WorldWideScience

Sample records for sex ethnicity age

  1. Romanticism as a function of age, sex, and ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, Pamela C; Anguiano, Carlos

    2010-12-01

    This study examined the association between romanticism (operationalized as mean score on the Romantic Beliefs Scale) and age, sex, and ethnicity in a large community sample (N = 436). Age was negatively correlated with romanticism scores; as age increased, romanticism scores decreased. No sex differences were found; men and women had similar, moderate scores. Although ethnicity largely was unrelated to romanticism, Asian/Pacific Islander participants were significantly more romantic than were African-American participants.

  2. Cardiovascular risk factors in rural Kenyans are associated with differential age gradients, but not modified by sex or ethnicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Dirk L.; Faurholt-Jepsen, Daniel; Birkegaard, Louise

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between metabolic disease and the non-modifiable risk factors sex, age and ethnicity in Africans is not well-established. This study aimed to describe sex, age and ethnicity differences in blood pressure (BP) and lipid status in rural Kenyans. A cross-sectional study was undertak...... questionnaires. In total, 1139 individuals (61.0% women) participated aged 17-68 years. Age was positively associated with BP and plasma cholesterol levels. Sitting PR was negatively associated with age in women only (sex-interaction p ......The relationship between metabolic disease and the non-modifiable risk factors sex, age and ethnicity in Africans is not well-established. This study aimed to describe sex, age and ethnicity differences in blood pressure (BP) and lipid status in rural Kenyans. A cross-sectional study was undertaken...

  3. Vocational interests in the United States: Sex, age, ethnicity, and year effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Michael L

    2016-10-01

    Vocational interests predict educational and career choices, job performance, and career success (Rounds & Su, 2014). Although sex differences in vocational interests have long been observed (Thorndike, 1911), an appropriate overall measure has been lacking from the literature. Using a cross-sectional sample of United States residents aged 14 to 63 who completed the Strong Interest Inventory assessment between 2005 and 2014 (N = 1,283,110), I examined sex, age, ethnicity, and year effects on work related interest levels using both multivariate and univariate effect size estimates of individual dimensions (Holland's Realistic, Investigative, Artistic, Social, Enterprising, and Conventional). Men scored higher on Realistic (d = -1.14), Investigative (d = -.32), Enterprising (d = -.22), and Conventional (d = -.23), while women scored higher on Artistic (d = .19) and Social (d = .38), mostly replicating previous univariate findings. Multivariate, overall sex differences were very large (disattenuated Mahalanobis' D = 1.61; 27% overlap). Interest levels were slightly lower and overall sex differences larger in younger samples. Overall sex differences have narrowed slightly for 18-22 year-olds in more recent samples. Generally very small ethnicity effects included relatively higher Investigative and Enterprising scores for Asians, Indians, and Middle Easterners, lower Realistic scores for Blacks and Native Americans, higher Realistic, Artistic, and Social scores for Pacific Islanders, and lower Conventional scores for Whites. Using Prediger's (1982) model, women were more interested in people (d = 1.01) and ideas (d = .18), while men were more interested in things and data. These results, consistent with previous reviews showing large sex differences and small year effects, suggest that large sex differences in work related interests will continue to be observed for decades. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Coronary calcium predicts events better with absolute calcium scores than age-sex-race/ethnicity percentiles: MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budoff, Matthew J; Nasir, Khurram; McClelland, Robyn L; Detrano, Robert; Wong, Nathan; Blumenthal, Roger S; Kondos, George; Kronmal, Richard A

    2009-01-27

    In this study, we aimed to establish whether age-sex-specific percentiles of coronary artery calcium (CAC) predict cardiovascular outcomes better than the actual (absolute) CAC score. The presence and extent of CAC correlates with the overall magnitude of coronary atherosclerotic plaque burden and with the development of subsequent coronary events. MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis) is a prospective cohort study of 6,814 asymptomatic participants followed for coronary heart disease (CHD) events including myocardial infarction, angina, resuscitated cardiac arrest, or CHD death. Time to incident CHD was modeled with Cox regression, and we compared models with percentiles based on age, sex, and/or race/ethnicity to categories commonly used (0, 1 to 100, 101 to 400, 400+ Agatston units). There were 163 (2.4%) incident CHD events (median follow-up 3.75 years). Expressing CAC in terms of age- and sex-specific percentiles had significantly lower area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC) than when using absolute scores (women: AUC 0.73 versus 0.76, p = 0.044; men: AUC 0.73 versus 0.77, p better model fit with the overall score. Both methods robustly predicted events (>90th percentile associated with a hazard ratio [HR] of 16.4, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 9.30 to 28.9, and score >400 associated with HR of 20.6, 95% CI: 11.8 to 36.0). Within groups based on age-, sex-, and race/ethnicity-specific percentiles there remains a clear trend of increasing risk across levels of the absolute CAC groups. In contrast, once absolute CAC category is fixed, there is no increasing trend across levels of age-, sex-, and race/ethnicity-specific categories. Patients with low absolute scores are low-risk, regardless of age-, sex-, and race/ethnicity-specific percentile rank. Persons with an absolute CAC score of >400 are high risk, regardless of percentile rank. Using absolute CAC in standard groups performed better than age-, sex-, and race/ethnicity

  5. Diet quality of Americans differs by age, sex, race/ethnicity, income, and education level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiza, Hazel A B; Casavale, Kellie O; Guenther, Patricia M; Davis, Carole A

    2013-02-01

    An index that assesses the multidimensional components of the diet across the lifecycle is useful in describing diet quality. The purpose of this study was to use the Healthy Eating Index-2005, a measure of diet quality in terms of conformance to the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans, to describe the diet quality of Americans by varying sociodemographic characteristics in order to provide insight as to where diets need to improve. The Healthy Eating Index-2005 scores were estimated using 1 day of dietary intake data provided by participants in the 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Mean daily intakes of foods and nutrients, expressed per 1,000 kilocalories, were estimated using the population ratio method and compared with standards that reflect the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Participants included 3,286 children (2 to 17 years), 3,690 young and middle-aged adults (18 to 64 years), and 1,296 older adults (65+ years). Results are reported as percentages of maximum scores and tested for significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) by age, sex, race/ethnicity, income, and education levels. Children and older adults had better-quality diets than younger and middle-aged adults; women had better-quality diets than men; Hispanics had better-quality diets than blacks and whites; and diet quality of adults, but not children, generally improved with income level, except for sodium. The diets of Americans, regardless of socioeconomic status, are far from optimal. Problematic dietary patterns were found among all sociodemographic groups. Major improvements in the nutritional health of the American public can be made by improving eating patterns. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Association of Age, Sex, Body Size and Ethnicity with Electrocardiographic Values in Community-based Older Asian Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Eugene S J; Yap, Jonathan; Xu, Chang Fen; Feng, Liang; Nyunt, Shwe Zin; Santhanakrishnan, Rajalakshmi; Chan, Michelle M Y; Seow, Swee Chong; Ching, Chi Keong; Yeo, Khung Keong; Richards, A Mark; Ng, Tze Pin; Lim, Toon Wei; Lam, Carolyn S P

    2016-07-01

    Existing electrocardiographic (ECG) reference values were derived in middle-aged Caucasian adults. We aimed to assess the association of age, sex, body size and ethnicity on ECG parameters in a multi-ethnic Asian population. Resting 12-lead ECG and anthropometric measurements were performed in a community-based cohort of 3777 older Asians (age 64.7±9.1 years, 1467 men, 88.8% Chinese, 7.7% Malay, 3.5% Indian, body mass index [BMI] 24.0±3.9kg/m(2)). Men had longer PR interval, wider QRS, shorter QTc interval and taller SV3. In both sexes, older age was associated with longer PR interval, wider QRS, larger R aVL and more leftward QRS axis, while higher BMI was associated with longer PR interval, wider QRS, larger RaVL and more negative QRS axis. There were significant inter-ethnic differences in QRS duration among men, as well as in PR and QTc intervals among women (all adjusted p<0.05). Findings were similar in a healthy subset of 1158 adults (age 61.2±9.1 years, 365 men) without cardiovascular risk factors. These first community-based ECG data in multi-ethnic older Asians highlight the independent effects of age, sex, body size and ethnicity on ECG parameters. Copyright © 2016 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Rates of firearm homicide by Chicago region, age, sex, and race/ethnicity, 2005-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Garth Nyambi; McLone, Suzanne; Mason, Maryann; Sheehan, Karen

    2016-10-01

    The United States reports the highest levels of firearm homicide incidences compared to other high income countries, and the focus and causes of these incidences within the US differ by demographic characteristics and location such as urban versus rural environment. Despite these findings, few studies have published on rates varied by region within a city. This study aims to provide descriptive analysis of the rates of firearm homicide by age, sex, and race/ethnicity in each of the seven City of Chicago regions, and to determine if the rates of firearm homicide differ by demographics among the seven City of Chicago regions. The Illinois Violent Death Reporting System conducts routine surveillance of violent deaths. Decedents were selected according to the following criteria: manner of death was homicide, weapon type was firearm, and location of injury that led to death was the City of Chicago. Location of injury was broken down by regions: North, Northwest, Center, West, South, Southwest, and Far South. Multiyear rates per 100,000 and corresponding 95% confidence intervals were calculated. There were 2,254 victims of homicide by firearm in the City of Chicago. The overall rate across Chicago for all demographics was 12.9 (12.1-13.5 per 100,000) with an average age of 27.4. The highest age group (20-24) for firearm homicide rates was 43.2 (39.7-46.7) per 100,000. For the youngest age group (10-14), only the Southwest (3.3-10.4) region reported any firearm incidence. The 20 to 24 age group reported the highest rates of all age groups within the South (107.9-151.7), West (80.3-108.2), and Far South (69.6-105.3) regions, whereas the North and Northwest reported the lowest rates for all regions by age. Black firearm homicide rates were 33.5 (31.9-35.1) per 100,000 versus Hispanic and non-Hispanic white firearm homicide rates of 8.5 (7.7-9.3) and 1.2 (1-1.5) per 100,000, respectively. Lastly, the West reported the highest firearm rates at 29.1 (657). In conclusion

  8. Age, Sex, and Ethnic Variations in Inner and Outer Retinal and Choroidal Thickness on Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bafiq, Rinoza; Mathew, Raeba; Pearce, Elizabeth; Abdel-Hey, Ahmed; Richardson, Matthew; Bailey, Thomas; Sivaprasad, Sobha

    2015-11-01

    To evaluate age, sex, and ethnic variations in inner and outer retinal and choroidal thickness and foveal pit, using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD OCT). Single-center observational cross-sectional study. Ninety randomly selected, healthy individuals of white, black, and South Asian origin underwent SD OCT raster and enhanced depth imaging scan. Manual measurements of inner and outer retinal thickness and choroidal thickness up to 3 mm nasal and temporal to the fovea were performed. The age, sex, and ethnic differences in these parameters were analyzed. The mean inner retinal thickness was lower by approximately 12 μm in black subjects across the central retina compared to white subjects (P ethnic groups but the temporal choroid was significantly thinner in black subjects (P < .05). The choroid showed an age-related decline in thickness of 2 μm per year of age of the subjects. Interethnic differences include wider fovea, lower central foveal thickness, and thinner inner retina in eyes of black subjects compared to their white and South Asian counterparts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The association between BMI and health-related quality of life in the US population: sex, age and ethnicity matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laxy, M; Teuner, C; Holle, R; Kurz, C

    2018-03-01

    Obesity is a major public health problem. Detailed knowledge about the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and health-related quality of life (HRQL) is important for deriving effective and cost-effective prevention and weight management strategies. This study aims to describe the sex-, age- and ethnicity-specific association between BMI and HRQL in the US adult population. Analyses are based on pooled cross-sectional data from 41 459 participants of the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) Household Component (HC) for the years 2000-2003. BMI was calculated using self-reported height and weight, and HRQL was assessed with the EuroQol five-dimensional questionnaire. Generalized additive models were fitted with a smooth function for BMI and a smooth-factor interaction for BMI with sex adjusted for age, ethnicity, poverty, smoking and physical activity. Models were further stratified by age and ethnicity. The association between BMI and HRQL is inverse U-shaped with a HRQL high point at a BMI of 22 kg m -2 in women and a HRQL high plateau at BMI values of 22-30 kg m -2 in men. Men aged 50 years and older with a BMI of 29 kg m -2 reported on average five-point higher visual analog scale (VAS) scores than peers with a BMI of 20 kg m -2 . The inverse U-shaped association is more pronounced in older people, and the BMI-HRQL relationship differs between ethnicities. In Hispanics, the BMI associated with the highest HRQL is higher than in white people and, in black women, the BMI-HRQL association has an almost linear negative slope. The results show that a more differentiated use of BMI cutoffs in scientific discussions and daily practice is indicated. The findings should be considered in the design of future weight loss and weight management programs.

  10. Trends in colorectal cancer incidence among younger adults-Disparities by age, sex, race, ethnicity, and subsite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosbie, Amanda B; Roche, Lisa M; Johnson, Linda M; Pawlish, Karen S; Paddock, Lisa E; Stroup, Antoinette M

    2018-06-22

    Millennials (ages 18-35) are now the largest living generation in the US, making it important to understand and characterize the rising trend of colorectal cancer incidence in this population, as well as other younger generations of Americans. Data from the New Jersey State Cancer Registry (n = 181 909) and Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program (n = 448 714) were used to analyze invasive CRC incidence trends from 1979 to 2014. Age, sex, race, ethnicity, subsite, and stage differences between younger adults (20-49) and screening age adults (≥50) in New Jersey (NJ) were examined using chi-square; and, we compared secular trends in NJ to the United States (US). Whites, men, and the youngest adults (ages 20-39) are experiencing greater APCs in rectal cancer incidence. Rates among younger black adults, overall, were consistently higher in both NJ and the US over time. When compared to older adults, younger adults with CRC in NJ were more likely to be: diagnosed at the late stage, diagnosed with rectal cancer, male, non-white, and Hispanic. Invasive CRC incidence trends among younger adults were found to vary by age, sex, race, ethnicity, and subsite. Large, case-level, studies are needed to understand the role of genetics, human papillomavirus (HPV), and cultural and behavioral factors in the rise of CRC among younger adults. Provider and public education about CRC risk factors will also be important for preventing and reversing the increasing CRC trend in younger adults. © 2018 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Self-Concept: A Comparison of Low Socioeconomic, Low Achieving Secondary Students Across Ethnic, Sex and Age Variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grobe, Robert P.; And Others

    The self esteem of Anglo, Negro, and Mexican American secondary students was measured using the Self-Esteem Scale (SES). This instrument was administered to 144 students with equal representation from sex, ethnicity, and grade levels (i.e., each of 18 cells contained 8 students). A three-factor analysis of variance revealed a significant main…

  12. Sex, Age, and Race/Ethnicity Do Not Modify the Effectiveness of a Diet Intervention among Family Members of Hospitalized Cardiovascular Disease Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochari-Greenberger, Heidi; Terry, Mary Beth; Mosca, Lori

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether effectiveness of a diet intervention for family members of cardiovascular disease patients varies by participant sex, race/ethnicity, or age because these characteristics have been associated with unique barriers to diet change. Design: Randomized controlled trial. Setting and Participants: University medical…

  13. Modelled seasonal influenza mortality shows marked differences in risk by age, sex, ethnicity and socioeconomic position in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khieu, Trang Q T; Pierse, Nevil; Telfar-Barnard, Lucy Frances; Zhang, Jane; Huang, Q Sue; Baker, Michael G

    2017-09-01

    Influenza is responsible for a large number of deaths which can only be estimated using modelling methods. Such methods have rarely been applied to describe the major socio-demographic characteristics of this disease burden. We used quasi Poisson regression models with weekly counts of deaths and isolates of influenza A, B and respiratory syncytial virus for the period 1994 to 2008. The estimated average mortality rate was 13.5 per 100,000 people which was 1.8% of all deaths in New Zealand. Influenza mortality differed markedly by age, sex, ethnicity and socioeconomic position. Relatively vulnerable groups were males aged 65-79 years (Rate ratio (RR) = 1.9, 95% CI: 1.9, 1.9 compared with females), Māori (RR = 3.6, 95% CI: 3.6, 3.7 compared with European/Others aged 65-79 years), Pacific (RR = 2.4, 95% CI: 2.4, 2.4 compared with European/Others aged 65-79 years) and those living in the most deprived areas (RR = 1.8, 95% CI: 1.3, 2.4) for New Zealand Deprivation (NZDep) 9&10 (the most deprived) compared with NZDep 1&2 (the least deprived). These results support targeting influenza vaccination and other interventions to the most vulnerable groups, in particular Māori and Pacific people and men aged 65-79 years and those living in the most deprived areas. Copyright © 2017 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The association between sexual orientation identity and behavior across race/ethnicity, sex, and age in a probability sample of high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustanski, Brian; Birkett, Michelle; Greene, George J; Rosario, Margaret; Bostwick, Wendy; Everett, Bethany G

    2014-02-01

    We examined the prevalence and associations between behavioral and identity dimensions of sexual orientation among adolescents in the United States, with consideration of differences associated with race/ethnicity, sex, and age. We used pooled data from 2005 and 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Surveys to estimate prevalence of sexual orientation variables within demographic sub-groups. We used multilevel logistic regression models to test differences in the association between sexual orientation identity and sexual behavior across groups. There was substantial incongruence between behavioral and identity dimensions of sexual orientation, which varied across sex and race/ethnicity. Whereas girls were more likely to identify as bisexual, boys showed a stronger association between same-sex behavior and a bisexual identity. The pattern of association of age with sexual orientation differed between boys and girls. Our results highlight demographic differences between 2 sexual orientation dimensions, and their congruence, among 13- to 18-year-old adolescents. Future research is needed to better understand the implications of such differences, particularly in the realm of health and health disparities.

  15. The Association Between Sexual Orientation Identity and Behavior Across Race/Ethnicity, Sex, and Age in a Probability Sample of High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustanski, Brian; Birkett, Michelle; Greene, George J.; Rosario, Margaret; Bostwick, Wendy; Everett, Bethany G.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the prevalence and associations between behavioral and identity dimensions of sexual orientation among adolescents in the United States, with consideration of differences associated with race/ethnicity, sex, and age. Methods. We used pooled data from 2005 and 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Surveys to estimate prevalence of sexual orientation variables within demographic sub-groups. We used multilevel logistic regression models to test differences in the association between sexual orientation identity and sexual behavior across groups. Results. There was substantial incongruence between behavioral and identity dimensions of sexual orientation, which varied across sex and race/ethnicity. Whereas girls were more likely to identify as bisexual, boys showed a stronger association between same-sex behavior and a bisexual identity. The pattern of association of age with sexual orientation differed between boys and girls. Conclusions. Our results highlight demographic differences between 2 sexual orientation dimensions, and their congruence, among 13- to 18-year-old adolescents. Future research is needed to better understand the implications of such differences, particularly in the realm of health and health disparities. PMID:24328662

  16. Increasing socioeconomic gap between the young and old: temporal trends in health and overall deprivation in England by age, sex, urbanity and ethnicity, 2004-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontopantelis, Evangelos; Mamas, Mamas A; van Marwijk, Harm; Buchan, Iain; Ryan, Andrew M; Doran, Tim

    2018-07-01

    At a low geographical level, little is known about the associations between population characteristics and deprivation, and their trends, which would be directly affected by the house market, labour pressures and government policies. We describe temporal trends in health and overall deprivation in England by age, sex, urbanity and ethnicity. Repeated cross-sectional whole population study for England, 2004-2015, at a low geographical level (average 1500 residents). We calculated weighted medians of the Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD) for each subgroup of interest. Over time, we observed increases in relative deprivation for people aged under 30, and aged 30-59, while median deprivation decreased for those aged 60 or over. Subgroup analyses indicated that relative overall deprivation was consistently higher for young adults (aged 20-29) and infants (aged 0-4), with increases in deprivation for the latter. Levels of overall deprivation in 2004 greatly varied by ethnicity, with the lowest levels observed for White British and the highest for Blacks. Over time, small reductions were observed in the deprivation gap between White British and all other ethnic groups. Findings were consistent across overall IMD and its health and disability subdomain, but large regional variability was also observed. Government policies, the financial crisis of 2008, education funding and the increasing cost of houses relative to real wages are important parameters in interpreting our findings. Socioeconomic deprivation is an important determinant of health and the inequalities this work highlights may have significant implications for future fiscal and healthcare policy. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  17. Analysis of complex patterns of human exposure and immunity to Schistosomiasis mansoni: the influence of age, sex, ethnicity and IgE.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Pinot de Moira

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Numerous factors may influence Schistosoma infection intensity and prevalence within endemic communities, including exposure-related factors such as local environment and behaviour, and factors relating to susceptibility to infection such as immunology and genetics. While animal studies performed in the laboratory can be tightly controlled, human populations are highly heterogeneous, varying according to demographic characteristics, genetic background and exposure to infection. The heterogeneous nature of human water contact behaviour in particular makes it difficult to distinguish between a lack of cercarial exposure and reduced susceptibility to infection as the cause for low levels of infection in the field.In this study we investigate risk factors for Schistosoma mansoni infection in a rural Ugandan fishing community receiving treatment as part of a multi-disciplinary longitudinal reinfection study. More specifically, we examine the influence that age, sex and ethnic background have on susceptibility to reinfection after anti-helminth drug treatment, but use individual estimates of cercarial exposure and multivariable methods in an attempt to remove noise created by environmental and behavioural heterogeneities. We then investigate whether schistosome-specific IgE immune responses could account for any remaining variations in susceptibility to reinfection. Our findings suggest that observed ethnic- and sex-related variations in S. mansoni reinfection were due to variations in cercarial exposure, as opposed to biological differences in susceptibility to infection. Age-related differences in reinfection were not explained by exposure, however, and appeared linked to the balance of IgE and IgG(4 to the tegumental antigen SmTAL1 (formerly Sm22.6, which itself was significantly related to resistance to reinfection.This study highlights the benefit of taking a multidisciplinary approach in complex field settings; it allows the ecology of a

  18. Trends in oral anti-osteoporosis drug prescription in the United Kingdom between 1990 and 2012: Variation by age, sex, geographic location and ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Velde, R Y; Wyers, C E; Teesselink, E; Geusens, P P M M; van den Bergh, J P W; de Vries, F; Cooper, C; Harvey, N C; van Staa, T P

    2017-01-01

    Given the expected increase in the number of patients with osteoporosis and fragility fractures it is important to have concise information on trends in prescription rates of anti-osteoporosis drugs (AOD). We undertook a retrospective observational study using the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) in the UK between 1990 and 2012 in subjects 50years or older, stratified by age, sex, geographic region and ethnicity. Yearly prescription incidence rates of any AOD and of each specific AOD were calculated as the number of patients first prescribed these AODs per 10,000person-years (py). In women, yearly rates of first prescription of any AOD increased from 1990 to 2006 (from 2.3 to 169.7 per 10,000py), followed by a plateau and a 12% decrease in the last three years. In men, a less steep increase from 1990 to 2007 (from 1.4 to 45.3 per 10,000py) was followed by a plateau from 2008 onwards. Yearly rates of first prescription of any AOD increased up to the age of 85-89years (248.9 per 10,000py in women and 119.3 in men). There were marked differences between ethnic groups and regions. Bisphosphonates were the most frequently prescribed AODs: etidronate till 2000, and then subsequently alendronate. We have demonstrated marked secular changes in rates of anti-osteoporosis drug prescription over the last two decades. The plateau (and decrease amongst women) in rates in recent years, set against an ever ageing population, is worrying, suggesting that the well-documented care gap in osteoporosis treatment persists. The differences in prescription rates by geographic location and ethnicity raise intriguing questions in relation to underlying fracture rates, provision of care and health behaviour. We studied the prescription incidence of anti-osteoporosis drugs (AOD) from 1990 to 2012 in the UK CPRD. Overall AOD prescription incidence showed a strong increase from 1990 to 2006, followed by a plateau in both sexes and a decrease amongst women in the last three years

  19. Sex differences in mortality by ethnic background

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oksuzyan, Anna; Drefahl, Sven; Jacobsen, Rune

    migrant effect and predominantly male migration from non-Western countries to Denmark and Sweden in 1960-70s, as well as high fertility in their female spouses, we expect to find even smaller sex differential mortality among migrants than in the ethnic Danish and Swedish populations. We use high...

  20. Suicide Trends Among and Within Urbanization Levels by Sex, Race/Ethnicity, Age Group, and Mechanism of Death - United States, 2001-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivey-Stephenson, Asha Z; Crosby, Alex E; Jack, Shane P D; Haileyesus, Tadesse; Kresnow-Sedacca, Marcie-Jo

    2017-10-06

    of suicide by firearms and hanging/suffocation occurred across all urbanization levels; rates of suicide by firearms in nonmetropolitan/rural counties were almost two times that of rates in larger metropolitan counties. Suicide rates in nonmetropolitan/rural counties are consistently higher than suicide rates in metropolitan counties. These trends also are observed by sex, race/ethnicity, age group, and mechanism of death. Interventions to prevent suicides should be ongoing, particularly in rural areas. Comprehensive suicide prevention efforts might include leveraging protective factors and providing innovative prevention strategies that increase access to health care and mental health care in rural communities. In addition, distribution of socioeconomic factors varies in different communities and needs to be better understood in the context of suicide prevention.

  1. Cancer Rates by Race/Ethnicity and Sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Skin Uterine Cancer Rates by Race/Ethnicity and Sex Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... and ethnicity. Incidence Rates by Race/Ethnicity and Sex “Incidence rate” means how many people out of ...

  2. A screening program to test and treat for Helicobacter pylori infection: Cost-utility analysis by age, sex and ethnicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea M. Teng

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The World Health Organization recommends all countries consider screening for H. pylori to prevent gastric cancer. We therefore aimed to estimate the cost-effectiveness of a H. pylori serology-based screening program in New Zealand, a country that includes population groups with relatively high gastric cancer rates. Methods A Markov model was developed using life-tables and morbidity data from a national burden of disease study. The modelled screening program reduced the incidence of non-cardia gastric cancer attributable to H. pylori, if infection was identified by serology screening, and for the population expected to be reached by the screening program. A health system perspective was taken and detailed individual-level costing data was used. Results For adults aged 25–69 years old, nation-wide screening for H. pylori was found to have an incremental cost of US$196 million (95% uncertainty interval [95% UI]: $182–$211 million with health gains of 14,200 QALYs (95% UI: 5,100–26,300. Cost per QALY gained was US$16,500 ($7,600–$38,400 in the total population and 17% (6%-29% of future gastric cancer cases could be averted with lifetime follow-up. A targeted screening program for Māori only (indigenous population, was more cost-effective at US$8,000 ($3,800–$18,500 per QALY. Conclusions This modeling study found that H. pylori screening was likely to be cost-effective in this high-income country, particularly for the indigenous population. While further research is needed to help clarify the precise benefits, costs and adverse effects of such screening programs, there seems a reasonable case for policy-makers to give pilot programs consideration, particularly for any population groups with relatively elevated rates of gastric cancer.

  3. Perceived risk of regular cannabis use in the United States from 2002 to 2012: differences by sex, age, and race/ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacek, Lauren R; Mauro, Pia M; Martins, Silvia S

    2015-04-01

    Cannabis is one of the most widely used psychoactive substances in the United States (U.S.). Perceived risk of use is associated with substance use; the recent debate surrounding medicalization and legalization of cannabis in the U.S. has the potential to impact perceived risk of use. Recent estimates are needed to assess temporal changes in, and identify correlates of, perceived risk of cannabis use. Utilizing data from the 2002-2012 survey years of the National Survey on Drug Use and Health, chi-squared statistics and logistic regression were used to describe temporal changes in perceived risk of regular cannabis use (i.e., once or twice a week), to explore correlates of perceived risk, and to report frequency of cannabis use. Between 2002 and 2012, perceived great risk of regular cannabis use varied significantly overall (p race/ethnicity; age 50+; and family income of $20,000-49,999. Characteristics associated with decreased odds of perceived great risk included: ages 12-17 and 18-25; high school education or greater; total family income of $75,000+; past year non-daily and daily cannabis use; and survey years 2008-2012. Findings characterize trends of perceived risk of regular cannabis use, and past year non-daily and daily cannabis use. Longitudinal studies of the influence of legal status of cannabis at the state-level are needed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Population Reference Values for Serum Methylmalonic Acid Concentrations and Its Relationship with Age, Sex, Race-Ethnicity, Supplement Use, Kidney Function and Serum Vitamin B12 in the Post-Folic Acid Fortification Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Ganji

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Serum methylmalonic acid (MMA is elevated in vitamin B-12 deficiency and in kidney dysfunction. Population reference values for serum MMA concentrations in post-folic acid fortification period are lacking. Aims of this study were to report the population reference values for serum MMA and to evaluate the relation between serum MMA and sex, age, race-ethnicity, kidney dysfunction and vitamin B-12. We used data from three National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, 1999–2000, 2001–2002 and 2003–2004 conducted after folic acid fortification commenced (n = 18,569. Geometric mean MMA was ≈22.3% higher in non-Hispanic white compared to non-Hispanic black (141.2 vs. 115.5 nmol/L and was ≈62.7% higher in >70 years old persons compared to 21–30 years old persons (196.9 vs. 121.0 nmol/L. Median serum MMA was ≈28.5% higher in the 1st the quartile of serum vitamin B-12 than in the 4th quartile of serum vitamin B-12 and was ≈35.8% higher in the 4th quartile of serum creatinine than in the 1st quartile of serum creatinine. Multivariate-adjusted serum MMA concentration was significantly associated with race-ethnicity (p < 0.001 and age (p < 0.001 but not with sex (p = 0.057. In this large US population based study, serum MMA concentrations presented here reflect the post-folic acid fortification scenario. Serum MMA concentrations begin to rise at the age of 18–20 years and continue to rise afterwards. Age-related increase in serum MMA concentration is likely to be due to a concomitant decline in kidney function and vitamin B-12 status.

  5. Vaginal and Oral Sex Initiation Timing: A Focus on Gender and Race/Ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holway, Giuseppina Valle

    2015-07-01

    Most previous studies on sexual initiation timing have examined its effects on a variety of subsequent outcomes without first examining the correlates and predictors of these timing categories. Studies that do exist often do not utilize samples through young adulthood, leading to a misclassified set of sexual timing categories. In addition, the literature does not adequately address the issues of oral sex timing. Therefore, the objectives of this study were 1) to explore age-cutoffs that mark the "normative" and "non-normative" entry into vaginal and oral sex among young women and men in the U.S., creating sexual four sexual initiation timing categories - "early," "normative," "late," and "inexperienced," and; 2) to examine the association between race/ethnicity and sexual initiation timing by gender. The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health) was used in both descriptive and multivariate contexts to determine the net association of gender and race/ethnicity with vaginal and oral sex initiation timing. Age-cutoffs for vaginal sex timing were similar for women and men, yet differed by gender for oral sex timing. Women were more likely than men to initiate vaginal sex (20% vs. 18%) and oral sex (19% vs. 16%) at an early age and less likely than men to initiate these behaviors at a late age (18% vs. 19% for vaginal sex, and 15% vs. 16% for oral sex). Although most respondents initiated these two behaviors by young adulthood, a considerable proportion remained inexperienced, with men more likely than women to report inexperience with vaginal sex (7% vs. 5%), and women more likely than men to report abstaining from oral sex (8% vs. 6%). Race/ethnic differences in sexual initiation timing remained robust in the face of controls for both women and men. Understanding the timing at which adolescents and young adults transition to first vaginal and first oral sex is critical for sex education curriculum and policy makers.

  6. "Cognitive, emotion control, and motor performance of adolescents in the NCANDA study: Contributions from alcohol consumption, age, sex, ethnicity, and family history of addiction": Correction to Sullivan et al. (2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Reports an error in "Cognitive, emotion control, and motor performance of adolescents in the NCANDA study: Contributions from alcohol consumption, age, sex, ethnicity, and family history of addiction" by Edith V. Sullivan, Ty Brumback, Susan F. Tapert, Rosemary Fama, Devin Prouty, Sandra A. Brown, Kevin Cummins, Wesley K. Thompson, Ian M. Colrain, Fiona C. Baker, Michael D. De Bellis, Stephen R. Hooper, Duncan B. Clark, Tammy Chung, Bonnie J. Nagel, B. Nolan Nichols, Torsten Rohlfing, Weiwei Chu, Kilian M. Pohl and Adolf Pfefferbaum ( Neuropsychology , 2016[May], Vol 30[4], 449-473). A problem with a computation to invert speed scores is noted and explained in this correction. All statements indicating group differences in speed scores, as well as Table 5 and Figure 8A, have been corrected in the online version of this article. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2016-00613-001.) To investigate development of cognitive and motor functions in healthy adolescents and to explore whether hazardous drinking affects the normal developmental course of those functions. Participants were 831 adolescents recruited across 5 United States sites of the National Consortium on Alcohol and NeuroDevelopment in Adolescence 692 met criteria for no/low alcohol exposure, and 139 exceeded drinking thresholds. Cross-sectional, baseline data were collected with computerized and traditional neuropsychological tests assessing 8 functional domains expressed as composite scores. General additive modeling evaluated factors potentially modulating performance (age, sex, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and pubertal developmental stage). Older no/low-drinking participants achieved better scores than younger ones on 5 accuracy composites (general ability, abstraction, attention, emotion, and balance). Speeded responses for attention, motor speed, and general ability were sensitive to age and pubertal development. The exceeds-threshold group (accounting for age, sex

  7. Predictors of unprotected sex among young sexually active African American, Hispanic, and White MSM: the importance of ethnicity and culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Jacob C; Fernández, M Isabel; Harper, Gary W; Hidalgo, Marco A; Jamil, Omar B; Torres, Rodrigo Sebastián

    2008-05-01

    Despite the recognized need for culturally tailored HIV prevention interventions for gay, bisexual, and questioning youth, few studies have examined if predictors of unprotected sex vary for youth from different ethnic groups. This study reports on a sample of 189 gay, bisexual, and questioning youth (age 15-22) from three racial/ethnic backgrounds (African American, Hispanic, and White) recruited in Chicago, IL and Miami-Dade and Broward Counties, Florida. For African American youth, being in a long-term relationship, having been kicked out of the home for having sex with men, and younger age at initiation of sexual behavior were associated with unprotected sex. For Hispanic youth, higher ethnic identification and older age at initiation of sexual behavior were associated with unprotected sex. For White youth, no predictors were associated with unprotected sex. Our findings point to the importance of understanding the varying predictors of unprotected sex and integrating them into tailored prevention interventions.

  8. Pay Equity: An Issue of Race, Ethnicity, and Sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Committee on Pay Equity, Washington, DC.

    While the continuing wage gap between men and women, Whites and non-Whites has been well documented, the purpose of this study was to examine the role which discrimination on the basis of race/ethnicity as well as sex plays in the setting of wages. Whether pay equity is an effective means of remedying race-based wage discrimination was also…

  9. Sex-, Ethnic-, and Age-Specific Centile Curves for pQCT- and HR-pQCT-Derived Measures of Bone Structure and Strength in Adolescents and Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabel, Leigh; Macdonald, Heather M; Nettlefold, Lindsay A; McKay, Heather A

    2018-02-02

    There are presently no adolescent centile curves for bone parameters at the tibial midshaft using peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) or at the distal radius and tibia using high-resolution pQCT (HR-pQCT). Thus, we aimed to develop sex-, ethnic-, site-, and age-specific centile curves for pQCT and HR-pQCT-derived bone outcomes for youth and young adults aged 10 to 21 years. We acquired pQCT scans (XCT3000 or XCT2000) at the tibial midshaft (50% site) and HR-pQCT scans (XtremeCT) at the distal radius (7% site) and tibia (8% site) in a convenience sample of participants in the mixed-longitudinal University of British Columbia Healthy Bones III Study. We scanned 778 10- to 21-year-olds annually for a maximum of 11 years using pQCT (413 girls, 56% Asian; 365 boys, 54% Asian; n = 3160 observations) and 349 10- to 21-year-olds annually for a maximum of 4 years using HR-pQCT (189 girls, 51% Asian; 165 boys, 50% Asian; n = 1090 observations). For pQCT, we report cortical bone mineral density (BMD), total bone cross-sectional area, and polar strength-strain index. For HR-pQCT, we report standard measures (total BMD, trabecular number, thickness, and bone volume fraction) and automated segmentation measures (total bone cross-sectional area, cortical BMD, porosity, and thickness). We applied finite element analysis to estimate failure load. We applied the lamda, mu, sigma (LMS) method using LMS ChartMaker Light (version 2.5, The Institute of Child Health, London, UK) to construct LMS tables and centile plots. We report sex- and age-specific centiles (3rd, 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, and 97th) for whites and Asians for pQCT bone parameters at the tibial midshaft and HR-pQCT bone parameters at the distal radius and tibia. These centile curves might be used by clinicians and scientists to interpret values or better understand trajectories of bone parameters in clinical populations, those from different geographic regions or of different ethnic origins. © 2018

  10. Effects of prior testing lasting a full year in NCANDA adolescents: Contributions from age, sex, socioeconomic status, ethnicity, site, family history of alcohol or drug abuse, and baseline performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edith V. Sullivan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Longitudinal study provides a robust method for tracking developmental trajectories. Yet inherent problems of retesting pose challenges in distinguishing biological developmental change from prior testing experience. We examined factors potentially influencing change scores on 16 neuropsychological test composites over 1 year in 568 adolescents in the National Consortium on Alcohol and NeuroDevelopment in Adolescence (NCANDA project. The twice-minus-once-tested method revealed that performance gain was mainly attributable to testing experience (practice with little contribution from predicted developmental effects. Group mean practice slopes for 13 composites indicated that 60% to ∼100% variance was attributable to test experience; General Ability accuracy showed the least practice effect (29%. Lower baseline performance, especially in younger participants, was a strong predictor of greater gain. Contributions from age, sex, ethnicity, examination site, socioeconomic status, or family history of alcohol/substance abuse were nil to small, even where statistically significant. Recognizing that a substantial proportion of change in longitudinal testing, even over 1-year, is attributable to testing experience indicates caution against assuming that performance gain observed during periods of maturation necessarily reflects development. Estimates of testing experience, a form of learning, may be a relevant metric for detecting interim influences, such as alcohol use or traumatic episodes, on behavior.

  11. Sex disparities in acute myocardial infarction incidence: do ethnic minority groups differ from the majority population?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oeffelen, Aloysia A M; Vaartjes, Ilonca; Stronks, Karien; Bots, Michiel L; Agyemang, Charles

    2015-02-01

    The incidence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in men exceeds that in women. The extent of this sex disparity varies widely between countries. Variations may also exist between ethnic minority groups and the majority population, but scientific evidence is lacking. A nationwide register-based cohort study was conducted (n = 7,601,785) between 1997 and 2007. Cox Proportional Hazard Models were used to estimate sex disparities in AMI incidence within the Dutch majority population and within ethnic minority groups, stratified by age (30-54, 55-64, ≥65 years). AMI incidence was higher in men than in women in all groups under study. Compared with the majority population (hazard ratio (HR): 2.23; 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 2.21-2.25), sex disparities were similar among minorities originating from the immediate surrounding countries (Belgium, Germany), whereas they were greater in most other minority groups. Most pronounced results were found among minorities from Morocco (HR: 3.48; 95% CI: 2.48-4.88), South Asia (HR: 3.92; 95% CI: 2.45-6.26) and Turkey (HR: 3.98; 95% CI: 3.51-4.51). Sex disparity differences were predominantly evident in those below 55 years of age, and were mainly provoked by a higher AMI incidence in ethnic minority men compared with men belonging to the Dutch majority population. Sex disparities in AMI incidence clearly varied between ethnic minorities and the Dutch majority population. Health prevention strategies may first target at a reduction of AMI incidence in young ethnic minority men, especially those originating from Turkey and South Asia. Furthermore, an increase in AMI incidence in their female counterparts should be prevented. © The European Society of Cardiology 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  12. Racial and/or Ethnic Differences in Formal Sex Education and Sex Education by Parents among Young Women in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderberg, Rachel H; Farkas, Amy H; Miller, Elizabeth; Sucato, Gina S; Akers, Aletha Y; Borrero, Sonya B

    2016-02-01

    We sought to investigate the associations between race and/or ethnicity and young women's formal sex education and sex education by parents. Cross-sectional analysis of a nationally representative sample of 1768 women aged 15-24 years who participated in the 2011-2013 National Survey of Family Growth. We assessed 6 main outcomes: participants' report of: (1) any formal sex education; (2) formal contraceptive education; (3) formal sexually transmitted infection (STI) education; (4) any sex education by parents; (5) contraceptive education by parents; and (6) STI education by parents. The primary independent variable was self-reported race and/or ethnicity. Nearly all of participants (95%) reported any formal sex education, 68% reported formal contraceptive education, and 92% reported formal STI education. Seventy-five percent of participants reported not having any sex education by parents and only 61% and 56% reported contraceptive and STI education by parents, respectively. US-born Hispanic women were more likely than white women to report STI education by parents (adjusted odds ratio = 1.87; 95% confidence interval, 1.17-2.99). No other significant racial and/or ethnic differences in sex education were found. There are few racial and/or ethnic differences in formal sex education and sex education by parents among young women. Copyright © 2016 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. All rights reserved.

  13. 12 CFR Appendix B to Part 203 - Form and Instructions for Data Collection on Ethnicity, Race, and Sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Ethnicity, Race, and Sex B Appendix B to Part 203 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF... to Part 203—Form and Instructions for Data Collection on Ethnicity, Race, and Sex I. Instructions on Collection of Data on Ethnicity, Race, and Sex You may list questions regarding the ethnicity, race, and sex...

  14. Aging in Multi-ethnic Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tey, Nai Peng; Siraj, Saedah Binti; Kamaruzzaman, Shahrul Bahyah Binti; Chin, Ai Vyrn; Tan, Maw Pin; Sinnappan, Glaret Shirley; Müller, Andre Matthias

    2016-08-01

    Multiethnic Malaysia provides a unique case study of divergence in population aging of different sociocultural subgroups within a country. Malaysia represents 3 major ethnicities in Asia-the Malay, Chinese, and Indian. The 3 ethnic groups are at different stages of population aging, as they have undergone demographic transition at different pace amidst rapid social and economic changes. Between 1991 and 2010, the Malaysian population aged 60 and over has more than doubled from about 1 million to 2.2 million, and this is projected to rise to about 7 million or 17.6% of the projected population of 40 million by 2040. In 2010, the aging index ranged from 22.8% among the Bumiputera (Malays and other indigenous groups), to 31.4% among the Indians and 55.0% among the Chinese. Population aging provides great challenges for Malaysia's social and economic development. The increasing prevalence of noncommunicable diseases in older adults, coupled with the erosion of the traditional family support system has increased demands on health care services with an overwhelming need for multidisciplinary and specialized geriatric care. Following the adoption of the National Policy for the Elderly in 1995, issues of population aging have gained increasing attention, especially among researchers. There is an urgent need to increase public awareness, develop infrastructure, as well as support action oriented research that will directly translate to comprehensive and cohesive social strategies, policies, and legislation to protect not just the current older Malaysians but the future of all Malaysians. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Birds of an Ethnic Feather? Ethnic Identity Homophily among College-Age Friends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Moin; Juan, Mary Joyce D.

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the degree to which pairs of friends report similar levels of ethnic identity. College-age friends (n=107 pairs; N=214 overall) completed measures of ethnic identity exploration and commitment, identity synthesis, relationship closeness, and frequency of talking to friends and family about ethnicity-related issues. Participants…

  16. Gender, Ethnicity, Religiosity, and Same-sex Sexual Attraction and the Acceptance of Same-sex Sexuality and Gender Non-conformity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Henny M. W.; Merry, Michael S.; Sandfort, Theo G. M.

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the role of gender, ethnicity, religiosity, and sexual attraction in adolescents’ acceptance of same-sex sexuality and gender non-conformity. Using an intersectionality perspective, we also tested whether the effects of gender, ethnicity, and religiosity on adolescents’ attitudes would function differently in adolescents with and without same-sex attractions. Data for this study were collected by means of a paper questionnaire completed by 1,518 secondary school students (mean age = 14.56 years, SD = 1.05) in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. The sample was 48.1% female and 51.9% male. Approximately one third of adolescents in the sample were of a non-Western ethnic background (32.3%, n = 491) and 7.5% of the participants (n = 114) reported experiencing same-sex attractions. Results of our analyses showed that adolescents in our sample who were male, of non-Western ethnicity, and who were more religious (as indicated by frequency of religious service attendance), were less accepting of same-sex sexuality and gender non-conformity in comparison to female, Western and less religious peers. We also found a significant interaction effect between religiosity and sexual attractions, but only in relation to evaluation of same-sex attracted, gender nonconforming females. The negative effect of religiosity on acceptance of same-sex attracted, gender non-conforming females was stronger among those adolescents who reported same-sex attractions. PMID:23687403

  17. Sex and racial/ethnic differences in the reason for 30-day readmission after COPD hospitalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Tadahiro; Faridi, Mohammad Kamal; Gibo, Koichiro; Camargo, Carlos A; Hasegawa, Kohei

    2017-10-01

    Reduction of 30-day readmissions in patients hospitalized for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a national objective. However, there is a dearth of research on sex and racial/ethnic differences in the reason for 30-day readmission. We conducted a retrospective cohort study using 2006-2012 data from the State Inpatient Database of eight geographically-diverse US states (Arkansas, California, Florida, Iowa, Nebraska, New York, Utah, and Washington). After identifying all hospitalizations for COPD made by patients aged ≥40 years, we investigated the primary diagnostic code for all-cause readmissions within 30 days after the original COPD hospitalization, among the overall group and by sex and race/ethnicity strata. Between 2006 and 2012, there was a total of 845,465 COPD hospitalizations at risk for 30-day readmissions in the eight states. COPD was the leading diagnostic for 30-day readmission after COPD hospitalization, both overall (28%) and across all sex and race/ethnicity strata. The proportion of respiratory diseases (COPD, pneumonia, respiratory failure, and asthma) as the readmission diagnosis was higher in non-Hispanic black (55%), compared to non-Hispanic white (52%) and Hispanics (51%) (p reason for 30-day readmission in patients hospitalized for COPD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Sex hormones in Malay and Chinese men in Malaysia: are there age and race differences?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kok-Yong Chin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Variations in the prevalence of sex-hormone-related diseases have been observed between Asian ethnic groups living in the same country; however, available data concerning their sex hormone levels are limited. The present study aimed to determine the influence of ethnicity and age on the sex hormone levels of Malay and Chinese men in Malaysia. METHODS: A total of 547 males of Malay and Chinese ethnicity residing in the Klang Valley Malaysia underwent a detailed screening, and their blood was collected for sex hormones analyses. RESULTS: Testosterone levels were normally distributed in the men (total, free and non-sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG bound fractions, and significant ethnic differences were observed (p<0.05; however, the effect size was small. In general, testosterone levels in males began to decline significantly after age 50. Significant ethnic differences in total, free and non-SHBG bound fraction estradiol levels were observed in the 20-29 and 50-59 age groups (p<0.05. The estradiol levels of Malay men decreased as they aged, but they increased for Chinese men starting at age 40. CONCLUSIONS: Small but significant differences in testosterone levels existed between Malay and Chinese males. Significant age and race differences existed in estradiol levels. These differences might contribute to the ethnic group differences in diseases related to sex hormones, which other studies have found in Malaysia.

  19. Sex hormones in Malay and Chinese men in Malaysia: are there age and race differences?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kok-Yong Chin

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Variations in the prevalence of sex-hormone-related diseases have been observed between Asian ethnic groups living in the same country; however, available data concerning their sex hormone levels are limited. The present study aimed to determine the influence of ethnicity and age on the sex hormone levels of Malay and Chinese men in Malaysia. METHODS: A total of 547 males of Malay and Chinese ethnicity residing in the Klang Valley Malaysia underwent a detailed screening, and their blood was collected for sex hormones analyses. RESULTS: Testosterone levels were normally distributed in the men (total, free and non-sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG bound fractions, and significant ethnic differences were observed (p<0.05; however, the effect size was small. In general, testosterone levels in males began to decline significantly after age 50. Significant ethnic differences in total, free and non-SHBG bound fraction estradiol levels were observed in the 20-29 and 50-59 age groups (p<0.05. The estradiol levels of Malay men decreased as they aged, but they increased for Chinese men starting at age 40. CONCLUSIONS: Small but significant differences in testosterone levels existed between Malay and Chinese males. Significant age and race differences existed in estradiol levels. These differences might contribute to the ethnic group differences in diseases related to sex hormones, which other studies have found in Malaysia.

  20. Self-Assessed Intelligence: Inter-Ethnic, Rural-Urban, and Sex Differences in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Viren; Furnham, Adrian

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined inter-ethnic, rural-urban, and sex differences in self-assessed intelligence (SAI) in a Malaysian general population sample. In total, 633 individuals varying in rural or urban location, ethnicity (Malay, Kadazan, and Bajau), and sex (women versus men) provided their self-assessed overall intelligence and ten multiple…

  1. Predicting Age of Sexual Initiation: Family-Level Antecedents in Three Ethnic Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moilanen, Kristin L.; Leary, Janie M.; Watson, S. Michelle; Ottley, Jason

    2018-01-01

    We investigated how family characteristics and experiences during early adolescence predicted timing of sexual initiation. In addition, we investigated adolescent sex and race/ethnicity as potential moderating factors. As part of the Children of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth-1979 (CNLSY-79), 799 adolescents aged 12 to 15 years provided…

  2. Ethnic and sex differences in bone marrow adipose tissue and bone mineral density relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, W; Chen, J; Gantz, M; Punyanitya, M; Heymsfield, S B; Gallagher, D; Albu, J; Engelson, E; Kotler, D; Pi-Sunyer, X; Shapses, S

    2012-09-01

    The relationship between bone marrow adipose tissue and bone mineral density is different between African Americans and Caucasians as well as between men and women. This suggests that the mechanisms that regulate the differentiation and proliferation of bone marrow stromal cells may differ in these populations. It has long been established that there are ethnic and sex differences in bone mineral density (BMD) and fracture risk. Recent studies suggest that bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) may play a role in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis. It is unknown whether ethnic and sex differences exist in the relationship between BMAT and BMD. Pelvic BMAT was evaluated in 455 healthy African American and Caucasian men and women (age 18-88 years) using whole-body T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. BMD was measured using whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. A negative correlation was observed between pelvic BMAT and total body BMD or pelvic BMD (r = -0.533, -0.576, respectively; P BMAT. Menopausal status significantly entered the regression model with total body BMD as the dependent variable. African Americans had higher total body BMD than Caucasians for the same amount of BMAT, and the ethnic difference for pelvic BMD was greater in those participants with a higher BMAT. Men and premenopausal women had higher total body BMD levels than postmenopausal women for the same amount of BMAT. An inverse relationship exists between BMAT and BMD in African American and Caucasian men and women. The observed ethnic and sex differences between BMAT and BMD in the present study suggest the possibility that the mechanisms regulating the differentiation and proliferation of bone marrow stromal cells may differ in these populations.

  3. Ethnic minority ageing and intergenerational relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi

    in Denmark, the paper challenges the myths about intergenerational care. The concept of intersectionality emphasises that the older adults are simultaneously positioned within the social categories such as gender, ethnicity and social class, along with directing attention to processes of exclusion as well...

  4. Male sex, African American race or ethnicity, and triiodothyronine levels at diagnosis predict weight gain after antithyroid medication and radioiodine therapy for hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariza, Miguel A; Loken, Won Mee J; Pearce, Elizabeth N; Safer, Joshua D

    2010-01-01

    To determine whether racial or ethnic differences affect weight gain after treatment of hyperthyroidism and to reassess established risk factors such as sex, age, and cause of hyperthyroidism. We conducted a retrospective review of medical records of 111 patients treated with radioiodine (RAI) for hyperthyroidism, with or without preceding antithyroid medication, during 2002 to 2005. We ascertained age, sex, race or ethnicity, insurance status, compliance with visits, serum triiodothyronine (T3) level at diagnosis, and cause of hyperthyroidism. Weights and serum thyroidstimulating hormone levels were obtained at diagnosis, at time of RAI therapy, and at 0 to 4 months, 4 to 8 months, 8 to 12 months, and 24 months after RAI treatment. There was a significant weight increase after treatment of hyperthyroidism. Levels of T3 at initial diagnosis of hyperthyroidism, male sex, and black or Hispanic ethnicity were found to be independent predictors of weight gain after RAI treatment. We found a significant interaction between race or ethnicity and sex in multivariate models. There was no difference in thyroid function across racial or ethnic groups or the sexes. Age, cause of hyperthyroidism, posttreatment thyroid-stimulating hormone level, compliance, and insurance status were not found to be significant predictors of weight gain. The T3 level at the time of diagnosis of hyperthyroidism is a strong predictor of weight gain after treatment of hyperthyroidism. Black race or ethnicity and male sex are also risk factors for weight gain.

  5. Friends Like Me: Associations in Overweight/Obese Status among Adolescent Friends by Race/Ethnicity, Sex, and Friendship Type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruening, Meg; MacLehose, Richard; Eisenberg, Marla E; Kim, Sunkyung; Story, Mary; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2015-12-01

    Little is known about how interpersonal friend relationships are associated with obesity in young people, particularly with regard to how race/ethnicity, type of friendship, and sex affect the association between friends' and adolescents' weight status. This study examined associations in weight status among adolescents and their friends, exploring magnitudes of associations across friendship type, sex, and race/ethnicity. As part of EAT-2010 (Eating and Activity in Teens), friend nominations and anthropometrics were obtained from adolescents (n = 2099: 54% female; 80% nonwhite; mean age: 14.2 ± 1.9 years). Generalized estimating equation logistic regression models were used to test associations between adolescents' overweight/obese status and friends' (i.e., friend group, female friends, male friends, female best friends, and male best friends) overweight/obese status. Interactions by adolescent race/ethnicity were examined. The majority of significant associations were observed among white female adolescents' who had a 22-40% higher prevalence of overweight/obesity if their friends were overweight compared to white females whose friends were not overweight. In contrast, there were few significant differences for other adolescent female and male racial/ethnic groups for girls and boys. Results for friend groups and best friends were generally similar to one another. The association between friend and adolescent overweight/obese status depended on adolescents' sex, race/ethnicity, and friendship type. Given the similarities among friends, obesity interventions targeting youth, especially white females, should consider involving friends.

  6. Mechanisms Underlying Stress Fracture and the Influence of Sex and Race/Ethnicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-16-1-0652 TITLE: Mechanisms Underlying Stress Fracture and the Influence of Sex and Race/Ethnicity PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-16-1-0652 Mechanisms Underlying Stress Fracture and the Influence of Sex and Race/Ethnicity 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH...to stress fracture risk. In particular, in Study 1, we will perform advanced skeletal imaging along with gait-assessments in subjects with history of

  7. Sex hormones in Malay and Chinese men in Malaysia: are there age and race differences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Kok-Yong; Soelaiman, Ima-Nirwana; Mohamed, Isa Naina; Ahmad, Fairus; Ramli, Elvy Suhana Mohd; Aminuddin, Amilia; Ngah, Wan Zurinah Wan

    2013-01-01

    Variations in the prevalence of sex-hormone-related diseases have been observed between Asian ethnic groups living in the same country; however, available data concerning their sex hormone levels are limited. The present study aimed to determine the influence of ethnicity and age on the sex hormone levels of Malay and Chinese men in Malaysia. A total of 547 males of Malay and Chinese ethnicity residing in the Klang Valley Malaysia underwent a detailed screening, and their blood was collected for sex hormones analyses. Testosterone levels were normally distributed in the men (total, free and non-sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) bound fractions), and significant ethnic differences were observed (pChinese men starting at age 40. Small but significant differences in testosterone levels existed between Malay and Chinese males. Significant age and race differences existed in estradiol levels. These differences might contribute to the ethnic group differences in diseases related to sex hormones, which other studies have found in Malaysia.

  8. National Differences in Trends for Heart Failure Hospitalizations by Sex and Race/Ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziaeian, Boback; Kominski, Gerald F; Ong, Michael K; Mays, Vickie M; Brook, Robert H; Fonarow, Gregg C

    2017-07-01

    National heart failure (HF) hospitalization rates have not been appropriately age standardized by sex or race/ethnicity. Reporting hospital utilization trends by subgroup is important for monitoring population health and developing interventions to eliminate disparities. The National Inpatient Sample (NIS) was used to estimate the crude and age-standardized rates of HF hospitalization between 2002 and 2013 by sex and race/ethnicity. Direct standardization was used to age-standardize rates to the 2000 US standard population. Relative differences between subgroups were reported. The national age-adjusted HF hospitalization rate decreased 30.8% from 526.86 to 364.66 per 100 000 between 2002 and 2013. Although hospitalizations decreased for all subgroups, the ratio of the age-standardized rate for men compared with women increased from 20% greater to 39% ( P trend=0.002) between 2002 and 2013. Black men had a rate that was 229% ( P trend=0.141) and black women, 240% ( P trend=0.725) with reference to whites in 2013 with no significant change between 2002 and 2013. Hispanic men had a rate that was 32% greater in 2002 and the difference narrowed to 4% ( P trend=0.047) greater in 2013 relative to whites. For Hispanic women, the rate was 55% greater in 2002 and narrowed to 8% greater ( P trend=0.004) in 2013 relative to whites. Asian/Pacific Islander men had a 27% lower rate in 2002 that improved to 43% ( P trend=0.040) lower in 2013 relative to whites. For Asian/Pacific Islander women, the hospitalization rate was 24% lower in 2002 and improved to 43% ( P trend=0.021) lower in 2013 relative to whites. National HF hospitalization rates have decreased steadily during the recent decade. Disparities in HF burden and hospital utilization by sex and race/ethnicity persist. Significant population health interventions are needed to reduce the HF hospitalization burden among blacks. An evaluation of factors explaining the improvements in the HF hospitalization rates among

  9. Food Insecurity and Pre-diabetes in Adults: Race/Ethnic and Sex Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo, Rosenda; Reesor, Layton M; Scott, Claudia W; Hernandez, Daphne C

    2017-07-01

    We examined sex and race/ethnicity differences in the association between food insecurity status and prediabetes among adults. We used cross-sectional 2011 and 2012 National Health Interview Survey data on non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and Hispanic adults aged 18-59 years whose household income was ≤ 299% Federal Poverty Line (N = 19,048). Food insecurity status was determined by 3 or more affirmative responses on the 10-item USDA Food Security Scale. Pre-diabetes was self-reported. Logistic regression analyses were used to estimate associations of food insecurity with pre-diabetes and adjusted for several demographic characteristics. All models were stratified by sex and race/ethnicity. In adjusted models, food insecure non-Hispanic white women and non-Hispanic black women had 53% and over 200% higher odds of being pre-diabetic, respectively. Food insecurity was not related to pre-diabetes for Hispanic women or men. Limited food resources appear to place non-Hispanic white and non-Hispanic black women at risk for pre-diabetes. Linking food assistance programs with community-based health education programs may be a comprehensive approach to support those who are food insecure with diabetes prevention.

  10. Ethnicity moderates the relationship between perceived stress and benefit finding in HIV+ men who have sex with men (MSM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seay, Julia S; Fekete, Erin M; Antoni, Michael H; Ironson, Gail; Fletcher, MaryAnn; Schneiderman, Neil

    2014-04-01

    Numerous studies conducted within the USA demonstrate higher levels of benefit finding in ethnic minority individuals compared to nonminority individuals living with chronic disease. As benefit finding may be a salient buffer for the effects of stress, the current study examined the association between perceived stress and benefit finding in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)+ men who have sex with men (MSM) living in the southeast USA and investigated whether ethnicity was a moderator of this relationship. We hypothesized that benefit finding would be greater in ethnic minority MSM than in white MSM and that ethnic minority MSM with high levels of stress would experience greater benefit finding than their white MSM counterparts. The current study utilized baseline (T1) and 3-month follow-up (T2) data drawn from a previous trial of a psychosocial intervention in HIV+ MSM. Participants were 130 HIV+ MSM; 52 % were white and 48 % belonged to minority ethnic groups (African-American, Caribbean-American, Hispanic). Analyses revealed that benefit finding was greater in ethnic minority MSM at baseline; however, this difference became nonsignificant when age, education level, highly active antiretroviral therapy adherence, and CD4 count were added to the model. Moderated regression analyses revealed a significant interaction between T1 perceived stress and ethnicity in predicting T2 benefit finding, such that higher levels of T1 perceived stress predicted lower levels of T2 benefit finding in ethnic minority MSM only. This association was independent of intervention group assignment. The current study's results highlight potential differences in the relationship between stress and benefit finding processes in white and ethnic minority HIV+ MSM.

  11. Past 15-year trends in adolescent marijuana use: Differences by race/ethnicity and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Renee M; Fairman, Brian; Gilreath, Tamika; Xuan, Ziming; Rothman, Emily F; Parnham, Taylor; Furr-Holden, C Debra M

    2015-10-01

    The potential for increases in adolescent marijuana use is an important concern given recent changes in marijuana policy. The purpose of this study was to estimate trends in marijuana use from 1999 to 2013 among a national sample of US high school students. We examine changes over time by race/ethnicity and sex. Data are from the National Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS), which involves biennial, school-based surveys that generate nationally representative data about 9th-12th grade students in the United States. Students self-reported sex, race/ethnicity, and marijuana use (i.e., lifetime use, past 30-day use, any use before age 13). We generated national estimates of the prevalence of marijuana use for the time period, and also tested for linear and quadratic trends (n=115,379). The prevalence of lifetime marijuana use decreased modestly from 1999 to 2009 (44% to 37%), and has increased slightly since 2009 (41%). Other marijuana use variables (e.g., past 30-day use) followed a similar pattern over time. The prevalence of past 30-day use from 1999 to 2013 for all groups and both sexes was 22.5%, and it was lowest among Asians and highest among American Indian/Alaska Natives. Although boys have historically had a higher prevalence of marijuana use, results indicate that male-female differences in marijuana use decreased over time. Despite considerable changes in state marijuana policies over the past 15 years, marijuana use among high school students has largely declined. Continued surveillance is needed to assess the impact of policy changes on adolescent marijuana use. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Sex and race/ethnic disparities in the cross-sectional association between depressive symptoms and muscle mass: the Multi-ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remigio-Baker, Rosemay A; Allison, Matthew A; Schreiner, Pamela J; Carnethon, Mercedes R; Nettleton, Jennifer A; Mujahid, Mahasin S; Szklo, Moyses; Crum, Rosa M; Leuotsakos, Jeannie-Marie; Franco, Manuel; Jensky, Nicole; Golden, Sherita Hill

    2015-09-18

    The cross-sectional area of total muscle mass has been reported to decrease by about 40% for those 20-60 years of age. Depressive symptoms may discourage motivation to engage in physical activity such as strength training shown to negate muscle loss. Inflammation related to depressive symptoms may also contribute to muscle atrophy. Physiological differences by sex and race/ethnicity may also modify the association between depression and muscle mass. Evidence on the relationship between depression (or depressive symptoms) and adiposity has been mounting; however, little is known about the depressive symptoms-muscle mass association. We sought to determine the association between elevated depressive symptoms (EDS) and lean muscle mass and whether this varies by sex and race/ethnicity. Evaluating 1605 adults (45-84 years of age) from the Multi-ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis Abdominal Body Composition, Inflammation and Cardiovascular Disease Study, we examined the cross-sectional association between EDS (Center for Epidemiologic Studies for Depression Scale score≥16 and/or antidepressant use) and computed tomography-measured abdominal lean muscle mass using linear regression. Muscles were evaluated as a whole and by functionality (locomotion vs. stabilization/posture). Covariates included height, body mass index, sociodemographics, comorbidities, inflammatory markers and health behaviors (pack-years of smoking, alcohol locomotion compared to men, total intentional exercise, daily caloric intake). Sex and race/ethnicity were assessed as potential modifiers. Statistical significance was at a pdepressive symptoms had 5.9 cm2 lower lean muscle mass for locomotion compared to men without EDS, fully-adjusted (CI=-10.5, -1.4, p=0.011). This was statistically significantly different from the null finding among women (interaction p=0.05). Chinese participants with EDS had 10.2 cm2 lower abdominal lean muscle mass for locomotion compared to those without EDS (fully

  13. Scaling of adult body weight to height across sex and race/ethnic groups: relevance to BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heymsfield, Steven B; Peterson, Courtney M; Thomas, Diana M; Heo, Moonseong; Schuna, John M; Hong, Sangmo; Choi, Woong

    2014-12-01

    Body mass index (BMI) is formulated on the assumption that body weight (BW) scales to height with a power of 2 (BW∝height(2)), independent of sex and race-ethnicity. Powers differing from 2 are observed in studies of selected samples, thus raising the question if BMI is a generalizable metric that makes BW independent of height across populations. The objectives were to test the hypothesis that adult BW scales to height with a power of 2 independent of sex and race-ethnicity and to advance an understanding of BMI as a measure of shape by extending allometric analyses to waist circumference (WC). We conducted cross-sectional subject evaluations, including body composition, from the NHANES and the Korean NHANES (KNHANES). Variations of the allometric model (Y = αX(β)) were used to establish height scaling powers (β ± SE) across non-Hispanic white and black, Mexican American, and Korean men and women. Exploratory analyses in population samples established age and adiposity as important independent determinants of height scaling powers (i.e., β). After age and adiposity in the next series of analyses were controlled for, BW scaling powers were nonsignificantly different between race/ethnic groups within each sex group; WC findings were similar in women, whereas small but significant between-race differences were observed in the men. Sex differences in β values were nonsignificant except for BW in non-Hispanic blacks and WC in Koreans (P ethnic groups, an observation that makes BMI a generalizable height-independent measure of shape across most populations. WC also follows generalizable scaling rules, a finding that has implications for defining body shape in populations who differ in stature. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  14. Ethnic differences in age of onset and prevalence of disordered ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: This study fills the hiatus in the existing South African literature with respect to age of onset and prevalence of disordered eating attitudes and behaviours across ethnic boundaries. Furthermore, it creates a foundation for developing appropriate strategies to address eating disorders in the multicultural South ...

  15. Ethnic and sex differences in ownership of preventive health equipment among rural older adults with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Ronny A; Arcury, Thomas A; Stafford, Jeanette M; Golden, Shannon L; Snively, Beverly M; Quandt, Sara A

    2007-01-01

    Diabetes self-management is important for achieving successful health outcomes. Different levels of self-management have been reported among various populations, though little is known about ownership of equipment that can enhance accomplishment of these tasks. This study examined diabetes self-management equipment ownership among rural older adults. Participants included African American, American Indian, and white men and women 65 years of age and older. Data included equipment ownership overall and by ethnicity and sex across diabetes self-management domains (glucose monitoring, foot care, medication adherence, exercise, and diet). Associations between equipment ownership and demographic and health characteristics were assessed using logistic regression. Equipment ownership ranged from 85.0% for blood glucose meters to less than 11% for special socks, modified dishes, and various forms of home exercise equipment. Equipment ownership was associated with ethnicity, living arrangements, mobility, poverty status, and formal education. Rural older adults with diabetes are at risk because they lack equipment to perform some self-management tasks. Providers should be sensitive to and assist patients in overcoming this barrier.

  16. Primate Innovation: Sex, Age and Social Rank

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reader, S.M.; Laland, K.N.

    2001-01-01

    Analysis of an exhaustive survey of primate behavior collated from the published literature revealed significant variation in rates of innovation among individuals of different sex, age and social rank. We searched approximately 1,000 articles in four primatology journals, together with other

  17. Patients' choice of general practitioner: importance of patients' and doctors' sex and ethnicity.

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad, W I; Kernohan, E E; Baker, M R

    1991-01-01

    The relative importance of sex and ethnicity in patients' choice of doctor is not known. A total of 1633 consultations at a health centre in Bradford, with a mixed ethnic list, were examined over a four week period to test the relative importance of these variables. Patients had the choice to consult any one of: a male Asian, a male white or a female white doctor. Asian patients, irrespective of sex, were significantly (P less than 0.001) more likely to consult the Asian doctor then either of...

  18. Facial anthropometric differences among gender, ethnicity, and age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Ziqing; Landsittel, Douglas; Benson, Stacey; Roberge, Raymond; Shaffer, Ronald

    2010-06-01

    The impact of race/ethnicity upon facial anthropometric data in the US workforce, on the development of personal protective equipment, has not been investigated to any significant degree. The proliferation of minority populations in the US workforce has increased the need to investigate differences in facial dimensions among these workers. The objective of this study was to determine the face shape and size differences among race and age groups from the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health survey of 3997 US civilian workers. Survey participants were divided into two gender groups, four racial/ethnic groups, and three age groups. Measurements of height, weight, neck circumference, and 18 facial dimensions were collected using traditional anthropometric techniques. A multivariate analysis of the data was performed using Principal Component Analysis. An exploratory analysis to determine the effect of different demographic factors had on anthropometric features was assessed via a linear model. The 21 anthropometric measurements, body mass index, and the first and second principal component scores were dependent variables, while gender, ethnicity, age, occupation, weight, and height served as independent variables. Gender significantly contributes to size for 19 of 24 dependent variables. African-Americans have statistically shorter, wider, and shallower noses than Caucasians. Hispanic workers have 14 facial features that are significantly larger than Caucasians, while their nose protrusion, height, and head length are significantly shorter. The other ethnic group was composed primarily of Asian subjects and has statistically different dimensions from Caucasians for 16 anthropometric values. Nineteen anthropometric values for subjects at least 45 years of age are statistically different from those measured for subjects between 18 and 29 years of age. Workers employed in manufacturing, fire fighting, healthcare, law enforcement, and other occupational

  19. Sex disparities in acute myocardial infarction incidence : Do ethnic minority groups differ from the majority population?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Oeffelen, Aloysia A M; Vaartjes, Ilonca; Stronks, Karien; Bots, Michiel L.; Agyemang, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Background: The incidence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in men exceeds that in women. The extent of this sex disparity varies widely between countries. Variations may also exist between ethnic minority groups and the majority population, but scientific evidence is lacking. Methods: A

  20. Sex disparities in acute myocardial infarction incidence: do ethnic minority groups differ from the majority population?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oeffelen, Aloysia A. M.; Vaartjes, Ilonca; Stronks, Karien; Bots, Michiel L.; Agyemang, Charles

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in men exceeds that in women. The extent of this sex disparity varies widely between countries. Variations may also exist between ethnic minority groups and the majority population, but scientific evidence is lacking. A nationwide register-based

  1. Beliefs About the Nature of Sex/Gender and Ethnic Inequality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eisinga, R.N.; Elzen, A.J. van den; Verloo, M.M.T.

    1999-01-01

    This research examines five lay explanations of the nature of sex/gender inequality - supernat- ural, genetic, individualistic, cultural, and social - and empirically links these beliefs to lay theories about the nature of ethnic inequality. Using data from a sample of Dutch metropolitan residents,

  2. Beliefs about the nature of sex/gender and ethnic inequality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eisinga, R.N.; Elzen, A.J. van den; Verloo, M.M.T.

    1999-01-01

    This research examines five lay explanations of the nature of sex/gender inequality - supernatural, genetic, individualistic, cultural, and social - and empirically links these beliefs to lay theories about the nature of ethnic inequality. Using data from a sample of Dutch metropolitan residents, it

  3. Parenting Predictors of Early-Adolescents' Health Behaviors: Simultaneous Group Comparisons across Sex and Ethnic Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windle, Michael; Brener, Nancy; Cuccaro, Paula; Dittus, Patricia; Kanouse, David E.; Murray, Nancy; Wallander, Jan; Schuster, Mark A.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the invariance of predictive relations across early-adolescent sex and ethnic groups regarding parenting factors and externalizing and internalizing problems and victimization. Data (n = 598; 54% female) from a triethnic (Hispanic, non-Hispanic white, and non-Hispanic black) probability sample of fifth…

  4. Sex, Race/Ethnicity, and Context in School-Associated Student Homicides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Joanne M.; Hall, Jeffrey E.; Zagura, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the importance of sex, race/ethnicity, and geographic context for incidents of school-associated student homicides between July 1, 1994 and June 30, 1999, covering 5 academic years. Using data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention School Associated Violent Deaths Study (n = 125 incidents), we compared percentages…

  5. Differential environmental exposure among non-Indigenous Canadians as a function of sex/gender and race/ethnicity variables: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravartty, Dolon; Wiseman, Clare L S; Cole, Donald C

    2014-11-21

    To determine the extent, range and types of studies of differential environmental chemical exposures among non-Indigenous Canadians as a function of sex/gender and race/ethnicity. Computerized database searches were performed from November to December 2013 using Medline, Embase, CAB Abstracts, Proquest and Scopus to identify relevant studies of environmental exposures among non-Indigenous adults aged ≥18 years in Canada published between 1993 and 2013. Articles were identified for full-text review based on a screening of titles and abstracts and were excluded during this initial review if they focused on environmental exposures in the following populations: 1) Indigenous populations, 2) individuals <15 years of age, 3) pregnant women and associated negative birth outcomes, or 4) non-Canadian populations. Articles were also excluded if the primary focus was on exposures to environmental tobacco smoke, non-chemical occupational hazards, infectious diseases, noise and/or radiation. A full-text review of 78 identified articles systematically assessed how sex/gender and race/ethnicity were considered. Although 59% of studies stratified results by sex, less than half of these offered any explanation of differential exposures. Eighteen of the 78 studies (23%) used terms related to race/ethnicity in their participant descriptions. Of the studies that conducted subgroup analyses of exposure results by race/ethnicity (n=15), a total of 8 also included subgroup analysis by sex. Overall, 3 of the 78 (3%) articles reviewed analyzed environmental exposures as a function of sex/gender and race/ethnicity. The role of sex/gender and race/ethnicity in influencing environmental exposure levels among non-Indigenous Canadians has not been adequately addressed to date.

  6. Age and ethnic disparities in incidence of stroke over time: the South London Stroke Register.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanzhong; Rudd, Anthony G; Wolfe, Charles D A

    2013-12-01

    Data on continuous monitoring of stroke risk among different age and ethnic groups are lacking. We aimed to investigate age and ethnic disparities in stroke incidence over time from an inner-city population-based stroke register. Trends in stroke incidence and before-stroke risk factors were investigated with the South London Stroke Register, a population-based register covering a multiethnic population of 357 308 inhabitants. Age-, ethnicity-, and sex-specific incidence rates with 95% confidence intervals were calculated, assuming a Poisson distribution and their trends over time tested by the Cochran-Armitage test. Four thousand two hundred forty-five patients with first-ever stroke were registered between 1995 and 2010. Total stroke incidence reduced by 39.5% during the 16-year period from 247 to 149.5 per 100 000 population (Pstroke incidence were observed in men, women, white groups, and those aged>45 years, but not in those aged 15 to 44 years (12.6-10.1; P=0.2034) and black groups (310.1-267.5; P=0.3633). The mean age at stroke decreased significantly from 71.7 to 69.6 years (P=0.0001). The reduction in prevalence of before-stroke risk factors was mostly seen in white patients aged>55 years, whereas an increase in diabetes mellitus was observed in younger black patients aged 15 to 54 years. Total stroke incidence decreased during the 16-year time period. However, this was not seen in younger age groups and black groups. The advances in risk factor reduction observed in white groups aged>55 years failed to be transferred to younger age groups and black groups.

  7. Renal cell cancer in Israel: sex and ethnic differences in incidence and mortality, 1980-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarabeia, Jalal; Kaluski, Dorit Nitzan; Barchana, Micha; Dichtiar, Rita; Green, Manfred S

    2010-06-01

    The causes of renal cell cancer (RCC) remain largely unexplained. While the incidence is generally higher in men than in women, little has been reported on ethnic differences. We examine trends in RCC incidence and mortality rates among Israeli Arab and Jewish populations and compared with the rates in other countries. Age-adjusted RCC incidence and mortality rates in Israel, during 1980-2004, were calculated by sex and population group, using the National Cancer Registry. They were compared with the United States based on the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results [SEER] program and the IARC database for international comparisons. While RCC incidence rates in Israel are similar to the United States and the European average, the rates are significantly higher among Israeli Jews than Arabs. Men are affected more than women. Incidence rates over the last 24 years have increased among all men and Jewish women, but not among Arab women. Among men, the incidence rate ratio for Jews to Arabs declined from 3.96 in 1980-1982 to 2.34 in 2001-2004, whereas for women there was no change. The mortality rates were higher among Jews than Arab and among men than women. There were no significant change in the mortality rates and rate ratios. Our findings demonstrate marked ethnic differences in RCC in Israel. The lower incidence among Arabs stands in contrast to the higher prevalence of potential risk factors for RCC in this population group. Genetic factors, diet and other lifestyle factors could play protective roles. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Age and sex distribution of blindness in Ahoada East Local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Differences exist in the impact of blindness by age and sex; the overall risk of death being higher for blind males than females. Aim: To describe the age and sex differences among the blind in Ahoada-East Local Government Area (LGA) of Rivers State, Nigeria. Methods: Age and sex data were analyzed for 24 ...

  9. Aging and sex hormones in males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decaroli, Maria Chiara

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Several large cohort studies have disclosed the trajectories of sex steroids changes overtime in men and their clinical significance. In men the slow, physiological decline of serum testosterone (T) with advancing age overlaps with the clinical condition of overt, pathological hypogonadism. In addition, the increasing number of comorbidities, together with the high prevalence of chronic diseases, all further contribute to the decrease of serum T concentrations in the aging male. For all these reasons both the diagnosis of late-onset hypogonadism (LOH) in men and the decision about starting or not T replacement treatment remain challenging. At present, the biochemical finding of T deficiency alone is not sufficient for diagnosing hypogonadism in older men. Coupling hypogonadal symptoms with documented low serum T represents the best strategy to refine the diagnosis of hypogonadism in older men and to avoid unnecessary treatments. PMID:27831823

  10. Age and Sex Effects in Anchoring Vignette Studies: Methodological and Empirical Contributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Grol-Prokopczyk

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Anchoring vignettes are an increasingly popular tool for identifying and correcting for group differences in use of subjective ordered response categories. However, existing techniques to maximize response consistency (use of the same standards for self-ratings as for vignette-ratings, which center on matching vignette characters’ demographic characteristics to respondents’ own characteristics, appear at times to be ineffective or to pose interpretive difficulties. Specifically, respondents often appear to neglect instructions to treat vignette characters as age peers. Furthermore, when vignette characters’ sex is matched to respondents’ sex, interpretation of sex differences in rating style is rendered problematic. This study applies two experimental manipulations to a national American sample (n=1,765 to clarify best practices for enhancing response consistency. First, an analysis of two methods of highlighting vignette characters’ age suggests that both yield better response consistency than previous, less prominent means. Second, a comparison of ratings of same- and opposite-sex vignette characters suggests that, with avoidable exceptions, the sex of the respondent rather than of the vignette character drives observed sex differences in rating style. Implications for interpretation and design of anchoring vignette studies are discussed. Findings also show significant sex, educational, and racial/ethnic differences in styles of rating health, and racial/ethnic differences in styles of rating political efficacy. These findings underscore the incomparability of unadjusted subjective self-ratings across demographic groups.

  11. Sex and Age Differences in Attitude toward the Opposite Sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Rawley

    1997-01-01

    Examines fantasies about the opposite sex expressed by 116 children, adolescents, and adults responding to the Drawing from Imagination task of the Silver Drawing Test of Cognition and Emotion. Results indicate that both males and females expressed more negative than positive feelings toward subjects of the opposite sex. Males were more negative.…

  12. Gender, ethnicity, religiosity, and same-sex sexual attraction and the acceptance of same-sex sexuality and gender non-conformity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collier, K.L.; Bos, H.M.W.; Merry, M.S.; Sandfort, T.G.M.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the role of gender, ethnicity, religiosity, and sexual attraction in adolescents’ acceptance of same-sex sexuality and gender non-conformity. Using an intersectionality perspective, we also tested whether the effects of gender, ethnicity, and religiosity on adolescents’ attitudes

  13. Diversity based on race, ethnicity, and sex, of the US radiation oncology physician workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Christina H; Hwang, Wei-Ting; Deville, Curtiland

    2013-03-15

    To assess the current diversity of the US radiation oncology (RO) physician workforce by race, ethnicity, and sex. Publicly available American Medical Association, American Association of Medical Colleges, and US census registries were used to assess differences by race, ethnicity, and sex for 2010 among RO practicing physicians, academic faculty, residents, and residency applicants. RO resident diversity was compared to medical school graduates and medical oncology (MO) fellows. Significant differences in diversity of RO residents by race, ethnicity, and sex were evaluated between 2003 and 2010 academic years. Females and traditionally underrepresented minorities in medicine (URM), blacks, Hispanics, American Indians, Alaska Natives, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islanders are underrepresented as RO residents (33.3% and 6.9%, respectively), faculty (23.8%, 8.1%), and practicing physicians (25.5%, 7.2%) levels compared with the US population (50.8%, 30.0%; Pworkforce. Given existing cancer disparities, further research and efforts are needed to ensure that the field is equipped to meet the needs of an increasingly diverse society. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Age of biological maturity of Malaysian girls by ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor Laily Abu Bakar; Prasanta K Majumdar; Tan Boon Ann

    1983-01-01

    This study estimates the age of biological maturity, defined as the end of adolescent sterility, of Malaysian girls by employing an indiredt methodology. Biological maturity usually occurs about 3 years after puberty. Adolescent subfecundity is due to anovulatory cycles or to short luteal phases among menarchial girls. In this study, age at biological maturity is estimated by considering retrospective fertility and family survey data on marriage, 1st birt, and contraceptive use. The waiting time for the biologically mature females to conceive is 3.0 months; 3.2 months among the Malays, 2.7 months among the Chinese, and 2.8 months among the Indians. The maximum age of attaining biological maturity is 20 for all ethnic groups except Indians (19 years). The maximum age is estimated by considering females whose 1st pregnancy ended in a live birth and who have been living most of the time with their husbands since marriage, with no contraceptive usage. The expected age of biological maturity at birth is 15.6 years; 15.3 years for the Malays, 15.4 years for the Chinese, and 14.8 years for the Indians. The means age of attaining biological maturity coincides with the expected age of attaining biological maturity at birth.

  15. Sensorial differences according to sex and ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, L A; Lin, S M; Teixeira, M J; de Siqueira, J T T; Jacob Filho, W; de Siqueira, S R D T

    2014-04-01

    To investigate age and sex differences in orofacial sensory detection. One hundred and twenty-six (126) healthy subjects were divided into five groups according to their ages. They were assessed with a quantitative sensory testing protocol for gustative, olfactory, thermal (cold/warm), mechanical (tactile/vibration/electric), and pain (deep/superficial) detection thresholds. The corneal reflex was also evaluated. Data were analyzed with the one-way ANOVA, chi-squared, Fisher's exact, Mann-Whitney, and Kruskal-Wallis tests. The groups of subjects over 61 years old had higher olfactory (P sweet P = 0.004, salty P = 0.007, sour P = 0.006), thermal (warm P sweet P = 0.020, salty P = 0.002, sour P < 0.001, and bitter P = 0.002), olfactory (P = 0.010), warm (P < 0.001) and deep (P < 0.001), and superficial pain (P = 0.008) detection thresholds than men, and men from all age groups had lower vibratory detection thresholds (P = 0.006) than women. High sensory detection thresholds were observed in subjects over the 6th decade of life, and women had a more accurate sensory perception than men. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Age, gender, and race/ethnic differences in total body and subregional bone density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looker, A C; Melton, L J; Harris, T; Borrud, L; Shepherd, J; McGowan, J

    2009-07-01

    Total body bone density of adults from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2004 differed as expected for some groups (men>women and blacks>whites) but not others (whites>Mexican Americans). Cross-sectional age patterns in bone mineral density (BMD) of older adults differed at skeletal sites that varied by degree of weight-bearing. Total body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) data offer the opportunity to compare bone density of demographic groups across the entire skeleton. The present study uses total body DXA data (Hologic QDR 4500A, Hologic, Bedford MA, USA) from the NHANES 1999-2004 to examine BMD of the total body and selected skeletal subregions in a wide age range of adult men and women from three race/ethnic groups. Total body, lumbar spine, pelvis, right leg, and left arm BMD and lean mass from 13,091 adults aged 20 years and older were used. The subregions were chosen to represent sites with different degrees of weight-bearing. Mean BMD varied in expected ways for some demographic characteristics (men>women and non-Hispanic blacks>non-Hispanic whites) but not others (non-Hispanic whites>Mexican Americans). Differences in age patterns in BMD also emerged for some characteristics (sex) but not others (race/ethnicity). Differences in cross-sectional age patterns in BMD and lean mass by degree of weight-bearing in older adults were observed for the pelvis, leg, and arm. This information may be useful for generating hypotheses about age, race, and sex differences in fracture risk in the population.

  17. Differences in healthy life expectancy for the US population by sex, race/ethnicity and geographic region: 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Man-Huei; Molla, Michael T; Truman, Benedict I; Athar, Heba; Moonesinghe, Ramal; Yoon, Paula W

    2015-09-01

    Healthy life expectancy (HLE) varies among demographic segments of the US population and by geography. To quantify that variation, we estimated the national and regional HLE for the US population by sex, race/ethnicity and geographic region in 2008. National HLEs were calculated using the published 2008 life table and the self-reported health status data from the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). Regional HLEs were calculated using the combined 2007-09 mortality, population and NHIS health status data. In 2008, HLE in the USA varied significantly by sex, race/ethnicity and geographical regions. At 25 years of age, HLE for females was 47.3 years and ∼2.9 years greater than that for males at 44.4 years. HLE for non-Hispanic white adults was 2.6 years greater than that for Hispanic adults and 7.8 years greater than that for non-Hispanic black adults. By region, the Northeast had the longest HLE and the South had the shortest. The HLE estimates in this report can be used to monitor trends in the health of populations, compare estimates across populations and identify health inequalities that require attention. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health 2014. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  18. Prejudices in Cultural Contexts: Shared Stereotypes (Gender, Age) Versus Variable Stereotypes (Race, Ethnicity, Religion).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiske, Susan T

    2017-09-01

    Some prejudices share cross-cultural patterns, but others are more variable and culture specific. Those sharing cross-cultural patterns (sexism, ageism) each combine societal status differences and intimate interdependence. For example, in stereotypes of sex and age, lower status groups-women and elders-gain stereotypic warmth (from their cooperative interdependence) but lose stereotypic competence (from their lower status); men and middle-aged adults show the opposite trade-off, stereotypically more competent than warm. Meta-analyses support these widespread ambivalent (mixed) stereotypes for gender and age across cultures. Social class stereotypes often share some similarities (cold but competent rich vs. warm but incompetent poor). These compensatory warmth versus competence stereotypes may function to manage common human dilemmas of interacting across societal and personal positions. However, other stereotypes are more variable and culture specific (ethnicity, race, religion). Case studies of specific race/ethnicities and religions reveal much more cultural variation in their stereotype content, supporting their being responses to particular cultural contexts, apparent accidents of history. To change stereotypes requires understanding their commonalities and differences, their origins and patterns across cultures.

  19. Interactions among sex, ethnicity, religion, and gender role expectations of pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defrin, Ruth; Eli, Ilana; Pud, Dorit

    2011-06-01

    Sex, gender, ethnicity, and religion are powerful factors that may affect pain experience. Recently, gender role expectations of pain (GREP) were suggested to account for some of the differences in pain perception between men and women. However, the interaction between GREP and ethnicity and religion was not examined. This interaction was studied with regard to pain sensitivity, pain endurance, and willingness to report pain. Our objective was to study the interaction among GREP, sex, and ethno-religious belonging. Participants (548 healthy men and women) of 3 different ethno-religious groups (341 Jews, 105 Muslim-Arabs, 102 Christian-Arabs) completed the GREP questionnaire; pain sensitivity, pain endurance, and willingness to report pain were analyzed. Men of all 3 ethno-religious groups perceived themselves and other men as less sensitive and less willing to report pain than typical women. Women of all 3 ethno-religious groups perceived themselves and other women as more sensitive and more willing to report pain than men. Ethno-religious differences were observed in the attitudes towards typical men and women, with Christian men and women exhibiting stronger stereotypical views regarding pain sensitivity and pain endurance. Individual's perceptions of pain regarding one's self compared with the same or opposite sex were similar regardless of ethno-religious belonging and were related to sex. However, attitudes on pain of typical men and women seemed to be influenced by ethno-religious belonging. This differential effect of ethno-religion on GREP with relation to sex suggests that these factors should be considered when pain perception is evaluated. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Coronary collateralization shows sex and racial-ethnic differences in obstructive artery disease patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Liu

    Full Text Available Coronary collateral circulation protects cardiac tissues from myocardial infarction damage and decreases sudden cardiac death. So far, it is unclear how coronary collateralization varies by race-ethnicity groups and by sex.We assessed 868 patients with obstructive CAD. Patients were assessed for collateral grades based on Rentrop grading system, as well as other covariates. DNA samples were genotyped using the Affymetrix 6.0 genotyping array. To evaluate genetic contributions to collaterals, we performed admixture mapping using logistic regression with estimated local and global ancestry.Overall, 53% of participants had collaterals. We found difference between sex and racial-ethnic groups. Men had higher rates of collaterals than women (P-value = 0.000175. White Hispanics/Latinos showed overall higher rates of collaterals than African Americans and non-Hispanic Whites (59%, 50% and 48%, respectively, P-value = 0.017, and especially higher rates in grade 1 and grade 3 collateralization than the other two populations (P-value = 0.0257. Admixture mapping showed Native American ancestry was associated with the presence of collaterals at a region on chromosome 17 (chr17:35,243,142-41,251,931, β = 0.55, P-value = 0.000127. African ancestry also showed association with collaterals at a different region on chromosome 17 (chr17: 32,266,966-34,463,323, β = 0.38, P-value = 0.00072.In our study, collateralization showed sex and racial-ethnic differences in obstructive CAD patients. We identified two regions on chromosome 17 that were likely to harbor genetic variations that influenced collateralization.

  1. Lipid profiles and ischemic stroke risk: variations by sex within racial/ethnic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gezmu, Tefera; Schneider, Dona; Demissie, Kitaw; Lin, Yong; Giordano, Christine; Gizzi, Martin S

    2014-01-01

    Evidence implicates lipid abnormalities as important but modifiable risk factors for stroke. This study assesses whether hypercholesterolemia can be used to predict the risk for etiologic subtypes of ischemic stroke between sexes within racial/ethnic groups. Data elements related to stroke risk, diagnosis, and outcomes were abstracted from the medical records of 3,290 acute stroke admissions between 2006 and 2010 at a regional stroke center. Sex comparison within racial/ethnic groups revealed that South Asian and Hispanic men had a higher proportion of ischemic stroke than women, while the inverse was true for Whites and African Americans (P=0.0014). All women, except South Asian women, had higher mean plasma total cholesterol and higher blood circulating low-density lipoprotein levels (≥100 mg/dL) than men at the time of their admissions. The incidence of large-artery atherosclerosis (LAA) was more common among women than men, except among Hispanics, where men tended to have higher incidences. A regression analysis that considered patients diagnosed with either LAA or small-artery occlusion etiologic subtype as the outcomes and high-density lipoproteins and triglycerides as predictors showed inconsistent associations between lipid profiles and the incidence of these subtypes between the sexes within racial/ethnic groups. In conclusion, our investigation suggests that women stroke patients may be at increased risk for stroke etiologic subtype LAA than men. Although the higher prevalence of stroke risk factors examined in this study predicts the increase in the incidence of the disease, lack of knowledge/awareness and lack of affordable treatments for stroke risk factors among women and immigrants/non-US-born subpopulations may explain the observed associations.

  2. Diversity Based on Race, Ethnicity, and Sex, of the US Radiation Oncology Physician Workforce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, Christina H.; Hwang, Wei-Ting; Deville, Curtiland

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the current diversity of the US radiation oncology (RO) physician workforce by race, ethnicity, and sex. Methods and Materials: Publicly available American Medical Association, American Association of Medical Colleges, and US census registries were used to assess differences by race, ethnicity, and sex for 2010 among RO practicing physicians, academic faculty, residents, and residency applicants. RO resident diversity was compared to medical school graduates and medical oncology (MO) fellows. Significant differences in diversity of RO residents by race, ethnicity, and sex were evaluated between 2003 and 2010 academic years. Results: Females and traditionally underrepresented minorities in medicine (URM), blacks, Hispanics, American Indians, Alaska Natives, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islanders are underrepresented as RO residents (33.3% and 6.9%, respectively), faculty (23.8%, 8.1%), and practicing physicians (25.5%, 7.2%) levels compared with the US population (50.8%, 30.0%; P<.01). Although females and URMs remain underrepresented at the resident trainee level compared with their proportions as medical school graduates (48.3%, 15.6%) and MO fellows (45.0%, 10.8%; P<.01), females are significantly increased in proportion as RO residents compared with RO practicing physicians (P<.01), whereas representation of individual URM groups as RO residents is no different than current practicing physicians. There is no trend toward increased diversification for female or URM trainees over 8 years, suggesting underrepresentation is not diminishing. Conclusions: Females and URM are underrepresented in the RO physician workforce. Given existing cancer disparities, further research and efforts are needed to ensure that the field is equipped to meet the needs of an increasingly diverse society

  3. Diversity Based on Race, Ethnicity, and Sex, of the US Radiation Oncology Physician Workforce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, Christina H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Hwang, Wei-Ting [Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Deville, Curtiland, E-mail: deville@uphs.upenn.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: To assess the current diversity of the US radiation oncology (RO) physician workforce by race, ethnicity, and sex. Methods and Materials: Publicly available American Medical Association, American Association of Medical Colleges, and US census registries were used to assess differences by race, ethnicity, and sex for 2010 among RO practicing physicians, academic faculty, residents, and residency applicants. RO resident diversity was compared to medical school graduates and medical oncology (MO) fellows. Significant differences in diversity of RO residents by race, ethnicity, and sex were evaluated between 2003 and 2010 academic years. Results: Females and traditionally underrepresented minorities in medicine (URM), blacks, Hispanics, American Indians, Alaska Natives, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islanders are underrepresented as RO residents (33.3% and 6.9%, respectively), faculty (23.8%, 8.1%), and practicing physicians (25.5%, 7.2%) levels compared with the US population (50.8%, 30.0%; P<.01). Although females and URMs remain underrepresented at the resident trainee level compared with their proportions as medical school graduates (48.3%, 15.6%) and MO fellows (45.0%, 10.8%; P<.01), females are significantly increased in proportion as RO residents compared with RO practicing physicians (P<.01), whereas representation of individual URM groups as RO residents is no different than current practicing physicians. There is no trend toward increased diversification for female or URM trainees over 8 years, suggesting underrepresentation is not diminishing. Conclusions: Females and URM are underrepresented in the RO physician workforce. Given existing cancer disparities, further research and efforts are needed to ensure that the field is equipped to meet the needs of an increasingly diverse society.

  4. Lipid profiles and ischemic stroke risk: variations by sex within racial/ethnic groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gezmu T

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Tefera Gezmu,1 Dona Schneider,1 Kitaw Demissie,2 Yong Lin,2 Christine Giordano,3 Martin S Gizzi4 1Edward J. Bloustein School of Planning and Public Policy, Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ, 2Rutgers School of Public Health, Department of Epidemiology, Piscataway, NJ, 3Rutgers New Jersey Medical School, Newark, NJ, 4New Jersey Neuroscience Institute at JFK Medical Center and Seton Hall University, Edison, NJ, USA Abstract: Evidence implicates lipid abnormalities as important but modifiable risk factors for stroke. This study assesses whether hypercholesterolemia can be used to predict the risk for etiologic subtypes of ischemic stroke between sexes within racial/ethnic groups. Data elements related to stroke risk, diagnosis, and outcomes were abstracted from the medical records of 3,290 acute stroke admissions between 2006 and 2010 at a regional stroke center. Sex comparison within racial/ethnic groups revealed that South Asian and Hispanic men had a higher proportion of ischemic stroke than women, while the inverse was true for Whites and African Americans (P=0.0014. All women, except South Asian women, had higher mean plasma total cholesterol and higher blood circulating low-density lipoprotein levels (≥100 mg/dL than men at the time of their admissions. The incidence of large-artery atherosclerosis (LAA was more common among women than men, except among Hispanics, where men tended to have higher incidences. A regression analysis that considered patients diagnosed with either LAA or small-artery occlusion etiologic subtype as the outcomes and high-density lipoproteins and triglycerides as predictors showed inconsistent associations between lipid profiles and the incidence of these subtypes between the sexes within racial/ethnic groups. In conclusion, our investigation suggests that women stroke patients may be at increased risk for stroke etiologic subtype LAA than men. Although the higher prevalence of stroke

  5. Sex differences in normal age trajectories of functional brain networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheinost, Dustin; Finn, Emily S; Tokoglu, Fuyuze; Shen, Xilin; Papademetris, Xenophon; Hampson, Michelle; Constable, R Todd

    2015-04-01

    Resting-state functional magnetic resonance image (rs-fMRI) is increasingly used to study functional brain networks. Nevertheless, variability in these networks due to factors such as sex and aging is not fully understood. This study explored sex differences in normal age trajectories of resting-state networks (RSNs) using a novel voxel-wise measure of functional connectivity, the intrinsic connectivity distribution (ICD). Males and females showed differential patterns of changing connectivity in large-scale RSNs during normal aging from early adulthood to late middle-age. In some networks, such as the default-mode network, males and females both showed decreases in connectivity with age, albeit at different rates. In other networks, such as the fronto-parietal network, males and females showed divergent connectivity trajectories with age. Main effects of sex and age were found in many of the same regions showing sex-related differences in aging. Finally, these sex differences in aging trajectories were robust to choice of preprocessing strategy, such as global signal regression. Our findings resolve some discrepancies in the literature, especially with respect to the trajectory of connectivity in the default mode, which can be explained by our observed interactions between sex and aging. Overall, results indicate that RSNs show different aging trajectories for males and females. Characterizing effects of sex and age on RSNs are critical first steps in understanding the functional organization of the human brain. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Age- and sex-tailored serum phosphate thresholds do not improve cardiovascular risk estimation in CKD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, Pietro Manuel; Bonello, Monica; Gambaro, Alessia; Sturniolo, Antonio; Gambaro, Giovanni

    2011-01-01

    Disordered metabolism of phosphorus is one of the hallmarks of chronic kidney disease (CKD), resulting in increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Age and sex may affect the metabolism of phosphorus and subsequently its serum level. We evaluated if age- and sex-specific cutoffs for hyperphosphatemia may define cardiovascular risk better than the current guideline cutoffs. We used data from 16,834 subjects participating in the 1999-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES); the prevalence of self-reported cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality rates were analyzed in CKD patients for both the classic definitions (CH; i.e., NKF-KDOQI and K-DIGO) and a tailored definition (TH) of hyperphosphatemia by means of regression models adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, smoking status and body mass index. The cutoffs for TH were represented by the 95th percentile of an age- and sex-matched non-CKD population. Serum phosphorus levels showed an inverse correlation with age (r = -0.12; pdefinition and CVD was marginally better compared with the CH definition (odds ratio [OR] = 1.49, 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.04-2.13; p=0.030 vs. OR=1.55, 95% CI, 0.98-2.44; p = 0.059), the TH model was not superior in predicting CVD or mortality. Our data suggest that a tailored, age- and sex-specific definition of hyperphosphatemia is not superior to conventional definitions in predicting cardiovascular events in patients with CKD.

  7. Racial/ethnic disparities in obesity among US-born and foreign-born adults by sex and education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrington, Debbie S; Baquero, Maria C; Borrell, Luisa N; Crawford, Natalie D

    2010-02-01

    This study examines sex and education variations in obesity among US- and foreign-born whites, blacks, and Hispanics utilizing 1997-2005 data from the National Health Interview Survey on 267,585 adults aged > or =18 years. After adjusting for various demographic, health, and socioeconomic factors via logistic regression, foreign-born black men had the lowest odds for obesity relative to US-born white men. The largest racial/ethnic disparity in obesity was between US-born black and white women. High educational attainment diminished the US-born black-white and Hispanic-white disparities among women, increased these disparities among men, and had minimal effect on foreign-born Hispanic-white disparities among women and men. Comprehension of these relationships is vital for conducting effective obesity research and interventions within an increasingly diverse United States.

  8. Ethnicity- and sex-based discrimination and the maintenance of self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lönnqvist, Jan-Erik; Hennig-Schmidt, Heike; Walkowitz, Gari

    2015-01-01

    The psychological underpinnings of labor market discrimination were investigated by having participants from Israel, the West Bank and Germany (N = 205) act as employers in a stylized employment task in which they ranked, set wages, and imposed a minimum effort level on applicants. State self-esteem was measured before and after the employment task, in which applicant ethnicity and sex were salient. The applicants were real people and all behavior was monetarily incentivized. Supporting the full self-esteem hypothesis of the social identity approach, low self-esteem in women was associated with assigning higher wages to women than to men, and such behavior was related to the maintenance of self-esteem. The narrower hypothesis that successful intergroup discrimination serves to protect self-esteem received broader support. Across all participants, both ethnicity- and sex-based discrimination of out-groups were associated with the maintenance of self-esteem, with the former showing a stronger association than the latter.

  9. Ethnicity- and Sex-Based Discrimination and the Maintenance of Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The psychological underpinnings of labor market discrimination were investigated by having participants from Israel, the West Bank and Germany (N = 205) act as employers in a stylized employment task in which they ranked, set wages, and imposed a minimum effort level on applicants. State self-esteem was measured before and after the employment task, in which applicant ethnicity and sex were salient. The applicants were real people and all behavior was monetarily incentivized. Supporting the full self-esteem hypothesis of the social identity approach, low self-esteem in women was associated with assigning higher wages to women than to men, and such behavior was related to the maintenance of self-esteem. The narrower hypothesis that successful intergroup discrimination serves to protect self-esteem received broader support. Across all participants, both ethnicity- and sex-based discrimination of out-groups were associated with the maintenance of self-esteem, with the former showing a stronger association than the latter. PMID:25978646

  10. Secular trends in age at menarche among Chinese girls from 24 ethnic minorities, 1985 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yi; Ma, Jun; Agardh, Anette; Lau, Patrick W C; Hu, Peijin; Zhang, Bing

    2015-01-01

    Declining age at menarche has been observed in many countries. In China, a decrease of 4.5 months per decade in the average age at menarche among the majority Han girls has recently been reported. However, the trends in age at menarche among ethnic minority girls over the past 25 years remain unknown. To compare the differences in median age at menarche among girls aged 9-18 years across 24 ethnic minorities in 2010 and to estimate the trends in age at menarche in different ethnic minorities from 1985 to 2010. We used data from six cross-sectional Chinese National Surveys on Students' Constitution and Health (1985, 1991, 1995, 2000, 2005, and 2010). The median age at menarche was estimated by using probit analysis. In 2010, the ethnic minorities with the earliest age at menarche were the Koreans (11.79 years), Mongolians (12.44 years), and Zhuang (12.52 years). The three ethnic minorities with the latest age at menarche were the Sala (14.32 years), Yi (13.74 years), and Uighurs (13.67 years). From 1985 to 2010, the age at menarche declined in all 24 minority groups. The Lisu, Kazakh, and Korean minorities showed the largest reductions in age at menarche by 1.79 (pminorities showed the smallest reductions, with age at menarche declining by only 0.06 (p>0.05), 0.15 (p>0.05), and 0.15 (p>0.05) years, respectively, in the same period. A large variation in age at menarche was observed among different ethnic minorities, with the earliest age at menarche found among Korean girls. A reduction in the average age at menarche appeared among most of the ethnic minorities over time, and the largest decrease was observed in Lisu, Kazakh, and Korean girls. Thus, health education should focus on targeting the specific needs of each ethnic minority group.

  11. Appendicitis: Trends in incidence, age, sex, and seasonal variations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background:Appendicitis is a common clinical condition worldwide. Differences in ... Aim:To assess the trends in incidence and pattern of variation with age, sex, and seasons of the year. .... population of 465000 (an annual population growth.

  12. Anemia in young children living in the Surinamese interior: the influence of age, nutritional status and ethnicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zijlmans CWR

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available CWR Zijlmans,1 A Stuursma,2 AJ Roelofs,2 BC Jubitana,3 MS MacDonald-Ottevanger1 1Department of Mother & Child Health Care, Scientific Research Center Suriname, Academic Hospital Paramaribo, Paramaribo, Suriname; 2Faculty of Medicine, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands; 3Department of Monitoring Evaluation Surveillance & Research, Medical Mission PHCS, Paramaribo, Suriname Purpose: This study investigates the prevalence of anemia in young children living in the interior of Suriname and the influence of the associated factors age, nutritional status and ethnicity. Patients and methods: In this cross-sectional observational study, 606 children aged 1–5 years from three different regions of Suriname’s interior were included, and hemoglobin levels and anthropometric measurements were collected. Logistic regression models were computed to examine independent associations between anemic and nonanemic groups and to measure the influence of age, nutritional status and ethnicity. Results: A total of 606 children were included, of whom 330 (55% were aged 1–3 years and 276 were aged 4–5 years. The overall prevalence of anemia was 63%. Younger age was associated with anemia (odds ratio [OR]=1.78; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.27–2.51. Anemia was less prevalent in Amerindian than in Maroon children (OR=0.51; 95% CI: 0.34–0.76. Hemoglobin level was not influenced by nutritional status nor by sex. Conclusion: The prevalence of anemia in children aged 1–5 years living in Suriname’s interior is high (63% compared to that in similar aged children in Latin America and the Caribbean (4–45%. Children aged 1–3 years were more affected than those aged 4–5 years as were Maroon children compared to Amerindian children. Nutritional status and sex were not of influence. Keywords: Maroon, Amerindian, hemoglobin, malnutrition, stunting, younger age

  13. Age and sex influences on running mechanics and coordination variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Katherine A; Freedman Silvernail, Julia; Hamill, Joseph

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of age on running mechanics separately for male and female runners and to quantify sex differences in running mechanics and coordination variability for older runners. Kinematics and kinetics were captured for 20 younger (10 male) and 20 older (10 male) adults running overground at 3.5 m · s -1 . A modified vector coding technique was used to calculate segment coordination variability. Lower extremity joint angles, moments and segment coordination variability were compared between age and sex groups. Significant sex-age interaction effects were found for heel-strike hip flexion and ankle in/eversion angles and peak ankle dorsiflexion angle. In older adults, mid-stance knee flexion angle, ankle inversion and abduction moments and hip abduction and external rotation moments differed by sex. Older compared with younger females had reduced coordination variability in the thigh-shank transverse plane couple but greater coordination variability for the shank rotation-foot eversion couple in early stance. These results suggest there may be a non-equivalent aging process in the movement mechanics for males and females. The age and sex differences in running mechanics and coordination variability highlight the need for sex-based analyses for future studies examining injury risk with age.

  14. Ethnicity and first birth: age, smoking, delivery, gestation, weight and feeding: Scottish Health and Ethnicity Linkage Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Narinder; Chalmers, James W T; Fischbacher, Colin M; Steiner, Markus F C; Bhopal, Raj S

    2014-12-01

    We linked census and health service data sets to address the shortage of information comparing maternal characteristics and pregnancy outcomes by ethnic group in Scotland. Retrospective cohort study linking the 2001 National Census for Scotland and hospital obstetric data (2001-08), comparing maternal age, smoking status, gestational age, caesarean section rates, birthweight, preterm birth and breastfeeding rates by ethnic group. In all, 144 344 women were identified as having had a first birth between 1 May 2001 and 30 April 2008. White Scottish mothers were younger [mean age 27.3 years; 95% confidence interval (CI): 27.3, 27.4] than other white groups and most non-white groups. They had the highest smoking rates (25.8%; CI: 25.5, 26.0) and the lowest rates of breastfeeding at 6-8 weeks (23.4%; CI: 23.1, 23.6), with most of the other groups being around 40%. Women from non-white minority ethnic groups in Scotland tended to have babies of lower birthweight (e.g. Pakistani mean birthweight-3105 g, white Scottish-3356 g), even after adjustment for gestational age, maternal age, education, smoking and housing tenure. This effect was more noticeable for women born in the UK. White English, Irish and other white babies tended to have higher birthweights. There was little variation between groups in caesarean section rates. Pregnant women from ethnic minority populations in Scotland have more favourable health behaviour than the white Scottish, although the non-white groups tend to have lower birthweight. Further exploration of the reasons for these differences has potential to benefit women from the majority population. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  15. Urban Students' Attitudes about Sexual Minorities across Intersections of Sex and Race/Ethnicity: Data from a Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastic, Billie

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the association between having a gay or lesbian friend and urban students' attitudes about sexual minorities. Results indicate that females were more likely than males to express supportive views about gays and lesbians. The contours of these sex differences were distinct by race/ethnicity. Black males and females differed more…

  16. Dental maturity of Saudi children: Role of ethnicity in age determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baghdadi, Ziad D.

    2013-01-01

    Demirjian's dental maturity scores and curves have been widely used for human age determination. Several authors have reported considerable differences between the true and estimated age based on the Demirjian curves, which have been accounted for by ethnicity. The purpose of the current study was to assess the role of ethnicity-specific dental maturation curves in age estimation of Saudi children. A sample of 452 healthy Saudi children aged 4 to 14 years were aged based on the original French-Canadian Demirjian curves and several modified Demirjian curves specified for certain ethnic groups: Saudi, Kuwaiti, Polish, Dutch, Pakistani, and Belgian. One-way ANOVA and a post hoc Scheffe's test were used to assess the differences between chronological age and dental age estimated by the different curves (P<0.05). The curves designed for Dutch, Polish, Saudi, and Belgian (5th percentile) populations had a significantly lower error in estimating age than the original French-Canadian and Belgian (50th percentile) curves. The optimal curve for males was the Saudi one, with a mean absolute difference between estimated age and chronological age of 8.6 months. For females, the optimal curve was the Polish one, with a mean absolute difference of 7.4 months. It was revealed that accurate age determination was not related to certain ethnicity-specific curves. We conclude that ethnicity might play a role in age determination, but not a principal one.

  17. Dental maturity of Saudi children: Role of ethnicity in age determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baghdadi, Ziad D. [Dept. of Preventive Dentistry, Riyadh Colleges of Dentistry and Pharmacy, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)

    2013-12-15

    Demirjian's dental maturity scores and curves have been widely used for human age determination. Several authors have reported considerable differences between the true and estimated age based on the Demirjian curves, which have been accounted for by ethnicity. The purpose of the current study was to assess the role of ethnicity-specific dental maturation curves in age estimation of Saudi children. A sample of 452 healthy Saudi children aged 4 to 14 years were aged based on the original French-Canadian Demirjian curves and several modified Demirjian curves specified for certain ethnic groups: Saudi, Kuwaiti, Polish, Dutch, Pakistani, and Belgian. One-way ANOVA and a post hoc Scheffe's test were used to assess the differences between chronological age and dental age estimated by the different curves (P<0.05). The curves designed for Dutch, Polish, Saudi, and Belgian (5th percentile) populations had a significantly lower error in estimating age than the original French-Canadian and Belgian (50th percentile) curves. The optimal curve for males was the Saudi one, with a mean absolute difference between estimated age and chronological age of 8.6 months. For females, the optimal curve was the Polish one, with a mean absolute difference of 7.4 months. It was revealed that accurate age determination was not related to certain ethnicity-specific curves. We conclude that ethnicity might play a role in age determination, but not a principal one.

  18. Reasons for seeking dental care in a Malaysian urban adult population: an analysis by sex and ethnic group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaafar, N; Abdul Razak, I

    1988-04-01

    Different groups of people will view and use modern dental services differently. This is determined by their traditional beliefs and cultural background. The aim of this study is to identify variations in utilization among adults in the three major ethnic groups in Malaysia. Dental records of 500 adults attending the University dental center were randomly selected and analyzed by sex and ethnic group. Results from this pilot study clearly indicate that different ethnic groups tend to use certain types of services more than others. Similarly, there is evidence of variation in the type of dental service preferred between males and females. The implications of these findings for dental health educators, program planners and further research is emphasized in order to promote a more positive pattern of utilization among the various ethnic groups.

  19. [Is Mapuche ethnicity a risk factor for hip fracture in aged?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapunar, Jorge; Bravo, Paulina; Schneider, Hermann; Jiménez, Marcela

    2003-10-01

    Ethnic factors are involved in the risk for osteoporosis and hip fracture. To assess the effect of Mapuche ethnicity on the risk of hip fracture. A case control study. Cases were subjects over 55 years of age admitted, during one year, for hip fracture not associated to major trauma or tumors. Controls were randomly chosen from other hospital services and paired for age with cases. The magnitude of the association between ethnicity and hip fracture was expressed as odds ratio in a logistic regression model. In the study period, 156 cases with hip fracture were admitted. The proportion of subjects with Mapuche origin was significantly lower among cases than controls (11.8 and 26.5% respectively, p Mapuche ethnicity was associated with hip fracture with an odds radio of 0.14 (p = 0.03, 95% CI 0.03-0.8). In this sample, Mapuche ethnicity is a protective factor for hip fracture.

  20. Do patient expectations about arthroplasty at initial presentation for hip or knee pain differ by sex and ethnicity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavernia, Carlos J; Contreras, Juan S; Parvizi, Javad; Sharkey, Peter F; Barrack, Robert; Rossi, Mark D

    2012-10-01

    Many studies show gender and ethnic differences in healthcare utilization and outcomes. Patients' presurgical cognitions regarding surgical outcomes also may vary by gender and ethnicity and play a role in explaining utilization and outcome differences. However, it is unclear whether and to what extent gender and ethnicity play a role in patients' presurgical cognitions. Do gender and ethnicity influence outcome expectations? Is arthroplasty-related knowledge affected by gender and ethnicity? Do gender and ethnicity influence willingness to pay for surgery? In a prospective, multicenter study we gave 765 patients an anonymous questionnaire on expectations, arthroplasty knowledge, and preferences before their consultation for hip and/or knee pain, from March 2005 to July 2007. Six hundred seventy-two of the 765 patients (88%) completed questionnaires. Non-Hispanics and men were more likely to indicate they would be able to engage in more activities. Non-Hispanics and men had greater arthroplasty knowledge. Hispanics and women were more likely to report they would not pay for a total joint arthroplasty (TJA) relative to non-Hispanics and men. Sex and ethnic differences in patients presenting for their initial visit to the orthopaedists for hip or knee pain influence expectations, knowledge, and preferences concerning TJAs. Longitudinal study of relationships between patients' perceptions and utilization or outcomes regarding TJA is warranted.

  1. Living independently as an ethnic minority elder: a relational perspective on the issues of aging and ethnic minorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jung-Hye

    2014-06-01

    This study examines the residential experiences of Korean ethnic elders in affordable housing in the greater Chicago area, focusing on how patterns of social relationships that evolved around a geographical location and its urban infrastructure enabled the elders to achieve their desire for residential independence. Based on the theoretical concept of activity settings and social capital, the study suggests an integrated theoretical model where social capital is understood as an embedded asset of an activity setting. Methodologically, this study uses a combined method of qualitative interviews with 138 Korean elders in affordable housing in the greater Chicago area and a geographic analysis of their social relationships in order to present associations among social relationships, urban infrastructures, and the shared value of independence within their residential communities. The study findings indicate that the elders mobilized ethnic businesses, urban infrastructures, and the collective efficacy of groups to achieve the shared goal of maintaining residential independence. In each community, a cultural broker acted as an important bridge between the community of ethnic minorities and the larger social networks coexisting within the community boundary. The relational perspective as a potent ground for understanding and further solving the issues of aging and ethnicity is highlighted.

  2. Sex bias in copy number variation of olfactory receptor gene family depends on ethnicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farideh eShadravan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Gender plays a pivotal role in the human genetic identity and is also manifested in many genetic disorders particularly mental retardation. In this study its effect on copy number variation (CNV, known to cause genetic disorders was explored. As the olfactory receptor (OR repertoire comprises the largest human gene family, it was selected for this study, which was carried out within and between three populations, derived from 150 individuals from the 1000 Genome Project. Analysis of 3872 CNVs detected among 791 OR loci, in which 307 loci showed CNV, revealed the following novel findings: Sex bias in CNV was significantly more prevalent in uncommon than common CNV variants of OR pseudogenes, in which the male genome showed more CNVs; and in one-copy number loss compared to complete deletion of OR pseudogenes; both findings implying a more recent evolutionary role for gender. Sex bias in copy number gain was also detected. Another novel finding was that the observed six bias was largely dependent on ethnicity and was in general absent in East Asians. Using a CNV public database for sick children (ISCA the application of these findings for improving clinical molecular diagnostics is discussed by showing an example of sex bias in CNV among kids with autism. Additional clinical relevance is discussed, as the most polymorphic CNV-enriched OR cluster in the human genome, located on chr 15q11.2, is found near the PWS/AS bi-directionally imprinted region associated with two well-known mental retardation syndromes. As olfaction represents the primitive cognition in most mammals, arguably in competition with the development of a larger brain, the extensive retention of OR pseudogenes in females of this study, might point to a parent-of-origin indirect regulatory role for OR pseudogenes in the embryonic development of human brain. Thus any perturbation in the temporal regulation of olfactory system could lead to developmental delay disorders including

  3. Gender, age and ethnicity influence on pain levels and analgesic use in the acute whiplash injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koren, L; Peled, E; Trogan, R; Norman, D; Berkovich, Y; Israelit, S

    2015-06-01

    Initial pain level in the acute whiplash injury is the most consistent predictor of transformation to a chronic pain syndrome. The risk factors for those early pain levels were, to our knowledge, scarcely evaluate to this date. We set to evaluate whether gender, age or ethnicity comprise a risk factor for those initial pain levels. Further, gender, age and ethnicity have been shown to be bias factors in pain management. We investigated if gender, age or ethnicity are bias factor in pain management in the face of a standardized pain treatment protocol in the acute whiplash injury. We reviewed 2,538 patients with acute whiplash injury that were treated at our emergency department (ED). Gender, age and ethnicity were investigated as risk factors for elevated visual analog scale (VAS) scores. Those factors were also investigated as bias in pain medication administration in the face of a standardized analgesic protocol. Women had significantly higher VAS scores (p = 0.009). Age and ethnicity did not influence pain levels. There was no influence of gender or age on pain medication administration. The Jewish patients (the majority in Israel) were administered fewer pain medication (p whiplash injury. Age and ethnicity have less impact on those pain levels. A pain management protocol might reduce bias in pain management in the acute whiplash injury in the ED. The Jewish population tends to be less receptive to pain medication administration.

  4. Measuring trends in age at first sex and age at marriage in Manicaland, Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremin, I; Mushati, P; Hallett, T; Mupambireyi, Z; Nyamukapa, C; Garnett, G P; Gregson, S

    2009-04-01

    To identify reporting biases and to determine the influence of inconsistent reporting on observed trends in the timing of age at first sex and age at marriage. Longitudinal data from three rounds of a population-based cohort in eastern Zimbabwe were analysed. Reports of age at first sex and age at marriage from 6837 individuals attending multiple rounds were classified according to consistency. Survival analysis was used to identify trends in the timing of first sex and marriage. In this population, women initiate sex and enter marriage at younger ages than men but spend much less time between first sex and marriage. Among those surveyed between 1998 and 2005, median ages at first sex and first marriage were 18.5 years and 21.4 years for men and 18.2 years and 18.5 years, respectively, for women aged 15-54 years. High levels of reports of both age at first sex and age at marriage among those attending multiple surveys were found to be unreliable. Excluding reports identified as unreliable from these analyses did not alter the observed trends in either age at first sex or age at marriage. Tracing birth cohorts as they aged revealed reporting biases, particularly among the youngest cohorts. Comparisons by birth cohorts, which span a period of >40 years, indicate that median age at first sex has remained constant over time for women but has declined gradually for men. Although many reports of age at first sex and age at marriage were found to be unreliable, inclusion of such reports did not result in artificial generation or suppression of trends.

  5. China's marriage squeeze: A decomposition into age and sex structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Quanbao; Li, Xiaomin; Li, Shuzhuo; Feldman, Marcus W

    2016-06-01

    Most recent studies of marriage patterns in China have emphasized the male-biased sex ratio but have largely neglected age structure as a factor in China's male marriage squeeze. In this paper we develop an index we call "spousal sex ratio" (SSR) to measure the marriage squeeze, and a method of decomposing the proportion of male surplus into age and sex structure effects within a small spousal age difference interval. We project that China's marriage market will be confronted with a relatively severe male squeeze. For the decomposition of the cohort aged 30, from 2010 to 2020 age structure will be dominant, while from 2020 through 2034 the contribution of age structure will gradually decrease and that of sex structure will increase. From then on, sex structure will be dominant. The index and decomposition, concentrated on a specific female birth cohort, can distinguish spousal competition for single cohorts which may be covered by a summary index for the whole marriage market; these can also be used for consecutive cohorts to reflect the situation of the whole marriage market.

  6. Deception Detection, Transmission, & Modality in Age & Sex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Dorothy Sweeney

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study is the first to create and use spontaneous (i.e. unrehearsed pro-social lies in an ecological setting. Creation of the stimuli involved fifty-one older adult and forty-four college student senders who lied authentically in that their lies were spontaneous in the service of protecting a research assistant. In the main study, seventy-seven older adult and eighty-four college raters attempted to detect lies in the older adult and college senders in three modalities: audio, visual, and audiovisual. Raters of both age groups were best at detecting lies in the audiovisual and worst in the visual modalities. Overall, college students were better detectors than older adults. There was an age-matching effect for college students but not for older adults. Older adult males were the hardest to detect. The older the adult was the worse the ability to detect deception.

  7. T-lymphocyte subsets in West African children: impact of age, sex, and season

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lisse, I M; Aaby, P; Whittle, H

    1997-01-01

    method to determine T-lymphocyte subsets. RESULTS: We found differences by age, sex, and season, whereas there were no significant differences by birth order, twinning, or ethnic group. The CD4+ percentage declined from birth to age 2 years, at which time it started to increase to higher levels at age 4......OBJECTIVE: There has been no reference material for T-lymphocyte subsets for normal children in developing countries. We therefore used T-lymphocyte subset determinations among children in three different studies in Guinea-Bissau to construct age-related reference material and to examine possible...... determinants of T-lymphocyte subset levels. METHODS: A total of 803 healthy West African children younger than 6 years were included in the three community studies of T-lymphocyte subsets among twins and singletons, after measles infection and after measles immunization. We used the immunoalkaline phosphatase...

  8. Self-perception of Physical Appearance in Adolescents: Gender, Age and Ethnic Aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godina, Elena; Zadorozhnaya, Liudmila

    2016-06-01

    The study used cross-sectional data of 462 girls and 372 boys of Russian ethnicity and 90 Kalmyk girls 12-17-year-olds. In both groups children were examined by the same researchers according to the same research protocol. All of the observations have been performed in agreement with bioethical procedures; protocols of consent were filled either by the subject (elder children) or by his/her parent(s). Standing height, weight, body circumferences and skinfolds thickness were taken on each individual according to the standard technique. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated. In Arkhangelsk city 114 boys and 172 girls among the total number of studied subjects filled in the questionnaires, and in Elista – 34 girls among 90. Data sets were divided according to sex, age, somatotypes and ethnicity. The results of the present study showed significant correlations between somatotypes of the subjects, their BMI and self-estimation of their physical appearance. In self-perception of one’s body, weight was the most important characteristics in girls, while in boys it was stature. No differences were found in most of self-evaluation scores between Russian girls of Arkhangelsk city and Kalmyk girls of Elista, apart from the fact that the latter had lower scores in the estimation of their body shape, possibly because they were fatter. The strategies chosen by the adolescents for modifications of their bodies in their quest for »ideal« figures were in favor of dieting versus physical activity, which puts the question of popularization of physical culture and sports on a nation-wide scale.

  9. Substance use and experienced stigmatization among ethnic minority men who have sex with men in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Jay P; Boylan, Ross; Gregorich, Steve; Ayala, George; Choi, Kyung-Hee

    2014-01-01

    Research has documented deleterious effects of racism among ethnic minorities and of homophobia among men who have sex with men (MSM). Less is known about the impact of multiple forms of stigmatization on ethnic minority MSM. This study examined substance use by African American, Asian/Pacific Islander and Latino MSM, and the associations of experienced racism and homophobia from various sources with polydrug use and stimulant drug use. Experienced racism within the general community was associated with higher levels of use; other forms of discrimination were either not associated with polydrug or stimulant use or had more complex relationships with use. Implications for further research and interventions are discussed.

  10. The effect of active video games by ethnicity, sex and fitness: subgroup analysis from a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Louise; Jiang, Yannan; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona; Jull, Andrew; Prapavessis, Harry; Rodgers, Anthony; Maddison, Ralph

    2014-04-03

    The prevention and treatment of childhood obesity is a key public health challenge. However, certain groups within populations have markedly different risk profiles for obesity and related health behaviours. Well-designed subgroup analysis can identify potential differential effects of obesity interventions, which may be important for reducing health inequalities. The study aim was to evaluate the consistency of the effects of active video games across important subgroups in a randomised controlled trial (RCT). A two-arm, parallel RCT was conducted in overweight or obese children (n=322; aged 10-14 years) to determine the effect of active video games on body composition. Statistically significant overall treatment effects favouring the intervention group were found for body mass index, body mass index z-score and percentage body fat at 24 weeks. For these outcomes, pre-specified subgroup analyses were conducted among important baseline demographic (ethnicity, sex) and prognostic (cardiovascular fitness) groups. No statistically significant interaction effects were found between the treatment and subgroup terms in the main regression model (p=0.36 to 0.93), indicating a consistent treatment effect across these groups. Preliminary evidence suggests an active video games intervention had a consistent positive effect on body composition among important subgroups. This may support the use of these games as a pragmatic public health intervention to displace sedentary behaviour with physical activity in young people.

  11. Sex, lies and disclosures: Researchers and the reporting of under-age sex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Strode

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Children are a vulnerable group and require legal protection due to their youth and inexperience. Resultantly, various provisions in the law ensure the care and protection of children through mechanisms such as the mandatory reporting of abuse. A recent change in the law has broadened the mandatory reporting obligations by requiring any person who is aware of a sexual offence having been committed against a child to report this to the police. Given that it is a sexual offence to have sex below the age of 16 researchers involved in research with teenagers in which they may become aware that that they are engaging in sex or sexual activity but are under the age4 of 16 will be obliged to inform the police of this fact. The issue of reporting under-age sex is very complex as in our view there are various categories of under-age sex. We argue that researchers should not comply with the mandatory reporting obligations for underage consensual, non-exploitative sexual activity but in all other cases there should be reporting. We argue that because the mandatory reporting of underage sex/ activity (even consensual and non-exploitative activity may alienate children from services and “punish” them by reporting their conduct to the police, advocacy is needed for a change to the Sexual Offences Act to ensure consistency with the approach taken in the Children’s Act which enables such children to access sexual and reproductive services..

  12. A confirmatory factor analysis of the metabolic syndrome in adolescents: an examination of sex and racial/ethnic differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurka Matthew J

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective The metabolic syndrome (MetS is a cluster of clinical indices that signals increased risk for cardiovascular disease and Type 2 diabetes. The diagnosis of MetS is typically based on cut-off points for various components, e.g. waist circumference and blood pressure. Because current MetS criteria result in racial/ethnic discrepancies, our goal was to use confirmatory factor analysis to delineate differential contributions to MetS by sub-group. Research Design and Methods Using 1999–2010 data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES, we performed a confirmatory factor analysis of a single MetS factor that allowed differential loadings across sex and race/ethnicity, resulting in a continuous MetS risk score that is sex and race/ethnicity-specific. Results Loadings to the MetS score differed by racial/ethnic and gender subgroup with respect to triglycerides and HDL-cholesterol. ROC-curve analysis revealed high area-under-the-curve concordance with MetS by traditional criteria (0.96, and with elevations in MetS-associated risk markers, including high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (0.71, uric acid (0.75 and fasting insulin (0.82. Using a cut off for this score derived from ROC-curve analysis, the MetS risk score exhibited increased sensitivity for predicting elevations in ≥2 of these risk markers as compared with traditional pediatric MetS criteria. Conclusions The equations from this sex- and race/ethnicity-specific analysis provide a clinically-accessible and interpretable continuous measure of MetS that can be used to identify children at higher risk for developing adult diseases related to MetS, who could then be targeted for intervention. These equations also provide a powerful new outcome for use in childhood obesity and MetS research.

  13. Understanding how race/ethnicity and gender define age-trajectories of disability: an intersectionality approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, David F; Brown, Tyson H

    2011-04-01

    A number of studies have demonstrated wide disparities in health among racial/ethnic groups and by gender, yet few have examined how race/ethnicity and gender intersect or combine to affect the health of older adults. The tendency of prior research to treat race/ethnicity and gender separately has potentially obscured important differences in how health is produced and maintained, undermining efforts to eliminate health disparities. The current study extends previous research by taking an intersectionality approach (Mullings & Schulz, 2006), grounded in life course theory, conceptualizing and modeling trajectories of functional limitations as dynamic life course processes that are jointly and simultaneously defined by race/ethnicity and gender. Data from the nationally representative 1994-2006 US Health and Retirement Study and growth curve models are utilized to examine racial/ethnic/gender differences in intra-individual change in functional limitations among White, Black and Mexican American Men and Women, and the extent to which differences in life course capital account for group disparities in initial health status and rates of change with age. Results support an intersectionality approach, with all demographic groups exhibiting worse functional limitation trajectories than White Men. Whereas White Men had the lowest disability levels at baseline, White Women and racial/ethnic minority Men had intermediate disability levels and Black and Hispanic Women had the highest disability levels. These health disparities remained stable with age-except among Black Women who experience a trajectory of accelerated disablement. Dissimilar early life social origins, adult socioeconomic status, marital status, and health behaviors explain the racial/ethnic disparities in functional limitations among Men but only partially explain the disparities among Women. Net of controls for life course capital, Women of all racial/ethnic groups have higher levels of functional

  14. Age trends in rates of substance use disorders across ages 18-90: Differences by gender and race/ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilenko, Sara A; Evans-Polce, Rebecca J; Lanza, Stephanie T

    2017-11-01

    Although research has documented age differences in substance use, less is known about how prevalence of substance use disorders (SUDs) vary across age and differ by gender and race/ethnicity. Time-varying effect models (TVEMs) were estimated on data from the National Epidemiologic Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions-III (NESARC III; N=36,309), a nationally representative survey of the adult population. The sample was 44% male; 53% White, 21% Black, 19% Hispanic/Latino, 6% other race/ethnicity. Prevalence of four SUDs (alcohol, tobacco, cannabis and opioid use disorders) were flexibly estimated across ages 18-90 by gender and race/ethnicity. Estimated SUD prevalences were generally higher for men compared to women at most ages until the 70s. However, disparities by race/ethnicity varied with age, such that for most SUDs, estimated prevalences were higher for White participants at younger ages and Black participants at older ages. Results suggest relatively constant disparities by gender across age, and a crossover effect for Black and White participants. Findings demonstrate that Black individuals in midlife may be an important target of intervention programs for some substances. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Intersections of poverty, race/ethnicity, and sex: Alcohol consumption and adverse outcomes in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Joseph E.; Rathouz, Paul J.; Gattis, Maurice; Joo, Young Sun; Nelson, Jennifer C.; Williams, Emily C.

    2017-01-01

    We examine whether intersectionality theory—which formalizes the notion that adverse health outcomes owing to having a marginalized social status, identity, or characteristic, may be magnified for individuals with an additional marginalized social status, identity, or characteristic —can be applied using quantitative methods to describe the differential effects of poverty on alcohol consumption across sex and race/ethnicity. Using the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, we analyze longitudinal data from Black, Hispanic, and White drinkers (n = 21,140) to assess multiplicative interactions between poverty, as defined by the U.S. Census Bureau, sex, and race/ethnicity, on adverse alcohol outcomes. Findings indicated that the effect of poverty on the past-year incidence of heavy episodic drinking was stronger among Black men and Black women in comparison to men and women of other racial/ethnic groups. Poverty reduction programs that are culturally informed may help reduce racial/ethnic disparities in the adverse outcomes of alcohol consumption. PMID:28349171

  16. Socioeconomic Status, Race/Ethnicity, and Diurnal Cortisol Trajectories in Middle-Aged and Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Laura J; Roth, David L; Schwartz, Brian S; Thorpe, Roland J; Glass, Thomas A

    2018-03-02

    Slow afternoon cortisol decline may be a marker of aging. We hypothesize that lower socioeconomic status (SES) and African American race are associated with lower waking cortisol and slower afternoon decline. Six salivary cortisol samples, collected within a 24-hr period from 566 cohort participants aged 56-78 years, were examined in random-effects models. SES measures included socioeconomic vulnerability (household income and assets Accounting for African American race/ethnicity, socioeconomic vulnerability was associated with a 3% faster decline, and education was not associated with cortisol. African Americans had 26% lower average waking cortisol and 1% slower decline than others. African American race/ethnicity, but not lower SES, was associated with lower waking cortisol and slower afternoon decline in middle-aged and older adults. This pattern is likely a marker of earlier biological aging in vulnerable groups. Race/ethnicity may compete with SES as a measure of cumulative vulnerability.

  17. METACOGNITION IN ENTREPRENEURS: PSYCHOMETRIC DIAGNOSTIC ASSOCIATED TO AGE AND SEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimundo Nonato Lima Filho

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to identify elements that show the influence of the age and sex variables in the metacognitive level of professionals. Survey participants were 851 professionals registered in Bahia's Regional Administration Council who own their own businesses. Two validated psychometric instruments were used: Metacognitive Awareness Inventory (MAI and the Metacognitive Activities Inventory (MCA-I. The hypothesis held that the respondent's age and sex influence their Metacognitive Profile. From the Structural Equation Modeling, the results indicate that the sex variable showed no significant relationship to the Metacognitive Profile. The implications of this study provide empirical conclusions that can aid entrepreneurs, companies, higher education institutions to understand the metacognitive aspects that influence the entrepreneur’s behavior more systematically. Empirically, these results contribute so that the participating drivers of this study, as they develop metacognitive aspects, acquire a competitive advantage in their entrepreneurial performance.

  18. Diversity by race, Hispanic ethnicity, and sex of the United States medical oncology physician workforce over the past quarter century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deville, Curtiland; Chapman, Christina H; Burgos, Ramon; Hwang, Wei-Ting; Both, Stefan; Thomas, Charles R

    2014-09-01

    To assess the medical oncology (MO) physician workforce diversity by race, Hispanic ethnicity, and sex, with attention to trainees. Public registries were used to assess 2010 differences among MO practicing physicians, academic faculty, and fellows; internal medicine (IM) residents; and the US population, using binomial tests with P diversity remains unchanged. For Blacks alone, representation as MO fellows is decreased compared with IM residents, suggesting greater disparity in MO training. Copyright © 2014 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  19. Aging obviates sex-specific physiological responses to exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deschenes, Michael R; Taylor, Jessica L; Mangis, Katherine A

    2013-01-01

    Both sex and aging have been shown to affect physiological responses to exercise. The aim of the present investigation was to determine whether aging impacted the sex-specific nature of physiological responses to exercise commonly noted among young adults. Ten aged men (69.0 ± 1.7 years; mean ± SE) and 10 aged women (71.6 ± 1.3 years) reporting similar levels of habitual physical activity performed a 30-min exercise session at 60-65% of their predetermined peak oxygen uptake. Cardiovascular, thermoregulatory, and metabolic variables were assessed before exercise, at the 15th and 30th min of exercise, and at 5 and 15 min into a passive postexercise recovery period. Variables of interest were statistically analyzed via two-way analysis of variance with repeated measures; significance was set at P physiological variable of interest were identified, but not once was a significant effect of group (i.e., sex) detected. Exercise-induced physiological responses to prolonged, moderate intensity exercise were similar among aged men and aged women. This evidence that the sexually dimorphic nature of physiological responses to exercise is obviated with age should be taken into account when prescribing health-related exercise training programs for older individuals. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Adaptive immunity to rhinoviruses: sex and age matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pritchard Antonia L

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rhinoviruses (RV are key triggers in acute asthma exacerbations. Previous studies suggest that men suffer from infectious diseases more frequently and with greater severity than women. Additionally, the immune response to most infections and vaccinations decreases with age. Most immune function studies do not account for such differences, therefore the aim of this study was to determine if the immune response to rhinovirus varies with sex or age. Methods Blood mononuclear cells were isolated from 63 healthy individuals and grouped by sex and age (≤50 years old and ≥52 years old. Cells were cultured with rhinovirus 16 at a multiplicity of infection of 1. The chemokine IP-10 was measured at 24 h as an index of innate immunity while IFNγ and IL-13 were measured at 5 days as an index of adaptive immunity. Results Rhinovirus induced IFNγ and IL-13 was significantly higher in ≤50 year old women than in age matched men (p 0.005. There was no sex or age based difference in rhinovirus induced IP-10 expression. Both IFNγ and IL-13 were negatively correlated with age in women but not in men. Conclusions This study suggests that pre-menopausal women have a stronger adaptive immune response to rhinovirus infection than men and older people, though the mechanisms responsible for these differences remain to be determined. Our findings highlight the importance of gender and age balance in clinical studies and in the development of new treatments and vaccines.

  1. Bias in online recruitment and retention of racial and ethnic minority men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Patrick S; Khosropour, Christine M; Luisi, Nicole; Amsden, Matthew; Coggia, Tom; Wingood, Gina M; DiClemente, Ralph J

    2011-05-13

    The Internet has become an increasingly popular venue for men who have sex with men (MSM) to meet potential sex partners. Given this rapid increase in online sex-seeking among MSM, Internet-based interventions represent an important HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) prevention strategy. Unfortunately, black and Hispanic MSM, who are disproportionately impacted by the HIV epidemic in the United States, have been underrepresented in online research studies. Our objective was to examine and quantify factors associated with underrecruitment and underretention of MSM of color in an online HIV behavioral risk research study of MSM recruited from an online social networking site. Internet-using MSM were recruited through banner advertisements on MySpace.com targeted at men who reported in their MySpace profile their age as at least 18 and their sexual orientation as gay, bisexual, or unsure. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to estimate the odds stratified by race and ethnicity of the MySpace user clicking through the banner advertisement. To characterize survey retention, Kaplan-Meier survival curves and multivariable Cox proportional hazards models identified factors associated with survey dropout. Over 30,000 MySpace users clicked on the study banner advertisements (click-through rate of 0.37%, or 30,599 clicks from 8,257,271 impressions). Black (0.36% or 6474 clicks from 1,785,088 impressions) and Hispanic (0.35% or 8873 clicks from 2,510,434 impressions) MySpace users had a lower click-through rate compared with white (0.48% or 6995 clicks from 1,464,262 impressions) MySpace users. However, black men had increased odds of click-through for advertisements displaying a black model versus a white model (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 1.83, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.72 - 1.95), and Hispanic participants had increased odds of click-through when shown an advertisement displaying an Asian model versus a white model (adjusted OR = 1.70, 95% CI 1.62 - 1

  2. Chronic stress and neural function: accounting for sex and age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luine, V N; Beck, K D; Bowman, R E; Frankfurt, M; Maclusky, N J

    2007-10-01

    Cognitive responses to stress follow the temporally dependent pattern originally established by Selye (1) wherein short-term stressors elicit adaptive responses whereas continued stress (chronic) results in maladaptive changes--deleterious effects on physiological systems and impaired cognition. However, this pattern for cognitive effects appears to apply to only half the population (males) and, more specifically, to young, adult males. Females show different cognitive responses to stress. In contrast to impaired cognition in males after chronic stress, female rodents show enhanced performance on the same memory tasks after the same stress. Not only cognition, but anxiety, shows sex-dependent changes following chronic stress--stress is anxiolytic in males and anxiogenic in females. Moreover, behavioral responses to chronic stress are different in developing as well as aging subjects (both sexes) as compared to adults. In aged rats, chronic stress enhances recognition memory in both sexes, does not alter spatial memory, and anxiety effects are opposite to young adults. When pregnant dams are exposed to chronic stress, at adulthood the offspring display yet different consequences of stress on anxiety and cognition, and, in contrast to adulthood when the behavioral effects of stress are reversible, prenatal stress effects appear enduring. Changing levels of estradiol in the sexes over the lifespan appear to contribute to the differences in response to stress. Thus, theories of stress dependent modulations in CNS function--developed solely in male models, focused on peripheral physiological processes and tested in adults--may require revision when applied to a more diverse population (age- and sex-wise) at least in relation to the neural functions of cognition and anxiety. Moreover, these results suggest that other stressors and neural functions should be investigated to determine whether age, sex and gonadal hormones also have an impact.

  3. Trace element correlations with age and sex in human fingernails

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhary, K.

    1995-01-01

    Concentrations of 17 elements in fingernails of 92 control individuals with ages ranging from 4 months to 93 years living in a relatively non-industrial environment were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Statistical analysis demonstrated several different patterns of trace element correlation with age and sex. Bromine, Co, Cr, Fe, Na and Sb were found to be negatively correlated (p.<0.05) with age, while Zn was positively correlated (p.<0.05). Silver, Au, Se, and Zn concentrations were found to be higher in females than in males. Males had higher concentrations of Na and K than females. Significant interelement correlations were also observed. The age and sex variations observed should prove to be useful in proper interpretation of elemental imbalances associated with degenerative neurological diseases, especially in view of recent reports that markers for AD have been detected in external tissue. (author). 22 refs., 4 tabs

  4. Influence of age, sex and pregnancy status on some blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blood samples were obtained from 80 rabbits of mixed breeds comprising adults, growers and weaners between June and August 2005 to determine the mean variations in packed cell volume (PCV), Haemoglobin (Hb) and Total Protein (TP) as affected by sex, age and pregnancy status. The mean variation in PCV, Hb and ...

  5. Preschoolers' Beliefs about Sex and Age Differences in Emotionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbon, Mariss; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Assesses beliefs of 32 male and 35 female middle-class preschool children about the frequency and intensity with which girls, boys, women, and men experience anger, sadness, and happiness. Children's beliefs are complex; they vary as a function of the target person's age and sex and of the specific emotion. (SLD)

  6. Age and Ethnic Differences in Cold Weather and Contagion Theories of Colds and Flu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigelman, Carol K.

    2012-01-01

    Age and ethnic group differences in cold weather and contagion or germ theories of infectious disease were explored in two studies. A cold weather theory was frequently invoked to explain colds and to a lesser extent flu but became less prominent with age as children gained command of a germ theory of disease. Explanations of how contact with…

  7. Toward a Demographic Understanding of Incarceration Disparities : Race, Ethnicity, and Age Structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogel, M.S.; Porter, L.C.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Non-Hispanic blacks and Hispanics in the United States are more likely to be incarcerated than non-Hispanic whites. The risk of incarceration also varies with age, and there are striking differences in age distributions across racial/ethnic groups. Guided by these trends, the present

  8. Disparities in Birth Weight and Gestational Age by Ethnic Ancestry in South American countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehby, George L.; Gili, Juan A.; Pawluk, Mariela; Castilla, Eduardo E.; López-Camelo, Jorge S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective We examine disparities in birth weight and gestational age by ethnic ancestry in 2000–2011 in eight South American countries. Methods The sample included 60480 singleton live-births. Regression models were estimated to evaluate differences in birth outcomes by ethnic ancestry controlling for time trends. Results Significant disparities were found in seven countries. In four countries – Brazil, Ecuador, Uruguay, and Venezuela – we found significant disparities in both low birth weight and preterm birth. Disparities in preterm birth alone were observed in Argentina, Bolivia, and Colombia. Several differences in continuous birth weight, gestational age, and fetal growth rate were also observed. There were no systematic patterns of disparities between the evaluated ethnic ancestry groups across the study countries, in that no racial/ethnic group consistently had the best or worst outcomes in all countries. Conclusions Racial/ethnic disparities in infant health are common in several South American countries. Differences across countries suggest that racial/ethnic disparities are driven by social and economic mechanisms. Researchers and policymakers should acknowledge these disparities and develop research and policy programs to effectively target them. PMID:25542227

  9. Age and ethnicity differences in storytelling to young children: emotionality, relationality, and socialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasupathi, Monisha; Henry, Risha M; Carstensen, Laura L

    2002-12-01

    Research has shown that age and ethnicity are associated with individuals' motivations for emotional regulation and social interaction. The authors proposed that these age and ethnicity-related motives would be reflected in storytelling. Women representing 2 age and 2 ethnic groups (young adulthood, oldage, African American, European American) told stories to young girls. Stories were coded for emotional, relational, and socialization focus. They predicted that older adults would selectively emphasize positive over negative emotions and would direct more utterances toward their interaction with their listener. The authors expected that African Americans would be more likely to emphasize socialization themes. Results suggest that older adults positively modulate emotional content while storytelling; qualified support was found for hypotheses concerning socialization and interrelational emphasis.

  10. Roles of sex and ethnicity in procurement coordinator--family communication during the organ donation discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baughn, Daniel; Auerbach, Stephen M; Siminoff, Laura A

    2010-09-01

    Interpersonal relations with health care providers influence families' decisions to consent to solid-organ donation. However, previous research has been based on retrospective interviews with donation-eligible families and has not directly examined the interpersonal interactions between families and organ procurement coordinators. To increase understanding of the interpersonal interaction between procurement coordinators and families during the organ donation discussion, with special attention to the influence of the sex and race of the procurement coordinator and the race of the potential donor's family. A descriptive study in which standardized patients portrayed family members interacting with actual procurement coordinators in simulated donation request scenarios. Thirty-three videotaped interactions between standardized patients and 17 procurement coordinators involving 2 different scenarios depicting deceased donation were evaluated. Video recordings were rated by independent coders. Coders completed the Impact Message Inventory-Form C, the Participatory Style of Physician Scale, and the Siminoff Communication and Content and Affect Program-Global Observer Ratings scale. African American procurement coordinators, particularly African American women, were rated as more controlling and work-oriented than white procurement coordinators. Male procurement coordinators were more affiliative with the white family than the African American family, whereas female procurement coordinators were slightly less affiliative with the white family. African American procurement coordinators expressed more positive affect when interacting with the African American family than the white family, whereas the opposite was true for white procurement coordinators. Research is needed to cross-validate these exploratory findings and further examine cultural mistrust between procurement coordinators and families of ethnic minorities, especially given the negative attitudes of many

  11. Sex and age related differences in postmyelographic adverse reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maly, P.

    1989-01-01

    Differences in frequency of postmyelographic adverse reactions were analyzed with respect to sex and age in a prospective study including 1026 patients injected with metrizamide and 739 injected with iohexol. Regardless of the type of contrast medium or myelography, all types of adverse reactions were 1.4-3.8 times as frequent in women as in men. Most of the differences were statistically significant. Headache was more frequent, while vomiting and dizziness were less frequent in both women and men aged 26-50 years compared with those over 50 years of age. Dizziness and increased low back pain were consistently reported spontaneously by the patients less frequently than emerged via formal interview. The large differences between the sexes suggest that further research on contrast media toxicity would be best performed with separation of the data by gender. (orig.)

  12. The applicability of Greulich and Pyle atlas to assess skeletal age for four ethnic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansourvar, Marjan; Ismail, Maizatul Akmar; Raj, Ram Gopal; Kareem, Sameem Abdul; Aik, Saw; Gunalan, Roshan; Antony, Chermaine Deepa

    2014-02-01

    Recently, determination of skeletal age, defined as the assessment of bone age, has rapidly become an important task between forensic experts and radiologists. The Greulich-Pyle (GP) atlas is one of the most frequently used methods for the assessment of skeletal age around the world. After presentation of the GP approach for the estimation of the bone age, much research has been conducted to examine the usability of this method in various geographic or ethnic categories. This study investigates on a small-scale and compares the reliability of the GP atlas for assessment of the bone age for four ethnic groups - Asian, African/American, Caucasian and Hispanic - for a different range of ages. Plain radiographs of 184 left hands and wrists for males from the healthy sample between 1 to 18 years of age for four ethnic groups were taken. The skeletal age (SA) was estimated by a radiologist using the GP atlas. The blind method was utilized. The mean (SA) results were compared with mean chronological ages (CA) for the separate ethnic groups. SPSS was used to conduct the analysis and the paired t-test was applied to show the difference between the mean CA and mean SA achieved from the GP atlas. The results from the GP atlas were compared to the CA of the samples. In Asian subjects the mean difference was 0.873 years. The GP atlas showed delayed bone age at 2-7 ages (from 0.2 to 2.3 year) and then advanced bone age for age 8. In the African/American subjects the difference between CA and SA was statistically significant (P-value = 0.048). The mean difference in the Caucasian and Hispanic subjects reflects no considerable distinction with a standard deviation (SD) of 0.3088 and 0.3766, respectively, (P-value >0.05 for both groups). According to the present study, it is concluded that although the GP atlas is reliable for Caucasian and Hispanic ethnic groups it is not applicable for other ethnic groups for different ranges of age, especially in the sample of the male African

  13. Ethnic variability in body size, proportions and composition in children aged 5 to 11 years: is ethnic-specific calibration of bioelectrical impedance required?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Lee

    Full Text Available Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA has the potential to be used widely as a method of assessing body fatness and composition, both in clinical and community settings. BIA provides bioelectrical properties, such as whole-body impedance which ideally needs to be calibrated against a gold-standard method in order to provide accurate estimates of fat-free mass. UK studies in older children and adolescents have shown that, when used in multi-ethnic populations, calibration equations need to include ethnic-specific terms, but whether this holds true for younger children remains to be elucidated. The aims of this study were to examine ethnic differences in body size, proportions and composition in children aged 5 to 11 years, and to establish the extent to which such differences could influence BIA calibration.In a multi-ethnic population of 2171 London primary school-children (47% boys; 34% White, 29% Black African/Caribbean, 25% South Asian, 12% Other detailed anthropometric measurements were performed and ethnic differences in body size and proportion were assessed. Ethnic differences in fat-free mass, derived by deuterium dilution, were further evaluated in a subsample of the population (n = 698. Multiple linear regression models were used to calibrate BIA against deuterium dilution.In children < 11 years of age, Black African/Caribbean children were significantly taller, heavier and had larger body size than children of other ethnicities. They also had larger waist and limb girths and relatively longer legs. Despite these differences, ethnic-specific terms did not contribute significantly to the BIA calibration equation (Fat-free mass = 1.12+0.71*(height2/impedance+0.18*weight.Although clear ethnic differences in body size, proportions and composition were evident in this population of young children aged 5 to 11 years, an ethnic-specific BIA calibration equation was not required.

  14. Ethnic differences in age of onset and prevalence of disordered ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-11-03

    Nov 3, 2010 ... economic classes, who lived in socially competitive environments.5 ... eating disorders among black female South Africans only appeared ... to experience a significant increase in reported bulimia-associated behaviours in grades ... behaviours across three educational phases (age of onset) for black.

  15. Ethnic Residential Segregation in the United Kingdom by Age Group: the Case of Bradford

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David McEvoy

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available There is a long running debate on the significance of ethnic residential segregation levels in Britain. These phenomena have been related to the extent of community cohesion in British cities, and particularly to the riots of 2001 in the north of England. Further light is cast on these issues by examining ethnic segregation by age in the case of Bradford, the location of the largest riot. Both the dissimilarity index and the exposure index are used to consider relations between the White British and the largest minorities at ward level and at census output area level. The level of segregation is shown to vary with age, usually in a consistent direction. The direction varies between ethnic groups however.

  16. Analysis of mortality trends by specific ethnic groups and age groups in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Rose Irnawaty; Siri, Zailan

    2014-07-01

    The number of people surviving until old age has been increasing worldwide. Reduction in fertility and mortality have resulted in increasing survival of populations to later life. This study examines the mortality trends among the three main ethnic groups in Malaysia, namely; the Malays, Chinese and Indians for four important age groups (adolescents, adults, middle age and elderly) for both gender. Since the data on mortality rates in Malaysia is only available in age groups such as 1-5, 5-9, 10-14, 15-19 and so on, hence some distribution or interpolation method was essential to expand it to the individual ages. In the study, the Heligman and Pollard model will be used to expand the mortality rates from the age groups to the individual ages. It was found that decreasing trend in all age groups and ethnic groups. Female mortality is significantly lower than male mortality, and the difference may be increasing. Also the mortality rates for females are different than that for males in all ethnic groups, and the difference is generally increasing until it reaches its peak at the oldest age category. Due to the decreasing trend of mortality rates, the government needs to plan for health program to support more elderly people in the coming years.

  17. Alcohol-related blackouts among college students: impact of low level of response to alcohol, ethnicity, sex, and environmental characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila D. Gonçalves

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore how a genetically-influenced characteristic (the level of response to alcohol [LR], ethnicity, and sex relate to environmental and attitudinal characteristics (peer drinking [PEER], drinking to cope [COPE], and alcohol expectancies [EXPECT] regarding future alcohol-related blackouts (ARBs. Methods: Structural equation models (SEMs were used to evaluate how baseline variables related to ARB patterns in 462 college students over 55 weeks. Data were extracted from a longitudinal study of heavy drinking and its consequences at a U.S. university. Results: In the SEM analysis, female sex and Asian ethnicity directly predicted future ARBs (beta weights 0.10 and -0.11, respectively, while all other variables had indirect impacts on ARBs through alcohol quantities (beta weights ~ 0.23 for European American ethnicity and low LR, 0.21 for cannabis use and COPE, and 0.44 for PEER. Alcohol quantities then related to ARBs with beta = 0.44. The SEM explained 23% of the variance. Conclusion: These data may be useful in identifying college students who are more likely to experience future ARBs over a 1-year period. They enhance our understanding of whether the relationships of predictors to ARBs are direct or mediated through baseline drinking patterns, information that may be useful in prevention strategies for ARBs.

  18. Race/ethnic disparities in reproductive age: an examination of ovarian reserve estimates across four race/ethnic groups of healthy, regularly cycling women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleil, Maria E; Gregorich, Steven E; Adler, Nancy E; Sternfeld, Barbara; Rosen, Mitchell P; Cedars, Marcelle I

    2014-01-01

    To determine whether reproductive age, as indexed by a validated marker of ovarian reserve (antimüllerian hormone [AMH]), varies among women of different race/ethnic backgrounds. Cross-sectional study. Community-based sample. Multiethnic sample of 947 (277 white, 237 African American, 220 Latina, and 213 Chinese) healthy and regularly cycling premenopausal women, ages 25-45. None. AMH level. A multivariate model was fit examining race/ethnicity, covariates, nonlinear terms for age (age(2), age(3)), and body mass index (BMI(2), BMI(3)), and two-way interactions between race/ethnicity and each of the other predictor variables in relation to AMH. After backward elimination, significant effects included race/ethnicity (F = 8.45), age (F = 349.94), race/ethnicity-by-linear age interaction (F = 4.67), age(2) (F = 31.61), and BMI (F = 10.69). Inspection of the significant race/ethnicity-by-linear age interaction showed AMH levels were consistently lower among Latina women compared with white women across all ages, whereas AMH levels were lower among African American and Chinese women compared with the white women at younger and middle ages, respectively. The AMH levels were higher among African American compared with Latina and Chinese women at older ages. Although the results must be considered preliminary, the findings are twofold: African American women may have lower AMH levels at younger ages but experience less of a reduction in AMH with advancing age, and Latina and Chinese women compared with white women may have lower AMH levels, marking a lower ovarian reserve and a possibly increased risk for earlier menopause. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Teeth, sex, and testosterone: aging in the world's smallest primate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Zohdy

    Full Text Available Mouse lemurs (Microcebus spp. are an exciting new primate model for understanding human aging and disease. In captivity, Microcebus murinus develops human-like ailments of old age after five years (e.g., neurodegeneration analogous to Alzheimer's disease but can live beyond 12 years. It is believed that wild Microcebus follow a similar pattern of senescence observed in captive animals, but that predation limits their lifespan to four years, thus preventing observance of these diseases in the wild. Testing whether this assumption is true is informative about both Microcebus natural history and environmental influences on senescence, leading to interpretation of findings for models of human aging. Additionally, the study of Microcebus longevity provides an opportunity to better understand mechanisms of sex-biased longevity. Longevity is often shorter in males of species with high male-male competition, such as Microcebus, but mouse lemurs are sexually monomorphic, suggesting similar lifespans. We collected individual-based observations of wild brown mouse lemurs (Microcebus rufus from 2003-2010 to investigate sex-differences in survival and longevity. Fecal testosterone was measured as a potential mechanism of sex-based differences in survival. We used a combination of high-resolution tooth wear techniques, mark-recapture, and hormone enzyme immunoassays. We found no dental or physical signs of senescence in M. rufus as old as eight years (N = 189, ages 1-8, mean = 2.59 ± 1.63 SE, three years older than captive, senescent congeners (M. murinus. Unlike other polygynandrous vertebrates, we found no sex difference in age-dependent survival, nor sex or age differences in testosterone levels. While elevated male testosterone levels have been implicated in shorter lifespans in several species, this is one of the first studies to show equivalent testosterone levels accompanying equivalent lifespans. Future research on captive aged individuals can

  20. "Love without sex is friendship. Sex without love is desire": sex life in old age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Berger

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with sexuality in old age. This is a comparative study between classes "A" and "D". The main objective of this paper is to state the following paradox: on the one hand, sexuality in old age has been affirmed and valued in the construction of feminine self-esteem, on the other, can not only blame the woman who can not adhere to them, as well as produce a new homogenization of "being old" now associated with the proper management of sexuality.

  1. Autonomic receptors in urinary tract: Sex and age differences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latifpour, J.; Kondo, S.; O'Hollaren, B.; Morita, T.; Weiss, R.M.

    1990-01-01

    As age and sex affect the function of the lower urinary tract, we studied the characteristics of adrenergic and cholinergic receptors in various parts of lower urinary tract smooth muscle of young (6 months) and old (4 1/2-5 years) male and female rabbits. Saturation experiments performed with [3H]prazosin, [3H]yohimbine, [3H]dihydroalprenolol and [3H]quinuclidinyl benzylate in rabbit bladder base, bladder dome and urethra indicate the presence of regional, sex- and age-related differences in the density of alpha-1, alpha-2, and beta adrenergic and muscarinic cholinergic receptors. Alpha-2 adrenergic receptor density is considerably higher in the female than in the male urethra of both age groups, whereas the higher density of beta adrenergic receptors in the female than in the male bladder base is observed only in the younger animals. The density of muscarinic receptors is higher in bladder dome than in bladder base or urethra in young rabbits of both sexes. In the old animals, the density of muscarinic receptors in bladder base increases to the level observed in bladder dome. Inhibition experiments with selective adrenergic agonists and antagonists indicate that the pharmacological profiles of alpha-2 adrenergic receptors in the urethra and beta adrenergic receptors in the bladder dome and bladder base are similar in both sexes and at both ages. Beta-2 adrenergic receptors are shown to be predominant in bladder base and bladder dome of rabbits. Parallel studies in rabbit urethra, adult rat cortex and neonatal rat lung show that the urethral alpha-2 adrenergic receptors are of the alpha-2A subtype

  2. Gluten Intolerance: Sex- and Age-Related Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MJ Llorente-Alonso

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Gluten intolerance is an immune-mediated enteropathy associated with gluten-containing foods in genetically susceptible patients. The typical form mainly affecting children shows failure to thrive and/or gastrointestinal symptoms. The adult form is less typical, presenting vague gastrointestinal symptoms, iron deficiency (with or without anemia or nonspecific serum chemistry abnormalities. The present study aims to analyze clinical and biochemical differences of celiac disease (CD according to sex and age.

  3. Energy and Nutrient Intakes from Processed Foods Differ by Sex, Income Status, and Race/Ethnicity of US Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eicher-Miller, Heather A; Fulgoni, Victor L; Keast, Debra R

    2015-06-01

    The 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA) recommends nutrients to increase and to decrease for US adults. The contributions processed foods make to the US intake of nutrients to increase and decrease may vary by the level of processing and by population subgroup. The hypotheses that the intakes of nutrients to increase or decrease, as specified by the DGA, are contributed exclusively from certain processed food categories and consumed differentially by population subgroups by sex, poverty-income ratio (ratio of household income to poverty threshold), and race/ethnicity was tested along with the hypothesis that specific processed food categories are responsible for nutrient intake differences between the population subgroups. The 24-hour dietary recall data from the cross-sectional 2003-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey was used to determine population subgroup energy and nutrient intake differences among processed food categories defined by the International Food Information Council Foundation Continuum of Processed Foods. Fifteen thousand fifty-three US adults aged ≥19 years. The mean daily intake of energy and nutrients from processed food categories reported by population subgroups were compared using regression analysis to determine covariate-adjusted least square means. Processed food categories that contributed to energy and nutrient intake differences within subgroups did not uniformly or exclusively contribute nutrients to increase or decrease per DGA recommendations. The between-group differences in mean daily intake of both nutrients to increase and decrease contributed by the various processed food categories were diverse and were not contributed exclusively from specific processed food categories. Recommendations for a diet adhering to the DGA should continue to focus on the energy and nutrient content, frequency of consumption, and serving size of individual foods rather than the level of processing. Copyright © 2015

  4. Cultural Orientation in Asian American Adolescents: Variation by Age and Ethnic Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Yu-Wen; Han, Meekyung; Wong, Sandra L.

    2008-01-01

    The study assessed variation in cultural orientation among Asian American adolescents by age and ethnic density in the community. A total of 128 students at a public high school in Oakland, California, participated in the study. Of these early and middle adolescents, 86 were Chinese American and 42 were Southeast Asian American. They completed the…

  5. Ethnic Differences in Cardiometabolic Risk Profile at Age 5-6 Years: The ABCD Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Hoog, Marieke L. A.; van Eijsden, Manon; Stronks, Karien; Gemke, Reinoud J. B. J.; Vrijkotte, Tanja G. M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: To examine ethnic differences in cardiometabolic risk profile in early age, and explore whether such differences can be explained by differences in body mass index (BMI) or waist circumference (WC). Method: Anthropometric measurements, blood pressure and (in a subsample) fasting blood

  6. Correlates of safe sex behaviour among low-educated adolescents of different ethnic origin in Antwerp, Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrickx, Kristin; Philips, Hilde; Avonts, Dirk

    2008-06-01

    Several reports suggest that low educated adolescents of ethnic minority origin are at a higher risk of acquiring a sexually transmitted infection (STI) than autochthonous teens. On the other hand, focus group research with young Moroccan boys revealed a positive attitude towards condom use; they claim to use a condom even more frequently than their Belgian peers. The aim of this study is to document the behavioural, educational and social correlates that influence the use of condoms among low educated adolescents of different origin. Data from 378 questionnaires completed by 253 native Belgian and 125 ethnic minority adolescents, mostly Moslems, were analysed with the statistic software: SPSS. Results were interpreted according to the behavioural science ASE model (Attitude, Social influences, self-Efficacy). Native boys discuss sexual items more frequently with their parents and sexual partner, while boys in the other group address their questions more frequently to teachers, pharmacists and doctors. In both groups the most important correlate of safe sex intention and behaviour is the self-efficacy variable 'both partners taking the initiative with regard to condom use'. This correlate refers to communication skills. Parental support and quality of general communication about sexuality with the parents are very important for both groups. A positive attitude of peers influences the intention of condom use in both groups. There is no significant difference in sexual activity and safe sex behaviour between native boys and young males of ethnic minority. Self efficacy (correct condom use and taking the initiative) is the most prominent predictor of safe sex behaviour in both groups.

  7. How age matters : Exploring contemporary Dutch debates on age and sex work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.V. Coumans (Sara Vida)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractSocial protection policies regarding sex work in The Netherlands use ‘age’ as an instrument to create binaries between adults and young people. The concept ‘chronological age’ assumes that age is a static feature and supports the process of categorization; however, age is a socially

  8. Effect of age and sex on warfarin dosing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khoury G

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Ghada Khoury,1 Marwan Sheikh-Taha2 1School of Pharmacy, 2Department of Pharmacy Practice, Lebanese American University, Byblos, Lebanon Objective: We examined the potential effect of sex and age on warfarin dosing in ambulatory adult patients. Methods: We conducted a retrospective chart review of patients attending an anticoagulation clinic. We included patients anticoagulated with warfarin for atrial fibrillation or venous thromboembolism who had a therapeutic international normalized ratio of 2–3 for 2 consecutive months. We excluded patients who had been on any drug that is known to have a major interaction with warfarin, smokers, and heavy alcohol consumers. Out of 340 screened medical records, 96 met the predetermined inclusion criteria. The primary outcome assessed was warfarin total weekly dose (TWD. Results: There was a statistically significant difference in the TWD among the ages (P<0.01; older patients required lower doses. However there was no statistically significant difference in the TWD between sexes (P=0.281. Conclusion: Age was found to have a significant effect on warfarin dosing. Even though women did require a lower TWD than men, this observation was not statistically significant. Keywords: warfarin, INR, anticoagulation, vitamin K antagonists, age

  9. Polypharmacy: correlations with sex, age and drug regimen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum, L; Søgaard, J; Hallas, J

    1998-01-01

    by inhabitants in the county of Funen (n = 466567). The number of individuals concurrently using two to four drugs (minor PP) and five or more drugs (major PP) was calculated on a random day in 1994. Drugs were classified according to the Anatomical Therapeutical Chemical (ATC) classification index. The main...... therapeutic class (second level of the ATC code) was used as an indicator for the type of health problem. A stepwise backwards logistic regression was used to identify predictors of major PP. Odds ratios were calculated for different drug classes, and the age and sex of all drug users. RESULTS: On a random...... day, 8.3% of the population were exposed to minor PP and 1.2% to major PP. The prevalence of PP increased with age, and from the age of 70 years, two thirds of all drug users were PP users. Drug use was 50% more prevalent among women than men, but over the age of 70, the sexes did not differ...

  10. Ethnic and sex differences in E-cigarette use and relation to alcohol use in California adolescents: the California Health Interview Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, D N; Fan, W

    2018-04-01

    E-cigarette use is not only prevalent among adolescents but is growing at an alarming rate. This study sought to determine e-cigarette use prevalence and its relation to alcohol use as a potential gateway drug, and how this may differ by sex and ethnicity in a multi-ethnic sample of California adolescents. Cross-sectional survey. We included data from 1806 adolescents (weighted to 3.0 million) aged 12-17 in the 2014 and 2015 California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) cycles. The prevalence of e-cigarette use was calculated within sex and ethnic groups and the prevalence of alcohol use according to e-cigarette use was also examined with sample weighting providing population estimates. Multiple logistic regression models were built to predict the odds of using alcohol from e-cigarette use status adjusted for sociodemographic and other characteristics. The prevalence of e-cigarette use was 9.1% (projected to 0.3 million) overall in California adolescents but highest in boys among non-Hispanic Whites (15.1%) and in Asian girls (13.3%). Among e-cigarette users, 61.3% of boys and 71.0% of girls reported using alcohol as well. The logistic regression odds of alcohol use, adjusted for age, ethnicity, body mass index, cigarette smoking status, socioeconomic status, parents' education level, and insurance status among e-cigarettes users (compared with non-users) was 9.2 in girls and 3.1 in boys (both P < 0.01). Asians/others, non-Hispanic whites and Hispanics were similarly at increased odds: 17.8, 5.4, and 3.0, respectively (P < 0.01 for Asians/others and for whites) of using alcohol compared with their non-e-cigarette using counterparts, respectively. Attention needs to be paid to the high prevalence of e-cigarette smoking as well as its potential as a gateway drug for alcohol drinking in adolescents, especially among girls and Asians. Copyright © 2018 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Trends in state/territorial obesity prevalence by race/ethnicity among U.S. low-income, preschool-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, L; Grummer-Strawn, L M; McGuire, L C; Park, S; Blanck, H M

    2016-10-01

    Understanding state/territorial trends in obesity by race/ethnicity helps focus resources on populations at risk. This study aimed to examine trends in obesity prevalence among low-income, preschool-aged children from 2008 through 2011 in U.S. states and territories by race/ethnicity. We used measured weight and height records of 11.1 million children aged 2-4 years who participated in federally funded health and nutrition programmes in 40 states, the District of Columbia and two U.S. territories. We used logistic regression to examine obesity prevalence trends, controlling for age and sex. From 2008 through 2011, the aggregated obesity prevalence declined among all racial/ethnic groups (decreased by 0.4-0.9%) except American Indians/Alaska Natives (AI/ANs); the largest decrease was among Asians/Pacific Islanders (A/PIs). Declines were significant among non-Hispanic whites in 14 states, non-Hispanic blacks in seven states/territories, Hispanics in 13 states, A/PIs in five states and AI/ANs in one state. Increases were significant among non-Hispanic whites in four states, non-Hispanic blacks in three states, Hispanics in two states and A/PIs in one state. The majority of the states/territories had no change in obesity prevalence. Our findings indicate slight reductions in obesity prevalence and variations in obesity trends, but disparities exist for some states and racial/ethnic groups. © 2015 World Obesity.

  12. Race/Ethnic Differences in Birth Size, Infant Growth, and Body Mass Index at Age Five Years in Children in Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshiro, Caryn E S; Novotny, Rachel; Grove, John S; Hurwitz, Eric L

    2015-12-01

    Factors at birth and infancy may increase risk of being overweight in childhood. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship of birth size and infant growth (2-24 months) with BMI at age 5 years in a multiethnic population. This was a retrospective study (using electronic medical records of a health maintenance organization in Hawaii) of singleton children born in 2004-2005, with linked maternal and birth information, infant weights (n = 597) and lengths (n = 473) in the first 2 years, and BMI measures at age 5 years (n = 894). Multiple regression models were used to estimate the association of BMI at age 5 years with birth size and infant growth. Birth weight was positively associated with BMI at age 5 years, adjusting for gestational age, sex, race/ethnicity, and maternal prepregnancy weight, age, education, and smoking. A greater change in infant weight was associated with a higher BMI at age 5 years, though the effect of birth weight on BMI was neither mediated nor modified by infant growth rate. Birth weight, change in infant weight, and BMI at age 5 years varied by race/ethnicity. Change in infant BMI in the first 2 years was higher in other Pacific Islanders and whites (Δ = 0.966; confidence interval [CI] = 0.249-1.684; p = 0.02) than in Asian, other, and part Native Hawaiian race/ethnic groups. Early biological measures of birth weight and infant weight gain varied by race/ethnicity and positively predicted BMI at age 5 years.

  13. Parentification, substance use, and sex among adolescent daughters from ethnic minority families: the moderating role of monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Jina; Cederbaum, Julie A; Hurlburt, Michael S

    2014-06-01

    Guided by structural family systems theory, this study explored the relationship between parentification and adolescent daughters' sexual risk engagement and substance use. We also explored how adolescent reports of parental monitoring moderated the relationship between parentification and adolescent risk. Data were from a cross-sectional, cross-generational study of 176 mother-daughter dyads from low-income, inner-city, ethnic minority families. In this sample, which included a subset of mothers with HIV, parental physical symptoms were associated with slightly higher levels of parentification. Parentification was associated with adolescent daughters' intention to have sex (but not substance use) in a direction opposite to prediction. Higher parentification was associated with lower intention to have sex. Parental monitoring did not moderate relationships between parentification and adolescent risk. These findings highlight that despite the negative influence hypothesized in structural family systems theory, parentification was not associated with risk engagement of high-risk adolescent daughters in ethnic minority families with low income. © 2013 FPI, Inc.

  14. A Differential Item Functional Analysis by Age of Perceived Interpersonal Discrimination in a Multi-racial/ethnic Sample of Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Sherry; Kristjansson, Alfgeir L; Hunte, Haslyn E R

    2015-11-05

    We investigated whether individual items on the nine item William's Perceived Everyday Discrimination Scale (EDS) functioned differently by age (ethnic group. Overall, Asian and Hispanic respondents reported less discrimination than Whites; on the other hand, African Americans and Black Caribbeans reported more discrimination than Whites. Regardless of race/ethnicity, the younger respondents (aged ethnicity, the results were mixed for 19 out of 45 tests of DIF (40%). No differences in item function were observed among Black Caribbeans. "Being called names or insulted" and others acting as "if they are afraid" of the respondents were the only two items that did not exhibit differential item functioning by age across all racial/ethnic groups. Overall, our findings suggest that the EDS scale should be used with caution in multi-age multi-racial/ethnic samples.

  15. An evaluation of sex-age-kill (SAK) model performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millspaugh, Joshua J.; Skalski, John R.; Townsend, Richard L.; Diefenbach, Duane R.; Boyce, Mark S.; Hansen, Lonnie P.; Kammermeyer, Kent

    2009-01-01

    The sex-age-kill (SAK) model is widely used to estimate abundance of harvested large mammals, including white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Despite a long history of use, few formal evaluations of SAK performance exist. We investigated how violations of the stable age distribution and stationary population assumption, changes to male or female harvest, stochastic effects (i.e., random fluctuations in recruitment and survival), and sampling efforts influenced SAK estimation. When the simulated population had a stable age distribution and λ > 1, the SAK model underestimated abundance. Conversely, when λ < 1, the SAK overestimated abundance. When changes to male harvest were introduced, SAK estimates were opposite the true population trend. In contrast, SAK estimates were robust to changes in female harvest rates. Stochastic effects caused SAK estimates to fluctuate about their equilibrium abundance, but the effect dampened as the size of the surveyed population increased. When we considered both stochastic effects and sampling error at a deer management unit scale the resultant abundance estimates were within ±121.9% of the true population level 95% of the time. These combined results demonstrate extreme sensitivity to model violations and scale of analysis. Without changes to model formulation, the SAK model will be biased when λ ≠ 1. Furthermore, any factor that alters the male harvest rate, such as changes to regulations or changes in hunter attitudes, will bias population estimates. Sex-age-kill estimates may be precise at large spatial scales, such as the state level, but less so at the individual management unit level. Alternative models, such as statistical age-at-harvest models, which require similar data types, might allow for more robust, broad-scale demographic assessments.

  16. Age at menopause and incident heart failure: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebong, Imo A; Watson, Karol E; Goff, David C; Bluemke, David A; Srikanthan, Preethi; Horwich, Tamara; Bertoni, Alain G

    2014-06-01

    This study aims to evaluate the associations of early menopause (menopause occurring before age 45 years) and age at menopause with incident heart failure (HF) in postmenopausal women. We also explored the associations of early menopause and age at menopause with left ventricular (LV) measures of structure and function in postmenopausal women. We included 2,947 postmenopausal women, aged 45 to 84 years without known cardiovascular disease (2000-2002), from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine the associations of early menopause and age at menopause with incident HF. In 2,123 postmenopausal women in whom cardiac magnetic resonance imaging was obtained at baseline, we explored the associations of early menopause and age at menopause with LV measures using multivariable linear regression. Across a median follow-up of 8.5 years, we observed 71 HF events. There were no significant interactions with ethnicity for incident HF (Pinteraction > 0.05). In adjusted analysis, early menopause was associated with an increased risk of incident HF (hazard ratio, 1.66; 95% CI, 1.01-2.73), whereas every 1-year increase in age at menopause was associated with a decreased risk of incident HF (hazard ratio, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.94-0.99). We observed significant interactions between early menopause and ethnicity for LV mass-to-volume ratio (LVMVR; Pinteraction = 0.02). In Chinese-American women, early menopause was associated with a higher LVMVR (+0.11; P = 0.0002), whereas every 1-year increase in age at menopause was associated with a lower LVMVR (-0.004; P = 0.04) at baseline. Older age at menopause is independently associated with a decreased risk of incident HF. Concentric LV remodeling, indicated by a higher LVMVR, is present in Chinese-American women who experienced early menopause at baseline.

  17. Maximum mouth opening of ethnic Chinese in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuang-Ta Yao

    2009-03-01

    Conclusion: Within the limits of this study, we concluded that both sex and age have significant influences on the MMO value of ethnic Chinese in Taiwan, and age is a significant predictor of MMO measurements.

  18. Intake of Seafood in the US Varies by Age, Income, and Education Level but Not by Race-Ethnicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Jahns

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Current US federal dietary guidance recommends regular consumption of seafood (fish + shellfish to promote health; however, little is known about how well Americans meet the guideline, particularly population subgroups that may be at risk for inadequate intake. The purposes of this study were to describe the prevalence of seafood consumption and, among consumers, the amounts of seafood eaten by sex, age group, income and education level, and race-ethnicity. Data from 15,407 adults aged 19+ participating in the 2005–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys were analyzed using methods to account for sporadic intake of seafood. Over 80% of Americans reported consuming any seafood over the past 30 days, 74% reported consuming fish, and 54% reported eating shellfish. The percentages varied by socio-demographic group. Younger age and lower income and education levels were associated with lower odds of being a seafood consumer (p < 0.0001. Among those who reported eating seafood, the average amount eaten of any seafood was 158.2 ± 5.6 g/week. Among seafood consumers, women and individuals of lower age and education levels consumed less seafood. Approximately 80%–90% of seafood consumers did not meet seafood recommendations when needs were estimated by energy requirements. A great deal of work remains to move Americans toward seafood consumption at current recommended levels.

  19. Trends in SSBs and snack consumption among children by age, body weight and race/ethnicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleich, Sara N.; Wolfson, Julia A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe national trends in discretionary calories from sugar sweetened beverage (SSB) and snacks by age-specific body weight categories and by age- and weight-specific race/ethnicity groups. Examining these sub-populations is important as population averages may mask important differences. Design and Methods We used 24-hour dietary recall data obtained from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003–2010 among children aged 2 to 19 (N=14,092). Logistic and linear regression methods were used to adjust for multiple covariates and survey design. Results The number of calories from SSBs declined significantly for nearly all age-specific body weight groups. Among overweight or obese children, significant declines in the number of calories from SSBs were observed among Hispanic children aged 2 to 5 (117 kcal vs. 174 kcal) and white adolescents aged 12 to 19 (299 kcal vs. 365 kcal). Significant declines in the number of calories from salty snacks were observed among white children aged 2 to 5 (192 kcal to 134 kcal) and 6 to 11 (273 kcal vs. 200 kcal). Conclusions The decrease in SSB consumption and increase in snack consumption observed in prior research are not uniform when children are examined within sub-groups accounting for age, weight and race/ethnicity. PMID:25919923

  20. Trends in SSBs and snack consumption among children by age, body weight, and race/ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleich, Sara N; Wolfson, Julia A

    2015-05-01

    To describe national trends in discretionary calories from sugar sweetened beverage (SSB) and snacks by age-specific body weight categories and by age- and weight-specific race/ethnicity groups. Examining these subpopulations is important as population averages may mask important differences. 24-hour dietary recall data obtained from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2010 among children aged 2 to 19 (N = 14,092) were used. Logistic and linear regression methods were used to adjust for multiple covariates and survey design. The number of calories from SSBs declined significantly for nearly all age-specific body weight groups. Among overweight or obese children, significant declines in the number of calories from SSBs were observed among Hispanic children aged 2 to 5 (117 vs. 174 kcal) and white adolescents aged 12 to 19 (299 vs. 365 kcal). Significant declines in the number of calories from salty snacks were observed among white children aged 2 to 5 (192 to 134 kcal) and 6 to 11 (273 vs. 200 kcal). The decrease in SSB consumption and increase in snack consumption observed in prior research are not uniform when children are examined within subgroups accounting for age, weight, and race/ethnicity. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  1. Age, Sex and Stature Estimation from Footprint Dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paurbhi Singh

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The present study was carried out to evaluate the utility and reliability of footprint dimensions in age, sex and stature determination in the North Indian population. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out using a sample of 400 people (146 female and 254 male aged 10-65 years in Uttar Pradesh, North Western state of India. Footprints of both feet were taken bilaterally, and thus a total of 800 prints were obtained. A cluster of 7 measurements were taken carefully with the help of a scientific scale ruler. Five measurements were length dimensions from the most anterior part of the toe (T1–T5 to the mid rear heel point and two were breadth dimensions from both left and right footprints: breadth at ball (BBAL, breadth at heel (BHEL and 2 indexes: heel-ball Index (HBI and footprint index (FPI. All data were analyzed statistically using Student’s t-test, regression coefficient and Pearson’s correlation for the estimation of sex on the basis of footprint dimensions. Results: The T1 in left footprints was greater than right footprints in males, while T1 and BBAL were both found to be greater in left footprints than right footprints in females. All the seven foot dimensions were higher in males than females. Conclusion: There were statistically significant differences observed in all footprint dimensions between the male and female footprints except LFPI, LHBI, and RHBI.

  2. Age, sex and other factors in radiation carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fry, R.J.M.; Carnes, B.A.

    1988-01-01

    It has been held for a long time that the young are more susceptible than adults to the induction of cancer by radiation. The data in support of that contention are accumulating especially from human studies. In an exposed population a significant fraction of the total population risk may be attributed to the risk associated with those who were young at the time of exposure. Since cancer may not appear for decades after exposure estimates of risk may require models for projecting the lifetime risk. Two such models, additive or absolute risk and multiplicative or relative risk have been used. The appropriateness of the latter model is supported by the finding in mice of a positive relationship between natural incidence and the susceptibility for induction by radiation of solid cancer. The choice of model for leukemias is not clear cut. The incidence of cancer increases with age, but the susceptibility for induction decreases. The incidence of cancers increases to a peak and then begins to decline at different ages, dependent on the type of cancer. Sex-dependent differences in both the natural incidence and the susceptibility for induction of cancer are not restricted to sex organs. For example, the susceptibility for the induction by radiation for myeloid leukemia is greater in males than females, whereas in the case of thymic lymphoma it is vice versa. 25 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  3. Differential Item Functioning of Pathological Gambling Criteria: An Examination of Gender, Race/Ethnicity, and Age

    OpenAIRE

    Sacco, Paul; Torres, Luis R.; Cunningham-Williams, Renee M.; Woods, Carol; Unick, G. Jay

    2011-01-01

    This study tested for the presence of differential item functioning (DIF) in DSM-IV Pathological Gambling Disorder (PGD) criteria based on gender, race/ethnicity and age. Using a nationally representative sample of adults from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC), indicating current gambling (n = 10,899), Multiple Indicator-Multiple Cause (MIMIC) models tested for DIF, controlling for income, education, and marital status. Compared to the reference grou...

  4. Religion, Ethnicity and Contraceptive Use among Reproductive age Women in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillips Edomwonyi Obasohan, MEd, MBA, MSc; 1

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Religion and Ethnicity are the two most important factors that shape the behavioral pattern especially health seeking behaviors of the people of Nigeria. This study seeks to examine the mediatory effects of the linkage between ethnicity and religion with selected socio-demographic variables on the current use of contraception (CUC among women of reproductive age in Nigeria. Methods: Nationally representative sample of 39,948 women of reproductive age (15-49 years in the 2013 Nigerian Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS was used. Chi-square was used to analyze the bivariate relationship between exposure variables and CUC. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine the odds ratio with the 95% confi dence interval. Results: The prevalence of CUC was generally low for women of reproductive age in Nigeria, highest among the Yoruba women and lowest among the Hausa/Fulani/Kanuri/Seriberi (HFKS women; highest among other Christian women and lowest for Muslim women and highest for Yoruba/other religion and lowest for women of Hausa/Fulani/Kanuri/Seriberi/Islam. The odds ratios showed that disparity across ethno-religious boundaries is significant. Conclusions and Global Health Implications: Globally, and especially in sub-Saharan African countries, maternal mortality resulting from the abortion of unintended pregnancies pose a major challenge in health delivery system. In Nigeria, a cultural and religious heterogeneous society, current use of contraceptives by women of reproductive age is found not to be a matter of independent effects of ethnicity, religiosity and other socio-demographic variables but also dependent on the effects of interactions between the ethnicity and religion.

  5. Parent-child mealtime interactions in racially/ethnically diverse families with preschool-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Angela; Jones, Blake L; Fiese, Barbara H; Schiffer, Linda A; Odoms-Young, Angela; Kim, Yoonsang; Bailey, Lauren; Fitzgibbon, Marian L

    2013-12-01

    Family meals may improve diet and weight outcomes in children; however, results from nationally representative samples suggest that these relationships vary by race/ethnicity. Observing parent-child mealtime interactions may lend insight to why racial/ethnic differences exist. In this pilot study, a multi-ethnic sample of low-income families (n = 30) with a preschool-age child was videotaped during a dinner in their home. A global coding scheme was used to assess the following: 'Action' (behaviors that divert attention from eating), 'Behavior Control' (behaviors intended to modify another person's behavior), and 'Communication' (i.e., meal-oriented, interpersonal, and critical). All families spent a significant amount of time in 'action' oriented behaviors that diverted their attention from eating. We also observed racial/ethnic differences in communication (i.e. critical) and behavior patterns (i.e. behavior control). This study demonstrated that this approach for observing parent-child mealtime interactions in a naturalistic setting among a diverse study sample was feasible; however, future studies should address how these patterns relate to dietary intake and weight status. © 2013.

  6. Parent-child mealtime interactions in racially/ethnically diverse families with preschool-age children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Angela; Jones, Blake L.; Fiese, Barbara H.; Schiffer, Linda A.; Odoms-Young, Angela; Kim, Yoonsang; Bailey, Lauren; Fitzgibbon, Marian L.

    2013-01-01

    Family meals may improve diet and weight outcomes in children; however, results from nationally representative samples suggest these relationships vary by race/ethnicity. Observing parent-child mealtime interactions may lend insight to why racial/ethnic differences exist. In this pilot study, a multi-ethnic sample of low-income families (n=30) with a preschool-age child were videotaped during a dinner in their home. A global coding scheme was used to assess the following: `Action' (behaviors that divert attention from eating), `Behavior Control' (behaviors intended to modify another person's behavior), and `Communication' (i.e., meal-oriented, interpersonal, and critical). All families spent a significant amount of time in `action' oriented behaviors that diverted their attention from eating. We also observed racial/ethnic differences in communication (i.e. critical) and behavior patterns (i.e. behavior control). This study demonstrated that this approach for observing parent-child mealtime interactions in a naturalistic setting among a diverse study sample was feasible; however, future studies should address how these patterns relate to dietary intake and weight status. PMID:24183134

  7. Suicide by age, ethnic group, coroners' verdicts and country of birth - A three-year survey in inner London

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neeleman, J; Mak, [No Value; Wessely, S

    Background information on suicide in ethnic and immigrant groups in England and Wales is limited. Method A three-year (1991-1993) survey was conducted of all unnatural deaths of residents of an urban area. True likely and 'official' age-adjusted suicide rates were compared by ethnicity and, for

  8. Age and racial/ethnic disparities in arthritis-related hip and knee surgeries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlop, Dorothy D; Manheim, Larry M; Song, Jing; Sohn, Min-Woong; Feinglass, Joseph M; Chang, Huan J; Chang, Rowland W

    2008-02-01

    Nearly 18 million Americans experience limitations due to their arthritis. Documented disparities according to racial/ethnic groups in the use of surgical interventions such as knee and hip arthroplasty are largely based on data from Medicare beneficiaries age 65 or older. Whether there are disparities among younger adults has not been previously addressed. This study assesses age-specific racial/ethnic differences in arthritis-related knee and hip surgeries. Longitudinal (1998-2004) Health and Retirement Study. National probability sample of US community-dwelling adults. A total of 2262 black, 1292 Hispanic, and 13,159 white adults age 51 and older. The outcome is self-reported 2-year use of arthritis-related hip or knee surgery. Independent variables are demographic (race/ethnicity, age, gender), health needs (arthritis, chronic diseases, obesity, physical activity, and functional limitations), and medical access (income, wealth, education, and health insurance). Longitudinal data methods using discrete survival analysis are used to validly account for repeated (biennial) observations over time. Analyses use person-weights, stratum, and sampling error codes to provide valid inferences to the US population. Black adults under the age of 65 years report similar age/gender adjusted rates of hip/knee arthritis surgeries [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.43, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.87-2.38] whereas older blacks (age 65+) have significantly lower rates (HR = 0.38, CI = 0.16-0.55) compared with whites. These relationships hold controlling for health and economic differences. Both under age 65 years (HR = 0.64, CI = 0.12-1.44) and older (age 65+) Hispanic adults (HR = 0.60, CI = 0.32-1.10) report lower utilization rates, although not statistically different than whites. A large portion of the Hispanic disparity is explained by economic differences. These national data document lower rates of arthritis-related hip/knee surgeries for older black versus white adults age 65 or

  9. Barriers to participation in mental health research: are there specific gender, ethnicity and age related barriers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard Louise

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is well established that the incidence, prevalence and presentation of mental disorders differ by gender, ethnicity and age, and there is evidence that there is also differential representation in mental health research by these characteristics. The aim of this paper is to a review the current literature on the nature of barriers to participation in mental health research, with particular reference to gender, age and ethnicity; b review the evidence on the effectiveness of strategies used to overcome these barriers. Method Studies published up to December 2008 were identified using MEDLINE, PsycINFO and EMBASE using relevant mesh headings and keywords. Results Forty-nine papers were identified. There was evidence of a wide range of barriers including transportation difficulties, distrust and suspicion of researchers, and the stigma attached to mental illness. Strategies to overcome these barriers included the use of bilingual staff, assistance with travel, avoiding the use of stigmatising language in marketing material and a focus on education about the disorder under investigation. There were very few evaluations of such strategies, but there was evidence that ethnically matching recruiters to potential participants did not improve recruitment rates. Educational strategies were helpful and increased recruitment. Conclusion Mental health researchers should consider including caregivers in recruitment procedures where possible, provide clear descriptions of study aims and describe the representativeness of their sample when reporting study results. Studies that systematically investigate strategies to overcome barriers to recruitment are needed.

  10. Income, neighborhood stressors, and harsh parenting: test of moderation by ethnicity, age, and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barajas-Gonzalez, R Gabriela; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2014-12-01

    Family and neighborhood influences related to low-income were examined to understand their association with harsh parenting among an ethnically diverse sample of families. Specifically, a path model linking household income to harsh parenting via neighborhood disorder, fear for safety, maternal depressive symptoms, and family conflict was evaluated using cross-sectional data from 2,132 families with children ages 5-16 years from Chicago. The sample was 42% Mexican American, 41% African American, and 17% European American. Results provide support for a family process model where a lower income-to-needs ratio is associated with higher reports of neighborhood disorder, greater fear for safety, and more family conflict, which is in turn, associated with greater frequency of harsh parenting. Our tests for moderation by ethnicity/immigrant status, child gender, and child age (younger child vs. adolescent) indicate that although paths are similar for families of boys and girls, as well as for families of young children and adolescents, there are some differences by ethnic group. Specifically, we find the path from neighborhood disorder to fear for safety is stronger for Mexican American (United States born and immigrant) and European American families in comparison with African American families. We also find that the path from fear for safety to harsh parenting is significant for European American and African American families only. Possible reasons for such moderated effects are considered.

  11. Age and Sex Effects on Plasma Metabolite Association Networks in Healthy Subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vignoli, Alessia; Tenori, Leonardo; Luchinat, Claudio; Saccenti, Edoardo

    2018-01-01

    In the era of precision medicine, the analysis of simple information like sex and age can increase the potential to better diagnose and treat conditions that occur more frequently in one of the two sexes, present sex-specific symptoms and outcomes, or are characteristic of a specific age group. We

  12. Adolescent Self-Esteem: Differences by Race/Ethnicity, Gender, and Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachman, Jerald G.; O’Malley, Patrick M.; Freedman-Doan, Peter; Trzesniewski, Kali H.; Donnellan, M. Brent

    2012-01-01

    Large-scale representative surveys of 8th-, 10th-, and 12th-grade students in the United States show high self-esteem scores for all groups. African-American students score highest, Whites score slightly higher than Hispanics, and Asian Americans score lowest. Males score slightly higher than females. Multivariate controls for grades and college plans actually heighten these race/ethnic/gender differences. A truncated scoring method, designed to counter race/ethnic differences in extreme response style, reduced but did not eliminate the subgroup differences. Age differences in self-esteem are modest, with 12th graders reporting the highest scores. The findings are highly consistent across 18 annual surveys from 1991 through 2008, and self-esteem scores show little overall change during that period. PMID:22279425

  13. Adolescent Self-Esteem: Differences by Race/Ethnicity, Gender, and Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachman, Jerald G; O'Malley, Patrick M; Freedman-Doan, Peter; Trzesniewski, Kali H; Donnellan, M Brent

    2011-01-01

    Large-scale representative surveys of 8th-, 10th-, and 12th-grade students in the United States show high self-esteem scores for all groups. African-American students score highest, Whites score slightly higher than Hispanics, and Asian Americans score lowest. Males score slightly higher than females. Multivariate controls for grades and college plans actually heighten these race/ethnic/gender differences. A truncated scoring method, designed to counter race/ethnic differences in extreme response style, reduced but did not eliminate the subgroup differences. Age differences in self-esteem are modest, with 12th graders reporting the highest scores. The findings are highly consistent across 18 annual surveys from 1991 through 2008, and self-esteem scores show little overall change during that period.

  14. How age, sex and genotype shape the stress response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novais, Ashley; Monteiro, Susana; Roque, Susana; Correia-Neves, Margarida; Sousa, Nuno

    2017-02-01

    Exposure to chronic stress is a leading pre-disposing factor for several neuropsychiatric disorders as it often leads to maladaptive responses. The response to stressful events is heterogeneous, underpinning a wide spectrum of distinct changes amongst stress-exposed individuals'. Several factors can underlie a different perception to stressors and the setting of distinct coping strategies that will lead to individual differences on the susceptibility/resistance to stress. Beyond the factors related to the stressor itself, such as intensity, duration or predictability, there are factors intrinsic to the individuals that are relevant to shape the stress response, such as age, sex and genetics. In this review, we examine the contribution of such intrinsic factors to the modulation of the stress response based on experimental rodent models of response to stress and discuss to what extent that knowledge can be potentially translated to humans.

  15. Sex, age, and sex hormones affect recall of words in a directed forgetting paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerschbaum, Hubert H; Hofbauer, Ildiko; Gföllner, Anna; Ebner, Birgit; Bresgen, Nikolaus; Bäuml, Karl-Heinz T

    2017-01-02

    During the course of serious discussion, an unexpected interruption may induce forgetting of the original topic of a conversation. Sex, age, and sex hormone levels may affect frequency and extension of forgetting. In a list-method directed forgetting paradigm, subjects have to learn two word lists. After learning list 1, subjects receive either a forget or a remember list 1 cue. When the participants had learned list 2 and completed a distraction task, they were asked to write down as many recalled items as possible, starting either with list 1 or list 2 items. In the present study, 96 naturally cycling women, 60 oral contraceptive users, 56 postmenopausal women, and 41 young men were assigned to one of these different experimental conditions. Forget-cued young subjects recall fewer list 1 items (list 1 forgetting) but more list 2 items (list 2 enhancement) compared with remember-cued subjects. However, forget-cued postmenopausal women showed reduced list 1 forgetting but enhanced list 2 retention. Remember-cued naturally cycling women recalled more list 1 items than oral contraceptive users, young men, and postmenopausal women. In forget-cued follicular women, salivary progesterone correlated positively with recalled list 2 items. Salivary 17β-estradiol did not correlate with recalled list 1 or list 2 items in either remember- or forget-cued young women. However, salivary 17β-estradiol correlated with item recall in remember-cued postmenopausal women. Our findings suggest that sex hormones do not globally modulate verbal memory or forgetting, but selectively affect cue-specific processing. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Exploring Differences in the Aspirin-Colorectal Cancer Association by Sex and Race/Ethnicity: The Multiethnic Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Song-Yi; Wilkens, Lynne R; Kolonel, Laurence N; Monroe, Kristine R; Haiman, Christopher A; Marchand, Loïc Le

    2017-02-01

    Evidence has accumulated that long-term use of aspirin and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) protects against colorectal cancer. We tested whether the inverse associations between NSAIDs and colorectal cancer is similarly observed across sexes and five racial/ethnic groups (Japanese, Latino, African American, Native Hawaiian, and white) in the Multiethnic Cohort (MEC) Study. During a mean follow-up of 16.1 years, we identified 4,882 invasive incident colorectal cancer cases among 183,199 eligible participants. Cox proportional hazards models were used to calculate HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Use of aspirin and other NSAIDs was associated with a lower incidence of colorectal cancer in men (HR = 0.77; 95% CI, 0.69-0.86 for current vs. never users of aspirin) but not in women (P interaction = 0.005). Among male current users, a reduced risk was observed with ≥6 years of aspirin or total NSAID use. The inverse association with current NSAID use in men was observed in all racial/ethnic groups, except for Native Hawaiians, and was stronger in whites. Our findings suggest that the benefit of NSAIDs for colorectal cancer may be strongest for white men and generalizes to African American, Japanese, and Latino, but not to Native Hawaiian men. The lack of inverse association observed in women and Native Hawaiian men in the MEC should be interpreted with caution. As only very few ethnic/racial groups are likely to be represented in trials of NSAIDs and colorectal cancer, it is important to conduct prospective observational studies in various populations to test the generalizability of their results. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(2); 162-9. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  17. Trends in Educational Attainment by Race/Ethnicity, Nativity, and Sex in the United States, 1989–2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    EVERETT, BETHANY G.; ROGERS, RICHARD G.; HUMMER, ROBERT A.; KRUEGER, PATRICK M.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the importance of education for shaping individuals’ life chances, little research has examined trends and differences in educational attainment for detailed demographic subpopulations in the United States. We use labor market segmentation and cohort replacement theories, linear regression methods, and data from the National Health Interview Survey to understand educational attainment by race/ethnicity, nativity, birth cohort, and sex between 1989 and 2005 in the United States. There have been significant changes in educational attainment over time. In support of the cohort replacement theory, we find that across cohorts, females have enjoyed greater gains in education than men, and for some race/ethnic groups, recent cohorts of women average more years of education than comparable men. And in support of labor market segmentation theories, foreign-born Mexican Americans continue to possess relatively low levels of educational attainment. Our results can aid policymakers in identifying vulnerable populations, and form the base from which to better understand changing disparities in education. PMID:22649275

  18. Visual acuity and refraction by age for children of three different ethnic groups in Paraguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marissa Janine Carter

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To characterize refractive errors in Paraguayan children aged 5-16 years and investigate effect of age, gender, and ethnicity. METHODS:The study was conducted at 3 schools that catered to Mennonite, indigenous, and mixed race children. Children were examined for presenting visual acuity, autorefraction with and without cycloplegia, and retinoscopy. Data were analyzed for myopia and hyperopia (SE ≤-1 D or -0.5 D and ≥2 D or ≥3 D and astigmatism (cylinder ≥1 D. Spherical equivalent (SE values were calculated from right eye cycloplegic autorefraction data and analyzed using general linear modelling. RESULTS: There were 190, 118, and 168 children of Mennonite, indigenous and mixed race ethnicity, respectively. SE values between right/left eyes were nonsignificant. Mean visual acuity (VA without correction was better for Mennonites compared to indigenous or mixed race children (right eyes: 0.031, 0.090, and 0.102 logMAR units, respectively; P<0.000001. There were 2 cases of myopia in the Mennonite group (1.2% and 2 cases in the mixed race group (1.4% (SE ≤-0.5 D. The prevalence of hyperopia (SE ≥2 D was 40.6%, 34.2%, and 46.3% for Mennonite, indigenous and mixed race children. Corresponding astigmatism rates were 3.2%, 9.5%, and 12.7%. Females were slightly more hyperopic than males, and the 9-11 years age group was the most hyperopic. Mennonite and mixed race children were more hyperopic than indigenous children. CONCLUSIONS: Paraguayan children were remarkably hyperopic and relatively free of myopia. Differences with regard to gender, age, and ethnicity were small.

  19. Wine and health perceptions: Exploring the impact of gender, age and ethnicity on consumer perceptions of wine and health

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Kathryn J.; Liz Thach, MW; Olsen, Janeen

    2016-01-01

    This study explores U.S. wine consumers’ perception of wine and health by gender, age, and ethnic background. An extensive body of epidemiological studies suggests that there are health benefits from moderate wine drinking. In light of an increased consumer preference over healthier foods and beverages, it is important to understand the health orientation of wine consumers and the effect of gender, age, or ethnicity on their perceptions of wine and health. An online survey was used to collect...

  20. Alcohol use and subsequent sex among HIV-infected patients in an ethnic minority area of Yunnan Province, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofeng Luo

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To examine alcohol use and subsequent HIV risky behaviors among a sample of predominately ethnic minority people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA in a rural community in Yunnan Province, China. METHOD: A cross-sectional study with a face-to-face questionnaire interview was conducted among eligible participants. RESULTS: In total, 455 (94.4% out of 482 eligible HIV patients participated in the study. Of them, 82.6% were ethnic minorities; 15.4% were never married; 96.5% were sexually experienced; 55.4% had used drugs, 67% were receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART. Over 65% were ever drinkers; of whom 61.5% were current drinkers. Among current drinkers, 32.4% drank daily and 41.2% were hazardous drinkers. Chinese white wine was the preferred choice. Higher level of alcohol use among drinkers in the preceding month was positively associated with being males (OR = 2.76, 95%CI: 1.03-7.43, ethnic minorities (OR Jingpo = 2.21, 95%CI: 1.06-4.59; OR other minorities = 3.20, 95%CI: 1.34-7.62, higher education (OR1-6 = 1.98, 95%CI: 0.99-3.96; OR≥7 = 2.35, 95%CI: 1.09-5.06 and being ART-naive (OR = 2.69, 95%CI: 1.67-4.32. About 39% of ever drinkers reported having engaged in sex after drinking since HIV diagnosis. Those who were younger than 46 years (OR16-25 = 7.77, 95%CI: 1.22-49.60, OR26-35 = 2.79, 95%CI: 1.06-7.35, OR36-45 = 2.96, 95%CI: 1.57-7.58, hazardous drinkers (OR = 1.99, 95%CI: 1.00-3.97 and drug users (OR = 3.01, 95%CI: 1.19-7.58 were more likely to have had sex after drinking. Approximately 56% of drug users had used drugs after drinking. CONCLUSIONS: High prevalence of alcohol use and subsequent risky behaviors including sexual engagement and drug use among HIV patients in rural Yunnan require tremendous and integrated efforts for prevention and control of alcohol and drug abuse and HIV spreading.

  1. Juvenile Myasthenia Gravis in Korea: Subgroup Analysis According to Sex and Onset Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ha Neul; Kang, Hoon-Chul; Lee, Joon Soo; Kim, Heung Dong; Shin, Ha Young; Kim, Seung Min; Sunwoo, Il Nam; Lee, Young-Mock

    2016-12-01

    Juvenile myasthenia gravis presents before 18 years of age with different characteristics according to racial background and pubertal development. The authors aimed to determine the clinical characteristics of children and adolescents of Korean ethnicity with myasthenia gravis, and evaluate the presentation and clinical outcomes according to the sex and onset age of the patients. The authors recruited 88 Korean juvenile myasthenia gravis patients between September 2005 and August 2015. Worse clinical severity from presentation, more aggressive treatment strategies, and worse final treatment outcomes were noted in girls with postpubertal onset than in the other patients. The symptoms were milder (pure ocular presentation in 96.6% [85/88]) and the disease course was more benign (94.3% [83/88]) in this study than in the literature. The homogenous racial background might have contributed to these results. These findings highlight the influence of pubertal development and the need for timely and appropriate active treatment, including thymectomy, to improve prognosis. © The Author(s) 2016.

  2. The prevalence of age-related maculopathy by geographic region and ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, R; Klein, B E; Cruickshanks, K J

    1999-05-01

    The prevalence of age-related maculopathy (ARM) varies considerably in different locations and racial/ethnic groups around the world. At present there are insufficient data to determine whether it is likely that these differences in prevalence, especially for the early forms of ARM are due to variations in genetic and environmental factors or due to variations in age of the cohorts and methods used to ascertain and define ARM. In three population-based studies of whites living in Beaver Dam, Wisconsin, Blue Mountains, Australia, and Rotterdam, The Netherlands, in which similar methods of ascertainment and classification were used to detect and define ARM, late ARM was present in 1.2%, 1.4%, and 1.2% of the population less than 86 years of age, respectively. While data from clinical studies suggest that late ARM associated with choroidal neovascularization is rare in blacks compared with whites, some epidemiological studies suggest that late ARM may be similar in blacks and whites. There are still too few data from various ethnic/racial groups around the world and too few population-based data in older Hispanic and Asian populations to make meaningful comparisons. There is a need for further research into the distribution of ARM and its possible causes using similar methodologies to ascertain and define the disease. Further insights will be gained when genotypes associated with ARM are discovered.

  3. Sexual Behaviors, Healthcare Interactions, and HIV-Related Perceptions Among Adults Age 60 Years and Older: An Investigation by Race/Ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaude-Hosch, Jonathan A; Smith, Matthew Lee; Heckman, Timothy G; Miles, Toni P; Olubajo, Babatunde A; Ory, Marcia G

    2015-01-01

    Older adults are remaining sexually active for longer periods of time, underscoring the need to assess sexual activity patterns in this group and identify differences by race/ethnicity, some of which may have implications for the development and implementation of sexual risk reduction interventions. Using data from the 2010 National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project, this study examined responses from 1,429 adults aged 60 years and older. Multinomial logistic regression compared sexual behaviors, health-related indicators, interactions with healthcare professionals, and HIV-related perceptions across participants' race/ethnicity. Approximately 81% of participants self-reported as non-Hispanic white, 10.59% as African American, and 8.05% as Hispanic. On average, participants were 69.9 years of age. In the previous year, 49.3% of participants engaged in sexual intercourse; only 3% used condoms. The majority of participants (83.1%) visited a physician at least twice in the previous year, 30.9% had discussed sex with a physician since turning 50, and 14.2% had been tested for HIV. Relative to non-Hispanic whites, African Americans were more likely to be divorced (OR=3.23, Psexually transmitted infection (STI) diagnoses (OR=1.67, P=0.030); and have paid for sex (OR=2.83, P=0.002). Although African Americans had greater perceived risk for HIV infection (OR=1.66, P=0.046), they were less likely to have discussed sex with a physician since turning 50 (OR=0.45, P=0.009). Contextualized interventions to improve patient-provider communication and proactive screening behaviors in sexually-active and aging African Americans are needed.

  4. Performance in eyeblink conditioning is age and sex dependent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Löwgren

    Full Text Available A growing body of evidence suggests that the cerebellum is involved in both cognition and language. Abnormal cerebellar development may contribute to neurodevelopmental disorders such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, autism, fetal alcohol syndrome, dyslexia, and specific language impairment. Performance in eyeblink conditioning, which depends on the cerebellum, can potentially be used to clarify the neural mechanisms underlying the cerebellar dysfunction in disorders like these. However, we must first understand how the performance develops in children who do not have a disorder. In this study we assessed the performance in eyeblink conditioning in 42 typically developing children between 6 and 11 years old as well as in 26 adults. Older children produced more conditioned eyeblink responses than younger children and adults produced more than children. In addition, females produced more conditioned eyeblink responses than males among both children and adults. These results highlight the importance of considering the influence of age and sex on the performance when studying eyeblink conditioning as a measure of cerebellar development.

  5. MR measurement of normal corpus callosum: Age and sex differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Myung Seob; Kim, Myung Soon; Park, Hyun Ju

    1992-01-01

    Measurement of various portions of the corpus callosum was performed on magnetic resonance(MR) images of 114 subjects with no known or suspected corpus callosal disorders. Midsagittal T1-weighted images used for measurements and mean diameters of various portions in each age and sex group were obtained. Measures of five portions were made: (A) the anterio-posterior length, (B) the diameter of genu position, (C) the diameter of splenium, (D) the diameter of mid-body portion, (E) the diameter of a narrow portion at the body of corpus callosum. The mean diameter in each gender group for A, B, C, D and E were 68.8 mm, 12.1 mm, 12.3 mm, 6,9 mm, 4.1 mm in male and 69.9 mm, 12.0 mm, 12.1 mm, 6.4 mm, 4.1 mm in female, retrospectively. The groups of 0-9 years of both genders showed the minimum mean value in each portion

  6. MR measurement of normal corpus callosum: Age and sex differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Myung Seob; Kim, Myung Soon; Park, Hyun Ju [Wonju College of Medicine, Yonsei University, Wonju (Korea, Republic of)

    1992-07-15

    Measurement of various portions of the corpus callosum was performed on magnetic resonance(MR) images of 114 subjects with no known or suspected corpus callosal disorders. Midsagittal T1-weighted images used for measurements and mean diameters of various portions in each age and sex group were obtained. Measures of five portions were made: (A) the anterio-posterior length, (B) the diameter of genu position, (C) the diameter of splenium, (D) the diameter of mid-body portion, (E) the diameter of a narrow portion at the body of corpus callosum. The mean diameter in each gender group for A, B, C, D and E were 68.8 mm, 12.1 mm, 12.3 mm, 6,9 mm, 4.1 mm in male and 69.9 mm, 12.0 mm, 12.1 mm, 6.4 mm, 4.1 mm in female, retrospectively. The groups of 0-9 years of both genders showed the minimum mean value in each portion.

  7. Ethnicity as a determinant of ovarian reserve: differences in ovarian aging between Spanish and Indian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, Carlos; Banker, Manish; Mahajan, Nalini; Herrero, Leyre; Meseguer, Marcos; Garcia-Velasco, Juan A

    2014-07-01

    To investigate differences in ovarian reserve markers (antimüllerian hormone [AMH] and antral follicle count [AFC]) in Indian and Spanish women. Cross-sectional study. In vitro fertilization (IVF) clinics. Infertile Spanish (n=229) and Indian (n=236) women who underwent controlled ovarian stimulation for IVF from January to October 2012. None. Data on ovarian reserve markers and results after ovarian stimulation were collected. The mean age of women undergoing their first or second IVF cycle was significantly higher in Spanish than in Indian women (37.5±3.3 years vs. 31.5±3.8 years). Despite this 6-year age gap, AFCs were similar (9.5±4.7 vs. 9.9±4.6), as were day 3 FSH levels (7.5±4.5 IU/L vs. 6.9±2.3 IU/L). AMH levels were slightly lower in Spanish women (1.6±1.7 ng/mL vs. 2.5±1.6 ng/mL). Multivariate regression analysis showed that being Indian decreased AFC by 2.3, such that AFC in Indian women was similar to that in Spanish women 6.3 years older (95% confidence interval 3.39-1.10). Similar ovarian reserve markers and ovarian response were observed in women with a 6-year age difference in favor of the Spanish, suggesting ethnic differences in ovarian aging. Further research is needed to understand whether these differences are genetically induced or are caused by other variables, such as nutrition. Our results may help clinicians to counsel infertile women when discussing assisted reproductive technology outcomes according to age and ethnic background. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Patterns of myopigenic activities with age, gender and ethnicity in Sydney schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Amanda N; Morgan, Ian G; Mitchell, Paul; Rose, Kathryn A

    2013-05-01

    To examine the patterns of myopigenic activity (high near work, low time outdoors) in children growing up in Sydney, Australia, by age, ethnicity and gender. The Sydney Adolescent Vascular and Eye Study (SAVES) re-examined children from the two age cohorts (6 and 12 years at baseline) from the Sydney Myopia Study (SMS). At 5-6 year follow-up, 863 in the younger cohort and 1196 in the older cohort had complete refraction data. Cycloplegic autorefraction (cyclopentolate 1%; Canon RK-F1) was measured at baseline and follow-up. Children who became myopic (≤-0.50 dioptres spherical equivalent refraction) were those classified as non-myopic at baseline and myopic at follow-up. A detailed questionnaire was administered to measure weekly activities, including time spent outdoors and near work at both baseline and follow-up examination. Overall, 128 (14.8%) children in the younger cohort and 210 (17.6%) in the older cohort became myopic. At follow-up, for both cohorts, children had significantly reduced the amount of time spent outdoors (younger cohort, p = 0.001, older cohort, p Asian ethnicity spent significantly less time outdoors by more than 7 h per week (both cohorts at baseline and follow-up, all p Asian ancestry having a more myopigenic activity pattern than European Caucasian children. Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2013 The College of Optometrists.

  9. Ethnic differences in cardiometabolic risk profile at age 5-6 years: the ABCD study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marieke L A de Hoog

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To examine ethnic differences in cardiometabolic risk profile in early age, and explore whether such differences can be explained by differences in body mass index (BMI or waist circumference (WC. METHOD: Anthropometric measurements, blood pressure and (in a subsample fasting blood were collected during a health check of 2,509 children aged 5-6 years. Four ethnic groups were distinguished: Dutch (n=2,008; blood n=1,300, African descent (n=199; blood n=105, Turkish (n=108; blood n=57 and Moroccan (n=194; blood n=94. Ethnic differences in diastolic and systolic blood pressure (DBP/SBP, fasting glucose, low-density lipoprotein (LDL, high-density lipoprotein (HDL and triglyceride levels were determined and the explanatory role of BMI and WC was examined with regression analysis. RESULTS: After adjustment for confounders, African descent children showed higher DBP (β2.22 mmHg; 95%CI:1.09-3.36 and HDL levels (β:0.09 mmol/l; 95%CI:0.03-0.16 compared to Dutch children (reference group. Turkish children showed higher SBP (β:1.89 mmHg; 95%CI:0.25-3.54, DBP (β:2.62 mmHg; 95%CI:1.11-4.13, glucose (β:0.12 mmol/L; 95%CI:0.00-0.25 and triglyceride levels (β:0.13 mmol/L; 95%CI:0.02-0.25. Higher BMI values were found in all non-Dutch groups (differences ranged from 0.53-1.03 kg/m(2 and higher WC in Turkish (β:1.68 cm; 95%CI:0.99-2.38 and Moroccan (β:1.65 cm; 95%CI:1.11-2.19 children. BMI and WC partly explained the higher SBP/DBP and triglyceride levels in Turkish children. CONCLUSION: Ethnic differences in cardiometabolic profile exist early in life and are partly explained by differences in BMI and WC. African children showed favourable HDL levels and Turkish children the most unfavourable overall profile, whereas their Moroccan peers have less increased cardiometabolic risk in spite of their high BMI and WC.

  10. Aging and memory: corrections for age, sex and education for three widely used memory tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zappalà, G; Measso, G; Cavarzeran, F; Grigoletto, F; Lebowitz, B; Pirozzolo, F; Amaducci, L; Massari, D; Crook, T

    1995-04-01

    The associate learning subtest from the Wechsler Memory Scale; Benton's Visual Retention test and a Controlled Word Association Task (FAS) were administered to a random sample of normal, healthy individuals whose age ranged from 20 to 79 years, recruited within the Italian peninsula. The neuropsychological examination took place on a mobile unit and the tests were given by the same team of neuropsychologists to reduce variability among examiners. The Research Project was known as Progetto Memoria. Corrections to the scores of these tests were calculated for age, sex, and education. These corrected values will allow clinicians to screen for memory impairment with greater precision among normally aging individuals, thus improving differential diagnosis between physiologic and pathologic deterioration of cognitive functions.

  11. Computer-aided bone age assessment for ethnically diverse older children using integrated fuzzy logic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Kevin; Moin, Paymann; Zhang, Aifeng; Liu, Brent

    2010-03-01

    Bone Age Assessment (BAA) of children is a clinical procedure frequently performed in pediatric radiology to evaluate the stage of skeletal maturation based on the left hand x-ray radiograph. The current BAA standard in the US is using the Greulich & Pyle (G&P) Hand Atlas, which was developed fifty years ago and was only based on Caucasian population from the Midwest US. To bring the BAA procedure up-to-date with today's population, a Digital Hand Atlas (DHA) consisting of 1400 hand images of normal children of different ethnicities, age, and gender. Based on the DHA and to solve inter- and intra-observer reading discrepancies, an automatic computer-aided bone age assessment system has been developed and tested in clinical environments. The algorithm utilizes features extracted from three regions of interests: phalanges, carpal, and radius. The features are aggregated into a fuzzy logic system, which outputs the calculated bone age. The previous BAA system only uses features from phalanges and carpal, thus BAA result for children over age of 15 is less accurate. In this project, the new radius features are incorporated into the overall BAA system. The bone age results, calculated from the new fuzzy logic system, are compared against radiologists' readings based on G&P atlas, and exhibits an improvement in reading accuracy for older children.

  12. Age differences in vocal emotion perception: on the role of speaker age and listener sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Antarika; Isaacowitz, Derek; Schirmer, Annett

    2017-10-24

    Older adults have greater difficulty than younger adults perceiving vocal emotions. To better characterise this effect, we explored its relation to age differences in sensory, cognitive and emotional functioning. Additionally, we examined the role of speaker age and listener sex. Participants (N = 163) aged 19-34 years and 60-85 years categorised neutral sentences spoken by ten younger and ten older speakers with a happy, neutral, sad, or angry voice. Acoustic analyses indicated that expressions from younger and older speakers denoted the intended emotion with similar accuracy. As expected, younger participants outperformed older participants and this effect was statistically mediated by an age-related decline in both optimism and working-memory. Additionally, age differences in emotion perception were larger for younger as compared to older speakers and a better perception of younger as compared to older speakers was greater in younger as compared to older participants. Last, a female perception benefit was less pervasive in the older than the younger group. Together, these findings suggest that the role of age for emotion perception is multi-faceted. It is linked to emotional and cognitive change, to processing biases that benefit young and own-age expressions, and to the different aptitudes of women and men.

  13. Variations in GP-patient communication by ethnicity, age, and gender: evidence from a national primary care patient survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, Jenni; Lloyd, Cathy; Campbell, John; Roland, Martin; Abel, Gary

    2016-01-01

    Doctor-patient communication is a key driver of overall satisfaction with primary care. Patients from minority ethnic backgrounds consistently report more negative experiences of doctor-patient communication. However, it is currently unknown whether these ethnic differences are concentrated in one gender or in particular age groups. To determine how reported GP-patient communication varies between patients from different ethnic groups, stratified by age and gender. Analysis of data from the English GP Patient Survey from 2012-2013 and 2013-2014, including 1,599,801 responders. A composite score was created for doctor-patient communication from five survey items concerned with interpersonal aspects of care. Mixed-effect linear regression models were used to estimate age- and gender-specific differences between white British patients and patients of the same age and gender from each other ethnic group. There was strong evidence (Pcommunication varied by both age and gender. The difference in scores between white British and other responders on doctor-patient communication items was largest for older, female Pakistani and Bangladeshi responders, and for younger responders who described their ethnicity as 'Any other white'. The identification of groups with particularly marked differences in experience of GP-patient communication--older, female, Asian patients and younger 'Any other white' patients--underlines the need for a renewed focus on quality of care for these groups. © British Journal of General Practice 2016.

  14. The Effects of Sex and Age on the Perceptions of TV Characters: An Inter-Age Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Elliot S.

    1979-01-01

    This investigation of how viewers of daytime serials rate actors playing TV characters of varying age found that the age of a TV character and ratings of that character are not causally related, although a relationship was observed between age and sex--young males, middle-aged females--and ratings. (JVP)

  15. Ethnic and genetic factors of iron status in women of reproductive age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordeuk, Victor R; Brannon, Patsy M

    2017-12-01

    Background: African Americans are at increased risk of iron deficiency (ID) but also have higher serum ferritin (SF) concentrations than those of the general population. The Hemochromatosis and Iron Overload Screening (HEIRS) Study was a multicenter study of ethnically diverse participants that tested for the hemochromatosis ( HFE ) C282Y genotype and iron status. Objective: We sought to determine the prevalence and predictors of ID (SF concentration ≤15 μg/L) and elevated iron stores (SF concentration >300 μg/L) in HEIRS women of reproductive age (25-44 y). Design: The HEIRS Study was a cross-sectional study of iron status and HFE mutations in primary care patients at 5 centers in the United States and Canada. We analyzed data for women of reproductive age according to whether or not they were pregnant or breastfeeding at the time of the study. Results: ID was present in 12.5% of 20,080 nonpregnant and nonbreastfeeding women compared with 19.2% of 1962 pregnant or breastfeeding women ( P iron stores were shown in 1.7% of nonpregnant and nonbreastfeeding women compared with 0.7% of pregnant or breastfeeding women ( P = 0.001). HFE C282Y homozygosity had the most marked independent association with elevated iron stores in nonpregnant and nonbreastfeeding women and in pregnant or breastfeeding women (OR >49.0; P iron stores in both groups of women (OR >2.0; P iron stores in nonpregnant and nonbreastfeeding women. Conclusions: Both ID and elevated iron stores are present in women of reproductive age and are influenced by ethnicity and HFE C282Y. Efforts to optimize iron status should keep these findings in view. This study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03276247. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  16. Physical Attractiveness, Age, and Sex as Determinants of Reactions to Resumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quereshi, M. Y.; Kay, Janet P.

    1986-01-01

    Physical attractiveness, age, and sex were manipulated to determine their effect on the evaluation of 54 hypothetical applicants' resumes for three different jobs by 60 Master's in Business Administration students. Physical attractiveness favorably influenced the suitability ratings for all jobs; raters' sex and age were not significant but…

  17. Sex- and age-related differences in clinical outcome after primary percutaneous coronary intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Lars; Niemann, Troels; Thorsgaard, Niels

    2012-01-01

    AIMS: To compare the outcome after primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) according to sex and age, including comparison of sex- and age-specific mortality of PPCI patients with that of the general population. METHODS AND RESULTS: This population-based follow-up study included 7,385 ST...

  18. The Burden of Blindness According To Age and Sex In Some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: There are differences in the impact of blindness by age and sex; blind males having a higher risk for death than females. The aim of this study was to describe the age and sex difference among the blind in some Niger Delta communities of Nigeria. Methods: A community based, cross-sectional study was done ...

  19. Age of Sexual Debut and Physical Dating Violence Victimization: Sex Differences among US High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihongbe, Timothy O.; Cha, Susan; Masho, Saba W.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Research has shown that early age of sexual debut is associated with physical dating violence (PDV), but sex-specific associations are sparse. We estimated the prevalence of PDV victimization in high school students who have initiated sexual intercourse and examined sex-specific association between age of sexual debut and PDV…

  20. Methods of Suicide by Age: Sex and Race Differences among the Young and Old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, John L.; Santos, John F.

    1986-01-01

    Annual official statistics for specific methods of suicide (firearms, hanging, poisons) by age for different sex and racial groups (Whites, Blacks, non-Whites excluding Black) were examined from 1960 to 1978. Comparisons among the age-sex-race groups, along with trends over time and differences in the methods employed, were noted. (Author/ABL)

  1. Dietary Risk Factors by Race/Ethnicity, Age-Group, and Gender in a Representative Sample of US Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccaro, J A; Huffman, F G

    2017-01-01

    To explore the relationships among ethnicity/race, gender, demographics, age-group and dietary health in a nationally representative sample of older adults. Cross-sectional study. Data for this study were collected by interview in the mobile examination centers from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, 2011 - 2012. U.S. representative sample of adults aged 55 years and older (N = 1860) from five ethnic/racial groups. All participants read, understood, and signed informed consent forms under data collection procedures by trained individuals. Sociodemographics were collected by trained interviewers using a general questionnaire. Food groups were determined by 24-hour recall using the validated USDA Automated Multiple-Pass Method. Data were presented by cross-tabulation and logistic regression to investigate relationships among race/ethnicity, gender, and age groups. Over 70% of older adults failed to consume 2.75 cups of combined fruits and vegetables. Other Hispanics (Hispanics excluding Mexican Americans) had higher Odds of sugar-containing food consumption compared to non-Hispanic Whites (adjusted model). Being older and female were protective factors for over-consumption of sugar. Older Americans are not meeting dietary guidelines and there are differences by gender and ethnicity. Since diet has been associated with quality of life and medical costs, public health interventions can benefit by knowing age-, gender- and racial/ethnic- specific dietary behaviors.

  2. The association between major depression prevalence and sex becomes weaker with age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patten, Scott B; Williams, Jeanne V A; Lavorato, Dina H; Wang, Jian Li; Bulloch, Andrew G M; Sajobi, Tolulope

    2016-02-01

    Women have a higher prevalence of major depressive episodes (MDE) than men, and the annual prevalence of MDE declines with age. Age by sex interactions may occur (a weakening of the sex effect with age), but are easily overlooked since individual studies lack statistical power to detect interactions. The objective of this study was to evaluate age by sex interactions in MDE prevalence. In Canada, a series of 10 national surveys conducted between 1996 and 2013 assessed MDE prevalence in respondents over the age of 14. Treating age as a continuous variable, binomial and linear regression was used to model age by sex interactions in each survey. To increase power, the survey-specific interaction coefficients were then pooled using meta-analytic methods. The estimated interaction terms were homogeneous. In the binomial regression model I (2) was 31.2 % and was not statistically significant (Q statistic = 13.1, df = 9, p = 0.159). The pooled estimate (-0.004) was significant (z = 3.13, p = 0.002), indicating that the effect of sex became weaker with increasing age. This resulted in near disappearance of the sex difference in the 75+ age group. This finding was also supported by an examination of age- and sex-specific estimates pooled across the surveys. The association of MDE prevalence with sex becomes weaker with age. The interaction may reflect biological effect modification. Investigators should test for, and consider inclusion of age by sex interactions in epidemiological analyses of MDE prevalence.

  3. Associations of candidate genes to age-related macular degeneration among racial/ethnic groups in the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Ronald; Li, Xiaohui; Kuo, Jane Z; Klein, Barbara E K; Cotch, Mary Frances; Wong, Tien Y; Taylor, Kent D; Rotter, Jerome I

    2013-11-01

    To describe the relationships of selected candidate genes to the prevalence of early age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in a cohort of whites, blacks, Hispanics, and Chinese Americans. Cross-sectional study. setting: Multicenter study. study population: A total of 2456 persons aged 45-84 years with genotype information and fundus photographs. procedures: Twelve of 2862 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from 11 of 233 candidate genes for cardiovascular disease were selected for analysis based on screening with marginal unadjusted P value ethnic groups. Logistic regression models tested for association in case-control samples. main outcome measure: Prevalence of early AMD. Early AMD was present in 4.0% of the cohort and varied from 2.4% in blacks to 6.0% in whites. The odds ratio increased from 2.3 for 1 to 10.0 for 4 risk alleles in a joint effect analysis of Age-Related Maculopathy Susceptibility 2 rs10490924 and Complement Factor H Y402H (P for trend = 4.2×10(-7)). Frequencies of each SNP varied among the racial/ethnic groups. Adjusting for age and other factors, few statistically significant associations of the 12 SNPs with AMD were consistent across all groups. In a multivariate model, most candidate genes did not attenuate the comparatively higher odds of AMD in whites. The higher frequency of risk alleles for several SNPs in Chinese Americans may partially explain their AMD frequency's approaching that of whites. The relationships of 11 candidate genes to early AMD varied among 4 racial/ethnic groups, and partially explained the observed variations in early AMD prevalence among them. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. HIV prevalence by ethnic group covaries with prevalence of herpes simplex virus-2 and high-risk sex in Uganda: An ecological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Chris R

    2018-01-01

    HIV prevalence varies from 1.7% to 14.8% between ethnic groups in Uganda. Understanding the factors responsible for this heterogeneity in HIV spread may guide prevention efforts. We evaluated the relationship between HIV prevalence by ethnic group and a range of risk factors as well as the prevalence of herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2), syphilis and symptomatic STIs in the 2004/2005 Uganda HIV/AIDS Sero-Behavioural Survey-a two stage, nationally representative, population based survey of 15-59-year-olds. Spearman's correlation was used to assess the relationship between HIV prevalence and each variable. There was a positive association between HIV prevalence and HSV-2, symptomatic STIs and high-risk sex (sex with a non-cohabiting, non-marital partner) for women. Non-significant positive associations were present between HIV and high-risk sex for men and lifetime number of partners for men and women. Variation in sexual behavior may contribute to the variations in HIV, HSV-2 and other STI prevalence by ethnic group in Uganda. Further work is necessary to delineate which combinations of risk factors determine differential STI spread in Uganda.

  5. Sex and Age Differences in the Risk Threshold for Delinquency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Thessa M. L.; Loeber, Rolf; Slotboom, Anne-Marie; Bijleveld, Catrien C. J. H.; Hipwell, Alison E.; Stepp, Stephanie D.; Koot, Hans M.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines sex differences in the risk threshold for adolescent delinquency. Analyses were based on longitudinal data from the Pittsburgh Youth Study (n = 503) and the Pittsburgh Girls Study (n = 856). The study identified risk factors, promotive factors, and accumulated levels of risks as predictors of delinquency and nondelinquency,…

  6. Genotype by sex and genotype by age interactions with sedentary behavior: the Portuguese Healthy Family Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel M V Santos

    Full Text Available Sedentary behavior (SB expression and its underlying causal factors have been progressively studied, as it is a major determinant of decreased health quality. In the present study we applied Genotype x Age (GxAge and Genotype x Sex (GxSex interaction methods to determine if the phenotypic expression of different SB traits is influenced by an interaction between genetic architecture and both age and sex. A total of 1345 subjects, comprising 249 fathers, 327 mothers, 334 sons and 325 daughters, from 339 families of The Portuguese Healthy Family Study were included in the analysis. SB traits were assessed by means of a 3-d physical activity recall, the Baecke and IPAQ questionnaires. GxAge and GxSex interactions were analyzed using SOLAR 4.0 software. Sedentary behaviour heritability estimates were not always statistically significant (p>0.05 and ranged from 3% to 27%. The GxSex and GxAge interaction models were significantly better than the single polygenic models for TV (min/day, EEsed (kcal/day, personal computer (PC usage and physical activty (PA tertiles. The GxAge model is also significantly better than the polygenic model for Sed (min/day. For EEsed, PA tertiles, PC and Sed, the GxAge interaction was significant because the genetic correlation between SB environments was significantly different from 1. Further, PC and Sed variance heterogeneity among distinct ages were observed. The GxSex interaction was significant for EEsed due to genetic variance heterogeneity between genders and for PC due to a genetic correlation less than 1 across both sexes. Our results suggest that SB expression may be influenced by the interactions between genotype with both sex and age. Further, different sedentary behaviors seem to have distinct genetic architectures and are differentially affected by age and sex.

  7. Avian sex, sex chromosomes, and dosage compensation in the age of genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Jennifer A Marshall

    2014-04-01

    Comparisons of the sex chromosome systems in birds and mammals are widening our view and deepening our understanding of vertebrate sex chromosome organization, function, and evolution. Birds have a very conserved ZW system of sex determination in which males have two copies of a large, gene-rich Z chromosome, and females have a single Z and a female-specific W chromosome. The avian ZW system is quite the reverse of the well-studied mammalian XY chromosome system, and evolved independently from different autosomal blocs. Despite the different gene content of mammal and bird sex chromosomes, there are many parallels. Genes on the bird Z and the mammal X have both undergone selection for male-advantage functions, and there has been amplification of male-advantage genes and accumulation of LINEs. The bird W and mammal Y have both undergone extensive degradation, but some birds retain early stages and some mammals terminal stages of the process, suggesting that the process is more advanced in mammals. Different sex-determining genes, DMRT1 and SRY, define the ZW and XY systems, but DMRT1 is involved in downstream events in mammals. Birds show strong cell autonomous specification of somatic sex differences in ZZ and ZW tissue, but there is growing evidence for direct X chromosome effects on sexual phenotype in mammals. Dosage compensation in birds appears to be phenotypically and molecularly quite different from X inactivation, being partial and gene-specific, but both systems use tools from the same molecular toolbox and there are some signs that galliform birds represent an early stage in the evolution of a coordinated system.

  8. Technology use and interest among low-income parents of young children: differences by age group and ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swindle, Taren M; Ward, Wendy L; Whiteside-Mansell, Leanne; Bokony, Patti; Pettit, Dawn

    2014-01-01

    To examine demographic differences in frequency of use of technologies and interest in receiving nutrition information via technology by low-income parents and caregivers. Descriptive, cross-sectional study. Head Start and state-funded child care programs. A total of 806 parents and caregivers from low-income families. A 20-item survey assessed frequency of use and interest in technologies (dependent variables) and collected participant age and ethnicity (independent variables). Multivariate ANOVA analysis investigated whether age, ethnicity, and their interactions were related to frequency of use and interest in technology types. Daily rates of usage for Internet, text messaging, and cell phone use were over 60%. However, Twitter and blogs were accessed daily by interaction of ethnicity and age was nonsignificant. However, main effects for ethnicity (Wilks' λ = .85; F = 3.13; P < .001) and age (Wilks' λ = .89; F = 2.29; P < .001) were observed. Facebook, e-mail, texting, and smartphone applications may be innovative modalities to engage with low-income parents and caregivers aged ≤ 45. However, some strategies may be ineffective for reaching Hispanic families as they reported less use of the Internet, Facebook, and e-mail as well as less interest in e-mail. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Does the breast cancer age at diagnosis differ by ethnicity? A study on immigrants to Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemminki, Kari; Mousavi, Seyed Mohsen; Sundquist, Jan; Brandt, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Age-specific incidence rates for breast cancer in low-risk and high-risk ethnic populations differ by age at which the incidence maximum is reached: around 50 years in low-risk populations and over 60 years in high-risk populations. The interpretation of these differences remains unsettled, one line primarily referring to biological differences, the second one to cohort effects of rapidly increasing rates in young populations, and the third one to incomplete registration of cancer in the elderly. The nationwide Family-Cancer Database was used to analyze standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) and age at diagnosis of breast cancer in female immigrants to Sweden by their region of origin compared with women native to Sweden matched on birth year and other relevant factors. We showed first that the SIRs for breast cancer were lower in many immigrant groups compared with natives of Sweden; women from Turkey had the lowest SIR of 0.45, followed by those from Chile (0.54) and Southeast Asia (0.57). Women from nine regions showed an earlier mean age at diagnosis than their matched Swedish controls, the largest differences being 5.5 years for women from Turkey, 5.1 years for those from Asian Arab and "Other African" countries, 4.3 years for those from Iran, and 4.0 years for those from Iraq. The results show that in many immigrant groups, the diagnostic age is earlier (50 years), suggesting that true biological factors underlie the differences. These factors may explain much of the international variation in breast cancer incidence. Identifying these factors should advance understanding of breast cancer etiology and prevention.

  10. Working, sex partner age differences, and sexual behavior among African American youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauermeister, José A; Zimmerman, Marc; Xue, Yange; Gee, Gilbert C; Caldwell, Cleopatra H

    2009-10-01

    Participation in the workplace has been proposed as a potential structural-level HIV/STI prevention strategy for youth. Only a few cross-sectional studies have explored the effect of work during adolescence and young adulthood on sexual behavior and their results have been mixed. This study builds on this literature by exploring whether work influences youths' sexual behavior in a cohort of African American youth (N = 562; 45% males; M = 14.5 years, SD = 0.6) followed from adolescence to young adulthood (ages 13-25 years). Using growth curve modeling, we tested whether working was associated with older sex partners. Then, we explored the association between sex partner age differences and sexual behaviors (i.e., number of sex partners, condom use, and frequency of sexual intercourse). Finally, we tested whether the relationship between sex partner age differences and sexual behaviors was confounded by working. Working greater number of hours was not significantly associated with having older sex partners. Sex partner age differences was associated with number of partners, condom use, and higher sex frequency. These associations were larger for females. Working was associated with higher sex frequency, after accounting for age differences. We discuss the implications of these findings for future research and program planning, particularly in the context of youth development programs.

  11. Geography matters: the prevalence of diabetes in the Auckland Region by age, gender and ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warin, Briar; Exeter, Daniel J; Zhao, Jinfeng; Kenealy, Timothy; Wells, Susan

    2016-06-10

    To determine whether the prevalence of diagnosed diabetes in the greater Auckland Region varies by General Electoral District (GED). Using encrypted National Health Identifiers and record linkage of routine health datasets, we identified a regional cohort of people with diagnosed diabetes in 2011 from inpatient records and medication dispensing. The geographical unit of a person's residence (meshblock) was used to determine the GED of residence. We calculated prevalence estimates and 95% confidence intervals and used binary logistic regression to map geographical variations in diabetes. An estimated 63,014 people had diagnosed diabetes in Auckland in 2011, a prevalence of 8.5% of the adult population ≥30 years of age. We found significant variation in diabetes prevalence by age, gender, ethnicity and GED. There was a more than five-fold difference in the unadjusted prevalence of diabetes by GED, ranging from 3.2% (3.1 to 3.4%) in the North Shore to 17.3% (16.8 to 17.7%) in Mangere. Such variations remained after binary logistic regression adjusting for socio-demographic variables. Compared to New Zealand Europeans, Indian people had the highest odds of having diabetes at 3.85 (3.73 to 3.97), while the odds of people living in the most deprived areas having diabetes was nearly twice that of those living in least deprived areas (OR 1.93, [1.87 to 1.99]). Geographic variations in diabetes remained after adjusting for socio-demographic circumstances: people living in GEDs in south-west Auckland were at least 60% more likely than people living in the North Shore GED to have diabetes. There is significant variation in the prevalence of diabetes by GED in Auckland that persists across strata of age group, gender and ethnicity, and persists after controlling for these same variables. These inequities should prompt action by politicians, policymakers, funders, health providers and communities for interventions aimed at reducing such inequities. Geography and its

  12. Investigating the early stages of person perception: the asymmetry of social categorization by sex vs. age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloutier, Jasmin; Freeman, Jonathan B; Ambady, Nalini

    2014-01-01

    Early perceptual operations are central components of the dynamics of social categorization. The wealth of information provided by facial cues presents challenges to our understanding of these early stages of person perception. The current study aimed to uncover the dynamics of processing multiply categorizable faces, notably as a function of their gender and age. Using a modified four-choice version of a mouse-tracking paradigm (which assesses the relative dominance of two categorical dimensions), the relative influence that sex and age have on each other during categorization of infant, younger adult, and older adult faces was investigated. Results of these experiments demonstrate that when sex and age dimensions are simultaneously categorized, only for infant faces does age influence sex categorization. In contrast, the sex of both young and older adults was shown to influence age categorization. The functional implications of these findings are discussed in light of previous person perception research.

  13. Differential item functioning of pathological gambling criteria: an examination of gender, race/ethnicity, and age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacco, Paul; Torres, Luis R; Cunningham-Williams, Renee M; Woods, Carol; Unick, G Jay

    2011-06-01

    This study tested for the presence of differential item functioning (DIF) in DSM-IV Pathological Gambling Disorder (PGD) criteria based on gender, race/ethnicity and age. Using a nationally representative sample of adults from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC), indicating current gambling (n = 10,899), Multiple Indicator-Multiple Cause (MIMIC) models tested for DIF, controlling for income, education, and marital status. Compared to the reference groups (i.e., Male, Caucasian, and ages 25-59 years), women (OR = 0.62; P gambling to escape (Criterion 5) (OR = 2.22; P < .001) but young adults (OR = 0.62; P < .05) were less likely to endorse it. African Americans (OR = 2.50; P < .001) and Hispanics were more likely to endorse trying to cut back (Criterion 3) (OR = 2.01; P < .01). African Americans were more likely to endorse the suffering losses (OR = 2.27; P < .01) criterion. Young adults were more likely to endorse chasing losses (Criterion 9) (OR = 1.81; P < .01) while older adults were less likely to endorse this criterion (OR = 0.76; P < .05). Further research is needed to identify factors contributing to DIF, address criteria level bias, and examine differential test functioning.

  14. Blood cadmium levels in women of childbearing age vary by race/ethnicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mijal, Renee S., E-mail: rmijal@epi.msu.edu; Holzman, Claudia B. [Department of Epidemiology, Michigan State University, B601 W. Fee Hall, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States)

    2010-07-15

    The heavy metal cadmium (Cd) is long-lived in the body and low-level cumulative exposure, even among non-smokers, has been associated with changes in renal function and bone metabolism. Women are more susceptible to the adverse effects of Cd and have higher body burdens. Due to increased dietary absorption of Cd in menstruating women and the long half-life of the metal, reproductive age exposures are likely important contributors to overall body burden and disease risk. We examined blood Cd levels in women of reproductive age in the US and assessed variation by race/ethnicity. Blood Cd concentrations were compared among female NHANES participants aged 20-44, who were neither pregnant nor breastfeeding. Sample size varied primarily based on inclusion/exclusion of smokers (n=1734-3121). Mean Cd concentrations, distributions and odds ratios were calculated using SUDAAN. For logistic regression Cd was modeled as high (the upper 10% of the distribution) vs. the remainder. Overall, Mexican Americans had lower Cd levels than other groups due to a lower smoking prevalence, smoking being an important source of exposure. Among never-smokers, Mexican Americans had 1.77 (95% CI: 1.06-2.96) times the odds of high Cd as compared to non-Hispanic Whites after controlling for age and low iron (ferritin). For non-Hispanic Blacks, the odds were 2.96 (CI: 1.96-4.47) times those of non-Hispanic Whites in adjusted models. Adjustment for relevant reproductive factors or exposure to environmental tobacco smoke had no effect. In this nationally representative sample, non-smoking Mexican American and non-Hispanic Black women were more likely to have high Cd than non-Hispanic White women. Additional research is required to determine the underlying causes of these differences.

  15. Blood cadmium levels in women of childbearing age vary by race/ethnicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mijal, Renee S.; Holzman, Claudia B.

    2010-01-01

    The heavy metal cadmium (Cd) is long-lived in the body and low-level cumulative exposure, even among non-smokers, has been associated with changes in renal function and bone metabolism. Women are more susceptible to the adverse effects of Cd and have higher body burdens. Due to increased dietary absorption of Cd in menstruating women and the long half-life of the metal, reproductive age exposures are likely important contributors to overall body burden and disease risk. We examined blood Cd levels in women of reproductive age in the US and assessed variation by race/ethnicity. Blood Cd concentrations were compared among female NHANES participants aged 20-44, who were neither pregnant nor breastfeeding. Sample size varied primarily based on inclusion/exclusion of smokers (n=1734-3121). Mean Cd concentrations, distributions and odds ratios were calculated using SUDAAN. For logistic regression Cd was modeled as high (the upper 10% of the distribution) vs. the remainder. Overall, Mexican Americans had lower Cd levels than other groups due to a lower smoking prevalence, smoking being an important source of exposure. Among never-smokers, Mexican Americans had 1.77 (95% CI: 1.06-2.96) times the odds of high Cd as compared to non-Hispanic Whites after controlling for age and low iron (ferritin). For non-Hispanic Blacks, the odds were 2.96 (CI: 1.96-4.47) times those of non-Hispanic Whites in adjusted models. Adjustment for relevant reproductive factors or exposure to environmental tobacco smoke had no effect. In this nationally representative sample, non-smoking Mexican American and non-Hispanic Black women were more likely to have high Cd than non-Hispanic White women. Additional research is required to determine the underlying causes of these differences.

  16. Posterior Cranial Fossa Crowdedness Is Related to Age and Sex: an Magnetic Resonance Volumetric Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lirng, J.F.; Fuh, J.L.; Chen, Y.Y.; Wang, S.J.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To measure 3-dimensional (3D) posterior cranial fossa (PCF) crowdedness and to evaluate the effect of age, sex, and body height on PCF. Material and Methods: Fifty-two healthy volunteers (24 M and 28 F; mean age 55.4±17.2 years; range 24-82 years) were recruited. Using a semi-automated magnetic resonance technique, we calculated a PCF crowdedness index (CI) as the ratio of hindbrain (HB) volume to PCF volume x100% and correlated this index with age, sex, body height, and other crowdedness parameters. Results: The mean PCF CI was 93.7±2.7%. Women had a more crowded PCF than men (95.0±1.7% versus 92.1±2.7%; P <0.001). PCF CI declined with age for both men ( r = -0.61; P = 0.002) and women ( r = -0.68; P <0.001). The association with age - but not HB volume - was maintained after we controlled for sex and body height. On multiple regression, both age and sex accounted for 57.5% of the PCF CI variance. Conclusion: Our study shows that PCF CI is associated with age and sex, and can therefore be used as a surrogate to assess hindbrain atrophy in a cross-sectional sample. Moreover, sex- and age-specific normal ranges may be needed to evaluate the PCF CI in clinical practice

  17. Posterior Cranial Fossa Crowdedness Is Related to Age and Sex: an Magnetic Resonance Volumetric Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lirng, J.F.; Fuh, J.L.; Chen, Y.Y.; Wang, S.J. [Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taiwan (China). Dept. of Radiology and Neurological Inst.

    2005-11-01

    Purpose: To measure 3-dimensional (3D) posterior cranial fossa (PCF) crowdedness and to evaluate the effect of age, sex, and body height on PCF. Material and Methods: Fifty-two healthy volunteers (24 M and 28 F; mean age 55.4{+-}17.2 years; range 24-82 years) were recruited. Using a semi-automated magnetic resonance technique, we calculated a PCF crowdedness index (CI) as the ratio of hindbrain (HB) volume to PCF volume x100% and correlated this index with age, sex, body height, and other crowdedness parameters. Results: The mean PCF CI was 93.7{+-}2.7%. Women had a more crowded PCF than men (95.0{+-}1.7% versus 92.1{+-}2.7%; P <0.001). PCF CI declined with age for both men ( r = -0.61; P = 0.002) and women ( r = -0.68; P <0.001). The association with age - but not HB volume - was maintained after we controlled for sex and body height. On multiple regression, both age and sex accounted for 57.5% of the PCF CI variance. Conclusion: Our study shows that PCF CI is associated with age and sex, and can therefore be used as a surrogate to assess hindbrain atrophy in a cross-sectional sample. Moreover, sex- and age-specific normal ranges may be needed to evaluate the PCF CI in clinical practice.

  18. Development of Ethnic, Racial, and National Prejudice in Childhood and Adolescence: A Multinational Meta-Analysis of Age Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raabe, Tobias; Beelmann, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    This meta-analysis summarizes 113 research reports worldwide (121 cross-sectional and 7 longitudinal studies) on age differences in ethnic, racial, or national prejudice among children and adolescents. Overall, results indicated a peak in prejudice in middle childhood (5-7 years) followed by a slight decrease until late childhood (8-10 years). In…

  19. The Relation of Age, Gender, Ethnicity, and Risk Behaviors to Self-Esteem among Students in Nonmainstream Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Jennifer M.; Poyrazli, Senel; Ferrer-Wreder, Laura; Grahame, Kamini Maraj

    2004-01-01

    This cross-sectional study investigated self-esteem in relation to age, gender, ethnicity, and risk behaviors among a sample of nonmainstream students. Participants were 149 students in the 6th to 12th grades from two non-mainstream schools (one charter and one alternative school). Self-esteem and youth risk behaviors were determined by using a…

  20. Social class, ethnicity and other risk factors for small for gestational age and preterm delivery in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkerk, P.H.; Zaadstra, B.M.; Reerink, J.D.; Herngreen, W.P.; Verloove-Vanhorick, S.P.

    1994-01-01

    Social class and ethnicity are important risk factors for small-for-gestational-age and preterm delivery in many countries. This study was performed to assess whether this is also the case in the Netherlands, a country with a high level of social security, relatively small income differences and

  1. THE REPRESENTATIONS OF TYPE OF DISABILITY, ETHNICITY AND AGE AND HOW THESE ARE ASSOCIATED WITH PARTICIPATION IN TEXTBOOKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica REICHENBERG

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Textbooks matter for an inclusive education. I examined the way in which 30 textbooks in history, religion, civics, and biology represent disability-related issues. Aim: The overall aim is to find out if textbooks represent the type of disability in association with age, ethnicity, and participation. Specifically, this research addresses the question: Are textbooks’ representations of the type of disability, age, and ethnicity associated with participation? By participation I refer to whether textbooks represent people with disabilities as (a engaged in daily activities located outside of institutionalized residence. Engagement in activities may be indicated by sports, being a wage earner, voting, protesting, spending time with family or friends or (b only being at their institutionalized residence/flat. Methods: I examined three hypotheses regarding representations of type of disability, ethnicity, and age and how these are associated with participation. I analysed the data using a combination of qualitative coding of the content as well as qualitative comparative analysis (QCA. Results: Although most textbooks do mention disability, people with a disability remain largely invisible, and less than half of the textbooks represent people with disabilities as active participants. Conclusions: First, I demonstrate that physical disability is associated with active participation. Second, I demonstrate that disability is associated with ethnic majority. Third, I demonstrate that the participation of people with disabilities is associated with both young and old age groups.

  2. Investigation of Music Student Efficacy as Influenced by Age, Experience, Gender, Ethnicity, and Type of Instrument Played in South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Norman

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this research study was to quantitatively examine South Carolina high school instrumental music students' self-efficacy as measured by the Generalized Self-Efficacy (GSE) instrument (Schwarzer & Jerusalem, 1993). The independent variables of age, experience, gender, ethnicity, and type of instrument played) were correlated with…

  3. Sex and age data from cropping of Buffalo Syncerus caffer in the Kruger National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.R Mason

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available Sex and age classifications of buffalo cropped in the Kruger National Park suggest that cropping is biased towards females, and prime breeding individuals of both sexes are apparently under-represented. The implications are discussed in relation to buffalo social organisation and comparative data on population structure.

  4. Effects of age and sex on developmental neural networks of visual-spatial attention allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubia, Katya; Hyde, Zoe; Halari, Rozmin; Giampietro, Vincent; Smith, Anna

    2010-06-01

    Compared to our understanding of the functional maturation of brain networks underlying complex cognitive abilities, hardly anything is known of the neurofunctional development of simpler cognitive abilities such as visuo-spatial attention allocation. Furthermore, nothing is known on the effect of gender on the functional development of attention allocation. This study employed event related functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate effects of age, sex, and sex by age interactions on the brain activation of 63 males and females, between 13 to 38years, during a visual-spatial oddball task. Behaviourally, with increasing age, speed was traded for accuracy, indicative of a less impulsive performance style in older subjects. Increasing age was associated with progressively increased activation in typical areas of selective attention of lateral fronto-striatal and temporo-parietal brain regions. Sex difference analysis showed enhanced activation in right-hemispheric inferior frontal and superior temporal regions in females, and in left-hemispheric inferior temporo-parietal regions in males. Importantly, the age by sex interaction findings showed that these sex-dimorphic patterns of brain activation may be the result of underlying sex differences in the functional maturation of these brain regions, as females had sex-specific progressive age-correlations in the same right inferior fronto-striato-temporal areas, while male-specific age-correlations were in left medial temporal and parietal areas. The findings demonstrate progressive functional maturation of fronto-striato-parieto-temporal networks of the relatively simple function of attention allocation between early adolescence and mid-adulthood. They furthermore show that sex-dimorphic patterns of enhanced reliance on right inferior frontal, striatal and superior temporal regions in females and of left temporo-parietal regions in males during attention allocation may be the result of underlying sex

  5. Sex differences in the effect of aging on dry eye disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahn JH

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Jong Ho Ahn,1 Yoon-Hyeong Choi,2 Hae Jung Paik,1 Mee Kum Kim,3 Won Ryang Wee,3 Dong Hyun Kim1 1Department of Ophthalmology, Gachon University Gil Medical Center, 2Department of Preventive Medicine, Gachon University College of Medicine, Incheon, 3Department of Ophthalmology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea Purpose: Aging is a major risk factor in dry eye disease (DED, and understanding sexual differences is very important in biomedical research. However, there is little information about sex differences in the effect of aging on DED. We investigated sex differences in the effect of aging and other risk factors for DED.Methods: This study included data of 16,824 adults from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2010–2012, which is a population-based cross-sectional survey. DED was defined as the presence of frequent ocular dryness or a previous diagnosis by an ophthalmologist. Basic sociodemographic factors and previously known risk factors for DED were included in the analyses. Linear regression modeling and multivariate logistic regression modeling were used to compare the sex differences in the effect of risk factors for DED; we additionally performed tests for interactions between sex and other risk factors for DED in logistic regression models.Results: In our linear regression models, the prevalence of DED symptoms in men increased with age (R=0.311, P=0.012; however, there was no association between aging and DED in women (P>0.05. Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that aging in men was not associated with DED (DED symptoms/diagnosis: odds ratio [OR] =1.01/1.04, each P>0.05, while aging in women was protectively associated with DED (DED symptoms/diagnosis: OR =0.94/0.91, P=0.011/0.003. Previous ocular surgery was significantly associated with DED in both men and women (men/women: OR =2.45/1.77 [DED symptoms] and 3.17/2.05 [DED diagnosis], each P<0.001. Tests for

  6. Aging among Jewish Americans: Implications for Understanding Religion, Ethnicity, and Service Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glicksman, Allen; Koropeckyj-Cox, Tanya

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This article challenges popular conceptions of the nature of ethnicity and religiousness in the gerontological literature. Using the example of older Jewish Americans, the authors argue for more nuanced definitions and usage of terms such as "religion" and "ethnicity" in order to begin to understand the complex interweaving of these two…

  7. Observations of parent reactions to sex-stereotyped behaviors: age and sex effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagot, B I; Hagan, R

    1991-06-01

    To examine differential socialization of boys and girls by mothers and fathers, home observations were completed for families of 92 12-month-old children, 82 18-month-old children, and 172 5-year-old children. Mothers gave more instructions and directions than did fathers, while fathers spent more time in positive play interaction. Differences in parents' reactions to 12- and 18-month boys and girls were as expected, with the exception that boys received more negative comment for communication attempts than did girls. The suggestion in the literature that fathers would be more involved in sex typing than mothers was not confirmed in this study. The only 2 significant sex-of-parent x sex-of-child effects occurred at 18 months; fathers gave fewer positive reactions to boys engaging in female-typical toy play, and mothers gave more instruction to girls when they attempted to communicate. We argue that the second year of life is the time when children are learning many new skills and when parents are still experimenting with parenting styles and may well use stereotypical responses when unsure of themselves.

  8. Empathy mediates the effects of age and sex on altruistic moral decision making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan B. Rosen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Moral decision making involves affective and cognitive functions like emotional empathy, reasoning and cognitive empathy/theory of mind (ToM, which are discussed to be subject to age-related alterations. Additionally, sex differences in moral decision making have been reported. However, age-related changes in moral decision making from early to late adulthood and their relation to sex and neuropsychological functions have not been studied yet.One hundred ninety seven participants (122 female, aged 19 to 86 years, were tested with a moral decision making task comprising forced choice everyday life situations in which an altruistic option that favors a socially accepted alternative had to be considered against an egoistic option that favors personal benefit over social interests. The percentage of altruistic decisions was analyzed. A structural equation model (SEM was calculated to test the hypothesis whether age and sex predict altruistic moral decision, and whether relevant neuropsychological domains mediate these hypothesized relationships.A significant relationship between age and moral decision making was found indicating more frequent altruistic decisions with increasing age. Furthermore, women decided more altruistically than men. The SEM showed that both age and sex are significant predictors of altruistic moral decision making, mediated by emotional empathy but not by reasoning. No cognitive empathy and ToM scores were correlated to age and moral decision-making at the same time and thus were not included in the SEM.Our data suggest that increasing age and female sex have an effect on altruistic moral decisions, but that this effect is fully mediated by emotional empathy. The fact that changes of moral decision making with age are mediated by emotional empathy can be interpreted in the light of the so-called positivity effect and increasing avoidance of negative affect in aging. The mediated sex effect might represent both biological

  9. Empathy Mediates the Effects of Age and Sex on Altruistic Moral Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Jan B.; Brand, Matthias; Kalbe, Elke

    2016-01-01

    Moral decision making involves affective and cognitive functions like emotional empathy, reasoning and cognitive empathy/theory of mind (ToM), which are discussed to be subject to age-related alterations. Additionally, sex differences in moral decision making have been reported. However, age-related changes in moral decision making from early to late adulthood and their relation to sex and neuropsychological functions have not been studied yet. One hundred ninety seven participants (122 female), aged 19–86 years, were tested with a moral decision making task comprising forced choice “everyday life” situations in which an altruistic option that favors a socially accepted alternative had to be considered against an egoistic option that favors personal benefit over social interests. The percentage of altruistic decisions was analyzed. A structural equation model (SEM) was calculated to test the hypothesis whether age and sex predict altruistic moral decision, and whether relevant neuropsychological domains mediate these hypothesized relationships. A significant relationship between age and moral decision making was found indicating more frequent altruistic decisions with increasing age. Furthermore, women decided more altruistically than men. The SEM showed that both age and sex are significant predictors of altruistic moral decision making, mediated by emotional empathy but not by reasoning. No cognitive empathy and ToM scores were correlated to age and moral decision making at the same time and thus were not included in the SEM. Our data suggest that increasing age and female sex have an effect on altruistic moral decisions, but that this effect is fully mediated by emotional empathy. The fact that changes of moral decision making with age are mediated by emotional empathy can be interpreted in the light of the so-called “positivity effect” and increasing avoidance of negative affect in aging. The mediated sex effect might represent both biological aspects

  10. Empathy Mediates the Effects of Age and Sex on Altruistic Moral Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Jan B; Brand, Matthias; Kalbe, Elke

    2016-01-01

    Moral decision making involves affective and cognitive functions like emotional empathy, reasoning and cognitive empathy/theory of mind (ToM), which are discussed to be subject to age-related alterations. Additionally, sex differences in moral decision making have been reported. However, age-related changes in moral decision making from early to late adulthood and their relation to sex and neuropsychological functions have not been studied yet. One hundred ninety seven participants (122 female), aged 19-86 years, were tested with a moral decision making task comprising forced choice "everyday life" situations in which an altruistic option that favors a socially accepted alternative had to be considered against an egoistic option that favors personal benefit over social interests. The percentage of altruistic decisions was analyzed. A structural equation model (SEM) was calculated to test the hypothesis whether age and sex predict altruistic moral decision, and whether relevant neuropsychological domains mediate these hypothesized relationships. A significant relationship between age and moral decision making was found indicating more frequent altruistic decisions with increasing age. Furthermore, women decided more altruistically than men. The SEM showed that both age and sex are significant predictors of altruistic moral decision making, mediated by emotional empathy but not by reasoning. No cognitive empathy and ToM scores were correlated to age and moral decision making at the same time and thus were not included in the SEM. Our data suggest that increasing age and female sex have an effect on altruistic moral decisions, but that this effect is fully mediated by emotional empathy. The fact that changes of moral decision making with age are mediated by emotional empathy can be interpreted in the light of the so-called "positivity effect" and increasing avoidance of negative affect in aging. The mediated sex effect might represent both biological aspects and

  11. Effect of sex, age, and breed on genetic recombination features in cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiotic recombination is a fundamental biological process which generates genetic diversity, affects fertility, and influences evolvability. Here we investigate the roles of sex, age, and breed in cattle recombination features, including recombination rate, location and crossover interference. Usin...

  12. Supplemental Security Income (SSI) Recipients in each State by Sex and Age, December 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Supplemental Security Income (SSI) Recipients in each State by Sex and Age (December 2010) is produced using the data found in Table 10 from the SSI Report of...

  13. Stage-specific incidence rates and trends of prostate cancer by age, race, and ethnicity, United States, 2004-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Siegel, David A; King, Jessica B

    2018-05-01

    Current literature shows different findings on the contemporary trends of distant-stage prostate cancer incidence, in part, due to low study population coverage and wide age groupings. This study aimed to examine the stage-specific incidence rates and trends of prostate cancer by age (5-year grouping), race, and ethnicity using nationwide cancer registry data. Data on prostate cancer cases came from the 2004-2014 United States Cancer Statistics data set. We calculated stage-specific incidence and 95% confidence intervals by age (5-year age grouping), race, and ethnicity. To measure the changes in rates over time, we calculated annual percentage change (APC). We identified 2,137,054 incident prostate cancers diagnosed during 2004-2014, with an age-adjusted incidence rate of 453.8 per 100,000. Distant-stage prostate cancer incidence significantly decreased during 2004-2010 (APC = -1.2) and increased during 2010-2014 (APC = 3.3). Significant increases in distant prostate cancer incidence also occurred in men aged older than or equal to 50 years except men aged 65-74 and older than or equal to 85 years, in men with white race (APC = 3.9), and non-Hispanic ethnicity (APC = 3.5). Using data representing over 99% of U.S. population, we found that incidence rates of distant-stage prostate cancer significantly increased during 2010-2014 among men in certain ages, in white, and with non-Hispanic ethnicity. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Age- and sex-specific thorax finite element model development and simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoell, Samantha L; Weaver, Ashley A; Vavalle, Nicholas A; Stitzel, Joel D

    2015-01-01

    The shape, size, bone density, and cortical thickness of the thoracic skeleton vary significantly with age and sex, which can affect the injury tolerance, especially in at-risk populations such as the elderly. Computational modeling has emerged as a powerful and versatile tool to assess injury risk. However, current computational models only represent certain ages and sexes in the population. The purpose of this study was to morph an existing finite element (FE) model of the thorax to depict thorax morphology for males and females of ages 30 and 70 years old (YO) and to investigate the effect on injury risk. Age- and sex-specific FE models were developed using thin-plate spline interpolation. In order to execute the thin-plate spline interpolation, homologous landmarks on the reference, target, and FE model are required. An image segmentation and registration algorithm was used to collect homologous rib and sternum landmark data from males and females aged 0-100 years. The Generalized Procrustes Analysis was applied to the homologous landmark data to quantify age- and sex-specific isolated shape changes in the thorax. The Global Human Body Models Consortium (GHBMC) 50th percentile male occupant model was morphed to create age- and sex-specific thoracic shape change models (scaled to a 50th percentile male size). To evaluate the thoracic response, 2 loading cases (frontal hub impact and lateral impact) were simulated to assess the importance of geometric and material property changes with age and sex. Due to the geometric and material property changes with age and sex, there were observed differences in the response of the thorax in both the frontal and lateral impacts. Material property changes alone had little to no effect on the maximum thoracic force or the maximum percent compression. With age, the thorax becomes stiffer due to superior rotation of the ribs, which can result in increased bone strain that can increase the risk of fracture. For the 70-YO models

  15. Age and sex differences in paranormal beliefs: a response to Vitulli, Tipton, and Rowe (1999)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, H J

    2000-04-01

    Vitulli, Tipton, and Rowe (1999) report evidence of age and sex differences in the strength of paranormal beliefs. An alternative interpretation of their data is offered in terms of differential item functioning. It is suggested that respondents' interpretation of paranormal belief test items may vary with age and sex, and that such differences in the strength with which such beliefs are endorsed has not been conclusively established by Vitulli, et al.

  16. Topographic anatomy of the eyelids, and the effects of sex and age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.A. van den Bosch (Willem); I.M. Leenders (Ineke); P.G.H. Mulder (Paul)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractAIMS: To describe the effects of sex and age on eyeball, eyelid, and eyebrow position. METHODS: A cross sectional cohort study was performed in which both eyes of 320 normal subjects aged between 10 and 89 years were included. Of each 10 year age cohort,

  17. [Secular trends of height among Chinese students aged 17 in 18 ethnic minorities from 1985 to 2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yi; Hu, Pei-jin; Zhang, Bing; Ma, Jun

    2015-06-18

    To analyze the secular trends of height among Chinese students aged 17 in different ethnic minorities from 1985 to 2010. A total of 18 Chinese ethnic minorities' students, including Mongolian, Hui, Uygur, Zhuang, Korean, Tibetan, Miao, Buyi, Dong, Bai, Tujia, Hani, Dai, Lisu, Wa, Nakhi, Tu and Qiang as subjects were sampled from the 1985, 1995, 2000, 2005 and 2010 Chinese National Surveys on Students' Constitution and Health. The heights of 17 years old people by gender in various ethnic minorities were analyzed and compared. From 1985 to 2010, the increments of adult heights increased significantly in many ethnic minorities' boys. In 2010, the average height of boys aged 17 years in each minority group was higher than 162 cm and was higher than 170 cm among boys from Hui, Mongolian and Korean groups. The ethnics with height growth rates of more than 2 cm per decade in boys were Hui (2.64 cm/decade) and Dong (2.05 cm/decade) and the ethnics with height growth rates of more than 1 cm per decade were Korean (1.99 cm/decade), Tibetan (1.90 cm/decade), Hani (1.80 cm/decade) and the other 9 minority groups. The average height of girls aged 17 years in each minority group was higher than 150 cm in 2010. The heights showed an upward trend in 15 minority groups, but with different degrees. The ethnics with height growth rates of more than 1 cm per decade were Hui (1.56 cm/decade) and Korean (1.29 cm/decade). The increments that were significant between 1985 and 2010 were Hui (3.89 cm), Korean (3.23 cm), Dong (2.35 cm) and the other 6 minority groups (Pminority groups during the past 25 years, but there was an obvious disequilibrium among various ethnic minorities. We should pay more attention to the minority groups with poor growth and give them more help. Meanwhile, we should also pay attention to the negative effects of the secular growth trend on those minority groups with fast increasing adult height.

  18. Toxic stress and protective factors in multi-ethnic school age children: A research protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condon, Eileen M; Sadler, Lois S; Mayes, Linda C

    2018-04-01

    Exposure to stressful environments in early childhood can cause a toxic stress response and lead to poor health outcomes, including obesity, cardiac disease, diabetes, and mental illness. In animals and maltreated children, the presence of a nurturing caregiver can buffer against the physiological disruptions associated with a toxic stress response; however, the specific caregiver and parenting characteristics that best promote a protective relationship in humans remain largely unexplored, particularly in families living in high-risk environments. In this study, framed in an ecobiodevelopmental (EBD) model, a cross-sectional design is being used to study 54 multi-ethnic, urban maternal-child dyads with children at early school age (4-9 years). Mothers' past experiences, mental health, and caregiving patterns and children's hair cortisol, C-reactive protein, pro-inflammatory cytokines, blood pressure, BMI, behavior, and school performance are being analyzed to identify maternal characteristics that may protect against children's toxic stress response in families at high risk for exposure to stressors such as poverty, trauma, or exposure to violence. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Age, Gender, and Fine-Grained Ethnicity Prediction using Convolutional Neural Networks for the East Asian Face Dataset

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srinivas, Nisha [ORNL; Rose, Derek C [ORNL; Bolme, David S [ORNL; Mahalingam, Gayathri [ORNL; Atwal, Harleen [ORNL; Ricanek, Karl [ORNL

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines the difficulty associated with performing machine-based automatic demographic prediction on a sub-population of Asian faces. We introduce the Wild East Asian Face dataset (WEAFD), a new and unique dataset to the research community. This dataset consists primarily of labeled face images of individuals from East Asian countries, including Vietnam, Burma, Thailand, China, Korea, Japan, Indonesia, and Malaysia. East Asian turk annotators were uniquely used to judge the age and fine grain ethnicity attributes to reduce the impact of the other race effect and improve quality of annotations. We focus on predicting age, gender and fine-grained ethnicity of an individual by providing baseline results with a convolutional neural network (CNN). Finegrained ethnicity prediction refers to predicting ethnicity of an individual by country or sub-region (Chinese, Japanese, Korean, etc.) of the East Asian continent. Performance for two CNN architectures is presented, highlighting the difficulty of these tasks and showcasing potential design considerations that ease network optimization by promoting region based feature extraction.

  20. The differential effects of maternal age, race/ethnicity and insurance on neonatal intensive care unit admission rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Jongh Beatriz E

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal race/ethnicity, age, and socioeconomic status (SES are important factors determining birth outcome. Previous studies have demonstrated that, teenagers, and mothers with advanced maternal age (AMA, and Black/Non-Hispanic race/ethnicity can independently increase the risk for a poor pregnancy outcome. Similarly, public insurance has been associated with suboptimal health outcomes. The interaction and impact on the risk of a pregnancy resulting in a NICU admission has not been studied. Our aim was, to analyze the simultaneous interactions of teen/advanced maternal age (AMA, race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status on the odds of NICU admission. Methods The Consortium of Safe Labor Database (subset of n = 167,160 live births was used to determine NICU admission and maternal factors: age, race/ethnicity, insurance, previous c-section, and gestational age. Results AMA mothers were more likely than teenaged mothers to have a pregnancy result in a NICU admission. Black/Non-Hispanic mothers with private insurance had increased odds for NICU admission. This is in contrast to the lower odds of NICU admission seen with Hispanic and White/Non-Hispanic pregnancies with private insurance. Conclusions Private insurance is protective against a pregnancy resulting in a NICU admission for Hispanic and White/Non-Hispanic mothers, but not for Black/Non-Hispanic mothers. The health disparity seen between Black and White/Non-Hispanics for the risk of NICU admission is most evident among pregnancies covered by private insurance. These study findings demonstrate that adverse pregnancy outcomes are mitigated differently across race, maternal age, and insurance status.

  1. Age and sex variation in serum albumin concentration: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaving, Gary; Batstone, Gifford F; Jones, Richard G

    2016-01-01

    In the UK, a common reference interval for serum albumin is widely used irrespective of age or sex. Implicit in this is that laboratories produce analytically similar results. This paper challenges the validity of this approach. A three-week collection of results sent to all primary care centres in England has been analysed by age, sex and laboratory. In all, 1,079,193 serum albumin reports were included in this analysis. The mean population serum albumin concentration increases to peak at around age 20 years and then decreases with increasing age. Values in females decrease more rapidly but become close to male values at 60 years. The variation between laboratories was large and potentially clinically significant. Reference intervals for serum albumin should be stratified by age and sex. Until there is greater methodological standardization, laboratories should determine their own reference intervals and not accept a single consensus reference interval. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. Equality in sexual health promotion: a systematic review of effective interventions for black and minority ethnic men who have sex with men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Fish

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the past decade, new diagnoses of HIV have increased eightfold among men who have sex with men (MSM of other or of mixed ethnicity in the UK. Yet there is little intervention research on HIV among black and minority ethnic (BME MSM. This article aimed to identify effective HIV and sexual health prevention strategies for BME MSM. Methods We searched three databases PubMed, Scopus and PsychInfo using a combination of search terms: MSM or men who have sex with men and women (MSMW; Black and Minority Ethnic; HIV or sexual health; and evaluation, intervention, program* or implementation. We identified a total of 19 studies to include in the review including those which used randomised control, pre/post-test and cross-sectional design; in addition, we included intervention development studies. Results A total of 12 studies reported statistically significant results in at least one of the behavioural outcomes assessed; one study reported significant increases in HIV knowledge and changes in safer sex practices. In 10 studies, reductions were reported in unprotected anal intercourse (UAI, number of sexual partners, or in both of these measures. Six out of the 13 studies reported reductions in UAI; while seven reported reductions in number of sexual partners. Seven were intervention development studies. Conclusions Research into the mechanisms and underpinnings of future sexual health interventions is urgently needed in order to reduce HIV and other sexually transmitted infection (STI among UK BME MSM. The design of interventions should be informed by the members of these groups for whom they are targeted to ensure the cultural and linguistic sensitivity of the tools and approaches generated.

  3. Fitness prospects: effects of age, sex and recruitment age on reproductive value in a long-lived seabird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, He; Rebke, Maren; Becker, Peter H; Bouwhuis, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Reproductive value is an integrated measure of survival and reproduction fundamental to understanding life-history evolution and population dynamics, but little is known about intraspecific variation in reproductive value and factors explaining such variation, if any. By applying generalized additive mixed models to longitudinal individual-based data of the common tern Sterna hirundo, we estimated age-specific annual survival probability, breeding probability and reproductive performance, based on which we calculated age-specific reproductive values. We investigated effects of sex and recruitment age (RA) on each trait. We found age effects on all traits, with survival and breeding probability declining with age, while reproductive performance first improved with age before levelling off. We only found a very small, marginally significant, sex effect on survival probability, but evidence for decreasing age-specific breeding probability and reproductive performance with RA. As a result, males had slightly lower age-specific reproductive values than females, while birds of both sexes that recruited at the earliest ages of 2 and 3 years (i.e. 54% of the tern population) had somewhat higher fitness prospects than birds recruiting at later ages. While the RA effects on breeding probability and reproductive performance were statistically significant, these effects were not large enough to translate to significant effects on reproductive value. Age-specific reproductive values provided evidence for senescence, which came with fitness costs in a range of 17-21% for the sex-RA groups. Our study suggests that intraspecific variation in reproductive value may exist, but that, in the common tern, the differences are small. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2014 British Ecological Society.

  4. Reported Sports Participation, Race, Sex, Ethnicity, and Obesity in US Adolescents From NHANES Physical Activity (PAQ_D).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Robert W; Perrin, Eliana M; Coyne-Beasley, Tamera; Peterson, Camilla J; Skinner, Asheley C

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To understand the relationships between participation in different types of leisure time sport activity and adolescent obesity, and how those relationships might differ based on race, gender, and household income. Methods. Data consisted of 6667 students that took part in the 1999 to 2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The authors used adjusted Wald tests to examine differences in the prevalence of obesity (body mass index >95th percentile for age and sex) by sport for boys and girls separately. Results. Among adolescent youth age 12 to 19 years, 16.6% of male leisure time sport participants and 15.3% of female sport participants were obese, compared with 23.6% for male nonathlete participant-in-other-activities and 17.0% obesity rate for female nonathlete/participant-in-other-activities. For both males and females, reported participation in leisure time sports decreased between middle school and high school, and this reduction was associated with higher body mass index.

  5. Birth size and gestational age in opposite-sex twins as compared to same-sex twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelenkovic, Aline; Sund, Reijo; Yokoyama, Yoshie

    2018-01-01

    It is well established that boys are born heavier and longer than girls, but it remains unclear whether birth size in twins is affected by the sex of their co-twin. We conducted an individual-based pooled analysis of 21 twin cohorts in 15 countries derived from the COllaborative project of Develo......It is well established that boys are born heavier and longer than girls, but it remains unclear whether birth size in twins is affected by the sex of their co-twin. We conducted an individual-based pooled analysis of 21 twin cohorts in 15 countries derived from the COllaborative project....... In girls, birth size was not associated (5 g birth weight; 95% CI -8 to -18 and -0.089 cm birth length; 95% CI -0.202 to 0.025) with the sex of the co-twin. Gestational age was slightly shorter in boy-boy pairs than in boy-girl and girl-girl pairs. When birth size was standardized by gestational age......, the magnitude of the associations was attenuated in boys, particularly for birth weight. In conclusion, boys with a co-twin sister are heavier and longer at birth than those with a co-twin brother. However, these differences are modest and partly explained by a longer gestation in the presence of a co...

  6. The association of age, gender, ethnicity, family history, obesity and hypertension with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Trinidad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, B Shivananda; Sobrian, Arianne; Latiff, Khalif; Pope, Danielle; Rampersad, Akash; Lourenço, Kodi; Samuel, Nichole

    2014-01-01

    To assess the impact of risk factors such as age, gender, ethnicity, family history, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference and hypertension, on the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus in the Trinidadian population. A cross-sectional case control study comprised 146 non-diabetics and 147 type 2 diabetics ≥18 years of age, from North Central, South West and Eastern regions of Trinidad. Cross-tabulations revealed a significant difference between type 2-diabetes and age at pdiabetes and family history, ethnicity, waist circumference and hypertension at pdiabetics and type 2 diabetics being, 130.62 (±2.124) and 141.35 (±2.312), respectively. No significant difference was observed between type 2 diabetes and gender and BMI. Age was the most significant risk factor of type 2 diabetes. Therefore it can be concluded that family history, ethnicity, waist circumference and hypertension are more significant risk factors of this disease than BMI and gender in the Trinidadian population. Copyright © 2014 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. China’s marriage squeeze: A decomposition into age and sex structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    LI, Xiaomin; LI, Shuzhuo; FELDMAN, Marcus W.

    2016-01-01

    Most recent studies of marriage patterns in China have emphasized the male-biased sex ratio but have largely neglected age structure as a factor in China’s male marriage squeeze. In this paper we develop an index we call “spousal sex ratio” (SSR) to measure the marriage squeeze, and a method of decomposing the proportion of male surplus into age and sex structure effects within a small spousal age difference interval. We project that China’s marriage market will be confronted with a relatively severe male squeeze. For the decomposition of the cohort aged 30, from 2010 to 2020 age structure will be dominant, while from 2020 through 2034 the contribution of age structure will gradually decrease and that of sex structure will increase. From then on, sex structure will be dominant. The index and decomposition, concentrated on a specific female birth cohort, can distinguish spousal competition for single cohorts which may be covered by a summary index for the whole marriage market; these can also be used for consecutive cohorts to reflect the situation of the whole marriage market. PMID:27242390

  8. Sex differences in elite swimming with advanced age are less than marathon running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senefeld, J; Joyner, M J; Stevens, A; Hunter, S K

    2016-01-01

    The sex difference in marathon performance increases with finishing place and age of the runner but whether this occurs among swimmers is unknown. The purpose was to compare sex differences in swimming velocity across world record place (1st-10th), age group (25-89 years), and event distance. We also compared sex differences between freestyle swimming and marathon running. The world's top 10 swimming times of both sexes for World Championship freestyle stroke, backstroke, breaststroke, and butterfly events and the world's top 10 marathon times in 5-year age groups were obtained. Men were faster than women for freestyle (12.4 ± 4.2%), backstroke (12.8 ± 3.0%), and breaststroke (14.5 ± 3.2%), with the greatest sex differences for butterfly (16.7 ± 5.5%). The sex difference in swimming velocity increased across world record place for freestyle (P swimming (P swimming increased with world record place and age, but was less than for marathon running. Collectively, these results suggest more depth in women's swimming than marathon running. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Sex- and age-related variation in metal content of penguin feathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squadrone, Stefania; Abete, Maria Cesarina; Brizio, Paola; Monaco, Gabriella; Colussi, Silvia; Biolatti, Cristina; Modesto, Paola; Acutis, Pier Luigi; Pessani, Daniela; Favaro, Livio

    2016-03-01

    The presence of xenobiotics, such as metals, in ecosystems is concerning due to their durability and they pose a threat to the health and life of organisms. Moreover, mercury can biomagnify in many marine food chains and, therefore, organisms at higher trophic levels can be adversely impacted. Although feathers have been used extensively as a bio-monitoring tool, only a few studies have addressed the effect of both age and sex on metal accumulation. In this study, the concentrations of trace elements were determined in the feathers of all members of a captive colony of African Penguins (Spheniscus demersus) housed in a zoological facility in Italy. Tests were performed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry to detect aluminum, arsenic, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, copper, iron, manganese, nickel, lead, selenium, tin, vanadium, and zinc. Mercury was detected by a direct mercury analyzer. Sexing was performed by a molecular approach based on analyzing the chromo-helicase-DNA-binding1 gene, located on the sex chromosomes. Sex- and age-related differences were studied in order to investigate the different patterns of metal bioaccumulation between male and female individuals and between adults and juveniles. Juvenile females had significantly higher arsenic levels than males, while selenium levels increased significantly with age in both sexes. Penguins kept in controlled environments-given that diet and habitat are under strict control-represent a unique opportunity to determine if and how metal bioaccumulation is related to sex and age.

  10. Age-related changes in the craniofacial region in a modern Greek population sample of known age and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chovalopoulou, Maria-Eleni; Bertsatos, Andreas; Papageorgopoulou, Christina

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate ageing changes in craniofacial region in both sexes and evaluate whether these shape changes are substantial to achieve age discrimination of samples used in anthropological analyses. The study sample consisted of 157 crania of known sex and age (81 males and 76 females) belonging to individuals who lived in Greece during the twentieth century. The sample was divided in three age groups: young adults (YA, 18-39 years old), middle adults (MA, 40-59 years old) and old adults (OA, >60 years old). The three-dimensional coordinates of 31 ecto-cranial landmarks were digitized using a Microscribe 3DX contact digitizer, and landmark configurations were analyzed using the generalized least-squares Procrustes method. The results indicate that both males and females show significant difference among the age groups; however, shape differences can not be used for age group discrimination due to a large range on the accuracy of age group classification. The morphometric changes related to age were different between sexes.

  11. The role of age, ethnicity and environmental factors in modulating malaria risk in Rajasthali, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haque Ubydul

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria is endemic in the Rajasthali region of the Chittagong Hill Tracts in Bangladesh and the Rajasthali region is the most endemic area of Bangladesh. Quantifying the role of environmental and socio-economic factors in the local spatial patterns of malaria endemicity can contribute to successful malaria control and elimination. This study aimed to investigate the role of environmental factors on malaria risk in Rajasthali and to quantify the geographical clustering in malaria risk unaccounted by these factors. Method A total of 4,200 (78.9%; N = 5,322 households were targeted in Rajasthali in July, 2009, and 1,400 individuals were screened using a rapid diagnostic test (Falci-vax. These data were linked to environmental and socio-economic data in a geographical information system. To describe the association between environmental factors and malaria risk, a generalized linear mixed model approach was utilized. The study investigated the role of environmental factors on malaria risk by calculating their population-attributable fractions (PAF, and used residual semivariograms to quantify the geographical clustering in malaria risk unaccounted by these factors. Results Overall malaria prevalence was 11.7%. Out of 5,322 households, 44.12% households were living in areas with malaria prevalence of ≥ 10%. The results from statistical analysis showed that age, ethnicity, proximity to forest, household density, and elevation were significantly and positively correlated with the malaria risk and PAF estimation. The highest PAF of malaria prevalence was 47.7% for third tertile (n = 467 of forest cover, 17.6% for second tertile (n = 467 of forest cover and 19.9% for household density >1,000. Conclusion Targeting of malaria health interventions at small spatial scales in Bangladesh should consider the social and socio-economic risk factors identified as well as alternative methods for improving equity of access to interventions

  12. Trends in age and red blood cell donation habits among several racial/ethnic minority groups in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazer, Mark H; Vassallo, Ralph; Delaney, Meghan; Germain, Marc; Karafin, Matthew S; Sayers, Merlyn; van de Watering, Leo; Shaz, Beth H

    2017-07-01

    To meet the needs of a diverse patient population, an adequate supply of red blood cells (RBCs) from ethnic/racial minority donors is essential. We previously described the 10-year changes in minority blood donation in the United States. This study describes donation patterns by donor status, age, and race/ethnicity. Data on the age and the number of unique black/African American, Hispanic/Latino, Asian, and white RBC donors were obtained from eight US blood collectors for 2006, 2009, 2012, and 2015. Donors self-identified their race/ethnicity. First-time (FT) and repeat (R) donors were analyzed separately. Overall, for both FT and R donor groups, whites constituted the majority of unique donors (FT 66.7% and R 82.7%) and also donated the greatest proportion of RBC units (FT 66.6% and R 83.8%). Donors less than 20 years old comprised the greatest proportion of FT donors for all racial/ethnic groups (39.2%) and had the highest mean number of RBC donations per donor (1.12) among FT donors. Conversely, R donors less than 20 years old had some of the lowest mean number of RBC donations per donor (1.55) among R donors, whereas R donors at least 60 years old had the highest mean (1.88). Year by year, the percentage of FT donors who were less than 20 years old increased for all race/ethnicities. For R donors, whites were more frequently older, while Hispanics/Latinos and Asians were younger. Greater efforts to convert FT donors less than 20 years into R donors should be undertaken to ensure the continued diversity of the blood supply. © 2017 AABB.

  13. Development of a Healthy Aging Score in the Population-Based Rotterdam Study: Evaluating Age and Sex Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaspers, Loes; Schoufour, Josje D; Erler, Nicole S; Darweesh, Sirwan K L; Portegies, Marileen L P; Sedaghat, Sanaz; Lahousse, Lies; Brusselle, Guy G; Stricker, Bruno H; Tiemeier, Henning; Ikram, M Arfan; Laven, Joop S E; Franco, Oscar H; Kavousi, Maryam

    2017-03-01

    To develop a healthy aging score (HAS), to assess age and sex differences in HAS, and to evaluate the association of the HAS with survival. Prospective population-based cohort. Inhabitants of Ommoord, Rotterdam, The Netherlands. A total of 1405 men and 2122 women, mean (standard deviation) age 75.9 (6.4) years. We included 7 domains in the total score of HAS: chronic diseases, mental health, cognitive function, physical function, pain, social support, and quality of life; each scored 0, 1, or 2 in each domain. A total score (range 0-14) was constructed and was assessed continuously and in tertiles (13-14: healthy aging, 11-12: intermediate aging, 0-10: poor aging). Sex-specific change in the mean HAS was computed for the age categories of 65-69, 70-74, 75-79, 80-84, and ≥85 years. The association between HAS and mortality was assessed with Cox proportional hazards models. Mean follow-up was 8.6 (3.4) years. Men had poorer scores in the chronic disease domain than women. However, women had poorer mental health, worse physical function, more pain, and lower quality of life compared with men. The prevalence of healthy aging was higher in men (n = 396, 28.2%), than in women (n = 526, 24.8%). The mean (standard deviation) HAS was 11.1 (2.2) in men and 10.7 (2.3) in women. Mean HAS was higher in men than in women for all age categories. The β for change in mean HAS across the 5 increasing age categories was -0.55 (-0.65 to -0.45) in men and -0.65 (-0.73 to -0.57) in women. The age-adjusted hazard ratio per unit increase in HAS with mortality was 0.86 (0.83-0.89) in men, and 0.89 (0.87-0.91) in women. Levels of HAS were lower in women compared with men, in all age categories. The HAS declined with increasing age for both sexes, albeit slightly steeper in women. The HAS was strongly associated with mortality in both sexes. A better understanding of population healthy aging and sex differences in this regard could aid to implement strategies for sustainable

  14. Age, sex, education, religion, and perception of tattoos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yang

    2002-04-01

    Tattooing has become more acceptable in the mainstream American culture in recent years. Based on a survey with face-to-face interviews of 335 nontattooed adults randomly selected from a city with a population of 444,000, this study explored the relationship of individuals' demographic variables, attitudes toward religion, and their perceptions of tattoos. The hierarchical multiple regression analysis showed that age and attitude toward religion were associated with individuals' perception of tattoos.

  15. A cross-sectional analysis of age and sex patterns in grip strength, tooth loss, near vision and hearing levels in Chinese aged 50-74 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Yili; Pang, Zengchang; Zhang, Dongfeng

    2012-01-01

    -sectional sample of 2006 individuals. The data exhibited high quality with a low missing rate of under 5% in any age groups for each variable. Effects of age and sex on the changes in the four health variables were assessed using multiple regression models with age and sex interactions included. Upon the highly......-related decline in women than in men but neither the overall sex difference nor age-sex interaction reached statistical significance. For hearing function, while no sex difference was found at middle frequency, women had better sensitivity at high frequency and men were more sensitive at low frequency...

  16. The Influence of Age and Sex on Genetic Associations with Adult Body Size and Shape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkler, Thomas W; Justice, Anne E; Graff, Mariaelisa

    2015-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified more than 100 genetic variants contributing to BMI, a measure of body size, or waist-to-hip ratio (adjusted for BMI, WHRadjBMI), a measure of body shape. Body size and shape change as people grow older and these changes differ substantially...... (G x AGE), sex-specific effects (G x SEX) or age-specific effects that differed between men and women (G x AGE x SEX). For BMI, we identified 15 loci (11 previously established for main effects, four novel) that showed significant (FDR... effects on WHRadjBMI. These results may provide further insights into the biology that underlies weight change with age or the sexually dimorphism of body shape....

  17. Role of Estrogen and Other Sex Hormones in Brain Aging. Neuroprotection and DNA Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zárate, Sandra; Stevnsner, Tinna; Gredilla, Ricardo

    2017-01-01

    Aging is an inevitable biological process characterized by a progressive decline in physiological function and increased susceptibility to disease. The detrimental effects of aging are observed in all tissues, the brain being the most important one due to its main role in the homeostasis of the organism. As our knowledge about the underlying mechanisms of brain aging increases, potential approaches to preserve brain function rise significantly. Accumulating evidence suggests that loss of genomic maintenance may contribute to aging, especially in the central nervous system (CNS) owing to its low DNA repair capacity. Sex hormones, particularly estrogens, possess potent antioxidant properties and play important roles in maintaining normal reproductive and non-reproductive functions. They exert neuroprotective actions and their loss during aging and natural or surgical menopause is associated with mitochondrial dysfunction, neuroinflammation, synaptic decline, cognitive impairment and increased risk of age-related disorders. Moreover, loss of sex hormones has been suggested to promote an accelerated aging phenotype eventually leading to the development of brain hypometabolism, a feature often observed in menopausal women and prodromal Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Although data on the relation between sex hormones and DNA repair mechanisms in the brain is still limited, various investigations have linked sex hormone levels with different DNA repair enzymes. Here, we review estrogen anti-aging and neuroprotective mechanisms, which are currently an area of intense study, together with the effect they may have on the DNA repair capacity in the brain. PMID:29311911

  18. Role of Estrogen and Other Sex Hormones in Brain Aging. Neuroprotection and DNA Repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Zárate

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Aging is an inevitable biological process characterized by a progressive decline in physiological function and increased susceptibility to disease. The detrimental effects of aging are observed in all tissues, the brain being the most important one due to its main role in the homeostasis of the organism. As our knowledge about the underlying mechanisms of brain aging increases, potential approaches to preserve brain function rise significantly. Accumulating evidence suggests that loss of genomic maintenance may contribute to aging, especially in the central nervous system (CNS owing to its low DNA repair capacity. Sex hormones, particularly estrogens, possess potent antioxidant properties and play important roles in maintaining normal reproductive and non-reproductive functions. They exert neuroprotective actions and their loss during aging and natural or surgical menopause is associated with mitochondrial dysfunction, neuroinflammation, synaptic decline, cognitive impairment and increased risk of age-related disorders. Moreover, loss of sex hormones has been suggested to promote an accelerated aging phenotype eventually leading to the development of brain hypometabolism, a feature often observed in menopausal women and prodromal Alzheimer’s disease (AD. Although data on the relation between sex hormones and DNA repair mechanisms in the brain is still limited, various investigations have linked sex hormone levels with different DNA repair enzymes. Here, we review estrogen anti-aging and neuroprotective mechanisms, which are currently an area of intense study, together with the effect they may have on the DNA repair capacity in the brain.

  19. Age and sex influence on formation of gastroesophageal reflux disease in children with chronic gastroduodenitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chemenkov Yu.V.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The research goal is to investigate age and sex influence on formation of gastroesophageal reflux disease in children with chronic gastroduodenitis. Material and Methods. Features of acidity in esophagus and cardial part of stomach was studied in 175 children aged 4 to 17 years with chronic gastroduodenitis by pH-monitoring. pH-monitoring was carried by «Gastroscan-24». Age and sex characteristics have been identified on examination results. Results. Children of preschool age experience the most unfavorable reflux from the stomach to the esophagus. Boys experience the pathological reflux more severely. Conclusions: Effectiveness of esophageal clearance is lower in children of preschool age. Pathological reflux progresses are more favorably in a standing position, especially in children of preschool age. Pathological reflux occurs more often in the supine position and has a longer and more aggressive course in preschool age boys.

  20. Tobacco Use and Sexual Orientation in a National Cross-sectional Study: Age, Race/Ethnicity, and Sexual Identity-Attraction Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Sean Esteban; Matthews, Alicia K; Lee, Joseph G L; Veliz, Phil; Hughes, Tonda L; Boyd, Carol J

    2018-04-09

    The purpose of this study is to determine the past-year prevalence estimates of any nicotine/tobacco use, cigarette smoking, and DSM-5 tobacco use disorder based on sexual identity among U.S. adults, and to examine potential variations in these estimates by age, race/ethnicity, and sexual identity-attraction concordance/discordance. The 2012-2013 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions collected data via in-person interviews with a cross-sectional nationally representative sample of non-institutionalized adults (response rate=60.1%) and analyses for the present study were conducted in 2017. Any past-year nicotine/tobacco use, cigarette smoking, and DSM-5 tobacco use disorder were most prevalent among sexual minority-identified adults compared with heterosexual-identified adults, with notable variations based on sex, age, race/ethnicity, and sexual identity-attraction discordance. Elevated rates of any nicotine/tobacco use, cigarette smoking, and DSM-5 tobacco use disorder among sexual minorities were most prevalent among younger lesbian women and gay men, and all age groups of bisexual men and women. The odds of any nicotine/tobacco use, cigarette smoking, and DSM-5 tobacco use disorder were significantly greater among sexual identity-attraction discordant women and significantly lower among sexual identity-attraction discordant men. These findings provide valuable new information about sexual minority subgroups, such as self-identified bisexual older adults and sexual identity-attraction discordant women, that appear to be at higher risk for adverse smoking-related health consequences as a result of their elevated rates of cigarette smoking. Additional attention is warranted to examine these high-risk subpopulations prospectively and, if the results are replicated with larger samples, this information can be used to target smoking-cessation and lung cancer screening efforts. Copyright © 2018 American Journal of Preventive Medicine

  1. Effects of Age and Sex on Hospital Readmission in Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chih-Ying; Karmarkar, Amol; Adhikari, Deepak; Ottenbacher, Kenneth; Kuo, Yong-Fang

    2018-01-04

    To investigate the effects of age and sex on 30-, 60-, and 90-day hospital readmission after acute hospital discharge for individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Retrospective cohort study. Acute hospitals and postacute discharge settings. Individuals (N=52,877) with Diagnosis Related Group codes of TBI, who were divided into 4 age groups: 18 to 40, 41 to 65, 66 to 75, and ≥76 years. Not applicable. All-cause hospital readmission. Sex differences in 30-, 60-, and 90-day hospital readmission were found among all age groups (Preadmission were in the 2 oldest groups (66-75 and ≥76y). For both sexes, the oldest group (≥76y) had the highest adjusted 90-day readmission risk (eg, 90-d readmission: odds ratio, 2.32 [95% confidence interval, 2.01-2.69] for men; odds ratio, 1.96 [95% confidence interval, 1.59-2.43] for women). Among those readmitted within 90 days, the youngest group (18-40y) had the highest cumulative readmission percentage (35% for both sexes) within the first week of hospital discharge. Age and sex were significantly associated with hospital readmission during the first 90 days postdischarge in our TBI sample. Specifically, those aged 66 to 75 or ≥76 years had the highest readmission risk over 90 days for both sexes. The findings suggest that clinicians should consider age and sex in discharge planning and for the entire episode of care for the population with TBI. Copyright © 2018 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Conjectures concerning cross-sex hormone treatment of aging transsexual persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooren, Louis; Lips, Paul

    2014-08-01

    Guidelines for cross-sex hormone treatment of transsexual people are now in place. However, little attention has been paid to the issue of treatment suitability for older people. Does existing treatment need to be adapted as subjects age, and does it make a difference if treatment is only started when the subject is already older? To assess the necessity of adapting cross-sex hormone administration for elderly transsexual people. Risks/benefits of continued use of cross-sex hormones with regard to bone health, cardiovascular risks, and malignancies. Due to lack of data on the subject population, sex hormone treatment of other conditions in older non-transsexual people has been taken as the best available analogy to determine the extent to which these might be applicable to comparable transsexual persons. Findings in transsexual people receiving cross-sex hormone treatment sometimes modified the above approach of applying guidelines for the elderly to the aging transsexual population. Testosterone administration to female-to-male transsexual persons (FtoM) carries little risk with regard to cardiovascular disease and cancer. For those with high hematocrit or cardiac insufficiency the dose can be reduced. Administration of estrogens to male-to-female transsexual persons (MtoF), particularly when combined with progestins, does significantly increase the risk of developing cardiovascular disease (almost a twofold incidence compared with the general population). This may require dose adjustment or changing from oral to safer transdermal estrogens. Tumors of the breasts, prostate and pituitary may occur. In FtoM, breast cancer can occur even after breast ablation. Older subjects can commence cross-sex hormone treatment without disproportionate risks. Cross-sex hormones may be continued into old age but monitoring for cardiovascular disease and malignancies, both of the old and new sex, is recommended. MtoF will have more health complications in old age than Fto

  3. Age at menopause and determinants of hysterectomy and menopause in a multi-ethnic community: the Hilo Women's Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sievert, Lynnette Leidy; Murphy, Lorna; Morrison, Lynn A; Reza, Angela M; Brown, Daniel E

    2013-12-01

    A lifespan approach was used to evaluate age at menopause, and determinants of surgical and natural menopause, in the multi-ethnic community of Hilo, Hawaii. Participants aged 40-60 years (n=898) were drawn from a larger, randomly generated sample recruited by postal questionnaires. Median age at natural menopause was computed by probit analysis. Logistic regression analysis was applied to examine determinants of hysterectomy, and Cox regression analysis was used to examine risk factors for an earlier age at menopause. History of hysterectomy, age at menopause. Frequency of hysterectomy was 19.2% at a mean age of 40.5 years. The likelihood of hysterectomy increased with older ages, lower education, mixed ancestry, having been overweight at age 30, and married 20 years prior to survey. Median age at natural menopause was 53.0 years. Smoking and not being married 10 years before survey were associated with an earlier age at menopause. Median age at menopause was later than the national average. Ethnicity and education were determinants of hysterectomy, but not associated with age at natural menopause. Events later in the lifespan (e.g., smoking and not being married 10 years prior to the survey) were more important than earlier events (e.g., childhood residence) in relation to age at menopause. The timing of weight gain and marital status appear to be important in relation to surgical menopause, and the timing of marital status appears to be important in relation to the timing of natural menopause. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Extrinsic skin ageing in German, Chinese and Japanese women manifests differently in all three groups depending on ethnic background, age and anatomical site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vierkötter, Andrea; Hüls, Anke; Yamamoto, Ai; Stolz, Sabine; Krämer, Ursula; Matsui, Mary S; Morita, Akimichi; Wang, Sijia; Li, Zhiwen; Jin, Li; Krutmann, Jean; Schikowski, Tamara

    2016-09-01

    It has been suggested that extrinsic skin ageing manifests differently in Caucasians versus East Asians. In particular, from previous studies it was concluded that Caucasians are more prone to develop wrinkles, whereas pigment spot formation is the hallmark of extrinsic skin ageing in East Asians. However, these assumptions are based on a very limited number of studies which did not include different East Asian populations. We here compare the manifestation of extrinsic skin ageing signs in German, Japanese and Chinese women by specifically elucidating the age and anatomical site dependence of any potential ethnic difference. In the present study, we assessed skin ageing in N=902 German, N=165 Japanese and N=1260 Chinese women ranging from 30 to 90 years by means of SCINEXA™. Linear regression analysis was used to test for ethnic differences and their age and site dependence adjusted for educational level, sun exposure, smoking and sun protection behaviours. Pigment spots and wrinkles on the face were present among all three ethnic groups and differences were influenced by age and anatomical sites independently of further influencing factors. Pigment spots on the forehead were most pronounced over the whole age range in Chinese and German women and least developed in Japanese. Pigment spots on cheeks were a typical extrinsic skin an ageing sign in the two East Asian populations in all age groups. However, in older German women they reach the same level as observed in the two East Asian populations. In contrast, pigment spots on arms and hands were significantly more pronounced in German women ≥45years of age. Wrinkles were not exclusively a skin an ageing sign of German women, but were also very pronounced in Chinese women on forehead, between the eyebrows and in the crow's feet area. These results corroborate the previous notion that the occurrence of pigments spots and wrinkles is different between Caucasians and East Asians. In addition, this study shows

  5. Characterization of type 2 diabetes mellitus burden by age and ethnic groups based on a nationwide survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Janice M S; Bailey, Robert A; Rupnow, Marcia F T; Annunziata, Kathy

    2014-04-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is the most common form of diabetes. Risk factors for its development include older age, obesity, family history of diabetes, history of gestational diabetes, impaired glucose metabolism, physical inactivity, and race/ethnicity. The purpose of this study was to characterize T2DM burden, from a patient perspective, with respect to age and race/ethnicity. Adults aged ≥18 years with T2DM from a large, Internet-based, nationwide survey were retrospectively analyzed. Demographic and clinical characteristics (glycemic control, body mass index [BMI], comorbidities, and diabetes-related complications), hypoglycemic episodes, and medication adherence were used to assess diabetes burden. Degree of burden was compared across age (18-64, 65-74, and ≥75 years) and racial/ethnic (white, African American, Hispanic, Asian, and American Indian) groups. An apparent association was found between glycemic control and medication adherence. Hispanics had the lowest percentage of participants with a hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) level groups. Conversely, American Indians and whites had the best glycemic control, HbA1c knowledge, and medication adherence. The 18- to 64-year age group had the poorest glycemic control (28.8%), the most with unknown HbA1c levels (46.3%), and the poorest medication adherence of the age groups. Mean BMIs were high (>30 mg/kg(2)) for all racial/ethnic groups other than the Asian group (28.9 mg/kg(2)). Approximately 71% of Asians were obese or overweight compared with ≥90% in the other racial/ethnic groups. Mean BMIs decreased with increasing age group (34.5, 32.6, and 29.8 kg/m(2) for the age groups of 18-64, 65-74, and ≥75 years, respectively). Regarding diabetes-related comorbidities, the Asian group had the lowest percentages of those with hypertension (39.1%) and hypercholesterolemia (46.6%). The Asian group had the lowest mean Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) score (score of 1.4); the American Indian group had the highest

  6. Intrinsic connectivity networks from childhood to late adolescence: Effects of age and sex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Solé-Padullés

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available There is limited evidence on the effects of age and sex on intrinsic connectivity of networks underlying cognition during childhood and adolescence. Independent component analysis was conducted in 113 subjects aged 7–18; the default mode, executive control, anterior salience, basal ganglia, language and visuospatial networks were identified. The effect of age was examined with multiple regression, while sex and ‘age × sex’ interactions were assessed by dividing the sample according to age (7–12 and 13–18 years. As age increased, connectivity in the dorsal and ventral default mode network became more anterior and posterior, respectively, while in the executive control network, connectivity increased within frontoparietal regions. The basal ganglia network showed increased engagement of striatum, thalami and precuneus. The anterior salience network showed greater connectivity in frontal areas and anterior cingulate, and less connectivity of orbitofrontal, middle cingulate and temporoparietal regions. The language network presented increased connectivity of inferior frontal and decreased connectivity within the right middle frontal and left inferior parietal cortices. The visuospatial network showed greater engagement of inferior parietal and frontal cortices. No effect of sex, nor age by sex interactions was observed. These findings provide evidence of strengthening of cortico-cortical and cortico-subcortical networks across childhood and adolescence.

  7. Regarding the influence of sex and aging on dry eye disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han SB

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Sang Beom HanDepartment of Ophthalmology, Kangwon National University Hospital, Kangwon National University Graduate School of Medicine, Chuncheon, Republic of KoreaI read with great interest the article by Ahn et al1 entitled “Sex differences in the effect of aging on dry eye disease”, in which the authors revealed the sex differences in the effect of aging on dry eye disease (DED in Korean adult population. They also showed the differences in patterns of DED following ocular surgery according to sex.1 The large population-based cross-sectional study was undoubtfully well designed and conducted, and suggests that matching of age and sex is recommended in further researches on DED.1However, I would like to point out that there exist controversies regarding the effect of aging and sex on DED. Our previous study showed that age had no significant association with the prevalence of DED in adults of 65 years or older, while female sex was significantly related to increased prevalence of DED.2 By contrast, studies in the US demonstrated that prevalence of DED increased with aging both in male and female populations.3,4 Moreover, there are differences in pathophysiology of DED according to age. Although dysfunction of lacrimal and meibomian glands may play an important role in the pathogenesis of DED in the elderly, DED associated with visual display terminal use or contact lens wear is more common in young and middle-aged patients.5 Therefore, I believe these differences in the pathogenesis should be considered in the evaluation of the effects of sex and aging on DED.Authors' replyJong Ho Ahn,1 Yoon-Hyeong Choi,2 Hae Jung Paik,1 Mee Kum Kim,3 Won Ryang Wee,3 Dong Hyun Kim11Department of Ophthalmology, Gachon University Gil Medical Center, 2Department of Preventive Medicine, Gachon University College of Medicine, Incheon, 3Department of Ophthalmology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, South KoreaWe thank the author for taking a

  8. Caffeine and blood pressure response: sex, age, and hormonal status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farag, Noha H; Whitsett, Thomas L; McKey, Barbara S; Wilson, Michael F; Vincent, Andrea S; Everson-Rose, Susan A; Lovallo, William R

    2010-06-01

    The pressor effect of caffeine has been established in young men and premenopausal women. The effect of caffeine on blood pressure (BP) remains unknown in postmenopausal women and in relation to hormone replacement therapy (HRT) use. In a randomized, 2-week cross-over design, we studied 165 healthy men and women in 6 groups: men and premenopausal women (35-49 yrs) vs. men and postmenopausal women (50-64 yrs), with postmenopausal women divided into those taking no hormone replacements (HR), estrogen alone, or estrogen and progesterone. Testing during one week of the study involved 6 days of caffeine maintenance at home (80 mg, 3x/day) followed by testing of responses to a challenge dose of caffeine (250 mg) in the laboratory. The other week involved ingesting placebos on maintenance and lab days. Resting BP responses to caffeine were measured at baseline and at 45 to 60 min following caffeine vs placebo ingestion, using automated monitors. Ingestion of caffeine resulted in a significant increase in systolic BP in all 6 groups (4 +/- .6, p < 0.01). Diastolic BP significantly increased in response to caffeine in all (3 +/- .4, p < 0.04) but the group of older men (2 +/- 1.0, p = 0.1). The observed pressor responses to caffeine did not vary by age. Caffeine resulted in an increase in BP in healthy, normotensive, young and older men and women. This finding warrants the consideration of caffeine in the lifestyle interventions recommended for BP control across the age span.

  9. Correlates of sexual, ethnic, and dual identity: a study of young Asian and Pacific Islander men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Lung; Choi, Kyung-Hee; Do, Tri

    2011-10-01

    Having a positive attitude toward one's own sexual and ethnic identity can improve psychological well-being and self-efficacy and may reduce vulnerability to HIV infection. We sought to understand factors associated with having greater self-worth about being Asian and Pacific Islander (API), being gay/bisexual, and being both gay/bisexual and API (dual identity). We conducted serial, cross-sectional surveys of 763 API men who have sex with men (MSM) annually from 1999 to 2002 in San Diego, California and Seattle, Washington. We found (a) sexual and ethnic identity were intertwined and mutually influential; (b) a positive attitude toward sexual identity was associated with higher socioeconomic status, greater social support, and self-identified homosexual orientation (as opposed to "straight/undecided"); (c) a positive dual identity was associated with higher socioeconomic status, greater social support, and levels of acculturation (being United States born and speaking English and another language equally); and (d) a positive sexual identity and dual identity were associated with HIV testing. The findings suggest that targeted programs should address cultural issues at the intersection of sexual and ethnic identity, promote social support and self-acceptance around homosexual identity, and help MSM build a positive sense of self to foster their self-esteem and HIV prevention self-efficacy.

  10. Does ethnicity, gender or age of physiotherapy students affect performance in the final clinical placements? An exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naylor, Sandra; Norris, Meriel; Williams, Annabel

    2014-03-01

    To explore demographic differences in awarded marks of the final clinical placement in a physiotherapy undergraduate programme. Retrospective analysis of clinical placement assessment marks. A London university offering clinical placements throughout South East England. 333 physiotherapy students entering physiotherapy training between 2005 to 2009. Marks awarded following assessment using a clinical placement assessment form. The mean mark (SD) for age were standard entry 71 (7.4) vs. mature entry 72 (7.99) (ns); for gender male 72 (8.45) vs. female 71 (7.21) (ns); and ethnicity White British 72 (7.71) vs. ethnic minority 70 (7.01) (p=0.023). No interaction effects were observed between the independent variables and only ethnicity demonstrated a statistically significant effect (mean difference (MD) 2.4% 95%CI 0.5 to 4.3, F=5.24, p=0.023). This difference was maintained in most subcategories. Significant differences were observed for the interpersonal section (MD 2.21% 95%CI 0.14 to 4.28, F=4.409, p=0.03), the clinical reasoning section (MD 2.39% 95%CI 0.53 to 4.25, F=6.37, p=0.012) and the treatment section (MD 2.93 95%CI 1.10 to 4.83, F=9.198, p=0.003). Physiotherapy students from minority ethnic backgrounds were awarded a significantly lower mark than their white majority peers in final clinical placements, although the difference was small. Potential reasons are considered, with the strongest recommendation being for further enquiry into the potential relationship between ethnicity and success in undergraduate physiotherapy education. Copyright © 2013 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Relationship between serum insulin level and age and sex in 980 patients with essential hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Jianlin; Ji Naijun; Mei Yubin; Wang Chengyao; Fan Bifu; Chen Donghai; Guan Li; Tong Lijun; Li Fuyuan; Gao Meiying

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the change of serum insulin level in essential hypertension patients and its relationship with age and sex. Methods: The levels of serum insulin were determined with radioimmunoassay in 980 essential hypertension patients and 120 controls. Results: The levels of serum insulin in the essential hypertension patients were significantly higher than those in the controls (t=4.280, P<0.01). However, there were no significant differences among the levels in different sex and age groups. The same held true for women before and after menopause as well as different stages of hypertension. Conclusion: The average serum insulin level in EH patients was significantly higher than the level in controls, and had positive correlation to mean arterial pressure. But no significant differences were found among different sex and age groups, so serum insulin could be a new independent risk factor of essential hypertension

  12. Influence of personality, age, sex, and estrous state on chimpanzee problem-solving success

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hopper, Lydia M; Price, Sara A; Freeman, Hani D

    2014-01-01

    Despite the importance of individual problem solvers for group- and individual-level fitness, the correlates of individual problem-solving success are still an open topic of investigation. In addition to demographic factors, such as age or sex, certain personality dimensions have also been revealed...... as reliable correlates of problem-solving by animals. Such correlates, however, have been little-studied in chimpanzees. To empirically test the influence of age, sex, estrous state, and different personality factors on chimpanzee problem-solving, we individually tested 36 captive chimpanzees with two novel...... with the luteinizing hormone surge of a female's estrous cycle) and again when it was detumescent. Although we found no correlation between the chimpanzees' success with either puzzle and their age or sex, the chimpanzees' personality ratings did correlate with responses to the novel foraging puzzles. Specifically...

  13. Maths performance as a function of sex, laterality, and age of pubertal onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sappington, John; Topolski, Richard

    2005-07-01

    Sex differences in math/spatial performance demand explanations. Within the biological view, the complexity and number of variables make the explanation difficult at best. Laterality and age of pubertal onset have been investigated prominently in this context but rarely considered as interactions in the same study. Some 468 college subjects with SAT MATH (SAT M) scores were divided into 12 groups defined by sex, laterality, and age (early, middle, and late) of pubertal onset. Significant main effects for sex and age of onset emerged, as did an interaction between lateral preference and pubertal onset. Generally males outperformed females. The combination of maleness, sinistrality, and early maturation was associated with high SAT M scores. Sinistrality and late maturation among females predicted very poor math performance.

  14. Sex Hormones and Healthy Psychological Aging in Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esperanza Navarro-Pardo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Besides their key role in reproduction, estrogens have effects in several organs in the body, as confirmed by the identification of estrogen receptors (ER in multiple tissues. Experimental evidence has shown that estrogens have significant impacts on the central nervous system (CNS, and a key question is to what extent the fall in estrogen levels in the blood that occurs with increasing age, particularly around and following the menopause, has an impact on the cognitive function and psychological health of women, specifically regarding mood. This review will consider direct effects of menopausal changes in estrogens on the brain, including cognitive function and mood. Secondary pathways whereby health factors affected by changes in estrogens may interact with CNS functions, such as cardiovascular factors, will be reviewed as well insofar as they also have an impact on cognitive function. Finally, because decline in estrogens may induce changes in the CNS, there is interest in clarifying whether hormone therapy may offer a beneficial balance and the impact of hormone therapy on cognition will also be considered.

  15. Influence of sex and age on fasting and post-prandial gallbladder volumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pazzi, P.; Putinati, S.; Barbieri, D.; Trevisani, L.; Limoni, G.; Lupi, L.; Bighi, S.

    1989-01-01

    Aging and female sex are major risk factors for cholesterol gallstones: in addition to hepatic secretion of lithogenic bile, decreased gallbladder contractility may play a role in such physiological conditions. This study was aimed at evaluating the effect of age and sex on gallbladder kinetics in healthy subjects. Gallbladder volume was measured on the US images of 157 fasting subjects using the sum-of-cylinders method. No significant difference was observed between males and females. On the contrary, age was shown to have a significant positive correlation with fasting gallbladder volume, particulary in males. In a second group of 63 healthy volunteers gallbladder volumes were evaluated both before and after a standard meal. The subjects were grouped according to age, and fasting gallbladder volume appeared to be significantly greater in the groups formed by older people. Gallbladder volumes were compared in younger groups (under 35), and gallbladder emptying resulted to be much more complete in males than in females. On the contrary, no significant differences was observed between males and famales over50 - which suggests a possible role of sex - and age-related hormonal factors. The above changes in gallbladder function may facilitate bile stasis which might in turn contribute to the increased risk for cholesterol gallstones notoriously associated with advanced age and female sex

  16. The sex ratio of offspring is associated with the mothers' age at menarche

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fukuda, Misao; Fukuda, Kiyomi; Shimizu, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Early menarcheal age is a risk factor for breast and ovarian cancers and is also associated with an increased spontaneous abortion rate. The aim of this study was to investigate whether there is a link between early menarcheal age and the offspring sex ratio. METHODS We recorded the sex...... of 21208 live born infants, all singletons, born to 10 847 premenopausal women (mean attending age: 37.5 ± 7.2 years, range 22-54) who attended our clinics for obstetrical and gynaecological assessment. We calculated the sex ratio of newborn infants in relation to the mothers' age of menarche (from 9 to 18...... years) and to the number of infants per woman (i.e. fertility index). RESULTS A low offspring sex ratio (males/females) of 0.800 was observed in mothers who entered menarche at the age of 9 years; the odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence intervals) compared with those of control group with menarche at age 14...

  17. Sex differences in the effects of juvenile and adult diet on age-dependent reproductive effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houslay, T M; Hunt, J; Tinsley, M C; Bussière, L F

    2015-05-01

    Sexual selection should cause sex differences in patterns of resource allocation. When current and future reproductive effort trade off, variation in resource acquisition might further cause sex differences in age-dependent investment, or in sensitivity to changes in resource availability over time. However, the nature and prevalence of sex differences in age-dependent investment remain unclear. We manipulated resource acquisition at juvenile and adult stages in decorated crickets, Gryllodes sigillatus, and assessed effects on sex-specific allocation to age-dependent reproductive effort (calling in males, fecundity in females) and longevity. We predicted that the resource and time demands of egg production would result in relatively consistent female strategies across treatments, whereas male investment should depend sharply on diet. Contrary to expectations, female age-dependent reproductive effort diverged substantially across treatments, with resource-limited females showing much lower and later investment in reproduction; the highest fecundity was associated with intermediate lifespans. In contrast, long-lived males always signalled more than short-lived males, and male age-dependent reproductive effort did not depend on diet. We found consistently positive covariance between male reproductive effort and lifespan, whereas diet altered this covariance in females, revealing sex differences in the benefits of allocation to longevity. Our results support sex-specific selection on allocation patterns, but also suggest a simpler alternative: males may use social feedback to make allocation decisions and preferentially store resources as energetic reserves in its absence. Increased calling effort with age therefore could be caused by gradual resource accumulation, heightened mortality risk over time, and a lack of feedback from available mates. © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary

  18. Postsecondary Participation Rates by Sex and Race/Ethnicity: 1974-2003. Issue Brief. NCES 2005-028

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Lisa; Aquilino, Sally; Kienzl, Greg

    2005-01-01

    This Issue Brief examines participation in postsecondary education among women and men and among different racial/ethnic groups, from 1974 to 2003. Participation rates are defined here as the proportion of 18- to 24-year-olds who are enrolled in or have completed postsecondary education. Over this time period, the participation rates of young…

  19. Devaluing Women and Minorities: The Effects of Race/Ethnic and Sex Composition of Occupations on Wage Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Lori L.

    1998-01-01

    Data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1979-87, suggest that the percentage of white women in an occupation negatively affects wage levels. The percentages of black men or women or Latino/a men or women do not have negative effects. Occupational devaluation does not contribute to the race/ethnic wage gap and comparable worth policies…

  20. Impact of age, sex and body mass index on cortisol secretion in 143 healthy adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdinand Roelfsema

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Context: Studies on 24-h cortisol secretion are rare. The impact of sex, age and adiposity on cortisol levels, often restricted to one or a few samples, are well recognized, but conflicting. Objective: To investigate cortisol dynamics in 143 healthy men and women, spanning 7 decades and with a 2-fold body mass index (BMI range with different analytic tools. Setting: Clinical Research Unit. Design: Cortisol concentrations in 10-min samples collected for 24 h. Outcomes were mean levels, deconvolution parameters, approximate entropy (ApEn, regularity statistic and 24-h rhythms. Results: Total 24-h cortisol secretion rates estimated by deconvolution analysis were sex, age and BMI independent. Mean 24-h cortisol concentrations were lower in premenopausal women than those in men of comparable age (176 ± 8.2 vs 217 ± 9.4 nmol/L, P = 0.02, but not in subjects older than 50 years. This was due to lower daytime levels in women, albeit similar in the quiescent overnight period. Aging increased mean cortisol by 10 nmol/L per decade during the quiescent secretory phase and advanced the acrophase of the diurnal rhythm by 24 min/decade. However, total 24-h cortisol secretion rates estimated by deconvolution analysis were sex, age and BMI independent. ApEn of 24-h profiles was higher (more random in premenopausal women than those in men (1.048 ± 0.025 vs 0.933 ± 0.023, P = 0.001, but not in subjects older than 50 years. ApEn peaked during the daytime. Conclusion: Sex and age jointly determine the 24-h cortisol secretory profile. Sex effects are largely restricted to age <50 years, whereas age effects elevate concentrations in the late evening and early night and advance the timing of the peak diurnal rhythm.

  1. The effect of utilising age and sex dependent factors for calculating detriment from medical irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mettler, F.A.; Davis, M.; Moseley, R.D.; Kelsey, C.A.

    1986-01-01

    Proposals have been made for a quantity that can be used to estimate possible detriment from medical radiology better than the ICRP's collective effective dose equivalent. One such approach utilises age and sex dependent 'weighting' factors. The magnitude of the effect obtained by utilising such factors when applied to an actual population has not been previously assessed. When age and sex dependent weighting factors are applied to diagnostic medical radiology for all hospital examinations conducted in the United States in 1980, estimates of detriment are reduced by one-third. (author)

  2. LIFE EVENTS WITH STRESSFUL EFFECT ON PATIENTS WITH SCHIZOPHRENIA ACCORDING TO THE SEX AND AGE.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilia Nikolova

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available According to the literature life events with stressful effect are significant both for initiation and progress of the schizophrenia. Having this in mind we set our aim to be investigating the relationship between life events (considered as stressful, sex and age trough questioning 50 patients with paranoid schizophrenia. The results of our study showed presence of correlation between some of the studied life events, assessed as stressful. The analysis of the data revealed that both sex and age are influencing the assessment of the significance of the life events and “increases” their importance both for women and men.

  3. Secular trends for age at spermarche among Chinese boys from 11 ethnic minorities, 1995–2010: a multiple cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yi; Ma, Jun; Li, Liu-Bai; Dong, Bin; Wang, Zhiqiang; Agardh, Anette

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We compared the differences in median age at spermarche among 11 ethnic minorities in 2010, estimated the trends regarding age at spermarche in different ethnic minorities from 1995 to 2010, and explored the association of spermarche with body mass index (BMI). Methods We used four cross-sectional Chinese National Surveys on Students’ Constitution and Health (CNSSCH, 1995, 2000, 2005 and 2010), and the total sample size was 40 113 children aged 11–18 years. The median age at spermarche of each ethnic minority was determined by using probit analysis. Logistic regression was used to assess the association of spermarche with BMI. Results In 2010, the ethnic minorities with earliest age at spermarche were Qiang (12.03 years), Zhuang (12.91 years) and Kirghiz (13.17 years); the three ethnic minorities with latest age at spermarche were Dong (14.73 years), Yao (14.60 years), and Naxi (14.36 years). From 1995 to 2010, age at spermarche showed a decline in almost each minority group except Yao and Dong. A higher BMI was associated with an increased likelihood of having reached spermarche after adjusting for age, regions or ethnic minorities. Conclusions A large variation in age at spermarche was observed among different ethnic minorities. The age at spermarche showed a downward shift in almost each of the 11 ethnic minorities with different patterns over time, and the children with higher BMI are more likely to enter puberty early. PMID:26911588

  4. Ultrasound Characteristics of the Achilles Tendon in Tophaceous Gout: A Comparison with Age- and Sex-matched Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Matthew; Dalbeth, Nicola; Allen, Bruce; Stewart, Sarah; House, Tony; Boocock, Mark; Frampton, Christopher; Rome, Keith

    2017-10-01

    To investigate the frequency and distribution of characteristics of the Achilles tendon (AT) in people with tophaceous gout using musculoskeletal ultrasound (US). Twenty-four participants with tophaceous gout and 24 age- and sex-matched controls without gout or other arthritis were recruited. All participants underwent a greyscale and power Doppler US examination. The AT was divided into 3 anatomical zones (insertion, pre-insertional, and proximal to the mid-section). The following US characteristics were assessed: tophus, tendon echogenicity, tendon vascularity, tendon morphology, entheseal characteristics, bursal morphology, and calcaneal bone profile. The majority of the participants with tophaceous gout were middle-aged men (n = 22, 92%) predominately of European ethnicity (n = 14, 58%). Tophus deposition was observed in 73% (n = 35) of tendons in those with gout and in none of the controls (p gout compared to controls. High prevalence of entheseal calcifications, calcaneal bone cortex irregularities, and calcaneal enthesophytes were observed in both gout participants and controls, without differences between groups. Intratendinous structural damage was rare. Hyperechoic spots were significantly more common at the insertion compared to the zone proximal to the mid-section (p gout. Despite crystal deposition, intratendinous structural changes are infrequent. Many characteristics observed in the AT in people with tophaceous gout, particularly at the calcaneal enthesis, are not disease-specific.

  5. Evaluating the Role of Birth Weight and Gestational Age on Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Risk Among Those of Hispanic Ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barahmani, Nadia; Dorak, M Tevfik; Forman, Michele R; Sprehe, Michael R; Scheurer, Michael E; Bondy, Melissa L; Okcu, M Fatih; Lupo, Philip J

    2015-01-01

    High birth weight is an established risk factor for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), especially in children younger than 5 years of age at diagnosis. The goal of this study was to explore the association between being born large for gestational age and the risk for ALL by race/ethnicity to determine if the role of this risk factor differed by these characteristics. The authors compared birth certificate data of 575 children diagnosed with ALL who were younger than 5 years and included in the Texas Cancer Registry, Texas Department of Health, between the years 1995 and 2003 with 11,379 controls matched by birth year. Stratified odds ratios were calculated for risk of ALL by birth weight for gestational age, categorized in 3 groups, small, appropriate, and large for gestational age (SGA, AGA, and LGA, respectively), for each race/ethnicity group. The risk of developing ALL was higher among Hispanics who were LGA (odds ratio [OR] = 1.90, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.34-2.68) compared with LGA non-Hispanic whites (OR = 1.27, 95% CI: 0.87-1.86) after adjusting for infant gender, year of birth, maternal age, birth order, and presence of Down syndrome. However, the difference was not statistically significant. These results suggest that there may be differences in the association between higher growth in utero and risk of childhood ALL among Hispanics versus non-Hispanic whites.

  6. Sex and Age Differences in Mortality in Southern China, 2004–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leibin Yu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to describe the mortality patterns in the southern provinces of China, and to provide epidemiologic data on sex and age differences of death outcomes. Reliable mortality and population data from January 2004 to December 2010 were obtained from 12 Disease Surveillance Point (DSP sites in four provinces of China. Death data from all causes and respiratory disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, pneumonia and influenza, circulatory disease, and ischemic heart disease, were stratified by year, month of death occurrence and sex, seven age groups, and summarized by descriptive statistics. The mean annual mortality rates of the selected 12 DSP sites in the southernmost provinces of China were 543.9 (range: 423.9–593.6 deaths per 100,000 population. The death rates show that noted sex differences were higher in the male population for all-cause, COPD and circulatory diseases. Pneumonia and influenza death rates present a different sex- and age-related distribution, with higher rates in male aged 65–74 years; whereas the death rates were opposite in elderly aged ≥75 years, and relatively higher in young children. This study had practical implications for recommending target groups for public health interventions.

  7. Hematological parameters in relation to age, sex and biochemical values for mute swans (Cygnus olor).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolka, B; Włodarczyk, R; Zbikowski, A; Dolka, I; Szeleszczuk, P; Kluciński, W

    2014-06-01

    The knowledge of the correct morphological and biochemical parameters in mute swans is an important indicator of their health status, body condition, adaptation to habitat and useful diagnostic tools in veterinary practice and ecological research. The aim of the study was to obtain hematological parameters in relation to age, sex and serum biochemistry values in wild-living mute swans. We found the significant differences in the erythrocyte count, hematocrit, hemoglobin concentration and erythrocyte sedimentation rate in relation to age of mute swans. There were no differences in hematological values between males and females. The leukogram and H/L ratio did not vary by age and sex in swans. Among of biochemical parameters the slightly increased AST, ALP, CK, K, urea, decreased CHOL and TG values were recorded. As far as we know, this is the first study in which the morphometric parameters of blood cells in mute swans were presented. We found extremely low concentration of lead in blood (at subthreshold level). No blood parasites were found in blood smears. The analysis of body mass and biometric parameters revealed a significant differences dependent on age and sex. No differences in the scaled mass index were found. Our results represent a normal hematologic and blood chemistry values and age-sex related changes, as reference values for the mute swan.

  8. Effects of sex and normal aging on regional brain activation during verbal memory performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazlett, Erin A.; Byne, William; Brickman, Adam M.; Mitsis, Effie M.; Newmark, Randall; Haznedar, M. Mehmet; Knatz, Danielle T.; Chen, Amy D.; Buchsbaum, Monte S.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the main and interactive effects of age and sex on relative glucose metabolic rate (rGMR) within gray matter of 39 cortical Brodmann areas (BAs) and the cingulate gyrus using 18FDG-PET during a verbal memory task in 70 healthy normal adults, aged 20–87 years. Women showed significantly greater age-related rGMR decline in left cingulate gyrus than men (BAs 25, 24, 23, 31, 29). Both groups showed a decline in the anterior cingulate—a neuroanatomical structure that mediates effective cognitive-emotional interactions (BAs 32, 24, 25), while the other frontal regions did not show substantial decline. No sex differences in rGMR were identified within temporal, parietal and occipital lobes. Sex differences were observed for rGMR within subcomponents of the cingulate gyrus with men higher in BA25 and BA29, but lower in BA24 and BA 23 compared to women. For men, better memory performance was associated with greater rGMR in BA24, whereas in women better performance was associated with orbitofrontal-BA12. These results suggest that both age-related metabolic decline and sex differences within frontal regions are more marked in medial frontal and cingulate areas, consistent with some age-related patterns of affective and cognitive change. PMID:19027195

  9. Age and Sex Differences in Rates of Influenza-Associated Hospitalizations in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xi-Ling; Yang, Lin; Chan, Kwok-Hung; Chan, King-Pan; Cao, Pei-Hua; Lau, Eric Ho-Yin; Peiris, J S Malik; Wong, Chit-Ming

    2015-08-15

    Few studies have explored age and sex differences in the disease burden of influenza, although men and women probably differ in their susceptibility to influenza infections. In this study, quasi-Poisson regression models were applied to weekly age- and sex-specific hospitalization numbers of pneumonia and influenza cases in the Hong Kong SAR, People's Republic of China, from 2004 to 2010. Age and sex differences were assessed by age- and sex-specific rates of excess hospitalization for influenza A subtypes A(H1N1), A(H3N2), and A(H1N1)pdm09 and influenza B, respectively. We found that, in children younger than 18 years, boys had a higher excess hospitalization rate than girls, with the male-to-female ratio of excess rate (MFR) ranging from 1.1 to 2.4. MFRs of hospitalization associated with different types/subtypes were less than 1.0 for adults younger than 40 years except for A(H3N2) (MFR = 1.6), while all the MFRs were equal to or higher than 1.0 in adults aged 40 years or more except for A(H1N1)pdm09 in elderly persons aged 65 years or more (MFR = 0.9). No MFR was found to be statistically significant (P < 0.05) for hospitalizations associated with influenza type/subtype. There is some limited evidence on age and sex differences in hospitalization associated with influenza in the subtropical city of Hong Kong. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Student Judgments of the risks of HIV-Infection as a function of sexual practice, sex of target and partner, and age and sex of student

    OpenAIRE

    Spears, Russell; Abraham, Charles; Sheeran, Paschal; Abrams, Dominic

    1995-01-01

    Two age cohorts of male and female students (n = 311) were investigated concerning their perceptions of the HIV-related risks of various sex-related practices (unprotected vaginal, oral, and anal sex, and mutual masturbation and kissing). Participants judged the risk of these activities for either a male or a female acquiring either a new male sexual partner or a new female one. The greater risks of unprotected sex compared to other practices and the enhanced risks of these practices within g...

  11. Leading causes of injury hospitalisation in children aged 0-4 years in New South Wales by injury submechanism: a brief profile by age and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmertmann, Marcia; Williamson, Ann; Black, Deborah

    2012-11-01

    To identify the leading causes of injury in children aged 0-4 years by single year of age using injury submechanisms and present a brief epidemiologic profile of each cause. Hospitalisation data for New South Wales from 1999 to 2009 were used to identify the leading causes of injury for children aged 0-4 years by single year of age. For each leading cause, rates over time and by sex were calculated by single year of age. Associated age and sex risk ratios were estimated. The leading causes of injury for children aged leading injury cause exhibited an age pattern that remained stable over time and by sex. Age predicted falls while being carried and both age and sex predicted the remaining leading injury causes, with age and sex interacting to predict burns by hot non-aqueous substances. Epidemiologic analysis using single-year age intervals and injury submechanisms results in a clearer picture of injury risk for young children. The findings of this study provide detailed information regarding the leading causes of hospitalised injury in young children by age and sex. Child health-care providers can use this information to focus discussions of child development and injury risk with families of young children and suggest appropriate prevention measures in terms of a child's age and sex. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2012 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  12. Effect of AGE and Sex on thyroid hormone levels in normal egyptian individuals using RIA technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Aziz, S.M.; El-Seify, S.; Megahed, Y.M.; El-Arab, A.

    1993-01-01

    This work aims to estimate total serum levels of thyroid hormones, namely triiodothyronine (T 3 ) and thyroxine (T 4 ) as well as the pituitary thyrotropin (TSH) in different categories of normal egyptian individuals classified according to age and sex. Radioimmunoassay (RIA) and immunoradiometritassay (IRMA) techniques were used. Results of this study indicate that T 3 and T 4 concentrations decreased significantly with advancing age. This decrement was statistically significant in both sexes and could be attributed to the decline in TBG concentration in the elderly. TSH level was not influenced by sex, however, a slight decrease was observed in the elderly perhaps due to decreased TSH receptors and or cyclic AMP activity. 3 figs., 2 tabs

  13. Effect of Housing System, Slaughter Age and Sex on Slaughter and Carcass Parameters of Broiler Ducks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyril Hrnčár

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effects of housing system slaughterage and sex on performance and carcass parameters of broiler ducks. Theexperiment was carried out in half-operation conditions experimental base ofDepartment of Poultry Science and Small Animal Husbandry of Slovak Universityof Agriculture in Nitra. A total of 60 one day old ducklings (type Peking DuckWhite were randomly divided to 2 housing groups: three-floor cage system anddeep litter system, both under uniform microclimate conditions. The housingsystem, slaughter age and sex significantly affected the slaughter weights ofbroiler ducks in 49 and 56 day of fattening. The results of this study showed the influenceof housing system, sex and slaughter age on slaughter and carcass parameters.The slaughter and carcass parameters were statistically higher (P0.05. The some slaughterand carcass parameters of male ducks were statistically higher (P<0.05 comparedwith female ducks.

  14. Linking Temperamental Shyness and Social Anxiety in Childhood and Adolescence: Moderating Influences of Sex and Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, Tiffany Y L; Lahat, Ayelet; Schmidt, Louis A

    2017-10-01

    Although childhood shyness has been linked to social anxiety problems, the factors playing a role in this association have gone largely unexplored. Here we examined the potential moderating roles of sex and age on this relation in a sample of 119 (75 girls) children (10-12 years) and adolescents (14-16 years). As predicted, shyness was positively associated with social anxiety symptoms. Sex, but not age, served as a moderating factor in linking shyness and social anxiety. Specifically, shyness was more strongly associated with social anxiety symptoms among girls than boys. These results suggest the importance of considering sex differences when examining the relation between shyness and social anxiety in childhood and adolescence.

  15. Influence of age and sex on mineral absorption from the alimentary tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strain, W.H.; Pories, W.J.; Michael, E.; Peer, R.M.; Zaresky, S.A.

    1976-01-01

    The influence of age and sex on mineral absorption, especially iron and zinc, from the alimentary tract has been studied in a rat model using radioisotope retention measurements by means of a whole body counter for small animals. The body burden measurements made after oral administration of each radioisotope showed that the radionuclides were absorbed and retained more by young than by old rats, and more by female than by male animals. The sex effect was slight in young rats and became very pronounced in year-old animals. Old female breeder rats absorbed more of the radioisotopes than virgin adult females. The animal results agree well with human stable and radioisotope Fe and with the limited data on radiozinc absorption. The experimental model seems to have general applicability for investigating the influences of age and sex on trace mineral absorption

  16. Effects of age, sex, and university status on life-satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, S M; Giannakopoulos, E

    1994-02-01

    Diener, et al.'s 1985 Satisfaction With Life Scale was administered to 1749 adult Australians to examine differences between men and women, university students and nonuniversity students, and among 17- to 22-, 23- to 29-, and 30- to 40-yr.-olds. No significant differences in life-satisfaction emerged in relation to sex or university status, but age showed a significant effect as higher life-satisfaction characterized older subjects. No interactions were found for any combination of the three variables. The results are interpreted in terms of egalitarian sex-role ideologies regarding sex, status-specific criteria in the assessment and conceptualisation of life-satisfaction for university status, and maturity trends in viewing life events concerning age.

  17. Anti-aging drugs reduce hypothalamic inflammation in a sex-specific manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadagurski, Marianna; Cady, Gillian; Miller, Richard A

    2017-08-01

    Aging leads to hypothalamic inflammation, but does so more slowly in mice whose lifespan has been extended by mutations that affect GH/IGF-1 signals. Early-life exposure to GH by injection, or to nutrient restriction in the first 3 weeks of life, also modulate both lifespan and the pace of hypothalamic inflammation. Three drugs extend lifespan of UM-HET3 mice in a sex-specific way: acarbose (ACA), 17-α-estradiol (17αE2), and nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA), with more dramatic longevity increases in males in each case. In this study, we examined the effect of these anti-aging drugs on neuro-inflammation in hypothalamus and hippocampus. We found that age-associated hypothalamic inflammation is reduced in males but not in females at 12 months of age by ACA and 17αE2 and at 22 months of age in NDGA-treated mice. The three drugs blocked indices of hypothalamic reactive gliosis associated with aging, such as Iba-1-positive microglia and GFAP-positive astrocytes, as well as age-associated overproduction of TNF-α. This effect was not observed in drug-treated female mice or in the hippocampus of the drug-treated animals. On the other hand, caloric restriction (CR; an intervention that extends the lifespan in both sexes) significantly reduced hypothalamic microglia and TNF-α in both sexes at 12 months of age. Together, these results suggest that the extent of drug-induced changes in hypothalamic inflammatory processes is sexually dimorphic in a pattern that parallels the effects of these agents on mouse longevity and that mimics the changes seen, in both sexes, of long-lived nutrient restricted or mutant mice. © 2017 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. The influence of averageness on judgments of facial attractiveness: no own-age or own-sex advantage among children attending single-sex schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vingilis-Jaremko, Larissa; Maurer, Daphne; Gao, Xiaoqing

    2014-04-01

    We examined how recent biased face experience affects the influence of averageness on judgments of facial attractiveness among 8- and 9-year-old children attending a girls' school, a boys' school, and a mixed-sex school. We presented pairs of individual faces in which one face was transformed 50% toward its group average, whereas the other face was transformed 50% away from that average. Across blocks, the faces varied in age (adult, 9-year-old, or 5-year-old) and sex (male or female). We expected that averageness might influence attractiveness judgments more strongly for same-age faces and, for children attending single-sex schools, same-sex faces of that age because their prototype(s) should be best tuned to the faces they see most frequently. Averageness influenced children's judgments of attractiveness, but the strength of the influence was not modulated by the age of the face, nor did the effects of sex of face differ across schools. Recent biased experience might not have affected the results because of similarities between the average faces of different ages and sexes and/or because a minimum level of experience with a particular group of faces may be adequate for the formation of a veridical prototype and its influence on judgments of attractiveness. The results suggest that averageness affects children's judgments of the attractiveness of the faces they encounter in everyday life regardless of age or sex of face. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of genes, sex, age, and activity on BMC, bone size, and areal and volumetric BMD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havill, Lorena M; Mahaney, Michael C; L Binkley, Teresa; Specker, Bonny L

    2007-05-01

    Quantitative genetic analyses of bone data for 710 inter-related individuals 8-85 yr of age found high heritability estimates for BMC, bone area, and areal and volumetric BMD that varied across bone sites. Activity levels, especially time in moderate plus vigorous activity, had notable effects on bone. In some cases, these effects were age and sex specific. Genetic and environmental factors play a complex role in determining BMC, bone size, and BMD. This study assessed the heritability of bone measures; characterized the effects of age, sex, and physical activity on bone; and tested for age- and sex-specific bone effects of activity. Measures of bone size and areal and volumetric density (aBMD and vBMD, respectively) were obtained by DXA and pQCT on 710 related individuals (466 women) 8-85 yr of age. Measures of activity included percent time in moderate + vigorous activity (%ModVig), stair flights climbed per day, and miles walked per day. Quantitative genetic analyses were conducted to model the effects of activity and covariates on bone outcomes. Accounting for effects of age, sex, and activity levels, genes explained 40-62% of the residual variation in BMC and BMD and 27-75% in bone size (all pBMC and cross-sectional area (CSA) at the 4% radius, but this was not observed among women (sex-by-activity interaction, both p age-by-sex-by-activity interaction, p=0.04). High heritability estimates for DXA and pQCT measures varied across bone sites. Percent time spent in moderate to vigorous activity had the most notable effect on bone, and in some cases, this effect was age or sex specific.

  20. Relationship between cortisol reactivity to psychosocial stress and declarative memory decline during aging: Impact of age and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Aline Talita; Leyendecker, Dayse Maria D; Costa, Ana Lucia Siqueira; de Souza-Talarico, Juliana Nery

    2018-01-01

    To analyze the relationship between memory performance and the neuroendocrine and cardiovascular response to acute psychosocial stress in healthy older people, and the sex and age impact in this relationship. We randomly selected 100 literate older adults, without cognitive or functional impairment. The neuroendocrine stress response was evaluated by measuring the concentration of salivary cortisol, whereas cardiovascular reactions were determined based on blood pressure and heart rate measures taken before, during and after participant exposure to an acute psychosocial stressor (the Trier social stress test [TSST]). Memory performance was evaluated by applying the word pairs test before and after the TSST. A significant reduction in the word pair test scores was observed after the TSST, and a negative correlation between cortisol concentration and immediate and delayed recall of the word pair. Cortisol concentration associated with age, sex and education explained memory performance variability before and after the TSST. The results showed that the influence of acute stress on memory performance during aging might vary according to age and sex, highlighting potential differences in the vulnerability of older individuals to the neurotoxic effects of stress exposure on memory and consequently on the development of cognitive disorders. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2018; 18: 169-176. © 2017 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  1. Early Bronze Age migrants and ethnicity in the Middle Eastern mountain zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothman, Mitchell S.

    2015-01-01

    The Kura-Araxes cultural tradition existed in the highlands of the South Caucasus from 3500 to 2450 BCE (before the Christian era). This tradition represented an adaptive regime and a symbolically encoded common identity spread over a broad area of patchy mountain environments. By 3000 BCE, groups bearing this identity had migrated southwest across a wide area from the Taurus Mountains down into the southern Levant, southeast along the Zagros Mountains, and north across the Caucasus Mountains. In these new places, they became effectively ethnic groups amid already heterogeneous societies. This paper addresses the place of migrants among local populations as ethnicities and the reasons for their disappearance in the diaspora after 2450 BCE. PMID:26080417

  2. STUDENTS JUDGMENTS OF THE RISKS OF HIV-INFECTION AS A FUNCTION OF SEXUAL PRACTICE, SEX OF TARGET AND PARTNER, AND AGE AND SEX OF STUDENT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SPEARS, R; ABRAHAM, C; SHEERAN, P; ABRAMS, D

    1995-01-01

    Two age cohorts of male and female students (n = 311) were investigated concerning their perceptions of the HIV-related risks of various sex-related practices (unprotected vaginal, oral, and anal sex, and mutual masturbation and kissing). Participants judged the risk of these activities for either a

  3. Association of menopause age and N-terminal pro brain natriuretic peptide: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebong, Imo A; Watson, Karol E; Goff, David C; Bluemke, David A; Srikanthan, Preethi; Horwich, Tamara; Bertoni, Alain G

    2015-05-01

    Menopause age can affect the risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD). The purpose of this study was to investigate the associations of early menopause (menopause occurring before age 45 y) and menopause age with N-terminal pro brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), a potential risk marker of CVD and heart failure. Our cross-sectional study included 2,275 postmenopausal women, aged 45 to 85 years and without clinical CVD (2000-2002), from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Participants were classified as having or not having early menopause. NT-proBNP was log-transformed. Multivariable linear regression was used for analysis. Five hundred sixty-one women had early menopause. The median (25th-75th percentiles) NT-proBNP value was 79.0 (41.1-151.6) pg/mL for all participants, 83.4 (41.4-164.9) pg/mL for women with early menopause, and 78.0 (40.8-148.3) pg/mL for women without early menopause. The mean (SD) age was 65 (10.1) and 65 (8.9) years for women with and without early menopause, respectively. No significant interactions between menopause age and ethnicity were observed. In multivariable analysis, early menopause was associated with a 10.7% increase in NT-proBNP levels, whereas each 1-year increase in menopause age was associated with a 0.7% decrease in NT-proBNP levels. Early menopause is associated with greater NT-proBNP levels, whereas each 1-year increase in menopause age is associated with lower NT-proBNP levels, in postmenopausal women.

  4. Direct and indirect genetic effects of sex-specific mitonuclear epistasis on reproductive ageing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Immonen, Elina; Collet, Marie; Goenaga, Julieta

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondria are involved in ageing and their function requires coordinated action of both mitochondrial and nuclear genes. Epistasis between the two genomes can influence lifespan but whether this also holds for reproductive senescence is unclear. Maternal inheritance of mitochondria predicts sex...... to slower senescence relative to novel mitonuclear combinations. We found no evidence for mitonuclear coadaptation in males. Mitonuclear epistasis not only affected age-specific ejaculate weight, but also influenced male age-dependent indirect effects on traits expressed by their female partners (fecundity...... beetle Callosobruchus maculatus, using introgression lines harbouring distinct mitonuclear genotypes. Our results reveal both direct and indirect sex-specific effects of mitonuclear epistasis on reproductive ageing. Females harbouring coadapted mitonuclear genotypes showed higher lifetime fecundity due...

  5. Gifted Students' Perceptions of Parenting Styles: Associations with Cognitive Ability, Sex, Race, and Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudasill, Kathleen Moritz; Adelson, Jill L.; Callahan, Carolyn M.; Houlihan, Deanna Vogt; Keizer, Benjamin M.

    2013-01-01

    Children whose parents are warm and responsive yet also set limits and have reasonable expectations for their children tend to have better outcomes than their peers whose parents show less warmth and responsiveness, have low expectations, or both. Parenting behavior is related to family race and children's sex, age, and cognitive ability. However,…

  6. Sex and Age Differences in Achievement Goal Orientations in Turkish Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Ertugrul; Topkaya, Nursel; Kürkçü, Recep

    2016-01-01

    Culture plays an important role in the achievement goal orientations of students, which may vary as they progress through their lifespan. However, research examining achievement goal orientations in the Turkish cultural context is scarce. Based on contextual and developmental theories, the aim of this study was to examine sex and age differences…

  7. Attitude and Peer Influences on Adolescent Substance Use: The Moderating Effect of Age, Sex, and Substance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musher-Eizenman, Dara R.; Holub, Shayla C.; Arnett, Mitzi

    2003-01-01

    Examines the importance of peer influence and personal attitudes in relation to self-reported use of alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana for 213 younger adolescents and 219 older adolescents. Friends' use was significantly related to substance use for both age groups, both sexes, and all substances examined. Resistance self- efficacy was…

  8. The Effects of Children's Age and Sex on Acquiring Pro-Environmental Attitudes through Environmental Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liefländer, Anne Kristin; Bogner, Franz Xaver

    2014-01-01

    Environmental education programs aiming to enhance children's environmental attitudes in a pro-environmental direction require background information, such as age and sex differences, to ensure appropriate design. We used the 2-MEV model with its domains "preservation" and "utilization" of nature to assess a four-day program at…

  9. Description of age, sex and site distribution of large bowel cancer in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aims/Objective: To determine the distribution of bowel cancer with special emphasis on age, sex and site. Methods: One hundred and sixty cases of histologically confirmed large bowel cancers at Jos University Teaching Hospital between January 1991 – December 2000 were reviewed. The records were collected from the ...

  10. Antisocial Behavior, Psychopathology and Functional Impairment: Association with Sex and Age in Clinical Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, Juan; Ezpeleta, Lourdes; Granero, Roser; de la Osa, Nuria

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence, degree of association and differential effect, by sex and age, of conduct disorder symptoms on psychopathology and functioning. Participants included 680 Spanish children and adolescents between 8 and 17 years and their parents, attending to psychiatric outpatient consultation. Data were obtained through…

  11. Influence of Age, Sex, and Race on College Students' Exercise Motivation of Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egli, Trevor; Bland, Helen W.; Melton, Bridget F.; Czech, Daniel R.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The authors examined differences in exercise motivation between age, sex, and race for college students. Participants: Students from 156 sections of physical activity classes at a midsize university were recruited (n = 2,199; 1,081 men, 1,118 women) in 2005-2006 and volunteered to complete the Exercise Motivation Inventory. Methods:…

  12. Age Stereotypes as a Function of Sex, Race, and Vocational Preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crew, James C.

    1983-01-01

    Examined the influence of race, age, sex, and vocational preference on attitudes toward older workers in a study of 125 business students. Results showed Blacks rated a younger worker more favorably and an older worker less favorably than Whites on three of four work-related dimensions. (JAC)

  13. Competition and habitat quality influence age and sex distribution in wintering rusty blackbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mettke-Hofmann, Claudia; Hamel, Paul B; Hofmann, Gerhard; Zenzal, Theodore J; Pellegrini, Anne; Malpass, Jennifer; Garfinkel, Megan; Schiff, Nathan; Greenberg, Russell

    2015-01-01

    Bird habitat quality is often inferred from species abundance measures during the breeding and non-breeding season and used for conservation management decisions. However, during the non-breeding season age and sex classes often occupy different habitats which suggest a need for more habitat-specific data. Rusty Blackbird (Euphagus carolinus) is a forested wetland specialist wintering in bottomland hardwood forests in the south-eastern U. S. and belongs to the most steeply declining songbirds in the U.S. Little information is available to support priority birds such as the Rusty Blackbird wintering in this threatened habitat. We assessed age and sex distribution and body condition of Rusty Blackbirds among the three major habitats used by this species in the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley and also measured food availability. Overall, pecan groves had the highest biomass mainly driven by the amount of nuts. Invertebrate biomass was highest in forests but contributed only a small percentage to overall biomass. Age and sex classes were unevenly distributed among habitats with adult males primarily occupying pecan groves containing the highest nut biomass, females being found in forests which had the lowest nut biomass and young males primarily staying in forest fragments along creeks which had intermediate nut biomass. Males were in better body condition than females and were in slightly better condition in pecan groves. The results suggest that adult males occupy the highest quality habitat and may competitively exclude the other age and sex classes.

  14. Competition and habitat quality influence age and sex distribution in wintering rusty blackbirds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Mettke-Hofmann

    Full Text Available Bird habitat quality is often inferred from species abundance measures during the breeding and non-breeding season and used for conservation management decisions. However, during the non-breeding season age and sex classes often occupy different habitats which suggest a need for more habitat-specific data. Rusty Blackbird (Euphagus carolinus is a forested wetland specialist wintering in bottomland hardwood forests in the south-eastern U. S. and belongs to the most steeply declining songbirds in the U.S. Little information is available to support priority birds such as the Rusty Blackbird wintering in this threatened habitat. We assessed age and sex distribution and body condition of Rusty Blackbirds among the three major habitats used by this species in the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley and also measured food availability. Overall, pecan groves had the highest biomass mainly driven by the amount of nuts. Invertebrate biomass was highest in forests but contributed only a small percentage to overall biomass. Age and sex classes were unevenly distributed among habitats with adult males primarily occupying pecan groves containing the highest nut biomass, females being found in forests which had the lowest nut biomass and young males primarily staying in forest fragments along creeks which had intermediate nut biomass. Males were in better body condition than females and were in slightly better condition in pecan groves. The results suggest that adult males occupy the highest quality habitat and may competitively exclude the other age and sex classes.

  15. Cuticular Hydrocarbons of the South American Fruit Fly Anastrepha fraterculus: Variability with Sex and Age

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vaníčková, Lucie; Svatoš, Aleš; Kroiss, J.; Kaltenpoth, M.; do Nascimento, R. R.; Hoskovec, Michal; Břízová, Radka; Kalinová, Blanka

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 38, č. 9 (2012), s. 1133-1142 ISSN 0098-0331 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : Anastrepha fratercules species complex * cuticular hydrocarbons * sex-specific differences * age-dependent production Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.462, year: 2012

  16. Human subcortical brain asymmetries in 15,847 people worldwide reveal effects of age and sex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guadalupe, Tulio; Mathias, Samuel R.; vanErp, Theo G.M.; Whelan, Christopher D.; Zwiers, Marcel P.; Abe, Yoshinari; Abramovic, Lucija; Agartz, Ingrid; Andreassen, Ole A.; Arias-Vásquez, Alejandro; Aribisala, Benjamin S.; Armstrong, Nicola J.; Arolt, Volker; Artiges, Eric; Ayesa-Arriola, Rosa; Baboyan, Vatche G.; Banaschewski, Tobias; Barker, Gareth; Bastin, Mark E.; Baune, Bernhard T.; Blangero, John; Bokde, Arun L.W.; Boedhoe, Premika S.W.; Bose, Anushree; Brem, Silvia; Brodaty, Henry; Bromberg, Uli; Brooks, Samantha; Büchel, Christian; Buitelaar, Jan; Calhoun, Vince D.; Cannon, Dara M.; Cattrell, Anna; Cheng, Yuqi; Conrod, Patricia J.; Conzelmann, Annette; Corvin, Aiden; Crespo-Facorro, Benedicto; Crivello, Fabrice; Dannlowski, Udo; de Zubicaray, Greig I.; de Zwarte, Sonja M.C.; Deary, Ian J.; Desrivières, Sylvane; Doan, Nhat Trung; Donohoe, Gary; Dørum, Erlend S.; Ehrlich, Stefan; Espeseth, Thomas; Fernández, Guillén; Flor, Herta; Fouche, Jean Paul; Frouin, Vincent; Fukunaga, Masaki; Gallinat, Jürgen; Garavan, Hugh; Gill, Michael; Suarez, Andrea Gonzalez; Gowland, Penny; Grabe, Hans J.; Grotegerd, Dominik; Gruber, Oliver; Hagenaars, Saskia; Hashimoto, Ryota; Hauser, Tobias U.; Heinz, Andreas; Hibar, Derrek P.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Hoogman, Martine; Howells, Fleur M.; Hu, Hao; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E.; Huyser, Chaim; Ittermann, Bernd; Jahanshad, Neda; Jönsson, Erik G.; Jurk, Sarah; Kahn, Rene S.; Kelly, Sinead; Kraemer, Bernd; Kugel, Harald; Kwon, Jun Soo; Lemaitre, Herve; Lesch, Klaus Peter; Lochner, Christine; Luciano, Michelle; Marquand, Andre F.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Martínez-Zalacaín, Ignacio; Martinot, Jean Luc; Mataix-Cols, David; Mather, Karen; McDonald, Colm; McMahon, Katie L.; Medland, Sarah E.; Menchón, José M.; Morris, Derek W.; Mothersill, Omar; Maniega, Susana Munoz; Mwangi, Benson; Nakamae, Takashi; Nakao, Tomohiro; Narayanaswaamy, Janardhanan C.; Nees, Frauke; Nordvik, Jan E.; Onnink, A. Marten H.; Opel, Nils; Ophoff, Roel; Paillère Martinot, Marie Laure; Papadopoulos Orfanos, Dimitri; Pauli, Paul; Paus, Tomáš; Poustka, Luise; Reddy, Janardhan Yc; Renteria, Miguel E.; Roiz-Santiáñez, Roberto; Roos, Annerine; Royle, Natalie A.; Sachdev, Perminder; Sánchez-Juan, Pascual; Schmaal, Lianne; Schumann, Gunter; Shumskaya, Elena; Smolka, Michael N.; Soares, Jair C.; Soriano-Mas, Carles; Stein, Dan J.; Strike, Lachlan T.; Toro, Roberto; Turner, Jessica A.; Tzourio-Mazoyer, Nathalie; Uhlmann, Anne; Hernández, Maria Valdés; van den Heuvel, Odile A.; van der Meer, Dennis; van Haren, Neeltje E.M.; Veltman, Dick J.; Venkatasubramanian, Ganesan; Vetter, Nora C.; Vuletic, Daniella; Walitza, Susanne; Walter, Henrik; Walton, Esther; Wang, Zhen; Wardlaw, Joanna; Wen, Wei; Westlye, Lars T.; Whelan, Robert; Wittfeld, Katharina; Wolfers, Thomas; Wright, Margaret J.; Xu, Jian; Xu, Xiufeng; Yun, Je Yeon; Zhao, Jing Jing; Franke, Barbara; Thompson, Paul M.; Glahn, David C.; Mazoyer, Bernard; Fisher, Simon E.; Francks, Clyde

    2017-01-01

    The two hemispheres of the human brain differ functionally and structurally. Despite over a century of research, the extent to which brain asymmetry is influenced by sex, handedness, age, and genetic factors is still controversial. Here we present the largest ever analysis of subcortical brain

  17. Analysis of Effects of Breed, Sex and Age on some Serum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analysis of Effects of Breed, Sex and Age on some Serum Biochemical Parameters in Rabbits. C A Chineke, F A Adeniran, A G Olugun, C ON Ikeobi, O A Oseni. Abstract. (Tropical Journal of Animal Science: 2003, 6(2): 85-90). Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL ...

  18. Age, Sex and Atherogenic Risk in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to assess the degree of atherogenic risk in type 2 DM and non-DM patients and to relate age and sex with atherogenic risk of the patients. A total of 192 participants, consisting of one hundred (100) type 2 diabetes mellitus patients and ninety-two (92) healthy controls were randomly selected ...

  19. Effects of age and sex on haematological and serum biochemistry in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    haematology and serum biochemistry) at different ages (in weeks) in male and female Japanese quails. A total of hundred (100) unsexed day-old quail chicks were purchased and sorted based on sex at the third week. Blood samples were collected ...

  20. Size and type of places, geographical region, satisfaction with life, age, sex and place attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandal Alan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The topic of the article concerns the issue of place attachment and its determinants. An analysis of place attachment was performed in terms of place identity and place dependence (Williams, Vaske, 2003. Moreover, links between place attachment and selected geographical (size and type of place, geographical region, demographic (age, sex and psychological (satisfaction with life variables were investigated.

  1. Trends in adolescent alcohol use: Effects of age, sex and cohort on prevalence and heritability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geels, L.M.; Bartels, M.; van Beijsterveldt, C.E.M.; Willemsen, G.; van der Aa, N.; Boomsma, D.I.; Vink, J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Aims To determine the effect of age, sex and cohort on the prevalence and genetic architecture of adolescent alcohol use (AAU). Design Survey study in participants registered with the Netherlands Twin Register. Setting Twins from the general population. Participants Two cohorts (data collected in

  2. “Early Classical Settlements” and the Iron Age of the Central Balkans: Issues of Ethnic Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Vranić

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the Balkan archaeologies, ethnic identity has been traditionally treated as a stable and monolithic category, readily recognizable in the material culture. The issue of “ethnogenesis” of the Palaeo-Balkan “peoples” is the dominant topic and the basic research subject in culture-historical archaeology, today regarded as the consequence of the modern European nationalisms. Starting from the constructivist point, the paper seeks to examine the interpretations of ethnicity in the Balkan Iron Age, on the example of the so-called “early Classical settlements” – a series of mutually very similar fortified settlements located in the vast lands of the Balkan hinterland, today in the territory of several modern states. These settlements are broadly dated into the period from the 5th to the 3rd centuries BC, and have traditionally been interpreted as the final phase of the ethnogenesis of the Palaeo-Balkan communities, supposed to have been living in “tribal states”, whose population has been recognized as “people” or even “nation”. In the traditional literature, the ethnic characteristics have been readily recognized, projecting directly the modern socio-political structures onto the communities of the past that could have been founded on completely different group identity or political organization. The paper deals with the issue of the political aspects of these interpretations in various Balkan countries, favoring certain Palaeo-Balkan communities, and an attempt is made to contextualize these nationalistic narratives into the present.

  3. Variations in Dream Recall Frequency and Dream Theme Diversity by Age and Sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Tore

    2012-01-01

    We assessed dream recall frequency (DRF) and dream theme diversity (DTD) with an internet questionnaire among a cohort of 28,888 male and female participants aged 10–79 years in a cross-sectional design. DRF increased from adolescence (ages 10–19) to early adulthood (20–29) and then decreased again for the next 20 years. The nature of this decrease differed for males and females. For males, it began earlier (30–39), proceeded more gradually, and reached a nadir earlier (40–49) than it did for females. For females, it began later (40–49), dropped more abruptly, and reached nadir later (50–59). Marked sex differences were observed for age strata 10–19 through 40–49 and year-by-year analyses estimated the window for these differences to be more precisely from 14 to 44 years. DTD decreased linearly with age for both sexes up to 50–59 and then dropped even more sharply for 60–79. There was a sex difference favoring males on this measure but only for ages 10–19. Findings replicate, in a single sample, those from several previous studies showing an increase in DRF from adolescence to early adulthood, a subsequent decrease primarily in early and middle adulthood, and different patterns of age-related decrease in the two sexes. Age-related changes in sleep structure, such as decreasing %REM sleep which parallel the observed dream recall changes, might help explain these findings, but these sleep changes are much smaller and more gradual in nature. Changes in the phase and amplitude of circadian rhythms of REM propensity and generational differences in life experiences may also account for some part of the findings. That decreases in DTD parallel known age-related decreases in episodic and autobiographical memory may signify that this new diversity measure indexes an aspect of autobiographical memory that also influences dream recall. PMID:22783222

  4. [The analysis of general mortality by age and sex: evidence of two types of mortality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiani, P; Masse, H; Aubenque, M

    1984-01-01

    The departmental distributions of the probabilities of dying by age group and sex are analyzed for France in 1975. It is found that these distributions are the sum of two lognormal distributions. The authors deduce the existence of two populations that are distinguished by whether mortality was endogenous or exogenous. The relative importance of these two types of mortality is considered according to age. (summary in ENG)

  5. Effect of Age and Sex on Histomorphometrical Characteristics of Two Muscles of Laticauda Lambs

    OpenAIRE

    Salvatore Velotto; Ettore Varricchio; Maria Rosa Di Prisco; Tommaso Stasi; Antonio Crasto

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present experiment was to determine the effect of sex and age on histochemical and morphometric characteristics of muscle fibres (myocytes) in lambs born by single, twin, triplet and quadruplet birth. Thirty lambs were slaughtered at 60 days of age; thirty were weaned at 60 days and fed until 120 days with flakes (60%) and food supplements, and then slaughtered. Muscle tissues were obtained from two muscles, namely m. semitendinosus and m. longissimus dorsi of all lambs. For ea...

  6. Age and sex dependencies of anxiety and depression in cardiologic patients compared with the general population

    OpenAIRE

    Hinz, A; Kittel, J; Karoff, M; Schwarz, R

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to test age and sex effects on anxiety and depression using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale HADS. Method: Sample 1 consisted of 2037 subjects of the German general population, and sample 2 comprised 2696 cardiologic patients. Results: In the group of the general population we observed a linear increase of depression and (to a lower extent) of anxiety with age. In contrast to that, the patients reached their anxiety and depression maxima in the ra...

  7. Variations in dream recall frequency and dream theme diversity by age and sex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tore eNielsen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available We assessed dream recall frequency and dream theme diversity with an internet questionnaire among a cohort of 28,888 male and female participants aged 10 to 79 years in a cross-sectional design. Dream recall frequency increased from adolescence (ages 10-19 to early adulthood (20-29 and then decreased again for the next 20 years. The nature of this decrease differed for males and females. For males, it began earlier (30-39, proceeded more gradually, and reached a nadir earlier (40-49 than it did for females. For females, it began later (40-49, dropped more abruptly, and reached nadir later (50-59. Marked sex differences were observed for age strata 10-19 through 40-49 and year-by-year analyses estimated the window for these differences to be more precisely from 14-44 yrs. Dream theme diversity decreased linearly with age for both sexes up to 50-59 and then dropped even more sharply for 60-79. There was a sex difference favouring males on this measure but only for ages 10-19. Findings replicate, in a single sample, those from several previous studies showing an increase in dream recall frequency from adolescence to early adulthood, a subsequent decrease in dream recall frequency—primarily in early and middle adulthood, and different patterns of age-related decrease in the two sexes. Age-related changes in sleep structure, such as decreasing %REM sleep, parallel the observed dream recall changes but are much smaller and more gradual in nature. Changes in the phase and amplitude of circadian rhythms of REM propensity and generational differences in life experiences may also account for some part of the findings. However, that decreases in dream theme diversity parallel known age-related decreases in episodic and autobiographical memory may signify that the diversity measure indexes an aspect of autobiographical memory that is specific to dream recall.

  8. Current Age, Age at First Sex, Age at First Homelessness, and HIV Risk Perceptions Predict Sexual Risk Behaviors among Sexually Active Homeless Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane Santa Maria

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available While HIV disproportionately impacts homeless individuals, little is known about the prevalence of HIV risk behaviors in the southwest and how age factors and HIV risk perceptions influence sexual risk behaviors. We conducted a secondary data analysis (n = 460 on sexually active homeless adults from a cross-sectional study of participants (n = 610 recruited from homeless service locations, such as shelters and drop-in centers, in an understudied region of the southwest. Covariate-adjusted logistic regressions were used to assess the impact of age at homelessness onset, current age, age at first sex, and HIV risk perceptions on having condomless sex, new sexual partner(s, and multiple sexual partners (≥4 sexual partners in the past 12 months. Individuals who first experienced homelessness by age 24 were significantly more likely to report condomless sex and multiple sexual partners in the past year than those who had a later onset of their first episode of homelessness. Individuals who were currently 24 years or younger were more likely to have had condomless sex, new sexual partners, and multiple sexual partners in the past 12 months than those who were 25 years or older. Those who had low perceived HIV risk had lower odds of all three sexual risk behaviors. Social service and healthcare providers should consider a younger age at homelessness onset when targeting HIV prevention services to youth experiencing homelessness.

  9. Laughing off the Stereotypes: Age and Aging in Seniors' Online Sex-Related Humor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimrod, Galit; Berdychevsky, Liza

    2017-05-17

    Focusing on sex, the most salient topic featured in ageist jokes, this study aims at exploring the extent to which seniors' own humor reflects common ageist stereotypes or rather echoes contemporary consumer society representations of seniors' sexuality. The study was based on a quantitative content analysis of 300 humorous sex-related messages posted during one full year by members of 14 leading online communities for seniors. Findings indicated that whereas the portrayal of older adults in humor typically relied on negative ageist stereotypes, their representation in seniors' online sex-related humor depended on the social identity of the butt of this humor. If it was an in-group member (oneself, another community member, or the community as a whole), the portrayal was rather positive, but when the butt belonged to the out-group (older adults in general), the depiction was far more ageist. Nonetheless, the representation of older butts of humor was generally more positive than that of the younger ones. These findings suggest that seniors tend to identify with current cultural representations of sexuality in later life and use sex-related humor as a personal means of resisting ageism. They apply two principal strategies: Distancing-reproducing certain ageist stereotypes by ascribing them to other older adults, but less so to their own group and even less than that to themselves-and equalizing older and younger individuals, even according the former an advantage regarding sexuality. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Reasons, assessments and actions taken: sex and age differences in uses of Internet health information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ybarra, Michele; Suman, Michael

    2008-06-01

    The Internet is transforming the way in which consumers approach their health care needs. Sex and age are influential aspects of one's health as well as disease risk and are thus integral components of the emerging picture of health information seekers. Using data from Surveying the Digital Future, Year 4, a nationally representative, longitudinal telephone survey of Americans 12 years of age and older (n = 2010), we examine the reasons for, assessments of and actions taken as a result of health information found online among men and women and older and younger people. Although we tend to think of the Internet as a young person's technology, the percent of adults 60 years of age and older is similar to that of adolescents using the Internet as a health care information resource, thus suggesting an untapped opportunity with online interventions for older adults. Nonetheless, as age increases so too does the report of frustration with the experience. Men are more likely to report a positive seeking experience than women. Differences in Internet use fail to explain these observed sex and age differences in the seeking experience. Across the spectrum of age, sex and Internet skill, Internet health information seeking appears to enhance the patient-provider relationship.

  11. Gene-environment interplay in depressive symptoms: moderation by age, sex, and physical illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkus, A J; Beam, C R; Johnson, W; Kaprio, J; Korhonen, T; McGue, M; Neiderhiser, J M; Pedersen, N L; Reynolds, C A; Gatz, M

    2017-07-01

    Numerous factors influence late-life depressive symptoms in adults, many not thoroughly characterized. We addressed whether genetic and environmental influences on depressive symptoms differed by age, sex, and physical illness. The analysis sample included 24 436 twins aged 40-90 years drawn from the Interplay of Genes and Environment across Multiple Studies (IGEMS) Consortium. Biometric analyses tested age, sex, and physical illness moderation of genetic and environmental variance in depressive symptoms. Women reported greater depressive symptoms than men. After age 60, there was an accelerating increase in depressive symptom scores with age, but this did not appreciably affect genetic and environmental variances. Overlap in genetic influences between physical illness and depressive symptoms was greater in men than in women. Additionally, in men extent of overlap was greater with worse physical illness (the genetic correlation ranged from near 0.00 for the least physical illness to nearly 0.60 with physical illness 2 s.d. above the mean). For men and women, the same environmental factors that influenced depressive symptoms also influenced physical illness. Findings suggested that genetic factors play a larger part in the association between depressive symptoms and physical illness for men than for women. For both sexes, across all ages, physical illness may similarly trigger social and health limitations that contribute to depressive symptoms.

  12. Racial and Ethnic Variations in Preventive Dental Care Utilization among Middle-aged and Older Americans, 1999-2008

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    Bei eWu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study examined recent trends of preventive dental care utilization among Americans aged 50 and above, focusing on variations across racial and ethnic groups including Whites, Blacks, Hispanics, American Indians/Alaska Natives, and Asians. Methods: Self-reported information on oral health behaviors was collected from 644,635 participants in the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS between 1999 and 2008.Results: Despite a significant upward trend of frequency of dental cleaning from 1999 to 2008 (OR=1.02, in 2008 still only 56 to 77% of any ethnic or racial group reported having had a dental cleaning in the previous 12 months. Relative to Whites, Blacks (OR=.64 were less likely to have a dental cleaning in the previous 12 months. These variations persisted even when SES, health conditions, health behaviors, and number of permanent teeth were controlled. In contrast, Hispanics, Asians, and American Indians/Alaskan Natives did not differ from Whites in dental cleanings. Discussion: This is the first study to provide national estimates of the frequency of dental cleaning and associated trends over time for five major ethnic groups aged 50 and above in the U.S. simultaneously. Our findings suggest that public health programs with an emphasis on educating middle-aged and older minority populations on the benefits of oral health could have a large impact, as there is much room for improvement. Given the importance of oral health and a population that is rapidly becoming older and more diverse, the need for improved dental care utilization is significant.

  13. Educational inequalities in smoking among Japanese adults aged 25–94 years: Nationally representative sex- and age-specific statistics

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    Takahiro Tabuchi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Few studies have investigated differences in age- and gender-specific educational gradients in tobacco smoking among the whole range of adult age groups. We examined educational inequality in smoking among Japanese adults aged 25–94 years. Methods: Using a large nationally representative sample (167,925 men and 186,588 women in 2010, prevalence of current smoking and heavy smoking among daily smokers and their inequalities attributable to educational attainment were analyzed according to sex and age groups. Results: Among men aged 25–34 years, junior high school graduates had the highest current smoking prevalence at 68.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 66.0%–70.6%, and graduate school graduates had the lowest at 19.4% (95% CI, 17.2%–21.9%. High school graduates had the second highest current smoking prevalence (e.g., 55.9%; 95% CI, 54.9%–56.8% in men aged 25–34 years. Among men aged 75–94 years, the difference in current smoking across educational categories was small. A similar but steeper educational gradient in current smoking was observed among women. Among women aged 25–34 years, junior high school graduates had the highest current smoking prevalence at 49.3% (95% CI, 46.3%–52.3%, and graduate school graduates had the lowest at 4.8% (95% CI, 2.9%–7.4%. Compared with older age groups, such as 65–94 years, younger age groups, such as 25–54 years, had higher estimates of inequality indicators for educational inequality in both current and heavy smoking in both sexes. Conclusions: Educational inequalities in current and heavy smoking were apparent and large in the young population compared with older generations. The current study provides basic data on educational inequalities in smoking among Japanese adults.

  14. Educational inequalities in smoking among Japanese adults aged 25-94 years: Nationally representative sex- and age-specific statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabuchi, Takahiro; Kondo, Naoki

    2017-04-01

    Few studies have investigated differences in age- and gender-specific educational gradients in tobacco smoking among the whole range of adult age groups. We examined educational inequality in smoking among Japanese adults aged 25-94 years. Using a large nationally representative sample (167,925 men and 186,588 women) in 2010, prevalence of current smoking and heavy smoking among daily smokers and their inequalities attributable to educational attainment were analyzed according to sex and age groups. Among men aged 25-34 years, junior high school graduates had the highest current smoking prevalence at 68.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 66.0%-70.6%), and graduate school graduates had the lowest at 19.4% (95% CI, 17.2%-21.9%). High school graduates had the second highest current smoking prevalence (e.g., 55.9%; 95% CI, 54.9%-56.8% in men aged 25-34 years). Among men aged 75-94 years, the difference in current smoking across educational categories was small. A similar but steeper educational gradient in current smoking was observed among women. Among women aged 25-34 years, junior high school graduates had the highest current smoking prevalence at 49.3% (95% CI, 46.3%-52.3%), and graduate school graduates had the lowest at 4.8% (95% CI, 2.9%-7.4%). Compared with older age groups, such as 65-94 years, younger age groups, such as 25-54 years, had higher estimates of inequality indicators for educational inequality in both current and heavy smoking in both sexes. Educational inequalities in current and heavy smoking were apparent and large in the young population compared with older generations. The current study provides basic data on educational inequalities in smoking among Japanese adults. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Elevated mortality among birds in Chernobyl as judged from skewed age and sex ratios.

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    Anders Pape Møller

    Full Text Available Radiation has negative effects on survival of animals including humans, although the generality of this claim is poorly documented under low-dose field conditions. Because females may suffer disproportionately from the effects of radiation on survival due to differences in sex roles during reproduction, radiation-induced mortality may result in male-skewed adult sex ratios.We estimated the effects of low-dose radiation on adult survival rates in birds by determining age ratios of adults captured in mist nets during the breeding season in relation to background radiation levels around Chernobyl and in nearby uncontaminated control areas. Age ratios were skewed towards yearlings, especially in the most contaminated areas, implying that adult survival rates were reduced in contaminated areas, and that populations in such areas could only be maintained through immigration from nearby uncontaminated areas. Differential mortality in females resulted in a strongly male-skewed sex ratio in the most contaminated areas. In addition, males sang disproportionately commonly in the most contaminated areas where the sex ratio was male skewed presumably because males had difficulty finding and acquiring mates when females were rare. The results were not caused by permanent emigration by females from the most contaminated areas because none of the recaptured birds had changed breeding site, and the proportion of individuals with morphological abnormalities did not differ significantly between the sexes for areas with normal and higher levels of contamination.These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that the adult survival rate of female birds is particularly susceptible to the effects of low-dose radiation, resulting in male skewed sex ratios at high levels of radiation. Such skewed age ratios towards yearlings in contaminated areas are consistent with the hypothesis that an area exceeding 30,000 km(2 in Chernobyl's surroundings constitutes an

  16. Neuropsychological sex differences associated with age of initiated use among young adult cannabis users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Natania A; Schuster, Randi Melissa; Mermelstein, Robin J; Gonzalez, Raul

    2015-01-01

    Earlier initiation of cannabis use is associated with poorer neuropsychological functioning across several domains. Given well-documented sex differences in neuromaturation during adolescence, initiation of cannabis use during this time may affect neuropsychological functioning differently for males and females. In the current study, we examined sex differences in the relationship between age of initiated cannabis use and neuropsychological performance after controlling for amount of lifetime cannabis use in 44 male and 25 female young adult cannabis users. We found that an earlier age of initiated use was related to poorer episodic memory, especially immediate recall, in females, but not in males. On the other hand, we found that, surprisingly, an earlier age of initiated use was associated with better decision making overall. However, exploratory analyses found sex-specific factors associated with decision making and age of initiated use, specifically that attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in females may drive the relationship between an earlier age of initiated use and better decision making. Further, an earlier age of initiated use was associated with less education, a lower IQ, and fewer years of mother's education for females, but more lifetime cannabis use for males. Taken together, our findings suggest there are sex differences in the associations between age of initiated cannabis use and neuropsychological functioning. The current study provides preliminary evidence that males and females may have different neuropsychological vulnerabilities that place them at risk for initiating cannabis use and continued cannabis use, highlighting the importance of examining the impact of cannabis on neuropsychological functioning separately for males and females.

  17. Impact of age and sex on normal left heart structure and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagström, Linn; Henein, Michael Y; Karp, Kjell; Waldenström, Anders; Lindqvist, Per

    2017-11-01

    Accurate age- and sex-related normal reference values of ventricular structure and function are important to determine the level of dysfunction in patients. The aim of this study therefore was to document normal age range sex-related measurements of LV structural and functional measurements to serve such purpose. We evaluated left ventricular structure and function in 293 healthy subjects between 20 and 90 years with equally distributed gender. Doppler echocardiography was used including measure of both systolic and diastolic functions. Due to systolic LV function, only long axis function correlated with age (r = 0·55, P<0·01) and the correlation was stronger in females. Concerning diastolic function, there was a strong age correlation in all parameters used (r = 0·40-0·74, P<0·001). Due to LV structural changes over age, females showed a larger reduction in end-diastolic volumes, but no or trivial difference in wall thickness after the age of 60 years. Age is associated with significant normal changes in left ventricular structure and function, which should be considered when deciding on normality. These changes are related to systemic arterial changes as well as body stature, thus reflecting overall body ageing process. Furthermore, normal cardiac ageing in females might partly explain the higher prevalence of heart failure with preserved ejection in females. © 2016 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Unique sex- and age-dependent effects in protective pathways in acute kidney injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boddu, Ravindra; Fan, Chunlan; Rangarajan, Sunil; Sunil, Bhuvana; Bolisetty, Subhashini; Curtis, Lisa M

    2017-09-01

    Sex and age influence susceptibility to acute kidney injury (AKI), with young females exhibiting lowest incidence. In these studies, we investigated mechanisms which may underlie the sex/age-based dissimilarities. Cisplatin (Cp)-induced AKI resulted in morphological evidence of injury in all groups. A minimal rise in plasma creatinine (PCr) was seen in Young Females, whereas in Aged Females, PCr rose precipitously. Relative to Young Males, Aged Males showed significantly, but temporally, comparably elevated PCr. Notably, Aged Females showed significantly greater mortality, whereas Young Females exhibited none. Tissue KIM-1 and plasma NGAL were significantly lower in Young Females than all others. IGFBP7 levels were modestly increased in both Young groups. IGFBP7 levels in Aged Females were significantly elevated at baseline relative to Aged Males, and increased linearly through day 3 , when these levels were comparable in both Aged groups. Plasma cytokine levels similarly showed a pattern of protective effects preferentially in Young Females. Expression of the drug transporter MATE2 did not explain the sex/age distinctions. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) levels (~28-kDa species) showed elevation at day 1 in all groups with highest levels seen in Young Males. Exclusively in Young Females, these levels returned to baseline on day 3 , suggestive of a more efficient recovery. In aggregate, we demonstrate, for the first time, a distinctive pattern of response to AKI in Young Females relative to males which appears to be significantly altered in aging. These distinctions may offer novel targets to exploit therapeutically in both females and males in the treatment of AKI.

  19. Masculine sex ratios, population age structure and the potential spread of HIV in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Giovanna Merli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available There is much speculation regarding the contribution of China's changing demography to the spread of HIV/AIDS. We employ a bio-behavioral macrosimulation model of the heterosexual spread of HIV/AIDS to evaluate the roles that China's unique demographic conditions -- (1 masculine sex ratios at birth and (2 a population age structure that reflects rapid fertility decline since the 1970's -- play in altering the market for sexual partners, thereby potentially fueling an increase in behaviors associated with greater risk of HIV infection. We first simulate the relative contributions of the sex ratio at birth and the population age structure to the oversupply of males in the market for sexual partners and show that the sex ratio at birth only aggravates the severe oversupply of males which is primarily a consequence of the population age structure. We then examine the potential consequences of this demographic distortion for the spread of HIV infection and show that, to the extent that males adapt to the dearth of suitable female partners by seeking unprotected sexual contacts with female sex workers, the impact of the oversupply of males in the sexual partnership market on the spread of HIV will be severe.

  20. The effects of age, sex, and hormones on emotional conflict-related brain response during adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cservenka, Anita; Stroup, Madison L.; Etkin, Amit; Nagel, Bonnie J.

    2015-01-01

    While cognitive and emotional systems both undergo development during adolescence, few studies have explored top-down inhibitory control brain activity in the context of affective processing, critical to informing adolescent psychopathology. In this study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine brain response during an Emotional Conflict (EmC) Task across 10–15-year-old youth. During the EmC Task, participants indicated the emotion of facial expressions, while disregarding emotion-congruent and incongruent words printed across the faces. We examined the relationships of age, sex, and gonadal hormones with brain activity on Incongruent vs. Congruent trials. Age was negatively associated with middle frontal gyrus activity, controlling for performance and movement confounds. Sex differences were present in occipital and parietal cortices, and were driven by activation in females, and deactivation in males to Congruent trials. Testosterone was negatively related with frontal and striatal brain response in males, and cerebellar and precuneus response in females. Estradiol was negatively related with fronto-cerebellar, cingulate, and precuneus brain activity in males, and positively related with occipital response in females. To our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the effects of age, sex, and sex steroids during an emotion-cognition task in adolescents. Further research is needed to examine longitudinal development of emotion-cognition interactions and deviations in psychiatric disorders in adolescence. PMID:26175008

  1. Sex and age related differences in postmyelographic adverse reactions. A prospective study of 1765 myelographies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maly, P

    1989-09-01

    Differences in frequency of postmyelographic adverse reactions were analyzed with respect to sex and age in a prospective study including 1026 patients injected with metrizamide and 739 injected with iohexol. Regardless of the type of contrast medium or myelography, all types of adverse reactions were 1.4-3.8 times as frequent in women as in men. Most of the differences were statistically significant. Headache was more frequent, while vomiting and dizziness were less frequent in both women and men aged 26-50 years compared with those over 50 years of age. Dizziness and increased low back pain were consistently reported spontaneously by the patients less frequently than emerged via formal interview. The large differences between the sexes suggest that further research on contrast media toxicity would be best performed with separation of the data by gender. (orig.).

  2. Influence of female sex and fertile age on neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisow, Nadja; Kleiter, Ingo; Gahlen, Anna; Fischer, Katrin; Wernecke, Klaus-Dieter; Pache, Florence; Ruprecht, Klemens; Havla, Joachim; Krumbholz, Markus; Kümpfel, Tania; Aktas, Orhan; Ringelstein, Marius; Geis, Christian; Kleinschnitz, Christoph; Berthele, Achim; Hemmer, Bernhard; Angstwurm, Klemens; Weissert, Robert; Stellmann, Jan-Patrick; Schuster, Simon; Stangel, Martin; Lauda, Florian; Tumani, Hayrettin; Mayer, Christoph; Zeltner, Lena; Ziemann, Ulf; Linker, Ralf A; Schwab, Matthias; Marziniak, Martin; Then Bergh, Florian; Hofstadt-van Oy, Ulrich; Neuhaus, Oliver; Winkelmann, Alexander; Marouf, Wael; Rückriem, Lioba; Faiss, Jürgen; Wildemann, Brigitte; Paul, Friedemann; Jarius, Sven; Trebst, Corinna; Hellwig, Kerstin

    2017-07-01

    Gender and age at onset are important epidemiological factors influencing prevalence, clinical presentation, and treatment response in autoimmune diseases. To evaluate the impact of female sex and fertile age on aquaporin-4-antibody (AQP4-ab) status, attack localization, and response to attack treatment in patients with neuromyelitis optica (NMO) and its spectrum disorders (neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD)). Female-to-male ratios, diagnosis at last visit (NMO vs NMOSD), attack localization, attack treatment, and outcome were compared according to sex and age at disease or attack onset. A total of 186 NMO/SD patients (82% female) were included. In AQP4-ab-positive patients, female predominance was most pronounced during fertile age (female-to-male ratio 23:1). Female patients were more likely to be positive for AQP4-abs (92% vs 55%; p 40 years. Our data suggest an influence of sex and age on susceptibility to AQP4-ab-positive NMO/SD. Genetic and hormonal factors might contribute to pathophysiology of NMO/SD.

  3. Analysis of the number of enlarged pores according to site, age, and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, H J; Ahn, J Y; Lee, J I; Bae, J Y; Kim, H L; Suh, H Y; Youn, J I; Park, M Y

    2018-02-02

    Increasing the number of enlarged pores causes cosmetic problems. The difference in the number of enlarged pores according to facial site, age, and sex is unclear. To analyze the distribution of the number of enlarged pores according to facial site, age, and sex. We analyzed the number of the enlarged pores and the percentage of wrinkles in the nose, forehead, and cheek from 434 polarized images. The measurement results were analyzed according to site, age, and sex. Relationship between enlarged pore counts and wrinkle severity was also analyzed. The study was conducted by using DermaVision,™ which can take cross-polarization, parallel polarization, and ultraviolet light images. The enlarged pores of the nose and forehead were more prominent than in the cheeks. Pore counts were increased with age, and the increment was significant between the 30's and 40's. There was no significant difference by gender. Enlarged pore counts were related to wrinkle severity. The number of enlarged pores differs depending on body site and increased with age. The enlarged pore counts correlate with wrinkle severity and the correlation varies depending on the body site. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. The Impact of Age and Sex on the Refusal Strategies Used by Iranian EFL Learners

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    Shohreh Shahpouri Arani

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available One major problem for non-native speakers is using refusals and because of this, second language teachers and others who communicate in that language should have the cultural differences in mind. When the interlocutors say “no” to a request or invitation, either directly or indirectly, they use speech act of refusal.  Refusal is considered a face threatening act, as there exists a kind of contradiction in it and is always realized indirectly. Thus, a high level of pragmatic competence is needed to realize it. The aim of this study is to find out whether the age and sex of Iranian learners have any effect on their used refusal strategies and if the existence of such an effect was demonstrated which group is more native like in terms of content and form of used strategies. To achieve this end, graduated students (male/female of different age, sex and different fields of study were selected. Three groups of participants participated in this study. The first group includes 30 American English Speakers (A.E.S. The second group consists of participants whose ages were between 22-29 and the third group was a group of 30 participants of both sexes who speak English as a second language (sex is the only variable under study in this group. Using a Discourse Completion Test (DCT, a number of refusal situations were collected, responded by participants and analyzed. The results revealed that the age and sex of EFL learners does not have any significant effect on using refusal strategies.

  5. Manual control age and sex differences in 4 to 11 year old children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Flatters

    Full Text Available To what degree does being male or female influence the development of manual skills in pre-pubescent children? This question is important because of the emphasis placed on developing important new manual skills during this period of a child's education (e.g. writing, drawing, using computers. We investigated age and sex-differences in the ability of 422 children to control a handheld stylus. A task battery deployed using tablet PC technology presented interactive visual targets on a computer screen whilst simultaneously recording participant's objective kinematic responses, via their interactions with the on-screen stimuli using the handheld stylus. The battery required children use the stylus to: (i make a series of aiming movements, (ii trace a series of abstract shapes and (iii track a moving object. The tasks were not familiar to the children, allowing measurement of a general ability that might be meaningfully labelled 'manual control', whilst minimising culturally determined differences in experience (as much as possible. A reliable interaction between sex and age was found on the aiming task, with girls' movement times being faster than boys in younger age groups (e.g. 4-5 years but with this pattern reversing in older children (10-11 years. The improved performance in older boys on the aiming task is consistent with prior evidence of a male advantage for gross-motor aiming tasks, which begins to emerge during adolescence. A small but reliable sex difference was found in tracing skill, with girls showing a slightly higher level of performance than boys irrespective of age. There were no reliable sex differences between boys and girls on the tracking task. Overall, the findings suggest that prepubescent girls are more likely to have superior manual control abilities for performing novel tasks. However, these small population differences do not suggest that the sexes require different educational support whilst developing their manual

  6. Relationships Between Meibomian Gland Loss and Age, Sex, and Dry Eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pult, Heiko

    2018-02-12

    This study evaluated relationships between meibomian gland loss (MGL) and age, sex, and dry eye. Dry eye and MGL of the lower eyelid was evaluated from 112 randomly selected subjects (66 women; mean age 62.8; SD ±15.7; and age range: 19-89 years) from Horst Riede GmbH, Weinheim, Germany. In addition, subjects were grouped into dry eye and non-dry eye by the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) score, lid-parallel conjunctival folds and non-invasive break-up time. Symptoms were evaluated by the OSDI. Meibography of the lower eyelid was performed using a Cobra camera (bon Optic, Lübeck, Germany), and images were analyzed by its digital grading tool. Data were analyzed by backward, multiple regression analyses and Pearson correlation. Analyzing all subjects, multiple regression analyses detected that age and dry eye status (dry eye diagnosis or OSDI) but not sex were significantly related to MGL. In both, non-dry eye (n=66) and dry eye subjects (n=46), dry eye status (OSDI) but not age or sex was significantly related to MGL. Ocular Surface Disease Index scores were significantly correlated with MGL, but this correlation was stronger among all subjects (Pearson correlation; r=0.536, Pdry eye group subjects (r=0.520, Pdry eye group subjects (r=0.275, P=0.014). Dry eye group subjects showed significantly increased MGL of the lower eyelid. Age and dry eye status were related to MGL of the lower eyelid, but sex was not; dry eye status was the dominant factor.

  7. Differences by age and sex in the sedentary time of adults in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strain, Tessa; Kelly, Paul; Mutrie, Nanette; Fitzsimons, Claire

    2018-04-01

    Previous nationally-representative research in Scotland found a j-shaped relationship between age and leisure sedentary time (ST): a decrease from young to middle-age, before rising steeply in older-age. This study investigated the effects of age and sex on weekday (including work) ST for all adults and stratified by work-status, and on weekend day ST. Differences in the relative contributions of component behaviours were also investigated. Responses from 14,367 adult (≥16 years) 2012-14 Scottish Health Survey participants were analysed using linear regressions. We found no j-shaped relationship between age and weekday ST. Instead, only 16-24 year olds reported lower levels than those over 75 years (6.6 (95% CI: 6.3-6.9) compared to 7.4 (95% CI: 7.2-7.6) hours/day; p work, and for weekend day ST for all groups. For those in work, work ST accounted for 45% of weekday ST. Television/screen ST made up over half of leisure ST on weekdays and weekend days, regardless of sex, age, or work-status. These results challenge our understanding of how ST varies by age. Interventions to reduce ST should consider differences in the relative contributions of ST behaviours by age and work-status.

  8. Sex differences in morphology of the brain stem and cerebellum with normal ageing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oguro, H.; Okada, K.; Yamaguchi, S.; Kobayashi, S.

    1998-01-01

    The cerebral hemispheres become atrophic with age. The sex of the individual may affect this process. There are few studies of the effects of age and sex on the brain stem and cerebellum. We used MRI morphometry to study changes in these structures in 152 normal subjects over 40 years of age. In the linear measurements, men showed significant age-associated atrophy in the tegmentum and pretectum of the midbrain and the base of the pons. In women, only the pretectum of the midbrain showed significant ageing effects after the age of 50 years, and thereafter remained rather constant. Only men had significant age-associated reduction in area of the crebellar vermis area after the age of 70 years. Both men and women showed supratentorial brain atrophy that progressed by decades. There were significant correlations between supratentorial brain atrophy and the diameter of the ventral midbrain, pretectum, and base of the pons in men, and between brain atrophy and the diameter of the fourth ventricle in women. (orig.)

  9. Sex differences in morphology of the brain stem and cerebellum with normal ageing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oguro, H.; Okada, K.; Yamaguchi, S.; Kobayashi, S. [Internal Medicine III, Shimane Medical University, Izumo (Japan)

    1998-12-01

    The cerebral hemispheres become atrophic with age. The sex of the individual may affect this process. There are few studies of the effects of age and sex on the brain stem and cerebellum. We used MRI morphometry to study changes in these structures in 152 normal subjects over 40 years of age. In the linear measurements, men showed significant age-associated atrophy in the tegmentum and pretectum of the midbrain and the base of the pons. In women, only the pretectum of the midbrain showed significant ageing effects after the age of 50 years, and thereafter remained rather constant. Only men had significant age-associated reduction in area of the crebellar vermis area after the age of 70 years. Both men and women showed supratentorial brain atrophy that progressed by decades. There were significant correlations between supratentorial brain atrophy and the diameter of the ventral midbrain, pretectum, and base of the pons in men, and between brain atrophy and the diameter of the fourth ventricle in women. (orig.) With 4 figs., 3 tabs., 16 refs.

  10. Ethnic Variations in Prognosis of Patients with Dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agyemang, Charles; van de Vorst, Irene E.; Koek, Huiberdina L.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Data on dementia prognosis among ethnic minority groups are limited in Europe. OBJECTIVE: We assessed differences in short-term (1-year) and long-term (3-year) mortality and readmission risk after a first hospitalization or first ever referral to a day clinic for dementia between ethnic...... minority groups and the ethnic Dutch population in the NetherlandsMethods: Nationwide prospective cohorts of first hospitalized dementia patients (N = 55,827) from January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2010 were constructed. Differences in short-term and long-term mortality and readmission risk following......-term and long-term risks of death following a first hospitalization with dementia were comparable between the ethnic minority groups and the ethnic Dutch. Age- and sex-adjusted risk of admission was higher only in Turkish compared with ethnic Dutch (HR 1.57, 95% CI,1.08-2.29). The difference between Turkish...

  11. Effects of Mode of Modeling, Model Age, and Ethnicity on Rule-Governed Language Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieshop, James I.; Harris, Mary B.

    1974-01-01

    The effect of three model variables on student performance of syntactic and semantic language behaviors in the absence of direct or vicarious reinforcement was examined. Subjects were sixth-grade students of both sexes attending New Mexico Schools. Half of the subjects and models were Chicanos and half were Anglos. (BJG)

  12. Ethnicity and socioeconomic status are related to dietary patterns at age 5 in the Amsterdam born children and their development (ABCD) cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Viyan; Engberink, Marielle F; van Eijsden, Manon; Nicolaou, Mary; Dekker, Louise H; Verhoeff, Arnoud P; Weijs, Peter J M

    2018-01-08

    Health inequalities are already present at young age and tend to vary with ethnicity and socioeconomic status (SES). Diet is a major determinant of overweight, and studying dietary patterns as a whole in relation to overweight rather than single nutrients or foods has been suggested. We derived dietary patterns at age 5 and determined whether ethnicity and SES were both related to these dietary patterns. We analysed 2769 validated Food Frequency Questionnaires filled in by mothers of children (5.7 ± 0.5y) in the Amsterdam Born Children and their Development (ABCD) cohort. Food items were reduced to 41 food groups. Energy adjusted intake per food group (g/d) was used to derive dietary patterns using Principal Component Analysis and children were given a pattern score for each dietary pattern. We defined 5 ethnic groups (Dutch, Surinamese, Turkish, Moroccan, other ethnicities) and 3 SES groups (low, middle, high, based on maternal education). Multivariate ANOVA, with adjustment for age, gender and maternal age, was used to test potential associations between ethnicity or SES and dietary pattern scores. Post-hoc analyses with Bonferroni adjustment were used to examine differences between groups. Principal Component Analysis identified 4 dietary patterns: a snacking, full-fat, meat and healthy dietary pattern, explaining 21% of the variation in dietary intake. Ethnicity was related to the dietary pattern scores (p pattern, whereas Turkish children scored high on full-fat and Surinamese children on the meat pattern. SES was related to the snacking, full-fat and meat patterns (p pattern and low on the full-fat pattern. This study indicates that both ethnicity and SES are relevant for dietary patterns at age 5 and may enable more specific nutrition education to specific ethnic and low socioeconomic status target groups.

  13. Stability and change in same-sex attraction, experience, and identity by sex and age in a New Zealand birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, Nigel; van Roode, Thea; Cameron, Claire; Paul, Charlotte

    2013-07-01

    Gaps remain in knowledge of changes in sexual orientation past adolescence and early adulthood. A longitudinal study of a New Zealand birth cohort was used to examine differences by age and sex in change in sexual attraction between 21 (1993/1994) and 38 years (2010/2011), sexual experiences between 26 and 38 years, and sexual identity between 32 and 38 years. Any same-sex attraction was significantly more common among women than men at all ages. Among women, any same-sex attraction increased up to age 26 (from 8.8 to 16.6 %), then decreased slightly by age 38 (12.0 %); among men, prevalence was significantly higher at age 38 (6.5 %) than 21 (4.2 %), but not in the intermediate assessments. It is likely that the social environment becoming more tolerant was responsible for some of the changes. Same-sex attraction was much more common than same-sex experiences or a same-sex identity, especially among women, with no major sex differences in these latter dimensions. Women exhibited much greater change in sexual attraction between assessments than men; for change in experiences and identity, sex differences were less marked and not statistically confirmed. Changes in the respective dimensions appeared more likely among those initially with mixed attraction and experiences, and among those initially identifying as bisexual, but this did not account for the sex difference in likelihood of change. These results provide contemporary information about the extent and variation of reported sexual attraction, experiences, and identity that we show continues across early and mid-adulthood.

  14. Comparing the Central Eight Risk Factors: Do They Differ Across Age Groups of Sex Offenders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilpert, Julia; van Horn, Joan E; Boonmann, Cyril

    2018-02-01

    Following the risk-need-responsivity (RNR) model, cognitive-behavioral therapy is considered most effective in reducing recidivism when based on dynamic risk factors. As studies have found differences of these factors across age, exploring this seems beneficial. The current study investigates the Central Eight (C8) risk factors across six age groups of outpatient sex offenders ( N = 650). Results showed that recidivism rates and age were inversely related from 19 years and up. Half of the C8 did not predict general recidivism at all, substance abuse, antisocial cognition, antisocial associates, and history of antisocial behavior in only one or several age groups. However, factors differed between age groups, with the youngest group demonstrating the most dysfunction in several areas and the oldest group the least. It is concluded that the C8 risk factors seem to lose significance in the older age groups. Results may benefit targeting treatment goals.

  15. An examination of the RCMAS-2 scores across gender, ethnic background, and age in a large Asian school sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Rebecca P; Lowe, Patricia A; Yusof, Noradlin

    2011-12-01

    The present study investigated the factor structure, reliability, convergent and discriminant validity, and U.S. norms of the Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale, Second Edition (RCMAS-2; C. R. Reynolds & B. O. Richmond, 2008a) scores in a Singapore sample of 1,618 school-age children and adolescents. Although there were small statistically significant differences in the average RCMAS-2 T scores found across various demographic groupings, on the whole, the U.S. norms appear adequate for use in the Asian Singapore sample. Results from item bias analyses suggested that biased items detected had small effects and were counterbalanced across gender and ethnicity, and hence, their relative impact on test score variation appears to be minimal. Results of factor analyses on the RCMAS-2 scores supported the presence of a large general anxiety factor, the Total Anxiety factor, and the 5-factor structure found in U.S. samples was replicated. Both the large general anxiety factor and the 5-factor solution were invariant across gender and ethnic background. Internal consistency estimates ranged from adequate to good, and 2-week test-retest reliability estimates were comparable to previous studies. Evidence providing support for convergent and discriminant validity of the RCMAS-2 scores was also found. Taken together, findings provide additional cross-cultural evidence of the appropriateness and usefulness of the RCMAS-2 as a measure of anxiety in Asian Singaporean school-age children and adolescents.

  16. Wine and health perceptions: Exploring the impact of gender, age and ethnicity on consumer perceptions of wine and health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn J. Chang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study explores U.S. wine consumers’ perception of wine and health by gender, age, and ethnic background. An extensive body of epidemiological studies suggests that there are health benefits from moderate wine drinking. In light of an increased consumer preference over healthier foods and beverages, it is important to understand the health orientation of wine consumers and the effect of gender, age, or ethnicity on their perceptions of wine and health. An online survey was used to collect data from more than 1000 U.S. wine consumers. The results show that there is a statistically significant difference across demographic segments in terms of the level of health consciousness. Millennials and Asians are the most concerned, whereas Whites are the least, about health in their respective segments. Red wine is considered the healthiest wine type compared to other colors and styles. Moreover, more than 80% of the sample believes drinking red wine is healthier than drinking beer or spirits. However, nearly 50% of the sample thinks sulfites in wine can cause headaches. Managerial implications are discussed.

  17. Sex and sexual orientation disparities in adverse childhood experiences and early age at sexual debut in the United States: results from a nationally representative sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Monique J; Masho, Saba W; Perera, Robert A; Mezuk, Briana; Cohen, Steven A

    2015-08-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) have been linked to early sexual debut, which has been found to be associated with multiple adverse health outcomes. Sexual minorities and men tend to have earlier sexual debut compared to heterosexual populations and women, respectively. However, studies examining the association between ACEs and early sexual debut among men and sexual minorities are lacking. The aim of this study was to examine the sex and sexual orientation disparities in the association between ACEs and age at sexual debut. Data were obtained from Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Logistic and linear regression models were used to obtain crude and adjusted estimates and 95% confidence intervals adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, income, education, insurance and marital status for the association between ACEs (neglect, physical/psychological abuse, sexual abuse, parental violence, and parental incarceration and psychopathology) and early sexual debut. Analyses were stratified by sex and sexual orientation. Larger effect estimates depicting the association between ACEs and sexual debut were seen for women compared to men, and among sexual minorities, particularly among men who have sex with men (MSM) and women who have sex with women (WSW), compared to heterosexuals. Sexual health education programs with a focus on delaying sexual debut among children and adolescents should also consider addressing ACEs, such as neglect, physical, psychological and sexual abuse, witnessing parental violence, and parental incarceration and psychopathology. Public health practitioners, researchers and sexual health education curriculum coordinators should consider these differences by sex and sexual orientation when designing these programs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Sex and sexual orientation disparities in adverse childhood experiences and early age at sexual debut in the United States: Results from a nationally representative sample☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Monique J.; Masho, Saba W.; Perera, Robert A.; Mezuk, Briana; Cohen, Steven A.

    2015-01-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) have been linked to early sexual debut, which has been found to be associated with multiple adverse health outcomes. Sexual minorities and men tend to have earlier sexual debut compared to heterosexual populations and women, respectively. However, studies examining the association between ACEs and early sexual debut among men and sexual minorities are lacking. The aim of this study was to examine the sex and sexual orientation disparities in the association between ACEs and age at sexual debut. Data were obtained from Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Logistic and linear regression model were used to obtain crude and adjusted estimates and 95% confidence intervals adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, income, education, insurance and marital status for the association between ACEs (neglect, physical/psychological abuse, sexual abuse, parental violence, and parental incarceration and psychopathology) and early sexual debut. Analyses were stratified by sex and sexual orientation. Larger effect estimates depicting the association between ACEs and sexual debut were seen for women compared to men, and among sexual minorities, particularly among men who have sex with men (MSM) and women who have sex with women (WSW), compared to heterosexuals. Sexual health education programs with a focus on delaying sexual debut among children and adolescents should also consider addressing ACEs, such as neglect, physical, psychological and sexual abuse, witnessing parental violence, and parental incarceration and psychopathology. Public health practitioners, researchers and sexual health education curriculum coordinators should consider these differences by sex and sexual orientation when designing these programs. PMID:25804435

  19. Estimation of sex and age of 'virtual skeletons'-a feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grabherr, Silke [University Hospital of Lausanne, Institute of Forensic Medicine, Lausanne (Switzerland)]|[University of Bern, Institute of Forensic Medicine, Bern (Switzerland)]|[University Hospital of Lausanne, Service of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Lausanne (Switzerland); Cooper, Christine; Ulrich-Bochsler, Susi [University of Bern, Institute for the History of Medicine, Historical Anthropology, Bern (Switzerland); Uldin, Tanya [Service of Osteo-Archaeology, Aesch (Switzerland); Ross, Steffen; Oesterhelweg, Lars; Bolliger, Stephan; Thali, Michael J. [University of Bern, Institute of Forensic Medicine, Bern (Switzerland); Christe, Andreas [University of Bern, Institute of Forensic Medicine, Bern (Switzerland)]|[University of Bern, Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, Bern (Switzerland); Schnyder, Pierre [University Hospital of Lausanne, Service of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Lausanne (Switzerland); Mangin, Patrice [University Hospital of Lausanne, Institute of Forensic Medicine, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2009-02-15

    This article presents a feasibility study with the objective of investigating the potential of multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) to estimate the bone age and sex of deceased persons. To obtain virtual skeletons, the bodies of 22 deceased persons with known age at death were scanned by MDCT using a special protocol that consisted of high-resolution imaging of the skull, shoulder girdle (including the upper half of the humeri), the symphysis pubis and the upper halves of the femora. Bone and soft-tissue reconstructions were performed in two and three dimensions. The resulting data were investigated by three anthropologists with different professional experience. Sex was determined by investigating three-dimensional models of the skull and pelvis. As a basic orientation for the age estimation, the complex method according to Nemeskeri and co-workers was applied. The final estimation was effected using additional parameters like the state of dentition, degeneration of the spine, etc., which where chosen individually by the three observers according to their experience. The results of the study show that the estimation of sex and age is possible by the use of MDCT. Virtual skeletons present an ideal collection for anthropological studies, because they are obtained in a non-invasive way and can be investigated ad infinitum. (orig.)

  20. Estimation of sex and age of ''virtual skeletons''-a feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grabherr, Silke; Cooper, Christine; Ulrich-Bochsler, Susi; Uldin, Tanya; Ross, Steffen; Oesterhelweg, Lars; Bolliger, Stephan; Thali, Michael J.; Christe, Andreas; Schnyder, Pierre; Mangin, Patrice

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a feasibility study with the objective of investigating the potential of multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) to estimate the bone age and sex of deceased persons. To obtain virtual skeletons, the bodies of 22 deceased persons with known age at death were scanned by MDCT using a special protocol that consisted of high-resolution imaging of the skull, shoulder girdle (including the upper half of the humeri), the symphysis pubis and the upper halves of the femora. Bone and soft-tissue reconstructions were performed in two and three dimensions. The resulting data were investigated by three anthropologists with different professional experience. Sex was determined by investigating three-dimensional models of the skull and pelvis. As a basic orientation for the age estimation, the complex method according to Nemeskeri and co-workers was applied. The final estimation was effected using additional parameters like the state of dentition, degeneration of the spine, etc., which where chosen individually by the three observers according to their experience. The results of the study show that the estimation of sex and age is possible by the use of MDCT. Virtual skeletons present an ideal collection for anthropological studies, because they are obtained in a non-invasive way and can be investigated ad infinitum. (orig.)

  1. Cognitive function and associated factors among older people in Taiwan: age and sex differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cheng-Lun; Hsu, Hui-Chuan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine cognitive function and the risk and the protective factors by age and sex among Taiwanese older people. The data were from a nation-representative panel of older people in Taiwan. The participants completing both the 2003 and 2007 waves were included for analysis in this study (n=3228). Descriptive analysis and generalized linear model were applied, and the samples were stratified by age groups and by sex. The factors related to higher cognitive function at the intercept included being younger, male, higher education, and doing unpaid work. At the time slope, the age effect and physical function difficulties would reduce the cognitive function across time, while education and providing informational support would increase the cognitive function across time. There were age- and sex-differences in the factors related to cognitive function, particularly on the working status and social participation. Different health promotion strategies to target these populations should be accordingly developed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Can Neglected Tropical Diseases Compromise Human Wellbeing in Sex-, Age-, and Trait-Specific Ways?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C Geary

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Traits that facilitate competition for reproductive resources or that influence mate choice have evolved to signal resilience to infectious disease and other stressors. As a result, the dynamics of competition and choice can, in theory, be used to generate predictions about sex-, age-, and trait-specific vulnerabilities for any sexually reproducing species, including humans. These dynamics and associated vulnerabilities are reviewed for nonhuman species, focusing on traits that are compromised by exposure to parasites. Using the same approach, sex-, age-, and trait-specific vulnerabilities to parasitic disease are illustrated for children's and adolescent's physical growth and fitness. Suggestions are then provided for widening the assessment of human vulnerabilities to include age-appropriate measures of behavioral (e.g., children's play and cognitive (e.g., language fluency traits. These are traits that are likely to be compromised by infection in age- and sex-specific ways. Inclusion of these types of measures in studies of neglected tropic diseases has the potential to provide a more nuanced understanding of how these diseases undermine human wellbeing and may provide a useful means to study the efficacy of associated treatments.

  3. Sex- and age-specific percentiles of body composition indices for Chinese adults using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zeyu; Guo, Bin; Gong, Jian; Tang, Yongjin; Shang, Jingjie; Cheng, Yong; Xu, Hao

    2017-10-01

    The aims of the study were to develop sex- and age-specific percentiles for lean mass index (LMI), appendicular LMI (aLMI), fat mass index (FMI), and body fat distribution indices in Chinese adults using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and to compare those indices with those of other ethnicities using the US NHANES data. Whole-body and regional lean mass and fat mass (FM) were measured using DXA in 5688 healthy males (n = 1693) and females (n = 3995) aged 20-90 years. Body fat distribution indices were expressed as % fat trunk/% fat legs, trunk/appendicular FM ratio (FMR), and android/gynoid FMR. Percentile curves of LMI, aLMI, FMI, and body fat distribution indices were obtained by the Lambda-Mu-Sigma method. The aLMI and LMI were negatively associated with age, decreasing from the fifth decade for males, but were not associated with age in females. Females had more total FM than males, whereas males had greater central adiposity (% fat trunk/% fat legs ratio, trunk/appendicular FMR, and android/gynoid FMR) than females. Moreover, FMI and body fat distribution indices consistently increased with age in both sexes, especially in women. In comparison with white, black, and Mexican populations in the USA, Chinese adults had lower total FM, but had greater central adiposity (% fat trunk/% fat legs ratio and trunk/appendicular FMR). Additionally, older white and Mexican populations showed greater decreases for aLMI and LMI than their Chinese counterparts. We present the sex- and age-specific percentiles for aLMI, LMI, FMI, and body fat distribution indices by DXA in Chinese adults, which may refine the individual assessment of the nutritional status of Chinese adults.

  4. Beliefs in the paranormal: age and sex differences among elderly persons and undergraduate students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitulli, W F; Tipton, S M; Rowe, J L

    1999-12-01

    Beliefs in the paranormal were rated stronger in younger as compared to elderly adults by Emmons and Sobal in 1981, and sex correlates of paranormal beliefs appeared to be stronger in women than in men by Irwin in 1994. This research studied possible linkages between age and sex with a comparative analysis between results of Vitulli and Luper's 1998 survey among undergraduate students and data from elderly men (M = 72 yr., SD = 9.2, n = 21) and women (M = 69.3 yr., SD = 7.7, n = 55). Crawford and Christensen's 1995 12-item Extrasensory Perception Survey was administered to elderly persons living in apartment complexes and private homes, participating in activities in a recreation center, or attending a continuing-education seminar. A 2 x 2 multivariate analysis of variance from responses on the 12-item survey showed that undergraduate men and elderly women had the highest ratings on paranormal beliefs. The self-selecting characteristics of a segment of the elderly sample led to a post hoc univariate analysis of variance by partitioning that sample into those who were attending a continuing-education seminar versus all other elderly persons. Summated ratings (total scores) for this survey showed main effects for these subsamples and for sex. Sex and age differences were discussed in the context of the hypothesis of social marginality.

  5. Aging, Genetic Variations, and Ethnopharmacology: Building Cultural Competence Through Awareness of Drug Responses in Ethnic Minority Elders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Diana Lynn; Mentes, Janet C; Cadogan, Mary; Phillips, Linda R

    2017-01-01

    Unique drug responses that may result in adverse events are among the ethnocultural differences described by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. These differences, often attributed to a lack of adherence on the part of the older adult, may be linked to genetic variations that influence drug responses in different ethnic groups. The paucity of research coupled with a lack of knowledge among health care providers compound the problem, contributing to further disparities, especially in this era of personalized medicine and pharmacogenomics. This article examines how age-related changes and genetic differences influence variations in drug responses among older adults in unique ethnocultural groups. The article starts with an overview of age-related changes and ethnopharmacology, moves to describing genetic differences that affect drug responses, with a focus on medications commonly prescribed for older adults, and ends with application of these issues to culturally congruent health care. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. The relation of age, gender, ethnicity, and risk behaviors to self-esteem among students in nonmainstream schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Jennifer M; Poyrazli, Senel; Ferrer-Wreder, Laura; Grahame, Kamini Maraj

    2004-01-01

    This cross-sectional study investigated self-esteem in relation to age, gender, ethnicity, and risk behaviors among a sample of nonmainstream students. Participants were 149 students in the 6th to 12th grades from two nonmainstream schools (one charter and one alternative school). Self-esteem and youth risk behaviors were determined by using a modified version of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (Rosenberg, 1965) and the National Alternative High School Youth Risk Behavior Survey (Grunbaum et al., 1999), respectively. Results indicated that nonmainstream students with high self-esteem were more likely to engage in their first sexual experience and to begin marijuana use later in life. African American students reported having their first sexual experience at an older age, but having more sexual partners than did Latino students. The implications of these findings are discussed.

  7. The moderating impact of lifestyle factors on sex steroids, sexual activities and aging in Asian men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Victor H H; Tong, Terry Y Y

    2011-07-01

    The present study sought to evaluate the relative associations of exercise, sleep and other lifestyle habits with aging, sex hormones, percent body fat (%BF) and sexual activities in men living in the community. A better understanding of this complex interrelationship is important in helping the formulation of modalities for a holistic approach to the management of aging men. The results showed that age is a major determinant for many physiological parameters, including sleep, hormonal and metabolic parameters, some lifestyle factors and sexual activities. Testosterone (T), bioavailable testosterone (BioT) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS) concentrations decreased with age, while estradiol (E2), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and %BF increased with age. In addition, there exist intricate associations among hormonal and lifestyle factors, %BF and age. High-intensity exercise and longer duration of sleep were associated with higher concentrations of T and BioT. T was shown to be associated positively with men who were engaged in masturbation. DHEAS was associated with men wanting more sex and with good morning penile rigidity. Older Singaporean men tended to sleep for shorter duration, but exercised more intensely than younger men. Coital and masturbation frequencies decreased with age, and a significantly greater number of younger men were engaged in masturbation. Relationship between the partners is a key determinant of sexuality in men. It appears that T may have a limited, while dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) have a greater role than previously suggest, as a motivational signal for sexual function in men. Both biological and psychosocial factors interact with each other to influence sexual functions in men. Hence, a biopsychosocial approach may be more appropriate for a more lasting resolution to sexual dysfunctions in men.

  8. Local-global interference is modulated by age, sex and anterior corpus callosum size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Oehring, Eva M; Schulte, Tilman; Raassi, Carla; Pfefferbaum, Adolf; Sullivan, Edith V

    2007-04-20

    To identify attentional and neural mechanisms affecting global and local feature extraction, we devised a global-local hierarchical letter paradigm to test the hypothesis that aging reduces functional cerebral lateralization through corpus callosum (CC) degradation. Participants (37 men and women, 26-79 years) performed a task requiring global, local, or global+local attention and underwent structural MRI for CC measurement. Although reaction time (RT) slowed with age, all participants had faster RTs to local than global targets. This local precedence effect together with greater interference from incongruent local information and greater response conflict from local targets each correlated with older age and smaller callosal genu (anterior) areas. These findings support the hypothesis that the CC mediates lateralized local-global processes by inhibition of task-irrelevant information under selective attention conditions. Further, with advancing age smaller genu size leads to less robust inhibition, thereby reducing cerebral lateralization and permitting interference to influence processing. Sex was an additional modifier of interference, in that callosum-interference relationships were evident in women but not in men. Regardless of age, smaller splenium (posterior) areas correlated with less response facilitation from repetition priming of global targets in men, but with greater response facilitation from repetition priming of local targets in women. Our data indicate the following dissociation: anterior callosal structure was associated with inhibitory processes (i.e., interference from incongruency and response conflict), which are vulnerable to the effects of age and sex, whereas posterior callosal structure was associated with facilitation processes from repetition priming dependent on sex and independent of age.

  9. Influence of sex and age on the biological half-life of cadmium in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taguchi, T.; Suzuki, S.

    1981-01-01

    The influence of age on the whole-body biological half-life of 109 Cd was studied in male mice following ip injection. The influence of sex on whole-body and organ retention was ascertained after sc injection. The whole-body biological half-life of 109 Cd of the older mice was more than twice that of the younger mice, and that of the female mice was longer than that of the males. These differences demonstrate a biological difference between males and females with respect to whole-body half-life of 109 Cd. The effects of age and sex on the biological half-life of Cd in mice are assessed quantitatively

  10. Assessment of age and sex by means of DXA bone densitometry: application in forensic anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Rafael Fernández; Ruiz, Maria del Carmen López

    2011-06-15

    Today we are witnessing a genuine revolution in diagnostic imaging techniques. Dual X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) quantifies bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC). This technique has rarely been used in Forensic Anthropology, although its practical application has been demonstrated by various authors. In this article, we look into the conduct of bone mineral density in the femoral neck, the trochanter, the intertrochanter, the proximal femur and Ward's triangle, in relation to anthropometric age and sex parameters. The research was carried out on 70 persons - 38 men and 32 women - and the results obtained show significant correlations between bone mineral density measurements and anthropometric values. The research demonstrates bone mineral density to be a useful technique for sex and age data in forensic anthropology, particularly in the measurements observed in the Ward's triangle area. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Sex and age differences in risk factors of marijuana involvement during adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lian-Yu; Martins, Silvia S; Strain, Eric C; Mojtabai, Ramin; Storr, Carla L

    2018-03-01

    We aimed to examine whether there are sex and age differences in psychosocial risk factors of marijuana use during adolescence. Data were drawn from 57,767 adolescents (8 th and 10 th graders) from the 2012-2013 Monitoring the Future study. We examined the association between socio-demographic and behavioral correlates with different frequencies of past-year marijuana use (non-use, occasional use: low self-esteem, low perceived harm, peer influence and perceived easy access. Besides, younger boys were more likely than younger girls to report an association between regular marijuana use with low self-esteem, peer influence, and perceived easy access but not with perceived low harm. Findings suggest the relationship between these psychosocial correlates and frequency of marijuana involvement varies across sex and age groups. These variations ask for a nuanced approach to prevention of marijuana involvement in different groups of youth.

  12. Street connectivity and obesity in Glasgow, Scotland: impact of age, sex and socioeconomic position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Kylie; Lamb, Karen; Travaglini, Noemi; Ellaway, Anne

    2012-11-01

    This study investigated associations of street connectivity with body mass index (BMI), and whether these associations varied by sex, age and socioeconomic position, amongst adults in Glasgow, Scotland. Data on socio-demographic variables, height and weight were collected from 1062 participants in the Greater Glasgow Health and Well-being Study, and linked with neighbourhood-level census and geo-referenced data on area level deprivation and street connectivity. Results of multilevel models showed that, after adjustment for individual level covariates, street connectivity was not significantly associated with either BMI or BMI category; nor were there any significant interactions between age, sex or socioeconomic position and street connectivity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Assessment of pain sensitivity in patients with deep bite and sex- and age-matched controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnesen, Ane Liselotte; Svensson, Peter

    2011-01-01

    AIMS: To compare pain sensitivity between deep bite patients and a sex- and age-matched control group with normal occlusion. METHODS: Pain sensitivity was assessed by injections of the excitatory amino acid glutamate into the masseter and brachioradialis muscles. Intensity of glutamate-evoked pai...... of gender-related differences in somatosensory sensitivity and for the first time indicate that subjects with deep bite may be more sensitive to glutamate-evoked pain and thermal stimuli.......AIMS: To compare pain sensitivity between deep bite patients and a sex- and age-matched control group with normal occlusion. METHODS: Pain sensitivity was assessed by injections of the excitatory amino acid glutamate into the masseter and brachioradialis muscles. Intensity of glutamate-evoked pain...

  14. The extent of increase in first calving age as a result of implementing various sexed semen breeding strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahereh Joezy-Shekalgorabi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A deterministic simulation was conducted to assess the effects of sexed semen utilization strategies on age at first calving (AFC. Four different strategies were implemented on dairy heifers: continuous use of conventional semen only (CC, continuous use of sexed semen only (SS, utilization of sexed semen for both the first and second services with conventional semen afterwards (S2, and utilization of sexed semen for the first service with conventional semen afterwards (S1. Results indicated that continuous utilization of sexed semen led to the greatest AFC; however at high conception rates, strategies displayed negligible differences on AFC. Increases in estrus detection rate had the greatest effects on decreasing AFC of the SS scenarios. Negative effect of sexed semen on AFC increased when the effect of low estrus detection rate was combined with low conception rate of sexed semen. Results indicated that in the case of access to sexed semen conception rate, prediction of AFC is possible by quadratic polynomial or exponential equations, depending to the applied breeding strategy. Simultaneous utilization of sexed and conventional semen in a herd did not make a substantial change in AFC when a low percentage of sexed semen was employed. Increasing the contribution of different sexed semen strategies led to higher AFC variation, especially for the SS strategy. AFC of strategies that utilize sexed semen is highly dependent on the conception rate, estrus detection rate and the contribution of sex sorted semen in the total number of inseminations of the heifer herd.

  15. The extent of increase in first calving age as a result of implementing various sexed semen breeding strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joezy-Shekalgorabi, S.; Shadparvar, A. A.; Vries, A. de; Gay, K. D.

    2014-06-01

    A deterministic simulation was conducted to assess the effects of sexed semen utilization strategies on age at first calving (AFC). Four different strategies were implemented on dairy heifers: continuous use of conventional semen only (CC), continuous use of sexed semen only (SS), utilization of sexed semen for both the first and second services with conventional semen afterwards (S2), and utilization of sexed semen for the first service with conventional semen afterwards (S1). Results indicated that continuous utilization of sexed semen led to the greatest AFC; however at high conception rates, strategies displayed negligible differences on AFC. Increases in estrus detection rate had the greatest effects on decreasing AFC of the SS scenarios. Negative effect of sexed semen on AFC increased when the effect of low estrus detection rate was combined with low conception rate of sexed semen. Results indicated that in the case of access to sexed semen conception rate, prediction of AFC is possible by quadratic polynomial or exponential equations, depending to the applied breeding strategy. Simultaneous utilization of sexed and conventional semen in a herd did not make a substantial change in AFC when a low percentage of sexed semen was employed. Increasing the contribution of different sexed semen strategies led to higher AFC variation, especially for the SS strategy. AFC of strategies that utilize sexed semen is highly dependent on the conception rate, estrus detection rate and the contribution of sex sorted semen in the total number of inseminations of the heifer herd. (Author)

  16. Lumbar paraspinal muscle fat infiltration is independently associated with sex, age, and inter-vertebral disc degeneration in symptomatic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urrutia, Julio; Besa, Pablo; Lobos, Daniel; Campos, Mauricio; Arrieta, Cristobal; Andia, Marcelo; Uribe, Sergio

    2018-01-29

    To determine the association of paraspinal muscles and psoas relative cross-sectional area (RCSA) and fat signal fraction (FSF) with sex, age, and intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD) in symptomatic patients. We retrospectively evaluated 80 adult patients with spinal symptoms using T2-weighted magnetic resonance images. We determined RCSA and FSF of the paraspinal muscles (erector spinae and multifidus) and psoas from L1-L2 to L5-S1; we determined IDD using the Pfirrmann classification. We compared differences in muscle RCSA and FSF based on sex and IDD, and we correlated age and IDD with RCSA and FSF. Using multivariate linear regression analyses, we determined the impact of sex, age, and IDD on RCSA and FSF. Men exhibited larger psoas RCSA but not larger paraspinal muscles RCSA than women. Women had larger FSF in the paraspinal muscles and psoas. Increasing IDD was associated with larger FSF if ≥2 Pfirrmann grades were observed. IDD correlated with FSF of the paraspinal muscles, and age correlated with FSF of the paraspinal muscles and psoas. IDD was less consistently correlated with RCSA, but age correlated negatively with RCSA of all three muscles. Linear regression analyses demonstrated that sex, age, and IDD were each independently associated with FSF of the paraspinal muscles; additionally, sex and age, but not IDD, were associated with psoas FSF. RCSA was less consistently influenced by these three variables. Sex, age, and IDD are independently associated with paraspinal muscles FSF; only sex and age influence psoas FSF.

  17. Knee joint examinations by magnetic resonance imaging: The correlation of pathology, age, and sex

    OpenAIRE

    Serhat Avcu; Ersan Altun; Ihsan Akpinar; Mehmet Deniz Bulut; Kemal Eresov; Tugrul Biren

    2010-01-01

    Aims: The aim of our study was to investigate the incidence and coexistence of multiple knee joint pathologies and the distribution of knee joint pathologies according to age and sex. Patients and Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed using the clinical data of patients evaluated with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the knee joint. Data from 308 patients examined between August 2002 and July 2003 were included into this study. A Pearson correlation analysis was performed to exam...

  18. Age and sex dependence of body potassium based on studies of 40K under Indian conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranganathan, S.; Someswara Rao, M.; Nagaratnam, A.; Mishra, U.C.

    2002-01-01

    Potassium plays an important role in human life 40 K is a naturally occurring radioisotope of potassium (K) with an abundance of 0.0118%. The measurement of body 40 K in a whole-body counter (WBC) provides a sensitive technique to estimate the total body potassium (TBK). Information on TBK of Indians with age and sex is scanty. Therefore, a systematic study was taken up to generate this information using a sensitive WBC

  19. Reducing the Noise in Behavioral Assays: Sex and Age in Adult Zebrafish Locomotion

    OpenAIRE

    Philpott, Catelyn; Donack, Corey J.; Cousin, Margot A.; Pierret, Chris

    2012-01-01

    Many assays are used in animal model systems to measure specific human disease-related behaviors. The use of both adult and larval zebrafish as a behavioral model is gaining popularity. As this work progresses and potentially translates into new treatments, we must do our best to improve the sensitivity of these assays by reducing confounding factors. Scientists who use the mouse model system have demonstrated that sex and age can influence a number of behaviors. As a community, they have mov...

  20. Effects of Sex, Strain, and Energy Intake on Hallmarks of Aging in Mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitchell, Sarah J.; Madrigal-Matute, Julio; Scheibye-Knudsen, Morten

    2016-01-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) is the most robust non-genetic intervention to delay aging. However, there are a number of emerging experimental variables that alter CR responses. We investigated the role of sex, strain, and level of CR on health and survival in mice. CR did not always correlate with li...... of outcomes related to health and survival, highlighting complexities of translation of CR into human interventions....

  1. Establishing blood gas ranges in healthy bovine neonates differentiated by age, sex, and breed type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillane, Patrick; Krump, Lea; Kennedy, Aideen; Sayers, Ríona G; Sayers, Gearóid P

    2018-04-01

    Calf mortality and morbidity commonly occurs within the first month of life postpartum. Standard health ranges are invaluable aids in diagnostic veterinary medicine to confirm normal or the degree and nature of abnormal parameters in (sub)clinically ill animals. Extensive research has indicated significant differences between the physiologies of neonate and adult cattle, particularly for blood parameters such as pH, base excess, anion gap, and bicarbonate (HCO 3 - ). The objective of this research was to determine the influence of age, sex, and breed type, in addition to environmental factors, on the normal blood gas profiles of neonatal calves, and thus develop a scientifically validated reference range accounting for any significant factors. The study was conducted on healthy neonatal calves (n = 288), and completed over a 2-yr period. Individual calf blood gas analysis was conducted for parameters of pH, base excess, Na + , K + , Ca 2+ , Cl - , glucose, total hemoglobin, HCO 3 - , pCO 2 , anion gap, strong ion difference, and hematocrit levels. Regression procedures examined the combined effect of year, farm, age, breed type, sex, and hours postfeeding on each variable. Significant effects were observed for age, sex, and breed type on several of the blood gas variables. Furthermore, year, farm, and hours postfeeding appeared to have less of an influence on neonatal bovine blood gas profiles. Consequently, specific ranges based on the neonate's age, sex, and breed type will allow for more detailed and accurate diagnosis of health and ill health in neonatal calves. The Authors. Published by FASS Inc. and Elsevier Inc. on behalf of the American Dairy Science Association®. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/).

  2. Age Effect in the Morphological Traits Performance for Sex Determination in Human Skulls and Mandibles

    OpenAIRE

    Suazo Galdames, Iván; Zavando, Daniela

    2012-01-01

    In this study we tested the hypothesis that diagnostic performance of the morphological indicators for sexual dimorphism are reduced as they are applied in skull and mandibles of older subjects. We used 275 adult human skulls, 250 of these with mandible, all subjects with sex and age registry. Sixteen classic morphological indicators of sexual dimorphism were evaluated, this information was compared with the registry and results noted in terms of precision. The best general performance of mor...

  3. Odour-mediated orientation of beetles is influenced by age, sex and morph.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah E J Arnold

    Full Text Available The behaviour of insects is dictated by a combination of factors and may vary considerably between individuals, but small insects are often considered en masse and thus these differences can be overlooked. For example, the cowpea bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus F. exists naturally in two adult forms: the active (flight form for dispersal, and the inactive (flightless, more fecund but shorter-lived form. Given that these morphs show dissimilar biology, it is possible that they differ in odour-mediated orientation and yet studies of this species frequently neglect to distinguish morph type, or are carried out only on the inactive morph. Along with sex and age of individual, adult morph could be an important variable determining the biology of this and similar species, informing studies on evolution, ecology and pest management. We used an olfactometer with motion-tracking to investigate whether the olfactory behaviour and orientation of C. maculatus towards infested and uninfested cowpeas and a plant-derived repellent compound, methyl salicylate, differed between morphs or sexes. We found significant differences between the behaviour of male and female beetles and beetles of different ages, as well as interactive effects of sex, morph and age, in response to both host and repellent odours. This study demonstrates that behavioural experiments on insects should control for sex and age, while also considering differences between adult morphs where present in insect species. This finding has broad implications for fundamental entomological research, particularly when exploring the relationships between physiology, behaviour and evolutionary biology, and the application of crop protection strategies.

  4. Trail Making Test: normative data for Turkish elderly population by age, sex and education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cangoz, Banu; Karakoc, Ebru; Selekler, Kaynak

    2009-08-15

    Trail Making Test (TMT) is a neuropsychological test, which has parts A and B that can precisely measure executive functions, like complex visual-motor conceptual screening, planning, organization, abstract thinking and response inhibition. The main purpose of this study is to standardize TMT for Turkish adults and/or elderly population. This study primarily consists of two main parts; norm determination study and reliability/validity studies, respectively. The standardization study was carried on 484 participants (238 female and 246 male). Participants at the age of 50 years and older were selected from a pool of people employed in or retired from governmental and/or private institutions. The research design of this study involves the following variables mainly; age (7 subgroups), sex (2 subgroups) and education (3 subgroups). Age, sex and education variables have significant influence on eight different kinds of TMT scores. Statistical analysis by ANOVA revealed a major effect of age (pKruskal-Wallis Test was performed and chi-square (chi(2)) values revealed that, correction scores for Part A and B were found to be influenced by age groups (pTest-retest reliability and inter-rater reliability coefficients for time scores of Parts A and B were estimated as 0.78, 0.99 and 0.73, 0.93, respectively. This study provides normative data for a psychometric tool that reliably measures the executive functions in Turkish elderly population at the age of 50 and over.

  5. Magnetisation transfer imaging of the normal adenohypophysis: the effect of sex and age

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Argyropoulou, M.I.; Metafratzi, Z.; Efremidis, S.C. [Dept. of Radiology, Medical School, University of Ioannina (Greece); Kiortsis, D.N. [Lab. of Physiology, Medical School, University of Ioannina (Greece)

    2001-04-01

    Magnetisation transfer (MT) techniques provide tissue contrast depending mainly on the concentration of macromolecules. Because many macromolecules are involved in the secretory activity of the pituitary gland, MT techniques might be useful in the study of pituitary gland disorders. Our purpose was to establish a quantitative database of the MT ratio (MTR) of the normal adenohypophysis and to see whether there are age- and sex-related differences. Using a three-dimensional gradient-echo sequence for MT we studied the adenohypophysis in 56 males and 61 females aged 7 months-77 years; postsaturation images were obtained using an on-resonance binomial prepulse. The images were normal in all but three patients, two with meningiomas, one with a schwannoma. Adenohypophyseal MTR increased in both sexes up to 19 years of age (r = 0.47 males, 0.39 females, P < 0.05). In men after 20 years and in women from 20-49 years MTR decreased (r = -0.68, P < 0.001, r = -0.46, P < 0.05, respectively). In women aged 50-59 years the MTR again increased slightly. The MTR in males was slightly higher at all ages except before 9 and after 50 years of age. These differences were not statistically significant except in the 40-49 year group (P < 0.05). (orig.)

  6. Magnetisation transfer imaging of the normal adenohypophysis: the effect of sex and age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argyropoulou, M.I.; Metafratzi, Z.; Efremidis, S.C.; Kiortsis, D.N.

    2001-01-01

    Magnetisation transfer (MT) techniques provide tissue contrast depending mainly on the concentration of macromolecules. Because many macromolecules are involved in the secretory activity of the pituitary gland, MT techniques might be useful in the study of pituitary gland disorders. Our purpose was to establish a quantitative database of the MT ratio (MTR) of the normal adenohypophysis and to see whether there are age- and sex-related differences. Using a three-dimensional gradient-echo sequence for MT we studied the adenohypophysis in 56 males and 61 females aged 7 months-77 years; postsaturation images were obtained using an on-resonance binomial prepulse. The images were normal in all but three patients, two with meningiomas, one with a schwannoma. Adenohypophyseal MTR increased in both sexes up to 19 years of age (r = 0.47 males, 0.39 females, P < 0.05). In men after 20 years and in women from 20-49 years MTR decreased (r = -0.68, P < 0.001, r = -0.46, P < 0.05, respectively). In women aged 50-59 years the MTR again increased slightly. The MTR in males was slightly higher at all ages except before 9 and after 50 years of age. These differences were not statistically significant except in the 40-49 year group (P < 0.05). (orig.)

  7. A longitudinal analysis of sex differences in math and spatial skills in primary school age children☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachance, Jennifer A.; Mazzocco, Michèle M.M.

    2009-01-01

    We report on a longitudinal study designed to assess possible sex differences in math achievement, math ability, and math-related tasks during the primary school age years. Participants included over 200 children from one public school district. Annual assessments included measures of math ability, math calculation achievement scores, rapid naming and decoding tasks, visual perception tests, visual motor tasks, and reading skills. During select years of the study we also administered tests of counting and math facts skills. We examined whether girls or boys were overrepresented among the bottom or top performers on any of these tasks, relative to their peers, and whether growth rates or predictors of math-related skills differed for boys and girls. Our findings support the notion that sex differences in math are minimal or nonexistent on standardized psychometric tests routinely given in assessments of primary school age children. There was no persistent finding suggesting a male or female advantage in math performance overall, during any single year of the study, or in any one area of math or spatial skills. Growth rates for all skills, and early correlates of later math performance, were comparable for boys and girls. The findings fail to support either persistent or emerging sex differences on non-specialized math ability measures during the primary school age years. PMID:20463851

  8. Age, Sex, and Religious Beliefs Impact the Attitude towards Cord Blood Banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundell, Inger Birgitta; Setzer, Teddi J

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a self-administered questionnaire was used to assess opinions about stem cell research and cord blood banking. Three attitudes were examined: willingness to accept cord blood banking, willingness to accept embryonic stem cell research, and religious belief system. A total of 90 Wayne State University students enrolled in the study in response to an invitation posted on a web page for the university. Sex distribution among study participants was 79 females and eight males; three declined to state their sex. Support for cord blood banking was high (> 70%) among students. Students over the age of 25 years of age were more (85%) positive than students 18 to 24 years old (57%). They prefered a public cord blood bank over a private cord blood bank. Atheist/agnostic or spiritual/not religious students (> 90%), Catholic students (78%) and Christian students (58%) support cord blood banking. Age, sex and religion seems influence the student's attitude towards stem cell research and cord blood banking.

  9. Influence of age and sex on quantitative parameters in CT of the brain in neurogeriatric diseases. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ternovoj, S.K.; Damulin, I.V.

    1991-01-01

    The paper is devoted to a study of age and sex differences of linear, volumetric, volumetric longitudinal and densitometric parameters of CT of the brain in patients with neurogeriatric diseases with chronic cerebrovascular insufficiency. The ventricular system of the brain and subarachnoid space was shown to increase with age; a decrease in the relative density of the white substance at the anterior horns was noted. Sex differences were most noticeable in younger patients. Average sizes of the ventricular system and subarachnoid space were indicated for men and women belonging to different age groups. A conclusion was made that assessment of CT results in neurogeriatric patients must include their age and sex

  10. Intima-media thickness of carotid artery in middle-aged and old-aged people with different age and sex at nanchang city by ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Qian; Chen Tian; Fan Ping; Yang Zhijie; Zhang Guoqiang; Liu Wei

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the intima-media thickness (IMT) of carotid artery in middleaged and old-aged people at different age and sex at Nanchang city and to establish the normal reference value. Methods: Excluding coronary heart disease, cerebrovascular disease and diabetes mellitus, 422 patients, above 30 years old were divided into the normal and the control groups based on whether the dangerous factors of atherosclerosis existed or not. Then each group was divided into 5 sub-groups according to age and sex and IMT of carotid artery measurement was perfrmed with ultrasound. Results: Means of IMT of carotid artery becomes higher as the age became older. IMT got predominant thick only when the age was more than 40 in male and 50 in female. Means of IMT is little higher than that in female,but there was no statistical difference between male and female group at age below 39 or above 50. Means of IMT in the control groups were higher than that in the normal groups and the differences was predominant. The ages older, the inner diameters of common carotid arteries wider, and became more predominant wide as the age was more than 50. Compared with female groups, the inner diameters of common carotid arteries of male groups were wider than those in the female groups'. The incidence rate of carotid atherosclerosis plaques was higher as the age became older, but the atherosclerosis plaques was not observed in population below 39 years old. In the population above 40 years old, the incidence rate of carotid atherosclerosis plaques was 5. 06% in the normal groups and 20. 60% in the control groups. No statistic differences exited in the incidence rate of carotid atherosclerosis plaques between the male and female groups. Carotid artery stenosis were observed i. e. five arteries were found in three control patients, and the stenosis degree exceed 50% of the diameter of artery. Conclusions: The IMT of common carotid arteries in the people at age of 40 and above 40 in the

  11. Age-related left ventricular remodeling and associated risk for cardiovascular outcomes: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Susan; Fernandes, Verônica R S; Bluemke, David A; McClelland, Robyn L; Kronmal, Richard A; Lima, João A C

    2009-05-01

    Age-related alterations of left ventricular (LV) structure and function that may predispose to cardiovascular events are not well understood. We used cardiac MRI to examine age-related differences in LV structure and function in 5004 participants without overt cardiovascular disease when enrolled in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis; 1099 participants received additional strain analyses by MRI tagging. We also assessed the relation of age-associated remodeling with cardiovascular outcomes using Cox proportional hazard models adjusting for cardiovascular risk factors. Although LV mass decreased with age (-0.3 g per year), the mass-to-volume ratio markedly increased (+5 mg/mL per year, Pfall in stroke volume (-0.4 mL per year, P or =65 years; hazard ratio, 1.68 [CI 0.77 to 3.68]) individuals with the highest compared to lowest mass-to-volume ratio quintile (P(interaction)=0.013). Age is associated with a phenotype of LV remodeling marked by increased mass-to-volume ratio and accompanied by systolic as well as diastolic myocardial dysfunction that is not reflected by preserved ejection fraction. This pattern of ventricular remodeling confers significant cardiovascular risk, particularly when present earlier in life.

  12. Quantitative computed tomography: emphysema and airway wall thickness by sex, age and smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grydeland, T B; Dirksen, A; Coxson, H O

    2009-01-01

    We investigated how quantitative high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) measures of emphysema and airway wall thickness (AWT) vary with sex, age and smoking history. We included 463 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) cases and 431 controls. All included subjects were current or ex...... cases, respectively, and 0.488+/-0.028 and 0.463+/-0.025 in male and female controls, respectively. AWT decreased with increasing age in cases, and increased with the degree of current smoking in all subjects. We found significant differences in quantitative HRCT measures of emphysema and AWT between...

  13. Edentulism trends among middle-aged and older adults in the United States: comparison of five racial/ethnic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bei; Liang, Jersey; Plassman, Brenda L; Remle, Corey; Luo, Xiao

    2012-04-01

    This study examined edentulism trends among adults aged 50 and above in five ethnic groups in the United States: Asians, African Americans, Hispanics, Native Americans, and non-Hispanic Caucasians. Data came from the National Health Interview Surveys between 1999 and 2008. Respondents included 616 Native Americans, 2,666 Asians, 15,295 African Americans, 13,068 Hispanics, and 86,755 Caucasians. In 2008, Native Americans had the highest predicated rate of edentulism (23.98%), followed by African Americans (19.39%), Caucasians (16.90%), Asians (14.22%), and Hispanics (14.18%). Overall, there was a significant downward trend in edentulism rates between 1999 and 2008 (OR = 0.97, 95% CI: 0.96, 0.98). However, compared with Caucasians, Native Americans showed a significantly less decline of edentulism during this period (OR = 1.10, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.19). While there was a downward trend in edentulism between 1999 and 2008, significant variations existed across racial/ethnic groups. Innovative public health programs and services are essential to prevent oral health diseases and conditions for minority populations who lack access to adequate dental care. Additionally, given the increasing numbers of adults retaining their natural teeth, interventions designed to assist individuals in maintaining healthy teeth becomes more critical. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  14. Health needs of prisoners in England and Wales: the implications for prison healthcare of gender, age and ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Francesca; Hek, Gill; Condon, Louise

    2007-01-01

    This paper aims to provide evidence of the healthcare needs of prisoners in relation to gender, age and ethnicity, drawing from a larger systematic overview of the policy and research literature concerning primary care nursing in prisons in England and Wales. The literature overview shaped the initial stages of a research project funded by the Department of Health to examine the views and perspectives of prisoners and nurses working in prisons, and to identify good primary care nursing in the prison environment. At total of 17 databases were searched using search terms related to primary healthcare in prisons (health, nurs*, primary care, healthcare, family medicine, prison*, offender*, inmate*) with terms truncated where possible in the different databases. Following this, a sifting phase was employed using inclusion/exclusion criteria to narrow and focus the literature perceived as relevant to the research questions. All papers were critically appraised for quality using standardised tools. Findings from the literature overview show that prisoners are more likely to have suffered some form of social exclusion compared to the rest of society, and there are significantly greater degrees of mental health problems, substance abuse and worse physical health in prisoners than in the general population. Women, young offenders, older prisoners and those from minority ethnic groups have distinct health needs compared to the prison population taken as a whole, with implications for the delivery of prison healthcare, and how these needs are met effectively and appropriately.

  15. Risk for maternal harsh parenting in high-risk families from birth to age three: does ethnicity matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Christina Gamache; Fisher, Philip A; Kim, Hyoun K

    2012-02-01

    Child maltreatment prevention programs typically identify at-risk families by screening for risk with limited consideration of how risk might vary by ethnicity. In this study, longitudinal data from mothers who participated in a randomized clinical trial of a home-visitation, child maltreatment prevention program (N = 262) were examined to determine whether risk for harsh parenting differed among mothers who identified themselves as Spanish-speaking Latinas (n = 64), English-speaking Latinas (n = 102), or non-Latina Caucasians (n = 96). The majority of the participants were first-time mothers (58.4%), and the average age of all participants was 23.55 years (SD = 6.04). At the time of their infants' births, the Spanish-speaking Latina mothers demonstrated higher SES risk, whereas the English-speaking Latina and non-Latina Caucasian mothers demonstrated higher psychosocial risk. Three years later, the English-speaking Latina and non-Latina Caucasian mothers reported harsher parenting behaviors than the Spanish-speaking Latina mothers. The need for prevention programs to consider how risk and protective factors differ by ethnic group membership when identifying at-risk mothers is discussed.

  16. Association between childhood sexual abuse and transactional sex in youth aging out of foster care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, Kym R; Katon, Wayne; McCarty, Carolyn; Richardson, Laura P; Courtney, Mark E

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the association between history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and having transactional sex among adolescents who have been in foster care. We used an existing dataset of youth transitioning out of foster care. Independent CSA variables included self report of history of sexual molestation and rape when participants were, on average, 17 years of age. Our outcome variables were self-report of having transactional sex ever and in the past year, when participants were an average age of 19 years. Separate multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess the associations between CSA variables and transactional sex variables. Initial analyses were performed on both genders; exploratory analyses were then performed evaluating each gender separately. Total N=732; 574 were included in the main analyses. History of sexual molestation was significantly associated with increased odds of having transactional sex, both ever and in the past year (OR [95% CI]: 3.21 [1.26-8.18] and 4.07 [1.33, 12.52], respectively). History of rape was also significantly associated with increased odds of having had transactional sex ever and in the past year (ORs [95% CI]: 3.62 [1.38-9.52] and 3.78 [1.19, 12.01], respectively). Odds ratios in female-only analyses remained significant and were larger in magnitude compared with the main, non-stratified analyses; odds ratios in male-only analyses were non-significant and smaller in magnitude when compared with the main analyses. Both CSA variables were associated with increased likelihood of transactional sex. This association appears to vary by gender. Our results suggest that policymakers for youth in foster care should consider the unique needs of young women with histories of CSA when developing programs to support healthy relationships. Health care providers should also consider adapting screening and counseling practices to reflect the increased risk of transactional sex for female youth in foster care with a history

  17. Relational Aggression in Preschool Students: An Exploration of the Variables of Sex, Age, and Siblings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen A. Morine

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, researchers wished to ascertain whether there were age (three- and four-year old, sibling (with or without older siblings, and sex (male and female differences in the use of relational aggression in preschool students as rated by peers and teachers. In order to answer this research question, two 2 × 2 × 2 factorial ANOVA procedures with the relational aggression composite score as the dependent variable on the PSBS-P and PSBS-T were used for peer and teacher assessment, respectively, of relational aggression. Results revealed that in the peer ratings of preschool students' relationally aggressive behavior, there was an disordinal age by sibling interaction, in which four-year-old children with siblings were significantly more likely to be rated by their peers as using relational aggression than three-year-old children without siblings. In the teacher ratings of preschool students' relationally aggressive behavior, a main effect for age was observed. Teachers rated four-year old children as evidencing significantly higher levels of relational aggression as compared to three-year-olds. No sex differences were observed in the use of relational aggression either at age three or age four in this sample. Implications for these findings are presented.

  18. Age and sex effects on human mutation rates. An old problem with new complexities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crow, James F.

    2006-01-01

    Base substitution mutations are far more common in human males than in females, and the frequency increases with paternal age. Both can be accounted for by the greater number of pre-meiotic cell divisions in males, especially old ones. In contrast, small deletions do not show any important age effect and occur with approximately equal frequency in the two sexes. Mutations in most genes include both types, and the sex and paternal age effect depends on the proportion of the two types. A few traits, of which Apert Syndrome is best understood, are mutation hot spots with all the mutations occurring in one or two codons, usually at one nucleotide. They occur with very high frequency almost exclusively in males and the frequency increases rapidly with paternal age. It has been suggested that the mutant cells have a selective advantage in the male germ-line prior to meiosis. Evidence for this surprising, but important, hypothesis is discussed. A possible mechanism is the conversion of asymmetrical stem-cell divisions into symmetric ones. Some traits with complex etiology show a slight paternal age effect. There is also a short discussion of the high deleterious mutation rate and the role of sexual reproduction in reducing the consequent mutation load. (author)

  19. Effect of age, sex, area and management practices on cattle mortality in Rajshahi division, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Reazul Islam

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of age, sex, location and management on cattle mortality rate in Rajshahi division of Bangladesh. Materials and methods: The study was conducted in 8 districts of Rajshahi division during July 2011 to June 2012. A total of 17,982 cattle heads were investigated based on age, sex, area. Data were collected from the cattle owners using a closed structured questionnaire. Tentative cause of cattle mortality was identified based on clinical signs, laboratory tests, history, ante-mortem and postmortem reports. Management practices of the cattle were also investigated. Results: Out of 17,982 cattle heads, 549 were found to be dead by various diseases, and an average mortality rate was 3.05%. Age-wise mortality rate of cattle revealed that the maximum mortality rate was found in the age group of 0.05 between the cattle mortality rate in Natore district (2.84% and Joypurhat districts (2.84%. Conclusion: The overall mortality rate of cattle in Rajshahi division was found comparatively low. This might be due to improved management practices, better veterinary services, and awareness among farmers. However, cattle mortality rate in the age group <2-year is alarming due to bad management practices and disease. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2016; 3(1.000: 13-17

  20. Normal thymus in adults: appearance on CT and associations with age, sex, BMI and smoking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araki, Tetsuro; Nishino, Mizuki; Hatabu, Hiroto; Gao, Wei; Dupuis, Josee; Hunninghake, Gary M.; Washko, George R.; Murakami, Takamichi; O'Connor, George T.

    2016-01-01

    To investigate CT appearance and size of the thymus in association with participant characteristics. 2540 supposedly healthy participants (mean age 58.9 years, 51 % female) were evaluated for the CT appearance of thymic glands with four-point scores (according to the ratio of fat and soft tissue), size and morphology. These were correlated with participants' age, sex, BMI and smoking history. Of 2540 participants, 1869 (74 %) showed complete fatty replacement of the thymus (Score 0), 463 (18 %) predominantly fatty attenuation (Score 1), 172 (7 %) half fatty and half soft-tissue attenuation (Score 2) and 36 (1 %) solid thymic gland with predominantly soft-tissue attenuation (Score 3). Female participants showed less fatty degeneration of the thymus with higher thymic scores within age 40-69 years (P < 0.001). Participants with lower thymic scores showed higher BMI (P < 0.001) and were more likely to be former smokers (P < 0.001) with higher pack-years (P = 0.04). Visual assessment with four-point thymic scores revealed a sex difference in the fatty degeneration of the thymus with age. Women show significantly higher thymic scores, suggesting less fat content of the thymus, during age 40-69 years. Cigarette smoking and high BMI are associated with advanced fatty replacement of the thymus. (orig.)

  1. Normal thymus in adults: appearance on CT and associations with age, sex, BMI and smoking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araki, Tetsuro [Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Center for Pulmonary Functional Imaging, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Kinki University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Osaka-Sayama (Japan); Nishino, Mizuki; Hatabu, Hiroto [Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Center for Pulmonary Functional Imaging, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Gao, Wei [Boston University School of Public Health, Department of Biostatistics, Boston, MA (United States); Dupuis, Josee [Boston University School of Public Health, Department of Biostatistics, Boston, MA (United States); The National Heart Lung and Blood Institute' s Framingham Heart Study, Framingham, MA (United States); Hunninghake, Gary M.; Washko, George R. [Harvard Medical School, The Pulmonary and Critical Care Division, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Murakami, Takamichi [Kinki University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Osaka-Sayama (Japan); O' Connor, George T. [The National Heart Lung and Blood Institute' s Framingham Heart Study, Framingham, MA (United States); Boston University School of Medicine, Pulmonary Center and Department of Medicine, Boston, MA (United States)

    2016-01-15

    To investigate CT appearance and size of the thymus in association with participant characteristics. 2540 supposedly healthy participants (mean age 58.9 years, 51 % female) were evaluated for the CT appearance of thymic glands with four-point scores (according to the ratio of fat and soft tissue), size and morphology. These were correlated with participants' age, sex, BMI and smoking history. Of 2540 participants, 1869 (74 %) showed complete fatty replacement of the thymus (Score 0), 463 (18 %) predominantly fatty attenuation (Score 1), 172 (7 %) half fatty and half soft-tissue attenuation (Score 2) and 36 (1 %) solid thymic gland with predominantly soft-tissue attenuation (Score 3). Female participants showed less fatty degeneration of the thymus with higher thymic scores within age 40-69 years (P < 0.001). Participants with lower thymic scores showed higher BMI (P < 0.001) and were more likely to be former smokers (P < 0.001) with higher pack-years (P = 0.04). Visual assessment with four-point thymic scores revealed a sex difference in the fatty degeneration of the thymus with age. Women show significantly higher thymic scores, suggesting less fat content of the thymus, during age 40-69 years. Cigarette smoking and high BMI are associated with advanced fatty replacement of the thymus. (orig.)

  2. Economic productivity by age and sex: 2007 estimates for the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse, Scott D; Krueger, Kurt V; Mvundura, Mercy

    2009-07-01

    Human capital estimates of labor productivity are often used to estimate the economic impact of diseases and injuries that cause incapacitation or death. Estimates of average hourly, annual, and lifetime economic productivity, both market and household, were calculated in 2007 US dollars for 5-year age groups for men, women, and both sexes in the United States. Data from the American Time Use Survey were used to estimate hours of paid work and household services and hourly and annual earnings and household productivity. Present values of discounted lifetime earnings were calculated for each age group using the 2004 US life tables and a discount rate of 3% per year and assuming future productivity growth of 1% per year. The estimates of hours and productivity were calculated using the time diaries of 72,922 persons included in the American Time Use Survey for the years 2003 to 2007. The present value of lifetime productivity is approximately $1.2 million in 2007 dollars for children under 5 years of age. For adults in their 20s and 30s, it is approximately $1.6 million and then it declines with increasing age. Productivity estimates are higher for males than for females, more for market productivity than for total productivity. Changes in hours of paid employment and household services can affect economic productivity by age and sex. This is the first publication to include estimates of household services based on contemporary time use data for the US population.

  3. Conditioned pain modulation (CPM) in children and adolescents: Effects of sex and age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, Jennie C. I.; Seidman, Laura C.; Evans, Subhadra; Lung, Kirsten C.; Zeltzer, Lonnie K.; Naliboff, Bruce D.

    2013-01-01

    Conditioned pain modulation (CPM) refers to the diminution of perceived pain intensity for a test stimulus following application of a conditioning stimulus to a remote area of the body, and is thought to reflect the descending inhibition of nociceptive signals. Studying CPM in children may inform interventions to enhance central pain inhibition within a developmental framework. We assessed CPM in 133 healthy children (mean age = 13 years; 52.6% girls) and tested the effects of sex and age. Participants were exposed to four trials of a pressure test stimulus before, during, and after the application of a cold water conditioning stimulus. CPM was documented by a reduction in pressure pain ratings during cold water administration. Older children (12–17 years) exhibited greater CPM than younger (8–11 years) children. No sex differences in CPM were found. Lower heart rate variability (HRV) at baseline and after pain induction was associated with less CPM controlling for child age. The findings of greater CPM in the older age cohort suggest a developmental improvement in central pain inhibitory mechanisms. The results highlight the need to examine developmental and contributory factors in central pain inhibitory mechanisms in children to guide effective, age appropriate, pain interventions. PMID:23541066

  4. Sex Education for my Preschooler (ages 3 to 5? Parents’ Perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Cevallos-Neira

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This investigation was conducted as a result of the lack of studies, specifically on children’s sex education and the role that parents play in it, despite the major advances in the knowledge on sexuality and its education. The main goal of this qualitative study was to understand parents’ perceptions regarding sexual education of their children ages 3 to 5. Three focus group sessions were conducted with parents from Cuenca pre-schools. Data was processed using thematic analysis. The study indicated that parents have a limited conception of sexuality, completely based on the biological aspect. In addition, it was clear that parents have traditional ideas, conceptions and beliefs, which are reflected when educating their children. This research shows parents’ lack of knowledge about sexuality and sex education and gives important data about the need for parents and the school to work jointly to provide children with adequate and appropriate sex education, as well as the need for parent training in order to establish a common language between home and school and to avoid a double discourse in children’s education and to ensure a proper implementation of sex education programs at this level.

  5. AβPP/PS1 Transgenic Mice Show Sex Differences in the Cerebellum Associated with Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordoñez-Gutierrez, Lara; Fernandez-Perez, Ivan; Herrera, Jose Luis; Anton, Marta; Benito-Cuesta, Irene; Wandosell, Francisco

    2016-09-06

    Cerebellar pathology has been related to presenilin 1 mutations in certain pedigrees of familial Alzheimer's disease. However, cerebellum tissue has not been intensively analyzed in transgenic models of mutant presenilins. Furthermore, the effect of the sex of the mice was not systematically analyzed, despite the fact that important gender differences in the evolution of the disease in the human population have been described. We analyzed whether the progression of amyloidosis in a double transgenic mouse, AβPP/PS1, is susceptible to aging and differentially affects males and females. The accumulation of amyloid in the cerebellum differentially affects males and females of the AβPP/PS1 transgenic line, which was found to be ten-fold higher in 15-month-old females. Amyloid-β accumulation was more evident in the molecular layer of the cerebellum, but glia reaction was only observed in the granular layer of the older mice. The sex divergence was also observed in other neuronal, survival, and autophagic markers. The cerebellum plays an important role in the evolution of the pathology in this transgenic mouse model. Sex differences could be crucial for a complete understanding of this disease. We propose that the human population could be studied in this way. Sex-specific treatment strategies in human populations could show a differential response to the therapeutic approach.

  6. Sex and age differences in physical performance: A comparison of Army basic training and operational populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dada, Esther O; Anderson, Morgan K; Grier, Tyson; Alemany, Joseph A; Jones, Bruce H

    2017-11-01

    To determine the age- and sex-specific differences of physical fitness performances and Body Mass Index (BMI) in basic training and the operational Army. Cross-sectional Study. This secondary analysis utilizes retrospective surveys of U.S. Army Soldiers in Basic Combat Training (BCT) and operational units to compare physical performances between men and women as measured by the Army Physical Readiness Test (APFT). An ANOVA was used to compare mean differences in APFT results and BMI within sex-specific populations. A post hoc Tukey test identified specific mean differences. Adjusting for age, an ANCOVA was used to compare sex and occupation (infantry and non-infantry) differences in APFT results. Surveyed populations consisted of 2216 BCT Soldiers (1573 men and 643 women) and 5515 Operational Soldiers (4987 men and 528 women). Male and female operational Soldiers had greater muscular performance (79%-125% higher APFT push-ups, 66%-85% higher APFT sit-ups) and cardiorespiratory performance (22%-24% faster APFT 2-mile run times) than BCT Soldiers. Male BCT and operational Soldiers outperform their female counterparts on tests of muscular and cardiorespiratory endurance. Sex differences in physical performances attenuated among female Soldiers in operational units compared to BCT. Among male operational Soldiers, infantry Soldiers exhibited greater cardiorespiratory and muscular performance than non-infantry Soldiers. Higher BMI was associated with higher age groups, except for female BCT Soldiers. Gaps in cardiorespiratory and muscular performances between men and women should be addressed through targeted physical training programs that aim to minimize physiological differences. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Comparative Analysis of Drosophila melanogaster Gut Microbiota with Respect to Host Strain, Sex, and Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Gangsik; Lee, Hyo Jung; Jeong, Sang Eun; Jeon, Che Ok; Hyun, Seogang

    2017-07-01

    Microbiota has a significant impact on the health of the host individual. The complexity of the interactions between mammalian hosts and their microbiota highlights the value of using Drosophila melanogaster as a model organism, because of its relatively simple microbial community and ease of physiological and genetic manipulation. However, highly variable and sometimes inconsistent results regarding the microbiota of D. melanogaster have been reported for host samples collected from different geographical locations; discrepancies that may be because of the inherent physiological conditions of the D. melanogaster host. Here, we conducted a comparative analysis of the gut microbiota of two D. melanogaster laboratory strains, w 1118 and Canton S, with respect to the sex and age of the host, by pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. In addition to the widespread and abundant commensal bacterial genera Lactobacillus and Acetobacter, we identified Enterococcus and Leuconostoc as major host-strain-specific bacterial genera. The relative proportions of these bacterial genera, and those of the species within each, were found to differ markedly with respect to strain, sex, and age of the host, even though host individuals were reared under the same nutritional conditions. By using various bioinformatic tools, we uncovered several characteristic features of microbiota corresponding to specific categories of the flies: host-sex-bias association of specific bacteria, age-dependent alteration of microbiota across host species and sex, and uniqueness of the microbiota of female w 1118 flies. Our results, thus, help to further our understanding of host-microbe interactions in the D. melanogaster model.

  8. Age- and sex-related changes in bone mass measured by neutron activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohn, S.H.; Aloia, J.F.; Vaswani, A.N.; Zanzi, I.; Vartsky, D.; Ellis, K.J.

    1981-01-01

    Total-body calcium (TBCa) measurements have been employed in two basic types of studies. In the first type, serial measurements made on an individual patient are used to trace the time variation in body calcium. In the second type of study, the absolute total body calcium of an individual is determined and compared to a standard or predicted value in order to determine the deficit or excess of calcium. Generally, the standards are derived from data obtained from normal populations and grouped by the parameters of age and sex (mean value denoted TBCa/sub m/). In the study reported in this paper, the clinical usefulness of predicted calcium (TBCa/sub p/) is evaluated. The predicted value (TBCa/sub p/) for an individual is obtained with an algorithm utilizing values of sex and age, height and lean body mass (as derived from /sup 40/K measurement). The latter two components characterize skeletal size and body habitus, respectively. For the study, 133 white women and 71 white men ranging in age from 20 to 80 years were selected from a larger population. Individuals with evidence of metabolic calcium disorders or osteoporosis were excluded. Additionally, the women and men selected were first judged to have total body potassium levels in the normal range. For each age decade, the variance of TBCa values of these individuals, when expressed in terms of TBCa/sub p/, was significantly less than when expressed in terms of TBCa/sub m/. Thus, erroneous conclusions based on Ca deficit in osteoporosis could be drawn for individuals whose height and body size differ markedly from the average, as the variation of their TBCa values often exceeds the variation in the age and sex cohort. Data on a group of osteoporotic women were compared with the normal skeletal baseline values both in terms of the TBCa and the TBCa/sub p/ values.

  9. MRI EVALUATION OF PAINFUL KNEE JOINT- THE CORRELATION OF MULTIPLE COEXISTING PATHOLOGIES, AGE AND SEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukheswar Pame

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND 1. To evaluate the incidence and coexistence of multiple knee joint pathologies causing painful knee and their correlation to age and sex. 2. To evaluate the Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI features in various knee pathologies and to identify the common lesions. MATERIALS AND METHODS A retrospective study was performed using the clinical data of patients presenting with painful knee joint which were evaluated with MRI. Data from 200 patients examined between September 2015 and August 2016 were included into this study. The data was analysed statistically to evaluate the correlation between the MR pathological findings to age and sex of the patients. RESULTS The patient’s age ranged between 8 and 75 years (mean: 36 years. Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL tear was the commonest finding (60% followed by bursitis (55%, meniscal degeneration (54.6% and meniscal tear (52%. Primary signs of ACL tear were hyperintensity, discontinuity and nonvisualisation. Secondary signs like Posterior cruciate ligament (PCL buckling, PCL index of greater than 0.5, uncovered Lateral meniscus (LM and bone contusion assisted in diagnosis in indeterminate cases. Mid substance was the commonest site of ACL tear (64%. PCL tear accounted for only a small percentage (7%. Medial Meniscus (MM tear (35% was commoner than LM tear (17%. The posterior horn of meniscus was the commonest site of injury (86.5%. Age was significantly correlated with meniscal degeneration and tear, Medial collateral ligament (MCL degeneration, parameniscal cyst, and chondromalacia patellae. A significant correlation between male gender and ACL injury was noted. Meniscal injury was significantly correlated with bursitis, as well with MCL injury. Bone bruise was significantly correlated with ACL injury, MCL injury and Lateral collateral ligament (LCL injury. CONCLUSIONS MRI findings of certain pathologies in a painful knee can coexist and significantly correlate with each other, age and sex of

  10. Electrocardiographic parameters of the American Miniature Horse: influence of age and sex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca P. Santarosa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The veterinary cardiology has growing importance in equine medicine. There are studies of standardization of electrocardiographic parameters of many races, according to their stature and ability. However, no studies are in the literature with the American Miniature Horse. To evaluate the electrocardiogram (ECG tracing configuration of this breed at rest and to verify the influence of age and sex on ECG parameters, 203 horses including 143 females and 60 males were divided into four age groups (foals, yearlings, adults and elderly. Electrocardiographic parameters were performed by computerized electrocardiogram (TEB, and the parameters were evaluated in six leads of frontal plane (Lead I, II, III, aVR, aVL and aVF and base-apex (BA. Heart rates (HR decreased with increasing age were higher in males than in females. Sinus tachycardia followed by sinus arrhythmia was dominant in both sexes. The cardiac axis was higher in males and ranged between 120° and 150° for foals, 30° and 60° for yearlings and adults, and 60° and 90° for the elderly. The P wave was bifid in several animals. The P-wave amplitude and T-wave duration from lead II and BA were larger in males than in females. The majority of the animals exhibited ST segment depression and a negative T-wave. The most common QRS complex morphology was Qr. Differences were observed between the electrocardiographic tracings of males and females, and age influenced the ECG parameters. Therefore, this study established the ECG patterns for the American Miniature Horse breed and could be used to determine the influence of age and sex on several of the studied variables.

  11. Age- and sex-related changes in bone mass measured by neutron activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohn, S.H.; Aloia, J.F.; Vaswani, A.N.; Zanzi, I.; Vartsky, D.; Ellis, K.J.

    1981-01-01

    Total-body calcium (TBCa) measurements have been employed in two basic types of studies. In the first type, serial measurements made on an individual patient are used to trace the time variation in body calcium. In the second type of study, the absolute total body calcium of an individual is determined and compared to a standard or predicted value in order to determine the deficit or excess of calcium. Generally, the standards are derived from data obtained from normal populations and grouped by the parameters of age and sex (mean value denoted TBCa/sub m/). In the study reported in this paper, the clinical usefulness of predicted calcium (TBCa/sub p/) is evaluated. The predicted value (TBCa/sub p/) for an individual is obtained with an algorithm utilizing values of sex and age, height and lean body mass (as derived from 40 K measurement). The latter two components characterize skeletal size and body habitus, respectively. For the study, 133 white women and 71 white men ranging in age from 20 to 80 years were selected from a larger population. Individuals with evidence of metabolic calcium disorders or osteoporosis were excluded. Additionally, the women and men selected were first judged to have total body potassium levels in the normal range. For each age decade, the variance of TBCa values of these individuals, when expressed in terms of TBCa/sub p/, was significantly less than when expressed in terms of TBCa/sub m/. Thus, erroneous conclusions based on Ca deficit in osteoporosis could be drawn for individuals whose height and body size differ markedly from the average, as the variation of their TBCa values often exceeds the variation in the age and sex cohort. Data on a group of osteoporotic women were compared with the normal skeletal baseline values both in terms of the TBCa and the TBCa/sub p/ values

  12. Age- and sex-dependent model for estimating radioiodine dose to a normal thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Killough, G.G.; Eckerman, K.F.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes the derivation of an age- and sex-dependent model of radioiodine dosimetry in the thyroid and the application of the model to estimating the thyroid dose for each of 4215 patients who were exposed to 131 I in diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. In most cases, the available data consisted of the patient's age at the time of administration, the patient's sex, the quantity of activity administered, the clinically-determined uptake of radioiodine by the thyroid, and the time after administration at which the uptake was determined. The metabolic model is of the form A(t) = K[exp(-μ 1 t) -exp(-μ 2 t)] (μCi), where μ 1 = λ/sub r/ - λ/sub i//sup b/ (i = 1, 2), λ/sub r/ is the radiological decay-rate coefficient, and λ/sub i//sup b/ are biological removal rate coefficients. The values of λ/sub i//sup b/ are determined by solving a nonlinear equation that depends on assumptions about the time or maximum uptake an the eventual biological loss rate (through which age dependence enters). The value of K may then be calculated from knowledge of the uptakes at a particular time. The dosimetric S-factor (rad/μCi-day) is based on specific absorbed fractions for photons of energy ranging from 0.01 to 4.0 MeV for thyroid masses from 1.29 to 19.6 g; the functional form of the S-factor also involves the thyroid mass explicitly, through which the dependence on age and sex enters. An analysis of sensitivity of the model to uncertainties in the thyroid mass and the biological removal rate for several age groups is reported. 12 references, 5 figures, 5 tables

  13. Age- and sex-dependent model for estimating radioiodine dose to a normal thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Killough, G.G.; Eckerman, K.F.

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes the derivation of an age- and sex-dependent model of radioiodine dosimetry in the thyroid and the application of the model to estimating the thyroid dose for each of 4215 patients who were exposed to 131 I in diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. The model was made to conform to these data requirements by the use of age-specific estimates of the biological half-time of iodine in the thyroid and an age- and sex-dependent representation of the mass of the thyroid. Also, it was assumed that the thyroid burden was maximum 24 hours after administration (the 131 I dose is not critically sensitive to this assumption). The metabolic model is of the form A(t) = K[exp(-μ 1 t) - exp(-μ 2 t)] (μCi), where μ 1 = lambda/sub r/ + lambda/sub i//sup b/ (i = 1, 2), lambda/sub r/ is the radiological decay-rate coefficient, and lambda/sub i//sup b/ are biological removal rate coefficients. The values of lambda/sub i//sup b/ are determined by solving a nonlinear equation that depends on assumptions about the time of maximum uptake and the eventual biological loss rate (through which age dependence enters). The value of K may then be calculated from knowledge of the uptake at a particular time. The dosimetric S-factor (rad/μCi-day) is based on specific absorbed fractions for photons of energy ranging from 0.01 to 4.0 MeV for thyroid masses from 1.29 to 19.6 g; the functional form of the S-factor also involves the thyroid mass explicitly, through which the dependence on age and sex enters. An analysis of sensitivity of the model to uncertainties in the thyroid mass and the biological removal rate for several age groups is reported. The model could prove useful in the dosimetry of very short-lived radioiodines. Tables of age- and sex-dependent coefficients are provided to enable readers to make their own calculations. 12 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs

  14. Role of Sex Hormones on Brain Mitochondrial Function, with Special Reference to Aging and Neurodegenerative Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline Gaignard

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The mitochondria have a fundamental role in both cellular energy supply and oxidative stress regulation and are target of the effects of sex steroids, particularly the neuroprotective ones. Aging is associated with a decline in the levels of different steroid hormones, and this decrease may underline some neural dysfunctions. Besides, modifications in mitochondrial functions associated with aging processes are also well documented. In this review, we will discuss studies that describe the modifications of brain mitochondrial function and of steroid levels associated with physiological aging and with neurodegenerative diseases. A special emphasis will be placed on describing and discussing our recent findings concerning the concomitant study of mitochondrial function (oxidative phosphorylation, oxidative stress and brain steroid levels in both young (3-month-old and aged (20-month-old male and female mice.

  15. Relation of cigarette smoking in males of different ages to sex hormone binding globulin and testosterone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Nabarawy, F.S.

    2002-01-01

    The relationship of cigarette smoking, age, total testosterone free testosterone and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) were examined by solid phase radioimmunoassay in 90 randomly chosen healthy males of different ages. The serum levels of these hormones were investigated for smokers compared with non-smokers, of the same ages in 3 groups (adolescent males, middle aged males, and old aged males). Results indicated that cigarette smokers showed increased serum levels of testosterone (60.0% higher, P> 0.05), free testosterone (51.0 higher, P > 0.005) in young adolescent males group, testosterone (27.8% higher, P > 0.001), free testosterone (21.3% higher, P > 0.001) in middle aged males group, and testosterone (21.0% higher, P > 0.001), free testosterone (16.8% higher, P > 0.4) in old ages males group. SHBG was calculated as a mean of free and total testosterone in each group. smokers showed higher mean values of SHBG than non-smokers. Age was positively associated with serum SHBG, it was found that SHBG increased by 17.2% from the youngest (> 18 years) to the oldest age (> 65 years)

  16. Evolution of Sex Differences in Trait- and Age-Specific Vulnerabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geary, David C

    2016-11-01

    Traits that facilitate competition for reproductive resources or that influence mate choice generally have a heightened sensitivity to stressors. They have evolved to signal resilience to infectious disease and nutritional and social stressors, and they are compromised by exposure to man-made toxins. Although these traits can differ from one species or sex to the next, an understanding of the dynamics of competition and choice can in theory be used to generate a priori predictions about sex-, age-, and trait-specific vulnerabilities for any sexually reproducing species. I provide a review of these dynamics and illustrate associated vulnerabilities in nonhuman species. The age- and sex-specific vulnerability of such traits is then illustrated for stressor-related disruptions of boys' and girls' physical growth and play behavior, as well as for aspects of boys' and girls' and men's and women's personality, language, and spatial abilities. There is much that remains to be determined, but enough is now known to reframe trait sensitivity in ways that will allow scientists and practitioners to better identify and understand vulnerable human traits, and eventually ameliorate or prevent their expression. © The Author(s) 2016.

  17. Personality traits, age and sex as predictors for self-handicapping tendency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čolović Petar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Self-handicapping is one of the strategies people use when facing potential failure. Paper presents new scale for assessing self-handicapping tendency as relatively stable trait, as well as its relations with personality traits, sex and age. Self-handicapping questionnaire and shortened form of Zuckerman-Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire were administered to 230 participants of both sexes, age 18 to 59. Confirmatory factor analysis shows that model with four latent dimensions, encompassed by a higher-order latent dimension, fits the data well. Those lower order dimensions correspond to originally created scales: External handicaps in interpersonal area, Internal handicaps in interpersonal area, Internal handicaps in achievement area and External handicaps in achievement area. Results of MANCOVA shows that Neuroticism is predictor of all dimensions of self- handicapping. Impulsive sensation seeking predicts choice of external handicaps in interpersonal area, as well as internal handicaps in achievement area. Latter is predicted also by low Activity. Younger subjects show significantly higher tendency to use internal handicaps, and men in general show more self-handicapping tendency than women, except in choosing internal handicaps in achievement area, where sex shows no significant effect.

  18. Few Sex Differences in Hospitalized Suicide Attempters Aged 70 and Above

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Wiktorsson

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Relatively little research attention has been paid to sex issues in late life suicidal behaviour. The aim was to compare clinical characteristics of women and men aged 70+ who were hospitalized after a suicide attempt. We hypothesized higher depression and anxiety scores in women, and we expected to find that men would more often attribute the attempt to health problems and compromised autonomy. Participants (56 women and 47 men, mean age 80 were interviewed by a psychologist. In addition to psychiatric and somatic health assessments, participants responded to an open-ended question concerning attributions of the attempt. There were no sex differences in depression and anxiety. Forty-five percent of the men and 14% of the women had a history of substance use disorder (p = 0.02. At least one serious physical disability was noted in 60.7% of the women and 53.2% of the men (p = 0.55. Proportions attributing their attempt to somatic illness did not differ (women, 14.5% vs. men 17.4%, p = 0.79, and similar proportions attributed the attempt to reduced autonomy (women, 21.8% vs. men, 26.1%, p = 0.64. We found strikingly similar figures for depression scores, functional disability and attributions for attempting suicide in older men and women. Larger studies are needed in diverse settings as sex differences might be influenced by cultural context.

  19. Few Sex Differences in Hospitalized Suicide Attempters Aged 70 and Above.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiktorsson, Stefan; Rydberg Sterner, Therese; Mellqvist Fässberg, Madeleine; Skoog, Ingmar; Ingeborg Berg, Anne; Duberstein, Paul; Van Orden, Kimberly; Waern, Margda

    2018-01-16

    Relatively little research attention has been paid to sex issues in late life suicidal behaviour. The aim was to compare clinical characteristics of women and men aged 70+ who were hospitalized after a suicide attempt. We hypothesized higher depression and anxiety scores in women, and we expected to find that men would more often attribute the attempt to health problems and compromised autonomy. Participants (56 women and 47 men, mean age 80) were interviewed by a psychologist. In addition to psychiatric and somatic health assessments, participants responded to an open-ended question concerning attributions of the attempt. There were no sex differences in depression and anxiety. Forty-five percent of the men and 14% of the women had a history of substance use disorder ( p = 0.02). At least one serious physical disability was noted in 60.7% of the women and 53.2% of the men ( p = 0.55). Proportions attributing their attempt to somatic illness did not differ (women, 14.5% vs. men 17.4%, p = 0.79), and similar proportions attributed the attempt to reduced autonomy (women, 21.8% vs. men, 26.1%, p = 0.64). We found strikingly similar figures for depression scores, functional disability and attributions for attempting suicide in older men and women. Larger studies are needed in diverse settings as sex differences might be influenced by cultural context.

  20. Nativity differences in allostatic load by age, sex, and Hispanic background from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian R. Salazar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Allostatic load (AL, an index of biological “wear and tear” on the body from cumulative exposure to stress, has been little studied in US Hispanics/Latinos. We investigated AL accumulation patterns by age, sex, and nativity in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos. We studied 15,830 Hispanic/Latinos of Mexican, Cuban, Dominican, Puerto Rican, Central and South American descent aged 18–74 years, 77% of whom were foreign-born. Consistent with the conceptualization of AL, we developed an index based upon 16 physiological markers that spanned the cardiometabolic, parasympathetic, and inflammatory systems. We computed mean adjusted AL scores using log-linear models across age-groups (18–44, 45–54, 55–74 years, by sex and nativity status. Among foreign-born individuals, differences in AL by duration of residence in the US (<10, ≥10 years and age at migration (<24, ≥24 years were also examined. In persons younger than 55 years old, after controlling for socioeconomic and behavioral factors, AL was highest among US-born individuals, intermediate in foreign-born Hispanics/Latinos with longer duration in the US (≥10 years, and lowest among those with shorter duration in the US (<10 years (P<0.0001 for increasing trend. Similarly, AL increased among the foreign-born with earlier age at immigration. These trends were less pronounced among individuals ≥55 years of age. Similar patterns were observed across all Hispanic/Latino heritage groups (P for interaction=0.5. Our findings support both a “healthy immigrant” pattern and a loss of health advantage over time among US Hispanics/Latinos of diverse heritages. Keywords: Allostatic load, Physiological dysregulation, Hispanic ethnicity, Nativity, Age patterns

  1. Type 2 diabetes mellitus in people with severe mental illness: inequalities by ethnicity and age. Cross-sectional analysis of 588 408 records from the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das-Munshi, J; Ashworth, M; Dewey, M E; Gaughran, F; Hull, S; Morgan, C; Nazroo, J; Petersen, I; Schofield, P; Stewart, R; Thornicroft, G; Prince, M J

    2017-07-01

    To investigate whether the association of severe mental illness with Type 2 diabetes varies by ethnicity and age. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of data from an ethnically diverse sample of 588 408 individuals aged ≥18 years, registered to 98% of general practices (primary care) in London, UK. The outcome of interest was prevalent Type 2 diabetes. Relative to people without severe mental illness, the relative risk of Type 2 diabetes in people with severe mental illness was greatest in the youngest age groups. In the white British group the relative risks were 9.99 (95% CI 5.34, 18.69) in those aged 18-34 years, 2.89 (95% CI 2.43, 3.45) in those aged 35-54 years and 1.16 (95% CI 1.04, 1.30) in those aged ≥55 years, with similar trends across all ethnic minority groups. Additional adjustment for anti-psychotic prescriptions only marginally attenuated the associations. Assessment of estimated prevalence of Type 2 diabetes in severe mental illness by ethnicity (absolute measures of effect) indicated that the association between severe mental illness and Type 2 diabetes was more marked in ethnic minorities than in the white British group with severe mental illness, especially for Indian, Pakistani and Bangladeshi individuals with severe mental illness. The relative risk of Type 2 diabetes is elevated in younger populations. Most associations persisted despite adjustment for anti-psychotic prescriptions. Ethnic minority groups had a higher prevalence of Type 2 diabetes in the presence of severe mental illness. Future research and policy, particularly with respect to screening and clinical care for Type 2 diabetes in populations with severe mental illness, should take these findings into account. © 2016 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Diabetes UK.

  2. Severe menopausal symptoms in mid-aged Latin American women can be related to their indigenous ethnic component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojeda, E; Monterrosa, A; Blümel, J E; Escobar-López, J; Chedraui, P

    2011-02-01

    Latin American women present more severe menopausal symptoms when compared to those from other regions of the world. Since this population is an ethnic blend of Caucasian and indigenous people, we sought to test the hypothesis that severe menopausal symptoms in Latin American women are associated with an indigenous origin. To assess menopausal symptoms among two specific indigenous Latin American populations. A total of 573 natural postmenopausal indigenous women aged 45-59 years (288 Quechua (Peru) and 285 Zenú (Colombia)) living in isolated communities were surveyed with a general questionnaire and the Menopause Rating Scale (MRS). The total MRS score was significantly higher among Quechua women as compared to Zenú ones (22.7 ± 5.7 vs. 14.7 ± 2.5, p Quechua women presented more intense somatic and psychological symptoms as compared to Zenú (8.8 ± 2.3 vs. 5.3 ± 1.8; and 7.8 ± 2.4 vs. 3.2 ± 1.7, p Quechua. This was not the case for Zenú women. More than 90% of indigenous women (Quechua and Zenú) at all age intervals presented severe urogenital scores, a percentage that is much higher than that described in the world literature. Severe menopausal symptoms found among Latin American women could be the result of their indigenous ethnic origin; the urogenital domain is the most affected.

  3. A Content Analysis of Testosterone Websites: Sex, Muscle, and Male Age-Related Thematic Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Nicholas; Vuong, Jimmy; Gray, Peter B

    2018-03-01

    Male testosterone supplementation is a large and growing industry. How is testosterone marketed to male consumers online? The present exploratory study entailed a content coding analysis of the home pages of 49 websites focused on testosterone supplementation for men in the United States. Four hypotheses concerning anticipated age-related differences in content coding were also tested: more frequent longevity content toward older men, and more frequent social dominance/physical formidability, muscle, and sex content toward younger men. Codes were created based on inductive observations and drawing upon the medical, life history, and human behavioral endocrinology literatures. Approximately half ( n = 24) of websites were oriented toward younger men (estimated audience of men 40 years of age or younger) and half ( n = 25) toward older men (estimated audience over 40 years of age). Results indicated that the most frequent content codes concerned online sales (e.g., product and purchasing information). Apart from sales information, the most frequent codes concerned, in order, muscle, sex/sexual functioning, low T, energy, fat, strength, aging, and well-being, with all four hypotheses also supported. These findings are interpreted in the light of medical, evolutionary life history, and human behavioral endocrinology approaches.

  4. The significance of age and sex for the absence of immune response to hepatitis B vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosić Ilija

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Seroepidemiological investigations after the administration of hepatitis B vaccine have shown that even 15% of vaccinated healthy persons do not generate immune response to the vaccines currently in use. OBJECTIVE The aim of the research is to test the immunogenicity of hepatitis B vaccine in different age groups on the adult vaccinated population sample in Serbia. METHOD The tested general population sample consisted of 154 adult subjects. Immunization was done using the recombinant fungal vaccine obtained by genetic engineering (Euvax B vaccine, manufacturer LG, distributor Sanofi Pasteur. All tested subjects in the research received 1 ml of hepatitis B vaccine administered intramuscularly into the deltoid muscle by 0, 1, 6 schedule. RESULTS In the tested sample, 3.13% of persons aged up to 29 years, 6.25% aged 30-35 year and 19.23% of the tested persons aged 40 years and older had no immune response. The relative risk of “no response" findings was twice higher in the group aged 30-39 as compared to the population aged up to 29 years. The detected risk was six times higher for the population of 40 years and older in comparison to the population aged up to 29 years. Also, the relative risk of “no response" findings for the population of 40 years and older was more than three times higher than for the group aged 30-39. Absent immune response in relation to sex was found to be higher in male subjects. CONCLUSION The rates of “no response" finding was the following: 3.13% in the group aged up to 29 years, 6.25% in the group aged 30-39, as well as in the group aged 40 years and older (19.23%. Immune response in relation to age groups was statistically significantly different (p<0.001, while there was a statistically significant correlation (C=0.473; p<0.001 between the age of the subjects and the immune response. In relation to sex, the “no response" finding was found to be increased in the males, but without any statistically

  5. The discriminative ability of waist circumference, body mass index and waist-to-hip ratio in identifying metabolic syndrome: Variations by age, sex and race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Kee C; Ghazali, Sumarni M; Hock, Lim K; Subenthiran, Soobitha; Huey, Teh C; Kuay, Lim K; Mustapha, Feisul I; Yusoff, Ahmad F; Mustafa, Amal N

    2015-01-01

    Many studies have suggested that there is variation in the capabilities of BMI, WC and WHR in predicting cardiometabolic risk and that it might be confounded by gender, ethnicity and age group. The objective of this study is to examine the discriminative abilities of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and waist-hip ratio (WHR) to predict two or more non-adipose components of the metabolic syndrome (high blood pressure, hypertriglyceridemia, low high density lipoprotein-cholesterol and high fasting plasma glucose) among the adult Malaysian population by gender, age group and ethnicity. Data from 2572 respondents (1044 men and 1528 women) aged 25-64 years who participated in the Non Communicable Disease Surveillance 2005/2006, a population-based cross sectional study, were analysed. Participants' socio-demographic details, anthropometric indices (BMI, WC and WHR), blood pressure, fasting lipid profile and fasting glucose level were assessed. Receiver operating characteristics curves analysis was used to evaluate the ability of each anthropometric index to discriminate MetS cases from non-MetS cases based on the area under the curve. Overall, WC had better discriminative ability than WHR for women but did not perform significantly better than BMI in both sexes, whereas BMI was better than WHR in women only. Waist circumference was a better discriminator of MetS compared to WHR in Malay men and women. Waist circumference and BMI performed better than WHR in Chinese women, men aged 25-34 years and women aged 35-44 years. The discriminative ability of BMI and WC is better than WHR for predicting two or more non-adipose components of MetS. Therefore, either BMI or WC measurements are recommended in screening for metabolic syndrome in routine clinical practice in the effort to combat cardiovascular disease and type II diabetes mellitus. Copyright © 2015 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Exploring Experiences and Perceptions of Aging and Cognitive Decline Across Diverse Racial and Ethnic Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa R. Roberts DrPH, MSN, FNP-BC

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore how older adults from three prominent ethnoracial groups experience cognitive decline and aging. Method: Semistructured key informant interviews (KIIs and focus groups (FGs were conducted with caregivers, experts, and older adults. Results: ( N = 75. Fifteen KIIs regarding cognitive aging issues were conducted among health care professionals and community-based agencies serving older adults. Eight FGs included family caregivers and physicians, and six FGs with Latino, African American, and White older adult community members. Major themes included (a personal expectations about aging, (b societal value of older adults, (c model of care preferred, and (d community concerns. An overarching theme was a sense of loss associated with aging; however, how this loss was experienced and dealt with varied. Discussion: Distinct patterns of concerns and views are important to understand for the development of programs aimed at meeting the needs of diverse older adult community members to improve health outcomes.

  7. Effects of age and sex on the results of an ankle plantar-flexor manual muscle test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan, Mei-Hwa; Chai, Huei-Ming; Lin, Yeong-Fwu; Lin, Janice Chien-Ho; Tsai, Li-Ying; Ou, Yu-Chih; Lin, Da-Hon

    2005-10-01

    The ability to perform 20 or more one-leg heel-rises is considered a "normal" grade for muscle strength (force-generating capacity of muscle) of the ankle plantar flexors, regardless of age and sex. Because muscle strength is closely related to age and sex, the "normal" test criterion was re-evaluated in different groups categorized by age and sex. One hundred eighty sedentary volunteers (21-80 years of age) without lower-limb lesions performed as many repetitions of one-leg heel-rise as possible. Lunsford and Perry criteria were used to determine completion of the test. The age and sex of the participants influenced the maximal repetitions of heel-rise, and the repetitions decreased with age and in female subjects. The muscle strength of the ankle plantar flexors, as measured by manual muscle testing, varied with age and sex. Clinicians should consider the variances of age and sex when they perform manual muscle testing of the ankle plantar flexors.

  8. Oxidative stress and the evolution of sex differences in life span and ageing in the decorated cricket, Gryllodes sigillatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Catharine R; Sakaluk, Scott K; Selman, Colin; Royle, Nick J; Hunt, John

    2013-03-01

    The Free Radical Theory of Ageing (FRTA) predicts that oxidative stress, induced when levels of reactive oxygen species exceed the capacity of antioxidant defenses, causes ageing. Recently, it has also been argued that oxidative damage may mediate important life-history trade-offs. Here, we use inbred lines of the decorated cricket, Gryllodes sigillatus, to estimate the genetic (co)variance between age-dependent reproductive effort, life span, ageing, oxidative damage, and total antioxidant capacity within and between the sexes. The FRTA predicts that oxidative damage should accumulate with age and negatively correlate with life span. We find that protein oxidation is greater in the shorter lived sex (females) and negatively genetically correlated with life span in both sexes. However, oxidative damage did not accumulate with age in either sex. Previously we have shown antagonistic pleiotropy between the genes for early-life reproductive effort and ageing rate in both sexes, although this was stronger in females. In females, we find that elevated fecundity early in life is associated with greater protein oxidation later in life, which is in turn positively correlated with the rate of ageing. Our results provide mixed support for the FRTA but suggest that oxidative stress may mediate sex-specific life-history strategies in G. sigillatus. © 2012 The Author(s). Evolution© 2012 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  9. Trajectories of Externalizing Behavior from Age 2 to Age 9: Relations with Gender, Temperament, Ethnicity, Parenting, and Rater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miner, Jennifer L.; Clarke-Stewart, K. Alison

    2008-01-01

    Trajectories of children's externalizing behavior were examined using multilevel growth curve modeling of data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development. According to ratings by both mothers and caregivers/teachers when children were 2, 3, 4, 7, and 9 years old, externalizing behavior declined with age. However, mothers rated…

  10. Age-dependent plasticity of sex pheromone response in the moth, Agrotis ipsilon: combined effects of octopamine and juvenile hormone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jarriault, David; Barrozo, Romina B; de Carvalho Pinto, Carlos J

    2009-01-01

    Male moths use sex pheromones to find their mating partners. In the moth, Agrotis ipsilon, the behavioral response and the neuron sensitivity within the primary olfactory centre, the antennal lobe (AL), to sex pheromone increase with age and juvenile hormone (JH) biosynthesis. By manipulating...

  11. Age and sex distributions in the catches of belugas, Delphinapterus leucas , in West Greenland and in western Russia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heide-Jørgensen, M.P.; Lockyer, C.

    2001-01-01

    Age and sex were determined for belugas or white whales, Delphinapterus leucas, harvested in West Greenland in 1985-86 and 1989-1997. There was a clear segregation of whales in the drive fishery conducted during autumn in Qaanaaq and Upernavik. Primarily immature whales of both sexes together wit...

  12. Sex Differences in Biological Markers of Health in the Study of Stress, Aging and Health in Russia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oksuzyan, Anna; Shkolnikova, Maria; Vaupel, James W

    2015-01-01

    the associations between biomarkers and subjective health have sex-specific patterns. MATERIALS: Previously collected data in the study of Stress, Aging, and Health in Russia (SAHR, n = 1800) were used to examine sex differences in biomarkers and their associations with physical functioning and self-rated health...

  13. Children's Age, Intelligence and Sex as Variables Mediating Reactions to TV Commercials: Repetition and Content Complexity Implications for Advertisers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendon, Donald W.; And Others

    To learn if differences in age, intelligence, and sex account for differences in children's recall of TV commercials and in the degree of insistence with which they request that the advertised product be purchased, 54 gifted, 71 normal, and 53 educable mentally retarded children of both sexes were questioned after viewing commercials for breakfast…

  14. Age, Sex, and Dose Effects of Nonbenzodiazepine Hypnotics on Hip Fracture in Nursing Home Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dore, David D; Zullo, Andrew R; Mor, Vincent; Lee, Yoojin; Berry, Sarah D

    2018-04-01

    The Food and Drug Administration recommends a reduced dose of nonbenzodiazepine hypnotics in women, yet little is known about the age-, sex-, and dose-specific effects of these drugs on risk of hip fracture, especially among nursing home (NH) residents. We estimated the age-, sex-, and dose-specific effects of nonbenzodiazepine hypnotics on the rate of hip fracture among NH residents. Case-crossover study in US NHs. A total of 691 women and 179 men with hip fracture sampled from all US long-stay NH residents. Measures of patient characteristics were obtained from linked Medicare and the Minimum Data Set (2007-2008). The outcome was hospitalization for hip fracture with surgical repair. We estimated rate ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) from conditional logistic regression models for nonbenzodiazepine hypnotics (vs nonuse) comparing 0 to 29 days before hip fracture (hazard period) with 60 to 89 and 120 to 149 days before hip fracture (control periods). We stratified analyses by age, sex, and dose. The average RR of hip fracture was 1.7 (95% CI 1.5-1.9) for any use. The RR of hip fracture was higher for residents aged ≥90 years vs <70 years (2.2 vs 1.3); however, the CIs overlapped. No differences in the effect of the hypnotic on risk of hip fracture were evident by sex. Point estimates for hip fracture were greater with high-dose versus low-dose hypnotics (RR 1.9 vs 1.6 for any use), but these differences were highly compatible with chance. The rate of hip fracture in NH residents due to use of nonbenzodiazepine hypnotics was greater among older patients than among younger patients and, possibly, with higher doses than with lower doses. When clinicians are prescribing a nonbenzodiazepine hypnotic to any NH resident, doses of these drugs should be kept as low as possible, especially among those with advanced age. Copyright © 2017 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Age, sex and (the) race: gender and geriatrics in the ultra-endurance age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whyte, Greg

    2014-01-01

    Ultra-endurance challenges were once the stuff of legend isolated to the daring few who were driven to take on some of the greatest physical endurance challenges on the planet. With a growing fascination for major physical challenges during the nineteenth century, the end of the Victorian era witnessed probably the greatest ultra-endurance race of all time; Scott and Amundsen's ill-fated race to the South Pole. Ultra-endurance races continued through the twentieth century; however, these events were isolated to the elite few. In the twenty-first century, mass participation ultra-endurance races have grown in popularity. Endurance races once believed to be at the limit of human durability, i.e. marathon running, are now viewed as middle-distance races with the accolade of true endurance going to those willing to travel significantly further in a single effort or over multiple days. The recent series of papers in Extreme Physiology & Medicine highlights the burgeoning research data from mass participation ultra-endurance events. In support of a true 'mass participation' ethos Knetchtle et al. reported age-related changes in Triple and Deca Iron-ultra-triathlon with an upper age of 69 years! Unlike their shorter siblings, the ultra-endurance races appear to present larger gender differences in the region of 20% to 30% across distance and modality. It would appear that these gender differences remain for multi-day events including the 'Marathon des Sables'; however, this gap may be narrower in some events, particularly those that require less load bearing (i.e. swimming and cycling), as evidenced from the 'Ultraman Hawaii' and 'Swiss Cycling Marathon', and shorter (a term I used advisedly!) distances including the Ironman Triathlon where differences are similar to those of sprint and endurance distances i.e. c. 10%. The theme running through this series of papers is a continual rise in participation to the point where major events now require selection races to remain

  16. Influence of age, sex, and race on college students' exercise motivation of physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egli, Trevor; Bland, Helen W; Melton, Bridget F; Czech, Daniel R

    2011-01-01

    The authors examined differences in exercise motivation between age, sex, and race for college students. Students from 156 sections of physical activity classes at a midsize university were recruited (n = 2,199; 1,081 men, 1,118 women) in 2005-2006 and volunteered to complete the Exercise Motivation Inventory. Quantitative, cross-sectional descriptive research design was employed. Significant differences were found in 3 of 14 exercise motivational subscales by age (affiliation, health pressures, and ill health avoidance) (p motivated by intrinsic factors (strength, competition, and challenge) (p motivations (p motivations in college-aged population by demographics were documented. Understanding these differences is important for college health professionals for programming strategies and promoting physical activity.

  17. An Overview of Age, Sex and Race Determination from Teeth and Skull

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manas Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Forensic dentistry represents the overlap between the dental and legal professions. Throughout this century, odontological examinations have been a critical determinant in the search for identity of individual remains. Dental maturity has played an important role in estimating the chronological age of individuals. Age estimation is a sub-discipline of the forensic sciences and should be an important part of every identification process, especially when information relating to the deceased is unavailable. Forensic dentist helps in identification of deceased victims by age, sex and race determination from teeth and skull. Since the scope of forensic odontology is very broad and challenging, dental surgeons trained in forensic odontology can make unique contributions in the administration of justice, which is the key note of democracy.

  18. Executive Functions: Influence of Sex, Age and Its Relationship With Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa de Oliveira e Ferreira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe Tower of Hanoi is a tool used to evaluate executive functions. However, few studies describe what functions are evaluated in this test. This study investigates the executive functions, evaluated by the Tower of Hanoi (ToH, and the influence of gender, age and its relationship with intelligence. We evaluated 55 children and adolescents, between the ages of ten and 16, without diagnosed neuropsychiatric disorders. The results showed that the performance and time in to complete the Tower of Hanoi have no discriminative power when comparing age groups and sex; there was also no significant correlation found between the ToH and the execution quotient of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children - Third Edition (WISC III, perceptual organization and the speed of processing. Only the subtest coding were positively related to the ToH, demonstrating that these instruments may be measuring related aspects of intelligence and executive functions, namely intelligence and working memory.

  19. [A survey of HIV, HBV and HCV infections in children aged 1-13 years in Yi ethnic area, Sichuan province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y; Zhou, Y B; Cheng, W T; Pan, X; Song, X X; Jiang, Q W

    2017-09-10

    Objective: To investigate the prevalence of HIV, HBV and HCV infections in children aged 1-13 years in Yi ethnic area in Sichuan province. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in the form of field survey in four townships selected from Yi ethnic area of Sichuan during 2014-2015. Participants were children aged 1-13 years by sample size of 900 and were screened for HIV antibody, HBV surface antigen and HCV antibody, and laboratory comfirmation was conducted. The area, age, gender and ethnic group specific infection rates were compared by using Fisher's exact test, and multiple comparisons were corrected by using Bonferroni correction. Results: A total of 677 children aged 1-13 years were surveyed. The infection rates of HIV, HBV and HCV were 1.03 % (7/677, 95 %CI : 0.42 % -1.12 % ), 6.65 % (45/677, 95 %CI : 4.89 % -8.79 % ) and 0.15 % (1/677, 95 %CI : 0 % -0.82 % ), respectively. The infection rates of HIV differed among townships ( P =0.000), the infection rate was higher in township D than in township B, the difference was significant ( P HBV and HCV infections were not significant among different townships, age, gender and ethnic groups. The difference in HBV viral load between age group 5-9 years and age groups 10-13 years was not significant ( U =115.000, P =0.967). Conclusions: The burden of HIV and HBV infections in children aged 1-13 years was heavy in rural area of Yi ethnic area in Sichuan. Therefore, it is necessary to take effective measures to block the vertical transmission of HIV and HBV as well as to increase the coverage of HBV vaccination.

  20. Amazonian onchocerciasis: parasitological profiles by host-age, sex, and endemicity in southern Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivas-Martínez, S; Basáñez, M G; Botto, C; Rojas, S; García, M; Pacheco, M; Curtis, C F

    2000-11-01

    This paper describes, for the human onchocerciasis focus of southern Venezuela, the age profiles of Onchocerca volvulus microfilarial (mf) and nodule prevalence, mf intensity, and mf aggregation for the whole examined population (836 Yanomami people) living in 20 villages, and for these communities classified according to endemicity levels (hypoendemic: < or = 20 %; mesoendemic: 21-59 %; hyperendemic: < or = 60 % infected). Mf prevalence and intensity increased with age, particularly in the hyperendemic areas, and there were no marked differences between the sexes. The prevalence of nodules followed the same age pattern. Fifty percent mf prevalence was reached in the 15-19 year age-class when the population was taken as a whole; nearly in the 10 to 14-year-olds for the hyperendemic level, in those aged 20-29 years in mesoendemic areas, and not reached at all in hypoendemic villages. The degree of mf aggregation was measured by the k value of the negative binomial distribution and by the variance to mean ratio (VMR). The relationship between the standard deviation (S.D.) of mf counts and the mean mf density was also explored. These 3 indices (k, VMR, and S.D.) showed a tendency to increase with both mean mf load and host age. Since infection intensity and host age were themselves positively related, it was not possible to draw definite conclusions about age-specific changes of parasite aggregation. There was not a significant decrease of mf intensity after an earlier peak neither was there a shift towards younger ages of the maximum no. of mf/mg reached as the endemicity level increased. These results are discussed in relation to detection of density dependence in the human host, selection of an indicator age-group for rapid epidemiological assessment (REA) methods, and strategies of ivermectin distribution in the Amazonian focus. It is recommended that, for the Amazonian onchocerciasis focus, the indicator group for REA consists of all those aged 15 years and over.

  1. The ARIC-PET amyloid imaging study: Brain amyloid differences by age, race, sex, and APOE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottesman, Rebecca F; Schneider, Andrea L C; Zhou, Yun; Chen, Xueqi; Green, Edward; Gupta, Naresh; Knopman, David S; Mintz, Akiva; Rahmim, Arman; Sharrett, A Richey; Wagenknecht, Lynne E; Wong, Dean F; Mosley, Thomas H

    2016-08-02

    To evaluate differences in amyloid deposition in a community-based cohort without dementia by age, sex, race, education, and APOE ε4 allele status. Recruited from the longitudinal Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study, 329 participants without dementia, ages 67-88 years, were imaged using florbetapir PET at 3 US community sites (Washington County, Maryland; Forsyth County, North Carolina; and Jackson, Mississippi). Standardized uptake value ratios (SUVRs) were calculated; global cortical SUVR >1.2 was evaluated as the primary outcome. Age, race, sex, education level, and number of APOE ε4 alleles were evaluated in multivariable models including vascular risk factors, brain white matter hyperintensity and total intracranial volume, and cognitive status. A total of 141 of the participants (43%) were black. In multivariable models, odds of elevated SUVR was increased in participants with increasing age (odds ratio [OR] 1.63, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01-2.65 per 10 years of age) and black race (OR 2.08, 95% CI 1.23-3.51) but did not differ by educational level. Each ε4 allele was associated with increased odds of elevated SUVR (OR 2.65, 95% CI 1.61-4.39). In this community-based cohort without dementia, florbetapir uptake is associated with older age and APOE genotype. Black race was associated with higher SUVR, after adjusting for demographics, vascular risk factors, cognitive status, white matter hyperintensity volume, and APOE genotype, with effect sizes nearing those seen for APOE ε4. Replication of these findings is needed in other cohorts, and reasons for and consequences of these observed differences by race warrant further study. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  2. Normal morphology of sacroiliac joints in children: magnetic resonance studies related to age and sex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollow, M.; Paris, S.; Mutze, S.; Hamm, B.; Braun, J.; Kannenberg, J.; Biedermann, T.; Schauer-Petrowskaja, C.

    1997-01-01

    Objective. To determine in a prospective study the normal MRI morphology of the sacroiliac joints (SIJs) in relation to age and sex during adolescence. Design and patients. A total of 98 children (63 boys, mean age 12.7±2.8 years; 35 girls, mean age 13.7±2.3 years), ranging in age from 8 to 17 years, with juvenile chronic arthritis (JCA) but without signs of sacroiliitis fulfilled the study prerequisites (no back pain and no pathologic changes of the SIJs on physical examination before MRI in a 1.5-year follow-up). An additional eight HLA-B27-negative boys and eight HLA-B27-negative girls without arthritis served as controls. The MRI protocol comprised a T1-weighted SE sequence, an opposed-phase T2*-weighted GE sequence, and a dynamic contrast-enhanced study in single-section technique. Results. Noncontrast MRI permitted differentiation of ''open'' from ossified segmental and lateral apophyses of the sacral wings, with a significant difference in age (P <0.05) between children with open and ossified apophyses. Ossification of the apophyses of the sacral wings was seen significantly earlier (P <0.05) in girls than in boys. Girls also had a significantly higher incidence of transitional lumbosacral vertebrae, pelvic asymmetries, and accessory joints. In the contrast-enhanced opposed-phase MRI study, normal cartilage of the SIJs showed no contrast enhancement whereas the joint capsule showed a moderate enhancement. Conclusion. There are significant age- and sex-related differences in the normal MRI morphology of juvenile SIJs. Our findings might serve as a standard of comparison for the evaluation of pathologic changes - in particular for the early identification of juvenile sacroiliitis. (orig.)

  3. Age and sex-specific relationships between phthalate exposures and obesity in Chinese children at puberty.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunhui Zhang

    Full Text Available To examine the age and sex-specific associations of urine levels of six mono-phthalates with body size and fat distribution in Chinese children at puberty.Four hundred and ninety-three school-aged children (247 boys, 246 girls were recruited. Obesity related anthropometric indices were measured and body fat proportion (BF% was calculated. Spot urine samples were collected and phthalate monoesters were detected by an API 2000 electrospray triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (ESI-MS/MS. Associations between phthalate exposure and overweight/obesity measures and their trends were examined by multiple linear regression and Logistic regression analyses, respectively.Di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP metabolites and monobutyl phthalate (MBP were found to be the most detectable chemicals. In 8-10 years (yrs group, concentrations of MEHP and MBP were significantly higher in girls than those in boys. However, concentrations of all phthalate monoesters, except for MEP and MEHP, in 11-13 yrs boys were significantly higher than those in girls. After adjusting for confounders including puberty onset, urinary concentrations of MBP and sum of low molecular-weight phthalate metabolites (∑LMP were positively associated with boys' obesity in a concentration-effect manner, while concentrations of MEHP, MEHHP and sum of DEHP metabolites (∑MEHP were negatively associated with girls' obesity. Associations between phthalate exposure levels and BMI z-score changes were age- and sex-specific in school-age children.There are age and sex-specific concentration-effect associations between phthalate exposure and fat distribution in Chinese children. Urinary phthalate levels in 11-13 yrs boys were about 30 percent higher than those in girls, and ∑MEHP levels in younger boys (10 yrs. Associations were positive for MBP and ∑LMP with both BMI z-score and fat distribution in boys >10 years of age, and negative for ∑MEHP with fat distribution in girls <10 years of age.

  4. [Sleep habits of medical students, physicians and nurses regarding age, sex, shift work and caffein consumption].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecotić, Renata; Valić, Maja; Kardum, Goran; Sevo, Vana; Dogas, Zoran

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate sleep habits of nurses, medical students, and physicians and to explore whether they are influenced by age, sex, shift work, and caffeine consumption. The questionnaire was derived from the MEDSleep Survey. A total of 453 respondents were surveyed: second-year medical students (130); physicians at the postgraduate study program (68); specialists (162); nurses (93). Results of our study indicate that hours of sleep needed for feeling rested depends on age and gender. Younger respondents and women in the study need longer sleep to feel rested (7.5 hours and more) than older ones and males who need less than 7.5 hours of sleep. Among medical professionals a need for sleep differs related to work demands and work schedule. Nurses need more sleep than physicians (chi2 = 38.57, p trouble staying awake while listening to lectures or learning (chi2 = 9.37, p = 0.009), and while driving a car (chi2 = 14.56, p = 0.001). The results indicate that sleep habits are related to age, sex and caffeine consumption.

  5. Meat quality of "Galician Mountain" foals breed. Effect of sex, slaughter age and livestock production system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Daniel; Rodríguez, Eva; Purriños, Laura; Crecente, Santiago; Bermúdez, Roberto; Lorenzo, José M

    2011-06-01

    The effects of sex, slaughter age (9 vs. 12 months) and livestock production system (freedom extensive system (FES) vs. semi extensive system (SES)) of "Galician Mountain" foals breed on meat quality from the Longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle were investigated. Forty-two foals had been used for this study, 19 (11 females and 8 males) were reared in a semi extensive system and weaned three months prior to slaughtering (8 and 11 were slaughtered at 9 and 12 months, respectively) while the other 23 (11 females and 12 males) were reared together with its mothers in a system in freedom and were slaughtered at the age of 9 months. The obtained results showed that there were no significant differences between the sexes and the slaughter age whereas the livestock production system was a significant variation source on intramuscular fat content and meat tenderness because SES foals showed 51.6% more of IMF and the improved meat tenderness achieved a shear force of lean meat (20.5%) and heme-iron (1.62 mg/100g meat) comparable to veal meat. Furthermore, the meat samples showed a higher luminosity (L*>40), a very good water holding capacity, measured by cooking losses (<18.3%), and a tenderness less than 4 kg. Thus, it can be classified as "very tender" meat. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Differential sex- and age-related migration of Bluethroats Luscinia svecica at Eilat, Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markovets, Mikhail L.; Zduniak, Piotr; Yosef, Reuven

    2008-07-01

    This paper examines the phenology and biometrics of Bluethroats staging in the Eilat region. This is of special interest because of the extreme conditions with which this temperate zone breeding species has to contend because Eilat is a desert habitat and is the last green area before the crossing of the deserts in autumn or after it in spring. Data were collected during 20 spring and 18 autumn migration seasons in the years 1984-2003, and a total of 7,464 Bluethroat were recorded. The number of trapped birds was much higher in autumn than in spring. The majority of Bluethroats caught in both the autumn and spring migrations were juveniles. We found differences in sex ratio in the individual age classes only in the autumn wherein among both adults and juveniles, males were in greater numbers. We also found significant differences in the dates of ringed birds from different sex-age classes in the spring and in autumn migrations. In spring, males from both age classes were caught earlier than females. In autumn, adult birds arrived earlier than juveniles. We think that it is important to identify and conserve the high quality stopover habitats such as Eilat wherein not only Bluethroats have been shown to stopover but also several hundred other species.

  7. Age and sex differences in steadiness of elbow flexor muscles with imposed cognitive demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Hugo M.; Spears, Vincent C.; Schlinder-Delap, Bonnie; Yoon, Tejin; Nielson, Kristy A.; Hunter, Sandra K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose These studies determined (1) age and sex-related differences in steadiness of isometric contractions when high cognitive demand was imposed across a range of forces with the elbow flexor muscles (study 1) and, (2) sex differences in steadiness among older adults when low cognitive demand was imposed (study 2). Methods 36 young adults (18–25 years; 18 women) and 30 older adults (60–82 years; 17 women) performed isometric contractions at 5%, 30% and 40% of maximum voluntary contraction (MVC). Study 1 involved a high-cognitive demand session (serial subtractions by 13 during the contraction) and a control session (no mental math). Study 2 (older adults only) involved a low-cognitive demand session (subtracting by 1s). Results Older individuals exhibited greater increases in force fluctuations (coefficient of variation of force, CV) with high cognitive demand than young adults, with the largest age difference at 5% MVC (P = 0.01). Older adults had greater agonist EMG activity with high-cognitive demand and women had greater coactivation than men (Pdemand for the older women but not for the older men (P = 0.03). Conclusion Older adults had reduced steadiness and increased muscle activation when high cognitive demand was imposed while low cognitive demand induced increased force fluctuations in older women but not older men. These findings have implications for daily and work-related tasks that involve cognitive demand performed simultaneously during submaximal isometric contractions in an aging workforce. PMID:25633070

  8. [Physical self-concept and teenagers with intellectual disability: age, sex, and weight category effects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bégarie, Jérôme; Maïano, Christophe; Ninot, Grégory

    2011-03-01

    To study the effects of age, sex, weight, and their interactions on global self-esteem (GSE) and physical self-concept in teenagers with intellectual disability (ID). A sample of 353 teenagers with ID, aged 12 to 18 years, participated in this study. The Very Short Form of the Physical Self-Inventory—for adolescents with ID (PSI-VSF-ID) was used to assess GSE and physical self-perceptions (physical value perceived [PVP], sport skills [SS], physical condition, physical appearance, and strength). Multivariate covariance analyses show: (i) lower GSE and physical self levels (except for PVP) in females, compared with males; (ii) reduced GSE, PVP, SS, and perceived physical appearance (PPA) scores during adolescence; (iii) lower GSE, PVP, and PPA scores in obese adolescents, compared with overweight or normal weight peers; and (iv) lower PPA scores in obese females, compared with other teenagers. The sex and age results are almost identical to those for the general population, according to the literature. However, they are far from the main effect in the weight category.

  9. Coordinated analysis of age, sex, and education effects on change in MMSE scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccinin, Andrea M; Muniz-Terrera, Graciela; Clouston, Sean; Reynolds, Chandra A; Thorvaldsson, Valgeir; Deary, Ian J; Deeg, Dorly J H; Johansson, Boo; Mackinnon, Andrew; Spiro, Avron; Starr, John M; Skoog, Ingmar; Hofer, Scott M

    2013-05-01

    We describe and compare the expected performance trajectories of older adults on the Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE) across six independent studies from four countries in the context of a collaborative network of longitudinal studies of aging. A coordinated analysis approach is used to compare patterns of change conditional on sample composition differences related to age, sex, and education. Such coordination accelerates evaluation of particular hypotheses. In particular, we focus on the effect of educational attainment on cognitive decline. Regular and Tobit mixed models were fit to MMSE scores from each study separately. The effects of age, sex, and education were examined based on more than one centering point. Findings were relatively consistent across studies. On average, MMSE scores were lower for older individuals and declined over time. Education predicted MMSE score, but, with two exceptions, was not associated with decline in MMSE over time. A straightforward association between educational attainment and rate of cognitive decline was not supported. Thoughtful consideration is needed when synthesizing evidence across studies, as methodologies adopted and sample characteristics, such as educational attainment, invariably differ.

  10. Path Complexity in Virtual Water Maze Navigation: Differential Associations with Age, Sex, and Regional Brain Volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugherty, Ana M; Yuan, Peng; Dahle, Cheryl L; Bender, Andrew R; Yang, Yiqin; Raz, Naftali

    2015-09-01

    Studies of human navigation in virtual maze environments have consistently linked advanced age with greater distance traveled between the start and the goal and longer duration of the search. Observations of search path geometry suggest that routes taken by older adults may be unnecessarily complex and that excessive path complexity may be an indicator of cognitive difficulties experienced by older navigators. In a sample of healthy adults, we quantify search path complexity in a virtual Morris water maze with a novel method based on fractal dimensionality. In a two-level hierarchical linear model, we estimated improvement in navigation performance across trials by a decline in route length, shortening of search time, and reduction in fractal dimensionality of the path. While replicating commonly reported age and sex differences in time and distance indices, a reduction in fractal dimension of the path accounted for improvement across trials, independent of age or sex. The volumes of brain regions associated with the establishment of cognitive maps (parahippocampal gyrus and hippocampus) were related to path dimensionality, but not to the total distance and time. Thus, fractal dimensionality of a navigational path may present a useful complementary method of quantifying performance in navigation. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Evaluating the Relationship Between Birth Weight for Gestational Age and Adult Blood Pressure Using Participants From a Cohort of Same-Sex Siblings, Discordant on Birth Weight Percentile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Linda G; Buka, Stephen L; Cirillo, Piera M; Cohn, Barbara A; Factor-Litvak, Pam; Gillman, Matthew W; Susser, Ezra; Lumey, L H

    2017-09-01

    Many studies have described an inverse relationship between birth weight and blood pressure (BP). Debate continues, however, over the magnitude and validity of the association. This analysis draws on the Early Determinants of Adult Health study (2005-2008), a cohort of 393 US adults (mean age 43 years; 47% male), including 114 same-sex sibling pairs deliberately sampled to be discordant on sex-specific birth weight for gestational age (BW/GA) in order to minimize confounding in studies of fetal growth and midlife health outcomes. Every quintile increment in BW/GA percentile was associated with a 1.04-mm Hg decrement in adult systolic BP (95% confidence interval (CI): -2.14, 0.06) and a 0.63-mm Hg decrement in diastolic BP (95% CI: -1.35, 0.09), controlling for sex, age, site, smoking, and race/ethnicity. The relationship was strongest among those in the lowest decile of BW/GA. Adding adult body mass index to the models attenuated the estimates (e.g., to -0.90 mm Hg (95% CI: -1.94, 0.14) for systolic BP). In the sibling-pair subgroup, associations were slightly stronger but with wider confidence intervals (e.g., -1.22 mm Hg (95% CI: -5.20, 2.75) for systolic BP). In conclusion, we found a small inverse relationship between BW/GA and BP in cohort and sibling-pair analyses, but the clinical or public health significance is likely limited. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Suicide and ethnicity in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murty, Om Prakash; Cheh, Lo Boon; Bakit, Pangie Anak; Hui, Foo Jhi; Ibrahim, Zarina Binti; Jusoh, Nazirah Binti

    2008-03-01

    This article highlights methods of ending life in different ethnic groups. This inference is drawn from analysis of data from suicidal cases from the University Malaya Medical Centre mortuary. This study also looked at sex, age, social, and employment factors. Kuala Lumpur has sizeable populations of Muslims, Chinese, Indians and Indonesian, etc. This study is based on 251 cases of suicide that were reported at the University Malaya Medical Centre from 2000 to 2004. Malaysia has a population of 22,662,365 people with 3 major ethnic groups: Malay (58%), Chinese (24%), and Indians (8%) with a minority of "others" (10%), which includes foreigners, Sabahan, and Sarawakian. This research found suicides of 164 male (65%) and 87 female (35%) victims. Their age ranged from 15 to 80 years. The age group from 21 to 30 had the highest total cases of suicide (83 of 251; 33.1%). Among ethnic groups highest rate of suicide was among Chinese with a total of 120 cases (120 of 251; 47.8%). As far as lone method of suicide is concerned, hangings accounted for the highest proportion of cases (108 of 251; 43%). Among ethnic groups, jumping from height was the commonest method used by Chinese (49 of 120; 41%), Malay (9 of 16; 56%), and others (15 of 28; 53.4%); whereas, hanging was the commonest method of committing suicide by Indians (49 of 87); Muslims showed the lowest cases of suicide (18 of 251; 7.2%). In poisoning group Indian was the highest ethnic group who used this method (20 of 37; 54.1%).

  13. Masculine sex ratios, population age structure and the potential spread of HIV in China

    OpenAIRE

    M. Giovanna Merli; Sara Hertog

    2010-01-01

    There is much speculation regarding the contribution of China's changing demography to the spread of HIV/AIDS. We employ a bio-behavioral macrosimulation model of the heterosexual spread of HIV/AIDS to evaluate the roles that China's unique demographic conditions -- (1) masculine sex ratios at birth and (2) a population age structure that reflects rapid fertility decline since the 1970's -- play in altering the market for sexual partners, thereby potentially fueling an increase...

  14. Adult ADHD Symptoms and Satisfaction With Life: Does Age and Sex Matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Ørbeck, Beate; Øvergaard, Kristin Romvig; Pripp, Are Hugo; Aase, Heidi; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted; Zeiner, Pål

    2015-01-01

    - Objective:To investigate adult ADHD symptoms and satisfaction with life, with a focus on age and sex differences. Method: This study is based on parents in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). The Adult Self- Report Scale (ASRS-6) and Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS) scores were analyzed from 33,210 men and 41,983 women from young to middle adulthood. Results: Mean ASRS total score was significantly higher in men, where 5.1% scored above cutoff, compared wit...

  15. Cranial thickness in relation to age, sex and general body build in a Danish forensic sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynnerup, N

    2001-01-01

    thickness and these parameters. This study, thus, adds to other studies showing that cranial thickness cannot be used in aging or sexing human remains. Likewise, in a forensic pathological setting, cranial thickness cannot be inferred from the individuals stature and build, which may be an issue in cases......The cranial thickness was measured in 64 individuals (43 males, 21 females) autopsied at our institute. The thickness was measured by taking a biopsy with a trephine at four specific locations on the skull. Complete medical records and pathologic autopsy results were available. While none...

  16. U.S. Census Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for Selected Age Groups by Sex for the United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2010-2015. U.S. Census Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for Selected Age Groups by Sex for the United States. The estimates are based on the 2010 Census...

  17. Ethnic variations in lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groeger, A M; Mueller, M R; Odocha, O; Dekan, G; Salat, A; Röthy, W; Esposito, V; Caputi, M; Wolner, E; Kaiser, H E

    1997-01-01

    Cancer of the lung is the most frequent cancer in the world, but with wide geographical variation in risk. It is most spread among males of all races worldwide, the only exception being its incidence among Chinese women aged 70 years and older. When comparing the different ethnic groups we have to consider that besides inhaling cigarette smoke actively or as a passive smoker the exposure to occupational carcinogens varies considerably according to different work places. In our study we compared 10 years of data from African-Americans in Howard University Hospital, Washington D.C. with 20 years of data from the white population in the University Hospital of Vienna, Austria. Ethnic patterns are generally consistent within each group in terms of both incidence and mortality. The difference in susceptibility between the sexes, the three major racial groups and already proven differences in genetic variations indicate the difference between individuals concerning the initiation and progression of lung cancer.

  18. Marriage and ethnicity in West Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahnazarian, A

    1984-01-01

    "This paper will focus on ethnic differentials in the nuptiality of West Malaysia and on their evolution since the Second World War. The growing similarity of nuptiality patterns in the Malay, Chinese, and Indian communities will be outlined and the influence of age and sex distributions on the observed changes will be examined. The sources of data for this study are the 1947, 1957, and 1970 Population Censuses and the 1974 Malaysian Family and Fertility Survey." excerpt

  19. Sex-dependent age modulation of frontostriatal and temporo-parietal activation during cognitive control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christakou, Anastasia; Halari, Rozmin; Smith, Anna B; Ifkovits, Eve; Brammer, Mick; Rubia, Katya

    2009-10-15

    Developmental functional imaging studies of cognitive control show progressive age-related increase in task-relevant fronto-striatal activation in male development from childhood to adulthood. Little is known, however, about how gender affects this functional development. In this study, we used event related functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine effects of sex, age, and their interaction on brain activation during attentional switching and interference inhibition, in 63 male and female adolescents and adults, aged 13 to 38. Linear age correlations were observed across all subjects in task-specific frontal, striatal and temporo-parietal activation. Gender analysis revealed increased activation in females relative to males in fronto-striatal areas during the Switch task, and laterality effects in the Simon task, with females showing increased left inferior prefrontal and temporal activation, and males showing increased right inferior prefrontal and parietal activation. Increased prefrontal activation clusters in females and increased parietal activation clusters in males furthermore overlapped with clusters that were age-correlated across the whole group, potentially reflecting more mature prefrontal brain activation patterns for females, and more mature parietal activation patterns for males. Gender by age interactions further supported this dissociation, revealing exclusive female-specific age correlations in inferior and medial prefrontal brain regions during both tasks, and exclusive male-specific age correlations in superior parietal (Switch task) and temporal regions (Simon task). These findings show increased recruitment of age-correlated prefrontal activation in females, and of age-correlated parietal activation in males, during tasks of cognitive control. Gender differences in frontal and parietal recruitment may thus be related to gender differences in the neurofunctional maturation of these brain regions.

  20. Variation of elemental concentration in hair of the Japanese in terms of age, sex and hair treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, T.; Hayashi, T.; Takada, J.; Hayashi, Y.; Koyama, M.; Shinogi, M.; Aoki, A.; Tomiyama, T.; Katayama, K.

    1982-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis has been performed on human hair of the normal Japanese individuals to define the baseline levels of trace elements. A statistical analysis which is not influenced by detection limits, has been carried out to elucidate the variations of elemental concentrations in terms of age, sex and hair treatment. Correlation coefficients have been calculated between the logarithmic concentrations of the elements determined in the groups classified according to sex, age and hair treatment. Their significant levels have been evaluated. (author)

  1. Size of the thrombus in acute deep vein thrombosis and the significance of patients' age and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kierkegaard, A

    1981-01-01

    To determine the significance of patients' age and sex on the size of the thrombus in acute deep vein thrombosis, 420 consecutive phlebograms with acute deep vein thrombosis were studied. A significant correlation between the size of the thrombus and increasing age of the patient as well as the sex of male was noted. It is concluded that older patients and men often are at a high risk of pulmonary embolism at the time of diagnosis.

  2. Sex-specific effects of natural and sexual selection on the evolution of life span and ageing in Drosophila simulans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Archer, C.R.; Duffy, E.; Hosken, D.J.; Mokkonen, M.; Okada, K.; Oku, K.; Sharma, M.D.; Hunt, J.

    2015-01-01

    1. Variation in the strength of age-dependent natural selection shapes differences in ageing rates across species and populations. Likewise, sexual selection can promote divergent patterns of senescence across the sexes. However, the effects of these processes on the evolution of ageing have largely

  3. Sex differences in metabolic aging of the brain: insights into female susceptibility to Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liqin; Mao, Zisu; Woody, Sarah K; Brinton, Roberta D

    2016-06-01

    Despite recent advances in the understanding of clinical aspects of sex differences in Alzheimer's disease (AD), the underlying mechanisms, for instance, how sex modifies AD risk and why the female brain is more susceptible to AD, are not clear. The purpose of this study is to elucidate sex disparities in brain aging profiles focusing on 2 major areas-energy and amyloid metabolism-that are most significantly affected in preclinical development of AD. Total RNA isolated from hippocampal tissues of both female and male 129/C57BL/6 mice at ages of 6, 9, 12, or 15 months were comparatively analyzed by custom-designed Taqman low-density arrays for quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction detection of a total of 182 genes involved in a broad spectrum of biological processes modulating energy production and amyloid homeostasis. Gene expression profiles revealed substantial differences in the trajectory of aging changes between female and male brains. In female brains, 44.2% of genes were significantly changed from 6 months to 9 months and two-thirds showed downregulation. In contrast, in male brains, only 5.4% of genes were significantly altered at this age transition. Subsequent changes in female brains were at a much smaller magnitude, including 10.9% from 9 months to 12 months and 6.1% from 12 months to 15 months. In male brains, most changes occurred from 12 months to 15 months and the majority were upregulated. Furthermore, gene network analysis revealed that clusterin appeared to serve as a link between the overall decreased bioenergetic metabolism and increased amyloid dyshomeostasis associated with the earliest transition in female brains. Together, results from this study indicate that: (1) female and male brains follow profoundly dissimilar trajectories as they age; (2) female brains undergo age-related changes much earlier than male brains; (3) early changes in female brains signal the onset of a hypometabolic phenotype at risk for AD. These

  4. Biopsychosocial problem-related distress in cancer: examining the role of sex and age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Karen; Bergerot, Cristiane Decat; Philip, Errol J; Buga, Sorin; Obenchain, Richard; Loscalzo, Matthew J

    2017-10-01

    The current study explores how sex and age relate to biopsychosocial distress by applying a large-scale analysis among individuals diagnosed with a variety of cancers. A retrospective study was conducted involving 6462 patients treated for cancer at a National Cancer Institute-designated comprehensive cancer center between 2009 and 2014. Patients were asked to complete the biopsychosocial problem-related distress touchscreen instrument prior to starting treatment as part of their routine clinical care. There was a significant interaction of age and sex on the total number of problems rated as high distress and the total number of problems that prompted a request to talk with a member of the team. Male patients between 18 and 39 reported significantly more problems as high distress than female patients in the same age group (mean = 5.34 and mean = 4.92, respectively; p = 0.005). A similar trend was found where male patients between 18-39 and 40-64 requested to talk with a member of the team significantly more often than female patients in these same age groups (mean = 3.25 and mean = 3.22 vs. mean = 2.70 and mean = 3.07, respectively; p = 0.016). The results of the current study serve to refute generalizations regarding age or gender demographics and support preferences and thus reinforce the need to offer services in the context of cancer in flexible and varied ways. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Anthropometric characteristics and body composition in Mexican older adults: age and sex differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Ortega, Mariana; Arroyo, Pedro

    2016-02-14

    Anthropometric reference data for older adults, particularly for the oldest old, are still limited, especially in developing countries. The aim of the present study was to describe sex- and age-specific distributions of anthropometric measurements and body composition in Mexican older adults. The methods included in the present study were assessment of height, weight, BMI, calf circumference (CC), waist circumference (WC) and hip circumference (HC) as well as knee height in a sample of 8883 Mexican adults aged 60 years and above and the estimation of sex- and age-specific differences in these measures. Results of the study (n 7865, 54% women) showed that men are taller, have higher BMI, and larger WC than women, whereas women presented higher prevalence of obesity and adiposity. Overall prevalence of underweight was 2·3% in men and 4·0% in women, with increasing prevalence with advancing age. Significant differences were found by age group for weight, height, WC, HC, CC, BMI and knee height (P<0·001), but no significant differences in waist-hip circumference were observed. Significant differences between men and women were found in height, weight, circumferences, BMI and knee height (P<0·001). These results, which are consistent with studies of older adults in other countries, can be used for comparison with other Mexican samples including populations living in the USA and other countries with similar developmental and socio-economic conditions. This information can also be used as reference in clinical settings as a tool for detection of individuals at risk of either underweight or overweight and obesity.

  6. Effects of age and sex on blood biochemistry of dorper lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Espírito Santo da Cruz

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the physiological variations and influence of age group and sex on biochemical variables of 32 male and female Dorper sheep at the age of 15 to 121 days. Four blood samples were collected from each animal, at monthly intervals, totaling 128 samples. Biochemical variables determined in each sample were total protein (TP, albumin (ALB, globulin (GLB, albumin/globulin ratio (A/G, glucose (GLU, triglycerides (TG, total cholesterol (tCHOL, high density cholesterol carrying lipoproteins (HDL-C, low density cholesterol carrying lipoproteins (LDL-C, very low density cholesterol carrying lipoproteins (VLDL-C, urea, creatinine (CRE, total calcium (tCa, ionized calcium (iCa, phosphorus (P, calcium/phosphorus ratio (Ca/P, magnesium (Mg, sodium (Na, potassium (K, chloride (Cl, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT and alkaline phosphatase (ALP. The results were obtained in four moments according to age: M1 - sheep from 15 to 30 days, M2 - sheep from 45 to 61 days, M3 - sheep from 74 to 90 days and M4 - sheep from 105 to 121 days. Comparing the values of the biochemical variables among the four age groups studied a significant difference (p 0.05 the values of the biochemical variables analyzed. Based on the results, it is concluded that the age groups exert a significant influence on the majority of blood biochemical variables of Dorper sheep from 15 to 121 days of age.

  7. Sex and Race/Ethnicity Differences in Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator Counseling and Use Among Patients Hospitalized With Heart Failure: Findings from the Get With The Guidelines-Heart Failure Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Paul L; Hernandez, Adrian F; Bhatt, Deepak L; Hellkamp, Anne S; Yancy, Clyde W; Schwamm, Lee H; Peterson, Eric D; Schulte, Phillip J; Fonarow, Gregg C; Al-Khatib, Sana M

    2016-08-16

    Previous studies have found that women and black patients eligible for a primary prevention implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) are less likely than men or white patients to receive one. We performed an observational analysis of the Get With The Guidelines-Heart Failure Program from January 1, 2011, to March 21, 2014. Patients admitted with heart failure and an ejection fraction ≤35% without an ICD were included. Rates of ICD counseling among eligible patients and ICD receipt among counseled patients were examined by sex and race/ethnicity. Among 21 059 patients from 236 sites, 4755 (22.6%) received predischarge ICD counseling. Women were counseled less frequently than men (19.3% versus 24.6%, Prace/ethnic group 14.4% versus white 24.3%, Pdifferences by race and ethnicity persisted. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  8. THE AGE OF FREE WILL AND HUMAN VALUES : Sex Tourisms Evolution and Its Impact

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Mahfuz; Baghdasaryan, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    This thesis discussed about sex tourism which refers to how sex tourism works and its history. Human trafficking and sex trafficking was discussed as well as sex tourism which is involved directly to tourism industry was explained. The main goal of this thesis was to raise awareness of sex tourism violations. This thesis is about sex tourism and discussed the definition of rules and regulations from different international organizations and international newspapers and magazines as well a...

  9. Gender atypical behavior in Chinese school-aged children: its prevalence and relation to sex, age, and only child status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lu; Winter, Sam

    2011-07-01

    This study had three purposes: (a) to compare the prevalence of boys' and girls' gender-atypical behaviors (GABs) in a sample of Chinese school-aged children, (b) to examine the developmental pattern of GABs in Chinese boys and girls over the age range in question (6-12 years), and (c) to test the effects of being an only child on children's GAB expression. Parents of 486 boys and 417 girls completed a Child Play Behavior and Activity Questionnaire (CPBAQ) in regard to their own children, and a demographic information sheet. The frequency distribution for each gender-related behavior was calculated. The associations between sex, age, and only-child status, and CPBAQ scale scores were examined. Although most GABs (by their very nature) were exhibited infrequently in Chinese children, it was found that girls displayed GABs more frequently than boys did. The prevalence of GABs rose for girls as they grew older, but fell slightly for boys. The expressions of GABs in only children did not differ from that in children with siblings. Possible effects of Chinese culture (including the current only-child policy) on children's GABs are discussed.

  10. Vasopressin regulates social recognition in juvenile and adult rats of both sexes, but in sex- and age-specific ways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veenema, A H; Bredewold, R; De Vries, G J

    2012-01-01

    In adult male rats, vasopressin (AVP) facilitates social recognition via activation of V1a receptors within the lateral septum. Much less is known about how AVP affects social recognition in adult females or in juvenile animals of either sex. We found that administration of the specific V1a receptor antagonist d(CH(2))(5)[Tyr(Me)(2)]AVP into the lateral septum of adult rats impaired, whereas AVP extended, social discrimination in both sexes. In juveniles, however, we detected a sex difference, such that males but not females showed social discrimination. Interestingly, administration of the V1a receptor antagonist to juveniles (either intracerebroventricularly or locally in the lateral septum) did not prevent social discrimination, but instead significantly decreased the investigation of a novel as opposed to a familiar animal in both sexes, with stronger effects in males. V1a receptors were found to be abundantly expressed in the lateral septum with higher binding density in females than in males. These findings demonstrate that activation of V1a receptors in the lateral septum is important for social recognition in both sexes, and that the roles of septal V1a receptors in social recognition change during development. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Treatment-Associated Changes in Body Composition, Health Behaviors, and Mood as Predictors of Change in Body Satisfaction in Obese Women: Effects of Age and Race/Ethnicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annesi, James J.; Tennant, Gisèle A.; Mareno, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    A lack of satisfaction with one's body is common among women with obesity, often prompting unhealthy "dieting." Beyond typically slow improvements in weight and body composition, behavioral factors might also affect change in body satisfaction. Age and race/ethnicity (African American vs. White) might moderate such change. Obese women (N…

  12. Differences in Vigorous and Moderate Physical Activity by Gender, Race/Ethnicity, Age, Education, and Income among U.S. Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Dong-Chul; Torabi, Mohammad

    2007-01-01

    Background: Inconsistent findings exist regarding correlates of physical activity (PA) in the literature. Leisure-time physical activity among U.S. adults has declined for the last decade. Purpose: This article examines differences in vigorous-intensity and moderate-intensity physical activity by gender, race/ethnicity, age, education, and income…

  13. Are incident gallstones associated to sex-dependent changes with age? A cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shabanzadeh, D M; Holmboe, S A; Sørensen, L T

    2017-01-01

    Age and female sex have repeatedly been identified as gallstone determinants but the underlying mechanisms are not clarified. The objectives of this study were to determine if changes with age in physiology, lifestyle, or reproductive hormones were associated with incident gallstones. A cohort...... pressure, blood lipids, self-rated health), lifestyle (smoking, alcohol and coffee consumption, dietary habits, physical activity level), and indices of reproductive function (number of births, oral contraceptive use, hormone replacement therapy, male reproductive hormones) were explored in females...... (OR) 0.94, 95% confidence interval (CI) [0.90; 0.98]) and the cessation of hormone replacement therapy (OR 0.29, 95% CI [0.10; 0.83]) inversely determined incident gallstones. In males, increasing levels of SHBG (OR 0.97, 95% CI [0.94; 0.998]) inversely determined incident gallstones. Other changes...

  14. Association of Donor Age and Sex With Survival of Patients Receiving Transfusions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edgren, Gustaf; Ullum, Henrik; Rostgaard, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    Importance: Following animal model data indicating the possible rejuvenating effects of blood from young donors, there have been at least 2 observational studies conducted with humans that have investigated whether donor age affects patient outcomes. Results, however, have been conflicting...... and Denmark who received at least 1 red blood cell transfusion of autologous blood or blood from unknown donors between January 1, 2003, and December 31, 2012. Patients were followed up from the first transfusion until death, emigration, or end of follow-up. Data analysis was performed from September 15...... to November 15, 2016. Exposures: The number of transfusions from blood donors of different age and sex. Exposure was treated time dependently throughout follow-up. Main Outcomes and Measures: Hazard ratios (HRs) for death and adjusted cumulative mortality differences, both estimated using Cox proportional...

  15. Ethnic differences in e