sex more vulnerable.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jocelyn Elmes

    Full Text Available Understanding the dynamic nature of sex work is important for explaining the course of HIV epidemics. While health and development interventions targeting sex workers may alter the dynamics of the sex trade in particular localities, little has been done to explore how large-scale social and structural changes, such as economic recessions-outside of the bounds of organizational intervention-may reconfigure social norms and attitudes with regards to sex work. Zimbabwe's economic collapse in 2009, following a period (2000-2009 of economic decline, within a declining HIV epidemic, provides a unique opportunity to study community perceptions of the impact of socio-economic upheaval on the sex trade. We conducted focus group discussions with 122 community members in rural eastern Zimbabwe in January-February 2009. Groups were homogeneous by gender and occupation and included female sex workers, married women, and men who frequented bars. The focus groups elicited discussion around changes (comparing contemporaneous circumstances in 2009 to their memories of circumstances in 2000 in the demand for, and supply of, paid sex, and how sex workers and clients adapted to these changes, and with what implications for their health and well-being. Transcripts were thematically analyzed. The analysis revealed how changing economic conditions, combined with an increased awareness and fear of HIV-changing norms and local attitudes toward sex work-had altered the demand for commercial sex. In response, sex work dispersed from the bars into the wider community, requiring female sex workers to employ different tactics to attract clients. Hyperinflation meant that sex workers had to accept new forms of payment, including sex-on-credit and commodities. Further impacting the demand for commercial sex work was a poverty-driven increase in transactional sex. The economic upheaval in Zimbabwe effectively reorganized the market for sex by reducing previously dominant forms

  8. Methodological decisions and the evaluation of possible effects of different family structures on children: The new family structures survey (NFSS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumm, Walter R

    2012-11-01

    Every social science researcher must make a number of methodological decisions when planning and implementing research projects. Each such decision carries with it both advantages and limitations. The decisions faced and made by Regnerus (2012) are discussed here in the wider context of social science literature regarding same-sex parenting. Even though the apparent outcomes of Regnerus's study were unpopular, the methodological decisions he made in the design and implementation of the New Family Structures Survey were not uncommon among social scientists, including many progressive, gay and lesbian scholars. These decisions and the research they produced deserve considerable and continued discussion, but criticisms of the underlying ethics and professionalism are misplaced because nearly every methodological decision that was made has ample precedents in research published by many other credible and distinguished scholars. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Familial forms of disorders of sex development may be common if infertility is considered a comorbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauner, Raja; Picard-Dieval, Flavia; Lottmann, Henri; Rouget, Sébastien; Bignon-Topalovic, Joelle; Bashamboo, Anu; McElreavey, Ken

    2016-11-29

    Families with 46,XY Disorders of Sex Development (DSD) have been reported, but they are considered to be exceptionally rare, with the exception of the familial forms of disorders affecting androgen synthesis or action. The families of some patients with anorchia may include individuals with 46,XY gonadal dysgenesis. We therefore analysed a large series of patients with 46,XY DSD or anorchia for the occurrence in their family of one of these phenotypes and/or ovarian insufficiency and/or infertility and/or cryptorchidism. A retrospective study chart review was performed for 114 patients with 46,XY DSD and 26 patients with 46,XY bilateral anorchia examined at a single institution over a 33 year period. Of the 140 patients, 25 probands with DSD belonged to 21 families and 7 with anorchia belonged to 7 families. Familial forms represent 22% (25/114) of the 46,XY DSD and 27% (7/26) of the anorchia cases. No case had disorders affecting androgen synthesis or action or 5 α-reductase deficiency. The presenting symptom was genital ambiguity (n = 12), hypospadias (n = 11) or discordance between 46,XY karyotyping performed in utero to exclude trisomy and female external genitalia (n = 2) or anorchia (n = 7). Other familial affected individuals presented with DSD and/or premature menopause (4 families) or male infertility (4 families) and/or cryptorchidism. In four families mutations were identified in the genes SRY, NR5A1, GATA4 and FOG2/ZFPM2. Surgery discovered dysgerminoma or gonadoblastoma in two cases with gonadal dysgenesis. This study reveals a surprisingly high frequency of familial forms of 46,XY DSD and anorchia when premature menopause or male factor infertility are included. It also demonstrates the variability of the expression of the phenotype within the families. It highlights the need to the physician to take a full family history including fertility status. This could be important to identify familial cases, understand modes of transmission

  10. Short-Term and Long-Term Educational Mobility of Families: A Two-Sex Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xi; Mare, Robert D

    2017-02-01

    We use a multigenerational perspective to investigate how families reproduce and pass their educational advantages to succeeding generations. Unlike traditional mobility studies that have typically focused on one-sex influences from fathers to sons, we rely on a two-sex approach that accounts for interactions between males and females-the process in which males and females mate and have children with those of similar educational statuses and jointly determine the educational status attainment of their offspring. Using data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, we approach this issue from both a short-term and a long-term perspective. For the short term, grandparents' educational attainments have a direct association with grandchildren's education as well as an indirect association that is mediated by parents' education and demographic behaviors. For the long term, initial educational advantages of families may benefit as many as three subsequent generations, but such advantages are later offset by the lower fertility of highly educated persons. Yet, all families eventually achieve the same educational distribution of descendants because of intermarriages between families of high- and low-education origin.

  11. Family Structure Changes and Children's Health, Behavior, and Educational Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Astrid Würtz

    decreased to 73% in 2005. Hence it is important to improve our understanding of the impact of "shocks" in family structure due to parental relationship dissolution on children. International studies mainly suggest a negative relationship between non-nuclear family structure and child outcomes. There are two...... relation between family structure changes and children's outcomes. Children who have experienced family structure changes during childhood seem to have worse educational outcomes and a higher propensity to being hospitalized and convicted of a crime. The children in the dataset experience up to 13 family...... structure changes during childhood. More family structure changes implies worse outcomes and might actually be more important than the number of years a child has spent in a single parent household. The age at which the family structure change occurs also seems to be important at least for some outcomes....

  12. Family in the values structure of future preschool teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.R. Kurmaeva

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the concept of a “family as a social and cultural value”, its priority in the education of children compared with public institutions. We reveal the research areas of the problem of family values: the family as part of the hierarchy of values in the structure of social consciousness, the traditional ideal of the family as a unity of marriage, parenthood and family relationships, the study of family values in the structure of incentive components of individuals behavior. In the current conditions of the family crisis, we pay special attention to the family values of future teachers, as the regulations and professional activities orient them to work closely with the family. We identified indicators of value relations to family in the future teachers and the factors influencing the formation of values related to the family

  13. Children's Self-Concepts as Related to Family Structure and Family Concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parish, Joycelyn G.; Parish, Thomas S.

    1983-01-01

    Surveyed 426 children from intact, divorced, and reconstituted families, who responded to the Personal Attribute Inventory for Children to evaluate their families and themselves. Results showed a significant association between children's self-concepts and both their family structure and family concepts. (JAC)

  14. Work Role Characteristics, Family Structure Demands, and Work/Family Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voydanoff, Patricia

    1988-01-01

    Examined relationships between work role characteristics, family structure demands, and work/family conflict, using data from 757 married men and 270 married women. Found that amount and scheduling of work time, job demands, and presence of children in home were related to work/family conflict. Work role characteristics and family structure…

  15. Influences of Family Structure Dynamics on Sexual Debut in Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is no research on the timing, sequencing and number of changes in family environment and their influences on sexual and reproductive health outcomes in Africa. Using a population-based survey with data on family structure at three points in the life course, this paper examines the influences of these family structure ...

  16. Work-Family Conflict and the Sex Difference in Depression Among Training Physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guille, Constance; Frank, Elena; Zhao, Zhuo; Kalmbach, David A; Nietert, Paul J; Mata, Douglas A; Sen, Srijan

    2017-12-01

    Depression is common among training physicians and may disproportionately affect women. The identification of modifiable risk factors is key to reducing this disease burden and its negative impact on patient care and physician career attrition. To determine the presence and magnitude of a sex difference in depressive symptoms and work-family conflict among training physicians; and if work-family conflict impacts the sex difference in depressive symptoms among training physicians. A prospective longitudinal cohort study of medical internship in the United States during the 2015 to 2016 academic year in which 3121 interns were recruited across all specialties from 44 medical institutions. Prior to and during their internship year, participants reported the degree to which work responsibilities interfered with family life using the Work Family Conflict Scale and depressive symptoms using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). Mean (SD) participant age was 27.5 (2.7) years, and 1571 participants (49.7%) were women. Both men and women experienced a marked increase in depressive symptoms during their internship year, with the increase being statistically significantly greater for women (men: mean increase in PHQ-9, 2.50; 95% CI, 2.26-2.73 vs women: mean increase, 3.20; 95% CI, 2.97-3.43). When work-family conflict was accounted for, the sex disparity in the increase in depressive symptoms decreased by 36%. Our study demonstrates that depressive symptoms increase substantially during the internship year for men and women, but that this increase is greater for women. The study also identifies work-family conflict as an important potentially modifiable factor that is associated with elevated depressive symptoms in training physicians. Systemic modifications to alleviate conflict between work and family life may improve physician mental health and reduce the disproportionate depression disease burden for female physicians. Given that depression among physicians is

  17. A scale on beliefs about children's adjustment in same-sex families: reliability and validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frias-Navarro, Dolores; Monterde-I-Bort, Hector

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we developed a new instrument named Scale Beliefs about Children's Adjustment on Same-Sex Families (SBCASSF). The scale was developed to assess of the adults' beliefs about negative impacts on children who are raised by same-sex parents. An initial pool of 95 items was generated by the authors based on a review of the literature on homophobia and feedback from several focus groups. Research findings, based on a sample of 212 university students (mean age 22 years, SD = 8.28), supported the reliability and validity of the scale. The final versions of the SBCASSF included items reflecting the following two factors: individual opposition (α = .87) and normative opposition (α = .88). Convergent validity of the scale is demonstrated by predictable correlations with beliefs about the cause of same-sex sexual orientation and the support for gay and lesbian rights. Our study reveals a strong positive association between high scores on SBCASSF and beliefs that the origin of same-sex sexual orientation is learned and opposition to gay and lesbian rights.

  18. The sociocultural context of family size preference, ideal sex composition, and induced abortion in India: findings from India's National Family Health surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Sutapa

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the author examined the effect of family size preference and sex composition of living children as determinants of induced abortion among women in India by analyzing 90,303 ever-married women aged 15-49, included in India's second National Family Health Survey, conducted in 1998-99. Multivariate logistic regression methods were used to examine the association between induced abortion and possible determinants. The results indicated that a woman's desire to limit family size with preferred sex composition of children, coupled with her autonomy and the sociocultural context, largely determines her experience of induced abortion in India.

  19. A narrative exploration of how female same-sex couples' decision to marry affects family support

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    M.A. Despite the fact that same-sex marriage was legalised in South Africa in 2006, predominant societal attitudes towards gay couples remain negative. In the face of this opposition, samesex couples who choose to marry are often in need of support, but may find that support lacking because of the stigma associated with being gay. This study sought to explore what happens with family support in particular when a gay couple chooses to marry legally. Using a narrative qualitative method, inf...

  20. Same sex couples and marriage: Negotiating relational landscapes with families and friends

    OpenAIRE

    Smart, Carol

    2007-01-01

    Focusing on the decision to enter into a marriage and/or to conduct a commitment ceremony, this paper explores how same-sex couples negotiate their relationships with both family and friends at the point at which they make decisions about who to invite to their ceremony. The ceremony is argued to be a 'fateful moment' at which point lesbians and gay men necessarily take stock of relationships which are meaningful to them. It is argued that the data from the qualitative interviews on which thi...

  1. Structural and functional sex differences in the human hypothalamus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swaab, D. F.; Chung, W. C.; Kruijver, F. P.; Hofman, M. A.; Ishunina, T. A.

    2001-01-01

    Sex differences in the brain may be the basis not only for sex differences in reproduction, gender identity (the feeling of being male or female), and sexual orientation (heterosexuality vs homosexuality), but also for the sex difference in prevalence of psychiatric and neurological diseases ( Swaab

  2. Child Well-Being in Same-Sex Parent Families: Review of Research Prepared for American Sociological Association Amicus Brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Wendy D; Fettro, Marshal Neal; Lamidi, Esther

    2014-08-01

    Recent legal cases before the Supreme Court of the United States were challenging federal definitions of marriage created by the Defense of Marriage Act and California's voter approved Proposition 8 which limited marriage to different-sex couples only. Social science literature regarding child well-being was being used within these cases, and the American Sociological Association sought to provide a concise evaluation of the literature through an amicus curiae brief. The authors were tasked in the assistance of this legal brief by reviewing literature regarding the well-being of children raised within same-sex parent families. This article includes our assessment of the literature, focusing on those studies, reviews and books published within the past decade. We conclude that there is a clear consensus in the social science literature indicating that American children living within same-sex parent households fare just, as well as those children residing within different-sex parent households over a wide array of well-being measures: academic performance, cognitive development, social development, psychological health, early sexual activity, and substance abuse. Our assessment of the literature is based on credible and methodologically sound studies that compare well-being outcomes of children residing within same-sex and different-sex parent families. Differences that exist in child well-being are largely due to socioeconomic circumstances and family stability. We discuss challenges and opportunities for new research on the well-being of children in same-sex parent families.

  3. Diverse Family Structures and the Care of Older Persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberto, Karen A; Blieszner, Rosemary

    2015-09-01

    Demographic and social trends lead to a variety of micro-level and internal structural contexts that influence caregiving in families with older members. The results of macro-level changes have received little focused attention in the aging literature, where much of the caregiving research has addressed issues within the context of traditional family structure. Yet the conventional nuclear family model is increasingly uncommon as new, pluralistic models of family life are emerging in contemporary society. The majority of elder care is provided by relatives, albeit with varying patterns of involvement and responsibility across family structures. Both conventional and pluralistic families face challenges in meeting the care needs of their oldest members, leaving some older adults at risk of having unmet needs. Additional research on family risk and resilience related to the care of older relatives is warranted, particularly with respect to pluralistic models of family life.

  4. Sociodemographic Status, Parental Background, Childhood Family Structure, and Attitudes toward Family Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trent, Katherine; South, Scott J.

    1992-01-01

    Used data from National Survey of Families and Households to investigate effects of individual characteristics, parental background, and childhood living arrangements on adults' attitudes toward marriage, divorce, and nonmarital childbearing. Strongest predictors were age, sex, and marital status, with older persons, men, and married persons…

  5. Sex and Sibling Structure: Interaction Effects upon the Accuracy of Adolescent Perceptions of Parental Orientations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Thomas Ewin

    1984-01-01

    Surveyed 291 mother-child and 221 father-child dyads to examine adolescent perceptions of parental educational goals. Results showed family size and student's age had no effect, but birth order and sibling sex composition interact with sex of the parent and the adolescent in effects on accuracy of perception. (JAC)

  6. Food insecurity and family structure in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owoo, Nkechi S

    2018-04-01

    The article explores a series of questions and hypotheses related to polygynous family structures and both household and individual-level food security outcomes, using the World Bank Living Standards Measurement Survey data from Nigeria, collected in 2011, 2013 and 2015. A Correlated Random Effects (CRE) model is used to examine the relationship between polygyny and household-level food security, and the degree to which it is mediated by household wealth, size, and livelihood. A Household Fixed Effect model is employed to explore whether a mother's status as monogamous versus polygynous relates systematically to her child's health, and also whether child outcomes of senior wives are better than outcomes of junior wives within polygynous households. At the household level, polygynous households are found to have better food security outcomes than monogamous households with differences in household composition and agricultural livelihood as potential explanatory mechanisms. At the individual level, however, children of polygynous mothers have worse nutrition outcomes than children of monogamous mothers in the long run. Within polygynous households, children of junior wives appear to have better nutritional outcomes in the long run, compared to children of more senior wives.

  7. Food insecurity and family structure in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nkechi S. Owoo

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The article explores a series of questions and hypotheses related to polygynous family structures and both household and individual-level food security outcomes, using the World Bank Living Standards Measurement Survey data from Nigeria, collected in 2011, 2013 and 2015. A Correlated Random Effects (CRE model is used to examine the relationship between polygyny and household-level food security, and the degree to which it is mediated by household wealth, size, and livelihood. A Household Fixed Effect model is employed to explore whether a mother’s status as monogamous versus polygynous relates systematically to her child’s health, and also whether child outcomes of senior wives are better than outcomes of junior wives within polygynous households. At the household level, polygynous households are found to have better food security outcomes than monogamous households with differences in household composition and agricultural livelihood as potential explanatory mechanisms. At the individual level, however, children of polygynous mothers have worse nutrition outcomes than children of monogamous mothers in the long run. Within polygynous households, children of junior wives appear to have better nutritional outcomes in the long run, compared to children of more senior wives. Keywords: Polygyny, Food security, Child health, Nutrition, Nigeria

  8. Family structure and use of prenatal care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabete Alves

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study intended to assess the use of prenatal care according to the family structure in a population with free universal access to prenatal care. In 2005-2006, the Portuguese birth cohort was assembled by the recruitment of puerperae at public maternity wards in Porto, Portugal. In the current analysis, 7,211 were included. Data on socio-demographic characteristics, obstetric history, and prenatal care were self-reported. Single mothers were considered as those whose household composition did not include a partner at delivery. Approximately 6% of the puerperae were single mothers. These women were more likely to have an unplanned pregnancy (OR = 6.30; 95%CI: 4.94-8.04, an inadequate prenatal care (OR = 2.30; 95%CI: 1.32-4.02, and to miss the ultrasound and the intake of folic acid supplements during the first trimester of pregnancy (OR = 1.71; 95%CI: 1.30-2.27; and OR = 1.67; 95%CI: 1.32-2.13, respectively. The adequacy and use of prenatal care was less frequent in single mothers. Educational interventions should reinforce the use and early initiation of prenatal care.

  9. ACHESS – The Australian study of child health in same-sex families: background research, design and methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crouch Simon

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are an increasing number of children in Australia growing up with same-sex attracted parents. Although children from same-sex parent families do in general perform well on many psychosocial measures recent research is beginning to consider some small but significant differences when these children are compared with children from other family backgrounds. In particular studies suggest that there is an association between the stigma that same-sex parent families experience and child wellbeing. Research to date lacks a holistic view with the complete physical, mental and social wellbeing of children not yet addressed. In addition, most studies have focused only on families with lesbian parents and have studied only small numbers of children. Methods/design The Australian Study of Child Health in Same-Sex Families (ACHESS is a national study that aims to determine the complete physical, mental and social wellbeing of Australian children under the age 18 years with at least one parent who self identifies as being same-sex attracted. There will be a particular focus on the impact that stigma and discrimination has on these families. Parent and child surveys will be used to collect data and will be available both online and in paper form. Measures have been chosen whenever possible that have sound conceptual underpinnings, robust psychometric properties and Australian normative data, and include the Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ, the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ and the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10. Discussion ACHESS aims to be the largest study of its kind and will for the first time produce a detailed quantitative analysis of Australian children with same-sex attracted parents. By inviting participants to take part in further research it will also establish a valuable cohort of children, and their families, to launch future waves of research that will help us better understand the health and

  10. Operant Reinforcement with Structural Family Therapy in Treating Anorexia Nervosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlman, Lawrence M.; Bender, Sheila S.

    1975-01-01

    The authors successfully treated two families in which the index patients were anorectic adolescent girls by combining structural family therapy with behavioral modification techniques. Phases which appear to be typical of the treatment are described. A discussion of the value of the operant reinforcement procedure in family therapy follows.…

  11. Pathways to Parental Knowledge: The Role of Family Process and Family Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla-Walker, Laura M.; Harper, James M.; Bean, Roy A.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was (a) to examine the role of family process on child disclosure, parental solicitation, and parental knowledge and (b) to examine how patterns might differ as a function of family structure. Data for this study were taken from the Flourishing Families Project, which consists of 353 two- and 147 single-parent…

  12. [Do commercial sex workers who discuss treatment with family and friends adhere to it better?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanon, A; Traoré, I; Diallo, R; Ouédraogo, A; Andonaba, J; Konate, I; Berthe, A; Huet, C; Msellati, P; Visier, L; Mayaud, P; Nagot, N

    2009-01-01

    The number of HIV trials in Africa is increasing, and they target population groups with high HIV incidence, such as sex workers. Little information, however, is available about the adherence to long-term therapy among such marginalized groups with few economic resources and poor social and family support. A project called "Yerelon" ("know herself" in the Dioula language) began in 1998 in Bobo-Dioulasso to improve the health of women involved in commercial sex through STI/HIV prevention and care adapted to them. This study was conducted before introducing long-term treatment to the population, to assess the effect of communication with those around them on the capacity of these vulnerable women to adhere to drug prescriptions. The study was based on interviews conducted during the pilot phase of a 3-month trial of vitamins with potential participants. It concerned two groups of women: one group was infected with HIV (N = 22), the other was not (N = 20); all women in both groups were infected by HSV-2, however. For 5 weeks, the two psychologists of the study team in charge of adherence assessment carried out weekly in-depth interviews with the participants. The qualitative data analysis was organised around several themes. The data were related to aspects of communication with family and friends, serologic results, and adherence. According to our definition of communication about treatment, 20 participants communicated with their family and friends; adherence was good for all but three of them. Women who reported that they were married or living with someone (7/42) nearly all spoke about the study treatment (06/07) with him. Of 16 participants living in a family, 10 communicated with them about the treatment. On the other hand, as seems logical, single women who lived alone spoke less often about the treatment with family and friends (04/19). Talking about the treatment did not appear to involve the family or friends in the treatment; no one reminded any participant

  13. Family structure, parent-child conversation time and substance use among Chinese adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mak Kwok-Kei

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The family plays a vital role in shaping adolescent behaviours. The present study investigated the associations between family structure and substance use among Hong Kong Chinese adolescents. Methods A total of 32,961 Form 1 to 5 (grade 7-12 in the US Hong Kong students participated in the Youth Smoking Survey in 2003-4. An anonymous questionnaire was used to obtain information about family structure, daily duration of parent-child conversation, smoking, alcohol drinking and drug use. Logistic regression was used to calculate the adjusted odds ratios (OR for each substance use by family structure. Results Adjusting for sex, age, type of housing, parental smoking and school, adolescents from non-intact families were significantly more likely to be current smokers (OR = 1.62, weekly drinkers (OR = 1.72 and ever drug users (OR = 1.72, with significant linear increases in ORs from maternal, paternal to no-parent families compared with intact families. Furthermore, current smoking (OR = 1.41 and weekly drinking (OR = 1.46 were significantly more common among adolescents from paternal than maternal families. After adjusting for parent-child conversation time, the ORs for non-intact families remained significant compared with intact families, but the paternal-maternal differences were no longer significant. Conclusions Non-intact families were associated with substance use among Hong Kong Chinese adolescents. The apparently stronger associations with substance use in paternal than maternal families were probably mediated by the poorer communication with the father.

  14. A Research Note on Time With Children in Different- and Same-Sex Two-Parent Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prickett, Kate C; Martin-Storey, Alexa; Crosnoe, Robert

    2015-06-01

    Public debate on same-sex marriage often focuses on the disadvantages that children raised by same-sex couples may face. On one hand, little evidence suggests any difference in the outcomes of children raised by same-sex parents and different-sex parents. On the other hand, most studies are limited by problems of sample selection and size, and few directly measure the parenting practices thought to influence child development. This research note demonstrates how the 2003-2013 American Time Use Survey (n=44,188) may help to address these limitations. Two-tier Cragg's Tobit alternative models estimated the amount of time that parents in different-sex and same-sex couples engaged in child-focused time. Women in same-sex couples were more likely than either women or men in different-sex couples to spend such time with children. Overall, women (regardless of the gender of their partners) and men coupled with other men spent significantly more time with children than men coupled with women, conditional on spending any child-focused time. These results support prior research that different-sex couples do not invest in children at appreciably different levels than same-sex couples. We highlight the potential for existing nationally representative data sets to provide preliminary insights into the developmental experiences of children in nontraditional families.

  15. The beneficial effect of family meals on obesity differs by race, sex, and household education: the national survey of children's health, 2003-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollins, Brandi Y; Belue, Rhonda Z; Francis, Lori A

    2010-09-01

    Studies have indicated that family meals may be a protective factor for childhood obesity; however, limited evidence is available in children with different racial, socioeconomic, and individual characteristics. The purpose of this study was to examine family meal frequency as a protective factor for obesity in a US-based sample of non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and Hispanic children age 6 to 11 years, and to identify individual, familial, and socioeconomic factors that moderate this association. Data were from the 2003 National Survey of Children's Health (n=16,770). Multinomial logistic regression analyses were used to test the association between family meal frequency and weight status, and the moderating effects of household structure, education, poverty level, and sex, by racial group. Non-Hispanic white children who consumed family meals every day were less likely to be obese than those eating family meals zero or a few days per week. A moderating effect for sex was observed in non-Hispanic black children such that family meal frequency was marginally protective in boys but not in girls. Higher family meal frequency was a marginal risk factor for obesity in Hispanic boys from low-education households, but not in girls from similar households. In conclusion, family meals seem to be protective of obesity in non-Hispanic white children and non-Hispanic black boys, whereas they may put Hispanic boys living in low-education households at risk. Greater emphasis is needed in future research on assessing why this association differs among different race/ethnic groups, and evaluating the influence of the quality and quantity of family meals on child obesity. Copyright 2010 American Dietetic Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Family Structure Changes and Children's Health, Behavior, and Educational Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Astrid Würtz

    More and more children do not grow up in traditional nuclear families. Instead they grow up in single parent households or in families with a step-parent. Hence it is important to improve our understanding of the impact of "shocks" in family structure due to parental relationship dissolution...... on children. In this study I empirically test whether children are traumatized both in the short and the long run by shocks in the family structure during childhood. I focus on educational, behavioral, and health outcomes. A population sample of Danish children born in January to May 1983, 1984, and 1985...... is used for the analysis. The empirical cross-sectional analysis indicates a negative relation between the number of family structure changes and children.s educational outcomes. Children experiencing many family structure changes also seem to have worse health outcomes....

  17. Structure and agency: reflections from an exploratory study of Vancouver indoor sex workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bungay, Vicky; Halpin, Michael; Atchison, Chris; Johnston, Caitlin

    2011-01-01

    Sex work research continues to be characterised by debates around decriminalization. Central to these debates are claims about the agency of those involved in the sex trade. Some researchers argue that individuals involved in the sex trade are victims of structural and interpersonal constraint, whilst others depict them as workers exercising choice. Drawing on structure-agency theory, a review of legal and media accounts of the sex trade and qualitative interviews with 21 indoor sex workers in Vancouver, Canada, we argue that both of these perspectives are insufficient. Rather than reducing the sex trade to part of a binary, we suggest that it is necessary to analyse sex work through the complex interplay of both structure and agency. Specifically, structural analyses undercover the numerous ways that sex workers are controlled, observed and influenced whilst agency perspectives elicit the means that sex workers continue to exercise control in spite of disadvantage. While we do not finalise decriminalisation debates, we do critique current Canadian laws for the lack of responsiveness to the lives of sex workers and their exploitative and contradictory stance on sex work.

  18. Sex disparities in substance abuse research: Evaluating 23 years of structural neuroimaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Kimberly E; Gutierrez, Eric J; Yamamoto, Dorothy J; Regner, Michael F; McKee, Sherry A; Tanabe, Jody

    2017-04-01

    Sex differences in brain structure and clinical course of substance use disorders underscores the need to include women in structural brain imaging studies. The NIH has supported the need for research to address sex differences. We evaluated female enrollment in substance abuse structural brain imaging research and the methods used to study sex differences in substance effects. Structural brain imaging studies published through 2016 (n=230) were evaluated for number of participants by sex and substance use status and methods used to evaluate sex differences. Temporal trends in the numbers of participants by sex and substance use status were analyzed. We evaluated how often sex effects were appropriately analyzed and the proportion of studies that found sex by substance interactions on volumetric measures. Female enrollment increased over time, but remained significantly lower than male enrollment (p=0.01), with the greatest bias for alcohol and opiate studies. 79% of studies included both sexes; however, 74% did not evaluate sex effects or used an analytic approach that precluded detection of sex by substance use interactions. 85% of studies that stratified by sex reported different substance effects on brain volumes. Only 33% of studies examining two-way interactions found significant interactions, highlighting that many studies were underpowered to detect interactions. Although female participation in substance use studies of brain morphometry has increased, sex disparity persists. Studying adequate numbers of both sexes and employing correct analytic approaches is critical for understanding sex differences in brain morphometric changes in substance abuse. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Science achievement determinants: factorial structure of family ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The family plays an important role in determining the academic achievement ... parents' assistance, expectation, and encouragement in their children's mathematics ... suggested that cultural upbringing is a strong factor contributing to the.

  20. Psychosocial Implications of Family and Religious Homophobia: Insights for HIV Combination Prevention among Black Men who have Sex with Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Jonathan; Parker, Caroline; Parker, Richard G.; Wilson, Patrick A.; Philbin, Morgan; Hirsch, Jennifer S.

    2016-01-01

    Black men who have sex with men (BMSM) bear an increasingly disproportionate burden of HIV in the United States. Research demonstrates that psychosocial factors, such as homophobia, are associated with HIV risk. Between June 2013 and May 2014, we conducted three in-depth interviews with each of 31 BMSM and interviews with 17 community stakeholders in New York City to understand the sociocultural and structural factors that may affect adherence to oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) among BMSM and to inform an adherence clinical trial. BMSM and community leaders frequently described condomless sex as a consequence of psychological factors and economic circumstances stemming from homophobia from families and religious groups. Negative support from social networks affected self-worth, which community stakeholders believed was crucial for men to engage in HIV prevention, such as PrEP. Our results indicate that addressing psychosocial factors and fostering social support are key elements to improve the effectiveness of combination prevention among BMSM. PMID:27037286

  1. Corporal punishment in rural Colombian families: prevalence, family structure and socio-demographic variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Martha Rocío; Trujillo, Angela; Pereda, Noemí

    2014-05-01

    To reveal the prevalence of corporal punishment in a rural area of Colombia and its correlates to family structure and other socio-demographic variables. A survey about childrearing and childcare was developed for this study, including a specific question about corporal punishment that was developed based on the Conflict Tactics Scale (CTS). Family structure was categorized as follows, based on previous literature: 'nuclear family,' 'single parent' family, 'extended family,' 'simultaneous family' and 'composed family.' Forty-one percent of the parents surveyed admitted they had used corporal punishment of their children as a disciplinary strategy. The type of family structure, the number of children living at home, the age of the children, the gender of the parent who answered the survey, and the age and gender of the partner were significant predictors of corporal punishment. Family structure is an important variable in the understanding of corporal punishment, especially in regard to nuclear families that have a large number of children and parents who started their parental role early in life. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Sex difference and Allee effects shape the dynamics of sex-structured invasions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Allison K; Kokko, Hanna; Neubert, Michael G

    2018-01-01

    The rate at which a population grows and spreads can depend on individual behaviour and interactions with others. In many species with two sexes, males and females differ in key life-history traits (e.g. growth, survival and dispersal), which can scale up to affect population rates of growth and spread. In sexually reproducing species, the mechanics of locating mates and reproducing successfully introduce further complications for predicting the invasion speed (spread rate), as both can change nonlinearly with density. Most models of population spread are based on one sex, or include limited aspects of sex differences. Here we ask whether and how the dynamics of finding mates interact with sex-specific life-history traits to influence the rate of population spread. We present a hybrid approach for modelling invasions of populations with two sexes that links individual-level mating behaviour (in an individual-based model) to population-level dynamics (in an integrodifference equation model). We find that limiting the amount of time during which individuals can search for mates causes a demographic Allee effect which can slow, delay, or even prevent an invasion. Furthermore, any sex-based asymmetries in life history or behaviour (skewed sex ratio, sex-biased dispersal, and sex-specific mating behaviours) amplify these effects. In contrast, allowing individuals to mate more than once ameliorates these effects, enabling polygynandrous populations to invade under conditions where monogamously mating populations would fail to establish. We show that details of individuals' mating behaviour can impact the rate of population spread. Based on our results, we propose a stricter definition of a mate-finding Allee effect, which is not met by the commonly used minimum mating function. Our modelling approach, which links individual- and population-level dynamics in a single model, may be useful for exploring other aspects of individual behaviour that are thought to impact the

  3. Sex and family history of cardiovascular disease influence heart rate variability during stress among healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Charles F; Stoney, Catherine M; Thayer, Julian F; Williams, DeWayne; Bodine, Andrew

    2018-07-01

    Studies of sex differences in heart rate variability (HRV) typically have not accounted for the influence of family history (FH) of cardiovascular disease (CVD). This study evaluated sex differences in HRV response to speech stress among men and women (age range 30-49 years) with and without a documented FH of CVD. Participants were 77 adults (mean age = 39.8 ± 6.2 years; range: 30-49 years; 52% female) with positive FH (FH+, n = 32) and negative FH (FH-, n = 45) of CVD, verified with relatives of participants. Cardiac activity for all participants was recorded via electrocardiogram during a standardized speech stress task with three phases: 5-minute rest, 5-minute speech, and 5-minute recovery. Outcomes included time domain and frequency domain indicators of HRV and heart rate (HR) at rest and during stress. Data were analyzed with repeated measures analysis of variance, with sex and FH as between subject variables and time/phase as a within subject variable. Women exhibited higher HR than did men and greater HR reactivity in response to the speech stress. However, women also exhibited greater HRV in both the time and frequency domains. FH+ women generally exhibited elevated HRV, despite the elevated risk of CVD associated with FH+. Although women participants exhibited higher HR at rest and during stress, women (both FH+ and FH-) also exhibited elevated HRV reactivity, reflecting greater autonomic control. Thus, enhanced autonomic function observed in prior studies of HRV among women is also evident among FH+ women during a standardized stress task. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Sex bias in copy number variation of olfactory receptor gene family depends on ethnicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farideh eShadravan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Gender plays a pivotal role in the human genetic identity and is also manifested in many genetic disorders particularly mental retardation. In this study its effect on copy number variation (CNV, known to cause genetic disorders was explored. As the olfactory receptor (OR repertoire comprises the largest human gene family, it was selected for this study, which was carried out within and between three populations, derived from 150 individuals from the 1000 Genome Project. Analysis of 3872 CNVs detected among 791 OR loci, in which 307 loci showed CNV, revealed the following novel findings: Sex bias in CNV was significantly more prevalent in uncommon than common CNV variants of OR pseudogenes, in which the male genome showed more CNVs; and in one-copy number loss compared to complete deletion of OR pseudogenes; both findings implying a more recent evolutionary role for gender. Sex bias in copy number gain was also detected. Another novel finding was that the observed six bias was largely dependent on ethnicity and was in general absent in East Asians. Using a CNV public database for sick children (ISCA the application of these findings for improving clinical molecular diagnostics is discussed by showing an example of sex bias in CNV among kids with autism. Additional clinical relevance is discussed, as the most polymorphic CNV-enriched OR cluster in the human genome, located on chr 15q11.2, is found near the PWS/AS bi-directionally imprinted region associated with two well-known mental retardation syndromes. As olfaction represents the primitive cognition in most mammals, arguably in competition with the development of a larger brain, the extensive retention of OR pseudogenes in females of this study, might point to a parent-of-origin indirect regulatory role for OR pseudogenes in the embryonic development of human brain. Thus any perturbation in the temporal regulation of olfactory system could lead to developmental delay disorders including

  5. Family Structure Changes and Children's Health, Behavior, and Educational Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Astrid Würtz

    More and more children do not grow up in traditional nuclear families. Instead they grow up in single parent households or in families with a step-parent. Hence it is important to improve our understanding of the impact of 'shocks' in family structure due to parental relationship dissolution...... on children. In this study I empirically test whether children are traumatized by shocks in the family structure during childhood. I focus on both educational, behavioral, and health outcomes. A population sample of Danish children born in January to May 1983, 1984, and 1985 is used for the analysis...

  6. Motivations, barriers, and behaviors related to obtaining and discussing family health history: A sex-based comparison among young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Lee eSmith

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Genetic predisposition is a risk factor for many chronic diseases, yet little is known about the frequency in which college students seek out their family health history or with whom they communicate relevant information.Purpose: This study examines motivations and barriers associated with obtaining one’s family health history and discussing it with others. Methods: Data were analyzed from 625 college students using an internet-delivered questionnaire. Questions asked respondents about intentions and motivations to obtain and share family health history as well as barriers encountered in obtaining family health history. Responses were bifurcated by participants’ sex. Chi-squared and t statistics were used to identify response differences by sex. Results: Females were significantly more likely than males to be motivated to obtain their family health history, and more likely to have: shared their family health history with others; state they would share their family health history with others; and express a preference for sharing their family health history with a wider range of people. Discussion: Educational interventions and improved student health services could be effective mechanisms to increase college students’ knowledge, awareness, and perceived importance of obtaining their family health history.

  7. Motivations, Barriers, and Behaviors Related to Obtaining and Discussing Family Health History: A Sex-Based Comparison Among Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Matthew Lee; Beaudoin, Christopher E; Sosa, Erica T; Pulczinski, Jairus C; Ory, Marcia G; McKyer, E Lisako J

    2015-01-01

    Genetic predisposition is a risk factor for many chronic diseases, yet little is known about the frequency in which college students seek out their family health history or with whom they communicate relevant information. This study examines motivations and barriers associated with obtaining one's family health history and discussing it with others. Data were analyzed from 625 college students using an internet-delivered questionnaire, which comprised of questions about intentions and motivations to obtain and share family health history as well as barriers encountered when obtaining family health history. Responses were bifurcated by participants' sex. Chi-squared and t statistics were used to identify response differences by sex. Females were significantly more likely than males to be motivated to obtain their family health history, and more likely to have shared their family health history with others; state that they would share their family health history with others; and express a preference for sharing their family health history with a wider range of people. Educational interventions and improved student health services could be effective mechanisms to increase college students' knowledge, awareness, and perceived importance of obtaining their family health history.

  8. Offspring social network structure predicts fitness in families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royle, Nick J; Pike, Thomas W; Heeb, Philipp; Richner, Heinz; Kölliker, Mathias

    2012-12-22

    Social structures such as families emerge as outcomes of behavioural interactions among individuals, and can evolve over time if families with particular types of social structures tend to leave more individuals in subsequent generations. The social behaviour of interacting individuals is typically analysed as a series of multiple dyadic (pair-wise) interactions, rather than a network of interactions among multiple individuals. However, in species where parents feed dependant young, interactions within families nearly always involve more than two individuals simultaneously. Such social networks of interactions at least partly reflect conflicts of interest over the provision of costly parental investment. Consequently, variation in family network structure reflects variation in how conflicts of interest are resolved among family members. Despite its importance in understanding the evolution of emergent properties of social organization such as family life and cooperation, nothing is currently known about how selection acts on the structure of social networks. Here, we show that the social network structure of broods of begging nestling great tits Parus major predicts fitness in families. Although selection at the level of the individual favours large nestlings, selection at the level of the kin-group primarily favours families that resolve conflicts most effectively.

  9. Family Structure Changes and Children's Health, Behavior, and Educational Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Astrid Würtz

    More and more children do not grow up in traditional nuclear families. Instead, they grow up in single-parent households or in families with a step-parent. Hence, it is important to improve our understanding of the impact of "shocks" in family structure due to parental relationship dissolution...... on children. In this study I empirically test whether children are traumatized both in the short and the long run by shocks in the family structure during childhood. I focus on educational, behavioral, and health outcomes. A population sample of Danish children born in January to May 1985 is used...... for the analysis. The empirical cross-sectional analysis indicates a negative relation between the number of family structure changes and children.s health, behavior, and educational outcomes. These results are con.rmed by a differences-in-differences analysis of health outcomes. This suggests...

  10. Life Satisfaction and Family Structure among Adolescents in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Ying-Keung

    2008-01-01

    Relationships between family structure and perceived life satisfaction in overall life and five domains of the Brief Multidimensional Students' Life Satisfaction Scale, family life, friendships, school experience, myself, and where I live were examined among 4,502 Chinese adolescent secondary school students in Hong Kong. Bivariate analyses showed…

  11. Family Structure and the Intergenerational Transmission of Gender Ideology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Daniel L.; Knoester, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Using data from the National Survey of Families and Households, this study explores how single-parent, stepparent, and two-parent biological family structures may affect the transmission of gender ideology from parents to their adult children. Results indicate that biological parents' ideologies are strong predictors of their children's…

  12. Size-dependent sex allocation in Aconitum gymnandrum (Ranunculaceae): physiological basis and effects of maternal family and environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Z-G; Meng, J-L; Fan, B-L; Du, G-Z

    2008-11-01

    Theory predicts size-dependent sex allocation (SDS): flowers on plants with a high-resource status should have larger investment in females than plants with a low-resource status. Through a pot experiment with Aconitum gymnandrum (Ranunculaceae) in the field, we examined the relationship between sex allocation of individual flowers and plant size for different maternal families under different environmental conditions. We also determined the physiological base of variations in plant size. Our results support the prediction of SDS, and show that female-biased allocation with plant size is consistent under different environmental conditions. Negative correlations within families showed a plastic response of sex allocation to plant size. Negative genetic correlations between sex allocation and plant size at the family level indicate a genetic cause of the SDS pattern, although genetic correlation was influenced by environmental factors. Hence, the size-dependency of sex allocation in this species had both plastic and genetic causes. Furthermore, genotypes that grew large also had higher assimilation ability, thus showing a physiological basis for SDS.

  13. The Relation between Family Structure and Young Adolescents' Appraisals of Family Climate and Parenting Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurdek, Lawrence A.; Fine, Mark A.

    1993-01-01

    Young adolescents who lived with both biological parents, single divorced mother, single divorced father, mother and stepfather, father and stepmother, or multiply divorced parent appraised dimensions of family climate and dimensions of parenting. Differences among family structures were found on warmth, conflict, permissive parenting, and…

  14. Parenting styles, family structure and adolescent dietary behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Natalie; Atkin, Andrew J; Biddle, Stuart J H; Gorely, Trish; Edwardson, Charlotte

    2010-08-01

    To examine associations between parenting styles, family structure and aspects of adolescent dietary behaviour. Cross-sectional study. Secondary schools in the East Midlands, UK. Adolescents aged 12-16 years (n 328, 57 % boys) completed an FFQ assessing their consumption of fruit, vegetables, unhealthy snacks and breakfast. Adolescents provided information on parental and sibling status and completed a seventeen-item instrument measuring the general parenting style dimensions of involvement and strictness, from which four styles were derived: indulgent, neglectful, authoritarian, authoritative. After controlling for adolescent gender and age, analysis of covariance revealed no significant interactions between parenting style and family structure variables for any of the dietary behaviours assessed. Significant main effects for family structure were observed only for breakfast consumption, with adolescents from dual-parent families (P parent families and those with one or more brother, respectively. Significant main effects for parenting style were observed for all dietary behaviours apart from vegetable consumption. Adolescents who described their parents as authoritative ate more fruit per day, fewer unhealthy snacks per day, and ate breakfast on more days per week than those who described their parents as neglectful. The positive associations between authoritative parenting style and adolescent dietary behaviour transcend family structure. Future research should be food-specific and assess the efficacy of strategies promoting the central attributes of an authoritative parenting style on the dietary behaviours of adolescents from a variety of family structures.

  15. Poverty and Family Structure - Phase II | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Understanding the dynamics of change in family structure is critical in poverty diagnosis, ... And, how could public social security be conceived to protect the most vulnerable? ... IDRC invites applications for the IDRC Research Awards 2019.

  16. Family Structure, Race, Gender and Poverty: The Case of Food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    family structure in Africa where children are increasingly living in single-parent households, either .... of child enrolment in school (Shapiro & Tambashe, 2001), gender inequalities in the ..... The debate about household headship. Central ...

  17. The Mamas and the Papas: The Invisible Diversity of Families with Same-Sex Parents in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimalower, Lucy; Caty, Caren

    2009-01-01

    This literature review is intended for administrators, educators, and counselors to generate discussion and awareness of the issues facing families with same-sex parents in the United States, a demographic that is rapidly growing and needing service and attention from its communities. To provide educators with background into how these families…

  18. Sexual Stratification and Sex-Role Socialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanFossen, Beth Ensiminger

    1977-01-01

    Data on sex-role values of a sample of college women are examined to ascertain the effect of family structure, social class, and religion on sex-role values, and to support a structural theory of sex-role socialization. (Author)

  19. Sex and Employment-Setting Differences in Work-Family Conflict in Athletic Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazerolle, Stephanie M; Eason, Christianne M; Pitney, William A; Mueller, Megan N

    2015-09-01

    Work-family conflict (WFC) has received much attention in athletic training, yet several factors related to this phenomenon have not been examined, specifically a practitioner's sex, occupational setting, willingness to leave the profession, and willingness to use work-leave benefits. To examine how sex and occupational differences in athletic training affect WFC and to examine willingness to leave the profession and use work-leave benefits. Cross-sectional study. Multiple occupational settings, including clinic/outreach, education, collegiate, industrial, professional sports, secondary school, and sales. A total of 246 athletic trainers (ATs) (men = 110, women = 136) participated. Of these, 61.4% (n = 151) were between 20 and 39 years old. Participants responded to a previously validated and reliable WFC instrument. We created and validated a 3-item instrument that assessed willingness to use work-leave benefits, which demonstrated good internal consistency (Cronbach α = 0.88), as well as a single question about willingness to leave the profession. The mean (± SD) WFC score was 16.88 ± 4.4 (range = 5 [least amount of conflict] to 25 [highest amount of conflict]). Men scored 17.01 ± 4.5, and women scored 16.76 ± 4.36, indicating above-average WFC. We observed no difference between men and women based on conflict scores (t244 = 0.492, P = .95) or their willingness to leave the profession (t244 = -1.27, P = .21). We noted differences among ATs in different practice settings (F8,245 = 5.015, P work-leave benefits (2-tailed r = -0.533, P work-leave benefits was different among practice settings (F8,245 = 3.01, P = .003). The ATs employed in traditional practice settings reported higher levels of WFC. Male and female ATs had comparable experiences of WFC and willingness to leave the profession.

  20. Family Structure and Adolescent Substance Use: An International Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, John P

    2017-11-10

    Numerous studies indicate that family structure is a key correlate of adolescent substance use. Yet there are some important limitations to this research. Studies have been conducted mainly in the United States, with relatively few studies that have compared family structure and youth substance use across nations. There is also a lack of recognition of the complexity of family types prevalent in contemporary global society. Moreover, there remains a need to consider personal, interpersonal, and macro-level characteristics that may help account for the association between family structure and youth substance use. This study uses data from 37 countries to examine several models that purport to explain the association between family structure and substance use. The data are from the 2005-2006 WHO-sponsored Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) (n = 193,202). Multilevel models, including linear, probit, and structural equation models (SEMs), were used to test several hypotheses. The results suggest that time spent with friends largely accounted for the association between specific types of family structures and frequency of alcohol use and getting drunk, but that cannabis use was negatively associated with living with both biological parents irrespective of other factors.

  1. Structural, functional, and evolutionary features of plant sex chromosomes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vyskot, Boris; Hobza, Roman; Kejnovský, Eduard; Žlůvová, Jitka; Janoušek, Bohuslav

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 4 (2009), s. 547 ISSN 0967-3849. [17th International Chromosome Conference. 23.06.2009-26.06.2009, Boone] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06004 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : sex chromosomes * Silene latifolia * epigenetic Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics

  2. Population estimates of extended family structure and size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garceau, Anne; Wideroff, Louise; McNeel, Timothy; Dunn, Marsha; Graubard, Barry I

    2008-01-01

    Population-based estimates of biological family size can be useful for planning genetic studies, assessing how distributions of relatives affect disease associations with family history and estimating prevalence of potential family support. Mean family size per person is estimated from a population-based telephone survey (n = 1,019). After multivariate adjustment for demographic variables, older and non-White respondents reported greater mean numbers of total, first- and second-degree relatives. Females reported more total and first-degree relatives, while less educated respondents reported more second-degree relatives. Demographic differences in family size have implications for genetic research. Therefore, periodic collection of family structure data in representative populations would be useful. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. The family and family structure classification redefined for the current times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Sharma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The family is a basic unit of study in many medical and social science disciplines. Definitions of family have varied from country to country, and also within country. Because of this and the changing realities of the current times, there is a felt need for redefining the family and the common family structure types, for the purpose of study of the family as a factor in health and other variables of interest. A redefinition of a ′′family′′ has been proposed and various nuances of the definition are also discussed in detail. A classification scheme for the various types of family has also been put forward. A few exceptional case scenarios have been envisaged and their classification as per the new scheme is discussed, in a bid to clarify the classification scheme further. The proposed scheme should prove to be of use across various countries and cultures, for broadly classifying the family structure. The unique scenarios of particular cultures can be taken into account by defining region or culture-specific subtypes of the overall types of family structure.

  4. Family history and risk of breast cancer: an analysis accounting for family structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Hannah R; Jones, Michael E; Schoemaker, Minouk J; Ashworth, Alan; Swerdlow, Anthony J

    2017-08-01

    Family history is an important risk factor for breast cancer incidence, but the parameters conventionally used to categorize it are based solely on numbers and/or ages of breast cancer cases in the family and take no account of the size and age-structure of the woman's family. Using data from the Generations Study, a cohort of over 113,000 women from the general UK population, we analyzed breast cancer risk in relation to first-degree family history using a family history score (FHS) that takes account of the expected number of family cases based on the family's age-structure and national cancer incidence rates. Breast cancer risk increased significantly (P trend  history was that combining FHS and age of relative at diagnosis. A family history score based on expected as well as observed breast cancers in a family can give greater risk discrimination on breast cancer incidence than conventional parameters based solely on cases in affected relatives. Our modeling suggests that a yet stronger predictor of risk might be a combination of this score and age at diagnosis in relatives.

  5. Structural empowerment and work–family fit in nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Orłowska

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The goal of the study was to investigate the relationship between structural empowerment and work–family fit in Polish nurses. Structural empowerment is a strategy for managing by providing the employees with opportunities, information, support and resources essential for the effective performance of work duties. Work–family fit takes 2 forms of relationships between these 2 spheres: conflict (functioning in one role is more difficult because of participation in the other role and facilitation (fulfilling the duties associated with one role enriches filling up the other role. Material and Methods: A total of 159 nurses employed in hospitals took part in the study. The Polish versions of the Conditions of Work Effectiveness Questionnaire and the Work–Family Fit Questionnaire were used. Hierarchical linear regression analysis was applied for data analysis. Results: The results show statistically signifficant relationships between structural empowerment and work–family fit in nurses. In the hospital environment, characterized by a high degree of empowerment, nurses experience a lower level of work–family conflict and a higher level of facilitation in both directions. Conclusions: Hospital management strategy based on structural empowerment of nurses favors reconciliation of professional and family roles. Therefore, it is important for hospitals to create appropriate working conditions that allow nurses to effectively deal with demands arising from work and family spheres. Med Pr 2016;67(6:787–800

  6. Family structure and risk factors for schizophrenia: case-sibling study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lönnqvist Jouko

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several family structure-related factors, such as birth order, family size, parental age, and age differences to siblings, have been suggested as risk factors for schizophrenia. We examined how family-structure-related variables modified the risk of schizophrenia in Finnish families with at least one child with schizophrenia born from 1950 to 1976. Methods We used case-sibling design, a variant of the matched case-control design in the analysis. Patients hospitalized for schizophrenia between 1969 and 1996 were identified from the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register, and their families from the Population Register Center. Only families with at least two children (7914 sibships and 21059 individuals were included in the analysis. Conditional logistic regression with sex, birth cohort, maternal schizophrenia status, and several family-related variables as explanatory variables was used in the case-sibling design. The effect of variables with the same value in each sibship was analyzed using ordinary logistic regression. Results Having a sibling who was less than five years older (OR 1.46, 95% CI 1.29–1.66, or being the firstborn (first born vs. second born 1.62, 1.87–1.4 predicted an elevated risk, but having siblings who were more than ten years older predicted a lower risk (0.66, 0.56–0.79. Conclusions Several family-structure-related variables were identified as risk factors for schizophrenia. The underlying causative mechanisms are likely to be variable.

  7. Sex Differences in Language Across Early Childhood: Family Socioeconomic Status does not Impact Boys and Girls Equally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbu, Stéphanie; Nardy, Aurélie; Chevrot, Jean-Pierre; Guellaï, Bahia; Glas, Ludivine; Juhel, Jacques; Lemasson, Alban

    2015-01-01

    Child sex and family socioeconomic status (SES) have been repeatedly identified as a source of inter-individual variation in language development; yet their interactions have rarely been explored. While sex differences are the focus of a renewed interest concerning emerging language skills, data remain scarce and are not consistent across preschool years. The questions of whether family SES impacts boys and girls equally, as well as of the consistency of these differences throughout early childhood, remain open. We evaluated consistency of sex differences across SES and age by focusing on how children (N = 262), from 2;6 to 6;4 years old, from two contrasting social backgrounds, acquire a frequent phonological alternation in French - the liaison. By using a picture naming task eliciting the production of obligatory liaisons, we found evidence of sex differences over the preschool years in low-SES children, but not between high-SES boys and girls whose performances were very similar. Low-SES boys' performances were the poorest whereas low-SES girls' performances were intermediate, that is, lower than those of high-SES children of both sexes but higher than those of low-SES boys. Although all children's mastery of obligatory liaisons progressed with age, our findings showed a significant impeding effect of low-SES, especially for boys.

  8. Sex differences in language across early childhood: Family socioeconomic status does not impact boys and girls equally

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphanie eBarbu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Child sex and family socioeconomic status (SES have been repeatedly identified as a source of inter-individual variation in language development; yet their interactions have rarely been explored. While sex differences are the focus of a renewed interest concerning emerging language skills, data remain scarce and are not consistent across preschool years. The questions of whether family SES impacts boys and girls equally, as well as of the consistency of these differences throughout early childhood, remain open. We evaluated consistency of sex differences across SES and age by focusing on how children (N = 262, from 2;6 to 6;4 years old, from two contrasting social backgrounds, acquire a frequent phonological alternation in French – the liaison. By using a picture naming task eliciting the production of obligatory liaisons, we found evidence of sex differences over the preschool years in low-SES children, but not between high-SES boys and girls whose performances were very similar. Low-SES boys’ performances were the poorest whereas low-SES girls’ performances were intermediate, that is, lower than those of high-SES children of both sexes but higher than those of low-SES boys. Although all children’s mastery of obligatory liaisons progressed with age, our findings showed a significant impeding effect of low-SES, especially for boys.

  9. Differences in Psychological Sex, Adjustment, and Familial Influences Among Homosexual and Nonhomosexual Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townes, Brenda D.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    This study investigates differences in psychological sex, present and past adjustment, and parental influences among homosexual cross-dressers, homosexual non-cross-dressers, applicants for sex change surgery, and heterosexuals. Homosexual non-cross-dressers and heterosexual groups had the most masculine gender role, with the sex change group…

  10. Influence of Family Structure on Variance Decomposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, Stefan McKinnon; Sarup, Pernille Merete; Sørensen, Peter

    Partitioning genetic variance by sets of randomly sampled genes for complex traits in D. melanogaster and B. taurus, has revealed that population structure can affect variance decomposition. In fruit flies, we found that a high likelihood ratio is correlated with a high proportion of explained ge...... capturing pure noise. Therefore it is necessary to use both criteria, high likelihood ratio in favor of a more complex genetic model and proportion of genetic variance explained, to identify biologically important gene groups...

  11. Adolescent Risk Behaviours and Mealtime Routines: Does Family Meal Frequency Alter the Association between Family Structure and Risk Behaviour?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Kate A.; Kirby, Joanna; Currie, Candace

    2012-01-01

    Family structure is associated with a range of adolescent risk behaviours, with those living in both parent families generally faring best. This study describes the association between family structure and adolescent risk behaviours and assesses the role of the family meal. Data from the 2006 Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children survey were…

  12. Cold-induced alteration in the global structure of the male sex ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cold-induced alteration in the global structure of the male sex ... dar et al. 1978). Chromosome preparated from a single pair of salivary glands show extremely puffy and diffuse ..... Akhtar A. 2003 Dosage compensation: an intertwined world of.

  13. Structure and sociodemographis characteristics of the family climate in Vojvodina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihić Ivana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Research presented in this paper aimed to investigate psychometric characteristics and factor structure of Family Climate Inventory (FCI Kurdek et al., 1995, as well as the sociodemographic correlates of the quality of family environment operacionalized by this scale. The research sample consisted of 561 adolescents (average age 16. Four factores were extracted.Total variance explained by these four factors was 62. 29%. First factor has been defined as Acceptance, the second (Autonomy considers the estimated level of independence between family members. The third factor Conflicts implies frequency and influence of conflict situations and relations within the family. The fourth isolated factor- Supervision, was the dimension of original FCI scale, but has shown poor metric characteristics in our sample, and has been excluded from further analysis. The reduced Family Climate Inventory consists of 18 items, and has good psychometric characteristics (Cronbah a =.94. Family climate is assessed as better in dual earning families with egalitarian division of parental roles and household labor. Adolescents from rural families describe their family environment as better in quality.

  14. Family Structure and Female Labour Supply in Mexico City

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gong, X.; van Soest, A.H.O.

    1997-01-01

    This paper investigates labour supply of the wives of the heads of households in Mexico City, with a focus on the impact of family structure. A static neoclassical structural model is used. We assume that each woman chooses her labour supply and corresponding income so that her utility is maximized,

  15. Family Structure and Long-Term Care Insurance Purchase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Houtven, Courtney Harold; Coe, Norma B.; Konetzka, R. Tamara

    2015-01-01

    While it has long been assumed that family structure and potential sources of informal care play a large role in the purchase decisions for long-term care insurance (LTCI), current empirical evidence is inconclusive. Our study examines the relationship between family structure and LTCI purchase and addresses several major limitations of the prior literature by using a long panel of data and considering modern family relationships, such as presence of stepchildren. We find that family structure characteristics from one’s own generation, particularly about one’s spouse, are associated with purchase, but that few family structure attributes from the younger generation have an influence. Family factors that may indicate future caregiver supply are negatively associated with purchase: having a coresidential child, signaling close proximity, and having a currently working spouse, signaling a healthy and able spouse, that LTC planning has not occurred yet, or that there is less need for asset protection afforded by LTCI. Dynamic factors, such as increasing wealth or turning 65, are associated with higher likelihood of LTCI purchase. PMID:25760583

  16. Family Structures, Relationships, and Housing Recovery Decisions after Hurricane Sandy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Nejat

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Understanding of the recovery phase of a disaster cycle is still in its infancy. Recent major disasters such as Hurricane Sandy have revealed the inability of existing policies and planning to promptly restore infrastructure, residential properties, and commercial activities in affected communities. In this setting, a thorough grasp of housing recovery decisions can lead to effective post-disaster planning by policyholders and public officials. The objective of this research is to integrate vignette and survey design to study how family bonds affected rebuilding/relocating decisions after Hurricane Sandy. Multinomial logistic regression was used to investigate respondents’ family structures before Sandy and explore whether their relationships with family members changed after Sandy. The study also explores the effect of the aforementioned relationship and its changes on households’ plans to either rebuild/repair their homes or relocate. These results were compared to another multinomial logistic regression which was applied to examine the impact of familial bonds on respondents’ suggestions to a vignette family concerning rebuilding and relocating after a hurricane similar to Sandy. Results indicate that respondents who lived with family members before Sandy were less likely to plan for relocating than those who lived alone. A more detailed examination shows that this effect was driven by those who improved their relationships with family members; those who did not improve their family relationships were not significantly different from those who lived alone, when it came to rebuilding/relocation planning. Those who improved their relationships with family members were also less likely to suggest that the vignette family relocate. This study supports the general hypothesis that family bonds reduce the desire to relocate, and provides empirical evidence that family mechanisms are important for the rebuilding/relocating decision

  17. Family structure and family education as the factors for personal development of preschooler

    OpenAIRE

    Golovey L.A.; Vasilenko V.E.; Savenysheva S.S.

    2016-01-01

    This article is devoted to analysis of personal characteristics of preschoolers in relation to the factors of gender, family structure (complete or one-parent, the presence of sibling) and family upbringing (parenting styles, parent-child emotional interaction). The study involved 155 boys, 157 girls and 312 mothers from Saint-Petersburg, Novosibirsk and Arkhangelsk. The age of children — from 4 to 7 years. We used the test and projective techniques. The study revealed that children from sing...

  18. 'Mommy, I miss daddy'. The effect of family structure on children's health in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayllón, Sara; Ferreira-Batista, Natalia N

    2015-12-01

    This paper studies the relationship between single motherhood and children's height-for-age z-scores in Brazil. In order to isolate the causal effect between family structure and children's condition, we estimate an econometric model that uses male preference for firstborn sons and local sex ratios to instrument the probability of a woman becoming a single mother. Our results have a local average treatment effect interpretation (LATE). We find that children being raised by a single mother (whose marital status is affected by a firstborn girl and a low sex ratio) have a height-for-age z-score that is lower than that of children of similar characteristics that cohabit with both progenitors. We claim that the increasing trend of single motherhood in Brazil should be of concern in health policy design. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Family structure and the intergenerational transmission of educational advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Molly A

    2012-01-01

    I examine whether the effect of parents' education on children's educational achievement and attainment varies by family structure and, if so, whether this can be explained by differential parenting practices. Using data from the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988, I find that as parents' education increases, children in single mother families experience a lower boost in their achievement test scores, likelihood of attending any post-secondary schooling, likelihood of completing a 4-year college degree, and years of completed schooling relative to children living with both biological parents. Differences in parents' educational expectations, intergenerational closure, and children's involvement in structured leisure activities partially explain these status transmission differences by family structure. The findings imply that, among children with highly educated parents, children of single mothers are less likely to be highly educated themselves relative to children who grow up with both biological parents. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Abuse Experiences of Family Members, Child Maltreatment, and the Development of Sex Offending Among Incarcerated Adolescent Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCuish, Evan C; Cale, Jesse; Corrado, Raymond R

    2017-02-01

    Child sexual abuse is considered a risk factor for the development of sexual offending in adolescence. Beyond this, comparisons of the risk factor profiles between adolescent sex offenders (ASOs) and adolescent non-sex offenders (ANSOs) have uncovered minimal differences. However, differences between ASOs and ANSOs in terms of patterns in the abuse histories of their family members have rarely been studied. The aim in the current study was to retrospectively examine histories of abuse among family members of ASOs compared with ANSOs to determine whether and how these were related to youth abuse experiences and sexual offending in adolescence. The current study is based on a sample of 482 incarcerated male adolescents (ASOs = 67, ANSOs = 415). Latent class analysis was conducted to determine multidimensional familial abuse profiles, and a series of logistic regression models were used to examine the relationship between family abuse profiles, youth abuse experiences, and adolescent sexual offending. Overall, familial abuse profiles were related to subsequent youth abuse experiences and sexual offending, and these abuse profiles differentiated ASOs and ANSOs.

  1. Sex Estimation From Modern American Humeri and Femora, Accounting for Sample Variance Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldsen, J. L.; Milner, G. R.; Boldsen, S. K.

    2015-01-01

    several decades. Results: For measurements individually and collectively, the probabilities of being one sex or the other were generated for samples with an equal distribution of males and females, taking into account the variance structure of the original measurements. The combination providing the best......Objectives: A new procedure for skeletal sex estimation based on humeral and femoral dimensions is presented, based on skeletons from the United States. The approach specifically addresses the problem that arises from a lack of variance homogeneity between the sexes, taking into account prior...... information about the sample's sex ratio, if known. Material and methods: Three measurements useful for estimating the sex of adult skeletons, the humeral and femoral head diameters and the humeral epicondylar breadth, were collected from 258 Americans born between 1893 and 1980 who died within the past...

  2. Risk for coerced sex among female youth in Ghana: roles of family context, school enrollment and relationship experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingenheimer, Jeffrey B; Reed, Elizabeth

    2014-12-01

    A better understanding is needed of the variables that may influence the risk of experiencing coerced sex among adolescent females in Sub-Saharan Africa. Data were collected from 700 female respondents who were interviewed in 2010 and 2012 waves of a longitudinal study of behavioral risk for HIV infection among youth aged 13-14 or 18-19 and living in two towns in southeastern Ghana. A series of logistic regression models examined the influences of household composition and wealth, four family process variables (behavioral control, relationship quality, financial support, conflict), school enrollment and relationship experience on females' risk of experiencing coerced sex. Eighteen percent of respondents reported having experienced coerced sex prior to Wave 1, and 13% experienced it between Waves 1 and 2. In both cross-sectional and prospective models, the variable with the strongest association with having experienced coerced sex was having ever had a boyfriend (fully adjusted odds ratios, 4.5 and 2.6, respectively). In cross-sectional analyses, parental behavioral control was negatively associated with risk for coerced sex, while parental conflict was positively associated; these associations were not significant in the prospective analyses. Having a boyfriend appears to be the primary predictor of coerced sex among young females, beyond any influence of family, school or other household variables. More research is needed to understand the context of females' relationships with boyfriends in an effort to reduce the risk of sexual coercion and to promote the prevention of sexual violence perpetrated by males within these relationships.

  3. Family Based Prevention of Alcohol and Risky Sex for Older Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-05-08

    Alcohol Drinking; Alcohol Intoxication; Alcohol Poison; Alcohol-Related Disorders; Alcohol Impairment; Alcohol Withdrawal; Alcohol Abstinence; Alcohol; Harmful Use; Sex Behavior; Sexual Aggression; Sexual Harassment; Relation, Interpersonal

  4. Germ-line origins of mutation in families with hemophilia B: The sex ratio varies with the type of mutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ketterling, R.P.; Vielhaber, E.; Bottema, C.D.K.; Schaid, D.J.; Sommer, S.S. (Mayo Clinic/Foundation, Rochester, MN (United States)); Cohen, M.P. (Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (United States)); Sexauer, C.L. (Children' s Hospital, Oklahoma City, OK (United States))

    1993-01-01

    Previous epidemiological and biochemical studies have generated conflicting estimates of the sex ratio of mutation. Direct genomic sequencing in combination with haplotype analysis extends previous analyses by allowing the precise mutation to be determined in a given family. From analysis of the factor IX gene of 260 consecutive families with hemophilia B, the authors report the germ-line origin of mutation in 25 families. When combined with 14 origins of mutation reported by others and with 4 origins previously reported by them, a total of 25 occur in the female germ line, and 18 occur in the male germ line. The excess of germ-line origins in females does not imply an overall excess mutation rate per base pair in the female germ line. Bayesian analysis of the data indicates that the sex ratio varies with the type of mutation. The aggregate of single-base substitutions shows a male predominance of germ-line mutations (P < .002). The maximum-likelihood estimate of the male predominance is 3.5-fold. Of the single-base substitutions, deletions display a sex ratio of unity. Analysis of the parental age at transmission of a new mutation suggests that germ-line mutations are associated with a small increase in parental age in females but little, if any, increase in males. Although direct genomic sequencing offers a general method for defining the origin of mutation in specific families, accurate estimates of the sex ratios of different mutational classes require large sample sizes and careful correction for multiple biases of ascertainment. The biases in the present data result in an underestimate of the enhancement of mutation in males. 62 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  5. Parents as Educators of Sex and Relationship Education: The Role for Effective Communication in British Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnbull, Triece; van Wersch, Anna; van Schaik, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To identify how British families discuss sexual matters and to determine if the use of a multimedia computer program increases knowledge to promote communication about sexual topics. Design: A mixed-method approach in which families were interviewed within the family environment. Method: Twenty families from the north east of England…

  6. Evolving knowledge of sex differences in brain structure, function, and chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosgrove, Kelly P; Mazure, Carolyn M; Staley, Julie K

    2007-10-15

    Clinical and epidemiologic evidence demonstrates sex differences in the prevalence and course of various psychiatric disorders. Understanding sex-specific brain differences in healthy individuals is a critical first step toward understanding sex-specific expression of psychiatric disorders. Here, we evaluate evidence on sex differences in brain structure, chemistry, and function using imaging methodologies, including functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in mentally healthy individuals. MEDLINE searches of English-language literature (1980-November 2006) using the terms sex, gender, PET, SPECT, MRI, fMRI, morphometry, neurochemistry, and neurotransmission were performed to extract relevant sources. The literature suggests that while there are many similarities in brain structure, function, and neurotransmission in healthy men and women, there are important differences that distinguish the male from the female brain. Overall, brain volume is greater in men than women; yet, when controlling for total volume, women have a higher percentage of gray matter and men a higher percentage of white matter. Regional volume differences are less consistent. Global cerebral blood flow is higher in women than in men. Sex-specific differences in dopaminergic, serotonergic, and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic markers indicate that male and female brains are neurochemically distinct. Insight into the etiology of sex differences in the normal living human brain provides an important foundation to delineate the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying sex differences in neuropsychiatric disorders and to guide the development of sex-specific treatments for these devastating brain disorders.

  7. China’s marriage squeeze: A decomposition into age and sex structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    LI, Xiaomin; LI, Shuzhuo; FELDMAN, Marcus W.

    2016-01-01

    Most recent studies of marriage patterns in China have emphasized the male-biased sex ratio but have largely neglected age structure as a factor in China’s male marriage squeeze. In this paper we develop an index we call “spousal sex ratio” (SSR) to measure the marriage squeeze, and a method of decomposing the proportion of male surplus into age and sex structure effects within a small spousal age difference interval. We project that China’s marriage market will be confronted with a relatively severe male squeeze. For the decomposition of the cohort aged 30, from 2010 to 2020 age structure will be dominant, while from 2020 through 2034 the contribution of age structure will gradually decrease and that of sex structure will increase. From then on, sex structure will be dominant. The index and decomposition, concentrated on a specific female birth cohort, can distinguish spousal competition for single cohorts which may be covered by a summary index for the whole marriage market; these can also be used for consecutive cohorts to reflect the situation of the whole marriage market. PMID:27242390

  8. Association between Family Structure and Physical Activity of Chinese Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijuan Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. This study examines the association between family structure and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA of adolescents in China. Methods. The participants included 612 adolescents (317 boys and 295 girls from Shanghai with ages ranging from 10 to 16 years. Accelerometers were used to measure the duration of MVPA of adolescents, and questionnaires on family structure were completed by the parents of these adolescents. Results. Findings suggested that family structure significantly increased the likelihood of adolescents engaging in physical activity (PA and explained 6% of MPVA variance. Adolescents living in single-parent households and step families were more physically active than those living in two-parent homes and with biological parents, respectively. However, adolescents residing with grandparents were less active than those living with neither grandparent. No significant difference was found in MVPA time between adolescents living with one sibling and those without siblings. Conclusion. Family environment may be considered in the development of PA interventions and policies, and adolescents living with their grandparents may be targeted in PA promotion.

  9. Evaluations of family by youth: do they vary as a function of family structure, gender, and birth order?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parish, T S

    1990-01-01

    In the present study, 334 youths evaluated their families by responding to the Personal Attribute Inventory for Children. An analysis of variance revealed no significant main effects due to respondents' birth order or gender, but did find a significant main effect due to family structure and a significant two-way interaction effect between respondents' family structure and gender. Specifically, males from divorced remarried families and females from divorced nonremarried families were found to evaluate their respective families significantly more negatively than did their counterparts from other familial configurations. Implications of these findings are discussed.

  10. Parent-reported measures of child health and wellbeing in same-sex parent families: a cross-sectional survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background It has been suggested that children with same-sex attracted parents score well in psychosocial aspects of their health, however questions remain about the impact of stigma on these children. Research to date has focused on lesbian parents and has been limited by small sample sizes. This study aims to describe the physical, mental and social wellbeing of Australian children with same-sex attracted parents, and the impact that stigma has on them. Methods A cross-sectional survey, the Australian Study of Child Health in Same-Sex Families, was distributed in 2012 to a convenience sample of 390 parents from Australia who self-identified as same-sex attracted and had children aged 0-17 years. Parent-reported, multidimensional measures of child health and wellbeing and the relationship to perceived stigma were measured. Results 315 parents completed the survey (completion rate = 81%) representing 500 children. 80% of children had a female index parent while 18% had a male index parent. Children in same-sex parent families had higher scores on measures of general behavior, general health and family cohesion compared to population normative data (β = 2.93, 95% CI = 0.35 to 5.52, P = .03; β = 5.60, 95% CI = 2.69 to 8.52, P = mental health, and family cohesion were all negatively associated with increased stigma (β = -3.03, 95% CI = -5.86 to -0.21, P = .04; β = -10.45, 95% CI = -18.48 to -2.42, P = .01; and β = -9.82, 95% CI = -17.86 to -1.78, P = .02 respectively) and the presence of emotional symptoms was positively associated with increased stigma (β =0.94, 95% CI = 0.08 to 1.81, P = .03). Conclusions Australian children with same-sex attracted parents score higher than population samples on a number of parent-reported measures of child health. Perceived stigma is negatively associated with mental health. Through improved awareness of stigma these findings play an important role in

  11. Structuring Formal Requirements Specifications for Reuse and Product Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimdahl, Mats P. E.

    2001-01-01

    In this project we have investigated how formal specifications should be structured to allow for requirements reuse, product family engineering, and ease of requirements change, The contributions of this work include (1) a requirements specification methodology specifically targeted for critical avionics applications, (2) guidelines for how to structure state-based specifications to facilitate ease of change and reuse, and (3) examples from the avionics domain demonstrating the proposed approach.

  12. Characterization and global analysis of a family of Poisson structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez-Bermejo, Benito

    2006-01-01

    A three-dimensional family of solutions of the Jacobi equations for Poisson systems is characterized. In spite of its general form it is possible the explicit and global determination of its main features, such as the symplectic structure and the construction of the Darboux canonical form. Examples are given

  13. Characterization and global analysis of a family of Poisson structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez-Bermejo, Benito [Escuela Superior de Ciencias Experimentales y Tecnologia, Edificio Departamental II, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Calle Tulipan S/N, 28933 (Mostoles), Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: benito.hernandez@urjc.es

    2006-06-26

    A three-dimensional family of solutions of the Jacobi equations for Poisson systems is characterized. In spite of its general form it is possible the explicit and global determination of its main features, such as the symplectic structure and the construction of the Darboux canonical form. Examples are given.

  14. Do Family Structure and Poverty Affect Sexual Risk Behaviors of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using a questionnaire instrument, information was obtained on sexual behaviours of interest such as sexual initiation, multi-partnered sexual activity and condom use. Findings showed a noticeable variation in the relationship between family structure and risky sexual behaviour. Contrary to expectations, students from ...

  15. Encopresis: A Structural/Strategic Approach to Family Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McColgan, Edgar B.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Reports treatment of a 9-year-old boy with primary encopresis combining structural and strategic approaches. Describes organizational features of the family, the contextual approach to therapy, individual and collective responses to therapy, and follow-up at 3 months and 1 1/2 years. Discusses effects of therapy on encopresis and on other…

  16. Beyond sex differences: new approaches for thinking about variation in brain structure and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joel, Daphna; Fausto-Sterling, Anne

    2016-02-19

    In the study of variation in brain structure and function that might relate to sex and gender, language matters because it frames our research questions and methods. In this article, we offer an approach to thinking about variation in brain structure and function that pulls us outside the sex differences formulation. We argue that the existence of differences between the brains of males and females does not unravel the relations between sex and the brain nor is it sufficient to characterize a population of brains. Such characterization is necessary for studying sex effects on the brain as well as for studying brain structure and function in general. Animal studies show that sex interacts with environmental, developmental and genetic factors to affect the brain. Studies of humans further suggest that human brains are better described as belonging to a single heterogeneous population rather than two distinct populations. We discuss the implications of these observations for studies of brain and behaviour in humans and in laboratory animals. We believe that studying sex effects in context and developing or adopting analytical methods that take into account the heterogeneity of the brain are crucial for the advancement of human health and well-being. © 2016 The Author(s).

  17. Family structure as a predictor of screen time among youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, Rachel; McIsaac, Michael; Janssen, Ian

    2015-01-01

    The family plays a central role in the development of health-related behaviors among youth. The objective of this study was to determine whether non-traditional parental structure and shared custody arrangements predict how much time youth spend watching television, using a computer recreationally, and playing video games. Participants were a nationally representative sample of Canadian youth (N = 26,068) in grades 6-10 who participated in the 2009/10 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children Survey. Screen time in youth from single parent and reconstituted families, with or without regular visitation with their non-residential parent, was compared to that of youth from traditional dual-parent families. Multiple imputation was used to account for missing data. After multiple imputation, the relative odds of being in the highest television, computer use, video game, and total screen time quartiles were not different in boys and girls from non-traditional families by comparison to boys and girls from traditional dual-parent families. In conclusion, parental structure and child custody arrangements did not have a meaningful impact on screen time among youth.

  18. Family structure as a predictor of screen time among youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel McMillan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The family plays a central role in the development of health-related behaviors among youth. The objective of this study was to determine whether non-traditional parental structure and shared custody arrangements predict how much time youth spend watching television, using a computer recreationally, and playing video games. Participants were a nationally representative sample of Canadian youth (N = 26,068 in grades 6–10 who participated in the 2009/10 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children Survey. Screen time in youth from single parent and reconstituted families, with or without regular visitation with their non-residential parent, was compared to that of youth from traditional dual-parent families. Multiple imputation was used to account for missing data. After multiple imputation, the relative odds of being in the highest television, computer use, video game, and total screen time quartiles were not different in boys and girls from non-traditional families by comparison to boys and girls from traditional dual-parent families. In conclusion, parental structure and child custody arrangements did not have a meaningful impact on screen time among youth.

  19. Genetic and environmental influences on the relationships between family connectedness, school connectedness, and adolescent depressed mood: sex differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, K C; Rowe, D C

    1999-07-01

    This study investigated (a) genetic and environmental contributions to the relationship between family and school environment and depressed mood and (b) potential sex differences in genetic and environmental contributions to both variation in and covariation between family connectedness, school connectedness, and adolescent depressed mood. Data are from 2,302 adolescent sibling pairs (mean age = 16 years) who were part of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Although genetic factors appeared to be important overall, model-fitting analyses revealed that the best-fitting model was a model that allowed for different parameters for male and female adolescents. Genetic contributions to variation in all 3 variables were greater among female adolescents than male adolescents, especially for depressed mood. Genetic factors also contributed to the correlations between family and school environment and adolescent depressed mood, although, again, these factors were stronger for female than for male adolescents.

  20. Sex Differences in the Relationship Between Conduct Disorder and Cortical Structure in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smaragdi, Areti; Cornwell, Harriet; Toschi, Nicola; Riccelli, Roberta; Gonzalez-Madruga, Karen; Wells, Amy; Clanton, Roberta; Baker, Rosalind; Rogers, Jack; Martin-Key, Nayra; Puzzo, Ignazio; Batchelor, Molly; Sidlauskaite, Justina; Bernhard, Anka; Martinelli, Anne; Kohls, Gregor; Konrad, Kerstin; Baumann, Sarah; Raschle, Nora; Stadler, Christina; Freitag, Christine; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J S; De Brito, Stephane; Fairchild, Graeme

    2017-08-01

    Previous studies have reported reduced cortical thickness and surface area and altered gyrification in frontal and temporal regions in adolescents with conduct disorder (CD). Although there is evidence that the clinical phenotype of CD differs between males and females, no studies have examined whether such sex differences extend to cortical and subcortical structure. As part of a European multisite study (FemNAT-CD), structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data were collected from 48 female and 48 male participants with CD and from 104 sex-, age-, and pubertal-status-matched controls (14-18 years of age). Data were analyzed using surface-based morphometry, testing for effects of sex, diagnosis, and sex-by-diagnosis interactions, while controlling for age, IQ, scan site, and total gray matter volume. CD was associated with cortical thinning and higher gyrification in ventromedial prefrontal cortex in both sexes. Males with CD showed lower, and females with CD showed higher, supramarginal gyrus cortical thickness compared with controls. Relative to controls, males with CD showed higher gyrification and surface area in superior frontal gyrus, whereas the opposite pattern was seen in females. There were no effects of diagnosis or sex-by-diagnosis interactions on subcortical volumes. Results are discussed with regard to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, depression, and substance abuse comorbidity, medication use, handedness, and CD age of onset. We found both similarities and differences between males and females in CD-cortical structure associations. This initial evidence that the pathophysiological basis of CD may be partly sex-specific highlights the need to consider sex in future neuroimaging studies and suggests that males and females may require different treatments. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The importance of family management, closeness with father and family structure in early adolescent alcohol use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Cherine; Santoro, Joseph; Kremer, Peter; Toumbourou, John; Leslie, Eva; Williams, Joanne

    2010-10-01

    To examine the importance of family management, family structure and father-adolescent relationships on early adolescent alcohol use. Cross-sectional data was collected across 30 randomly selected Australian communities stratified to represent a range of socio-economic and regional variation. Data were collected during school time from adolescents attending a broad range of schools. The sample consisted of a combined 8256 students (aged 10-14 years). Students completed a web-based survey as part of the Healthy Neighbourhoods project. Family management-which included practices such as parental monitoring and family rules about alcohol use-had the strongest and most consistent relationship with alcohol use in early adolescence. Adolescents reporting higher family management were less likely to have drunk alcohol in their life-time, less likely to drink alcohol in the preceding 30 days and less likely to have had an alcohol binge. Adolescents reporting emotionally close relationships with their fathers were less likely to have drunk alcohol in their life-time and less likely to have had an alcohol binge in the preceding fortnight. Findings indicate that family management practices may contribute to alcohol abstinence in adolescents. Furthermore, emotionally close father-adolescent relationships may also foster abstinence; however, fathers' drinking behaviours need to be considered. © 2010 The Authors, Addiction © 2010 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  2. Family values: Ownership structure, performance and capital structure of Canadian firms

    OpenAIRE

    King, Michael R.; Santor, Eric

    2007-01-01

    This study examines how family ownership affects the performance and capital structure of 613 Canadian firms using a panel dataset from 1998 to 2005. In particular, we distinguish the effect of family ownership from the use of control-enhancing mechanisms. We find that freestanding family-owned firms with a single share class have similar market performance than other firms based on Tobin's q ratios, superior accounting performance based on ROA, and higher financial leverage based on debt-to-...

  3. Acculturation and parent-adolescent communication about sex in Filipino-American families: a community-based participatory research study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Paul J; Travis, Raphael; Kilpatrick, Shelley D; Elliott, Marc N; Lui, Camillia; Khandwala, Shefali B; Dancel, Theresa M; Vollandt, Lori; Schuster, Mark A

    2007-06-01

    To examine whether acculturation is associated with parent-adolescent communication about sex in Filipino-American families. Filipino-Americans, the United States' second-largest Asian and Pacific Islander (API) group, have more adolescent pregnancy and HIV infection than other APIs. High-quality parent-adolescent communication about sex has been associated with healthy sexual development, and acculturation has been associated with various increased health risks. Whether acculturation affects parent-adolescent communication is unknown. We surveyed 120 pairs of Filipino-American parents and adolescents at a single large high school. We asked adolescents about their frequency of parent-adolescent communication about sex and measured adolescent acculturation in two ways: disagreement with traditional Asian values and preferential use of English. In bivariate and multivariate regressions, we examined whether adolescent acculturation was associated with adolescent reports of parent-adolescent communication. Few adolescents (22%) reported regularly discussing sex with parents. Although most adolescents (72%) agreed with traditional Asian values, most (63%) preferred using English. In bivariate regressions, less parent-adolescent communication about sex was associated with less adolescent agreement with traditional Asian values (p = .002) and more adolescent English use (p = .009). In multivariate regressions, these associations were largely explained by adolescent perceptions of parent knowledge about their whereabouts and activities. Acculturation may influence Filipino-American parent-adolescent communication about sex and, consequently, Filipino-American adolescent sexual health. Health care and public health providers may need to tailor adolescent sexual health programs based on acculturation or other immigration-related factors.

  4. Sexual victimization and family violence among urban African American adolescent women: do violence cluster profiles predict partner violence victimization and sex trade exposure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Angie C; Bybee, Deborah; Kulkarni, Shanti J; Archer, Gretchen

    2012-11-01

    Guided by an intersectional feminist perspective, we examined sexual victimization, witnessing intimate partner violence (IPV) in the family, and familial physical abuse among a sample of 180 urban African American adolescent women. We used cluster analysis to better understand the profiles of cumulative victimization, and the relationships between profiles and IPV victimization and personal exposure to the sex trade. Just under one third of the sample reported sexual victimization, with cooccurrence with both forms of family violence common. The cluster profile with high levels of severe family violence was associated with the highest rate of IPV victimization and sex trade exposure.

  5. Prevalence and structural correlates of gender based violence among a prospective cohort of female sex workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, Kate; Kerr, T; Strathdee, S A; Shoveller, J; Montaner, J S; Tyndall, M W

    2009-08-11

    To examine the prevalence and structural correlates of gender based violence against female sex workers in an environment of criminalised prostitution. Prospective observational study. Vancouver, Canada during 2006-8. Female sex workers 14 years of age or older (inclusive of transgender women) who used illicit drugs (excluding marijuana) and engaged in street level sex work. Self reported gender based violence. Of 267 female sex workers invited to participate, 251 women returned to the study office and consented to participate (response rate of 94%). Analyses were based on 237 female sex workers who completed a baseline visit and at least one follow-up visit. Of these 237 female sex workers, 57% experienced gender based violence over an 18 month follow-up period. In multivariate models adjusted for individual and interpersonal risk practices, the following structural factors were independently correlated with violence against female sex workers: homelessness (adjusted odds ratio for physical violence (aOR(physicalviolence)) 2.14, 95% confidence interval 1.34 to 3.43; adjusted odds ratio for rape (aOR(rape)) 1.73, 1.09 to 3.12); inability to access drug treatment (adjusted odds ratio for client violence (aOR(clientviolence)) 2.13, 1.26 to 3.62; aOR(physicalviolence) 1.96, 1.03 to 3.43); servicing clients in cars or public spaces (aOR(clientviolence) 1.50, 1.08 to 2.57); prior assault by police (aOR(clientviolence) 3.45, 1.98 to 6.02; aOR(rape) 2.61, 1.32 to 5.16); confiscation of drug use paraphernalia by police without arrest (aOR(physicalviolence) 1.50, 1.02 to 2.41); and moving working areas away from main streets owing to policing (aOR(clientviolence) 2.13, 1.26 to 3.62). Our results demonstrate an alarming prevalence of gender based violence against female sex workers. The structural factors of criminalisation, homelessness, and poor availability of drug treatment independently correlated with gender based violence against street based female sex workers. Socio

  6. An integrable coupling family of Merola-Ragnisco-Tu lattice systems, its Hamiltonian structure and related nonisospectral integrable lattice family

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Xixiang, E-mail: xu_xixiang@hotmail.co [College of Science, Shandong University of Science and Technology, Qingdao, 266510 (China)

    2010-01-04

    An integrable coupling family of Merola-Ragnisco-Tu lattice systems is derived from a four-by-four matrix spectral problem. The Hamiltonian structure of the resulting integrable coupling family is established by the discrete variational identity. Each lattice system in the resulting integrable coupling family is proved to be integrable discrete Hamiltonian system in Liouville sense. Ultimately, a nonisospectral integrable lattice family associated with the resulting integrable lattice family is constructed through discrete zero curvature representation.

  7. An integrable coupling family of Merola-Ragnisco-Tu lattice systems, its Hamiltonian structure and related nonisospectral integrable lattice family

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Xixiang

    2010-01-01

    An integrable coupling family of Merola-Ragnisco-Tu lattice systems is derived from a four-by-four matrix spectral problem. The Hamiltonian structure of the resulting integrable coupling family is established by the discrete variational identity. Each lattice system in the resulting integrable coupling family is proved to be integrable discrete Hamiltonian system in Liouville sense. Ultimately, a nonisospectral integrable lattice family associated with the resulting integrable lattice family is constructed through discrete zero curvature representation.

  8. Collisional family structure within the Nysa-Polana complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykhuis, Melissa J.; Greenberg, Richard

    2015-05-01

    The Nysa-Polana complex is a group of low-inclination asteroid families in the inner main belt, bounded in semimajor axis by the Mars-crossing region and the Jupiter 3:1 mean-motion resonance. This group is important as the most likely source region for the target of the OSIRIS-REx mission, (101955) Bennu; however, family membership in the region is complicated by the presence of several dynamically overlapping families with a range of surface reflectance properties. The large S-type structure in the region appears to be associated with the parent body (135) Hertha, and displays an (eP,aP) correlation consistent with a collision event near true anomaly of ∼180° with ejecta velocity vej ∼ 285m /s . The ejecta distribution from a collision with these orbital properties is predicted to have a maximum semimajor axis dispersion of δaej = 0.005 ± 0.008AU , which constitutes only a small fraction (7%) of the observed semimajor axis dispersion, the rest of which is attributed to the Yarkovsky effect. The age of the family is inferred from the Yarkovsky dispersion to be 300-50+60 My. Objects in a smaller cluster that overlaps the large Hertha family in proper orbital element space have reflectance properties more consistent with the X-type (135) Hertha than the surrounding S-type family. These objects form a distinct Yarkovsky "V" signature in (aP, H) space, consistent with a more recent collision, which appears to also be dynamically connected to (135) Hertha. Production of two families with different reflectance properties from a single parent could result from the partial differentiation of the parent, shock darkening effects, or other causes. The Nysa-Polana complex also contains a low-albedo family associated with (142) Polana (called "New Polana" by Walsh et al. (Walsh, K.J. et al. [2013]. Icarus 225, 283-297)), and two other low-albedo families associated with (495) Eulalia. The second Eulalia family may be a high-aP , low-eP , low-iP component of the first

  9. Family Relationships and Adolescent Well-Being: Are Families Equally Protective for Same-Sex Attracted Youth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Jennifer; Wilkinson, Lindsey

    2013-01-01

    Existing research suggests that sexual minority youth experience lower levels of well-being, in part because they perceive less social support than heterosexual youth. Sexual minority youth with strong family relationships may demonstrate resilience and increased well-being; however, it is also possible that the experience of sexual stigma may…

  10. Sex and genetic effects on upper and lower body fat and associations with diabetes in multigenerational families of African heritage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miljkovic-Gacic, Iva; Wang, Xiaojing; Kammerer, Candace M; Bunker, Clareann H; Patrick, Alan L; Wheeler, Victor W; Kuller, Lewis H; Evans, Rhobert W; Zmuda, Joseph M

    2008-06-01

    Very few studies have comprehensively defined the genetic and environmental influences on body fat storage in the arms and legs and their association with diabetes, especially in families of African heritage. We analyzed body fat distribution by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (percentage total fat, percentage trunk fat, percentage arm fat, and percentage leg fat) and fasting serum glucose in 471 individuals (mean age, 43 years) from 8 multigenerational Afro-Caribbean families (mean family size = 51; 3535 relative pairs). Diabetes was inversely associated with percentage leg fat (P = .009) and, to some extent, positively associated with percentage arm fat independent of age, sex, and body size (P = .08), but not with anthropometric or dual-energy x-ray absorptiometric measures of total and central adiposity. Furthermore, percentage leg fat was inversely, whereas percentage arm fat was positively, associated with body mass index, waist circumference, and serum glucose (P Genetic correlation (rho(G)) between arm and leg fat was -0.61 (P genetic influences. This study provides new evidence for a strong genetic and sex contribution to upper and lower body fat, with relatively little covariation between these traits due to shared genes. Our findings also suggest that, in this population, leg fat is associated with diabetes independent of overall adiposity.

  11. Family structure and family education as the factors for personal development of preschooler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golovey L.A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to analysis of personal characteristics of preschoolers in relation to the factors of gender, family structure (complete or one-parent, the presence of sibling and family upbringing (parenting styles, parent-child emotional interaction. The study involved 155 boys, 157 girls and 312 mothers from Saint-Petersburg, Novosibirsk and Arkhangelsk. The age of children — from 4 to 7 years. We used the test and projective techniques. The study revealed that children from single parent families had higher indicators of anxiety, insecurity, depressiveness, self-distrust, hostility, feeling of inferiority, conflicts and difficulties in communication. In families with pronounced overprotection and characteristics of an authoritarian style children had lower self- esteem and higher indicators of anxiety and hostility. Children's aggressiveness was more pronounced in the case of permissive style and instability of parenting style. It was shown that emotional well-being in the parent-child relationships can be regarded as a resource for personal development of the child: understanding the causes of child s state, empathy. However we revealed that one third part of mothers had difficulties in emotional interaction with children. The research was supported by the Russian Foundation for Humanities (project №13-06-00480 «The family as a resource of child´s mental development in stable and critical ontogenetic periods».

  12. LGBT Family Lawyers and Same-Sex Marriage Recognition: How Legal Change Shapes Professional Identity and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumle, Amanda K

    2018-01-10

    Lawyers who practice family law for LGBT clients are key players in the tenuous and evolving legal environment surrounding same-sex marriage recognition. Building on prior research on factors shaping the professional identities of lawyers generally, and activist lawyers specifically, I examine how practice within a rapidly changing, patchwork legal environment shapes professional identity for this group of lawyers. I draw on interviews with 21 LGBT family lawyers to analyze how the unique features of LGBT family law shape their professional identities and practice, as well as their predictions about the development of the practice in a post-Obergefell world. Findings reveal that the professional identities and practice of LGBT family lawyers are shaped by uncertainty, characteristics of activist lawyering, community membership, and community service. Individual motivations and institutional forces work to generate a professional identity that is resilient and dynamic, characterized by skepticism and distrust coupled with flexibility and creativity. These features are likely to play a role in the evolution of the LGBT family lawyer professional identity post-marriage equality.

  13. Hitchin Connections for Various Families of Kähler Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kenneth

    2018-01-01

    In this thesis we study aspects of the mathematical formulation of quantization and more specifically geometric quantization. Our main objective is the construction of a Hitchin connection in settings, that generalise the constructions of Andersen in [And12], which again was a generalisation...... of the original work by Hitchin [Hit90] studying the case of the moduli space of flat connections on a surface. We review the construction by Andersen and this Author in [AR16], where we succeeded in significantly weakening the so called rigidity condition on the family of complex structures, which was required...... for Andersens original construction to work. We also include calculations of the curvature in this so-called weakly restricted case. Afterwards we continue with new work joint with Andersen, where we construct a Hitchin connection for a general family of Kähler structures under certain cohomolog- ical...

  14. Change in Family Structure and Rates of Violent Juvenile Delinquency

    OpenAIRE

    Fry, Jeannie A

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses the question: Have the changes in family structure in the U.S. become a catalyst for juvenile delinquency? For this research, I use existing statistics for my three independent variables: divorce rates, rate of working mothers with children under age 18, percent female-headed households. My dependent variable, juvenile violent crime rates, is measured using data from the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. My control variables consist of the followin...

  15. The Disclosure to Families of Same-Sex Attractions by Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Youths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savin-Williams, Ritch C.

    1998-01-01

    Reviews empirical research documenting percentage of youths who disclose their homosexual identity to their families, when during the "coming-out" process they disclose, and the manner in which disclosure occurs. Explores differences in mother/father disclosure and data on disclosure to siblings and extended family. Summarizes…

  16. Relations of Work Identity, Family Identity, Situational Demands, and Sex with Employee Work Hours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhaus, Jeffrey H.; Peng, Ann C.; Allen, Tammy D.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined relations of multiple indicators of work identity and family identity with the number of weekly hours worked by 193 married business professionals. We found that men generally worked long hours regardless of the situational demands to work long hours and the strength of their work and family identities. Women's work hours, on…

  17. Some Relationships Between Birth Order, Sex, Family Size, Sibling Span, and Reading Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grygo, Rosemary E. Cox

    Reading scores earned by 286 fifth-grade pupils taking the California Test of Basic Skills were used in a study examining the relationship between reading achievement and birth order and related family factors. Vocabulary scores were significantly related to birth order, family size, and socioeconomic status. Comprehension scores were…

  18. The influence of sex steroids on structural brain maturation in adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koolschijn, P.C.M.P.; Peper, J.S.; Crone, E.A.

    2014-01-01

    Puberty reflects a period of hormonal changes, physical maturation and structural brain reorganization. However, little attention has been paid to what extent sex steroids and pituitary hormones are associated with the refinement of brain maturation across adolescent development. Here we used

  19. Individual, interpersonal, and social-structural correlates of involuntary sex exchange among female sex workers in two Mexico-U.S. border cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, Shira M; Rangel, Gudelia; Staines, Hugo; Vera, Alicia; Lozada, Remedios; Nguyen, Lucie; Silverman, Jay G; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2013-08-15

    To investigate individual, interpersonal, and social-structural factors associated with involuntary sex exchange among female sex workers (FSWs) along the Mexico-U.S. border. In 2010 to 2011, 214 FSWs from Tijuana (n = 106) and Ciudad Juarez (n = 108) aged ≥ 18 years who reported lifetime use of heroin, cocaine, crack, or methamphetamine, having a stable partner, and having sold/traded sex in the past month completed quantitative surveys and HIV/sexually transmitted infection testing. Logistic regression was used to identify correlates of involuntary sex exchange among FSWs. Of 214 FSWs, 31 (14.5%) reported involuntary sex exchange These women were younger at sex industry entry [adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 0.84/1-year increase, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.72 to 0.97] and were significantly more likely to service clients whom they perceived to be HIV/sexually transmitted infection-infected (AOR: 12.41, 95% CI: 3.15 to 48.91). In addition, they were more likely to have clients who used drugs (AOR: 7.88, 95% CI: 1.52 to 41.00), report poor working conditions (AOR: 3.27, 95% CI: 1.03 to 10.31), and report a history of rape (AOR: 4.46, 95% CI: 1.43 to 13.91). Involuntary sex exchange is disproportionate among FSWs who begin to exchange sex at a younger age, and these women experience elevated risk of violence and HIV/STIs related to their clients' behaviors and their working conditions. These data suggest the critical need for evidence-based approaches to preventing sexual exploitation of women and girls and to reducing harm among current sex workers. Multilevel interventions for all females who exchange sex and their clients that target interpersonal and social-structural risks (eg, measures to improve safety and reduce exploitation within the workplace) are needed.

  20. Role and structural characterization of plant aldehyde dehydrogenases from family 2 and family 7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Končitíková, Radka; Vigouroux, Armelle; Kopečná, Martina; Andree, Tomáš; Bartoš, Jan; Šebela, Marek; Moréra, Solange; Kopečný, David

    2015-05-15

    Aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs) are responsible for oxidation of biogenic aldehyde intermediates as well as for cell detoxification of aldehydes generated during lipid peroxidation. So far, 13 ALDH families have been described in plants. In the present study, we provide a detailed biochemical characterization of plant ALDH2 and ALDH7 families by analysing maize and pea ALDH7 (ZmALDH7 and PsALDH7) and four maize cytosolic ALDH(cALDH)2 isoforms RF2C, RF2D, RF2E and RF2F [the first maize ALDH2 was discovered as a fertility restorer (RF2A)]. We report the crystal structures of ZmALDH7, RF2C and RF2F at high resolution. The ZmALDH7 structure shows that the three conserved residues Glu(120), Arg(300) and Thr(302) in the ALDH7 family are located in the substrate-binding site and are specific to this family. Our kinetic analysis demonstrates that α-aminoadipic semialdehyde, a lysine catabolism intermediate, is the preferred substrate for plant ALDH7. In contrast, aromatic aldehydes including benzaldehyde, anisaldehyde, cinnamaldehyde, coniferaldehyde and sinapaldehyde are the best substrates for cALDH2. In line with these results, the crystal structures of RF2C and RF2F reveal that their substrate-binding sites are similar and are formed by an aromatic cluster mainly composed of phenylalanine residues and several nonpolar residues. Gene expression studies indicate that the RF2C gene, which is strongly expressed in all organs, appears essential, suggesting that the crucial role of the enzyme would certainly be linked to the cell wall formation using aldehydes from phenylpropanoid pathway as substrates. Finally, plant ALDH7 may significantly contribute to osmoprotection because it oxidizes several aminoaldehydes leading to products known as osmolytes.

  1. Masculine sex ratios, population age structure and the potential spread of HIV in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Giovanna Merli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available There is much speculation regarding the contribution of China's changing demography to the spread of HIV/AIDS. We employ a bio-behavioral macrosimulation model of the heterosexual spread of HIV/AIDS to evaluate the roles that China's unique demographic conditions -- (1 masculine sex ratios at birth and (2 a population age structure that reflects rapid fertility decline since the 1970's -- play in altering the market for sexual partners, thereby potentially fueling an increase in behaviors associated with greater risk of HIV infection. We first simulate the relative contributions of the sex ratio at birth and the population age structure to the oversupply of males in the market for sexual partners and show that the sex ratio at birth only aggravates the severe oversupply of males which is primarily a consequence of the population age structure. We then examine the potential consequences of this demographic distortion for the spread of HIV infection and show that, to the extent that males adapt to the dearth of suitable female partners by seeking unprotected sexual contacts with female sex workers, the impact of the oversupply of males in the sexual partnership market on the spread of HIV will be severe.

  2. A Structural Approach to Unresolved Mourning in Single Parent Family Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulmer, Richard H.

    1983-01-01

    Considers the mother's depression as a special problem in therapy of single-parent families, resulting from unresolved mourning maintained by the family system. Offers reasons why the single-parent family's structure seems inherently vulnerable to unresolved mourning. Suggests techniques of Structural Family Therapy to facilitate mourning in such…

  3. Hispanic/Latino Adolescents' Alcohol Use: Influence of Family Structure, Perceived Peer Norms, and Family Members' Alcohol Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Wura; Barry, Adam E.; Xu, Lei; Valente, Thomas W.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Family structure and value system among Hispanic/Latino population are changing. However, very few studies have examined the combination of the influence of family structure, parental and sibling alcohol use, perceived peer norms about drinking, and alcohol use among Hispanic/Latino adolescents. Purpose: This study examined the…

  4. Osteopathic Medical Students Entering Family Medicine and Attitudes Regarding Osteopathic Manipulative Treatment: Preliminary Findings of Differences by Sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Helen H; Linsenmeyer, Machelle; Ridpath, Lance C; Bauer, Laurie J; Foster, Robert W

    2017-06-01

    Factors distinguishing osteopathic physicians from their allopathic counterparts include the use of osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT), application of osteopathic principles and practice (OPP), and a greater likelihood of entering primary care, specifically family medicine (FM). In the United States, the percentage of entering osteopathic medical students who were female rose from 14.3% in fall 1977 to 44.3% in fall 2015. To investigate the perspectives of female osteopathic medical students as they relate to osteopathic distinctiveness. Students at the West Virginia School of Osteopathic Medicine who were eligible to participate in graduation exercises in 2014 or 2015 were asked to complete the school's standard Exit Survey. The research team chose 5 items from the survey to include in the current analysis. Sex had been self-identified at admission, and residency in first postgraduate year was categorized as FM or other specialty. Graduates entering a transitional year or traditional internship were removed from analysis. Analysis was conducted for 308 of the 375 students (82%) expected to graduate in 2014 or 2015. χ2 analysis found no difference by sex in the number of graduates entering FM residencies vs other specialties (P=.727). Statistically significant differences were found in 2 survey items: "Use of OMT will enhance my practice" (P=.005) and "What emphasis do you believe OMT will have in your practice?" (P<.001). Graduating female students responded more favorably to OMT on both items. For the latter item, 91.4% of female and 80.3% of male students indicated OMT would have at least some role in their practices. Sex differences remained after statistically controlling for entry into FM. Female graduating osteopathic medical students were more likely to report that OMT will have at least some role in their practices. Future studies of the attitudes and practice patterns of osteopathic physicians should analyze for differences by sex.

  5. Parent-adolescent communication about sex in Filipino American families: a demonstration of community-based participatory research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Paul J; Borneo, Hena; Kilpatrick, Shelley D; Lopez, Donna M; Travis, Raphael; Lui, Camillia; Khandwala, Shefali; Schuster, Mark A

    2005-01-01

    Pregnancy rates among Filipino American adolescents exceed those of other Asian and Pacific Islander adolescents. Strong parent-adolescent communication may promote healthy sexual development and protect against adolescent sexual risk behaviors. We explored communication barriers between Filipino American parents and adolescents. Using community-based participatory research (CBPR), we collaborated with Filipino American community leaders, parents, and adolescents to design a focus-group study. Trained bilingual moderators conducted focus groups with 85 Filipino Americans (41 parents and grandparents and 44 adolescents aged 14-18 years) from various neighborhoods in Los Angeles. Sessions were recorded, transcribed, coded, and analyzed for themes. Focus-group participants appeared to divide sex information into 3 categories, which we termed facts, feelings, and values. Adolescents emphasized facts and feelings. Parents and grandparents emphasized facts and values. In general, facts were obtained through school, feelings through friends, and values through parents. The focus groups identified large barriers to value transmission, stemming from adolescent acculturation to the United States. Parents and grandparents felt that values were transmitted best through traditional Filipino respect for parents who often eschewed open discussion. Adolescents believed that open discussion was necessary for value transmission to occur. The result was bilateral withdrawal from family communication about sex. Our focus groups found that parent-child communication about sex, especially regarding values, was limited. Potential causes included conflicts between Filipino and US beliefs regarding respect for parents and open discussion. Our results raise important questions about the effect of acculturation on sex education for Filipino American adolescents and demonstrate potential advantages of CBPR.

  6. Patriarchy, family structure and the exploitation of women's labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, J A; Ciscel, D H

    1988-09-01

    The authors present a case for including the patriarchal model into the analysis of female labor force participation in the United States. They argue that only if it is assumed that the division of labor and distribution of goods and services are structured to benefit the male head of the family can various trends be explained, including the low relative income of women compared to men, the increase in female labor force participation without a corresponding increase in household work by men, and the increasing number of divorces initiated by women despite the fact that divorce increases female poverty.

  7. Molecular structure and diversity of PBAN/Pyrokinin family peptides in ants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man-Yeon eChoi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Neuropeptides are the largest group of insect hormones. They are produced in the central and peripheral nervous systems and affect insect development, reproduction, feeding and behavior. A variety of neuropeptide families have been identified in insects. One of these families is the PBAN/pyrokinin family defined by a common FXPRLamide or similar amino acid fragment at the C-terminal end. These peptides, found in all insects studied thus far, have been conserved throughout evolution. The most well studied physiological function is regulation of moth sex pheromone biosynthesis through the Pheromone Biosynthesis Activating Neurohormone (PBAN, although several developmental functions have also been reported. Over the past years we have extended knowledge of the PBAN/pyrokinin family of peptides to ants, focusing mainly on the fire ant, Solenopsis invicta. The fire ant is one of the most studied social insects and over the last 60 years a great deal has been learned about many aspects of this ant, including the behaviors and chemistry of pheromone communication. However, virtually nothing is known about the regulation of these pheromone systems. Recently, we demonstrated the presence of PBAN/pyrokinin immunoreactive neurons in the fire ant, and identified and characterized PBAN and additional neuropeptides. We have mapped the fire ant PBAN gene structure and determined the tissue expression level in the central nervous system of the ant. We review here our research to date on the molecular structure and diversity of ant PBAN/pyrokinin peptides in preparation for determining the function of the neuropeptides in ants and other social insects.

  8. Her versus his migraine: multiple sex differences in brain function and structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maleki, Nasim; Linnman, Clas; Brawn, Jennifer; Burstein, Rami; Becerra, Lino; Borsook, David

    2012-08-01

    Migraine is twice as common in females as in males, but the mechanisms behind this difference are still poorly understood. We used high-field magnetic resonance imaging in male and female age-matched interictal (migraine free) migraineurs and matched healthy controls to determine alterations in brain structure. Female migraineurs had thicker posterior insula and precuneus cortices compared with male migraineurs and healthy controls of both sexes. Furthermore, evaluation of functional responses to heat within the migraine groups indicated concurrent functional differences in male and female migraineurs and a sex-specific pattern of functional connectivity of these two regions with the rest of the brain. The results support the notion of a 'sex phenotype' in migraine and indicate that brains are differentially affected by migraine in females compared with males. Furthermore, the results also support the notion that sex differences involve both brain structure as well as functional circuits, in that emotional circuitry compared with sensory processing appears involved to a greater degree in female than male migraineurs.

  9. ASSOCIATION BETWEEN SINGLE-PARENT FAMILY STRUCTURE AND AGE OF SEXUAL DEBUT AMONG YOUNG PERSONS IN JAMAICA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshi, Daniel C; Mckenzie, Jordan; Baxter, Martin; Robinson, Royelle; Neil, Stephan; Greene, Tayla; Wright, Wayne; Lodge, Jeorghino

    2018-02-26

    There is a high and increasing proportion of single-parent families in Jamaica. This has raised concerns about the potential impact of single-parent families on the social, cognitive and behavioural development of children, including their sexual relationships. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between being raised in a single-parent family and age of sexual debut among young people in Jamaica. The study was cross-sectional in design, and based on a multi-stage sampling procedure. The study was conducted in July/September 2016. The study sample comprised 233 respondents (110 males and 123 females) aged from 18 to 35 years (mean 26.37 years; SD 5.46). Respondents completed a self-administered questionnaire with questions on socio-demographic characteristics, family structure, sexual debut and current sexual behaviour. Ninety-seven (41.7%) respondents grew up in single-parent families. A total of 201 (86.3%) had had sex (102 males and 99 females). Their mean age of sexual debut was 15.51 years (SD 3.41). Sixty-five (32.3%) had early sexual debut (single-parent families were more likely to have had early sexual debut (56.9%; n=37) compared with those from two-parent families (43.1%, n=28; p=0.004). Only 44.6% (n=29) of those who experienced early sexual debut used a condom during their first sexual encounter compared with 73% (n=100) of those who had a later sexual debut (≥16 years; p=single-father family structure was a significant predictor of early sexual debut (AOR 5.5; 95%CI: 1.1-25.8). The study found a significant association between single-parent family structure and age of sexual debut.

  10. Effects of sex preference and social pressure on fertility in changing Japanese families

    OpenAIRE

    Yamamura, Eiji

    2009-01-01

    This study explored how social pressure related to parental preference for the sex of their children affects fertility. Pre-war and post-war generations were compared using individual level data previously collected in Japan in 2002. In the pre-war generation, if the first child was a daughter, the total number of children tended to increase not only when the mother preferred a son, but also when the mother did not have a preference for either gender. This tendency was not observed for the po...

  11. Sex-Differentiated Socialization Effects in Childhood and Adolescence in Divorced and Intact Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumrind, Diana

    This longitudinal study was designed to identify familial origins of children's developmental competencies and dysfunctional behavior at the critical life stages of preschool (T1), juvenile (T2), early adolescence (T3), and early adulthood (T4). Child subjects were born between 1964-66; their parents between 1931-39. Children were studied when…

  12. Familial risk of early suicide: variations by age and sex of children and parents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garssen, Joop; Deerenberg, Ingeborg; Mackenbach, Johan P.; Kerkhof, Ad; Kunst, Anton E.

    2011-01-01

    To determine familial risk of early suicide, data on cause of death of all Dutch residents aged 20-55 years who died between 1995 and 2001 were linked to data of their parents. Men whose father died by suicide had a higher odds of suicide themselves, relative to men whose father died of other causes

  13. Factorial Invariance of the Asian American Family Conflicts Scale across Ethnicity, Generational Status, Sex, and Nationality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Matthew J.; Lee, Richard M.

    2009-01-01

    The factorial invariance of the Asian American Family Conflicts Scale-Likelihood (FCS-L) was examined in a sample of 1,012 participants. Results support the use of the FCS-L in future research with diverse Asian subgroups. Limitations and future directions for research are discussed. (Contains 7 tables and 1 note.)

  14. Sex on the brain: Are gender-dependent structural and functional differences associated with behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowska, Anna

    2017-01-02

    A substantial number of studies provide evidence documenting a variety of sex differences in the brain. It remains unclear whether sexual differentiation at the neural level is related to that observed in daily behavior, cognitive function, and the risk of developing certain psychiatric and neurological disorders. Some investigators have questioned whether the brain is truly sexually differentiated and support this view with several arguments including the following: (1) brain structural or functional differences are not necessarily reflected in appropriate differences at the behavioral level, which might suggest that these two phenomena are not linked to each other; and (2) sex-related differences in the brain are rather small and concern features that significantly overlap between males and females. This review polemicizes with those opinions and presents examples of sex-related local neural differences underpinning a variety of sex differences in behaviors, skills, and cognitive/emotional abilities. Although male/female brain differentiation may vary in pattern and scale, nonetheless, in some respects (e.g., relative local gray matter volumes) it can be substantial, taking the form of sexual dimorphism and involving large areas of the brain (the cortex in particular). A significant part of this review is devoted to arguing that some sex differences in the brain may serve to prevent (in the case where they are maladaptive), rather than to produce, differences at the behavioral/skill level. Specifically, some differences might result from compensatory mechanisms aimed at maintaining similar intellectual capacities across the sexes, despite the smaller average volume of the brain in females compared with males. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Early-life family structure and microbially induced cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaser, Martin J; Nomura, Abraham; Lee, James; Stemmerman, Grant N; Perez-Perez, Guillermo I

    2007-01-01

    Cancer may follow exposure to an environmental agent after many decades. The bacterium Helicobacter pylori, known to be acquired early in life, increases risk for gastric adenocarcinoma, but other factors are also important. In this study, we considered whether early-life family structure affects the risk of later developing gastric cancer among H. pylori+ men. We examined a long-term cohort of Japanese-American men followed for 28 y, and performed a nested case-control study among those carrying H. pylori or the subset carrying the most virulent cagA+ H. pylori strains to address whether family structure predicted cancer development. We found that among the men who were H. pylori+ and/or cagA+ (it is possible to be cagA+ and H. pylori- if the H. pylori test is falsely negative), belonging to a large sibship or higher birth order was associated with a significantly increased risk of developing gastric adenocarcinoma late in life. For those with cagA+ strains, the risk of developing gastric cancer was more than twice as high (odds ratio 2.2; 95% confidence interval 1.2-4.0) among those in a sibship of seven or more individuals than in a sibship of between one and three persons. These results provide evidence that early-life social environment plays a significant role in risk of microbially induced malignancies expressing five to eight decades later, and these findings lead to new models to explain these interactions.

  16. Family Structure Experiences and Child Socioemotional Development During the First Nine Years of Life: Examining Heterogeneity by Family Structure at Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Lawrence M.

    2018-01-01

    A vast amount of literature has documented negative associations between family instability and child development, with the largest associations being in the socioemotional (behavioral) domain. Yet, prior work has paid limited attention to differentiating the role of the number, types, and sequencing of family transitions that children experience, as well as to understanding potential heterogeneity in these associations by family structure at birth. We use data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study and hierarchical linear models to examine associations of family structure states and transitions with children’s socioemotional development during the first nine years of life. We pay close attention to the type and number of family structure transitions experienced and examine whether associations differ depending on family structure at birth. For children born to cohabiting or noncoresident parents, we find little evidence that subsequent family structure experiences are associated with socioemotional development. For children born to married parents, we find associations between family instability and poorer socioemotional development. However, this largely reflects the influence of parental breakup; we find little evidence that socioemotional trajectories differ for children with various family structure experiences subsequent to their parents’ breakup. PMID:28299560

  17. Family Structure Experiences and Child Socioemotional Development During the First Nine Years of Life: Examining Heterogeneity by Family Structure at Birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bzostek, Sharon H; Berger, Lawrence M

    2017-04-01

    A vast amount of literature has documented negative associations between family instability and child development, with the largest associations being in the socioemotional (behavioral) domain. Yet, prior work has paid limited attention to differentiating the role of the number, types, and sequencing of family transitions that children experience, as well as to understanding potential heterogeneity in these associations by family structure at birth. We use data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study and hierarchical linear models to examine associations of family structure states and transitions with children's socioemotional development during the first nine years of life. We pay close attention to the type and number of family structure transitions experienced and examine whether associations differ depending on family structure at birth. For children born to cohabiting or noncoresident parents, we find little evidence that subsequent family structure experiences are associated with socioemotional development. For children born to married parents, we find associations between family instability and poorer socioemotional development. However, this largely reflects the influence of parental breakup; we find little evidence that socioemotional trajectories differ for children with various family structure experiences subsequent to their parents' breakup.

  18. Sex selection and restricting abortion and sex determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilberberg, Julie

    2007-11-01

    Sex selection in India and China is fostered by a limiting social structure that disallows women from performing the roles that men perform, and relegates women to a lower status level. Individual parents and individual families benefit concretely from having a son born into the family, while society, and girls and women as a group, are harmed by the widespread practice of sex selection. Sex selection reinforces oppression of women and girls. Sex selection is best addressed by ameliorating the situations of women and girls, increasing their autonomy, and elevating their status in society. One might argue that restricting or prohibiting abortion, prohibiting sex selection, and prohibiting sex determination would eliminate sex selective abortion. But this decreases women's autonomy rather than increases it. Such practices will turn underground. Sex selective infanticide, and slower death by long term neglect, could increase. If abortion is restricted, the burden is placed on women seeking abortions to show that they have a legally acceptable or legitimate reason for a desired abortion, and this seriously limits women's autonomy. Instead of restricting abortion, banning sex selection, and sex determination, it is better to address the practice of sex selection by elevating the status of women and empowering women so that giving birth to a girl is a real and positive option, instead of a detriment to the parents and family as it is currently. But, if a ban on sex selective abortion or a ban on sex determination is indeed instituted, then wider social change promoting women's status in society should be instituted simultaneously.

  19. Familial Risk of Early Suicide: Variations by Age and Sex of Children and Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garssen, Joop; Deerenberg, Ingeborg; Mackenbach, Johan P.; Kerkhof, Ad; Kunst, Anton E.

    2011-01-01

    To determine familial risk of early suicide, data on cause of death of all Dutch residents aged 20-55 years who died between 1995 and 2001 were linked to data of their parents. Men whose father died by suicide had a higher odds of suicide themselves, relative to men whose father died of other causes (Odds Ratio (OR): 2.5; 95% confidence interval:…

  20. The organisation, operational dynamics and structure of female sex work in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmanuel, Faran; Thompson, Laura H; Athar, Uzma; Salim, Momina; Sonia, Altaf; Akhtar, Naeem; Blanchard, James F

    2013-09-01

    Pakistan is known to have large populations of female sex workers (FSWs) with considerable geographic heterogeneity in their characteristics. In this paper, we describe the social organisation and structural patterns of female sex work in different geographic regions of Pakistan. We report geographic and network mapping data collected among FSWs in 15 cities across Pakistan in 2011 as part of the Canada-Pakistan HIV/AIDS Surveillance Project. A total number of 89 178 FSWs were estimated in the target cities for an average of 7.2 FSWs per 1000 adult males. 55% of the estimated number of FSWs concentrated in Karachi and Lahore. Based on the operations of female sex work, two major typologies of FSWs were identified: establishment-based and non-establishment-based. FSWs were further subtyped into those operating through brothels, homes, kothikhanas, streets and by cell phone. Cities varied considerably in terms of predominance of different FSW typologies. There is considerable heterogeneity among FSWs in Pakistan, geographically and in terms of operational typology. Understanding the social organisation of sex work and the influence of social-cultural and legal factors in Pakistan is essential for the design of HIV prevention programmes and other services for FSWs.

  1. Long-term psychosocial adjustments, satisfaction related to gender and the family equations in disorders of sexual differentiation with male sex assignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Deepika; Bhardwaj, Madhu; Sharma, Shilpa; Ammini, A C; Gupta, Devendra K

    2010-10-01

    The varied management and counseling in disorders of sexual differentiation (DSD) depends a lot on the socioeconomic structure. A follow-up study was designed to evaluate the outcome in terms of patient satisfaction with strong socio-cultural issues. Of the 1,134 DSD patients being followed up in pediatric intersex clinic, 60 adolescents and adults assigned male sex in childhood were called for follow-up. They were interviewed for psychosocial and family adjustments including level of acceptance of gender, social relationships and future expectations. The ages ranged from 15 to 25 years (mean, 19.3 ± 3.7 years). The disorders were male pseudo hermaphrodite (MPH)-43, mixed gonadal dysgenesis (MGD)-3, true hermaphrodite (TH)-7 and congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH)-7. Of all patients, 85% (51/60) felt satisfied with their gender assignment; 76.9% (46/60) did not feel comfortable with the opposite sex. Penile erections; ejaculation and masculine voice were present in 53, 44 and 47 patients. Facial hair was normal; sparse and absent in 16, 26 and 18 patients, respectively. Stretched penile length was 2.5-9 cm (median, 5.5 cm) and 16/60 patients were satisfied with their penile length; 28 patients required redo surgeries for scrotum diverticulum (1), proximal penile diverticulum (1), stricture urethra (2), hair in the urethra (3), vaginal pouch dilatation (1), orchiopexy (2), residual chordee correction (3), distal urethroplasty (4), urethral fistula repair (21), mastectomy (6) and testicular prosthesis (4). Family support was available to all 85% (51/60) of the patients who had good family relationships. However, only 15% (9/60) felt that they fitted into society. Peer relationships were considered 'good' by 43/60 and poor by 17/60. Two patients had got married and 44.8% (26/58) patients would consider marriage in future. Most patients (42/60) were worried about the smaller size of the phallus and lack of adequate semen, leading to apprehension before marriage. As

  2. GLOBAL EPIDEMIOLOGY OF HIV AMONG FEMALE SEX WORKERS: INFLUENCE OF STRUCTURAL DETERMINANTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, K; Strathdee, SA; Goldenberg, SM; Duff, P; Mwangi, P; Rusakova, M; Reza-Paul, S; Lau, J; Deering, K; Pickles, M; Boily, M-C

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Female sex workers (FSWs) bear a disproportionately large burden of HIV infection worldwide. Despite decades of research and programme activity, the epidemiology of HIV and the role that structural determinants have in mitigating or potentiating HIV epidemics and access to care for FSWs is poorly understood. We reviewed available published data for HIV prevalence and incidence, condom use, and structural determinants among this group. Only 87 (43%) of 204 unique studies reviewed explicitly examined structural determinants of HIV. Most studies were from Asia, with few from areas with a heavy burden of HIV such as sub-Saharan Africa, Russia, and eastern Europe. To further explore the potential effect of structural determinants on the course of epidemics, we used a deterministic transmission model to simulate potential HIV infections averted through structural changes in regions with concentrated and generalised epidemics, and high HIV prevalence among FSWs. This modelling suggested that elimination of sexual violence alone could avert 17% of HIV infections in Kenya (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 1–31) and 20% in Canada (95% UI 3–39) through its immediate and sustained effect on non-condom use) among FSWs and their clients in the next decade. In Kenya, scaling up of access to antiretroviral therapy among FSWs and their clients to meet WHO eligibility of a CD4 cell count of less than 500 cells per μL could avert 34% (95% UI 25–42) of infections and even modest coverage of sex worker-led outreach could avert 20% (95% UI 8–36) of infections in the next decade. Decriminalisation of sex work would have the greatest effect on the course of HIV epidemics across all settings, averting 33–46% of HIV infections in the next decade. Multipronged structural and community-led interventions are crucial to increase access to prevention and treatment and to promote human rights for FSWs worldwide. PMID:25059947

  3. [A Structural Equation Model on Family Strength of Married Working Women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Yeong Seon; Han, Kuem Sun

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the effect of predictive factors related to family strength and develop a structural equation model that explains family strength among married working women. A hypothesized model was developed based on literature reviews and predictors of family strength by Yoo. This constructed model was built of an eight pathway form. Two exogenous variables included in this model were ego-resilience and family support. Three endogenous variables included in this model were functional couple communication, family stress and family strength. Data were collected using a self-report questionnaire from 319 married working women who were 30~40 of age and lived in cities of Chungnam province in Korea. Data were analyzed with PASW/WIN 18.0 and AMOS 18.0 programs. Family support had a positive direct, indirect and total effect on family strength. Family stress had a negative direct, indirect and total effect on family strength. Functional couple communication had a positive direct and total effect on family strength. These predictive variables of family strength explained 61.8% of model. The results of the study show a structural equation model for family strength of married working women and that predicting factors for family strength are family support, family stress, and functional couple communication. To improve family strength of married working women, the results of this study suggest nursing access and mediative programs to improve family support and functional couple communication, and reduce family stress.

  4. A structural model of family empowerment for families of children with special needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Kuem Sun; Yang, Yunkyung; Hong, Yeong Seon

    2018-03-01

    To explain and predict family empowerment in families of children with special needs. Family empowerment of families of children with special needs can be explained using the Double ABCX model. Although constant stressors such as parenting stress and family demands can have negative effects on family empowerment, family resources and parenting efficacy can mediate the negative effect through effective coping strategies. A cross-sectional research design was employed. A survey was conducted with 240 parents of children with special needs. Upon exclusion of four responses deemed inadequate to the statistics process, 236 responses were selected for the analysis. Based on the items used in the previous research, we used the scale of family demands 38, the scale of parenting stress 24, the scale of parenting efficacy 37, the scale of pattern of organisation 30, the scale of communication process 16 and the scale of family empowerment 32. In families of children with special needs, parenting stress had a negative effect on parenting efficacy and family resources, namely, pattern of organisation and communication process. Family needs had a positive effect on parenting efficacy. Parenting stress and family demands influenced family empowerment through parenting efficacy and family resources (pattern of organisation and communication process), while parenting efficacy contributed to family empowerment. This study empirically analysed the usefulness of the Double ABCX model in predicting family empowerment. Family resource factors (organisation pattern and communication process) and perception or judgement factors (such as parenting efficacy) were found to mediate the negative impact of various stressors experienced by families of children with special needs. The study findings suggest that clinical practice and management should focus on providing efficient intervention methods to lower stress in families of children with special needs. Reinforcing factors contributing to

  5. Neighbourhood food environment and dietary intakes in adolescents: sex and perceived family affluence as moderators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Sai-Yin; Wong, Bonny Yee-Man; Lo, Wing-Sze; Mak, Kwok-Kei; Thomas, G Neil; Lam, Tai-Hing

    2010-10-01

    To examine the effects of perceived availability of fast-food shops, restaurants, and convenience stores on adolescent dietary intakes. Survey data from 34 369 students in 42 Hong Kong secondary schools were collected in 2006-7. Respondents reported the availability of fast-food shops, restaurants and convenience stores in the neighbourhood, and their intakes of fruit, vegetables, high-fat foods and junk food/soft drinks. For intakes of high-fat foods and junk food/ soft drinks, ≤ once a week was defined as low consumption and the rest moderate/high consumption. At least three servings of vegetables and two servings of fruit daily were defined as sufficient consumption. Logistic regression yielded adjusted odds ratios (OR) for each dietary intake in relation to the reported food shops. Potential effect modifications by socio-demographic factors were also examined. Perceived availability of fast-food shops and convenience stores were positively associated with moderate/high consumptions of high-fat foods (OR(fast) =1.10 and OR(con) =1.15) and junk food/soft drinks (OR(fast)=1.10 and OR(con) =1.10). Significant negative associations of the perceived availability of restaurants with intakes of vegetables and fruit were observed (OR(veg) =0.87 and OR(fruit) =0.83). The positive relationship between reporting fast-food shops with intake of junk food/soft drinks were observed only in boys and those with low perceived family affluence. The negative association of reporting restaurants with fruit consumption was found in those with low and middle perceived family affluence only. Perceived availability of neighbourhood fast-food shops, restaurants, and convenience stores may have a negative impact on adolescent dietary intakes particularly for those from poorer families.

  6. Confronting structural violence in sex work: lessons from a community-led HIV prevention project in Mysore, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argento, Elena; Reza-Paul, Sushena; Lorway, Robert; Jain, Jinendra; Bhagya, M; Fathima, Mary; Sreeram, S V; Hafeezur, Rahman Syed; O'Neil, John

    2011-01-01

    Evidence from community-led HIV prevention projects suggests that structural interventions may result in reduced rates of HIV and STIs. The complex relationship between empowerment and confronting stigma, discrimination and physical abuse necessitates further investigation into the impact that such interventions have on the personal risks for sex workers. This article aims to describe lived experiences of members from a sex worker's collective in Mysore, India and how they have confronted structural violence. The narratives highlight experiences of violence and the development and implementation of strategies that have altered the social, physical, and emotional environment for sex workers. Building an enabling environment was key to reducing personal risks inherent to sex work, emphasizing the importance of community-led structural interventions for sex workers in India.

  7. Observed Family Interactions among Subtypes of Eating Disorders Using Structural Analysis of Social Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, Laura Lynn

    1989-01-01

    Compared observations of family interactions among anorexic, bulimic-anorexic, bulimic, and normal families (N=74 families) consisting of father, mother, and teenage daughter. Benjamin's structural analysis of social behavior methodology differentiated clinical from normal families. Found unique patterns among subtypes of eating disorders which…

  8. Family Structure and Eating Disorders: The Family Environment Scale and Bulimic-Like Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Carol A.

    1991-01-01

    Family variables derived from the Family Environment Scale are examined using data from 174 college women at a Pacific Northwest university and 2 universities in Houston (Texas) with varying degrees of bulimia. Subjects' self-reports indicate family dysfunctions, but the study illustrates the complexity of the family's role in bulimia. (SLD)

  9. Introduction to the CEA family: structure, function and secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Kleist, S

    1992-01-01

    Due to the phenomenal progress in the field of tumor immunology that took place during the last twenty years, we dispose today of highly specific and sensitive techniques and reagents like monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). In this context the discovery in human carcinomas of tumor-associated antigens, such as CEA, was of primary importance, especially since the latter was found to have clinical relevance as a tumor marker. Based on animal models, a new in vivo technology for the detection of tumors and metastases was developed in recent years, that uses anti-CEA MAbs, or fragments of them, coupled to radio-isotopes. This technique, called radio-immunodetection (RAID), also paved the way for immunotherapeutic procedures, where again CEA served as the target-antigen. This new technique holds great promise, provided the epitope-specificity of the MAbs is well-controlled: it has been shown that CEA belongs to a large gene-family of at least 22 members, which can be subdivided into two subgroups (i.e., the CEA- and the PSG-subgroup) and which in turn belongs to the immunoglobulin-supergene family. Great structural similarities render the distinction of the various cross-reactive molecules by immunological means rather difficult.

  10. Impact of age and sex on normal left heart structure and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagström, Linn; Henein, Michael Y; Karp, Kjell; Waldenström, Anders; Lindqvist, Per

    2017-11-01

    Accurate age- and sex-related normal reference values of ventricular structure and function are important to determine the level of dysfunction in patients. The aim of this study therefore was to document normal age range sex-related measurements of LV structural and functional measurements to serve such purpose. We evaluated left ventricular structure and function in 293 healthy subjects between 20 and 90 years with equally distributed gender. Doppler echocardiography was used including measure of both systolic and diastolic functions. Due to systolic LV function, only long axis function correlated with age (r = 0·55, P<0·01) and the correlation was stronger in females. Concerning diastolic function, there was a strong age correlation in all parameters used (r = 0·40-0·74, P<0·001). Due to LV structural changes over age, females showed a larger reduction in end-diastolic volumes, but no or trivial difference in wall thickness after the age of 60 years. Age is associated with significant normal changes in left ventricular structure and function, which should be considered when deciding on normality. These changes are related to systemic arterial changes as well as body stature, thus reflecting overall body ageing process. Furthermore, normal cardiac ageing in females might partly explain the higher prevalence of heart failure with preserved ejection in females. © 2016 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. The Power to Detect Sex Differences in IQ Test Scores Using Multi-Group Covariance and Means Structure Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molenaar, Dylan; Dolan, Conor V.; Wicherts, Jelle M.

    2009-01-01

    Research into sex differences in general intelligence, g, has resulted in two opposite views. In the first view, a g-difference is nonexistent, while in the second view, g is associated with a male advantage. Past research using Multi-Group Covariance and Mean Structure Analysis (MG-CMSA) found no sex difference in g. This failure raised the…

  12. The Association Between Family Violence and Adolescent Dating Violence Onset: Does it Vary by Race, Socioeconomic Status, and Family Structure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foshee, Vangie A.; Ennett, Susan T.; Bauman, Karl E.; Benefield, Thad; Suchindran, Chirayath

    2005-01-01

    The authors determine if the associations between family violence (corporal punishment, violence against the child with the intention of harm, and witnessing violence between parents) and adolescent dating violence vary by subgroups based on race, socioeconomic status, and family structure. This study is guided by the theoretical propositions of…

  13. Structure and novel functional mechanism of Drosophila SNF in sex-lethal splicing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jicheng Hu

    Full Text Available Sans-fille (SNF is the Drosophila homologue of mammalian general splicing factors U1A and U2B'', and it is essential in Drosophila sex determination. We found that, besides its ability to bind U1 snRNA, SNF can also bind polyuridine RNA tracts flanking the male-specific exon of the master switch gene Sex-lethal (Sxl pre-mRNA specifically, similar to Sex-lethal protein (SXL. The polyuridine RNA binding enables SNF directly inhibit Sxl exon 3 splicing, as the dominant negative mutant SNF(1621 binds U1 snRNA but not polyuridine RNA. Unlike U1A, both RNA recognition motifs (RRMs of SNF can recognize polyuridine RNA tracts independently, even though SNF and U1A share very high sequence identity and overall structure similarity. As SNF RRM1 tends to self-associate on the opposite side of the RNA binding surface, it is possible for SNF to bridge the formation of super-complexes between two introns flanking Sxl exon 3 or between a intron and U1 snRNP, which serves the molecular basis for SNF to directly regulate Sxl splicing. Taken together, a new functional model for SNF in Drosophila sex determination is proposed. The key of the new model is that SXL and SNF function similarly in promoting Sxl male-specific exon skipping with SNF being an auxiliary or backup to SXL, and it is the combined dose of SXL and SNF governs Drosophila sex determination.

  14. Inbreeding depression in an insect with maternal care: influences of family interactions, life stage and offspring sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meunier, J; Kölliker, M

    2013-10-01

    Although inbreeding is commonly known to depress individual fitness, the severity of inbreeding depression varies considerably across species. Among the factors contributing to this variation, family interactions, life stage and sex of offspring have been proposed, but their joint influence on inbreeding depression remains poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that these three factors jointly shape inbreeding depression in the European earwig, Forficula auricularia. Using a series of cross-breeding, split-clutch and brood size manipulation experiments conducted over two generations, we first showed that sib mating (leading to inbred offspring) did not influence the reproductive success of earwig parents. Second, the presence of tending mothers and the strength of sibling competition (i.e. brood size) did not influence the expression of inbreeding depression in the inbred offspring. By contrast, our results revealed that inbreeding dramatically depressed the reproductive success of inbred adult male offspring, but only had little effect on the reproductive success of inbred adult female offspring. Overall, this study demonstrates limited effects of family interactions on inbreeding depression in this species and emphasizes the importance of disentangling effects of sib mating early and late during development to better understand the evolution of mating systems and population dynamics. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2013 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  15. Early-life family structure and microbially induced cancer risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin J Blaser

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer may follow exposure to an environmental agent after many decades. The bacterium Helicobacter pylori, known to be acquired early in life, increases risk for gastric adenocarcinoma, but other factors are also important. In this study, we considered whether early-life family structure affects the risk of later developing gastric cancer among H. pylori+ men.We examined a long-term cohort of Japanese-American men followed for 28 y, and performed a nested case-control study among those carrying H. pylori or the subset carrying the most virulent cagA+ H. pylori strains to address whether family structure predicted cancer development. We found that among the men who were H. pylori+ and/or cagA+ (it is possible to be cagA+ and H. pylori- if the H. pylori test is falsely negative, belonging to a large sibship or higher birth order was associated with a significantly increased risk of developing gastric adenocarcinoma late in life. For those with cagA+ strains, the risk of developing gastric cancer was more than twice as high (odds ratio 2.2; 95% confidence interval 1.2-4.0 among those in a sibship of seven or more individuals than in a sibship of between one and three persons.These results provide evidence that early-life social environment plays a significant role in risk of microbially induced malignancies expressing five to eight decades later, and these findings lead to new models to explain these interactions.

  16. Relations between Minuchin's Structural Family Model and Kohut's Self-Psychology Constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perosa, Linda

    1996-01-01

    Examines relationship between structural family model and self-psychology constructs. College women (n=164) completed the Structural Family Interaction Scale-Revised (SFIS-R), the Parental Relations Inventory, and the Goal Instability and Superiority scales from the Self-Expression Inventory. Indicated that women raised in families with strong…

  17. Evaluation of sex-related changes in skin topography and structure using innovative skin testing equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dąbrowska, M; Mielcarek, A; Nowak, I

    2018-04-29

    Evaluation of skin condition on the basis of parametrization and objective measurements of the parameters has become obligatory. The aim of this study was to assess sex-related changes in skin topography and structure using the skin testing equipment. The study was carried out on the group of 40 volunteers (20 females and 20 males) of the mean age 24 ± 3 years. The skin parameters were measured using 3 devices: Visioscan ®  VC 98 (skin topography), Visioline ® VL 650 (skin macro relief) and Ultrascan UC22 (ultrasound imaging of the skin). All measurements were performed on the inner part of the left forearm. The skin parameters measured revealed significant differences in skin surface and structure between females and males. The skin of all women subjects was more homogenous in its structure with the presence of more abundant superficial skin lines and wrinkles in comparison to male skin. The higher number of skin furrows in the skin of women is in agreement with literature reports claiming that men's skin has lower number of wrinkles which are deeper and more pronounced. Ultrasound imaging of the skin indicated greater thickness and lower density of the dermis of men subjects compared to those of females. Non-invasive methods of skin testing using new and advanced equipment have provided a possibility of objective parametrization and evaluation of sex-related changes in skin topography and structure. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Analysis of the Problems and Educational Needs of New Family Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Arranz Freijo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to identify the concerns and support needs of several family groups corresponding to different family structures. 214 families, matching 6 different family structures, were interviewed. The results show that families are worried about their children’s health and that educational criteria are required to deal with the child-rearing process. Single and step families are worried about the fact that their children have been through processes of conflict. Adoptive families have worry about the normal psychological development of their children and require specific training to deal with the adoption process. Gay and lesbian families are concerned about the social stigma that may fall on their children. Multiple-birth families are worried about the high level of human, educational and economic resources needed to raise their children. Results highlight the need to develop educational and preventive policies aimed at families.

  19. Gender Gap in Maths Test Scores in South Korea and Hong Kong: Role of Family Background and Single-Sex Schooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Doo Hwan; Law, Helen

    2012-01-01

    In many industrialised societies, women remain underrepresented in the sciences, which can be predicted by the gender gap in math achievement at school. Using PISA 2006 data, we explore the role of family background and single-sex schooling in girls' disadvantage in maths in South Korea and Hong Kong. This disadvantage is found to be associated…

  20. Sex, Age, and Race/Ethnicity Do Not Modify the Effectiveness of a Diet Intervention among Family Members of Hospitalized Cardiovascular Disease Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochari-Greenberger, Heidi; Terry, Mary Beth; Mosca, Lori

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether effectiveness of a diet intervention for family members of cardiovascular disease patients varies by participant sex, race/ethnicity, or age because these characteristics have been associated with unique barriers to diet change. Design: Randomized controlled trial. Setting and Participants: University medical…

  1. Factorial Invariance of the Scale Beliefs about Children's Adjustment in Same-Sex Families in Spanish, Chilean, and Hispanic University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual-Soler, Marcos; Frias-Navarro, Dolores; Barrientos-Delgado, Jaime; Badenes-Ribera, Laura; Monterde-i-Bort, Hector; Cárdenas-Castro, Manuel; Berrios-Riquelme, José

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the factorial invariance of the Scale on Beliefs About Children's Adjustment in Same-Sex Families (SBCASSF) across countries in three samples: Chilean, Spanish, and Hispanic university students. The scale analyzes attitudes toward the consequences of the rearing and education of children by parents with a homosexual sexual…

  2. Poverty and Family Structure - Phase II | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    In developing countries, and in Sénégal in particular, the makeup of the family is constantly changing as new members arrive (through marriage, placement of children in the family's care, etc.) and others leave (through divorce, migration, placement of children with another family, etc.). Understanding the dynamics of ...

  3. Structural barriers to HIV prevention among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Vietnam: Diversity, stigma, and healthcare access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philbin, Morgan M; Hirsch, Jennifer S; Wilson, Patrick A; Ly, An Thanh; Giang, Le Minh; Parker, Richard G

    2018-01-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) in Vietnam experience disproportionate rates of HIV infection. To advance understanding of how structural barriers may shape their engagement with HIV prevention services, we draw on 32 in-depth interviews and four focus groups (n = 31) conducted with MSM in Hanoi between October 2015- March 2016. Three primary factors emerged: (1) Diversity, both in relation to identity and income; Vietnamese MSM described themselves as segregated into Bóng kín (hidden, often heterosexually-identified MSM) and Bóng lộ ('out,' transgender, or effeminate MSM). Lower-income, 'hidden' MSM from rural areas were reluctant to access MSM-targeted services; (2) Stigma: MSM reported being stigmatized by the healthcare system, family, and other MSM; and (3) Healthcare access: this was limited due to economic barriers and lack of MSM-friendly services. Our research suggests the need for multiple strategies to reach diverse types of MSM as well as to address barriers in access to health services such as stigma and costs. While a great deal has been written about the diversity of MSM in relation to gender performance and sexual identities, our research points to the substantial structural-level barriers that must be addressed in order to achieve meaningful and effective HIV prevention for MSM worldwide.

  4. Brain Type or Sex Differences? A structural equation model of the relation between brain type, sex, and motivation to learn science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeyer, Albert; Bölsterli, Katrin; Brovelli, Dorothee; Odermatt, Freia

    2012-03-01

    Sex is considered to be one of the most significant factors influencing attitudes towards science. However, the so-called brain type approach from cognitive science suggests that the difference in motivation to learn science does not primarily differentiate the girls from the boys, but rather the so-called systemisers from the empathizers. The present study investigates this hypothesis by using structural equation modelling on a sex-stratified sample of 500 male and female students of secondary II level. The results show, that the motivation to learn science is directly influenced by the systemizing quotient SQ, but not by sex. The impact of sex on the motivation to learn science, measured by five key concepts, only works indirectly, namely through the influence of sex on the SQ. The empathizing quotient (EQ) has no impact on the motivation to learn science. The SQ explains between 13 and 23 percent of the variation of the five key constructs. In female students, the impact of the SQ is very similar for all key concepts. In male students, it is highest for self-efficacy and lowest for assessment anxiety. The motivation to learn science is significantly larger for male students in all involved SMQ key concepts, but the difference is small. The interpretation of these findings and conclusions for science teaching and further research are discussed.

  5. Family Structure, Parent-Child Communication, and Adolescent Participation in Family Consumer Tasks and Decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachance, Marie J.; Legault, Frederic; Bujold, Neree

    2000-01-01

    A study of adolescents from single-mother (n=171) and two-parent (n=1,029) families showed that the former were more involved in family consumer tasks and decisions. The conceptual parenting style was associated with higher adolescent participation. The social style had greater impact on participation in single-parent families. (Contains 88…

  6. Family Structure, Family Processes, and Adolescent Delinquency: The Significance of Parental Absence versus Parental Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demuth, Stephen; Brown, Susan L.

    2004-01-01

    One third of all children are born to unmarried mothers and over one half of children will spend some time in a single-parent family. In fact, single-father families are the fastest growing family form. Using data from the 1995 National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent Health, the authors extend prior research that has investigated the effects of…

  7. Masculine sex ratios, population age structure and the potential spread of HIV in China

    OpenAIRE

    M. Giovanna Merli; Sara Hertog

    2010-01-01

    There is much speculation regarding the contribution of China's changing demography to the spread of HIV/AIDS. We employ a bio-behavioral macrosimulation model of the heterosexual spread of HIV/AIDS to evaluate the roles that China's unique demographic conditions -- (1) masculine sex ratios at birth and (2) a population age structure that reflects rapid fertility decline since the 1970's -- play in altering the market for sexual partners, thereby potentially fueling an increase...

  8. Family structure, family functioning and adolescent well-being: the transcendent influence of parental style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarlane, A H; Bellissimo, A; Norman, G R

    1995-07-01

    This study assessed the association between parental style, family functioning and adolescent well being, contrasting intact families with those of changed configuration. Eight hundred and one grade 10 general level teenagers in 11 high schools of a single educational system were the subjects. Results indicated that the configuration of the family was not the key determinant of effectiveness of family functioning. Instead the style of parenting turned out to be the main determinant of both family functioning and well being of the adolescents. While both "parents" were judged to have contributed to these outcomes cross gender effects were found.

  9. Attitudes Toward Same-Sex Parenting: An Effect of Gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Stephanie N; Chonody, Jill M; Kavanagh, Phillip S

    2017-01-01

    The definition of family in Australia has been continuously changing over the past four decades. The 21 st century has brought with it various images of family, with an increase of awareness to same-sex families; however, the acceptance of such family structures does not appear to be widespread and is often determined by sex. Substantive literature demonstrates differences between men and women in attitudes toward same-sex parenting, with theory suggesting that gender role norms may explain this. Despite large efforts to determine sex differences in attitudes toward same-sex parenting, little research, and even less in Australia, has been done to investigate whether there are differences in reasons behind negative attitudes toward same-sex parenting between men and women. To further this understanding, an Australian sample (N= 790) ranging in age from 18-78 completed a survey regrading attitudes toward same-sex parenting, in addition to relevant demographic information. Participants reported more positive attitudes about parenting by lesbians as compared to parenting by gay men. Reasons behind attitudes toward same-sex parenting also differed between males and females. Results suggested that the impact of socially prescribed gender norms may affect prejudice toward same-sex families. Despite an increase in tolerance for sexual minorities recently, policies that continue to discriminate against same-sex parenting rights demonstrates the importance of continuing to identify potential influences of same-sex family prejudice to reduce the potentially negative impacts associated with the prejudice.

  10. Blockholder structures and power mechanisms in family firms

    OpenAIRE

    Cacciotti, Gabriella; Ucbasaran, Deniz

    2018-01-01

    We extend the work of Fattoum-Guedri, Guedri, and Delmar (in press) by suggesting that the number of family blockholders moderates the relationship between the distribution of voting power between family and nonfamily blockholders and firm performance. Building on power and negotiation theories, we argue that the participation of multiple generations of family members in the firm’s ownership leads to greater diversity of perspectives that generates potential conflict over the distribution of ...

  11. Sex Pheromone of the Cotton Mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis, with an Unusual Cyclobutane Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabata, Jun; Ichiki, Ryoko T

    2016-11-01

    The cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis, the distribution of which was formerly limited to Nearctic and Neotropical regions, recently invaded many countries in various regions including Asia, Africa, and the Pacific. More recently, P. solenopsis was newly recorded in Japan and is currently an emerging pest of agricultural crops. In this study, we determined the structure of a sex pheromone of P. solenopsis in order to develop an effective lure for monitoring this pest. From volatiles emitted by virgin adult females, we isolated a compound attractive to males. By means of coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, we identified this as (2,2-dimethyl-3-isopropylidenecyclobutyl)methyl 3-methylbut-2-enoate. This compound was synthesized and shown to be attractive to male P. solenopsis. Analysis by gas chromatography using an enantioselective stationary phase and polarimetry analyses of the natural pheromone and synthetic enantiomers showed the natural compound to be the (R)-(-)-enantiomer. This compound is an ester of maconelliol, which has an unusual cyclobutane structure found in sex pheromones of other mealybug species, and senecioic acid, also found in the pheromones of other mealybug species. However, this is the first example of the ester of maconelliol and senecioic acid as a natural product.

  12. Electronic Structure of the Bismuth Family of High Temperature Superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, Lisa

    2002-03-07

    High temperature superconductivity remains the central intellectual problem in condensed matter physics fifteen years after its discovery. Angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) directly probes the electronic structure, and has played an important role in the field of high temperature superconductors. With the recent advances in sample growth and the photoemission technique, we are able to study the electronic structure in great detail, and address regimes that were previously inaccessible. This thesis work contains systematic photoemission studies of the electronic structure of the Bi-family of high temperature superconductors, which include the single-layer system (Bi2201), the bi-layer system (Bi2212), and the tri-layer system (Bi2223). We show that, unlike conventional BCS superconductors, phase coherence information emerges in the single particle excitation spectrum of high temperature superconductors as the superconducting peak in Bi2212. The universality and various properties of this superconducting peak are studied in various systems. We argue that the origin of the superconducting peak may provide the key to understanding the mechanism of High-Tc superconductors. In addition, we identified a new experimental energy scale in the bilayer material, the anisotropic intra-bilayer coupling energy. For a long time, it was predicted that this energy scale would cause bilayer band splitting. We observe this phenomenon, for the first time, in heavily overdoped Bi2212. This new observation requires the revision of the previous picture of the electronic excitation in the Brillouin zone boundary. As the first ARPES study of a trilayer system, various detailed electronic proper- ties of Bi2223 are examined. We show that, comparing with Bi2212, both superconducting gap and relative superconducting peak intensity become larger in Bi2223, however, the strength of the interlayer coupling within each unit cell is possibly weaker. These results suggest that the

  13. Differential Effects of Family Structure on Religion and Spirituality of Emerging Adult Males and Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handal, Paul J; Lace, John W

    2017-08-01

    This study examined measures of religion and spirituality in a sample of male and female emerging adult college students whose parents were either divorced or intact using the Personal Religious Inventory, the Duke University Religion Index, the Daily Spiritual Experiences Scale, the Spiritual Transcendence Scale, and the Spiritual Involvement and Beliefs Scale. Data were collected online, and 66% of participants received extra credit for participating. A main effect of sex was found, as females reported significantly higher scores than men on all but one measure of religion and spirituality, and the dataset was separated by sex. No differences were found between males from divorced and intact families. However, females from intact families scored significantly higher on all religion and spirituality measures than females from divorced families. This study suggests that females may respond differently than males to their parents' divorce in the context of religion and spirituality, and discusses possible reasons.

  14. Sex dependence of the components and structure of urinary calculi induced by biphenyl administration in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnishi, M; Yajima, H; Yamamoto, S; Matsushima, T; Ishii, T

    2000-08-01

    To obtain definitive information about the mechanisms of urinary calculus formation and the structural characteristics of the calculi induced by biphenyl administration in rats, with a focus on the sex dependency, the constituents of the urinary calculi were analyzed by HPLC, inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy (ICP), micro Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (mFT-IR), and ion chromatography (IC), and structural analyses were carried out by microscopy, mFT-IR, and the electron probe microanalyzer (EPMA) method. We attempted to account for the appreciably higher incidence of calculi in males than in females. mFT-IR analysis revealed that the biphenyl-induced urinary calculi in male rats are composed mainly of potassium 4-hydroxybiphenyl-o-sulfate (4-HBPOSK), whereas the calculi in female rats are composed mainly of 4-hydroxybiphenyl (4-HBP) and KHSO(4) produced by the hydrolysis of 4-HBPOSK. Observations of photomicrographs and the results of mFT-IR analysis indicated that the calculi in males have a multilayer structure consisting of alternating layers of 4-HBPOSK and calcium phosphate, whereas the calculi in females have no multilayer structure, but open holes in which needle-shaped crystals are present in some places. In view of the results of these analyses, including the EPMA analysis, it appears that calculus formation in males may involve a series of successive and irreversible reactions, whereas calculus formation in females may result from a series of reversible reactions, including the hydrolysis of 4-HBPOSK. It was inferred that the series of irreversible reactions involved in calculus formation in males is relatively more stable than that in the case of females, and thus, a sex difference in the reaction features may be responsible for the observed difference in the incidence of calculus formation.

  15. Structural factors associated with methamphetamine smoking among female sex workers in Tijuana, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conners, Erin E; Gaines, Tommi L; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; Brouwer, Kimberly C

    2018-04-01

    Smoking methamphetamine is associated with increased risk of HIV among female sex workers (FSW). The structural context of substance use is an important shaper of individual behaviour; however, structural determinants of methamphetamine use among FSWs are largely unknown. We identified individual, structural and neighbourhood factors associated with smoking methamphetamine among FSWs in the border city of Tijuana, Baja California, Mexico. A prospective cohort of 301 FSWs sampled from indoor and outdoor sex work venues throughout Tijuana participated in quantitative surveys on behaviours and mapping of home and work neighbourhoods across three visits. Multinomial logistic regression using generalised estimating equations identified individual, structural and neighbourhood variables associated with smoking methamphetamine. Methamphetamine use, particularly smoking, was highly prevalent among FSWs. Over half (61%) of FSWs had ever used methamphetamine in their lifetime and at baseline, 38% currently smoked methamphetamine. Smoking methamphetamine daily was associated with living in the red light district [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 2.72, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.23-6.02] and with perceived homelessness, but only among women in a good financial situation (AOR = 4.08, 95% CI = 1.58-10.50). Smoking methamphetamine less than daily was associated with older age (AOR = 1.06, 95% CI = 1.02-1.10). Our findings point to the important dynamic between the residential environment and more severe methamphetamine use. FSWs may prioritise the purchase of methamphetamine over stable housing if they have the financial means. Given the high prevalence of smoking methamphetamine among FSWs in Tijuana, drug treatment options, especially for women living in the red light district, are needed. © 2017 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  16. Family Structure and Home-Leaving: A Further Specification of the Relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquilino, William S.

    1991-01-01

    Investigated impact of childhood family structure on timing of home-leaving. Data from 1988 National Survey of Families and Households suggest that exposure to nonintact family living during childhood raises likelihood of home-leaving prior to age 19. Adopted children and children who lived in nonparental situations were most likely to leave…

  17. Does Family Structure Affect Children's Educational Outcomes? NBER Working Paper Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollak, Robert A.; Ginther, Donna K.

    This paper examines correlations between children's educational outcomes and family structure. Although popular discussions focus on distinctions between two-parent and single-parent families, earlier research shows that outcomes for stepchildren are similar to outcomes for children in single-parent families, and earlier researchers suggested that…

  18. Informal Mealtime Pedagogies: Exploring the Influence of Family Structure on Young People's Healthy Eating Dispositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quarmby, Thomas; Dagkas, Symeon

    2015-01-01

    Families are increasingly recognised as informal sites of learning, especially with regard to healthy eating. Through the use of Bourdieu's conceptual tools, this paper explores the role of family meals within different family structures and the informal pedagogic encounters that take place. How they help to construct young people's healthy eating…

  19. Family Structure and Functions Identified by Persons Living with HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong-Wylie, Gina; Doherty-Poirier, Maryanne; Kieren, Dianne

    1999-01-01

    A study looked at the structural and functional aspects of family from the perspective of six people living with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) or human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Results showing how HIV/AIDS affects all members of the sufferer's family have implications for family practitioners. (Author/JOW)

  20. A Longitudinal Study of Family Structure and Size and Adoption Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Richard P.; Brooks, Devon

    1997-01-01

    This follow-up study of international and domestic adoptions, involving participants first studied in 1981, investigated the role of family size and structure, particularly the presence of both biological and adopted children in a family, on adoption outcomes. Data suggested that families who adopt children and have birth children may have less…

  1. The Family in the Structure of Values of Young People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rean, A. A.

    2018-01-01

    Despite the fact that the family is extremely significant in the system of values of young people (in Russia), the number of divorces is increasing in this population group. Our analysis of this contradiction establishes that young people need to be specially prepared for family life. The paper presents the results of a large empirical study…

  2. Family structure and upbringing as factors of intellectual development of preschool children

    OpenAIRE

    Golovey L.A.; Savenysheva S.S.; Engelgardt E.E.

    2016-01-01

    The paper is devoted to investigation of the influence of the family structure and family attitudes, child-parent relationship, styles of family upbringing on the intellectual develop- ment of pre-school-age children. Attention is paid to the analysis of the influence of parents and children gender. The sample included 150 children, 150 mothers and 75 fathers, all the families live in St. Petersburg. Results of the study reveal a significantly greater influence of the child's parent-child rel...

  3. Family Structure Transitions and Child Development: Instability, Selection, and Population Heterogeneity

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Dohoon; McLanahan, Sara

    2015-01-01

    A growing literature documents the importance of family instability for child wellbeing. In this article, we use longitudinal data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study to examine the impacts of family instability on children’s cognitive and socioemotional development in early and middle childhood. We extend existing research in several ways: (1) by distinguishing between the number and types of family structure changes; (2) by accounting for time-varying as well as time-constan...

  4. Modeling the Dynamical Structure of the Haumea Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proudfoot, Benjamin; Ragozzine, Darin

    2018-04-01

    Collisions are known to be critical in explaining the full story of the outer Solar System. The dwarf planet Haumea provides a unique empirical view into this, as Haumea is the only known example of a collisional family in the Kuiper Belt. Although there have been many Haumea formation hypotheses presented in the literature, none are fully self-consistent. In particular, it is challenging to explain the low ejection velocity of the family. With the addition of many new Haumea family members (Maggard & Ragozzine 2018, in prep.), we further investigate how we can use collision models to recreate the current dynamical distribution of Haumea family members in (proper) a-e-i-dv-H space. Using synthetic families created using different collision models, we use a Bayesian methodology to infer the posterior distribution of our model parameters that best matches the current family. Our newest results continue to exclude the planar distribution of family members that would result from a ‘graze-and-merge’ type collision (e.g., Leinhardt et al. 2010) based on a lack of a-e-i correlation (Proudfoot & Ragozzine, DPS 2017, DDA 2017). We present here our results from more models. We have also validated a statistical method for automatically and self-consistently identifying interlopers from the background population.

  5. Family structure and dynamics in DePalma's horror films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, N G

    1983-01-01

    An analysis of the familial relationships in Brian DePalma's five major horror films reveals a persistent unconscious fantasy formation involving the nuclear family. These single-parent, only-child families are all tragically destroyed because of an inability to adequately mourn the absent parent. Although the asexual young adults in the films are spared the completely disastrous effects of madness and violence, they are still psychologically traumatized. This hidden subtextual theme involving the family parallels DePalma's bleak view of authority figures outside the home, as well as American society in general. Adequate identity formation requires that people both inside and outside the family accept the adolescent as a separate person. The grim psychological truth threading its way throughout DePalma's horror films is that these young adults are psychically devastated by the effects of a primitive, fused symbiotic relationship in interaction with a society that does not provide an adequate role for the developing person. Consequently, their attempt to psychologically move outside the family, which includes the maturation of their sexuality, results in the destruction of the family itself.

  6. Going nuclear? Family structure and young women's health in India, 1992-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allendorf, Keera

    2013-06-01

    Scholars traditionally argued that industrialization, urbanization, and educational expansion lead to a decline in extended families and complementary rise in nuclear families. Some have suggested that such transitions are good for young married women because living in nuclear families benefits their health. However, extended families may also present advantages for young women's health that outweigh any disadvantages. Using the Indian National Family Health Survey, this article examines whether young married women living in nuclear families have better health than those in patrilocal extended families. It also examines whether young married women's living arrangements are changing over time and, if so, how such changes will affect their health. Results show that young married women living in nuclear families do not have better health than those in patrilocal extended families. Of eight health outcomes examined, only five differ significantly by family structure. Further, of the five outcomes that differ, four are patrilocal extended-family advantages and only one is a nuclear-family advantage. From 1992 to 2006, the percentage of young married women residing in nuclear families increased, although the majority remained in patrilocal extended families. This trend toward nuclear families will not benefit young women's health.

  7. A Review of Parent-Based Barriers to Parent-Adolescent Communication about Sex and Sexuality: Implications for Sex and Family Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malacane, Mona; Beckmeyer, Jonathon J.

    2016-01-01

    Although adolescents' sexual health is generally better when parents and adolescents communicate about sex and sexuality, researchers have found parents can be reluctant to engage adolescents in conversations about those topics. To better understand why, we reviewed prior literature and identified four types of parent-based barriers to…

  8. Family boundary structures and child adjustment: the indirect role of emotional reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindahl, Kristin M; Bregman, Hallie R; Malik, Neena M

    2012-12-01

    Structural and system theories propose that disruptions in family subsystem functioning increase risk for youth maladjustment. While there is growing evidence to support this proposition, studies that specifically focus on the larger family system remain relatively rare. Furthermore, the pathways that connect problems in family subsystem alliances to externalizing or internalizing problems in youth are as yet largely unexplored. This study examined youth emotional reactivity (anger and sadness) to family conflict as an indirect pathway of the association between family boundary disturbances and youth adjustment in a sample of two-parent families (N = 270). Observational coding was used to group families into Balanced, Dyadic, or Disengaged family alliance structures and to assess youth emotional reactivity, and parent-report was used to assess youth psychopathology. Structural equation modeling indicated both anger and sadness served as indirect pathways through which family boundary disturbances are linked with youth adjustment. In addition, gender was tested as a moderator and important gender differences were found. Specifically, boys were directly impacted by dyadic disturbances while girls were directly impacted by family disengagement. The findings help target goals for intervention and indicate that worthwhile objectives may include realigning family subsystem boundaries, changing family communication patterns, and improving affective coping skills for youth. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  9. Mitochondrial DNA paradox: sex-specific genetic structure in a marine mussel – despite maternal inheritance and passive dispersal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teske Peter R

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background When genetic structure is identified using mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA, but no structure is identified using biparentally-inherited nuclear DNA, the discordance is often attributed to differences in dispersal potential between the sexes. Results We sampled the intertidal rocky shore mussel Perna perna in a South African bay and along the nearby open coast, and sequenced maternally-inherited mtDNA (there is no evidence for paternally-inherited mtDNA in this species and a biparentally-inherited marker. By treating males and females as different populations, we identified significant genetic structure on the basis of mtDNA data in the females only. Conclusions This is the first study to report sex-specific differences in genetic structure based on matrilineally-inherited mtDNA in a passively dispersing species that lacks social structure or sexual dimorphism. The observed pattern most likely stems from females being more vulnerable to selection in habitats from which they did not originate, which also manifests itself in a male-biased sex ratio. Our results have three important implications for the interpretation of population genetic data. First, even when mtDNA is inherited exclusively in the female line, it also contains information about males. For that reason, using it to identify sex-specific differences in genetic structure by contrasting it with biparentally-inherited markers is problematic. Second, the fact that sex-specific differences were found in a passively dispersing species in which sex-biased dispersal is unlikely highlights the fact that significant genetic structure is not necessarily a function of low dispersal potential or physical barriers. Third, even though mtDNA is typically used to study historical demographic processes, it also contains information about contemporary processes. Higher survival rates of males in non-native habitats can erase the genetic structure present in their mothers within a single

  10. Gamma radiation effects on the structure of the sex pheromone producing gland in the female Trogoderma Granarium Everts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gharib, O.H.; Elnaggar, S.E.M.; Abdelkawy, F.K.

    1993-01-01

    Effect of gamma irradiation on the structure of the sex pheromone producing gland in 2-day-old females, Trogoderma Granarium Everts was investigated. With the sub sterilizing doses 20 and 40 Gray, the structure started to be destroyed and became undistinguished as well as the sterilizing dose 60 Gray caused complete damage and the glandular tissue appeared as a narrow ribbon. 4 fig

  11. The Likelihood of Parent-Adult Child Coresidence: Effects of Family Structure and Parental Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquilino, William S.

    1990-01-01

    Estimated influence of child, parent, and family structural characteristics on likelihood of parents having coresident adult child, based on national sample of 4,893 parents. Results indicated most parents maintained own households and most parents and adult children who coresided lived in parents' home. Family structure was found to exert strong…

  12. New families of human regulatory RNA structures identified by comparative analysis of vertebrate genomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parker, Brian John; Moltke, Ida; Roth, Adam

    2011-01-01

    a comparative method, EvoFam, for genome-wide identification of families of regulatory RNA structures, based on primary sequence and secondary structure similarity. We apply EvoFam to a 41-way genomic vertebrate alignment. Genome-wide, we identify 220 human, high-confidence families outside protein...

  13. The Effects of Family Structure on African American Adolescents' Marijuana Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandara, Jelani; Rogers, Sheba Y.; Zinbarg, Richard E.

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between family structure and marijuana use throughout adolescence was assessed among 1,069 African Americans from the NLSY. A model was also tested suggesting that the effects of family structure on marijuana use would be mediated by poverty, neighborhood quality, and adolescents' self-control. As most prior studies have found,…

  14. Effects of gonadal sex and incubation temperature on the ontogeny of gonadal steroid concentrations and secondary sex structures in leopard geckos, Eublepharis macularius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhen, Turk; Sakata, Jon T; Crews, David

    2005-07-01

    Incubation temperature during embryonic development determines gonadal sex in the leopard gecko (Eublepharis macularius). Incubation temperature and gonadal sex jointly influence the display of sexual and agonistic behavior in adult leopard geckos. These differences in adult behavior are organized prior to sexual maturity, and it is plausible that post-natal hormones influence neural and behavioral differentiation. Here we assessed incubation temperature and sex effects on sex steroid levels in leopard geckos at 2, 10, and 25 weeks of age and monitored the development of male secondary sex structures. Males had significantly higher androgen concentrations at all time points, whereas females had significantly higher 17beta-estradiol (E2) concentrations only at 10 and 25 weeks. Within males, age but not incubation temperature affected steroid levels and morphological development. Male androgen levels increased modestly by 10 and dramatically by 25 weeks of age, whereas E2 levels remained unchanged over this period. Most males had signs of hemipenes at 10 weeks of age, and all males had hemipenes and open preanal pores by 25 weeks of age. In females, age and incubation temperature affected E2 and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) but not T concentrations. Controlling for age, females from 34 degrees C have higher DHT and lower E2 levels than females from 30 degrees C. Further, E2 concentrations increased significantly from 2 to 10 weeks, after which E2 levels remained steady. Together, these results indicate that sexually dimorphic levels of steroids play a major role in the development of leopard gecko behavior and morphology. Furthermore, these data suggest that the organizational effects of incubation temperature on adult female phenotype could be, in part, mediated by incubation temperature effects on steroid hormone levels during juvenile development.

  15. Family Structure and Children's Schooling in sub-Saharan Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    imply that women should be free to choose this role and that men should be ... of wage labour impelled men who were instrumental in the family production .... like urban residence, education, and a smaller spousal age gap it has been.

  16. Family Structure as a Correlate of Organized Sport Participation among Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, Rachel; McIsaac, Michael; Janssen, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Organized sport is one way that youth participate in physical activity. There are disparities in organized sport participation by family-related factors. The purpose of this study was to determine whether non-traditional family structure and physical custody arrangements are associated with organized sport participation in youth, and if so whether this relationship is mediated by socioeconomic status. Data were from the 2009-10 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children survey, a nationally representative cross-section of Canadian youth in grades 6-10 (N = 21,201). Information on family structure was derived from three survey items that asked participants the number of adults they lived with, their relationship to these adults, and if applicable, how often they visited another parent outside their home. Participants were asked whether or not they were currently involved in an organized sport. Logistic regression was used to compare the odds of organized sport participation according to family structure. Bootstrap-based mediation analysis was used to assess mediation by perceived family wealth. The results indicated that by comparison to traditional families, boys and girls from reconstituted families with irregular visitation of a second parent, reconstituted families with regular visitation of a second parent, single-parent families with irregular visitation of a second parent, and single-parent families with regular visitation of a second parent were less likely to participate in organized sport than those from traditional families, with odds ratios ranging from 0.48 (95% confidence interval: 0.38-0.61) to 0.78 (95% confidence interval: 0.56-1.08). The relationship between family structure and organized sport was significantly mediated by perceived family wealth, although the magnitude of the mediation was modest (ie, reconstituted families experienced significant disparities in organized sport participation that was partially mediated by perceived family wealth.

  17. Family Structure as a Correlate of Organized Sport Participation among Youth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel McMillan

    Full Text Available Organized sport is one way that youth participate in physical activity. There are disparities in organized sport participation by family-related factors. The purpose of this study was to determine whether non-traditional family structure and physical custody arrangements are associated with organized sport participation in youth, and if so whether this relationship is mediated by socioeconomic status. Data were from the 2009-10 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children survey, a nationally representative cross-section of Canadian youth in grades 6-10 (N = 21,201. Information on family structure was derived from three survey items that asked participants the number of adults they lived with, their relationship to these adults, and if applicable, how often they visited another parent outside their home. Participants were asked whether or not they were currently involved in an organized sport. Logistic regression was used to compare the odds of organized sport participation according to family structure. Bootstrap-based mediation analysis was used to assess mediation by perceived family wealth. The results indicated that by comparison to traditional families, boys and girls from reconstituted families with irregular visitation of a second parent, reconstituted families with regular visitation of a second parent, single-parent families with irregular visitation of a second parent, and single-parent families with regular visitation of a second parent were less likely to participate in organized sport than those from traditional families, with odds ratios ranging from 0.48 (95% confidence interval: 0.38-0.61 to 0.78 (95% confidence interval: 0.56-1.08. The relationship between family structure and organized sport was significantly mediated by perceived family wealth, although the magnitude of the mediation was modest (ie, <20% change in effect estimate. In conclusion, youth living in both single-parent and reconstituted families experienced significant

  18. Intelligence and family marital structure: the case of adolescents from monogamous and polygamous families among Bedouin Arabs in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbedour, Salman; Bart, William M; Hektner, Joel

    2003-02-01

    The levels of intelligence among Bedouin Arab adolescents from monogamous and polygamous families living in the Negev region of Israel were examined. A shortened version of the Raven's Progressive Matrices (RPM) test (S. Elbedour, T. J. Bouchard, & Y. Hur, 1997; J. Raven, J. C. Raven, & J. H. Court, 1998) was used to assess intelligence. There were no significant test score differences between adolescents from monogamous families and adolescents from polygamous families. In addition, participants with 2 mothers tended to have lower RPM scores than those with 3 or 4 mothers, and participants with related parents tended to have lower RPM scores than participants with unrelated parents. One major finding of this study is that polygamous family marital structures tended not to have deleterious effects on the Bedouin Arab adolescents' RPM test scores.

  19. Same-sex parenting, assisted reproduction and gender asymmetry: reflecting on the differential effects of legislation on gay and lesbian family formation in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elixabete Imaz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article takes an anthropological approach to examine how laws governing family formation in Spain affect same-sex couples seeking to become parents, in particular the cultural causes and implications of such laws. It highlights how the same laws are has a different impact on gay couples and lesbian couples. Legislation combines with other factors to favour and expand the possibilities of accessing motherhood for women in lesbian couples while limiting the possibilities of parenthood for men in gay couples. Moreover, the persistence of certain cultural models of fatherhood and motherhood can be observed, which further constrain parenthood access options and the forming of new family models.

  20. A Mathematical Model of Complacency in HIV/AIDS Scenario: Sex-Structure Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gbolahan BOLARIN

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study we use sex-structure approach to examine the effect of complacent sexual behaviour (risky sexual activities on the rate of infection of HIV/AIDS in a population. We partitioned the population into two classes (male and female represented by to express our model equation as a set of differential equations. We were able to express the number of AIDS cases (male and female as linear functions that depend on the number of AIDS patient present in the population. We were also able to determine the equilibra states of the model. We found that the Basic Reproduction Number (R0, which is the number of secondary infections due to introduction of infective into the population of both female and male partitions of the population is given as R0=sqrt(R0fRom.

  1. Violence, stigma and mental health among female sex workers in China: A structural equation modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liying; Li, Xiaoming; Wang, Bo; Shen, Zhiyong; Zhou, Yuejiao; Xu, Jinping; Tang, Zhenzhu; Stanton, Bonita

    2017-07-01

    Intimate partner violence is prevalent among female sex workers (FSWs) in China, and it is significantly associated with mental health problems among FSWs. However, limited studies have explored the mechanisms/process by which violence affects mental health. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships among partner violence, internalized stigma, and mental health problems among FSWs. Data were collected using a self-administered cross-sectional survey administered to 1,022 FSWs in the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region (Guangxi), China during 2008-2009. We used structural equation modeling to test the hypothesized relationships. Results indicated that violence perpetrated by either stable sexual partners or clients was directly and positively associated with mental health problems. Violence also had an indirect relation to mental health problems through stigma. Results highlight the need for interventions on counseling and care for FSWs who have experienced violence and for interventions to increase FSWs' coping skills and empowerment strategies.

  2. Children's representations of multiple family relationships: organizational structure and development in early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schermerhorn, Alice C; Cummings, E Mark; Davies, Patrick T

    2008-02-01

    The authors examine mutual family influence processes at the level of children's representations of multiple family relationships, as well as the structure of those representations. From a community sample with 3 waves, each spaced 1 year apart, kindergarten-age children (105 boys and 127 girls) completed a story-stem completion task, tapping representations of multiple family relationships. Structural equation modeling with autoregressive controls indicated that representational processes involving different family relationships were interrelated over time, including links between children's representations of marital conflict and reactions to conflict, between representations of security about marital conflict and parent-child relationships, and between representations of security in father-child and mother-child relationships. Mixed support was found for notions of increasing stability in representations during this developmental period. Results are discussed in terms of notions of transactional family dynamics, including family-wide perspectives on mutual influence processes attributable to multiple family relationships.

  3. A Review of the Structural Characteristics of Family Meals with Children in the United States12

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Mary Beth; Robson, Shannon M; Stark, Lori J

    2016-01-01

    Family meals are associated with a range of positive outcomes among children and adolescents. There is inconsistency, however, in the way in which studies have defined and measured family meals. Therefore, a systematic review of the literature was conducted to determine how studies describe family meals with the use of structural characteristics. The current review focused on studies in the United States that included children ages 2–18 y. A total of 33 studies were identified that characterized family meals with the use of ≥1 of the following structural features: frequency or mean number of family meals per week, length of family meal, people present at meal, and where meals occurred. No study characterized family meals by using all 4 family meal features, whereas most studies (81%) characterized family meals by using frequency or mean number of meals per week. Findings not only provide an initial understanding of the structural features used to define family meals but also point to the importance of developing a more comprehensive, sensitive assessment that can accurately capture the complex and multidimensional nature of family meals. PMID:27422500

  4. An estimated 5% of new protein structures solved today represent a new Pfam family

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mistry, Jaina; Kloppmann, Edda; Rost, Burkhard; Punta, Marco

    2013-01-01

    This study uses the Pfam database to show that the sequence redundancy of protein structures deposited in the PDB is increasing. The possible reasons behind this trend are discussed. High-resolution structural knowledge is key to understanding how proteins function at the molecular level. The number of entries in the Protein Data Bank (PDB), the repository of all publicly available protein structures, continues to increase, with more than 8000 structures released in 2012 alone. The authors of this article have studied how structural coverage of the protein-sequence space has changed over time by monitoring the number of Pfam families that acquired their first representative structure each year from 1976 to 2012. Twenty years ago, for every 100 new PDB entries released, an estimated 20 Pfam families acquired their first structure. By 2012, this decreased to only about five families per 100 structures. The reasons behind the slower pace at which previously uncharacterized families are being structurally covered were investigated. It was found that although more than 50% of current Pfam families are still without a structural representative, this set is enriched in families that are small, functionally uncharacterized or rich in problem features such as intrinsically disordered and transmembrane regions. While these are important constraints, the reasons why it may not yet be time to give up the pursuit of a targeted but more comprehensive structural coverage of the protein-sequence space are discussed

  5. Family Structure Transitions and Child Development: Instability, Selection, and Population Heterogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dohoon; McLanahan, Sara

    2015-08-01

    A growing literature documents the importance of family instability for child wellbeing. In this article, we use longitudinal data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study to examine the impacts of family instability on children's cognitive and socioemotional development in early and middle childhood. We extend existing research in several ways: (1) by distinguishing between the number and types of family structure changes; (2) by accounting for time-varying as well as time-constant confounding; and (3) by assessing racial/ethnic and gender differences in family instability effects. Our results indicate that family instability has a causal effect on children's development, but the effect depends on the type of change, the outcome assessed, and the population examined. Generally speaking, transitions out of a two-parent family are more negative for children's development than transitions into a two-parent family. The effect of family instability is stronger for children's socioemotional development than for their cognitive achievement. For socioemotional development, transitions out of a two-parent family are more negative for white children, whereas transitions into a two-parent family are more negative for Hispanic children. These findings suggest that future research should pay more attention to the type of family structure transition and to population heterogeneity.

  6. Reanalysis of Asteroid Families Structure Through Visible Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mothé-Diniz, T.; Carvano, J.; Roig, F.; Lazzaro, D.

    In this work we re-analyse the presence of interlopers in asteroid families based on a larger spectral database and on a family determination which makes use of a larger set of proper elements. The asteroid families were defined using the HCM method (Zappalà et al. 1995) on the set of proper elements for 110,000 asteroids available at the Asteroid Dynamic Site (AstDyS http://hamilton.dm.unipi.it/astdys )). The spectroscopic analysis is performed using spectra on the 0.44-0.92 μ m range observed by the SMASS Xu et al. 1995, SMASSII (Bus and Binzel, 2002) and 3OS2 (Lazzaro et al. 2002) surveys, which together total around 2140 asteroids with observed spectra. The asteroid taxonomy used is the Bus taxonomy (Bus et al. 2000). A total of 22 two families were analysed . The families of Vesta, Eunomia, Hoffmeister, Dora, Merxia, Agnia, and Koronis were found to be spectrally homogeneous, which confirms previous studies. The Veritas family, on the other hand, which is quoted in the literature as an heterogeneous family was found to be quite homogeneous in the present work. The Eos family is noteworthy for being at one time spectrally heterogeneous and quite different from the background population. References Bus, S. J., and R. P. Binzel 2002. Phase II of the Small Main-Belt Asteroid Spectroscopic Survey - The Observations. Icarus 158, 106-145. Bus, S. J., R. P. Binzel, and T. H. Burbine 2000. A New Generation of Asteroid Taxonomy. Meteoritics and Planetary Science, vol. 35, Supplement, p.A36 35, 36 +. Lazzaro, D., C. A. Angeli, T. Mothe-Diniz, J. M. Carvano, R. Duffard, and M. Florczak 2002. The superficial characterization of a large sample of asteroids: the S3OS2. Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society 34, 859 +. Xu, S., R. P. Binzel, T. H. Burbine, and S. J. Bus 1995. Small main-belt asteroid spectroscopic survey: Initial results. Icarus 115, 1-35. Zappala, V., P. Bendjoya, A. Cellino, P. Farinella, and C. Froeschle 1995. Asteroid families: Search of a 12

  7. New families of human regulatory RNA structures identified by comparative analysis of vertebrate genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Brian J; Moltke, Ida; Roth, Adam; Washietl, Stefan; Wen, Jiayu; Kellis, Manolis; Breaker, Ronald; Pedersen, Jakob Skou

    2011-11-01

    Regulatory RNA structures are often members of families with multiple paralogous instances across the genome. Family members share functional and structural properties, which allow them to be studied as a whole, facilitating both bioinformatic and experimental characterization. We have developed a comparative method, EvoFam, for genome-wide identification of families of regulatory RNA structures, based on primary sequence and secondary structure similarity. We apply EvoFam to a 41-way genomic vertebrate alignment. Genome-wide, we identify 220 human, high-confidence families outside protein-coding regions comprising 725 individual structures, including 48 families with known structural RNA elements. Known families identified include both noncoding RNAs, e.g., miRNAs and the recently identified MALAT1/MEN β lincRNA family; and cis-regulatory structures, e.g., iron-responsive elements. We also identify tens of new families supported by strong evolutionary evidence and other statistical evidence, such as GO term enrichments. For some of these, detailed analysis has led to the formulation of specific functional hypotheses. Examples include two hypothesized auto-regulatory feedback mechanisms: one involving six long hairpins in the 3'-UTR of MAT2A, a key metabolic gene that produces the primary human methyl donor S-adenosylmethionine; the other involving a tRNA-like structure in the intron of the tRNA maturation gene POP1. We experimentally validate the predicted MAT2A structures. Finally, we identify potential new regulatory networks, including large families of short hairpins enriched in immunity-related genes, e.g., TNF, FOS, and CTLA4, which include known transcript destabilizing elements. Our findings exemplify the diversity of post-transcriptional regulation and provide a resource for further characterization of new regulatory mechanisms and families of noncoding RNAs.

  8. Sex, Temperament, and Family Context: How the Interaction of Early Factors Differentially Predict Adolescent Alcohol Use and Are Mediated by Proximal Adolescent Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burk, Linnea R.; Armstrong, Jeffrey M.; Goldsmith, H. Hill; Klein, Marjorie H.; Strauman, Timothy J.; Costanzo, Phillip; Essex, Marilyn J.

    2011-01-01

    Adolescent alcohol use is common and has serious immediate and long-term ramifications. While concurrent individual and context factors are robustly associated with adolescent alcohol use, the influence of early childhood factors, particularly in interaction with child sex, are less clear. Using a prospective community sample of 362 (190 girls), this study investigated sex differences in the joint influence of distal childhood and proximal adolescent factors on Grade 10 alcohol use. All risk factors and 2-way early individual-by-context interactions, and interactions of each of these with child sex, were entered into the initial regression. Significant sex interactions prompted the use of separate models for girls and boys. In addition to the identification of early (family socioeconomic status, authoritative parenting style) and proximal adolescent (mental health symptoms, deviant friends) risk factors for both girls and boys, results highlighted important sex differences. In particular, girls with higher alcohol consumption at Grade 10 were distinguished by the interaction of early temperamental disinhibition and exposure to parental stress; boys with higher alcohol consumption at Grade 10 were distinguished primarily by early temperamental negative affect. Results have implications for the timing and type of interventions offered to adolescents. PMID:21443307

  9. Sex, temperament, and family context: how the interaction of early factors differentially predict adolescent alcohol use and are mediated by proximal adolescent factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burk, Linnea R; Armstrong, Jeffrey M; Goldsmith, H Hill; Klein, Marjorie H; Strauman, Timothy J; Costanzo, Phillip; Essex, Marilyn J

    2011-03-01

    Adolescent alcohol use is common and has serious immediate and long-term ramifications. While concurrent individual and context factors are robustly associated with adolescent alcohol use, the influence of early childhood factors, particularly in interaction with child sex, are less clear. Using a prospective community sample of 362 (190 girls), this study investigated sex differences in the joint influence of distal childhood and proximal adolescent factors on Grade 10 alcohol use. All risk factors and two-way early individual-by-context interactions, and interactions of each of these with child sex, were entered into the initial regression. Significant sex interactions prompted the use of separate models for girls and boys. In addition to the identification of early (family socioeconomic status, authoritative parenting style) and proximal adolescent (mental health symptoms, deviant friends) risk factors for both girls and boys, results highlighted important sex differences. In particular, girls with higher alcohol consumption at Grade 10 were distinguished by the interaction of early temperamental disinhibition and exposure to parental stress; boys with higher alcohol consumption at Grade 10 were distinguished primarily by early temperamental negative affect. Results have implications for the timing and type of interventions offered to adolescents.

  10. Structural and interpersonal characteristics of family meals: associations with adolescent body mass index and dietary patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Jerica M; Jin, Seok Won; Hannan, Peter; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2013-06-01

    The last decade of research has suggested that family meals play an important role in promoting healthful dietary intake in youth. However, little is known about the structural characteristics and interpersonal dynamics of family meals that might help to inform why family meals are protective for youth. The current mixed methods, cross-sectional study conducted in 2010-2011 includes adolescents and parents who participated in two linked population-based studies. Participants included 40 parents (91.5% female) and adolescents (57.5% female) from the Minneapolis/St Paul, MN, area participating in EAT (Eating and Activity Among Teens) 2010 and F-EAT (Families and Eating and Activity Among Teens). The structural (eg, length of the meal, types of foods served) and interpersonal characteristics (eg, communication, emotion/affect management) of family meals were described, and associations between interpersonal dynamics at family meals and adolescent body mass index and dietary intake were examined via direct observational methods. Families were videorecorded during two mealtimes in their homes. Results indicated that family meals were approximately 20 minutes in length, included multiple family members, were typically served family style (70%), and occurred in the kitchen 62% of the time and 38% of the time in another room (eg, family room, office). In addition, significant associations were found between positive interpersonal dynamics (ie, communication, affect management, interpersonal involvement, overall family functioning) at family meals and lower adolescent body mass index and higher vegetable intake. These findings add to the growing body of literature on family meals by providing a better understanding of what is happening at family meals in order to inform obesity-prevention studies and recommendations for providers working with families of youth. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Micro-level social and structural factors act synergistically to increase HIV risk among Nepalese female sex workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deuba, Keshab; Anderson, Sarah; Ekström, Anna Mia; Pandey, Satish Raj; Shrestha, Rachana; Karki, Deepak Kumar; Marrone, Gaetano

    2016-08-01

    Sex workers face stigma, discrimination, and violence across the globe and are almost 14 times more likely to be HIV-infected than other women in low- and middle-income countries. In Asia, condom campaigns at brothels have been effective in some settings, but for preventive interventions to be sustainable, it is important to understand micro-level social and structural factors that influence sexual behaviours of sex workers. This study assessed the syndemic effects of micro-level social and structural factors of unprotected sex and the prevalence of HIV among female sex workers (FSWs) in Nepal. This quantitative study included 610 FSWs who were recruited using two-stage cluster sampling from September to November 2012 in 22 Terai Highway districts of Nepal. Rapid HIV tests and face-to-face interviews were conducted to collect biological and behavioural information. A count of physical (sexual violence and other undesirable events), social (poor social support and condom negotiation skills), and economic (unprotected sex to make more money) factors that operate at the micro-level was calculated to test the additive relationship to unprotected sex. The HIV prevalence was 1%; this is presumably representative, with a large sample of FSWs in Nepal. The prevalence of unprotected sex with clients was high (24%). For each additional adverse physical, social, and economic condition, the probability of non-use of condoms with clients increased substantially: one problem = 12% (psocial, and economic environments increased the risk of unprotected sex among Nepalese FSWs. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Family policies in the context of low fertility and social structure

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Fent; Belinda Aparicio Diaz; Alexia Fürnkranz-Prskawetz

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the effectiveness of family policies in the context of the structure of a society. We use an agent-based model to analyse the impact of policies on individual fertility decisions and on fertility at the aggregate level. The crucial features of our model are the interactions between family policies and social structure, the agents´ heterogeneity and the structure and influence of the social network. This modelling framework allows us to disentangle the direct effec...

  13. Dyspareunia: Painful Sex for Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safety Injury Rehabilitation Emotional Well-Being Mental Health Sex and Birth Control Sex and Sexuality Birth Control Family Health Infants and ... Share Print What is dyspareunia? Dyspareunia is painful sex for women. Also, it causes pain during tampon ...

  14. Overview of the family structure in Egypt and its relation to psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okasha, Tarek; Elkholy, Hussien; El-Ghamry, Reem

    2012-04-01

    The family is the basic unit of any society and culture. The concept, structure, and function of the family unit vary considerably across different cultures; however, its role continues to be imperative to the development of individuals and their psychological make-up. All societies have a concept of 'family', its relative importance, structure, and functions; however, this varies according to the particular culture. In the Arabic culture, as well as other collectivistic cultures, the extended family is often regarded as the basic unit. The family is the foundational and basic social unit that fosters the stability, well-being and sustainability of society. The quality of family relationships shapes and influences the social, psychological, and biological development and functioning of its members. This may be especially relevant to individuals with mental health problems. The people of ancient Egypt valued family life highly, and this is the case even now. They treasured children and regarded them as a great blessing. If a couple had no children, they would pray to the gods and goddesses for help. They would also place letters at the tombs of dead relatives asking them to use their influence with the gods. The importance of family has not changed dramatically even though the structures are beginning to. In this paper we highlight changes in family set-up and the state of family therapy in Egypt.

  15. Children's Home Environments: Understanding the Role of Family Structure Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowaleski-Jones, Lori; Dunifon, Rachel

    2004-01-01

    Using data from the 1996 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79) merged mother-child sample, we investigate the impact of two family events, parental divorce and the birth of a sibling, on the cognitive stimulation and emotional support provided to children in the home. We use fixed-effect regression techniques to control for unmeasured…

  16. Childhood Family Structure and Intergenerational Income Mobility in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloome, Deirdre

    2017-04-01

    The declining prevalence of two-parent families helped increase income inequality over recent decades. Does family structure also condition how economic (dis)advantages pass from parents to children? If so, shifts in the organization of family life may contribute to enduring inequality between groups defined by childhood family structure. Using National Longitudinal Survey of Youth data, I combine parametric and nonparametric methods to reveal how family structure moderates intergenerational income mobility in the United States. I find that individuals raised outside stable two-parent homes are much more mobile than individuals from stable two-parent families. Mobility increases with the number of family transitions but does not vary with children's time spent coresiding with both parents or stepparents conditional on a transition. However, this mobility indicates insecurity, not opportunity. Difficulties maintaining middle-class incomes create downward mobility among people raised outside stable two-parent homes. Regardless of parental income, these people are relatively likely to become low-income adults, reflecting a new form of perverse equality. People raised outside stable two-parent families are also less likely to become high-income adults than people from stable two-parent homes. Mobility differences account for about one-quarter of family-structure inequalities in income at the bottom of the income distribution and more than one-third of these inequalities at the top.

  17. Family Structure and Subsequent Anxiety Symptoms; Minorities’ Diminished Return

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervin Assari

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Minorities’ Diminished Return (MDR theory suggests that socioeconomic position (SEP may have a smaller effect on health and well-being of members of the minority than the majority groups. Aim: Built on the MDR theory, this study compared Whites and African Americans for the effects of three family SEP indicators (family type, parental education, and parental employment during adolescence on subsequent symptoms of anxiety 18 years later during young adulthood. Methods: Flint Adolescents Study (FAS, 1994–2012, followed 359 youth (ages 13 to 17, 295 African American and 64 Whites for 18 years. The independent variables were family type, parental education, and parental employment during adolescence. The dependent variable was subsequent symptoms of anxiety, measured using the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI, 18 years later. Age and gender were the covariates and race/ethnicity was the focal effect modifier (moderator. Four linear regression models were estimated to investigate the effects of the three family SEP indicators at age 15 on subsequent symptoms of anxiety at age 33 in the pooled sample and also by race/ethnicity. Results: In the pooled sample, having married parents at age 15 was inversely associated with symptoms of anxiety at age 33. We found an interaction between race/ethnicity and family type, indicating a smaller protective effect of having married parents against symptoms of anxiety for African American compared to White participants. The other two SEP indicators did not show any effect and did not interact with race/ethnicity on the outcome. Conclusion: In support of the MDR theory, marital status of parents during adolescence protects White but not African American young adults against anxiety symptoms. Diminished return of SEP is one of many underlying mechanisms involved in shaping racial and ethnic disparities in anxiety, however, that is often overlooked. Future research that examines economic and social

  18. Three-Generation Family Households: Differences by Family Structure at Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilkauskas, Natasha V.

    2012-01-01

    Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 4,898), this study investigated how the share, correlates, transition patterns, and duration of 3-generation households vary by mother's relationship status at birth. Nine percent of married mothers, 17% of cohabiting mothers, and 45% of single mothers lived in a 3-generation…

  19. Structural and Interpersonal Characteristics of Family Meals: Associations with Adolescent BMI and Dietary Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Jerica M.; Jin, Seok Won; Hannan, Peter; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2013-01-01

    The last decade of research has suggested that family meals play an important role in promoting healthful dietary intake in youth. However, little is known about the structural characteristics and interpersonal dynamics of family meals that may help to inform why family meals are protective for youth. The current mixed methods, cross-sectional study conducted in 2010–2011 includes adolescents and parents who participated in two linked population-based studies. Participants included 40 parents (91.5% female) and adolescents (57.5% female) from the Minneapolis/St. Paul area participating in EAT 2010 and F-EAT. The structural (e.g. length of the meal, types of foods served) and interpersonal characteristics (e.g., communication, emotion/affect management) of family meals were described and associations between interpersonal dynamics at family meals and adolescent body mass index (BMI) and dietary intake were examined via direct observational methods. Families were video-recorded during two mealtimes in their homes. Results indicated that family meals were approximately 20 minutes in length, included multiple family members, were typically served family style (70%) and occurred in the kitchen 62% of the time and 38% of the time in another room (e.g., family room, office). Additionally, significant associations were found between positive interpersonal dynamics (i.e., communication, affect management, interpersonal involvement, overall family functioning) at family meals and lower adolescent BMI and higher vegetable intake. These findings add to the growing body of literature on family meals by providing a better understanding of what is happening at family meals in order to inform obesity prevention studies and recommendations for providers working with families of youth. PMID:23567247

  20. Theoretical investigation of the structural, electronic, and thermodynamic properties of CdS1-xSex alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Debing; Li, Mingkai; Meng, Dongxue; Ahuja, Rajeev; He, Yunbin

    2018-03-01

    In this work, the structural, electronic, and thermodynamic properties of wurtzite (WZ) and zincblende (ZB) CdS1-xSex alloys are investigated using the density functional theory (DFT) and the cluster expansion method. A special quasirandom structure containing 16 atoms is constructed to calculate the band structures of random alloys. The band gaps of CdS1-xSex alloys are direct and decrease as the Se content increases. The delta self-consistent-field method is applied to correct band gaps that are underestimated by DFT. The band offsets clearly reflect the variation in valence band maxima and conduction band minima, thus providing information useful to the design of relevant quantum well structures. The positive formation enthalpies of both phases imply that CdS1-xSex is an immiscible system and tends to phase separate. The influence of lattice vibrations on the phase diagram is investigated by calculating the phonon density of states. Lattice vibration effects can reduce the critical temperature Tc and increase alloy solid solubilities. This influence is especially significant in the ZB structure. When only chemical interactions are present, the Tc values for WZ- and ZB-CdS1-xSex are 260 K and 249 K, respectively. The lattice vibration enthalpy and entropy lower the Tc to 255 K and 233 K, respectively.

  1. HIV INFECTION AMONG FEMALE SEX WORKERS IN CONCENTRATED AND HIGH PREVALENCE EPIDEMICS: WHY A STRUCTURAL DETERMINANTS FRAMEWORK IS NEEDED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, Kate; Goldenberg, Shira M.; Deering, Kathleen N.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review This article reviews the current state of the epidemiological literature on female sex work and HIV from the past 18 months. We offer a conceptual framework for structural HIV determinants and sex work that unpacks intersecting structural, interpersonal, and individual biological and behavioural factors. Recent findings Our review suggests that despite the heavy HIV burden among female sex workers (FSWs) globally, data on the structural determinants shaping HIV transmission dynamics have only begun to emerge. Emerging research suggests that factors operating at macrostructural (e.g., migration, stigma, criminalized laws), community organization (e.g., empowerment) and work environment levels (e.g., violence, policing, access to condoms HIV testing, HAART) act dynamically with interpersonal (e.g., dyad factors, sexual networks) and individual biological and behavioural factors to confer risks or protections for HIV transmission in female sex work. Summary Future research should be guided by a Structural HIV Determinants Framework to better elucidate the complex and iterative effects of structural determinants with interpersonal and individual biological and behavioural factors on HIV transmission pathways among FSWs, and meet critical gaps in optimal access to HIV prevention, treatment, and care for FSWs globally. PMID:24464089

  2. Mapping structural influences on sex and HIV education in church and secular schools in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mpofu, Elias; Mutepfa, Magen Mhaka; Hallfors, Denise Dion

    2012-09-01

    The authors used state-of-the-art concept mapping approaches to examine structural institutional effects of church and secular high schools on the types of sexual and HIV-prevention education messages transmitted to learners in Zimbabwe. Participants were school teachers (n = 26), school counselors (n = 28), and pastors involved in student pastoral care (n = 14; males = 27, females = 41). They reported on messages perceived to influence sexual decisions of learners in their school setting. The self-report data were clustered into message types using concept mapping and contrasted for consistency of content and structure both between and within type of school. The authors also engaged in curriculum document study with member checks in the participant schools to determine convergence of the evidence on school-type effects of the messages transmitted to students. Church schools prioritized faith-informed sexual and HIV-prevention messages, whereas both types of schools prioritized Life skills education and a future focus. Secular schools prioritized sex and HIV messages in the context of community norms. Facts about HIV and AIDS were relatively underemphasized by church schools. The implicit knowledge values that differentiate types of schools influence learner access to information important for their sexual decisions.

  3. Age-Sex Structure of the Population and Demographic Processes in Environmentally Challenged Mining Region (on the example of Kemerovo region)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leshukov, Timofey; Brel, Olga; Zaytseva, Anna; Kaizer, Philipp; Makarov, Kirill

    2017-11-01

    The main goal of the article is to show the influence of the age-sex structure of the population on the basic demographic processes in the Kemerovo region. During research the authors have established correlation links between the sex-age structure of the population and the main demographic indicators (birth and mortality rate, morbidity rate, migration and others) based on the analysis of official statistical data. The direct influence of internal and external factors on the age-sex structure of the population is revealed. Conclusions about the impact of demographic processes on the sex-age structure of the population of the Kemerovo region are drawn.

  4. An International Look at the Single-Parent: Family Structure Matters More for U.S. Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woessmann, Ludger

    2015-01-01

    When Daniel Patrick Moynihan raised the issue of family structure half a century ago, his concern was the increase in black families headed by women. Since then, the share of children raised in single-parent families in the United States has grown across racial and ethnic groups and with it evidence regarding the impact of family structure on…

  5. Structural and Interpersonal Characteristics of Family Meals: Associations with Adolescent BMI and Dietary Patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Berge, Jerica M.; Jin, Seok Won; Hannan, Peter; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2013-01-01

    The last decade of research has suggested that family meals play an important role in promoting healthful dietary intake in youth. However, little is known about the structural characteristics and interpersonal dynamics of family meals that may help to inform why family meals are protective for youth. The current mixed methods, cross-sectional study conducted in 2010–2011 includes adolescents and parents who participated in two linked population-based studies. Participants included 40 parents...

  6. Population structure and the evolution of sexual size dimorphism and sex ratios in an insular population of Florida box turtles (Terrapene carolina bauri)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, C.K.

    1997-01-01

    Hypotheses in the chelonian literature suggest that in species with sexual size dimorphism, the smaller sex will mature at a smaller size and a younger age than the larger sex, sex ratios should be biased in favor of the earlier maturing sex, and deviations from a 1:1 sex ratio result from maturation of the smaller sex at a younger age. I tested these hypotheses using data collected from 1991 to 1995 on an insular (Egmont Key) population of Florida box turtles, Terrapene carolina bauri. Contrary to predictions, the earlier maturing sex (males) grew to larger sizes than the late maturing sex. Males were significantly larger than females in mean carapace length but not mean body mass. Sex ratios were not balanced, favoring the earlier maturing sex (1.6 males:1 female), but the sex-ratio imbalance did not result from faster maturation of the smaller sex. The imbalance in the sex ratio in Egmont Key's box turtles is not the result of sampling biases; it may result from nest placement. Size-class structure and sex ratios can provide valuable insights into the status and trends of populations of long-lived turtles.

  7. Structural Barriers to Antiretroviral Therapy Among Sex Workers Living with HIV: Findings of a Longitudinal Study in Vancouver, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, Shira M; Montaner, Julio; Duff, Putu; Nguyen, Paul; Dobrer, Sabina; Guillemi, Silvia; Shannon, Kate

    2016-05-01

    In light of limited data on structural determinants of access and retention in antiretroviral therapy (ART) among sex workers, we examined structural correlates of ART use among sex workers living with HIV over time. Longitudinal data were drawn from a cohort of 646 female sex workers in Vancouver, Canada (2010-2012) and linked pharmacy records on ART dispensation. We used logistic regression with generalized estimating equations (GEE) to examine correlates of gaps in ART use (i.e., treatment interruptions or delayed ART initiation), among HIV seropositive participants (n = 74). Over a 2.5-year period, 37.8 % of participants experienced gaps in ART use (i.e., no ART dispensed in a 6-month period). In a multivariable GEE model, younger age, migration/mobility, incarceration, and non-injection drug use independently correlated with gaps in ART use. In spite of successes scaling-up ART in British Columbia, younger, mobile, or incarcerated sex workers face persistent gaps in access and retention irrespective of drug use. Community-based, tailored interventions to scale-up entry and retention in ART for sex workers should be further explored in this setting.

  8. Diagnostic Perspectives on the Family: Process, Structural and Historical Contextual Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levant, Ronald F.

    1983-01-01

    Describes diagnostic perspectives for viewing dysfunctional families. Presents three general types of models (process, structural, and historical) and organized them along a continuum from most descriptive to most inferential. Presented at the 39th Annual Conference of the American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy, October-November…

  9. European adolescent substance use : the roles of family structure, function and gender

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McArdle, P.; Wiegersma, Auke; Gilvarry, Eilish; Kolte, Birgitta; McCarthy, Steven; Fitzgerald, Michael; Brinkley, Aoife; Blom, Maria; Stoeckel, Ingo; Pierolini, Anna; Michels, Ingo; Johnson, Rob; Quensel, Stephan

    Objectives The aim or this study was, first, to explore family structure and measures of family functioning in relation to adolescent substance use and seeondly. to establish if these relationships differed according to gender or according to the city of origin of the sample. Design, setting,

  10. Sex Differences in Parenting Behaviors in Single-Mother and Single-Father Households

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufur, Mikaela J.; Howell, Nyssa C.; Downey, Douglas B.; Ainsworth, James W.; Lapray, Alice J.

    2010-01-01

    Research on family structure has led some to claim that sex-based parenting differences exist. But if such differences exist in single-parent families, the absence of a second parent rather than specific sex-typed parenting might explain them. We examine differences in mothering and fathering behavior in single-parent households, where number of…

  11. Talking to Your Kids about Sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safety Injury Rehabilitation Emotional Well-Being Mental Health Sex and Birth Control Sex and Sexuality Birth Control Family Health Infants and ... Kids and Teens Talking to Your Kids About Sex Talking to Your Kids About Sex Share Print ...

  12. Policing practices as a structural determinant for HIV among sex workers: a systematic review of empirical findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Footer, Katherine Ha; Silberzahn, Bradley E; Tormohlen, Kayla N; Sherman, Susan G

    2016-01-01

    Sex workers are disproportionately infected with HIV worldwide. Significant focus has been placed on understanding the structural determinants of HIV and designing related interventions. Although there is growing international evidence that policing is an important structural HIV determinant among sex workers, the evidence has not been systematically reviewed. We conducted a systematic review of quantitative studies to examine the effects of policing on HIV and STI infection and HIV-related outcomes (condom use; syringe use; number of clients; HIV/STI testing and access) among cis and trans women sex workers. Databases included PubMed, Embase, Scopus, Sociological Abstracts, Popline, Global Health (OVID), Web of Science, IBSS, IndMed and WHOLIS. We searched for studies that included police practices as an exposure for HIV or STI infection or HIV-related outcomes. Of the 137 peer-reviewed articles identified for full text review, 14 were included, representing sex workers' experiences with police across five settings. Arrest was the most commonly explored measure with between 6 and 45% of sex workers reporting having ever been arrested. Sexual coercion was observed between 3 and 37% of the time and police extortion between 12 and 28% across studies. Half the studies used a single measure to capture police behaviours. Studies predominantly focused on "extra-legal policing practices," with insufficient attention to the role of "legal enforcement activities". All studies found an association between police behaviours and HIV or STI infection, or a related risk behaviour. The review points to a small body of evidence that confirms policing practices as an important structural HIV determinant for sex workers, but studies lack generalizability with respect to identifying those police behaviours most relevant to women's HIV risk environment.

  13. Family Environment and Childhood Obesity: A New Framework with Structural Equation Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Hui; Wan Mohamed Radzi, Che Wan Jasimah bt; Salarzadeh Jenatabadi, Hashem

    2017-01-01

    The main purpose of the current article is to introduce a framework of the complexity of childhood obesity based on the family environment. A conceptual model that quantifies the relationships and interactions among parental socioeconomic status, family food security level, child’s food intake and certain aspects of parental feeding behaviour is presented using the structural equation modeling (SEM) concept. Structural models are analysed in terms of the direct and indirect connections among ...

  14. The family medicine curriculum resource project structural framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stearns, Jeffrey A; Stearns, Marjorie A; Davis, Ardis K; Chessman, Alexander W

    2007-01-01

    In the original contract for the Family Medicine Curricular Resource Project (FMCRP), the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), Division of Medicine and Dentistry, charged the FMCRP executive committee with reviewing recent medical education reform proposals and relevant recent curricula to develop an analytical framework for the project. The FMCRP executive and advisory committees engaged in a review and analysis of a variety of curricular reform proposals generated during the last decade of the 20th century. At the same time, in a separate and parallel process, representative individuals from all the family medicine organizations, all levels of learners, internal medicine and pediatric faculty, and the national associations of medical and osteopathic colleges (Association of American Medical Colleges and the American Association of Colleges of Osteopathic Medicine) were involved in group discussions to identify educational needs for physicians practicing in the 21st century. After deliberation, a theoretical framework was chosen for this undergraduate medical education resource that mirrors the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) competencies, a conceptual design originated for graduate medical education. In addition to reflecting the current environment calling for change and greater accountability in medical education, use of the ACGME competencies as the theoretical framework for the FMCR provides a continuum of focus between the two major segments of physician education: medical school and residency.

  15. The LawsAndFamilies questionnaire on legal family formats for same-sex and/or different-sex couples : Text of the questions and of the accompanying guidance document.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waaldijk, C.; Lorenzo, Villaverde J.M.; Nikolina, N.; Zago, G.

    2016-01-01

    This Working Paper of the research project FamiliesAndSocieties contains the text of the LawsAndFamilies questionnaire, plus the text of the guidance document provided to legal experts answering this questionnaire. These texts are preceded by a brief introduction to the background, aims and

  16. Post-divorce custody arrangements and binuclear family structures of Flemish adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An Katrien Sodermans

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Because of the tendency towards equal parental rights in post-divorce custody decisions, the number of children living partially in two households after divorce has increased. Because of this evolution, traditional family typologies have been challenged. OBJECTIVE In this study, we want to describe the post-divorce custody arrangements and family configurations of Flemish adolescents (between 12 and 18 years old. METHODS We use four waves of the Leuven Adolescents and Families Study, a yearly survey in which adolescents are questioned at school about their family life, family relationships and various dimensions of their wellbeing. Our research sample consists of 1525 adolescents who experienced a parental break-up. First, we present information on the proportion of adolescents in different custody arrangements, according to divorce cohort, age and sex. Next, we describe post-divorce family configurations, according to the custody arrangement and different criteria of co-residence between children and step-parents. RESULTS We observe a higher proportion of adolescents spending at least 33Š of time in both parental households (shared residence for more recent divorce cohorts. A large proportion of adolescents is living with a new partner of the mother or father, but there are important differences, according to the criteria used to define stepfamily configurations. CONCLUSIONS The relatively high incidence figures of children in shared residence challenge the current dichotomous post-divorce family concept in terms of single parent families and stepfamilies. Family typologies applying a binuclear perspective are therefore increasingly meaningful and necessary. In addition, shared residence increases the chance of co-residence with at least one step-parent, and increases the proportion of children with a part-time residential stepmother.

  17. The Association between Family Structure and Adolescent Smoking among Multicultural Students in Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yajun; Palmer, Paula H; Sakuma, Kari-Lyn; Blake, Jerome; Johnson, C Anderson

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether the prevalence of smoking was associated with family structure among multicultural adolescents and whether there was gender disparity on the association. Data were collected from a sample of 7 th graders in Hawaii who completed in-class questionnaires in 2004. The final sample included 821 multicultural students from different family structures. Descriptive analyses, Chi-square tests and logistic regression were performed to examine the prevalence of smoking and the association between family structure and smoking prevalence. This sample contained students who lived in intact (61.7%), single-parent (16.5%), step-parent (15.6%), and no-parent (6.2%) families. The overall prevalence of ever/lifetime smoking was 24.0%, and was not significantly different between genders in each family structure ( p >0.05). Compared with living in intact families, living in single-parent, step-parent, or no-parent families was significantly associated with higher odds of ever/lifetime smoking among all students ( p multicultural students. Anti-smoking programs should consider this factor.

  18. Family structure and fertility in Taiwan: an extension and modification of Caldwell's wealth flows theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsuing, P C

    1988-06-01

    Based on the data from a nationwide survey of labor force participation conducted in 1985 by the Office of the Directorate-General of Budget, Accounting and Statistics, Executive Yuan, Republic of China, this project tries to modify Caldwell's Wealth Flows Theory in order to analyze fertility behavior of married women. Caldwell's Wealth Flows Theory indicates that a patriarchal family has a significant effect on fertility. Unless the patriarchal family structure is replaced by a nuclear family system, he claims, fertility levels will remain relatively high in developing countries. However, he does not discuss social factors which may influence the process of change in the family structure and which factors in the patriarchal family may influence fertility. To make up this shortcoming, this paper shows that female educational level, employment patterns, and occupational prestige brings about change in the family structure. This research also indicates that women with higher education and occupational prestige have lower fertility. In addition, it finds that female occupational status is a main factor to bring about change in the family structure. (author's)

  19. A meta-analysis of sex differences in human brain structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruigrok, Amber N V; Salimi-Khorshidi, Gholamreza; Lai, Meng-Chuan; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Lombardo, Michael V; Tait, Roger J; Suckling, John

    2014-02-01

    The prevalence, age of onset, and symptomatology of many neuropsychiatric conditions differ between males and females. To understand the causes and consequences of sex differences it is important to establish where they occur in the human brain. We report the first meta-analysis of typical sex differences on global brain volume, a descriptive account of the breakdown of studies of each compartmental volume by six age categories, and whole-brain voxel-wise meta-analyses on brain volume and density. Gaussian-process regression coordinate-based meta-analysis was used to examine sex differences in voxel-based regional volume and density. On average, males have larger total brain volumes than females. Examination of the breakdown of studies providing total volumes by age categories indicated a bias towards the 18-59 year-old category. Regional sex differences in volume and tissue density include the amygdala, hippocampus and insula, areas known to be implicated in sex-biased neuropsychiatric conditions. Together, these results suggest candidate regions for investigating the asymmetric effect that sex has on the developing brain, and for understanding sex-biased neurological and psychiatric conditions. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Family structure and health, how companionship acts as a buffer against ill health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kizuki Masashi

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health and well-being are the result of synergistic interactions among a variety of determinants. Family structure and composition are social determinants that may also affect health behaviours and outcomes. This study was performed to examine the associations between family structure and health and to determine the protective effects of support mechanisms to improve quality of health outcome. Methods Six hundred people, selected by multistage sampling to obtain a representative population of men and women aged 20–60 living in communities in Japan, were included in this study. Data regarding subjective views of one's own health, family structure, lifestyle and social support were collected through structured face-to-face interviews on home visits. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures, height and weight were measured by trained examiners. The associations between family structure and health after controlling for demographics, lifestyle and social support were examined using logistic and linear regression analyses. Results Subjects living alone were significantly more likely to be in ill health, as determined using the General Health Questionnaire, in comparison to those in extended families (OR = 3.14. Subjects living alone or as couples were significantly more likely to suffer from severe hypertension in comparison to those living in extended families (OR = 8.25, OR = 4.90. These associations remained after controlling for the influence of lifestyle. Subjects living only with spouse or in nuclear family had higher probabilities of mental ill health in the absence than in the presence of people showing concern for their well-being. Conclusion The results of this study infers that a support mechanism consisting of companionship and the presence of family or other people concerned for one's well being acts as a buffer against deleterious influence of living in small family that will lead to improved quality of health outcome.

  1. Structural and functional brain connectivity in presymptomatic familial frontotemporal dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dopper, E.G.P.; Rombouts, S.A.R.B.; Jiskoot, L.C.; den Heijer, T.; de Graaf, J.R.A.; de Koning, I.; Hammerschlag, A.R.; Seelaar, H.; Seeley, W.W.; Veer, I.M.; van Buchem, M.A.; Rizzu, P.; van Swieten, J.C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: We aimed to investigate whether cognitive deficits and structural and functional connectivity changes can be detected before symptom onset in a large cohort of carriers of microtubuleassociated protein tau and progranulin mutations. Methods: In this case-control study, 75 healthy

  2. Structural and functional brain connectivity in presymptomatic familial frontotemporal dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.G.P. Dopper (Elise); S.A.R.B. Rombouts (Serge); L.C. Jiskoot (Lize); T. den Heijer (Tom); J.R.A. de Graaf (Joke); I. de Koning (Inge); M.R. Hammerschlag; H. Seelaar (Harro); W. Seeley (William); I.M. Veer (Ilya); M.A. van Buchem (Mark); P. Rizzu (Patrizia); J.C. van Swieten (John)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractObjective: We aimed to investigate whether cognitive deficits and structural and functional connectivity changes can be detected before symptom onset in a large cohort of carriers of MAPT (microtubule-associated protein tau) or GRN (progranulin) mutations. Methods: In this case-control

  3. Structural and functional brain connectivity in presymptomatic familial frontotemporal dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.G.P. Dopper (Elise); S.A.R.B. Rombouts (Serge); L.C. Jiskoot (Lize); T. den Heijer (Tom); J.R.A. de Graaf (J. Roos); I. de Koning (Inge); M.R. Hammerschlag; H. Seelaar (Harro); W. Seeley (William); I.M. Veer (Ilya); M.A. van Buchem (Mark); P. Rizzu (Patrizia); J.C. van Swieten (John)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractObjective: We aimed to investigate whether cognitive deficits and structural and functional connectivity changes can be detected before symptom onset in a large cohort of carriers of microtubuleassociated protein tau and progranulin mutations. Methods: In this case-control study, 75

  4. On Structure, Family and Parameter Estimation of Hierarchical Archimedean Copulas

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Górecki, J.; Hofert, M.; Holeňa, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 87, č. 17 (2017), s. 3261-3324 ISSN 0094-9655 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA17-01251S Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : copula estimation * goodness-of-fit * Hierarchical Archimedean copula * structure determination Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science OBOR OECD: Statistics and probability Impact factor: 0.757, year: 2016

  5. Computing a new family of shape descriptors for protein structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røgen, Peter; Sinclair, Robert

    2003-01-01

    The large-scale 3D structure of a protein can be represented by the polygonal curve through the carbon a atoms of the protein backbone. We introduce an algorithm for computing the average number of times that a given configuration of crossings on such polygonal curves is seen, the average being...

  6. A not-so-grim tale: how childhood family structure influences reproductive and risk-taking outcomes in a historical U.S. Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, Paula; Garcia, Justin R; Sear, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    Childhood family structure has been shown to play an important role in shaping a child's life course development, especially in industrialised societies. One hypothesis which could explain such findings is that parental investment is likely to be diluted in families without both natural parents. Most empirical studies have examined the influence of only one type of family disruption or composition (e.g. father absence) making it difficult to simultaneously compare the effects of different kinds of family structure on children's future outcomes. Here we use a large, rich data source (n=16,207) collected by Alfred Kinsey and colleagues in the United States from 1938 to 1963, to examine the effects of particular childhood family compositions and compare between them. The dataset further allows us to look at the effects of family structure on an array of traits relating to sexual maturity, reproduction, and risk-taking. Our results show that, for both sexes, living with a single mother or mother and stepfather during childhood was often associated with faster progression to life history events and greater propensity for risk-taking behaviours. However, living with a single father or father and stepmother was typically not significantly different to having both natural parents for these outcomes. Our results withstand adjustment for socioeconomic status, age, ethnicity, age at puberty (where applicable), and sibling configuration. While these results support the hypothesis that early family environment influences subsequent reproductive strategy, the different responses to the presence or absence of different parental figures in the household rearing environment suggests that particular family constructions exert independent influences on childhood outcomes. Our results suggest that father-absent households (i.e. single mothers or mothers and stepfathers) are most highly associated with subsequent fast life history progressions, compared with mother-absent households

  7. A not-so-grim tale: how childhood family structure influences reproductive and risk-taking outcomes in a historical U.S. Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Sheppard

    Full Text Available Childhood family structure has been shown to play an important role in shaping a child's life course development, especially in industrialised societies. One hypothesis which could explain such findings is that parental investment is likely to be diluted in families without both natural parents. Most empirical studies have examined the influence of only one type of family disruption or composition (e.g. father absence making it difficult to simultaneously compare the effects of different kinds of family structure on children's future outcomes. Here we use a large, rich data source (n=16,207 collected by Alfred Kinsey and colleagues in the United States from 1938 to 1963, to examine the effects of particular childhood family compositions and compare between them. The dataset further allows us to look at the effects of family structure on an array of traits relating to sexual maturity, reproduction, and risk-taking. Our results show that, for both sexes, living with a single mother or mother and stepfather during childhood was often associated with faster progression to life history events and greater propensity for risk-taking behaviours. However, living with a single father or father and stepmother was typically not significantly different to having both natural parents for these outcomes. Our results withstand adjustment for socioeconomic status, age, ethnicity, age at puberty (where applicable, and sibling configuration. While these results support the hypothesis that early family environment influences subsequent reproductive strategy, the different responses to the presence or absence of different parental figures in the household rearing environment suggests that particular family constructions exert independent influences on childhood outcomes. Our results suggest that father-absent households (i.e. single mothers or mothers and stepfathers are most highly associated with subsequent fast life history progressions, compared with mother

  8. Adult Outcome of ADHD: An Overview of Results From the MGH Longitudinal Family Studies of Pediatrically and Psychiatrically Referred Youth With and Without ADHD of Both Sexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Mai; Spencer, Thomas J; Faraone, Stephen V; Biederman, Joseph

    2018-04-01

    We aimed to provide an overview of the Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) Longitudinal Studies of ADHD. We evaluated and followed samples of boys and girls with and without ADHD ascertained from psychiatric and pediatric sources and their families. These studies documented that ADHD in both sexes is associated with high levels of persistence into adulthood, high levels of familiality with ADHD and other psychiatric disorders, a wide range of comorbid psychiatric and cognitive disorders including mood, anxiety, and substance use disorders, learning disabilities, executive function deficits, emotional dysregulation, and autistic traits as well as functional impairments. The MGH studies suggested that stimulant treatment decreased risks of developing comorbid psychiatric disorders, substance use disorders, and functional outcomes. The MGH studies documented the neural basis of persistence of ADHD using neuroimaging. The MGH studies provided various insights on symptoms, course, functions, comorbidities, and neuroscience of ADHD.

  9. Rings for the Rainbow Family : Religious Opposition to the Introduction of Same-Sex Marriage in Sweden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, C.A.M.

    2017-01-01

    When Sweden introduced same-sex marriage in 2009, this change in legislation was preceded by a well-organized, professional campaign of an alliance of various religious leaders. Since political support for a gender neutral marriage law was substantial and public opinion in favor, the question that

  10. Can We Talk? Helping Families Talk about Self-Esteem, Sex, and Peer Pressure. Training Package = Conversamos? Ayudando a Familias a Hablar sobre la Autoestima, el Sexo, y la Presion de los Amigos. Paquete de Capacitacion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappello, Dominic; Newberry, Jerald

    This English and Spanish language multimedia packet comprises an educational curriculum designed to help families talk about self-esteem, sex, and peer pressure with their children in grades 4 through 8. The packet consists of a planning and training manuals, family activity books, and a videotape. The curriculum is comprised of four parent…

  11. Fundamental Characteristics of AAA+ Protein Family Structure and Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Justin M; Enemark, Eric J

    2016-01-01

    Many complex cellular events depend on multiprotein complexes known as molecular machines to efficiently couple the energy derived from adenosine triphosphate hydrolysis to the generation of mechanical force. Members of the AAA+ ATPase superfamily (ATPases Associated with various cellular Activities) are critical components of many molecular machines. AAA+ proteins are defined by conserved modules that precisely position the active site elements of two adjacent subunits to catalyze ATP hydrolysis. In many cases, AAA+ proteins form a ring structure that translocates a polymeric substrate through the central channel using specialized loops that project into the central channel. We discuss the major features of AAA+ protein structure and function with an emphasis on pivotal aspects elucidated with archaeal proteins.

  12. Emerging models for mobilizing family support for chronic disease management: a structured review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosland, Ann-Marie; Piette, John D

    2010-03-01

    We identify recent models for programmes aiming to increase effective family support for chronic illness management and self-care among adult patients without significant physical or cognitive disabilities. We then summarize evidence regarding the efficacy for each model identified. Structured review of studies published in medical and psychology databases from 1990 to the present, reference review, general Web searches and conversations with family intervention experts. Review was limited to studies on conditions that require ongoing self-management, such as diabetes, chronic heart disease and rheumatologic disease. Programmes with three separate foci were identified: (1) Programmes that guide family members in setting goals for supporting patient self-care behaviours have led to improved implementation of family support roles, but have mixed success improving patient outcomes. (2) Programmes that train family in supportive communication techniques, such as prompting patient coping techniques or use of autonomy supportive statements, have successfully improved patient symptom management and health behaviours. (3) Programmes that give families tools and infrastructure to assist in monitoring clinical symptoms and medications are being conducted, with no evidence to date on their impact on patient outcomes. The next generation of programmes to improve family support for chronic disease management incorporate a variety of strategies. Future research can define optimal clinical situations for family support programmes, the most effective combinations of support strategies, and how best to integrate family support programmes into comprehensive models of chronic disease care.

  13. [Development of a structural equation model for children's adaptation in divorced families].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sung Hee

    2010-02-01

    This study was designed to develop and test a structural model for children's adaptation in divorced families. The hypothetical model was constructed based on the Family Resilience Model by McCubbin and McCubbin. Data were collected using self-report questionnaires from 219 children (3-6th grade) in divorced families. The children attended one of 22 community agencies, 8 after-school programs, 3 elementary schools in three cities in South Korea. The collected data were analyzed using LISREL program to test the hypothetical model. The modified model was constructed by deleting four paths in accordance with the statistical and theoretical criteria. Compared to the hypothetical model, the revised one had a better fit to the data. Self-esteem, and beliefs about parental divorce had direct effects, and family communication and internal control had indirect effects on children's adaptation in divorced families. These variables explained 56% of the variance in children's adaptation. The modified model was supported by empirical data. This model could be applied to family nursing interventions with divorced families or any other suffering family transition. When working with children experiencing parental divorce, it is important for nurses to enhance children's self-esteem, family communication and to decrease children's negative beliefs about parental divorce to help in their adaptation.

  14. Supporting Families of Young Children with Disabilities: Examining the Role of Administrative Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epley, Pamela; Gotto, George S., IV; Summers, Jean Ann; Brotherson, Mary Jane; Turnbull, Ann P.; Friend, Anna

    2010-01-01

    This article presents findings from two early intervention agencies examining how administrative structures affect providers' ability to serve families of young children with disabilities. Based on previous research identifying three administrative structures (i.e., vision/leadership, organizational climate, and resources), this article…

  15. Structural brain network analysis in families multiply affected with bipolar I disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forde, Natalie J.; O'Donoghue, Stefani; Scanlon, Cathy; Emsell, Louise; Chaddock, Chris; Leemans, Alexander; Jeurissen, Ben; Barker, Gareth J.; Cannon, Dara M.; Murray, Robin M.; McDonald, Colm

    2015-01-01

    Disrupted structural connectivity is associated with psychiatric illnesses including bipolar disorder (BP). Here we use structural brain network analysis to investigate connectivity abnormalities in multiply affected BP type I families, to assess the utility of dysconnectivity as a biomarker and its

  16. Molecular Descriptors Family on Structure Activity Relationships 1. Review of the Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorentz JÄNTSCHI

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This review cumulates the knowledge about the use of Molecular Descriptors Family usage on Structure Activity Relationships. The methodology is augmented through the general Structure Activity Relationships methodology. The obtained models in a series of five papers are quantitatively analyzed by comparing with previous reported results by using of the correlated correlations tests. The scores for a series of 13 data sets unpublished yet results are presented. Two unrestricted online access portals to the Molecular Descriptors Family Structure Activity Relationship models results are given.

  17. Effects of structural and dynamic family characteristics on the development of depressive and aggressive problems during adolescence. The TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijtsema, J.J.; Oldehinkel, A.J.; Veenstra, R.; Verhulst, F.C.; Ormel, J.

    2014-01-01

    Both structural (i.e., SES, familial psychopathology, family composition) and dynamic (i.e., parental warmth and rejection) family characteristics have been associated with aggressive and depressive problem development. However, it is unclear to what extent (changes in) dynamic family

  18. Effects of structural and dynamic family characteristics on the development of depressive and aggressive problems during adolescence. The TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijtsema, J. J.; Oldehinkel, A. J.; Veenstra, René; Verhulst, F. C.; Ormel, J.

    Both structural (i.e., SES, familial psychopathology, family composition) and dynamic (i.e., parental warmth and rejection) family characteristics have been associated with aggressive and depressive problem development. However, it is unclear to what extent (changes in) dynamic family

  19. Asymmetry of cerebral grey and white matter and structural volumes in relation to sex hormones and chromosomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanka eSavic

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Whilst many studies show sex differences in cerebral asymmetry, their mechanisms are still unknown. This report describes the potential impact of sex hormones and sex chromosomes by comparing MR data from 39 male and 47 female controls and 33 men with an extra X-chromosome (47,XXY Methods: Regional asymmetry in grey and white matter volumes (GMV and WMV was calculated using voxel based moprhometry (SPM5, by contrasting the unflipped and flipped individual GMV and WMV images. In addition, structural volumes were calculated for the thalamus, caudate, putamen, amygdala, and hippocampus, using the FreeSurfer software. Effects of plasma testosterone and estrogen on the GMV and WMV, as well on the right/left ratios of the subcortical volumes were tested by multi-regression analysis.Results: All three groups showed a leftward asymmetry in the motor cortex and the planum temporale, and a rightward asymmetry of the middle occipital cortex. Both asymmetries were more pronounced in 46,XY males than 46,XX females and 47,XXY males, and were positively correlated with testosterone levels. There was also a rightward asymmetry of the vermis and leftward asymmetry in the cerebellar hemispheres in all groups. Notably, cerebellar asymmetries were larger in 46,XX females and 47,XXY males, but were not related to sex hormone levels. No asymmetry differences between 46,XX females and 47,XXY males, and no overall effects of brain size were detected.Conclusion: The asymmetry in the planum temporale area and the occipital cortex seem related to processes associated with testosterone, whereas the observed cerebellar asymmetries suggest a link with X-chromosome escapee genes. Sex differences in cerebral asymmetry are moderated by sex hormones and X-chromosome genes, in a regionally differentiated manner.

  20. Environmental–Structural Interventions to Reduce HIV/STI Risk Among Female Sex Workers in the Dominican Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerrigan, Deanna; Moreno, Luis; Rosario, Santo; Gomez, Bayardo; Jerez, Hector; Barrington, Clare; Weiss, Ellen; Sweat, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed the effectiveness of 2 environmental–structural interventions in reducing risks of HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among female sex workers in the Dominican Republic. Methods. Two intervention models were implemented over a 1-year period: community solidarity in Santo Domingo and solidarity combined with government policy in Puerto Plata. Both were evaluated via preintervention–postintervention cross-sectional behavioral surveys, STI testing and participant observations, and serial cross-sectional STI screenings. Results. Significant increases in condom use with new clients (75.3%–93.8%; odds ratio [OR]=4.21; 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.55, 11.43) were documented in Santo Domingo. In Puerto Plata, significant increases in condom use with regular partners (13.0%–28.8%; OR=2.97; 95% CI=1.33, 6.66) and reductions in STI prevalence (28.8%–16.3%; OR = 0.50; 95% CI = 0.32, 0.78) were documented, as were significant increases in sex workers’ verbal rejections of unsafe sex (50.0%–79.4%; OR=3.86; 95% CI=1.96, 7.58) and participating sex establishments’ ability to achieve the goal of no STIs in routine monthly screenings of sex workers (OR=1.17; 95% CI=1.12, 1.22). Conclusions. Interventions that combine community solidarity and government policy show positive initial effects on HIV and STI risk reduction among female sex workers. PMID:16317215

  1. Strategies and methods to study sex differences in cardiovascular structure and function: a guide for basic scientists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miller Virginia M

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular disease remains the primary cause of death worldwide. In the US, deaths due to cardiovascular disease for women exceed those of men. While cultural and psychosocial factors such as education, economic status, marital status and access to healthcare contribute to sex differences in adverse outcomes, physiological and molecular bases of differences between women and men that contribute to development of cardiovascular disease and response to therapy remain underexplored. Methods This article describes concepts, methods and procedures to assist in the design of animal and tissue/cell based studies of sex differences in cardiovascular structure, function and models of disease. Results To address knowledge gaps, study designs must incorporate appropriate experimental material including species/strain characteristics, sex and hormonal status. Determining whether a sex difference exists in a trait must take into account the reproductive status and history of the animal including those used for tissue (cell harvest, such as the presence of gonadal steroids at the time of testing, during development or number of pregnancies. When selecting the type of experimental animal, additional consideration should be given to diet requirements (soy or plant based influencing consumption of phytoestrogen, lifespan, frequency of estrous cycle in females, and ability to investigate developmental or environmental components of disease modulation. Stress imposed by disruption of sleep/wake cycles, patterns of social interaction (or degree of social isolation, or handling may influence adrenal hormones that interact with pathways activated by the sex steroid hormones. Care must be given to selection of hormonal treatment and route of administration. Conclusions Accounting for sex in the design and interpretation of studies including pharmacological effects of drugs is essential to increase the foundation of basic knowledge upon which to

  2. Asymmetry of cerebral gray and white matter and structural volumes in relation to sex hormones and chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savic, Ivanka

    2014-01-01

    Whilst many studies show sex differences in cerebral asymmetry, their mechanisms are still unknown. This report describes the potential impact of sex hormones and sex chromosomes by comparing MR data from 39 male and 47 female controls and 33 men with an extra X-chromosome (47,XXY). Regional asymmetry in gray and white matter volumes (GMV and WMV) was calculated using voxel based moprhometry (SPM5), by contrasting the unflipped and flipped individual GMV and WMV images. In addition, structural volumes were calculated for the thalamus, caudate, putamen, amygdala, and hippocampus, using the FreeSurfer software. Effects of plasma testosterone and estrogen on the GMV and WMV, as well on the right/left ratios of the subcortical volumes were tested by multi-regression analysis. All three groups showed a leftward asymmetry in the motor cortex and the planum temporale, and a rightward asymmetry of the middle occipital cortex. Both asymmetries were more pronounced in 46,XY males than 46,XX females and 47,XXY males, and were positively correlated with testosterone levels. There was also a rightward asymmetry of the vermis and leftward GMV asymmetry in the cerebellar hemispheres in all groups. Notably, cerebellar asymmetries were larger in 46,XX females and 47,XXY males, but were not related to sex hormone levels. No asymmetry differences between 46,XX females and 47,XXY males, and no overall effects of brain size were detected. The asymmetry in the planum temporale area and the occipital cortex seem related to processes associated with testosterone, whereas the observed cerebellar asymmetries suggest a link with X-chromosome escapee genes. Sex differences in cerebral asymmetry are moderated by sex hormones and X-chromosome genes, in a regionally differentiated manner.

  3. Structural profiles of human miRNA families from pairwise clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaczkowski, Bogumil; Þórarinsson, Elfar; Reiche, Kristin

    2009-01-01

    secondary structure already predicted, little is known about the patterns of structural conservation among pre-miRNAs. We address this issue by clustering the human pre-miRNA sequences based on pairwise, sequence and secondary structure alignment using FOLDALIGN, followed by global multiple alignment...... of obtained clusters by WAR. As a result, the common secondary structure was successfully determined for four FOLDALIGN clusters: the RF00027 structural family of the Rfam database and three clusters with previously undescribed consensus structures. Availability: http://genome.ku.dk/resources/mirclust...

  4. Effect of acute resistance exercise and sex on human patellar tendon structural and regulatory mRNA expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sullivan, B.E.; Carroll, C.C.; Jemiolo, B.

    2009-01-01

    Sullivan BE, Carroll CC, Jemiolo B, Trappe SW, Magnusson SP, Dossing S, Kjaer M, Trappe TA. Effect of acute resistance exercise and sex on human patellar tendon structural and regulatory mRNA expression. J Appl Physiol 106: 468-475, 2009. First published November 20, 2008; doi: 10.1152/japplphysiol.......91341.2008.-Tendon is mainly composed of collagen and an aqueous matrix of proteoglycans that are regulated by enzymes called matrix metalloproteinases ( MMPs) and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs). Although it is known that resistance exercise (RE) and sex influence tendon metabolism...... and mechanical properties, it is uncertain what structural and regulatory components contribute to these responses. We measured the mRNA expression of tendon's main fibrillar collagens (type I and type III) and the main proteoglycans (decorin, biglycan, fibromodulin, and versican) and the regulatory enzymes MMP...

  5. Factor structure and sex differences on the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence in China, Japan and United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianghong; Lynn, Richard

    2011-08-01

    This study presents data on the factor structure of the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence (WPPSI) and sex and cultural differences in WPPSI test scores among 5- and 6-year-olds from China, Japan, and the United States. Results show the presence of a verbal and nonverbal factor structure across all three countries. Sex differences on the 10 subtests were generally consistent, with a male advantage on a subtest of spatial abilities (Mazes). Males in the Chinese sample obtained significantly higher Full Scale IQ scores than females and had lower variability in their test scores. These observations were not present in the Japan and United States samples. Mean Full Scale IQ score in the Chinese sample was 104.1, representing a 4-point increase from 1988 to 2004.

  6. Sex, Kids and the Family Hour: A Three-Part Study of Sexual Content on Television. A Special Report from Children Now and the Kaiser Family Foundation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser Foundation, Oakland, CA.

    This series of studies focused on the content of television programming about sexual activity and sexual relationships, examining what messages are communicated in the so-called "family hour," the first hour of prime time broadcast television (8-9 p.m. in most areas of the country). First, a content analysis documented the nature of…

  7. Self-Censorship Regulatory Structure: Can We Control Political of Hates, Violence & Sex in Children Computer & Video Games?

    OpenAIRE

    Zanuddin, Hasmah

    2008-01-01

    This article examines some of the extreme negative content available to teenagers and young children in the market. Extreme negative values such as political of hates, violence and sex in some of the children computer and video games were made possible due to several factors such as lacking in regulatory structure, week policy implementation, rampant of illegal and uncensored materials. Computer and video games have been the subject of frequent controversy and censorship, due to the depiction...

  8. Structural insights into the anti-HIV activity of the Oscillatoria agardhii agglutinin homolog lectin family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koharudin, Leonardus M I; Kollipara, Sireesha; Aiken, Christopher; Gronenborn, Angela M

    2012-09-28

    Oscillatoria agardhii agglutinin homolog (OAAH) proteins belong to a recently discovered lectin family. All members contain a sequence repeat of ~66 amino acids, with the number of repeats varying among different family members. Apart from data for the founding member OAA, neither three-dimensional structures, information about carbohydrate binding specificities, nor antiviral activity data have been available up to now for any other members of the OAAH family. To elucidate the structural basis for the antiviral mechanism of OAAHs, we determined the crystal structures of Pseudomonas fluorescens and Myxococcus xanthus lectins. Both proteins exhibit the same fold, resembling the founding family member, OAA, with minor differences in loop conformations. Carbohydrate binding studies by NMR and x-ray structures of glycan-lectin complexes reveal that the number of sugar binding sites corresponds to the number of sequence repeats in each protein. As for OAA, tight and specific binding to α3,α6-mannopentaose was observed. All the OAAH proteins described here exhibit potent anti-HIV activity at comparable levels. Altogether, our results provide structural details of the protein-carbohydrate interaction for this novel lectin family and insights into the molecular basis of their HIV inactivation properties.

  9. Looking behind the score: Skill structure explains sex differences in skilled video game performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwell, Kyle W; Boot, Walter R; Ericsson, K Anders

    2018-01-01

    Some have explained large sex differences in visuospatial abilities by genetic adaptations to different roles in primitive hunter-gatherer societies and the interaction of innate biological differences and environmental factors. We explored the extent to which variations in behavior and acquired skills can provide alternative accounts for sex differences in the performance of a complex spatially-demanding video game (Space Fortress). Men and women with limited video game experience were given 30 hours of training, and latent curve analyses examined the development of their ship control performance and behavior. Men had significantly better control performance than women before and after training, but differences diminished substantially over the training period. An analysis of participants' joystick behaviors revealed that initially men and women relied on different patterns of control behaviors, but changes in these behaviors over time accounted for the reduced sex differences in performance. When we controlled for these differences in behavior, sex effects after training were no longer significant. Finally, examining the development of control performance and control behaviors of men and women categorized as initially high and low performers revealed the lower-performing women may have been controlling their ship using an approach that was very different from the men and higher-performing women. The potential problems of analyzing men and women's spatial performance as homogenous groups are discussed, as well as how these issues may account for sex differences in skilled video game performance and perhaps other domains involving spatial abilities.

  10. Alcohol Consumption Patterns among Adolescents are Related to Family Structure and Exposure to Drunkenness within the Family: Results from the SEYLE Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Rüütel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available There is expedient evidence showing that differences in adolescent alcohol consumption and other risk-behaviour depend on both family structure and family member drunkenness exposure. Data were obtained among adolescents (N = 12,115, mean age 14.9 ± 0.89 in Austria, Estonia, France, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Romania, Slovenia and Spain within the European Union’s 7th Framework Programme funded project, ‘Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe (SEYLE’. The current study reveals how adolescents’ alcohol consumption patterns are related to their family structure and having seen their family member drunk. The results revealed statistically significant differences in adolescent alcohol consumption depending on whether the adolescent lives in a family with both birth parents, in a single-parent family or in a family with one birth parent and one step-parent. The study also revealed that the abstaining from alcohol percentage among adolescents was greater in families with both birth parents compared to other family types. The study also showed that the more often adolescents see their family member drunk the more they drink themselves. There is no difference in adolescent drinking patterns whether they see their family member drunk once a month or once a week. This study gives an insight on which subgroups of adolescents are at heightened risk of alcohol abuse and that decrease of family member drunkenness may have positive effects on the drinking habits of their children.

  11. The effects of family structure and function on mental health during China's transition: a cross-sectional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yao; Zhang, Liuyi; Wang, Fang; Zhang, Ping; Ye, Beizhu; Liang, Yuan

    2017-05-05

    Social change, intensified by industrialization and globalization, has not only changed people's work lives but also their personal lives, especially in developing countries. The aim of this study was to provide evidence and recommendations regarding family structure, function, and mental health to actively respond to rapid social change. A cross-sectional survey was conducted face-to-face and door-to-door from July 2011 to September 2012 in Hubei Province, central China. Family structure comprised alone, couple, nuclear family, and extended family; family function was measured using the family APGAR (Adaptation, Partnership, Growth, Affection, and Resolve) scale, and mental health was measured using the Chinese version of the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). The urban-vs-rural difference of family structure among alone, couple, nuclear family, and extended family was statistically significant (5.21% vs 4.62%; 27.36% vs 13.14%; 33.22% vs 27.74%; 34.20% vs 54.50%, respectively; p family function was not statistically significant (8.11 ± 2.13 vs 8.09 ± 2.27, p = 0.9372). The general linear regression showed that the effect of family structure on mental health, whether urban or rural, was not significant, however, the effect of family function was significant, especially regarding better family functioning with better mental health. Combined the effects of family structure and function on mental health, the external form of family (family structure) may not be important; while the internal quality of role (family function) might be key. Improving the residents' family function would be a priority strategy for family practice with their mental health.

  12. Family Food Security and Children’s Environment: A Comprehensive Analysis with Structural Equation Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Che Wan Jasimah bt Wan Mohamed Radzi; Huang Hui; Nur Anisah Binti Mohamed @ A. Rahman; Hashem Salarzadeh Jenatabadi

    2017-01-01

    Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) has been used extensively in sustainability studies to model relationships among latent and manifest variables. This paper provides a tutorial exposition of the SEM approach in food security studies and introduces a basic framework based on family food security and children’s environment sustainability. This framework includes family food security and three main concepts representing children’s environment, including children’s BMI, health, and school perfor...

  13. Family structure and upbringing as factors of intellectual development of preschool children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golovey L.A.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to investigation of the influence of the family structure and family attitudes, child-parent relationship, styles of family upbringing on the intellectual develop- ment of pre-school-age children. Attention is paid to the analysis of the influence of parents and children gender. The sample included 150 children, 150 mothers and 75 fathers, all the families live in St. Petersburg. Results of the study reveal a significantly greater influence of the child's parent-child relationship and family atmosphere on the intellectual develop- ment in comparison with its structure. Negative impact of attitudes on the severity, harsh- ness, acceleration the development of the child on the intellectual development is revealed. Influence of parents’ gender on intellectual development of children manifests in the lead- ing role of the father’s relationship in girls IQ results, and mother’s parental attitudes in boys IQ results. The authors of the article reveal the importance of the adequacy of the system of regulation and control, severity of requirements for the development of girls; lack of parental custody and adequacy to meet the needs — for the development of boys. The authors outline the significant role of preschool children perception, especially girls, of the emotional atmosphere in the family in their intellectual development. This work was supported by the Russian Foundation for Humanities (project №13-06-008480 «Family as a resource for mental development of children in stable and critical periods of ontogeny»

  14. Collaboration ''Pamir''. 2. Structure of #betta# families and its relation to jet production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajburina, S.G.; Borisov, A.S.; Guseva, Z.M.

    1982-01-01

    Experimental data on 212 #betta#-families with the energy of μEsub(#betta#)=100-200 TeV and on 134 families with μEsub(#betta#)=200-400 TeV obtained during the ''Pamir'' experiment are analyzed. Only those electron photon cascades (EPC) in families, which were situated at 15 cm distance from the centre of gravity of the family weighed in energy, are taken into consideration. A class of #betta#-families, in which EPC are grouped into two space-separated groups or streams, is separated from all events. The dependence of the anisotropy (α) parameter on the ER (where E and R is the energy and the distance of the EPC from the center of gravity weighed in energy) is presented for the similar class of events. It is anticipated that there are structural #betta#-families conditioned by the quark-gluon stream generation. A part of such events constitutes 5-10%. Transverse momentum of streams constitute several GeV/c. For the model description of spatial structure of #betta#-families, formation of the considerable number of streams with high transverse momentum should be taken into consideration

  15. The relations among child quality, family structure, and the value of the mother's time in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppel, K

    1982-10-01

    A model of the determinants of child quality and of the value of a woman's time is developed and tested using data from the Malaysian Family Life Survey of 1976-1977. Child quality is measured by educational attainment; factors influencing the value of the mother's time include size and age composition of household, family income, education, and hours worked. The results indicate that size and age composition of household affect a woman's asking wage. However, more data are needed before the effects of family structure on schooling can be measured with confidence.

  16. Safe sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sex; Sexually transmitted - safe sex; GC - safe sex; Gonorrhea - safe sex; Herpes - safe sex; HIV - safe sex; ... contact. STIs include: Chlamydia Genital herpes Genital warts Gonorrhea Hepatitis HIV HPV Syphilis STIs are also called ...

  17. Calmodulin-dependent nuclear import of HMG-box family nuclear factors: importance of the role of SRY in sex reversal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Gurpreet; Delluc-Clavieres, Aurelie; Poon, Ivan K H; Forwood, Jade K; Glover, Dominic J; Jans, David A

    2010-08-15

    The HMG (high-mobility group)-box-containing chromatin-remodelling factor SRY (sex-determining region on the Y chromosome) plays a key role in sex determination. Its role in the nucleus is critically dependent on two NLSs (nuclear localization signals) that flank its HMG domain: the C-terminally located 'beta-NLS' that mediates nuclear transport through Impbeta1 (importin beta1) and the N-terminally located 'CaM-NLS' which is known to recognize the calcium-binding protein CaM (calmodulin). In the present study, we examined a number of missense mutations in the SRY CaM-NLS from human XY sex-reversed females for the first time, showing that they result in significantly reduced nuclear localization of GFP (green fluorescent protein)-SRY fusion proteins in transfected cells compared with wild-type. The CaM antagonist CDZ (calmidazolium chloride) was found to significantly reduce wild-type SRY nuclear accumulation, indicating dependence of SRY nuclear import on CaM. Intriguingly, the CaM-NLS mutants were all resistant to CDZ's effects, implying a loss of interaction with CaM, which was confirmed by direct binding experiments. CaM-binding/resultant nuclear accumulation was the only property of SRY found to be impaired by two of the CaM-NLS mutations, implying that inhibition of CaM-dependent nuclear import is the basis of sex reversal in these cases. Importantly, the CaM-NLS is conserved in other HMG-box-domain-containing proteins such as SOX-2, -9, -10 and HMGN1, all of which were found for the first time to rely on CaM for optimal nuclear localization. CaM-dependent nuclear translocation is thus a common mechanism for this family of important transcription factors.

  18. Interpersonal and structural contexts of intimate partner violence among female sex workers in conflict-affected northern Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Margaret; Goldenberg, Shira M; Master, Aditi; Muzaaya, Godfrey; Akello, Monica; Braschel, Melissa; Birungi, Josephine; Shannon, Kate

    2017-07-06

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is the most prevalent form of violence against women, yet remains under-researched among sex workers in sub-Saharan Africa. We explored the interpersonal and structural determinants of recent IPV among female sex workers in northern Uganda. This analysis drew on data from a community-based cross-sectional study (conducted May 2011-January 2012), involving 379 female sex workers in Gulu, northern Uganda. Using logistic regression and multivariable modeling, we examined the correlates of recent male-perpetrated physical or sexual IPV. Of 379 women with noncommercial partners, 59 percent reported having experienced recent moderate/severe physical or sexual IPV. Reporting recent client violence (adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 3.67; 95 percent confidence interval [CI]: 2.31-5.83), doing what their partner wanted (AOR: 2.46; 95 percent CI: 1.46-4.13), and forced sexual debut (AOR: 1.92; 95 percent CI: 1.20-3.05) were independently associated with moderate/severe IPV; recent police arrest and/or incarceration were/was marginally significantly associated with IPV (AOR: 2.25; 95 percent CI: 0.86-5.88, p = 0.097). Greater odds of IPV among sex workers were associated with recent workplace violence, forced sexual debut, and gendered power dynamics favoring male partner control. Programs and policies promoting the safety and health of marginalized women and addressing gender dynamics and violence are needed.

  19. Geschlechtsrollen in der Familie: Perspektiven der Frauenforschung

    OpenAIRE

    Grunow, D.; Kapella, O.; Rille-Pfeiffer, C.; Rupp, M.; Schneider, N.F.

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, a growing body of literature on the subject of women's studies ("frauenforschung") has tackled the issue of sex roles in the family from a new perspective: rather than focusing on the behavioral and psychological aspects of 'doing gender' in day-to-day interaction, scholars are now exploring how sex roles are structurally embedded in society and therefore framed and (re)shaped by policies and insitutions. This paper traces the main developments from classic sociological sex r...

  20. Crystal structure of a family 16 endoglucanase from the hyperthermophile Pyrococcus furiosus--structural basis of substrate recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ilari, A.; Fiorillo, A.; Angelaccio, S.; Florio, R.; Chiaraluce, R.; Oost, van der J.; Consalvi, V.

    2009-01-01

    Bacterial and archaeal endo-beta-1,3-glucanases that belong to glycoside hydrolase family 16 share a beta-jelly-roll fold, but differ significantly in sequence and in substrate specificity. The crystal structure of the laminarinase (EC 3.2.1.39) from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus

  1. A Review on Structures and Functions of Bcl-2 Family Proteins from Homo sapiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivakumar, Dakshinamurthy; Sivaraman, Thirunavukkarasu

    2016-01-01

    Cancer cells evade apoptosis, which is regulated by proteins of Bcl-2 family in the intrinsic pathways. Numerous experimental three-dimensional (3D) structures of the apoptotic proteins and the proteins bound with small chemical molecules/peptides/proteins have been reported in the literature. In this review article, the 3D structures of the Bcl-2 family proteins from Homo sapiens and as well complex structures of the anti-apoptotic proteins bound with small molecular inhibitors reported in the literature to date have been comprehensively listed out and described in detail. Moreover, the molecular mechanisms by which the Bcl-2 family proteins modulate the apoptotic processes and strategies for designing antagonists to anti-apoptotic proteins have been concisely discussed.

  2. Comparison of Family Power Structure and Identity Style Between Delinquent and Non-Delinquent Juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodabakhshi Koolaee, Anahita; Rahmatizadeh, Masoumeh; Shaghelanilor, Hossein; Pocock, Lesley

    2015-12-01

    Adolescence denotes a time in which youth begins to experience dangerous behaviors like substance use and delinquency. In this study, we investigated the family power structure and identity style in delinquent and non-delinquent juveniles residing in Tehran, Iran. To accomplish the goal of the study, 80 adolescent delinquents of the correction and rehabilitation centers aged between 15 and 18 years were selected with convenience sampling method and 80 students of secondary school age between 15 and 18 years in Tehran, Iran in 2012. They answered the instrument of family power structure (Saidian, 2004) and identity style (ISI-6G: White et al. 1998). The obtained data were analyzed using the independent t-test, chi-square test, and Levene's test. The findings indicated a significant difference between delinquent and non-delinquent juveniles with regard to family power structure, its subscales (P family has a significant effect on deviant behavior and identity style in adolescents. So, family power structure can be considered in therapeutic interventions (prevention and treatment) for adolescent delinquency.

  3. Impulsivity and the Sexes: Measurement and Structural Invariance of the UPPS-P Impulsive Behavior Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyders, Melissa A.

    2013-01-01

    Before it is possible to test whether men and women differ in impulsivity, it is necessary to evaluate whether impulsivity measures are invariant across sex. The UPPS-P Impulsive Behavior Scale (negative urgency, lack of premeditation, lack of perseverance, and sensation seeking, with added subscale of positive urgency) is one measure of five…

  4. Structure-Activity Relationships on the Molecular Descriptors Family Project at the End

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorentz JÄNTSCHI

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Molecular Descriptors Family (MDF on the Structure-Activity Relationships (SAR, a promising approach in investigation and quantification of the link between 2D and 3D structural information and the activity, and its potential in the analysis of the biological active compounds is summarized. The approach, attempts to correlate molecular descriptors family generated and calculated on a set of biological active compounds with their observed activity. The estimation as well as prediction abilities of the approach are presented. The obtained MDF SAR models can be used to predict the biological activity of unknown substrates in a series of compounds.

  5. The impact of family structure on the health of children: Effects of divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jane

    2014-11-01

    Nearly three decades of research evaluating the impact of family structure on the health and well-being of children demonstrates that children living with their married, biological parents consistently have better physical, emotional, and academic well-being. Pediatricians and society should promote the family structure that has the best chance of producing healthy children. The best scientific literature to date suggests that, with the exception of parents faced with unresolvable marital violence, children fare better when parents work at maintaining the marriage. Consequently, society should make every effort to support healthy marriages and to discourage married couples from divorcing.

  6. Woman's Profession and Female Role--The Development of Sex-specific Structures of Education and of the Labor Market before the First World War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinger, Vera

    1989-01-01

    Examines the intrusion of female employees into the traditionally male domain of office work from 1860 to 1914. Shows that sex-specific segregation was supported by a lack of training facilities for girls and by fact that these facilities supported the dominant sex-role structure. Focuses on the development of vocational schools for girls.…

  7. Racial Inequality Trends and the Intergenerational Persistence of Income and Family Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloome, Deirdre

    2015-01-01

    Racial disparity in family incomes remained remarkably stable over the past 40 years in the United States despite major legal and social reforms. Previous scholarship presents two primary explanations for persistent inequality through a period of progressive change. One highlights continuity: because socioeconomic status is transmitted from parents to children, disparities created through histories of discrimination and opportunity denial may dissipate slowly. The second highlights change: because family income results from joining individual earnings in family units, changing family compositions can offset individuals’ changing economic chances. I examine whether black-white family income inequality trends are better characterized by the persistence of existing disadvantage (continuity) or shifting forms of disadvantage (change). I combine cross-sectional and panel analysis using Current Population Survey, Panel Study of Income Dynamics, Census, and National Vital Statistics data. Results suggest that African Americans experience relatively extreme intergenerational continuity (low upward mobility) and discontinuity (high downward mobility); both helped maintain racial inequality. Yet, intergenerational discontinuities allow new forms of disadvantage to emerge. On net, racial inequality trends are better characterized by changing forms of disadvantage than by continuity. Economic trends were equalizing but demographic trends were disequalizing; as family structures shifted, family incomes did not fully reflect labor-market gains. PMID:26456973

  8. Polygynous contexts, family structure, and infant mortality in sub-saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Greenaway, Emily; Trinitapoli, Jenny

    2014-04-01

    Contextual characteristics influence infant mortality above and beyond family-level factors. The widespread practice of polygyny is one feature of many sub-Saharan African contexts that may be relevant to understanding patterns of infant mortality. Building on evidence that the prevalence of polygyny reflects broader economic, social, and cultural features and that it has implications for how families engage in the practice, we investigate whether and how the prevalence of polygyny (1) spills over to elevate infant mortality for all families, and (2) conditions the survival disadvantage for children living in polygynous families (i.e., compared with monogamous families). We use data from Demographic and Health Surveys to estimate multilevel hazard models that identify associations between infant mortality and region-level prevalence of polygyny for 236,336 children in 260 subnational regions across 29 sub-Saharan African countries. We find little evidence that the prevalence of polygyny influences mortality for infants in nonpolygynous households net of region-level socioeconomic factors and gender inequality. However, the prevalence of polygyny significantly amplifies the survival disadvantage for infants in polygynous families. Our findings demonstrate that considering the broader marital context reveals important insights into the relationship between family structure and child well-being.

  9. Structural, functional and evolutionary characterization of major drought transcription factors families in maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Shikha; Banduni, Pooja; Mallikarjuna, Mallana G.; Rao, Atmakuri R.; Jain, Prashant A.; Dash, Prasanta K.; Thirunavukkarasu, Nepolean

    2018-05-01

    Drought is one of the major threats to maize production. In order to improve the production and to breed tolerant hybrids, understanding the genes and regulatory mechanisms during drought stress is important. Transcription factors (TFs) play a major role in gene regulation and many TFs have been identified in response to drought stress. In our experiment, a set of 15 major TF families comprising 1436 genes was structurally and functionally characterized using in-silico tools and a gene expression assay. All 1436 genes were mapped on 10 chromosome of maize. The functional annotation indicated the involvement of these genes in ABA signaling, ROS scavenging, photosynthesis, stomatal regulation, and sucrose metabolism. Duplication was identified as the primary force in divergence and expansion of TF families. Phylogenetic relationship was developed individually for each TF family as well as combined TF families. Phylogenetic analysis grouped the TF family of genes into TF-specific and mixed groups. Phylogenetic analysis of genes belonging to various TF families suggested that the origin of TFs occurred in the lineage of maize evolution. Gene structure analysis revealed that more number of genes were intron-rich as compared to intronless genes. Drought-responsive CRE’s such as ABREA, ABREB, DRE1 and DRECRTCOREAT have been identified. Expression and interaction analyses identified leaf-specific bZIP TF, GRMZM2G140355, as a potential contributor toward drought tolerance in maize. We also analyzed protein-protein interaction network of 269 drought-responsive genes belonging to different drought-related TFs. The information generated on structural and functional characteristics, expression and interaction of the drought-related TF families will be useful to decipher the drought tolerance mechanisms and to derive drought-tolerant genotypes in maize.

  10. Association of family structure with atopic dermatitis in United States children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Costner; Silverberg, Jonathan I

    2018-05-31

    Children from families without two married, biological parents have increased risk of poverty and poor health. The relationship between family structure and atopic dermatitis (AD) has not been elucidated. To determine the prevalence of AD and related outcomes in children from different family structures. Data were analyzed from 13,275 children (≤17 years) and their parents from the 2012 National Health Interview Survey. In multivariable logistic regression models adjusting for socio-demographics, children from single adult households (adjusted odds ratio [95% confidence interval]: 1.272 [1.050-1.542]), families with ≤2 members (1.413 [1.079-1.852]), families with a mother, but no father present (1.402 [1.179-1.667]), non-biological fathers (1.464 [1.089-1.969]), or unmarried mothers (1.508 [1.017-2.237]) had increased odds of AD. Among children with AD, there were significantly increased odds of having only good/fair/poor vs. very good/excellent overall health (1.545 [1.262-1.893]), greater odds of depression (2.287 [1.523-3.434]), anxiety (2.001 [1.543-2.595]), and stress (2.013 [1.499-2.704]). Cross-sectional study. US children from families with single adults, single mothers, non-biological fathers, or unmarried mothers may have increased odds of AD. Family structures were associated with poorer overall health, depression, anxiety, and stress in children with AD. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Graded Structure in Sexual Definitions: Categorizations of Having "Had Sex" and Virginity Loss Among Homosexual and Heterosexual Men and Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, Ava D; Bedford, Edward

    2017-08-01

    Definitions of sexual behavior display a robust hierarchy of agreement regarding whether or not acts should be classed as, for example, sex or virginity loss. The current research offers a theoretical explanation for this hierarchy, proposing that sexual definitions display graded categorical structure, arising from goodness of membership judgments. Moderation of this graded structure is also predicted, with the focus here on how sexual orientation identity affects sexual definitions. A total of 300 18- to 30-year-old participants completed an online survey, rating 18 behaviors for how far each constitutes having "had sex" and virginity loss. Participants fell into one of four groups: heterosexual male or female, gay male or lesbian. The predicted ratings hierarchy emerged, in which bidirectional genital acts were rated significantly higher than unidirectional or nonpenetrative contact, which was in turn rated significantly higher than acts involving no genital contact. Moderation of graded structure was also in line with predictions. Compared to the other groups, the lesbian group significantly upgraded ratings of genital contact that was either unidirectional or nonpenetrative. There was also evidence of upgrading by the gay male sample of anal intercourse ratings. These effects are theorized to reflect group-level variation in experience, contextual perspective, and identity-management. The implications of the findings in relation to previous research are discussed. It is suggested that a graded structure approach can greatly benefit future research into sexual definitions, by permitting variable definitions to be predicted and explained, rather than merely identified.

  12. Sex and gender in family business succession research: A review and forward agenda from a social construction perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, Teresa; Constantinidis, Christina

    2017-01-01

    This article focuses on how family business succession research has engaged and may be further enriched by application of a gender lens as socially constructed. We analyze the succession literature developing a gender terms vocabulary and five themes of historical engagement. Finding a lack of theoretical grounding, we apply the construct of gender, through expectation states theory, revising the Sharma and Irving model of successor commitment to examine how a socially constructed view of gen...

  13. Loss of T cells influences sex differences in behavior and brain structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rilett, Kelly C; Friedel, Miriam; Ellegood, Jacob; MacKenzie, Robyn N; Lerch, Jason P; Foster, Jane A

    2015-05-01

    Clinical and animal studies demonstrate that immune-brain communication influences behavior and brain function. Mice lacking T cell receptor β and δ chains were tested in the elevated plus maze, open field, and light-dark test and showed reduced anxiety-like behavior compared to wild type. Interestingly sex differences were observed in the behavioural phenotype of TCRβ-/-δ- mice. Specifically, female TCRβ-/-δ- mice spent more time in the light chamber compared to wild type females, whereas male TCRβ-/-δ- spent more time in the center of the open field compared to wild type males. In addition, TCRβ-/-δ- mice did not show sex differences in activity-related behaviors observed in WT mice. Ex vivo brain imaging (7 Tesla MRI) revealed volume changes in hippocampus, hypothalamus, amygdala, periaqueductal gray, and dorsal raphe and other brain regions between wild type and T cell receptor knockout mice. There was also a loss of sexual dimorphism in brain volume in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, normally the most sexually dimorphic region in the brain, in immune compromised mice. These data demonstrate the presence of T cells is important in the development of sex differences in CNS circuitry and behavior. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Evaluation of the Families Matter! Program in Tanzania: An Intervention to Promote Effective Parent-Child Communication About Sex, Sexuality, and Sexual Risk Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamala, Benjamin A; Rosecrans, Kathryn D; Shoo, Tiransia A; Al-Alawy, Hamid Z; Berrier, Faith; Bwogi, David F; Miller, Kim S

    2017-04-01

    The Families Matter! Program (FMP) is a curriculum-based intervention designed to give parents and other primary caregivers the knowledge, skills, comfort, and confidence to deliver messages to their 9-12-year-old children about sexuality and practice positive parenting skills. A pre- and post-intervention evaluation study on FMP outcomes was conducted with 658 parent participants and their preadolescent children in two administrative wards in Tanzania in 2014. There was an increase in the proportion of study participants (parent-preadolescent pairs) that had positive attitudes toward sex education. On parent-child communication, the majority of participants (59-87%) reported having had more sexuality discussions. On communication responsiveness about sexual issues, scores improved in the period between surveys, with parents showing more improvements than preadolescents. Our results corroborate evidence from previous FMP evaluations, lending support to the conclusion that FMP is successful in promoting attitude and behavior change among parents and preadolescents in different cultural contexts.

  15. Epidemiology and Heritability of Major Depressive Disorder, Stratified by Age of Onset, Sex, and Illness Course in Generation Scotland: Scottish Family Health Study (GS:SFHS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Fernandez-Pujals

    Full Text Available The heritability of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD has been estimated at 37% based largely on twin studies that rely on contested assumptions. More recently, the heritability of MDD has been estimated on large populations from registries such as the Swedish, Finnish, and Chinese cohorts. Family-based designs utilise a number of different relationships and provide an alternative means of estimating heritability. Generation Scotland: Scottish Family Health Study (GS:SFHS is a large (n = 20,198, family-based population study designed to identify the genetic determinants of common diseases, including Major Depressive Disorder. Two thousand seven hundred and six individuals were SCID diagnosed with MDD, 13.5% of the cohort, from which we inferred a population prevalence of 12.2% (95% credible interval: 11.4% to 13.1%. Increased risk of MDD was associated with being female, unemployed due to a disability, current smokers, former drinkers, and living in areas of greater social deprivation. The heritability of MDD in GS:SFHS was between 28% and 44%, estimated from a pedigree model. The genetic correlation of MDD between sexes, age of onset, and illness course were examined and showed strong genetic correlations. The genetic correlation between males and females with MDD was 0.75 (0.43 to 0.99; between earlier (≤ age 40 and later (> age 40 onset was 0.85 (0.66 to 0.98; and between single and recurrent episodic illness course was 0.87 (0.72 to 0.98. We found that the heritability of recurrent MDD illness course was significantly greater than the heritability of single MDD illness course. The study confirms a moderate genetic contribution to depression, with a small contribution of the common family environment (variance proportion = 0.07, CI: 0.01 to 0.15, and supports the relationship of MDD with previously identified risk factors. This study did not find robust support for genetic differences in MDD due to sex, age of onset, or illness course. However

  16. Epidemiology and Heritability of Major Depressive Disorder, Stratified by Age of Onset, Sex, and Illness Course in Generation Scotland: Scottish Family Health Study (GS:SFHS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Pujals, Ana Maria; Adams, Mark James; Thomson, Pippa; McKechanie, Andrew G; Blackwood, Douglas H R; Smith, Blair H; Dominiczak, Anna F; Morris, Andrew D; Matthews, Keith; Campbell, Archie; Linksted, Pamela; Haley, Chris S; Deary, Ian J; Porteous, David J; MacIntyre, Donald J; McIntosh, Andrew M

    2015-01-01

    The heritability of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) has been estimated at 37% based largely on twin studies that rely on contested assumptions. More recently, the heritability of MDD has been estimated on large populations from registries such as the Swedish, Finnish, and Chinese cohorts. Family-based designs utilise a number of different relationships and provide an alternative means of estimating heritability. Generation Scotland: Scottish Family Health Study (GS:SFHS) is a large (n = 20,198), family-based population study designed to identify the genetic determinants of common diseases, including Major Depressive Disorder. Two thousand seven hundred and six individuals were SCID diagnosed with MDD, 13.5% of the cohort, from which we inferred a population prevalence of 12.2% (95% credible interval: 11.4% to 13.1%). Increased risk of MDD was associated with being female, unemployed due to a disability, current smokers, former drinkers, and living in areas of greater social deprivation. The heritability of MDD in GS:SFHS was between 28% and 44%, estimated from a pedigree model. The genetic correlation of MDD between sexes, age of onset, and illness course were examined and showed strong genetic correlations. The genetic correlation between males and females with MDD was 0.75 (0.43 to 0.99); between earlier (≤ age 40) and later (> age 40) onset was 0.85 (0.66 to 0.98); and between single and recurrent episodic illness course was 0.87 (0.72 to 0.98). We found that the heritability of recurrent MDD illness course was significantly greater than the heritability of single MDD illness course. The study confirms a moderate genetic contribution to depression, with a small contribution of the common family environment (variance proportion = 0.07, CI: 0.01 to 0.15), and supports the relationship of MDD with previously identified risk factors. This study did not find robust support for genetic differences in MDD due to sex, age of onset, or illness course. However, we found

  17. Family Structure and the Well-Being of Immigrant Children in Four European Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalmijn, M.

    2017-01-01

    Data on secondary school children in England, Germany, the Netherlands, and Sweden show that large differences exist in family structure within the minority population: In some groups, father absence is more common than among natives; in others, it is less common. These patterns reflect the

  18. Structural Model for Antisocial Behavior: Generalization to Single-Mother Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, David V.; Skinner, Martie L.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to replicate the "basic training" structural model in Patterson's (1982) coercion theory, extending its scope to single-mother families with younger (six- to eight-year-old) boys. Significance of the successful replication was seen to lie in implications for the generalizability of the model across family…

  19. Life Satisfaction among Children in Different Family Structures: A Comparative Study of 36 Western Societies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjarnason, Thoroddur; Bendtsen, Pernille; Arnarsson, Arsaell M.; Borup, Ina; Iannotti, Ronald J.; Lofstedt, Petra; Haapasalo, Ilona; Niclasen, Birgit

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines differences in life satisfaction among children in different family structures in 36 western, industrialised countries (n = 184 496). Children living with both biological parents reported higher levels of life satisfaction than children living with a single parent or parent-step-parent. Children in joint physical custody…

  20. Sonneratiaceae (concluded). Sonneratiaceae and other mangrove-swamp families, anatomical structure and water relations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinders-Gouwentak, C.A.

    1948-01-01

    The question whether tidal and non-tidal members of a family have a separate wood anatomical structure would be examined best in such genera as embrace both types. The sequel to this examination, whether any such differences are connected with peculiarities in the water relations of the plants,

  1. The Interaction between Family Structure and Child Gender on Behavior Problems in Urban Ethnic Minority Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokrue, Kathariya; Chen, Yung Y.; Elias, Maurice

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have reported that children from single-parent households fare worse behaviorally than those from two-parent households. Studies examining single-parent households often fail to distinguish between single-mother and single-father households. Further, there are inconsistent findings regarding the effect of family structure on boys…

  2. Premissas histórico-socioculturais sobre a família brasileira em função do sexo e da idade Historic-sociocultural premises about the Brazilian family in relation to sex and age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eveline Maria Leal Assmar

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Segundo a abordagem etnopsicológica, as premissas histórico-socioculturais, que constituem crenças inquestionáveis consensualmente aceitas por um grupo social, desempenham papel chave na compreensão do comportamento individual. Apoiando-se nessa perspectiva, investigou-se a influência do sexo e idade no grau de adesão a premissas sobre a família brasileira. A amostra compreendeu 393 sujeitos de ambos os sexos, distribuídos em quatro faixas etárias, que responderam à adaptação brasileira do Questionário sobre a Estrutura da Família Mexicana. Os homens endossaram mais fortemente que as mulheres as premissas associadas à dominação masculina, valores tradicionais da família e virgindade feminina. As mulheres revelaram-se mais tradicionais que os homens na aceitação das premissas relacionadas à abnegação feminina. Não foram observadas diferenças entre os grupos de idade em nenhuma das dimensões consideradas. Concluiu-se que, embora a sociedade brasileira venha sofrendo mudanças, os valores e crenças sobre a família, introjetados pelos homens e pelos mais jovens, não acompanharam essas mudanças.In the ethnopsychological approach, historic-sociocultural premises, which are unquestionable beliefs consensually accepted by a social group, play a key role in the understanding of individual behavior. Based on this approach, the influence of sex and age in the endorsement of premises about the Brazilian family was investigated. The sample consisted of 393 individuals of both sexes distributed in four age groups who answered a Brazilian version of the Mexican Family Structure Questionnaire. Men demonstrated greater acceptance of the premises associated with male dominance, traditional family values, and female virginity than women. Women showed greater endorsement of the premises related to female abnegation than men. No differences among age groups were observed. It was concluded that although Brazilian society has been

  3. From Genome to Structure and Back Again: A Family Portrait of the Transcarbamylases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dashuang Shi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Enzymes in the transcarbamylase family catalyze the transfer of a carbamyl group from carbamyl phosphate (CP to an amino group of a second substrate. The two best-characterized members, aspartate transcarbamylase (ATCase and ornithine transcarbamylase (OTCase, are present in most organisms from bacteria to humans. Recently, structures of four new transcarbamylase members, N-acetyl-l-ornithine transcarbamylase (AOTCase, N-succinyl-l-ornithine transcarbamylase (SOTCase, ygeW encoded transcarbamylase (YTCase and putrescine transcarbamylase (PTCase have also been determined. Crystal structures of these enzymes have shown that they have a common overall fold with a trimer as their basic biological unit. The monomer structures share a common CP binding site in their N-terminal domain, but have different second substrate binding sites in their C-terminal domain. The discovery of three new transcarbamylases, l-2,3-diaminopropionate transcarbamylase (DPTCase, l-2,4-diaminobutyrate transcarbamylase (DBTCase and ureidoglycine transcarbamylase (UGTCase, demonstrates that our knowledge and understanding of the spectrum of the transcarbamylase family is still incomplete. In this review, we summarize studies on the structures and function of transcarbamylases demonstrating how structural information helps to define biological function and how small structural differences govern enzyme specificity. Such information is important for correctly annotating transcarbamylase sequences in the genome databases and for identifying new members of the transcarbamylase family.

  4. Theories on the beginnings and structure of joint-families ("zadruga"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novaković Nada

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author has a critical standpoint toward the most known theories on joint family communities. The works of the up-to-now called Yugoslav authors were put in the foreground. The works of foreign authors were placed after. They were classified by a general criterion, by how the authors saw the origins of this form of family. The comprehension of the basic characteristics depends, as a rule, on that, as well as the elements structure, changing processes, adjustment to new conditions and extinction of the joint family community. The first part of this article is devoted to theories about family communities as an institution of the Slavs. In this way its origin is connected with elements of a certain ethnic community. The range and consequences of such beliefs are suggested. The second part is reserved to explaining the family community as an institution which appeared in feudalism. It is a consequence of the tax system role. With its termination, the communities fell apart. This kind of social development determination and this type of family is proven to be ahistorical. It is predominantly stressed that the authors neglected that feudalism was a class society and overemphasized the force factor significance. The third part deals with theories which believe joint-family communities as an institution which arose in the transition from tribal to class society. These researchers stress that it is a general, historically determined conditioned form, which originated before class society and terminated with its development. Elements of its structure are especially important, as well as methods of its transformation in new conditions and termination processes. The essence of this belief is the following: a joint-family is a general historical form of family organization which arose in the transition from tribal to class society. The most important characteristics are: 1 blood relationship among men members; 2 common property; 3

  5. Can Burt's Theory of Structural Holes be Applied to Study Social Support Among Mid-Age Female Sex Workers? A Multi-Site Egocentric Network Study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongjie

    2017-12-01

    The epidemic of HIV/AIDS continues to spread among older adults and mid-age female sex workers (FSWs) over 35 years old. We used egocentric network data collected from three study sites in China to examine the applicability of Burt's Theory of Social Holes to study social support among mid-age FSWs. Using respondent-driven sampling, 1245 eligible mid-age FSWs were interviewed. Network structural holes were measured by network constraint and effective size. Three types of social networks were identified: family networks, workplace networks, and non-FSW networks. A larger effective size was significantly associated with a higher level of social support [regression coefficient (β) 5.43-10.59] across the three study samples. In contrast, a greater constraint was significantly associated with a lower level of social support (β -9.33 to -66.76). This study documents the applicability of the Theory of Structural Holes in studying network support among marginalized populations, such as FSWs.

  6. Autism attenuates sex differences in brain structure: a combined voxel-based morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beacher, F D; Minati, L; Baron-Cohen, S; Lombardo, M V; Lai, M-C; Gray, M A; Harrison, N A; Critchley, H D

    2012-01-01

    It has been proposed that autism spectrums condition may represent a form of extreme male brain (EMB), a notion supported by psychometric, behavioral, and endocrine evidence. Yet, limited data are presently available evaluating this hypothesis in terms of neuroanatomy. Here, we investigated sex-related anatomic features in adults with AS, a "pure" form of autism not involving major developmental delay. Males and females with AS and healthy controls (n = 28 and 30, respectively) were recruited. Structural MR imaging was performed to measure overall gray and white matter volume and to assess regional effects by means of VBM. DTI was used to investigate the integrity of the main white matter tracts. Significant interactions were found between sex and diagnosis in total white matter volume, regional gray matter volume in the right parietal operculum, and fractional anisotropy (FA) in the body of the CC, cingulum, and CR. Post hoc comparisons indicated that the typical sexual dimorphism found in controls, whereby males have larger FA and total white matter volume, was absent or attenuated in participants with AS. Our results point to a fundamental role of the factors that underlie sex-specific brain differentiation in the etiology of autism.

  7. School climate, family structure, and academic achievement: a study of moderation effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, Meagan; Voight, Adam; Renshaw, Tyler L; Eklund, Katie

    2015-03-01

    School climate has been lauded for its relationship to a host of desirable academic, behavioral, and social-emotional outcomes for youth. The present study tested the hypothesis that school climate counteracts youths' home-school risk by examining the moderating effects of students' school climate perceptions on the relationship between family structure (i.e., two-parent, one-parent, foster-care, and homeless households), and academic performance (i.e., self-reported [grade point average] GPA). The present sample consisted of 902 California public high schools, including responses from over 490,000 students in Grades 9 and 11. Results indicated that, regardless of family structure, students with more positive school climate perceptions self-reported higher GPAs. Youths with two-parent, one-parent, and homeless family structures displayed stepwise, linear improvements in self-reported GPA as perceptions of climate improved. Foster-care students' positive school climate perceptions had a weaker effect on their self-reported GPA compared with students living in other family structures. A unique curvilinear trend was found for homeless students, as the relationship between their school climate perceptions and self-reported GPA was stronger at lower levels. Overall, the moderation effect of positive school climate perceptions on self-reported GPA was strongest for homeless youth and youth from one-parent homes, suggesting that school climate has a protective effect for students living in these family structures. A protective effect was not found for youth in foster-care. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

  8. Association Between the Probability of Autism Spectrum Disorder and Normative Sex-Related Phenotypic Diversity in Brain Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Derek S.; Gudbrandsen, Christina M.; Marquand, Andre F.; Ginestet, Cedric E.; Daly, Eileen M.; Murphy, Clodagh M.; Lai, Meng-Chuan; Lombardo, Michael V.; Ruigrok, Amber N. V.; Bullmore, Edward T.; Suckling, John; Williams, Steven C. R.; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Craig, Michael C.; Murphy, Declan G. M.

    2017-01-01

    Importance Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is 2 to 5 times more common in male individuals than in female individuals. While the male preponderant prevalence of ASD might partially be explained by sex differences in clinical symptoms, etiological models suggest that the biological male phenotype carries a higher intrinsic risk for ASD than the female phenotype. To our knowledge, this hypothesis has never been tested directly, and the neurobiological mechanisms that modulate ASD risk in male individuals and female individuals remain elusive. Objectives To examine the probability of ASD as a function of normative sex-related phenotypic diversity in brain structure and to identify the patterns of sex-related neuroanatomical variability associated with low or high probability of ASD. Design, Setting, and Participants This study examined a cross-sectional sample of 98 right-handed, high-functioning adults with ASD and 98 matched neurotypical control individuals aged 18 to 42 years. A multivariate probabilistic classification approach was used to develop a predictive model of biological sex based on cortical thickness measures assessed via magnetic resonance imaging in neurotypical controls. This normative model was subsequently applied to individuals with ASD. The study dates were June 2005 to October 2009, and this analysis was conducted between June 2015 and July 2016. Main Outcomes and Measures Sample and population ASD probability estimates as a function of normative sex-related diversity in brain structure, as well as neuroanatomical patterns associated with low or high ASD probability in male individuals and female individuals. Results Among the 98 individuals with ASD, 49 were male and 49 female, with a mean (SD) age of 26.88 (7.18) years. Among the 98 controls, 51 were male and 47 female, with a mean (SD) age of 27.39 (6.44) years. The sample probability of ASD increased significantly with predictive probabilities for the male neuroanatomical brain phenotype. For

  9. Brief report: Risky sexual behavior of adolescents in Belgrade: association with socioeconomic status and family structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukovic, Dejana S; Bjegovic, Vesna M

    2007-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between socioeconomic status and family structure with risky sexual behaviors in adolescents. A total of 1782 15-year-old Belgrade schoolchildren (47.5% boys and 52.5% girls) completed a questionnaire from the WHO study, "Health behavior of schoolchildren". Adolescents with a higher weekly disposable income, those who perceived their family as wealthy, and those with difficulties in communication with their mothers were more likely to have had been sexually active (odds ratios (OR)=2.497, 1.876, and 1.253, respectively). Adolescents with a higher weekly disposable income were more likely to use contraception (OR=0.233), but those who perceived their families as better-off and those living with only one parent were more likely not to use contraception (OR=4.794, 22.295 [living with father], and 6.169 [living with mother], respectively). The perceived family wealth was significantly associated with having sexual intercourse and having sexual intercourse without using contraception. Family structure had a limited independent association with sexual behavior.

  10. Structural bridging network position is associated with HIV status in a younger Black men who have sex with men epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Nirav S; Iveniuk, James; Muth, Stephen Q; Michaels, Stuart; Jose, Jo-Anne; Laumann, Edward O; Schneider, John A

    2014-02-01

    Younger Black men who have sex with men (BMSM) ages 16-29 have the highest rates of HIV in the United States. Despite increased attention to social and sexual networks as a framework for biomedical intervention, the role of measured network positions, such as bridging and their relationship to HIV risk has received limited attention. A network sample (N = 620) of BMSM respondents (N = 154) and their MSM and transgendered person network members (N = 466) was generated through respondent driven sampling of BMSM and elicitation of their personal networks. Bridging status of each network member was determined by a constraint measure and was used to assess the relationship between this bridging and unprotected anal intercourse (UAI), sex-drug use (SDU), group sex (GS) and HIV status within the network in South Chicago. Low, moderate and high bridging was observed in 411 (66.8 %), 81 (13.2 %) and 123 (20.0 %) of the network. In addition to age and having sex with men only, moderate and high levels of bridging were associated with HIV status (aOR 3.19; 95 % CI 1.58-6.45 and aOR 3.83; 95 % CI 1.23-11.95, respectively). Risk behaviors observed including UAS, GS, and SDU were not associated with HIV status, however, they clustered together in their associations with one another. Bridging network position but not risk behavior was associated with HIV status in this network sample of younger BMSM. Socio-structural features such as position within the network may be important when implementing effective HIV prevention interventions in younger BMSM populations.

  11. Comprehensive secondary structure elucidation of four genera of the family Pospiviroidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Giguère

    Full Text Available Viroids are small, circular, single stranded RNA molecules that infect plants. Since they are non-coding, their structures play a critical role in their life cycles. To date, little effort has been spend on elucidating viroid structures in solution due to both the experimental difficulties and the time-consuming nature of the methodologies implicated. Recently, the technique of high-throughput selective 2'-hydroxyl acylation analyzed by primer extension (SHAPE was adapted for the probing of the members of family Avsunviroidae, all of whom replicate in the chloroplast and demonstrate ribozyme activity. In the present work, twelve viroid species belonging to four different genera of the family Pospiviroidae, whose members are characterized by the presence of a central conserved region (CCR and who replicate in nucleus of the host, were probed. Given that the structures of five distinct viroid species from the family Pospiviroidae have been previously reported, an overview of the different structural characteristics for all genera and the beginning of a manual classification of the different viroids based on their structural features are presented here.

  12. Computing the Reverse Eccentric Connectivity Index for Certain Family of Nanocone and Fullerene Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Gao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A large number of previous works reveal that there exist strong connections between the chemical characteristics of chemical compounds and drugs (e.g., melting point and boiling point and their topological structures. Chemical indices introduced on these molecular topological structures can help chemists and material and medical scientists to grasp its chemical reactivity, biological activity, and physical features better. Hence, the study of the topological indices on the material structure can make up the defect of experiments and provide the theoretical evidence in material engineering. In this paper, we determine the reverse eccentric connectivity index of one family of pentagonal carbon nanocones PCN5[n] and three infinite families of fullerenes C12n+2,  C12n+4, and C18n+10 based on graph analysis and computation derivation, and these results can offer the theoretical basis for material properties.

  13. Structure and evolution of Apetala3, a sex-linked gene in Silene latifolia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čegan, Radim; Marais, G.A.B.; Kubeková, Hana; Blavet, N.; Widmer, A.; Vyskot, Boris; Doležel, Jaroslav; Šafář, Jan; Hobza, Roman

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 180 (2010), s. 1-10 ISSN 1471-2229 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA522/09/0083; GA ČR(CZ) GD204/09/H002; GA AV ČR(CZ) KJB600040901 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702; CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : sex chromosomes evolution * Apetala3 * Silene Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 4.085, year: 2010

  14. Emotion-cognition interaction in people at familial high risk for schizophrenia: the impact of sex differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Laura K; Giuliano, Anthony J; Lee, Erica H; Faraone, Stephen V; Tsuang, Ming T; Seidman, Larry J

    2011-11-01

    Cognitive deficits are fundamental to schizophrenia, and research suggests that negative emotion abnormally interferes with certain cognitive processes in those with the illness. To a lesser extent, cognitive impairment is found in persons at risk for schizophrenia, but there is limited research on the impact of emotion on cognitive processing in at-risk groups. It is unknown whether interference of negative emotion precedes illness and contributes to vulnerability for the disorder. We studied the extent to which negative emotional information interferes with working memory in 21 adolescent and young adult first-degree relatives of people with schizophrenia and 22 community controls. Groups were comparable in age, sex, education, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status. Primary measures were n-back tasks varying in cognitive load (1-back, 2-back, 3-back) with emotional faces (neutral, happy, fearful) as stimuli. The control group's response times (RTs) and the women's RTs, regardless of group, differed depending on the emotion condition. In contrast, the RTs of the relatives and of the men, regardless of group, did not differ by emotion. This study is the first to examine emotion-cognition interactions in relatives of individuals with schizophrenia. Reduced efficiency in processing emotional information may contribute to a greater vulnerability for schizophrenia that may be heightened in men. Additional research with larger samples of men and women is needed to test these preliminary findings.

  15. Common and distant structural characteristics of feruloyl esterase families from Aspergillus oryzae.

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    D B R K Gupta Udatha

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Feruloyl esterases (FAEs are important biomass degrading accessory enzymes due to their capability of cleaving the ester links between hemicellulose and pectin to aromatic compounds of lignin, thus enhancing the accessibility of plant tissues to cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic enzymes. FAEs have gained increased attention in the area of biocatalytic transformations for the synthesis of value added compounds with medicinal and nutritional applications. Following the increasing attention on these enzymes, a novel descriptor based classification system has been proposed for FAEs resulting into 12 distinct families and pharmacophore models for three FAE sub-families have been developed. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The feruloylome of Aspergillus oryzae contains 13 predicted FAEs belonging to six sub-families based on our recently developed descriptor-based classification system. The three-dimensional structures of the 13 FAEs were modeled for structural analysis of the feruloylome. The three genes coding for three enzymes, viz., A.O.2, A.O.8 and A.O.10 from the feruloylome of A. oryzae, representing sub-families with unknown functional features, were heterologously expressed in Pichia pastoris, characterized for substrate specificity and structural characterization through CD spectroscopy. Common feature-based pharamacophore models were developed according to substrate specificity characteristics of the three enzymes. The active site residues were identified for the three expressed FAEs by determining the titration curves of amino acid residues as a function of the pH by applying molecular simulations. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings on the structure-function relationships and substrate specificity of the FAEs of A. oryzae will be instrumental for further understanding of the FAE families in the novel classification system. The developed pharmacophore models could be applied for virtual screening of compound databases for

  16. Common and distant structural characteristics of feruloyl esterase families from Aspergillus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udatha, D B R K Gupta; Mapelli, Valeria; Panagiotou, Gianni; Olsson, Lisbeth

    2012-01-01

    Feruloyl esterases (FAEs) are important biomass degrading accessory enzymes due to their capability of cleaving the ester links between hemicellulose and pectin to aromatic compounds of lignin, thus enhancing the accessibility of plant tissues to cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic enzymes. FAEs have gained increased attention in the area of biocatalytic transformations for the synthesis of value added compounds with medicinal and nutritional applications. Following the increasing attention on these enzymes, a novel descriptor based classification system has been proposed for FAEs resulting into 12 distinct families and pharmacophore models for three FAE sub-families have been developed. The feruloylome of Aspergillus oryzae contains 13 predicted FAEs belonging to six sub-families based on our recently developed descriptor-based classification system. The three-dimensional structures of the 13 FAEs were modeled for structural analysis of the feruloylome. The three genes coding for three enzymes, viz., A.O.2, A.O.8 and A.O.10 from the feruloylome of A. oryzae, representing sub-families with unknown functional features, were heterologously expressed in Pichia pastoris, characterized for substrate specificity and structural characterization through CD spectroscopy. Common feature-based pharamacophore models were developed according to substrate specificity characteristics of the three enzymes. The active site residues were identified for the three expressed FAEs by determining the titration curves of amino acid residues as a function of the pH by applying molecular simulations. Our findings on the structure-function relationships and substrate specificity of the FAEs of A. oryzae will be instrumental for further understanding of the FAE families in the novel classification system. The developed pharmacophore models could be applied for virtual screening of compound databases for short listing the putative substrates prior to docking studies or for post

  17. Does family structure matter? Comparing the life goals and aspirations of learners in secondary schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene Lee Davids

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the goals and aspirations of learners from single- and two-parent families. The study used a quantitative methodology with a cross-sectional comparative group design. The sample consisted of 853 Grade 11 learners from secondary schools in the Northern, Southern and Metro Central education districts in the Western Cape. The data were collected using the Aspirations Index and a short biographical questionnaire. The results suggest that there was a significant main effect of family structure on certain goals and aspirations of learners in secondary schools. These goals and aspirations included wealth, image, personal growth, relationships, and health. Furthermore, learners in single-parent families placed more emphasis on intrinsic goals.

  18. Structuring Roles and Gender Identities Within Families Explaining Suicidal Behavior in South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasrado, Reena A; Chantler, Khatidja; Jasani, Rubina; Young, Alys

    2016-05-01

    This paper examines the social structures, culture, gendered roles, and their implications for suicidal behavior in South India. Exploring the cultural process within the structures of family and society to understand suicide and attempted suicide from the perspectives of survivors, mental health professionals, and traditional healers has not been achieved in the existing suicide-related research studies conducted in India to date. This study aimed to explore the cultural implications of attempted suicide by examining the survivors' life stories, their perceptions, and service providers' interpretations of problem situation. A qualitative design was used drawing on constant comparison method and thematic analysis. The analysis was underpinned by the theoretical concepts of Bourdieu's work. In-depth interviews were conducted with 15 survivors of attempted suicide, eight mental health professionals, and eight traditional healers from Southern India. The study found interactions among visible and invisible fields such as faith, power, control, culture, family, religion, and social systems to have strengthened the disparities in gender and role structures within families and societies and to have impacted survivors' dispositions to situations. The role of culture in causing suicide and attempted suicide is explained by unraveling the negative impact of interacting cultural and structural mechanisms.

  19. Impact of Family Structure on Parental Attitudes Toward the Economic Support of Adult Children Over the Transition to Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquilino, William S.

    2005-01-01

    This research explored the influence of family structure on midlife parents' attitudes toward the economic support of adult children and measured change in those attitudes as their oldest child moved from adolescence to young adulthood. Results suggest that family structure has long-term effects on parents' attitudes toward financial obligations…

  20. Assessing diabetes support in adolescents: factor structure of the Modified Diabetes Social Support Questionnaire (M-DSSQ-Family)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malik, J.A.; Koot, H.M.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the underlying factor structure of diabetes specific support using a modified diabetes family social support questionnaire, the M-DSSQ-Family, in one half of a sample of adolescents with type 1 diabetes, confirm it in the second half, test invariance in factor structure

  1. Structure-based function prediction of the expanding mollusk tyrosinase family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ronglian; Li, Li; Zhang, Guofan

    2017-11-01

    Tyrosinase (Ty) is a common enzyme found in many different animal groups. In our previous study, genome sequencing revealed that the Ty family is expanded in the Pacific oyster ( Crassostrea gigas). Here, we examine the larger number of Ty family members in the Pacific oyster by high-level structure prediction to obtain more information about their function and evolution, especially the unknown role in biomineralization. We verified 12 Ty gene sequences from Crassostrea gigas genome and Pinctada fucata martensii transcriptome. By using phylogenetic analysis of these Tys with functionally known Tys from other molluscan species, eight subgroups were identified (CgTy_s1, CgTy_s2, MolTy_s1, MolTy-s2, MolTy-s3, PinTy-s1, PinTy-s2 and PviTy). Structural data and surface pockets of the dinuclear copper center in the eight subgroups of molluscan Ty were obtained using the latest versions of prediction online servers. Structural comparison with other Ty proteins from the protein databank revealed functionally important residues (HA1, HA2, HA3, HB1, HB2, HB3, Z1-Z9) and their location within these protein structures. The structural and chemical features of these pockets which may related to the substrate binding showed considerable variability among mollusks, which undoubtedly defines Ty substrate binding. Finally, we discuss the potential driving forces of Ty family evolution in mollusks. Based on these observations, we conclude that the Ty family has rapidly evolved as a consequence of substrate adaptation in mollusks.

  2. Structural Equation Modeling of the Effects of Family, Preschool, and Stunting on the Cognitive Development of School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwakemi Rachel Ajayi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A recent study based on a sample of 1,580 children from five adjacent geographical locations in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, was carried out to examine the association of nutrition, family influence, preschool education, and disadvantages in geographical location with the cognitive development of school children. Data were collected on the children from 2009 to 2011 for this developmental study and included cognitive scores and information on the health and nutrition of the children. The current study analyzed the association of demographic variables (geographical location (site, child variables (sex, preschool education and socioeconomic status, parental level of education (maternal and paternal, child’s health (HIV status and hemoglobin level and anthropometric measures of nutritional status (height-for-age with children’s cognitive outcomes. The hypothesis is that the nutritional status of children is a pathway through which the indirect effects of the variables of interest exert influence on their cognitive outcomes. Factor analysis based on principal components was used to create a variable based on the cognitive measures, correlations were used to examine the bivariate association between the variables of interest in the preliminary analysis and a path analysis was constructed, which was used for the disaggregation of the direct and indirect effects of the predictors for each cognitive test in a structural equation model. The results revealed that nutritional status directly predicts cognitive test scores and is a path through which other variables indirectly influence children’s cognitive outcome and development.

  3. The IQD gene family in soybean: structure, phylogeny, evolution and expression.

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    Lin Feng

    Full Text Available Members of the plant-specific IQ67-domain (IQD protein family are involved in plant development and the basal defense response. Although systematic characterization of this family has been carried out in Arabidopsis, tomato (Solanum lycopersicum, Brachypodium distachyon and rice (Oryza sativa, systematic analysis and expression profiling of this gene family in soybean (Glycine max have not previously been reported. In this study, we identified and structurally characterized IQD genes in the soybean genome. A complete set of 67 soybean IQD genes (GmIQD1-67 was identified using Blast search tools, and the genes were clustered into four subfamilies (IQD I-IV based on phylogeny. These soybean IQD genes are distributed unevenly across all 20 chromosomes, with 30 segmental duplication events, suggesting that segmental duplication has played a major role in the expansion of the soybean IQD gene family. Analysis of the Ka/Ks ratios showed that the duplicated genes of the GmIQD family primarily underwent purifying selection. Microsynteny was detected in most pairs: genes in clade 1-3 might be present in genome regions that were inverted, expanded or contracted after the divergence; most gene pairs in clade 4 showed high conservation with little rearrangement among these gene-residing regions. Of the soybean IQD genes examined, six were most highly expressed in young leaves, six in flowers, one in roots and two in nodules. Our qRT-PCR analysis of 24 soybean IQD III genes confirmed that these genes are regulated by MeJA stress. Our findings present a comprehensive overview of the soybean IQD gene family and provide insights into the evolution of this family. In addition, this work lays a solid foundation for further experiments aimed at determining the biological functions of soybean IQD genes in growth and development.

  4. Family Income, Cumulative Risk Exposure, and White Matter Structure in Middle Childhood

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    Alexander J. Dufford

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Family income is associated with gray matter morphometry in children, but little is known about the relationship between family income and white matter structure. In this paper, using Tract-Based Spatial Statistics, a whole brain, voxel-wise approach, we examined the relationship between family income (assessed by income-to-needs ratio and white matter organization in middle childhood (N = 27, M = 8.66 years. Results from a non-parametric, voxel-wise, multiple regression (threshold-free cluster enhancement, p < 0.05 FWE corrected indicated that lower family income was associated with lower white matter organization [assessed by fractional anisotropy (FA] for several clusters in white matter tracts involved in cognitive and emotional functions including fronto-limbic circuitry (uncinate fasciculus and cingulum bundle, association fibers (inferior longitudinal fasciculus, superior longitudinal fasciculus, and corticospinal tracts. Further, we examined the possibility that cumulative risk (CR exposure might function as one of the potential pathways by which family income influences neural outcomes. Using multiple regressions, we found lower FA in portions of these tracts, including those found in the left cingulum bundle and left superior longitudinal fasciculus, was significantly related to greater exposure to CR (β = -0.47, p < 0.05 and β = -0.45, p < 0.05.

  5. Parentification and Grandparents’ Support from the Perspective of Grandchildren from Families of Various Structures

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    Napora Elżbieta

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the strength of the relationship between a retrospective evaluation of the experienced social support given by grandparents and the material status of the family with the quality of life of the grown-up grandchildren in families of different structures. The formulated expectations have been verified with the Social Support Scale (SSS, Student’s Life Satisfaction Scale (SLSS and an individual personal survey. The obtained results show that in families of single mothers, the emotional and informative support offered by grandparents was a significant factor improving the quality of the life of the grandchildren. In a complete family, however, the significant forms of support from grandparents were esteem support and its other forms, except for informative support. Moreover, the material wealth of the original family was shown to be an important predictor of the evaluation of the quality of life of the grandchildren; it was judged more negatively by adolescent children of single mothers.

  6. Human behavior. Sex equality can explain the unique social structure of hunter-gatherer bands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyble, M; Salali, G D; Chaudhary, N; Page, A; Smith, D; Thompson, J; Vinicius, L; Mace, R; Migliano, A B

    2015-05-15

    The social organization of mobile hunter-gatherers has several derived features, including low within-camp relatedness and fluid meta-groups. Although these features have been proposed to have provided the selective context for the evolution of human hypercooperation and cumulative culture, how such a distinctive social system may have emerged remains unclear. We present an agent-based model suggesting that, even if all individuals in a community seek to live with as many kin as possible, within-camp relatedness is reduced if men and women have equal influence in selecting camp members. Our model closely approximates observed patterns of co-residence among Agta and Mbendjele BaYaka hunter-gatherers. Our results suggest that pair-bonding and increased sex egalitarianism in human evolutionary history may have had a transformative effect on human social organization. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  7. Family Environment and Childhood Obesity: A New Framework with Structural Equation Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Huang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the current article is to introduce a framework of the complexity of childhood obesity based on the family environment. A conceptual model that quantifies the relationships and interactions among parental socioeconomic status, family food security level, child’s food intake and certain aspects of parental feeding behaviour is presented using the structural equation modeling (SEM concept. Structural models are analysed in terms of the direct and indirect connections among latent and measurement variables that lead to the child weight indicator. To illustrate the accuracy, fit, reliability and validity of the introduced framework, real data collected from 630 families from Urumqi (Xinjiang, China were considered. The framework includes two categories of data comprising the normal body mass index (BMI range and obesity data. The comparison analysis between two models provides some evidence that in obesity modeling, obesity data must be extracted from the dataset and analysis must be done separately from the normal BMI range. This study may be helpful for researchers interested in childhood obesity modeling based on family environment.

  8. The Sociological Study of the Effect of Family Structure on Social Health of Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naima Mohammadi

    Full Text Available Social health depends on different social and cultural factors. One of the most important suppliers of individual’s health is family structures and relations. In recent years due to functional changes in polygamous structure, there are threats against social health of men in Sarbaz city. In this research, to compare the rate of social health of men in polygamous and monogamous families in Sarbaz city we use a standard questionnaire of Shapiro & Keyes (2007. The population of this study consisted of 300 males who are residents of this city. They selected by using cluster sampling method. Gathered data were analyzed using SPSS software version 22. Findings from independent T-Test revealed that the average of social Coherence, Integration, Contribution and Actualization between men in polygamous families were significantly lower than monogamous. Based on these findings, we can conclude however a lot of traditional social customs were useful, functional and compatible and provide social acceptance, but today have become dysfunctional and threated social health of family members and community system face with crisis.

  9. Perceived Child Weight Status, Family Structure and Functioning, and Support for Health Behaviors in a Sample of Bariatric Surgery Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Keeley J; Ferriby, Megan; Noria, Sabrena; Skelton, Joseph; Taylor, Christopher; Needleman, Bradley

    2018-01-29

    The purpose of this study is to describe the associations between bariatric surgery patients' perspectives of their child's weight status, family support for eating and exercise behavior change, and family structure and functioning. A cross-sectional descriptive design with pre- and postsurgery (N = 224) patients was used. Demographics, perceptions of child weight status, family support for eating habits and exercise, and family functioning were assessed from patients at a University Bariatric Clinic. Patients who perceived their child to be overweight/obese reported more impaired family functioning, less family exercise participation, and more discouragement for eating habit change in the family compared to patients who did not perceive their child to be overweight/obese. Single parents more often perceived their children to be overweight/obese, and had more impaired family functioning, and less support for changing eating habits and family exercise participation. Patients with impaired family functioning reported less support for changing eating habits and family exercise participation. Bariatric patients who perceived their child to be overweight/obese and identified as single parents reported more impaired family functioning and less support for eating habits and family participation in exercise. Assessing pre- and postsurgery measures from parents and children will allow the further identification of relationship variables that can be targeted to promote positive family changes that benefit parents and children long-term. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. The impacts of rapid demographic transition on family structure and income inequality in Brazil, 1981-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Alexandre Gori; Sakamoto, Camila Strobl

    2016-11-01

    This study analysed the impact of changing family structure on income distribution. Specifically, it analysed how changes in the proportions of different categories of family in the population contributed to increases in the income of the richest and poorest social strata in Brazil, and the consequent impacts on income inequality. Rural and urban families were compared in order to understand how these dynamics had different impacts on more developed (urban) and less developed (rural) areas. The results emphasize how changes observed in family structure are more pronounced among the richest families, contributing to an increase in (i) the income of the richest families and (ii) income inequality between the richest and poorest families, as well as between urban and rural areas.

  11. The relationship between family orientation, organization context, organization structure and firm performance

    OpenAIRE

    Joris Meijaard; Lorraine Uhlaner

    2004-01-01

    This study focuses on the prediction of three firm performance indicators, sales growth, innovation performance and profitability, on a sample of small and medium-sized firms in the Netherlands. Predictions from agency theory and the resource based view of organizations lead to alternate hypotheses regarding the direct and indirect effects of family ownership and management on firm performance. Other variables in the analysis include various organization structure variables including standard...

  12. Family Structure and Childhood Obesity, Early Childhood Longitudinal Study ? Kindergarten Cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Alex Y.; Escarce, Jos? J.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Little is known about the effect of family structure on childhood obesity among US children. This study examines the effect of number of parents and number of siblings on children's body mass index and risk of obesity. Methods We conducted a secondary data analysis of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study ? Kindergarten Cohort (ECLS-K), which consists of a nationally representative cohort of children who entered kindergarten during 1998-1999. Our analyses included 2 cross-sectio...

  13. Lack of sex-biased dispersal promotes fine-scale genetic structure in alpine ungulates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gretchen H. Roffler; Sandra L. Talbot; Gordon Luikart; George K. Sage; Kristy L. Pilgrim; Layne G. Adams; Michael K. Schwartz

    2014-01-01

    Identifying patterns of fine-scale genetic structure in natural populations can advance understanding of critical ecological processes such as dispersal and gene flow across heterogeneous landscapes. Alpine ungulates generally exhibit high levels of genetic structure due to female philopatry and patchy configuration of mountain habitats. We assessed the spatial scale...

  14. Sex differences and structural brain maturation from childhood to early adulthood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koolschijn, P.C.M.P.; Crone, E.A.

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in structural brain imaging have demonstrated that brain development continues through childhood and adolescence. In the present cross-sectional study, structural MRI data from 442 typically developing individuals (range 8–30) were analyzed to examine and replicate the relationship

  15. Osho - Insights on sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaraj, Anil Kumar Mysore

    2013-01-01

    Sex is a mysterious phenomenon, which has puzzled even great sages. Human beings have researched and mastered the biology of sex. But that is not all. Sex needs to be understood from the spiritual perspective too. The vision of Osho is an enlightening experience in this regard. Out of the thousands of lectures, five lectures on sex made Osho most notorious. Born into a Jain family of Madhya Pradesh, Rajneesh, who later wanted himself to be called Osho, is a great master. He has spoken volumes on a wide range of topics ranging from sex to super-consciousness. His contributions in the area of sex are based on the principles of "Tantra" which has its origin from Buddhism. This article focuses on his life and insights on sex, which if understood properly, can be a stepping stone for enlightenment.

  16. The association of family functioning and psychosis proneness in five countries that differ in cultural values and family structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wüsten, Caroline; Lincoln, Tania M

    2017-07-01

    For decades, researchers have attributed the better prognosis of psychosis in developing countries to a host of socio-cultural factors, including family functioning. Nevertheless, it is unknown whether family functioning and its association with symptoms differ across countries. This study assessed family functioning (support, satisfaction with family relations, and criticism) and psychosis proneness in community samples from Chile (n =399), Colombia (n=486), Indonesia (n=115), Germany (n=174) and the USA (n=143). Family functioning was compared between prototypical developing countries (Chile, Columbia, Indonesia) and highly industrialized countries (Germany, USA). Hierarchical regression analysis was used to test for the moderating effect of country on the associations between family functioning and psychosis proneness. Participants from developing countries perceived more support and felt more satisfied. However, they also perceived more criticism than participants from highly industrialized countries. Criticism and family satisfaction were significantly associated with psychosis proneness. Moreover, the relationship between criticism and psychosis proneness was significantly stronger in developing countries compared to highly industrialized countries. Generally, family satisfaction and criticism appear to be more relevant to psychosis proneness than the quantity of family support. Moreover, criticism seems to be more closely related to psychosis proneness in developing countries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Molecular structure and chromosome distribution of three repetitive DNA families in Anemone hortensis L. (Ranunculaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlinarec, Jelena; Chester, Mike; Siljak-Yakovlev, Sonja; Papes, Drazena; Leitch, Andrew R; Besendorfer, Visnja

    2009-01-01

    The structure, abundance and location of repetitive DNA sequences on chromosomes can characterize the nature of higher plant genomes. Here we report on three new repeat DNA families isolated from Anemone hortensis L.; (i) AhTR1, a family of satellite DNA (stDNA) composed of a 554-561 bp long EcoRV monomer; (ii) AhTR2, a stDNA family composed of a 743 bp long HindIII monomer and; (iii) AhDR, a repeat family composed of a 945 bp long HindIII fragment that exhibits some sequence similarity to Ty3/gypsy-like retroelements. Fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) to metaphase chromosomes of A. hortensis (2n = 16) revealed that both AhTR1 and AhTR2 sequences co-localized with DAPI-positive AT-rich heterochromatic regions. AhTR1 sequences occur at intercalary DAPI bands while AhTR2 sequences occur at 8-10 terminally located heterochromatic blocks. In contrast AhDR sequences are dispersed over all chromosomes as expected of a Ty3/gypsy-like element. AhTR2 and AhTR1 repeat families include polyA- and polyT-tracks, AT/TA-motifs and a pentanucleotide sequence (CAAAA) that may have consequences for chromatin packing and sequence homogeneity. AhTR2 repeats also contain TTTAGGG motifs and degenerate variants. We suggest that they arose by interspersion of telomeric repeats with subtelomeric repeats, before hybrid unit(s) amplified through the heterochromatic domain. The three repetitive DNA families together occupy approximately 10% of the A. hortensis genome. Comparative analyses of eight Anemone species revealed that the divergence of the A. hortensis genome was accompanied by considerable modification and/or amplification of repeats.

  18. Stock structure, connectivity and breeding sex ratios of eastern Pacific hawksbills

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project, initiated with FY13 funds and extended with FY14 funds, will determine stock structure, connectivity the latter only evident in Central American...

  19. Facebook network structure and awareness of preexposure prophylaxis among young men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, Aditya S; Schumm, Phil; Schneider, John A

    2017-03-01

    Young Black men who have sex with men (YBMSM) are the only population in the United States who have experienced rising human immunodeficiency virus incidence over the past decade. Consistent pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) use can substantially reduce the risk of human immunodeficiency virus acquisition. What differentiates those who become aware of PrEP, and those who do not, remains largely unknown. The social networks of YBMSM can impact their awareness of PrEP; to examine this impact, we used two waves of Facebook data from "uConnect"-a longitudinal cohort study of YBMSM in Chicago (n = 266). While PrEP awareness increased from 45% at baseline to 75% at follow-up, its use remained low (4% and 6%). There were 88 PrEP-unaware individuals at baseline who became aware (BA) by follow-up, and 56 who remained persistently unaware. While the persistently unawares had a higher median number of total Facebook friends, the BAs had a higher median numbers of friends who participated in uConnect, who were PrEP-aware, and who practiced behaviors previously found to be associated with individual-level awareness of PrEP at baseline. The BAs also had substantially more "influential" friends. These findings demonstrate the potential of social networks in raising PrEP awareness and use among YBMSM. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Lack of sex-biased dispersal promotes fine-scale genetic structure in alpine ungulates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roffler, Gretchen H.; Talbot, Sandra L.; Luikart, Gordon; Sage, George K.; Pilgrim, Kristy L.; Adams, Layne G.; Schwartz, Michael K.

    2014-01-01

    Identifying patterns of fine-scale genetic structure in natural populations can advance understanding of critical ecological processes such as dispersal and gene flow across heterogeneous landscapes. Alpine ungulates generally exhibit high levels of genetic structure due to female philopatry and patchy configuration of mountain habitats. We assessed the spatial scale of genetic structure and the amount of gene flow in 301 Dall’s sheep (Ovis dalli dalli) at the landscape level using 15 nuclear microsatellites and 473 base pairs of the mitochondrial (mtDNA) control region. Dall’s sheep exhibited significant genetic structure within contiguous mountain ranges, but mtDNA structure occurred at a broader geographic scale than nuclear DNA within the study area, and mtDNA structure for other North American mountain sheep populations. No evidence of male-mediated gene flow or greater philopatry of females was observed; there was little difference between markers with different modes of inheritance (pairwise nuclear DNA F ST = 0.004–0.325; mtDNA F ST = 0.009–0.544), and males were no more likely than females to be recent immigrants. Historical patterns based on mtDNA indicate separate northern and southern lineages and a pattern of expansion following regional glacial retreat. Boundaries of genetic clusters aligned geographically with prominent mountain ranges, icefields, and major river valleys based on Bayesian and hierarchical modeling of microsatellite and mtDNA data. Our results suggest that fine-scale genetic structure in Dall’s sheep is influenced by limited dispersal, and structure may be weaker in populations occurring near ancestral levels of density and distribution in continuous habitats compared to other alpine ungulates that have experienced declines and marked habitat fragmentation.

  1. Multiple sex-associated regions and a putative sex chromosome in zebrafish revealed by RAD mapping and population genomics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L Anderson

    Full Text Available Within vertebrates, major sex determining genes can differ among taxa and even within species. In zebrafish (Danio rerio, neither heteromorphic sex chromosomes nor single sex determination genes of large effect, like Sry in mammals, have yet been identified. Furthermore, environmental factors can influence zebrafish sex determination. Although progress has been made in understanding zebrafish gonad differentiation (e.g. the influence of germ cells on gonad fate, the primary genetic basis of zebrafish sex determination remains poorly understood. To identify genetic loci associated with sex, we analyzed F(2 offspring of reciprocal crosses between Oregon *AB and Nadia (NA wild-type zebrafish stocks. Genome-wide linkage analysis, using more than 5,000 sequence-based polymorphic restriction site associated (RAD-tag markers and population genomic analysis of more than 30,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms in our *ABxNA crosses revealed a sex-associated locus on the end of the long arm of chr-4 for both cross families, and an additional locus in the middle of chr-3 in one cross family. Additional sequencing showed that two SNPs in dmrt1 previously suggested to be functional candidates for sex determination in a cross of ABxIndia wild-type zebrafish, are not associated with sex in our AB fish. Our data show that sex determination in zebrafish is polygenic and that different genes may influence sex determination in different strains or that different genes become more important under different environmental conditions. The association of the end of chr-4 with sex is remarkable because, unique in the karyotype, this chromosome arm shares features with known sex chromosomes: it is highly heterochromatic, repetitive, late replicating, and has reduced recombination. Our results reveal that chr-4 has functional and structural properties expected of a sex chromosome.

  2. Family structure and risk behaviors: the role of the family meal in assessing likelihood of adolescent risk behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfarb, Samantha; Tarver, Will L; Sen, Bisakha

    2014-01-01

    Previous literature has asserted that family meals are a key protective factor for certain adolescent risk behaviors. It is suggested that the frequency of eating with the family is associated with better psychological well-being and a lower risk of substance use and delinquency. However, it is unclear whether there is evidence of causal links between family meals and adolescent health-risk behaviors. The purpose of this article is to review the empirical literature on family meals and adolescent health behaviors and outcomes in the US. A SEARCH WAS CONDUCTED IN FOUR ACADEMIC DATABASES: Social Sciences Full Text, Sociological Abstracts, PsycINFO®, and PubMed/MEDLINE. We included studies that quantitatively estimated the relationship between family meals and health-risk behaviors. Data were extracted on study sample, study design, family meal measurement, outcomes, empirical methods, findings, and major issues. Fourteen studies met the inclusion criteria for the review that measured the relationship between frequent family meals and various risk-behavior outcomes. The outcomes considered by most studies were alcohol use (n=10), tobacco use (n=9), and marijuana use (n=6). Other outcomes included sexual activity (n=2); depression, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempts (n=4); violence and delinquency (n=4); school-related issues (n=2); and well-being (n=5). The associations between family meals and the outcomes of interest were most likely to be statistically significant in unadjusted models or models controlling for basic family characteristics. Associations were less likely to be statistically significant when other measures of family connectedness were included. Relatively few analyses used sophisticated empirical techniques available to control for confounders in secondary data. More research is required to establish whether or not the relationship between family dinners and risky adolescent behaviors is an artifact of underlying confounders. We recommend that

  3. Sex-biased dispersal creates spatial genetic structure in a parthenogenetic ant with a dependent-lineage reproductive system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, A; Bauman, D; Darras, H; Aron, S

    2017-10-01

    Reproduction and dispersal are key aspects of species life history that influence spatial genetic structure in populations. Several ant species in the genus Cataglyphis have evolved a unique breeding system in which new reproductives (that is, queens and males) are produced asexually by parthenogenesis; in contrast, non-reproductives (that is, workers) are produced via sexual reproduction by mates from distinct genetic lineages. We investigated how these two coexisting reproductive methods affect population-level spatial genetic structure using the ant Cataglyphis mauritanica as a model. We obtained genotypes for queens and their male mates from 338 colonies, and we found that the two lineages present in the study population occurred with equal frequency. Furthermore, analysis of spatial genetic structure revealed strong sex-biased dispersal. Because queens were produced by parthenogenesis and because they dispersed over short distances, there was an extreme level of spatial structuring: a mosaic of patches composed of clonal queens was formed. Males, on the other hand, dispersed over several hundred metres and, thus, across patches, ensuring successful interlineage mating.

  4. Common genetic variation near MC4R has a sex-specific impact on human brain structure and eating behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette Horstmann

    Full Text Available Obesity is associated with genetic and environmental factors but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS identified obesity- and type 2 diabetes-associated genetic variants located within or near genes that modulate brain activity and development. Among the top hits is rs17782313 near MC4R, encoding for the melanocortin-4-receptor, which is expressed in brain regions that regulate eating. Here, we hypothesized rs17782313-associated changes in human brain regions that regulate eating behavior. Therefore, we examined effects of common variants at rs17782313 near MC4R on brain structure and eating behavior. Only in female homozygous carriers of the risk allele we found significant increases of gray matter volume (GMV in the right amygdala, a region known to influence eating behavior, and the right hippocampus, a structure crucial for memory formation and learning. Further, we found bilateral increases in medial orbitofrontal cortex, a multimodal brain structure encoding the subjective value of reinforcers, and bilateral prefrontal cortex, a higher order regulation area. There was no association between rs17782313 and brain structure in men. Moreover, among female subjects only, we observed a significant increase of 'disinhibition', and, more specifically, on 'emotional eating' scores of the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire in carriers of the variant rs17782313's risk allele. These findings suggest that rs17782313's effect on eating behavior is mediated by central mechanisms and that these effects are sex-specific.

  5. Structural and Biochemical Characterization of the Human Cyclophilin Family of Peptidyl-Prolyl Isomerases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Tara L.; Walker, John R.; Campagna-Slater, Valérie; Finerty, Jr., Patrick J.; Paramanathan, Ragika; Bernstein, Galina; MacKenzie, Farrell; Tempel, Wolfram; Ouyang, Hui; Lee, Wen Hwa; Eisenmesser, Elan Z.; Dhe-Paganon, Sirano (Toronto); (Colorado)

    2011-12-14

    Peptidyl-prolyl isomerases catalyze the conversion between cis and trans isomers of proline. The cyclophilin family of peptidyl-prolyl isomerases is well known for being the target of the immunosuppressive drug cyclosporin, used to combat organ transplant rejection. There is great interest in both the substrate specificity of these enzymes and the design of isoform-selective ligands for them. However, the dearth of available data for individual family members inhibits attempts to design drug specificity; additionally, in order to define physiological functions for the cyclophilins, definitive isoform characterization is required. In the current study, enzymatic activity was assayed for 15 of the 17 human cyclophilin isomerase domains, and binding to the cyclosporin scaffold was tested. In order to rationalize the observed isoform diversity, the high-resolution crystallographic structures of seven cyclophilin domains were determined. These models, combined with seven previously solved cyclophilin isoforms, provide the basis for a family-wide structure:function analysis. Detailed structural analysis of the human cyclophilin isomerase explains why cyclophilin activity against short peptides is correlated with an ability to ligate cyclosporin and why certain isoforms are not competent for either activity. In addition, we find that regions of the isomerase domain outside the proline-binding surface impart isoform specificity for both in vivo substrates and drug design. We hypothesize that there is a well-defined molecular surface corresponding to the substrate-binding S2 position that is a site of diversity in the cyclophilin family. Computational simulations of substrate binding in this region support our observations. Our data indicate that unique isoform determinants exist that may be exploited for development of selective ligands and suggest that the currently available small-molecule and peptide-based ligands for this class of enzyme are insufficient for isoform

  6. Family power structure and identity styles in delinquent and nondelinquent Adolescents: A Comparative study in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anahita Khodabakhshi Koolaee

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA Background: The present study was conducted to investigate the Family Power Structure (FPS and identity style in delinquent and non-delinquent juveniles in Tehran.Methods: To accomplish the goal of the study, 80 adolescent delinquents of the Correction and Rehabilitation Centers, aged between 15 and 18, were selected following cluster sampling procedure as well as 80 students of secondary school, aged between 15 and 18, in Tehran in 2014. To obtain data, FPS (Saidian, 2004 and Identity Style Inventory (ISI-6G: White et al, 1998 instruments were used. Data was analyzed between these two groups using independent t test, and Chi square test.Results: The findings indicated that there is a significant difference between delinquent and non-delinquent juveniles in FPS and its subscales (P<0.001 and identity style (P<0.001. Moreover, the informational identity style was related to lower levels of delinquency. In addition, a diffuse-evident identity style was found to be related to the delinquency.Conclusion: These findings emphasize that an inappropriate decision-making process pattern in a family has a significant effect on deviant behavior and identity style in adolescents. So, family counselors must pay attention to FPS in the therapeutic interventions (prevention and treatment for adolescent delinquency.Keywords: Parenting; Family; Juvenile Delinquency; Adolescent

  7. The family structure of the Mucorales: a synoptic revision based on comprehensive multigene-genealogies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, K; Pawłowska, J; Walther, G; Wrzosek, M; de Hoog, G S; Benny, G L; Kirk, P M; Voigt, K

    2013-06-01

    The Mucorales (Mucoromycotina) are one of the most ancient groups of fungi comprising ubiquitous, mostly saprotrophic organisms. The first comprehensive molecular studies 11 yr ago revealed the traditional classification scheme, mainly based on morphology, as highly artificial. Since then only single clades have been investigated in detail but a robust classification of the higher levels based on DNA data has not been published yet. Therefore we provide a classification based on a phylogenetic analysis of four molecular markers including the large and the small subunit of the ribosomal DNA, the partial actin gene and the partial gene for the translation elongation factor 1-alpha. The dataset comprises 201 isolates in 103 species and represents about one half of the currently accepted species in this order. Previous family concepts are reviewed and the family structure inferred from the multilocus phylogeny is introduced and discussed. Main differences between the current classification and preceding concepts affects the existing families Lichtheimiaceae and Cunninghamellaceae, as well as the genera Backusella and Lentamyces which recently obtained the status of families along with the Rhizopodaceae comprising Rhizopus, Sporodiniella and Syzygites. Compensatory base change analyses in the Lichtheimiaceae confirmed the lower level classification of Lichtheimia and Rhizomucor while genera such as Circinella or Syncephalastrum completely lacked compensatory base changes.

  8. Disestablishing Sex: The Case for Released-Time Sex Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glanzer, Perry L.

    2011-01-01

    Allowing nonschool organizations to provide sex education in a released-time format would disestablish state-funded sex education and give families a choice in the sex education that would be provided for their children. Released-time programs, as originally conceived and currently practiced, allow students to be released for a period of time…

  9. Structural and functional diversification in the teleost S100 family of calcium-binding proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korsching Sigrun I

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among the EF-Hand calcium-binding proteins the subgroup of S100 proteins constitute a large family with numerous and diverse functions in calcium-mediated signaling. The evolutionary origin of this family is still uncertain and most studies have examined mammalian family members. Results We have performed an extensive search in several teleost genomes to establish the s100 gene family in fish. We report that the teleost S100 repertoire comprises fourteen different subfamilies which show remarkable similarity across six divergent teleost species. Individual species feature distinctive subsets of thirteen to fourteen genes that result from local gene duplications and gene losses. Eight of the fourteen S100 subfamilies are unique for teleosts, while six are shared with mammalian species and three of those even with cartilaginous fish. Several S100 family members are found in jawless fish already, but none of them are clear orthologs of cartilaginous or bony fish s100 genes. All teleost s100 genes show the expected structural features and are subject to strong negative selection. Many aspects of the genomic arrangement and location of mammalian s100 genes are retained in the teleost s100 gene family, including a completely conserved intron/exon border between the two EF hands. Zebrafish s100 genes exhibit highly specific and characteristic expression patterns, showing both redundancy and divergence in their cellular expression. In larval tissue expression is often restricted to specific cell types like keratinocytes, hair cells, ionocytes and olfactory receptor neurons as demonstrated by in situ hybridization. Conclusion The origin of the S100 family predates at least the segregation of jawed from jawless fish and some extant family members predate the divergence of bony from cartilaginous fish. Despite a complex pattern of gene gains and losses the total repertoire size is remarkably constant between species. On the expression

  10. Maintenance of polygenic sex determination in a fluctuating environment: an individual-based model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, A W; Anholt, B R

    2017-05-01

    R. A. Fisher predicted that individuals should invest equally in offspring of both sexes, and that the proportion of males and females produced (the primary sex ratio) should evolve towards 1:1 when unconstrained. For many species, sex determination is dependent on sex chromosomes, creating a strong tendency for balanced sex ratios, but in other cases, multiple autosomal genes interact to determine sex. In such cases, the maintenance of multiple sex-determining alleles at multiple loci and the consequent among-family variability in sex ratios presents a puzzle, as theory predicts that such systems should be unstable. Theory also predicts that environmental influences on sex can complicate outcomes of genetic sex determination, and that population structure may play a role. Tigriopus californicus, a copepod that lives in splash-pool metapopulations and exhibits polygenic and environment-dependent sex determination, presents a test case for relevant theory. We use this species as a model for parameterizing an individual-based simulation to investigate conditions that could maintain polygenic sex determination. We find that metapopulation structure can delay the degradation of polygenic sex determination and that periods of alternating frequency-dependent selection, imposed by seasonal fluctuations in environmental conditions, can maintain polygenic sex determination indefinitely. © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  11. ADAM and ADAMTS Family Proteins and Snake Venom Metalloproteinases: A Structural Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soichi Takeda

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A disintegrin and metalloproteinase (ADAM family proteins constitute a major class of membrane-anchored multidomain proteinases that are responsible for the shedding of cell-surface protein ectodomains, including the latent forms of growth factors, cytokines, receptors and other molecules. Snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs are major components in most viper venoms. SVMPs are primarily responsible for hemorrhagic activity and may also interfere with the hemostatic system in envenomed animals. SVMPs are phylogenetically most closely related to ADAMs and, together with ADAMs and related ADAM with thrombospondin motifs (ADAMTS family proteinases, constitute adamalysins/reprolysins or the M12B clan (MEROPS database of metalloproteinases. Although the catalytic domain structure is topologically similar to that of other metalloproteinases such as matrix metalloproteinases, the M12B proteinases have a modular structure with multiple non-catalytic ancillary domains that are not found in other proteinases. Notably, crystallographic studies revealed that, in addition to the conserved metalloproteinase domain, M12B members share a hallmark cysteine-rich domain designated as the “ADAM_CR” domain. Despite their name, ADAMTSs lack disintegrin-like structures and instead comprise two ADAM_CR domains. This review highlights the current state of our knowledge on the three-dimensional structures of M12B proteinases, focusing on their unique domains that may collaboratively participate in directing these proteinases to specific substrates.

  12. Conservation and divergence of C-terminal domain structure in the retinoblastoma protein family

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liban, Tyler J.; Medina, Edgar M.; Tripathi, Sarvind; Sengupta, Satyaki; Henry, R. William; Buchler, Nicolas E.; Rubin, Seth M. (UCSC); (Duke); (MSU)

    2017-04-24

    The retinoblastoma protein (Rb) and the homologous pocket proteins p107 and p130 negatively regulate cell proliferation by binding and inhibiting members of the E2F transcription factor family. The structural features that distinguish Rb from other pocket proteins have been unclear but are critical for understanding their functional diversity and determining why Rb has unique tumor suppressor activities. We describe here important differences in how the Rb and p107 C-terminal domains (CTDs) associate with the coiled-coil and marked-box domains (CMs) of E2Fs. We find that although CTD–CM binding is conserved across protein families, Rb and p107 CTDs show clear preferences for different E2Fs. A crystal structure of the p107 CTD bound to E2F5 and its dimer partner DP1 reveals the molecular basis for pocket protein–E2F binding specificity and how cyclin-dependent kinases differentially regulate pocket proteins through CTD phosphorylation. Our structural and biochemical data together with phylogenetic analyses of Rb and E2F proteins support the conclusion that Rb evolved specific structural motifs that confer its unique capacity to bind with high affinity those E2Fs that are the most potent activators of the cell cycle.

  13. Structural insights and ab initio sequencing within the DING proteins family

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elias, Mikael; Liebschner, Dorothee; Gotthard, Guillaume; Chabriere, Eric

    2011-01-01

    DING proteins constitute a recently discovered protein family that is ubiquitous in eukaryotes. The structural insights and the physiological involvements of these intriguing proteins are hereby deciphered. DING proteins constitute an intriguing family of phosphate-binding proteins that was identified in a wide range of organisms, from prokaryotes and archae to eukaryotes. Despite their seemingly ubiquitous occurrence in eukaryotes, their encoding genes are missing from sequenced genomes. Such a lack has considerably hampered functional studies. In humans, these proteins have been related to several diseases, like atherosclerosis, kidney stones, inflammation processes and HIV inhibition. The human phosphate binding protein is a human representative of the DING family that was serendipitously discovered from human plasma. An original approach was developed to determine ab initio the complete and exact sequence of this 38 kDa protein by utilizing mass spectrometry and X-ray data in tandem. Taking advantage of this first complete eukaryotic DING sequence, a immunohistochemistry study was undertaken to check the presence of DING proteins in various mice tissues, revealing that these proteins are widely expressed. Finally, the structure of a bacterial representative from Pseudomonas fluorescens was solved at sub-angstrom resolution, allowing the molecular mechanism of the phosphate binding in these high-affinity proteins to be elucidated

  14. Research potential of food and nutrition in the Family Health Strategy: A structured review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Aragão Lira Vasconcelos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Determine the profile of research groups and publications with food and nutrition-related actions promoted by the Family Health Strategy in Brazil since 1994. METHODS: Two procedures were used: structured review and research group search. The former searched the databases Web of Science, Medline, Lilacs, SciELO and Embase, and followed the principles that guide systematic reviews in the Cochrane Collaboration. The references of the selected articles were also consulted. The research groups were searched in the Research Group Directory of the National Council for Scientific and Technological Development. RESULTS: A total of 54 articles published between 2002 and 2012 in 20 different journals were identified. Ten of these were retrieved from the references section of other articles. Focusing mostly on children from the Southeast region, these studies were coordinated by dieticians, nurses, and physicians. Diabetes Mellitus, high blood pressure, and breastfeeding were the most common topics (n=23. The quantitative methodology was employed by 42 articles, most about diagnoses. Only five research groups studied the Family Health Strategy, despite the growing number of studies in the area over the years. CONCLUSION: Despite the growing scientific production, the findings of this structured review indicate that few studies focused on food and nutrition in the Family Health Strategy, probably because of the existence of few research groups in the country. More comprehensive and consistent studies on the topic are needed.

  15. Structure and mechanism of dimethylsulfoxide reductase, a molybdopterin-containing enzyme of DMSO reductase family

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McEwan, A.G.; Ridge, J.P.; McDevitt, C.A.; Hanson, G.R.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Apart from nitrogenase, enzymes containing molybdenum are members of a superfamily, the molybdopterin-containing enzymes. Most of these enzymes catalyse an oxygen atom transfer and two electron transfer reaction. During catalysis the Mo at the active site cycles between the Mo(VI) and Mo(IV) states. The DMSO reductase family of molybdopterin-containing enzymes all contain a bis(molybdopterin guanine dinucleotide)Mo cofactor and over thirty examples have now been described. Over the last five years crystal structures of dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) reductase and four other enzymes of the DMSO reductase family have revealed that enzymes of this family have a similar tertiary structure. The Mo atom at the active site is coordinated by four thiolate ligands provided by the dithiolene side chains of the two MGD molecules of the bis(MGD)Mo cofactor as well as a ligand provided by an amino acid side chain. In addition, an oxygen atom in the form of an oxo, hydroxo or aqua group is also coordinated to the Mo atom. In the case of dimethylsulfoxide reductase X-ray crystallography of the product-reduced species and Raman spectroscopy has demonstrated that the enzyme contains a single exchangeable oxo group that is H-bonded to W116

  16. Structural insights and ab initio sequencing within the DING proteins family

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elias, Mikael, E-mail: mikael.elias@weizmann.ac.il [Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot (Israel); Liebschner, Dorothee [CRM2, Nancy Université (France); Gotthard, Guillaume; Chabriere, Eric [AFMB, Université Aix-Marseille II (France)

    2011-01-01

    DING proteins constitute a recently discovered protein family that is ubiquitous in eukaryotes. The structural insights and the physiological involvements of these intriguing proteins are hereby deciphered. DING proteins constitute an intriguing family of phosphate-binding proteins that was identified in a wide range of organisms, from prokaryotes and archae to eukaryotes. Despite their seemingly ubiquitous occurrence in eukaryotes, their encoding genes are missing from sequenced genomes. Such a lack has considerably hampered functional studies. In humans, these proteins have been related to several diseases, like atherosclerosis, kidney stones, inflammation processes and HIV inhibition. The human phosphate binding protein is a human representative of the DING family that was serendipitously discovered from human plasma. An original approach was developed to determine ab initio the complete and exact sequence of this 38 kDa protein by utilizing mass spectrometry and X-ray data in tandem. Taking advantage of this first complete eukaryotic DING sequence, a immunohistochemistry study was undertaken to check the presence of DING proteins in various mice tissues, revealing that these proteins are widely expressed. Finally, the structure of a bacterial representative from Pseudomonas fluorescens was solved at sub-angstrom resolution, allowing the molecular mechanism of the phosphate binding in these high-affinity proteins to be elucidated.

  17. Leisure-time physical activity behavior: structured and unstructured choices according to sex, age, and level of physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Jorge; Esculcas, Carlos

    2002-01-01

    The main goals of this cross-sectional survey were (a) to describe the associations between sex, age, and physical activity behavior and (b) to describe the age and sex-related associations with the choice of structured (formal) and unstructured (nonformal) physical activity programs. At baseline, data were selected randomly from 1,013 students, from the 7th to the 12th grades. A response rate of 73% (n = 739) was obtained. Accordingly, the sample of this study consisted of 594 adolescents (304 females and 290 males) with mean age of 15.9 years (range 13-20). Physical activity was assessed by means of a questionnaire. A questionnaire about leisure activities was applied to the sample to define the nominal variable "nature of physical activity." The data showed that significantly more girls than boys (p < or = .001) belonged to the sedentary group (80.7% girls) and low activity group (64.5% girls). Boys more frequently belonged to the more active groups (92.1%; p < or = .001). The older participants were more engaged in formal physical activities, whereas the younger mostly chose informal ones whatever their level of physical activity. There were more significant differences in girls' physical activity groups (chi 2 = 20.663, p < or = .001) than in boys' (chi 2 = 7.662, p < or = .05). Furthermore, active girls chose more structured physical activities than their sedentary counterparts (18.8% vs. 83.3%). However, boys preferred unstructured activities regardless of physical activity group (83.7% vs. 58.5%; p < or = .05). It can be concluded that as age increased, organized sports activities became a relatively more important component of total weekly activity for both male and female participants.

  18. Characterization of the factor VIII defect in 147 patients with sporadic hemophilia A: Family studies indicate a mutation type-dependent sex ratio of mutation frequencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, J.; Schmidt, W.; Olek, K. [Univ. of Bonn (Germany)] [and others

    1996-04-01

    The clinical manifestation of hemophilia A is caused by a wide range of different mutations. In this study the factor VIII genes of 147 severe hemophilia A patients-all exclusively from sporadic families-were screened for mutations by use of the complete panel of modern DNA techniques. The pathogenous defect could be characterized in 126 patients (85.7%). Fifty-five patients (37.4%) showed a F8A-gene inversion, 47 (32.0%) a point mutation, 14 (9.5%) a small deletion, 8 (5.4%) a large deletion, and 2 (1.4%) a small insertion. Further, four (2.7%) mutations were localized but could not be sequenced yet. No mutation could be identified in 17 patients (11.6%). Sixteen (10.9%) of the P identified mutations occurred in the B domain. Four of these were located in an adenosine nucleotide stretch at codon 1192, indicating a mutation hotspot. Somatic mosaicisms were detected in 3 (3.9%) of 76 patients` mothers, comprising 3 of 16 de novo mutations in the patients` mothers. Investigation of family relatives allowed detection of a de novo mutation in 16 of 76 two-generation and 28 of 34 three-generation families. On the basis of these data, the male:female ratio of mutation frequencies (k) was estimated as k = 3.6. By use of the quotients of mutation origin in maternal grandfather to patient`s mother or to maternal grandmother, k was directly estimated as k = 15 and k = 7.5, respectively. Considering each mutation type separately, we revealed a mutation type-specific sex ratio of mutation frequencies. Point mutations showed a 5-to-10-fold-higher and inversions a >10-fold- higher mutation rate in male germ cells, whereas deletions showed a >5-fold-higher mutation rate in female germ cells. Consequently, and in accordance with the data of other diseases like Duchenne muscular dystrophy, our results indicate that at least for X-chromosomal disorders the male:female mutation rate of a disease is determined by its proportion of the different mutation types. 68 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  19. Evolutionary relationship and structural characterization of the EPF/EPFL gene family.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoki Takata

    Full Text Available EPF1-EPF2 and EPFL9/Stomagen act antagonistically in regulating leaf stomatal density. The aim of this study was to elucidate the evolutionary functional divergence of EPF/EPFL family genes. Phylogenetic analyses showed that AtEPFL9/Stomagen-like genes are conserved only in vascular plants and are closely related to AtEPF1/EPF2-like genes. Modeling showed that EPF/EPFL peptides share a common 3D structure that is constituted of a scaffold and loop. Molecular dynamics simulation suggested that AtEPF1/EPF2-like peptides form an additional disulfide bond in their loop regions and show greater flexibility in these regions than AtEPFL9/Stomagen-like peptides. This study uncovered the evolutionary relationship and the conformational divergence of proteins encoded by the EPF/EPFL family genes.

  20. Evolutionary relationship and structural characterization of the EPF/EPFL gene family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takata, Naoki; Yokota, Kiyonobu; Ohki, Shinya; Mori, Masashi; Taniguchi, Toru; Kurita, Manabu

    2013-01-01

    EPF1-EPF2 and EPFL9/Stomagen act antagonistically in regulating leaf stomatal density. The aim of this study was to elucidate the evolutionary functional divergence of EPF/EPFL family genes. Phylogenetic analyses showed that AtEPFL9/Stomagen-like genes are conserved only in vascular plants and are closely related to AtEPF1/EPF2-like genes. Modeling showed that EPF/EPFL peptides share a common 3D structure that is constituted of a scaffold and loop. Molecular dynamics simulation suggested that AtEPF1/EPF2-like peptides form an additional disulfide bond in their loop regions and show greater flexibility in these regions than AtEPFL9/Stomagen-like peptides. This study uncovered the evolutionary relationship and the conformational divergence of proteins encoded by the EPF/EPFL family genes.

  1. Family structure and risk behaviors: the role of the family meal in assessing likelihood of adolescent risk behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldfarb S

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Samantha Goldfarb, Will L Tarver, Bisakha Sen Department of Health Care Organization and Policy, School of Public Health, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA Background: Previous literature has asserted that family meals are a key protective factor for certain adolescent risk behaviors. It is suggested that the frequency of eating with the family is associated with better psychological well-being and a lower risk of substance use and delinquency. However, it is unclear whether there is evidence of causal links between family meals and adolescent health-risk behaviors. Purpose: The purpose of this article is to review the empirical literature on family meals and adolescent health behaviors and outcomes in the US. Data sources: A search was conducted in four academic databases: Social Sciences Full Text, Sociological Abstracts, PsycINFO®, and PubMed/MEDLINE. Study selection: We included studies that quantitatively estimated the relationship between family meals and health-risk behaviors. Data extraction: Data were extracted on study sample, study design, family meal measurement, outcomes, empirical methods, findings, and major issues. Data synthesis: Fourteen studies met the inclusion criteria for the review that measured the relationship between frequent family meals and various risk-behavior outcomes. The outcomes considered by most studies were alcohol use (n=10, tobacco use (n=9, and marijuana use (n=6. Other outcomes included sexual activity (n=2; depression, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempts (n=4; violence and delinquency (n=4; school-related issues (n=2; and well-being (n=5. The associations between family meals and the outcomes of interest were most likely to be statistically significant in unadjusted models or models controlling for basic family characteristics. Associations were less likely to be statistically significant when other measures of family connectedness were included. Relatively few analyses used

  2. Evaluation of perceived and actual competency in a family medicine objective structured clinical examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Lisa; Lalla, Leonora; Young, Meredith

    2017-04-01

    To examine the relationship between objective assessment of performance and self-rated competence immediately before and after participation in a required summative family medicine clerkship objective structured clinical examination (OSCE). Learners rated their competence (on a 7-point Likert scale) before and after an OSCE along 3 dimensions: general, specific, and professional competencies relevant to family medicine. McGill University in Montreal, Que. All 168 third-year clinical clerks completing their mandatory family medicine rotation in 2010 to 2011 were invited to participate. Self-ratings of competence and objective performance scores were compared, and were examined to determine if OSCEs could be a "corrective" tool for self-rating perceived competence (ie, if the experience of undergoing an assessment might assist learners in recalibrating their understanding of their own performance). A total of 140 (83%) of the third-year clinical clerks participated. Participating in an OSCE decreased learners' ratings of perceived competence (pre-OSCE score = 4.9, post-OSCE score = 4.7; F 1,3192 = 4.2; P  competence for all categories of behaviour (before and after) showed no relationship to OSCE performance ( r .08 for all), nor did ratings of station-relevant competence (before and after) ( r .09 for all). Ratings of competence before and after the OSCE were correlated for individual students ( r > 0.40 and P perceived competence had decreased, and these ratings had little relationship to actual performance, regardless of the specificity of the rated competency. Discordance between perceived and actual competence is neither novel nor unique to family medicine. However, this discordance is an important consideration for the development of competency-based curricula. Copyright© the College of Family Physicians of Canada.

  3. Utilizing a structural meta-ontology for family-based quality assurance of the BioPortal ontologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochs, Christopher; He, Zhe; Zheng, Ling; Geller, James; Perl, Yehoshua; Hripcsak, George; Musen, Mark A

    2016-06-01

    An Abstraction Network is a compact summary of an ontology's structure and content. In previous research, we showed that Abstraction Networks support quality assurance (QA) of biomedical ontologies. The development of an Abstraction Network and its associated QA methodologies, however, is a labor-intensive process that previously was applicable only to one ontology at a time. To improve the efficiency of the Abstraction-Network-based QA methodology, we introduced a QA framework that uses uniform Abstraction Network derivation techniques and QA methodologies that are applicable to whole families of structurally similar ontologies. For the family-based framework to be successful, it is necessary to develop a method for classifying ontologies into structurally similar families. We now describe a structural meta-ontology that classifies ontologies according to certain structural features that are commonly used in the modeling of ontologies (e.g., object properties) and that are important for Abstraction Network derivation. Each class of the structural meta-ontology represents a family of ontologies with identical structural features, indicating which types of Abstraction Networks and QA methodologies are potentially applicable to all of the ontologies in the family. We derive a collection of 81 families, corresponding to classes of the structural meta-ontology, that enable a flexible, streamlined family-based QA methodology, offering multiple choices for classifying an ontology. The structure of 373 ontologies from the NCBO BioPortal is analyzed and each ontology is classified into multiple families modeled by the structural meta-ontology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Structural basis for polyspecificity in the POT family of proton-coupled oligopeptide transporters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyons, Joseph A.; Parker, Joanne L.; Solcan, Nicolae

    2014-01-01

    An enigma in the field of peptide transport is the structural basis for ligand promiscuity, as exemplified by PepT1, the mammalian plasma membrane peptide transporter. Here, we present crystal structures of di‐ and tripeptide‐bound complexes of a bacterial homologue of PepT1, which reveal at least...... two mechanisms for peptide recognition that operate within a single, centrally located binding site. The dipeptide was orientated laterally in the binding site, whereas the tripeptide revealed an alternative vertical binding mode. The co‐crystal structures combined with functional studies reveal...... that biochemically distinct peptide‐binding sites likely operate within the POT/PTR family of proton‐coupled symporters and suggest that transport promiscuity has arisen in part through the ability of the binding site to accommodate peptides in multiple orientations for transport...

  5. Crystal Structure of a Plant Multidrug and Toxic Compound Extrusion Family Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yoshiki; Iwaki, Shigehiro; Tsukazaki, Tomoya

    2017-09-05

    The multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) family of proteins consists of transporters responsible for multidrug resistance in prokaryotes. In plants, a number of MATE proteins were identified by recent genomic and functional studies, which imply that the proteins have substrate-specific transport functions instead of multidrug extrusion. The three-dimensional structure of eukaryotic MATE proteins, including those of plants, has not been reported, preventing a better understanding of the molecular mechanism of these proteins. Here, we describe the crystal structure of a MATE protein from the plant Camelina sativa at 2.9 Å resolution. Two sets of six transmembrane α helices, assembled pseudo-symmetrically, possess a negatively charged internal pocket with an outward-facing shape. The crystal structure provides insight into the diversity of plant MATE proteins and their substrate recognition and transport through the membrane. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Complex overlapping concepts: An effective auditing methodology for families of similarly structured BioPortal ontologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ling; Chen, Yan; Elhanan, Gai; Perl, Yehoshua; Geller, James; Ochs, Christopher

    2018-05-28

    In previous research, we have demonstrated for a number of ontologies that structurally complex concepts (for different definitions of "complex") in an ontology are more likely to exhibit errors than other concepts. Thus, such complex concepts often become fertile ground for quality assurance (QA) in ontologies. They should be audited first. One example of complex concepts is given by "overlapping concepts" (to be defined below.) Historically, a different auditing methodology had to be developed for every single ontology. For better scalability and efficiency, it is desirable to identify family-wide QA methodologies. Each such methodology would be applicable to a whole family of similar ontologies. In past research, we had divided the 685 ontologies of BioPortal into families of structurally similar ontologies. We showed for four ontologies of the same large family in BioPortal that "overlapping concepts" are indeed statistically significantly more likely to exhibit errors. In order to make an authoritative statement concerning the success of "overlapping concepts" as a methodology for a whole family of similar ontologies (or of large subhierarchies of ontologies), it is necessary to show that "overlapping concepts" have a higher likelihood of errors for six out of six ontologies of the family. In this paper, we are demonstrating for two more ontologies that "overlapping concepts" can successfully predict groups of concepts with a higher error rate than concepts from a control group. The fifth ontology is the Neoplasm subhierarchy of the National Cancer Institute thesaurus (NCIt). The sixth ontology is the Infectious Disease subhierarchy of SNOMED CT. We demonstrate quality assurance results for both of them. Furthermore, in this paper we observe two novel, important, and useful phenomena during quality assurance of "overlapping concepts." First, an erroneous "overlapping concept" can help with discovering other erroneous "non-overlapping concepts" in its vicinity

  7. The effect of migration on family structures in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoth-ogendo, H W

    1989-06-01

    This paper assesses the effect of migration or family structures in sub-Saharan Africa, especially the effect of emigration on the reproduction, production, and social stability of the family in areas of origin in the predominantly agrarian communities of East and Southern Africa. Migration in precolonial Africa usually occurred for 1 of the following reasons: 1) the search by communities for new habitats and opportunities; 2) as a community response to droughts, floods, environmental degradation, and similar disasters; and 3) as a result of internecine wars, civil strife, and general hostilities. Thus, because of the collective nature of early migrations, the family unit maintained a much greater degree of social cohesion. The effects of the rise of the modern state in Africa on migration include 1) spatial limits of collective migration were frozen, 2) the colonial boundaries did not always correspond to cultural divisions, 3) both migration within colonial boundaries and individual migration became dominant, and 4) cyclical migration began. The end of colonialism resulted in 1) difficulties in creating strong and internally coherent nation states because of the uncertainty of national borders and 2) more cyclical migrants. The effects of migration on reproduction in the family during the colonial period include 17 extremely low fertility rates, 2) widespread domestic instability, and 3) exacerbation of moral decadence. Contemporary patterns of emigration have been far less disruptive, due in part to increased personal mobility and migration of the complete reproductive unit. The effects of migration on production include 1) depletion of labor for production; 2) women had to assume production functions, together with all their other responsibilities; and 3) very little cash or goods were available for remittance to areas of origin. Production and productivity among rural African families will continue to suffer as long as plantations, mines, and urban centers

  8. Structural and evolutionary adaptation of rhoptry kinases and pseudokinases, a family of coccidian virulence factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The widespread protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii interferes with host cell functions by exporting the contents of a unique apical organelle, the rhoptry. Among the mix of secreted proteins are an expanded, lineage-specific family of protein kinases termed rhoptry kinases (ROPKs), several of which have been shown to be key virulence factors, including the pseudokinase ROP5. The extent and details of the diversification of this protein family are poorly understood. Results In this study, we comprehensively catalogued the ROPK family in the genomes of Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum and Eimeria tenella, as well as portions of the unfinished genome of Sarcocystis neurona, and classified the identified genes into 42 distinct subfamilies. We systematically compared the rhoptry kinase protein sequences and structures to each other and to the broader superfamily of eukaryotic protein kinases to study the patterns of diversification and neofunctionalization in the ROPK family and its subfamilies. We identified three ROPK sub-clades of particular interest: those bearing a structurally conserved N-terminal extension to the kinase domain (NTE), an E. tenella-specific expansion, and a basal cluster including ROP35 and BPK1 that we term ROPKL. Structural analysis in light of the solved structures ROP2, ROP5, ROP8 and in comparison to typical eukaryotic protein kinases revealed ROPK-specific conservation patterns in two key regions of the kinase domain, surrounding a ROPK-conserved insert in the kinase hinge region and a disulfide bridge in the kinase substrate-binding lobe. We also examined conservation patterns specific to the NTE-bearing clade. We discuss the possible functional consequences of each. Conclusions Our work sheds light on several important but previously unrecognized features shared among rhoptry kinases, as well as the essential differences between active and degenerate protein kinases. We identify the most distinctive ROPK-specific features

  9. Structural and evolutionary adaptation of rhoptry kinases and pseudokinases, a family of coccidian virulence factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talevich, Eric; Kannan, Natarajan

    2013-06-06

    The widespread protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii interferes with host cell functions by exporting the contents of a unique apical organelle, the rhoptry. Among the mix of secreted proteins are an expanded, lineage-specific family of protein kinases termed rhoptry kinases (ROPKs), several of which have been shown to be key virulence factors, including the pseudokinase ROP5. The extent and details of the diversification of this protein family are poorly understood. In this study, we comprehensively catalogued the ROPK family in the genomes of Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum and Eimeria tenella, as well as portions of the unfinished genome of Sarcocystis neurona, and classified the identified genes into 42 distinct subfamilies. We systematically compared the rhoptry kinase protein sequences and structures to each other and to the broader superfamily of eukaryotic protein kinases to study the patterns of diversification and neofunctionalization in the ROPK family and its subfamilies. We identified three ROPK sub-clades of particular interest: those bearing a structurally conserved N-terminal extension to the kinase domain (NTE), an E. tenella-specific expansion, and a basal cluster including ROP35 and BPK1 that we term ROPKL. Structural analysis in light of the solved structures ROP2, ROP5, ROP8 and in comparison to typical eukaryotic protein kinases revealed ROPK-specific conservation patterns in two key regions of the kinase domain, surrounding a ROPK-conserved insert in the kinase hinge region and a disulfide bridge in the kinase substrate-binding lobe. We also examined conservation patterns specific to the NTE-bearing clade. We discuss the possible functional consequences of each. Our work sheds light on several important but previously unrecognized features shared among rhoptry kinases, as well as the essential differences between active and degenerate protein kinases. We identify the most distinctive ROPK-specific features conserved across both active

  10. Single Parent Family Structure as a Predictor of Alcohol Use among Secondary School Students: Evidence from Jamaica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshi, Sarah N; Abel, Wendel D; Agu, Chinwendu F; Omeje, Joachim C; Smith, Patrice Whitehorne; Ukwaja, Kingsley N; Ricketts Roomes, Tana; Meka, Ijeoma A; Weaver, Steve; Rae, Tania; Oshi, Daniel C

    2018-04-23

    The aim of this study was to examine the potential relationship between Jamaican secondary students’ alcohol drinking habits and their family structure. Methods: Data collected from a nationally representative survey of 3,365 students were analysed. Descriptive and inferential statistics were performed. Results: Out of the 3,365 students, 1,044 (31.0%) were from single-parent families. Single-parent families, married-parent families and common law-parent families were significantly associated with lifetime use of alcohol (AOR= 1.72, 95% CI= 1.06 - 2.79; AOR= 1.73, 95% CI= 1.07- 2.81, AOR= 1.94, 95%CI= 1.17- 3.21 respectively). However, family structure was not significantly associated with past year and past month alcohol use. Students whose parents “sometimes” knew their whereabouts were significantly less likely to use alcohol in their lifetime compared to students whose parents “Always” knew where the students were. Conclusion: Family structure is an independent predictor of alcohol use among high school students in Jamaica. Being from single-parent families, married-parent and common- law parent families were significantly associated with increased likelihood for lifetime alcohol use. Creative Commons Attribution License

  11. Family structure and risk behaviors: the role of the family meal in assessing likelihood of adolescent risk behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Sen, Bisakha; Goldfarb,Samantha; Tarver,Will

    2014-01-01

    Samantha Goldfarb, Will L Tarver, Bisakha Sen Department of Health Care Organization and Policy, School of Public Health, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA Background: Previous literature has asserted that family meals are a key protective factor for certain adolescent risk behaviors. It is suggested that the frequency of eating with the family is associated with better psychological well-being and a lower risk of substance use and delinquency. However, it is unclear w...

  12. Factor Structure and Psychometric Properties of the Work-Family Balance Scale in an Urban Chinese Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huiping; Yip, Paul S. F.; Chi, Peilian; Chan, Kinsun; Cheung, Yee Tak; Zhang, Xiulan

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the factor structure of the Work-Family Balance Scale (WFBS) and examine its reliability and validity in use in the urban Chinese population. The scale was validated using a sample of 605 urban Chinese residents from 7 cities. Exploratory factor analysis identified two factors: work-family conflict and…

  13. Structure of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Rv2714, a representative of a duplicated gene family in Actinobacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graña, Martin; Bellinzoni, Marco; Miras, Isabelle; Fiez-Vandal, Cedric; Haouz, Ahmed; Shepard, William; Buschiazzo, Alejandro; Alzari, Pedro M.

    2009-01-01

    The crystal structure of Rv2714, a protein of unknown function from M. tuberculosis, has been determined at 2.6 Å resolution using single-wavelength anomalous diffraction methods. The gene Rv2714 from Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which codes for a hypothetical protein of unknown function, is a representative member of a gene family that is largely confined to the order Actinomycetales of Actinobacteria. Sequence analysis indicates the presence of two paralogous genes in most mycobacterial genomes and suggests that gene duplication was an ancient event in bacterial evolution. The crystal structure of Rv2714 has been determined at 2.6 Å resolution, revealing a trimer in which the topology of the protomer core is similar to that observed in a functionally diverse set of enzymes, including purine nucleoside phosphorylases, some carboxypeptidases, bacterial peptidyl-tRNA hydrolases and even the plastidic form of an intron splicing factor. However, some structural elements, such as a β-hairpin insertion involved in protein oligomerization and a C-terminal α-helical domain that serves as a lid to the putative substrate-binding (or ligand-binding) site, are only found in Rv2714 bacterial homologues and represent specific signatures of this protein family

  14. Structure of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Rv2714, a representative of a duplicated gene family in Actinobacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graña, Martin; Bellinzoni, Marco [Institut Pasteur, Unité de Biochimie Structurale, URA CNRS 2185, 25 Rue du Dr Roux, 75724 Paris (France); Miras, Isabelle; Fiez-Vandal, Cedric; Haouz, Ahmed; Shepard, William [Institut Pasteur, Plate-forme de Cristallogenèse et Diffraction des Rayons X, 25 Rue du Dr Roux, 75724 Paris (France); Buschiazzo, Alejandro; Alzari, Pedro M., E-mail: alzari@pasteur.fr [Institut Pasteur, Unité de Biochimie Structurale, URA CNRS 2185, 25 Rue du Dr Roux, 75724 Paris (France)

    2009-10-01

    The crystal structure of Rv2714, a protein of unknown function from M. tuberculosis, has been determined at 2.6 Å resolution using single-wavelength anomalous diffraction methods. The gene Rv2714 from Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which codes for a hypothetical protein of unknown function, is a representative member of a gene family that is largely confined to the order Actinomycetales of Actinobacteria. Sequence analysis indicates the presence of two paralogous genes in most mycobacterial genomes and suggests that gene duplication was an ancient event in bacterial evolution. The crystal structure of Rv2714 has been determined at 2.6 Å resolution, revealing a trimer in which the topology of the protomer core is similar to that observed in a functionally diverse set of enzymes, including purine nucleoside phosphorylases, some carboxypeptidases, bacterial peptidyl-tRNA hydrolases and even the plastidic form of an intron splicing factor. However, some structural elements, such as a β-hairpin insertion involved in protein oligomerization and a C-terminal α-helical domain that serves as a lid to the putative substrate-binding (or ligand-binding) site, are only found in Rv2714 bacterial homologues and represent specific signatures of this protein family.

  15. Structural analysis of Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 glycoside hydrolase from CAZy family GH105

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Germane, Katherine L.; Servinsky, Matthew D.; Gerlach, Elliot S.; Sund, Christian J.; Hurley, Margaret M.

    2015-01-01

    The crystal structure of the protein product of the C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824 gene CA-C0359 is structurally similar to YteR, an unsaturated rhamnogalacturonyl hydrolase from B. subtilis strain 168. Substrate modeling and electrostatic studies of the active site of the structure of CA-C0359 suggests that the protein can now be considered to be part of CAZy glycoside hydrolase family 105. Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 gene CA-C0359 encodes a putative unsaturated rhamnogalacturonyl hydrolase (URH) with distant amino-acid sequence homology to YteR of Bacillus subtilis strain 168. YteR, like other URHs, has core structural homology to unsaturated glucuronyl hydrolases, but hydrolyzes the unsaturated disaccharide derivative of rhamnogalacturonan I. The crystal structure of the recombinant CA-C0359 protein was solved to 1.6 Å resolution by molecular replacement using the phase information of the previously reported structure of YteR (PDB entry (http://scripts.iucr.org/cgi-bin/cr.cgi?rm)) from Bacillus subtilis strain 168. The YteR-like protein is a six-α-hairpin barrel with two β-sheet strands and a small helix overlaying the end of the hairpins next to the active site. The protein has low primary protein sequence identity to YteR but is structurally similar. The two tertiary structures align with a root-mean-square deviation of 1.4 Å and contain a highly conserved active pocket. There is a conserved aspartic acid residue in both structures, which has been shown to be important for hydration of the C=C bond during the release of unsaturated galacturonic acid by YteR. A surface electrostatic potential comparison of CA-C0359 and proteins from CAZy families GH88 and GH105 reveals the make-up of the active site to be a combination of the unsaturated rhamnogalacturonyl hydrolase and the unsaturated glucuronyl hydrolase from Bacillus subtilis strain 168. Structural and electrostatic comparisons suggests that the protein may have a slightly different substrate

  16. Structural analysis of Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 glycoside hydrolase from CAZy family GH105

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Germane, Katherine L., E-mail: katherine.germane.civ@mail.mil [Oak Ridge Associated Universities, 4692 Millennium Drive, Suite 101, Belcamp, MD 21017 (United States); Servinsky, Matthew D. [US Army Research Laboratory, 2800 Powder Mill Road, Adelphi, MD 20783 (United States); Gerlach, Elliot S. [Federal Staffing Resources, 2200 Somerville Road, Annapolis, MD 21401 (United States); Sund, Christian J. [US Army Research Laboratory, 2800 Powder Mill Road, Adelphi, MD 20783 (United States); Hurley, Margaret M., E-mail: katherine.germane.civ@mail.mil [US Army Research Laboratory, 4600 Deer Creek Loop, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21005 (United States); Oak Ridge Associated Universities, 4692 Millennium Drive, Suite 101, Belcamp, MD 21017 (United States)

    2015-07-29

    The crystal structure of the protein product of the C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824 gene CA-C0359 is structurally similar to YteR, an unsaturated rhamnogalacturonyl hydrolase from B. subtilis strain 168. Substrate modeling and electrostatic studies of the active site of the structure of CA-C0359 suggests that the protein can now be considered to be part of CAZy glycoside hydrolase family 105. Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 gene CA-C0359 encodes a putative unsaturated rhamnogalacturonyl hydrolase (URH) with distant amino-acid sequence homology to YteR of Bacillus subtilis strain 168. YteR, like other URHs, has core structural homology to unsaturated glucuronyl hydrolases, but hydrolyzes the unsaturated disaccharide derivative of rhamnogalacturonan I. The crystal structure of the recombinant CA-C0359 protein was solved to 1.6 Å resolution by molecular replacement using the phase information of the previously reported structure of YteR (PDB entry (http://scripts.iucr.org/cgi-bin/cr.cgi?rm)) from Bacillus subtilis strain 168. The YteR-like protein is a six-α-hairpin barrel with two β-sheet strands and a small helix overlaying the end of the hairpins next to the active site. The protein has low primary protein sequence identity to YteR but is structurally similar. The two tertiary structures align with a root-mean-square deviation of 1.4 Å and contain a highly conserved active pocket. There is a conserved aspartic acid residue in both structures, which has been shown to be important for hydration of the C=C bond during the release of unsaturated galacturonic acid by YteR. A surface electrostatic potential comparison of CA-C0359 and proteins from CAZy families GH88 and GH105 reveals the make-up of the active site to be a combination of the unsaturated rhamnogalacturonyl hydrolase and the unsaturated glucuronyl hydrolase from Bacillus subtilis strain 168. Structural and electrostatic comparisons suggests that the protein may have a slightly different substrate

  17. A protein relational database and protein family knowledge bases to facilitate structure-based design analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobilio, Dominick; Walker, Gary; Brooijmans, Natasja; Nilakantan, Ramaswamy; Denny, R Aldrin; Dejoannis, Jason; Feyfant, Eric; Kowticwar, Rupesh K; Mankala, Jyoti; Palli, Satish; Punyamantula, Sairam; Tatipally, Maneesh; John, Reji K; Humblet, Christine

    2010-08-01

    The Protein Data Bank is the most comprehensive source of experimental macromolecular structures. It can, however, be difficult at times to locate relevant structures with the Protein Data Bank search interface. This is particularly true when searching for complexes containing specific interactions between protein and ligand atoms. Moreover, searching within a family of proteins can be tedious. For example, one cannot search for some conserved residue as residue numbers vary across structures. We describe herein three databases, Protein Relational Database, Kinase Knowledge Base, and Matrix Metalloproteinase Knowledge Base, containing protein structures from the Protein Data Bank. In Protein Relational Database, atom-atom distances between protein and ligand have been precalculated allowing for millisecond retrieval based on atom identity and distance constraints. Ring centroids, centroid-centroid and centroid-atom distances and angles have also been included permitting queries for pi-stacking interactions and other structural motifs involving rings. Other geometric features can be searched through the inclusion of residue pair and triplet distances. In Kinase Knowledge Base and Matrix Metalloproteinase Knowledge Base, the catalytic domains have been aligned into common residue numbering schemes. Thus, by searching across Protein Relational Database and Kinase Knowledge Base, one can easily retrieve structures wherein, for example, a ligand of interest is making contact with the gatekeeper residue.

  18. Personality traits of a group of young adults from different family structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du Toit, J; Nel, E M; Steel, H R

    1992-07-01

    The impact of parental divorce and remarriage and young adults' gender on second-order personality traits, such as extraversion, anxiety, tough poise and independence, was examined. The responses of 227 young adults on the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF; Cattell, Eber, & Tatsuoka, 1970) were subjected to a parametric multivariate analysis of variance. Results revealed significant differences between the anxiety scores of the young men and women as well as between those of the three different family-structure groups, but divorce and remarriage was not associated with either positive or negative personality development in this sample.

  19. Evolutionary Relationship and Structural Characterization of the EPF/EPFL Gene Family

    OpenAIRE

    Takata, Naoki; Yokota, Kiyonobu; Ohki, Shinya; Mori, Masashi; Taniguchi, Toru; Kurita, Manabu

    2013-01-01

    EPF1-EPF2 and EPFL9/Stomagen act antagonistically in regulating leaf stomatal density. The aim of this study was to elucidate the evolutionary functional divergence of EPF/EPFL family genes. Phylogenetic analyses showed that AtEPFL9/Stomagen-like genes are conserved only in vascular plants and are closely related to AtEPF1/EPF2-like genes. Modeling showed that EPF/EPFL peptides share a common 3D structure that is constituted of a scaffold and loop. Molecular dynamics simulation suggested that...

  20. The Use of the Risky Sex Scale among Adolescents Receiving Treatment Services for Substance Use Problems: Factor Structure and Predictive Validity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubman, Jonathan G.; Des Rosiers, Sabrina E.; Schwartz, Seth J.; O'Hare, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The present study evaluated the use of the Risky Sex Scale (RSS; O'Hare, 2001) among youth in outpatient treatment for substance use problems. An ethnically diverse sample of 394 adolescents (280 males; Mage = 16.33 years, SDage = 1.15) was recruited from two treatment sites. The study was guided by two aims. First, a confirmatory factor analysis was conducted on RSS item responses. Findings replicated the factor structure identified in previous studies of undergraduate students cited for campus alcohol violations. Second, structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to document associations between RSS subscales and self-reported substance use and sexual risk behaviors. The Risky Sex Expectancies (RSE) subscale was significantly associated with co-occurring alcohol use and sex, alcohol use at last intercourse, and alcohol use during the prior 30 days. The Risky Sex Behaviors (RSB) subscale was significantly associated with cooccurring drug use and sex, condom use at last intercourse and unprotected intercourse during the prior 30 days. The factor structure of the RSS was consistent across age group (12-16 and 16- 18) and across gender, and the links between the RSS subscales and health risk behaviors varied somewhat by gender but not by age group. These findings suggest that the RSS is an appropriate brief screening tool for predicting health risk behaviors among adolescents in substance abuse treatment. PMID:22425202

  1. Family Engagement in Literacy Activities: Revised Factor Structure for the Familia--An Instrument Examining Family Support for Early Literacy Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhs, Eric S.; Welch, Greg; Burt, Jennifer; Knoche, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated a data-set drawn using "The Familia"--a measure originally developed to evaluate shared-reading activities. A newly developed set of conceptual supports and a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were applied to a new factor structure/model. Data were drawn from 219 young children and their families (mean age = 43…

  2. Structure-function relationships of family GH70 glucansucrase and 4,6-α-glucanotransferase enzymes, and their evolutionary relationships with family GH13 enzymes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meng, Xiangfeng; Gangoiti, Joana; Bai, Yuxiang; Pijning, Tjaard; Van Leeuwen, Sander S; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert

    2016-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are known to produce large amounts of α-glucan exopolysaccharides. Family GH70 glucansucrase (GS) enzymes catalyze the synthesis of these α-glucans from sucrose. The elucidation of the crystal structures of representative GS enzymes has advanced our understanding of their

  3. Family structure and posttraumatic stress reactions: a longitudinal study using multilevel analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background There is limited research on the relevance of family structures to the development and maintenance of posttraumatic stress following disasters. We longitudinally studied the effects of marital and parental statuses on posttraumatic stress reactions after the 2004 Southeast Asian tsunami and whether persons in the same households had more shared stress reactions than others. Method The study included a tourist population of 641 Norwegian adult citizens, many of them from families with children. We measured posttraumatic stress symptoms with the Impact of Event Scale-Revised at 6 months and 2 years post-disaster. Analyses included multilevel methods with mixed effects models. Results Results showed that neither marital nor parental status was significantly related to posttraumatic stress. At both assessments, adults living in the same household reported levels of posttraumatic stress that were more similar to one another than adults who were not living together. Between households, disaster experiences were closely related to the variance in posttraumatic stress symptom levels at both assessments. Within households, however, disaster experiences were less related to the variance in symptom level at 2 years than at 6 months. Conclusions These results indicate that adult household members may influence one another's posttraumatic stress reactions as well as their interpretations of the disaster experiences over time. Our findings suggest that multilevel methods may provide important information about family processes after disasters. PMID:22171549

  4. Family structure and posttraumatic stress reactions: a longitudinal study using multilevel analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nygaard Egil

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is limited research on the relevance of family structures to the development and maintenance of posttraumatic stress following disasters. We longitudinally studied the effects of marital and parental statuses on posttraumatic stress reactions after the 2004 Southeast Asian tsunami and whether persons in the same households had more shared stress reactions than others. Method The study included a tourist population of 641 Norwegian adult citizens, many of them from families with children. We measured posttraumatic stress symptoms with the Impact of Event Scale-Revised at 6 months and 2 years post-disaster. Analyses included multilevel methods with mixed effects models. Results Results showed that neither marital nor parental status was significantly related to posttraumatic stress. At both assessments, adults living in the same household reported levels of posttraumatic stress that were more similar to one another than adults who were not living together. Between households, disaster experiences were closely related to the variance in posttraumatic stress symptom levels at both assessments. Within households, however, disaster experiences were less related to the variance in symptom level at 2 years than at 6 months. Conclusions These results indicate that adult household members may influence one another's posttraumatic stress reactions as well as their interpretations of the disaster experiences over time. Our findings suggest that multilevel methods may provide important information about family processes after disasters.

  5. Stigma and sex work from the perspective of female sex workers in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, William C W; Holroyd, Eleanor; Bingham, Amie

    2011-01-01

    While the stigma surrounding sex work is both well documented and easily recognised, few studies examine stigma in this context from the perspective of the sex workers themselves. In this article we report on a study using a modified grounded theory approach to analyse a series of semi-structured interviews with 49 female sex workers in Hong Kong, in order to examine the ways in which this group experiences and negotiates the stigma which arises from their employment in the sex industry. Sex workers in Hong Kong were subject to various stigmatising forces in their daily lives in their interactions with the public, the police and their families. These processes could have a negative impact on the sex workers' health, both through obvious manifestations such as physical or verbal abuse and through more subtle processes such as those which generated or perpetuated vulnerability and those which compelled the sex workers to conceal their identities and withdraw themselves from social networks. These findings are situated in the context of broader research surrounding sex work, drawing attention to the consequences of stigma on health and their interaction with health-service providers, before briefly discussing possible means of overcoming stigma-related barriers to providing adequate healthcare for this marginalised group. © 2010 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2010 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Incarcerated Dutch Juvenile Sex Offenders Compared with Non-Sex Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wijk, Anton Ph.; Vreugdenhil, Coby; van Horn, Joan; Vermeiren, Robert; Doreleijers, Theo A. H.

    2007-01-01

    There is some debate about whether or not sex offenders are similar to non-sex offenders with regard to family background (parental characteristics), personality, and psychopathology. The central aim of this study focused on the comparison of juvenile sex offenders and non-sex offenders. The sample consisted of incarcerated juvenile male sex (n =…

  7. Conservative secondary structure motifs already present in early-stage folding (in silico) as found in serpines family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brylinski, Michal; Konieczny, Leszek; Kononowicz, Andrzej; Roterman, Irena

    2008-03-21

    The well-known procedure implemented in ClustalW oriented on the sequence comparison was applied to structure comparison. The consensus sequence as well as consensus structure has been defined for proteins belonging to serpine family. The structure of early stage intermediate was the object for similarity search. The high values of W(sequence) appeared to be accordant with high values of W(structure) making possible structure comparison using common criteria for sequence and structure comparison. Since the early stage structural form has been created according to limited conformational sub-space which does not include the beta-structure (this structure is mediated by C7eq structural form), is particularly important to see, that the C7eq structural form may be treated as the seed for beta-structure present in the final native structure of protein. The applicability of ClustalW procedure to structure comparison makes these two comparisons unified.

  8. Effects of Family Structure and the Experience of Parental Separation: A Study on Adolescents’ Well-Being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Walper

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Large numbers of studies, mostly from the U.S., have addressed the effects of parental separation and divorce, pointing to disadvantages of children and adolescents growing up in separated families. However, evidence on this topic varies across countries and is limited for Germany. Using longitudinal data from waves 1 and 3 of the German Family Panel pairfam, we investigated differences in adolescents’ well-being by comparing stable nuclear families (n = 1968, single mother families (n = 360, and stepfather families (n = 214, as well as an additional smaller group of adolescents whose parents separated between waves 1 and 3 (“prospective separators”; n = 76. Adolescents’ satisfaction with different domains of life (family, education/work, and their general life satisfaction as well as their self-esteem were used as indicators of well-being. A series of multiple regression analyses tested the effects of family structure on well-being at T1 and changes in well-being over time, controlling for various background factors. Furthermore, likely mediation effects of infrequent contact to the non-resident father and economic strain were tested. The findings show (relatively minor effects of parental separation, namely lower well-being among youth1 in single mother families compared to nuclear families. Disadvantages of youth in single mother families could only be partly explained by the higher financial strain generally experienced in these families. Youth in stepfather families reported a similar overall well-being as adolescents in nuclear families, but indicated a greater decrease in family satisfaction over time. Pre-separation disadvantages among prospective separators were limited to greater dissatisfaction with school. Infrequent contact with the non-resident father did not affect adolescents’ well-being. Effects of family structure did not differ between boys and girls, but maternal education moderated the effects of family structure

  9. The Family-Study Interface and Academic Outcomes: Testing a Structural Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeuwisse, Marieke; Born, Marise Ph.; Severiens, Sabine E.

    2011-01-01

    Expanding on family-work and work-study models, this article investigated a model for family-study conflict and family-study facilitation. The focus of the study was the relationship of family-study conflict and family-study facilitation with students' effortful behaviors and academic performance among a sample of university students (N = 1,656).…

  10. Crystal structure analysis of a bacterial aryl acylamidase belonging to the amidase signature enzyme family

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Saeyoung; Park, Eun-Hye; Ko, Hyeok-Jin; Bang, Won Gi; Kim, Hye-Yeon; Kim, Kyoung Heon; Choi, In-Geol

    2015-01-01

    The atomic structure of a bacterial aryl acylamidase (EC 3.5.1.13; AAA) is reported and structural features are investigated to better understand the catalytic profile of this enzyme. Structures of AAA were determined in its native form and in complex with the analgesic acetanilide, p-acetaminophenol, at 1.70 Å and 1.73 Å resolutions, respectively. The overall structural fold of AAA was identified as an α/β fold class, exhibiting an open twisted β-sheet core surrounded by α-helices. The asymmetric unit contains one AAA molecule and the monomeric form is functionally active. The core structure enclosing the signature sequence region, including the canonical Ser-cisSer-Lys catalytic triad, is conserved in all members of the Amidase Signature enzyme family. The structure of AAA in a complex with its ligand reveals a unique organization in the substrate-binding pocket. The binding pocket consists of two loops (loop1 and loop2) in the amidase signature sequence and one helix (α10) in the non-amidase signature sequence. We identified two residues (Tyr"1"3"6 and Thr"3"3"0) that interact with the ligand via water molecules, and a hydrogen-bonding network that explains the catalytic affinity over various aryl acyl compounds. The optimum activity of AAA at pH > 10 suggests that the reaction mechanism employs Lys"8"4 as the catalytic base to polarize the Ser"1"8"7 nucleophile in the catalytic triad. - Highlights: • We determined the first structure of a bacterial aryl acylamidase (EC 3.5.1.13). • Structure revealed spatially distinct architecture of the substrate-binding pocket. • Hydrogen-bonding with Tyr"1"3"6 and Thr"3"3"0 mediates ligand-binding and substrate.

  11. Crystal structure analysis of a bacterial aryl acylamidase belonging to the amidase signature enzyme family

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Saeyoung; Park, Eun-Hye; Ko, Hyeok-Jin; Bang, Won Gi [Department of Biotechnology, College of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Anam-Dong, Seoungbuk-Gu, Seoul, 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hye-Yeon [Protein Structure Research Team, Korea Basic Science Institute, Ochang, Chungbuk, 363-883 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kyoung Heon [Department of Biotechnology, College of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Anam-Dong, Seoungbuk-Gu, Seoul, 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, In-Geol, E-mail: igchoi@korea.ac.kr [Department of Biotechnology, College of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Anam-Dong, Seoungbuk-Gu, Seoul, 136-713 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-13

    The atomic structure of a bacterial aryl acylamidase (EC 3.5.1.13; AAA) is reported and structural features are investigated to better understand the catalytic profile of this enzyme. Structures of AAA were determined in its native form and in complex with the analgesic acetanilide, p-acetaminophenol, at 1.70 Å and 1.73 Å resolutions, respectively. The overall structural fold of AAA was identified as an α/β fold class, exhibiting an open twisted β-sheet core surrounded by α-helices. The asymmetric unit contains one AAA molecule and the monomeric form is functionally active. The core structure enclosing the signature sequence region, including the canonical Ser-cisSer-Lys catalytic triad, is conserved in all members of the Amidase Signature enzyme family. The structure of AAA in a complex with its ligand reveals a unique organization in the substrate-binding pocket. The binding pocket consists of two loops (loop1 and loop2) in the amidase signature sequence and one helix (α10) in the non-amidase signature sequence. We identified two residues (Tyr{sup 136} and Thr{sup 330}) that interact with the ligand via water molecules, and a hydrogen-bonding network that explains the catalytic affinity over various aryl acyl compounds. The optimum activity of AAA at pH > 10 suggests that the reaction mechanism employs Lys{sup 84} as the catalytic base to polarize the Ser{sup 187} nucleophile in the catalytic triad. - Highlights: • We determined the first structure of a bacterial aryl acylamidase (EC 3.5.1.13). • Structure revealed spatially distinct architecture of the substrate-binding pocket. • Hydrogen-bonding with Tyr{sup 136} and Thr{sup 330} mediates ligand-binding and substrate.

  12. Biosynthesis and structure-activity relationships of the lipid a family of glycolipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xirui; Sankaranarayanan, Karthik; Khosla, Chaitan

    2017-10-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a glycolipid found in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, is a potent elicitor of innate immune responses in mammals. A typical LPS molecule is composed of three different structural domains: a polysaccharide called the O-antigen, a core oligosaccharide, and Lipid A. Lipid A is the amphipathic glycolipid moiety of LPS. It stimulates the immune system by tightly binding to Toll-like receptor 4. More recently, Lipid A has also been shown to activate intracellular caspase-4 and caspase-5. An impressive diversity is observed in Lipid A structures from different Gram-negative bacteria, and it is well established that subtle changes in chemical structure can result in dramatically different immune activities. For example, Lipid A from Escherichia coli is highly toxic to humans, whereas a biosynthetic precursor called Lipid IV A blocks this toxic activity, and monophosphoryl Lipid A from Salmonella minnesota is a vaccine adjuvant. Thus, an understanding of structure-activity relationships in this glycolipid family could be used to design useful immunomodulatory agents. Here we review the biosynthesis, modification, and structure-activity relationships of Lipid A. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Structural diversity of a family of aluminophosphates with Al/P ratio of non-unity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jihong; Xu, Ruren; Li, Jiyang

    2000-05-01

    A family of organically templated aluminophosphates (denoted AlPOs) with an Al/P ratio of non-unity has been prepared with 1-D chain, 2-D layer and 3-D open-framework architectures. Their inorganic parts are constructed from alternating Al-centered polyhedra (AlO 4, AlO 5, AlO 4(OH 2) 2) and P-centered tetrahedra P(OAl) nO 4- n ( n=0, 1, 2, 3). The existence of terminal POH and/or PO groups in the structures results in the deviation of Al/P ratio from unity, and the commonly encountered Al/P ratios are 1/2, 3/5, 2/3, 3/4, 4/5 and 5/6. This review will discuss the structural features of these AlPOs with various dimensionalities and stoichiometries.

  14. Seasonal variations of radon concentrations in single-family houses with different sub-structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majborn, B.

    1992-01-01

    Seasonal variations of indoor radon concentrations have been studied in 70 single-family houses selected according to the type of sub-structure and the type of soil underneath the house. Five categories of sub-structure were included - slab-on-grade, crawl space, basement, and combinations...... of basement with slab-on-grade or crawl space. Half of the houses are located on clayey till and the other half on glaciofluvial gravel. In each house radon was measured in a living room and a bedroom, in the basement if present, and in the crawl space if present and accessible. The measurements were made...... with track detectors on a quarterly basis throughout a year. For living rooms and bedrooms the seasonal variations range from being highly significant for the slab-on-grade houses to being insignificant for the crawl space houses. For basements and crawl spaces the geometric mean radon concentrations do...

  15. Structural Analysis of a Family 81 Glycoside Hydrolase Implicates Its Recognition of β-1,3-Glucan Quaternary Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluvinage, Benjamin; Fillo, Alexander; Massel, Patricia; Boraston, Alisdair B

    2017-09-05

    Family 81 glycoside hydrolases (GHs), which are known to cleave β-1,3-glucans, are found in archaea, bacteria, eukaryotes, and viruses. Here we examine the structural and functional features of the GH81 catalytic module, BhGH81, from the Bacillus halodurans protein BH0236 to probe the molecular basis of β-1,3-glucan recognition and cleavage. BhGH81 displayed activity on laminarin, curdlan, and pachyman, but not scleroglucan; the enzyme also cleaved β-1,3-glucooligosaccharides as small as β-1,3-glucotriose. The crystal structures of BhGH81 in complex with various β-1,3-glucooligosaccharides revealed distorted sugars in the -1 catalytic subsite and an arrangement consistent with an inverting catalytic mechanism having a proposed conformational itinerary of 2 S 0 → 2,5 B ‡ → 5 S 1 . Notably, the architecture of the catalytic site, location of an adjacent ancillary β-1,3-glucan binding site, and the surface properties of the enzyme indicate the likely ability to recognize the double and/or triple-helical quaternary structures adopted by β-1,3-glucans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Sex Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sex therapy Overview Sex therapy is a type of psychotherapy — a general term for treating mental health problems by talking with a mental health professional. Through sex therapy, you can address concerns about sexual function, ...

  17. Structural and biochemical characterization of novel bacterial α-galactosidases belonging to glycoside hydrolase family 31.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Takatsugu; Ishizaki, Yuichi; Ichikawa, Megumi; Nishikawa, Atsushi; Tonozuka, Takashi

    2015-07-01

    Glycoside hydrolase family 31 (GH31) proteins have been reportedly identified as exo-α-glycosidases with activity for α-glucosides and α-xylosides. We focused on a GH31 subfamily, which contains proteins with low sequence identity (Pedobacter heparinus and Pedobacter saltans. The enzymes unexpectedly exhibited α-galactosidase activity, but were not active on α-glucosides and α-xylosides. The crystal structures of one of the enzymes, PsGal31A, in unliganded form and in complexes with D-galactose or L-fucose and the catalytic nucleophile mutant in unliganded form and in complex with p-nitrophenyl-α-D-galactopyranoside, were determined at 1.85-2.30 Å (1 Å=0.1 nm) resolution. The overall structure of PsGal31A contains four domains and the catalytic domain adopts a (β/α)8-barrel fold that resembles the structures of other GH31 enzymes. Two catalytic aspartic acid residues are structurally conserved in the enzymes, whereas most residues forming the active site differ from those of GH31 α-glucosidases and α-xylosidases. PsGal31A forms a dimer via a unique loop that is not conserved in other reported GH31 enzymes; this loop is involved in its aglycone specificity and in binding L-fucose. Considering potential genes for α-L-fucosidases and carbohydrate-related proteins within the vicinity of Pedobacter Gal31, the identified Gal31 enzymes are likely to function in a novel sugar degradation system. This is the first report of α-galactosidases which belong to GH31 family. © 2015 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.

  18. The response to selection in Glycoside Hydrolase Family 13 structures: A comparative quantitative genetics approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Sergio Hleap

    Full Text Available The Glycoside Hydrolase Family 13 (GH13 is both evolutionarily diverse and relevant to many industrial applications. Its members hydrolyze starch into smaller carbohydrates and members of the family have been bioengineered to improve catalytic function under industrial environments. We introduce a framework to analyze the response to selection of GH13 protein structures given some phylogenetic and simulated dynamic information. We find that the TIM-barrel (a conserved protein fold consisting of eight α-helices and eight parallel β-strands that alternate along the peptide backbone, common to all amylases is not selectable since it is under purifying selection. We also show a method to rank important residues with higher inferred response to selection. These residues can be altered to effect change in properties. In this work, we define fitness as inferred thermodynamic stability. We show that under the developed framework, residues 112Y, 122K, 124D, 125W, and 126P are good candidates to increase the stability of the truncated α-amylase protein from Geobacillus thermoleovorans (PDB code: 4E2O; α-1,4-glucan-4-glucanohydrolase; EC 3.2.1.1. Overall, this paper demonstrates the feasibility of a framework for the analysis of protein structures for any other fitness landscape.

  19. Isolation and structural elucidation of secondary metabolites of plants of the families asteraceae and urticaceae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villagra Quesada, E.

    2002-01-01

    A phytochemistry study of plant's species of the Asteraceae and Urticaceae family is proposed in order to isolate and to elucidate the structure of active principles; due to the fact that several studies have found that some of these families have compounds with anti-inflammatory activity, mainly lactonas sesquiterpenicas . The phytochemistry study was carried out through the application of chromatography techniques, for the separation and purification of the compounds. Includes chromatography of column, fine and liquid layer of high resolution. On the other hand, spectroscopic techniques were used for the elucidation, mainly of nuclear magnetic resonance (RMN) as much of one as of two dimensions. In this way, it was possible to isolate 14 compounds in Decachaeta thieleana and 10 in Phenax mexicanus, from which 6 correspond compounds of innovative structure. The comparison of the results obtained in Decachaeta thieleana (with previous studies) evidences that specimens, orphologically identical (the same species, but different locations), possess totally different compounds. This suggests that the studied specimens do not correspond to the same species. However, the determination of such a cause not only evade the objectives of this work but also the area of study of Chemistry [es

  20. Buckwheat trypsin inhibitor with helical hairpin structure belongs to a new family of plant defence peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oparin, Peter B; Mineev, Konstantin S; Dunaevsky, Yakov E; Arseniev, Alexander S; Belozersky, Mikhail A; Grishin, Eugene V; Egorov, Tsezi A; Vassilevski, Alexander A

    2012-08-15

    A new peptide trypsin inhibitor named BWI-2c was obtained from buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) seeds by sequential affinity, ion exchange and reversed-phase chromatography. The peptide was sequenced and found to contain 41 amino acid residues, with four cysteine residues involved in two intramolecular disulfide bonds. Recombinant BWI-2c identical to the natural peptide was produced in Escherichia coli in a form of a cleavable fusion with thioredoxin. The 3D (three-dimensional) structure of the peptide in solution was determined by NMR spectroscopy, revealing two antiparallel α-helices stapled by disulfide bonds. Together with VhTI, a trypsin inhibitor from veronica (Veronica hederifolia), BWI-2c represents a new family of protease inhibitors with an unusual α-helical hairpin fold. The linker sequence between the helices represents the so-called trypsin inhibitory loop responsible for direct binding to the active site of the enzyme that cleaves BWI-2c at the functionally important residue Arg(19). The inhibition constant was determined for BWI-2c against trypsin (1.7×10(-1)0 M), and the peptide was tested on other enzymes, including those from various insect digestive systems, revealing high selectivity to trypsin-like proteases. Structural similarity shared by BWI-2c, VhTI and several other plant defence peptides leads to the acknowledgement of a new widespread family of plant peptides termed α-hairpinins.

  1. Structural brain network analysis in families multiply affected with bipolar I disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forde, Natalie J; O'Donoghue, Stefani; Scanlon, Cathy; Emsell, Louise; Chaddock, Chris; Leemans, Alexander; Jeurissen, Ben; Barker, Gareth J; Cannon, Dara M; Murray, Robin M; McDonald, Colm

    2015-10-30

    Disrupted structural connectivity is associated with psychiatric illnesses including bipolar disorder (BP). Here we use structural brain network analysis to investigate connectivity abnormalities in multiply affected BP type I families, to assess the utility of dysconnectivity as a biomarker and its endophenotypic potential. Magnetic resonance diffusion images for 19 BP type I patients in remission, 21 of their first degree unaffected relatives, and 18 unrelated healthy controls underwent tractography. With the automated anatomical labelling atlas being used to define nodes, a connectivity matrix was generated for each subject. Network metrics were extracted with the Brain Connectivity Toolbox and then analysed for group differences, accounting for potential confounding effects of age, gender and familial association. Whole brain analysis revealed no differences between groups. Analysis of specific mainly frontal regions, previously implicated as potentially endophenotypic by functional magnetic resonance imaging analysis of the same cohort, revealed a significant effect of group in the right medial superior frontal gyrus and left middle frontal gyrus driven by reduced organisation in patients compared with controls. The organisation of whole brain networks of those affected with BP I does not differ from their unaffected relatives or healthy controls. In discreet frontal regions, however, anatomical connectivity is disrupted in patients but not in their unaffected relatives. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The actin family protein ARP6 contributes to the structure and the function of the nucleolus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, Hiroshi; Matsumori, Haruka; Kalendova, Alzbeta; Hozak, Pavel; Goldberg, Ilya G.; Nakao, Mitsuyoshi; Saitoh, Noriko; Harata, Masahiko

    2015-01-01

    The actin family members, consisting of actin and actin-related proteins (ARPs), are essential components of chromatin remodeling complexes. ARP6, one of the nuclear ARPs, is part of the Snf-2-related CREB-binding protein activator protein (SRCAP) chromatin remodeling complex, which promotes the deposition of the histone variant H2A.Z into the chromatin. In this study, we showed that ARP6 influences the structure and the function of the nucleolus. ARP6 is localized in the central region of the nucleolus, and its knockdown induced a morphological change in the nucleolus. We also found that in the presence of high concentrations of glucose ARP6 contributed to the maintenance of active ribosomal DNA (rDNA) transcription by placing H2A.Z into the chromatin. In contrast, under starvation, ARP6 was required for cell survival through the repression of rDNA transcription independently of H2A.Z. These findings reveal novel pleiotropic roles for the actin family in nuclear organization and metabolic homeostasis. - Highlights: • ARP6, an actin related protein, is important for nucleolar function and structure. • A population of ARP6 is localized in the center of nucleolus. • Depletion of ARP6 resulted in aberrant shape of the nucleolus. • ARP6 maintains the active rDNA transcription under high glucose. • ARP6 is required for the repression of rDNA transcription under starvation

  3. The actin family protein ARP6 contributes to the structure and the function of the nucleolus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitamura, Hiroshi [Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Tohoku University, Tsutsumidori-Amamiyamachi 1-1, Aoka-ku, Sendai 981-8555 (Japan); Matsumori, Haruka [Department of Medical Cell Biology, Institute of Molecular Embryology and Genetics, Kumamoto University, 2-2-1 Honjo, Chuo-ku, Kumamoto 860-0811 (Japan); Kalendova, Alzbeta; Hozak, Pavel [Department of Biology of the Cell Nucleus, Institute of Molecular Genetics of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v.v.i., Vídeňská 1083, 142 20 Prague (Czech Republic); Goldberg, Ilya G. [Image Informatics and Computational Biology Unit, Laboratory of Genetics, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, 251 Bayview Boulevard, Suite 100, Baltimore, MD 21224 (United States); Nakao, Mitsuyoshi [Department of Medical Cell Biology, Institute of Molecular Embryology and Genetics, Kumamoto University, 2-2-1 Honjo, Chuo-ku, Kumamoto 860-0811 (Japan); Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology (CREST), Japan Science and Technology Agency, Tokyo 102-0076 (Japan); Saitoh, Noriko [Department of Medical Cell Biology, Institute of Molecular Embryology and Genetics, Kumamoto University, 2-2-1 Honjo, Chuo-ku, Kumamoto 860-0811 (Japan); Harata, Masahiko, E-mail: mharata@biochem.tohoku.ac.jp [Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Tohoku University, Tsutsumidori-Amamiyamachi 1-1, Aoka-ku, Sendai 981-8555 (Japan)

    2015-08-21

    The actin family members, consisting of actin and actin-related proteins (ARPs), are essential components of chromatin remodeling complexes. ARP6, one of the nuclear ARPs, is part of the Snf-2-related CREB-binding protein activator protein (SRCAP) chromatin remodeling complex, which promotes the deposition of the histone variant H2A.Z into the chromatin. In this study, we showed that ARP6 influences the structure and the function of the nucleolus. ARP6 is localized in the central region of the nucleolus, and its knockdown induced a morphological change in the nucleolus. We also found that in the presence of high concentrations of glucose ARP6 contributed to the maintenance of active ribosomal DNA (rDNA) transcription by placing H2A.Z into the chromatin. In contrast, under starvation, ARP6 was required for cell survival through the repression of rDNA transcription independently of H2A.Z. These findings reveal novel pleiotropic roles for the actin family in nuclear organization and metabolic homeostasis. - Highlights: • ARP6, an actin related protein, is important for nucleolar function and structure. • A population of ARP6 is localized in the center of nucleolus. • Depletion of ARP6 resulted in aberrant shape of the nucleolus. • ARP6 maintains the active rDNA transcription under high glucose. • ARP6 is required for the repression of rDNA transcription under starvation.

  4. Structural and Interpersonal Benefits and Risks of Participation in HIV Research: Perspectives of Female Sex Workers in Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, Shira M.; Mindt, Monica Rivera; Jimenez, Teresita Rocha; Brouwer, Kimberly C.; Miranda, Sonia Morales; Fisher., Celia B.

    2016-01-01

    This study explored perceived benefits and risks of participation in HIV research among 33 female sex workers in Tecun Uman, Guatemala. Stigma associated with sex work and HIV was a critical barrier to research participation. Key benefits of participation included access to HIV/STI prevention and testing, as well as positive and trusting relationships between sex workers and research teams. Control exerted by managers had mixed influences on perceived research risks and benefits. Results underscore the critical need for HIV investigators to develop population-tailored procedures to reduce stigma, engage managers, and reinforce trusting, reciprocal relationships between sex work communities and researchers. PMID:27840564

  5. The Association between Adolescent Life Satisfaction, Family Structure, Family Affluence and Gender Differences in Parent-Child Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Kate Ann; Dallago, Lorenza; Currie, Candace

    2012-01-01

    The study sought to examine young people's life satisfaction in the context of the family environment, using data from the 2006 HBSC: WHO-collaborative Study in Scotland (N = 5,126). Multilevel linear regression analyses were carried out for 11-, 13- and 15-year old boys and girls, with outcome measure ridit-transformed life satisfaction. The…

  6. Structure of the first representative of Pfam family PF09410 (DUF2006) reveals a structural signature of the calycin superfamily that suggests a role in lipid metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, Hsiu-Ju; Bakolitsa, Constantina; Skerra, Arne; Lomize, Andrei; Carlton, Dennis; Miller, Mitchell D.; Krishna, S. Sri; Abdubek, Polat; Astakhova, Tamara; Axelrod, Herbert L.; Clayton, Thomas; Deller, Marc C.; Duan, Lian; Feuerhelm, Julie; Grant, Joanna C.; Grzechnik, Slawomir K.; Han, Gye Won; Jaroszewski, Lukasz; Jin, Kevin K.; Klock, Heath E.; Knuth, Mark W.; Kozbial, Piotr; Kumar, Abhinav; Marciano, David; McMullan, Daniel; Morse, Andrew T.; Nigoghossian, Edward; Okach, Linda; Paulsen, Jessica; Reyes, Ron; Rife, Christopher L.; Bedem, Henry van den; Weekes, Dana; Xu, Qingping; Hodgson, Keith O.; Wooley, John; Elsliger, Marc-André; Deacon, Ashley M.; Godzik, Adam; Lesley, Scott A.; Wilson, Ian A.

    2009-01-01

    NE1406, the first structural representative of PF09410, reveals a lipocalin-like fold with features that suggest involvement in lipid metabolism. In addition, NE1406 provides potential structural templates for two other protein families (PF07143 and PF08622). The first structural representative of the domain of unknown function DUF2006 family, also known as Pfam family PF09410, comprises a lipocalin-like fold with domain duplication. The finding of the calycin signature in the N-terminal domain, combined with remote sequence similarity to two other protein families (PF07143 and PF08622) implicated in isoprenoid metabolism and the oxidative stress response, support an involvement in lipid metabolism. Clusters of conserved residues that interact with ligand mimetics suggest that the binding and regulation sites map to the N-terminal domain and to the interdomain interface, respectively

  7. Insights into the structure and function of fungal β-mannosidases from glycoside hydrolase family 2 based on multiple crystal structures of the Trichoderma harzianum enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Alessandro S; Muniz, Joao Renato C; Aparício, Ricardo; Golubev, Alexander M; Polikarpov, Igor

    2014-09-01

    Hemicellulose is an important part of the plant cell wall biomass, and is relevant to cellulosic ethanol technologies. β-Mannosidases are enzymes capable of cleaving nonreducing residues of β-d-mannose from β-d-mannosides and hemicellulose mannose-containing polysaccharides, such as mannans and galactomannans. β-Mannosidases are distributed between glycoside hydrolase (GH) families 1, 2, and 5, and only a handful of the enzymes have been structurally characterized to date. The only published X-ray structure of a GH family 2 mannosidase is that of the bacterial Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron enzyme. No structures of eukaryotic mannosidases of this family are currently available. To fill this gap, we set out to solve the structure of Trichoderma harzianum GH family 2 β-mannosidase and to refine it to 1.9-Å resolution. Structural comparisons of the T. harzianum GH2 β-mannosidase highlight similarities in its structural architecture with other members of GH family 2, reveal the molecular mechanism of β-mannoside binding and recognition, and shed light on its putative galactomannan-binding site. Coordinates and observed structure factor amplitudes have been deposited with the Protein Data Bank (4CVU and 4UOJ). The T. harzianum β-mannosidase 2A nucleotide sequence has GenBank accession number BankIt1712036 GeneMark.hmm KJ624918. © 2014 FEBS.

  8. Beyond Equality of the Sexes: The Question of the Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorber, Judith

    1975-01-01

    This paper raises the question of how we can achieve stable parenting without the traditional structural underpinnings of the family--the sexual division of labor, economic dependence on males of women and children, and the combination of procreation with sex. Alternative arrangements are explored. (Author)

  9. The Structural Basis of Exopolygalacturonase Activity in a Family 28 Glycoside Hydrolase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbott,D.; Boraston, A.

    2007-01-01

    Family 28 glycoside hydrolases (polygalacturonases) are found in organisms across the plant, fungal and bacterial kingdoms, where they are central to diverse biological functions such as fruit ripening, biomass recycling and plant pathogenesis. The structures of several polygalacturonases have been reported; however, all of these enzymes utilize an endo-mode of digestion, which generates a spectrum of oligosaccharide products with varying degrees of polymerization. The structure of a complementary exo-acting polygalacturonase and an accompanying explanation of the molecular determinants for its specialized activity have been noticeably lacking. We present the structure of an exopolygalacturonase from Yersinia enterocolitica, YeGH28 in a native form (solved to 2.19 {angstrom} resolution) and a digalacturonic acid product complex (solved to 2.10 {angstrom} resolution). The activity of YeGH28 is due to inserted stretches of amino acid residues that transform the active site from the open-ended channel observed in the endopolygalacturonases to a closed pocket that restricts the enzyme to the exclusive attack of the non-reducing end of oligogalacturonide substrates. In addition, YeGH28 possesses a fused FN3 domain with unknown function, the first such structure described in pectin active enzymes.

  10. Gene structure, transcripts and calciotropic effects of the PTH family of peptides in Xenopus and chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Power Deborah M

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parathyroid hormone (PTH and PTH-related peptide (PTHrP belong to a family of endocrine factors that share a highly conserved N-terminal region (amino acids 1-34 and play key roles in calcium homeostasis, bone formation and skeletal development. Recently, PTH-like peptide (PTH-L was identified in teleost fish raising questions about the evolution of these proteins. Although PTH and PTHrP have been intensively studied in mammals their function in other vertebrates is poorly documented. Amphibians and birds occupy unique phylogenetic positions, the former at the transition of aquatic to terrestrial life and the latter at the transition to homeothermy. Moreover, both organisms have characteristics indicative of a complex system in calcium regulation. This study investigated PTH family evolution in vertebrates with special emphasis on Xenopus and chicken. Results The PTH-L gene is present throughout the vertebrates with the exception of placental mammals. Gene structure of PTH and PTH-L seems to be conserved in vertebrates while PTHrP gene structure is divergent and has acquired new exons and alternative promoters. Splice variants of PTHrP and PTH-L are common in Xenopus and chicken and transcripts of the former have a widespread tissue distribution, although PTH-L is more restricted. PTH is widely expressed in fish tissue but from Xenopus to mammals becomes largely restricted to the parathyroid gland. The N-terminal (1-34 region of PTH, PTHrP and PTH-L in Xenopus and chicken share high sequence conservation and the capacity to modify calcium fluxes across epithelia suggesting a conserved role in calcium metabolism possibly via similar receptors. Conclusions The parathyroid hormone family contains 3 principal members, PTH, PTHrP and the recently identified PTH-L. In teleosts there are 5 genes which encode PTHrP (2, PTH (2 and PTH-L and in tetrapods there are 3 genes (PTHrP, PTH and PTH-L, the exception is placental mammals which

  11. Crystal structure of glycoside hydrolase family 127 β-L-arabinofuranosidase from Bifidobacterium longum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Tasuku; Saikawa, Kyo [Department of Biotechnology, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Kim, Seonah [National Bioenergy Center, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO (United States); Fujita, Kiyotaka [Faculty of Agriculture, Kagoshima University, Korimoto, Kagoshima (Japan); Ishiwata, Akihiro [Synthetic Cellular Chemistry Laboratory, RIKEN (Japan); Kaeothip, Sophon [ERATO Glycotrilogy Project, JST, Wako, Saitama (Japan); Arakawa, Takatoshi; Wakagi, Takayoshi [Department of Biotechnology, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Beckham, Gregg T., E-mail: Gregg.Beckham@nrel.gov [National Bioenergy Center, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO (United States); Ito, Yukishige [Synthetic Cellular Chemistry Laboratory, RIKEN (Japan); ERATO Glycotrilogy Project, JST, Wako, Saitama (Japan); Fushinobu, Shinya, E-mail: asfushi@mail.ecc.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Biotechnology, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    2014-04-25

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • HypBA1 β-L-arabinofuranosidase belongs to glycoside hydrolase family 127. • Crystal structure of HypBA1 was determined. • HypBA1 consists of a catalytic barrel and two additional β-sandwich domains. • The active site contains a Zn{sup 2+} coordinated by glutamate and three cysteines. • A possible reaction mechanism involving cysteine as the nucleophile is proposed. - Abstract: Enzymes acting on β-linked arabinofuranosides have been unknown until recently, in spite of wide distribution of β-L-arabinofuranosyl oligosaccharides in plant cells. Recently, a β-L-arabinofuranosidase from the glycoside hydrolase family 127 (HypBA1) was discovered in the newly characterized degradation system of hydroxyproline-linked β-L-arabinooligosaccharides in the bacterium Bifidobacterium longum. Here, we report the crystal structure of HypBA1 in the ligand-free and β-L-arabinofuranose complex forms. The structure of HypBA1 consists of a catalytic barrel domain and two additional β-sandwich domains, with one β-sandwich domain involved in the formation of a dimer. Interestingly, there is an unprecedented metal-binding motif with Zn{sup 2+} coordinated by glutamate and three cysteines in the active site. The glutamate residue is located far from the anomeric carbon of the β-L-arabinofuranose ligand, but one cysteine residue is appropriately located for nucleophilic attack for glycosidic bond cleavage. The residues around the active site are highly conserved among GH127 members. Based on biochemical experiments and quantum mechanical calculations, a possible reaction mechanism involving cysteine as the nucleophile is proposed.

  12. Psychological pathway to suicidal ideation among men who have sex with men in Shanghai, China: A structural equation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rui; Cai, Yong; Wang, Ying; Gan, Feng; Shi, Rong

    2016-12-01

    We aimed to explore the relationships and develop an inter-theoretical model among psychological variables in the progression to suicidal ideation among men who have sex with men (MSM). A cross-sectional study was conducted among 547 MSM in four districts in Shanghai from March to May in 2014. Socio-demographic, psychological, and behavioral information of the participants was collected. A structural equation model (SEM)-Path Analysis was constructed to interpret the intricate relationships among various psychological variables. Suicidal ideation among MSM during the past year was 10.6%. The developed model agreed well with existing suicide models and had a good fit to the data (χ 2 /df = 2.497, comparative fit index = 0.983, root mean squared error of approximation = 0.052). Suicidal ideation was predicted by perceived defeat and entrapment (β = 0.21, p perceived social support (β = 0.34, p Perceived social support fully mediated the relationships among mood states, perceived social status, and perceived defeat and entrapment. MSM with certain types of temperament might be predisposed to a higher perception of defeat and entrapment. Perceived social support can effectively alleviate the negative appraisals and emotions and lower the risk for suicidal ideation among MSM. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Sex differences in the interacting roles of impulsivity and positive alcohol expectancy in problem drinking: A structural brain imaging study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime S. Ide

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol expectancy and impulsivity are implicated in alcohol misuse. However, how these two risk factors interact to determine problem drinking and whether men and women differ in these risk processes remain unclear. In 158 social drinkers (86 women assessed for Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT, positive alcohol expectancy, and Barratt impulsivity, we examined sex differences in these risk processes. Further, with structural brain imaging, we examined the neural bases underlying the relationship between these risk factors and problem drinking. The results of general linear modeling showed that alcohol expectancy best predicted problem drinking in women, whereas in men as well as in the combined group alcohol expectancy and impulsivity interacted to best predict problem drinking. Alcohol expectancy was associated with decreased gray matter volume (GMV of the right posterior insula in women and the interaction of alcohol expectancy and impulsivity was associated with decreased GMV of the left thalamus in women and men combined and in men alone, albeit less significantly. These risk factors mediated the correlation between GMV and problem drinking. Conversely, models where GMV resulted from problem drinking were not supported. These new findings reveal distinct psychological factors that dispose men and women to problem drinking. Although mediation analyses did not determine a causal link, GMV reduction in the insula and thalamus may represent neural phenotype of these risk processes rather than the consequence of alcohol consumption in non-dependent social drinkers. The results add to the alcohol imaging literature which has largely focused on dependent individuals and help elucidate alterations in brain structures that may contribute to the transition from social to habitual drinking.

  14. Sex differences in the interacting roles of impulsivity and positive alcohol expectancy in problem drinking: A structural brain imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ide, Jaime S; Zhornitsky, Simon; Hu, Sien; Zhang, Sheng; Krystal, John H; Li, Chiang-Shan R

    2017-01-01

    Alcohol expectancy and impulsivity are implicated in alcohol misuse. However, how these two risk factors interact to determine problem drinking and whether men and women differ in these risk processes remain unclear. In 158 social drinkers (86 women) assessed for Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT), positive alcohol expectancy, and Barratt impulsivity, we examined sex differences in these risk processes. Further, with structural brain imaging, we examined the neural bases underlying the relationship between these risk factors and problem drinking. The results of general linear modeling showed that alcohol expectancy best predicted problem drinking in women, whereas in men as well as in the combined group alcohol expectancy and impulsivity interacted to best predict problem drinking. Alcohol expectancy was associated with decreased gray matter volume (GMV) of the right posterior insula in women and the interaction of alcohol expectancy and impulsivity was associated with decreased GMV of the left thalamus in women and men combined and in men alone, albeit less significantly. These risk factors mediated the correlation between GMV and problem drinking. Conversely, models where GMV resulted from problem drinking were not supported. These new findings reveal distinct psychological factors that dispose men and women to problem drinking. Although mediation analyses did not determine a causal link, GMV reduction in the insula and thalamus may represent neural phenotype of these risk processes rather than the consequence of alcohol consumption in non-dependent social drinkers. The results add to the alcohol imaging literature which has largely focused on dependent individuals and help elucidate alterations in brain structures that may contribute to the transition from social to habitual drinking.

  15. Fathers' Involvement with Their Preschool-Age Children: How Fathers Spend Time with Their Children in Different Family Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halme, Nina; Astedt-Kurki, Paivi; Tarkka, Marja-Terttu

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe how fathers (n = 263) spent time with their preschool-age children and to compare it in different family structures. Data were gathered by structured questionnaires. The instrument included five categories of variables for the time spent: the quantity of time, physical activities, fathers' attitude towards…

  16. Abuse and neglect in adolescents of Jammu, India: The role of gender, family structure, and parental education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charak, R.; Koot, H.M.

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to assess the factor structure of the childhood trauma questionnaire (CTQ; Bernstein & Fink, 1998), and use it to describe the prevalence of abuse and neglect in Indian adolescents, and its associations with gender, family structure (nuclear vs. joint), and level of parental

  17. [Association of family dynamic structure and parental rearing style with male larcenists].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yu; Liu, Xie-he

    2010-11-01

    To explore the association of parental rearing style and family dynamic structure with male larcenists. A questionnaire survey was undertaken in 280 male imprisoned larcenists and 420 healthy controls with a General Information Questionnaire and EMBU (Egna Minnen Beträlffande Uppfostran). Statistically significant differences were found between the two groups in the following items: 'only child in the family', 'not lived with father before age 5', 'father died', 'mother died', 'both parents died', 'parents divorced', 'lived with father only (mother absence) before age 5', 'adult with father alive (mother died)' and 'adult with mother alive (father died)'. The two groups also experienced significant differences in 'emotional warmth', 'severe punishment', 'over-intervention from both parents', 'favored child from mother', 'father rejection' and 'father over-protection'. Men with single father (mother absence) before age 5 and those who have experienced death of any parents, 'emotional warmth', 'severe punishment', 'over-intervention from both parents', 'favored child from mother', 'father rejection' and 'father over-protection' are more likely to commit theft crime.

  18. The actin family protein ARP6 contributes to the structure and the function of the nucleolus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Hiroshi; Matsumori, Haruka; Kalendova, Alzbeta; Hozak, Pavel; Goldberg, Ilya G; Nakao, Mitsuyoshi; Saitoh, Noriko; Harata, Masahiko

    2015-08-21

    The actin family members, consisting of actin and actin-related proteins (ARPs), are essential components of chromatin remodeling complexes. ARP6, one of the nuclear ARPs, is part of the Snf-2-related CREB-binding protein activator protein (SRCAP) chromatin remodeling complex, which promotes the deposition of the histone variant H2A.Z into the chromatin. In this study, we showed that ARP6 influences the structure and the function of the nucleolus. ARP6 is localized in the central region of the nucleolus, and its knockdown induced a morphological change in the nucleolus. We also found that in the presence of high concentrations of glucose ARP6 contributed to the maintenance of active ribosomal DNA (rDNA) transcription by placing H2A.Z into the chromatin. In contrast, under starvation, ARP6 was required for cell survival through the repression of rDNA transcription independently of H2A.Z. These findings reveal novel pleiotropic roles for the actin family in nuclear organization and metabolic homeostasis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Sex education in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frade, A; Vilar, D

    1991-05-01

    The article on sex education in Portugal covers background, the educational system, the clashes of the 1960's over sex education, the Committee for the Study of Sexuality and Education (CSSE), the policies, politics and social movements during the period 1974 - 1984, the discussions in Parliament, the 1988 Reform of the Educational System, the Family Planning Association (FPA) and sex education, and the future role of the FPA. It was not until the institution of the multiparity parliamentary system in 1974 that discussing social and political changes was possible, culminating in 1984 with new legislation on abortion, family planning, and sex education. School reform came in 1987/8 with the Ministry of Education primarily responsible for curricula. The 1960's brought with it the influence of the Catholic Church. Change came in the form of progressivism among Catholics who replaced dogma with dialogue and listening. Sex education was considered as preparation for marriage, but masturbation, contraception, and prostitution were also discussed. In addition, the founder of FPA chaired the CSSE in 1971 and opened up debate on sex issues and drafted a bill to establish co-education in Portuguese schools. The revolution of 1974 brought an end to censorship and brought forth a policy of developing family planning. Changed in the Family Code gave women greater equality. UNFPA supported teacher training in non-sexist education. With human reproduction included in the natural sciences, there was still no school sex education policy and contraception was only sometimes represented in the biology curriculum. The focus of FPA was on contraception and abortion. Finally in the 1980's, the first sex education programs were developed for out-of-school youth. Even though in the 1970's there were leftists groups promoting sex education, it took leftist parliamentary power to get legislation on sex education in the schools adopted. The Ministry of Education however was pressured by the

  20. Tetrahelical structural family adopted by AGCGA-rich regulatory DNA regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocman, Vojč; Plavec, Janez

    2017-05-01

    Here we describe AGCGA-quadruplexes, an unexpected addition to the well-known tetrahelical families, G-quadruplexes and i-motifs, that have been a focus of intense research due to their potential biological impact in G- and C-rich DNA regions, respectively. High-resolution structures determined by solution-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy demonstrate that AGCGA-quadruplexes comprise four 5'-AGCGA-3' tracts and are stabilized by G-A and G-C base pairs forming GAGA- and GCGC-quartets, respectively. Residues in the core of the structure are connected with edge-type loops. Sequences of alternating 5'-AGCGA-3' and 5'-GGG-3' repeats could be expected to form G-quadruplexes, but are shown herein to form AGCGA-quadruplexes instead. Unique structural features of AGCGA-quadruplexes together with lower sensitivity to cation and pH variation imply their potential biological relevance in regulatory regions of genes responsible for basic cellular processes that are related to neurological disorders, cancer and abnormalities in bone and cartilage development.